Anema, Skelte G; Li, Yuming
When skim milk at pH 6.55 was heated (75 to 100 degrees C for up to 60 min), the casein micelle size, as monitored by photon correlation spectroscopy, was found to increase during the initial stages of heating and tended to plateau on prolonged heating. At any particular temperature, the casein micelle size increased with longer holding times, and, at any particular holding time, the casein micelle size increased with increasing temperature. The maximum increase in casein micelle size was about 30-35 nm. The changes in casein micelle size were poorly correlated with the level of whey protein denaturation. However, the changes in casein micelle size were highly correlated with the levels of denatured whey proteins that were associated with the casein micelles. The rate of association of the denatured whey proteins with the casein micelles was considerably slower than the rate of denaturation of the whey proteins. Removal of the whey proteins from the skim milk resulted in only small changes in casein micelle size during heating. Re-addition of beta-lactoglobulin to the whey-protein-depleted milk caused the casein micelle size to increase markedly on heat treatment. The changes in casein micelle size induced by the heat treatment of skim milk may be a consequence of the whey proteins associating with the casein micelles. However, these associated whey proteins would need to occlude a large amount of serum to account for the particle size changes. Separate experiments showed that the viscosity changes of heated milk and the estimated volume fraction changes were consistent with the particle size changes observed. Further studies are needed to determine whether the changes in size are due to the specific association of whey proteins with the micelles or whether a low level of aggregation of the casein micelles accompanies this association behaviour. Preliminary studies indicated lower levels of denatured whey proteins associated with the casein micelles and smaller
Harte, Federico M; Gurram, Subba Rao; Luedecke, Lloyd O; Swanson, Barry G; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V
High hydrostatic pressure disruption of casein micelle isolates was studied by analytical ultracentrifugation and transmission electron microscopy. Casein micelles were isolated from skim milk and subjected to combinations of thermal treatment (85 degrees C, 20 min) and high hydrostatic pressure (up to 676 MPa) with and without whey protein added. High hydrostatic pressure promoted extensive disruption of the casein micelles in the 250 to 310 MPa pressure range. At pressures greater than 310 MPa no further disruption was observed. The addition of whey protein to casein micelle isolates protected the micelles from high hydrostatic pressure induced disruption only when the mix was thermally processed before pressure treatment. The more whey protein was added (up to 5 g/l) the more the protection against high hydrostatic pressure induced micelle disruption was observed in thermally treated samples subjected to 310 MPa.
Dayal, R; Hurlimann, J; Suard, Y M; Kraehenbuhl, J P
Caseins were separated from whey proteins by acid precipitation of skimmed rabbit milk. Whole casein was resolved by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis into three major bands with apparent relative molecular masses (Mr of 31 000, 29 000 and 25 000. On agarose/urea-gel electrophoresis whole casein gave three bands with electrophoretic mobilities alpha, beta and gamma. The three components were purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography under denaturing and reducing conditions. Each was shown to have a different amino acid, hexose and phosphorus content, as well as non-identical peptide fragments after proteinase digestion. The 31 000 Da (dalton) protein, of alpha-electrophoretic mobility, had a high phosphorus content (4.38%, w/w); the 29 000 Da peptide, of gamma-mobility, had the highest hexose content (2.2%, w/w), contained 0.8 cysteine residue per 100 amino acid residues and was susceptible to chymosin digestion corresponding thus to kappa-casein; the 25 000 Da protein migrated to the beta-position. The rabbit casein complex is composed of at least three caseins, two of which (alpha- and kappa-caseins) are analogous to the caseins from ruminants. Although caseins are poor immunogens, specific antibodies were raised against total and purified polypeptides. The antiserum directed against whole casein recognized each polypeptide, each casein corresponding to a distinct precipitation line. The antisera directed against each casein polypeptide reacted exclusively with the corresponding casein and no antiserum cross-reaction occurred between the three polypeptides. From whey, several proteins were isolated, characterized and used as antigens to raise specific antibodies. An iron-binding protein with an apparent Mr of 80 000 was shown to be immunologically and structurally identical with serum transferrin. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6177316
Lara-Villoslada, F; Olivares, M; Xaus, J
Cow's milk allergy is quite common in the first years of human life. Protein composition plays an important role in this pathology, particularly the casein/whey protein ratio. It is known that milks from different species have different sensitization capacities although their protein sources are quite similar. Thus, the objective of this work was to compare the allergenicity of native cow's milk and milk with a modified ratio of casein and whey proteins in a murine model of atopy. Twenty-four Balb/c mice were orally sensitized to native cow's milk or modified cow's milk with a casein/whey protein ratio of 40:60. During the sensitization period, the number of mice suffering from diarrhea was significantly higher in the native cow's milk-sensitized group than in the modified milk-sensitized group. Once mice were killed, plasma histamine levels were shown to be significantly higher in native cow's milk-sensitized mice. In addition, cow's milk proteins induced a higher lymphocyte sensitization in the native milk-sensitized mice, with a significant increase in the specific proliferation ratio of these cells. These results suggest that the balance between caseins and whey proteins plays an important role in the sensitization capacity of cow's milk, and its modification might be a way to reduce the allergenicity of cow's milk.
Anema, Skelte G
Reconstituted skim milk at pH from 6.5 to 7.1 was unheated, preheated (68 degrees C/20 min), or heated at 90 degrees C for 20-30 min. On preheating, the size of the casein micelles decreased by about 5-20 nm, with a greater effect at higher pH. The casein micelle size of the heated milk at pH 6.5 increased by about 30 nm when compared to that of the unheated or preheated milk. As the pH was increased before heating, the particle size gradually decreased so that, at pH 7.1, the size was markedly smaller than that for the unheated milk and slightly smaller than that for the preheated milk. High levels (about 85%) of denatured whey protein associated with the casein micelles at pH 6.5, and this level decreased as the pH increased so that, at pH 7.1, low levels (about 15%) were associated with the micelles. Low levels of alphaS-casein and beta-casein were found in the serum regardless of the heat treatment or the pH of the milk. At pH 6.5, low levels (about 10%) of kappa-casein were also found in the milk serum. In the unheated milk, the level of serum kappa-casein increased slightly with increasing pH; in the heated samples, the level of serum kappa-casein increased markedly and linearly with increasing pH so that, at pH 7.1, about 70% of the kappa-casein was in the serum phase. The results of this study indicate that the pH dependence of the levels of serum phase kappa-casein may be responsible for the change in distribution of the whey proteins between the colloidal and serum phases. This is the first report to demonstrate significant levels of dissociation of kappa-casein from the micelles at pH between 6.5 and 6.7, although this dissociation phenomenon is well known on heating milk at high temperatures at pH above 6.7.
Sindayikengera, Séverin; Xia, Wen-shui
Whey protein concentrate (WPC 80) and sodium caseinate were hydrolyzed by Protamex to 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% degree of hydrolysis (DH). WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were then analyzed, compared and evaluated for their nutritional qualities. Their chemical composition, protein solubility, amino acid composition, essential amino acid index (EAA index), biological value (BV), nutritional index (NI), chemical score, enzymic protein efficiency ratio (E-PER) and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) were determined. The results indicated that the enzymatic hydrolysis of WPC 80 and sodium caseinate by Protamex improved the solubility and IVPD of their hydrolysates. WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were high-quality proteins and had a surplus of essential amino acids compared with the FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) reference standard. The nutritive value of WPC 80 and its hydrolysates was superior to that of sodium caseinate and its hydrolysates as indicated by some nutritional parameters such as the amino acid composition, chemical score, EAA index and predicted BV. However, the E-PER was lower for the WPC hydrolysates as compared to unhydrolyzed WPC 80 but sodium caseinate and its hydrolysates did not differ significantly. The nutritional qualities of WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were good and make them appropriate for food formulations or as nutritional supplements. PMID:16421963
The interfacial composition and the stability of oil-in-water emulsion droplets (30% soya oil, pH 7.0) made with mixtures of sodium caseinate and whey protein concentrate (WPC) (1:1 by protein weight) at various total protein concentrations were examined. The average volume-surface diameter (d32) and the total surface protein concentration of emulsion droplets were similar to those of emulsions made with both sodium caseinate alone and WPC alone. Whey proteins were adsorbed in preference to caseins at low protein concentrations (<3%), whereas caseins were adsorbed in preference to whey proteins at high protein concentrations. The creaming stability of the emulsions decreased markedly as the total protein concentration of the system was increased above 2% (sodium caseinate >1%). This was attributed to depletion flocculation caused by the sodium caseinate in these emulsions. Whey proteins did not retard this instability in the emulsions made with mixtures of sodium caseinate and WPC. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shariatikia, Malihe; Behbahani, Mandana; Mohabatkar, Hassan
The present investigation was carried out to evaluate anticancer activity of cow, goat, sheep, mare, donkey and camel milks and their casein and whey proteins against MCF7 cell line. The structure-based properties of the casein proteins were also investigated, using bioinformatics tools to find explanation for their antitumor activities. The effect of different milks and their casein and whey proteins on MCF7 proliferation was measured using MTT assay at different concentrations (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/ml). The results showed that mare, donkey, cow and camel milks and their casein and whey proteins have potent cytotoxic activity against MCF7 cells in a dose dependent manner while sheep and goat milks and their proteins did not reveal any cytotoxic activity. The in silico results demonstrated that mare, donkey and camel caseins had highest positive and negative charges. The secondary structure prediction indicated that mare and donkey caseins had the maximum percentage of α helix and camel casein had the highest percentage of extended strand. This study suggests that there is a striking correlation between anti-cancer activity of milk caseins and their physicochemical properties such as alpha helix structure and positive and negative charges. In conclusion, the results indicated that mare, camel and donkey milks might be good candidates against breast cancer cells.
Kethireddipalli, Prashanti; Hill, Arthur R; Dalgleish, Douglas G
Casein micelles were separated from unheated reconstituted skim milk powder (RSMP) and were resuspended in the serum of RSMP that had been heated, with and without dialysis of this serum against unheated RSMP. Using size-exclusion chromatography, it was found that the soluble complexes of whey protein (WP) with κ-casein in the serum of the heated milk bind progressively to unheated casein micelles during renneting, even prior to the onset of clotting. Similar trends were noted when casein micelles from RSMP heated at pH values of 6.7, 7.1, or 6.3, each with different amounts of WP coating the micelles, were renneted in the presence of soluble WP/κ-casein complexes. No matter what was the initial load of micelle-bound WP complexes, all micelle types were capable of binding additional serum protein complexes during renneting. However, it is not clear that this binding of WP/κ-casein complexes to the micellar surface is a direct cause of the impaired rennet clotting of the RSMP.
Masarwi, Majdi; Gabet, Yankel; Dolkart, Oleg; Brosh, Tamar; Shamir, Raanan; Phillip, Moshe; Gat-Yablonski, Galia
The aim of the present study was to determine whether the type of protein ingested influences the efficiency of catch-up (CU) growth and bone quality in fast-growing male rats. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were either fed ad libitum (controls) or subjected to 36 d of 40 % food restriction followed by 24 or 40 d of re-feeding with either standard rat chow or iso-energetic, iso-protein diets containing milk proteins - casein or whey. In terms of body weight, CU growth was incomplete in all study groups. Despite their similar food consumption, casein-re-fed rats had a significantly higher body weight and longer humerus than whey-re-fed rats in the long term. The height of the epiphyseal growth plate (EGP) in both casein and whey groups was greater than that of rats re-fed normal chow. Microcomputed tomography yielded significant differences in bone microstructure between the casein and whey groups, with the casein-re-fed animals having greater cortical thickness in both the short and long term in addition to a higher trabecular bone fraction in the short term, although this difference disappeared in the long term. Mechanical testing confirmed the greater bone strength in rats re-fed casein. Bone quality during CU growth significantly depends on the type of protein ingested. The higher EGP in the casein- and whey-re-fed rats suggests a better growth potential with milk-based diets. These results suggest that whey may lead to slower bone growth with reduced weight gain and, as such, may serve to circumvent long-term complications of CU growth.
Kanda, Atsushi; Nakayama, Kyosuke; Sanbongi, Chiaki; Nagata, Masashi; Ikegami, Shuji; Itoh, Hiroyuki
Whey protein (WP) is characterized as a “fast” protein and caseinate (CA) as a “slow” protein according to their digestion and absorption rates. We hypothesized that co-ingestion of milk proteins (WP and CA) may be effective for prolonging the muscle protein synthesis response compared to either protein alone. We therefore compared the effect of ingesting milk protein (MP) to either WP or CA alone on muscle protein synthesis after exercise in rats. We also compared the effects of these milk-derived proteins to a control, soy protein (SP). Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam for two hours. Immediately after exercise, one of the following four solutions was administered: WP, CA, MP, or SP. Individual rats were euthanized at designated postprandial time points and triceps muscle samples collected for measurement of the protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR). FSR tended to increase in all groups post-ingestion, although the initial peaks of FSR occurred at different times (WP, peak time = 60 min, FSR = 7.76%/day; MP, peak time = 90 min, FSR = 8.34%/day; CA, peak time = 120 min, FSR = 7.85%/day). Milk-derived proteins caused significantly greater increases (p < 0.05) in FSR compared with SP at different times (WP, 60 min; MP, 90 and 120 min; CA, 120 min). Although statistical analysis could not be performed, the calculated the area under the curve (AUC) values for FSR following this trend were: MP, 534.61; CA, 498.22; WP, 473.46; and SP, 406.18. We conclude that ingestion of MP, CA or WP causes the initial peak time in muscle protein synthesis to occur at different times (WP, fast; MP, intermediate; CA, slow) and the dairy proteins have a superior effect on muscle protein synthesis after exercise compared with SP. PMID:27271661
Kanda, Atsushi; Nakayama, Kyosuke; Sanbongi, Chiaki; Nagata, Masashi; Ikegami, Shuji; Itoh, Hiroyuki
Whey protein (WP) is characterized as a "fast" protein and caseinate (CA) as a "slow" protein according to their digestion and absorption rates. We hypothesized that co-ingestion of milk proteins (WP and CA) may be effective for prolonging the muscle protein synthesis response compared to either protein alone. We therefore compared the effect of ingesting milk protein (MP) to either WP or CA alone on muscle protein synthesis after exercise in rats. We also compared the effects of these milk-derived proteins to a control, soy protein (SP). Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam for two hours. Immediately after exercise, one of the following four solutions was administered: WP, CA, MP, or SP. Individual rats were euthanized at designated postprandial time points and triceps muscle samples collected for measurement of the protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR). FSR tended to increase in all groups post-ingestion, although the initial peaks of FSR occurred at different times (WP, peak time = 60 min, FSR = 7.76%/day; MP, peak time = 90 min, FSR = 8.34%/day; CA, peak time = 120 min, FSR = 7.85%/day). Milk-derived proteins caused significantly greater increases (p < 0.05) in FSR compared with SP at different times (WP, 60 min; MP, 90 and 120 min; CA, 120 min). Although statistical analysis could not be performed, the calculated the area under the curve (AUC) values for FSR following this trend were: MP, 534.61; CA, 498.22; WP, 473.46; and SP, 406.18. We conclude that ingestion of MP, CA or WP causes the initial peak time in muscle protein synthesis to occur at different times (WP, fast; MP, intermediate; CA, slow) and the dairy proteins have a superior effect on muscle protein synthesis after exercise compared with SP.
Butteiger, D N; Cope, M; Liu, P; Mukherjea, R; Volpi, E; Rasmussen, B B; Krul, E S
Blends of dairy and soy protein are used in commercial sports nutrition products; however, no studies have systematically compared blends to isolated protein sources and their effects on muscle protein synthesis (MPS). Dairy whey protein (WP), soy protein isolate (SP), and two blends (Blend 1 and Blend 2) consisting of ratios of 50:25:25 and 25:50:25 for whey:caseinate:soy, respectively, were evaluated for their ability to affect MPS. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to eat 3 meals/day: a 4 g meal at 0700-0720 hours followed by ad lib feeding at 1300-1400 hours and 1800-1900 hours. After ~5 days of training, fasted rats were administered their respective 4 g meal at 0700-0720 hours and an intravenous flooding dose of (2)H5-phenylalanine 10 min prior to euthanasia. Individual rats were euthanized at designated postprandial time points. Blood and gastrocnemius samples were collected and the latter was used to measure mixed muscle protein fractional synthetic rates (FSR). Plasma leucine concentrations peaked in all groups at 90 min and were still above baseline at 300 min post-meal. FSR tended to increase in all groups post-meal but initial peaks of FSR were different times (45, 90 and 135 min for WP or SP, Blend 1 and Blend 2, respectively). Blend 2 had a significantly higher FSR compared to WP alone at 135 min (P < 0.05). Single source proteins and protein blends all enhance skeletal MPS after a meal, however, Blend 2 had a delayed FSR peak which was significantly higher than whey protein at 135 min. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Das, Bipasha; Bhattacharjee, Sangita; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib
In this study, ultrafiltration (UF) of pretreated casein whey was carried out in a cross-flow module fitted with 5 kDa molecular weight cut-off polyethersulfone membrane to recover whey proteins in the retentate and lactose in the permeate. Effects of processing conditions, like transmembrane pressure and pH on permeate flux and rejection were investigated and reported. The polarised layer resistance was found to increase with time during UF even in this high shear device. The lactose concentration in the permeate was measured using dinitro salicylic acid method. Enzymatic kinetic study for lactose hydrolysis was carried out at three different temperatures ranging from 30 to 50 °C using β-galactosidase enzyme. The glucose formed during lactose hydrolysis was analyzed using glucose oxidase-peroxidase method. Kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose solution was found to follow Michaelis-Menten model and the model parameters were estimated by Lineweaver-Burk plot. The hydrolysis rate was found to be maximum (with Vmax = 5.5091 mmol/L/min) at 30 °C.
The effects of different dietary protein sources(casein (CAS), soy protein isolate (SPI), whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) and rice protein isolate (RPI)) on bone were studied in intact growing female rats and in ovarectomized (OVX) rats showing sex steroid deficiency-induced bone loss. In addition, S...
Engelen, Mariëlle P K J; Rutten, Erica P A; De Castro, Carmen L N; Wouters, Emiel F M; Schols, Annemie M W J; Deutz, Nicolaas E P
Exercise is known to improve physical functioning and health status in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Recently, disturbances in protein turnover and amino acid kinetics have been observed after exercise in COPD. The objective was to investigate which dairy protein is able to positively influence the protein metabolic response to exercise in COPD. 8 COPD patients and 8 healthy subjects performed a cycle test on two days while ingesting casein or whey protein. Whole body protein breakdown (WbPB), synthesis (WbPS), splanchnic amino acid extraction (SPE), and NetWbPS (=WbPS-WbPB) were measured using stable isotope methodology during 20 min of exercise (at 50% peak work load of COPD group). The controls performed a second exercise test at the same relative workload. Exercise was followed by 1 h of recovery. In the healthy group, WbPS, SPE, and NetPS were higher during casein than during whey feeding (P<.01). WbPS and NetPS were higher during exercise, independent of exercise intensity (P<.01). NetPS was higher during casein feeding in COPD due to lower WbPB (P<.05). Higher SPE was found during exercise during casein and whey feeding in COPD (P<.05). Lactate levels during exercise were higher in COPD (P<.05) independent of the protein. Post-exercise, lower NetPS values were found independent of protein type in both groups. Casein resulted in more protein anabolism than whey protein which was maintained during and following exercise in COPD. Optimizing protein intake might be of importance for muscle maintenance during daily physical activities in COPD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhao, L L; Wang, X L; Tian, Q; Mao, X Y
In this study, we investigated the effect of casein (CN) to whey protein (WP) ratios (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 1:1) on gelation properties and microstructure of low-fat yogurt made with reconstituted skim milk with or without addition of whey protein concentrate. The rheological properties (storage modulus, G'; yield stress; and yield strain) of the obtained low-fat yogurt were greatly enhanced, the fermentation period was shortened, and the microstructure became more compact with smaller pores as the CN:WP ratio decreased. When CN:WP was 2:1 or 1:1, the obtained yogurt coagulum showed higher G' and greater yield stress, with more compact crosslinking and smaller pores. In addition, the more of skim milk powder was replaced by whey protein concentrate, the more disulfide bonds were formed and the greater the occurrence of hydrophobic interactions during heat treatment, which can improve the rheological properties and microstructure of low-fat yogurt. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martin, Vincent; Ratel, Sébastien; Siracusa, Julien; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Combaret, Lydie; Guillet, Christelle; Dardevet, Dominique
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of whey supplementation, as compared to the standard casein diet, on the recovery of muscle functional properties after a casting-induced immobilization period. After an initial (I0) evaluation of the contractile properties of the plantarflexors (isometric torque-frequency relationship, concentric power-velocity relationship and a fatigability test), the ankle of 20 male adult rats was immobilized by casting for 8 days. During this period, rats were fed a standard diet with 13% of casein (CAS). After cast removal, rats received either the same diet or a diet with 13% of whey proteins (WHEY). A control group (n = 10), non-immobilized but pair-fed to the two other experimental groups, was also studied and fed with the CAS diet. During the recovery period, contractile properties were evaluated 7 (R7), 21 (R21) and 42 days (R42) after cast removal. The immobilization procedure induced a homogeneous depression of average isometric force at R7 (CAS: − 19.0±8.2%; WHEY: − 21.7±8.4%; P<0.001) and concentric power (CAS: − 26.8±16.4%, P<0.001; WHEY: − 13.5±21.8%, P<0.05) as compared to I0. Conversely, no significant alteration of fatigability was observed. At R21, isometric force had fully recovered in WHEY, especially for frequencies above 50 Hz, whereas it was still significantly depressed in CAS, where complete recovery occurred only at R42. Similarly, recovery of concentric power was faster at R21 in the 500−700°/s range in the WHEY group. These results suggest that recovery kinetics varied between diets, the diet with the whey proteins promoting a faster recovery of isometric force and concentric power output as compared to the casein diet. These effects were more specifically observed at force level and movement velocities that are relevant for functional abilities, and thus natural locomotion. PMID:24069411
Hoefle, Anja S; Bangert, Adina M; Stamfort, Adelmar; Gedrich, Kurt; Rist, Manuela J; Lee, Yu-Mi; Skurk, Thomas; Daniel, Hannelore
Casein is considered a slowly digestible protein compared with whey protein, and this may cause differences in hormone responses and the kinetics of delivering amino acids into the circulation. We investigated whether postprandial plasma hormone and metabolite responses were different when bovine casein or whey protein was co-administered with carbohydrates in healthy and prediabetic adults. White healthy male adults (n = 15) and white, well-defined male and female prediabetic adults (n = 15) received test drinks randomly on 3 different occasions at least 2 d apart which contained 50 g of maltodextrin19 (MD19) alone or in combination with 50 g of whey protein isolate (WPI) or 50 g of sodium caseinate (SC). Blood samples were collected over a 240-min time period and were analyzed for hormone profiles and defined metabolites. No evidence was found that gastric emptying was different between the 2 protein drinks. Both proteins increased peak plasma insulin concentrations in prediabetic persons by 96% compared with MD19 (each, P < 0.05), which was accompanied by a reduction of peak venous blood glucose by 21% (each, P < 0.0001) without a difference between the 2 proteins. Peak plasma glucagon concentrations increased by 101% in both groups after the protein drinks (P < 0.05). The WPI drink also increased peak plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations in healthy volunteers by 56% (P < 0.01). Differences in plasma metabolite concentrations in volunteers could be attributed exclusively to the differences in the amino acid composition of the 2 proteins ingested. The WPI and the SC drinks similarly reduced postprandial glucose excursions when ingested with carbohydrates in healthy and prediabetic volunteers. Under our experimental conditions, however, no evidence was found that gastrointestinal processing of the 2 protein varieties differed substantially. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as DRKS00005682. © 2015 American Society for
Bonnaillie, Laetitia M.; Qi, Phoebe; Wickham, Edward; Tomasula, Peggy M.
Whey protein concentrates (WPC) and isolates (WPI), comprised mainly of β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and casein glycomacropeptide (GMP), are added to foods to boost nutritional and functional properties. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) has been shown to effectively fractionate WPC and WPI to obtain enriched fractions of α-LA and β-LG, thus creating new whey ingredients that exploit the properties of the individual component proteins. In this study, we used SCO2 to further fractionate WPI via acid precipitation of α-LA, β-LG and the minor whey proteins to obtain GMP-enriched solutions. The process was optimized and α-LA precipitation maximized at low pH and a temperature (T) ≥65 °C, where β-LG with 84% purity and GMP with 58% purity were obtained, after ultrafiltration and diafiltration to separate β-LG from the GMP solution. At 70 °C, β-LG also precipitated with α-LA, leaving a GMP-rich solution with up to 94% purity after ultrafiltration. The different protein fractions produced with the SCO2 process will permit the design of new foods and beverages to target specific nutritional needs. PMID:28234306
Gaygadzhiev, Zafir; Corredig, Milena; Alexander, Marcela
The rennet-induced aggregation of skim milk recombined with whey protein-stabilized emulsion droplets was studied using diffusing wave spectroscopy (DSW) and small deformation rheology. The effect of different volume fractions of casein micelles and fat globules was investigated by observing changes in turbidity (1/l*), apparent radius, elastic modulus and mean square displacement (MSD), in addition to confocal imaging of the gels. Skim milk containing different concentration of casein micelles showed comparable light-scattering profiles; a higher volume fraction of caseins led to the development of more elastic gels. By following the development of 1/l* in recombined milks, it was possible to describe the behaviour of the fat globules during the initial stages of rennet coagulation. Increasing the volume fraction of fat globules showed a significant increase in gel elasticity, caused by flocculation of the oil droplets. The presence of flocculated oil globules within the gel structure was confirmed by confocal microscopy observations. Moreover, a lower degree of kappa-casein hydrolysis was needed to initiate casein micelles aggregation in milk containing whey protein-stabilized oil droplets compared to skim milk. This study for the first time clearly describes the impact of a mixture of casein micelles and whey protein-stabilized fat globules on the pre-gelation stages of rennet coagulation, and further highlights the importance of the flocculation state of the emulsion droplets in affecting the structure formation of the gel.
