Sample records for wet underwater welding

  1. An investigation into underwater wet welding using the flux cored arc welding process

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Brydon, A.M.; Nixon, J.H.

    1995-12-31

    For the last two years, Cranfield has been carrying out a program of process investigations into wet underwater welding (Graham and Nixon 1993, Nixon and Webb 1994), and has demonstrated that it is possible to markedly improve the stability and consistency of the process by using control techniques developed for hyperbaric welding. In the project reported below, an initial evaluation of wet flux cored arc welding was undertaken. Although there continues to be considerable resistance to the use of wet welding on structures in the North Sea, continued pressure to reduce repair and maintenance costs is causing the industry tomore » re-examine techniques previously discounted, such as wet welding (Anon 1993).« less

  2. Effect of Boric Acid Concentration on Viscosity of Slag and Property of Weld Metal Obtained from Underwater Wet Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ning; Guo, Wei; Xu, Changsheng; Du, Yongpeng; Feng, Jicai

    2015-06-01

    Underwater wet welding is a crucial repair and maintenance technology for nuclear plant. A boric acid environment raises a new challenge for the underwater welding maintenance of nuclear plant. This paper places emphasis on studying the influence of a boric acid environment in nuclear plant on the underwater welding process. Several groups of underwater wet welding experiments have been conducted in boric acid aqueous solution with different concentration (0-35000 ppm). The viscosity of the welding slag and the mechanical properties of welds, such as the hardness, strength, and elongation, have been studied. The results show that with increasing boric acid concentration, the viscosity of the slag decreases first and then increases at a lower temperature (less than 1441 °C). However, when the temperature is above 1480 °C, the differences between the viscosity measurements become less pronounced, and the viscosity tends to a constant value. The hardness and ductility of the joints can be enhanced significantly, and the maximum strength of the weld metal can be reached at 2300 ppm.

  3. The effect of different rutile electrodes on mechanical properties of underwater wet welded AH-36 steel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winarto, Winarto; Purnama, Dewin; Churniawan, Iwan

    2018-04-01

    Underwater welding is an important role in the rescue of ships and underwater structures, in case of emergency. In this study, the marine steel plates used are AH-36 steel as parent material. This type of steel is included in the High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA). Electrodes used for welding AH-36 steel plates are commonly the E6013 and E 7024 which are the type of based rutile electrodes. Those electrodes are widely available on the market and they would be compared with the original electrode for underwater which is the type of E7014 with the trade name of Broco UW-CS-1. Welding method used is Shielding Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) with the variation of 5 m and 10 m underwater depth and also varied with the electric current of 120A, 140A and 250A. It was found that hardness value of increased in the area of weld metal and HAZ. HAZ also tends to have the highest hardness compared to both of weld metal and base metal. Non destructive test by radiographed test (RT) on welds showed that there are found welding defects in the form of incomplete penetration on all variations of welding parameters, but there is no porosity defect detected. The results of the hardness tests of underwater wet welded steel plates show that the hardness value of both rutile electrodes (E6013 and E 7024) is apparently similar hardness value compared with the existing commercial electrode (E7014 of Broco UW-CS- 1). The tensile test results of underwater wet welded steel plates show that the use of rutile electrode of E6013 gives a better tensile properties than other rutile electrodes.

  4. The influence of the corrosion product layer generated on the high strength low-alloy steels welded by underwater wet welding with stainless steel electrodes in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Qiang; Zou, Yan; Kong, Xiangfeng; Gao, Yang; Dong, Sheng; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    The high strength low-alloy steels are welded by underwater wet welding with stainless steel electrodes. The micro-structural and electrochemical corrosion study of base metal (BM), weld zone (WZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) are carried out to understand the influence of the corrosion product layer generated on the high strength low-alloy steels welded by underwater wet welding with stainless steel electrodes, methods used including, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results indicate that the WZ acts as a cathode and there is no corrosion product on it throughout the immersion period in seawater. The HAZ and BM acts as anodes. The corrosion rates of the HAZ and BM change with the immersion time increasing. In the initial immersion period, the HAZ has the highest corrosion rate because it has a coarse tempered martensite structure and the BM exhibites a microstructure with very fine grains of ferrite and pearlite. After a period of immersion, the BM has the highest corrosion rate. The reason is that the corrosion product layer on the HAZ is dense and has a better protective property while that on the BM is loose and can not inhibit the diffusion of oxygen.

  5. Evaluating the SCC resistance of underwater welds in sodium tetrathionate

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    White, R.A.; Angeliu, T.M.

    1997-12-01

    The susceptibility of welds to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is enhanced by the surface residual tensile stresses generated by the typical welding process. However, underwater plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding has been shown to produce compressive surface residual stresses, an encouraging result if repairs of cracked boiling water reactor (BWR) components are to be made without further endangering them to SCC. This program was designed to verify that underwater PTA welds are resistant to SCC and to determine if underwater PTA welding could mitigate SCC in potentially susceptible welds. This was achieved by exposing various welds on solution annealed (SA)more » and SA + thermally sensitized 304 stainless steel at 25 C in a solution of 1.5 gm/liter of sodium sulfide added to 0.05M sodium tetrathionate, titrated to a pH of 1.25 with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The autogeneous welds were produced using gas tungsten arc (GTA) and plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding under atmospheric conditions, and PTA welding underwater. After 1 hour of sodium tetrathionate exposure, GTA and air PTA welds exhibited SCC while the underwater PTA weld heat affected zones were more resistant. Underwater PTA welds bisecting a GTA weld eliminated the cracking in the GTA weld heat affected zone under certain conditions. The lack of IG cracking in the region influenced by the underwater PTA weld is consistent with the measurement of compressive surface residual stresses inherent to the underwater welding process.« less

  6. Research on the Effect of Welding Speed on the Quality of Welding Seam Based on the Local Dry Underwater Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Chen, Wu; Wang, Huagang; Ba, Jinyu; Li, Bing

    2017-12-01

    The repair of nuclear spent fuel pool has a high requirement for the quality of welding, the welding speed directly affects the quality of the weld when local dry automatic underwater welding is used to repair the damaged surface. Under the condition of the same condition, the local dry automatic underwater welding test was carried out under the condition of the same welding condition. Taking the 20cm as the experimental condition, after massive experiments show that when the welding speed is approximately 48cm/min the weld quality is high, meeting the design requirements, based on the double layer shrinkage nozzle chamber of local dry underwater automatic welding.

  7. Feasibility of Underwater Friction Stir Welding of HY-80 Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    UNDERWATER FRICTION STIR WELDING OF HY-80 STEEL by William C. Stewart March 2011 Thesis Advisor: Terry McNelley Second Reader: Sarath Menon...Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Feasibility of Underwater Friction Stir Welding of HY-80 Steel 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) William...DISTRIBUTION CODE A 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) The purpose of this thesis is to determine the feasibility of underwater friction stir welding

  8. Underwater laser weld bowing distortion behavior and mechanism of thin 304 stainless steel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, ZunYue; Luo, Zhen; Ao, Sansan; Cai, YangChuan

    2018-10-01

    Underwater laser weld bowing distortion behavior and mechanism of thin 304 stainless steel plates are studied in the paper. The influence of underwater laser welding parameters (such as laser power, welding speed, defocusing distance and gas flow rate) on weld bowing distortion was investigated through central composite rotatable design and an orthogonal test. A quadratic response model was established to evaluate the underwater laser weld bowing distortion by central composite rotatable design and the order of the impacts of the welding parameters on weld bowing distortion was studied by an orthogonal test. The weld bowing distortion after welding was determined by the digital image correlation technique. The weld bowing distortion of in-air laser welding and underwater laser welding were compared and it revealed that the shape of the in-air and underwater laser welded specimens are the same, but the weld bowing distortion amount of in-air welding is larger than that of underwater welding. Weld bowing distortion mechanism was studied by the digital image correlation technique, and it was demonstrated that weld bowing distortion is associated with the welding plate temperature gradient during laser welding. The wider weld width also resulted in larger weld bowing distortion.

  9. Thermal Insulation of Wet Shielded Metal Arc Welds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    not as versatile as dry underwater welding with respect to the variety of processes that can be performed (i.e., GMAW, GTAW , SMAW). However, since...deposition rate processes are required for underwater welding. Therefore, even in enclosures where GMAW and GTAW could be used, SMAW is the most frequently...welding steel in a dry environment: GMAW. GTAW , SMAW and submerged arc welding. Because of their relatively low metal deposition rates for manual

  10. Controllable underwater anisotropic oil-wetting

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yong, Jiale; Chen, Feng, E-mail: chenfeng@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Yang, Qing

    This Letter demonstrates a simple method to achieve underwater anisotropic oil-wetting using silicon surfaces with a microgroove array produced by femtosecond laser ablation. The oil contact angles along the direction perpendicular to the grooves are consistently larger than those parallel to the microgroove arrays in water because the oil droplet is restricted by the energy barrier that exists between the non-irradiated domain and the trapped water in the laser-ablated microgrooves. This underwater anisotropic oil-wetting is able to be controlled, and the anisotropy can be tuned from 0° to ∼20° by adjusting the period of the microgroove arrays.

  11. Underwater Nondestructive Testing of Ship Hull Welds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    Norske Veritas. 5. Alan Taylor , Underwater Testing, Marine rechnology (Germany) Dec 1971, pp. 251-2. 6. Ship Underwater Maintenance, Evaluation and Repair...11. Peters, V. "NDT for Offshore Drilling Platform Structure," Welding end Metal Fabricatior, Jul 1973, V. 41-7. 12. Taylor , A., "Underwater...N. Cordea, Chairman, Senior Staff MetalZlugiet, ARMCO INC., Middletown, OH Mr. W. C. Brayton , Aset. to Gener•l Manager, Bethlehem Steel Corp

  12. Neoprene wet-suit hood affects low-frequency underwater hearing thresholds.

    PubMed

    Fothergill, David M; Sims, John R; Curley, Michael D

    2004-05-01

    Psychophysical measures of wet-suit hood sound attenuation are needed to provide the diving community with guidance on protection from underwater sound. Underwater hearing thresholds were obtained from 15 male and 5 female recreational divers with and without a 3-mm thick wet-suit hood. Dives were conducted at a depth of 1 m in a large quiet anechoic pool. Thresholds were determined using a two-interval forced-choice procedure with a 0.71 probability of positive response at convergence. A 1-s pure tone was presented with a 20-ms rise and fall time at 100, 200, 250, 300, 400, and 500 Hz. Without a wet-suit hood, mean thresholds decreased from 99 dB re 1 microPa at 100 Hz to 85 dB at 500 Hz. Thresholds were statistically similar at 100 to 300 Hz with and without the wet-suit hood, but were significantly increased at 400 and 500 Hz with the hood (p < 0.001). In conclusion, at shallow depths, a 3-mm neoprene wet-suit hood attenuates underwater sound by approximately 10 dB for frequencies between 400 Hz and 500 Hz. At frequencies below 400 Hz, a 3-mm neoprene wet-suit hood offers no sound protection.

  13. Homogeneity of Mechanical Properties of Underwater Friction Stir Welded 2219-T6 Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. J.; Zhang, H. J.; Yu, L.

    2011-11-01

    Underwater friction stir welding (FSW) has been demonstrated to be available for the improvement in tensile strength of normal FSW joints. In order to illuminate the intrinsic reason for strength improvement through underwater FSW, a 2219 aluminum alloy was underwater friction stir welded and the homogeneity of mechanical properties of the joint was investigated by dividing the joint into three layers. The results indicate that the tensile strength of the three layers of the joint is all improved by underwater FSW, furthermore, the middle and lower layers have larger extent of strength improvement than the upper layer, leading to an increase in the homogeneity of mechanical properties of the joint. The minimum hardness value of each layer, especially the middle and lower layers, is improved under the integral water cooling effect, which is the intrinsic reason for the strength improvement of underwater joint.

  14. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Underwater Dry and Local Dry Cavity Welded Joints of 690 MPa Grade High Strength Steel

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kun; Cui, Shuwan; Zeng, Min; Yi, Jianglong; Shen, Xiaoqin; Yi, Yaoyong

    2018-01-01

    Q690E high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel plays an important role in offshore structures. In addition, underwater local cavity welding (ULCW) technique was widely used to repair important offshore constructions. However, the high cooling rate of ULCW joints results in bad welding quality compared with underwater dry welding (UDW) joints. Q690E high strength low alloy steels were welded by multi-pass UDW and ULCW techniques, to study the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of underwater welded joints. The microstructure and fracture morphology of welded joints were observed by scanning electron microscope and optical microscope. The elemental distribution in the microstructure was determined with an Electron Probe Microanalyzer. The results indicated that the microstructure of both two welded joints was similar. However, martensite and martensite-austenite components were significantly different with different underwater welding methods such that the micro-hardness of the HAZ and FZ in the ULCW specimen was higher than that of the corresponding regions in UDW joint. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the ULCW specimen are 109 MPa lower and 77 MPa lower, respectively, than those of the UDW joint. The impact toughness of the UDW joint was superior to those of the ULCW joint. PMID:29361743

  15. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Underwater Dry and Local Dry Cavity Welded Joints of 690 MPa Grade High Strength Steel.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yonghua; Sun, Kun; Cui, Shuwan; Zeng, Min; Yi, Jianglong; Shen, Xiaoqin; Yi, Yaoyong

    2018-01-22

    Q690E high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel plays an important role in offshore structures. In addition, underwater local cavity welding (ULCW) technique was widely used to repair important offshore constructions. However, the high cooling rate of ULCW joints results in bad welding quality compared with underwater dry welding (UDW) joints. Q690E high strength low alloy steels were welded by multi-pass UDW and ULCW techniques, to study the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of underwater welded joints. The microstructure and fracture morphology of welded joints were observed by scanning electron microscope and optical microscope. The elemental distribution in the microstructure was determined with an Electron Probe Microanalyzer. The results indicated that the microstructure of both two welded joints was similar. However, martensite and martensite-austenite components were significantly different with different underwater welding methods such that the micro-hardness of the HAZ and FZ in the ULCW specimen was higher than that of the corresponding regions in UDW joint. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the ULCW specimen are 109 MPa lower and 77 MPa lower, respectively, than those of the UDW joint. The impact toughness of the UDW joint was superior to those of the ULCW joint.

  16. 27. VIEW OF UNDERWATER WELDING/SCUBA ROOM, FIRST FLOOR, LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW OF UNDERWATER WELDING/SCUBA ROOM, FIRST FLOOR, LOOKING NORTH. Former location of tank indicated by circular ridge in linoleum at bottom right, and by framing of second floor at top right. Silhouettes of driver and two sharks on the floor are associated with the use of this building for scuba training. - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  17. An investigation on mechanical properties of steel fibre reinforced for underwater welded joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navin, K.; Zakaria, M. S.; Zairi, S.

    2017-09-01

    Underwater pipelines are always exposed to water and have a high tendency to have corrosion especially on the welded joint. This research is about using fiber glass as steel fiber to coat the welded joint to determine the effectiveness in corrosion prevention of the welded joint. Number of coating is varied to determine the better number coating to coat the pipeline. Few samples were left without immersion in salt water and few samples are immersed into salt water with same salinity as sea water. The material sample is prepared in dog bone shape to enable to be used in Universal Tensile Machine (UTM). The material prepared is left immersed for recommended time and tested in Universal Tensile Machine. Upon analyzing the result, the result is used to determine the breakage point whether broken on the welded joint or different place and also the suitable number of coating to be used.

  18. Underwater microwave ignition of hydrophobic thermite powder enabled by the bubble-marble effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meir, Yehuda; Jerby, Eli

    2015-08-01

    Highly energetic thermite reactions could be useful for a variety of combustion and material-processing applications, but their usability is yet limited by their hard ignition conditions. Furthermore, in virtue of their zero-oxygen balance, exothermic thermite reactions may also occur underwater. However, this feature is also hard to utilize because of the hydrophobic properties of the thermite powder, and its tendency to agglomerate on the water surface rather than to sink into the water. The recently discovered bubble-marble (BM) effect enables the insertion and confinement of a thermite-powder batch into water by a magnetic field. Here, we present a phenomenon of underwater ignition of a thermite-BM by localized microwaves. The thermite combustion underwater is observed in-situ, and its microwave absorption and optical spectral emission are detected. The vapour pressure generated by the thermite reaction is measured and compared to theory. The combustion products are examined ex-situ by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy which verifies the thermite reaction. Potential applications of this underwater combustion effect are considered, e.g., for detonation, wet welding, thermal drilling, material processing, thrust generation, and composite-material production, also for other oxygen-free environments.

  19. Underwater microwave ignition of hydrophobic thermite powder enabled by the bubble-marble effect

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Meir, Yehuda; Jerby, Eli, E-mail: jerby@eng.tau.ac.il

    Highly energetic thermite reactions could be useful for a variety of combustion and material-processing applications, but their usability is yet limited by their hard ignition conditions. Furthermore, in virtue of their zero-oxygen balance, exothermic thermite reactions may also occur underwater. However, this feature is also hard to utilize because of the hydrophobic properties of the thermite powder, and its tendency to agglomerate on the water surface rather than to sink into the water. The recently discovered bubble-marble (BM) effect enables the insertion and confinement of a thermite-powder batch into water by a magnetic field. Here, we present a phenomenon ofmore » underwater ignition of a thermite-BM by localized microwaves. The thermite combustion underwater is observed in-situ, and its microwave absorption and optical spectral emission are detected. The vapour pressure generated by the thermite reaction is measured and compared to theory. The combustion products are examined ex-situ by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy which verifies the thermite reaction. Potential applications of this underwater combustion effect are considered, e.g., for detonation, wet welding, thermal drilling, material processing, thrust generation, and composite-material production, also for other oxygen-free environments.« less

  20. The Role of Zinc Layer During Wetting of Aluminium on Zinc-coated Steel in Laser Brazing and Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatzen, M.; Radel, T.; Thomy, C.; Vollertsen, F.

    The zinc layer of zinc-coated steel is known to be a crucial factor for the spreading of liquid aluminium on the coated surface. For industrial brazing and welding processes these zinc-coatings enable a fluxless joining between aluminium and steel in many cases. Yet, the reason for the beneficial effect of the zinc to the wetting process is not completely understood. Fundamental investigations on the wetting behaviour of single aluminium droplets on different zinc-coated steel surfaces have revealed a distinct difference between coated surfaces at room temperature and at elevated temperature regarding the influence of different coating thicknesses. In this paper the case of continuous laser brazing and welding processes of aluminium and commercial galvanized zinc-coated steel sheets are presented. It is shown that in the case of bead-on-plate laser beam brazing, the coating thickness has a measureable effect on the resulting wetting angle and length but does not have a significant impact in case of overlap laser beam welding. This might be linked to different heat transfer conditions. The results also strongly indicate that proper initialbreakup of oxide layers is still required to accomplish good wetting on zinc-coated surfaces.

  1. Microstructure, Pitting Corrosion Resistance and Impact Toughness of Duplex Stainless Steel Underwater Dry Hyperbaric Flux-Cored Arc Welds.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yu; Shi, Yong-Hua; Shen, Xiao-Qin; Wang, Zhong-Min

    2017-12-18

    Duplex stainless steel multi-pass welds were made at 0.15 MPa, 0.45 MPa, and 0.75 MPa pressure, simulating underwater dry hyperbaric welding by the flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) method, with welds of normal pressure as a benchmark. The purpose of this work was to estimate the effect of ambient pressure on the microstructure, pitting corrosion resistance and impact toughness of the weld metal. The microstructure measurement revealed that the ferrite content in the weld metal made at 0.45 MPa is the lowest, followed by that of 0.75 MPa and 0.15 MPa. The analysis of potentiodynamic polarization tests at 30 °C and 50 °C demonstrated that the pitting corrosion resistance depends on the phases of the lower pitting resistance equivalent numbers (PREN), secondary austenite and ferrite. The weld metal made at 0.45 MPa had the best resistance to pitting corrosion at 30 °C and 50 °C with the highest PRENs of secondary austenite and ferrite. The weld metal made at 0.15 MPa displayed the lowest pitting corrosion resistance at 30 °C with the lowest PREN of secondary austenite, while the weld metal made at 0.75 MPa was the most seriously eroded after being tested at 50 °C for the lowest PREN of ferrite, with large cluster pits seen in ferrite at 50 °C. The impact tests displayed a typical ductile-brittle transition because of the body-centered cubic (BCC) structure of the ferrite when the test temperature was lowered. All the weld metals met the required value of 34 J at -40 °C according to the ASTM A923. The highest ferrite content corresponded to the worst impact toughness, but the highest toughness value did not correspond to the greatest austenite content. With the decreasing of the test temperature, the drop value of absorbed energy was correlated to the ferrite content. Additionally, in this work, the weld metal made at 0.45 MPa had the best combined properties of pitting resistance and impact toughness.

  2. Effect of Traverse and Rotational Speeds on the Tensile Behavior of the Underwater Dissimilar Friction Stir Welded Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijanrostami, Kh.; Barenji, R. Vatankhah; Hashemipour, M.

    2017-02-01

    The tensile behavior of the underwater dissimilar friction stir welded AA6061 and AA7075 aluminum alloy joints was investigated for the first time. For this aim, the joints were welded at different conditions and tensile test was conducted for measuring the strength and elongation of them. In addition, the microstructure of the joints was characterized by means of optical and transmission electron microscopes. Scanning electron microscope was used for fractography of the joints. Furthermore, the process parameters and tensile properties of the joints were correlated and optimized. The results revealed that the maximum tensile strength of 237.3 MPa and elongation of 41.2% could be obtained at a rotational speed 1853 rpm and a traverse speed of 50 mm/min. In comparison with the optimum condition, higher heat inputs caused grain growth and reduction in dislocation density and hence led to lower strength. The higher elongations for the joints welded at higher heat inputs were due to lower dislocation density inside the grains, which was consistent with a more ductile fracture of them.

  3. Microstructure, Pitting Corrosion Resistance and Impact Toughness of Duplex Stainless Steel Underwater Dry Hyperbaric Flux-Cored Arc Welds

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu; Shen, Xiao-Qin; Wang, Zhong-Min

    2017-01-01

    Duplex stainless steel multi-pass welds were made at 0.15 MPa, 0.45 MPa, and 0.75 MPa pressure, simulating underwater dry hyperbaric welding by the flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) method, with welds of normal pressure as a benchmark. The purpose of this work was to estimate the effect of ambient pressure on the microstructure, pitting corrosion resistance and impact toughness of the weld metal. The microstructure measurement revealed that the ferrite content in the weld metal made at 0.45 MPa is the lowest, followed by that of 0.75 MPa and 0.15 MPa. The analysis of potentiodynamic polarization tests at 30 °C and 50 °C demonstrated that the pitting corrosion resistance depends on the phases of the lower pitting resistance equivalent numbers (PREN), secondary austenite and ferrite. The weld metal made at 0.45 MPa had the best resistance to pitting corrosion at 30 °C and 50 °C with the highest PRENs of secondary austenite and ferrite. The weld metal made at 0.15 MPa displayed the lowest pitting corrosion resistance at 30 °C with the lowest PREN of secondary austenite, while the weld metal made at 0.75 MPa was the most seriously eroded after being tested at 50 °C for the lowest PREN of ferrite, with large cluster pits seen in ferrite at 50 °C. The impact tests displayed a typical ductile-brittle transition because of the body-centered cubic (BCC) structure of the ferrite when the test temperature was lowered. All the weld metals met the required value of 34 J at −40 °C according to the ASTM A923. The highest ferrite content corresponded to the worst impact toughness, but the highest toughness value did not correspond to the greatest austenite content. With the decreasing of the test temperature, the drop value of absorbed energy was correlated to the ferrite content. Additionally, in this work, the weld metal made at 0.45 MPa had the best combined properties of pitting resistance and impact toughness. PMID:29258262

  4. Operational experience in underwater photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leatherdale, John D.; John Turner, D.

    Underwater photogrammetry has become established as a cost-effective technique for inspection and maintenance of platforms and pipelines for the offshore oil industry. A commercial service based in Scotland operates in the North Sea, USA, Brazil, West Africa and Australia. 70 mm cameras and flash units are built for the purpose and analytical plotters and computer graphics systems are used for photogrammetric measurement and analysis of damage, corrosion, weld failures and redesign of underwater structures. Users are seeking simple, low-cost systems for photogrammetric analysis which their engineers can use themselves.

  5. Fundamentals and advances in the development of remote welding fabrication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agapakis, J. E.; Masubuchi, K.; Von Alt, C.

    1986-01-01

    Operational and man-machine issues for welding underwater, in outer space, and at other remote sites are investigated, and recent process developments are described. Probable remote welding missions are classified, and the essential characteristics of fundamental remote welding tasks are analyzed. Various possible operational modes for remote welding fabrication are identified, and appropriate roles for humans and machines are suggested. Human operator performance in remote welding fabrication tasks is discussed, and recent advances in the development of remote welding systems are described, including packaged welding systems, stud welding systems, remotely operated welding systems, and vision-aided remote robotic welding and autonomous welding systems.

  6. 11. VIEW, LOOKING EAST FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, SHOWING UNDERWATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW, LOOKING EAST FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, SHOWING UNDERWATER WELDING/SCUBA ROOM, CLASSROOM BUILDING, AND MEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY ANNEX - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  7. Effect of Water Cooling on the Performances of Friction Stir Welding Heat-Affected Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. J.; Liu, H. J.; Yu, L.

    2012-07-01

    The heat-affected zone (HAZ) is generally the intrinsic weakest location of the normal friction stir welded precipitate hardened aluminum alloys. In order to improve the mechanical properties of the HAZ by controlling the temperature level, underwater friction stir welding (FSW) of an Al-Cu aluminum alloy was conducted in the present study. The results indicate that the hardness of the HAZ can be improved through underwater FSW. Microstructural analysis reveals that the hardness improvement is attributed to the lowering of precipitate coarsening level and the narrowing of precipitate free zone, which are essentially induced by the variations of welding thermal cycles under the cooling effect of water.

  8. In-Situ Characterization of Underwater Radioactive Sludge

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Simpson, A.P.; Clapham, M.J.; Swinson, B.

    2008-07-01

    A fundamental requirement underpinning safe clean-up technologies for legacy spent nuclear fuel (SNF) ponds, pools and wet silos is the ability to characterize the radioactive waste form prior to retrieval. The corrosion products resulting from the long term underwater storage of spent nuclear fuel, reactor components and reprocessing debris present a major hazard to facility decontamination and decommissioning in terms of their radioactive content and physical / chemical reactivity. The ability to perform in-situ underwater non-destructive characterization of sludge and debris in a safe and cost-effective manner offers significant benefits over traditional destructive sampling methods. Several techniques are available formore » underwater measurements including (i) Gross gamma counting, (ii) Low-, Medium- and High- Resolution Gamma Spectroscopy, (iii) Passive neutron counting and (iv) Active Neutron Interrogation. The optimum technique depends on (i) the radioactive inventory (ii) mechanical access restrictions for deployment of the detection equipment, interrogation sources etc. (iii) the integrity of plant records and (iv) the extent to which Acceptable Knowledge which may be used for 'fingerprinting' the radioactive contents to a marker nuclide. Prior deployments of underwater SNF characterization equipment around the world have been reviewed with respect to recent developments in gamma and neutron detection technologies, digital electronics advancements, data transfer techniques, remote operation capabilities and improved field ruggedization. Modeling and experimental work has been performed to determine the capabilities, performance envelope and operational limitations of the future generation of non-destructive underwater sludge characterization techniques. Recommendations are given on the optimal design of systems and procedures to provide an acceptable level of confidence in the characterization of residual sludge content of legacy wet storage facilities

  9. Preparations for Underwater EVA training for the STS 41-G crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-07-05

    S84-36900 (29 June 1984) ---Astronauts Robert L. Crippen (right) and Jon A. McBride, crew commander and pilot, respectively, for NASA's 41-G Space Shuttle mission, don self contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) gear prior to their underwater to observe a simulation of an extravehicular activity (EVA) to be performed on their mission. Astronauts Kathryn D. Sullivan and David C. Leestma, two of three mission specialists on the seven-member crew, are scheduled for the EVA. The underwater training took place in the Johnson Space Center's weightless environment training facility (WET-F).

  10. pH-Manipulated Underwater-Oil Adhesion Wettability Behavior on the Micro/Nanoscale Semicircular Structure and Related Thermodynamic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tie, Lu; Guo, Zhiguang; Liu, Weimin

    2015-05-20

    Controlling oil of wettability behavior in response to the underwater out stimulation has shown promising applications in understanding and designing novel micro- or nanofluidic devices. In this article, the pH-manipulated underwater-oil adhesion wetting phenomenon and superoleophobicity on the micro- and nanotexture copper mesh films (CMF) were investigated. It should be noted that the surface exhibits underwater superoleophobicity under different pH values of the solution; however, the underwater-oil adhesion behavior on the surface is dramatically influenced by the pH value of the solution. On the basis of the thermodynamic analysis, a plausible mechanism to explain the pH-controllable underwater-oil adhesion and superoleophobic wetting behavior observed on a micro- and nanoscale semicircular structure has been revealed. Furthermore, variation of chemistry (intrinsic oil contact angle (OCA)) of the responsive surface that due to the carboxylic acid groups is protonated or deprotonated by the acidic or basic solution on free energy (FE) with its barrier (FEB) and equilibrium oil contact angle (EOCA) with it hysteresis (OCAH) are discussed. The result shows that a critical intrinsic OCA on the micro- and nano- semicircular texture is necessary for conversion from the oil Cassie impregnating to oil Cassie wetting state. In a water/oil/solid system, the mechanism reveals that the differences between the underwater OCA and oil adhesive force of the responsive copper mesh film under different pH values of solution are ascribed to the different oil wetting state that results from combining the changing intrinsic OCA and micro-/nanosemicircular structures. These results are well in agreement with the experiment.

  11. Underwater fiber-wireless communication with a passive front end

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Sun, Bin; Lyu, Weichao; Kong, Meiwei; Sarwar, Rohail; Han, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Deng, Ning

    2017-11-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel concept on underwater fiber-wireless (Fi-Wi) communication system with a fully passive wireless front end. A low-cost step-index (SI) plastic optical fiber (POF) together with a passive collimating lens at the front end composes the underwater Fi-Wi architecture. We have achieved a 1.71-Gb/s transmission at a mean BER of 4.97 × 10-3 (1.30 × 10-3 when using power loading) over a 50-m SI-POF and 2-m underwater wireless channel using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). Although the wireless part is very short, it actually plays a crucial role in practical underwater implementation, especially in deep sea. Compared with the wired solution (e.g. using a 52-m POF cable without the UWOC part), the proposed underwater Fi-Wi scheme can save optical wet-mate connectors that are sophisticated, very expensive and difficult to install in deep ocean. By combining high-capacity robust POF with the mobility and ubiquity of underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC), the proposed underwater Fi-Wi technology will find wide application in ocean exploration.

  12. Underwater locomotion in a terrestrial beetle: combination of surface de-wetting and capillary forces

    PubMed Central

    Hosoda, Naoe; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2012-01-01

    For the first time, we report the remarkable ability of the terrestrial leaf beetle Gastrophysa viridula to walk on solid substrates under water. These beetles have adhesive setae on their feet that produce a secretory fluid having a crucial role in adhesion on land. In air, adhesion is produced by capillary forces between the fluid-covered setae and the substrate. In general, capillary forces do not contribute to adhesion under water. However, our observations showed that these beetles may use air bubbles trapped between their adhesive setae to walk on flooded, inclined substrata or even under water. Beetle adhesion to hydrophilic surfaces under water was lower than that in air, whereas adhesion to hydrophobic surfaces under water was comparable to that in air. Oil-covered hairy pads had a pinning effect, retaining the air bubbles on their feet. Bubbles in contact with the hydrophobic substrate de-wetted the substrate and produced capillary adhesion. Additional capillary forces are generated by the pad's liquid bridges between the foot and the substrate. Inspired by this idea, we designed an artificial silicone polymer structure with underwater adhesive properties. PMID:22874756

  13. Complex coacervates as a foundation for synthetic underwater adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Russell J.; Wang, Ching Shuen; Shao, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Complex coacervation was proposed to play a role in the formation of the underwater bioadhesive of the Sandcastle worm (Phragmatopoma californica) based on the polyacidic and polybasic nature of the glue proteins and the balance of opposite charges at physiological pH. Morphological studies of the secretory system suggested the natural process does not involve complex coacervation as commonly defined. The distinction may not be important because electrostatic interactions likely play an important role in formation of the sandcastle glue. Complex coacervation has also been invoked in the formation of adhesive underwater silk fibers of caddisfly larvae and the adhesive plaques of mussels. A process similar to complex coacervation, that is, condensation and dehydration of biopolyelectrolytes through electrostatic associations, seems plausible for the caddisfly silk. This much is clear, the sandcastle glue complex coacervation model provided a valuable blueprint for the synthesis of a biomimetic, waterborne, underwater adhesive with demonstrated potential for repair of wet tissue. PMID:21081223

  14. Wetting, superhydrophobicity, and icephobicity in biomimetic composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, Vahid

    data are collected in terms of oleophobicity especially when underwater applications are of interest. We develop models for four-phase rough interface of underwater oleophobicity and develop a novel approach to predict the CA of organic liquid on the rough surfaces immersed in water. We investigate wetting transition on a patterned surface in underwater systems, using a phase field model. We demonstrated that roughening on an immersed solid surface can drive the transition from Wenzel to Cassie-Baxter state. This discovery improves our understanding of underwater systems and their surface interactions during the wetting phenomenon and can be applied for the development of underwater oil-repellent materials which are of interest for various applications in the water industry, and marine devices. In chapter five, we experimentally and theoretically investigate the icephobicity of composite materials. A novel comprehensive definition of icephobicity, broad enough to cover a variety of situations including low adhesion strength, delayed ice crystallization, and bouncing is determined. Wetting behavior and ice adhesion properties of various samples are theoretically and experimentally compared. We conclude superhydrophobic surfaces are not necessarily icephobic. The models are tested against the experimental data to verify the good agreement between them. The models can be used for the design of novel superhydrophobic, oleophobic, omniphobic and icephobic composite materials. Finally we conclude that creating surface micro/nanostructures using mechanical abrasion or chemical etching as well as applying low energy materials are the most simple, inexpensive, and durable techniques to create superhydrophobic, oleophobic, and icephobic materials.

  15. The Nature of Metallurgical Reactions in Underwater Welding,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    Christensen continuous cooling transformation ( CCT ) diagram , as et. al. (7-10r)have introduced basic concepts for an instructional procedure to understand...experienced a 0.3 wt. pct. the final shape and position of nucleation curves on decrease from the surface composition at 30 bars the CCT diagram . Olson and...desired weld metal composition to form acicular ferrite and side plate ferrite S-XH20 P (eq. 7) resulted. Figure 7 is a schematic CCT diagram H20

  16. Mixing weld gases offers advantages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, J. L.; Mendenhall, M. M.

    1969-01-01

    Argon added to helium during gas tungsten arc cover-pass welding in the horizontal position results in a better controlled wider bead width, increased arc stability, and reduction in heat input. Adequate filler material wetness and penetration pass coverage is possible with only one pass.

  17. Microstructure Evolution and Selective Corrosion Resistance in Underwater Multi-pass 2101 Duplex Stainless Steel Welding Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yu; Shi, Yonghua; Shen, Xiaoqin; Wang, Zhongmin

    2018-05-01

    A recently developed promising material, 2101 lean duplex stainless steel, represents an alternative to 304 austenite stainless steel. In this work, multi-pass 2101 weld joints were fabricated using the flux-cored arc welding method in a hyperbaric chamber. The pressure varied from 0 to 0.75 MPa. The evolution of the welding process and microstructure was investigated. γ 2 formation in the reheated zones of the WM and HAZ was not uniform. The closer the reheated zone is to the subsequent heat source, the greater the γ 2 formation in the reheated zone. Sufficient primary austenite transformation inhibited Cr2N precipitation and the subsequent intragranular γ 2 formation in the reheated weld passes of the 0.45 MPa weld metal. The localized corrosion resistance of each zone of the 0.45 MPa DSS joint was measured using non-destructive double-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation tests. The localized corrosion was induced by γ 2 and Cr2N. The root region of the 0.45 MPa weld metal underwent two subsequent welding thermal cycles, which induced increased γ 2 formation and lower resistance to corrosion because of the decreased pitting resistance value of γ 2. The correlation between microstructure evolution and the distribution of selective corrosion was determined.

  18. Photoactivatable Mussel-Based Underwater Adhesive Proteins by an Expanded Genetic Code.

    PubMed

    Hauf, Matthias; Richter, Florian; Schneider, Tobias; Faidt, Thomas; Martins, Berta M; Baumann, Tobias; Durkin, Patrick; Dobbek, Holger; Jacobs, Karin; Möglich, Andreas; Budisa, Nediljko

    2017-09-19

    Marine mussels exhibit potent underwater adhesion abilities under hostile conditions by employing 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)-rich mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs). However, their recombinant production is a major biotechnological challenge. Herein, a novel strategy based on genetic code expansion has been developed by engineering efficient aminoacyl-transfer RNA synthetases (aaRSs) for the photocaged noncanonical amino acid ortho-nitrobenzyl DOPA (ONB-DOPA). The engineered ONB-DOPARS enables in vivo production of MAP type 5 site-specifically equipped with multiple instances of ONB-DOPA to yield photocaged, spatiotemporally controlled underwater adhesives. Upon exposure to UV light, these proteins feature elevated wet adhesion properties. This concept offers new perspectives for the production of recombinant bioadhesives. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. A universal glue: underwater adhesion of the secretion of the carnivorous flypaper plant Roridula gorgonias

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Dagmar; Konrad, Wilfried; Gorb, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Glandular trichomes of the carnivorous plant Roridula gorgonias release a viscous resinous secretion. Its adhesion to hydrophilic and hydrophobic glass surfaces was measured in air and underwater. The underwater adhesion reached up to 91% (on hydrophilic glass) and 28% (on hydrophobic glass) of that measured in the air. After being submersed for 24 h in water, trichomes did not lose their ability to adhere to both types of glass surfaces underwater. We assume that acylglycerides and triterpenoids, which have been demonstrated previously to be main compounds of the secretion, cause the predominantly non-polar character and the insolubility in water. The robustness of the secretion to a wet environment presumably enables the plant to maintain its trapping function also under humid conditions and during rainy weather. PMID:25657836

  20. A bioinspired elastin-based protein for a cytocompatible underwater adhesive.

    PubMed

    Brennan, M Jane; Kilbride, Bridget F; Wilker, Jonathan J; Liu, Julie C

    2017-04-01

    The development of adhesives that can be applied and create strong bonds underwater is a significant challenge for materials engineering. When the adhesive is intended for biomedical applications, further criteria, such as biocompatibility, must be met. Current biomedical adhesive technologies do not meet these needs. In response, we designed a bioinspired protein system that shows promise to achieve biocompatible underwater adhesion coupled with environmentally responsive behavior that is "smart" - that is, it can be tuned to suit a specific application. The material, ELY 16 , is constructed from an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) that can be produced in high yields from Escherichia coli and can coacervate in response to environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and salinity. To confer wet adhesion, we utilized design principles from marine organisms such as mussels and sandcastle worms. When expressed, ELY 16 is rich in tyrosine. Upon modification with the tyrosinase enzyme to form mELY 16 , the tyrosine residues are converted to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). Both ELY 16 and mELY 16 exhibit cytocompatibility and significant dry adhesion strength (>2 MPa). Modification with DOPA increases protein adsorption to glass and provides moderate adhesion strength (∼240 kPa) in a highly humid environment. Furthermore, this ELP exhibits a tunable phase transition behavior that can be formulated to coacervate in physiological conditions and provides a convenient mechanism for application underwater. Finally, mELY 16 possesses significantly higher adhesion strength in dry, humid, and underwater environments compared with a commercially available fibrin sealant. To our knowledge, mELY 16 provides the strongest bonds of any rationally designed protein when used completely underwater, and its high yields make it more viable for commercial application compared to natural adhesive proteins. In conclusion, this ELP shows great potential to be a new "smart" underwater

  1. Feasibility of Underwater Friction Stir Welding of Hardenable Alloy Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Base Material CNC – Computer Numerical Controlled EDM – Electrical Discharge Machining FSP – Friction Stir Processing FSW – Friction Stir Welding...Hydrogen content was determined through vacuum hot extraction according to ASTM E 146-83. All other components were analyzed by direct current plasma ...emission spectroscopy according to ASTM E 1097-07. C. MICROSTRUCTURE ANALYSIS 1. Specimen Preparation A Charmilles Andrew EF630 CNC Wire EDM

  2. Protein-based underwater adhesives and the prospects for their biotechnological production.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Russell J

    2011-01-01

    Biotechnological approaches to practical production of biological protein-based adhesives have had limited success over the last several decades. Broader efforts to produce recombinant adhesive proteins may have been limited by early disappointments. More recent synthetic polymer approaches have successfully replicated some aspects of natural underwater adhesives. For example, synthetic polymers, inspired by mussels, containing the catecholic functional group of 3,4-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine adhere strongly to wet metal oxide surfaces. Synthetic complex coacervates inspired by the Sandcastle worm are water-borne adhesives that can be delivered underwater without dispersing. Synthetic approaches offer several advantages, including versatile chemistries and scalable production. In the future, more sophisticated mimetic adhesives may combine synthetic copolymers with recombinant or agriculture-derived proteins to better replicate the structural and functional organization of natural adhesives.

  3. Protein-based underwater adhesives and the prospects for their biotechnological production

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Russell J.

    2011-01-01

    Biotechnological approaches to practical production of biological protein-based adhesives have had limited success over the last several decades. Broader efforts to produce recombinant adhesive proteins may have been limited by early disappointments. More recent synthetic polymer approaches have successfully replicated some aspects of natural underwater adhesives. For example, synthetic polymers, inspired by mussels, containing the catecholic functional group of 3,4-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine adhere strongly to wet metal oxide surfaces. Synthetic complex coacervates inspired by the Sandcastle worm are water-borne adhesives that can be delivered underwater without dispersing. Synthetic approaches offer several advantages, including versatile chemistries and scalable production. In the future, more sophisticated mimetic adhesives may combine synthetic copolymers with recombinant or agriculture-derived proteins to better replicate the structural and functional organization of natural adhesives. PMID:20890598

  4. Dynamic behavior of the weld pool in stationary GMAW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapuis, J.; Romero, E.; Bordreuil, C.; Soulié, F.; Fras, G.

    2010-06-01

    Because hump formation limits welding productivity, better understanding of the humping phenomena during the welding process is needed to access to process modifications that decrease the tendency for hump formation and then allow higher productivity welding. From a physical point of view, the mechanism identified is the Rayleigh instability initiated by strong surface tension gradient which induces a variation of kinetic flow. But the causes of the appearance of this instability are not yet well explained. Because of the phenomena complex and multi-physics, we chose in first step to conduct an analysis of the characteristic times involved in weld pool in pulsed stationary GMAW. The goal is to study the dynamic behavior of the weld pool, using our experimental multi physics approach. The experimental tool and methodology developed to understand these fast phenomena are presented first: frames acquisition with high speed digital camera and specific optical devices, numerical library. The analysis of geometric parameters of the weld pool during welding operation are presented in the last part: we observe the variations of wetting angles (or contact lines angles), the base and the height of the weld pool (macro-drop) versus weld time.

  5. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Friction Tapered Stud Overlap Welding for X65 Pipeline Steel Under Wet Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y. C.; Jing, H. Y.; Han, Y. D.; Xu, L. Y.

    2017-08-01

    This paper exhibits a novel in situ remediation technique named friction tapered stud overlap welding (FTSOW) to repair a through crack in structures and components in extremely harsh environments. Furthermore, this paper presents variations in process data, including rotational speed, stud displacement, welding force, and torque for a typical FTSOW weld. In the present study, the effects of welding parameters on the microstructures and mechanical properties of the welding joints were investigated. Inapposite welding parameters consisted of low rotational speeds and welding forces, and when utilized, they increased the occurrence of a lack of bonding and unfilled defects within the weld. The microstructures with a welding zone and heat-affected zone mainly consisted of upper bainite. The hardness value was highest in the welding zone and lowest in the base material. During the pull-out tests, all the welds failed in the stud. Moreover, the defect-free welds broke at the interface of the lap plate and substrate during the cruciform uniaxial tensile test. The best tensile test results at different depths and shear tests were 721.6 MPa and 581.9 MPa, respectively. The favorable Charpy impact-absorbed energy was 68.64 J at 0 °C. The Charpy impact tests revealed a brittle fracture characteristic with a large area of cleavage.

  6. Laser welding of biological tissue: experimental studies in ophthalmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pini, Roberto; Rossi, Francesca; Menabuoni, Luca

    2006-04-01

    In this paper we present an original approach to laser welding of ocular media. Attention is focused on laser welding of the cornea and lens capsule. The process is based on the interaction of near infrared diode laser radiation (at 810 nm) with tissue that was previously stained with an Indocyanine Green solution in sterile water. The topical application of the chromophore makes possible a selective heating of the tissue, which results in a homogenous welding effect with low thermal damage to the surrounding tissue. Experimental tests were performed ex vivo on both capsule and cornea, and in vivo (rabbits) only on the cornea, in order to characterize the process as a whole. Spectrophotometric, biomechanical, and thermal measurements were carried out in order to study the laser-tissue interaction, while morphological, histological and auto-florescence microscopy analyses made during a follow-up study provided information on the healing process in welded rabbit corneas. The welding procedure was set up according to the type of tissue, with the staining procedure and irradiation conditions being optimized in each case. Our test indicated that: 1) laser welding of corneal wounds, which is a non contact technique performed at low continuous wave laser power (12 W/cm2), can be proposed as a support to or substitute for the standard suturing technique in cataract surgery and in penetrating keratoplasty (in corneal transplants); 2) laser welding of the lens capsule requires a "contact irradiating technique" in order to be efficiently performed, since the tissue is in underwater conditions, with single spot pulses of about 100 J/cm2 fluence and pulse duration around 100 ms. In the latter case, laser welding was proposed as a tool for assisting closure of the lens capsule after the lens refilling procedure (Phaco-ersatz), or for repairing capsular breaks induced by accidental traumas or produced intraoperatively.

  7. AURP: An AUV-Aided Underwater Routing Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seokhoon; Azad, Abul K.; Oh, Hoon; Kim, Sunghwan

    2012-01-01

    Deploying a multi-hop underwater acoustic sensor network (UASN) in a large area brings about new challenges in reliable data transmissions and survivability of network due to the limited underwater communication range/bandwidth and the limited energy of underwater sensor nodes. In order to address those challenges and achieve the objectives of maximization of data delivery ratio and minimization of energy consumption of underwater sensor nodes, this paper proposes a new underwater routing scheme, namely AURP (AUV-aided underwater routing protocol), which uses not only heterogeneous acoustic communication channels but also controlled mobility of multiple autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). In AURP, the total data transmissions are minimized by using AUVs as relay nodes, which collect sensed data from gateway nodes and then forward to the sink. Moreover, controlled mobility of AUVs makes it possible to apply a short-range high data rate underwater channel for transmissions of a large amount of data. To the best to our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to employ multiple AUVs as relay nodes in a multi-hop UASN to improve the network performance in terms of data delivery ratio and energy consumption. Simulations, which are incorporated with a realistic underwater acoustic communication channel model, are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, and the results indicate that a high delivery ratio and low energy consumption can be achieved. PMID:22438740

  8. AURP: an AUV-aided underwater routing protocol for underwater acoustic sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seokhoon; Azad, Abul K; Oh, Hoon; Kim, Sunghwan

    2012-01-01

    Deploying a multi-hop underwater acoustic sensor network (UASN) in a large area brings about new challenges in reliable data transmissions and survivability of network due to the limited underwater communication range/bandwidth and the limited energy of underwater sensor nodes. In order to address those challenges and achieve the objectives of maximization of data delivery ratio and minimization of energy consumption of underwater sensor nodes, this paper proposes a new underwater routing scheme, namely AURP (AUV-aided underwater routing protocol), which uses not only heterogeneous acoustic communication channels but also controlled mobility of multiple autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). In AURP, the total data transmissions are minimized by using AUVs as relay nodes, which collect sensed data from gateway nodes and then forward to the sink. Moreover, controlled mobility of AUVs makes it possible to apply a short-range high data rate underwater channel for transmissions of a large amount of data. To the best to our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to employ multiple AUVs as relay nodes in a multi-hop UASN to improve the network performance in terms of data delivery ratio and energy consumption. Simulations, which are incorporated with a realistic underwater acoustic communication channel model, are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, and the results indicate that a high delivery ratio and low energy consumption can be achieved.

  9. Is Superhydrophobicity Equal to Underwater Superaerophilicity: Regulating the Gas Behavior on Superaerophilic Surface via Hydrophilic Defects.

    PubMed

    Cao, Moyuan; Li, Zhe; Ma, Hongyu; Geng, Hui; Yu, Cunming; Jiang, Lei

    2018-06-20

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have long been considered as superaerophilic surfaces while being placed in the aqueous environment. However, versatile gas/solid interacting phenomena were reported by utilizing different superhydrophobic substrates, indicating that these two wetting states cannot be simply equated. Herein, we demonstrate how the hydrophilic defects on the superhydrophobic track manipulate the underwater gas delivery, without deteriorating the water repellency of the surface in air. The versatile gas-transporting processes can be achieved on the defected superhydrophobic surfaces; on the contrary, in air, a water droplet is able to roll on those surfaces indistinguishably. Results show that the different media pressures applied on the two wetting states determine the diversified fluid-delivering phenomena; that is, the pressure-induced hydrophilic defects act as a gas barrier to regulate the bubble motion behavior under water. Through the rational incorporation of hydrophilic defects, a series of gas-transporting behaviors are achieved purposively, for example, gas film delivery, bubble transporting, and anisotropic bubble gating, which proves the feasibility of this underwater air-controlling strategy.

  10. Preliminary study on detection technology of the cladding weld of spent fuel storage pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Pan; Cui, Hongyan; Feng, Meiming; Shao, Wenbin; Liao, Shusheng; Li, Wei

    2018-04-01

    As the first barrier of the Spent fuel storage pool, the steel cladding using different sizes (length×width) of 304L stainless steel with 3˜6mm thickness plate argon arc welded together which is direct contacted with boric acid water. Environmental humidity between the back of steel cladding and concrete, makes phosphate, chloride ion overflowed from the concrete that corroded on the weld zone with different mechanism. Part of the corrosion defects can penetrate leaded to leakage of boric acid water in penetration position accelerated crack propagation. In view of the above situation and combined with the actual needs of the power plant, the development of effective underwater nondestructive testing means of the weld area for periodic inspection and monitoring is necessary. A single method may lead to the missing of defects detection due to weld reinforcement unpolished. In this paper, eddy current array (ARRAY) and Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM) are adapted to test the limit sensitivity and resolution through by the specimens with artificial defects which make their detection abilities close to satisfy engineering requirements. The preliminary study found that Φ0.5mm through-wall hole and with 2mm length and 0.3mm width through-wall crack in the weld can be good inspected.

  11. Taiwan's underwater cultural heritage documentation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Y.-Y.

    2015-09-01

    Taiwan is an important trading and maritime channels for many countries since ancient time. Numerous relics lie underwater due to weather, wars, and other factors. In the year of 2006, Bureau of Cultural Heritage (BOCH) entrusted the Underwater Archaeological Team of Academia Sinica to execute the underwater archaeological investigation projects. Currently, we verified 78 underwater targets, with 78 site of those had been recognized as shipwrecks sites. Up to date, there is a collection of 638 underwater objects from different underwater archaeological sites. Those artefacts are distributed to different institutions and museums. As very diverse management methods/systems are applied for every individual institution, underwater cultural heritage data such as survey, excavation report, research, etc. are poorly organized and disseminated for use. For better communication regarding to Taiwan's underwater cultural heritage in every level, a universal format of documentation should be established. By comparing the existing checklist used in Taiwan with guidelines that are followed in other countries, a more intact and appropriate underwater cultural heritage condition documentation system can be established and adapted in Taiwan.

  12. Underwater hearing and sound localization with and without an air interface.

    PubMed

    Shupak, Avi; Sharoni, Zohara; Yanir, Yoav; Keynan, Yoav; Alfie, Yechezkel; Halpern, Pinchas

    2005-01-01

    recorded sound of a rubber-boat engine for dry or wet ear conditions. There was no difference in the sound localization error between the regular mask and the ProEar 2000 mask. The presence of air around the pinna and inside the external ear canal did not improve underwater hearing sensitivity or sound localization. These results support the argument that bone conduction plays the main role in underwater hearing.