Akalın, A S; Unal, G; Dinkci, N; Hayaloglu, A A
The influence of milk protein-based ingredients on the textural characteristics, sensory properties, and microstructure of probiotic yogurt during a refrigerated storage period of 28 d was studied. Milk was fortified with 2% (wt/vol) skim milk powder as control, 2% (wt/vol) sodium calcium caseinate (SCaCN), 2% (wt/vol) whey protein concentrate (WPC) or a blend of 1% (wt/vol) SCaCN and 1% (wt/vol) WPC. A commercial yogurt starter culture and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 as probiotic bacteria were used for the production. The fortification with SCaCN improved the firmness and adhesiveness. Higher values of viscosity were also obtained in probiotic yogurts with SCaCN during storage. However, WPC enhanced water-holding capacity more than the caseinate. Addition of SCaCN resulted in a coarse, smooth, and more compact protein network; however, WPC gave finer and bunched structures in the scanning electron microscopy micrographs. The use of SCaCN decreased texture scores in probiotic yogurt; probably due to the lower water-holding capacity and higher syneresis values in the caseinate-added yogurt sample. Therefore, the textural characteristics of probiotic yogurts improved depending on the ingredient variety. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liao, Yalin; Weber, Darren; Xu, Wei; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P; Phinney, Brett S; Lönnerdal, Bo
Whey proteins and caseins in breast milk provide bioactivities and also have different amino acid composition. Accurate determination of these two major protein classes provides a better understanding of human milk composition and function, and further aids in developing improved infant formulas based on bovine whey proteins and caseins. In this study, we implemented a LC-MS/MS quantitative analysis based on iBAQ label-free quantitation, to estimate absolute concentrations of α-casein, β-casein, and κ-casein in human milk samples (n = 88) collected between day 1 and day 360 postpartum. Total protein concentration ranged from 2.03 to 17.52 with a mean of 9.37 ± 3.65 g/L. Casein subunits ranged from 0.04 to 1.68 g/L (α-), 0.04 to 4.42 g/L (β-), and 0.10 to 1.72 g/L (α-), with β-casein having the highest average concentration among the three subunits. Calculated whey/casein ratio ranged from 45:55 to 97:3. Linear regression analyses show significant decreases in total protein, β-casein, κ-casein, total casein, and a significant increase of whey/casein ratio during the course of lactation. Our study presents a novel and accurate quantitative analysis of human milk casein content, demonstrating a lower casein content than earlier believed, which has implications for improved infants formulas.
Sharma, Pankaj; Oey, Indrawati; Everett, David W
Thermodynamics of milk components (milk fat, xanthine oxidase, caseins and whey proteins) in pulsed electric field (PEF)-treated milk were compared with thermally treated milk (63 °C for 30 min and 73 °C for 15s). PEF treatments were applied at 20 or 26 kV cm(-1) for 34 μs with or without pre-heating of milk (55 °C for 24s), using bipolar square wave pulses in a continuous mode of operation. PEF treatments did not affect the final temperatures of fat melting (Tmelting) or xanthine oxidase denaturation (Tdenaturation), whereas thermal treatments increased both the Tmelting of milk fat and the Tdenaturation for xanthine oxidase by 2-3 °C. Xanthine oxidase denaturation was ∼13% less after PEF treatments compared with the thermal treatments. The enthalpy change (ΔH of denaturation) of whey proteins decreased in the treated-milk, and denaturation increased with the treatment intensity. New endothermic peaks in the calorimetric thermograms of treated milk revealed the formation of complexes due to interactions between MFGM (milk fat globule membrane) proteins and skim milk proteins. Evidence for the adsorption of complexes onto the MFGM surface was obtained from the increase in surface hydrophobicity of proteins, revealing the presence of unfolded hydrophobic regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Guyomarc'h, Fanny; Renan, Marie; Chatriot, Marc; Gamerre, Valérie; Famelart, Marie-Hélène
Changes in the acid gelation properties of skim milk as a result of variations in the micelle/serum distribution of the heat-induced whey protein/kappa-casein aggregates, induced by the combination of heat treatment and limited renneting, were investigated. No dramatic change in the zeta potential or the isoelectric point of the casein micelles was suggested, whether the aggregates were all attached to the casein micelle or not. Fluorescence intensity measurement using 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) showed that the heat-induced aggregates were highly hydrophobic. Dynamic oscillation viscosimetry showed that acid gelation using glucono-delta-lactone (GDL) started at a higher pH value in prerenneted milk. However, no change in the gelation profile of skim milk could be related to the proportion of aggregates bound to the surface of the casein micelles. The results support the idea of an early interaction between the serum aggregates and the casein micelles on acidification.
Whey protein concentrates (WPC) and isolates (WPI), which are dried, concentrated forms of cheese whey, are comprised mainly of beta–lactoglobulin (beta-LG), a–lactalbumin (a-LA), and glycomacropeptide (GLY), and are added to foods to boost their nutritional and functional properties. In previous st...
Badger, T M; Ronis, M J; Hakkak, R
Dietary factors other than the traditional nutrients are found in the so-called functional foods. They are becoming increasingly recognized as potentially important for maintaining good health. Soybeans are rich in such factors thought to help prevent certain chronic diseases. Soy protein isolate (SPI) is one of the three major proteins used in infant formulas sold in the United States, with casein (CAS) and whey (WPH) proteins being the others. We have been studying the health effects of these proteins. Safety concerns have developed over the consumption of soy-based infant formula, partly because of the high circulating levels of the total isoflavones (phytoestrogens) during "critical periods of infant development." There is a paucity of data on developmental, physiological, neurophysiological, behavioral, metabolic, or molecular effects of soy phytochemicals in humans, especially during pregnancy and infancy. We have studied the effects of CAS, SPI, and WPH in short-term, long-term, and multigenerational studies in rats. Aside from minor differences in body weight gain profiles, CAS-, SPI- or WPH-fed rats did not differ in development, organ weights, in vitro hepatic metabolism of testosterone (T), or reproductive performance. However, some endocrine-related functions differed between rats fed these proteins. We found that SPI accelerated puberty in female rats (p < .05) and WPH delayed puberty in males and females, as compared with CAS (p < .05). Gender differences were also found in gonadectomy-induced steroid responses. Male rats had normal serum T levels, but female rats fed SPI had reduced serum 17beta-estradiol concentrations and a blunted 17beta-estradiol response to ovariectomy, as compared to rats fed CAS or WHP (p < .05). Female rats fed SPI or WHP or treated with genistein had reduced incidence of chemically induced mammary cancers (p < .05) compared to CAS controls, with WHP reducing tumor incidence by as much as 50%, findings that replicate previous
Nguyen, Bach T; Balakrishnan, Gireeshkumar; Jacquette, Boris; Nicolai, Taco; Chassenieux, Christophe; Schmitt, Christophe; Bovetto, Lionel
Heat-induced aggregation and gelation of aqueous solutions of whey protein isolate (WPI) in the presence of sodium caseinate (SC) and CaCl 2 was studied at pH 6.6. The effect of adding SC (0-100 g/L) on the structure of the aggregates and the gels was investigated by light scattering and confocal laser scanning microscopy at different CaCl 2 concentration ([CaCl 2 ] = 0-30 mM). The gelation process was studied by oscillatory shear rheology. At the whey protein concentrations studied here (34 and 60 g/L), no gels were formed in the absence of CaCl 2 and SC. However, WPI solutions gelled above a critical CaCl 2 concentration that increased with increasing SC concentration. In the absence of CaCl 2 , WPI gels were formed only above a critical SC concentration. The critical SC concentration needed to induce WPI gelation decreased weakly when CaCl 2 was added. In an intermediate range of CaCl 2 concentrations, gels were formed both at low and high SC concentrations, but not at intermediate SC concentrations. Finally, at high CaCl 2 concentrations gels were formed at all SC concentrations. The gelation rate and the gel structure of the gels formed at low and high casein concentrations were very different. The effect of SC on the thermal gelation of WPI was interpreted by competition for Ca 2+ , a chaperon effect, and microphase separation.
Bohl, Mette; Bjørnshave, Ann; Gregersen, Søren; Hermansen, Kjeld
Low-grade inflammation is involved in the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Inflammation can be modulated by dietary factors. Dairy products are rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA), which are known to possess pro-inflammatory properties. However, different fatty acid compositions may exert different effects. Other components such as milk proteins may exert anti-inflammatory properties which may compensate for the potential negative effects of SFAs. Generally, the available data suggest a neutral role of dairy product consumption on inflammation. To investigate the effects of, and potential interaction between, a dietary supplementation with whey protein and milk fat, naturally enriched in medium-chain SFA (MC-SFA), on inflammatory markers in abdominal obese adults. The study was a 12-week, randomized, double-blinded, intervention study. Sixty-three adults were equally allocated to one of four groups which received a supplement of either 60 g/day whey or 60 g/day casein plus 63 g/day milk fat either high or low in MC-SFA content. Fifty-two subjects completed the study. Before and after the intervention, changes in plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), adiponectin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured. Changes in inflammatory genes in the subcutaneous adipose tissue were also documented. There were no differences in circulating inflammatory markers between protein types or fatty acid compositions in abdominally obese subjects, with the exception of an increase in adiponectin in response to high compared to low MC-SFA consumption in women. We found that combined dairy proteins and MC-SFAs influenced inflammatory gene expression in adipose tissue, while no effect was detected by dairy proteins or MC-SFA per se. Whey protein compared with casein and MC-SFA-enriched milk fat did not alter circulating markers of low-grade inflammation in
Dhanraj, Padhiyar; Jana, Atanu; Modha, Hiral; Aparnathi, K D
The effect of incorporating whey protein concentrate (WPC) on the quality characteristics of Mozzarella cheese analogue (MCA) based on rennet casein (RC) was studied. The proportion of RC:WPC tried out were 95:5, 90:10, and 85:15 w/w. The formulation of MCA comprised of 23.5% of blend of RC and WPC, 15% specialty vegetable fat, 2.75% trisodium citrate + disodium hydrogen orthophosphate (2.5:1, w/w), 0.07% calcium chloride, 0.6% citric acid, 1.1% NaCl, 1.5% cheese bud flavoring, and rest water. Varying the proportion of RC and WPC had a significant influence on the composition, textural properties, baking qualities and sensory quality of MCA judged as a topping on pizza pie. MCA made using protein blends (RC:WPC-90:10 or 85:15) behaved satisfactorily during pizza baking trials. However, looking at the superiority of MCA made using RC:WPC (90:10) with regard to shred quality and marginal superiority in terms of the total sensory score of cheese, judged as pizza topping, the former blend (i.e. RC:WPC, 90:10) was selected. The MCA obtained employing such protein blend had composition similar to that of Pizza cheese prepared from cheese milk and had requisite baking characteristics needed as a pizza topping. It is recommended to use a blend of RC and WPC (90:10) as the protein source in the formulation of MCA to obtain nutritionally superior cheese product having desired functional properties for its end use in baking applications.
Mølgaard, Christian; Larnkjær, Anni; Arnberg, Karina; Michaelsen, Kim F
Consumption of cow's milk is recommended in many countries. Observational and intervention studies show that cow's milk most likely has a positive influence on growth in children. The strongest evidence comes from observational studies and intervention studies in low-income countries, but there are also observational studies from high-income countries showing positive associations between milk intake and growth. Milk seems thus to have a specific stimulating effect on linear growth, not only in developing countries with high rates of malnutrition, but also in industrialized countries. However, it is not known which components in milk stimulate growth. Possible components are proteins, minerals, vitamins or combinations of these. Cow's milk proteins have a high protein quality, and whey has a slightly higher quality than casein, according to some indices based on amino acid composition. Studies, mainly from sport medicine, have suggested that whey protein also has the potential to increase muscle mass. Whether whey improves body composition to a larger extent than other milk proteins is not clear. The mechanism behind a possible growth-stimulating effect of milk and milk components is likely to be through a stimulation of insulin-like growth factor-I synthesis and maybe insulin secretion. In conclusion, there is strong evidence that milk stimulates linear growth. The mechanism is not yet clear, and more intervention studies are needed to understand which components in milk are responsible for the growth stimulation. The effects of milk on linear growth and adult height may have both positive and negative long-term implications. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Specific protein supplementation using soya, casein or whey differentially affects regional gut growth and luminal growth factor bioactivity in rats; implications for the treatment of gut injury and stimulating repair.
Marchbank, Tania; Mandir, Nikki; Calnan, Denis; Goodlad, Robert A; Podas, Theo; Playford, Raymond J
Modulation of regional growth within specific segments of the bowel may have clinical value for several gastrointestinal conditions. We therefore examined the effects of different dietary protein sources on regional gut growth and luminal growth factor bioactivity as potential therapies. Rats were fed for 14 days on isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets comprising elemental diet (ED) alone (which is known to cause gut atrophy), ED supplemented with casein or whey or a soya protein-rich feed. Effects on regional gut growth and intraluminal growth factor activity were then determined. Despite calorie intake being similar in all groups, soya rich feed caused 20% extra total body weight gain. Stomach weight was highest on soya and casein diets. Soya enhanced diet caused greatest increase in small intestinal weight and preserved luminal growth factor activity at levels sufficient to increase proliferation in vitro. Regional small intestinal proliferation was highest in proximal segment in ED fed animals whereas distal small intestine proliferation was greater in soya fed animals. Colonic weight and proliferation throughout the colon was higher in animals receiving soya or whey supplemented feeds. We conclude that specific protein supplementation with either soya, casein or whey may be beneficial to rest or increase growth in different regions of the bowel through mechanisms that include differentially affecting luminal growth factor bioactivity. These results have implications for targeting specific regions of the bowel for conditions such as Crohn's disease and chemotherapy.
Whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) was fractionated by reverse-phase chromatography to obtain fractions of varying surface-hydrophobicities. A model oil–water interface (MI) was pre-coated with the WPH or fractions thereof. Contact angle (') of sessile drops of '-casein ('-CN) or ß-lactoglobulin A (ß-LG...
Whey proteins, modified whey proteins, and whey components are useful as nutrients or supplements for health maintenance. Extrusion modified whey proteins can easily fit into new products such as beverages, confectionery items (e.g., candies), convenience foods, desserts, baked goods, sauces, and in...
Oosthuyse, T; Carstens, M; Millen, A M E
The protein type most suitable for ingestion during endurance exercise is undefined. This study compared co-ingestion of either 15 g/h whey or casein hydrolysate with 63 g/h fructose: maltodextrin (0.8:1) on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, exercise metabolism and performance. 2 h postprandial, 8 male cyclists ingested either: carbohydrate-only, carbohydrate-whey hydrolysate, carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate or placebo-water in a crossover, double-blind design during 2 h of exercise at 60%W max followed by a 16-km time trial. Data were evaluated by magnitude-based inferential statistics. Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, measured from (13)CO2 breath enrichment, was not substantially influenced by co-ingestion of either protein hydrolysate. However, only co-ingestion of carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate substantially decreased (98% very likely decrease) total carbohydrate oxidation (mean±SD, 242±44; 258±47; 277±33 g for carbohydrate-casein, carbohydrate-whey and carbohydrate-only, respectively) and substantially increased (93% likely increase) total fat oxidation (92±14; 83±27; 73±19 g) compared with carbohydrate-only. Furthermore, only carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate ingestion resulted in a faster time trial (-3.6%; 90% CI: ±3.2%) compared with placebo-water (95% likely benefit). However, neither protein hydrolysate enhanced time trial performance when compared with carbohydrate-only. Under the conditions of this study, ingesting carbohydrate-casein, but not carbohydrate-whey hydrolysate, favourably alters metabolism during prolonged moderate-strenuous cycling without substantially altering cycling performance compared with carbohydrate-only. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Smith, T J; Foegeding, E A; Drake, M A
This study evaluated flavor and functional characteristics of whey protein isolates (WPIs) from Cheddar, Mozzarella, Cottage cheese, and rennet casein whey. WPIs were manufactured in triplicate. Powders were rehydrated and evaluated in duplicate by descriptive sensory analysis. Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Functional properties were evaluated by measurement of foam stability, heat stability, and protein solubility. WPI from Cheddar and Cottage cheese whey had the highest cardboard flavor, whereas sweet aromatic flavor was highest in Mozzarella WPI, and rennet casein WPI had the lowest overall flavor and aroma. Distinct sour taste and brothy/potato flavor were also noted in WPI from Cottage cheese whey. Consistent with sensory results, aldehyde concentrations were also highest in Cheddar and Cottage cheese WPI. Overrun, yield stress, and foam stability were not different (P > 0.05) among Cheddar, Mozzarella, and rennet casein WPI, but WPI foams from Cottage cheese whey had a lower overrun and air-phase fraction (P < 0.05). Cottage cheese WPI was more heat stable at pH 7 (P < 0.05) than other WPI in 4% protein solutions, and was the only WPI to not gel at 10% protein. Cottage cheese WPI was less soluble at pH 4.6 compared to other WPI (P < 0.05) and also exhibited higher turbidity loss at pH 3 to 7 compared to other WPI (P < 0.05). This study suggests that WPI produced from nontraditional whey sources could be used in new applications due to distinct functional and flavor characteristics. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®
Hydrolysis of casein using chymotrypsin results in the formation of polypeptides (casein hydrolyzate, CH) with a hydrophobic aromatic amino acid on one end of the chain because the enzyme selectively cleaves the adjacent peptide-bond. Due to resonance of the aromatic micro-domain, thiols become redo...
Bernbaum, J C; Sasanow, S R; Churella, H R; Daft, A
We conducted a double-blind, randomized study to test the hypothesis that a whey-dominant formula permits a growth and metabolic advantage over a casein-dominant formula in preterm infants after hospital discharge. Nineteen low birth weight infants were studied for 6 months from the time of discharge. Ten received a casein-dominant formula, and nine received a whey-dominant formula. Growth (weight, length, head circumference, mid-arm circumference, and skin-fold thickness), biochemical measurements (alkaline phosphatase activity, acid-base status, and hemoglobin, serum total protein, albumin, and urea nitrogen levels), and quantity of formula intake did not differ significantly between the groups over a 6-month study period. Serum transthyretin and urea nitrogen concentrations differed significantly between the two feeding groups at the day of entry into the study only. The results indicate that, after hospital discharge, premature infants fed a whey-dominant formula do not differ in growth or biochemical measurements from those fed a casein-dominant formula.
Sweet whey, a coproduct of the cheesemaking process, can be concentrated using ultrafiltration and ion-exchange to produce whey protein isolates (WPI). WPI contains approximately 32% alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA) and 61% beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG), plus a small amount of minor whey proteins. Whil...
Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars I.; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Sejrsen, Kristen; Jeamet, Aymeric; Rune, Ida; Ellekilde, Merete; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Hansen, Axel Kornerup
An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region) amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (P<0.001–0.05). Hereafter weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, P<0.001). Food intake was unaffected by protein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P<0.01) and glucose clearance was improved after an oral glucose challenge (P<0.05). Plasma cholesterol was lowered by whey compared to casein (P<0.001). The composition of the fecal microbiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P<0.05) whereas no difference was seen between whey and casein. In conclusion, whey initially reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota composition. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the metabolic effects of whey. PMID:23940754
Beecher, J W; Drake, M A; Luck, P J; Foegeding, E A
A rapidly growing area of whey protein use is in beverages. There are 2 types of whey protein-containing beverages: those at neutral pH and those at low pH. Astringency is very pronounced at low pH. Astringency is thought to be caused by compounds in foods that bind with and precipitate salivary proteins; however, the mechanism of astringency of whey proteins is not understood. The effect of viscosity and pH on the astringency of a model beverage containing whey protein isolate was investigated. Trained sensory panelists (n = 8) evaluated the viscosity and pH effects on astringency and basic tastes of whey protein beverages containing 6% wt/vol protein. Unlike what has been shown for alum and polyphenols, increasing viscosity (1.6 to 7.7 mPa.s) did not decrease the perception of astringency. In contrast, the pH of the whey protein solution had a major effect on astringency. A pH 6.8 whey protein beverage had a maximum astringency intensity of 1.2 (15-point scale), whereas that of a pH 3.4 beverage was 8.8 (15-point scale). Astringency decreased between pH 3.4 and 2.6, coinciding with an increase in sourness. Decreases in astringency corresponded to decreases in protein aggregation as observed by turbidity. We propose that astringency is related to interactions between positively charged whey proteins and negatively charged saliva proteins. As the pH decreased between 3.4 and 2.6, the negative charge on the saliva proteins decreased, causing the interactions with whey proteins to decrease.
Baieli, María F; Urtasun, Nicolás; Martinez, María J; Hirsch, Daniela B; Pilosof, Ana M R; Miranda, María V; Cascone, Osvaldo; Wolman, Federico J
Casein glycomacropeptide (CMP) is a 64- amino acid peptide found in cheese whey, which is released after κ-casein specific cleavage by chymosin. CMP lacks aromatic amino acids, a characteristic that makes it usable as a nutritional supplement for people with phenylketonuria. CMP consists of two nonglycosylated isoforms (aCMP A and aCMP B) and its different glycosylated forms (gCMP A and gCMP B). The most predominant carbohydrate of gCMP is N-acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid). Here, we developed a CMP purification process based on the affinity of sialic acid for wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). After formation of chitosan beads and adsorption of WGA, the agglutinin was covalently attached with glutaraldehyde. Two matrices with different WGA density were assayed for CMP adsorption. Maximum adsorption capacities were calculated according to the Langmuir model from adsorption isotherms developed at pH 7.0, being 137.0 mg/g for the matrix with the best performance. In CMP reduction from whey, maximum removal percentage was 79% (specifically 33.7% of gCMP A and B, 75.8% of aCMP A, and 93.9% of aCMP B). The CMP was recovered as an aggregate with an overall yield of 64%. Therefore, the matrices developed are promising for CMP purification from cheese whey. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:171-180, 2017. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.
Jakubowicz, Daniela; Froy, Oren
Consumption of milk and dairy products has been associated with reduced risk of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease. Milk contains two primary sources of protein, casein (80%) and whey (20%). Recently, the beneficial physiological effects of whey protein on the control of food intake and glucose metabolism have been reported. Studies have shown an insulinotropic and glucose-lowering properties of whey protein in healthy and Type 2 diabetes subjects. Whey protein seems to induce these effects via bioactive peptides and amino acids generated during its gastrointestinal digestion. These amino acids and peptides stimulate the release of several gut hormones, such as cholecystokinin, peptide YY and the incretins gastric inhibitory peptide and glucagon-like peptide 1 that potentiate insulin secretion from β-cells and are associated with regulation of food intake. The bioactive peptides generated from whey protein may also serve as endogenous inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) in the proximal gut, preventing incretin degradation. Indeed, recently, DPP-4 inhibitors were identified in whey protein hydrolysates. This review will focus on the emerging properties of whey protein and its potential clinical application for obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Monteiro, Naice E S; Roquetto, Aline R; de Pace, Fernanda; Moura, Carolina S; Santos, Andrey Dos; Yamada, Aureo T; Saad, Mário José A; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime
High-fat diets are used to induce adverse alterations in the intestinal microbiota, or dysbiosis, generalized inflammation and metabolic stress, which ultimately may lead to obesity. The influence of dietary whey proteins, whether intact or hydrolyzed, has been reported to improve glucose homeostasis and reduce stress. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to test if dietary milk-whey proteins, both in the intact form and hydrolyzed, could have an effect on the compositional changes of the cecal microbiota that can be induced in mice when receiving a high-fat diet in combination with the standard casein. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a control casein diet (AIN 93-G); high-fat-casein (HFCAS); high-fat-whey protein concentrate (HFWPC) and high-fat whey-protein hydrolysate (HFWPH) for 9weeks. The intestinal microbiota composition was analyzed by 16S-rRNA of the invariant (V1-V3) gene, potentially endotoxemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) release was determined colorimetrically, and liver fat infiltration assessed by light microscopy. The high-fat diet proved to induce dysbiosis in the animals by inverting the dominance of the phylum Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes, promoted the increase of LPS and resulted in liver fat infiltration. The whey proteins, whether intact or hydrolyzed, resisted the installation of dysbiosis, prevented the surge of circulating LPS and prevented fat infiltration in the liver. It is concluded that dietary whey proteins exert metabolic actions that tend to preserve the normal microbiota profile, while mitigating liver fat deposition in mice consuming a high-fat diet for nine weeks. Such beneficial effects were not seen when casein was the dietary protein. The hydrolyzed whey protein still differed from the normal whey protein by selectively protecting the Bacteroidetes phylum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Akhavan, Tina; Anderson, G Harvey
Whey protein has potential as a functional food component to contribute to the regulation of body weight by providing satiety signals that affect both short-term and long-term food intake regulation. Because whey is an inexpensive source of high nutritional quality protein, the utilization of whey as a physiologically functional food ingredient for weight management is of current interest. At present, the role of individual whey proteins and peptides in contributing to food intake regulation has not been fully defined. However, Whey protein reduces short-term food intake relative to placebo, carbohydrate and other proteins. Whey protein affects satiation and satiety by the actions of: (1) whey protein fractions per se; (2) bioactive peptides; (3) amino-acids released after digestion; (4) combined action of whey protein and/or peptides and/or amino acids with other milk constituents. Whey ingestion activates many components of the food intake regulatory system. Whey protein is insulinotropic, and whey-born peptides affect the renin-angiotensin system. Therefore whey protein has potential as physiologically functional food component for persons with obesity and its co-morbidities (hypertension, type II diabetes, hyper- and dislipidemia). It remains unclear, however, if the favourable effects of whey on food intake, subjective satiety and intake regulatory mechanisms in humans are obtained from usual serving sizes of dairy products. The effects described have been observed in short-term experiments and when whey is consumed in much higher amounts.