  13. Heat transfer in GTA welding arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huft, Nathan J.

    Heat transfer characteristics of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) arcs with arc currents of 50 to 125 A and arc lengths of 3 to 11 mm were measured experimentally through wet calorimetry. The data collected were used to calculate how much heat reported to the cathode and anode and how much was lost from the arc column. A Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) macro was written to further analyze the data and account for Joule heating within the electrodes and radiation and convection losses from the arc, providing a detailed account of how heat was generated and dissipated within the system. These values were then used to calculate arc efficiencies, arc column voltages, and anode and cathode fall voltages. Trends were noted for variances in the arc column voltage, power dissipated from the arc column, and the total power dissipated by the system with changing arc length. Trends for variances in the anode and cathode fall voltages, total power dissipated, Joule heating within the torches and electrodes with changing arc current were also noted. In addition, the power distribution between the anode and cathode for each combination of arc length and arc current was examined. Keywords: Gas Tungsten Arc Welding, GTAW, anode fall, cathode fall, heat transfer, wet calorimetry

  14. A new technique for robot vision in autonomous underwater vehicles using the color shift in underwater imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    FOR ROBOT VISION IN AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLES USING THE COLOR SHIFT IN UNDERWATER IMAGING by Jake A. Jones June 2017 Thesis Advisor...June 2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR ROBOT VISION IN AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER...Developing a technique for underwater robot vision is a key factor in establishing autonomy in underwater vehicles. A new technique is developed and

  15. Underwater Scene Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Nanyoung

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an underwater scene composition for elementary-education majors. This project deals with watercolor with crayon or oil-pastel resist (medium); the beauty of nature represented by fish in the underwater scene (theme); texture and pattern (design elements); drawing simple forms (drawing skill); and composition…

  16. Reversible switch between underwater superaerophilicity and superaerophobicity on the superhydrophobic nanowire-haired mesh for controlling underwater bubble wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Chao; Yong, Jiale; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Huo, Jinglan; Zhuang, Jian; Jiang, Zhuangde; Hou, Xun

    2018-04-01

    Controlling the underwater bubble wettability on a solid surface is of great research significance. In this letter, a simple method to achieve reversible switch between underwater superaerophilicity and underwater superaerophobicity on a superhydrophobic nanowire-haired mesh by alternately vacuumizing treatment in water and drying in air is reported. Such reversible switch endows the as-prepared mesh with many functional applications in controlling bubble's behavior on a solid substrate. The underwater superaerophilic mesh is able to absorb/capture bubbles in water, while the superaerophobic mesh has great anti-bubble ability. The reversible switch between underwater superaerophilicity and superaerophobicity can selectively allow bubbles to go through the resultant mesh; that is, bubbles can pass through the underwater superaerophilic mesh while are fully intercepted by the underwater superaerophobic mesh in a water medium. We believe these meshes will have important applications in removing or capturing underwater bubbles/gas.

  17. Resources for Underwater Robotics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Michael L.; Freitas, William M.

    2016-01-01

    4-H clubs can build and program underwater robots from raw materials. An annotated resource list for engaging youth in building underwater remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) is provided. This article is a companion piece to the Research in Brief article "Building Teen Futures with Underwater Robotics" in this issue of the "Journal of…

  18. Stability analysis of hybrid-driven underwater glider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Wen-dong; Wang, Shu-xin; Wang, Yan-hui; Song, Yang; Zhu, Ya-qiang

    2017-10-01

    Hybrid-driven underwater glider is a new type of unmanned underwater vehicle, which combines the advantages of autonomous underwater vehicles and traditional underwater gliders. The autonomous underwater vehicles have good maneuverability and can travel with a high speed, while the traditional underwater gliders are highlighted by low power consumption, long voyage, long endurance and good stealth characteristics. The hybrid-driven underwater gliders can realize variable motion profiles by their own buoyancy-driven and propeller propulsion systems. Stability of the mechanical system determines the performance of the system. In this paper, the Petrel-II hybrid-driven underwater glider developed by Tianjin University is selected as the research object and the stability of hybrid-driven underwater glider unitedly controlled by buoyancy and propeller has been targeted and evidenced. The dimensionless equations of the hybrid-driven underwater glider are obtained when the propeller is working. Then, the steady speed and steady glide path angle under steady-state motion have also been achieved. The steady-state operating conditions can be calculated when the hybrid-driven underwater glider reaches the desired steady-state motion. And the steadystate operating conditions are relatively conservative at the lower bound of the velocity range compared with the range of the velocity derived from the method of the composite Lyapunov function. By calculating the hydrodynamic coefficients of the Petrel-II hybrid-driven underwater glider, the simulation analysis has been conducted. In addition, the results of the field trials conducted in the South China Sea and the Danjiangkou Reservoir of China have been presented to illustrate the validity of the analysis and simulation, and to show the feasibility of the method of the composite Lyapunov function which verifies the stability of the Petrel-II hybrid-driven underwater glider.

  19. An Underwater Color Image Quality Evaluation Metric.

    PubMed

    Yang, Miao; Sowmya, Arcot

    2015-12-01

    Quality evaluation of underwater images is a key goal of underwater video image retrieval and intelligent processing. To date, no metric has been proposed for underwater color image quality evaluation (UCIQE). The special absorption and scattering characteristics of the water medium do not allow direct application of natural color image quality metrics especially to different underwater environments. In this paper, subjective testing for underwater image quality has been organized. The statistical distribution of the underwater image pixels in the CIELab color space related to subjective evaluation indicates the sharpness and colorful factors correlate well with subjective image quality perception. Based on these, a new UCIQE metric, which is a linear combination of chroma, saturation, and contrast, is proposed to quantify the non-uniform color cast, blurring, and low-contrast that characterize underwater engineering and monitoring images. Experiments are conducted to illustrate the performance of the proposed UCIQE metric and its capability to measure the underwater image enhancement results. They show that the proposed metric has comparable performance to the leading natural color image quality metrics and the underwater grayscale image quality metrics available in the literature, and can predict with higher accuracy the relative amount of degradation with similar image content in underwater environments. Importantly, UCIQE is a simple and fast solution for real-time underwater video processing. The effectiveness of the presented measure is also demonstrated by subjective evaluation. The results show better correlation between the UCIQE and the subjective mean opinion score.

  20. Soldadura (Welding). Spanish Translations for Welding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohhertz, Durwin

    Thirty transparency masters with Spanish subtitles for key words are provided for a welding/general mechanical repair course. The transparency masters are on such topics as oxyacetylene welding; oxyacetylene welding equipment; welding safety; different types of welds; braze welding; cutting torches; cutting with a torch; protective equipment; arc…

  1. 46 CFR 167.05-40 - Underwater survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Underwater survey. 167.05-40 Section 167.05-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-40 Underwater survey. Underwater survey means the examination of the vessel's underwater...

  2. 46 CFR 167.05-40 - Underwater survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Underwater survey. 167.05-40 Section 167.05-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-40 Underwater survey. Underwater survey means the examination of the vessel's underwater...

  3. 46 CFR 167.05-40 - Underwater survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Underwater survey. 167.05-40 Section 167.05-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-40 Underwater survey. Underwater survey means the examination of the vessel's underwater...

  4. 46 CFR 167.05-40 - Underwater survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underwater survey. 167.05-40 Section 167.05-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-40 Underwater survey. Underwater survey means the examination of the vessel's underwater...

  5. 46 CFR 167.05-40 - Underwater survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Underwater survey. 167.05-40 Section 167.05-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-40 Underwater survey. Underwater survey means the examination of the vessel's underwater...

  6. Underwater Acoustic Beacon Location System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-23

    300087 1 of 31 UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC BEACON LOCATION SYSTEM [0001] The present application claims the benefit of United States Provisional...Application Serial Number 62/297,179 filed on February 19, 2016 by the inventor, Steven E. Crocker and entitled “ Underwater Acoustic Beacon...search for and can locate an underwater location beacon. Attorney Docket No. 300087 2 of 31 (2) Description of the Prior Art [0005

  7. Network Computing for Distributed Underwater Acoustic Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-31

    underwater sensor network with mobility. In preparation. [3] EvoLogics (2013), Underwater Acoustic Modems, (Product Information Guide... Wireless Communications, 9(9), 2934–2944. [21] Pompili, D. and Akyildiz, I. (2010), A multimedia cross-layer protocol for underwater acoustic sensor networks ... Network Computing for Distributed Underwater Acoustic Sensors M. Barbeau E. Kranakis

  8. Visual training improves underwater vision in children.

    PubMed

    Gislén, Anna; Warrant, Eric J; Dacke, Marie; Kröger, Ronald H H

    2006-10-01

    Children in a tribe of sea-gypsies from South-East Asia have been found to have superior underwater vision compared to European children. In this study, we show that the improved underwater vision of these Moken children is not due to better contrast sensitivity in general. We also show that European children can achieve the same underwater acuity as the Moken children. After 1 month of underwater training (11 sessions) followed by 4 months with no underwater activities, European children showed improved underwater vision and distinct bursts of pupil constriction. When tested 8 months after the last training session in an outdoor pool in bright sunlight-comparable to light environments in South-East Asia-the children had attained the same underwater acuity as the sea-gypsy children. The achieved performance can be explained by the combined effect of pupil constriction and strong accommodation.

  9. Underwater hydrophone location survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Jack B.

    1993-01-01

    The Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) is a U.S. Navy test range located on Andros Island, Bahamas, and a Division of the Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC), Newport, RI. The Headquarters of AUTEC is located at a facility in West Palm Beach, FL. AUTEC's primary mission is to provide the U.S. Navy with a deep-water test and evaluation facility for making underwater acoustic measurements, testing and calibrating sonars, and providing accurate underwater, surface, and in-air tracking data on surface ships, submarines, aircraft, and weapon systems. Many of these programs are in support of Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW), undersea research and development programs, and Fleet assessment and operational readiness trials. Most tests conducted at AUTEC require precise underwater tracking (plus or minus 3 yards) of multiple acoustic signals emitted with the correct waveshape and repetition criteria from either a surface craft or underwater vehicle.

  10. Chinese research on underwater acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Zhengxu; Ding, Dong

    1992-09-01

    The monograph provides a baseline assessment of Chinese literature in research on the physics and technology of underwater acoustics during the last decade in China. However, developments prior to 1980 are also briefly covered, as they provide background and context for recent developments. This report will provide the following: (1) a description of research organizations and their administrative structure, professional societies, conferences, researchers, and engineers; (2) a technical review of the physics and engineering of underwater acoustics; (3) a list of underwater acoustics experts from the United States and Europe who visited China; (4) a list of underwater acoustics monography written by Chinese authors; and (5) a brief assessment of the Chinese research at the international level.

  11. [The heart and underwater diving].

    PubMed

    Lafay, V

    2006-11-01

    Cardiovascular examination of a certain number of candidates for underwater diving raises justifiable questions of aptitude. An indicative list of contraindications has been proposed by the French Federation of Underwater Studies and Sports but a physiopathological basis gives a better understanding of what is involved. During diving, the haemodynamic changes due not only to the exercise but also to cold immersion, hyperoxaemia and decompression impose the absence of any symptomatic cardiac disease. Moreover, the vasoconstriction caused by the cold and hyperoxaemia should incite great caution in both coronary and hypertensive patients. The contraindication related to betablocker therapy is controversial and the debate has not been settled in France. The danger of drowning makes underwater diving hazardous in all pathologies carrying a risk of syncope. Pacemaker patients should be carefully assessed and the depth of diving limited. Finally, the presence of right-to-left intracardiac shunts increases the risk of complications during decompressionand contraindicates underwater diving. Patent foramen ovale is a special case but no special investigation is required for its detection. The cardiologist examining candidates for underwater diving should take all these factors into consideration because, although underwater diving is a sport associated with an increased risk, each year there are more and more people, with differing degrees of aptitude, who wish to practice it.

  12. Underwater Turbulence Detection Using Gated Wavefront Sensing Technique

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Ying; Xu, Xiping; Chow, Eddy Mun Tik

    2018-01-01

    Laser sensing has been applied in various underwater applications, ranging from underwater detection to laser underwater communications. However, there are several great challenges when profiling underwater turbulence effects. Underwater detection is greatly affected by the turbulence effect, where the acquired image suffers excessive noise, blurring, and deformation. In this paper, we propose a novel underwater turbulence detection method based on a gated wavefront sensing technique. First, we elaborate on the operating principle of gated wavefront sensing and wavefront reconstruction. We then setup an experimental system in order to validate the feasibility of our proposed method. The effect of underwater turbulence on detection is examined at different distances, and under different turbulence levels. The experimental results obtained from our gated wavefront sensing system indicate that underwater turbulence can be detected and analyzed. The proposed gated wavefront sensing system has the advantage of a simple structure and high detection efficiency for underwater environments. PMID:29518889

  13. Cognitive factors in the close visual and magnetic particle inspection of welds underwater.

    PubMed

    Leach, J; Morris, P E

    1998-06-01

    Underwater close visual inspection (CVI) and magnetic particle inspection (MPI) are major components of the commercial diver's job of nondestructive testing and the maintenance of subsea structures. We explored the accuracy of CVI in Experiment 1 and that of MPI in Experiment 2 and observed high error rates (47% and 24%, respectively). Performance was strongly correlated with embedded figures and visual search tests and was unrelated to length of professional diving experience, formal inspection qualification, or age. Cognitive tests of memory for designs, spatial relations, dotted outlines, and block design failed to correlate with performance. Actual or potential applications of this research include more reliable inspection reporting, increased effectiveness from current inspection techniques, and directions for the refinement of subsea inspection equipment.

  14. 10 CFR 50.55a - Codes and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... commitments must be applied to Section XI activities. (xi) [Reserved] (xii) Underwater welding. The provisions in IWA-4660, “Underwater Welding,” of Section XI, 1997 Addenda through the latest edition and addenda... performed by welding or brazing on a pressure retaining boundary using the 2003 Addenda through the latest...

  15. 10 CFR 50.55a - Codes and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... commitments must be applied to Section XI activities. (xi) [Reserved] (xii) Underwater welding. The provisions in IWA-4660, “Underwater Welding,” of Section XI, 1997 Addenda through the latest edition and addenda... performed by welding or brazing on a pressure retaining boundary using the 2003 Addenda through the latest...

  16. Quantum imaging for underwater arctic navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco

    2017-05-01

    The precise navigation of underwater vehicles is a difficult task due to the challenges imposed by the variable oceanic environment. It is particularly difficult if the underwater vehicle is trying to navigate under the Arctic ice shelf. Indeed, in this scenario traditional navigation devices such as GPS, compasses and gyrocompasses are unavailable or unreliable. In addition, the shape and thickness of the ice shelf is variable throughout the year. Current Arctic underwater navigation systems include sonar arrays to detect the proximity to the ice. However, these systems are undesirable in a wartime environment, as the sound gives away the position of the underwater vehicle. In this paper we briefly describe the theoretical design of a quantum imaging system that could allow the safe and stealthy navigation of underwater Arctic vehicles.

  17. Underwater Sensor Nodes and Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Sensor technology has matured enough to be used in any type of environment. The appearance of new physical sensors has increased the range of environmental parameters for gathering data. Because of the huge amount of unexploited resources in the ocean environment, there is a need of new research in the field of sensors and sensor networks. This special issue is focused on collecting recent advances on underwater sensors and underwater sensor networks in order to measure, monitor, surveillance of and control of underwater environments. On the one hand, from the sensor node perspective, we will see works related with the deployment of physical sensors, development of sensor nodes and transceivers for sensor nodes, sensor measurement analysis and several issues such as layer 1 and 2 protocols for underwater communication and sensor localization and positioning systems. On the other hand, from the sensor network perspective, we will see several architectures and protocols for underwater environments and analysis concerning sensor network measurements. Both sides will provide us a complete view of last scientific advances in this research field. PMID:24013489

  18. Friction Stir Weld System for Welding and Weld Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor); Romine, Peter L. (Inventor); Oelgoetz, Peter A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A friction stir weld system for welding and weld repair has a base foundation unit connected to a hydraulically controlled elevation platform and a hydraulically adjustable pin tool. The base foundation unit may be fixably connected to a horizontal surface or may be connected to a mobile support in order to provide mobility to the friction stir welding system. The elevation platform may be utilized to raise and lower the adjustable pin tool about a particular axis. Additional components which may be necessary for the friction stir welding process include back plate tooling, fixturing and/or a roller mechanism.

  19. Monocular Vision-Based Underwater Object Detection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen; Dai, Fengzhao; Bu, Yang; Wang, Huibin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an underwater object detection method using monocular vision sensors. In addition to commonly used visual features such as color and intensity, we investigate the potential of underwater object detection using light transmission information. The global contrast of various features is used to initially identify the region of interest (ROI), which is then filtered by the image segmentation method, producing the final underwater object detection results. We test the performance of our method with diverse underwater datasets. Samples of the datasets are acquired by a monocular camera with different qualities (such as resolution and focal length) and setups (viewing distance, viewing angle, and optical environment). It is demonstrated that our ROI detection method is necessary and can largely remove the background noise and significantly increase the accuracy of our underwater object detection method. PMID:28771194

  20. Weld pool oscillation during pulsed GTA welding

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Aendenroomer, A.J.R.; Ouden, G. den

    1996-12-31

    This paper deals with weld pool oscillation during pulsed GTA welding and with the possibility to use this oscillation for in-process control of weld penetration. Welding experiments were carried out under different welding conditions. During welding the weld pool was triggered into oscillation by the normal welding pulses or by extra current pulses. The oscillation frequency was measured both during the pulse time and during the base time by analyzing the arc voltage variation using a Fast Fourier Transformation program. Optimal results are obtained when full penetration occurs during the pulse time and partial penetration during the base time. Undermore » these conditions elliptical overlapping spot welds are formed. In the case of full penetration the weld pool oscillates in a low frequency mode (membrane oscillation), whereas in the case of partial penetration the weld pool oscillates in a high frequency mode (surface oscillation). Deviation from the optimal welding conditions occurs when high frequency oscillation is observed during both pulse time and base time (underpenetration) or when low frequency oscillation is observed during both pulse time and base time (overpenetration). In line with these results a penetration sensing system with feedback control was designed, based on the criterion that optimal weld penetration is achieved when two peaks are observed in the frequency distribution. The feasibility of this sensing system for orbital tube welding was confirmed by the results of experiments carried out under various welding conditions.« less

  1. Colorful Underwater Sea Creatures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project wherein students created colorful underwater sea creatures. This project began with a discussion about underwater sea creatures and how they live. The first step was making the multi-colored tissue paper that would become sea creatures and seaweed. Once students had the shapes of their sea creatures…

  2. Underwater Advanced Time-Domain Electromagnetic System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-03

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The overall objective of the project is to design , build and demonstrate an underwater advanced time -domain...Description The overall objective of the project is to design , build and demonstrate an underwater advanced time - domain electromagnetic (TEM) system...Electromagnetic System Design (July, 2015), and in the Underwater Advanced Time -Domain Electromagnetic System Evaluation Plan (October, 2016). A

  3. Underwater gait analysis in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Daniele; Pavan, Davide; Morris, Meg; Guiotto, Annamaria; Iansek, Robert; Fortuna, Sofia; Frazzitta, Giuseppe; Sawacha, Zimi

    2017-02-01

    Although hydrotherapy is one of the physical therapies adopted to optimize gait rehabilitation in people with Parkinson disease, the quantitative measurement of gait-related outcomes has not been provided yet. This work aims to document the gait improvements in a group of parkinsonians after a hydrotherapy program through 2D and 3D underwater and on land gait analysis. Thirty-four parkinsonians and twenty-two controls were enrolled, divided into two different cohorts. In the first one, 2 groups of patients underwent underwater or land based walking training; controls underwent underwater walking training. Hence pre-treatment 2D underwater and on land gait analysis were performed, together with post-treatment on land gait analysis. Considering that current literature documented a reduced movement amplitude in parkinsonians across all lower limb joints in all movement planes, 3D underwater and on land gait analysis were performed on a second cohort of subjects (10 parkinsonians and 10 controls) who underwent underwater gait training. Baseline land 2D and 3D gait analysis in parkinsonians showed shorter stride length and slower speed than controls, in agreement with previous findings. Comparison between underwater and on land gait analysis showed reduction in stride length, cadence and speed on both parkinsonians and controls. Although patients who underwent underwater treatment exhibited significant changes on spatiotemporal parameters and sagittal plane lower limb kinematics, 3D gait analysis documented a significant (p<0.05) improvement in all movement planes. These data deserve attention for research directions promoting the optimal recovery and maintenance of walking ability. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Underwater optical wireless communication network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnon, Shlomi

    2010-01-01

    The growing need for underwater observation and subsea monitoring systems has stimulated considerable interest in advancing the enabling technologies of underwater wireless communication and underwater sensor networks. This communication technology is expected to play an important role in investigating climate change, in monitoring biological, biogeochemical, evolutionary, and ecological changes in the sea, ocean, and lake environments, and in helping to control and maintain oil production facilities and harbors using unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs), submarines, ships, buoys, and divers. However, the present technology of underwater acoustic communication cannot provide the high data rate required to investigate and monitor these environments and facilities. Optical wireless communication has been proposed as the best alternative to meet this challenge. Models are presented for three kinds of optical wireless communication links: (a) a line-of-sight link, (b) a modulating retroreflector link, and (c) a reflective link, all of which can provide the required data rate. We analyze the link performance based on these models. From the analysis, it is clear that as the water absorption increases, the communication performance decreases dramatically for the three link types. However, by using the scattered light it was possible to mitigate this decrease in some cases. It is concluded from the analysis that a high-data-rate underwater optical wireless network is a feasible solution for emerging applications such as UUV-to-UUV links and networks of sensors, and extended ranges in these applications could be achieved by applying a multi-hop concept.

  5. Locating underwater objects. [technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grice, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    Underwater search operations are considered to be engineering and operational problems. A process for proper definition of the problem and selection of instrumentation and operational procedures is described. An outline of underwater search instrumentation and techniques is given.

  6. From land to water: bringing dielectric elastomer sensing to the underwater realm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Christopher; Anderson, Iain

    2016-04-01

    Since the late 1990's dielectric elastomers (DEs) have been investigated for their use as sensors. To date, there have been some impressive developments: finger displacement controls for video games and integration with medical rehabilitation devices to aid patient recovery. It is clear DE sensing is well established for dry applications, the next frontier, however, is to adapt this technology for the other 71% of the Earth's surface. With proven and perhaps improved water resistance, many new applications could be developed in areas such as diver communication and control of underwater robotics; even wearable devices on land must withstand sweat, washing, and the rain. This study investigated the influence of fresh and salt water on DE sensing. In particular, sensors have been manufactured with waterproof connections and submersed in fresh and salt water baths. Temperature and resting capacitance were recorded. Issues with the basic DE sensor have been identified and compensated for with modifications to the sensor. The electrostatic field, prior and post modification, has been modeled with ANSYS Maxwell. The aim of this investigation was to identify issues, perform modifications and propose a new sensor design suited to wet and underwater applications.

  7. Welding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed for use by South Carolina vocational education teachers as a continuing set of lesson plans for a two-year course on welding. Covered in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: an orientation to welding, oxyacetylene welding, advanced oxyacetylene welding, shielded metal arc welding, TIG…

  8. Comparing Laser Welding Technologies with Friction Stir Welding for Production of Aluminum Tailor-Welded Blanks

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Carsley, John; Carlson, Blair

    2014-01-15

    A comparison of welding techniques was performed to determine the most effective method for producing aluminum tailor-welded blanks for high volume automotive applications. Aluminum sheet was joined with an emphasis on post weld formability, surface quality and weld speed. Comparative results from several laser based welding techniques along with friction stir welding are presented. The results of this study demonstrate a quantitative comparison of weld methodologies in preparing tailor-welded aluminum stampings for high volume production in the automotive industry. Evaluation of nearly a dozen welding variations ultimately led to down selecting a single process based on post-weld quality and performance.

  9. Underwater Acoustic Tracer System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-13

    for controlling and utilizing supercavitating projectile dynamics to produce a distinctive radiated noise signal. (2) Description of the Prior Art...metallic objects which travel relatively closely to a magnetic pickup. For larger, high speed, underwater projectiles, supercavitating underwater vehicles...have been proposed for use. The conditions for supercavitation are known in the art. Supercavitation allows for higher speeds to be sustainable

  10. Plasma arc welding weld imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor); Mcgee, William F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A welding torch for plasma arc welding apparatus has a transparent shield cup disposed about the constricting nozzle, the cup including a small outwardly extending polished lip. A guide tube extends externally of the torch and has a free end adjacent to the lip. First and second optical fiber bundle assemblies are supported within the guide tube. Light from a strobe light is transmitted along one of the assemblies to the free end and through the lip onto the weld site. A lens is positioned in the guide tube adjacent to the second assembly and focuses images of the weld site onto the end of the fiber bundle of the second assembly and these images are transmitted along the second assembly to a video camera so that the weld site may be viewed continuously for monitoring the welding process.

  11. Determining spherical lens correction for astronaut training underwater.

    PubMed

    Porter, Jason; Gibson, C Robert; Strauss, Samuel

    2011-09-01

    To develop a model that will accurately predict the distance spherical lens correction needed to be worn by National Aeronautics and Space Administration astronauts while training underwater. The replica space suit's helmet contains curved visors that induce refractive power when submersed in water. Anterior surface powers and thicknesses were measured for the helmet's protective and inside visors. The impact of each visor on the helmet's refractive power in water was analyzed using thick lens calculations and Zemax optical design software. Using geometrical optics approximations, a model was developed to determine the optimal distance spherical power needed to be worn underwater based on the helmet's total induced spherical power underwater and the astronaut's manifest spectacle plane correction in air. The validity of the model was tested using data from both eyes of 10 astronauts who trained underwater. The helmet's visors induced a total power of -2.737 D when placed underwater. The required underwater spherical correction (FW) was linearly related to the spectacle plane spherical correction in air (FAir): FW = FAir + 2.356 D. The mean magnitude of the difference between the actual correction worn underwater and the calculated underwater correction was 0.20 ± 0.11 D. The actual and calculated values were highly correlated (r = 0.971) with 70% of eyes having a difference in magnitude of <0.25 D between values. We devised a model to calculate the spherical spectacle lens correction needed to be worn underwater by National Aeronautics and Space Administration astronauts. The model accurately predicts the actual values worn underwater and can be applied (more generally) to determine a suitable spectacle lens correction to be worn behind other types of masks when submerged underwater.

  12. Simultaneous adaptation to size, distance, and curvature underwater.

    PubMed

    Vernoy, M W

    1989-02-01

    Perceptual adaptation to underwater size, distance, and curvature distortion was measured for four different adaptation conditions. These conditions consisted of (a) playing Chinese checkers underwater, (b) swimming with eyes open underwater, (c) viewing a square underwater, and (d) an air control. Significant adaptation to underwater distortions was recorded in all except the air control condition. In the viewing square condition a positive correlation between size and distance adaptation was noted. It was suggested that adaptation to curvature may have mediated the positive correlation. Possible applications for the training of divers are discussed.

  13. Astro Stars Camp features underwater robotics

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-06-29

    Ian Tonglet, 13, (left) and Seth Malley, 13, both of Picayune, Miss., and both participants in the 2010 Astro Stars session at Stennis Space Center, work with an underwater robot during a camp activity June 29. NASA joined with the U.S. Navy for the underwater robotics exercise involving Sea Perch robots, which are simple, remotely operated underwater vehicles made from PVC pipe and other inexpensive, easily available materials. During the Stennis exercise, students used robots constructed earlier in the day to maneuver underwater and collect plastic rings, as seen to the left of Tonglet. Astro STARS (Spaceflight, Technology, Astronomy & Robotics @ Stennis) is a science and technology camp for 13-15 year olds.

  14. Underwater sympathetic detonation of pellet explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Shiro; Saburi, Tei; Nagayama, Kunihito

    2017-06-01

    The underwater sympathetic detonation of pellet explosives was taken by high-speed photography. The diameter and the thickness of the pellet were 20 and 10 mm, respectively. The experimental system consists of the precise electric detonator, two grams of composition C4 booster and three pellets, and these were set in water tank. High-speed video camera, HPV-X made by Shimadzu was used with 10 Mfs. The underwater explosions of the precise electric detonator, the C4 booster and a pellet were also taken by high-speed photography to estimate the propagation processes of the underwater shock waves. Numerical simulation of the underwater sympathetic detonation of the pellet explosives was also carried out and compared with experiment.

  15. Human Factors Issues When Operating Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicles and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    etiquette (Parasuraman & Miller, 2004). Through natural and intuitive communication, Johnson et al., (2007) hope that this interface will instill greater...and etiquette in high criticality automated systems. Communications of the ACM, 47(4), 51-55. Parasuraman, R., & Riley, V. (1997). Humans and... protocols for underwater wireless communications. IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 97-102. Quazi, A. H., & Konrad, W. L. (1982, March 1982). Underwater

  16. Underwater Electrical Safety Practices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    under water. While advances continue in developing new and more effective underwater electrical equipment, the Navy is concerned that its underwater...levels passing through human tissue is known to alter, temporarily, the physiological function of cells. The long-term effects , if any, are unknown. Much...of the system--human physiology, equipment, procedures, and training. Human Physiology Present knowledge of the physiological effects of electrical

  17. Determining spherical lens correction for astronaut training underwater

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Jason; Gibson, C. Robert; Strauss, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To develop a model that will accurately predict the distance spherical lens correction needed to be worn by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) astronauts while training underwater. The replica space suit’s helmet contains curved visors that induce refractive power when submersed in water. Methods Anterior surface powers and thicknesses were measured for the helmet’s protective and inside visors. The impact of each visor on the helmet’s refractive power in water was analyzed using thick lens calculations and Zemax optical design software. Using geometrical optics approximations, a model was developed to determine the optimal distance spherical power needed to be worn underwater based on the helmet’s total induced spherical power underwater and the astronaut’s manifest spectacle plane correction in air. The validity of the model was tested using data from both eyes of 10 astronauts who trained underwater. Results The helmet visors induced a total power of −2.737 D when placed underwater. The required underwater spherical correction (FW) was linearly related to the spectacle plane spherical correction in air (FAir): FW = FAir + 2.356 D. The mean magnitude of the difference between the actual correction worn underwater and the calculated underwater correction was 0.20 ± 0.11 D. The actual and calculated values were highly correlated (R = 0.971) with 70% of eyes having a difference in magnitude of < 0.25 D between values. Conclusions We devised a model to calculate the spherical spectacle lens correction needed to be worn underwater by National Aeronautics and Space Administration astronauts. The model accurately predicts the actual values worn underwater and can be applied (more generally) to determine a suitable spectacle lens correction to be worn behind other types of masks when submerged underwater. PMID:21623249

  18. Modeling of the Weld Shape Development During the Autogenous Welding Process by Coupling Welding Arc with Weld Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wenchao; Lu, Shanping; Li, Dianzhong; Li, Yiyi

    2010-10-01

    A numerical model of the welding arc is coupled to a model for the heat transfer and fluid flow in the weld pool of a SUS304 stainless steel during a moving GTA welding process. The described model avoids the use of the assumption of the empirical Gaussian boundary conditions, and at the same time, provides reliable boundary conditions to analyze the weld pool. Based on the two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical modeling of the argon arc, the heat flux to workpiece, the input current density, and the plasma drag stress are obtained. The arc temperature contours, the distributions of heat flux, and current density at the anode are in fair agreement with the reported experimental results. Numerical simulation and experimental studies to the weld pool development are carried out for a moving GTA welding on SUS304 stainless steel with different oxygen content from 30 to 220 ppm. The calculated result show that the oxygen can change the Marangoni convection from outward to inward direction on the liquid pool surface and make the wide shallow weld shape become narrow deep one. The calculated result for the weld shape and weld D/W ratio agrees well with the experimental one.

  19. Investigation on mechanical properties of welded material under different types of welding filler (shielded metal arc welding)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Abdullah Mohd; Lair, Noor Ajian Mohd; Wei, Foo Jun

    2018-05-01

    The Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) is (or the Stick welding) defined as a welding process, which melts and joins metals with an arc between a welding filler (electrode rod) and the workpieces. The main objective was to study the mechanical properties of welded metal under different types of welding fillers and current for SMAW. This project utilized the Design of Experiment (DOE) by adopting the Full Factorial Design. The independent variables were the types of welding filler and welding current, whereas the other welding parameters were fixed at the optimum value. The levels for types of welding filler were by the models of welding filler (E6013, E7016 and E7018) used and the levels for welding current were 80A and 90A. The responses were the mechanical properties of welded material, which include tensile strength and hardness. The experiment was analyzed using the two way ANOVA. The results prove that there are significant effects of welding filler types and current levels on the tensile strength and hardness of the welded metal. At the same time, the ANOVA results and interaction plot indicate that there are significant interactions between the welding filler types and the welding current on both the hardness and tensile strength of the welded metals, which has never been reported before. This project found that when the amount of heat input with increase, the mechanical properties such as tensile strength and hardness decrease. The optimum tensile strength for welded metal is produced by the welding filler E7016 and the optimum of hardness of welded metal is produced by the welding filler E7018 at welding current of 80A.

  20. A simple underwater imaging model.

    PubMed

    Hou, Weilin

    2009-09-01

    It is commonly known that underwater imaging is hindered by both absorption and scattering by particles of various origins. However, evidence also indicates that the turbulence in natural underwater environments can cause severe image-quality degradation. A model is presented to include the effects of both particle and turbulence on underwater optical imaging through optical transfer functions to help quantify the limiting factors under different circumstances. The model utilizes Kolmogorov-type index of refraction power spectra found in the ocean, along with field examples, to demonstrate that optical turbulence can limit imaging resolution by affecting high spatial frequencies. The effects of the path radiance are also discussed.

  1. Modification of wool surface by liposomes for dyeing with weld.

    PubMed

    Montazer, Majid; Zolfaghari, Alireza; Toliat, Taibeh; Moghadam, Mohammad Bameni

    2009-01-01

    In this research work, wool surface has been modified by liposome to investigate its effects on dyeing with weld, a yellow natural dye. To do this, samples were first treated with aluminium sulphate and afterward with different concentrations of liposomes at various temperatures for 30 minutes and, finally, dyed with weld at 75, 85, and 95 degrees C for 30, 45, and 60 minutes. K/S values of fabric samples were calculated and washing, light and rub fastness properties of the samples were indicated. The results proposed that the sample treated with 1% liposomes and dyed at 75 degrees C for 60 min has the highest K/S value. The central composite design (CCD) used for the experimental plan with three variables on the results of color strength and statistical analysis confirms the optimum conditions obtained by the experimental results. It was also found that washing, light, wet, and dry rub fastness properties of samples dyed with weld, including liposomes, have not significantly changed. The results of water drop absorption indicated that the hydrophobicity is higher for the samples pretreated with liposomes. The SEM picture of wool sample treated with mordant and liposomes and finally dyed with weld shows a coated layer on the fiber surface.

  2. Human Injury Criteria for Underwater Blasts

    PubMed Central

    Lance, Rachel M.; Capehart, Bruce; Kadro, Omar; Bass, Cameron R.

    2015-01-01

    Underwater blasts propagate further and injure more readily than equivalent air blasts. Development of effective personal protection and countermeasures, however, requires knowledge of the currently unknown human tolerance to underwater blast. Current guidelines for prevention of underwater blast injury are not based on any organized injury risk assessment, human data or experimental data. The goal of this study was to derive injury risk assessments for underwater blast using well-characterized human underwater blast exposures in the open literature. The human injury dataset was compiled using 34 case reports on underwater blast exposure to 475 personnel, dating as early as 1916. Using severity ratings, computational reconstructions of the blasts, and survival information from a final set of 262 human exposures, injury risk models were developed for both injury severity and risk of fatality as functions of blast impulse and blast peak overpressure. Based on these human data, we found that the 50% risk of fatality from underwater blast occurred at 302±16 kPa-ms impulse. Conservatively, there is a 20% risk of pulmonary injury at a kilometer from a 20 kg charge. From a clinical point of view, this new injury risk model emphasizes the large distances possible for potential pulmonary and gut injuries in water compared with air. This risk value is the first impulse-based fatality risk calculated from human data. The large-scale inconsistency between the blast exposures in the case reports and the guidelines available in the literature prior to this study further underscored the need for this new guideline derived from the unique dataset of actual injuries in this study. PMID:26606655

  3. Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welding for Aluminum Alloy Circumferential Weld Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, Gerry; Cantrell, Mark; Carter, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Friction stir welding is an innovative weld process that continues to grow in use, in the commercial, defense, and space sectors. It produces high quality and high strength welds in aluminum alloys. The process consists of a rotating weld pin tool that plasticizes material through friction. The plasticized material is welded by applying a high weld forge force through the weld pin tool against the material during pin tool rotation. The high weld forge force is reacted against an anvil and a stout tool structure. A variation of friction stir welding currently being evaluated is self-reacting friction stir welding. Self-reacting friction stir welding incorporates two opposing shoulders on the crown and root sides of the weld joint. In self-reacting friction stir welding, the weld forge force is reacted against the crown shoulder portion of the weld pin tool by the root shoulder. This eliminates the need for a stout tooling structure to react the high weld forge force required in the typical friction stir weld process. Therefore, the self-reacting feature reduces tooling requirements and, therefore, process implementation costs. This makes the process attractive for aluminum alloy circumferential weld applications. To evaluate the application of self-reacting friction stir welding for aluminum alloy circumferential welding, a feasibility study was performed. The study consisted of performing a fourteen-foot diameter aluminum alloy circumferential demonstration weld using typical fusion weld tooling. To accomplish the demonstration weld, weld and tack weld development were performed and fourteen-foot diameter rings were fabricated. Weld development consisted of weld pin tool selection and the generation of a process map and envelope. Tack weld development evaluated gas tungsten arc welding and friction stir welding for tack welding rings together for circumferential welding. As a result of the study, a successful circumferential demonstration weld was produced leading

  4. Weld pool oscillation during GTA welding of mild steel

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Xiao, Y.H.; Ouden, G. den

    1993-08-01

    In this paper the results are reported of a study dealing with the oscillation behavior of weld pools in the case of GTA bead-on-plate welding of mild steel, Fe 360. During welding, the weld pool was brought into oscillation by applying short current pulses, and the oscillation frequency and amplitude were measured by monitoring the arc voltage. It was found that the oscillation of the partially penetrated weld pool is dominated by one of two different oscillation modes (Mode 1 and Mode 2) depending on the welding conditions, whereas the oscillation of the fully penetrated weld pool is characterized bymore » a third oscillation mode (Mode 3). It is possible to maintain partially penetrated weld pool oscillation in Mode 1 by choosing appropriate welding conditions. Under these conditions, an abrupt decrease in oscillation frequency occurs when the weld pool transfers from partial penetration to full penetration. Thus, weld penetration can be in-process controlled by monitoring the oscillation frequency during welding.« less

  5. Action-specific effects underwater.

    PubMed

    Witt, Jessica K; Schuck, Donald M; Taylor, J Eric T

    2011-01-01

    Action-specific effects on perception are apparent in terrestrial environments. For example, targets that require more effort to walk, jump, or throw to look farther away than when the targets require less effort. Here, we examined whether action-specific effects would generalize to an underwater environment. Instead, perception might be geometrically precise, rather than action-specific, in an environment that is novel from an evolutionary perspective. We manipulated ease to swim by giving participants swimming flippers or taking them away. Those who estimated distance while wearing the flippers judged underwater targets to be closer than did participants who had taken them off. In addition, participants with better swimming ability judged the targets to be closer than did those with worse swimming ability. These results suggest perceived distance underwater is a function of the perceiver's ability to swim to the targets.

  6. Adaptive weld control for high-integrity welding applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Bradley W.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced adaptive control weld system for high-integrity welding applications is presented. The system consists of a state-of-the-art weld control subsystem, motion control subsystem, and sensor subsystem which closes the loop on the process. The adaptive control subsystem (ACS), which is required to totally close the loop on weld process control, consists of a multiprocessor system, data acquisition hardware, and three welding sensors which provide measurements from all areas around the torch in real time. The ACS acquires all 'measurables' and feeds offset trims back into the weld control and motion control subsystems to modify the 'controllables' in order to maintain a previously defined weld quality.

  7. Deformation of Cases in High Capacitance Value Wet Tantalum Capacitors under Environmental Stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Internal gas pressure in hermetic wet tantalum capacitors is created by air, electrolyte vapor, and gas generated by electrochemical reactions at the electrodes. This pressure increases substantially with temperature and time of operation due to excessive leakage currents. Deformation of the case occurs when the internal pressure exceeds pressure of the environments and can raise significantly when a part operates in space. Contrary to the cylinder case wet tantalum capacitors that have external sealing by welding and internal sealing provided by the Teflon bushing and crimping of the case, no reliable internal sealing exists in the button case capacitors. Single seal design capacitors are used for high capacitance value wet tantalum capacitors manufactured per DLA L&M drawings #04003, 04005, and 10011, and require additional analysis to assure their reliable application in space systems. In this work, leakage currents and case deformation of button case capacitors were measured during different environmental test conditions. Recommendations for derating, screening and qualification testing are given. This work is a continuation of a series of NEPP reports related to quality and reliability of wet tantalum capacitors.

  8. Terminal Homing for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Docking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    underwater domain, accurate navigation. Above the water, light and electromagnetic signals travel well through air and space, mediums that allow for a...DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT The use of docking stations for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) provides the ability to keep a vehicle on...Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering iv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ABSTRACT The use of docking stations for autonomous underwater

  9. An underwater optical wireless communication network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnon, Shlomi

    2009-08-01

    The growing need for underwater observation and sub-sea monitoring systems has stimulated considerable interest in advancing the enabling technologies of underwater wireless communication and underwater sensor networks. This communication technology is expected to play an important role in investigating climate change, in monitoring biological, bio-geochemical, evolutionary and ecological changes in the sea, ocean and lake environments and in helping to control and maintain oil production facilities and harbors using unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs), submarines, ships, buoys, and divers. However, the present technology of underwater acoustic communication cannot provide the high data rate required to investigate and monitor these environments and facilities. Optical wireless communication has been proposed as the best alternative to meet this challenge. We present models of three kinds of optical wireless communication links a) a line-of-sight link, b) a modulating retro-reflector link and c) a reflective link, all of which can provide the required data rate. We analyze the link performance based on these models. From the analysis, it is clear that as the water absorption increases, the communication performance decreases dramatically for the three link types. However, by using the scattered lighted it was possible to mitigate this decrease in some cases. We conclude from the analysis that a high data rate underwater optical wireless network is a feasible solution for emerging applications such as UUV to UUV links and networks of sensors, and extended ranges in these applications could be achieved by applying a multi-hop concept.

  10. Design of underwater robot lines based on a hybrid automatic optimization strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Wenjing; Luo, Weilin

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a hybrid automatic optimization strategy is proposed for the design of underwater robot lines. Isight is introduced as an integration platform. The construction of this platform is based on the user programming and several commercial software including UG6.0, GAMBIT2.4.6 and FLUENT12.0. An intelligent parameter optimization method, the particle swarm optimization, is incorporated into the platform. To verify the strategy proposed, a simulation is conducted on the underwater robot model 5470, which originates from the DTRC SUBOFF project. With the automatic optimization platform, the minimal resistance is taken as the optimization goal; the wet surface area as the constraint condition; the length of the fore-body, maximum body radius and after-body's minimum radius as the design variables. With the CFD calculation, the RANS equations and the standard turbulence model are used for direct numerical simulation. By analyses of the simulation results, it is concluded that the platform is of high efficiency and feasibility. Through the platform, a variety of schemes for the design of the lines are generated and the optimal solution is achieved. The combination of the intelligent optimization algorithm and the numerical simulation ensures a global optimal solution and improves the efficiency of the searching solutions.

  11. Utility of the M.I.T. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Underwater Stud Welding Gun.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    studs not preferred. 5.2.1 Padeyes Conditions for welding the single stud padeye ( SSPE ), three stud padeye (3SPE), and multiple stud lifting strap (MSLS...are as follows: 105 -! SSPE 3SPE t.SLS Depth 100’ 100’ 50’ Visibility Ambient Total Clear Darkness If the performance (P) is greater than one, stud...the tasks are to be performed will now be discussed. 5.2.2 Padeye Evaluation The single stud padeye ( SSPE ), the three stud padeye (3SPE) and the

  12. Optimal Scheduling for Underwater Communications in Multiple-user Scenarios

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    underwater acoustic sensor networks . These techniques aim at consuming as less energy as... underwater acoustic networks disrupt the behavior of surrounding species of marine mammals. As a consequence of these two studies, we aim at developing...Markov models of incremental redundancy hybrid ARQ over underwater acoustic channels. Elsevier Journal on Ad-hoc Networks (Special Issue on Underwater Communications and Networks ), 2014. 4

  13. Weld Nugget Temperature Control in Thermal Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A control system for a thermal stir welding system is provided. The control system includes a sensor and a controller. The sensor is coupled to the welding system's containment plate assembly and generates signals indicative of temperature of a region adjacent and parallel to the welding system's stir rod. The controller is coupled to the sensor and generates at least one control signal using the sensor signals indicative of temperature. The controller is also coupled to the welding system such that at least one of rotational speed of the stir rod, heat supplied by the welding system's induction heater, and feed speed of the welding system's weld material feeder are controlled based on the control signal(s).

  14. Study of weld offset in longitudinally welded SSME HPFTP inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, J. B.; Spanyer, K. S.; Brunair, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    Welded joints are an essential part of rocket engine structures such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps. Defects produced in the welding process can be detrimental to weld performance. Recently, review of the SSME high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) titanium inlet X-rays revealed several weld discrepancies such as penetrameter density issues, film processing discrepancies, weld width discrepancies, porosity, lack of fusion, and weld offsets. Currently, the sensitivity of welded structures to defects is of concern. From a fatigue standpoint, weld offset may have a serious effect since local yielding, in general, aggravates cyclic stress effects. Therefore, the weld offset issue is considered in this report. Using the FEM and beamlike plate approximations, parametric studies were conducted to determine the influence of weld offsets and a variation of weld widths in longitudinally welded cylindrical structures with equal wall thicknesses on both sides of the joint. Following the study, some conclusions are derived for the weld offsets.

  15. Underwater Calibration of Dome Port Pressure Housings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocerino, E.; Menna, F.; Fassi, F.; Remondino, F.

    2016-03-01

    Underwater photogrammetry using consumer grade photographic equipment can be feasible for different applications, e.g. archaeology, biology, industrial inspections, etc. The use of a camera underwater can be very different from its terrestrial use due to the optical phenomena involved. The presence of the water and camera pressure housing in front of the camera act as additional optical elements. Spherical dome ports are difficult to manufacture and consequently expensive but at the same time they are the most useful for underwater photogrammetry as they keep the main geometric characteristics of the lens unchanged. Nevertheless, the manufacturing and alignment of dome port pressure housing components can be the source of unexpected changes of radial and decentring distortion, source of systematic errors that can influence the final 3D measurements. The paper provides a brief introduction of underwater optical phenomena involved in underwater photography, then presents the main differences between flat and dome ports to finally discuss the effect of manufacturing on 3D measurements in two case studies.

  16. Natural Underwater Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Russell J.; Ransom, Todd C.; Hlady, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The general topic of this review is protein-based underwater adhesives produced by aquatic organisms. The focus is on mechanisms of interfacial adhesion to native surfaces and controlled underwater solidification of natural water-borne adhesives. Four genera that exemplify the broad range of function, general mechanistic features, and unique adaptations are discussed in detail: blue mussels, acorn barnacles, sandcastle worms, and freshwater caddisfly larva. Aquatic surfaces in nature are charged and in equilibrium with their environment, populated by an electrical double layer of ions as well as adsorbed natural polyelectrolytes and microbial biofilms. Surface adsorption of underwater bioadhesives likely occurs by exchange of surface bound ligands by amino acid sidechains, driven primarily by relative affinities and effective concentrations of polymeric functional groups. Most aquatic organisms exploit modified amino acid sidechains, in particular phosphorylated serines and hydroxylated tyrosines (dopa), with high-surface affinity that form coordinative surface complexes. After delivery to the surfaces as a fluid, permanent natural adhesives solidify to bear sustained loads. Mussel plaques are assembled in a manner superficially reminiscent of in vitro layer-by-layer strategies, with sequentially delivered layers associated through Fe(dopa)3 coordination bonds. The adhesives of sandcastle worms, caddisfly larva, and barnacles may be delivered in a form somewhat similar to in vitro complex coacervation. Marine adhesives are secreted, or excreted, into seawater that has a significantly higher pH and ionic strength than the internal environment. Empirical evidence suggests these environment triggers could provide minimalistic, fail-safe timing mechanisms to prevent premature solidification (insolubilization) of the glue within the secretory system, yet allow rapid solidification after secretion. Underwater bioadhesives are further strengthened by secondary covalent

  17. Affordable underwater wireless optical communication using LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, Vladimir; Arnon, Shlomi

    2013-09-01

    In recent years the need for high data rate underwater wireless communication (WC) has increased. Nowadays, the conventional technology for underwater communication is acoustic. However, the maximum data rate that acoustic technology can provide is a few kilobits per second. On the other hand, emerging applications such as underwater imaging, networks of sensors and swarms of underwater vehicles require much faster data rates. As a result, underwater optical WC, which can provide much higher data rates, has been proposed as an alternative means of communication. In addition to high data rates, affordable communication systems become an important feature in the development requirements. The outcome of these requirements is a new system design based on off-the-shelf components such as blue and green light emitting diodes (LEDs). This is due to the fact that LEDs offer solutions characterized by low cost, high efficiency, reliability and compactness. However, there are some challenges to be met when incorporating LEDs as part of the optical transmitter, such as low modulation rates and non linearity. In this paper, we review the main challenges facing the incorporation of LEDs as an integral part of underwater WC systems and propose some techniques to mitigate the LED limitations in order to achieve high data rate communication

  18. Advanced underwater lift device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, David T.; Hopkins, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Flexible underwater lift devices ('lift bags') are used in underwater operations to provide buoyancy to submerged objects. Commercially available designs are heavy, bulky, and awkward to handle, and thus are limited in size and useful lifting capacity. An underwater lift device having less than 20 percent of the bulk and less than 10 percent of the weight of commercially available models was developed. The design features a dual membrane envelope, a nearly homogeneous envelope membrane stress distribution, and a minimum surface-to-volume ratio. A proof-of-concept model of 50 kg capacity was built and tested. Originally designed to provide buoyancy to mock-ups submerged in NASA's weightlessness simulators, the device may have application to water-landed spacecraft which must deploy flotation upon impact, and where launch weight and volume penalties are significant. The device may also be useful for the automated recovery of ocean floor probes or in marine salvage applications.

  19. Computerized adaptive control weld skate with CCTV weld guidance project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    This report summarizes progress of the automatic computerized weld skate development portion of the Computerized Weld Skate with Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) Arc Guidance Project. The main goal of the project is to develop an automatic welding skate demonstration model equipped with CCTV weld guidance. The three main goals of the overall project are to: (1) develop a demonstration model computerized weld skate system, (2) develop a demonstration model automatic CCTV guidance system, and (3) integrate the two systems into a demonstration model of computerized weld skate with CCTV weld guidance for welding contoured parts.

  20. Friction welding.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. J.

    1972-01-01

    Results of an exploratory study of the structure and properties of friction welds in Udimet 700 (U-700) and TD-nickel (TD-Ni) bar materials, as well as dissimilar U-700/TD-Ni friction welds. Butt welds were prepared by friction welding 12.7-mm-diam U-700 bars and TD-Ni bars. Specimens for elevated temperature tensile and stress rupture testing were machined after a postweld heat treatment. Friction welding of U-700 shows great potential because the welds were found to be as strong as the parent metal in stress rupture and tensile tests at 760 and 980 C. In addition, the weld line was not detectable by metallographic examination after postheating. Friction welds in TD-Ni or between U-700 and TD-Ni were extremely weak at elevated temperatures. The TD-Ni friction welds could support only 9% as much stress as the base metal for 10-hour stress rupture life at 1090 C. The U-700/TD-Ni weld could sustain only 15% as much stress as the TD-Ni parent metal for a 10-hour stress rupture life at 930 C. Thus friction welding is not a suitable joining method for obtaining high-strength TD-Ni or U-700/TD-Ni weldments.

  1. Sensor Network Architectures for Monitoring Underwater Pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Nader; Jawhar, Imad; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Zhang, Liren

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops and compares different sensor network architecture designs that can be used for monitoring underwater pipeline infrastructures. These architectures are underwater wired sensor networks, underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks, RF (Radio Frequency) wireless sensor networks, integrated wired/acoustic wireless sensor networks, and integrated wired/RF wireless sensor networks. The paper also discusses the reliability challenges and enhancement approaches for these network architectures. The reliability evaluation, characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages among these architectures are discussed and compared. Three reliability factors are used for the discussion and comparison: the network connectivity, the continuity of power supply for the network, and the physical network security. In addition, the paper also develops and evaluates a hierarchical sensor network framework for underwater pipeline monitoring. PMID:22346669

  2. Sensor network architectures for monitoring underwater pipelines.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Nader; Jawhar, Imad; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Zhang, Liren

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops and compares different sensor network architecture designs that can be used for monitoring underwater pipeline infrastructures. These architectures are underwater wired sensor networks, underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks, RF (radio frequency) wireless sensor networks, integrated wired/acoustic wireless sensor networks, and integrated wired/RF wireless sensor networks. The paper also discusses the reliability challenges and enhancement approaches for these network architectures. The reliability evaluation, characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages among these architectures are discussed and compared. Three reliability factors are used for the discussion and comparison: the network connectivity, the continuity of power supply for the network, and the physical network security. In addition, the paper also develops and evaluates a hierarchical sensor network framework for underwater pipeline monitoring.

  3. Advanced Welding Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Four advanced welding techniques and their use in NASA are briefly reviewed in this poster presentation. The welding techniques reviewed are: Solid State Welding, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) and Ultrasonic Stir Welding.

  4. Friction plug welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeshita, Riki (Inventor); Hibbard, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Friction plug welding (FPW) usage is advantageous for friction stir welding (FSW) hole close-outs and weld repairs in 2195 Al--Cu--Li fusion or friction stir welds. Current fusion welding methods of Al--Cu--Li have produced welds containing varied defects. These areas are found by non-destructive examination both after welding and after proof testing. Current techniques for repairing typically small (<0.25) defects weaken the weldment, rely heavily on welders' skill, and are costly. Friction plug welding repairs increase strength, ductility and resistance to cracking over initial weld quality, without requiring much time or operator skill. Friction plug welding while pulling the plug is advantageous because all hardware for performing the weld can be placed on one side of the workpiece.

  5. A man-made object detection for underwater TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Binbin; Wang, Wenwu; Chen, Yao

    2018-03-01

    It is a great challenging task to complete an automatic search of objects underwater. Usually the forward looking sonar is used to find the target, and then the initial identification of the target is completed by the side-scan sonar, and finally the confirmation of the target is accomplished by underwater TV. This paper presents an efficient method for automatic extraction of man-made sensitive targets in underwater TV. Firstly, the image of underwater TV is simplified with taking full advantage of the prior knowledge of the target and the background; then template matching technology is used for target detection; finally the target is confirmed by extracting parallel lines on the target contour. The algorithm is formulated for real-time execution on limited-memory commercial-of-the-shelf platforms and is capable of detection objects in underwater TV.

  6. Shape optimisation of an underwater Bernoulli gripper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, Tim; Sellier, Mathieu

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we are interested in maximising the suction produced by an underwater Bernoulli gripper. Bernoulli grippers work by exploiting low pressure regions caused by the acceleration of a working fluid through a narrow channel, between the gripper and a surface, to provide a suction force. This mechanism allows for non-contact adhesion to various surfaces and may be used to hold a robot to the hull of a ship while it inspects welds for example. A Bernoulli type pressure analysis was used to model the system with a Darcy friction factor approximation to include the effects of frictional losses. The analysis involved a constrained optimisation in order to avoid cavitation within the mechanism which would result in decreased performance and damage to surfaces. A sensitivity based method and gradient descent approach was used to find the optimum shape of a discretised surface. The model's accuracy has been quantified against finite volume computational fluid dynamics simulation (ANSYS CFX) using the k- ω SST turbulence model. Preliminary results indicate significant improvement in suction force when compared to a simple geometry by retaining a pressure just above that at which cavitation would occur over as much surface area as possible. Doctoral candidate in the Mechanical Engineering Department of the University of Canterbury, New Zealand.

  7. Welding technology transfer task/laser based weld joint tracking system for compressor girth welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Looney, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Sensors to control and monitor welding operations are currently being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center. The laser based weld bead profiler/torch rotation sensor was modified to provide a weld joint tracking system for compressor girth welds. The tracking system features a precision laser based vision sensor, automated two-axis machine motion, and an industrial PC controller. The system benefits are elimination of weld repairs caused by joint tracking errors which reduces manufacturing costs and increases production output, simplification of tooling, and free costly manufacturing floor space.

  8. Measurements of optical underwater turbulence under controlled conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaev, A. V.; Gladysz, S.; Almeida de Sá Barros, R.; Matt, S.; Nootz, G. A.; Josset, D. B.; Hou, W.

    2016-05-01

    Laser beam propagation underwater is becoming an important research topic because of high demand for its potential applications. Namely, ability to image underwater at long distances is highly desired for scientific and military purposes, including submarine awareness, diver visibility, and mine detection. Optical communication in the ocean can provide covert data transmission with much higher rates than that available with acoustic techniques, and it is now desired for certain military and scientific applications that involve sending large quantities of data. Unfortunately underwater environment presents serious challenges for propagation of laser beams. Even in clean ocean water, the extinction due to absorption and scattering theoretically limit the useful range to few attenuation lengths. However, extending the laser light propagation range to the theoretical limit leads to significant beam distortions due to optical underwater turbulence. Experiments show that the magnitude of the distortions that are caused by water temperature and salinity fluctuations can significantly exceed the magnitude of the beam distortions due to atmospheric turbulence even for relatively short propagation distances. We are presenting direct measurements of optical underwater turbulence in controlled conditions of laboratory water tank using two separate techniques involving wavefront sensor and LED array. These independent approaches will enable development of underwater turbulence power spectrum model based directly on the spatial domain measurements and will lead to accurate predictions of underwater beam propagation.

  9. Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process invented in 1991 at The Welding Institute in the United Kingdom. A weld is made in the FSW process by translating a rotating pin along a weld seam so as to stir the sides of the seam together. FSW avoids deleterious effects inherent in melting and promises to be an important welding process for any industries where welds of optimal quality are demanded. This article provides an introduction to the FSW process. The chief concern is the physical effect of the tool on the weld metal: how weld seam bonding takes place, what kind of weld structure is generated, potential problems, possible defects for example, and implications for process parameters and tool design. Weld properties are determined by structure, and the structure of friction stir welds is determined by the weld metal flow field in the vicinity of the weld tool. Metal flow in the vicinity of the weld tool is explained through a simple kinematic flow model that decomposes the flow field into three basic component flows: a uniform translation, a rotating solid cylinder, and a ring vortex encircling the tool. The flow components, superposed to construct the flow model, can be related to particular aspects of weld process parameters and tool design; they provide a bridge to an understanding of a complex-at-first-glance weld structure. Torques and forces are also discussed. Some simple mathematical models of structural aspects, torques, and forces are included.

  10. Alternate Welding Processes for In-Service Welding

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-04-24

    Conducting weld repairs and attaching hot tap tees onto pressurized pipes has the advantage of avoiding loss of service and revenue. However, the risks involved with in-service welding need to be managed by ensuring that welding is performed in a rep...

  11. Optimized decoy state QKD for underwater free space communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Minal; Sarwade, Nisha

    Quantum cryptography (QC) is envisioned as a solution for global key distribution through fiber optic, free space and underwater optical communication due to its unconditional security. In view of this, this paper investigates underwater free space quantum key distribution (QKD) model for enhanced transmission distance, secret key rates and security. It is reported that secure underwater free space QKD is feasible in the clearest ocean water with the sifted key rates up to 207kbps. This paper extends this work by testing performance of optimized decoy state QKD protocol with underwater free space communication model. The attenuation of photons, quantum bit error rate and the sifted key generation rate of underwater quantum communication is obtained with vector radiative transfer theory and Monte Carlo method. It is observed from the simulations that optimized decoy state QKD evidently enhances the underwater secret key transmission distance as well as secret key rates.

  12. Thermal Stir Welding: A New Solid State Welding Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffery; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Thermal Stir Shielding is a revolutionary new welding process developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. Thermal stir welding is similar to friction stir welding in that it joins similar or dissimilar materials without melting the parent material. However, unlike friction stir welding, the heating and stirring functions are independent allowing more degrees of freedom for greater process control. This paper introduces the mechanics of the thermal stir welding process. In addition, weld mechanical property data is presented for selected alloys as well as metallurgical analysis.

  13. Automated Welding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayless, E. O.; Lawless, K. G.; Kurgan, C.; Nunes, A. C.; Graham, B. F.; Hoffman, D.; Jones, C. S.; Shepard, R.

    1993-01-01

    Fully automated variable-polarity plasma arc VPPA welding system developed at Marshall Space Flight Center. System eliminates defects caused by human error. Integrates many sensors with mathematical model of the weld and computer-controlled welding equipment. Sensors provide real-time information on geometry of weld bead, location of weld joint, and wire-feed entry. Mathematical model relates geometry of weld to critical parameters of welding process.

  14. Omnidirectional Underwater Camera Design and Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Josep; Gracias, Nuno; Ridao, Pere; Ribas, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an underwater omnidirectional multi-camera system (OMS) based on a commercially available six-camera system, originally designed for land applications. A full calibration method is presented for the estimation of both the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters, which is able to cope with wide-angle lenses and non-overlapping cameras simultaneously. This method is valid for any OMS in both land or water applications. For underwater use, a customized housing is required, which often leads to strong image distortion due to refraction among the different media. This phenomena makes the basic pinhole camera model invalid for underwater cameras, especially when using wide-angle lenses, and requires the explicit modeling of the individual optical rays. To address this problem, a ray tracing approach has been adopted to create a field-of-view (FOV) simulator for underwater cameras. The simulator allows for the testing of different housing geometries and optics for the cameras to ensure a complete hemisphere coverage in underwater operation. This paper describes the design and testing of a compact custom housing for a commercial off-the-shelf OMS camera (Ladybug 3) and presents the first results of its use. A proposed three-stage calibration process allows for the estimation of all of the relevant camera parameters. Experimental results are presented, which illustrate the performance of the calibration method and validate the approach. PMID:25774707

  15. Factors affecting weld root morphology in laser keyhole welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frostevarg, Jan

    2018-02-01

    Welding production efficiency is usually optimised if full penetration can be achieved in a single pass. Techniques such as electron and laser beam welding offer deep high speed keyhole welding, especially since multi-kilowatt lasers became available. However, there are limitations for these techniques when considering weld imperfections such as weld cap undercuts, interior porosity or humps at the root. The thickness of sheets during full penetration welding is practically limited by these root humps. The mechanisms behind root morphology formation are not yet satisfactory understood. In this paper root humping is studied by reviewing previous studies and findings and also by sample examination and process observation by high speed imaging. Different process regimes governing root quality are presented, categorized and explained. Even though this study mainly covers laser beam and laser arc hybrid welding, the presented findings can generally be applied full penetration welding in medium to thick sheets, especially the discussion of surface tension effects. As a final result of this analysis, a map of methods to optimise weld root topology is presented.

  16. The effect of welding parameters on penetration in GTA welds

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Shirali, A.A.; Mills, K.C.

    1993-07-01

    The effect of various welding parameters on the penetration of GTA welds has been investigated. Increases in welding speed were found to reduce penetration; however, increases in welding current were observed to increase the penetration in high sulfur (HS) casts and decrease penetration in low sulfur (LS) steels. Plots of penetration as a function of increasing linear energy (the heat supplied per unit length of weld) revealed a similar trend with increased penetration in HS casts, but the penetration in LS casts was unaffected by increases in linear energy. These results support the Burgardt-Heiple proposition that changes in welding parametersmore » on penetration can be explained in terms of their effect, sequentially, on the temperature gradient and the Marangoni forces operating in the weld pool. Increases in arc length were found to decrease weld penetration regardless of the sulfur concentration of the steel, and the effects of electrode geometry and welding position on weld penetration were also investigated.« less

  17. 49 CFR 195.228 - Welds and welding inspection: Standards of acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welds and welding inspection: Standards of... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.228 Welds and welding inspection: Standards of acceptability. (a) Each weld and welding must be inspected to insure compliance with...

  18. 49 CFR 195.228 - Welds and welding inspection: Standards of acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Welds and welding inspection: Standards of... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.228 Welds and welding inspection: Standards of acceptability. (a) Each weld and welding must be inspected to insure compliance with...

  19. 49 CFR 195.228 - Welds and welding inspection: Standards of acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Welds and welding inspection: Standards of... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.228 Welds and welding inspection: Standards of acceptability. (a) Each weld and welding must be inspected to insure compliance with...

  20. 49 CFR 195.228 - Welds and welding inspection: Standards of acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Welds and welding inspection: Standards of... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.228 Welds and welding inspection: Standards of acceptability. (a) Each weld and welding must be inspected to insure compliance with...

  1. 49 CFR 195.228 - Welds and welding inspection: Standards of acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Welds and welding inspection: Standards of... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.228 Welds and welding inspection: Standards of acceptability. (a) Each weld and welding must be inspected to insure compliance with...

  2. Forming Completely Penetrated Welded T-joints when Pulsed Arc Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krampit, N. Yu; Krampit, M. A.; Sapozhkov, A. S.

    2016-04-01

    The paper is focused on revealing the influence of welding parameters on weld formation when pulsed arc welding. As an experimental sample a T-joint over 10 mm was selected. Welding was carried out in flat position, which required no edge preparation but provided mono-directional guaranteed root penetration. The following parameters of welding were subjected to investigation: gap in the joint, wire feed rate and incline angles of the torch along and across the weld axis. Technological recommendations have been made with respect to pulsed arc welding; the cost price of product manufacturing can be reduced on their basis due to reduction of labor input required by machining, lowering consumption of welding materials and electric power.

  3. Parametric study in weld mismatch of longitudinally welded SSME HPFTP inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, J. B.; Spanyer, K. L.; Brunair, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    Welded joints are an essential part of pressure vessels such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Turbopumps. Defects produced in the welding process can be detrimental to weld performance. Recently, review of the SSME high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) titanium inlet x rays revealed several weld discrepancies such as penetrameter density issues, film processing discrepancies, weld width discrepancies, porosity, lack of fusion, and weld offsets. Currently, the sensitivity of welded structures to defects is of concern. From a fatigue standpoint, weld offset may have a serious effect since local yielding, in general, aggravates cyclic stress effects. Therefore, the weld offset issue is considered. Using the finite element method and mathematical formulations, parametric studies were conducted to determine the influence of weld offsets and a variation of weld widths in longitudinally welded cylindrical structures with equal wall thickness on both sides of the joint. From the study, the finite element results and theoretical solutions are presented.

  4. Deconvoluting the Friction Stir Weld Process for Optimizing Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Judy; Nunes, Arthur C.

    2008-01-01

    In the friction stir welding process, the rotating surfaces of the pin and shoulder contact the weld metal and force a rotational flow within the weld metal. Heat, generated by the metal deformation as well as frictional slippage with the contact surface, softens the metal and makes it easier to deform. As in any thermo-mechanical processing of metal, the flow conditions are critical to the quality of the weld. For example, extrusion of metal from under the shoulder of an excessively hot weld may relax local pressure and result in wormhole defects. The trace of the weld joint in the wake of the weld may vary geometrically depending upon the flow streamlines around the tool with some geometry more vulnerable to loss of strength from joint contamination than others. The material flow path around the tool cannot be seen in real time during the weld. By using analytical "tools" based upon the principles of mathematics and physics, a weld model can be created to compute features that can be observed. By comparing the computed observations with actual data, the weld model can be validated or adjusted to get better agreement. Inputs to the model to predict weld structures and properties include: hot working properties ofthe metal, pin tool geometry, travel rate, rotation and plunge force. Since metals record their prior hot working history, the hot working conditions imparted during FSW can be quantified by interpreting the final microstructure. Variations in texture and grain size result from variations in the strain accommodated at a given strain rate and temperature. Microstructural data from a variety of FSWs has been correlated with prior marker studies to contribute to our understanding of the FSW process. Once this stage is reached, the weld modeling process can save significant development costs by reducing costly trial-and-error approaches to obtaining quality welds.

  5. Welding IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding IV, a competency-based course in advanced arc welding offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to provide students with proficiency in: (1) single vee groove welding using code specifications established by the American Welding Society…

  6. Welding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a 12-unit secondary course in welding. Purpose stated for the flexible entry and exit course is to help students master manipulative skills to develop successful welding techniques and to gain an understanding of the specialized tools and equipment used in the welding field. Units cover oxyacetylene…

  7. Effects of Fusion Tack Welds on Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Pendleton, M. L.; Brooke, S. A.; Russell, C. K.

    2012-01-01

    In order to know whether fusion tack welds would affect the strength of self-reacting friction stir seam welds in 2195-T87 aluminum alloy, the fracture stresses of 144 tensile test coupons cut from 24 welded panels containing segments of friction stir welds were measured. Each of the panels was welded under unique processing conditions. A measure of the effect of the tack welds for each panel was devised. An analysis of the measures of the tack weld effect supported the hypothesis that fusion tack welds do not affect the strength of self-reacting friction stir welds to a 5% level of confidence.

  8. 3D Laser Scanner for Underwater Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Palomer, Albert; Ridao, Pere; Youakim, Dina; Ribas, David; Forest, Josep; Petillot, Yvan

    2018-04-04

    Nowadays, research in autonomous underwater manipulation has demonstrated simple applications like picking an object from the sea floor, turning a valve or plugging and unplugging a connector. These are fairly simple tasks compared with those already demonstrated by the mobile robotics community, which include, among others, safe arm motion within areas populated with a priori unknown obstacles or the recognition and location of objects based on their 3D model to grasp them. Kinect-like 3D sensors have contributed significantly to the advance of mobile manipulation providing 3D sensing capabilities in real-time at low cost. Unfortunately, the underwater robotics community is lacking a 3D sensor with similar capabilities to provide rich 3D information of the work space. In this paper, we present a new underwater 3D laser scanner and demonstrate its capabilities for underwater manipulation. In order to use this sensor in conjunction with manipulators, a calibration method to find the relative position between the manipulator and the 3D laser scanner is presented. Then, two different advanced underwater manipulation tasks beyond the state of the art are demonstrated using two different manipulation systems. First, an eight Degrees of Freedom (DoF) fixed-base manipulator system is used to demonstrate arm motion within a work space populated with a priori unknown fixed obstacles. Next, an eight DoF free floating Underwater Vehicle-Manipulator System (UVMS) is used to autonomously grasp an object from the bottom of a water tank.

  9. Welding Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based curriculum guide is a handbook for the development of welding trade programs. Based on a survey of Alaskan welding employers, it includes all competencies a student should acquire in such a welding program. The handbook stresses the importance of understanding the principles associated with the various elements of welding.…

  10. Active weld control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Bradley W.; Burroughs, Ivan A.

    1994-01-01

    Through the two phases of this contract, sensors for welding applications and parameter extraction algorithms have been developed. These sensors form the foundation of a weld control system which can provide action weld control through the monitoring of the weld pool and keyhole in a VPPA welding process. Systems of this type offer the potential of quality enhancement and cost reduction (minimization of rework on faulty welds) for high-integrity welding applications. Sensors for preweld and postweld inspection, weld pool monitoring, keyhole/weld wire entry monitoring, and seam tracking were developed. Algorithms for signal extraction were also developed and analyzed to determine their application to an adaptive weld control system. The following sections discuss findings for each of the three sensors developed under this contract: (1) weld profiling sensor; (2) weld pool sensor; and (3) stereo seam tracker/keyhole imaging sensor. Hardened versions of these sensors were designed and built under this contract. A control system, described later, was developed on a multiprocessing/multitasking operating system for maximum power and flexibility. Documentation for sensor mechanical and electrical design is also included as appendices in this report.

  11. Weld bead profile of laser welding dissimilar joints stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Ghusoon R.; Ishak, M.; Aqida, S. N.; Abdulhadi, Hassan A.

    2017-10-01

    During the process of laser welding, the material consecutively melts and solidifies by a laser beam with a peak high power. Several parameters such as the laser energy, pulse frequency, pulse duration, welding power and welding speed govern the mode of the welding process. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of peak power, incident angle, and welding speed on the weld bead geometry. The first investigation in this context was conducted using 2205-316L stainless steel plates through the varying of the welding speed from 1.3 mm/s to 2.1 mm/s. The second investigation was conducted by varying the peak power from 1100 W to 1500 W. From the results of the experiments, the welding speed and laser power had a significant effect on the geometry of the weld bead, and the variation in the diameter of the bead pulse-size. Due to the decrease in the heat input, welding speed affected penetration depth more than bead width, and a narrow width of heat affected zone was achieved ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 mm. Conclusively, weld bead geometry dimensions increase as a function of peak power; at over 1350 W peak power, the dimensions lie within 30 μm.

  12. Thermal Stir Welding: A New Solid State Welding Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    Thermal stir welding is a new welding process developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. Thermal stir welding is similar to friction stir welding in that it joins similar or dissimilar materials without melting the parent material. However, unlike friction stir welding, the heating, stirring and forging elements of the process are all independent of each other and are separately controlled. Furthermore, the heating element of the process can be either a solid-state process (such as a thermal blanket, induction type process, etc), or, a fusion process (YG laser, plasma torch, etc.) The separation of the heating, stirring, forging elements of the process allows more degrees of freedom for greater process control. This paper introduces the mechanics of the thermal stir welding process. In addition, weld mechanical property data is presented for selected alloys as well as metallurgical analysis.

  13. Thermal Stir Welding: A New Solid State Welding Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Thermal stir welding is a new welding process developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. Thermal stir welding is similar to friction stir welding in that it joins similar or dissimilar materials without melting the parent material. However, unlike friction stir welding, the heating, stirring and forging elements of the process are all independent of each other and are separately controlled. Furthermore, the heating element of the process can be either a solid-state process (such as a thermal blanket, induction type process, etc), or, a fusion process (YG laser, plasma torch, etc.) The separation of the heating, stirring, forging elements of the process allows more degrees of freedom for greater process control. This paper introduces the mechanics of the thermal stir welding process. In addition, weld mechanical property data is presented for selected alloys as well as metallurgical analysis.

  14. Effect of welding position on porosity formation in aluminum alloy welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haryung, J.; Wroth, R. S.

    1967-01-01

    Program investigates the effects of varied welding positions on weld qualities. Progressive changes in bead geometry occur as the weld plane angle is varied from upslope to downslope. The gravitational effect on the weld puddle varies greatly with welding position.

  15. Sustainability of Welding Process through Bobbin Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sued, M. K.; Samsuri, S. S. M.; Kassim, M. K. A. M.; Nasir, S. N. N. M.

    2018-03-01

    Welding process is in high demand, which required a competitive technology to be adopted. This is important for sustaining the needs of the joining industries without ignoring the impact of the process to the environment. Friction stir welding (FSW) is stated to be benefitting the environment through low energy consumption, which cannot be achieved through traditional arc welding. However, this is not well documented, especially for bobbin friction stir welding (BFSW). Therefore, an investigation is conducted by measuring current consumption of the machine during the BFSW process. From the measurement, different phases of BFSW welding process and its electrical demand are presented. It is found that in general total energy in BFSW is about 130kW inclusive of all identified process phases. The phase that utilise for joint formation is in weld phase that used the highest total energy of 120kWs. The recorded total energy is still far below the traditional welding technology and the conventional friction stir welding (CFSW) energy demand. This indicates that BFSW technology with its vast benefit able to sustain the joining technology in near future.

  16. Enabling high speed friction stir welding of aluminum tailor welded blanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovanski, Yuri

    Current welding technologies for production of aluminum tailor-welded blanks (TWBs) are utilized in low-volume and niche applications, and have yet to be scaled for the high-volume vehicle market. This study targeted further weight reduction, part reduction, and cost savings by enabling tailor-welded blank technology for aluminum alloys at high-volumes. While friction stir welding (FSW) has traditionally been applied at linear velocities less than one meter per minute, high volume production applications demand the process be extended to higher velocities more amenable to cost sensitive production environments. Unfortunately, weld parameters and performance developed and characterized at low to moderate welding velocities do not directly translate to high speed linear friction stir welding. Therefore, in order to facilitate production of high volume aluminum FSW components, parameters were developed with a minimum welding velocity of three meters per minute. With an emphasis on weld quality, welded blanks were evaluated for post-weld formability using a combination of numerical and experimental methods. Evaluation across scales was ultimately validated by stamping full-size production door inner panels made from dissimilar thickness aluminum tailor-welded blanks, which provided validation of the numerical and experimental analysis of laboratory scale tests.

  17. An Underwater Target Detection System for Electro-Optical Imagery Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    detection and segmentation of underwater mine-like objects in the EO images captured with a CCD-based image sensor. The main focus of this research is to...develop a robust detection algorithm that can be used to detect low contrast and partial underwater objects from the EO imagery with low false alarm rate...underwater target detection I. INTRODUCTION Automatic detection and recognition of underwater objects from EO imagery poses a serious challenge due to poor

  18. The Influence of Friction Stir Weld Tool Form and Welding Parameters on Weld Structure and Properties: Nugget Bulge in Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Judy; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.; Brendel, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Although friction stir welding (FSW) was patented in 1991, process development has been based upon trial and error and the literature still exhibits little understanding of the mechanisms determining weld structure and properties. New concepts emerging from a better understanding of these mechanisms enhance the ability of FSW engineers to think about the FSW process in new ways, inevitably leading to advances in the technology. A kinematic approach in which the FSW flow process is decomposed into several simple flow components has been found to explain the basic structural features of FSW welds and to relate them to tool geometry and process parameters. Using this modelling approach, this study reports on a correlation between the features of the weld nugget, process parameters, weld tool geometry, and weld strength. This correlation presents a way to select process parameters for a given tool geometry so as to optimize weld strength. It also provides clues that may ultimately explain why the weld strength varies within the sample population.

  19. Magnetic gradiometer for underwater detection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Skvoretz, D. C.; Moeller, C. R.; Ebbert, M. J.; Perry, A. R.; Ostrom, R. K.; Tzouris, A.; Bennett, S. L.; Czipott, P. V.; Sulzberger, G.; Allen, G. I.; Bono, J.; Clem, T. R.

    2006-05-01

    We have designed and constructed a magnetic gradiometer for underwater mine detection, location and tracking. The United States Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC PC) in Panama City, FL has conducted sea tests of the system using an unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV). The Real-Time Tracking Gradiometer (RTG) measures the magnetic field gradients caused by the presence of a mine in the Earth's magnetic field. These magnetic gradients can then be used to detect and locate a target with the UUV in motion. Such a platform can also be used for other applications, including the detection and tracking of vessels and divers for homeland (e.g., port) security and the detection of underwater pipelines. Data acquired by the RTG in sea tests is presented in this paper.

  20. Automatic orbital GTAW welding: Highest quality welds for tomorrow's high-performance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henon, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    Automatic orbital gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) or TIG welding is certain to play an increasingly prominent role in tomorrow's technology. The welds are of the highest quality and the repeatability of automatic weldings is vastly superior to that of manual welding. Since less heat is applied to the weld during automatic welding than manual welding, there is less change in the metallurgical properties of the parent material. The possibility of accurate control and the cleanliness of the automatic GTAW welding process make it highly suitable to the welding of the more exotic and expensive materials which are now widely used in the aerospace and hydrospace industries. Titanium, stainless steel, Inconel, and Incoloy, as well as, aluminum can all be welded to the highest quality specifications automatically. Automatic orbital GTAW equipment is available for the fusion butt welding of tube-to-tube, as well as, tube to autobuttweld fittings. The same equipment can also be used for the fusion butt welding of up to 6 inch pipe with a wall thickness of up to 0.154 inches.

  1. Influence of Welding Process and Post Weld Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Pitting Corrosion Behavior of Dissimilar Aluminium Alloy Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkata Ramana, V. S. N.; Mohammed, Raffi; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.; Srinivasa Rao, K.

    2018-03-01

    Welding of dissimilar Aluminum alloy welds is becoming important in aerospace, shipbuilding and defence applications. In the present work, an attempt has been made to weld dissimilar aluminium alloys using conventional gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and friction stir welding (FSW) processes. An attempt was also made to study the effect of post weld heat treatment (T4 condition) on microstructure and pitting corrosion behaviour of these welds. Results of the present investigation established the differences in microstructures of the base metals in T4 condition and in annealed conditions. It is evident that the thickness of the PMZ is relatively more on AA2014 side than that of AA6061 side. In FS welds, lamellar like shear bands are well noticed on the top of the stir zone. The concentration profile of dissimilar friction stir weld in T4 condition revealed that no diffusion has taken place at the interface. Poor Hardness is observed in all regions of FS welds compared to that of GTA welds. Pitting corrosion resistance of the dissimilar FS welds in all regions was improved by post weld heat treatment.

  2. Underwater image mosaicking and visual odometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadjadi, Firooz; Tangirala, Sekhar; Sorber, Scott

    2017-05-01

    This paper summarizes the results of studies in underwater odometery using a video camera for estimating the velocity of an unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV). Underwater vehicles are usually equipped with sonar and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) - an integrated sensor package that combines multiple accelerometers and gyros to produce a three dimensional measurement of both specific force and angular rate with respect to an inertial reference frame for navigation. In this study, we investigate the use of odometry information obtainable from a video camera mounted on a UUV to extract vehicle velocity relative to the ocean floor. A key challenge with this process is the seemingly bland (i.e. featureless) nature of video data obtained underwater which could make conventional approaches to image-based motion estimation difficult. To address this problem, we perform image enhancement, followed by frame to frame image transformation, registration and mosaicking/stitching. With this approach the velocity components associated with the moving sensor (vehicle) are readily obtained from (i) the components of the transform matrix at each frame; (ii) information about the height of the vehicle above the seabed; and (iii) the sensor resolution. Preliminary results are presented.

  3. High-Speed Friction-Stir Welding To Enable Aluminum Tailor-Welded Blanks

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Upadhyay, Piyush; Carsley, John

    Current joining technologies for automotive aluminum alloys are utilized in low-volume and niche applications, and have yet to be scaled for the high-volume vehicle market. This study targeted further weight reduction, part reduction, and cost savings by enabling tailor-welded blank technology for aluminum alloys at high-volumes. While friction stir welding has been traditionally applied at linear velocities less than one meter per minute, high volume production applications demand the process be extended to higher velocities more amenable to cost sensitive production environments. Unfortunately, weld parameters and performance developed and characterized at low to moderate welding velocities do not directly translatemore » to high speed linear friction stir welding. Therefore, in order to facilitate production of high volume aluminum welded components, parameters were developed with a minimum welding velocity of three meters per minute. With an emphasis on weld quality, welded blanks were evaluated for post-weld formability utilizing a combination of numerical and experimental methods. Evaluation across scales was ultimately validated by stamping full-size production door inner panels made from dissimilar thickness aluminum tailor-welded blanks, which provided validation of the numerical and experimental analysis of laboratory scale tests.« less

  4. Optimal Scheduling for Underwater Communications in Multiple-User Scenarios

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    term goals of this project is to analyze and propose energy-efficient communication techniques for underwater acoustic sensor networks . These...investigate the possibility that these underwater acoustic networks disrupt the behavior of surrounding species of marine mammals. As a consequence of... underwater VHF acoustics , high data rate/short range acoustic communications and networking , and acoustic sensing in the VHF regime. WORK COMPLETED We

  5. Distortion of Prospective Time Production Underwater.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Malcolm B; Kneller, Wendy

    2017-07-01

    The few prior studies of time perception underwater have reached contradictory conclusions as to how, and if, time perception becomes distorted when submerged. The current paper expands upon this limited data by describing two studies of prospective time production in scuba divers. Study 1 (N = 32) compared performance on a 30-s interval time production task in deep water (35 m-42 m/∼115-138 ft) with a shallow water control (3-12 m/∼10-39 ft). Using the same task, study 2 (N = 31) tested performance at the surface and at a range of depths underwater (1 m/3 ft; 11 m/36 ft; 20 m/66 ft; 30 m/98 ft; 40 m/131 ft). Study 1 revealed time production to be significantly longer in deep water compared to shallow water. In study 2 time production at the surface was not significantly different from that at 1 m, but productions at 11-40 m were significantly longer than at both 1 m and on the surface. Time productions between 11-40 m did not differ significantly. It was concluded that divers judge less time to have passed underwater than is objectively the case from a depth of 11 m, but that this effect does not deteriorate significantly once past 11 m. The cause of this distortion of time perception underwater was suggested to be the action of gas narcosis.Hobbs MB, Kneller W. Distortion of prospective time production underwater. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(7):677-681.

  6. Synthesis of ‘reactive’ and covalent polymeric multilayer coatings with durable superoleophobic and superoleophilic properties under water† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1–S15 accounting the growth of NC with and without the LbL deposition process, detailed comparisons of the multilayers of BPEI and NC, the change in the underwater oil-wettability with increasing deposition cycles of NC, the change in the optical transparency of the multilayers under water, the underwater oil-wettability of various model oils on post-modified multilayers of NC, bouncing of oil droplets underwater, the change in adhesive interactions with LbL deposition of NC, beading and wetting of oil droplets on post-modified multilayers under water, the effect of heating, freezing, and chemical and physical insults on the oil-wettability of the multilayers under water, LbL coating of various substrates, the guided transfer of oil droplets under water and the cleaning of oil using superoleophilic cotton under water. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc01055a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Parbat, Dibyangana

    2017-01-01

    Bioinspired underwater super-oil-wettability (superoleophilic/superoleophobic) properties are emerging as a potential avenue for developing smart materials for addressing issues related to healthcare, environment, energy, etc. However, the inherent poor durability of the materials that are mostly developed using polymeric hydrogel, metal oxide coatings and electrostatic multilayers often challenges the application of these wettability properties in practical scenarios. Here, ‘amine-reactive’ polymeric multilayers of nano-complex were developed to fabricate ‘internal’ underwater superoleophobic/superoleophilic coatings with impeccable physical/chemical durability. This allows the super-wetting properties to exist beyond the surface of the material and remain intact even after severe physical damage including erosion of the material and continuous exposure to an artificial-marine environment for more than 80 days. Moreover, this current design allowed for independent revalidation of some key hypotheses with direct experimental demonstrations, and provided a basis to develop highly durable super-oil-wettability properties under water. It is believed that this contemporary study will make a worthwhile contribution on developing multifunctional materials for widespread practical applications by exploiting these super-oil-wetting properties. PMID:28989639

  7. Laser weld jig

    DOEpatents

    Van Blarigan, Peter; Haupt, David L.

    1982-01-01

    A system is provided for welding a workpiece (10, FIG. 1) along a predetermined weld line (12) that may be of irregular shape, which includes the step of forming a lip (32) on the workpiece to extend parallel to the weld line, and moving the workpiece by engaging the lip between a pair of rotatable members (34, 36). Rotation of one of the members at a constant speed, causes the workpiece to move so that all points on the weld line sequentially pass a fixed point in space (17) at a constant speed, so that a laser welding beam can be directed at that fixed point to form a weld along the weld line. The workpiece can include a reuseable jig (24) forming the lip, and with the jig constructed to detachably hold parts (22, 20) to be welded at a position wherein the weld line of the parts extends parallel to the lip on the jig.

  8. Welding Penetration Control of Fixed Pipe in TIG Welding Using Fuzzy Inference System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskoro, Ario Sunar; Kabutomori, Masashi; Suga, Yasuo

    This paper presents a study on welding penetration control of fixed pipe in Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding using fuzzy inference system. The welding penetration control is essential to the production quality welds with a specified geometry. For pipe welding using constant arc current and welding speed, the bead width becomes wider as the circumferential welding of small diameter pipes progresses. Having welded pipe in fixed position, obviously, the excessive arc current yields burn through of metals; in contrary, insufficient arc current produces imperfect welding. In order to avoid these errors and to obtain the uniform weld bead over the entire circumference of the pipe, the welding conditions should be controlled as the welding proceeds. This research studies the intelligent welding process of aluminum alloy pipe 6063S-T5 in fixed position using the AC welding machine. The monitoring system used a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera to monitor backside image of molten pool. The captured image was processed to recognize the edge of molten pool by image processing algorithm. Simulation of welding control using fuzzy inference system was constructed to simulate the welding control process. The simulation result shows that fuzzy controller was suitable for controlling the welding speed and appropriate to be implemented into the welding system. A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the performance of the fuzzy controller. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the control system that is confirmed by sound welds.

  9. Application of laser in seam welding of dissimilar steel to aluminium joints for thick structural components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meco, S.; Pardal, G.; Ganguly, S.; Williams, S.; McPherson, N.

    2015-04-01

    Laser welding-brazing technique, using a continuous wave (CW) fibre laser with 8000 W of maximum power, was applied in conduction mode to join 2 mm thick steel (XF350) to 6 mm thick aluminium (AA5083-H22), in a lap joint configuration with steel on the top. The steel surface was irradiated by the laser and the heat was conducted through the steel plate to the steel-aluminium interface, where the aluminium melts and wets the steel surface. The welded samples were defect free and the weld micrographs revealed presence of a brittle intermetallic compounds (IMC) layer resulting from reaction of Fe and Al atoms. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis indicated the stoichiometry of the IMC as Fe2Al5 and FeAl3, the former with maximum microhardness measured of 1145 HV 0.025/10. The IMC layer thickness varied between 4 to 21 μm depending upon the laser processing parameters. The IMC layer showed an exponential growth pattern with the applied specific point energy (Esp) at a constant power density (PD). Higher PD values accelerate the IMC layer growth. The mechanical shear strength showed a narrow band of variation in all the samples (with the maximum value registered at 31.3 kN), with a marginal increase in the applied Esp. This could be explained by the fact that increasing the Esp results into an increase in the wetting and thereby the bonded area in the steel-aluminium interface.

  10. Versatile Friction Stir Welding/Friction Plug Welding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert

    2006-01-01

    A proposed system of tooling, machinery, and control equipment would be capable of performing any of several friction stir welding (FSW) and friction plug welding (FPW) operations. These operations would include the following: Basic FSW; FSW with automated manipulation of the length of the pin tool in real time [the so-called auto-adjustable pin-tool (APT) capability]; Self-reacting FSW (SRFSW); SR-FSW with APT capability and/or real-time adjustment of the distance between the front and back shoulders; and Friction plug welding (FPW) [more specifically, friction push plug welding] or friction pull plug welding (FPPW) to close out the keyhole of, or to repair, an FSW or SR-FSW weld. Prior FSW and FPW systems have been capable of performing one or two of these operations, but none has thus far been capable of performing all of them. The proposed system would include a common tool that would have APT capability for both basic FSW and SR-FSW. Such a tool was described in Tool for Two Types of Friction Stir Welding (MFS- 31647-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 10 (October 2006), page 70. Going beyond what was reported in the cited previous article, the common tool could be used in conjunction with a plug welding head to perform FPW or FPPW. Alternatively, the plug welding head could be integrated, along with the common tool, into a FSW head that would be capable of all of the aforementioned FSW and FPW operations. Any FSW or FPW operation could be performed under any combination of position and/or force control.

  11. Monitoring the quality of welding based on welding current and ste analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazlan, Afidatusshimah; Daniyal, Hamdan; Izzani Mohamed, Amir; Ishak, Mahadzir; Hadi, Amran Abdul

    2017-10-01

    Qualities of welding play an important part in industry especially in manufacturing field. Post-welding non-destructive test is one of the importance process to ensure the quality of welding but it is time consuming and costly. To reduce the chance of defects, online monitoring had been utilized by continuously sense some of welding parameters and predict welding quality. One of the parameters is welding current, which is rich of information but lack of study focus on extract them at signal analysis level. This paper presents the analysis of welding current using Short Time Energy (STE) signal processing to quantify the pattern of the current. GMAW set with carbon steel specimens are used in this experimental study with high-bandwidth and high sampling rate oscilloscope capturing the welding current. The results indicate welding current as signatures have high correlation with the welding process. Continue with STE analysis, the value below 5000 is declare as good welding, meanwhile the STE value more than 6000 is contained defect.

  12. Characteristics of Extra Narrow Gap Weld of HSLA Steel Welded by Single-Seam per Layer Pulse Current GMA Weld Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, B. P.; Ghosh, P. K.

    2017-03-01

    Butt weld joints are produced using pulse current gas metal arc welding process by employing the technique of centrally laid multi-pass single-seam per layer weld deposition in extra narrow groove of thick HSLA steel plates. The weld joints are prepared by using different combination of pulse parameters. The selection of parameter of pulse current gas metal arc welding is done considering a summarized influence of simultaneously interacting pulse parameters defined by a dimensionless hypothetical factor ϕ. The effect of diverse pulse parameters on the characteristics of weld has been studied. Weld joint is also prepared by using commonly used multi-pass multi-seam per layer weld deposition in conventional groove. The extra narrow gap weld joints have been found much superior to the weld joint prepared by multi-pass multi-seam per layer deposition in conventional groove with respect to its metallurgical characteristics and mechanical properties.

  13. Calibration Techniques for Accurate Measurements by Underwater Camera Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shortis, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Calibration of a camera system is essential to ensure that image measurements result in accurate estimates of locations and dimensions within the object space. In the underwater environment, the calibration must implicitly or explicitly model and compensate for the refractive effects of waterproof housings and the water medium. This paper reviews the different approaches to the calibration of underwater camera systems in theoretical and practical terms. The accuracy, reliability, validation and stability of underwater camera system calibration are also discussed. Samples of results from published reports are provided to demonstrate the range of possible accuracies for the measurements produced by underwater camera systems. PMID:26690172

  14. Seeking Teachers for Underwater Robotics PD Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Beth; Sayres, Jason

    2012-01-01

    With funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), ITEEA members will contribute to the development of a hybrid professional development program designed to facilitate the scale-up of an innovative underwater robotics curriculum. WaterBotics[TM] is an underwater robotics curriculum that targets students in middle and high school classrooms…

  15. The Need for US Coast Guard Underwater Mission Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-23

    vehicles and proliferation of fiber optic cables, raising the level of human interactions in the underwater environment. Besides the benefits from the...unmanned underwater vehicles, proliferation of fiber optic cables, and observation posts on the ocean floor will raise the level of human interactions...world’s demand for wood grows.39 As technology progresses, undersea infrastructure will continue to expand. Already, underwater fiber optic communication

  16. Fusion welding process

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Kenneth C.; Jones, Eric D.; McBride, Marvin A.

    1983-01-01

    A process for the fusion welding of nickel alloy steel members wherein a ferrite containing pellet is inserted into a cavity in one member and melted by a welding torch. The resulting weld nugget, a fusion of the nickel containing alloy from the members to be welded and the pellet, has a composition which is sufficiently low in nickel content such that ferrite phases occur within the weld nugget, resulting in improved weld properties. The steel alloys encompassed also include alloys containing carbon and manganese, considered nickel equivalents.

  17. Intelligent Weld Manufacturing: Role of Integrated Computational Welding Engineering

    DOE PAGES

    David, Stan A.; Chen, Jian; Feng, Zhili; ...

    2017-12-02

    A master welder uses his sensory perceptions to evaluate the process and connect them with his/her knowledge base to take the necessary corrective measures with his/her acquired skills to make a good weld. All these actions must take place in real time. Success depends on intuition and skills, and the procedure is labor-intensive and frequently unreliable. The solution is intelligent weld manufacturing. The ultimate goal of intelligent weld manufacturing would involve sensing and control of heat source position, weld temperature, weld penetration, defect formation and ultimately control of microstructure and properties. This involves a solution to a problem (welding) withmore » many highly coupled and nonlinear variables. The trend is to use an emerging tool known as intelligent control. This approach enables the user to choose a desirable end factor such as properties, defect control, or productivity to derive the selection of process parameters such as current, voltage, or speed to provide for appropriate control of the process. Important elements of intelligent manufacturing are sensing and control theory and design, process modeling, and artificial intelligence. Significant progress has been made in all these areas. Integrated computational welding engineering (ICWE) is an emerging field that will aid in the realization of intelligent weld manufacturing. The paper will discuss the progress in process modeling, microstructure, properties, and process control and automation and the importance of ICWE. Also, control and automation strategies for friction stir welding will be discussed.« less

  18. Intelligent Weld Manufacturing: Role of Integrated Computational Welding Engineering

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    David, Stan A.; Chen, Jian; Feng, Zhili

    A master welder uses his sensory perceptions to evaluate the process and connect them with his/her knowledge base to take the necessary corrective measures with his/her acquired skills to make a good weld. All these actions must take place in real time. Success depends on intuition and skills, and the procedure is labor-intensive and frequently unreliable. The solution is intelligent weld manufacturing. The ultimate goal of intelligent weld manufacturing would involve sensing and control of heat source position, weld temperature, weld penetration, defect formation and ultimately control of microstructure and properties. This involves a solution to a problem (welding) withmore » many highly coupled and nonlinear variables. The trend is to use an emerging tool known as intelligent control. This approach enables the user to choose a desirable end factor such as properties, defect control, or productivity to derive the selection of process parameters such as current, voltage, or speed to provide for appropriate control of the process. Important elements of intelligent manufacturing are sensing and control theory and design, process modeling, and artificial intelligence. Significant progress has been made in all these areas. Integrated computational welding engineering (ICWE) is an emerging field that will aid in the realization of intelligent weld manufacturing. The paper will discuss the progress in process modeling, microstructure, properties, and process control and automation and the importance of ICWE. Also, control and automation strategies for friction stir welding will be discussed.« less

  19. On Modeling Eavesdropping Attacks in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks †

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiu; Dai, Hong-Ning; Li, Xuran; Wang, Hao; Xiao, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The security and privacy of underwater acoustic sensor networks has received extensive attention recently due to the proliferation of underwater activities. This paper proposes an analytical model to investigate the eavesdropping attacks in underwater acoustic sensor networks. Our analytical framework considers the impacts of various underwater acoustic channel conditions (such as the acoustic signal frequency, spreading factor and wind speed) and different hydrophones (isotropic hydrophones and array hydrophones) in terms of network nodes and eavesdroppers. We also conduct extensive simulations to evaluate the effectiveness and the accuracy of our proposed model. Empirical results show that our proposed model is quite accurate. In addition, our results also imply that the eavesdropping probability heavily depends on both the underwater acoustic channel conditions and the features of hydrophones. PMID:27213379

  20. The influence of underwater turbulence on optical phase measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redding, Brandon; Davis, Allen; Kirkendall, Clay; Dandridge, Anthony

    2016-05-01

    Emerging underwater optical imaging and sensing applications rely on phase-sensitive detection to provide added functionality and improved sensitivity. However, underwater turbulence introduces spatio-temporal variations in the refractive index of water which can degrade the performance of these systems. Although the influence of turbulence on traditional, non-interferometric imaging has been investigated, its influence on the optical phase remains poorly understood. Nonetheless, a thorough understanding of the spatio-temporal dynamics of the optical phase of light passing through underwater turbulence are crucial to the design of phase-sensitive imaging and sensing systems. To address this concern, we combined underwater imaging with high speed holography to provide a calibrated characterization of the effects of turbulence on the optical phase. By measuring the modulation transfer function of an underwater imaging system, we were able to calibrate varying levels of optical turbulence intensity using the Simple Underwater Imaging Model (SUIM). We then used high speed holography to measure the temporal dynamics of the optical phase of light passing through varying levels of turbulence. Using this method, we measured the variance in the amplitude and phase of the beam, the temporal correlation of the optical phase, and recorded the turbulence induced phase noise as a function of frequency. By bench marking the effects of varying levels of turbulence on the optical phase, this work provides a basis to evaluate the real-world potential of emerging underwater interferometric sensing modalities.

  1. Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV) Information Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-28

    Maritime Unmanned System NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization xi The use or disclosure of the information on this sheet is subject to the... Unmanned Aerial System UDA Underwater Domain Awareness UNISIPS Unified Sonar Image Processing System USV Unmanned Surface Vehicle UUV Unmanned Underwater...data distribution to ashore systems , such as the delay, its impact and the benefits to the overall MDA and required metadata for efficient search and

  2. Optical Magnetometry for Detecting Underwater Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-21

    underwater object. The two mechanisms responsible for the polarization rotation are the Surface Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (SMOKE) and the Faraday effect...the underwater object itself ( Faraday effect). An analytical expression is obtained for the polarization-rotated field when the incident plane wave...Washington, DC 20375-5320 October 2014 – August 2015 NRL *University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-4111 Faraday SMOKE 67-4374-C4 1 Optical

  3. Welding polarity effects on weld spatters and bead geometry of hyperbaric dry GMAW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Long; Wu, Jinming; Huang, Junfen; Huang, Jiqiang; Zou, Yong; Liu, Jian

    2016-03-01

    Welding polarity has influence on welding stability to some extent, but the specific relationship between welding polarity and weld quality has not been found, especially under the hyperbaric environment. Based on a hyperbaric dry welding experiment system, gas metal arc welding(GMAW) experiments with direct current electrode positive(DCEP) and direct current electrode negative(DCEN) operations are carried out under the ambient pressures of 0.1 MPa, 0.4 MPa, 0.7 MPa and 1.0 MPa to find the influence rule of different welding polarities on welding spatters and weld bead geometry. The effects of welding polarities on the weld bead geometry such as the reinforcement, the weld width and the penetration are discussed. The experimental results show that the welding spatters gradually grow in quantity and size for GMAW with DCEP, while GMAW with DCEN can produce fewer spatters comparatively with the increase of the ambient pressure. Compared with DCEP, the welding current and arc voltage waveforms for DCEN is more stable and the distribution of welding current probability density for DCEN is more concentrated under the hyperbaric environment. When the ambient pressure is increased from 0.1 MPa to 1.0 MPa, the effects of welding polarities on the reinforcement, the weld width and the penetration are as follows: an increase of 0.8 mm for the weld reinforcement is produced by GMAW with DCEN and 1.3 mm by GMAW with DCEP, a decrease of 7.2 mm for the weld width is produced by DCEN and 6.1 mm by DCEP; and an increase of 3.9 mm for the penetration is produced by DCEN and 1.9 mm by DCEP. The proposed research indicates that the desirable stability in the welding procedure can be achieved by GMAW with DCEN operation under the hyperbaric environment.

  4. Weld procedure produces quality welds for thick sections of Hastelloy-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flens, F. J.; Fletcher, C. W.; Glasier, L. F., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Welding program produces premium quality, multipass welds in heavy tube sections of Hastelloy-X. It develops semiautomatic tungsten/inert gas procedures, weld wire procurement specifications material weld properties, welder-operator training, and nondestructive testing inspection techniques and procedures.

  5. Basic Welding Skills. Welding Module 1. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This guide is intended to assist vocational educators in teaching a six-unit module in basic welding skills. The module is part of a welding curriculum that has been designed to be totally integrated with Missouri's Vocational Instruction Management System. The following topics are covered in the module: the welding profession, personal safety,…

  6. Advanced Welding Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the applications of advanced welding techniques are shown in this poster presentation. Included are brief explanations of the use on the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicle and on the Space Shuttle Launch vehicle. Also included are microstructural views from four advanced welding techniques: Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) weld (fusion), self-reacting friction stir welding (SR-FSW), conventional FSW, and Tube Socket Weld (TSW) on aluminum.

  7. Reduction of Biomechanical and Welding Fume Exposures in Stud Welding

    PubMed Central

    Fethke, Nathan B.; Peters, Thomas M.; Leonard, Stephanie; Metwali, Mahmoud; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A.

    2016-01-01

    The welding of shear stud connectors to structural steel in construction requires a prolonged stooped posture that exposes ironworkers to biomechanical and welding fume hazards. In this study, biomechanical and welding fume exposures during stud welding using conventional methods were compared to exposures associated with use of a prototype system that allowed participants to weld from an upright position. The effect of base material (i.e. bare structural beam versus galvanized decking) on welding fume concentration (particle number and mass), particle size distribution, and particle composition was also explored. Thirty participants completed a series of stud welding simulations in a local apprenticeship training facility. Use of the upright system was associated with substantial reductions in trunk inclination and the activity levels of several muscle groups. Inhalable mass concentrations of welding fume (averaged over ~18min) when using conventional methods were high (18.2mg m−3 for bare beam; 65.7mg m−3 for through deck), with estimated mass concentrations of iron (7.8mg m−3 for bare beam; 15.8mg m−3 for through deck), zinc (0.2mg m−3 for bare beam; 15.8mg m−3 for through deck), and manganese (0.9mg m−3 for bare beam; 1.5mg m−3 for through deck) often exceeding the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Threshold Limit Values (TLVs). Number and mass concentrations were substantially reduced when using the upright system, although the total inhalable mass concentration remained above the TLV when welding through decking. The average diameters of the welding fume particles for both bare beam (31±17nm) through deck conditions (34±34nm) and the chemical composition of the particles indicated the presence of metallic nanoparticles. Stud welding exposes ironworkers to potentially high levels of biomechanical loading (primarily to the low back) and welding fume. The upright system used in this study improved exposure levels during

  8. WELDING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Cornell, A.A.; Dunbar, J.V.; Ruffner, J.H.

    1959-09-29

    A semi-automatic method is described for the weld joining of pipes and fittings which utilizes the inert gasshielded consumable electrode electric arc welding technique, comprising laying down the root pass at a first peripheral velocity and thereafter laying down the filler passes over the root pass necessary to complete the weld by revolving the pipes and fittings at a second peripheral velocity different from the first peripheral velocity, maintaining the welding head in a fixed position as to the specific direction of revolution, while the longitudinal axis of the welding head is disposed angularly in the direction of revolution at amounts between twenty minutas and about four degrees from the first position.