Pezeshki, Adel; Fahim, Andrew; Chelikani, Prasanth K
Dietary whey and casein proteins decrease food intake and body weight and improve glycemic control; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. We determined the effects of dietary whey, casein, and a combination of the 2 on energy balance, hormones, glucose metabolism, and taste preference in rats. In Expt. 1, Obesity Prone CD (OP-CD) rats were fed a high-fat control diet (33% fat energy) for 8 wk, and then randomly assigned to 4 isocaloric dietary treatments (n = 12/group): the control treatment (CO; 14% protein energy from egg white), the whey treatment (WH; 26% whey + 14% egg white), the casein treatment (CA; 26% casein + 14% egg white), or the whey plus casein treatment (WHCA; 13% whey + 13% casein + 14% egg white) for 28 d. Measurements included food intake, energy expenditure, body composition, metabolic hormones, glucose tolerance and key tissue markers of glucose and energy metabolism. In Expt. 2, naïve OP-CD rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 8/group). During an 8 d conditioning period, each group received on alternate days either the CO or WH, CO or CA, or CO or WHCA. Subsequently, preferences for the test diets were assessed on 2 consecutive days with food intake measurements at regular intervals. In Expt. 1, food intake was decreased by 17-37% for the first 14 d in the WH and CA rats, and by 18-34% only for the first 4 d in the WHCA compared with the CO rats. Fat mass decreased by 21-28% for the WH rats and 17-33% for the CA rats from day 14 onward, but by 30% only on day 28 in WHCA rats, relative to CO rats. Thus, food intake, body weight, and fat mass decreased more rapidly in WH and CA rats than in WHCA rats. Energy expenditure in WH rats decreased for the first 4 d compared with CA and WHCA rats, and for the first 7 d compared with the CO rats. Circulating leptin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, interleukin 6, and glucose concentrations were lower in WH, CA, and WHCA rats than in CO rats. Plasma glucagon
Masarwi, Majdi; Solnik, Hadas Isaac; Phillip, Moshe; Yaron, Sima; Shamir, Raanan; Pasmanic-Chor, Metsada; Gat-Yablonski, Galia
Researchers are gaining an increasing understanding of host-gut microbiota interactions, but studies of the role of gut microbiota in linear growth are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of food restriction and refeeding with different diets on gut microbiota composition in fast-growing rats. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed regular rat chow ad libitum (control group) or subjected to 40% food restriction for 36 days followed by continued restriction or ad libitum refeeding for 24 days. Three different diets were used for refeeding: regular vegetarian protein chow or chow in which the sole source of protein was casein or whey. In the control group, the composition of the microbiota remained stable. Food restriction for 60 days led to a significant change in the gut microbiota at the phylum level, with a reduction in the abundance of Firmicutes and an increase in Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Rats refed with the vegetarian protein diet had a different microbiota composition than rats refed the casein- or whey-based diet. Similarities in the bacterial population were found between rats refed vegetarian protein or a whey-based diet and control rats, and between rats refed a casein-based diet and rats on continued restriction. There was a significant strong correlation between the gut microbiota and growth parameters: humerus length, epiphyseal growth plate height, and levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 and leptin. In conclusion, the type of protein in the diet significantly affects the gut microbiota and, thereby, may affect animal's health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Whey protein intake is associated with the modulation of energy metabolism and altered body composition both in human subjects and in animals, but the underlying mechanisms are not yet elucidated. We fed obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice high-fat diets with either casein (HF casein) or whey (HF whey) for 6 weeks. At equal energy intake and apparent fat and nitrogen digestibility, mice fed HF whey stored less energy as lipids, evident both as lower white adipose tissue mass and as reduced liver lipids, compared with HF-casein-fed mice. Explorative analyses of 48 h urine, both by 1H NMR and LC–MS metabolomic platforms, demonstrated higher urinary excretion of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates citric acid and succinic acid (identified by both platforms), and cis-aconitic acid and isocitric acid (identified by LC–MS platform) in the HF whey, relative to in the HF-casein-fed mice. Targeted LC–MS analyses revealed higher citric acid and cis-aconitic acid concentrations in fed state plasma, but not in liver of HF-whey-fed mice. We propose that enhanced urinary loss of TCA cycle metabolites drain available substrates for anabolic processes, such as lipogenesis, thereby leading to reduced lipid accretion in HF-whey-fed compared to HF-casein-fed mice. PMID:24702026
Onwulata, C I; Konstance, R P; Cooke, P H; Farrell, H M
Whey, a byproduct of the cheesemaking process, is concentrated by processors to make whey protein concentrates (WPC) and isolates (WPI). Only 50% of whey proteins are used in foods. In order to increase their usage, texturizing WPC, WPI, and whey albumin is proposed to create ingredients with new functionality. Extrusion processing texturizes globular proteins by shearing and stretching them into aligned or entangled fibrous bundles. In this study, WPC, WPI, and whey albumin were extruded in a twin screw extruder at approximately 38% moisture content (15.2 ml/min, feed rate 25 g/min) and, at different extrusion cook temperatures, at the same temperature for the last four zones before the die (35, 50, 75, and 100 degrees C, respectively). Protein solubility, gelation, foaming, and digestibility were determined in extrudates. Degree of extrusion-induced insolubility (denaturation) or texturization, determined by lack of solubility at pH 7 for WPI, increased from 30 to 60, 85, and 95% for the four temperature conditions 35, 50, 75, and 100 degrees C, respectively. Gel strength of extruded isolates increased initially 115% (35 degrees C) and 145% (50 degrees C), but gel strength was lost at 75 and 100 degrees C. Denaturation at these melt temperatures had minimal effect on foaming and digestibility. Varying extrusion cook temperature allowed a new controlled rate of denaturation, indicating that a texturized ingredient with a predetermined functionality based on degree of denaturation can be created.
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whey protein concentrate. 184.1979c Section 184... the following specifications: (1) The analysis of whey protein concentrate, on a dry product basis.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (3) The whey protein concentrate shall be...
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whey protein concentrate. 184.1979c Section 184... whey protein concentrate meets the following specifications: (1) The analysis of whey protein... the heading “Protein—Official Final Action.” (ii) Fat content, 1 to 10 percent—as determined by the...
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Whey protein concentrate. 184.1979c Section 184... whey protein concentrate meets the following specifications: (1) The analysis of whey protein... the heading “Protein—Official Final Action.” (ii) Fat content, 1 to 10 percent—as determined by the...
Shappell, Nancy W; Shelver, Weilin L; Lupton, Sara J; Fanaselle, Wendy; Van Doren, Jane M; Hakk, Heldur
It is important to understand the partitioning of drugs in processed milk and milk products, when drugs are present in raw milk, in order to estimate the potential consumer exposure. Radioisotopically labeled erythromycin, ivermectin, ketoprofen, oxytetracycline, penicillin G, sulfadimethoxine, and thiabendazole were used to evaluate the distribution of animal drugs among rennet curd, whey, and protein fractions from skim cow milk. Our previous work reported the distribution of these same drugs between skim and fat fractions of milk. Drug distribution between curd and whey was significantly correlated (R 2 = 0.70) to the drug's lipophilicity (log P), with improved correlation using log D (R 2 = 0.95). Distribution of drugs was concentration independent over the range tested (20-2000 nM). With the exception of thiabendazole and ivermectin, more drug was associated with whey protein than casein on a nmol/g protein basis (oxytetracycline experiment not performed). These results provide insights into the distribution of animal drug residues, if present in cow milk, among milk fractions, with possible extrapolation to milk products.
Wróblewska, B; Juśkiewicz, J; Kroplewski, B; Jurgoński, A; Wasilewska, E; Złotkowska, D; Markiewicz, L
The objective of this work was to identify the nutritional and physiological effects of commercial soy and whey protein preparations. Wistar rats were fed with soy (S), whey (W), or casein (C) preparations as the sole dietary protein source. The nitrogen balance, body composition, changes in caecal microbiota, mucosal and bacterial enzyme activities, and allergenic potential of the preparations were analysed. The whey diet elicited greater skeletal muscle anabolism than the soy diet. Rats from the S group had the lowest values of body weight, fat, and lean mass gain. Compared to casein, soy and whey preparations decreased the protein efficiency ratio, increased N in the urine, and triggered the reduction of ammonia levels in the caecum. Changes in β-glucuronidase and β-galactosidase activities in the small intestine, caecum, and colon between experimental groups were observed. Significant differences were noted in the total counts of anaerobic bacteria and sulphite reducing bacteria during soy and whey treatments. This probably affected the short chain fatty acid level in caecal digesta resulting in the lowest propionic acid and total putrefactive short chain fatty acid levels during S treatment. Generally, whey preparations are a good choice for rapid bodybuilding (skeletal muscles), whereas soy preparations are more helpful during mass reduction.
Lupton, Sara J; Shappell, Nancy W; Shelver, Weilin L; Hakk, Heldur
The distributions of eight drugs (acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid/salicylic acid, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, flunixin, phenylbutazone, praziquantel, and thiamphenicol) were determined in milk products (skim milk, milk fat, curd, whey, and whey protein) and used to expand a previous model (from 7 drugs to 15 drugs) for predicting drug distribution. Phenylbutazone and praziquantel were found to distribute with the lipid and curd phases (≥50%). Flunixin distribution was lower but similar in direction (12% in milk fat, 39% in curd). Acetaminophen, ciprofloxacin, and praziquantel preferentially associated with casein proteins, whereas thiamphenicol and clarithromycin associated preferentially to whey proteins. Regression analyses for log [milk fat]/[skim milk] and log [curd]/[whey] had r 2 values of 0.63 and 0.67, respectively, with p of <0.001 for 15 drugs (7 previously tested and 8 currently tested). The robustness of the distribution model was enhanced by doubling the number of drugs originally tested.
titova, M E; Komolov, S A; Tikhomirova, N A
The process of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in biological membranes of cells is carried out by free radical mechanism, a feature of which is the interaction of radicals with other molecules. In this work we investigated the antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate, obtained by the cation-exchange chromatography on KM-cellulose from raw cow's milk, in vitro and in vivo. In biological liquids, which are milk, blood serum, fetal fluids, contains a complex of biologically active substances with a unique multifunctional properties, and which are carrying out a protective, antimicrobial, regenerating, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, regulatory and others functions. Contents of the isolate were determined electrophoretically and by its biological activity. Cationic whey protein isolate included lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, pancreatic RNase, lysozyme and angeogenin. The given isolate significantly has an antioxidant effect in model experimental systems in vitro and therefore may be considered as a factor that can adjust the intensity of lipid oxidation. In model solutions products of lipid oxidation were obtained by oxidation of phosphatidylcholine by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a source of iron. The composition of the reaction mixture: 0,4 mM H2O2; 50 mcM of hemin; 2 mg/ml L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine from soybean (Sigma, German). Lipid peroxidation products were formed during the incubation of the reaction mixture for two hours at 37 degrees C. In our studies rats in the adaptation period immediately after isolation from the nest obtained from food given orally native cationic whey protein isolate at the concentration three times higher than in fresh cow's milk. On the manifestation of the antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate in vivo evidence decrease of lipid peroxidation products concentration in the blood of rats from the experimental group receipt whey protein isolate in dos 0,6 mg/g for more than 20% (p<0,05) with oral feeding. Thus
Singh, Arashdeep; Pezeshki, Adel; Zapata, Rizaldy C; Yee, Nicholas J; Knight, Cameron G; Tuor, Ursula I; Chelikani, Prasanth K
High-fat diets induce obesity and increase risks of diabetes and cardiovascular and renal disorders. Whey- or casein-enriched diets decrease food intake and weight gain; however, their cardiovascular and renal benefits are unclear. We determined whether whey- and casein-enriched diets improve energy balance and are protective against renal damage and morbidity associated with stroke in an obesogenic and hypertensive experimental setting. We also assessed whether the hypophagic effects of these diets were due to reduced diet preference. In experiment 1, spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats were randomized to (a) control (CON; 14% kcal protein, 33% fat), (b) whey (WHY; 40% protein, 33% fat), (c) casein (CAS; 40% protein, 33% fat) or (d) chow (CHW; 24% protein, 13% fat) for 12 weeks with 1% salt in drinking water for CON, WHY and CAS groups. Our results demonstrated that both WHY and CAS produced short-term hypophagia, moderately increased energy expenditure and decreased respiratory quotient, body weight and lean mass, with effects of WHY being more prolonged. Further, only WHY decreased fat mass and blood pressure. Importantly, both WHY and CAS prevented morbidity associated with stroke and decreased indices of renal inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6) and damage (osteopontin, renal lesions). In experiment 2, following four initial conditioning trials, the preference for CON, WHY or CAS diet was determined. Both WHY and CAS decreased food intake during conditioning and decreased preference. In conclusion, diets enriched in whey or casein improved energy balance, increased survival and prevented renal damage in salt-loaded and high-fat-fed spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dalziel, Julie E.; Anderson, Rachel C.; Bassett, Shalome A.; Lloyd-West, Catherine M.; Haggarty, Neill W.; Roy, Nicole C.
Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and hydrolysate (WPH) are protein ingredients used in sports, medical and pediatric formulations. Concentration and hydrolysis methods vary for whey sourced from cheese and casein co-products. The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of whey processing methods on in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) health indicators for colonic motility, epithelial barrier integrity and immune modulation. WPCs from casein or cheese processing and WPH (11% or 19% degree of hydrolysis, DH) were compared for their effects on motility in a 1 cm section of isolated rat distal colon in an oxygenated tissue bath. Results showed that WPC decreased motility irrespective of whether it was a by-product of lactic acid or mineral acid casein production, or from cheese production. This indicated that regardless of the preparation methodology, the whey protein contained components that modulate aspects of motility within the distal colon. WPH (11% DH) increased contractile frequency by 27% in a delayed manner and WPH (19% DH) had an immediate effect on contractile properties, increasing tension by 65% and frequency by 131%. Increased motility was associated with increased hydrolysis that may be attributed to the abundance of bioactive peptides. Increased frequency of contractions by WPH (19% DH) was inhibited (by 44%) by naloxone, implicating a potential involvement of opioid receptors in modulation of motility. Trans-epithelial electrical resistance and cytokine expression assays revealed that the WPC proteins studied did not alter intestinal barrier integrity or elicit any discernible immune response. PMID:27983629
Whey protein lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function and lipid biomarkers in adults with prehypertension and mild hypertension: results from the chronic Whey2Go randomized controlled trial12
Givens, D Ian
Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the greatest cause of death globally, and their reduction is a key public-health target. High blood pressure (BP) affects 1 in 3 people in the United Kingdom, and previous studies have shown that milk consumption is associated with lower BP. Objective: We investigated whether intact milk proteins lower 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (AMBP) and other risk markers of CVD. Design: The trial was a double-blinded, randomized, 3-way–crossover, controlled intervention study. Forty-two participants were randomly assigned to consume 2 × 28 g whey protein/d, 2 × 28 g Ca caseinate/d, or 2 × 27 g maltodextrin (control)/d for 8 wk separated by a 4-wk washout. The effects of these interventions were examined with the use of a linear mixed-model ANOVA. Results: Thirty-eight participants completed the study. Significant reductions in 24-h BP [for systolic blood pressure (SBP): −3.9 mm Hg; for diastolic blood pressure (DBP): −2.5 mm Hg; P = 0.050 for both)] were observed after whey-protein consumption compared with control intake. After whey-protein supplementation compared with control intake, peripheral and central systolic pressures [−5.7 mm Hg (P = 0.007) and −5.4 mm Hg (P = 0.012), respectively] and mean pressures [−3.7 mm Hg (P = 0.025) and −4.0 mm Hg (P = 0.019), respectively] were also lowered. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) increased significantly after both whey-protein and calcium-caseinate intakes compared with control intake [1.31% (P < 0.001) and 0.83% (P = 0.003), respectively]. Although both whey protein and calcium caseinate significantly lowered total cholesterol [−0.26 mmol/L (P = 0.013) and −0.20 mmol/L (P = 0.042), respectively], only whey protein decreased triacylglycerol (−0.23 mmol/L; P = 0.025) compared with the effect of the control. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 were reduced after whey protein consumption (P = 0.011) and after
Bouguyon, Edwige; Beauvallet, Christian; Huet, Jean-Claude; Chanat, Eric
Mammary epithelial cells synthesised and secreted caseins, the major milk proteins in most mammals, as large aggregates called micelles into the alveolar lumen they surround. We investigated the implication of the highly conserved cysteine(s) of kappa-casein in disulphide bond formation in casein micelles from several species. Dimers were found in all milks studied, confirming previous observation in ruminants. More importantly, the study of interchain disulphide bridges in mouse and rat casein micelles revealed that any casein possessing a cysteine is engaged in disulphide bond interchange; these species express four or five cysteine-containing caseins, respectively. We found that the main rodent caseins form both homo- and heterodimers. Additionally, disulphide bond formation among milk proteins was specific since the interaction of the caseins with cysteine-containing whey proteins was not observed in native casein micelles.
The overseas demand for whey protein concentrates (WPC) has increased steadily in recent years. Emergency aid foods often include WPC, but shelf-life studies of whey proteins under different shipment and storage conditions have not been conducted in the last 50 yr. Microbial quality, compound form...
Redwan, Elrashdy M; Xue, Bin; Almehdar, Hussein A; Uversky, Vladimir N
This article opens a series of reviews on the abundance and roles of intrinsic disorder in milk proteins. The focus of this introductory article on caseins is symbolic, since caseins were among the first recognized functional unfolded proteins and since they are definitely the most disordered, the most abundant, and the most studied of all milk proteins. In eutherian milks, the casein family includes at least three and usually four major members (αs1-, αs2-, β-, and κ-caseins) that are unrelated in sequence. However, in some species, two different αS2-casein genes are active, and therefore the total number of caseins can be as high as five. These proteins have found a number of uses in food industry. The functional repertoire of caseins ranges from nutritional function to involvement in the improving and/or maintaining cardiovascular health, to crucial contribution to the milk capacity to transport calcium phosphate, to serve as molecular chaperones, and to protect the mother's mammary gland against amyloidoses and ectopic calcification. An intricate feature of caseins is their ability to assemble to colloidal protein particles, casein micelles, serving to sequester and transport amorphous calcium phosphate. These and many other functions of caseins are obviously dependent on their intrinsically disordered nature and are controlled by various posttranslational modifications. Since various aspects of casein structure and function are rather well studied and since several recent reviews emphasized the functional roles of caseins' intrinsic disorder, the major goal of this article is to show how intrinsic disorder is encoded in the amino acid sequences of these proteins.
Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...
Revel, Aurélia; Jarzaguet, Marianne; Peyron, Marie-Agnès; Papet, Isabelle; Hafnaoui, Noureddine; Migné, Carole; Mosoni, Laurent; Polakof, Sergio; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Rémond, Didier
Background Muscle atrophy has been explained by an anabolic resistance following food intake and an increase of dietary protein intake is recommended. To be optimal, a dietary protein has to be effective not only to initiate but also to prolong a muscle anabolic response in a catabolic state. To our knowledge, whether or not a dairy or a dairy/plant protein blend fulfills these criterions is unknown in a muscle wasting situation. Objective Our aim was, in a control and a catabolic state, to measure continuously muscle anabolism in term of intensity and duration in response to a meal containing casein (CAS), whey (WHEY) or a whey/ plant protein blend (BLEND) and to evaluate the best protein source to elicit the best post prandial anabolism according to the physio-pathological state. Methods Adult male Yucatan mini pigs were infused with U-13C-Phenylalanine and fed either CAS, WHEY or BLEND. A catabolic state was induced by a glucocorticoid treatment for 8 days (DEX). Muscle protein synthesis, proteolysis and balance were measured with the hind limb arterio-venous differences technique. Repeated time variance analysis were used to assess significant differences. Results In a catabolic situation, whey proteins were able to initiate muscle anabolism which remained transient in contrast to the stimulated muscle protein accretion with WHEY, CAS or BLEND in healthy conditions. Despite the same leucine intake compared to WHEY, BLEND did not restore a positive protein balance in DEX animals. Conclusions Even with WHEY, the duration of the anabolic response was not optimal and has to be improved in a catabolic state. The use of BLEND remained of lower efficiency even at same leucine intake than whey. PMID:29045496
Revel, Aurélia; Jarzaguet, Marianne; Peyron, Marie-Agnès; Papet, Isabelle; Hafnaoui, Noureddine; Migné, Carole; Mosoni, Laurent; Polakof, Sergio; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Rémond, Didier; Dardevet, Dominique
Muscle atrophy has been explained by an anabolic resistance following food intake and an increase of dietary protein intake is recommended. To be optimal, a dietary protein has to be effective not only to initiate but also to prolong a muscle anabolic response in a catabolic state. To our knowledge, whether or not a dairy or a dairy/plant protein blend fulfills these criterions is unknown in a muscle wasting situation. Our aim was, in a control and a catabolic state, to measure continuously muscle anabolism in term of intensity and duration in response to a meal containing casein (CAS), whey (WHEY) or a whey/ plant protein blend (BLEND) and to evaluate the best protein source to elicit the best post prandial anabolism according to the physio-pathological state. Adult male Yucatan mini pigs were infused with U-13C-Phenylalanine and fed either CAS, WHEY or BLEND. A catabolic state was induced by a glucocorticoid treatment for 8 days (DEX). Muscle protein synthesis, proteolysis and balance were measured with the hind limb arterio-venous differences technique. Repeated time variance analysis were used to assess significant differences. In a catabolic situation, whey proteins were able to initiate muscle anabolism which remained transient in contrast to the stimulated muscle protein accretion with WHEY, CAS or BLEND in healthy conditions. Despite the same leucine intake compared to WHEY, BLEND did not restore a positive protein balance in DEX animals. Even with WHEY, the duration of the anabolic response was not optimal and has to be improved in a catabolic state. The use of BLEND remained of lower efficiency even at same leucine intake than whey.
Mosoni, Laurent; Gatineau, Eva; Gatellier, Philippe; Migné, Carole; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Rémond, Didier; Rocher, Emilie; Dardevet, Dominique
Our aim was to compare and combine 3 nutritional strategies to slow down the age-related loss of muscle mass in healthy old rats: 1) increase protein intake, which is likely to stimulate muscle protein anabolism; 2) use leucine rich, rapidly digested whey proteins as protein source (whey proteins are recognized as the most effective proteins to stimulate muscle protein anabolism). 3) Supplement animals with a mixture of chamomile extract, vitamin E, vitamin D (reducing inflammation and oxidative stress is also effective to improve muscle anabolism). Such comparisons and combinations were never tested before. Nutritional groups were: casein 12% protein, whey 12% protein, whey 18% protein and each of these groups were supplemented or not with polyphenols/antioxidants. During 6 months, we followed changes of weight, food intake, inflammation (plasma fibrinogen and alpha-2-macroglobulin) and body composition (DXA). After 6 months, we measured muscle mass, in vivo and ex-vivo fed and post-absorptive muscle protein synthesis, ex-vivo muscle proteolysis, and oxidative stress parameters (liver and muscle glutathione, SOD and total antioxidant activities, muscle carbonyls and TBARS). We showed that although micronutrient supplementation reduced inflammation and oxidative stress, the only factor that significantly reduced the loss of lean body mass was the increase in whey protein intake, with no detectable effect on muscle protein synthesis, and a tendency to reduce muscle proteolysis. We conclude that in healthy rats, increasing protein intake is an effective way to delay sarcopenia. PMID:25268515
Athira, Syamala; Mann, Bimlesh; Saini, Prerna; Sharma, Rajan; Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, Ashish Kumar
Cheese whey is a rich by-product in nutritional terms, possessing components with high biological value, excellent functional properties, and an inert flavour profile. In the present study, mozzarella cheese whey was ultra-filtrated to remove lactose and mineral. The retentate was hydrolysed with food-grade enzyme alcalase and the hydrolysis conditions (pH, temperature and time) were optimised for maximum antioxidant activity using response surface methodology. Whey protein hydrolysed for 8 h at pH 9 and 55 °C showed a maximum antioxidant activity of 1.18 ± 0.015 µmol Trolox mg(-1) protein. The antioxidant peptides were further enriched by ultra-filtration through a 3 kDa membrane. Seven peptides - β-Lg f(123-131), β-Lg f(122-131), β-Lg f(124-131), β-Lg f(123-134), β-Lg f(122-131), β-Lg f(96-100) and β-Lg f(94-100) - were identified by LC-MS/MS in the 3 kDa permeate of the hydrolysate. The incorporation of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) in lemon whey drink (5-10 g L(-1)) increased the antioxidant activity from 76% to 90% as compared to control. Hydrolysis of ultra-filtrated retentate of whey can be an energy- and cost-effective method for the direct production of WPH from whey compared to the industrial production of WPH from whey protein concentrate. This study suggests that WPH with good nutritional and biological properties can be effectively used in health-promoting foods as a biofunctional ingredient. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Rezvani, Mohammad Bagher; Karimi, Mehrdad; Akhavan Rasoolzade, Raheleh; Haghgoo, Roza
Statement of the Problem With the recent focus of researches on the development of non-invasive treatment modalities, the non-invasive treatment of early carious lesions by remineralization would bring a major advance in the clinical management of these dental defects. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) is considered to be effective in tooth remineralization. Purpose The aim of this in-vitro study was to compare the effects of whey and CPP-ACP in increasing the enamel microhardness. Materials and Method Microhardness of 30 sound human permanent premolars was measured before and after 8-minute immersion of samples in Coca-Cola. The teeth were then randomly divided into 3 groups and were immersed in artificial saliva, whey, and tooth mousse for 10 minutes. The changes of microhardness within each group and among the groups were recorded and analyzed using paired t-test. Results The microhardness increased in each group and between the groups; this increase was statistically significant (p= 0.009). Conclusion The effect of whey on increasing the enamel microhardness was more than that of tooth mousse. PMID:25759858
Prasad, Saurav; Srikanth, Katla; Limaye, Anil M; Sivaprakasam, Senthilkumar
Casein whey permeate (CWP), a lactose-enriched dairy waste effluent, is a viable feed stock for the production of value-added products. Two lactic acid bacteria were cultivated in a synthetic casein whey permeate medium with or without pH control. Lactobacillus lactis ATCC 4797 produced D-lactic acid (DLA) at 12.5 g l(-1) in a bioreactor. The values of Leudking-Piret model parameters suggested that lactate was a growth-associated product. Batch fermentation was also performed employing CWP (35 g lactose l(-1)) with casein hydrolysate as a nitrogen supplement in a bioreactor. After 40 h, L. lactis produced 24.3 g lactic acid l(-1) with an optical purity >98 %. Thus CWP may be regarded as a potential feed-stock for DLA production.
Thachepan, Surachai; Li, Mei; Mann, Stephen
Aqueous micelles of the multi-protein calcium phosphate complex, casein, were treated at 60 °C and pH 7 over several months. Although partial dissociation of the micelles into 12 nm sized amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)/protein nanoparticles occurred within a period of 14 days, crystallization of the ACP nanoclusters into bundles of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanofilaments was not observed until after 12 weeks. The HAP nanofilaments were formed specifically within the partially disrupted protein micelles suggesting a micelle-mediated pathway of mesoscale crystallization. Similar experiments using ACP-containing synthetic micelles prepared from β-casein protein alone indicated that co-aligned bundles of HAP nanofilaments were produced within the protein micelle interior after 24 hours at temperatures as low as 35 °C. The presence of Mg2+ ions in the casein micelles, as well as a possible synergistic effect associated with the multi-protein nature of the native aggregates, could account for the marked inhibition in mesoscale crystallization observed in the casein micelles compared with the single-component β-casein constructs.Aqueous micelles of the multi-protein calcium phosphate complex, casein, were treated at 60 °C and pH 7 over several months. Although partial dissociation of the micelles into 12 nm sized amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)/protein nanoparticles occurred within a period of 14 days, crystallization of the ACP nanoclusters into bundles of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanofilaments was not observed until after 12 weeks. The HAP nanofilaments were formed specifically within the partially disrupted protein micelles suggesting a micelle-mediated pathway of mesoscale crystallization. Similar experiments using ACP-containing synthetic micelles prepared from β-casein protein alone indicated that co-aligned bundles of HAP nanofilaments were produced within the protein micelle interior after 24 hours at temperatures as low as 35 °C. The presence of Mg2+ ions in
Yadav, Jay Shankar Singh; Yan, Song; Pilli, Sridhar; Kumar, Lalit; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y
The byproduct of cheese-producing industries, cheese whey, is considered as an environmental pollutant due to its high BOD and COD concentrations. The high organic load of whey arises from the presence of residual milk nutrients. As demand for milk-derived products is increasing, it leads to increased production of whey, which poses a serious management problem. To overcome this problem, various technological approaches have been employed to convert whey into value-added products. These technological advancements have enhanced whey utilization and about 50% of the total produced whey is now transformed into value-added products such as whey powder, whey protein, whey permeate, bioethanol, biopolymers, hydrogen, methane, electricity bioprotein (single cell protein) and probiotics. Among various value-added products, the transformation of whey into proteinaceous products is attractive and demanding. The main important factor which is attractive for transformation of whey into proteinaceous products is the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) regulatory status of whey. Whey and whey permeate are biotransformed into proteinaceous feed and food-grade bioprotein/single cell protein through fermentation. On the other hand, whey can be directly processed to obtain whey protein concentrate, whey protein isolate, and individual whey proteins. Further, whey proteins are also transformed into bioactive peptides via enzymatic or fermentation processes. The proteinaceous products have applications as functional, nutritional and therapeutic commodities. Whey characteristics, and its transformation processes for proteinaceous products such as bioproteins, functional/nutritional protein and bioactive peptides are covered in this review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ye, A; Streicher, C; Singh, H
Whey protein beverages have been shown to be astringent at low pH. In the present study, the interactions between model whey proteins (β-lactoglobulin and lactoferrin) and human saliva in the pH range from 7 to 2 were investigated using particle size, turbidity, and ζ-potential measurements and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. The correlation between the sensory results of astringency and the physicochemical data was discussed. Strong interactions between β-lactoglobulin and salivary proteins led to an increase in the particle size and turbidity of mixtures of both unheated and heated β-lactoglobulin and human saliva at pH ∼3.4. However, the large particle size and high turbidity that occurred at pH 2.0 were the result of aggregation of human salivary proteins. The intense astringency in whey protein beverages may result from these increases in particle size and turbidity at these pH values and from the aggregation and precipitation of human salivary proteins alone at pH <3.0. The involvement of salivary proteins in the interaction is a key factor in the perception of astringency in whey protein beverages. At any pH, the increases in particle size and turbidity were much smaller in mixtures of lactoferrin and saliva, which suggests that aggregation and precipitation may not be the only mechanism linked to the perception of astringency in whey protein. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...
Anema, Skelte G; de Kruif, C G Kees
Casein micelles with bound lactoferrin or lysozyme were fractionated into sizes ranging in radius from ∼50 to 100 nm. The κ-casein content decreased markedly and the αS-casein/β-casein content increased slightly as micelle size increased. For lactoferrin, higher levels were bound to smaller micelles. The lactoferrin/κ-casein ratio was constant for all micelle sizes, whereas the lactoferrin/αS-casein and lactoferrin/β-casein ratio decreased with increasing micelle size. This indicates that the lactoferrin was binding to the surface of the casein micelles. For lysozyme, higher levels bound to larger casein micelles. The lysozyme/αS-casein and lysozyme/β-casein ratios were nearly constant, whereas the lysozyme/κ-casein ratio increased with increasing micelle size, indicating that lysozyme bound to αS-casein and β-casein in the micelle core. Lactoferrin is a large protein that cannot enter the casein protein mesh; therefore, it binds to the micelle surface. The smaller lysozyme can enter the protein mesh and therefore binds to the more charged αS-casein and β-casein.
Thachepan, Surachai; Li, Mei; Mann, Stephen
Aqueous micelles of the multi-protein calcium phosphate complex, casein, were treated at 60°C and pH 7 over several months. Although partial dissociation of the micelles into 12 nm sized amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)/protein nanoparticles occurred within a period of 14 days, crystallization of the ACP nanoclusters into bundles of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanofilaments was not observed until after 12 weeks. The HAP nanofilaments were formed specifically within the partially disrupted protein micelles suggesting a micelle-mediated pathway of mesoscale crystallization. Similar experiments using ACP-containing synthetic micelles prepared from ß-casein protein alone indicated that co-aligned bundles of HAP nanofilaments were produced within the protein micelle interior after 24 hours at temperatures as low as 35°C. The presence of Mg²(+) ions in the casein micelles, as well as a possible synergistic effect associated with the multi-protein nature of the native aggregates, could account for the marked inhibition in mesoscale crystallization observed in the casein micelles compared with the single-component b-casein constructs.
Jauregi, Paula; Olatujoye, Jumoke B; Cabezudo, Ignacio; Frazier, Richard A; Gordon, Michael H
Whey is a by-product of cheese manufacturing and therefore investigating new applications of whey proteins will contribute towards the valorisation of whey and hence waste reduction. This study shows for the first time a detailed comparison of the effectiveness of gelatin and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) as fining agents. Gelatin was more reactive than whey proteins to tannic acid as shown by both the astringency method (with ovalbumin as a precipitant) and the tannins determination method (with methylcellulose as a precipitant). The two proteins showed similar selectivity for polyphenols but β-LG did not remove as much catechin. The fining agent was removed completely or to a trace level after centrifugation followed by filtration which minimises its potential allergenicity. In addition, improved understanding of protein-tannin interactions was obtained by fluorescence, size measurement and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Overall this study demonstrates that whey proteins have the potential of reducing astringency in red wine and can find a place in enology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boukhettala, Nabile; Ibrahim, Ayman; Claeyssens, Sophie; Faure, Magali; Le Pessot, Florence; Vuichoud, Jacques; Lavoinne, Alain; Breuillé, Denis; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse
Mucositis, a common side effect of chemotherapy, is characterized by compromised digestive function, barrier integrity and immune competence. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of a specifically designed diet Clinutren Protect (CP), which contains whey proteins, TGFbeta-rich casein, and free glutamine, on mucositis in rats. Mucositis was induced by three consecutive injections (day 0, day 1, day 2) of methotrexate (2.5 mg/kg). Rats had free access to CP or placebo diets from days -7 to 9. In the placebo diet, whey proteins and TGFbeta-rich casein were replaced by TGFbeta-free casein and glutamine by alanine. Intestinal parameters were assessed at day 3 and 9. Values, expressed as mean +/- SEM, were compared using two-way ANOVA. At day 3, villus height was markedly decreased in the placebo (296 +/- 11 microm) and CP groups (360 +/- 10 microm) compared with controls (464 +/- 27 microm), but more markedly in the placebo as compared to CP group. The intestinal damage score was also reduced in the CP compared with the placebo group. Glutathione content increased in the CP compared with the placebo group (2.2 +/- 0.2 vs. 1.7 +/- 0.2 micromol/g tissue). Gut protein metabolism was more affected in the placebo than in the CP group. The fractional synthesis rate was decreased in the placebo group (93.8 +/- 4.9%/day) compared with controls (121.5 +/- 12.1, P < 0.05), but not in the CP group (106.0 +/- 13.1). In addition, at day 9, rats exhibited improved body weight and food intake recovery in the CP compared to the placebo group. Clinutren Protect feeding reduces intestinal injury in the acute phase of methotrexate-induced mucositis in rats and improves recovery.
Zhang, Hao; Yu, Dandan; Sun, Jing; Guo, Huiyuan; Ding, Qingbo; Liu, Ruihai; Ren, Fazheng
Phenolics-rich foods such as fruit juices and coffee are often consumed with milk. In this study, the interactions of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin with the phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and coumalic acid) were examined. Fluorescence, CD, and FTIR spectroscopies were used to analyze the binding modes, binding constants, and the effects of complexation on the conformation of whey protein. The results showed that binding constants of each whey protein-phenolic acid interaction ranged from 4 × 105 to 7 × 106 M-n and the number of binding sites n ranged from 1.28 ± 0.13 to 1.54 ± 0.34. Because of these interactions, the conformation of whey protein was altered, with a significant reduction in the amount of α-helix and an increase in the amounts of β-sheet and turn structures.
Jensen, Tenna; Bechshoeft, Rasmus L; Giacalone, Davide; Otto, Marie Haulund; Castro-Mejía, Josue; Bin Ahmad, Hajar Fauzan; Reitelseder, Søren; Jespersen, Astrid Pernille
This is an experimental, dual-purpose article about whey protein and how to conduct interdisciplinary analyses and writings. On the one hand, this article is a multidisciplinary commodity biography, which consists of five descriptions of whey protein written by the five different research groups involved in the interdisciplinary research project CALM(Counteracting Age-related loss of Skeletal Muscle Mass). On the other hand, it is a meta-analysis, which aims to uncover and highlight examples of how the five descriptions contribute to each other with insights into the contextualisation of knowledge, contrasts between the descriptions and the new dimensions they bring to established fields of interest. The meta-analysis also contains a discussion of interdisciplinary study objects and the usefulness of the multidisciplinary commodity biography as a format for interdisciplinary publications. The article contributes to the field of food studies with a multidisciplinary biography of whey protein - including its sensory qualities and challenges, insights into its cultural history, its nutritional value and effects on the human body and an analysis of how it is perceived by people who consume it. The biography thereby expands upon existing understandings of whey protein while discussing the usefulness of employing the commodity biography format in interdisciplinary writing. Moreover, the article contributes to the field of interdisciplinary research by providing a practical example of a joint publication and reflections upon the existence, interaction and possibilities of monodisciplinary knowledge structures within interdisciplinary studies and publications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong
This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutritional benefits in contrast to heat denaturation or native applications. WPHs improve solubility over a wide range of pH, create viscosity through water binding, and promote cohesion, adhesion, and elasticity. WPHs form stronger but more flexible edible films than WPC or WPI. WPHs enhance emulsification, bind fat, and facilitate whipping, compared to intact WPs. Extensive hydrolyzed WPHs with proper heat applications are the best emulsifiers and addition of polysaccharides improves the emulsification ability of WPHs. Also, WPHs improve the sensorial properties like color, flavor, and texture but impart a bitter taste in case where extensive hydrolysis (degree of hydrolysis greater than 8%). It is important to consider the type of enzyme, hydrolysis conditions, and WPHs production method based on the nature of food application. PMID:26761849
Dairy processors are finding new export markets for whey protein concentrate (WPC), a byproduct of cheesemaking, but they need to know if full-sized bags of this powder will withstand high temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels during unrefrigerated storage under tropical conditions. To answ...
Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong
This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutritional benefits in contrast to heat denaturation or native applications. WPHs improve solubility over a wide range of pH, create viscosity through water binding, and promote cohesion, adhesion, and elasticity. WPHs form stronger but more flexible edible films than WPC or WPI. WPHs enhance emulsification, bind fat, and facilitate whipping, compared to intact WPs. Extensive hydrolyzed WPHs with proper heat applications are the best emulsifiers and addition of polysaccharides improves the emulsification ability of WPHs. Also, WPHs improve the sensorial properties like color, flavor, and texture but impart a bitter taste in case where extensive hydrolysis (degree of hydrolysis greater than 8%). It is important to consider the type of enzyme, hydrolysis conditions, and WPHs production method based on the nature of food application.
Chandrapala, J; Martin, G J O; Zisu, B; Kentish, S E; Ashokkumar, M
Samples of fresh skim milk, reconstituted micellar casein, and casein powder were sonicated at 20 kHz to investigate the effect of ultrasonication. For fresh skim milk, the average size of the remaining fat globules was reduced by approximately 10 nm after 60 min of sonication; however, the size of the casein micelles was determined to be unchanged. A small increase in soluble whey protein and a corresponding decrease in viscosity also occurred within the first few minutes of sonication, which could be attributed to the breakup of casein-whey protein aggregates. No measurable changes in free casein content could be detected in ultracentrifuged skim milk samples sonicated for up to 60 min. A small, temporary decrease in pH resulted from sonication; however, no measurable change in soluble calcium concentration was observed. Therefore, casein micelles in fresh skim milk were stable during the exposure to ultrasonication. Similar results were obtained for reconstituted micellar casein, whereas larger viscosity changes were observed as whey protein content was increased. Controlled application of ultrasound can be usefully applied to reverse process-induced protein aggregation without affecting the native state of casein micelles. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Snijders, Tim; Linkens, Armand M A; Hamer, Henrike M; van Kranenburg, Janneau; van Loon, Luc J C
The slow digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics of isolated micellar casein have been held responsible for its relatively lower postprandial muscle protein synthetic response compared with rapidly digested proteins such as isolated whey. However, casein is normally consumed within a milk matrix. We hypothesized that protein digestion and absorption kinetics and the subsequent muscle protein synthetic response after micellar casein ingestion are modulated by the milk matrix. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a milk matrix on casein protein digestion and absorption kinetics and postprandial muscle protein synthesis in older men. In a parallel-group design, 32 healthy older men (aged 71 ± 1 y) received a primed continuous infusion of L-[ring-(2)H5]-phenylalanine, L-[ring-3,5-(2)H2]-tyrosine, and L-[1-(13)C]-leucine, and ingested 25 g intrinsically L-[1-(13)C]-phenylalanine and L-[1-(13)C]-leucine labeled casein dissolved in bovine milk serum (Cas+Serum) or water (Cas). Plasma samples and muscle biopsies were collected in the postabsorptive state and for 300 min in the postprandial period to examine whole-body and skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Casein ingestion increased plasma leucine and phenylalanine concentrations and L-[1-(13)C]-phenylalanine enrichments, with a more rapid rise after Cas vs. Cas+Serum. Nonetheless, dietary protein-derived phenylalanine availability did not differ between Cas+Serum (47 ± 2%, mean ± SEM) and Cas (46 ± 3%) when assessed over the 300-min postprandial period (P = 0.80). The milk matrix did not modulate postprandial myofibrillar protein synthesis rates from 0 to 120 min (0.038 ± 0.005 vs. 0.031 ± 0.007%/h) or from 120 to 300 min (0.052 ± 0.004 vs. 0.067 ± 0.005%/h) after Cas+Serum vs. Cas. Similarly, no treatment differences in muscle protein-bound L-[1-(13)C]-phenylalanine enrichments were observed at 120 min (0.003 ± 0.001 vs. 0.002 ± 0.001) or 300 min (0.015 ± 0.002 vs. 0.016 ± 0.002 mole
Akkerman, M; Rauh, V M; Christensen, M; Johansen, L B; Hammershøj, M; Larsen, L B
Previous standards in the area of effect of heat treatment processes on milk protein denaturation were based primarily on laboratory-scale analysis and determination of denaturation degrees by, for example, electrophoresis. In this study, whey protein denaturation was revisited by pilot-scale heating strategies and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LC/MC Q-TOF) analysis. Skim milk was heat treated by the use of 3 heating strategies, namely plate heat exchanger (PHE), tubular heat exchanger (THE), and direct steam injection (DSI), under various heating temperatures (T) and holding times. The effect of heating strategy on the degree of denaturation of β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin was determined using LC/MC Q-TOF of pH 4.5-soluble whey proteins. Furthermore, effect of heating strategy on the rennet-induced coagulation properties was studied by oscillatory rheometry. In addition, rennet-induced coagulation of heat-treated micellar casein concentrate subjected to PHE was studied. For skim milk, the whey protein denaturation increased significantly as T and holding time increased, regardless of heating method. High denaturation degrees were obtained for T >100°C using PHE and THE, whereas DSI resulted in significantly lower denaturation degrees, compared with PHE and THE. Rennet coagulation properties were impaired by increased T and holding time regardless of heating method, although DSI resulted in less impairment compared with PHE and THE. No significant difference was found between THE and PHE for effect on rennet coagulation time, whereas the curd firming rate was significantly larger for THE compared with PHE. Micellar casein concentrate possessed improved rennet coagulation properties compared with skim milk receiving equal heat treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Childs, Jessica L; Drake, MaryAnne
Acidic whey protein beverages are a growing component of the functional food and beverage market. These beverages are also astringent, but astringency is an expected and desirable attribute of many beverages (red wine, tea, coffee) and may not necessarily be a negative attribute of acidic whey protein beverages. The goal of this study was to define the consumer perception of astringency in clear acidic whey protein beverages. Six focus groups (n=49) were held to gain understanding of consumer knowledge of astringency. Consumers were presented with beverages and asked to map them based on astringent mouthfeel and liking. Orthonasal thresholds for whey protein isolate (WPI) in water and flavored model beverages were determined using a 7-series ascending forced choice method. Mouthfeel/basic taste thresholds were determined for WPI in water. Acceptance tests on model beverages were conducted using consumers (n=120) with and without wearing nose clips. Consumers in focus groups were able to identify astringency in beverages. Astringency intensity was not directly related to dislike. The orthonasal threshold for WPI in water was lower (P < 0.05) than the mouthfeel/basic taste threshold of WPI in water. Consumer acceptance of beverages containing WPI was lower (P < 0.05) when consumers were not wearing nose clips compared to acceptance scores of beverages when consumers were wearing nose clips. These results suggest that flavors contributed by WPI in acidic beverages are more objectionable than the astringent mouthfeel and that both flavor and astringency should be the focus of ongoing studies to improve the palatability of these products. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®
Kazazi, Hosayn; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Rezaei, Karamatollah; Pishvaei, Malihe; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Moieni, Sohrab
The effect of kefiran on cold-set gelation of whey protein isolate (WPI) at 25 °C was studied using rheological measurements and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The gelation of samples was induced by the addition of glucono-δ-lactone to the dispersions. WPI concentration was maintained at 8% (w/v) and the concentration of kefiran varied from 0 to 0.08% (w/v). According to rheological measurements, the addition of kefiran into WPI dispersions resulted in a significant increase in the gel strength, the yield stress, and the shear stress values at the flowing point. The gelling point and gelation pH of samples decreased significantly with an increase in kefiran concentration. ESEM micrographs showed that the presence of kefiran played an important role in the microstructure formation of gels. The microstructure of kefiran-WPI mixed gels was more compact and dense, compared to the WPI gel. Depletion interactions between kefiran and whey protein aggregates can be regarded as the chief factor which was responsible for these effects. The present work demonstrated that rheological and microstructural properties of acid-induced whey protein gels were improved by the addition of kefiran.
Anema, Skelte G; Li, Yuming
Milk was heated at different pH (pH 6.5-7.1) and temperatures (20-120 °C/10 min). This resulted in different levels of casein and denatured whey proteins to be distributed between the colloidal and serum phases. The milks were subsequently acidified and the distribution of protein between colloidal and serum was monitored at different pH. On acidification to pH 5.4, the serum phase caseins and denatured whey proteins partially reassociated with the caseins, although a complex behaviour was observed at ∼ pH 5.4 where additional casein dissociation occurred in some samples. At pH below 5.4 the caseins and denatured whey proteins rapidly aggregated. No separate aggregation of κ-casein/denatured whey protein complexes or κ-casein depleted micelles was observed. The earlier gelation of milks heated at higher pH was likely to be due to the destabilisation of the entire milk protein system rather than a preferential aggregation of the serum phase proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moatsou, Golfo; Bakopanos, Constantinos; Katharios, Dimitis; Katsaros, George; Kandarakis, Ioannis; Taoukis, Petros; Politis, Ioannis
The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of high pressure (HP) processing (200, 450 and 650 MPa) at various temperatures (20, 40 and 55 degrees C) on the total plasmin plus plasminogen-derived activity (PL), plasminogen activator(s) (PA) and cathepsin D activities and on denaturation of major whey proteins in bovine milk. Data indicated that transfer of both PL and PA from the casein micelles to milk serum occurred at all pressures utilized at room temperature (20 degrees C). In addition to the transfer of PL and PA from micelles, there were reductions in activities of PL (16-18%) and PA (38-62%) for the pressures 450 and 650 MPa, at room temperature. There were synergistic negative effects between pressure and temperature on residual PL activity at 450 and 650 MPa and on residual PA activity only at 450 MPa. Cathepsin D activity in the acid whey from HP-treated milk was in general baroresistant at room temperature. The residual activity of cathepsin D decreased significantly at 650 MPa and 40 degrees C and at the pressures 450 and 650 MPa at 55 degrees C. Synergistic negative effects on the amount of native beta-lactoglobulin were observed at 450 and 650 MPa and on the amount of native alpha-lactalbumin at 650 MPa. There were significant correlations between enzymatic activities (PL, PA and cathepsin D) and the residual native beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactalbumin in bovine milk. In conclusion, HP significantly affected the activity of indigenous proteolytic enzymes and whey protein denaturation in bovine milk. Reduction in activity of indigenous enzymes (PL, PA and cathepsin D) and transfer of PL and PA from the casein to milk serum induced by HP is expected to have a profound effect on cheese yield, proteolysis during cheese ripening and quality of UHT milk during storage.
Mitchell, Cameron J.; McGregor, Robin A.; D’Souza, Randall F.; Thorstensen, Eric B.; Markworth, James F.; Fanning, Aaron C.; Poppitt, Sally D.; Cameron-Smith, David
The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8) or whey protein (n = 8) while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring 13C6 phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained 120 min prior to consumption of the protein and 90 and 210 min afterwards. Resting myofibrillar fractional synthetic rates (FSR) were 0.019% ± 0.009% and 0.021% ± 0.018% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively. For the first 90 min after protein ingestion the FSR increased (p < 0.001) to 0.057% ± 0.018% and 0.052% ± 0.024% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively with no difference between groups (p = 0.810). FSR returned to baseline in both groups between 90 and 210 min after protein ingestion. Despite evidence of increased rate of digestion and leucine availability following the ingestion of whey protein, there was similar activation of MPS in middle-aged men with either 20 g of milk protein or whey protein. PMID:26506377
Wang, Ting; Tan, Siow Ying; Mutilangi, William; Aykas, Didem P; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E
The objective of this study was to develop a simple and rapid method to differentiate whey protein types (WPC, WPI, and WPH) used for beverage manufacturing by combining the spectral signature collected from portable mid-infrared spectrometers and pattern recognition analysis. Whey protein powders from different suppliers are produced using a large number of processing and compositional variables, resulting in variation in composition, concentration, protein structure, and thus functionality. Whey protein powders including whey protein isolates, whey protein concentrates and whey protein hydrolysates were obtained from different suppliers and their spectra collected using portable mid-infrared spectrometers (single and triple reflection) by pressing the powder onto an Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) diamond crystal with a pressure clamp. Spectra were analyzed by soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) generating a classification model showing the ability to differentiate whey protein types by forming tight clusters with interclass distance values of >3, considered to be significantly different from each other. The major bands centered at 1640 and 1580 cm(-1) were responsible for separation and were associated with differences in amide I and amide II vibrations of proteins, respectively. Another important band in whey protein clustering was associated with carboxylate vibrations of acidic amino acids (∼1570 cm(-1)). The use of a portable mid-IR spectrometer combined with pattern recognition analysis showed potential for discriminating whey protein ingredients that can help to streamline the analytical procedure so that it is more applicable for field-based screening of ingredients. A rapid, simple and accurate method was developed to authenticate commercial whey protein products by using portable mid-infrared spectrometers combined with chemometrics, which could help ensure the functionality of whey protein ingredients in food applications. © 2015
A new, environmentally benign whey protein fractionation process was developed using supercritical CO2 (SCO2) as an acid aggregating agent to separate a-lactalbumin (a-LA) aggregates from soluble beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) protein in concentrated whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions. The process e...
Gillespie, Anna L; Green, Brian D
Previous studies suggest that casein exerts various anti-diabetic effects. However, it is not known which casein proteins are bioactive, nor their effects on enteroendocrine cells. This study evaluated the effects of intact whole casein, intact individual proteins (alpha, beta and kappa casein) and hydrolysates on an enteroendocrine cell line. High content analysis accurately monitored changes in cell health and intracellular glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) content. Cheese ripening duration and GLP-1 secretory responses were also considered. Beta casein significantly stimulated enteroendocrine cell proliferation and all caseins were potent GLP-1 secretagogues (except kappa casein). Interestingly the GLP-1 secretory activity was almost always lost or significantly reduced upon hydrolysis with proteolytic enzymes. Only pepsin-derived beta casein hydrolysates had significantly increased potency compared with the intact protein, but this was diminished with prolonged hydrolysis. In conclusion casein proteins are not detrimental to enteroendocrine cells, and alpha and beta casein are particularly beneficial stimulating proliferation and GLP-1 secretion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Song, Wei; Tavitian, Ayda; Cressatti, Marisa; Galindez, Carmela; Liberman, Adrienne; Schipper, Hyman M
Schizophrenia is a neuropsychiatric disorder that features neural oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) deficits. Oxidative stress is augmented in brain tissue of GFAP.HMOX1 transgenic mice which exhibit schizophrenia-relevant characteristics. The whey protein isolate, Immunocal® serves as a GSH precursor upon oral administration. In this study, we treated GFAP.HMOX1 transgenic mice daily with either Immunocal (33mg/ml drinking water) or equivalent concentrations of casein (control) between the ages of 5 and 6.5 months. Immunocal attenuated many of the behavioral, neurochemical and redox abnormalities observed in GFAP.HMOX1 mice. In addition to restoring GSH homeostasis in the CNS of the transgenic mice, the whey protein isolate augmented GSH reserves in the brains of wild-type animals. These results demonstrate that consumption of whey protein isolate augments GSH stores and antioxidant defenses in the healthy and diseased mammalian brain. Whey protein isolate supplementation (Immunocal) may constitute a safe and effective modality for the management of schizophrenia, an unmet clinical imperative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
An economical and environmentally friendly whey protein fractionation process was developed using supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) as an acid to produce enriched fractions of alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-La) and beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) from a commercial whey protein isolate (WPI) containing 55% ...