  9. Friction stir welding tool and process for welding dissimilar materials

    DOEpatents

    Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J; Jana, Saumyadeep; Mattlin, Karl F

    2013-05-07

    A friction stir welding tool and process for lap welding dissimilar materials are detailed. The invention includes a cutter scribe that penetrates and extrudes a first material of a lap weld stack to a preselected depth and further cuts a second material to provide a beneficial geometry defined by a plurality of mechanically interlocking features. The tool backfills the interlocking features generating a lap weld across the length of the interface between the dissimilar materials that enhances the shear strength of the lap weld.

  10. Underwater Sensor Network Redeployment Algorithm Based on Wolf Search

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Peng; Feng, Yang; Wu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    This study addresses the optimization of node redeployment coverage in underwater wireless sensor networks. Given that nodes could easily become invalid under a poor environment and the large scale of underwater wireless sensor networks, an underwater sensor network redeployment algorithm was developed based on wolf search. This study is to apply the wolf search algorithm combined with crowded degree control in the deployment of underwater wireless sensor networks. The proposed algorithm uses nodes to ensure coverage of the events, and it avoids the prematurity of the nodes. The algorithm has good coverage effects. In addition, considering that obstacles exist in the underwater environment, nodes are prevented from being invalid by imitating the mechanism of avoiding predators. Thus, the energy consumption of the network is reduced. Comparative analysis shows that the algorithm is simple and effective in wireless sensor network deployment. Compared with the optimized artificial fish swarm algorithm, the proposed algorithm exhibits advantages in network coverage, energy conservation, and obstacle avoidance. PMID:27775659

  11. Syllabus in Trade Welding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The syllabus outlines material for a course two academic years in length (minimum two and one-half hours daily experience) leading to entry-level occupational ability in several welding trade areas. Fourteen units covering are welding, gas welding, oxyacetylene welding, cutting, nonfusion processes, inert gas shielded-arc welding, welding cast…

  12. Trade-off Analysis of Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuna, G.; Das, R.

    2017-09-01

    In the last couple of decades, Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs) were started to be used for various commercial and non-commercial purposes. However, in underwater environments, there are some specific inherent constraints, such as high bit error rate, variable and large propagation delay, limited bandwidth capacity, and short-range communications, which severely degrade the performance of UASNs and limit the lifetime of underwater sensor nodes as well. Therefore, proving reliability of UASN applications poses a challenge. In this study, we try to balance energy consumption of underwater acoustic sensor networks and minimize end-to-end delay using an efficient node placement strategy. Our simulation results reveal that if the number of hops is reduced, energy consumption can be reduced. However, this increases end-to-end delay. Hence, application-specific requirements must be taken into consideration when determining a strategy for node deployment.

  13. Topology Optimization for Energy Management in Underwater Sensor Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    1 To appear in International Journal of Control as a regular paper Topology Optimization for Energy Management in Underwater Sensor Networks ⋆ Devesh...K. Jha1 Thomas A. Wettergren2 Asok Ray1 Kushal Mukherjee3 Keywords: Underwater Sensor Network , Energy Management, Pareto Optimization, Adaptation...Optimization for Energy Management in Underwater Sensor Networks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  14. Latest MIG, TIG arc-YAG laser hybrid welding systems for various welding products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishide, Takashi; Tsubota, Shuho; Watanabe, Masao

    2003-03-01

    Laser welding is capable of high-efficiency low-strain welding, and so its applications are started to various products. We have also put the high-power YAG laser of up to 10 kW to practical welding use for various products. On the other hand the weakest point of this laser welding is considered to be strict in the welding gap aiming allowance. In order to solve this problem, we have developed hybrid welding of TIG, MIG arc and YAG laser, taking the most advantages of both the laser and arc welding. Since the electrode is coaxial to the optical axis of the YAG laser in this process, it can be applied to welding of various objects. In the coaxial MIG, TIG-YAG welding, in order to make irradiation positions of the YAG laser beams having been guided in a wire or an electrode focused to the same position, the beam transmitted in fibers is separated to form a space between the separated beams, in which the laser is guided. With this method the beam-irradiating area can be brought near or to the arc-generating point. This enables welding of all directions even for the member of a three-dimensional shape. This time we carried out welding for various materials and have made their welding of up to 1 mm or more in welding groove gap possible. We have realized high-speed 1-pass butt welding of 4m/min in welding speed with the laser power of 3 kW for an aluminum alloy plate of approximately 4 mm thick. For a mild steel plate also we have realized butt welding of 1m/min with 5 kW for 6 mm thick. Further, in welding of stainless steel we have shown its welding possibility, by stabilizing the arc with the YAG laser in the welding atmosphere of pure argon, and shown that this welding is effective in high-efficiency welding of various materials. Here we will report the fundamental welding performances and applications to various objects for the coaxial MIG, TIG-YAG welding we have developed.

  15. Friction Stir Welding of Tapered Thickness Welds Using an Adjustable Pin Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Glynn; Venable, Richard; Lawless, Kirby

    2003-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) can be used for joining weld lands that vary in thickness along the length of the weld. An adjustable pin tool mechanism can be used to accomplish this in a single-pass, full-penetration weld by providing for precise changes in the pin length relative to the shoulder face during the weld process. The difficulty with this approach is in accurately adjusting the pin length to provide a consistent penetration ligament throughout the weld. The weld technique, control system, and instrumentation must account for mechanical and thermal compliances of the tooling system to conduct tapered welds successfully. In this study, a combination of static and in-situ measurements, as well as active control, is used to locate the pin accurately and maintain the desired penetration ligament. Frictional forces at the pin/shoulder interface were a source of error that affected accurate pin position. A traditional FSW pin tool design that requires a lead angle was used to join butt weld configurations that included both constant thickness and tapered sections. The pitch axis of the tooling was fixed throughout the weld; therefore, the effective lead angle in the tapered sections was restricted to within the tolerances allowed by the pin tool design. The sensitivity of the FSW process to factors such as thickness offset, joint gap, centerline offset, and taper transition offset were also studied. The joint gap and the thickness offset demonstrated the most adverse affects on the weld quality. Two separate tooling configurations were used to conduct tapered thickness welds successfully. The weld configurations included sections in which the thickness decreased along the weld, as well as sections in which the thickness increased along the weld. The data presented here include weld metallography, strength data, and process load data.

  16. The technology and welding joint properties of hybrid laser-tig welding on thick plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenghai, Zhang; Yifu, Shen; Huijuan, Qiu

    2013-06-01

    The technologies of autogenous laser welding and hybrid laser-TIG welding are used on thick plate of high strength lower alloy structural steel 10CrNiMnMoV in this article. The unique advantages of hybrid laser-TIG welding is summarized by comparing and analyzing the process parameters and welding joints of autogenous laser welding laser welding and hybrid laser-TIG welding. With the optimal process parameters of hybrid welding, the good welding joint without visible flaws can be obtained and its mechanical properties are tested according to industry standards. The results show that the hybrid welding technology has certain advantages and possibility in welding thick plates. It can reduce the demands of laser power, and it is significant for lowering the aspect ratio of weld during hybrid welding, so the gas in the molten pool can rise and escape easily while welding thick plates. Therefore, the pores forming tendency decreases. At the same time, hybrid welding enhances welding speed, and optimizes the energy input. The transition and grain size of the microstructure of hybrid welding joint is better and its hardness is higher than base material. Furthermore, its tensile strength and impact toughness is as good as base material. Consequently, the hybrid welding joint can meet the industry needs completely.

  17. Underwater Rays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepic, Mojca

    2008-01-01

    Light beams in wavy unclear water, also called underwater rays, and caustic networks of light formed at the bottom of shallow water are two faces of a single phenomenon. Derivation of the caustic using only simple geometry, Snell's law and simple derivatives accounts for observations such as the existence of the caustic network on vertical walls,…

  18. A biological hierarchical model based underwater moving object detection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Fan, Tanghuai; Tang, Min; Zhang, Qian; Sun, Zhen; Huang, Fengchen

    2014-01-01

    Underwater moving object detection is the key for many underwater computer vision tasks, such as object recognizing, locating, and tracking. Considering the super ability in visual sensing of the underwater habitats, the visual mechanism of aquatic animals is generally regarded as the cue for establishing bionic models which are more adaptive to the underwater environments. However, the low accuracy rate and the absence of the prior knowledge learning limit their adaptation in underwater applications. Aiming to solve the problems originated from the inhomogeneous lumination and the unstable background, the mechanism of the visual information sensing and processing pattern from the eye of frogs are imitated to produce a hierarchical background model for detecting underwater objects. Firstly, the image is segmented into several subblocks. The intensity information is extracted for establishing background model which could roughly identify the object and the background regions. The texture feature of each pixel in the rough object region is further analyzed to generate the object contour precisely. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method gives a better performance. Compared to the traditional Gaussian background model, the completeness of the object detection is 97.92% with only 0.94% of the background region that is included in the detection results.

  19. A Biological Hierarchical Model Based Underwater Moving Object Detection

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Fan, Tanghuai; Tang, Min; Zhang, Qian; Sun, Zhen; Huang, Fengchen

    2014-01-01

    Underwater moving object detection is the key for many underwater computer vision tasks, such as object recognizing, locating, and tracking. Considering the super ability in visual sensing of the underwater habitats, the visual mechanism of aquatic animals is generally regarded as the cue for establishing bionic models which are more adaptive to the underwater environments. However, the low accuracy rate and the absence of the prior knowledge learning limit their adaptation in underwater applications. Aiming to solve the problems originated from the inhomogeneous lumination and the unstable background, the mechanism of the visual information sensing and processing pattern from the eye of frogs are imitated to produce a hierarchical background model for detecting underwater objects. Firstly, the image is segmented into several subblocks. The intensity information is extracted for establishing background model which could roughly identify the object and the background regions. The texture feature of each pixel in the rough object region is further analyzed to generate the object contour precisely. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method gives a better performance. Compared to the traditional Gaussian background model, the completeness of the object detection is 97.92% with only 0.94% of the background region that is included in the detection results. PMID:25140194

  20. Survey of welding processes.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-07-01

    The current KYTC SPECIAL PROVISION NO. 4 WELDING STEEL BRIDGES prohibits the use of welding processes other than shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and submerged arc welding (SAW). Nationally, bridge welding is codified under ANSI/AASHTO/AWS D1....

  1. Simplified welding distortion analysis for fillet welding using composite shell elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Mingyu; Kang, Minseok; Chung, Hyun

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the simplified welding distortion analysis method to predict the welding deformation of both plate and stiffener in fillet welds. Currently, the methods based on equivalent thermal strain like Strain as Direct Boundary (SDB) has been widely used due to effective prediction of welding deformation. Regarding the fillet welding, however, those methods cannot represent deformation of both members at once since the temperature degree of freedom is shared at the intersection nodes in both members. In this paper, we propose new approach to simulate deformation of both members. The method can simulate fillet weld deformations by employing composite shell element and using different thermal expansion coefficients according to thickness direction with fixed temperature at intersection nodes. For verification purpose, we compare of result from experiments, 3D thermo elastic plastic analysis, SDB method and proposed method. Compared of experiments results, the proposed method can effectively predict welding deformation for fillet welds.

  2. Welding Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ken

    2009-01-01

    About 95% of all manufactured goods in this country are welded or joined in some way. These welded products range in nature from bicycle handlebars and skyscrapers to bridges and race cars. The author discusses what students need to know about careers for welding technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career advancement…

  3. METHOD OF OBTAINING AN IMPROVED WELD IN INERT ARC WELDING

    DOEpatents

    Correy, T.B.

    1962-12-11

    A method is reported for inert arc welding. An a-c welding current is applied to the workpiece and welding electrode such that the positive portion of each cycle thereof, with the electrode positive, has only sufficient energy to clean the surface of the workpiece and the negative portion of each cycle thereof, with the electrode negative, contains the energy required to weld. (AEC)

  4. Filming Underwater in 3d Respecting Stereographic Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi, R.; Hordosch, H.

    2015-04-01

    After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie's box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space ("Gravity") and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. "Filming in space" was possible in "Gravity" using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Underwater filming in 3D was not that easy and effective as filming in 2D, since not long ago. After almost 3 years of research, a French, Austrian and Italian team realized a perfect tool to film underwater, in 3D, without any constrains. This allows filmmakers to bring the audience deep inside an environment where they most probably will never have the chance to be.

  5. Low-contrast underwater living fish recognition using PCANet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xin; Yang, Jianping; Wang, Changgang; Dong, Junyu; Wang, Xinhua

    2018-04-01

    Quantitative and statistical analysis of ocean creatures is critical to ecological and environmental studies. And living fish recognition is one of the most essential requirements for fishery industry. However, light attenuation and scattering phenomenon are present in the underwater environment, which makes underwater images low-contrast and blurry. This paper tries to design a robust framework for accurate fish recognition. The framework introduces a two stage PCA Network to extract abstract features from fish images. On a real-world fish recognition dataset, we use a linear SVM classifier and set penalty coefficients to conquer data unbalanced issue. Feature visualization results show that our method can avoid the feature distortion in boundary regions of underwater image. Experiments results show that the PCA Network can extract discriminate features and achieve promising recognition accuracy. The framework improves the recognition accuracy of underwater living fishes and can be easily applied to marine fishery industry.

  6. Introduction to Welding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortney, Clarence; Gregory, Mike

    This curriculum guide provides six units of instruction on basic welding. Addressed in the individual units of instruction are the following topics: employment opportunities for welders, welding safety and first aid, welding tools and equipment, basic metals and metallurgy, basic math and measuring, and procedures for applying for a welding job.…

  7. Reduction of Biomechanical and Welding Fume Exposures in Stud Welding.

    PubMed

    Fethke, Nathan B; Peters, Thomas M; Leonard, Stephanie; Metwali, Mahmoud; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A

    2016-04-01

    The welding of shear stud connectors to structural steel in construction requires a prolonged stooped posture that exposes ironworkers to biomechanical and welding fume hazards. In this study, biomechanical and welding fume exposures during stud welding using conventional methods were compared to exposures associated with use of a prototype system that allowed participants to weld from an upright position. The effect of base material (i.e. bare structural beam versus galvanized decking) on welding fume concentration (particle number and mass), particle size distribution, and particle composition was also explored. Thirty participants completed a series of stud welding simulations in a local apprenticeship training facility. Use of the upright system was associated with substantial reductions in trunk inclination and the activity levels of several muscle groups. Inhalable mass concentrations of welding fume (averaged over ~18 min) when using conventional methods were high (18.2 mg m(-3) for bare beam; 65.7 mg m(-3) for through deck), with estimated mass concentrations of iron (7.8 mg m(-3) for bare beam; 15.8 mg m(-3) for through deck), zinc (0.2 mg m(-3) for bare beam; 15.8 mg m(-3) for through deck), and manganese (0.9 mg m(-3) for bare beam; 1.5 mg m(-3) for through deck) often exceeding the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Threshold Limit Values (TLVs). Number and mass concentrations were substantially reduced when using the upright system, although the total inhalable mass concentration remained above the TLV when welding through decking. The average diameters of the welding fume particles for both bare beam (31±17 nm) through deck conditions (34±34 nm) and the chemical composition of the particles indicated the presence of metallic nanoparticles. Stud welding exposes ironworkers to potentially high levels of biomechanical loading (primarily to the low back) and welding fume. The upright system used in this study improved exposure

  8. Pre-weld heat treatment improves welds in Rene 41

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prager, M.

    1968-01-01

    Cooling of Rene 41 prior to welding reduces the incidence of cracking during post-weld heat treatment. The microstructure formed during the slow cooling rate favors elevated temperature ductility. Some vestiges of this microstructure are apparently retained during welding and thus enhance strain-age crack resistance in air.

  9. High-Speed Friction-Stir Welding to Enable Aluminum Tailor-Welded Blanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Upadhyay, Piyush; Carsley, John; Luzanski, Tom; Carlson, Blair; Eisenmenger, Mark; Soulami, Ayoub; Marshall, Dustin; Landino, Brandon; Hartfield-Wunsch, Susan

    2015-05-01

    Current welding technologies for production of aluminum tailor-welded blanks (TWBs) are utilized in low-volume and niche applications, and they have yet to be scaled for the high-volume vehicle market. This study targeted further weight reduction, part reduction, and cost savings by enabling tailor-welded blank technology for aluminum alloys at high volumes. While friction-stir welding (FSW) has been traditionally applied at linear velocities less than 1 m/min, high-volume production applications demand the process be extended to higher velocities more amenable to cost-sensitive production environments. Unfortunately, weld parameters and performance developed and characterized at low-to-moderate welding velocities do not directly translate to high-speed linear FSW. Therefore, to facilitate production of high-volume aluminum FSW components, parameters were developed with a minimum welding velocity of 3 m/min. With an emphasis on weld quality, welded blanks were evaluated for postweld formability using a combination of numerical and experimental methods. An evaluation across scales was ultimately validated by stamping full-size production door inner panels made from dissimilar thickness aluminum TWBs, which provided validation of the numerical and experimental analysis of laboratory-scale tests.

  10. Underwater disaster victim identification: the process and the problems.

    PubMed

    Winskog, Calle

    2012-06-01

    An underwater disaster may involve a crime scene investigation which should be handled as if it were located above water and include a detailed description and documentation of items, belongings and findings. The environment, however, creates special circumstances, each with specific problems that are not encountered during land investigations. Risks associated with underwater recovery cannot be overestimated and underwater disaster recovery diving should not be performed without special training and careful pre-dive planning. Handling of cadavers in an underwater recovery operation also requires special training and a systematic approach to victim recovery. Environmental circumstances, local judicial requirements, religious and cultural issues and the scope of the disaster are only some of the factors that have to be considered before commencing any aquatic disaster victim recovery operation.

  11. Numerical and experimental determination of weld pool shape during high-power diode laser welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimpel, Andrzej; Lisiecki, Aleksander; Szymanski, Andrzej; Hoult, Anthony P.

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, results of investigations on the shape of weld pool during High Power Diode Laser (HPDL) welding are presented. The results of tests showed that the shape of weld pool and mechanism of laser welding with a rectangular pattern of 808 nm laser radiation differs distinctly from previous laser welding mechanisms. For all power densities the conduction mode welds were observed and weld pool geometry depends significantly on the welding parameters.

  12. Structure of welded joints obtained by contact weld in nanostructured titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenov, V. A.; Klopotov, A. A.; Gnysov, S. F.; Vlasov, V. A.; Lychagin, D. V.; Chumaevskii, A. V.

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents the research of the weld structure of two Ti specimens of the type VT6 that have nano- and submicrocrystalline structures. Electrical contact welding is used to obtain welds. The acicular structure is formed in the weld area. Two types of defects are detected, namely micropores and microcracks.

  13. 76 FR 52734 - Underwater Locating Devices (Acoustic) (Self-Powered)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ...This notice announces the planned revocation of all Technical Standard Order authorizations (TSOA) issued for the production of Underwater Locating Devices (Acoustic) (Self-Powered) manufactured to the TSO-C121 and TSO-C121a specifications. These actions are necessary because the planned issuance of TSO-C121b, Underwater Locating Devices (Acoustic) (Self-Powered), with a minimum performance standard (MPS) that will increase the minimum operating life of Underwater Locating Devices from 30 days to 90 days.

  14. 77 FR 13174 - Underwater Locating Devices (Acoustic) (Self-Powered)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ...This is a confirmation notice for the planned revocation of all Technical Standard Order authorizations issued for the production of Underwater Locating Devices (Acoustic) (Self-Powered) manufactured to the TSO-C121 and TSO-C121a specifications. These actions are necessary because the planned issuance of TSO-C121b, Underwater Locating Devices (Acoustic) (Self-Powered), minimum performance standard (MPS) will increase the minimum operating life of Underwater Locating Devices from 30 days to 90 days.

  15. Welded joints integrity analysis and optimization for fiber laser welding of dissimilar materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Yuewei; Shao, Xinyu; Jiang, Ping; Li, Peigen; Liu, Yang; Liu, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Dissimilar materials welded joints provide many advantages in power, automotive, chemical, and spacecraft industries. The weld bead integrity which is determined by process parameters plays a significant role in the welding quality during the fiber laser welding (FLW) of dissimilar materials. In this paper, an optimization method by taking the integrity of the weld bead and weld area into consideration is proposed for FLW of dissimilar materials, the low carbon steel and stainless steel. The relationships between the weld bead integrity and process parameters are developed by the genetic algorithm optimized back propagation neural network (GA-BPNN). The particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is taken for optimizing the predicted outputs from GA-BPNN for the objective. Through the optimization process, the desired weld bead with good integrity and minimum weld area are obtained and the corresponding microstructure and microhardness are excellent. The mechanical properties of the optimized joints are greatly improved compared with that of the un-optimized welded joints. Moreover, the effects of significant factors are analyzed based on the statistical approach and the laser power (LP) is identified as the most significant factor on the weld bead integrity and weld area. The results indicate that the proposed method is effective for improving the reliability and stability of welded joints in the practical production.

  16. Protocols for Image Processing based Underwater Inspection of Infrastructure Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Byrne, Michael; Ghosh, Bidisha; Schoefs, Franck; Pakrashi, Vikram

    2015-07-01

    Image processing can be an important tool for inspecting underwater infrastructure elements like bridge piers and pile wharves. Underwater inspection often relies on visual descriptions of divers who are not necessarily trained in specifics of structural degradation and the information may often be vague, prone to error or open to significant variation of interpretation. Underwater vehicles, on the other hand can be quite expensive to deal with for such inspections. Additionally, there is now significant encouragement globally towards the deployment of more offshore renewable wind turbines and wave devices and the requirement for underwater inspection can be expected to increase significantly in the coming years. While the merit of image processing based assessment of the condition of underwater structures is understood to a certain degree, there is no existing protocol on such image based methods. This paper discusses and describes an image processing protocol for underwater inspection of structures. A stereo imaging image processing method is considered in this regard and protocols are suggested for image storage, imaging, diving, and inspection. A combined underwater imaging protocol is finally presented which can be used for a variety of situations within a range of image scenes and environmental conditions affecting the imaging conditions. An example of detecting marine growth is presented of a structure in Cork Harbour, Ireland.

  17. Underwater Acoustic Source Localisation Among Blind and Sighted Scuba Divers

    PubMed Central

    Cambi, Jacopo; Livi, Ludovica; Livi, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Many blind individuals demonstrate enhanced auditory spatial discrimination or localisation of sound sources in comparison to sighted subjects. However, this hypothesis has not yet been confirmed with regards to underwater spatial localisation. This study therefore aimed to investigate underwater acoustic source localisation among blind and sighted scuba divers. Methods This study took place between February and June 2015 in Elba, Italy, and involved two experimental groups of divers with either acquired (n = 20) or congenital (n = 10) blindness and a control group of 30 sighted divers. Each subject took part in five attempts at an under-water acoustic source localisation task, in which the divers were requested to swim to the source of a sound originating from one of 24 potential locations. The control group had their sight obscured during the task. Results The congenitally blind divers demonstrated significantly better underwater sound localisation compared to the control group or those with acquired blindness (P = 0.0007). In addition, there was a significant correlation between years of blindness and underwater sound localisation (P <0.0001). Conclusion Congenital blindness was found to positively affect the ability of a diver to recognise the source of a sound in an underwater environment. As the correct localisation of sounds underwater may help individuals to avoid imminent danger, divers should perform sound localisation tests during training sessions. PMID:28690888

  18. Underwater photogrammetric theoretical equations and technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ya-bing; Huang, Guiping; Qin, Gui-qin; Chen, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    In order to have a high level of accuracy of measurement in underwater close-range photogrammetry, this article deals with a study of three varieties of model equations according to the way of imaging upon the water. First, the paper makes a careful analysis for the two varieties of theoretical equations and finds out that there are some serious limitations in practical application and has an in-depth study for the third model equation. Second, one special project for this measurement has designed correspondingly. Finally, one rigid antenna has been tested by underwater photogrammetry. The experimental results show that the precision of 3D coordinates measurement is 0.94mm, which validates the availability and operability in practical application with this third equation. It can satisfy the measurement requirements of refraction correction, improving levels of accuracy of underwater close-range photogrammetry, as well as strong antijamming and stabilization.

  19. Weld-Bead Shaver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guirguis, Kamal; Price, Daniel S.

    1990-01-01

    Hand-held power tool shaves excess metal from inside circumference of welded duct. Removes excess metal deposited by penetration of tungsten/inert-gas weld or by spatter from electron-beam weld. Produces smooth transition across joint. Easier to use and not prone to overshaving. Also cuts faster, removing 35 in. (89 cm) of weld bead per hour.

  20. Non-Data Aided Doppler Shift Estimation for Underwater Acoustic Communication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    in underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks . We analyzed the data collected from our experiments using non-data aided (blind) techniques such as...investigated different methods for blind Doppler shift estimation and compensation for a single carrier in underwater acoustic wireless sensor ...distributed underwater sensor networks . Detailed experimental and simulated results based on second order cyclostationary features of the received signals

  1. Underwater smelling by the star-nosed mole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Alexander; Spencer, Thomas; Hu, David

    2017-11-01

    The star-nosed mole can sniff underwater objects by rapidly blowing and inhaling bubbles. How these mammals manipulate bubbles without losing them is poorly understood. In this experimental study, we show that the peculiar shape of the mole's nose can stabilize bubbles. We laser-cut a series of star-shaped plastic templates and measure the largest angle they can be titled before bubbles are released. The arms of the star anchor the bubbles in place by enabling the buoyancy forces between the arms to counter the effects of tilt. Based on this finding, we design and construct a mole-inspired underwater sniffing device that uses oscillation of bubbles to feed a metal oxide chemical sensor, a first step in expanding machine olfaction to underwater applications

  2. Arc Welding of Mg Alloys: Oxide Films, Irregular Weld Shape and Liquation Cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Xiao

    The use of Mg alloys for vehicle weight reduction has been increasing rapidly worldwide. Gas-metal arc welding (GMAW) has the potential for mass-production welding of Mg alloys. Recently, the University of Wisconsin demonstrated in bead-on-plate GMAW of Mg alloys that severe spatter can be eliminated by using controlled short circuiting (CSC), and severe hydrogen porosity can be eliminated by removing Mg(OH)2. The present study aimed at actual butt and lap welding of Mg alloys by CSC-GMAW and susceptibility of Mg alloys to weld-edge cracking using the circular-patch welding test. Sound welds were made without spatter and hydrogen porosity butt and lap welding of AZ 31 Mg using CSC-GMAW , with butt welds approaching 100% of the base-metal strength. However, three new significant issues were found to occur easily and degrade the weld quality significantly: 1. formation of oxide films inside butt welds, 2. formation of high crowns on butt welds, and 3. formation of fingers from lap welds. The mechanisms of their formation were established, and the methods for their elimination or reduction were demonstrated. Circular-patch welds were made on most widely used Mg casting alloy AZ91, the most widely used Mg wrought alloy AZ31 with three different Mg filler wires AZ31, AZ61 and AZ92. The susceptibility to cracking along the weld edge was predicted and compared against the experimental results. Such a prediction has not been made for welds of Mg alloys before.

  3. Underwater 3D Surface Measurement Using Fringe Projection Based Scanning Devices

    PubMed Central

    Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Heinze, Matthias; Schmidt, Ingo; Kühmstedt, Peter; Notni, Gunther

    2015-01-01

    In this work we show the principle of optical 3D surface measurements based on the fringe projection technique for underwater applications. The challenges of underwater use of this technique are shown and discussed in comparison with the classical application. We describe an extended camera model which takes refraction effects into account as well as a proposal of an effective, low-effort calibration procedure for underwater optical stereo scanners. This calibration technique combines a classical air calibration based on the pinhole model with ray-based modeling and requires only a few underwater recordings of an object of known length and a planar surface. We demonstrate a new underwater 3D scanning device based on the fringe projection technique. It has a weight of about 10 kg and the maximal water depth for application of the scanner is 40 m. It covers an underwater measurement volume of 250 mm × 200 mm × 120 mm. The surface of the measurement objects is captured with a lateral resolution of 150 μm in a third of a second. Calibration evaluation results are presented and examples of first underwater measurements are given. PMID:26703624

  4. Blue-light digital communication in underwater environments utilizing orbital angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghdady, Joshua; Miller, Keith; Osler, Sean; Morgan, Kaitlyn; Li, Wenzhe; Johnson, Eric; Cochenour, Brandon

    2016-05-01

    Underwater optical communication has recently become the topic of much investigation as the demands for underwater data transmission have rapidly grown in recent years. The need for reliable, high-speed, secure underwater communication has turned increasingly to blue-light optical solutions. The blue-green visible wavelength window provides an attractive solution to the problem of underwater data transmission thanks to its low attenuation, where traditional RF solutions used in free-space communications collapse. Beginning with GaN laser diodes as the optical source, this work explores the encoding and transmission of digital data across underwater environments of varying turbidities. Given the challenges present in an underwater environment, such as the mechanical and optical turbulences that make proper alignment difficult to maintain, it is desirable to achieve extremely high data rates in order to allow the time window of alignment between the transmitter and receiver to be as small as possible. In this paper, work is done to increase underwater data rates through the use of orbital angular momentum. Results are shown for a range of data rates across a variety of channel types ranging in turbidity from that of a clear ocean to a dirty harbor.

  5. Oxy-Fuel Cutting/Welding. Welding Module 3. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This guide is intended to assist vocational educators in teaching a four-unit module in oxy-fuel cutting and welding. The module is part of a welding curriculum that has been designed to be totally integrated with Missouri's Vocational Instruction Management System. The following topics are covered in the module: oxyacetylene welding, oxyacetylene…

  6. Welding of Thin Steel Plates by Hybrid Welding Process Combined TIG Arc with YAG Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taewon; Suga, Yasuo; Koike, Takashi

    TIG arc welding and laser welding are used widely in the world. However, these welding processes have some advantages and problems respectively. In order to improve problems and make use of advantages of the arc welding and the laser welding processes, hybrid welding process combined the TIG arc with the YAG laser was studied. Especially, the suitable welding conditions for thin steel plate welding were investigated to obtain sound weld with beautiful surface and back beads but without weld defects. As a result, it was confirmed that the shot position of the laser beam is very important to obtain sound welds in hybrid welding. Therefore, a new intelligent system to monitor the welding area using vision sensor is constructed. Furthermore, control system to shot the laser beam to a selected position in molten pool, which is formed by TIG arc, is constructed. As a result of welding experiments using these systems, it is confirmed that the hybrid welding process and the control system are effective on the stable welding of thin stainless steel plates.

  7. Single underwater image enhancement based on color cast removal and visibility restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chongyi; Guo, Jichang; Wang, Bo; Cong, Runmin; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jian

    2016-05-01

    Images taken under underwater condition usually have color cast and serious loss of contrast and visibility. Degraded underwater images are inconvenient for observation and analysis. In order to address these problems, an underwater image-enhancement method is proposed. A simple yet effective underwater image color cast removal algorithm is first presented based on the optimization theory. Then, based on the minimum information loss principle and inherent relationship of medium transmission maps of three color channels in an underwater image, an effective visibility restoration algorithm is proposed to recover visibility, contrast, and natural appearance of degraded underwater images. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, qualitative comparison, quantitative comparison, and color accuracy test are conducted. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively remove color cast, improve contrast and visibility, and recover natural appearance of degraded underwater images. Additionally, the proposed method is comparable to and even better than several state-of-the-art methods.

  8. [New welding processes and health effects of welding].

    PubMed

    La Vecchia, G Marina; Maestrelli, Piero

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes some of the recent developments in the control technology to enhance capability of Pulse Gas Metal Arc Welding. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) processing has been also considered. FSW is a new solid-state joining technique. Heat generated by friction at the rotating tool softens the material being welded. FSW can be considered a green and energy-efficient technique without deleterious fumes, gas, radiation, and noise. Application of new welding processes is limited and studies on health effects in exposed workers are lacking. Acute and chronic health effects of conventional welding have been described. Metal fume fever and cross-shift decline of lung function are the main acute respiratory effects. Skin and eyes may be affected by heat, electricity and UV radiations. Chronic effects on respiratory system include chronic bronchitis, a benign pneumoconiosis (siderosis), asthma, and a possible increase in the incidence of lung cancer. Pulmonary infections are increased in terms of severity, duration, and frequency among welders.

  9. Study of archaeological underwater finds: deterioration and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisci, G. M.; La Russa, M. F.; Macchione, M.; Malagodi, M.; Palermo, A. M.; Ruffolo, S. A.

    2010-09-01

    This study is aimed at an assessment of the methodologies, instruments and new applications for underwater archaeology. Research focused on study of the various kinds of degradation affecting underwater finds and stone materials aged in underwater environment, efficiency evaluation of various surface cleaning methods and study and mixing of protective products with consolidating resins and antimicrobial biocides to be applied to restored underwater finds. Transmitted light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study surface biofilms and the interactions with samples of different stone materials such as brick, marble and granite immersed in the submarine archaeological area of Crotone (South of Italy). Surface cleaning tests were performed with application of ion exchange resins, EDTA, hydrogen peroxide and ultrasound techniques. Capillary water absorption, simulated solar ageing and colourimetric measurements were carried out to evaluate hydrophobic and consolidant properties; to assess biocidal efficacy, heterotrophic micro-organisms ( Aspergillus niger) were inoculated on agar plates and growth inhibition was measured.

  10. Weld analysis and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Larry Z. (Inventor); Rodgers, Michael H. (Inventor); Powell, Bradley W. (Inventor); Burroughs, Ivan A. (Inventor); Goode, K. Wayne (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a Weld Analysis and Control System developed for active weld system control through real time weld data acquisition. Closed-loop control is based on analysis of weld system parameters and weld geometry. The system is adapted for use with automated welding apparatus having a weld controller which is capable of active electronic control of all aspects of a welding operation. Enhanced graphics and data displays are provided for post-weld analysis. The system provides parameter acquisition, including seam location which is acquired for active torch cross-seam positioning. Torch stand-off is also monitored for control. Weld bead and parent surface geometrical parameters are acquired as an indication of weld quality. These parameters include mismatch, peaking, undercut, underfill, crown height, weld width, puddle diameter, and other measurable information about the weld puddle regions, such as puddle symmetry, etc. These parameters provide a basis for active control as well as post-weld quality analysis and verification. Weld system parameters, such as voltage, current and wire feed rate, are also monitored and archived for correlation with quality parameters.

  11. Laser welding in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, W. F.; Workman, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    Autogenous welds in 304 stainless steel were performed by Nd-YAG laser heating in a simulated space environment. Simulation consists of welding on the NASA KC-135 aircraft to produce the microgravity and by containing the specimen in a vacuum chamber. Experimental results show that the microgravity welds are stronger, harder in the fusion zone, have deeper penetration and have a rougher surface rippling of the weld pool than one-g welds. To perform laser welding in space, a solar-pumped laser concept that significantly increases the laser conversion efficiency and makes welding viable despite the limited power availability of spacecraft is proposed.

  12. Dual wire welding torch and method

    DOEpatents

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  13. Improving the Quality of Welding Seam of Automatic Welding of Buckets Based on TCP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Min

    2018-02-01

    Since February 2014, the welding defects of the automatic welding line of buckets have been frequently appeared. The average repair time of each bucket is 26min, which seriously affects the production efficiency and welding quality. We conducted troubleshooting, and found the main reasons for the welding defects of the buckets were the deviations of the center points of the robot tools and the poor quality of the locating welding. We corrected the gripper, welding torch, and accuracy of repeat positioning of robots to control the quality of positioning welding. The welding defect rate of buckets was reduced greatly, ensuring the production efficiency and welding quality.

  14. Electroslag and electrogas welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, H. C.

    1972-01-01

    These two new joining methods perform welding in the vertical position, and therein lies the secret of their impressive advantages in material handling, in weld preparation, in welding speed, in freedom from distortion, and in weld soundness. Once the work has been set in the proper vertical position for welding, no further plate handling is required. The molten filler metal is held in place by copper shoes or dams, and the weld is completed in one pass.

  15. Channel analysis for single photon underwater free space quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Shi, Peng; Zhao, Shi-Cheng; Gu, Yong-Jian; Li, Wen-Dong

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the optical absorption and scattering properties of underwater media pertinent to our underwater free space quantum key distribution (QKD) channel model. With the vector radiative transfer theory and Monte Carlo method, we obtain the attenuation of photons, the fidelity of the scattered photons, the quantum bit error rate, and the sifted key generation rate of underwater quantum communication. It can be observed from our simulations that the most secure single photon underwater free space QKD is feasible in the clearest ocean water.

  16. Comparison between hybrid laser-MIG welding and MIG welding for the invar36 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Xiaohong; Li, Yubo; Ou, Wenmin; Yu, Fengyi; Chen, Jie; Wei, Yanhong

    2016-11-01

    The invar36 alloy is suitable to produce mold of composite materials structure because it has similar thermal expansion coefficient with composite materials. In the present paper, the MIG welding and laser-MIG hybrid welding methods are compared to get the more appropriate method to overcome the poor weldability of invar36 alloy. According to the analysis of the experimental and simulated results, it has been proved that the Gauss and cone combined heat source model can characterize the laser-MIG hybrid welding heat source well. The total welding time of MIG welding is 8 times that of hybrid laser-MIG welding. The welding material consumption of MIG welding is about 4 times that of hybrid laser-MIG welding. The stress and deformation simulation indicate that the peak value of deformation during MIG welding is 3 times larger than that of hybrid laser-MIG welding.

  17. Ocean Variability Effects on Underwater Acoustic Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    2000. [2] B. Li, J. Huang, S. Zhou, K. Ball, M. Stojanovic, L. Freitag, and P. Willett. MIMO - OFDM for high rate underwater acoustic...alternative to orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing ( OFDM ) [2], we developed a multiband transceiver, where a wide frequency band is divided into...multiple separated sub-bands. These sub- bands are several kilohertz in width, much wider than OFDM sub-carriers used in underwater channels

  18. Experimental investigation on the weld pool formation process in plasma keyhole arc welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Anh, Nguyen; Tashiro, Shinichi; Van Hanh, Bui; Tanaka, Manabu

    2018-01-01

    This paper seeks to clarify the weld pool formation process in plasma keyhole arc welding (PKAW). We adopted, for the first time, the measurement of the 3D convection inside the weld pool in PKAW by stereo synchronous imaging of tungsten tracer particles using two sets of x-ray transmission systems. The 2D convection on the weld pool surface was also measured using zirconia tracer particles. Through these measurements, the convection in a wide range of weld pools from the vicinity of the keyhole to the rear region was successfully visualized. In order to discuss the heat transport process in a weld pool, the 2D temperature distribution on the weld pool surface was also measured by two-color pyrometry. The results of the comprehensive experimental measurement indicate that the shear force due to plasma flow is found to be the dominant driving force in the weld pool formation process in PKAW. Thus, heat transport in a weld pool is considered to be governed by two large convective patterns near the keyhole: (1) eddy pairs on the surface (perpendicular to the torch axis), and (2) eddy pairs on the bulk of the weld pool (on the plane of the torch). They are formed with an equal velocity of approximately 0.35 m s-1 and are mainly driven by shear force. Furthermore, the flow velocity of the weld pool convection becomes considerably higher than that of other welding processes, such as TIG welding and GMA welding, due to larger plasma flow velocity.

  19. Narrow gap laser welding

    DOEpatents

    Milewski, John O.; Sklar, Edward

    1998-01-01

    A laser welding process including: (a) using optical ray tracing to make a model of a laser beam and the geometry of a joint to be welded; (b) adjusting variables in the model to choose variables for use in making a laser weld; and (c) laser welding the joint to be welded using the chosen variables.

  20. Narrow gap laser welding

    DOEpatents

    Milewski, J.O.; Sklar, E.

    1998-06-02

    A laser welding process including: (a) using optical ray tracing to make a model of a laser beam and the geometry of a joint to be welded; (b) adjusting variables in the model to choose variables for use in making a laser weld; and (c) laser welding the joint to be welded using the chosen variables. 34 figs.

  1. Effects of welding technology on welding stress based on the finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jianke; Jin, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Finite element method is used to simulate the welding process under four different conditions of welding flat butt joints. Welding seams are simulated with birth and death elements. The size and distribution of welding residual stress is obtained in the four kinds of welding conditions by Q345 manganese steel plate butt joint of the work piece. The results shown that when using two-layers welding,the longitudinal and transverse residual stress were reduced;When welding from Middle to both sides,the residual stress distribution will change,and the residual stress in the middle of the work piece was reduced.

  2. WODA Technical Guidance on Underwater Sound from Dredging.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Frank; Borsani, Fabrizio; Clarke, Douglas; de Jong, Christ; de Wit, Pim; Goethals, Fredrik; Holtkamp, Martine; Martin, Elena San; Spadaro, Philip; van Raalte, Gerard; Victor, George Yesu Vedha; Jensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The World Organization of Dredging Associations (WODA) has identified underwater sound as an environmental issue that needs further consideration. A WODA Expert Group on Underwater Sound (WEGUS) prepared a guidance paper in 2013 on dredging sound, including a summary of potential impacts on aquatic biota and advice on underwater sound monitoring procedures. The paper follows a risk-based approach and provides guidance for standardization of acoustic terminology and methods for data collection and analysis. Furthermore, the literature on dredging-related sounds and the effects of dredging sounds on marine life is surveyed and guidance on the management of dredging-related sound risks is provided.

  3. Communication and cooperation in underwater acoustic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerramalli, Srinivas

    In this thesis, we present a study of several problems related to underwater point to point communications and network formation. We explore techniques to improve the achievable data rate on a point to point link using better physical layer techniques and then study sensor cooperation which improves the throughput and reliability in an underwater network. Robust point-to-point communications in underwater networks has become increasingly critical in several military and civilian applications related to underwater communications. We present several physical layer signaling and detection techniques tailored to the underwater channel model to improve the reliability of data detection. First, a simplified underwater channel model in which the time scale distortion on each path is assumed to be the same (single scale channel model in contrast to a more general multi scale model). A novel technique, which exploits the nature of OFDM signaling and the time scale distortion, called Partial FFT Demodulation is derived. It is observed that this new technique has some unique interference suppression properties and performs better than traditional equalizers in several scenarios of interest. Next, we consider the multi scale model for the underwater channel and assume that single scale processing is performed at the receiver. We then derive optimized front end pre-processing techniques to reduce the interference caused during single scale processing of signals transmitted on a multi-scale channel. We then propose an improvised channel estimation technique using dictionary optimization methods for compressive sensing and show that significant performance gains can be obtained using this technique. In the next part of this thesis, we consider the problem of sensor node cooperation among rational nodes whose objective is to improve their individual data rates. We first consider the problem of transmitter cooperation in a multiple access channel and investigate the stability of

  4. Analysis and Comparison of Aluminum Alloy Welded Joints Between Metal Inert Gas Welding and Tungsten Inert Gas Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lei; Guan, Yingchun; Wang, Qiang; Cong, Baoqiang; Qi, Bojin

    2015-09-01

    Surface contamination usually occurs during welding processing and it affects the welds quality largely. However, the formation of such contaminants has seldom been studied. Effort was made to study the contaminants caused by metal inert gas (MIG) welding and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding processes of aluminum alloy, respectively. SEM, FTIR and XPS analysis was carried out to investigate the microstructure as well as surface chemistry. These contaminants were found to be mainly consisting of Al2O3, MgO, carbide and chromium complexes. The difference of contaminants between MIG and TIG welds was further examined. In addition, method to minimize these contaminants was proposed.

  5. Electric arc welding gun

    DOEpatents

    Luttrell, Edward; Turner, Paul W.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to improved apparatus for arc welding an interior joint formed by intersecting tubular members. As an example, the invention is well suited for applications where many similar small-diameter vertical lines are to be welded to a long horizontal header. The improved apparatus includes an arc welding gun having a specially designed welding head which is not only very compact but also produces welds that are essentially free from rolled-over solidified metal. The welding head consists of the upper end of the barrel and a reversely extending electrode holder, or tip, which defines an acute angle with the barrel. As used in the above-mentioned example, the gun is positioned to extend upwardly through the vertical member and the joint to be welded, with its welding head disposed within the horizontal header. Depending on the design of the welding head, the barrel then is either rotated or revolved about the axis of the vertical member to cause the electrode to track the joint.

  6. Performance of repair welds on aged Cr-Mo piping girth welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, R.; Gandy, D. W.

    1999-10-01

    This article documents the results of an industry survey of weld repair practices and describes the results of experimental evaluations performed on service-aged 21/4 Cr-1Mo steel piping using SMAW with both conventional postweld heat treatments and temper bead repair techniques. The overall results of this program provide substantial evidence that service-aged piping systems can be successfully weld repaired with and without postweld heat treatments and that life extension by several decades is achievable under the right design and repair conditions. Weld repairs performed on degraded exservice welds resulted in restoration or improvement of tensile and creep properties. Microhardness test results within the heat-affected zone of each weldment indicated that the temper bead weld repairs produced only slightly higher peak hardness values than those measured for the fully postweld heat treated repairs. Finally, in terms of toughness, temper bead weld repairs consistently produced higher impact properties than those measured for the postweld heat treated weldments. Gas tungsten arc weld repairs with postweld heat treatment resulted in the best combination of tensile strength, uniform microhardness distribution across the weld, Charpy toughness, and creep rupture life.

  7. Analysis of security and threat of underwater wireless sensor network topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Wei, Zhiqiang; Cong, Yanping; Jia, Dongning

    2012-04-01

    Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) are a subclass of wireless sensor networks. Underwater sensor deployment is a significant challenge due to the characteristics of UWSNs and underwater environment. Recent researches for UWSNs deployment mostly focus on the maintenance of network connectivity and maximum communication coverage. However, the broadcast nature of the transmission medium incurs various types of security attacks. This paper studies the security issues and threats of UWSNs topology. Based on the cluster-based topology, an underwater cluster-based security scheme (U-CBSS) is presented to defend against these attacks. and safety.

  8. A novel weld seam detection method for space weld seam of narrow butt joint in laser welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Wen Jun; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Yong

    2018-02-01

    Structured light measurement is widely used for weld seam detection owing to its high measurement precision and robust. However, there is nearly no geometrical deformation of the stripe projected onto weld face, whose seam width is less than 0.1 mm and without misalignment. So, it's very difficult to ensure an exact retrieval of the seam feature. This issue is raised as laser welding for butt joint of thin metal plate is widely applied. Moreover, measurement for the seam width, seam center and the normal vector of the weld face at the same time during welding process is of great importance to the welding quality but rarely reported. Consequently, a seam measurement method based on vision sensor for space weld seam of narrow butt joint is proposed in this article. Three laser stripes with different wave length are project on the weldment, in which two red laser stripes are designed and used to measure the three dimensional profile of the weld face by the principle of optical triangulation, and the third green laser stripe is used as light source to measure the edge and the centerline of the seam by the principle of passive vision sensor. The corresponding image process algorithm is proposed to extract the centerline of the red laser stripes as well as the seam feature. All these three laser stripes are captured and processed in a single image so that the three dimensional position of the space weld seam can be obtained simultaneously. Finally, the result of experiment reveals that the proposed method can meet the precision demand of space narrow butt joint.

  9. Feasibility of in situ beta ray measurements in underwater environment.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Min; Park, Ki Hyun; Kang, Sung Won; Joo, Koan Sik

    2017-09-01

    We describe an attempt at the development of an in situ detector for beta ray measurements in underwater environment. The prototype of the in situ detector is based on a CaF2: Eu scintillator using crystal light guide and Si photomultiplier. Tests were conducted using various reference sources for evaluating the linearity and stability of the detector in underwater environment. The system is simple and stable for long-term monitoring, and consumes low power. We show here an effective detection distance of 7 mm and a 2.273 MeV end-point energy spectrum of 90 Sr/ 90 Y when using the system underwater. The results demonstrate the feasibility of in situ beta ray measurements in underwater environment and can be applied for designing an in situ detector for radioactivity measurement in underwater environment. The in situ detector can also have other applications such as installation on the marine monitoring platform and quantitative analysis of radionuclides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of Mechanical Properties and Characterization of Pipe Steel welded by Hybrid (Friction Stir Weld + Root Arc Weld) Approach

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lim, Yong Chae; Sanderson, Samuel; Mahoney, Murray

    Friction stir welding (FSW) has recently attracted attention as an alternative construction process for gas/oil transportation applications due to advantages compared to fusion welding techniques. A significant advantage is the ability of FSW to weld the entire or nearly the entire wall thickness in a single pass, while fusion welding requires multiple passes. However, when FSW is applied to a pipe or tube geometry, an internal back support anvil is required to resist the plunging forces exerted during FSW. Unfortunately, it may not be convenient or economical to use internal backing support due to limited access for some applications. Tomore » overcome this issue, ExxonMobil recently developed a new concept, combining root arc welding and FSW. That is, a root arc weld is made prior to FSW that supports the normal loads associated with FSW. In the present work, mechanical properties of a FSW + root arc welded pipe steel are reported including microstructure and microhardness.« less

  11. Remotely operated submersible underwater suction apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kristan, Louis L.

    1990-01-01

    A completely submersible, remotely operated underwater suction device for collection of irradiated materials in a nuclear pool is disclosed. The device includes a pump means for pumping water through the device, a filter means for capturing irradiated debris, remotely operated releasable connector means, a collection means and a means for remotely maneuvering the collection means. The components of the suction device may be changed and replaced underwater to take advantage of the excellent radiation shielding ability of water to thereby minimize exposure of personnel to radiation.

  12. Moisture contamination and welding parameter effects on flux cored arc welding diffusible hydrogen

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kiefer, J.J.

    1994-12-31

    Gas metal arc (GMAW) and flux cored arc (FCAW) welding are gas shielded semiautomatic processes widely used for achieving high productivity in steel fabrication. Contamination of the shielding has can occur due to poorly maintained gas distribution systems. Moisture entering as a gas contaminant is a source of hydrogen that can cause delayed cold cracking in welds. Limiting heat-affected zone hardness is one method of controlling cracking. Even this is based on some assumptions about the hydrogen levels in the weld. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of shielding gas moisture contamination and welding parameters on the diffusiblemore » hydrogen content of gas shielded flux cored arc welding. The total wire hydrogen of various electrodes was also tested and compared to the diffusible weld hydrogen. An empirical equation has been developed that estimates the diffusible hydrogen in weld metal for gas shielded flux cored arc welding. The equation is suitable for small diameter electrodes and welding parameter ranges commonly used for out-of-position welding. by combining this with the results from the total wire hydrogen tests, it is possible to estimate diffusible hydrogen directly from measured welding parameters, shielding gas dew point, and total hydrogen of the consumable. These equations are also useful for evaluating the effect of welding procedure variations from known baseline conditions.« less

  13. Eddy-Current Non-Inertial Displacement Sensing for Underwater Infrasound Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Eddy-current non-inertial displacement sensing for underwater infrasound measurements Dimitri M. Donskoy Stevens Institute of Technology, 711 Hudson...geophysicists have an ongoing interest in exploring underwater acous- tic processes at infrasound frequencies, for example, for monitoring natural events...underwater infrasound measurements 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f

  14. Certification of a weld produced by friction stir welding

    DOEpatents

    Obaditch, Chris; Grant, Glenn J

    2013-10-01

    Methods, devices, and systems for providing certification of friction stir welds are disclosed. A sensor is used to collect information related to a friction stir weld. Data from the sensor is compared to threshold values provided by an extrinsic standard setting organizations using a certification engine. The certification engine subsequently produces a report on the certification status of the weld.

  15. Remote Control over Underwater Dynamic Attachment/Detachment and Locomotion.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanfei; Ma, Shuanhong; Wu, Yang; Pei, Xiaowei; Gorb, Stanislav N; Wang, Zuankai; Liu, Weimin; Zhou, Feng

    2018-06-19

    Despite extensive efforts to mimic the fascinating adhesion capability of geckos, the development of reversible adhesives underwater has long been lagging. The appearance of mussels-inspired dopamine chemistry has provided the feasibility to fabricate underwater adhesives; however, for such a system, imitating the reversible and fast dynamic attachment/detachment mechanism of gecko feet still remains unsolved. Here, by synthesizing a thermoresponsive copolymer of poly(dopamine methacrylamide-co-methoxyethyl-acrylate-co-N-isopropyl acrylamide) and then decorating it onto mushroom-shaped poly(dimethylsiloxane) pillar arrays, a novel underwater thermoresponsive gecko-like adhesive (TRGA) can be fabricated, yielding high adhesion during the attachment state above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the copolymer, yet low adhesion during the detachment state below the LCST of the copolymer. By integrating the Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles into the TRGA, TRGAs responsive to near-infrared laser radiation can be engineered, which can be successfully used for rapid and reversible remote control over adhesion so as to capture and release heavy objects underwater because of the contrast force change of both the normal adhesion force and the lateral friction force. It is also demonstrated that the material can be assembled on the tracks of an underwater mobile device to realize controllable movement. This opens up the door for developing intelligent underwater gecko-like locomotion with dynamic attachment/detachment ability. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. A bio-inspired electrocommunication system for small underwater robots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Jindong; Xie, Guangming; Wen, Li; Zhang, Jianwei

    2017-03-29

    Weakly electric fishes (Gymnotid and Mormyrid) use an electric field to communicate efficiently (termed electrocommunication) in the turbid waters of confined spaces where other communication modalities fail. Inspired by this biological phenomenon, we design an artificial electrocommunication system for small underwater robots and explore the capabilities of such an underwater robotic communication system. An analytical model for electrocommunication is derived to predict the effect of the key parameters such as electrode distance and emitter current of the system on the communication performance. According to this model, a low-dissipation, and small-sized electrocommunication system is proposed and integrated into a small robotic fish. We characterize the communication performance of the robot in still water, flowing water, water with obstacles and natural water conditions. The results show that underwater robots are able to communicate electrically at a speed of around 1 k baud within about 3 m with a low power consumption (less than 1 W). In addition, we demonstrate that two leader-follower robots successfully achieve motion synchronization through electrocommunication in the three-dimensional underwater space, indicating that this bio-inspired electrocommunication system is a promising setup for the interaction of small underwater robots.