A new pilot-scale process is being developed and optimized for the separation of whey proteins into two enriched, highly functional fractions that are free of contaminants. The fractionation of whey protein isolate (WPI), which contains approximately 32% alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA) and 61% beta-lac...
FALANGHE, H; SMITH, A K; RACKIS, J J
Various soybean whey media were tested as substrate for seven species of fungi in submerged culture. Very little mycelial growth was obtained with Morchella hybrida, Collybia velutipes, Cantharellus cibarius, and Xylaria polymorpha. Agaricus campestris failed to grow. Tricholoma nudum and Boletus indecisus showed the greatest rate of growth and production of mycelial protein and the best utilization of soybean whey solids, with much shorter incubation times compared with those of the other species. T. nudum developed as spheres having diameters of about 5 to 8 mm, instead of the usual slurry or yeastlike form, in the presence of added ammonium acetate. B. indecisus always developed as spheres. Mycelial yields and production of protein by T. nudum greatly decreased with the addition of more than 1% glucose to soybean whey, whereas with B. indecisus the yield of protein almost doubled when up to 3% glucose was added. The effect of minerals on mycelial growth was determined. With soybean whey concentrated to 50%, the rate of mycelial growth of T. nudum was nearly doubled, but protein content of mycelia was greatly reduced. Mycelial growth and yield of protein of B. indecisus grown in concentrated whey were increased greatly. About 4 to 6 g of mycelial protein per liter can be obtained from fermentation in soybean whey, depending upon the medium used. Utilization of soybean whey by fungal fermentation may have economic value in whey disposal and in the production of products of high protein content.
Falanghe, Helcio; Smith, A. K.; Rackis, J. J.
Various soybean whey media were tested as substrate for seven species of fungi in submerged culture. Very little mycelial growth was obtained with Morchella hybrida, Collybia velutipes, Cantharellus cibarius, and Xylaria polymorpha. Agaricus campestris failed to grow. Tricholoma nudum and Boletus indecisus showed the greatest rate of growth and production of mycelial protein and the best utilization of soybean whey solids, with much shorter incubation times compared with those of the other species. T. nudum developed as spheres having diameters of about 5 to 8 mm, instead of the usual slurry or yeastlike form, in the presence of added ammonium acetate. B. indecisus always developed as spheres. Mycelial yields and production of protein by T. nudum greatly decreased with the addition of more than 1% glucose to soybean whey, whereas with B. indecisus the yield of protein almost doubled when up to 3% glucose was added. The effect of minerals on mycelial growth was determined. With soybean whey concentrated to 50%, the rate of mycelial growth of T. nudum was nearly doubled, but protein content of mycelia was greatly reduced. Mycelial growth and yield of protein of B. indecisus grown in concentrated whey were increased greatly. About 4 to 6 g of mycelial protein per liter can be obtained from fermentation in soybean whey, depending upon the medium used. Utilization of soybean whey by fungal fermentation may have economic value in whey disposal and in the production of products of high protein content. PMID:14199023
Hydrolysis of casein using chymotrypsin results in the formation of polypeptides (casein hydrolyzate, CH) with a hydrophobic aromatic amino acid on one end of the chain because the enzyme selectively cleaves the adjacent peptide-bond. Due to resonance of the aromatic micro-domain, thiols become redo...
Corrochano, Alberto R; Buckin, Vitaly; Kelly, Phil M; Giblin, Linda
Oxidative stress contributes to cell injury and aggravates several chronic diseases. Dietary antioxidants help the body to fight against free radicals and, therefore, avoid or reduce oxidative stress. Recently, proteins from milk whey liquid have been described as antioxidants. This review summarizes the evidence that whey products exhibit radical scavenging activity and reducing power. It examines the processing and treatment attempts to increase the antioxidant bioactivity and identifies 1 enzyme, subtilisin, which consistently produces the most potent whey fractions. The review compares whey from different milk sources and puts whey proteins in the context of other known food antioxidants. However, for efficacy, the antioxidant activity of whey proteins must not only survive processing, but also upper gut transit and arrival in the bloodstream, if whey products are to promote antioxidant levels in target organs. Studies reveal that direct cell exposure to whey samples increases intracellular antioxidants such as glutathione. However, the physiological relevance of these in vitro assays is questionable, and evidence is conflicting from dietary intervention trials, with both rats and humans, that whey products can boost cellular antioxidant biomarkers. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Miralles, Beatriz; Del Barrio, Roberto; Cueva, Carolina; Recio, Isidra; Amigo, Lourdes
A dynamic gastrointestinal simulator, simgi ® , has been applied to assess the gastric digestion of a whey protein concentrate. Samples collected from the outlet of the stomach have been compared to those resulting from the static digestion protocol INFOGEST developed on the basis of physiologically inferred conditions. Progress of digestion was followed by SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS. By SDS-PAGE, serum albumin and α-lactalbumin were no longer detectable at 30 and 60 min, respectively. On the contrary, β-lactoglobulin was visible up to 120 min, although in decreasing concentrations in the dynamic model due to the gastric emptying and the addition of gastric fluids. Moreover, β-lactoglobulin was partly hydrolysed by pepsin probably due to the presence of heat-denatured forms and the peptides released using both digestion models were similar. Under dynamic conditions, a stepwise increase in number of peptides over time was observed, while the static protocol generated a high number of peptides from the beginning of digestion. Whey protein digestion products using a dynamic stomach are consistent with those generated with the static protocol but the kinetic behaviour of the peptide profile emphasises the effect of the sequential pepsin addition, peristaltic shaking, and gastric emptying on protein digestibility. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Yang, Yongxin; Zhao, Xiaowei; Yu, Shumin; Cao, Suizhong
Yak (Bos grunniens) is an important natural resource in mountainous regions. To date, few studies have addressed the differences in the protein profiles of yak colostrum and milk. We used quantitative proteomics to compare the protein profiles of whey from yak colostrum and milk. Milk samples were collected from 21 yaks after calving (1 and 28 d). Whey protein profiles were generated through isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-labelled proteomics. We identified 183 proteins in milk whey; of these, the expression levels of 86 proteins differed significantly between the whey from colostrum and milk. Haemoglobin expression showed the greatest change; its levels were significantly higher in the whey from colostrum than in mature milk whey. Functional analysis revealed that many of the differentially expressed proteins were associated with biological regulation and response to stimuli. Further, eight differentially expressed proteins involved in the complement and coagulation cascade pathway were enriched in milk whey. These findings add to the general understanding of the protein composition of yak milk, suggest potential functions of the differentially expressed proteins, and provide novel information on the role of colostral components in calf survival. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Mixed systems of whey protein isolate (WPI) or texturized WPI (tWPI) and different starches may form weak or strong gel pastes or rigid matrices depending on interactions. The paste viscoelasticity of starches from amioca, barley, corn starch, Hylon VII, plantain, and pea starch, mixed with whey pro...
Wong, Douglas; Vasanthan, Thava; Ozimek, Lech
This paper investigated the enhancement of thermal gelation properties when salt-soluble pea proteins were co-gelated with whey proteins in NaCl solutions, using different blend ratios, total protein concentrations, pH, and salt concentrations. Results showed that the thermal co-gelation of pea/whey proteins blended in ratio of 2:8 in NaCl solutions showed synergistic enhancement in storage modulus, gel hardness, paste viscosity and minimum gelation concentrations. The highest synergistic enhancement was observed at pH 6.0 as compared with pH 4.0 and 8.0, and at the lower total protein concentration of 10% as compared with 16% and 22% (w/v), as well as in lower NaCl concentrations of 0.5% and 1.0% as compared with 1.5%, 2.0%, 2.5%, and 3.0% (w/v). The least gelation concentrations were also lower in the different pea/whey protein blend ratios than in pure pea or whey proteins, when dissolved in 1.0% or 2.5% (w/v) NaCl aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Whey protein isolate (WPI)-based cast films are very brittle, due to several chain interactions caused by a large amount of different functional groups. In order to overcome film brittleness, plasticizers, like glycerol, are commonly used. As a result of adding plasticizers, the free volume between the polymer chains increases, leading to higher permeability values. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of partially substituting glycerol by hydrolysed whey protein isolate (h-WPI) in WPI-based cast films on their mechanical, optical and barrier properties. As recently published by the author, it is proven that increasing the h-WPI content in WPI-based films at constant glycerol concentrations significantly increases film flexibility, while maintaining the barrier properties. The present study considered these facts in order to increase the barrier performance, while maintaining film flexibility. Therefore glycerol was partially replaced by h-WPI in WPI-based cast films. The results clearly indicate that partially replacing glycerol by h-WPI reduces the oxygen permeability and the water vapor transmission rate, while the mechanical properties did not change significantly. Thus, film flexibility was maintained, even though the plasticizer concentration was decreased. PMID:28811434
Lam, Cherry Wing Yu; Ikeda, Shinya
Texture modifying abilities of whey protein microparticles are expected to be dependent on pH during heat-induced aggregation of whey protein in the microparticulation process. Therefore, whey protein microparticles were prepared at either pH 5.5 or 6.8 and their effects on small and large deformation properties of gellan gels containing whey protein microparticles as fillers were investigated. The majority of whey protein microparticles had diameters around 2 μm. Atomic force microscopy images showed that whey protein microparticles prepared at pH 6.8 partially collapsed and flatted by air-drying, while those prepared at pH 5.5 did not. The Young's modulus of filled gels adjusted to pH 5.5 decreased by the addition of whey protein microparticles, while those of filled gels adjusted to pH 6.8 increased with increasing volume fraction of filler particles. These results suggest that filler particles were weakly bonded to gel matrices at pH 5.5 but strongly at pH 6.8. Whey protein microparticles prepared at pH 5.5 showed more enhanced increases in the Young's modulus than those prepared at pH 6.8 at volume fractions between 0.2 and 0.4, indicating that microparticles prepared at pH 5.5 were mechanically stronger. The fracture stress of filled gels showed trends somewhat similar to those of the Young's modulus, while their fracture strains decreased by the addition of whey protein microparticles in all examined conditions, indicating that the primary effect of these filler particles was to enhance the brittleness of filled gels. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Morato, Priscila Neder; Lollo, Pablo Christiano Barboza; Moura, Carolina Soares; Batista, Thiago Martins; Camargo, Rafael Ludemann; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime
Whey protein (WP) and whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) have the recognized capacity to increase glycogen stores. The objective of this study was to verify if consuming WP and WPH could also increase the concentration of the glucose transporters GLUT-1 and GLUT-4 in the plasma membrane (PM) of the muscle cells of sedentary and exercised animals. Forty-eight Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 8 per group), were treated and fed with experimental diets for 9 days as follows: a) control casein (CAS); b) WP; c) WPH; d) CAS exercised; e) WP exercised; and f) WPH exercised. After the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed, muscle GLUT-1 and GLUT-4, p85, Akt and phosphorylated Akt were analyzed by western blotting, and the glycogen, blood amino acids, insulin levels and biochemical health indicators were analyzed using standard methods. Consumption of WPH significantly increased the concentrations of GLUT-4 in the PM and glycogen, whereas the GLUT-1 and insulin levels and the health indicators showed no alterations. The physical exercise associated with consumption of WPH had favorable effects on glucose transport into muscle. These results should encourage new studies dealing with the potential of both WP and WPH for the treatment or prevention of type II diabetes, a disease in which there is reduced translocation of GLUT-4 to the plasma membrane.
Wang, Xiaxia; Zhao, Xiaowei; Huang, Dongwei; Pan, Xiaocheng; Qi, Yunxia; Yang, Yongxin; Zhao, Huiling; Cheng, Guanglong
Casein micelles contribute to the physicochemical properties of milk and may also influence its functionality. At present, however, there is an incomplete understanding of the casein micelle associated proteins and its diversity among the milk obtained from different species. Therefore, milk samples were collected from seven dairy animals groups, casein fractions were prepared by ultracentrifugation and their constituent proteins were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 193 distinct proteins were identified among all the casein micelle preparations. Protein interaction analysis indicated that caseins could interact with major whey proteins, including β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, and serum albumin, and then whey proteins interacted with other proteins. Pathway analysis found that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway is shared among the studied animals. Additionally, galactose metabolism pathway is also found to be commonly involved for proteins derived from camel and horse milk. According to the similarity of casein micelle proteomes, two major sample clusters were classified into ruminant animals (Holstein and Jersey cows, buffaloes, yaks, and goats) and non-ruminants (camels and horses). Our results provide new insights into the protein profile associated with casein micelles and the functionality of the casein micelle from the studied animals. PMID:28240229
Yen, Chon-Ho; Lin, Yin-Shen; Tu, Ching-Fu
Milk protein of farm animals is difficult to isolate because of the presence of casein micelles, which are hard to separate from whey by using centrifugation or filtration. Insoluble casein micelles also create an obstacle for purification instruments to operate efficiently. The conventional method, to precipitate caseins by lowering pH to 4.6 and then recover the whey fraction for further purification using chromatography techniques, is not applicable to proteins having an isoelectric point similar to caseins. In addition, the acid condition used for casein removal usually leads to significantly poor yields and reduced biological activities. In this study, a novel method of precipitating caseins under neutral or weak acidic conditions is presented. The method employs a phosphate salt and a freeze-thaw procedure to obtain a casein-free whey protein fraction. This fraction contains more than 90% yield with little loss of bioactivity of the target protein, and is readily available for further chromatographic purification. This method was successfully applied to purify recombinant human factor IX and recombinant hirudin from the milk of transgenic pigs in the presented study. It is an efficient pretreatment approach prior to chromatographic purification of milk protein from farm animals and particularly of great value to collect those recombinants secreted from transgenic livestock.
Mignone, Linda E; Wu, Tongzhi; Horowitz, Michael; Rayner, Christopher K
A cost-effective nutritional approach to improve postprandial glycaemia is attractive considering the rising burden of diabetes throughout the world. Whey protein, a by-product of the cheese-making process, can be used to manipulate gut function in order to slow gastric emptying and stimulate incretin hormone secretion, thereby attenuating postprandial glycaemic excursions. The function of the gastrointestinal tract plays a pivotal role in glucose homeostasis, particularly during the postprandial period, and this review will discuss the mechanisms by which whey protein slows gastric emptying and stimulates release of gut peptides, including the incretins. Whey protein is also a rich source of amino acids, and these can directly stimulate beta cells to secrete insulin, which contributes to the reduction in postprandial glycaemia. Appetite is suppressed with consumption of whey, due to its effects on the gut-brain axis and the hypothalamus. These properties of whey protein suggest its potential in the management of type 2 diabetes. However, the optimal dose and timing of whey protein ingestion are yet to be defined, and studies are required to examine the long-term benefits of whey consumption for overall glycaemic control. PMID:26516411
Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Cevirgen Cemil, Bengu; Emiroglu, Nazan; Gulsel Bahali, Anil; Onsun, Nahide
Whey protein is a source of protein that was isolated from milk. Whey proteins are composed of higher levels of essential amino acids. The role of diet in acne etiology has been investigated for several years. It was established that milk and milk products can trigger acneiform lesions, and recent evidence supports the role of whey protein supplements in acne. Herein, we report 6 healthy male adolescent patients developing acne located only to the trunk after the consumption of whey protein supplements for faster bodybuilding. This is the first observation which specified the location of acneiform lesions among bodybuilders. In our opinion, a trendy and common health problem is beginning among adolescents in the gyms. PMID:28326292
Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Cevirgen Cemil, Bengu; Emiroglu, Nazan; Gulsel Bahali, Anil; Onsun, Nahide
Whey protein is a source of protein that was isolated from milk. Whey proteins are composed of higher levels of essential amino acids. The role of diet in acne etiology has been investigated for several years. It was established that milk and milk products can trigger acneiform lesions, and recent evidence supports the role of whey protein supplements in acne. Herein, we report 6 healthy male adolescent patients developing acne located only to the trunk after the consumption of whey protein supplements for faster bodybuilding. This is the first observation which specified the location of acneiform lesions among bodybuilders. In our opinion, a trendy and common health problem is beginning among adolescents in the gyms.
Abaee, Arash; Madadlou, Ashkan
The α-tocopherol-carrying niosomes with mean diameter of 5.7 μm were fabricated and charged into a transglutaminase-cross-linked whey protein solution that was subsequently gelled with glucono delta-lactone. Encapsulation efficiency of α-tocopherol within niosomes was ≈80% and encapsulation did not influence the radical scavenging activity of α-tocopherol. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy suggested formation of ε-(γ-glutamyl) lysine cross-linkages by transglutaminase and that enzymatic cross-linking increased proteins hydrophobicity. FTIR also proposed hydrogen bonding between niosomes and proteins. Dynamic rheometry indicated that transglutaminase cross-linking and niosomes charging of the protein solution enhanced the gelation process. However, charging the cross-linked protein solution with niosomal suspension resulted in lower elastic modulus (G') of the subsequently formed gel compared with both non-cross-linked niosome-loaded and cross-linked niosome-free counterparts. Electron microscopy indicated a discontinuous network for the niosome-loaded cross-linked sample. Niosome loading into the protein gel matrix increased its swelling extent in the enzyme-free simulated gastric fluid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Huang, Wen-Ching; Chang, Yung-Cheng; Chen, Yi-Ming; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Huang, Chi-Chang; Kan, Nai-Wen; Chen, Sheng-Shih
Whey protein has been widely applied to athletes and the fitness field for muscle growth and performance improvement. Limited studies focused on the beneficial effects of whey on aerobic exercise according to biochemical assessments. In the current study, 12 elite male track runners were randomly assigned to whey and maltodextrin groups for 5 weeks' supplementation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of whey protein on physiological adaptions and exercise performance. During this period, three time points (pre-, post-, and end-test) were used to evaluate related biochemical parameters, body composition, and performance. The post-test was set 1 day after a marathon for injury status evaluation and the end-test was also assessed after 1-week recovery from endurance test. The results showed that the whey group exhibited significantly lower aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase indicators after the marathon (post-test), as well as at the end-test (p<0.016). The endurance performance in twelve-minute walk/run was also significantly elevated (p<0.012) possibly due to an increase in the muscle mass and amelioration of exercise injuries. In the current study, we demonstrated that whey protein can also be used for aerobic exercise for better physiological adaptation, in addition to resistance training. Whey protein could be also a potential nutrient supplement with a variety of benefits for amateur runners. PMID:28824296
Graf, Sonja; Egert, Sarah; Heer, Martina
Epidemiological studies indicate that the consumption of milk and dairy products is inversely associated with a lower risk of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. In particular, whey protein seems to induce these effects because of bioactive compounds such as lactoferrin, immunoglobulins, glutamine and lactalbumin. In addition, it is an excellent source of branch chained amino acids. This review summarizes recent findings on the effects of whey protein on metabolic disorders and the musculoskeletal system. We identified 25 recently published intervention trials examining chronic and/or acute effects of whey protein supplementation on lipid and glucose metabolism, blood pressure, vascular function and on the musculoskeletal system. Whey protein appears to have a blood glucose and/or insulin lowering effect partly mediated by incretins. In addition, whey protein may increase muscle protein synthesis. In contrast there are no clear-cut effects shown on blood lipids and lipoproteins, blood pressure and vascular function. For bone metabolism the data are scarce. In summary, whey protein may affect glucose metabolism and muscle protein synthesis. However, the evidence for a clinical efficacy is not strong enough to make final recommendations with respect to a specific dose and the duration of supplementation.
Kelly, M; Vardhanabhuti, B; Luck, P; Drake, M A; Osborne, J; Foegeding, E A
Whey protein beverages are adjusted to pH <4.5 to enhance clarity and stability, but this pH level is also associated with increased astringency. The goal of this investigation was to determine the effects of protein concentration on astringency and interactions between whey and salivary proteins. Whey protein beverages containing 0.25 to 13% (wt/wt) beta-lactoglobulin and 0.017% (wt/wt) sucralose at pH 2.6 to 4.2 were examined using descriptive sensory analysis. Controls were similar pH phosphate buffers at phosphate concentrations equivalent to the amount of phosphoric acid required to adjust the pH of the protein solution. Changes in astringency with protein concentration depended on pH. At pH 3.5, astringency significantly increased with protein concentration from 0.25 to 4% (wt/wt) and then remained constant from 4 to 13% (wt/wt). Conversely, at pH 2.6, astringency decreased with an increase in protein concentration [0.5-10% (wt/wt)]. This suggests a complex relationship that includes pH and buffering capacity of the beverages. Furthermore, saliva flow rates increased with increasing protein concentrations, showing that the physiological conditions in the mouth change with protein concentration. Maximum turbidity of whey protein-saliva mixtures was observed between pH 4.6 and 5.2. Both sensory evaluation and in vitro study of interactions between beta-LG and saliva indicate that astringency of whey proteins is a complex process determined by the extent of aggregation occurring in the mouth, which depends on the whey protein beverage pH and buffering capacity in addition to saliva flow rate. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, D.Y.; Johnson, P.E.
Rats were fed diets containing either soy protein or casein and different levels of manganese, methionine, phytic acid, or arginine for 7 days and then fed test meals labeled with 2 microCi of 54Mn after an overnight fast. Retention of 54Mn in each rat was measured every other day for 21 days using a whole-body counter. Liver manganese was higher (P less than 0.0001) in soy protein-fed rats (8.8 micrograms/g) than in casein-fed rats (5.2 micrograms/g); manganese superoxide dismutase activity also was higher in soy protein-fed rats than in casein-fed rats (P less than 0.01). There was a significant interactionmore » between manganese and protein which affected manganese absorption and biologic half-life of 54Mn. In a second experiment, rats fed soy protein-test meals retained more 54Mn (P less than 0.001) than casein-fed rats. Liver manganese (8.3 micrograms/g) in the soy protein group was also higher than that (5.7 micrograms/g) in the casein group (P less than 0.0001), but manganese superoxide dismutase activity was unaffected by protein. Supplementation with methionine increased 54Mn retention from both soy and casein diets (P less than 0.06); activity of manganese superoxide dismutase increased (P less than 0.05) but liver manganese did not change. The addition of arginine to casein diets had little effect on manganese bioavailability. Phytic acid affected neither manganese absorption nor biologic half-life in two experiments, but it depressed liver manganese in one experiment. These results suggest that neither arginine nor phytic acid was the component in soy protein which made manganese more available from soy protein diets than casein diets.« less
Belobrajdic, D P; McIntosh, G H; Owens, J A
Protein type and density have been shown to influence colon cancer risk using a carcinogen-induced rat model. It is suggested that red meat may promote colon cancer risk more than whey proteins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of red meat, whey protein and their density in the diet on the number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), preneoplastic markers in Wistar rats. The sources of protein, red meat as barbecued kangaroo muscle meat, and whey protein concentrate were fed to rats to provide 8, 16 and 32% protein by weight in a modified AIN-93 diet with low fiber, low calcium and high polyunsaturated fat. Adult Wistar rats (13 weeks of age) were fed these diets for 4 weeks and then two s.c. injections of azoxymethane, 15 mg/kg BW, were administered 1 week apart. Diets were fed for a further 8 weeks, rats were then killed, their colons fixed in formalin saline and stained with methylene blue to quantify ACF number. Fecal samples were collected and the fecal water was isolated for quantification of heme and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Increasing red meat density correlated positively, while increasing dairy protein density correlated negatively with rate of weight gain (p<0.05). Dietary intake was not significantly affected by protein type or density. The 32% whey protein group had significantly less ACF in the proximal colon in comparison to the 16 and 32% red meat groups (p<0.05). This reduction in ACF number in the whey protein group may be caused by hormones associated with the reduction in weight gain, and/or by components of whey protein concentrate such as cysteine, lactose and conjugated linoleic acid which have been shown to have anti-cancer effects. Using ACF number as an index, whey protein appeared to be more protective than red meat.
Borack, Michael S; Reidy, Paul T; Husaini, Syed H; Markofski, Melissa M; Deer, Rachel R; Richison, Abigail B; Lambert, Bradley S; Cope, Mark B; Mukherjea, Ratna; Jennings, Kristofer; Volpi, Elena; Rasmussen, Blake B
Previous work demonstrated that a soy-dairy protein blend (PB) prolongs hyperaminoacidemia and muscle protein synthesis in young adults after resistance exercise. We investigated the effect of PB in older adults. We hypothesized that PB would prolong hyperaminoacidemia, enhancing mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and muscle protein anabolism compared with a whey protein isolate (WPI). This double-blind, randomized controlled trial studied men 55-75 y of age. Subjects consumed 30 g protein from WPI or PB (25% soy, 25% whey, and 50% casein) 1 h after leg extension exercise (8 sets of 10 repetitions at 70% one-repetition maximum). Blood and muscle amino acid concentrations and basal and postexercise muscle protein turnover were measured by using stable isotopic methods. Muscle mTORC1 signaling was assessed by immunoblotting. Both groups increased amino acid concentrations (P < 0.05) and mTORC1 signaling after protein ingestion (P < 0.05). Postexercise fractional synthesis rate (FSR; P ≥ 0.05), fractional breakdown rate (FBR; P ≥ 0.05), and net balance (P = 0.08) did not differ between groups. WPI increased FSR by 67% (mean ± SEM: rest: 0.05% ± 0.01%; postexercise: 0.09% ± 0.01%; P < 0.05), decreased FBR by 46% (rest: 0.17% ± 0.01%; postexercise: 0.09% ± 0.03%; P < 0.05), and made net balance less negative (P < 0.05). PB ingestion did not increase FSR (rest: 0.07% ± 0.03%; postexercise: 0.09% ± 0.01%; P ≥ 0.05), tended to decrease FBR by 42% (rest: 0.25% ± 0.08%; postexercise: 0.15% ± 0.08%; P = 0.08), and made net balance less negative (P < 0.05). Within-group percentage of change differences were not different between groups for FSR, FBR, or net balance (P ≥ 0.05). WPI and PB ingestion after exercise in older men induced similar responses in hyperaminoacidemia, mTORC1 signaling, muscle protein synthesis, and breakdown. These data add new evidence for the use of whey or soy-dairy PBs as targeted nutritional interventions to
Aparicio, Virginia A; Nebot, Elena; Tassi, Mohamed; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Cristina; Porres, Jesús M; Aranda, Pilar
Different dietary protein sources can promote different renal statuses. We examined the effects of whey protein (WP) and soy protein (SP) intake on plasma, urinary, and morphological renal parameters in rats. One hundred and twenty Wistar rats were randomly distributed into 2 experimental groups fed with either WP or SP diets over 12 weeks. These diets were based on commercial WP or SP isolates. The urinary calcium content was higher in the WP diet compared to the SP diet group (P<.001) whereas the urinary citrate level was lower (P<.001). The urinary pH was more acidic in the WP diet group compared to the SP diet group (P<.001); however, no differences were observed between the groups for any of the renal morphological parameters analyzed (all, P>.05) or other plasma renal markers such as albumin or urea concentrations. The increase of acid and urinary calcium and the lower urinary citrate level observed in the WP diet group could increase the incidence of nephrolithiasis compared to the SP diet group. Despite the WP showed poorer acid-base profile, no significant morphological renal changes were observed. These results suggest that the use of SP instead of WP appears to promote a more alkaline plasma and urinary profile, with their consequent renal advantages.
Craig, R K; McIlreavy, D; Hall, R L
1. Guinea-pig caseins A, B and C were purified free of each other by a combination of ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. 2. Determination of the amino acid composition showed all three caseins to contain a high proportion of proline and glutamic acid, but no cysteine. This apart, the amino acid composition of the three caseins was markedly different, though calculated divergence values suggest that some homology may exist between caseins A and B. Molecular-weight estimates based on amino acid composition were in good agreement with those based on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. 3. N-Terminal analysis showed lysine, methionine and lysine to be the N-terminal residues of caseins A, B and C respectively. 4. Two-dimensional separation of tryptic digests revealed a distinctive pattern for each casein. 5. All caseins were shown to be phosphoproteins. The casein C preparation also contained significant amounts of sialic acid, neutral and amino sugars. 6. The results suggest that each casein represents a separate gene product, and that the low-molecular-weight proteins are not the result of a post-translational cleavage of the largest. All were distinctly different from the whey protein alpha-lactalbumin. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:697741
Qian, Fang; Sun, Jiayue; Cao, Di; Tuo, Yanfeng; Jiang, Shujuan; Mu, Guangqing
Heat treatment of milk aims to inhibit the growth of microbes, extend the shelf-life of products and improve the quality of the products. Heat treatment also leads to denaturation of whey protein and the formation of whey protein-casein polymer, which has negative effects on milk product. Hence the milk heat treatment conditions should be controlled in milk processing. In this study, the denaturation degree of whey protein and the combination degree of whey protein and casein when undergoing heat treatment were also determined by using the Native-PAGE and SDS-PAGE analysis. The results showed that the denaturation degree of whey protein and the combination degree of whey protein with casein extended with the increase of the heat-treated temperature and time. The effects of the heat-treated temperature and heat-treated time on the denaturation degree of whey protein and on the combination degree of whey protein and casein were well described using the quadratic regression equation. The analysis strategy used in this study reveals an intuitive and effective measure of the denaturation degree of whey protein, and the changes of milk protein under different heat treatment conditions efficiently and accurately in the dairy industry. It can be of great significance for dairy product proteins following processing treatments applied for dairy product manufacturing. PMID:28316470
Xu, R M; Carmel, G; Sweet, R M; Kuret, J; Cheng, X
The structure of a truncated variant of casein kinase-1 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, has been determined in complex with MgATP at 2.0 A resolution. The model resembles the 'closed', ATP-bound conformations of the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, with clear differences in the structure of surface loops that impart unique features to casein kinase-1. The structure is of unphosphorylated, active conformation of casein kinase-1 and the peptide-binding site is fully accessible to substrate. Images PMID:7889932
Rafe, Ali; Vahedi, Elnaz; Hasan-Sarei, Azadeh Ghorbani
Rice bran protein (RBP) is a valuable plant protein which has unique nutritional and hypoallergenic properties. Whey proteins have wide applications in the food industry, such as in dairy, meat and bakery products. Whey protein concentrate (WPC), RBP and their mixtures at different ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10 w/w) were heated from 20 to 90 °C at different heating rates (0.5, 1, 5 and 10 °C min(-1) ). The storage modulus (G') and gelling point (Tgel ) of WPC were higher than those of RBP, indicating the good ability of WPC to develop stiffer networks. By increasing the proportion of WPC in mixed systems, G' was increased and Tgel was reduced. Nevertheless, the elasticity of all binary mixtures was lower than that of WPC alone. Tgel and the final G' of RBP-WPC blends were increased by raising the heating rate. The RBP-WPC mixtures developed more elastic gels than RBP alone at different heating rates. RBP had a fibrillar and lentil-like structure whose fibril assembly had smaller structures than those of WPC. The gelling structure of the mixed gel of WPC-RBP was improved by adding WPC. Indeed, by adding WPC, gels tended to show syneresis and had lower water-holding capacity. Furthermore, the gel structure was produced by adding WPC to the non-gelling RBP, which is compatible with whey and can be applied as a functional food for infants and/or adults. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
The looming food insecurity demands the utilization of nutrient-rich residues from food industries as value-added products. Whey, a dairy industry waste has been characterized to be excellent nourishment with an array of bioactive components. Whey protein comprises 20 % of total milk protein and it is rich in branched and essential amino acids, functional peptides, antioxidants and immunoglobulins. It confers benefits against a wide range of metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular complications, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, cancer and phenylketonuria. The protein has been validated to boost recovery from resistance exercise-injuries, stimulate gut physiology and protect skin against detrimental radiations. Apart from health invigoration, whey protein has proved its suitability as fat replacer and emulsifier. Further, its edible and antimicrobial packaging potential renders its highly desirable in food as well as pharmaceutical sectors. Considering the enormous nutraceutical worth of whey protein, this review emphasizes on its established and emerging biological roles. Present and future scopes in food processing and dietary supplement formulation are discussed. Associated hurdles are identified and how technical advancement might augment its applications are explored. This review is expected to provide valuable insight on whey protein-fortified functional foods, associated technical hurdles and scopes of improvement.
The chemistry of whey protein concentrate (WPC) under adverse storage conditions was monitored to provide information on shelf life in hot, humid areas. WPC34 (34.9 g protein/100 g) and WPC80 (76.8 g protein/100 g) were stored for up to 18 mo under ambient conditions and at elevated temperature and...
Torres, Isabel Celigueta; Nieto, Gema; Nylander, Tommy; Simonsen, Adam Cohen; Tolkach, Alexander; Ipsen, Richard
The objective of the research presented in this paper was to investigate how different characteristics of whey protein microparticles (MWP) added to milk as fat replacers influence intermolecular interactions occurring with other milk proteins during homogenisation and heating. These interactions are responsible for the formation of heat-induced aggregates that influence the texture and sensory characteristics of the final product. The formation of heat-induced complexes was studied in non- and low-fat milk model systems, where microparticulated whey protein (MWP) was used as fat replacer. Five MWP types with different particle characteristics were utilised and three heat treatments used: 85 °C for 15 min, 90 °C for 5 min and 95 °C for 2 min. Surface characteristics of the protein aggregates were expressed as the number of available thiol groups and the surface net charge. Intermolecular interactions involved in the formation of protein aggregates were studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the final complexes visualised by darkfield microscopy. Homogenisation of non-fat milk systems led to partial adsorption of caseins onto microparticles, independently of the type of microparticle. On the contrary, homogenisation of low-fat milk resulted in preferential adsorption of caseins onto fat globules, rather than onto microparticles. Further heating of the milk, led to the formation of heat induced complexes with different sizes and characteristics depending on the type of MWP and the presence or not of fat. The results highlight the importance of controlling homogenisation and heat processing in yoghurt manufacture in order to induce desired changes in the surface reactivity of the microparticles and thereby promote effective protein interactions.
Zapata, Rizaldy C; Singh, Arashdeep; Pezeshki, Adel; Nibber, Traj; Chelikani, Prasanth K
Whey protein promotes weight loss and improves diabetic control, however, less is known of its bioactive components that produce such benefits. We compared the effects of normal protein (control) diet with high protein diets containing whey, or its fractions lactalbumin and lactoferrin, on energy balance and metabolism. Diet-induced obese rats were randomized to isocaloric diets: Control, Whey, Lactalbumin, Lactoferrin, or pair-fed to lactoferrin. Whey and lactalbumin produced transient hypophagia, whereas lactoferrin caused prolonged hypophagia; the hypophagia was likely due to decreased preference. Lactalbumin decreased weight and fat gain. Notably, lactoferrin produced sustained weight and fat loss, and attenuated the reduction in energy expenditure associated with calorie restriction. Lactalbumin and lactoferrin decreased plasma leptin and insulin, and lactalbumin increased peptide YY. Whey, lactalbumin and lactoferrin improved glucose clearance partly through differential upregulation of glucoregulatory transcripts in the liver and skeletal muscle. Interestingly, lactalbumin and lactoferrin decreased hepatic lipidosis partly through downregulation of lipogenic and/or upregulation of β-oxidation transcripts, and differentially modulated cecal bacterial populations. Our findings demonstrate that protein quantity and quality are important for improving energy balance. Dietary lactalbumin and lactoferrin improved energy balance and metabolism, and decreased adiposity, with the effects of lactoferrin being partly independent of caloric intake.
Qiu, Y; Smith, T J; Foegeding, E A; Drake, M A
The residual annatto colorant in fluid Cheddar cheese whey is bleached to provide a neutral-colored final product. Currently, hydrogen peroxide (HP) and benzoyl peroxide are used for bleaching liquid whey. However, previous studies have shown that chemical bleaching causes off-flavor formation, mainly due to lipid oxidation and protein degradation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of microfiltration (MF) on norbixin removal and to compare flavor and functionality of 80% whey protein concentrate (WPC80) from MF whey to WPC80 from whey bleached with HP or lactoperoxidase (LP). Cheddar cheese whey was manufactured from colored, pasteurized milk. The fluid whey was pasteurized and fat separated. Liquid whey was subjected to 4 different treatments: control (no bleaching; 50°C, 1 h), HP (250 mg of HP/kg; 50°C, 1 h), and LP (20 mg of HP/kg; 50°C, 1 h), or MF (microfiltration; 50°C, 1 h). The treated whey was then ultrafiltered, diafiltered, and spray-dried to 80% concentrate. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times. Proximate analyses, color, functionality, descriptive sensory and instrumental volatile analysis were conducted on WPC80. The MF and HP- and LP-bleached WPC80 displayed a 39.5, 40.9, and 92.8% norbixin decrease, respectively. The HP and LP WPC80 had higher cardboard flavors and distinct cabbage flavor compared with the unbleached and MF WPC80. Volatile compound results were consistent with sensory results. The HP and LP WPC80 were higher in lipid oxidation compounds (especially heptanal, hexanal, pentanal, 1-hexen-3-one, 2-pentylfuran, and octanal) compared with unbleached and MF WPC80. All WPC80 had >85% solubility across the pH range of 3 to 7. The microstructure of MF gels determined by confocal laser scanning showed an increased protein particle size in the gel network. MF WPC80 also had larger storage modulus values, indicating higher gel firmness. Based on bleaching efficacy comparable to chemical bleaching with HP
Cadesky, Lee; Walkling-Ribeiro, Markus; Kriner, Kyle T; Karwe, Mukund V; Moraru, Carmen I
Reconstituted micellar casein concentrates and milk protein concentrates of 2.5 and 10% (wt/vol) protein concentration were subjected to high-pressure processing at pressures from 150 to 450 MPa, for 15 min, at ambient temperature. The structural changes induced in milk proteins by high-pressure processing were investigated using a range of physical, physicochemical, and chemical methods, including dynamic light scattering, rheology, mid-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, proteomics, and soluble mineral analyses. The experimental data clearly indicate pressure-induced changes of casein micelles, as well as denaturation of serum proteins. Calcium-binding α S1 - and α S2 -casein levels increased in the soluble phase after all pressure treatments. Pressurization up to 350 MPa also increased levels of soluble calcium and phosphorus, in all samples and concentrations, whereas treatment at 450 MPa reduced the levels of soluble Ca and P. Experimental data suggest dissociation of calcium phosphate and subsequent casein micelle destabilization as a result of pressure treatment. Treatment of 10% micellar casein concentrate and 10% milk protein concentrate samples at 450 MPa resulted in weak, physical gels, which featured aggregates of uniformly distributed, casein substructures of 15 to 20 nm in diameter. Serum proteins were significantly denatured by pressures above 250 MPa. These results provide information on pressure-induced changes in high-concentration protein systems, and may inform the development on new milk protein-based foods with novel textures and potentially high nutritional quality, of particular interest being the soft gel structures formed at high pressure levels. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).
Ahmed, Khouloud Fekih; Aschi, Adel; Nicolai, Taco
Hybrid protein-polysaccharide particles were formed by complexation of fractal whey protein aggregates and the cationic polysaccharide chitosan. The fractal aggregates were preformed by heating native whey protein isolate at pH 7 and subsequently mixed with chitosan at pH 3 where these proteins and polysaccharides don't interact with each other. Stable dispersions of protein-polysaccharide particles were formed spontaneously when the pH was gradually increased between 4.1 and 6.8, whereas in the absence of chitosan the fractal aggregates precipitated between pH 4.1 and 5.4. Potentiometric titration of the mixtures showed that deprotonation of both components was affected by complexation. With increasing pH, the size of the complexes increased sharply between pH 4.1. and pH 4.5, remained constant up to pH 5.6 and then increased again. A minimum amount of chitosan was needed to form stable complexes at pH 5.0 and the size of the complexes decreased with increasing chitosan concentration. Light scattering showed that the complexes were stable to dilution and had a self similar structure with a fractal dimensions close to two. The effect of changing the pH on the size and stability of the complexes was investigated. Suspensions of complexes of preformed whey protein aggregates and chitosan are more stable up to high pH (6.8) than complexes between native WPI and chitosan as reported in the literature. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Matsubara, Takeshi; Iwamoto, Hiroshi; Nakazato, Yuki; Okamoto, Tomoyuki; Ehara, Tatsuya; Izumi, Hirohisa; Takeda, Yasuhiro
Epicutaneous sensitization to food allergens can occur through defective skin barriers. However, the relationship between oral tolerance and epicutaneous sensitization remains to be elucidated. We aimed to determine whether prior oral exposure to whey proteins or their hydrolysates prevents epicutaneous sensitization and subsequent food-allergic reaction to the whey protein, β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), and investigated the underlying mechanisms. BALB/c mice were given whey protein concentrate (WPC), two kinds of partial whey protein hydrolysate (PWH1 or PWH2), or extensive whey protein hydrolysate (EWH) in drinking water for 21 days. The mice were then epicutaneously sensitized with β-LG on tape-stripped skin. Sensitization was assessed by basophil activation tests and by measuring the level of serum β-LG-specific antibodies and cytokines secreted from β-LG-restimulated spleen and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells. Development of an allergic reaction was assessed by monitoring body temperature and by measuring mast cell protease-1 level in plasma after the β-LG oral challenge. Activated T-cell population among β-LG-restimulated MLN cells was also analyzed. In mice fed with WPC, PWH1, or PWH2, sensitization and the development of an allergic reaction were totally reduced. The acceleration of cytokine release from the spleen and MLN cells or T-cell activation was not evident after β-LG restimulation. In EWH-fed mice, a suppressive effect, though milder than that in WPC-, PWH1-, or PWH2-fed mice, was observed during the development of the allergic reaction. Prior oral exposure to partially hydrolyzed whey protein prevents epicutaneous sensitization and subsequent allergic response to β-LG in mice. © 2018 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
Park, Curtis W; Parker, Megan; Drake, MaryAnne
Unit operations in dried dairy ingredient manufacture significantly influence sensory properties and, consequently, their use and consumer acceptance in a variety of ingredient applications. In whey protein concentrate (WPC) manufacture, liquid can be stored as whey or WPC before spray drying. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of storage, composition, and bleaching on the flavor of spray-dried WPC80. Liquid whey was manufactured and subjected to the following treatments: bleached or unbleached and liquid whey or liquid WPC storage. The experiment was replicated 3 times and included a no-storage control. All liquid storage was performed at 4°C for 24h. Flavor of the final spray-dried WPC80 was evaluated by a trained panel and volatile compound analyses. Storage of liquids increased cardboard flavor, decreased sweet aromatic flavor, and resulted in increased volatile lipid oxidation products. Bleaching altered the effect of liquid storage. Storage of unbleached liquid whey decreased sweet aromatic flavor and increased cardboard flavor and volatile lipid oxidation products compared with liquid WPC80 and no storage. In contrast, storage of bleached liquid WPC decreased sweet aromatic flavor and increased cardboard flavor and associated volatile lipid oxidation products compared with bleached liquid whey or no storage. These results confirm that liquid storage increases off-flavors in spray-dried protein but to a variable degree, depending on whether bleaching has been applied. If liquid storage is necessary, bleached WPC80 should be stored as liquid whey and unbleached WPC80 should be stored as liquid WPC to mitigate off-flavors. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aziznia, S; Khosrowshahi, A; Madadlou, A; Rahimi, J
The effect of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and gum tragacanth (GT) as fat replacers on the chemical, physical, and microstructural properties of nonfat yogurt was investigated. The WPC (7.5, 15, and 20 g/L) and GT (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 g/L) were incorporated into the skim milk slowly at 40 to 45 degrees C with agitation. The yogurt mixes were pasteurized at 90 degrees C for 10 min, inoculated with 0.1% starter culture, and incubated at 42 degrees C to pH 4.6, then refrigerated overnight at 5 degrees C. A control nonfat yogurt and control full fat yogurt were prepared as described, but without addition of WPC and GT. Increasing amount of WPC led to the increase in total solids, total protein, acidity, and ash content, whereas GT did not affect chemical parameters. Increasing WPC caused a more compact structure consisting of robust casein particles and large aggregates. Firmness was increased and susceptibility to syneresis was decreased as WPC increased. No significant difference was observed for firmness and syneresis of yogurt fortified with GT up to 0.5 g/L compared with control nonfat yogurt. Increasing the amount of gum above 0.5 g/L produced softer gels with a greater tendency for syneresis than the ones prepared without it. Addition of GT led to the coarser and more open structure compared with control yogurt.
Weinbreck, F; Tromp, R H; de Kruif, C G
Complex coacervation in whey protein/gum arabic (WP/GA) mixtures was studied as a function of three main key parameters: pH, initial protein to polysaccharide mixing ratio (Pr:Ps)(ini), and ionic strength. Previous studies had already revealed under which conditions a coacervate phase was obtained. This study is aimed at understanding how these parameters influence the phase separation kinetics, the coacervate composition, and the internal coacervate structure. At a defined (Pr:Ps)(ini), an optimum pH of complex coacervation was found (pH(opt)), at which the strength of electrostatic interaction was maximum. For (Pr:Ps)(ini) = 2:1, the phase separation occurred the fastest and the final coacervate volume was the largest at pH(opt) = 4.0. The composition of the coacervate phase was determined after 48 h of phase separation and revealed that, at pH(opt), the coacervate phase was the most concentrated. Varying the (Pr:Ps)(ini) shifted the pH(opt) to higher values when (Pr:Ps)(ini) was increased and to lower values when (Pr:Ps)(ini) was decreased. This phenomenon was due to the level of charge compensation of the WP/GA complexes. Finally, the structure of the coacervate phase was studied with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). SAXS data confirmed that at pH(opt) the coacervate phase was dense and structured. Model calculations revealed that the structure factor of WP induced a peak at Q = 0.7 nm(-1), illustrating that the coacervate phase was more structured, inducing the stronger correlation length of WP molecules. When the pH was changed to more acidic values, the correlation peak faded away, due to a more open structure of the coacervate. A shoulder in the scattering pattern of the coacervates was visible at small Q. This peak was attributed to the presence of residual charges on the GA. The peak intensity was reduced when the strength of interaction was increased, highlighting a greater charge compensation of the polyelectrolyte. Finally, increasing the ionic
Rodriguez, Ana C; Torrez Irigoyen, Martín R; Navarro, Alba S; Yamul, Diego K
Large amounts of honey and liquid whey derived from the dairy industry are produced in Argentina. Honey is exported in bulk and whey is transformed into whey protein concentrates and isolates. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of pH, composition and storage time on the properties of dried gels with honey, whey proteins and hydrocolloids. Color properties varied according to pH and composition. The fracture stress of dried gels prepared with corn starch was higher than that of gels prepared with guar gum in all conditions assayed. Young's modulus was higher at pH 7 for both compositions and increased with storage time. Rubbery characteristics were found in dried gels with guar gum, while both corn starch and guar gum made the microstructure rougher. Multivariate analysis showed that samples could be grouped by pH. Panelists preferred pH 7 products over acidic ones, and no significant differences in sensory properties were found using either corn starch or guar gum in the formulation. The results demonstrated that it is possible to generate a new product, which may open new applications for honey and whey in food formulations. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Pilbrow, Jodi; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Carne, Alan
This study reports a procedure for the simultaneous purification of glyco(caseino)macropeptide, immunoglobulin, lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin from sheep cheese sweet whey, an under-utilized by-product of cheese manufacture generated by an emerging sheep dairy industry in New Zealand. These proteins have recognized value in the nutrition, biomedical and health-promoting supplements industries. A sequential fractionation procedure using economical anion and cation exchange chromatography on HiTrap resins was evaluated. The whey protein fractionation is performed under mild conditions, requires only the adjustment of pH between ion exchange chromatography steps, does not require buffer exchange and uses minimal amounts of chemicals. The purity of the whey protein fractions generated were analyzed by reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography and the identity of the proteins was confirmed by mass spectrometry. This scalable procedure demonstrates that several proteins of recognized value can be fractionated in reasonable yield and purity from sheep cheese whey in one streamlined process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sakono, Masafumi; Motomura, Konomi; Maruyama, Tatsuo; Kamiya, Noriho; Goto, Masahiro
Casein micelles are a major component of milk proteins. It is well known that casein micelles show chaperone-like activity such as inhibition of protein aggregation and stabilization of proteins. In this study, it was revealed that casein micelles also possess a high refolding activity for denatured proteins. A buffer containing caseins exhibited higher refolding activity for denatured bovine carbonic anhydrase than buffers including other proteins. In particular, a buffer containing α-casein showed about a twofold higher refolding activity compared with absence of α-casein. Casein properties of surface hydrophobicity, a flexible structure and assembly formation are thought to contribute to this high refolding activity. Our results indicate that casein micelles stabilize milk proteins by both chaperone-like activity and refolding properties. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The use of whey protein (WPC34 and WPC80) as a food ingredient and as a base for making biodegradable products is increasing. The need to alleviate world hunger in arid and semi-arid regions demands that we investigate the behavior of native bacteria in these products, especially during long term st...
Song, J J; Wang, Q; Du, M; Ji, X M; Mao, X Y
Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) activity is a promising strategy for treatment of type 2 diabetes. In the current study, DPP-IV inhibitory peptides were identiﬁed from mare whey protein hydrolysates obtained by papain. The results showed that all the mare whey protein hydrolysates obtained at various hydrolysis durations possessed more potent DPP-IV inhibitory activity compared with intact whey protein. The 4-h hydrolysates showed the greatest DPP-IV inhibitory activity with half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 0.18 mg/mL. The 2 novel peptides from 4-h hydrolysate fractions separated by successive chromatographic steps were characterized by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The novel peptides Asn-Leu-Glu-Ile-Ile-Leu-Arg and Thr-Gln-Met-Val-Asp-Glu-Glu-Ile-Met-Glu-Lys-Phe-Arg, which corresponded to β-lactoglobulin 1 f(71-77) and β-lactoglobulin 1 f(143-155), demonstrated DPP-IV inhibitory activity with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 86.34 and 69.84 μM, respectively. The DPP-IV inhibitory activity of the 2 peptides was retained or even improved after simulated gastrointestinal digestion in vitro. Our findings indicate that mare whey protein-derived peptides may possess potential as functional food ingredients in the management of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Whey protein concentrate (WPC) has been recommended for use in emergency aid programs, but it is often stored overseas without temperature and relative humidity (RH) control, which may cause it to be rejected because of yellowing, off-flavors, or clumping. Therefore, the volatile compounds present ...
Gilbert, Vanessa; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Wang, Hongxum; Arnould, Anne-Lise; Remondetto, Gabriel; Subirade, Muriel
Whey proteins-based biofilms were prepared using different plasticizers in order to obtain a biomaterial for the human keratinocytes and fibroblasts in vitro culture. The film properties were evaluated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) technique and mechanical tests. A relationship was found between the decrease of intermolecular hydrogen bond strength and film mechanical behavior changes, expressed by a breaking stress and Young modulus values diminishing. These results allow stating that the film molecular configuration could induce dissimilarities in its mechanical properties. The films toxicity was assessed by evaluating the cutaneous cells adherence, growth, proliferation and structural stratification. Microscopic observation demonstrated that both keratinocytes and fibroblasts adhered to the biofilms. The trypan blue exclusion test showed that keratinocytes grew at a significantly high rate on all the biofilms. Structural analysis demonstrated that keratinocytes stratified when cultured on the whey protein-based biofilms and gave rise to multi-layered epidermal structures. The most organized epidermis was obtained with whey protein isolate/DEG biofilm. This structure had a well-organized basal layer under supra-basal and corneous layers. This study demonstrated that whey proteins, an inexpensive renewable resource which can be obtained readily, were non-toxic to cutaneous cells and thus they could be useful substrates for a variety of biomedical applications, including tissue engineering.