  17. UTOFIA: an underwater time-of-flight image acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driewer, Adrian; Abrosimov, Igor; Alexander, Jonathan; Benger, Marc; O'Farrell, Marion; Haugholt, Karl Henrik; Softley, Chris; Thielemann, Jens T.; Thorstensen, Jostein; Yates, Chris

    2017-10-01

    In this article the development of a newly designed Time-of-Flight (ToF) image sensor for underwater applications is described. The sensor is developed as part of the project UTOFIA (underwater time-of-flight image acquisition) funded by the EU within the Horizon 2020 framework. This project aims to develop a camera based on range gating that extends the visible range compared to conventional cameras by a factor of 2 to 3 and delivers real-time range information by means of a 3D video stream. The principle of underwater range gating as well as the concept of the image sensor are presented. Based on measurements on a test image sensor a pixel structure that suits best to the requirements has been selected. Within an extensive characterization underwater the capability of distance measurements in turbid environments is demonstrated.

  18. Penetration in GTA welding

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Heiple, C.R.; Burgardt, P.

    1990-01-01

    The size and shape of the weld bead produced in GTA welding depends on the magnitude and distribution of the energy incident on the workpiece surfaces as well as the dissipation of that energy in the workpiece. The input energy is largely controllable through the welding parameters selected, however the dissipation of that energy in the workpiece is less subject to control. Changes in energy dissipation can produce large changes in weld shape or penetration. Heat transport away from the weld pool is almost entirely by conduction, but heat transport in the weld pool is more complicated. Heat conduction throughmore » the liquid is an important component, but heat transport by convection (mass transport) is often the dominant mechanism. Convective heat transport is directional and changes the weld pool shape from that produced by conduction alone. Surface tension gradients are often the dominant forces driving fluid flow in GTA weld pools. These gradients are sensitive functions of weld pool chemistry and the energy input distribution to the weld. Experimental and theoretical work conducted primarily in the past decade has greatly enhanced our understanding of weld pool fluid flow, the forces which drive it, and its effects on weld pool shape. This work is reviewed here. While less common, changes in energy dissipation through the unmelted portion of the workpiece can also affect fusion zone shape or penetration. These effects are also described. 41 refs., 9 figs.« less

  19. A Secure Communication Suite for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dini, Gianluca; Duca, Angelica Lo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a security suite for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks comprising both fixed and mobile nodes. The security suite is composed of a secure routing protocol and a set of cryptographic primitives aimed at protecting the confidentiality and the integrity of underwater communication while taking into account the unique characteristics and constraints of the acoustic channel. By means of experiments and simulations based on real data, we show that the suite is suitable for an underwater networking environment as it introduces limited, and sometimes negligible, communication and power consumption overhead. PMID:23202204

  20. OPTICAL correlation identification technology applied in underwater laser imaging target identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Guang-tao; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Ge, Wei-long

    2012-01-01

    The underwater laser imaging detection is an effective method of detecting short distance target underwater as an important complement of sonar detection. With the development of underwater laser imaging technology and underwater vehicle technology, the underwater automatic target identification has gotten more and more attention, and is a research difficulty in the area of underwater optical imaging information processing. Today, underwater automatic target identification based on optical imaging is usually realized with the method of digital circuit software programming. The algorithm realization and control of this method is very flexible. However, the optical imaging information is 2D image even 3D image, the amount of imaging processing information is abundant, so the electronic hardware with pure digital algorithm will need long identification time and is hard to meet the demands of real-time identification. If adopt computer parallel processing, the identification speed can be improved, but it will increase complexity, size and power consumption. This paper attempts to apply optical correlation identification technology to realize underwater automatic target identification. The optics correlation identification technology utilizes the Fourier transform characteristic of Fourier lens which can accomplish Fourier transform of image information in the level of nanosecond, and optical space interconnection calculation has the features of parallel, high speed, large capacity and high resolution, combines the flexibility of calculation and control of digital circuit method to realize optoelectronic hybrid identification mode. We reduce theoretical formulation of correlation identification and analyze the principle of optical correlation identification, and write MATLAB simulation program. We adopt single frame image obtained in underwater range gating laser imaging to identify, and through identifying and locating the different positions of target, we can improve

  1. Ultrasonic Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabors, Sammy

    2015-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Ultrasonic Stir Welding (USW) to join large pieces of very high-strength metals such as titanium and Inconel. USW, a solid-state weld process, improves current thermal stir welding processes by adding high-power ultrasonic (HPU) energy at 20 kHz frequency. The addition of ultrasonic energy significantly reduces axial, frictional, and shear forces; increases travel rates; and reduces wear on the stir rod, which results in extended stir rod life. The USW process decouples the heating, stirring, and forging elements found in the friction stir welding process allowing for independent control of each process element and, ultimately, greater process control and repeatability. Because of the independent control of USW process elements, closed-loop temperature control can be integrated into the system so that a constant weld nugget temperature can be maintained during welding.

  2. Deep Learning Methods for Underwater Target Feature Extraction and Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yuan; Qiu, Mengran; Shi, Jianfei; Liu, Liangliang

    2018-01-01

    The classification and recognition technology of underwater acoustic signal were always an important research content in the field of underwater acoustic signal processing. Currently, wavelet transform, Hilbert-Huang transform, and Mel frequency cepstral coefficients are used as a method of underwater acoustic signal feature extraction. In this paper, a method for feature extraction and identification of underwater noise data based on CNN and ELM is proposed. An automatic feature extraction method of underwater acoustic signals is proposed using depth convolution network. An underwater target recognition classifier is based on extreme learning machine. Although convolution neural networks can execute both feature extraction and classification, their function mainly relies on a full connection layer, which is trained by gradient descent-based; the generalization ability is limited and suboptimal, so an extreme learning machine (ELM) was used in classification stage. Firstly, CNN learns deep and robust features, followed by the removing of the fully connected layers. Then ELM fed with the CNN features is used as the classifier to conduct an excellent classification. Experiments on the actual data set of civil ships obtained 93.04% recognition rate; compared to the traditional Mel frequency cepstral coefficients and Hilbert-Huang feature, recognition rate greatly improved. PMID:29780407

  3. Application of welding science to welding engineering: A lumped parameter gas metal arc welding dynamic process model

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Murray, P.E.; Smartt, H.B.; Johnson, J.A.

    1997-12-31

    We develop a model of the depth of penetration of the weld pool in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) which demonstrates interaction between the arc, filler wire and weld pool. This model is motivated by the observations of Essers and Walter which suggest a relationship between droplet momentum and penetration depth. A model of gas metal arc welding was augmented to include an improved model of mass transfer and a simple model of accelerating droplets in a plasma jet to obtain the mass and momentum of impinging droplets. The force of the droplets and depth of penetration is correlated bymore » a dimensionless linear relation used to predict weld pool depth for a range of values of arc power and contact tip to workpiece distance. Model accuracy is examined by comparing theoretical predictions and experimental measurements of the pool depth obtained from bead on plate welds of carbon steel in an argon rich shielding gas. Moreover, theoretical predictions of pool depth are compared to the results obtained from the heat conduction model due to Christensen et al. which suggest that in some cases the momentum of impinging droplets is a better indicator of the depth of the weld pool and the presence of a deep, narrow penetration.« less

  4. The effects of welded joint characteristics on its properties in HDPE thermal fusion welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Hongbin; Peng, Jun

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, PE100 pipes with the diameter of 200 mm and the thickness of 11.9 mm were used as material. The welded joints were obtained in different welding pressures with the optimal welding temperature of 220∘C. Reheating process on the welded joints with the temperature of 130∘C was carried out. The joints exhibited X-type, and the cause of X-type joints was discussed. The temperature field in the forming process of welded joints was measured, and tensile and bending tests on welded joints were carried out. The fracture surface of welded joints was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and crystallinity calculation was taken by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mechanism of X-type weld profile effects on welded joints properties was analyzed. It was concluded that the mechanical properties of welded joints decrease with the reduced X distance between lines.

  5. [Hygienic evaluation of new welding processes and welding materials].

    PubMed

    Gorban', L N

    1990-01-01

    The possibility of contaminating the breathing air zone with hazardous substances in manual and semi-automated welding increases with the intensity of their formation in the arc zone. This necessitates more comprehensive data on both the specific excreta and the formation intensity of the most hazardous substances, such as hard and gaseous compounds of welding aerosols, with due account of the welding regimen used and electrode diameter, wires, etc. When calculating the effectiveness of both local and general ventilation systems in welding shops, a possibility of a specific one-way hazardous action of some chemical substances (e.g. chromium, fluorine, etc.) should be taken into account.

  6. Programmable Positioner For Spot Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roden, William A.

    1989-01-01

    Welding station mechanized by installing preset indexing system and gear drive. Mechanism includes a low-cost, versatile, single-axis motion control and motor drive to provide fully-automatic weld sequencing and spot-to-spot spacing. Welding station relieves operator of some difficult, tedious tasks and increases both productivity and quality of welds. Results in welds of higher quality and greater accuracy, fewer weld defects, and faster welding operation.

  7. WELDING TORCH

    DOEpatents

    Correy, T.B.

    1961-10-01

    A welding torch into which water and inert gas are piped separately for cooling and for providing a suitable gaseous atmosphere is described. A welding electrode is clamped in the torch by a removable collet sleeve and a removable collet head. Replacement of the sleeve and head with larger or smaller sleeve and head permits a larger or smaller welding electrode to be substituted on the torch. (AEC)

  8. The Effect of Weld Reinforcement and Post-Welding Cooling Cycles on Fatigue Strength of Butt-Welded Joints under Cyclic Tensile Loading.

    PubMed

    Araque, Oscar; Arzola, Nelson; Hernández, Edgar

    2018-04-12

    This research deals with the fatigue behavior of butt-welded joints, by considering the geometry and post-welding cooling cycles, as a result of cooling in quiet air and immersed in water. ASTM A-36 HR structural steel was used as the base metal for the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process with welding electrode E6013. The welding reinforcement was 1 mm and 3 mm, respectively; axial fatigue tests were carried out to determine the life and behavior in cracks propagation of the tested welded joints, mechanical characterization tests of properties in welded joints such as microhardness, Charpy impact test and metallographic analysis were carried out. The latter were used as input for the analysis by finite elements which influence the initiation and propagation of cracks and the evaluation of stress intensity factors (SIF). The latter led to obtaining the crack propagation rate and the geometric factor. The tested specimens were analyzed, by taking photographs of the cracks at its beginning in order to make a count of the marks at the origin of the crack. From the results obtained and the marks count, the fatigue crack growth rate and the influence of the cooling media on the life of the welded joint are validated, according to the experimental results. It can be concluded that the welded joints with a higher weld reinforcement have a shorter fatigue life. This is due to the stress concentration that occurs in the vicinity of the weld toe.

  9. The Effect of Weld Reinforcement and Post-Welding Cooling Cycles on Fatigue Strength of Butt-Welded Joints under Cyclic Tensile Loading

    PubMed Central

    Arzola, Nelson; Hernández, Edgar

    2018-01-01

    This research deals with the fatigue behavior of butt-welded joints, by considering the geometry and post-welding cooling cycles, as a result of cooling in quiet air and immersed in water. ASTM A-36 HR structural steel was used as the base metal for the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process with welding electrode E6013. The welding reinforcement was 1 mm and 3 mm, respectively; axial fatigue tests were carried out to determine the life and behavior in cracks propagation of the tested welded joints, mechanical characterization tests of properties in welded joints such as microhardness, Charpy impact test and metallographic analysis were carried out. The latter were used as input for the analysis by finite elements which influence the initiation and propagation of cracks and the evaluation of stress intensity factors (SIF). The latter led to obtaining the crack propagation rate and the geometric factor. The tested specimens were analyzed, by taking photographs of the cracks at its beginning in order to make a count of the marks at the origin of the crack. From the results obtained and the marks count, the fatigue crack growth rate and the influence of the cooling media on the life of the welded joint are validated, according to the experimental results. It can be concluded that the welded joints with a higher weld reinforcement have a shorter fatigue life. This is due to the stress concentration that occurs in the vicinity of the weld toe. PMID:29649117

  10. Underwater video enhancement using multi-camera super-resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quevedo, E.; Delory, E.; Callicó, G. M.; Tobajas, F.; Sarmiento, R.

    2017-12-01

    Image spatial resolution is critical in several fields such as medicine, communications or satellite, and underwater applications. While a large variety of techniques for image restoration and enhancement has been proposed in the literature, this paper focuses on a novel Super-Resolution fusion algorithm based on a Multi-Camera environment that permits to enhance the quality of underwater video sequences without significantly increasing computation. In order to compare the quality enhancement, two objective quality metrics have been used: PSNR (Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio) and the SSIM (Structural SIMilarity) index. Results have shown that the proposed method enhances the objective quality of several underwater sequences, avoiding the appearance of undesirable artifacts, with respect to basic fusion Super-Resolution algorithms.

  11. Quantification of Microtexture at Weld Nugget of Friction Stir-Welded Carbon Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, Md M.; Sarkar, R.; Pal, T. K.; Ghosh, M.; Prabhu, N.

    2017-05-01

    Friction stir welding of C-Mn steel was carried out under 800-1400 rpm tool rotation. Tool traversing speed of 50 mm/min remained same for all joints. Effect of thermal state and deformation on texture and microstructure at weld nugget was investigated. Weld nugget consisted of ferrite + bainite/Widmanstatten ferrite with different matrix grain sizes depending on peak temperature. A texture around ( ϕ 2 = 0°, φ = 30°, ϕ 2 = 45°) was developed at weld nugget. Grain boundary misorientation at weld nugget indicated that continuous dynamic recrystallization influenced the development of fine equiaxed grain structure. Pole figures and orientation distribution function were used to determine crystallographic texture at weld nugget and base metal. Shear texture components D1, D2 and F were present at weld nugget. D1 shear texture was more prominent among all. Large number of high-angle grain boundaries ( 60-70%) was observed at weld nugget and was the resultant of accumulation of high amount of dislocation, followed by subgrain formation.

  12. Optically controlled welding system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An optically controlled welding system wherein a welding torch having through-the-torch viewing capabilities is provided with an optical beam splitter to create a transmitted view and a reflective view of a welding operation. These views are converted to digital signals which are then processed and utilized by a computerized robotic welder to make the welding torch responsive thereto. Other features include an actively cooled electrode holder which minimizes a blocked portion of the view by virtue of being constructed of a single spoke or arm, and a weld pool contour detector comprising a laser beam directed onto the weld pool with the position of specular radiation reflected therefrom, being characteristic of a penetrated or unpenetrated condition of the weld pool.

  13. Fluid Flow Phenomena during Welding

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zhang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    MOLTEN WELD POOLS are dynamic. Liquid in the weld pool in acted on by several strong forces, which can result in high-velocity fluid motion. Fluid flow velocities exceeding 1 m/s (3.3 ft/s) have been observed in gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds under ordinary welding conditions, and higher velocities have been measured in submerged arc welds. Fluid flow is important because it affects weld shape and is related to the formation of a variety of weld defects. Moving liquid transports heat and often dominates heat transport in the weld pool. Because heat transport by mass flow depends on the direction andmore » speed of fluid motion, weld pool shape can differ dramatically from that predicted by conductive heat flow. Temperature gradients are also altered by fluid flow, which can affect weld microstructure. A number of defects in GTA welds have been attributed to fluid flow or changes in fluid flow, including lack of penetration, top bead roughness, humped beads, finger penetration, and undercutting. Instabilities in the liquid film around the keyhole in electron beam and laser welds are responsible for the uneven penetration (spiking) characteristic of these types of welds.« less

  14. Mapping Underwater Sound in the Dutch Part of the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Sertlek, H Özkan; Aarts, Geert; Brasseur, Sophie; Slabbekoorn, Hans; ten Cate, Carel; von Benda-Beckmann, Alexander M; Ainslie, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    The European Union requires member states to achieve or maintain good environmental status for their marine territorial waters and explicitly mentions potentially adverse effects of underwater sound. In this study, we focused on producing maps of underwater sound from various natural and anthropogenic origins in the Dutch North Sea. The source properties and sound propagation are simulated by mathematical methods. These maps could be used to assess and predict large-scale effects on behavior and distribution of underwater marine life and therefore become a valuable tool in assessing and managing the impact of underwater sound on marine life.

  15. Underwater sound of rigid-hulled inflatable boats.

    PubMed

    Erbe, Christine; Liong, Syafrin; Koessler, Matthew Walter; Duncan, Alec J; Gourlay, Tim

    2016-06-01

    Underwater sound of rigid-hulled inflatable boats was recorded 142 times in total, over 3 sites: 2 in southern British Columbia, Canada, and 1 off Western Australia. Underwater sound peaked between 70 and 400 Hz, exhibiting strong tones in this frequency range related to engine and propeller rotation. Sound propagation models were applied to compute monopole source levels, with the source assumed 1 m below the sea surface. Broadband source levels (10-48 000 Hz) increased from 134 to 171 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m with speed from 3 to 16 m/s (10-56 km/h). Source power spectral density percentile levels and 1/3 octave band levels are given for use in predictive modeling of underwater sound of these boats as part of environmental impact assessments.

  16. Survivability design for a hybrid underwater vehicle

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wang, Biao; Wu, Chao; Li, Xiang

    A novel hybrid underwater robotic vehicle (HROV) capable of working to the full ocean depth has been developed. The battery powered vehicle operates in two modes: operate as an untethered autonomous vehicle in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) mode and operate under remote control connected to the surface vessel by a lightweight, fiber optic tether in remotely operated vehicle (ROV) mode. Considering the hazardous underwater environment at the limiting depth and the hybrid operating modes, survivability has been placed on an equal level with the other design attributes of the HROV since the beginning of the project. This paper reports themore » survivability design elements for the HROV including basic vehicle design of integrated navigation and integrated communication, emergency recovery strategy, distributed architecture, redundant bus, dual battery package, emergency jettison system and self-repairing control system.« less

  17. Multihole Arc-Welding Orifice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swaim, Benji D.

    1989-01-01

    Modified orifice for variable-polarity plasma-arc welding directs welding plume so it creates clean, even welds on both Inconel(R) and aluminum alloys. Includes eight holes to relieve back pressure in plasma. Quality of welds on ferrous and nonferrous alloys improved as result.

  18. Elastic Wave Propagation Mechanisms in Underwater Acoustic Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Elastic wave propagation mechanisms in underwater acoustic environments Scott D. Frank Marist College Department of Mathematics Poughkeepsie...conversion from elastic propagation to acoustic propagation, and intense interface waves on underwater acoustic environments with elastic bottoms...acoustic propagation will be considered as a means to predict the presence of elastic ice layers. APPROACH In a cylindrically symmetric environment

  19. EMI Modeling for UXO Detection and Discrimination Underwater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    detection and discrimination underwater,? submitted to the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) in response to the...phenomena from highly conducting and permeable metallic objects in underwater environments, and 3) investigate the impact of the electromagnetic parameters of...to the Department of Defense Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP). The publication of this report does not indicate

  20. Underwater inverse LIBS (iLIBS) for marine archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, J.; Magde, M.; Elford, J.; Magde, D.; Parfenov, V.

    2013-05-01

    In recent years there have been enormous advances in nautical archaeology through developments in SONAR technologies as well as in manned and robotic submersible vehicles. The number of sunken vessel discoveries has escalated in many of the seas of the world in response to the widespread application of these and other new tools. Customarily, surviving artifacts within the debris field of a wreck are collected and then moved to laboratories, centers, or institutions for analyses and possible conservation. Frequently, the conservation phase involves chemical treatments to stabilize an artefact to standard temperature, pressure, and humidity instead of an undersea environment. Many of the artefacts encountered at an underwater site are now characterized and restored in-situ in accordance with modern trends in art conservation. Two examples of this trend are exemplified by the resting place of the wreck of the Titanic in the Atlantic and the Cancun Underwater Park in the Caribbean Sea. These two debris fields have been turned into museums for diving visitors. Several research groups have investigated the possibility of adapting the well-established analytical tool Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to in-situ elemental analyses of underwater cultural, historic, and archaeological artefacts where discovered, rather than as a phase of a salvage operation. As the underwater laser ablation associated with LIBS generates a "snowplough" shockwave within the aqueous matrix, the atomic emission spectrum is usually severely attenuated in escaping from the target. Consequently, probative experiments to date generally invoke a submerged air chamber or air jet to isolate water from the interaction zone as well as employ more complex double-pulse lasers. These measures impose severe logistical constraints on the examination of widely dispersed underwater artefacts. In order to overcome this constraint we report on water-immersion LIBS experiments performed with oblique

  1. Narrow groove welding gas diffuser assembly and welding torch

    DOEpatents

    Rooney, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    A diffuser assembly is provided for narrow groove welding using an automatic gas tungsten arc welding torch. The diffuser assembly includes a manifold adapted for adjustable mounting on the welding torch which is received in a central opening in the manifold. Laterally extending manifold sections communicate with a shield gas inlet such that shield gas supplied to the inlet passes to gas passages of the manifold sections. First and second tapered diffusers are respectively connected to the manifold sections in fluid communication with the gas passages thereof. The diffusers extend downwardly along the torch electrode on opposite sides thereof so as to release shield gas along the length of the electrode and at the distal tip of the electrode. The diffusers are of a transverse width which is on the order of the thickness of the electrode so that the diffusers can, in use, be inserted into a narrow welding groove before and after the electrode in the direction of the weld operation.

  2. Welding Experiments of Aluminum Alloy by Space GHTA Welding at ISS Orbital Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suita, Yoshikazu; Takai, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Satoshi; Terajima, Noboru; Tsukuda, Yoshiyuki; Fujisawa, Shoichiro; Imagawa, Kichiro

    As a feasible welding method in space, the authors previously proposed the space GHTA (Gas Hollow Tungsten Arc) welding process. However, space GHTA welding with a high-frequency device for arc start may cause electromagnetic noise problems for the computer equipment placed on the ISS (International Space Station). Therefore, in this report, welding experiments of space GHTA welding using aluminum alloy with a high-voltage DC device for arc start were carried out at the ISS orbital pressure, 10-5 Pa. It is clear from the experiments using a high-voltage DC device in a high-vacuum condition, that there is a shifting phenomenon in which the spark discharge shifts to either a glow discharge or an arc discharge when starting the arc. Welding projects in space need an arc discharge, so we investigated the effects of welding parameters on the arc formation ratio. As a result, space GHTA welding with a high-voltage DC device can be used for arc start when welding at the ISS orbital pressure.

  3. Underwater image enhancement through depth estimation based on random forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Shen-Chuan; Tsai, Ting-Chou; Huang, Jyun-Han

    2017-11-01

    Light absorption and scattering in underwater environments can result in low-contrast images with a distinct color cast. This paper proposes a systematic framework for the enhancement of underwater images. Light transmission is estimated using the random forest algorithm. RGB values, luminance, color difference, blurriness, and the dark channel are treated as features in training and estimation. Transmission is calculated using an ensemble machine learning algorithm to deal with a variety of conditions encountered in underwater environments. A color compensation and contrast enhancement algorithm based on depth information was also developed with the aim of improving the visual quality of underwater images. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme outperforms existing methods with regard to subjective visual quality as well as objective measurements.

  4. Alternating-Polarity Arc Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwinghamer, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Brief reversing polarity of welding current greatly improves quality of welds. NASA technical memorandum recounts progress in art of variable-polarity plasma-arc (VPPA) welding, with emphasis on welding of aluminum-alloy tanks. VPPA welders offer important advantages over conventional single-polarity gas/tungsten arc welders.

  5. Fast, Nonspattering Inert-Gas Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed welding technique combines best features of metal (other than tungsten)/inert-gas welding, plasma arc welding, and tungsten/inert-gas welding. Advantages include: wire fed to weld joint preheated, therefore fed at high speed without spattering; high-frequency energy does not have to be supplied to workpiece to initiate welding; size of arc gap not critical, power-supply control circuit adjusts voltage across gap to compensate for changes; only low gas-flow rate needed; welding electrode replaced easily as prefabricated assembly; external wire-feeding manipulator not needed; and welding process relatively forgiving of operator error.

  6. Underwater psychophysical audiogram of a young male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    Mulsow, Jason; Houser, Dorian S; Finneran, James J

    2012-05-01

    Auditory evoked potential (AEP) data are commonly obtained in air while sea lions are under gas anesthesia; a procedure that precludes the measurement of underwater hearing sensitivity. This is a substantial limitation considering the importance of underwater hearing data in designing criteria aimed at mitigating the effects of anthropogenic noise exposure. To determine if some aspects of underwater hearing sensitivity can be predicted using rapid aerial AEP methods, this study measured underwater psychophysical thresholds for a young male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) for which previously published aerial AEP thresholds exist. Underwater thresholds were measured in an aboveground pool at frequencies between 1 and 38 kHz. The underwater audiogram was very similar to those previously published for California sea lions, suggesting that the current and previously obtained psychophysical data are representative for this species. The psychophysical and previously measured AEP audiograms were most similar in terms of high-frequency hearing limit (HFHL), although the underwater HFHL was sharper and occurred at a higher frequency. Aerial AEP methods are useful for predicting reductions in the HFHL that are potentially independent of the testing medium, such as those due to age-related sensorineural hearing loss.

  7. Influence of the arc plasma parameters on the weld pool profile in TIG welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toropchin, A.; Frolov, V.; Pipa, A. V.; Kozakov, R.; Uhrlandt, D.

    2014-11-01

    Magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of the arc and fluid simulations of the weld pool can be beneficial in the analysis and further development of arc welding processes and welding machines. However, the appropriate coupling of arc and weld pool simulations needs further improvement. The tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process is investigated by simulations including the weld pool. Experiments with optical diagnostics are used for the validation. A coupled computational model of the arc and the weld pool is developed using the software ANSYS CFX. The weld pool model considers the forces acting on the motion of the melt inside and on the surface of the pool, such as Marangoni, drag, electromagnetic forces and buoyancy. The experimental work includes analysis of cross-sections of the workpieces, highspeed video images and spectroscopic measurements. Experiments and calculations have been performed for various currents, distances between electrode and workpiece and nozzle diameters. The studies show the significant impact of material properties like surface tension dependence on temperature as well as of the arc structure on the weld pool behaviour and finally the weld seam depth. The experimental weld pool profiles and plasma temperatures are in good agreement with computational results.

  8. Optically controlled welding system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An optically controlled welding system (10) wherein a welding torch (12) having through-the-torch viewing capabilities is provided with an optical beam splitter (56) to create a transmitted view and a reflective view of a welding operation. These views are converted to digital signals which are then processed and utilized by a computerized robotic welder (15) to make the welding torch responsive thereto. Other features includes an actively cooled electrode holder (26) which minimizes a blocked portion of the view by virtue of being constructed of a single spoke or arm (28) and a weld pool contour detector (14) comprising a laser beam directed onto the weld pool with the position of specular radiation reflected therefrom being characteristic of a penetrated or unpenetrated condition of the weld pool.

  9. 46 CFR 167.15-33 - Underwater Survey in Lieu of Drydocking (UWILD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-33 Underwater Survey in Lieu of Drydocking (UWILD). (a) The Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI), may approve an underwater survey instead of..., Marine Inspection submits a recommendation for future underwater surveys, the results of the hull gauging...

  10. Vision-based weld pool boundary extraction and width measurement during keyhole fiber laser welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Masiyang; Shin, Yung C.

    2015-01-01

    In keyhole fiber laser welding processes, the weld pool behavior is essential to determining welding quality. To better observe and control the welding process, the accurate extraction of the weld pool boundary as well as the width is required. This work presents a weld pool edge detection technique based on an off axial green illumination laser and a coaxial image capturing system that consists of a CMOS camera and optic filters. According to the difference of image quality, a complete developed edge detection algorithm is proposed based on the local maximum gradient of greyness searching approach and linear interpolation. The extracted weld pool geometry and the width are validated by the actual welding width measurement and predictions by a numerical multi-phase model.

  11. Coil Welding Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesenbach, W. T.; Clark, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    Positioner holds coil inside cylinder during tack welding. Welding aid spaces turns of coil inside cylinder and applies contact pressure while coil is tack-welded to cylinder. Device facilitates fabrication of heat exchangers and other structures by eliminating hand-positioning and clamping of individual coil turns.

  12. Afocal viewport optics for underwater imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Dan

    2014-09-01

    A conventional camera can be adapted for underwater use by enclosing it in a sealed waterproof pressure housing with a viewport. The viewport, as an optical interface between water and air needs to consider both the camera and water optical characteristics while also providing a high pressure water seal. Limited hydrospace visibility drives a need for wide angle viewports. Practical optical interfaces between seawater and air vary from simple flat plate windows to complex water contact lenses. This paper first provides a brief overview of the physical and optical properties of the ocean environment along with suitable optical materials. This is followed by a discussion of the characteristics of various afocal underwater viewport types including flat windows, domes and the Ivanoff corrector lens, a derivative of a Galilean wide angle camera adapter. Several new and interesting optical designs derived from the Ivanoff corrector lens are presented including a pair of very compact afocal viewport lenses that are compatible with both in water and in air environments and an afocal underwater hyper-hemispherical fisheye lens.

  13. Underwater Acoustic Target Tracking: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ying; Fan, Liying

    2018-01-01

    Advances in acoustic technology and instrumentation now make it possible to explore marine resources. As a significant component of ocean exploration, underwater acoustic target tracking has aroused wide attention both in military and civil fields. Due to the complexity of the marine environment, numerous techniques have been proposed to obtain better tracking performance. In this paper, we survey over 100 papers ranging from innovative papers to the state-of-the-art in this field to present underwater tracking technologies. Not only the related knowledge of acoustic tracking instrument and tracking progress is clarified in detail, but also a novel taxonomy method is proposed. In this paper, algorithms for underwater acoustic target tracking are classified based on the methods used as: (1) instrument-assisted methods; (2) mode-based methods; (3) tracking optimization methods. These algorithms are compared and analyzed in the aspect of dimensions, numbers, and maneuvering of the tracking target, which is different from other survey papers. Meanwhile, challenges, countermeasures, and lessons learned are illustrated in this paper. PMID:29301318

  14. NDE and DE of PWSCC Found in the J-Groove Weld of a Removed-From-Service Control Rod Drive Mechanism

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Schuster, George J.

    2008-01-01

    photography of the J-groove weld crown and buttering. The results from these NDE studies were used to guide the development of the destructive characterization plan. The NDE studies found several crack-like indications. The NDE and DE studies determined that one of these was a through-weld radially-oriented PWSCC crack in the wetted surface of the J-groove weld, located at the transition point between the weld and the buttering. The crack was 6 mm long on the surface and quickly grew to 25 mm long at a depth of 8 mm, covering the length of the weld between the penetration tube and the carbon steel. The NDE studies found that only ET was able to detect the through-weld crack. The crack was oriented poorly for the ultrasonic testing, and was too tight for accurate PT or VT. The ET voltage response of the flaw was 30% that of a deep EDM notch. The DE performed on the crack consisted of slicing the crack into thin sections, polishing the sections, and then using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to characterize the crack. DE shows the crack was PWSCC and that it initiated on the wetted surface, grew and expanded through the weld metal, and exited into the annulus. The SEM examinations showed the crack followed the weld grain boundaries as it progressed through the weld. The crack was branched and discontinuous along its length.« less

  15. Grinding Parts For Automatic Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.; Hoult, William S.

    1989-01-01

    Rollers guide grinding tool along prospective welding path. Skatelike fixture holds rotary grinder or file for machining large-diameter rings or ring segments in preparation for welding. Operator grasps handles to push rolling fixture along part. Rollers maintain precise dimensional relationship so grinding wheel cuts precise depth. Fixture-mounted grinder machines surface to quality sufficient for automatic welding; manual welding with attendant variations and distortion not necessary. Developed to enable automatic welding of parts, manual welding of which resulted in weld bead permeated with microscopic fissures.

  16. Smelling and Tasting Underwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atema, Jelle

    1980-01-01

    Discusses differences between smell and taste, comparing these senses in organisms in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Describes the chemical environment underwater and in air, differences in chemoreceptors to receive stimuli, and the organs, brain, and behavior involved in chemoreception. (CS)

  17. VPPA weld model evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccutcheon, Kimble D.; Gordon, Stephen S.; Thompson, Paul A.

    1992-01-01

    NASA uses the Variable Polarity Plasma Arc Welding (VPPAW) process extensively for fabrication of Space Shuttle External Tanks. This welding process has been in use at NASA since the late 1970's but the physics of the process have never been satisfactorily modeled and understood. In an attempt to advance the level of understanding of VPPAW, Dr. Arthur C. Nunes, Jr., (NASA) has developed a mathematical model of the process. The work described in this report evaluated and used two versions (level-0 and level-1) of Dr. Nunes' model, and a model derived by the University of Alabama at Huntsville (UAH) from Dr. Nunes' level-1 model. Two series of VPPAW experiments were done, using over 400 different combinations of welding parameters. Observations were made of VPPAW process behavior as a function of specific welding parameter changes. Data from these weld experiments was used to evaluate and suggest improvements to Dr. Nunes' model. Experimental data and correlations with the model were used to develop a multi-variable control algorithm for use with a future VPPAW controller. This algorithm is designed to control weld widths (both on the crown and root of the weld) based upon the weld parameters, base metal properties, and real-time observation of the crown width. The algorithm exhibited accuracy comparable to that of the weld width measurements for both aluminum and mild steel welds.

  18. Welding arc plasma physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cain, Bruce L.

    1990-01-01

    The problems of weld quality control and weld process dependability continue to be relevant issues in modern metal welding technology. These become especially important for NASA missions which may require the assembly or repair of larger orbiting platforms using automatic welding techniques. To extend present welding technologies for such applications, NASA/MSFC's Materials and Processes Lab is developing physical models of the arc welding process with the goal of providing both a basis for improved design of weld control systems, and a better understanding of how arc welding variables influence final weld properties. The physics of the plasma arc discharge is reasonably well established in terms of transport processes occurring in the arc column itself, although recourse to sophisticated numerical treatments is normally required to obtain quantitative results. Unfortunately the rigor of these numerical computations often obscures the physics of the underlying model due to its inherent complexity. In contrast, this work has focused on a relatively simple physical model of the arc discharge to describe the gross features observed in welding arcs. Emphasis was placed of deriving analytic expressions for the voltage along the arc axis as a function of known or measurable arc parameters. The model retains the essential physics for a straight polarity, diffusion dominated free burning arc in argon, with major simplifications of collisionless sheaths and simple energy balances at the electrodes.

  19. Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of a Single-Pass Weld Overlay and Girth Welding in Lined Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obeid, Obeid; Alfano, Giulio; Bahai, Hamid

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents a nonlinear heat-transfer and mechanical finite-element (FE) analyses of a two-pass welding process of two segments of lined pipe made of a SUS304 stainless steel liner and a C-Mn steel pipe. The two passes consist of the single-pass overlay welding (inner lap weld) of the liner with the C-Mn steel pipe for each segment and the single-pass girth welding (outer butt weld) of the two segments. A distributed power density of the moving welding torch and a nonlinear heat-transfer coefficient accounting for both radiation and convection have been used in the analysis and implemented in user subroutines for the FE code ABAQUS. The modeling procedure has been validated against previously published experimental results for stainless steel and carbon steel welding separately. The model has been then used to determine the isotherms induced by the weld overlay and the girth welding and to clarify their influence on the transient temperature field and residual stress in the lined pipe. Furthermore, the influence of the cooling time between weld overlay and girth welding and of the welding speed have been examined thermally and mechanically as they are key factors that can affect the quality of lined pipe welding.

  20. Object detection from images obtained through underwater turbulence medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furhad, Md. Hasan; Tahtali, Murat; Lambert, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Imaging through underwater experiences severe distortions due to random fluctuations of temperature and salinity in water, which produces underwater turbulence through diffraction limited blur. Lights reflecting from objects perturb and attenuate contrast, making the recognition of objects of interest difficult. Thus, the information available for detecting underwater objects of interest becomes a challenging task as they have inherent confusion among the background, foreground and other image properties. In this paper, a saliency-based approach is proposed to detect the objects acquired through an underwater turbulent medium. This approach has drawn attention among a wide range of computer vision applications, such as image retrieval, artificial intelligence, neuro-imaging and object detection. The image is first processed through a deblurring filter. Next, a saliency technique is used on the image for object detection. In this step, a saliency map that highlights the target regions is generated and then a graph-based model is proposed to extract these target regions for object detection.

  1. Study of issues in difficult-to-weld thick materials by hybrid laser arc welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazar Atabaki, Mehdi

    There is a high interest for the high strength-to-weight ratio with good ductility for the welds of advanced alloys. The concern about the welding of thick materials (Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) and 5xxx and 6xxx series of aluminum alloys) has stimulated the development of manufacturing processes to overcome the associated issues. The need to weld the dissimilar materials (AHSS and aluminum alloys) is also required for some specific applications in different industries. Hence, the requirement in the development of a state-of-the-art welding procedure can be helpful to fulfill the constraints. Among the welding methods hybrid laser/arc welding (HLAW) has shown to be an effective method to join thick and difficult-to-weld materials. This process benefits from both advantages of the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and laser welding processes. The interaction of the arc and laser can help to have enough penetration of weld in thick plates. However, as the welding of dissimilar aluminum alloys and steels is very difficult because of the formation of brittle intermetallics the present work proposed a procedure to effectively join the alloys. The reports showed that the explosively welded aluminum alloys to steels have the highest toughness, and that could be used as an "insert" (TRICLAD) for welding the thick plates of AHSS to aluminum alloys. Therefore, the HLAW of the TRICLAD-Flange side (Aluminum alloy (AA 5456)) to the Web side (Aluminum alloys (AA 6061 and AA 5456)) and the TRICLAD-Flange side (ASTM A516) to the Web side (AHSS) was studied in the present work. However, there are many issues related to HLAW of the dissimilar steels as well as dissimilar aluminum alloys that have to be resolved in order to obtain sound welds. To address the challenges, the most recent welding methods for joining aluminum alloys to steels were studied and the microstructural development, mechanical properties, and on-line monitoring of the welding processes were discussed as well

  2. OceanVideoLab: A Tool for Exploring Underwater Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrini, V. L.; Morton, J. J.; Wiener, C.

    2016-02-01

    Video imagery acquired with underwater vehicles is an essential tool for characterizing seafloor ecosystems and seafloor geology. It is a fundamental component of ocean exploration that facilitates real-time operations, augments multidisciplinary scientific research, and holds tremendous potential for public outreach and engagement. Acquiring, documenting, managing, preserving and providing access to large volumes of video acquired with underwater vehicles presents a variety of data stewardship challenges to the oceanographic community. As a result, only a fraction of underwater video content collected with research submersibles is documented, discoverable and/or viewable online. With more than 1 billion users, YouTube offers infrastructure that can be leveraged to help address some of the challenges associated with sharing underwater video with a broad global audience. Anyone can post content to YouTube, and some oceanographic organizations, such as the Schmidt Ocean Institute, have begun live-streaming video directly from underwater vehicles. OceanVideoLab (oceanvideolab.org) was developed to help improve access to underwater video through simple annotation, browse functionality, and integration with related environmental data. Any underwater video that is publicly accessible on YouTube can be registered with OceanVideoLab by simply providing a URL. It is strongly recommended that a navigational file also be supplied to enable geo-referencing of observations. Once a video is registered, it can be viewed and annotated using a simple user interface that integrates observations with vehicle navigation data if provided. This interface includes an interactive map and a list of previous annotations that allows users to jump to times of specific observations in the video. Future enhancements to OceanVideoLab will include the deployment of a search interface, the development of an application program interface (API) that will drive the search and enable querying of

  3. NASA welding assessment program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    A program was conducted to demonstrate the cycle life capability of welded solar cell modules relative to a soldered solar cell module in a simulated low earth orbit thermal environment. A total of five 18-cell welded (parallel gap resistance welding) modules, three 18-cell soldered modules, and eighteen single cell samples were fabricated using 2 x 4 cm silicon solar cells from ASEC, fused silica cover glass from OCLI, silver plated Invar interconnectors, DC 93-500 adhesive, and Kapton-Kevlar-Kapton flexible substrate material. Zero degree pull strength ranged from 2.4 to 5.7 lbs for front welded contacts (40 samples), and 3.5 to 6.2 lbs for back welded contacts (40 samples). Solar cell cross sections show solid state welding on both front and rear contacts. The 18-cell welded modules have a specific power of 124 W/kg and an area power density of 142 W/sq m (both at 28 C). Three welded and one soldered module were thermal cycle tested in a thermal vacuum chamber simulating a low earth orbit thermal environment.

  4. Real weld geometry determining mechanical properties of high power laser welded medium plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sang; Mi, Gaoyang; Yan, Fei; Wang, Chunming; Li, Peigen

    2018-06-01

    Weld width is commonly used as one of main factors to assess joint performances in laser welding. However, it changes significantly through the thickness direction in conditions of medium or thick plates. In this study, high-power autogenous laser welding was conducted on 7 mm thickness 201 stainless steel to elucidate the factor of whole weld transverse shape critically affecting the mechanical properties with the aim of predicting the performance visually through the weld appearance. The results show that single variation of welding parameters could result in great changes of weld pool figures and subsequently weld transverse shapes. All the obtained welds are composed of austenite containing small amount of cellular dendritic δ-Ferrite. The 0.2% proof stresses of Nail- and Peanut-shaped joint reach 458 MPa and 454 MPa, 88.2% and 87.5% of the base material respectively, while that of Wedge-shaped joint only comes to 371 MPa, 71.5% of the base material. The deterioration effect is believed to be caused by the axial grain zone in the weld center. The fatigue strength of joint P is a bit lower than N, but much better than W. Significant deformation incompatibility through the whole thickness and microstructure resistance to crack initiation should be responsible for the poor performance of W-shaped joints.

  5. Dual wire weld feed proportioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nugent, R. E.

    1968-01-01

    Dual feed mechanism enables proportioning of two different weld feed wires during automated TIG welding to produce a weld alloy deposit of the desired composition. The wires are fed into the weld simultaneously. The relative feed rates of the wires and the wire diameters determine the weld deposit composition.

  6. Contrasting styles of welding observed in the proximal Askja 1875 eruption deposits II: Local welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, R. J.; Houghton, B. F.; Thordarson, T.

    2008-03-01

    As an alternative to classical welding models of fall deposits due to the progressive accumulation of hot tephra which then weld, we describe here welded deposits on the northern 1875 caldera rim of Askja volcano that have welded due to the influence of hot, discrete spatter bombs impacting into and supplying heat to a halo of surrounding tephra. This style of welding we term 'local welding' in contrast to 'regional welding' which is described elsewhere [Carey, R.J., Houghton, B.F., Thordarson, T., 2008. Contrasting styles of welding observed in the proximal Askja 1875 eruption deposits I: Regional welding. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 171, 1-19. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2007.11.020]. Locally welded deposits are associated with the rhyolitic Plinian phase of the 1875 eruption of Askja volcano. Two distinct welding units (W1 and W2) are interbedded with Plinian fall on the northern caldera rim, and grade outwards to weakly dispersed non-welded fall. Spatter bombs are found in both welding units but vary in their characteristic sizes and internal features. In the W1 unit simple bombs with homogeneous internal characteristics up to ˜ 60 cm in diameter are found. In the W2 unit, large discrete spatter bombs with complex internal features range up to 9 m in diameter. We describe here two case studies showing the effects of a) single small spatter bombs; b) multiple small spatter bombs and c) large discrete spatter bombs varying in size. Vertical and lateral profiles through welding zones reveal that the primary controls on local welding are the availability of supplied or added heat and the loading capacity of the spatter bomb. Local welding grades are much higher than that of regional welding, as the combined effects of heat, compaction and insulation can provide suitable conditions which lead to dense welding and, proximal to the spatter bomb, rheomorphic flowage. If heating and loading exceed the critical requirement for welding, porosity loss via matrix welding and

  7. Weld defect identification in friction stir welding using power spectral density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Bipul; Pal, Sukhomay; Bag, Swarup

    2018-04-01

    Power spectral density estimates are powerful in extraction of useful information retained in signal. In the current research work classical periodogram and Welch periodogram algorithms are used for the estimation of power spectral density for vertical force signal and transverse force signal acquired during friction stir welding process. The estimated spectral densities reveal notable insight in identification of defects in friction stir welded samples. It was observed that higher spectral density against each process signals is a key indication in identifying the presence of possible internal defects in the welded samples. The developed methodology can offer preliminary information regarding presence of internal defects in friction stir welded samples can be best accepted as first level of safeguard in monitoring the friction stir welding process.

  8. Operation of electrothermal and electrostatic MUMPs microactuators underwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sameoto, Dan; Hubbard, Ted; Kujath, Marek

    2004-10-01

    Surface-micromachined actuators made in multi-user MEMS processes (MUMPs) have been operated underwater without modifying the manufacturing process. Such actuators have generally been either electro-thermally or electro-statically actuated and both actuator styles are tested here for suitability underwater. This is believed to be the first time that thermal and electrostatic actuators have been compared for deflection underwater relative to air performance. A high-frequency ac square wave is used to replicate a dc-driven actuator output without the associated problem of electrolysis in water. This method of ac activation, with frequencies far above the mechanical resonance frequencies of the MEMS actuators, has been termed root mean square (RMS) operation. Both thermal and electrostatic actuators have been tested and proved to work using RMS control. Underwater performance has been evaluated by using in-air operation of these actuators as a benchmark. When comparing deflection per volt applied, thermal actuators operate between 5 and 9% of in-air deflection and electrostatic actuators show an improvement in force per volt applied of upwards of 6000%. These results agree with predictions based on the physical properties of the surrounding medium.

  9. Instructional Guidelines. Welding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fordyce, H. L.; Doshier, Dale

    Using the standards of the American Welding Society and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, this welding instructional guidelines manual presents a course of study in accordance with the current practices in industry. Intended for use in welding programs now practiced within the Federal Prison System, the phases of the program are…

  10. Models for selecting GMA Welding Parameters for Improving Mechanical Properties of Weld Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasa Rao, P.; Ramachandran, Pragash; Jebaraj, S.

    2016-02-01

    During the process of Gas Metal Arc (GMAW) welding, the weld joints mechanical properties are influenced by the welding parameters such as welding current and arc voltage. These parameters directly will influence the quality of the weld in terms of mechanical properties. Even small variation in any of the cited parameters may have an important effect on depth of penetration and on joint strength. In this study, S45C Constructional Steel is taken as the base metal to be tested using the parameters wire feed rate, voltage and type of shielding gas. Physical properties considered in the present study are tensile strength and hardness. The testing of weld specimen is carried out as per ASTM Standards. Mathematical models to predict the tensile strength and depth of penetration of weld joint have been developed by regression analysis using the experimental results.

  11. Welding quality evaluation of resistance spot welding using the time-varying inductive reactance signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongjie; Hou, Yanyan; Yang, Tao; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Jian

    2018-05-01

    In the spot welding process, a high alternating current is applied, resulting in a time-varying electromagnetic field surrounding the welder. When measuring the welding voltage signal, the impedance of the measuring circuit consists of two parts: dynamic resistance relating to weld nugget nucleation event and inductive reactance caused by mutual inductance. The aim of this study is to develop a method to acquire the dynamic reactance signal and to discuss the possibility of using this signal to evaluate the weld quality. For this purpose, a series of experiments were carried out. The reactance signals under different welding conditions were compared and the results showed that the morphological feature of the reactance signal was closely related to the welding current and it was also significantly influenced by some abnormal welding conditions. Some features were extracted from the reactance signal and combined to construct weld nugget strength and diameter prediction models based on the radial basis function (RBF) neural network. In addition, several features were also used to monitor the expulsion in the welding process by using Fisher linear discriminant analysis. The results indicated that using the dynamic reactance signal to evaluate weld quality is possible and feasible.

  12. Underwater disorientation as induced by two helicopter ditching devices.

    PubMed

    Cheung, B; Hofer, K; Brooks, C J; Gibbs, P

    2000-09-01

    Spatial orientation is based on the integration of concordant and redundant information from the visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems. When a person is submerged underwater, somatosensory cues are reduced, and vestibular cues are ambiguous with respect to upright or inverted position. Visual cues may be lost as a result of reduced ambient light. Underwater disorientation has been cited as one of the major factors that could inhibit emergency egress after a helicopter ditching into water. One countermeasure to familiarize aircrew with underwater disorientation is emergency egress training. This study examined the relative degree of underwater disorientation induced by the Modular Egress Training Simulator (METS) and the Shallow Water Egress Trainer (SWET). There were 36 healthy subjects (28 males and 8 females) who participated in the study. Underwater disorientation was quantified by measuring the deviation of subjective vertical-pointing from the gravitational vertical, time to egress, and subjective reports of disorientation and ease of egress. A repeated measure design was employed with seat position (SWET chair, METS window, and METS aisle) as the sole factor. Subjective response data indicated that the degree of disorientation is rated significantly higher, and the ease of egress is rated worse from the two METS seat positions than from the SWET. This is supported by the findings that subjective vertical-pointing accuracy is worse in the METS seat positions than in the SWET (p < 0.01). The time to egress is longer from the two METS seat positions than from SWET (p < 0.01). Our results indicate that the METS device is effective for inducing underwater disorientation as provoked by simulated helicopter ditching. disorientation, vestibular, subjective pointing.

  13. DE-Sync: A Doppler-Enhanced Time Synchronization for Mobile Underwater Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feng; Wang, Qi; Nie, DongHu; Qiao, Gang

    2018-05-25

    Time synchronization is the foundation of cooperative work among nodes of underwater sensor networks; it takes a critical role in the research and application of underwater sensor networks. Although numerous time synchronization protocols have been proposed for terrestrial wireless sensor networks, they cannot be directly applied to underwater sensor networks. This is because most of them typically assume that the propagation delay among sensor nodes is negligible, which is not the case in underwater sensor networks. Time synchronization is mainly affected by a long propagation delay among sensor nodes due to the low propagation speed of acoustic signals. Furthermore, sensor nodes in underwater tend to experience some degree of mobility due to wind or ocean current, or some other nodes are on self-propelled vehicles, such as autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). In this paper, we propose a Doppler-enhanced time synchronization scheme for mobile underwater sensor networks, called DE-Sync. Our new scheme considers the effect of the clock skew during the process of estimating the Doppler scale factor and directly substitutes the Doppler scale factor into linear regression to achieve the estimation of the clock skew and offset. Simulation results show that DE-Sync outperforms existing time synchronization protocols in both accuracy and energy efficiency.

  14. Butt Welding Joint of Aluminum Alloy by Space GHTA Welding Process in Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suita, Yoshikazu; Shinike, Shuhei; Ekuni, Tomohide; Terajima, Noboru; Tsukuda, Yoshiyuki; Imagawa, Kichiro

    Aluminum alloys have been used widely in constructing various space structures including the International Space Station (ISS) and launch vehicles. For space applications, welding experiments on aluminum alloy were performed using the GHTA (Gas Hollow Tungsten Arc) welding process using a filler wire feeder in a vacuum. We investigated the melting phenomenon of the base metal and filler wire, bead formation, and the effects of wire feed speed on melting characteristics. The melting mechanism in the base metal during the bead on a plate with wire feed was similar to that for the melt run without wire feed. We clarified the effects of wire feed speed on bead sizes and configurations. Furthermore, the butt welded joint welded using the optimum wire feed speed, and the joint tensile strengths were evaluated. The tensile strength of the square butt joint welded by the pulsed DC GHTA welding with wire feed in a vacuum is nearly equal to that of the same joint welded by conventional GTA (Gas Tungsten Arc) welding in air.

  15. Properties of the welded joints of manganese steel made by low-frequency pulsed arc welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraev, Yu. N.; Bezborodov, V. P.; Gladovskii, S. V.; Golikov, N. I.