The objective of this investigation was to recover the major components of whey and to develop food applications for their incorporation/conversion into acceptable products of commercial value. Reconstituted dried sweet whey with 36% solids was ultrafiltered to yield a protein concentrate (WPC) and a permeate containing 24% lactose and 3.7% ash. Orange juice fortified up to 2.07% and chocolate milks fortified up to 5.88% total protein levels with WPC containing 45% total protein were acceptable to about 90% of a panel of 24 individuals. Fermentation of demineralized permeate at 30/sup 0/C with Kluyveromyces fragilis NRRL Y 2415 adapted to 24%more » lactose levels, led to 13.7% (v/v) ethanol in the medium at the end of 34 hours. Batch productivity was 3.2 gms. ethanol per liter per hour and conversion efficiency was 84.26% of the theoretical maximum. Alcoholic fermentation of permeate and subsequent distillation produced compounds with desirable aroma characters in such products. This study suggests that there is potential for the production of protein fortified non-alcoholic products and alcoholic beverages of commercial value from whey, thus providing a cost effective solution to the whey utilization problem.« less
Nakai, S; Li-Chan, E
According to the original idea of quantitative structure-activity relationship, electric, hydrophobic, and structural parameters should be taken into consideration for elucidating functionality. Changes in these parameters are reflected in the property of protein solubility upon modification of whey proteins by heating. Although solubility is itself a functional property, it has been utilized to explain other functionalities of proteins. However, better correlations were obtained when hydrophobic parameters of the proteins were used in conjunction with solubility. Various treatments reported in the literature were applied to whey protein concentrate in an attempt to obtain whipping and gelling properties similar to those of egg white. Mapping simplex optimization was used to search for the best results. Improvement in whipping properties by pepsin hydrolysis may have been due to higher protein solubility, and good gelling properties resulting from polyphosphate treatment may have been due to an increase in exposable hydrophobicity. However, the results of angel food cake making were still unsatisfactory.
Martin, M; Kopaliani, I; Jannasch, A; Mund, C; Todorov, V; Henle, T; Deussen, A
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are treatment of choice in hypertensive patients. Clinically used inhibitors exhibit a structural similarity to naturally occurring peptides. This study evaluated antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of ACE-inhibiting peptides derived from food proteins in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Isoleucine-tryptophan (in vitro IC50 for ACE = 0.7 μm), a whey protein hydrolysate containing an augmented fraction of isoleucine-tryptophan, or captopril was given to spontaneously hypertensive rats (n = 60) over 14 weeks. Two further groups, receiving either no supplement (Placebo) or intact whey protein, served as controls. Systolic blood pressure age-dependently increased in the Placebo group, whereas the blood pressure rise was effectively blunted by isoleucine-tryptophan, whey protein hydrolysate and captopril (-42 ± 3, -38 ± 5, -55 ± 4 mm Hg vs. Placebo). At study end, myocardial mass was lower in isoleucine-tryptophan and captopril groups but only partially in the hydrolysate group. Coronary flow reserve (1 μm adenosine) was improved in isoleucine-tryptophan and captopril groups. Plasma ACE activity was significantly decreased in isoleucine-tryptophan, hydrolysate and captopril groups, but in aortic tissue only after isoleucine-tryptophan or captopril treatment. This was associated with lowered expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2. Following isoleucine-tryptophan and captopril treatments, gene expression of renin was significantly increased indicating an active feedback within renin-angiotensin system. Whey protein hydrolysate and isoleucine-tryptophan powerfully inhibit plasma ACE resulting in antihypertensive effects. Moreover, isoleucine-tryptophan blunts tissue ACE activity, reduces matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity and improves coronary flow reserve. Thus, whey protein hydrolysate and particularly isoleucine-tryptophan may serve as innovative food additives with the goal of attenuating
Kamiya, Noriho; Doi, Satoshi; Tominaga, Jo; Ichinose, Hirofumi; Goto, Masahiro
An enzymatic method for covalent and site-specific immobilization of recombinant proteins on a plastic surface was explored. Using Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (AP) with a specific peptide tag (MKHKGS) genetically incorporated at the N-terminus as a model (NK-AP), microbial transglutaminase (MTG)-mediated protein immobilization was demonstrated. To generate a reactive surface for MTG, a 96-well polystyrene microtiter plate was physically coated with casein, a good MTG substrate. Successful immobilization of recombinant AP to the nanolayer of casein on the surface of the microtiter plate was verified by the detection of enzymatic activity. Since little activity was observed when wild-type AP was used, immobilization of NK-AP was likely directed by the specific peptide tag. When polymeric casein prepared by MTG was used as a matrix on the plate, the loading capacity of AP was increased about 2-fold compared to when casein was used as the matrix. Transglutaminase-mediated site-specific posttranslational modification of proteins offers one way of generating a variety of protein-based solid formulations for biotechnological applications.
Oztop, Mecit H; McCarthy, Kathryn L; McCarthy, Michael J; Rosenberg, Moshe
Divalent salts are used commonly for gelation of polymer molecules. Calcium, Ca(+2), is one of the most common divalent ions that is used in whey protein gels. Manganese, Mn(+2), is also divalent, but paramagnetic, enhancing relaxation decay rates in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and can be used as a probe to understand the behavior of Ca(+2) in whey protein gels. The objective of this study was to investigate the diffusion of Ca(+2) and Mn(+2) ions in heat-set whey protein gels by using MRI and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry. Whey protein gels were immersed in solutions containing MnCl(2) and CaCl(2) at neutral pH. Images obtained with gels immersed in MnCl(2) solution revealed a relaxation sink region in the gel's surface and the thickness of the region increased with time. These "no signal" regions in the MR images were attributed to uptake of Mn(+2) by the gel. Results obtained with CaCl(2) solution indicated that since Ca(+2) did not have the paramagnetic effect, the regions where Ca(+2) diffused into the gel exhibited a slight decrease in signal intensity. The relaxation spectrums exhibited 3 populations of protons, for gels immersed in MnCl(2) solution, and 2 populations for gels in CaCl(2) solution. No significant change in T(2) distributions was observed for the gels immersed in CaCl(2) solution. The results demonstrated that MRI and NMR relaxometry can be used to understand the diffusion of ions into the whey protein gel, which is useful for designing gels of different physical properties for controlled release applications. Design of food systems for delivery of bioactive compounds requires knowledge of diffusion rates and structure. Utilizing magnetic resonance imaging the diffusion rates of ions can be measured. Relaxation spectra could yield information concerning molecular interactions. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®
Gomes-Santos, Ana Cristina; Fonseca, Roberta Cristelli; Lemos, Luisa; Reis, Daniela Silva; Moreira, Thaís Garcias; Souza, Adna Luciana; Silva, Mauro Ramalho; Silvestre, Marialice Pinto Coelho; Cara, Denise Carmona; Faria, Ana Maria Caetano
Food allergy is an adverse immune response to dietary proteins. Hydrolysates are frequently used for children with milk allergy. However, hydrolysates effects afterwards are poorly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunological consequences of hydrolyzed whey protein in allergic mice. For that, we developed a novel model of food allergy in BALB/c mice sensitized with alum-adsorbed β-lactoglobulin. These mice were orally challenged with either whey protein or whey hydrolysate. Whey-challenged mice had elevated levels of specific IgE and lost weight. They also presented gut inflammation, enhanced levels of SIgA and IL-5 as well as decreased production of IL-4 and IL-10 in the intestinal mucosa. Conversely, mice challenged with hydrolyzate maintained normal levels of IgE, IL-4 and IL-5 and showed no sign of gut inflammation probably due to increased IL-12 production in the gut. Thus, consumption of hydrolysate prevented the development of clinical signs of food allergy in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Influence of 8 Weeks of Whey Protein and Leucine Supplementation on Physical and Cognitive Performance 5a. GONTRAGT NUMBER FA8650-04-D-6472 5b. GRANT NUMBER...investigate the ability of whey -protein and leucine supplementation to enhance physical and cognitive performance and body composition. Thirty moderately fit...composition before and after supplementing their daily diet for 8 wk with either 19.7 g of whey protein and 6.2 g leucine (WPL) or a calorie-equivalent placebo
Holland, B; Rahimi Yazdi, S; Ion Titapiccolo, G; Corredig, M
The aim of this work was to improve an existing method to separate and quantify the 4 major caseins from milk samples (i.e., containing whey proteins) using ion-exchange chromatography. The separation process was carried out using a mini-preparative cation exchange column (1 or 5mL of column volume), using urea acetate as elution buffer at pH 3.5 with a NaCl gradient. All 4 major caseins were separated, and the purity of each peak was assessed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. Purified casein fractions were also added to raw milk to confirm their elution volumes. The quantification was carried out using purified caseins in buffer as well as added directly to fresh skim milk. This method can also be employed to determine the decrease in kappa-casein and the release of the casein-macropeptide during enzymatic hydrolysis using rennet. In this case, the main advantage of using this method is the lack of organic solvents compared with the conventional method for separation of macropeptide (using reversed phase HPLC).
Li, H.; Roux, S. J.
Almost all the polyamine-stimulated protein kinase activity associated with the chromatin fraction of nuclei purified from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) plumules is present in a single enzyme that can be extracted from chromatin by 0.35 molar NaCl. This protein kinase can be further purified over 2000-fold by salt fractionation and anion-exchange and casein-agarose column chromatography, after which it is more than 90% pure. The purified kinase has a specific activity of about 650 nanomoles per minute per milligram protein in the absence of polyamines, with either ATP or GTP as phosphoryl donor. Spermidine can stimulate its activity fourfold, with half-maximal activation at about 2 millimolar. Spermine and putrescine also stimulate activity, although somewhat less effectively. This kinase has a tetrameric alpha 2 beta 2 structure with a native molecular weight of 130,000, and subunit molecular weights of 36,000 for the catalytic subunit (alpha) and 29,000 for the regulatory subunit (beta). In western blot analyses, only the alpha subunit reacts strongly with polyclonal antibodies to a Drosophila casein kinase II. The pea kinase can use casein and phosvitin as artificial substrates, phosphorylating both the serine and threonine residues of casein. It has a pH optimum near 8.0, a Vmax of 1.5 micromoles per minute per milligram protein, and a Km for ATP of approximately 75 micromolar. Its activity can be almost completely inhibited by heparin at 5 micrograms per milliliter, but is relatively insensitive to concentrations of staurosporine, K252a, and chlorpromazine that strongly antagonize Ca(2+) -regulated protein kinases. These results are discussed in relation to recent findings that casein kinase 2-type kinases may phosphorylate trans-acting factors that bind to light-regulated promoters in plants.
Wouters, Arno G B; Rombouts, Ine; Lagrain, Bert; Delcour, Jan A
There is a growing interest in texturally and nutritionally satisfying vegetable alternatives to meat. Wheat gluten proteins have unique functional properties but a poor nutritional value in comparison to animal proteins. This study investigated the potential of egg white and bovine milk casein with well-balanced amino acid composition to increase the quality of wheat gluten-based protein-rich foods. Heating a wheat gluten (51.4 g)-water (100.0 mL) blend for 120 min at 100 °C increased its firmness less than heating a wheat gluten (33.0 g)-freeze-dried egg white (16.8 g)-water (100.0 mL) blend. In contrast, the addition of casein to the gluten-water blend negatively impacted firmness after heating. Firmness was correlated with loss of protein extractability in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing medium during heating, which was higher with egg white than with casein. Even more, heat-induced polymerization of the gluten-water blend with egg white but not with casein was greater than expected from the losses in extractability of gluten and egg white on their own. Structure formation was favored by mixing gluten with egg white but not with casein. These observations were linked to the intrinsic polymerization behavior of egg white and casein, but also to their interaction with gluten. Thus not all nutritionally suitable proteins can be used for enrichment of gluten-based protein-rich foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
Benabdelkamel, Hicham; Masood, Afshan; Alanazi, Ibrahim O.; Alzahrani, Dunia A.; Alrabiah, Deema K.; AlYahya, Sami A.; Alfadda, Assim A.
Camel milk is consumed in the Middle East because of its high nutritional value. Traditional heating methods and the duration of heating affect the protein content and nutritional quality of the milk. We examined the denaturation of whey proteins in camel milk by assessing the effects of temperature on the whey protein profile at room temperature (RT), moderate heating at 63 °C, and at 98 °C, for 1 h. The qualitative and quantitative variations in the whey proteins before and after heat treatments were determined using quantitative 2D-difference in gel electrophoresis (DIGE)-mass spectrometry. Qualitative gel image analysis revealed a similar spot distribution between samples at RT and those heated at 63 °C, while the spot distribution between RT and samples heated at 98 °C differed. One hundred sixteen protein spots were determined to be significantly different (p < 0.05 and a fold change of ≥1.2) between the non-heated and heated milk samples. Eighty protein spots were decreased in common in both the heat-treated samples and an additional 25 spots were further decreased in the 98 °C sample. The proteins with decreased abundance included serum albumin, lactadherin, fibrinogen β and γ chain, lactotransferrin, active receptor type-2A, arginase-1, glutathione peroxidase-1 and, thiopurine S, etc. Eight protein spots were increased in common to both the samples when compared to RT and included α-lactalbumin, a glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule. Whey proteins present in camel milk were less affected by heating at 63 °C than at 98 °C. This experimental study showed that denaturation increased significantly as the temperature increased from 63 to 98 °C. PMID:28350354
Zhao, Zhengtao; Xiao, Qian
Chitosan was reported to interact with proteins through electrostatic interactions. Their interaction was influenced by pH, which was not fully characterized. Further research on the interactions between protein and chitosan at different pH and their influence on the thermal denaturation of proteins is necessary. In this research, the effect of chitosan on the heat stability of whey protein solution at pH 4.0-6.0 was studied. At pH 4.0, a small amount chitosan was able to prevent the heat-induced denaturation and aggregation of whey protein molecules. At higher pH values (5.5 and 6.0), whey proteins complexed with chitosan through electrostatic attraction. The formation of chitosan-whey protein complexes at pH 5.5 improved the heat stability of dispersions and no precipitation could be detected up to 20 days. The dispersion with a medium amount of chitosan (chitosan:whey protein 1:5) produced the most stable particles, which had an average radius of 135 ± 14 nm and a zeta potential value of 36 ± 1 mV. In contrast, at pH 6.0 only the dispersion with a high amount of chitosan (chitosan:whey protein 1:2) showed good shelf stability up to 20 days. It was possible to produce heat-stable whey protein beverages by regulating the interaction between chitosan and whey protein molecules. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Magne, Hugues; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Migné, Carole; Peyron, Marie-Agnès; Combaret, Lydie; Rémond, Didier; Dardevet, Dominique
During ageing, immobilization periods increase and are partially responsible of sarcopaenia by inducing a muscle atrophy which is hardly recovered from. Immobilization-induced atrophy is due to an increase of muscle apoptotic and proteolytic processes and decreased protein synthesis. Moreover, previous data suggested that the lack of muscle mass recovery might be due to a defect in protein synthesis response during rehabilitation. This study was conducted to explore protein synthesis during reloading and leucine supplementation effect as a nutritional strategy for muscle recovery. Old rats (22–24 months old) were subjected to unilateral hindlimb casting for 8 days (I8) and allowed to recover for 10–40 days (R10–R40). They were fed a casein (±leucine) diet during the recovery. Immobilized gastrocnemius muscles atrophied by 20%, and did not recover even at R40. Amount of polyubiquitinated conjugates and chymotrypsin- and trypsin-like activities of the 26S proteasome increased. These changes paralleled an ‘anabolic resistance' of the protein synthesis at the postprandial state (decrease of protein synthesis, P-S6 and P-4E-BP1). During the recovery, proteasome activities remained elevated until R10 before complete normalization and protein synthesis was slightly increased. With free leucine supplementation during recovery, if proteasome activities were normalized earlier and protein synthesis was higher during the whole recovery, it nevertheless failed in muscle mass gain. This discrepancy could be due to a ‘desynchronization' between the leucine signal and the availability of amino acids coming from casein digestion. Thus, when supplemented with leucine-rich proteins (i.e. whey) and high protein diets, animals partially recovered the muscle mass loss.
Magne, Hugues; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Migné, Carole; Peyron, Marie-Agnès; Combaret, Lydie; Rémond, Didier; Dardevet, Dominique
During ageing, immobilization periods increase and are partially responsible of sarcopaenia by inducing a muscle atrophy which is hardly recovered from. Immobilization-induced atrophy is due to an increase of muscle apoptotic and proteolytic processes and decreased protein synthesis. Moreover, previous data suggested that the lack of muscle mass recovery might be due to a defect in protein synthesis response during rehabilitation. This study was conducted to explore protein synthesis during reloading and leucine supplementation effect as a nutritional strategy for muscle recovery. Old rats (22–24 months old) were subjected to unilateral hindlimb casting for 8 days (I8) and allowed to recover for 10–40 days (R10–R40). They were fed a casein (±leucine) diet during the recovery. Immobilized gastrocnemius muscles atrophied by 20%, and did not recover even at R40. Amount of polyubiquitinated conjugates and chymotrypsin- and trypsin-like activities of the 26S proteasome increased. These changes paralleled an ‘anabolic resistance’ of the protein synthesis at the postprandial state (decrease of protein synthesis, P-S6 and P-4E-BP1). During the recovery, proteasome activities remained elevated until R10 before complete normalization and protein synthesis was slightly increased. With free leucine supplementation during recovery, if proteasome activities were normalized earlier and protein synthesis was higher during the whole recovery, it nevertheless failed in muscle mass gain. This discrepancy could be due to a ‘desynchronization’ between the leucine signal and the availability of amino acids coming from casein digestion. Thus, when supplemented with leucine-rich proteins (i.e. whey) and high protein diets, animals partially recovered the muscle mass loss. PMID:22351629
Erben, Melina; Osella, Carlos A
The objective of this work was to study the effect of replacing a selected wheat flour for defatted soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate on both dough rheological characteristics and the performance and nutritional quality of bread. A mixture design was used to analyze the combination of the ingredients. The optimization process suggested that a mixture containing 88.8% of wheat flour, 8.2% of defatted soy flour, 0.0% of pea flour and 3.0% of whey protein concentrate could be a good combination to achieve the best fortified-bread nutritional quality. The fortified bread resulted in high protein concentration, with an increase in dietary fiber content and higher calcium levels compared with those of control (wheat flour 100%). Regarding protein quality, available lysine content was significantly higher, thus contributing with the essential amino acid requirement.
Yang, Yongxin; Bu, Dengpan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Lingyun
To aid in unraveling diverse genetic and biological unknowns, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the whey proteome in cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. This analysis is the first to produce proteomic data for the milk from the above-mentioned animal species: 211 proteins have been identified and 113 proteins have been categorized according to molecular function, cellular components, and biological processes based on gene ontology annotation. The results of principal component analysis showed significant differences in proteomic patterns among goat, camel, cow, buffalo, and yak milk. Furthermore, 177 differentially expressed proteins were submitted to advanced hierarchical clustering. The resulting clustering pattern included three major sample clusters: (1) cow, buffalo, and yak milk; (2) goat, cow, buffalo, and yak milk; and (3) camel milk. Certain proteins were chosen as characterization traits for a given species: whey acidic protein and quinone oxidoreductase for camel milk, biglycan for goat milk, uncharacterized protein (Accession Number: F1MK50 ) for yak milk, clusterin for buffalo milk, and primary amine oxidase for cow milk. These results help reveal the quantitative milk whey proteome pattern for analyzed species. This provides information for evaluating adulteration of specific specie milk and may provide potential directions for application of specific milk protein production based on physiological differences among animal species.
Patel, Jiral R; Patel, Ashok A; Singh, Ashish K
A protein-rich puffed snack was produced using a twin screw extruder and the effects of varying levels of tapioca starch (11 to 40 parts), rennet casein (6 to 20 parts) and sorghum flour (25 to 75 parts) on physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of the product studied. An increasing level of sorghum flour resulted in a decreasing whiteness (Hunter L* value) of the snack. Although the starch also generally tended to make the product increasingly darker, both starch and casein showed redness parameter (a* value) was not significantly influenced by the ingredients levels, the yellow hue (b* value) generally declined with the increasing sorghum level. Tapioca starch significantly increased the expansion ratio and decreased the bulk density and hardness value of the snack, whereas the opposite effects seen in case of sorghum flour. While the water solubility index was enhanced by starch, water absorption index was appreciably improved by sorghum. Incorporation of casein (up to 25 %) improved the sensory color and texture scores, and so also the overall acceptability rating of the product. Sorghum flour had an adverse impact on all the sensory attributes whereas starch only on the color score. The casein or starch level had no perceivable effect on the product's flavor score. The response surface data enabled optimization of the snack-base formulation for the desired protein level or desired sensory characteristics.
Smith, Tucker J; Foegeding, E Allen; Drake, MaryAnne
Whey protein is a highly functional food ingredient used in a wide variety of applications. A large portion of fluid whey produced in the United States is derived from Cheddar cheese manufacture and contains annatto (norbixin), and therefore must be bleached. The objective of this study was to compare sensory and functionality differences between whey protein isolate (WPI) bleached by benzoyl peroxide (BP) or hydrogen peroxide (HP). HP and BP bleached WPI and unbleached controls were manufactured in triplicate. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were conducted to determine flavor differences between treatments. Functionality differences were evaluated by measurement of foam stability, protein solubility, SDS-PAGE, and effect of NaCl concentration on gelation relative to an unbleached control. HP bleached WPI had higher concentrations of lipid oxidation and sulfur containing volatile compounds than both BP and unbleached WPI (P < 0.05). HP bleached WPI was characterized by high aroma intensity, cardboard, cabbage, and fatty flavors, while BP bleached WPI was differentiated by low bitter taste. Overrun and yield stress were not different among WPI (P < 0.05). Soluble protein loss at pH 4.6 of WPI decreased by bleaching with either hydrogen peroxide or benzoyl peroxide (P < 0.05), and the heat stability of WPI was also distinct among WPI (P < 0.05). SDS PAGE results suggested that bleaching of whey with either BP or HP resulted in protein degradation, which likely contributed to functionality differences. These results demonstrate that bleaching has flavor effects as well as effects on many of the functionality characteristics of whey proteins. Whey protein isolate (WPI) is often used for its functional properties, but the effect of oxidative bleaching chemicals on the functional properties of WPI is not known. This study identifies the effects of hydrogen peroxide and benzoyl peroxide on functional and flavor characteristics of WPI
Zicker, S C; Lonnerdal, B
Separation of whey protein from casein in equine milk was achieved by adjustment of pH to 4.3 without addition of calcium, and by ultracentrifugation at 189,000 g for 1 hr. True protein, whey protein, and casein decreased significantly during the first 28 days of lactation with the magnitude of decrease being greatest for whey protein. The proportion of nitrogen in whey protein:casein decreased from 85:15 to 54:46 during the 28 day time period. The concentration of non-protein nitrogen remained relatively constant at 500 mg nitrogen/l but increased in proportion from 2 to 13% of the total nitrogen during the first 28 days of lactation. These results illustrate the unique nitrogen composition of equine milk, which is intermediate between human and ruminant milk, and how it changes during early lactation.
Whey protein, a by-product of milk curdling, exhibits diverse biological activities and is used as a dietary supplement. However, its effects on stress-induced vascular aging have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we found that whey protein significantly inhibited the Ang II-primed premature senescence of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In addition, we observed a marked dose- and time-dependent increase in SIRT1 promoter activity and mRNA in VSMCs exposed to whey protein, accompanied by elevated SIRT1 protein expression. Ang II-mediated repression of SIRT1 level was dose-dependently reversed in VSMCs treated with whey protein, suggesting that SIRT1 is involved in preventing senescence in response to this treatment. Furthermore, resveratrol, a well-defined activator of SIRT1, potentiated the effects of whey protein on Ang II-primed premature senescence, whereas sirtinol, an inhibitor of SIRT1, exerted the opposite. Taken together, these results indicated that whey protein-mediated upregulation of SIRT1 exerts an anti-senescence effect, and can thus ameliorate Ang IIinduced vascular aging as a dietary supplement. PMID:29725214
Rocha, Cristina M R; Souza, Hiléia K S; Magalhães, Natália F; Andrade, Cristina T; Gonçalves, Maria Pilar
Complex coacervation between whey proteins and carboxylated or highly sulphated polysaccharides has been widely studied. The aim of this work was to characterise a slightly sulphated polysaccharide (agar) and whey protein insoluble complexes in terms of yield, composition and physicochemical properties as well as to study their rheological behaviour for better understanding their structure. Unlike other sulphated polysaccharides, complexation of agar and whey protein at pH 3 in the absence of a buffering agent resulted in a coacervate that was a gel at 20°C with rheological properties and structure similar to those of simple agar gels, reinforced by proteins electrostatically aggregated to the agar network. The behaviour towards heat treatment was similar to that of agar alone, with a high thermal hysteresis and almost full reversibility. In the presence of citrate buffer, the result was a "flocculated solid", with low water content (75-81%), whose properties were governed by protein behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Caroli, A; Rizzi, R; Lühken, G; Erhardt, G
Milk protein genetic polymorphisms are often used for characterizing domesticated mammalian species and breeds, and for studying associations with economic traits. The aim of this work was to analyze milk protein genetic variation in the Original Pinzgauer, a dual-purpose (dairy and beef) cattle breed of European origin that was influenced in the past by human movements from different regions as well as by crossbreeding with Red Holstein. A total of 485 milk samples from Original Pinzgauer from Austria (n=275) and Germany (n=210) were typed at milk proteins alpha(S1)-casein, beta-casein, kappa-casein, alpha-lactalbumin, and beta-lactoglobulin by isoelectrofocusing to analyze the genetic variation affecting the protein amino acid charge. The Original Pinzgauer breed is characterized by a rather high genetic variation affecting the amino acid charge of milk proteins, with a total of 15 alleles, 12 of which were found at a frequency >0.05. The most polymorphic protein was beta-casein with 4 alleles detected. The prevalent alleles were CSN1S1*B, CSN2*A(2), CSN1S2*A, CSN3*A, LGB*A, and LAA*B. A relatively high frequency of CSN1S2*B (0.202 in the whole data set) was found, mainly occurring within the C-A(2)-B-A haplotype (in the order CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3), which seems to be peculiar to the Original Pinzgauer, possibly because the survival of an ancestral haplotype or the introgression of Bos indicus.