    2017-04-01

    The structure, the mechanical properties, the impact toughness, and the fracture mechanisms of the welded joints made of steel 09G2S plates by direct current welding and pulsed arc welding with a modulated arc current in the frequency range 0.25-5.0 Hz are studied. The application of low-frequency pulsed arc welding allowed us to form welded joints with a fine-grained structure in the weld metal and the heat-affected zone and to achieve a higher impact toughness and a longer cyclic fatigue life as compared to the welded joints fabricated by direct current welding. The achieved effect manifests itself over the entire testing range from 20 to-60°C.

  16. Portable Weld Tester.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Douglas

    This training manual, which was developed for employees of an automotive plant, is designed to teach trainees to operate a portable weld tester (Miyachi MM-315). In chapter 1, the weld tester's components are illustrated and described, and the procedure for charging its batteries is explained. Chapter 2 illustrates the weld tester's parts,…

  17. Welding Course Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genits, Joseph C.

    This guide is intended for use in helping students gain a fundamental background on the major aspects of the welding trade. The course emphasis is on mastery of the manipulative skills necessary to develop successful welding techniques and on acquisition of an understanding of the specialized tools and equipment used in welding. The first part…

  18. On post-weld heat treatment cracking in tig welded superalloy ATI 718Plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asala, G.; Ojo, O. A.

    The susceptibility of heat affected zone (HAZ) to cracking in Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welded Allvac 718Plus superalloy during post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) was studied. Contrary to the previously reported case of low heat input electron beam welded Allvac 718Plus, where HAZ cracking occurred during PWHT, the TIG welded alloy is crack-free after PWHT, notwithstanding the presence of similar micro-constituents that caused cracking in the low input weld. Accordingly, the formation of brittle HAZ intergranular micro-constituents may not be a sufficient factor to determine cracking propensity, the extent of heat input during welding may be another major factor that influences HAZ cracking during PWHT of the aerospace superalloy Allvac 718Plus.

  19. Structure and phase composition of welded joints modified by different welding techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Aleksander; Popova, Natalya; Nikonenko, Elena; Ozhiganov, Eugeniy; Ababkov, Nikolay; Koneva, Nina

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents the results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) during the study of structure and phase composition of heat-affected zone (HAZ) of welded joints modified via four welding techniques, namely: electrode welding and electropercussive welding both with and without artificial flaws. The artificial flows represent aluminum pieces. TEM studies are carried out within the heat-affected zone, i.e. between the deposited and base metal, at 0.5 mm distance to the former. The 0.09C-2Mn-1Si-Fe steel type is used for welding. It is shown how the type of welding affects steel morphology, phase composition, defect structure and its parameters. The type of carbide phase is detected as well as the shape and location of particles. Volume fractions are estimated for the structural steel components, alongside with such parameters as the size of α-phase fragments, scalar and excess dislocation densities, and bending-torsion amplitude of the crystal lattice. Based on these results, we determine the welding technique and the structural component thus launching a mechanism of microcrack nucleation.

  20. Weld radiograph enigmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jemian, Wartan A.

    1986-01-01

    Weld radiograph enigmas are features observed on X-ray radiographs of welds. Some of these features resemble indications of weld defects, although their origin is different. Since they are not understood, they are a source of concern. There is a need to identify their causes and especially to measure their effect on weld mechanical properties. A method is proposed whereby the enigmas can be evaluated and rated, in relation to the full spectrum of weld radiograph indications. Thie method involves a signature and a magnitude that can be used as a quantitive parameter. The signature is generated as the diference between the microdensitometer trace across the radiograph and the computed film intensity derived from a thickness scan along the corresponding region of the sample. The magnitude is the measured difference in intensity between the peak and base line values of the signature. The procedure is demonstated by comparing traces across radiographs of a weld sample before and after the introduction of a hole and by a system based on a MacIntosh mouse used for surface profiling.

  1. Automatic Welding System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-01-01

    Robotic welding has been of interest to industrial firms because it offers higher productivity at lower cost than manual welding. There are some systems with automated arc guidance available, but they have disadvantages, such as limitations on types of materials or types of seams that can be welded; susceptibility to stray electrical signals; restricted field of view; or tendency to contaminate the weld seam. Wanting to overcome these disadvantages, Marshall Space Flight Center, aided by Hayes International Corporation, developed system that uses closed-circuit TV signals for automatic guidance of the welding torch. NASA granted license to Combined Technologies, Inc. for commercial application of the technology. They developed a refined and improved arc guidance system. CTI in turn, licensed the Merrick Corporation, also of Nashville, for marketing and manufacturing of the new system, called the CT2 Optical Trucker. CT2 is a non-contracting system that offers adaptability to broader range of welding jobs and provides greater reliability in high speed operation. It is extremely accurate and can travel at high speed of up to 150 inches per minute.

  2. Underwater Photo-Elicitation: A New Experiential Marine Education Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Steve; Stocker, Laura; Oechel, Walter

    2018-01-01

    Underwater photo-elicitation is a novel experiential marine education technique that combines direct experience in the marine environment with the use of digital underwater cameras. A program called Show Us Your Ocean! (SUYO!) was created, utilising a mixed methodology (qualitative and quantitative methods) to test the efficacy of this technique.…

  3. A review of underwater bio-mimetic propulsion: cruise and fast-start

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Li-Ming; Cao, Yong-Hui; Pan, Guang

    2017-08-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in the understanding of underwater bio-mimetic propulsion. Two impressive models of underwater propulsion are considered: cruise and fast-start. First, we introduce the progression of bio-mimetic propulsion, especially underwater propulsion, where some primary conceptions are touched upon. Second, the understanding of flapping foils, considered as one of the most efficient cruise styles of aquatic animals, is introduced, where the effect of kinematics and the shape and flexibility of foils on generating thrust are elucidated respectively. Fast-start propulsion is always exhibited when predator behaviour occurs, and we provide an explicit introduction of corresponding zoological experiments and numerical simulations. We also provide some predictions about underwater bio-mimetic propulsion.

  4. Laser weld jig. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Van Blarigan, P.; Haupt, D.L.

    1980-12-05

    A system is provided for welding a workpiece along a predetermined weld line that may be of irregular shape, which includes the step of forming a lip on the workpiece to extend parallel to the weld line, and moving the workpiece by engaging the lip between a pair of rotatable members. Rotation of one of the members at a constant speed, causes the workpiece to move so that all points on the weld line sequentially pass a fixed point in space at a constant speed, so that a laser welding beam can be directed at that fixed point to form a weld along the weld line. The workpiece can include a reusable jig forming the lip, and with the jig constructed to detachably hold parts to be welded at a position wherein the weld line of the parts extends parallel to the lip on the jig.

  5. Real-Time Communication Support for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks †.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rodrigo; Orozco, Javier; Micheletto, Matias; Ochoa, Sergio F; Meseguer, Roc; Millan, Pere; Molina, And Carlos

    2017-07-14

    Underwater sensor networks represent an important and promising field of research due to the large diversity of underwater ubiquitous applications that can be supported by these networks, e.g., systems that deliver tsunami and oil spill warnings, or monitor submarine ecosystems. Most of these monitoring and warning systems require real-time communication in wide area networks that have a low density of nodes. The underwater communication medium involved in these networks is very harsh and imposes strong restrictions to the communication process. In this scenario, the real-time transmission of information is done mainly using acoustic signals, since the network nodes are not physically close. The features of the communication scenario and the requirements of the communication process represent major challenges for designers of both, communication protocols and monitoring and warning systems. The lack of models to represent these networks is the main stumbling block for the proliferation of underwater ubiquitous systems. This paper presents a real-time communication model for underwater acoustic sensor networks (UW-ASN) that are designed to cover wide areas with a low density of nodes, using any-to-any communication. This model is analytic, considers two solution approaches for scheduling the real-time messages, and provides a time-constraint analysis for the network performance. Using this model, the designers of protocols and underwater ubiquitous systems can quickly prototype and evaluate their solutions in an evolving way, in order to determine the best solution to the problem being addressed. The suitability of the proposal is illustrated with a case study that shows the performance of a UW-ASN under several initial conditions. This is the first analytic model for representing real-time communication in this type of network, and therefore, it opens the door for the development of underwater ubiquitous systems for several application scenarios.

  6. Underwater olfaction for real-time detection of submerged unexploded ordnance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Ross J.; Dock, Matthew L.

    2007-04-01

    The presence of Underwater Unexploded Ordnance (UUXO) represents a considerable threat in the marine environment. Elevated concentrations of dissolved explosive compounds, such as TNT and RDX, may be produced in the vicinity of degraded UUXO shell casings and are known to have significant toxicant effects on local marine organisms. During World War II and in subsequent years, the US military inadvertently or, in some cases intentionally, deposited many thousands of tons of UUXO in US coastal waters. Much of this material is difficult to locate by magnetometry or sonar imaging techniques, and can be extremely challenging to identify by visual means after lying on the bottom of the ocean for several decades. The present work is focused on advances in underwater olfaction, wherein trace amounts of dissolved explosive compounds may be detected and discriminated from other chemical species found in the marine environment, for the purpose of establishing safe cordons and/or neutralization of the explosives. ICx Nomadics has developed the first known real-time sensor system that is capable of detecting chemical signatures emanating from underwater explosives. The SeaPup sensor, which is based on the fluorescence-quenching transduction mechanism of an amplifying fluorescent polymer (AFP), is capable of real-time detection of the trace chemical signatures emanating from submerged explosive compounds. The SeaPup system has been successfully tested on various marine platforms, including a crawler robot, an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), and a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV). In one study, the SeaPup was shown to effectively map liquid phase "explosive scent plumes" emanating from an underwater source of TNT. The presented paper will provide an overview of the history, current status, and future development of explosive analyte detection in the underwater environment.

  7. Real-Time Communication Support for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks †

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Rodrigo; Orozco, Javier; Micheletto, Matias

    2017-01-01

    Underwater sensor networks represent an important and promising field of research due to the large diversity of underwater ubiquitous applications that can be supported by these networks, e.g., systems that deliver tsunami and oil spill warnings, or monitor submarine ecosystems. Most of these monitoring and warning systems require real-time communication in wide area networks that have a low density of nodes. The underwater communication medium involved in these networks is very harsh and imposes strong restrictions to the communication process. In this scenario, the real-time transmission of information is done mainly using acoustic signals, since the network nodes are not physically close. The features of the communication scenario and the requirements of the communication process represent major challenges for designers of both, communication protocols and monitoring and warning systems. The lack of models to represent these networks is the main stumbling block for the proliferation of underwater ubiquitous systems. This paper presents a real-time communication model for underwater acoustic sensor networks (UW-ASN) that are designed to cover wide areas with a low density of nodes, using any-to-any communication. This model is analytic, considers two solution approaches for scheduling the real-time messages, and provides a time-constraint analysis for the network performance. Using this model, the designers of protocols and underwater ubiquitous systems can quickly prototype and evaluate their solutions in an evolving way, in order to determine the best solution to the problem being addressed. The suitability of the proposal is illustrated with a case study that shows the performance of a UW-ASN under several initial conditions. This is the first analytic model for representing real-time communication in this type of network, and therefore, it opens the door for the development of underwater ubiquitous systems for several application scenarios. PMID:28708093

  8. Cardiovascular response during submaximal underwater treadmill exercise in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeehyun; Lim, Kil-Byung; Lee, Hong-Jae; Kwon, Yong-Geol

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the cardiovascular response during head-out water immersion, underwater treadmill gait, and land treadmill gait in stroke patients. Ten stroke patients were recruited for underwater and land treadmill gait sessions. Each session was 40 minutes long; 5 minutes for standing rest on land, 5 minutes for standing rest in water or on treadmill, 20 minutes for treadmill walking in water or on land, 5 minutes for standing rest in water or on treadmill, and 5 minutes for standing rest on land. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured during each session. In order to estimate the cardiovascular workload and myocardial oxygen demand, the rate pressure product (RPP) value was calculated by multiplying systolic BP (SBP) by HR. SBP, DBP, mean BP (mBP), and RPP decreased significantly after water immersion, but HR was unchanged. During underwater and land treadmill gait, SBP, mBP, DBP, RPP, and HR increased. However, the mean maximum increases in BP, HR and RPP of underwater treadmill walking were significantly lower than that of land treadmill walking. Stroke patients showed different cardiovascular responses during water immersion and underwater gait as opposed to standing and treadmill-walking on land. Water immersion and aquatic treadmill gait may reduce the workload of the cardiovascular system. This study suggested that underwater treadmill may be a safe and useful option for cardiovascular fitness and early ambulation in stroke rehabilitation.

  9. Welding, Bonding and Fastening, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, J. D. (Editor); Stein, B. A. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    A compilation of papers presented in a joint NASA, American Society for Metals, The George Washington University, American Welding Soceity, and Society of Manufacturing Engineers conference on Welding, Bonding, and Fastening at Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, on October 23 to 25, 1984 is given. Papers were presented on technology developed in current research programs relevant to welding, bonding, and fastening of structural materials required in fabricating structures and mechanical systems used in the aerospace, hydrospace, and automotive industries. Topics covered in the conference included equipment, hardware and materials used when welding, brazing, and soldering, mechanical fastening, explosive welding, use of unique selected joining techniques, adhesives bonding, and nondestructive evaluation. A concept of the factory of the future was presented, followed by advanced welding techniques, automated equipment for welding, welding in a cryogenic atmosphere, blind fastening, stress corrosion resistant fasteners, fastening equipment, explosive welding of different configurations and materials, solid-state bonding, electron beam welding, new adhesives, effects of cryogenics on adhesives, and new techniques and equipment for adhesive bonding.

  10. Channel coding for underwater acoustic single-carrier CDMA communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lanjun; Zhang, Yonglei; Zhang, Pengcheng; Zhou, Lin; Niu, Jiong

    2017-01-01

    CDMA is an effective multiple access protocol for underwater acoustic networks, and channel coding can effectively reduce the bit error rate (BER) of the underwater acoustic communication system. For the requirements of underwater acoustic mobile networks based on CDMA, an underwater acoustic single-carrier CDMA communication system (UWA/SCCDMA) based on the direct-sequence spread spectrum is proposed, and its channel coding scheme is studied based on convolution, RA, Turbo and LDPC coding respectively. The implementation steps of the Viterbi algorithm of convolutional coding, BP and minimum sum algorithms of RA coding, Log-MAP and SOVA algorithms of Turbo coding, and sum-product algorithm of LDPC coding are given. An UWA/SCCDMA simulation system based on Matlab is designed. Simulation results show that the UWA/SCCDMA based on RA, Turbo and LDPC coding have good performance such that the communication BER is all less than 10-6 in the underwater acoustic channel with low signal to noise ratio (SNR) from -12 dB to -10dB, which is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than that of the convolutional coding. The system based on Turbo coding with Log-MAP algorithm has the best performance.

  11. Modeling the utility of binaural cues for underwater sound localization.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jennifer N; Lloyd, David R; Banks, Patchouly N; Mercado, Eduardo

    2014-06-01

    The binaural cues used by terrestrial animals for sound localization in azimuth may not always suffice for accurate sound localization underwater. The purpose of this research was to examine the theoretical limits of interaural timing and level differences available underwater using computational and physical models. A paired-hydrophone system was used to record sounds transmitted underwater and recordings were analyzed using neural networks calibrated to reflect the auditory capabilities of terrestrial mammals. Estimates of source direction based on temporal differences were most accurate for frequencies between 0.5 and 1.75 kHz, with greater resolution toward the midline (2°), and lower resolution toward the periphery (9°). Level cues also changed systematically with source azimuth, even at lower frequencies than expected from theoretical calculations, suggesting that binaural mechanical coupling (e.g., through bone conduction) might, in principle, facilitate underwater sound localization. Overall, the relatively limited ability of the model to estimate source position using temporal and level difference cues underwater suggests that animals such as whales may use additional cues to accurately localize conspecifics and predators at long distances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Welding Experiments of Aluminum Alloy by Space GHTA Welding in the ISS Orbital Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suita, Yoshikazu; Takai, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Satoshi; Terajima, Noboru; Tsukuda, Yoshiyuki; Fujisawa, Shoichiro; Imagawa, Kichiro

    As a feasible welding method in space, the authors have previously proposed the space GHTA (Gas Hollow Tungsten Arc) welding process. The space GHTA welding with high frequency power source for the arc starting may cause the electro-magnetic noise problems of computer equipments placed on the ISS. Therefore, in this paper the welding experiments of aluminum alloy by the space GHTA welding with DC high voltage power source for the arc starting was carried out in the ISS orbital pressure 10-5Pa. It is made clear that there is the shifting phenomenon in which the spark discharge changes to the glow or arc discharge at starting phenomenon of the space GHTA welding in high vacuum condition, and the features of those starting phenomenon are demonstrated. And the space GHTA welding with DC high voltage power source can be used for welding in the ISS orbital pressure.

  13. Experiments on the mechanism of underwater hearing.

    PubMed

    Pau, Hans Wilhelm; Warkentin, Mareike; Specht, Olaf; Krentz, Helga; Herrmann, Anne; Ehrt, Karsten

    2011-12-01

    The findings suggest that underwater sound perception is realized by the middle ear rather than by bone conduction, at least in shallow water conditions. To prove whether underwater sound perception is effected by bone conduction or by conduction via the middle ear. Five divers, breathing through snorkels, were tested in a swimming pool, to determine whether a sound was louder when the acoustic source placed was in front of the head in comparison with a lateral application facing the ear region. The second experiment investigated whether sound perception is influenced by ear protection plugs in underwater conditions. Also, the effect of a 5 mm thick neoprene hood was determined, with and without an additional perforation in the ear region. Sounds were louder when applied from a position laterally facing the ear, louder without than with a protection plug, louder without than with a neoprene hood on, and louder when the neoprene hood had a perforation in the region of the ear than with an intact hood.

  14. Towards Enhanced Underwater Lidar Detection via Source Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illig, David W.

    Interest in underwater optical sensors has grown as technologies enabling autonomous underwater vehicles have been developed. Propagation of light through water is complicated by the dual challenges of absorption and scattering. While absorption can be reduced by operating in the blue-green region of the visible spectrum, reducing scattering is a more significant challenge. Collection of scattered light negatively impacts underwater optical ranging, imaging, and communications applications. This thesis concentrates on the ranging application, where scattering reduces operating range as well as range accuracy. The focus of this thesis is on the problem of backscatter, which can create a "clutter" return that may obscure submerged target(s) of interest. The main contributions of this thesis are explorations of signal processing approaches to increase the separation between the target and backscatter returns. Increasing this separation allows detection of weak targets in the presence of strong scatter, increasing both operating range and range accuracy. Simulation and experimental results will be presented for a variety of approaches as functions of water clarity and target position. This work provides several novel contributions to the underwater lidar field: 1. Quantification of temporal separation approaches: While temporal separation has been studied extensively, this work provides a quantitative assessment of the extent to which both high frequency modulation and spatial filter approaches improve the separation between target and backscatter. 2. Development and assessment of frequency separation: This work includes the first frequency-based separation approach for underwater lidar, in which the channel frequency response is measured with a wideband waveform. Transforming to the time-domain gives a channel impulse response, in which target and backscatter returns may appear in unique range bins and thus be separated. 3. Development and assessment of statistical

  15. Modern Methods of Rail Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, Nikolay A.; Kozyreva, Olga A.; Usoltsev, Aleksander A.; Kryukov, Roman E.; Shevchenko, Roman A.

    2017-10-01

    Existing methods of rail welding, which are enable to get continuous welded rail track, are observed in this article. Analysis of existing welding methods allows considering an issue of continuous rail track in detail. Metallurgical and welding technologies of rail welding and also process technologies reducing aftereffects of temperature exposure are important factors determining the quality and reliability of the continuous rail track. Analysis of the existing methods of rail welding enable to find the research line for solving this problem.

  16. Optimization of process parameters in welding of dissimilar steels using robot TIG welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navaneeswar Reddy, G.; VenkataRamana, M.

    2018-03-01

    Robot TIG welding is a modern technique used for joining two work pieces with high precision. Design of Experiments is used to conduct experiments by varying weld parameters like current, wire feed and travelling speed. The welding parameters play important role in joining of dissimilar stainless steel SS 304L and SS430. In this work, influences of welding parameter on Robot TIG Welded specimens are investigated using Response Surface Methodology. The Micro Vickers hardness tests of the weldments are measured. The process parameters are optimized to maximize the hardness of the weldments.

  17. Influence of shielding gas pressure on welding characteristics in CO2 laser-MIG hybrid welding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanbin; Lei, Zhenglong; Li, Liqun; Wu, Lin

    2006-01-01

    The droplet transfer behavior and weld characteristics have been investigated under different pressures of shielding gas in CO2 laser and metal inert/active gas (laser-MIG) hybrid welding process. The experimental results indicate that the inherent droplet transfer frequency and stable welding range of conventional MIG arc are changed due to the interaction between CO2 laser beam and MIG arc in laser-MIG hybrid welding process, and the shielding gas pressure has a crucial effect on welding characteristics. When the pressure of shielding gas is low in comparison with MIG welding, the frequency of droplet transfer decreases, and the droplet transfer becomes unstable in laser-MIG hybrid welding. So the penetration depth decreases, which shows the characteristic of unstable hybrid welding. However, when the pressure of shielding gas increases to a critical value, the hybrid welding characteristic is changed from unstable hybrid welding to stable hybrid welding, and the frequency of droplet transfer and the penetration depth increase significantly.

  18. Underwater Munitions Expert System to Predict Mobility and Burial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-11-14

    exposure and aggregation for underwater munitions. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Underwater Munitions, Mobility, Burial, Application Programmer Interface...Munitions Expert System: Demonstration and Evaluation Report Acronyms API – Application Programmer Interface APL – Applied Physics...comparisons and traditional metrics such as the coefficient of correlation. The summary statistic for the comparisons of burial results

  19. Welding of hermetic connectors

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hieber, D.E.

    1976-08-01

    Certain systems use hermetically-sealed multipin connectors welded into a stainless steel support ring. Failure of these hermetic seals during welding continues to be a problem, and similar problems are anticipated on advanced systems. Since the assembly is expensive, and the detection, prevention, and repair of hermetic seal failures is costly, development of an improved welding process is important. Extended service life also requires a lower system leak rate, thus causing an increased need for maintaining the hermetic seal without supplemental epoxy sealing and repair. Experience shows that up to 70 percent of the 10-pin SA1810-2 connectors have gross leaks (greatermore » than 0.003 mm/sup 3//s Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)) after being welded using established welding processes and without using the epoxy pre-seal process. Acceptable leak rates of less than 0.00001 mm/sup 3//s STP were achieved from 20 SA1810-2 10-pin connectors using heat sinks and an intermittent gas-tungsten-arc (GTA) weld technique. The process developed consists of using a massive copper heat sink with silicon thermal joint compound to maintain control of temperature in the hermetic seal area and using a 12-segment GTA weld with compressed argon gas cooling between weld segments. The process and techniques developed are considered acceptable for welding the SA1810 family of connectors.« less

  20. Effect of post weld impact treatment (PWIT) on mechanical properties of spot-welded joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, F. A.; Salleh, Z.; Hyie, K. M.; Rozlin, N. M. Nik; Hamidi, S. H. Ahmad; Padzi, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on the study of improvement for spot welding on the tensile shear and hardness by applying post weld impact treatment (PWIT) on the welded joint. The main objective of the research is to characterize and improve the mechanical properties of the joint. The method of PWIT used on the welded joint was Pneumatic Impact Treatment (PIT). The concept of PIT on spot welding is that it improves the mechanical properties of the welded zone. The working sample was undergoing a resistance spot welding of joining two similar in dimension and material of a steel plate before treated. The dimension of both plate are 110 mm × 45 mm × 1.2 mm and the material used were low carbon steel (LCS). All the welded samples were tested for its mechanical properties by performing the tensile-shear and hardness test. Tensile-shear test was conducted on the spot welded, both treated and as-welded samples using crosshead speed of 2 mm/min, while hardness test was performed using 1kgf load via Vickers hardness indenter. The effects of PIT on tensile-shear properties and hardness were evaluated and found that the implementation of PIT has increased tensile shear and hardness significantly.

  1. Underwater methods for study of salmonids in the Intermountain West

    Treesearch

    Russell F. Thurow

    1994-01-01

    This guide describes underwater methods using snorkeling gear to study fish populations in flowing waters of the Intermountain West. It outlines procedures for estimating salmonid abundance and habitat use and provides criteria for identifying and estimating the size of fish underwater.

  2. Acoustic-Emission Weld-Penetration Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maram, J.; Collins, J.

    1986-01-01

    Weld penetration monitored by detection of high-frequency acoustic emissions produced by advancing weld pool as it melts and solidifies in workpiece. Acoustic emission from TIG butt weld measured with 300-kHz resonant transducer. Rise in emission level coincides with cessation of weld penetration due to sudden reduction in welding current. Such monitoring applied to control of automated and robotic welders.

  3. Concurrent ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    DOEpatents

    Hood, Donald W.; Johnson, John A.; Smartt, Herschel B.

    1987-01-01

    A system for concurrent, non-destructive evaluation of partially completed welds for use in conjunction with an automated welder. The system utilizes real time, automated ultrasonic inspection of a welding operation as the welds are being made by providing a transducer which follows a short distance behind the welding head. Reflected ultrasonic signals are analyzed utilizing computer based digital pattern recognition techniques to discriminate between good and flawed welds on a pass by pass basis. The system also distinguishes between types of weld flaws.

  4. Concurrent ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    DOEpatents

    Hood, D.W.; Johnson, J.A.; Smartt, H.B.

    1985-09-04

    A system for concurrent, non-destructive evaluation of partially completed welds for use in conjunction with an automated welder. The system utilizes real time, automated ultrasonic inspection of a welding operation as the welds are being made by providing a transducer which follows a short distance behind the welding head. Reflected ultrasonic signals are analyzed utilizing computer based digital pattern recognition techniques to discriminate between good and flawed welds on a pass by pass basis. The system also distinguishes between types of weld flaws.

  5. Underwater detection by using ultrasonic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakar, S. A. A.; Ong, N. R.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Alcain, J. B.; Haimi, W. M. W. N.; Sauli, Z.

    2017-09-01

    This paper described the low cost implementation of hardware and software in developing the system of ultrasonic which can visualize the feedback of sound in the form of measured distance through mobile phone and monitoring the frequency of detection by using real time graph of Java application. A single waterproof transducer of JSN-SR04T had been used to determine the distance of an object based on operation of the classic pulse echo detection method underwater. In this experiment, the system was tested by placing the housing which consisted of Arduino UNO, Bluetooth module of HC-06, ultrasonic sensor and LEDs at the top of the box and the transducer was immersed in the water. The system which had been tested for detection in vertical form was found to be capable of reporting through the use of colored LEDs as indicator to the relative proximity of object distance underwater form the sensor. As a conclusion, the system can detect the presence of an object underwater within the range of ultrasonic sensor and display the measured distance onto the mobile phone and the real time graph had been successfully generated.

  6. Underwater photography for bridge inspections.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1983-01-01

    A photographic technique was developed that enables divers in the Department to obtain clear photographs under typical conditions encountered in inspecting bridge components underwater. The equipment selected for the technique is inexpensive, readily...

  7. Underwater Acoustic Source Localisation Among Blind and Sighted Scuba Divers: Comparative study.

    PubMed

    Cambi, Jacopo; Livi, Ludovica; Livi, Walter

    2017-05-01

    Many blind individuals demonstrate enhanced auditory spatial discrimination or localisation of sound sources in comparison to sighted subjects. However, this hypothesis has not yet been confirmed with regards to underwater spatial localisation. This study therefore aimed to investigate underwater acoustic source localisation among blind and sighted scuba divers. This study took place between February and June 2015 in Elba, Italy, and involved two experimental groups of divers with either acquired (n = 20) or congenital (n = 10) blindness and a control group of 30 sighted divers. Each subject took part in five attempts at an under-water acoustic source localisation task, in which the divers were requested to swim to the source of a sound originating from one of 24 potential locations. The control group had their sight obscured during the task. The congenitally blind divers demonstrated significantly better underwater sound localisation compared to the control group or those with acquired blindness ( P = 0.0007). In addition, there was a significant correlation between years of blindness and underwater sound localisation ( P <0.0001). Congenital blindness was found to positively affect the ability of a diver to recognise the source of a sound in an underwater environment. As the correct localisation of sounds underwater may help individuals to avoid imminent danger, divers should perform sound localisation tests during training sessions.

  8. Predicting laser weld reliability with stochastic reduced-order models. Predicting laser weld reliability

    DOE PAGES

    Emery, John M.; Field, Richard V.; Foulk, James W.; ...

    2015-05-26

    Laser welds are prevalent in complex engineering systems and they frequently govern failure. The weld process often results in partial penetration of the base metals, leaving sharp crack-like features with a high degree of variability in the geometry and material properties of the welded structure. Furthermore, accurate finite element predictions of the structural reliability of components containing laser welds requires the analysis of a large number of finite element meshes with very fine spatial resolution, where each mesh has different geometry and/or material properties in the welded region to address variability. We found that traditional modeling approaches could not bemore » efficiently employed. Consequently, a method is presented for constructing a surrogate model, based on stochastic reduced-order models, and is proposed to represent the laser welds within the component. Here, the uncertainty in weld microstructure and geometry is captured by calibrating plasticity parameters to experimental observations of necking as, because of the ductility of the welds, necking – and thus peak load – plays the pivotal role in structural failure. The proposed method is exercised for a simplified verification problem and compared with the traditional Monte Carlo simulation with rather remarkable results.« less

  9. Analysis of the Corrosion Behavior of an A-TIG Welded SS 409 Weld Fusion Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidyarthy, R. S.; Dwivedi, D. K.

    2017-11-01

    AISI 409 (SS 409) ferritic stainless steel is generally used as the thick gauge section in freight train wagons, in ocean containers, and in sugar refinery equipment. Activating the flux tungsten inert gas (A-TIG) welding process can reduce the welding cost during fabrication of thick sections. However, corrosion behavior of the A-TIG weld fusion zone is a prime concern for this type of steel. In the present work, the effect of the A-TIG welding process parameters on the corrosion behavior of a weld fusion zone made of 8-mm-thick AISI 409 ferritic stainless-steel plate has been analyzed. Potentiodynamic polarization tests were performed to evaluate the corrosion behavior. The maximum corrosion potential ( E corr) was shown by the weld made using a welding current of 215 A, a welding speed of 95 mm/min, and a flux coating density of 0.81 mg/cm2. The minimum E corr was observed in the weld made using a welding current of 190 A, a welding speed of 120 mm/min, and a flux coating density of 1.40 mg/cm2. The current study also presents the inclusive microstructure-corrosion property relationships using the collective techniques of scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction.

  10. Microstructures and electrochemical behaviors of the friction stir welding dissimilar weld.

    PubMed

    Shen, Changbin; Zhang, Jiayan; Ge, Jiping

    2011-06-01

    By using optical microscope, the microstructures of 5083/6082 friction stir welding (FSW) weld and parent materials were analyzed. Meanwhile, at ambient temperature and in 0.2 mol/L NaHS03 and 0.6 mol/L NaCl solutionby gravimetric test, potentiodynamic polarization curve test, electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation, the electrochemical behavior of 5083/6082 friction stir welding weld and parent materials were comparatively investigated by gravimetric test, potentiodynamic polarization curve test, electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation. The results indicated that at given processing parameters, the anti-corrosion property of the dissimilar weld was superior to those of the 5083 and 6082 parent materials. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. D Modelling and Mapping for Virtual Exploration of Underwater Archaeology Assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liarokapis, F.; Kouřil, P.; Agrafiotis, P.; Demesticha, S.; Chmelík, J.; Skarlatos, D.

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates immersive technologies to increase exploration time in an underwater archaeological site, both for the public, as well as, for researchers and scholars. Focus is on the Mazotos shipwreck site in Cyprus, which is located 44 meters underwater. The aim of this work is two-fold: (a) realistic modelling and mapping of the site and (b) an immersive virtual reality visit. For 3D modelling and mapping optical data were used. The underwater exploration is composed of a variety of sea elements including: plants, fish, stones, and artefacts, which are randomly positioned. Users can experience an immersive virtual underwater visit in Mazotos shipwreck site and get some information about the shipwreck and its contents for raising their archaeological knowledge and cultural awareness.

  12. Infrared Thermography For Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Lucky, Brian D.; Spiegel, Lyle B.; Hudyma, Russell M.

    1992-01-01

    Infrared imaging and image-data-processing system shows temperatures of joint during welding and provides data from which rates of heating and cooling determined. Information used to control welding parameters to ensure reliable joints, in materials which microstructures and associated metallurgical and mechanical properties depend strongly on rates of heating and cooling. Applicable to variety of processes, including tungsten/inert-gas welding; plasma, laser, and resistance welding; cutting; and brazing.

  13. 46 CFR 169.229 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey intervals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., and underwater survey intervals. 169.229 Section 169.229 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Hauling Out § 169.229 Drydock examination, internal structural examination, and underwater survey... period unless it has been approved to undergo an underwater survey (UWILD) under § 169.230 of this part...

  14. Properties of welded joints in laser welding of aeronautic aluminum-lithium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malikov, A. G.; Orishich, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The work presents the experimental investigation of the laser welding of the aluminum-lithium alloys (system Al-Mg-Li) and aluminum alloy (system Al-Cu-Li) doped with Sc. The influence of the nano-structuring of the surface layer welded joint by the cold plastic deformation method on the strength properties of the welded joint is determined. It is founded that, regarding the deformation degree over the thickness, the varying value of the welded joint strength is different for these aluminum alloys.

  15. Concurrent ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    DOEpatents

    Hood, D.W.; Johnson, J.A.; Smartt, H.B.

    1987-12-15

    A system for concurrent, non-destructive evaluation of partially completed welds for use in conjunction with an automated welder is disclosed. The system utilizes real time, automated ultrasonic inspection of a welding operation as the welds are being made by providing a transducer which follows a short distance behind the welding head. Reflected ultrasonic signals are analyzed utilizing computer based digital pattern recognition techniques to discriminate between good and flawed welds on a pass by pass basis. The system also distinguishes between types of weld flaws. 5 figs.

  16. Tailor-welded blanks and their production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qi

    2005-01-01

    Tailor welded blanks had been widely used in the automobile industry. A tailor welded blank consists of several flat sheets that were laser welded together before stamping. A combination of different materials, thickness, and coatings could be welded together to form a blank for stamping car body panels. As for the material for automobile industry, this technology was one of the development trend for automobile industry because of its weight reduction, safety improvement and economical use of materials. In this paper, the characters and production of tailor welded blanks in the market were discussed in detail. There had two major methods to produce tailor welded blanks. Laser welding would replace mesh seam welding for the production of tailor welded blanks in the future. The requirements on the edge preparation of unwelded blanks for tailor welded blanks were higher than the other steel processing technology. In order to produce the laser welded blank, there had the other process before the laser welding in the factory. In the world, there had three kinds of patterns for the large volume production of tailor welded blanks. In China, steel factory played the important role in the promotion of the application of tailor welded blanks. The competition for the supply of tailor welded blanks to the automobile industry would become fierce in the near future. As a result, the demand for the quality control on the production of tailor welded blanks would be the first priority concern for the factory.

  17. Tribological properties of fish scale inspired underwater superoleophobic hierarchical structure in aqueous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Zhongxu; Xu, Jinkai; Wan, Yanling; Li, Yiquan; Yu, Zhanjiang; Liu, Qimeng; Yu, Huadong

    2017-10-01

    Underwater superoleophobic surfaces are becoming increasingly important in regard to self-cleaning, anti-fouling, oil droplet transportation and water/oil separation. Although a great number of underwater superoleophobic surfaces have been demonstrated, their tribological properties remain impractical for the purposes of real-life applications. Herein, a two-step method of high speed wire electrical discharge machining and boiling water treatment was adopted to fabricate fish scale inspired underwater oil repellent hierarchical structure on an aluminum (Al) alloy 5083 surface. The hierarchical roughness and hydroxyl groups were obtained on the surface, and the surface exhibited the ability to prevent contact with organic fluids when submerged in water. Moreover, the tribological properties of underwater superoleophobic Al surfaces in aqueous environments were analyzed. The average friction coefficient of underwater superoleophobic surfaces was decreased compared with the polished Al surface. We believe that this research will contribute to the engineering application of underwater superoleophobic surfaces in the future.

  18. Virtual Diving in the Underwater Archaeological Site of Cala Minnola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, F.; Lagudi, A.; Barbieri, L.; Muzzupappa, M.; Mangeruga, M.; Pupo, F.; Cozza, M.; Cozza, A.; Ritacco, G.; Peluso, R.; Tusa, S.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the application of the technologies and methods defined in the VISAS project for the case study of the underwater archaeological site of Cala Minnola located in the island of Levanzo, in the archipelago of the Aegadian Islands (Sicily, Italy). The VISAS project (http://visas-project.eu) aims to improve the responsible and sustainable exploitation of the Underwater Cultural Heritage by means the development of new methods and technologies including an innovative virtual tour of the submerged archaeological sites. In particular, the paper describes the 3D reconstruction of the underwater archaeological site of Cala Minnola and focus on the development of the virtual scene for its visualization and exploitation. The virtual dive of the underwater archaeological site allows users to live a recreational and educational experience by receiving historical, archaeological and biological information about the submerged exhibits, the flora and fauna of the place.

  19. The Effect of Welding Energy on the Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Ultrasonic-Welded Copper Joints

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingwei; Cao, Biao; Lu, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    The effects of welding energy on the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of ultrasonic-welded pure copper plates were investigated. Complex dynamic recrystallization and grain growth occurred inside the weld zone during ultrasonic welding. At a low welding energy, a thin band of straight weld interfaces was observed and had an ultra-fine grain structure. With an increase in welding energy, the weld interface progressively changed from flat to sinusoidal, and eventually turned into a convoluted wavy pattern, bearing similarities to shear instabilities, as observed in fluid dynamics. The lap shear load of the joints initially increased and then remained stable as the welding energy increased. The tensile characteristics of the joints significantly depended on the development of plastic deformation at the interface. The influence of the microstructure on the hardness was also discussed. PMID:28772553

  20. Evaluation of Residual Stress Measurements Before and After Post-Weld Heat Treatment in the Weld Repairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardowska, Anna M.; Price, John W. H.; Finlayson, Trevor R.; Ibrahim, R.

    2010-11-01

    Welding repairs are increasingly a structural integrity concern for aging pressure vessel and piping components. It has been demonstrated that the residual stress distribution near repair welds can be drastically different from that of the original weld. Residual stresses have a significant effect on the lifetime performance of a weld, and a reduction of these stresses is normally desirable. The aim of this paper is to investigate residual stresses in various weld repair arrangements using the non-destructive neutron diffraction technique. This research is focused on characterization of the residual stress distribution: (i) in the original weld; (ii) in a shallow toe weld repair; and (iii) after conventional post-weld heat treatment. The focus of the measurements is on the values of the subsurface strain/stress variations across the weld.

  1. The Effect of Welding Energy on the Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Ultrasonic-Welded Copper Joints.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingwei; Cao, Biao; Lu, Qinghua

    2017-02-16

    The effects of welding energy on the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of ultrasonic-welded pure copper plates were investigated. Complex dynamic recrystallization and grain growth occurred inside the weld zone during ultrasonic welding. At a low welding energy, a thin band of straight weld interfaces was observed and had an ultra-fine grain structure. With an increase in welding energy, the weld interface progressively changed from flat to sinusoidal, and eventually turned into a convoluted wavy pattern, bearing similarities to shear instabilities, as observed in fluid dynamics. The lap shear load of the joints initially increased and then remained stable as the welding energy increased. The tensile characteristics of the joints significantly depended on the development of plastic deformation at the interface. The influence of the microstructure on the hardness was also discussed.

  2. Influence of the welding temperature and the welding speed on the mechanical properties of friction stir welds in EN AW-2219-T87

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, A.; Krutzlinger, M.; Zaeh, M. F.

    2018-06-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is an innovative joining technique, which has proven to produce high quality joints in high strength aluminum alloys. Consequently, it is commonly used to manufacture lightweight aerospace structures with stringent requirements. For these structures, it is necessary to ensure a high ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Various studies have reported that the UTS is significantly influenced by the welding parameters. Samples welded with different parameter sets showed a considerably different UTS, despite being free from detectable welding defects (e.g. tunnel defect, voids, or lack of penetration). Based on the observations in the literature, a hypothesis was posed. The welding temperature along with the welding speed determine the UTS of the weld. This study aims to prove this hypothesis experimentally by using temperature-controlled FSW to join plates of EN AW-2219-T87 in butt joint configuration. The welded samples were examined using visual inspection, metallography, X-ray imaging, and uniaxial tensile tests. Finally, a statistical analysis was conducted. Hereby, the hypothesis was confirmed.

  3. ULTRA: Underwater Localization for Transit and Reconnaissance Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance L.

    2013-01-01

    This software addresses the issue of underwater localization of unmanned vehicles and the inherent drift in their onboard sensors. The software gives a 2 to 3 factor of improvement over the state-of-the-art underwater localization algorithms. The software determines the localization (position, heading) of an AUV (autonomous underwater vehicle) in environments where there is no GPS signal. It accomplishes this using only the commanded position, onboard gyros/accelerometers, and the bathymetry of the bottom provided by an onboard sonar system. The software does not rely on an onboard bathymetry dataset, but instead incrementally determines the position of the AUV while mapping the bottom. In order to enable long-distance underwater navigation by AUVs, a localization method called ULTRA uses registration of the bathymetry data products produced by the onboard forward-looking sonar system for hazard avoidance during a transit to derive the motion and pose of the AUV in order to correct the DR (dead reckoning) estimates. The registration algorithm uses iterative point matching (IPM) combined with surface interpolation of the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. This method was used previously at JPL for onboard unmanned ground vehicle localization, and has been optimized for efficient computational and memory use.

  4. U-Groove Aluminum Weld Strength Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.; Vaughan, R.

    1997-01-01

    Though butt-welds are among the most preferred joining methods in aerostructures, their strength dependence on inelastic mechanics is generally the least understood. This study investigated experimental strain distributions across a thick aluminum U-grooved weld and identified two weld process considerations for improving the multipass weld strength. One is the source of peaking in which the extreme thermal expansion and contraction gradient of the fusion heat input across the groove tab thickness produces severe angular distortion that induces bending under uniaxial loading. The other is the filler strain hardening decreasing with increasing filler pass sequences, producing the weakest welds on the last weld pass side. Both phenomena are governed by weld pass sequences. Many industrial welding schedules unknowingly compound these effects, which reduce the weld strength. A depeaking index model was developed to select filler pass thickness, pass numbers, and sequences to improve depeaking in the welding process. The result was to select the number and sequence of weld passes to reverse the peaking angle such as to combine the strongest weld pass side with the peaking induced bending tension component side to provide a more uniform stress and stronger weld under axial tensile loading.

  5. Plasma Processes of Cutting and Welding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-02-01

    TIG process. 2.2.2 Keyhole Welding In plasma arc welding , the term...Cutting 3 3 4 4 4 2.2 Plasma Arc Welding 5 2.2.1 Needle Arc Welding 2.2.2 Keyhole Welding 5 6 3. Applications 8 93.1 Economics 4. Environmental Aspects of...Arc Lengths III. Needle Arc Welding Conditions IV. Keyhole Welding Conditions v. Chemical Analyses of Plates Used - vii - 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

  6. Enhanced diffusion welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holko, K. H.; Moore, T. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Surfaces of unrecrystallized alloys are sanded and polished. This is followed by a two-step welding process by which the strength of the parent metal is retained at the weld joint. The first step forces the surfaces into intimate contact at a temperature where the metal still has good ductility. The second step causes diffusion, recrystallization, and grain growth across the original weld interface.

  7. Effect of rotation speed and welding speed on Friction Stir Welding of AA1100 Aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, P.; Bojanampati, S.; Karthikeyan, R.; Ganithi, R.

    2018-04-01

    Aluminum AA1100 is the most widely used grade of Aluminium due to its excellent corrosion resistance, high ductility and reflective finish, the selected material was welded with Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process on a CNC machine, using a combination of different tool rotation speed (1500 rpm, 2500 rpm, 3500 rpm) and welding speed (10 mm/min, 30 mm/min, 50 mm/min) as welding parameters. The effect of FSW using this welding parameter was studied by measuring the ultimate tensile strength of the welded joints. A high-speed steel tool was prepared for welding the Aluminium AA1100 alloy having an 8mm shoulder diameter and pin dimension of 4mm diameter and 2.8 mm length. The welded joints were tested using the universal testing machine. It was found that Ultimate Tensile Strength of FSW specimen was highest with a value of 98.08 MPa when the weld was performed at rotation speed of 1500 RPM and welding speed of 50 mm/min.

  8. Effects of Flux Precoating and Process Parameter on Welding Performance of Inconel 718 Alloy TIG Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsuan-Liang; Wu, Tong-Min; Cheng, Ching-Min

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of activating flux on the depth-to-width ratio (DWR) and hot cracking susceptibility of Inconel 718 alloy tungsten inert gas (TIG) welds. The Taguchi method is employed to investigate the welding parameters that affect the DWR of weld bead and to achieve optimal conditions in the TIG welds that are coated with activating flux in TIG (A-TIG) process. There are eight single-component fluxes used in the initial experiment to evaluate the penetration capability of A-TIG welds. The experimental results show that the Inconel 718 alloy welds precoated with 50% SiO2 and 50% MoO3 flux were provided with better welding performance such as DWR and hot cracking susceptibility. The experimental procedure of TIG welding process using mixed-component flux and optimal conditions not only produces a significant increase in DWR of weld bead, but also decreases the hot cracking susceptibility of Inconel 718 alloy welds.

  9. Effect of Pulse Parameters on Weld Quality in Pulsed Gas Metal Arc Welding: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Kamal; Pal, Surjya K.

    2011-08-01

    The weld quality comprises bead geometry and its microstructure, which influence the mechanical properties of the weld. The coarse-grained weld microstructure, higher heat-affected zone, and lower penetration together with higher reinforcement reduce the weld service life in continuous mode gas metal arc welding (GMAW). Pulsed GMAW (P-GMAW) is an alternative method providing a better way for overcoming these afore mentioned problems. It uses a higher peak current to allow one molten droplet per pulse, and a lower background current to maintain the arc stability. Current pulsing refines the grains in weld fusion zone with increasing depth of penetration due to arc oscillations. Optimum weld joint characteristics can be achieved by controlling the pulse parameters. The process is versatile and easily automated. This brief review illustrates the effect of pulse parameters on weld quality.

  10. Sensors control gas metal arc welding

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Siewert, T.A.; Madigan, R.B.; Quinn, T.P.

    1997-04-01

    The response time of a trained welder from the time a weld problem is identified to the time action is taken is about one second--especially after a long, uneventful period of welding. This is acceptable for manual welding because it is close to the time it takes for the weld pool to solidify. If human response time were any slower, manual welding would not be possible. However, human response time is too slow to respond to some weld events, such as melting of the contact tube in gas metal arc welding (GMAW), and only automated intelligent control systems can reactmore » fast enough to correct or avoid these problems. Control systems incorporate welding knowledge that enables intelligent decisions to be made about weld quality and, ultimately, to keep welding parameters in the range where only high-quality welds are produced. This article discusses the correlation of electrical signals with contact-tube wear, changes in shielding gas, changes in arc length, and other weld process data.« less

  11. Control of Gas Tungsten Arc welding pool shape by trace element addition to the weld pool

    DOEpatents

    Heiple, C.R.; Burgardt, P.

    1984-03-13

    An improved process for Gas Tungsten Arc welding maximizes the depth/width ratio of the weld pool by adding a sufficient amount of a surface active element to insure inward fluid flow, resulting in deep, narrow welds. The process is especially useful to eliminate variable weld penetration and shape in GTA welding of steels and stainless steels, particularly by using a sulfur-doped weld wire in a cold wire feed technique.

  12. Effects of alloying element on weld characterization of laser-arc hybrid welding of pure copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Kangda; Gong, Mengcheng; Xie, Yong; Gao, Ming; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2018-06-01

    Effects of alloying elements of Si and Sn on weld characterizations of laser-arc hybrid welded pure copper (Cu) with thickness of 2 mm was studied in detail by using different wires. The weld microstructure was analyzed, and the mechanical properties (micro-hardness and tensile property), conductivity and corrosion resistance were tested. The results showed that the alloying elements benefit the growth of column grains within weld fusion zone (FZ), increase the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the FZ and weld corrosion resistance, and decrease weld conductivity. The mechanisms were discussed according to the results.

  13. Study on Underwater Image Denoising Algorithm Based on Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Sun; Wen, Wang

    2017-02-01

    This paper analyzes the application of MATLAB in underwater image processing, the transmission characteristics of the underwater laser light signal and the kinds of underwater noise has been described, the common noise suppression algorithm: Wiener filter, median filter, average filter algorithm is brought out. Then the advantages and disadvantages of each algorithm in image sharpness and edge protection areas have been compared. A hybrid filter algorithm based on wavelet transform has been proposed which can be used for Color Image Denoising. At last the PSNR and NMSE of each algorithm has been given out, which compares the ability to de-noising

  14. Design and Implementation of an Underwater Sound Recording Device

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Jayson J.; Myers, Josh R.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Deng, Z. Daniel; Rohrer, John S.; Caviggia, Kurt A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Weiland, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    To monitor the underwater sound and pressure waves generated by anthropogenic activities such as underwater blasting and pile driving, an autonomous system was designed to record underwater acoustic signals. The underwater sound recording device (USR) allows for connections of two hydrophones or other dynamic pressure sensors, filters high frequency noise out of the collected signals, has a gain that can be independently set for each sensor, and allows for 2 h of data collection. Two versions of the USR were created: a submersible model deployable to a maximum depth of 300 m, and a watertight but not fully submersible model. Tests were performed on the USR in the laboratory using a data acquisition system to send single-frequency sinusoidal voltages directly to each component. These tests verified that the device operates as designed and performs as well as larger commercially available data acquisition systems, which are not suited for field use. On average, the designed gain values differed from the actual measured gain values by about 0.35 dB. A prototype of the device was used in a case study to measure blast pressures while investigating the effect of underwater rock blasting on juvenile Chinook salmon and rainbow trout. In the case study, maximum positive pressure from the blast was found to be significantly correlated with frequency of injury for individual fish. The case study also demonstrated that the device withstood operation in harsh environments, making it a valuable tool for collecting field measurements. PMID:22164089

  15. Correlation analysis of the variation of weld seam and tensile strength in laser welding of galvanized steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Kim, Duck Young; Ceglarek, Darek

    2013-10-01

    Many advantages of laser welding technology such as high speed and non-contact welding make the use of the technology more attractive in the automotive industry. Many studies have been conducted to search the optimal welding condition experimentally that ensure the joining quality of laser welding that relies both on welding system configuration and welding parameter specification. Both non-destructive and destructive techniques, for example, ultrasonic inspection and tensile test are widely used in practice for estimating the joining quality. Non-destructive techniques are attractive as a rapid quality testing method despite relatively low accuracy. In this paper, we examine the relationship between the variation of weld seam and tensile shear strength in the laser welding of galvanized steel in a lap joint configuration in order to investigate the potential of the variation of weld seam as a joining quality estimator. From the experimental analysis, we identify a trend in between maximum tensile shear strength and the variation of weld seam that clearly supports the fact that laser welded parts having larger variation in the weld seam usually have lower tensile strength. The discovered relationship leads us to conclude that the variation of weld seam can be used as an indirect non-destructive testing method for estimating the tensile strength of the welded parts.

  16. Selection of optimal welding condition for GTA pulse welding in root-pass of V-groove butt joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Seok-Chul; Kim, Jae-Woong

    2010-12-01

    In the manufacture of high-quality welds or pipeline, a full-penetration weld has to be made along the weld joint. Therefore, root-pass welding is very important, and its conditions have to be selected carefully. In this study, an experimental method for the selection of optimal welding conditions is proposed for gas tungsten arc (GTA) pulse welding in the root pass which is done along the V-grooved butt-weld joint. This method uses response surface analysis in which the width and height of back bead are chosen as quality variables of the weld. The overall desirability function, which is the combined desirability function for the two quality variables, is used as the objective function to obtain the optimal welding conditions. In our experiments, the target values of back bead width and height are 4 mm and zero, respectively, for a V-grooved butt-weld joint of a 7-mm-thick steel plate. The optimal welding conditions could determine the back bead profile (bead width and height) as 4.012 mm and 0.02 mm. From a series of welding tests, it was revealed that a uniform and full-penetration weld bead can be obtained by adopting the optimal welding conditions determined according to the proposed method.

  17. Superior underwater vision in a human population of sea gypsies.

    PubMed

    Gislén, Anna; Dacke, Marie; Kröger, Ronald H H; Abrahamsson, Maths; Nilsson, Dan-Eric; Warrant, Eric J

    2003-05-13

    Humans are poorly adapted for underwater vision. In air, the curved corneal surface accounts for two-thirds of the eye's refractive power, and this is lost when air is replaced by water. Despite this, some tribes of sea gypsies in Southeast Asia live off the sea, and the children collect food from the sea floor without the use of visual aids. This is a remarkable feat when one considers that the human eye is not focused underwater and small objects should remain unresolved. We have measured the visual acuity of children in a sea gypsy population, the Moken, and found that the children see much better underwater than one might expect. Their underwater acuity (6.06 cycles/degree) is more than twice as good as that of European children (2.95 cycles/degree). Our investigations show that the Moken children achieve their superior underwater vision by maximally constricting the pupil (1.96 mm compared to 2.50 mm in European children) and by accommodating to the known limit of human performance (15-16 D). This extreme reaction-which is routine in Moken children-is completely absent in European children. Because they are completely dependent on the sea, the Moken are very likely to derive great benefit from this strategy.

  18. Numerical modelling of underwater detonation of non-ideal condensed-phase explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoch, Stefan; Nikiforakis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    The interest in underwater detonation tests originated from the military, since the expansion and subsequent collapse of the explosive bubble can cause considerable damage to surrounding structures or vessels. In military applications, the explosive is typically represented as a pre-burned material under high pressure, a reasonable assumption due to the short reaction zone lengths, and complete detonation of the unreacted explosive. Hence, numerical simulations of underwater detonation tests have been primarily concerned with the prediction of target loading and the damage incurred rather than the accurate modelling of the underwater detonation process. The mining industry in contrast has adopted the underwater detonation test as a means to experimentally characterise the energy output of their highly non-ideal explosives depending on explosive type and charge configuration. This characterisation requires a good understanding of how the charge shape, pond topography, charge depth, and additional charge confinement affect the energy release, some of which can be successfully quantified with the support of accurate numerical simulations. In this work, we propose a numerical framework which is able to capture the non-ideal explosive behaviour and in addition is capable of capturing both length scales: the reaction zone and the pond domain. The length scale problem is overcome with adaptive mesh refinement, which, along with the explosive model, is validated against experimental data of various TNT underwater detonations. The variety of detonation and bubble behaviour observed in non-ideal detonations is demonstrated in a parameter study over the reactivity of TNT. A representative underwater mining test containing an ammonium-nitrate fuel-oil ratestick charge is carried out to demonstrate that the presented method can be readily applied alongside experimental underwater detonation tests.

  19. Automatic welding of stainless steel tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clautice, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    The use of automatic welding for making girth welds in stainless steel tubing was investigated as well as the reduction in fabrication costs resulting from the elimination of radiographic inspection. Test methodology, materials, and techniques are discussed, and data sheets for individual tests are included. Process variables studied include welding amperes, revolutions per minute, and shielding gas flow. Strip chart recordings, as a definitive method of insuring weld quality, are studied. Test results, determined by both radiographic and visual inspection, are presented and indicate that once optimum welding procedures for specific sizes of tubing are established, and the welding machine operations are certified, then the automatic tube welding process produces good quality welds repeatedly, with a high degree of reliability. Revised specifications for welding tubing using the automatic process and weld visual inspection requirements at the Kennedy Space Center are enumerated.

  20. Underwater Flow Visualization Methods in the Upper Layer of the Ocean.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-22

    AD-A107 919 NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC F/G 8/3 UNDERWATER FLOW VISUALIZATION METHODS IN T1E UPPER LAYER OF THE-ETC(U) AMAY 81 J R MCGRATH, C M...S.bOti1.) S. TYPE OF REPORT I PERIOD COVERED UNDERWATER FLOW VISUALIZATION METHODS Interim report on a continuingNRL problem. IN THE UPPER LAYER OF THE...56 UNDERWATER FLOW VISUALIZATION METHODS IN THE UPPER LAYER OF THE OCEAN 1. INTRODUCTION a) Purpose This report documents the

  1. Upgraded HFIR Fuel Element Welding System

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sease, John D

    2010-02-01

    The welding of aluminum-clad fuel plates into aluminum alloy 6061 side plate tubing is a unique design feature of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel assemblies as 101 full-penetration circumferential gas metal arc welds (GMAW) are required in the fabrication of each assembly. In a HFIR fuel assembly, 540 aluminum-clad fuel plates are assembled into two nested annular fuel elements 610 mm (24-inches) long. The welding process for the HFIR fuel elements was developed in the early 1960 s and about 450 HFIR fuel assemblies have been successfully welded using the GMAW process qualified in the 1960 s. Inmore » recent years because of the degradation of the electronic and mechanical components in the old HFIR welding system, reportable defects in plate attachment or adapter welds have been present in almost all completed fuel assemblies. In October 2008, a contract was awarded to AMET, Inc., of Rexburg, Idaho, to replace the old welding equipment with standard commercially available welding components to the maximum extent possible while maintaining the qualified HFIR welding process. The upgraded HFIR welding system represents a major improvement in the welding system used in welding HFIR fuel elements for the previous 40 years. In this upgrade, the new inner GMAW torch is a significant advancement over the original inner GMAW torch previously used. The innovative breakthrough in the new inner welding torch design is the way the direction of the cast in the 0.762 mm (0.030-inch) diameter aluminum weld wire is changed so that the weld wire emerging from the contact tip is straight in the plane perpendicular to the welding direction without creating any significant drag resistance in the feeding of the weld wire.« less

  2. Welding in Space Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    The potential was discussed for welding in space, its advantages and disadvantages, and what type of programs can benefit from the capability. Review of the various presentations and comments made in the course of the workshop suggests several routes to obtaining a better understanding of how welding processes can be used in NASA's initiatives in space. They are as follows: (1) development of a document identifying well processes and equipment requirements applicable to space and lunar environments; (2) more demonstrations of welding particular hardware which are to be used in the above environments, especially for space repair operations; (3) increased awareness among contractors responsible for building space equipment as to the potential for welding operations in space and on other planetary bodies; and (4) continuation of space welding research projects is important to maintain awareness within NASA that welding in space is viable and beneficial.

  3. Saturn S-2 production operations techniques: Production welding. Volume 1: Bulkhead welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, O. G.

    1970-01-01

    The complex Saturn S-2 welding processes and procedures required considerable development and refinement to establish a production capability that could consistently produce aluminum alloy welds within specified requirements. The special processes and techniques are defined that were established for the welding of gore-to-gore and manhole- or closeout-to-gore.

  4. Weld failure detection

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.; Sutton, Jr., Harry G.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for detecting failure in a welded connection, particrly applicable to not readily accessible welds such as those joining components within the reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor system. A preselected tag gas is sealed within a chamber which extends through selected portions of the base metal and weld deposit. In the event of a failure, such as development of a crack extending from the chamber to an outer surface, the tag gas is released. The environment about the welded area is directed to an analyzer which, in the event of presence of the tag gas, evidences the failure. A trigger gas can be included with the tag gas to actuate the analyzer.

  5. [The effects of different welding wires on the mechanical properties of laser welding joints].

    PubMed

    Huang, Qing-feng; Zhang, Jian-zhong; Jiang, Wei-dong; Li, Quan; Yu, Jin-xing

    2006-08-01

    To evaluate the mechanical properties and microstructure of laser-welded joints with different welding wires for clinical use of welding wire. The standard tensile test and three-point bending test rods were made from Co-Cr and Ni-Cr alloy, and were laser-welded with different welding wire (commercially welding wire and casting wire). Then the tensile rods were tested for the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and the bending rods for the ultimate bending strength (UBS). The results was analyzed by one-way ANOVA. The tensile fracture surface were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Metallurgical analysis were also performed on polished longitudinal sectioned samples. For Co-Cr alloy, the UTS of casting wire group and commercially welding wire group was respectively (606.40+/-82.53)MPa and (693.61+/-47.68)MPa; the UBS was respectively (997.95+/-88.89)MPa and (1160.76+/-91.59)MPa. ANOVA showed a significant difference of UTS and UBS between the two groups at the 0.05 level (P<0.05). For Ni-Cr alloy, the UTS of casting wire group and commercially welding wire group was respectively (558.14+/-46.75)MPa and (582.32+/-35.43)MPa; the UBS was respectively (1084.75+/-46.02)MPa and (1078.29+/-36.25)MPa. There was no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). SEM and metallurgical examination showed the welded zone exhibiting more cracks in the casting wire group than in the commercially welding wire group. It would be advisable to work with commercially welding wire for the joints that need better strength.

  6. Method for welding beryllium

    DOEpatents

    Dixon, Raymond D.; Smith, Frank M.; O'Leary, Richard F.

    1997-01-01

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon.

  7. Method for welding beryllium

    DOEpatents

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

    1997-04-01

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs.

  8. The Effect of Underwater Gait Training on Balance Ability of Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seok Woo; Lee, Kyoung Jin; Shin, Doo Chul; Shin, Seung Ho; Lee, Myung Mo; Song, Chang Ho

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of underwater treadmill gait training on the balance ability of stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-two patients with stroke were randomly assigned to an underwater treadmill group (n =11) or a control group (n =11). [Methods] Both groups received general rehabilitation for 30 min per session, 5 times per week, over a 4-week period. The underwater treadmill group received additional underwater gait training for 30 min per session, 5 times per week, over the same 4-week period. Static and dynamic balances were evaluated before and after the intervention. [Results] The means of static and dynamic balance ability increased significantly in both groups, but there was no significant difference between the two groups. [Conclusion] Compared to the general rehabilitation program, underwater treadmill gait training was not more effective at improving the balance ability of stroke patients than land-based training. PMID:25013292

  9. EB welding of launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabo, Attila

    While large structural components can be electron beam (EB) welded, equipment and operating costs increase with the requisite vacuum chamber's size. Attention is presently given to cost-effective ways of EB welding launch-vehicle assemblies without compromise of weld quality in such alloys as 2219, 2090, Weldalite, and HP9-4-30/20. Weld strengths at both room and cryogenic temperatures that were 50 percent higher than those obtainable for such materials with arc welding have been demonstrated. Fracture toughnesses were also 40-50 percent higher than arc-welded values. Attention is given to EB joint fit-up allowables for 2219-T87 Al alloy.

  10. Industrial laser welding evaluation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hella, R.; Locke, E.; Ream, S.

    1974-01-01

    High power laser welding was evaluated for fabricating space vehicle boosters. This evaluation was made for 1/4 in. and 1/2 in. aluminum (2219) and 1/4 in. and 1/2 in. D6AC steel. The Avco HPL 10 kW industrial laser was used to perform the evaluation. The objective has been achieved through the completion of the following technical tasks: (1) parameter study to optimize welding and material parameters; (2) preparation of welded panels for MSFC evaluation; and (3) demonstration of the repeatability of laser welding equipment. In addition, the design concept for a laser welding system capable of welding large space vehicle boosters has been developed.

  11. Welding III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding III, an advanced course in arc welding offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to provide students with the proficiency necessary for industrial certification. The course objectives, which are outlined first, specify that students will…

  12. A Study to Increase Weld Penetration in P91 Steel During TIG Welding by using Activating Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Kumar, Mayank; Dey, Vidyut; Naresh Rai, Ram

    2017-08-01

    Activated Flux TIG (ATIG) welding is a unique joining process, invented at Paton Institute of electric welding in 1960. ATIG welding process is also known as flux zoned TIG (FZTIG). In this process, a thin layer of activating flux is applied along the line on the surface of the material where the welding is to be carries out. The ATIG process aids to increase the weld penetration in thick materials. Activating fluxes used in the literature show the use of oxides like TiO2, SiO2, Cr2O3, ZnO, CaO, Fe2O3, and MnO2 during welding of steels. In the present study, ATIG was carried out on P-91 steel. Though, Tungsten Inert Gas welding gives excellent quality welds, but the penetration obtained in such welding is still demanding. P91 steel which is ferritic steel is used in high temperature applications. As this steel is, generally, used in thick sections, fabrication of such structures with TIG welding is limited, due to its low depth of penetration. To increase the depth of penetration in P91while welding with ATIG, the role of various oxides were investigated. Apart from the oxides mentioned above, in the present study the role of B2O3, V2O5 and MgO, during ATIG welding of P91 was investigated. It was seen that, compared to TIG welding, there was phenomenal increase in weld penetration during ATIG welding. Amongst all the oxides used in this study, maximum penetration was achieved in case of B2O3. The measurements of weld penetration, bead width and heat affected zone of the weldings were carried out using an image analysis technique.

  13. Effects of underwater escape training--a psychophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Hytten, K; Jensen, A; Vaernes, R

    1989-05-01

    The effect of underwater escape training was analysed among 78 participants at the Norwegian Underwater Technological Center (NUTEC), Bergen, in a psychophysiological study. The training caused significant physiological activation. Perceived training effect was found to be inversely related to anxiety during training. Most of the participants developed a positive response outcome expectancy and increased confidence in flying. The learning aspects were versatile and partly dependent on personality factors. A more individualized approach to training is recommended.

  14. Physics of Fusion Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Applicabilities and limitations of three techniques analyzed. NASA technical memorandum discusses physics of electron-beam, gas/ tungsten-arc, and laser-beam welding. From comparison of capabilities and limitations of each technique with regard to various welding conditions and materials, possible to develop criteria for selecting best welding technique in specific application. All three techniques classified as fusion welding; small volume of workpiece melted by intense heat source. Heat source moved along seam, leaving in wake solid metal that joins seam edges together.

  15. Microstructure Formation in Dissimilar Metal Welds: Electron Beam Welding of Ti/Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Subhradeep; Abinandanan, T. A.; Reddy, G. Madhusudhan; Chattopadhyay, Kamanio

    2016-02-01

    We present results for electron beam welding of a binary Ti/Ni dissimilar metal couple. The difference in physical properties of the base metals and metallurgical features (thermodynamics and kinetics) of the system influence both macroscopic transport and microstructure development in the weld. Microstructures near the fusion interfaces are markedly different from those inside the weld region. At the Ti side, Ti2Ni dendrites are observed to grow toward the fusion interface, while in the Ni side, layered growth of γ-Ni, Ni3Ti, and Ni3Ti + NiTi eutectic is observed. Different morphologies of the latter eutectic constitute the predominant microstructure inside the weld metal region. These results are compared and contrasted with those from laser welding of the same binary couple, and a scheme of solidification is proposed to explain the observations. This highlights notable departures from welding of similar and other dissimilar metals such as a significant asymmetry in heat transport that governs progress of solidification from each side of the couple, and a lack of unique liquidus isotherm characterizing the liquid-solid front.

  16. Precoding based channel prediction for underwater acoustic OFDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, En; Lin, Na; Sun, Hai-xin; Yan, Jia-quan; Qi, Jie

    2017-04-01

    The life duration of underwater cooperative network has been the hot topic in recent years. And the problem of node energy consuming is the key technology to maintain the energy balance among all nodes. To ensure energy efficiency of some special nodes and obtain a longer lifetime of the underwater cooperative network, this paper focuses on adopting precoding strategy to preprocess the signal at the transmitter and simplify the receiver structure. Meanwhile, it takes into account the presence of Doppler shifts and long feedback transmission delay in an underwater acoustic communication system. Precoding technique is applied based on channel prediction to realize energy saving and improve system performance. Different precoding methods are compared. Simulated results and experimental results show that the proposed scheme has a better performance, and it can provide a simple receiver and realize energy saving for some special nodes in a cooperative communication.

  17. Energy Harvesting Hybrid Acoustic-Optical Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks Localization.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Nasir; Celik, Abdulkadir; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-12-26

    Underwater wireless technologies demand to transmit at higher data rate for ocean exploration. Currently, large coverage is achieved by acoustic sensor networks with low data rate, high cost, high latency, high power consumption, and negative impact on marine mammals. Meanwhile, optical communication for underwater networks has the advantage of the higher data rate albeit for limited communication distances. Moreover, energy consumption is another major problem for underwater sensor networks, due to limited battery power and difficulty in replacing or recharging the battery of a sensor node. The ultimate solution to this problem is to add energy harvesting capability to the acoustic-optical sensor nodes. Localization of underwater sensor networks is of utmost importance because the data collected from underwater sensor nodes is useful only if the location of the nodes is known. Therefore, a novel localization technique for energy harvesting hybrid acoustic-optical underwater wireless sensor networks (AO-UWSNs) is proposed. AO-UWSN employs optical communication for higher data rate at a short transmission distance and employs acoustic communication for low data rate and long transmission distance. A hybrid received signal strength (RSS) based localization technique is proposed to localize the nodes in AO-UWSNs. The proposed technique combines the noisy RSS based measurements from acoustic communication and optical communication and estimates the final locations of acoustic-optical sensor nodes. A weighted multiple observations paradigm is proposed for hybrid estimated distances to suppress the noisy observations and give more importance to the accurate observations. Furthermore, the closed form solution for Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) is derived for localization accuracy of the proposed technique.

  18. Energy Harvesting Hybrid Acoustic-Optical Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks Localization

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Nasir; Celik, Abdulkadir; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    Underwater wireless technologies demand to transmit at higher data rate for ocean exploration. Currently, large coverage is achieved by acoustic sensor networks with low data rate, high cost, high latency, high power consumption, and negative impact on marine mammals. Meanwhile, optical communication for underwater networks has the advantage of the higher data rate albeit for limited communication distances. Moreover, energy consumption is another major problem for underwater sensor networks, due to limited battery power and difficulty in replacing or recharging the battery of a sensor node. The ultimate solution to this problem is to add energy harvesting capability to the acoustic-optical sensor nodes. Localization of underwater sensor networks is of utmost importance because the data collected from underwater sensor nodes is useful only if the location of the nodes is known. Therefore, a novel localization technique for energy harvesting hybrid acoustic-optical underwater wireless sensor networks (AO-UWSNs) is proposed. AO-UWSN employs optical communication for higher data rate at a short transmission distance and employs acoustic communication for low data rate and long transmission distance. A hybrid received signal strength (RSS) based localization technique is proposed to localize the nodes in AO-UWSNs. The proposed technique combines the noisy RSS based measurements from acoustic communication and optical communication and estimates the final locations of acoustic-optical sensor nodes. A weighted multiple observations paradigm is proposed for hybrid estimated distances to suppress the noisy observations and give more importance to the accurate observations. Furthermore, the closed form solution for Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) is derived for localization accuracy of the proposed technique. PMID:29278405

  19. 49 CFR 192.225 - Welding procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding procedures. 192.225 Section 192.225... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Welding of Steel in Pipelines § 192.225 Welding procedures. (a) Welding must be performed by a qualified welder in accordance with welding procedures...

  20. 49 CFR 192.225 - Welding procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Welding procedures. 192.225 Section 192.225... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Welding of Steel in Pipelines § 192.225 Welding procedures. (a) Welding must be performed by a qualified welder in accordance with welding procedures...

  1. 49 CFR 192.225 - Welding procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Welding procedures. 192.225 Section 192.225... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Welding of Steel in Pipelines § 192.225 Welding procedures. (a) Welding must be performed by a qualified welder in accordance with welding procedures...

  2. 49 CFR 192.225 - Welding procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Welding procedures. 192.225 Section 192.225... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Welding of Steel in Pipelines § 192.225 Welding procedures. (a) Welding must be performed by a qualified welder in accordance with welding procedures...

  3. 49 CFR 192.225 - Welding procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Welding procedures. 192.225 Section 192.225... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Welding of Steel in Pipelines § 192.225 Welding procedures. (a) Welding must be performed by a qualified welder in accordance with welding procedures...

  4. Influence of the Gap Width on the Geometry of the Welded Joint in Hybrid Laser-Arc Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turichin, G.; Tsibulskiy, I.; Kuznetsov, M.; Akhmetov, A.; Mildebrath, M.; Hassel, T.

    The aim of this research was the experimental investigation of the influence of the gap width and speed of the welding wire on the changes of the geometry in the welded joint in the hybrid laser-arc welding of shipbuilding steel RS E36. The research was divided into three parts. First, in order to understand the influence of the gap width on the welded joint geometry, experimental research was done using continuous wave fiber laser IPG YLS-15000 with arc rectifier VDU-1500DC. The second part involved study of the geometry of the welded joint and hardness test results. Three macrosections from each welded joint were obtained. Influence of the gap width and welding wire speed on the welded joint geometry was researched in the three lines: in the right side of the plates, middle welded joint and in the root welded joint.

  5. U-Groove aluminum weld strength improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.; Vaughan, R.

    1996-01-01

    Though butt-welds are among the most preferred joining methods in aerostructures, their strength dependence on inelastic mechanics is generally the least understood. This study investigated experimental strain distributions across a thick aluminum U-grooved weld and identified two weld process considerations for improving the multipass weld strength. The extreme thermal expansion and contraction gradient of the fusion heat input across the groove tab thickness produces severe peaking, which induces bending under uniaxial loading. The filler strain-hardening decreased with increasing filler pass sequence, producing the weakest welds on the last pass side. Current welding schedules unknowingly compound these effects which reduce the weld strength. A depeaking index model was developed to select filler pass thicknesses, pass numbers, and sequences to improve depeaking in the welding process. The intent is to combine the strongest weld pass side with the peaking induced bending tension to provide a more uniform stress and stronger weld under axial tensile loading.

  6. Biosensor UUV payload for underwater detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusterbeck, Anne W.; Charles, Paul T.; Melde, Brian J.; Trammell, Scott A.; Adams, André A.; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.

    2010-04-01

    Increased emphasis on maritime domain awareness and port security has led to the development of unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) capable of extended missions. These systems rely most frequently on well-developed side scan sonar and acoustic methods to locate potential targets. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is developing biosensors for underwater explosives detection that complement acoustic sensors and can be used as UUV payloads to monitor areas for port and harbor security or in detection of underwater unexploded ordnance (UXO) and biochemical threats. The prototype sensor has recently been demonstrated to detect explosives in seawater at trace levels when run in a continuous sampling mode. To overcome ongoing issues with sample preparation and facilitate rapid detection at trace levels in a marine environment, we have been developing new mesoporous materials for in-line preconcentration of explosives and other small molecules, engineering microfluidic components to improve the signal, and testing alternative signal transduction methods. Additional work is being done to optimize the optical components and sensor response time. Highlights of these current studies and our ongoing efforts to integrate the biosensor with existing detection technologies to reduce false positives are described. In addition, we present the results of field tests that demonstrate the prototype biosensor performance as a UUV payload.

  7. Laser Beam Welding of Nitride Steel Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Hongping; Yin, Guobin; Shulkin, Boris

    Laser beam welding is a joining technique that has many advantages over conventional GMAW welding, such as low heat input, short cycle time as well as good cosmetic welds. Laser beam welding has been widely used for welding powertrain components in automotive industry. When welding nitride steel components, however, laser beam welding faces a great challenge. The difficulty lies in the fact that the nitride layer in the joint releases the nitrogen into the weld pool, resulting in a porous weld. This research presents an industrial ready solution to prevent the nitrogen from forming gas bubbles in the weld.

  8. Diode laser welding of polypropylene: investigations of the microstructures in the welded seam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abed, S.; Laurens, Patricia; Carretero, C.; Deschamps, J. R.; Duval, C.

    2003-03-01

    Laser welding of thermoplastic polymers is a non-contact process especially efficient for joining thermoplastic polymers. This innovative technology is already used for industrial series production in different sectors (automobile, packaging,...). The majority of the basic research concerns the weld strength depending on polymer nature, optical properties, butt design and process parameters. Nevertheless, a lack of knowledge concerning the influence of thermal history of the weld seam on morphology of semicrystalline polymer still exists, when this parameter strongly influences the strength of the weld. Actual results of diode laser transmission welding (LTW) experiments on polypropylene, a semicrystalline polymer widely used in industry, could contribute to a better understanding of the process itself and to success in practical applications.

  9. Thermoplastic welding apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Matsen, Marc R.; Negley, Mark A.; Geren, William Preston; Miller, Robert James

    2017-03-07

    A thermoplastic welding apparatus includes a thermoplastic welding tool, at least one tooling surface in the thermoplastic welding tool, a magnetic induction coil in the thermoplastic welding tool and generally encircling the at least one tooling surface and at least one smart susceptor in the thermoplastic welding tool at the at least one tooling surface. The magnetic induction coil is adapted to generate a magnetic flux field oriented generally parallel to a plane of the at least one smart susceptor.

  10. Design and implementation of an underwater sound recording device

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Martinez, Jayson J.; Myers, Joshua R.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2011-09-01

    To monitor the underwater sound and pressure waves generated by activities such as underwater blasting and pile driving, an autonomous system used to record underwater acoustic signals was designed. The device designed allows two hydrophones or other dynamic pressure sensors to be connected, filters out high frequency noise, has a gain that can be independently set for each sensor, and allows two hours of data to be collected. Two versions of the USR were created; one is submersible to a maximum depth of 300 m, and the other, although watertight, is not intended to be fully submersed. Tests were performedmore » in the laboratory using a data acquisition system to send single-frequency sinusoidal voltages directly to the each component. These tests verified that the device performs as well as larger commercially available data acquisition systems, which are not suited for field use. A prototype of the device was used in a case study to investigate the effect of underwater rock blasting on juvenile Chinook salmon and rainbow trout. The case study demonstrated that the device was able to tolerate being operated in harsh environments, making it a valuable tool for collecting field measurements.« less

  11. Ultrasonic Spot Welding of a Rare-Earth Containing ZEK100 Magnesium Alloy: Effect of Welding Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macwan, A.; Chen, D. L.

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasonic spot welding was used to join a low rare-earth containing ZEK100 Mg alloy at different levels of welding energy, and tensile lap shear tests were conducted to evaluate the failure strength in relation to the microstructural changes. It was observed that dynamic recrystallization occurred in the nugget zone; the grain size increased and microhardness decreased with increasing welding energy arising from the increasing interface temperature and strain rate. The weld interface experienced severe plastic deformation at a high strain rate from ~500 to ~2100 s-1 with increasing welding energy from 500 to 2000 J. A relationship between grain size and Zener-Hollomon parameter, and a Hall-Petch-type relationship between microhardness and grain size were established. The tensile lap shear strength and failure energy were observed to first increase with increasing welding energy, reach the maximum values at 1500 J, and then decrease with a further increase in the welding energy. The samples welded at a welding energy ≤1500 J exhibited an interfacial failure mode, while nugget pull-out occurred in the samples welded at a welding energy above 1500 J. The fracture surfaces showed typical shear failure. Low-temperature tests at 233 K (-40 °C) showed no significant effect on the strength and failure mode of joints welded at the optimal welding energy of 1500 J. Elevated temperature tests at 453 K (180 °C) revealed a lower failure load but a higher failure energy due to the increased deformability, and showed a mixed mode of partial interfacial failure and partial nugget pull-out.

  12. Method and apparatus for assessing weld quality

    DOEpatents

    Smartt, Herschel B.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Johnson, John A.; Carlson, Nancy M.; Clark, Denis E.; Taylor, Paul L.; Reutzel, Edward W.

    2001-01-01

    Apparatus for determining a quality of a weld produced by a welding device according to the present invention includes a sensor operatively associated with the welding device. The sensor is responsive to at least one welding process parameter during a welding process and produces a welding process parameter signal that relates to the at least one welding process parameter. A computer connected to the sensor is responsive to the welding process parameter signal produced by the sensor. A user interface operatively associated with the computer allows a user to select a desired welding process. The computer processes the welding process parameter signal produced by the sensor in accordance with one of a constant voltage algorithm, a short duration weld algorithm or a pulsed current analysis module depending on the desired welding process selected by the user. The computer produces output data indicative of the quality of the weld.

  13. 73rd American Welding Society annual meeting

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The volume includes the abstracts of papers presented at the 73rd American Welding Society Annual Meeting. Detailed summaries are given for 118 technical sessions papers discussing computer and control applications in welding, stainless steel, nickel and nickel alloys, weld metal microstructure, shipbuilding, consumables, structural welding, investigations in arc welding and cutting, arc welding processes, weldability testing, piping and tubing, high energy beam welding processes, welding metallurgy of structural steels, new applications, weld metal behavior, NDT certification, aluminum welding, submerged arc welding, modeling studies, resistance welding, friction welding, and safety and health. The 23rd International AWS Brazing and Soldering Conference wasmore » also held during this meeting. The topics presented in 24 papers included recent developments in soldering technology, brazing of stainless steel, brazing of ceramics and nickel material, filler metal developments for torch brazing, and developments in diffusion and induction brazing.« less

  14. Galvanic Corrosion Behavior of Microwave Welded and Post-weld Heat-Treated Inconel-718 Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Amit; Sharma, Apurbba Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, corrosion behavior of microwave welded Inconel-718 at various conditions was investigated. Welding of Inconel-718 in 980 °C solution-treated condition was performed using microwave hybrid heating technique. The microwave welds were subjected to post-heat treatment for improving its microstructure and mechanical properties by solubilizing the Nb-enriched Laves phase. The microstructural features of the fabricated welds at various conditions were investigated through scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical testing results revealed that Inconel-718 welds were galvanic corroded when they were anodically polarized in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution at 28 °C. The difference in the corrosion potentials between the base metal (BM) and fusion zone (FZ) in an Inconel-718 weld was the main factor for galvanic corrosion. The highest corrosion was occurred in the as-welded/aged weldments, followed by 980 °C solution-treated and aged weldments, as-welded specimen, and 1080 °C solution-treated and aged (1080STA) weldments. The least galvanic corrosion was occurred in the 1080STA specimens due to almost uniform microstructure developed in the weldment after the treatment. Thus, it was possible to minimize the galvanic corrosion in the microwave welded Inconel-718 by 1080STA treatment which resulted in reducing the difference in corrosion potentials between the BM and the FZ.

  15. Mechanical Characteristics of Welded Joints of Aluminum Alloy 6061 T6 Formed by Arc and Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astarita, A.; Squillace, A.; Nele, L.

    2016-01-01

    Butt welds formed by arc welding in inert gas with nonconsumable electrode (tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding) and by friction stir welding (FSW) from aluminum alloy AA6061 T6 are studied. Comparative analysis of the structures and mechanical properties of the welded joints is performed using the results of optical and electron microscopy, tensile tests, tests for residual bending ductility, and measurements of microhardness. The changes in the microstructure in different zones and the degrees of degradation of the mechanical properties after the welding are determined. It is shown that the size of the tool for the friction stir welding affects the properties of the welds. Quantitative results showing the relation between the microscopic behavior of the alloy and the welding-induced changes in the microstructure are obtained. Friction stir welding is shown to provide higher properties of the welds.

  16. Global Network Connectivity Assessment via Local Data Exchange for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-31

    Network Connectivity Assessment via Local Data Exchange for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks M.M. Asadi H. Mahboubi A...2014 Global Network Connectivity Assessment via Local Data Exchange for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks Contract Report # AMBUSH.1.1 Contract...pi j /= 0. The sensor network considered in this work is composed of underwater sensors , which use acoustic waves for

  17. Welding Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

    The purpose of this welding program is to provide students with skills and techniques to become employed as advanced apprentice welders. The welding program manual includes the following sections: (1) course description; (2) general objectives; (3) competencies; (4) curriculum outline for 13 areas; (5) 13 references; and (6) student progress…

  18. Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility for Underwater Sound Monitoring and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Huiying; Halvorsen, Michele B.; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Fishes and marine mammals may suffer a range of potential effects from exposure to intense underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording (USR) devices have been built to acquire samples of the underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities. Software becomes indispensable for processing and analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. In this paper, we provide a detailed description of a new software package, the Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface (AAMI), specifically designed for analysis of underwater sound recordings to provide data in metrics that facilitate evaluation of the potential impacts of the sound on aquatic animals. In addition to the basic functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs and batch processing of sound files, the software utilizes recording system calibration data to compute important parameters in physical units. The software also facilitates comparison of the noise sound sample metrics with biological measures such as audiograms of the sensitivity of aquatic animals to the sound, integrating various components into a single analytical frame. The features of the AAMI software are discussed, and several case studies are presented to illustrate its functionality. PMID:22969353

  19. Method for welding chromium molybdenum steels

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, Vinod K.

    1986-01-01

    Chromium-molybdenum steels exhibit a weakening after welding in an area adjacent to the weld. This invention is an improved method for welding to eliminate the weakness by subjecting normalized steel to a partial temper prior to welding and subsequently fully tempering the welded article for optimum strength and ductility.

  20. Tensile Properties of Friction Stir Welded Joints of AA 2024-T6 Alloy at Different Welding Speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avula, Dhananjayulu; Devuri, Venkateswarlu; Cheepu, Muralimohan; Dwivedi, Dheerendra Kumar

    2018-03-01

    The influence of welding speed on the friction stir welded joint properties of hardness, tensile properties, defects and microstructure characterization are studied in the present study. The friction stir welding was conducted on AA2014-T6 heat treated alloy with 5 mm thickness plate in butt joint configuration. The welding speed was varied from 8 mm/min to 120 mm/min at the fixed travel speed and load conditions. It is observed that the welding speeds at higher rate with wide range can be possible to weld this alloy at higher rates of tool revolution suggesting that the inherent capability of friction stir welding technique for aluminum 2014 alloys. The strength of the joints gradually increases with enhancing of welding speed. The micro structural observations exhibited the formation of equiaxed grains in the stir zone and slightly in the thermo-mechanically affected zone. In addition, the size of the grains decreases with increase in welding speed owing to the presence of low heat input. Hence the hardness of the joints slightly increased in the stir zones over the other zones of the weld nugget. The joint strength initially increases with the welding speed and starts to decreases after reaching to the maximum value. The relationship between the welding conditions and friction stir welded joint properties has been discussed.

  1. Underwater optical communications using orbital angular momentum-based spatial division multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willner, Alan E.; Zhao, Zhe; Ren, Yongxiong; Li, Long; Xie, Guodong; Song, Haoqian; Liu, Cong; Zhang, Runzhou; Bao, Changjing; Pang, Kai

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we review high-capacity underwater optical communications using orbital angular momentum (OAM)-based spatial division multiplexing. We discuss methods to generate and detect blue-green optical data-carrying OAM beams as well as various underwater effects, including attenuation, scattering, current, and thermal gradients on OAM beams. Attention is also given to the system performance of high-capacity underwater optical communication links using OAM-based space division multiplexing. The paper closes with a discussion of a digital signal processing (DSP) algorithm to mitigate the inter-mode crosstalk caused by thermal gradients.

  2. RF Path and Absorption Loss Estimation for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks in Different Water Environments

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Umair Mujtaba; Shaikh, Faisal Karim; Aziz, Zuneera; Shah, Syed M. Zafi S.; Sheikh, Adil A.; Felemban, Emad; Qaisar, Saad Bin

    2016-01-01

    Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN) communication at high frequencies is extremely challenging. The intricacies presented by the underwater environment are far more compared to the terrestrial environment. The prime reason for such intricacies are the physical characteristics of the underwater environment that have a big impact on electromagnetic (EM) signals. Acoustics signals are by far the most preferred choice for underwater wireless communication. Because high frequency signals have the luxury of large bandwidth (BW) at shorter distances, high frequency EM signals cannot penetrate and propagate deep in underwater environments. The EM properties of water tend to resist their propagation and cause severe attenuation. Accordingly, there are two questions that need to be addressed for underwater environment, first what happens when high frequency EM signals operating at 2.4 GHz are used for communication, and second which factors affect the most to high frequency EM signals. To answer these questions, we present real-time experiments conducted at 2.4 GHz in terrestrial and underwater (fresh water) environments. The obtained results helped in studying the physical characteristics (i.e., EM properties, propagation and absorption loss) of underwater environments. It is observed that high frequency EM signals can propagate in fresh water at a shallow depth only and can be considered for a specific class of applications such as water sports. Furthermore, path loss, velocity of propagation, absorption loss and the rate of signal loss in different underwater environments are also calculated and presented in order to understand why EM signals cannot propagate in sea water and oceanic water environments. An optimal solk6ution for underwater communication in terms of coverage distance, bandwidth and nature of communication is presented, along with possible underwater applications of UWSNs at 2.4 GHz. PMID:27322263

  3. RF Path and Absorption Loss Estimation for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks in Different Water Environments.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Umair Mujtaba; Shaikh, Faisal Karim; Aziz, Zuneera; Shah, Syed M Zafi S; Sheikh, Adil A; Felemban, Emad; Qaisar, Saad Bin

    2016-06-16

    Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN) communication at high frequencies is extremely challenging. The intricacies presented by the underwater environment are far more compared to the terrestrial environment. The prime reason for such intricacies are the physical characteristics of the underwater environment that have a big impact on electromagnetic (EM) signals. Acoustics signals are by far the most preferred choice for underwater wireless communication. Because high frequency signals have the luxury of large bandwidth (BW) at shorter distances, high frequency EM signals cannot penetrate and propagate deep in underwater environments. The EM properties of water tend to resist their propagation and cause severe attenuation. Accordingly, there are two questions that need to be addressed for underwater environment, first what happens when high frequency EM signals operating at 2.4 GHz are used for communication, and second which factors affect the most to high frequency EM signals. To answer these questions, we present real-time experiments conducted at 2.4 GHz in terrestrial and underwater (fresh water) environments. The obtained results helped in studying the physical characteristics (i.e., EM properties, propagation and absorption loss) of underwater environments. It is observed that high frequency EM signals can propagate in fresh water at a shallow depth only and can be considered for a specific class of applications such as water sports. Furthermore, path loss, velocity of propagation, absorption loss and the rate of signal loss in different underwater environments are also calculated and presented in order to understand why EM signals cannot propagate in sea water and oceanic water environments. An optimal solk6ution for underwater communication in terms of coverage distance, bandwidth and nature of communication is presented, along with possible underwater applications of UWSNs at 2.4 GHz.

  4. Analysing deterioration of marble stones exposed to underwater conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cámara, Beatriz; Álvarez de Buergo, Mónica; Bethencourt, Manuel; Freire-Lista, David; Fort, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    The peculiar conditions of the marine environment make the conservation of underwater archaeological sites an extremely complex procedure. This is due to the fact that the prevailing conditions in this environment promote the development of deterioration phenomena in submerged artefacts through the synergistic action of physical, chemical and biological factors. The objective of the present investigation was to determine how petrophysical properties of cultural heritage materials can be affected by being exposed to the specific underwater conditions of the sea bottom, and so, to evaluate how this can affect, in a long term, in their durability and evolution when they part of an archaeological site. For this purpose, two types of marble (the Italian Carrara and the Spanish Macael) were subjected to an experiment consisting of exposing stone materials for one and a half year to underwater conditions. The experimental test was located in an archaeological site in the Bay of Cadiz (southern Spain), Bajo del Chapitel (recognized as Cultural Interest), which includes remains of shipwrecks from different periods. In this site, samples were submerged to 12 m depth and placed in the sea bottom simulating the different positions in which underwater archaeological objects can be found (fully exposed, half buried and covered). Petrophysical characterisation involved determination of the apparent and bulk densities, water saturation (maximum water content a material may contain), open porosity (porosity accessible to water), chromatic parameters and ultrasonic velocity. Before measuring, samples were subjected to mechanical cleaning (in those samples with biological colonization) and to removal of salt deposits. Results showed significant differences in these petrophysical properties after underwater submersion, which were directly related to the type of underwater exposure condition. Comparative analysis of petrophysical properties, like the one conducted in this study

  5. Welds in thermoplastic composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, N. S.

    Welding methods are reviewed that can be effectively used for joining of thermoplastic composites and continuous-fiber thermoplastics. Attention is given to the use of ultrasonic, vibration, hot-plate, resistance, and induction welding techniques. The welding techniques are shown to provide complementary weld qualities for the range of thermoplastic materials that are of interest to industrial and technological applications.

  6. Vacuum Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, J. L.; Todd, D. T.; Wooten, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    A two-year program investigated vacuum gas tungsten arc welding (VGTAW) as a method to modify or improve the weldability of normally difficult-to-weld materials. After a vacuum chamber and GTAW power supply were modified, several difficult-to-weld materials were studied and key parameters developed. Finally, Incoloy 903 weld overlays were produced without microfissures.

  7. Variable polarity arc welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayless, E. O., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Technological advances generate within themselves dissatisfactions that lead to further advances in a process. A series of advances in welding technology which culminated in the Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) Welding Process and an advance instituted to overcome the latest dissatisfactions with the process: automated VPPA welding are described briefly.

  8. Laser Welding in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Kaukler, William F.

    1989-01-01

    Solidification type welding process experiments in conditions of microgravity were performed. The role of convection in such phenomena was examined and convective effects in the small volumes obtained in the laser weld zone were observed. Heat transfer within the weld was affected by acceleration level as indicated by the resulting microstructure changes in low gravity. All experiments were performed such that both high and low gravity welds occurred along the same weld beam, allowing the effects of gravity alone to be examined. Results indicate that laser welding in a space environment is feasible and can be safely performed IVA or EVA. Development of the hardware to perform the experiment in a Hitchhiker-g platform is recomended as the next step. This experiment provides NASA with a capable technology for welding needs in space. The resources required to perform this experiment aboard a Shuttle Hitchhiker-pallet are assessed. Over the four year period 1991 to 1994, it is recommended that the task will require 13.6 manyears and $914,900. In addition to demonstrating the technology and ferreting out the problems encountered, it is suggested that NASA will also have a useful laser materials processing facility for working with both the scientific and the engineering aspects of materials processing in space. Several concepts are also included for long-term optimization of available solar power through solar pumping solid state lasers directly for welding power.

  9. Automatic programming of arc welding robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanabhan, Srikanth

    Automatic programming of arc welding robots requires the geometric description of a part from a solid modeling system, expert weld process knowledge and the kinematic arrangement of the robot and positioner automatically. Current commercial solid models are incapable of storing explicitly product and process definitions of weld features. This work presents a paradigm to develop a computer-aided engineering environment that supports complete weld feature information in a solid model and to create an automatic programming system for robotic arc welding. In the first part, welding features are treated as properties or attributes of an object, features which are portions of the object surface--the topological boundary. The structure for representing the features and attributes is a graph called the Welding Attribute Graph (WAGRAPH). The method associates appropriate weld features to geometric primitives, adds welding attributes, and checks the validity of welding specifications. A systematic structure is provided to incorporate welding attributes and coordinate system information in a CSG tree. The specific implementation of this structure using a hybrid solid modeler (IDEAS) and an object-oriented programming paradigm is described. The second part provides a comprehensive methodology to acquire and represent weld process knowledge required for the proper selection of welding schedules. A methodology of knowledge acquisition using statistical methods is proposed. It is shown that these procedures did little to capture the private knowledge of experts (heuristics), but helped in determining general dependencies, and trends. A need was established for building the knowledge-based system using handbook knowledge and to allow the experts further to build the system. A methodology to check the consistency and validity for such knowledge addition is proposed. A mapping shell designed to transform the design features to application specific weld process schedules is described

  10. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding. Welding Module 6. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This guide is intended to assist vocational educators in teaching a three-unit module in gas tungsten arc welding. The module has been designed to be totally integrated with Missouri's Vocational Instruction Management System. The basic principles involved in gas tungsten arc welding, supplies, and applications are covered. The materials included…

  11. A Cost Effective Block Framing Scheme for Underwater Communication

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Soo-Young; Park, Soo-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the Selective Multiple Acknowledgement (SMA) method, based on Multiple Acknowledgement (MA), is proposed to efficiently reduce the amount of data transmission by redesigning the transmission frame structure and taking into consideration underwater transmission characteristics. The method is suited to integrated underwater system models, as the proposed method can handle the same amount of data in a much more compact frame structure without any appreciable loss of reliability. Herein, the performance of the proposed SMA method was analyzed and compared to those of the conventional Automatic Repeat-reQuest (ARQ), Block Acknowledgement (BA), block response, and MA methods. The efficiency of the underwater sensor network, which forms a large cluster and mostly contains uplink data, is expected to be improved by the proposed method. PMID:22247689

  12. Report Summarizing the Effort Required to Initiate Welding of Irradiated Materials within the Welding Cubicle

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Frederick, Greg; Sutton, Benjamin J.; Tatman, Jonathan K.

    The advanced welding facility within a hot cell at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which has been jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nuclear Energy, Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program and the Electric Power Research Institute, Long Term Operations Program and the Welding and Repair Technology Center, is in the final phase of development. Research and development activities in this facility will involve direct testing of advanced welding technologies on irradiated materials in order to address the primary technical challenge of helium induced cracking that can arise when conventionalmore » fusion welding techniques are utilized on neutron irradiated stainless steels and nickel-base alloys. This report details the effort that has been required since the beginning of fiscal year 2017 to initiate welding research and development activities on irradiated materials within the hot cell cubicle, which houses welding sub-systems that include laser beam welding (LBW) and friction stir welding (FSW) and provides material containment within the hot cell.« less

  13. PREFACE: Dynamics of wetting Dynamics of wetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grest, Gary S.; Oshanin, Gleb; Webb, Edmund B., III

    2009-11-01

    Capillary phenomena associated with fluids wetting other condensed matter phases have drawn great scientific interest for hundreds of years; consider the recent bicentennial celebration of Thomas Young's paper on equilibrium contact angles, describing the geometric shape assumed near a three phase contact line in terms of the relevant surface energies of the constituent phases [1]. Indeed, nearly a century has passed since the seminal papers of Lucas and Washburn, describing dynamics of capillary imbibition [2, 3]. While it is generally appreciated that dynamics of fluid wetting processes are determined by the degree to which a system is out of capillary equilibrium, myriad complications exist that challenge the fundamental understanding of dynamic capillary phenomena. The topic has gathered much interest from recent Nobel laureate Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, who provided a seminal review of relevant dissipation mechanisms for fluid droplets spreading on solid surfaces [4] Although much about the dynamics of wetting has been revealed, much remains to be learned and intrinsic technological and fundamental interest in the topic drives continuing high levels of research activity. This is enabled partly by improved experimental capabilities for resolving wetting processes at increasingly finer temporal, spatial, and chemical resolution. Additionally, dynamic wetting research advances via higher fidelity computational modeling capabilities, which drive more highly refined theory development. The significance of this topic both fundamentally and technologically has resulted in a number of reviews of research activity in wetting dynamics. One recent example addresses the evaluation of existing wetting dynamics theories from an experimentalist's perspective [5]. A Current Opinion issue was recently dedicated to high temperature capillarity, including dynamics of high temperature spreading [6]. New educational tools have recently emerged for providing instruction in wetting

  14. Joint Optimal Placement and Energy Allocation of Underwater Sensors in a Tree Topology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-10

    underwater acoustic sensor nodes with respect to the capacity of the wireless links between the... underwater acoustic sensor nodes with respect to the capacity of the wireless links between the nodes. We assumed that the energy consumption of...nodes’ optimal placements. We achieve the optimal placement of the underwater acoustic sensor nodes with respect to the capacity of the wireless

  15. Welding and joining: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation is presented of NASA-developed technology in welding and joining. Topics discussed include welding equipment, techniques in welding, general bonding, joining techniques, and clamps and holding fixtures.

  16. Health effects of welding.

    PubMed

    Antonini, James M

    2003-01-01

    Many of the epidemiology studies performed are difficult to compare because of differences in worker populations, industrial settings, welding techniques, duration of exposure, and other occupational exposures besides welding fumes. Some studies were conducted in carefully controlled work environments, others during actual workplace conditions, and some in laboratories. Epidemiology studies have shown that a large number of welders experience some type of respiratory illness. Respiratory effects seen in full-time welders have included bronchitis, airway irritation, lung function changes, and a possible increase in the incidence of lung cancer. Pulmonary infections are increased in terms of severity, duration, and frequency among welders. Although epidemiological studies have demonstrated an increase in pulmonary illness after exposure to welding fumes, little information of the causality, dose-response, and possible underlying mechanisms regarding the inhalation of welding fumes exists. Even less information is available about the neurological, reproductive, and dermal effects after welding fume exposure. Moreover, carcinogenicity and short-term and long-term toxicology studies of welding fumes in animals are lacing or incomplete. Therefore, an understanding of possible adverse health effects of exposure to welding fumes is essential to risk assessment and the development of prevention strategies and will impact a large population of workers.

  17. Pipeline welding goes mechanized

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Beeson, R.

    1999-11-01

    Spread four has bugs in the cornfield--but not to worry. The bug referred to here is a mechanized welding bug, specifically a single welding head, computer-aided gas metal arc (GMAW) system from CRC-Evans Automatic Welding powered by a Miller Electric XMT{reg{underscore}sign} 304 inverter-based welding machine. The bug operator and owner of 32 inverters is Welded Construction, L.P., of Perrysburgh, Ohio. Spread four is a 147-mile stretch of the Alliance Pipeline system (Alliance) cutting through the cornfields of northeast Iowa. While used successfully in Canada and Europe for onshore and offshore pipeline construction for 30 years, this is the first large-scalemore » use of mechanized welding in the US on a cross-country pipeline. On longer, larger-diameter and thicker-wall pipe projects--the Alliance mainline has 1,844 miles of pipe, most of it 36-in. diameter with a 0.622-in. wall thickness--mechanized GMAW offers better productivity than manual shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). In addition, high-strength steels, such as the API 5L Grade X70 pipe used on the Alliance, benefit from the low-hydrogen content of certain solid and tubular wire electrodes.« less

  18. Advancing Underwater Acoustic Communication for Autonomous Distributed Networks via Sparse Channel Sensing, Coding, and Navigation Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    underwater acoustic communication technologies for autonomous distributed underwater networks , through innovative signal processing, coding, and...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advancing Underwater Acoustic Communication for Autonomous Distributed Networks via Sparse Channel Sensing, Coding, and...coding: 3) OFDM modulated dynamic coded cooperation in underwater acoustic channels; 3 Localization, Networking , and Testbed: 4) On-demand

  19. Capillary flow weld-bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, R. W.; Jones, R. J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    The invention of a weld-bonding technique for titanium plates was described. This involves fastening at least two plates of titanium together using spot-welding and applying a bead of adhesive along the edge of the resistance spot-welded joint which upon heating, flows and fills the separation between the joint components.

  20. Spot-Welding Gun Is Easy To Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Nguyen, Francis H.

    1991-01-01

    Electrical-resistance spot-welding gun designed to produce more welds per unit time by decreasing technician's effort and fatigue. Vacuum cups on frame secure welding gun to workpiece while compressed air drives welding tip against workpiece to make spot resistance weld. When weld completed, vacuum in frame cups released so frame and gun moved to position of next spot weld.

  1. Three-level cobblestone-like TiO2 micro/nanocones for dual-responsive water/oil reversible wetting without fluorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chen; Li, Guoqiang; Li, Chuanzong; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Yachao; Wu, Sizhu; Hu, Yanlei; Zhu, Wulin; Li, Jiawen; Chu, Jiaru; Hu, Zhijia; Wu, Dong; Yu, Liandong

    2017-10-01

    In this work, a kind of three-level cobblestone-like anatase TiO2 microcone array was fabricated on titanium sheets by femtosecond laser-induced self-assembly. This three level structure consisted of cobblestone-like features (15-25 μm in height and 20-35 μm in diameter), ˜460 nm ripple-like features, and smaller particles (10-500 nm). The formation of microcone arrays can be ascribed to the interaction of alternant laser beam ablation. TiO2 surfaces display dual-responsive water/oil reversible wetting via heat treatment and selective UV irradiation without fluorination. It is indicated that three-level scale surface roughness can amplify the wetting character of the Ti surface, and the mechanism for reversible switching between extreme wettabilities is caused by the conversion between Ti-OH and Ti-O. Moreover, the double-faced superhydrophobic and double-faced superhydrophilic Ti samples were constructed, which exhibited stable superhydrophobicity and underwater superoleophobicity in water-oil solution, respectively, even when strongly shaken. Finally, we present the hybrid-patterned TiO2 surface and realized reversible switching pattern wettability.

  2. Analysis and Comparison of Friction Stir Welding and Laser Assisted Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Campanelli, Sabina Luisa; Casalino, Giuseppe; Casavola, Caterina; Moramarco, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid-state joining process; i.e., no melting occurs. The welding process is promoted by the rotation and translation of an axis-symmetric non-consumable tool along the weld centerline. Thus, the FSW process is performed at much lower temperatures than conventional fusion welding, nevertheless it has some disadvantages. Laser Assisted Friction Stir Welding (LAFSW) is a combination in which the FSW is the dominant welding process and the laser pre-heats the weld. In this work FSW and LAFSW tests were conducted on 6 mm thick 5754H111 aluminum alloy plates in butt joint configuration. LAFSW is studied firstly to demonstrate the weldability of aluminum alloy using that technique. Secondly, process parameters, such as laser power and temperature gradient are investigated in order to evaluate changes in microstructure, micro-hardness, residual stress, and tensile properties. Once the possibility to achieve sound weld using LAFSW is demonstrated, it will be possible to explore the benefits for tool wear, higher welding speeds, and lower clamping force. PMID:28788430

  3. Analysis and Comparison of Friction Stir Welding and Laser Assisted Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloy.

    PubMed

    Campanelli, Sabina Luisa; Casalino, Giuseppe; Casavola, Caterina; Moramarco, Vincenzo

    2013-12-18

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid-state joining process; i.e. , no melting occurs. The welding process is promoted by the rotation and translation of an axis-symmetric non-consumable tool along the weld centerline. Thus, the FSW process is performed at much lower temperatures than conventional fusion welding, nevertheless it has some disadvantages. Laser Assisted Friction Stir Welding (LAFSW) is a combination in which the FSW is the dominant welding process and the laser pre-heats the weld. In this work FSW and LAFSW tests were conducted on 6 mm thick 5754H111 aluminum alloy plates in butt joint configuration. LAFSW is studied firstly to demonstrate the weldability of aluminum alloy using that technique. Secondly, process parameters, such as laser power and temperature gradient are investigated in order to evaluate changes in microstructure, micro-hardness, residual stress, and tensile properties. Once the possibility to achieve sound weld using LAFSW is demonstrated, it will be possible to explore the benefits for tool wear, higher welding speeds, and lower clamping force.

  4. Underwater drag-reducing effect of superhydrophobic submarine model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songsong; Ouyang, Xiao; Li, Jie; Gao, Shan; Han, Shihui; Liu, Lianhe; Wei, Hao

    2015-01-01

    To address the debates on whether superhydrophobic coatings can reduce fluid drag for underwater motions, we have achieved an underwater drag-reducing effect of large superhydrophobic submarine models with a feature size of 3.5 cm × 3.7 cm × 33.0 cm through sailing experiments of submarine models, modified with and without superhydrophobic surface under similar power supply and experimental conditions. The drag reduction rate reached as high as 15%. The fabrication of superhydrophobic coatings on a large area of submarine model surfaces was realized by immobilizing hydrophobic copper particles onto a precross-linked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface. The pre-cross-linking time was optimized at 20 min to obtain good superhydrophobicity for the underwater drag reduction effect by investigating the effect of pre-cross-linking on surface wettability and water adhesive property. We do believe that superhydrophobic coatings may provide a promising application in the field of drag-reducing of vehicle motions on or under the water surface.

  5. Development of underwater and hyperbaric medicine in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rozali, A; Rampal, K G; Zin, B Mohd; Sherina, M S; Khairuddin, H; Abd Halim, M; Sulaiman, A

    2006-12-01

    Underwater and Hyperbaric Medicine is a treatment modality gaining recognition in Malaysia. It uses the hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) approach where patients are placed in recompression chambers and subjected to oxygen therapy under pressure. In Malaysia it was introduced as early as the 1960's by the Royal Malaysian Navy to treat their divers for decompression illness (DCI), arterial gas embolism (AGE) and barotraumas. Other sectors in the armed forces, universities and private health centres began developing this approach too in the late 1990's, for similar purposes. In 1996, Underwater and Hyperbaric Medicine began gaining its popularity when the Institute of Underwater and Hyperbaric Medicine at the Armed Forces Hospital in Lumut started treating specific clinical diseases such as diabetic foot ulcers, osteomyelitis, and carbon monoxide poisoning and other diseases using HBOT. This paper discusses the development of this interesting treatment modality, giving a brief historical overview to its current development, as well as provides some thought for its future development in Malaysia.

  6. Welding Development: Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the basic understanding of the friction stir welding process. It covers process description, pin tool operation and materials, metal flow theory, mechanical properties, and materials welded using the process. It also discusses the thermal stir welding process and the differences between thermal stir and friction stir welding. MSFC weld tools used for development are also presented.

  7. Shielding gas selection for increased weld penetration and productivity in GTA welding

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Leinonen, J.I.

    1996-12-31

    The effects of hydrogen and helium additions to the argon shielding gas on GTA weld pool profiles in the case of two austenitic stainless steel sheets 3 mm thick are investigated here in detail. One of the test steels shows good weldability, with a relatively deep, narrow weld pool profile, but the other is poorly weldable, with a shallow, wide weld pool when argon shielding gas is used. Bead-on-plate test welds were produced with arc shields of argon, argon with hydrogen additions of 2 to 18.2% and argon with helium additions of 20 to 80%. The hydrogen additions increases themore » depth of weld penetration in both test steels, but productivity with respect to maximum welding speed can be improved to an accepted level only with steel sheets of good weldability in terms of a relatively high depth/width (D/W) ratio. The depth of penetration in the test steel of good weldability increased somewhat with helium additions and the D/W ratio remained unchanged, while these parameters increased markedly in the poorly weldable steel when a He-20% Ar shielding gas was used and resembled those of the more weldable steel.« less

  8. Determination of GTA Welding Efficiencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    continue on reverse if ncessary andidentify by block number) A method is developed for estimating welding efficiencies for moving arc GTAW processes...Dutta, Co-Advi r Department of Mechanical Engineering ii ABSTRACT A method is developed for estimating welding efficiencies for moving arc GTAW ...17 Figure 10. Miller Welding Equipment ............. ... 18 Figure 11. GTAW Torch Setup for Automatic Welding. . 19 Figure 12

  9. Accelerated Post-Weld Natural Ageing in Ultrasonic Welding Aluminium 6111-T4 Automotive Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-Chun; Prangnell, Phil

    In contrast to previously published reports, it is shown that there is an observable HAZ when ultrasonic spot welding (USW) automotive alloys, like AA6111-T4, the severity of which depends on the welding energy. Immediately after welding, softening is seen relative to the T4 condition, but this is rapidly recovered by natural ageing, which masks the presence of a HAZ, and the weld strength eventually exceeds that of the parent material. This behaviour is caused by dissolution of the solute clusters/GPZs in the T4 sheet, due to the high weld temperatures (> 400 °C), combined with accelerated post-weld natural ageing to a more advanced state than in the parent material. Modelling has demonstrated that this accelerated natural ageing behaviour can be attributed to an excess vacancy concentration generated by the USW process.

  10. Method for enhanced control of welding processes

    DOEpatents

    Sheaffer, Donald A.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Tung, David M.; Schroder, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    Method and system for producing high quality welds in welding processes, in general, and gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding, in particular by controlling weld penetration. Light emitted from a weld pool is collected from the backside of a workpiece by optical means during welding and transmitted to a digital video camera for further processing, after the emitted light is first passed through a short wavelength pass filter to remove infrared radiation. By filtering out the infrared component of the light emitted from the backside weld pool image, the present invention provides for the accurate determination of the weld pool boundary. Data from the digital camera is fed to an imaging board which focuses on a 100.times.100 pixel portion of the image. The board performs a thresholding operation and provides this information to a digital signal processor to compute the backside weld pool dimensions and area. This information is used by a control system, in a dynamic feedback mode, to automatically adjust appropriate parameters of a welding system, such as the welding current, to control weld penetration and thus, create a uniform weld bead and high quality weld.

  11. Welding wire pressure sensor assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Timothy B. (Inventor); Milly, Peter F., Sr. (Inventor); White, J. Kevin (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device which is used to monitor the position of a filler wire relative to a base material being welded as the filler wire is added to a welding pool. The device is applicable to automated welding systems wherein nonconsumable electrode arc welding processes are utilized in conjunction with a filler wire which is added to a weld pool created by the electrode arc. The invention senses pressure deviations from a predetermined pressure between the filler wire and the base material, and provides electrical signals responsive to the deviations for actuating control mechanisms in an automatic welding apparatus so as to minimize the pressure deviation and to prevent disengagement of the contact between the filler wire and the base material.

  12. Effect of Weld Tool Geometry on Friction Stir Welded AA2219-T87 Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querin, Joseph A.; Schneider, Judy A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, flat panels of AA2219-T87 were friction stir welded (FSWed) using weld tools with tapered pins The three pin geometries of the weld tools included: 0 (straight cylinder), 30 , and 60 angles on the frustum. For each weld tool geometry, the FSW process parameters were optimized to eliminate defects. A constant heat input was maintained while varying the process parameters of spindle rpm and travel speed. This provided a constant heat input for each FSW weld panel while altering the hot working conditions imparted to the workpiece. The resulting mechanical properties were evaluated from tensile test results of the FSW joint.

  13. Automated Variable-Polarity Plasma-Arc Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Numes, A. C., Jr.; Bayless, E. O., Jr.; Jones, S. C., III; Munafo, P.; Munafo, A.; Biddle, A.; Wilson, W.

    1984-01-01

    Variable-polarity plasma-arc methods produces better welds at lower cost than gas-shielded tungsten-arc welding in assemblies. Weld porosity very low and costs of joint preparation, depeaking, inspection, and weld repair minimized.

  14. Actuated Recoil Absorbing Mounting System for use with an Underwater Gun

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-31

    fire supercavitating bullets, requires that 20 the new projectile launchers be tested. The firing of projectile 21 launchers involving a high...of projectile launcher 12 includes an underwater gun 15 that fires supercavitating bullets underwater and has a high 16 discharge energy. However

  15. Bronchial reactions to exposure to welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Contreras, G R; Chan-Yeung, M

    1997-11-01

    To study the airway response and its mechanism to welding fumes in six welders with respiratory symptoms. Methacholine and welding challenge tests were carried out. The concentration of welding fumes during the exposure test was measured. On two subjects who developed bronchoconstricition to welding challenge, additional tests were carried out including prick, patch, and inhalation challenges with metal salt solutions. Three subjects developed immediate bronchial reaction to exposure to welding fume; one to mild steel and stainless steel welding, another to mild steel and galvanised welding, and one only to galvanised welding. They all had a moderate to pronounced degree of non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness. The concentration of fumes during welding tests, particularly to galvanised welding, was high. An inhalation challenge test with zinc chloride salt solution in two subjects who reacted to galvanised welding was negative. Prick and patch tests with zinc chloride were also negative. The airway response to welding in these subjects is non-specific and is due to irritation rather than to sensitisation.

  16. Ultrasonic Welding of Hybrid Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Guntram; Balle, Frank; Eifler, Dietmar

    2012-03-01

    A central research field of the Institute of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Kaiserslautern (WKK), Germany, is the realization of innovative hybrid joints by ultrasonic metal welding. This article gives an overview of suitable ultrasonic welding systems as well as of essential machine and material parameters, which influence the quality of the welds. Besides the ultrasonic welding of dissimilar metals such as Al to Cu or Al to steels, the welds between newly developed materials like aluminum foam sandwiches or flat flexible cables also can be realized. Moreover, the joining of glass and ceramic to sheet metals is a point of interest at the WKK. By using the ultrasonic metal welding process, it is possible to realize metal/glass welds with tensile shear strengths of 50 MPa. For metal/ceramic joints, the shear strengths values up to 150 MPa were measured. Finally, selected results about the occurring bonding mechanisms will be discussed.

  17. Laser welding of fused quartz

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S.; Carpenter, Robert W.; Archer, III, McIlwaine

    2003-06-10

    Refractory materials, such as fused quartz plates and rods are welded using a heat source, such as a high power continuous wave carbon dioxide laser. The radiation is optimized through a process of varying the power, the focus, and the feed rates of the laser such that full penetration welds may be accomplished. The process of optimization varies the characteristic wavelengths of the laser until the radiation is almost completely absorbed by the refractory material, thereby leading to a very rapid heating of the material to the melting point. This optimization naturally occurs when a carbon dioxide laser is used to weld quartz. As such this method of quartz welding creates a minimum sized heat-affected zone. Furthermore, the welding apparatus and process requires a ventilation system to carry away the silicon oxides that are produced during the welding process to avoid the deposition of the silicon oxides on the surface of the quartz plates or the contamination of the welds with the silicon oxides.

  18. Emerging From Water: Underwater Image Color Correction Based on Weakly Supervised Color Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chongyi; Guo, Jichang; Guo, Chunle

    2018-03-01

    Underwater vision suffers from severe effects due to selective attenuation and scattering when light propagates through water. Such degradation not only affects the quality of underwater images but limits the ability of vision tasks. Different from existing methods which either ignore the wavelength dependency of the attenuation or assume a specific spectral profile, we tackle color distortion problem of underwater image from a new view. In this letter, we propose a weakly supervised color transfer method to correct color distortion, which relaxes the need of paired underwater images for training and allows for the underwater images unknown where were taken. Inspired by Cycle-Consistent Adversarial Networks, we design a multi-term loss function including adversarial loss, cycle consistency loss, and SSIM (Structural Similarity Index Measure) loss, which allows the content and structure of the corrected result the same as the input, but the color as if the image was taken without the water. Experiments on underwater images captured under diverse scenes show that our method produces visually pleasing results, even outperforms the art-of-the-state methods. Besides, our method can improve the performance of vision tasks.

  19. Strong underwater adhesives made by self-assembling multi-protein nanofibres.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chao; Gurry, Thomas; Cheng, Allen A; Downey, Jordan; Deng, Zhengtao; Stultz, Collin M; Lu, Timothy K

    2014-10-01

    Many natural underwater adhesives harness hierarchically assembled amyloid nanostructures to achieve strong and robust interfacial adhesion under dynamic and turbulent environments. Despite recent advances, our understanding of the molecular design, self-assembly and structure-function relationships of these natural amyloid fibres remains limited. Thus, designing biomimetic amyloid-based adhesives remains challenging. Here, we report strong and multi-functional underwater adhesives obtained from fusing mussel foot proteins (Mfps) of Mytilus galloprovincialis with CsgA proteins, the major subunit of Escherichia coli amyloid curli fibres. These hybrid molecular materials hierarchically self-assemble into higher-order structures, in which, according to molecular dynamics simulations, disordered adhesive Mfp domains are exposed on the exterior of amyloid cores formed by CsgA. Our fibres have an underwater adhesion energy approaching 20.9 mJ m(-2), which is 1.5 times greater than the maximum of bio-inspired and bio-derived protein-based underwater adhesives reported thus far. Moreover, they outperform Mfps or curli fibres taken on their own and exhibit better tolerance to auto-oxidation than Mfps at pH ≥ 7.0.

  20. Dolphin Sounds-Inspired Covert Underwater Acoustic Communication and Micro-Modem

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Gang; Liu, Songzuo; Bilal, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    A novel portable underwater acoustic modem is proposed in this paper for covert communication between divers or underwater unmanned vehicles (UUVs) and divers at a short distance. For the first time, real dolphin calls are used in the modem to realize biologically inspired Covert Underwater Acoustic Communication (CUAC). A variety of dolphin whistles and clicks stored in an SD card inside the modem helps to realize different biomimetic CUAC algorithms based on the specified covert scenario. In this paper, the information is conveyed during the time interval between dolphin clicks. TMS320C6748 and TLV320AIC3106 are the core processors used in our unique modem for fast digital processing and interconnection with other terminals or sensors. Simulation results show that the bit error rate (BER) of the CUAC algorithm is less than 10−5 when the signal to noise ratio is over ‒5 dB. The modem was tested in an underwater pool, and a data rate of 27.1 bits per second at a distance of 10 m was achieved. PMID:29068363

  1. A novel underwater dam crack detection and classification approach based on sonar images

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Pengfei; Fan, Xinnan; Ni, Jianjun; Khan, Zubair; Li, Min

    2017-01-01

    Underwater dam crack detection and classification based on sonar images is a challenging task because underwater environments are complex and because cracks are quite random and diverse in nature. Furthermore, obtainable sonar images are of low resolution. To address these problems, a novel underwater dam crack detection and classification approach based on sonar imagery is proposed. First, the sonar images are divided into image blocks. Second, a clustering analysis of a 3-D feature space is used to obtain the crack fragments. Third, the crack fragments are connected using an improved tensor voting method. Fourth, a minimum spanning tree is used to obtain the crack curve. Finally, an improved evidence theory combined with fuzzy rule reasoning is proposed to classify the cracks. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is able to detect underwater dam cracks and classify them accurately and effectively under complex underwater environments. PMID:28640925

  2. A novel underwater dam crack detection and classification approach based on sonar images.

    PubMed

    Shi, Pengfei; Fan, Xinnan; Ni, Jianjun; Khan, Zubair; Li, Min

    2017-01-01

    Underwater dam crack detection and classification based on sonar images is a challenging task because underwater environments are complex and because cracks are quite random and diverse in nature. Furthermore, obtainable sonar images are of low resolution. To address these problems, a novel underwater dam crack detection and classification approach based on sonar imagery is proposed. First, the sonar images are divided into image blocks. Second, a clustering analysis of a 3-D feature space is used to obtain the crack fragments. Third, the crack fragments are connected using an improved tensor voting method. Fourth, a minimum spanning tree is used to obtain the crack curve. Finally, an improved evidence theory combined with fuzzy rule reasoning is proposed to classify the cracks. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is able to detect underwater dam cracks and classify them accurately and effectively under complex underwater environments.

  3. Automatic welding systems for large ship hulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arregi, B.; Granados, S.; Hascoet, JY.; Hamilton, K.; Alonso, M.; Ares, E.

    2012-04-01

    Welding processes represents about 40% of the total production time in shipbuilding. Although most of the indoor welding work is automated, outdoor operations still require the involvement of numerous operators. To automate hull welding operations is a priority in large shipyards. The objective of the present work is to develop a comprehensive welding system capable of working with several welding layers in an automated way. There are several difficulties for the seam tracking automation of the welding process. The proposed solution is the development of a welding machine capable of moving autonomously along the welding seam, controlling both the position of the torch and the welding parameters to adjust the thickness of the weld bead to the actual gap between the hull plates.

  4. Underwater electric field detection system based on weakly electric fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Wei; Wang, Tianyu; Wang, Qi

    2018-04-01

    Weakly electric fish sense their surroundings in complete darkness by their active electric field detection system. However, due to the insufficient detection capacity of the electric field, the detection distance is not enough, and the detection accuracy is not high. In this paper, a method of underwater detection based on rotating current field theory is proposed to improve the performance of underwater electric field detection system. First of all, we built underwater detection system based on the theory of the spin current field mathematical model with the help of the results of previous researchers. Then we completed the principle prototype and finished the metal objects in the water environment detection experiments, laid the foundation for the further experiments.

  5. Conversion of Wet Glass to Melt at Lower Seismogenic Zone Conditions: Implications for Pseudotachylyte Creep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, B. P.; Lockner, D. A.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Beeler, N. M.

    2017-10-01

    Coseismic frictional melting and the production of quenched glass called pseudotachylyte is a recurring process during earthquakes. To investigate how glassy materials affect the postseismic strength and stability of faults, obsidian gouges were sheared under dry and wet conditions from 200°C to 300°C at 150 MPa effective normal stress. Dry glass exhibited a brittle rheology at all conditions tested, exhibiting friction values and microstructures consistent with siliciclastic materials. Likewise, wet glass at 200°C exhibited a brittle rheology. In contrast, wet gouges at 300°C transitioned from brittle sliding to linear-viscous (Newtonian) flow at strain rates <3 × 10-4 s-1, indicating melt-like behavior. The viscosity ranged from 2 × 1011 to 7.8 × 1011 Pa-s. Microstructures show that viscous gouges were fully welded with rod-shaped microlites rotated into the flow direction. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy along with electron backscatter imaging demonstrate that hydration of the glass by diffusion of pore water was the dominant process reducing the viscosity and promoting viscous flow. As much as 5 wt % water diffused into the glass. These results may provide insight into postseismic-slip behaviors and challenge some interpretations of fault kinematics based on studies assuming that pseudotachylyte formation and flow is solely coseismic.

  6. Friction Stir Welding Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romine, Peter L.

    1998-01-01

    The research of this summer was a continuation of work started during the previous summer faculty fellowship period. The Friction Stir Welding process (FSW) patented by The Welding Institute (TWI), in Great Britain, has become a popular topic at the Marshall Space Flight Center over the past year. Last year it was considered a novel approach to welding but few people took it very seriously as a near term solution. However, due to continued problems with cracks in the new aluminum-lithium space shuttle external tank (ET), the friction stir process is being mobilized at full speed in an effort to mature this process for the potential manufacture of flight hardware. It is now the goal of NASA and Lockheed-Martin Corporation (LMC) to demonstrate a full-scale friction stir welding system capable of welding ET size barrel sections. The objectives this summer were: (1) Implementation and validation of the rotating dynamometer on the MSFC FSW system; (2) Collection of data for FSW process modeling efforts; (3) Specification development for FSW implementation on the vertical weld tool; (4) Controls and user interface development for the adjustable pin tool; and (5) Development of an instrumentation system for the planishing process. The projects started this summer will lead to a full scale friction stir welding system that is expected to produce a friction stir welded shuttle external tank type barrel section. The success of this could lead to the implementation of the friction stir process for manufacturing future shuttle external tanks.

  7. Welding and Weldability of AZ31B by Gas Tungsten Arc and Laser Beam Welding Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathabai, S.; Barton, K. J.; Harris, D.; Lloyd, P. G.; Viano, D. M.; McLean, A.

    Welding will play an important role in the fabrication of modular lightweight structures based on magnesium alloy die castings, extrusion profiles and wrought products. Minimisation of rejection rates during fabrication requires that satisfactory weldability be established for a particular combination of materials and welding procedures. In this paper, we present the results of a study to quantify the weldability of wrought alloy AZ31B by gas tungsten arc (GTA) and laser beam (LB) welding processes. The susceptibility to weld metal solidification cracking was evaluated using the Circular Patch weldability test. Operating windows of welding parameters for crack-free and porosity-free GTA and LB welding were identified, based on which welding procedures were developed for sheet and plate AZ31B. The microstructure and mechanical properties of welded test plates were assessed, leading to a better understanding of microstructurat development and structure-property relationships in GTA and LB weldments in AZ31B.

  8. Identification of the Quality Spot Welding used Non Destructive Test-Ultrasonic Testing: (Effect of Welding Time)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sifa, A.; Endramawan, T.; Badruzzaman

    2017-03-01

    Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) is frequently used as one way of welding is used in the manufacturing process, especially in the automotive industry [4][5][6][7]. Several parameters influence the process of welding points. To determine the quality of a welding job needs to be tested, either by damaging or testing without damage, in this study conducted experimental testing the quality of welding or identify quality of the nugget by using Non-Destructive Test (NDT) -Ultrasonic Testing (UT), in which the identification of the quality of the welding is done with parameter thickness of worksheet after welding using NDT-UT with use same material worksheet and have more thickness of worksheet, the thickness of the worksheet single plate 1mm, with the capability of propagation Ultrasonic Testing (UT) standard limited> 3 mm [1], welding process parameters such as the time difference between 1-10s and the welding current of 8 KV, visually Heat Affected Zone ( HAZ ) have different results due to the length of time of welding. UT uses a probe that is used with a frequency of 4 MHz, diameter 10 mm, range 100 and the couplant used is oil. Identification techniques using drop 6dB, with sound velocity 2267 m / s of Fe, with the result that the effect of the Welding time affect the size of the HAZ, identification with the lowest time 1s show results capable identified joined through NDT - UT.

  9. Shielded Metal Arc Welding. Welding Module 4. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This guide is intended to assist vocational educators in teaching an eight-unit module in shielded metal arc welding. The module is part of a welding curriculum that has been designed to be totally integrated with Missouri's Vocational Instruction Management System. The following topics are covered in the module: safety; theory, power sources, and…

  10. Gas Metal Arc Welding. Welding Module 5. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This guide is intended to assist vocational educators in teaching an eight-unit module in gas metal arc welding. The module is part of a welding curriculum that has been designed to be totally integrated with Missouri's Vocational Instruction Management System. The following topics are covered in the module: safety and testing, gas metal arc…

  11. Pre-resistance-welding resistance check

    DOEpatents

    Destefan, Dennis E.; Stompro, David A.

    1991-01-01

    A preweld resistance check for resistance welding machines uses an open circuited measurement to determine the welding machine resistance, a closed circuit measurement to determine the parallel resistance of a workpiece set and the machine, and a calculation to determine the resistance of the workpiece set. Any variation in workpiece set or machine resistance is an indication that the weld may be different from a control weld.

  12. Wet meadows

    Treesearch

    Jonathan W. Long; Karen Pope

    2014-01-01

    Wet meadows help to sustain favorable water flows, biological diversity, and other values; consequently, restoration of degraded wet meadows is an important part of a strategy for promoting socioecological resilience. This chapter focuses on high-elevation wet meadows that are associated with streams; thus restoration of such meadows may be considered a subset of...

  13. [Wet work].

    PubMed

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Chomiczewska, Dorota; Krecisz, Beata

    2010-01-01

    Wet work is one of the most important risk factors of occupational skin diseases. Exposure of hands to the wet environment for more than 2 hours daily, wearing moisture-proof protective gloves for a corresponding period of time or necessity to wash hands frequently lead to the disruption of epidermal stratum corneum, damage to skin barrier function and induction of irritant contact dermatitis. It may also promote penetration of allergens into the skin and increase the risk of sensitization to occupational allergens. Exposure to wet work plays a significant role in occupations, such as hairdressers and barbers, nurses and other health care workers, cleaning staff, food handlers and metalworkers. It is more common among women because many occupations involving wet work are female-dominated. The incidence of wet-work-induced occupational skin diseases can be reduced by taking appropriate preventive measures. These include identification of high-risk groups, education of workers, organization of work enabling to minimize the exposure to wet work, use of personal protective equipment and skin care after work.

  14. Ultrasonic Welding of Thermoplastic Composite Coupons for Mechanical Characterization of Welded Joints through Single Lap Shear Testing.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Irene F; Palardy, Genevieve

    2016-02-11

    This paper presents a novel straightforward method for ultrasonic welding of thermoplastic-composite coupons in optimum processing conditions. The ultrasonic welding process described in this paper is based on three main pillars. Firstly, flat energy directors are used for preferential heat generation at the joining interface during the welding process. A flat energy director is a neat thermoplastic resin film that is placed between the parts to be joined prior to the welding process and heats up preferentially owing to its lower compressive stiffness relative to the composite substrates. Consequently, flat energy directors provide a simple solution that does not require molding of resin protrusions on the surfaces of the composite substrates, as opposed to ultrasonic welding of unreinforced plastics. Secondly, the process data provided by the ultrasonic welder is used to rapidly define the optimum welding parameters for any thermoplastic composite material combination. Thirdly, displacement control is used in the welding process to ensure consistent quality of the welded joints. According to this method, thermoplastic-composite flat coupons are individually welded in a single lap configuration. Mechanical testing of the welded coupons allows determining the apparent lap shear strength of the joints, which is one of the properties most commonly used to quantify the strength of thermoplastic composite welded joints.

  15. Ultrasonic Welding of Thermoplastic Composite Coupons for Mechanical Characterization of Welded Joints through Single Lap Shear Testing

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Irene F.; Palardy, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel straightforward method for ultrasonic welding of thermoplastic-composite coupons in optimum processing conditions. The ultrasonic welding process described in this paper is based on three main pillars. Firstly, flat energy directors are used for preferential heat generation at the joining interface during the welding process. A flat energy director is a neat thermoplastic resin film that is placed between the parts to be joined prior to the welding process and heats up preferentially owing to its lower compressive stiffness relative to the composite substrates. Consequently, flat energy directors provide a simple solution that does not require molding of resin protrusions on the surfaces of the composite substrates, as opposed to ultrasonic welding of unreinforced plastics. Secondly, the process data provided by the ultrasonic welder is used to rapidly define the optimum welding parameters for any thermoplastic composite material combination. Thirdly, displacement control is used in the welding process to ensure consistent quality of the welded joints. According to this method, thermoplastic-composite flat coupons are individually welded in a single lap configuration. Mechanical testing of the welded coupons allows determining the apparent lap shear strength of the joints, which is one of the properties most commonly used to quantify the strength of thermoplastic composite welded joints. PMID:26890931

  16. Automatic monitoring of vibration welding equipment

    DOEpatents

    Spicer, John Patrick; Chakraborty, Debejyo; Wincek, Michael Anthony; Wang, Hui; Abell, Jeffrey A; Bracey, Jennifer; Cai, Wayne W

    2014-10-14

    A vibration welding system includes vibration welding equipment having a welding horn and anvil, a host device, a check station, and a robot. The robot moves the horn and anvil via an arm to the check station. Sensors, e.g., temperature sensors, are positioned with respect to the welding equipment. Additional sensors are positioned with respect to the check station, including a pressure-sensitive array. The host device, which monitors a condition of the welding equipment, measures signals via the sensors positioned with respect to the welding equipment when the horn is actively forming a weld. The robot moves the horn and anvil to the check station, activates the check station sensors at the check station, and determines a condition of the welding equipment by processing the received signals. Acoustic, force, temperature, displacement, amplitude, and/or attitude/gyroscopic sensors may be used.

  17. Underwater speech communications with a modulated laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, B.; Sari, H.

    2008-04-01

    A novel speech communications system using a modulated laser beam has been developed for short-range applications in which high directionality is an exploitable feature. Although it was designed for certain underwater applications, such as speech communications between divers or between a diver and the surface, it may equally be used for air applications. With some modification it could be used for secure diver-to-diver communications in the situation where untethered divers are swimming close together and do not want their conversations monitored by intruders. Unlike underwater acoustic communications, where the transmitted speech may be received at ranges of hundreds of metres omnidirectionally, a laser communication link is very difficult to intercept and also obviates the need for cables that become snagged or broken. Further applications include the transmission of speech and data, including the short message service (SMS), from a fixed installation such as a sea-bed habitat; and data transmission to and from an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), particularly during docking manoeuvres. The performance of the system has been assessed subjectively by listening tests, which revealed that the speech was intelligible, although of poor quality due to the speech algorithm used.

  18. APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR ARC WELDING

    DOEpatents

    Noland, R.A.; Stone, C.C.

    1960-05-10

    An apparatus and method are given for forming a welding arc which is rotated by a magnetic field very rapidly about an annular electrode so that a weld is produced simultaneously over all points of an annular or closed path. This invention inhibits outgassing from the jacket of a fuel slug which is being welded by adjusting the pressure throughout the welding cycle to establish a balance between the gas pressure within the jacket and that of the atmosphere surrounding the jacket. Furthermore, an improved control of the magnetic field producing rotation of the welding arc is disclosed whereby this rotation is prevented from splashing about the metal being welded as the welding arc makes it molten.

  19. Robust and underwater superoleophobic coating with excellent corrosion and biofouling resistance in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Mingji; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Yuhong; Wang, Zhiguo; Li, Yulin; He, Peixin

    2018-04-01

    Underwater superoleophobic surfaces are based on the surface with micro-/nanoscale roughness and hydration layer. But the self-cleaning surfaces are usually mechanically weak and will lose their underwater superoleophobicity when the surfaces are corroded or damaged. In this paper, to overcome these problems, the robust underwater superoleophobic coating (HN/ER-coating) has been fabricated successfully through MPS (methacryloxy propyl trimethoxyl silane)-SiO2/PNIPAM (N-isopropylacryamide) hybrid nanoparticles and epoxy resin (ER) via a simple solution-casting method. The SiO2/PNIPAM hybrid nanoparticles can enhance multiscale roughness and excellent abrasion-resistant property, and the epoxy resin can be used as an interlayer between hybrid nanoparticles and substrates to promote the robustness and corrosion resistance of the coating. The obtained coatings have excellent underwater superoleophobicity, and exhibit highly stability in harsh environments (including acid-base, strong ionic strength, mechanical abrasion). Moreover, this coating can provide protective effect on the substrate in corrosive solution, and may also resist bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation because of the presence of high density PNIPAM polymers. Herein, the developed underwater superoleophobic coating can be applied as an effective platform for the applications in underwater instruments, underwater oil transport, marine oil platform and ships.

  20. Replacement of seam welded hot reheat pipe using narrow groove GTA machine welding

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Richardson, R.R.; Yanes, J.; Bryant, R.

    1995-12-31

    Southern California Edison, recognizing a potential safety concern, scrutinized its existing seam welded hot reheat pipe manufactured by the same supplier as that which failed. Alternatives were narrowed to two in dealing with the installed seam welded pipe. The overriding consideration, however, was one of safety. With this in mind, the utility company evaluated replacement of the seam welded hot reheat pipe with seamless pipe or increasing the frequency of its inspection program. Although increased inspection was much costly, pipe replacement was chosen due to potential safety concerns with seam welded pipe even with more frequent inspection. The utility companymore » then proceeded to determine the most effective method to complete this work. Analysis showed machine-made (automatic) gas tungsten arc welds (GTAW) as the method of choice due to cleanliness and superior mechanical properties. In conjunction with this method, the narrow groove (3{degree} bevel) weld joint as opposed to the traditional groove (37 1/2{degree} bevel) was shown to provide significant technical advantages.« less

  1. An energy-harvesting power supply for underwater bridge scour monitoring sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuli; Li, Yingjie; He, Longzhuang; Shamsi, Pourya; Zheng, Yahong R.

    2018-03-01

    The natural force of scouring has become one of the most critical risk endangering the endurance of bridges, thus leading to the necessity of deploying underwater monitoring sensors to actively detect potential scour holes under bridges. Due to the difficulty in re-charging batteries for underwater sensors, super capacitors with energy harvesting (EH) means are exploited to prolong the sustainability of underwater sensors. In this paper, an energy harvesting power supply based on a helical turbine is proposed to power underwater monitoring sensors. A small helical turbine is designed to convert water flow energy to electrical energy with favorable environmental robustness. A 3-inch diameter, 2.5-inch length and 3-bladed helical turbine was designed with two types of waterproof coupling with the sensor housing. Both designs were prototyped and tested under different flow conditions and we get valid voltage around 0.91 V which is enough to power monitoring sensor. The alternating current (AC) electrical energy generated by the helical turbine is then rectified and boosted to drive a DC charger for efficiently charging one super capacitor. The charging circuit was designed, prototyped and tested thoroughly with the helical turbine harvester. The results were promising, that the overall power supply can power an underwater sensor node with wireless transceivers for long-term operations

  2. Thermotropic Liquid Crystal Film Underwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uto, Sadahito; Nakanishi, Yuuji; Matsumoto, Takahumi

    2005-05-01

    A thermotropic liquid crystal film was produced in distilled water successfully. A lecithin suspension was utilized to make the film. Polarizing microscopic observations were carried out. The molecular arrangement was seemed to be homeotoropic. An expected electrooptic response of the film underwater was confirmed.

  3. Prediction Analysis of Weld-Bead and Heat Affected Zone in TIG welding using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldanha, Shamith L.; Kalaichelvi, V.; Karthikeyan, R.

    2018-04-01

    TIG Welding is a high quality form of welding which is very popular in industries. It is one of the few types of welding that can be used to join dissimilar metals. Here a weld joint is formed between stainless steel and monel alloy. It is desired to have control over the weld geometry of such a joint through the adjustment of experimental parameters which are welding current, wire feed speed, arc length and the shielding gas flow rate. To facilitate the automation of the same, a model of the welding system is needed. However the underlying welding process is complex and non-linear, and analytical methods are impractical for industrial use. Therefore artificial neural networks (ANN) are explored for developing the model, as they are well-suited for modelling non-linear multi-variate data. Feed-forward neural networks with backpropagation training algorithm are used, and the data for training the ANN taken from experimental work. There are four outputs corresponding to the weld geometry. Different training and testing phases were carried out using MATLAB software and ANN approximates the given data with minimum amount of error.

  4. Characteristics comparison of weld metal zones welded to cast and forged steels for piston crown material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Kyung-Man; Kim, Yun-Hae; Lee, Myeong-Hoon; Baek, Tae-Sil

    2015-03-01

    An optimum repair welding for the piston crown which is one of the engine parts exposed to the combustion chamber is considered to be very important to prolong the engine lifetime from an economical point of view. In this study, two types of filler metals such as 1.25Cr-0.5Mo, 0.5Mo were welded with SMAW method and the other two types of filler metals such as Inconel 625 and 718 were welded with GTAW method, respectively, and the used base metals were the cast and forged steels of the piston crown material. The weld metal zones welded with Inconel 625 and 718 filler metals exhibited higher corrosion resistance compared to 1.25Cr-0.5Mo and 0.5Mo filler metals. In particular, the weld metal zone welded with Inconel 718 and 0.5Mo, filler metals indicated the best and worst corrosion resistance, respectively. Consequently, it is suggested that the corrosion resistance of the weld metal zone surely depends on the chemical components of each filler metal and welding method irrespective of the types of piston crown material.

  5. Welding of HSLA-100 steel using ultra low carbon bainitic weld metal to eliminate preheating

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Devletian, J.H.; Singh, D.; Wood, W.E.

    1996-12-31

    Advanced high strength steels such as the Navy`s HSLA-100 and HSLA-80 contain sufficiently low carbon levels to be weldable without preheating. Unfortunately, commercial filler metals specifically designed to weld these steels without costly preheating have not yet been developed. The objective of this paper is to show that the Navy`s advanced steels can be welded by gas metal-arc (GMAW) and gas tungsten-arc welding (GTAW) without preheating by using filler metal compositions that produce weld metal with an ultra-low carbon bainitic (ULCB) microstructure. Filler metals were fabricated from vacuum induction melted (VIM) ingots containing ultra-low levels of C, O and N.more » HSLA-100 plate and plate from the VIM ingots were welded by both GMAW and GTAW with Ar-5% CO{sub 2} shielding gas using welding conditions to achieve cooling times from 800 to 500 C (t{sub 8-5}) from 35 to 14 sec. Weld metal tensile, hardness and CVN impact toughness testing as well as microstructural studies using transmission electron microscopy were conducted. The ULCB weld metal was relatively insensitive to cooling rate, resulting in good strength and toughness values over a wide range of t{sub 8-5} cooling times. Filler metal compositions which met the mechanical property requirements for HSLA-100, HSLA-80 and HSLA-65 weld metal were developed.« less

  6. Innovative Tools Advance Revolutionary Weld Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The iconic, orange external tank of the space shuttle launch system not only contains the fuel used by the shuttle s main engines during liftoff but also comprises the shuttle s backbone, supporting the space shuttle orbiter and solid rocket boosters. Given the tank s structural importance and the extreme forces (7.8 million pounds of thrust load) and temperatures it encounters during launch, the welds used to construct the tank must be highly reliable. Variable polarity plasma arc welding, developed for manufacturing the external tank and later employed for building the International Space Station, was until 1994 the best process for joining the aluminum alloys used during construction. That year, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers began experimenting with a relatively new welding technique called friction stir welding (FSW), developed in 1991 by The Welding Institute, of Cambridge, England. FSW differs from traditional fusion welding in that it is a solid-state welding technique, using frictional heat and motion to join structural components without actually melting any of the material. The weld is created by a shouldered pin tool that is plunged into the seam of the materials to be joined. The tool traverses the line while rotating at high speeds, generating friction that heats and softens but does not melt the metal. (The heat produced approaches about 80 percent of the metal s melting temperature.) The pin tool s rotation crushes and stirs the plasticized metal, extruding it along the seam as the tool moves forward. The material cools and consolidates, resulting in a weld with superior mechanical properties as compared to those weld properties of fusion welds. The innovative FSW technology promises a number of attractive benefits. Because the welded materials are not melted, many of the undesirables associated with fusion welding porosity, cracking, shrinkage, and distortion of the weld are minimized or avoided. The process is more energy efficient, safe

  7. Deformable Self-Propelled Micro-Object Comprising Underwater Oil Droplets

    PubMed Central

    Banno, Taisuke; Asami, Arisa; Ueno, Naoko; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Koyano, Yuki; Asakura, Kouichi; Toyota, Taro

    2016-01-01

    The self-propelled motion with deformation of micrometer-sized soft matter in water has potential application not only for underwater carriers or probes in very narrow spaces but also for understanding cell locomotion in terms of non-equilibrium physics. As far as we know, there have been no reports about micrometer-sized self-propelled soft matter mimicking amoeboid motion underwater. Here, we report an artificial molecular system of underwater oil droplets exhibiting self-propelled motion with deformation as an initial experimental model. We describe the heterogeneity in a deformable self-propelled oil droplet system in aqueous and oil phases and at their interface based on the behavior and interaction of surfactant and oil molecules. The current results have great importance for scientific frontiers such as developing deformable micro-swimmers and exploring the emergence of self-locomotion of oil droplet-type protocells. PMID:27503336

  8. Deformable Self-Propelled Micro-Object Comprising Underwater Oil Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banno, Taisuke; Asami, Arisa; Ueno, Naoko; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Koyano, Yuki; Asakura, Kouichi; Toyota, Taro

    2016-08-01

    The self-propelled motion with deformation of micrometer-sized soft matter in water has potential application not only for underwater carriers or probes in very narrow spaces but also for understanding cell locomotion in terms of non-equilibrium physics. As far as we know, there have been no reports about micrometer-sized self-propelled soft matter mimicking amoeboid motion underwater. Here, we report an artificial molecular system of underwater oil droplets exhibiting self-propelled motion with deformation as an initial experimental model. We describe the heterogeneity in a deformable self-propelled oil droplet system in aqueous and oil phases and at their interface based on the behavior and interaction of surfactant and oil molecules. The current results have great importance for scientific frontiers such as developing deformable micro-swimmers and exploring the emergence of self-locomotion of oil droplet-type protocells.

  9. Deformable Self-Propelled Micro-Object Comprising Underwater Oil Droplets.

    PubMed

    Banno, Taisuke; Asami, Arisa; Ueno, Naoko; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Koyano, Yuki; Asakura, Kouichi; Toyota, Taro

    2016-08-09

    The self-propelled motion with deformation of micrometer-sized soft matter in water has potential application not only for underwater carriers or probes in very narrow spaces but also for understanding cell locomotion in terms of non-equilibrium physics. As far as we know, there have been no reports about micrometer-sized self-propelled soft matter mimicking amoeboid motion underwater. Here, we report an artificial molecular system of underwater oil droplets exhibiting self-propelled motion with deformation as an initial experimental model. We describe the heterogeneity in a deformable self-propelled oil droplet system in aqueous and oil phases and at their interface based on the behavior and interaction of surfactant and oil molecules. The current results have great importance for scientific frontiers such as developing deformable micro-swimmers and exploring the emergence of self-locomotion of oil droplet-type protocells.

  10. Student-Built Underwater Video and Data Capturing Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitt, F.

    2016-12-01

    Students from Stockbridge High School Robotics Team invention is a low cost underwater video and data capturing device. This system is capable of shooting time-lapse photography and/or video for up to 3 days of video at a time. It can be used in remote locations without having to change batteries or adding additional external hard drives for data storage. The video capturing device has a unique base and mounting system which houses a pi drive and a programmable raspberry pi with a camera module. This system is powered by two 12 volt batteries, which makes it easier for users to recharge after use. Our data capturing device has the same unique base and mounting system as the underwater camera. The data capturing device consists of an Arduino and SD card shield that is capable of collecting continuous temperature and pH readings underwater. This data will then be logged onto the SD card for easy access and recording. The low cost underwater video and data capturing device can reach depths up to 100 meters while recording 36 hours of video on 1 terabyte of storage. It also features night vision infrared light capabilities. The cost to build our invention is $500. The goal of this was to provide a device that can easily be accessed by marine biologists, teachers, researchers and citizen scientists to capture photographic and water quality data in marine environments over extended periods of time.

  11. An underwater blood pressure measuring device.

    PubMed

    Sieber, Arne; Kuch, Benjamin; L'abbate, Antonio; Wagner, Matthias; Dario, Paolo; Bedini, Remo

    2008-09-01

    Measurement of arterial blood pressure is an important vital sign for monitoring the circulation. However, up to now no instrument has been available that enables the measurement of blood pressure underwater. The present paper details a novel, oscillometric, automatic digital blood pressure (BP) measurement device especially designed for this purpose. It consists mainly of analogue and digital electronics in a lexan housing that is rated to a depth of up to 200 metres' sea water, a cuff and a solenoid for inflation of the cuff with air supplied from a scuba tank. An integrated differential pressure sensor, exposed to the same ambient pressure as the cuff, allows accurate BP measurement. Calculation of systolic and diastolic pressures is based on the analysis of pressure oscillations recorded during the deflation. In hyperbaric chamber tests to pressures up to 405 kPa, BP measurements taken with the prototype were comparable to those obtained with established manual and automated methods. Swimming pool tests confirmed the correct functioning of the system underwater. The quality of the recorded pressure oscillations was very good even at 10 metres' fresh water, and allowed determination of diastolic and systolic pressure values. Based on these results we envisage that this device will lead to a better understanding of human cardiovascular physiology in underwater and hyperbaric environments.

  12. Bronchial reactions to exposure to welding fumes.

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, G R; Chan-Yeung, M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the airway response and its mechanism to welding fumes in six welders with respiratory symptoms. METHODS: Methacholine and welding challenge tests were carried out. The concentration of welding fumes during the exposure test was measured. On two subjects who developed bronchoconstricition to welding challenge, additional tests were carried out including prick, patch, and inhalation challenges with metal salt solutions. RESULTS: Three subjects developed immediate bronchial reaction to exposure to welding fume; one to mild steel and stainless steel welding, another to mild steel and galvanised welding, and one only to galvanised welding. They all had a moderate to pronounced degree of non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness. The concentration of fumes during welding tests, particularly to galvanised welding, was high. An inhalation challenge test with zinc chloride salt solution in two subjects who reacted to galvanised welding was negative. Prick and patch tests with zinc chloride were also negative. CONCLUSION: The airway response to welding in these subjects is non-specific and is due to irritation rather than to sensitisation. PMID:9538358

  13. AUV Underwater Positioning Algorithm Based on Interactive Assistance of SINS and LBL.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Chen, Liping; Li, Yao

    2015-12-30

    This paper studies an underwater positioning algorithm based on the interactive assistance of a strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) and LBL, and this algorithm mainly includes an optimal correlation algorithm with aided tracking of an SINS/Doppler velocity log (DVL)/magnetic compass pilot (MCP), a three-dimensional TDOA positioning algorithm of Taylor series expansion and a multi-sensor information fusion algorithm. The final simulation results show that compared to traditional underwater positioning algorithms, this scheme can not only directly correct accumulative errors caused by a dead reckoning algorithm, but also solves the problem of ambiguous correlation peaks caused by multipath transmission of underwater acoustic signals. The proposed method can calibrate the accumulative error of the AUV position more directly and effectively, which prolongs the underwater operating duration of the AUV.

  14. AUV Underwater Positioning Algorithm Based on Interactive Assistance of SINS and LBL

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Chen, Liping; Li, Yao

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies an underwater positioning algorithm based on the interactive assistance of a strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) and LBL, and this algorithm mainly includes an optimal correlation algorithm with aided tracking of an SINS/Doppler velocity log (DVL)/magnetic compass pilot (MCP), a three-dimensional TDOA positioning algorithm of Taylor series expansion and a multi-sensor information fusion algorithm. The final simulation results show that compared to traditional underwater positioning algorithms, this scheme can not only directly correct accumulative errors caused by a dead reckoning algorithm, but also solves the problem of ambiguous correlation peaks caused by multipath transmission of underwater acoustic signals. The proposed method can calibrate the accumulative error of the AUV position more directly and effectively, which prolongs the underwater operating duration of the AUV. PMID:26729120

  15. Geometric and Optic Characterization of a Hemispherical Dome Port for Underwater Photogrammetry

    PubMed Central

    Menna, Fabio; Nocerino, Erica; Fassi, Francesco; Remondino, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The popularity of automatic photogrammetric techniques has promoted many experiments in underwater scenarios leading to quite impressive visual results, even by non-experts. Despite these achievements, a deep understanding of camera and lens behaviors as well as optical phenomena involved in underwater operations is fundamental to better plan field campaigns and anticipate the achievable results. The paper presents a geometric investigation of a consumer grade underwater camera housing, manufactured by NiMAR and equipped with a 7′′ dome port. After a review of flat and dome ports, the work analyzes, using simulations and real experiments, the main optical phenomena involved when operating a camera underwater. Specific aspects which deal with photogrammetric acquisitions are considered with some tests in laboratory and in a swimming pool. Results and considerations are shown and commented. PMID:26729133

  16. Characterization of underwater optical turbulence on the example of the Rayleigh-Benard water tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladysz, Szymon; Barros, Rui; Kanaev, Andrey V.; Hou, Weilin

    2017-09-01

    For many years sound has been used as a primary method for underwater communication. However, data transmission rate of acoustic systems is low because typical frequencies associated with underwater acoustics are between tens of hertz and hundreds of kilohertz. A higher bandwidth can be achieved with visible light to transfer data underwater. The first challenge for underwater laser communication is scattering and absorption. In addition, there are disturbances caused by spatial and temporal changes in the water refraction index due to temperature and/or salinity variations. Optical turbulence, which includes the two effects, is the main theme of this paper. We will discuss the joint IOSB-NRL experiment whose goal was to test techniques for characterization of underwater optical turbulence and in particular we will focus on differential motion measurement from an LED array.

  17. Multi-mode ultrasonic welding control and optimization

    DOEpatents

    Tang, Jason C.H.; Cai, Wayne W

    2013-05-28

    A system and method for providing multi-mode control of an ultrasonic welding system. In one embodiment, the control modes include the energy of the weld, the time of the welding process and the compression displacement of the parts being welded during the welding process. The method includes providing thresholds for each of the modes, and terminating the welding process after the threshold for each mode has been reached, the threshold for more than one mode has been reached or the threshold for one of the modes has been reached. The welding control can be either open-loop or closed-loop, where the open-loop process provides the mode thresholds and once one or more of those thresholds is reached the welding process is terminated. The closed-loop control provides feedback of the weld energy and/or the compression displacement so that the weld power and/or weld pressure can be increased or decreased accordingly.

  18. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of an Ultrasonic Spot Welded Aluminum Alloy: The Effect of Welding Energy

    PubMed Central

    Peng, He; Chen, Daolun; Jiang, Xianquan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the microstructures, tensile lap shear strength, and fatigue resistance of 6022-T43 aluminum alloy joints welded via a solid-state welding technique–ultrasonic spot welding (USW)–at different energy levels. An ultra-fine necklace-like equiaxed grain structure is observed along the weld line due to the occurrence of dynamic crystallization, with smaller grain sizes at lower levels of welding energy. The tensile lap shear strength, failure energy, and critical stress intensity of the welded joints first increase, reach their maximum values, and then decrease with increasing welding energy. The tensile lap shear failure mode changes from interfacial fracture at lower energy levels, to nugget pull-out at intermediate optimal energy levels, and to transverse through-thickness (TTT) crack growth at higher energy levels. The fatigue life is longer for the joints welded at an energy of 1400 J than 2000 J at higher cyclic loading levels. The fatigue failure mode changes from nugget pull-out to TTT crack growth with decreasing cyclic loading for the joints welded at 1400 J, while TTT crack growth mode remains at all cyclic loading levels for the joints welded at 2000 J. Fatigue crack basically initiates from the nugget edge, and propagates with “river-flow” patterns and characteristic fatigue striations. PMID:28772809

  19. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of an Ultrasonic Spot Welded Aluminum Alloy: The Effect of Welding Energy.

    PubMed

    Peng, He; Chen, Daolun; Jiang, Xianquan

    2017-04-25

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the microstructures, tensile lap shear strength, and fatigue resistance of 6022-T43 aluminum alloy joints welded via a solid-state welding technique-ultrasonic spot welding (USW)-at different energy levels. An ultra-fine necklace-like equiaxed grain structure is observed along the weld line due to the occurrence of dynamic crystallization, with smaller grain sizes at lower levels of welding energy. The tensile lap shear strength, failure energy, and critical stress intensity of the welded joints first increase, reach their maximum values, and then decrease with increasing welding energy. The tensile lap shear failure mode changes from interfacial fracture at lower energy levels, to nugget pull-out at intermediate optimal energy levels, and to transverse through-thickness (TTT) crack growth at higher energy levels. The fatigue life is longer for the joints welded at an energy of 1400 J than 2000 J at higher cyclic loading levels. The fatigue failure mode changes from nugget pull-out to TTT crack growth with decreasing cyclic loading for the joints welded at 1400 J, while TTT crack growth mode remains at all cyclic loading levels for the joints welded at 2000 J. Fatigue crack basically initiates from the nugget edge, and propagates with "river-flow" patterns and characteristic fatigue striations.

  20. Effect of Weld Tool Geometry on Friction Stir Welded Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querin, Joseph A.; Schneider, Judy A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, flat 0.250" thick Ti-6Al-4V panels were friction stir welded (FSWed) using weld tools with tapered pins. The five different pin geometries of the weld tools included: 0 degree (straight cylinder), 15 degree, 30 degree, 45 degree, and 60 degree angles on the frustum. All weld tools had a smooth 7 degree concave shoulder and were made from microwave sintered tungsten carbide. For each weld tool geometry, the FSW process parameters were optimized to eliminate internal defects. All the welds were produced in position control with a 2.5 degree lead angle using a butt joint configuration for the panels. The process parameters of spindle rpm and travel speed were varied, altering the hot working conditions imparted to the workpiece. Load cells on the FSWing machine allowed for the torque, the plunge force, and the plow force to be recorded during welding. Resulting mechanical properties were evaluated from tensile tests results of the FSWjoints. Variations in the material flow were investigated by use of microstructural analysis including optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and orientation image mapping (aIM).