Andoyo, Robi; Guyomarc'h, Fanny; Tabuteau, Hervé; Famelart, Marie-Hélène
The current paper describes the formation of whey protein microbeads (WPM) having a spherical shape and a monodispersed size distribution. A microfluidic flow-focusing geometry was used to control the production of whey protein microdroplets in a hydrophobic phase. The microfluidic system consists of two inlet channels where the WPI solution and the lipophilic phase were separately injected towards the flow-focusing (FF) junction where they eventually meet, then co-flow. A whey protein isolate (WPI) solution of 150 g/kg protein and two types of hydrophobic phases, i.e. sunflower oil and n-dodecane, were tested as the continuous phase. The formation of WPM was observed microscopically. The aim of the present study was to describe the production of stable monodisperse WPM in suspension in milk ultrafiltrate using a microfluidic system. Hints to perform the control of the running parameters, i.e. choice of the hydrophobic phase or fluids flowrates, are provided. The results showed that in the sunflower oil, microdroplets had a large polydisperse size distribution, while in n-dodecane, microdroplets with narrow size distribution were obtained. Stabilization of the whey protein microdroplets through heat-gelation at 75 °C for 20 min in n-dodecane produced WPM and no change in shape nor size is observed. Meanwhile replacing the n-dodecane by MUF using centrifugation and washing caused the swelling of the WPM, but dispersity remained low. From this study, microfluidic system seemed to be a suitable method to be used for producing small quantities of monodisperse WPM.
Duongthingoc, Diep; George, Paul; Katopo, Lita; Gorczyca, Elizabeth; Kasapis, Stefan
This work investigates the effect of whey protein agglomeration on the survivability of Saccharomyces boulardii within spray dried microcapsules. It attempts to go beyond phenomenological observations by establishing a relationship between physicochemical characteristics of the polymeric matrix and its effect on probiotic endurance upon spray drying. It is well known that this type of thermal shock has lethal consequences on the yeast cells. To avoid such undesirable outcome, we take advantage of the early agglomeration phenomenon observed for whey protein by adjusting the pH value of preparations close to isoelectric point (pH 4-5). During the subsequent process of spray drying, development of whey protein agglomerates induces formation of an early crust, and the protein in this molten globular state creates a cohesive network encapsulating the yeast cells. It appears that the early crust formation at a given sample pH and temperature regime during spray drying benefits the survivability of S. boulardii within microcapsules. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; Knudsen, Inge Skovgaard; de Paoli, Frank; Mackey, Abigail L; Vissing, Kristian
Human skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) are essential for muscle regeneration and remodeling processes in healthy and clinical conditions involving muscle breakdown. However, the potential influence of protein supplementation on post-exercise SC regulation in human skeletal muscle has not been well investigated. In a comparative human study, we investigated the effect of hydrolyzed whey protein supplementation following eccentric exercise on fiber type-specific SC accumulation. Twenty-four young healthy subjects received either hydrolyzed whey protein + carbohydrate (whey, n = 12) or iso-caloric carbohydrate (placebo, n = 12) during post-exercise recovery from 150 maximal unilateral eccentric contractions. Prior to and 24, 48 and 168 h post-exercise, muscle biopsies were obtained from the exercise leg and analyzed for fiber type-specific SC content. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and serum creatine kinase (CK) were evaluated as indices of recovery from muscle damage. In type II fiber-associated SCs, the whey group increased SCs/fiber from 0.05 [0.02; 0.07] to 0.09 [0.06; 0.12] (p < 0.05) and 0.11 [0.06; 0.16] (p < 0.001) at 24 and 48 h, respectively, and exhibited a difference from the placebo group (p < 0.05) at 48 h. The whey group increased SCs/myonuclei from 4 % [2; 5] to 10 % [4; 16] (p < 0.05) at 48 h, whereas the placebo group increased from 5 % [2; 7] to 9 % [3; 16] (p < 0.01) at 168 h. MVC decreased (p < 0.001) and muscle soreness and CK increased (p < 0.001), irrespective of supplementation. In conclusion, whey protein supplementation may accelerate SC proliferation as part of the regeneration or remodeling process after high-intensity eccentric exercise.
Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) have grown in prevalence around the world, and recently, related diseases have been considered epidemic. Given the high cost of treatment of obesity/DM-associated diseases, strategies such as dietary manipulation have been widely studied; among them, the whey protein diet has reached popularity because it has been suggested as a strategy for the prevention and treatment of obesity and DM in both humans and animals. Among its main actions, the following activities stand out: reduction of serum glucose in healthy individuals, impaired glucose tolerance in DM and obese patients; reduction in body weight; maintenance of muscle mass; increases in the release of anorectic hormones such as cholecystokinin, leptin, and glucagon like-peptide 1 (GLP-1); and a decrease in the orexigenic hormone ghrelin. Furthermore, studies have shown that whey protein can also lead to reductions in blood pressure, inflammation, and oxidative stress. PMID:22676328
Śliwa, Karolina; Tomaszkiewicz-Potępa, Anna; Sikora, Elżbieta; Ogonowski, Jan
Classical methods of the extraction of active ingredients from the plant material are expensive, complicated and often environmentally unfriendly. The micelle-mediated extraction method (MME) seems to be a good alternative. In this work, extractions of elderberry blossoms (Flos Sambuci) were performed using MME methods. Several popular surfactants and whey protein concentrate (WPC) was applied in the process. The obtained results were compared with those obtained in extraction by means of water. Antioxidant properties of the extracts were analyzed by using two different methods: reaction with di(phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium (DPPH) reagent and Follin's method. Furthermore, the flavonoid content in the extracts was determined. The results confirmed that the MME method with using whey protein might be an alternative method for obtaining, rich in natural antioxidants, plant extracts.
Stout, M A; Park, C W; Drake, M A
Previous research has shown that bleaching affects flavor and functionality of whey proteins. The role of different bleaching agents on vitamin and carotenoid degradation is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of bleaching whey with traditional annatto (norbixin) by hydrogen peroxide (HP), benzoyl peroxide (BP), or native lactoperoxidase (LP) on vitamin and carotenoid degradation in spray-dried whey protein concentrate 80% protein (WPC80). An alternative colorant was also evaluated. Cheddar whey colored with annatto (15 mL/454 L of milk) was manufactured, pasteurized, and fat separated and then assigned to bleaching treatments of 250 mg/kg HP, 50 mg/kg BP, or 20 mg/kg HP (LP system) at 50°C for 1 h. In addition to a control (whey with norbixin, whey from cheese milk with an alternative colorant (AltC) was evaluated. The control and AltC wheys were also heated to 50°C for 1 h. Wheys were concentrated to 80% protein by ultrafiltration and spray dried. The experiment was replicated in triplicate. Samples were taken after initial milk pasteurization, initial whey formation, after fat separation, after whey pasteurization, after bleaching, and after spray drying for vitamin and carotenoid analyses. Concentrations of retinol, a-tocopherol, water-soluble vitamins, norbixin, and other carotenoids were determined by HPLC, and volatile compounds were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sensory attributes of the rehydrated WPC80 were documented by a trained panel. After chemical or enzymatic bleaching, WPC80 displayed 7.0 to 33.3% reductions in retinol, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, thiamin, α-carotene, and α-tocopherol. The WPC80 bleached with BP contained significantly less of these compounds than the HP- or LP-bleached WPC80. Riboflavin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, nicotinic acid, and cobalamin concentrations in fluid whey were not affected by bleaching. Fat-soluble vitamins were reduced in all wheys by more than 90
Cheema, M.; Mohan, M. S.; Campagna, S. R.; Jurat-Fuentes, J. L.; Harte, F. M.
The agreed biological function of the casein micelles in milk is to carry minerals (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) from mother to young along with amino acids for growth and development. Recently, native and modified casein micelles were used as encapsulating and delivery agents for various hydrophobic low-molecular-weight probes. The ability of modified casein micelles to bind certain probes may derive from the binding affinity of native casein micelles. Hence, a study with milk from single cows was conducted to further elucidate the association of hydrophobic molecules into native casein micelles and further understand their biological function. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic extraction followed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry analysis were performed over protein fractions obtained from size exclusion fractionation of raw skim milk. Hydrophobic compounds, including phosphatidylcholine, lyso-phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and sphingomyelin, showed strong association exclusively to casein micelles as compared with whey proteins, whereas hydrophilic compounds did not display any preference for their association among milk proteins. Further analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detected 42 compounds associated solely with the casein-micelles fraction. Mass fragments in tandem mass spectrometry identified 4 of these compounds as phosphatidylcholine with fatty acid composition of 16:0/18:1, 14:0/16:0, 16:0/16:0, and 18:1/18:0. These results support that transporting low-molecular-weight hydrophobic molecules is also a biological function of the casein micelles in milk. PMID:26074238
Lutein is a hydrophobic carotenoid that has multiple health functions. However, the application of lutein is limited due to its poor solubility in water and instability under certain conditions during storage. Hereby we generated lutein loaded nano-emulsions using whey protein isolate (WPI) or polymerized whey protein isolate (PWP) with assistance of high intensity ultrasound and evaluate their stability during storage at different conditions. We measured the particle size, zeta-potential, physical stability and lutein content change. Results showed that the PWP based nano-emulsion system was not stable in the tested Oil/Water/Ethanol system indicated by the appearance of stratification within only one week. The WPI based nano-emulsion system showed stable physiochemical stability during the storage at 4°C. The lutein content of the system was reduced by only 4% after four weeks storage at 4°C. In conclusion, our whey protein based nano-emulsion system provides a promising strategy for encapsulation of lutein or other hydrophobic bioactive molecules to expand their applications. PMID:29415071
Background Prolonged wound healing is a complication of diabetes that contributes to mortality. Impaired wound healing occurs as a consequence of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Whey protein (WP) is able to reduce the oxygen radicals and increase the levels of the antioxidant glutathione. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with WP could enhance normal inflammatory responses during wound healing in diabetic rats. Animals were assigned into a wounded control group (WN), a wounded diabetic group (WD) and a wounded diabetic group orally supplemented with whey protein (WDWP) at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Results Whey protein was found to significantly decrease the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and ROS. A significant restoration of the glutathione level was observed in WDWP rats. During the early wound healing stage, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-4 and neutrophil infiltration were significantly decreased in WD mice. WP supplementation was found to restore the levels of these inflammatory markers to the levels observed in control animals. In addition, the time required for wound healing was significantly prolonged in diabetic rats. WP was found to significantly decrease the time required for wound healing in WDWP rats. Conclusion In conclusion, dietary supplementation with WP enhances the normal inflammatory responses during wound healing in diabetic mice by restoring the levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. PMID:22168406
Iskandar, Michèle M.; Lands, Larry C.; Sabally, Kebba; Azadi, Behnam; Meehan, Brian; Mawji, Nadir; Skinner, Cameron D.; Kubow, Stan
Whey proteins have well-established antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. High hydrostatic pressure processing of whey protein isolates increases their in vitro digestibility resulting in enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This study compared the effects of different digestion protocols on the digestibility of pressurized (pWPI) and native (nWPI) whey protein isolates and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the hydrolysates. The pepsin-pancreatin digestion protocol was modified to better simulate human digestion by adjusting temperature and pH conditions, incubation times, enzymes utilized, enzyme-to-substrate ratio and ultrafiltration membrane molecular weight cut-off. pWPI showed a significantly greater proteolysis rate and rate of peptide appearance regardless of digestion protocol. Both digestion methods generated a greater relative abundance of eluting peptides and the appearance of new peptide peaks in association with pWPI digestion in comparison to nWPI hydrolysates. Hydrolysates of pWPI from both digestion conditions showed enhanced ferric-reducing antioxidant power relative to nWPI hydrolysates. Likewise, pWPI hydrolysates from both digestion protocols showed similar enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in a respiratory epithelial cell line as compared to nWPI hydrolysates. These findings indicate that regardless of considerable variations of in vitro digestion protocols, pressurization of WPI leads to more efficient digestion that improves its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:28231198
Iskandar, Michèle M; Lands, Larry C; Sabally, Kebba; Azadi, Behnam; Meehan, Brian; Mawji, Nadir; Skinner, Cameron D; Kubow, Stan
Whey proteins have well-established antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. High hydrostatic pressure processing of whey protein isolates increases their in vitro digestibility resulting in enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This study compared the effects of different digestion protocols on the digestibility of pressurized (pWPI) and native (nWPI) whey protein isolates and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the hydrolysates. The pepsin-pancreatin digestion protocol was modified to better simulate human digestion by adjusting temperature and pH conditions, incubation times, enzymes utilized, enzyme-to-substrate ratio and ultrafiltration membrane molecular weight cut-off. pWPI showed a significantly greater proteolysis rate and rate of peptide appearance regardless of digestion protocol. Both digestion methods generated a greater relative abundance of eluting peptides and the appearance of new peptide peaks in association with pWPI digestion in comparison to nWPI hydrolysates. Hydrolysates of pWPI from both digestion conditions showed enhanced ferric-reducing antioxidant power relative to nWPI hydrolysates. Likewise, pWPI hydrolysates from both digestion protocols showed similar enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in a respiratory epithelial cell line as compared to nWPI hydrolysates. These findings indicate that regardless of considerable variations of in vitro digestion protocols, pressurization of WPI leads to more efficient digestion that improves its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Hulmi, Juha J; Laakso, Mia; Mero, Antti A; Häkkinen, Keijo; Ahtiainen, Juha P; Peltonen, Heikki
Nutrition intake in the context of a resistance training (RT) bout may affect body composition and muscle strength. However, the individual and combined effects of whey protein and carbohydrates on long-term resistance training adaptations are poorly understood. A four-week preparatory RT period was conducted in previously untrained males to standardize the training background of the subjects. Thereafter, the subjects were randomized into three groups: 30 g of whey proteins (n = 22), isocaloric carbohydrates (maltodextrin, n = 21), or protein + carbohydrates (n = 25). Within these groups, the subjects were further randomized into two whole-body 12-week RT regimens aiming either for muscle hypertrophy and maximal strength or muscle strength, hypertrophy and power. The post-exercise drink was always ingested immediately after the exercise bout, 2-3 times per week depending on the training period. Body composition (by DXA), quadriceps femoris muscle cross-sectional area (by panoramic ultrasound), maximal strength (by dynamic and isometric leg press) and serum lipids as basic markers of cardiovascular health, were analysed before and after the intervention. Twelve-week RT led to increased fat-free mass, muscle size and strength independent of post-exercise nutrient intake (P < 0.05). However, the whey protein group reduced more total and abdominal area fat when compared to the carbohydrate group independent of the type of RT (P < 0.05). Thus, a larger relative increase (per kg bodyweight) in fat-free mass was observed in the protein vs. carbohydrate group (P < 0.05) without significant differences to the combined group. No systematic effects of the interventions were found for serum lipids. The RT type did not have an effect on the adaptations in response to different supplementation paradigms. Post-exercise supplementation with whey proteins when compared to carbohydrates or combination of proteins and carbohydrates did not have a major
Smith, T J; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A
Much of the fluid whey produced in the United States is a by-product of Cheddar cheese manufacture and must be bleached. Benzoyl peroxide (BP) is currently 1 of only 2 legal chemical bleaching agents for fluid whey in the United States, but benzoic acid is an unavoidable by-product of BP bleaching. Benzoyl peroxide is typically a powder, but new liquid BP dispersions are available. A greater understanding of the bleaching characteristics of BP is necessary. The objective of the study was to compare norbixin destruction, residual benzoic acid, and flavor differences between liquid whey and 80% whey protein concentrates (WPC80) bleached at different temperatures with 2 different benzoyl peroxides (soluble and insoluble). Two experiments were conducted in this study. For experiment 1, 3 factors (temperature, bleach type, bleach concentration) were evaluated for norbixin destruction using a response surface model-central composite design in liquid whey. For experiment 2, norbixin concentration, residual benzoic acid, and flavor differences were explored in WPC80 from whey bleached by the 2 commercially available BP (soluble and insoluble) at 5 mg/kg. In liquid whey, soluble BP bleached more norbixin than insoluble BP, especially at lower concentrations (5 and 10 mg/kg) at both cold (4°C) and hot (50°C) temperatures. The WPC80 from liquid whey bleached with BP at 50°C had lower norbixin concentration, benzoic acid levels, cardboard flavor, and aldehyde levels than WPC80 from liquid whey bleached with BP at 4°C. Regardless of temperature, soluble BP destroyed more norbixin at lower concentrations than insoluble BP. The WPC80 from soluble-BP-bleached wheys had lower cardboard flavor and lower aldehyde levels than WPC80 from insoluble-BP-bleached whey. This study suggests that new, soluble (liquid) BP can be used at lower concentrations than insoluble BP to achieve equivalent bleaching and that less residual benzoic acid remains in WPC80 powder from liquid whey
Colonetti, Tamy; Grande, Antonio Jose; Milton, Karen; Foster, Charlie; Alexandre, Maria Cecilia Manenti; Uggioni, Maria Laura Rodrigues; Rosa, Maria Inês da
We performed a systematic review to map the evidence and analyze the effect of whey protein supplementation in the elderly submitted to resistance training. A comprehensive search on Medline, LILACS, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for relevant publications was conducted until August 2015. The terms used in the search were: "Resistance training"; "Whey protein"; "Elderly". A total of 632 studies were screened. Five studies were included composing a sample of 391 patients. The supplement whey protein was associated with higher total protein ingestion 9.40 (95% CI: 4.03-14.78), and with an average change in plasma leucine concentration. The supplementation was also associated with increased mixed muscle protein synthesis 1.26 (95% CI: 0.46-2.07) compared to the control group. We observed an increase in total protein intake, resulting in increased concentration of leucine and mixed muscle protein fractional synthesis rate.
Avila Ruiz, Geraldine; Xi, Bingyan; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; van Boekel, Martinus; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Stieger, Markus
The aim of the study was to determine the influence of pressure in high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) processing on Maillard reactions and protein aggregation of whey protein-sugar solutions. Solutions of whey protein isolate containing either glucose or trehalose at pH 6, 7, and 9 were treated by HPHT processing or conventional high-temperature (HT) treatments. Browning was reduced, and early and advanced Maillard reactions were retarded under HPHT processing at all pH values compared to HT treatment. HPHT induced a larger pH drop than HT treatments, especially at pH 9, which was not associated with Maillard reactions. After HPHT processing at pH 7, protein aggregation and viscosity of whey protein isolate-glucose/trehalose solutions remained unchanged. It was concluded that HPHT processing can potentially improve the quality of protein-sugar-containing foods, for which browning and high viscosities are undesired, such as high-protein beverages.
Sullivan, Stephanie Tolstedt
Utilizing biomaterials that are biodegradable, biocompatible and edible serve well for food products as well as biomedical applications. Biomaterials whey protein and pullulan both have these characteristics. Whey proteins (WP) have been used in food products for many years and more recently in pharmaceutical products. They have the ability to form both gels and stable foams. Pullulan (PULL) has also been used in both food and pharmaceutical products, and is a highly water soluble, non-gelling polysaccharide and has been used primarily as a film former. Herein, we investigate the ability of whey protein and pullulan to form nanofibers and gels. Combining their distinct properties allows the ability to uniquely manipulate nanofiber and gel characteristics and behavior for a variety of applications, from food to even tissue scaffolding. First, we determined the electrospinnability of aqueous whey protein solutions. Both whey protein isolate (WPI) and one of its major components beta--lactoglobulin (BLG), either in native or denatured form, yielded interesting micro and nanostructures when electrosprayed; while nanofiber production required blending with a spinnable polymer, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). WP:PEO solutions were also successfully electrospun at acidic pH (2≤pH≤3), which could improve shelf life. Fourier Transform Infrared Reflectance (FTIR) analysis of WP:PEO fiber mat indicated some variation in WP secondary structure with varying WPI concentration (as WPI increased, % alpha-helix increased and beta-turn decreased) and pH (as pH decreased from neutral (7.5) to acidic (2), % beta-sheet decreased and alpha-helix increased). X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) also confirmed the presence of WP on the surface of the blend fibers, augmenting the FTIR analysis. Interestingly, WP:PEO composite nanofibers maintained its fibrous morphology at temperatures as high as 100 °C, above the 60 °C PEO melting point. Further, we show that the blend mats retained a
Martineau, R; Ouellet, D R; Kebreab, E; Lapierre, H
The effects of casein infusion have been investigated extensively in ruminant species. Its effect on responses in dry matter intake (DMI) has been reviewed and indicated no significant effect. The literature reviewed in the current meta-analysis is more extensive and limited to dairy cows fed ad libitum. A total of 51 studies were included in the meta-analysis and data were fitted to a multilevel model adjusting for the correlated nature of some studies. The effect size was the mean difference calculated by subtracting the means for the control from the casein-infused group. Overall, casein infusion [average of 333 g of dry matter (DM)/d; range: 91 to 1,092 g of DM/d] tended to increase responses in DMI by 0.18 kg/d (n=48 studies; 3 outliers). However, an interaction was observed between the casein infusion rate (IR) and the initial metabolizable protein (MP) balance [i.e., supply minus requirements (NRC, 2001)]. When control cows were in negative MP balance (n=27 studies), responses in DMI averaged 0.28 kg/d at mean MP balance (-264 g/d) and casein IR (336 g/d), and a 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean increased further responses by 0.14 kg/d (MP balance being constant), compared with cows not infused with casein. In contrast, when control cows were in positive MP balance (n=22 studies; 2 outliers), responses in DMI averaged -0.20 kg/d at mean casein IR (339 g/d), and a 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean further decreased responses by 0.33 kg/d, compared with cows not infused with casein. Responses in milk true protein yield at mean casein IR were greater (109 vs. 65 g/d) for cows in negative vs. positive MP balance, respectively, and the influence of the casein IR on responses was significant only for cows in negative MP balance. A 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean increased further responses in milk true protein yield by 25 g/d, compared with cows not infused with casein. Responses in blood urea concentration increased in
Danesh, Erfan; Goudarzi, Mostafa; Jooyandeh, Hossein
The effects of whey protein addition and transglutaminase treatment, alone and in combination, on the physical and sensory properties of reduced-fat ice cream were investigated. Adding whey protein with or without enzyme treatment decreased melting rate, overrun, and hardness of the reduced-fat ice cream; however, the enzyme-treated sample had a higher melting rate and overrun and softer texture. Whey protein-fortified samples showed higher melting resistance, but lower overrun and firmer texture compared with the enzyme-treated sample without added whey protein. Whey protein addition with or without transglutaminase treatment caused an increase in apparent viscosity and a decrease in flow index of the reduced-fat ice cream; nevertheless, the flow behavior of full-fat sample was most similar to the enzyme-treated reduced-fat sample with no added whey protein. Descriptive sensory analyses showed that neither whey protein addition nor transglutaminase treatment significantly influenced the flavor and odor of reduced-fat ice cream, but they both noticeably improved the color and texture of the final product. The results of this study suggest that whey protein addition with transglutaminase treatment improves the physical and sensory properties of reduced-fat ice cream more favorably than does whey protein addition or transglutaminase treatment alone. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tari, N Rafiee; Fan, M Z; Archbold, T; Kristo, E; Guri, A; Arranz, E; Corredig, M
We investigated the effect of protein composition and, in particular, the presence of whey proteins or β-casein on the digestion behavior of a model infant formula using an in vivo piglet model. Three isocaloric diets optimized for piglets were prepared with the same concentrations of protein. For protein source, 1 diet contained only whey proteins and 2 contained a casein:whey protein ratio of 40:60 but differed in the amount of β-casein. To obtain the desired protein compositions, skim milk was microfiltered at 7 or 22°C, and retentates and permeates were combined with whey protein isolate. The diets were optimized to the nutritional needs of the piglets and fed to 24 newborn piglets for 18 d. Eight piglets were also fed ad libitum with sow milk and considered only as reference (not included in the statistical analysis). The study was carried out in 2 blocks, killing the animals 60 and 120 min after the last meal. All gastric contents, regardless of diet, showed a wide range of pH. Postprandial time did not affect the pH or physical properties of the gastric digesta. The digesta from whey protein-casein formulas showed significantly higher viscosity, a higher storage modulus, and a denser microstructure than digesta obtained from piglets fed whey protein formula. The β-casein:total casein ratio at the level used in this study did not significantly affect the physical and chemical properties of the stomach digestate. Although caseins showed extensive gastric hydrolysis, whey proteins remained largely intact at both postprandial times. The results indicate that the presence of different concentrations of milk proteins can be critical to the digestion properties of the food matrix and may affect the nutritional properties of the components. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Basiak, Ewelina; Lenart, Andrzej; Debeaufort, Frédéric
Starch and whey protein isolate and their mixtures were used for making edible films. Moisture sorption isotherms, water vapour permeability, sorption of aroma compounds, microstructure, water contact angle and surface properties were investigated. With increasing protein content, the microstructure changes became more homogeneous. The water vapour permeability increases with both the humidity gradient and the starch content. For all films, the hygroscopicity increases with starch content. Surface properties change according to the starch/whey protein ratio and are mainly related to the polar component of the surface tension. Films composed of 80% starch and 20% whey proteins have more hydrophobic surfaces than the other films due to specific interactions. The effect of carbohydrate/protein ratio significantly influences the microstructure, the surface wettability and the barrier properties of wheat starch-whey protein blend films. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Micke, P; Beeh, K M; Schlaak, J F; Buhl, R
HIV infection is characterized by an enhanced oxidant burden and a systemic deficiency of the tripeptide glutathione (GSH), a major antioxidant. The semi-essential amino acid cysteine is the main source of the free sulfhydryl group of GSH and limits its synthesis. Therefore, different strategies to supplement cysteine supply have been suggested to increase glutathione levels in HIV-infected individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral supplementation with two different cysteine-rich whey protein formulas on plasma GSH levels and parameters of oxidative stress and immune status in HIV-infected patients. In a prospective double blind clinical trial, 30 patients (25 male, 5 female; mean age (+/- SD) 42 +/- 9.8 years) with stable HIV infection (221 +/- 102 CD4 + lymphocytes L-1) were randomized to a supplemental diet with a daily dose of 45 g whey proteins of either Protectamin (Fresenius Kabi, Bad Hamburg, Germany) or Immunocal (Immunotec, Vandreuil, Canada) for two weeks. Plasma concentrations of total, reduced and oxidized GSH, superoxide anion (O2-) release by blood mononuclear cells, plasma levels of TNF-alpha and interleukins 2 and 12 were quantified with standard methods at baseline and after therapy. Pre-therapy, plasma GSH levels (Protectamin: 1.92 +/- 0.6 microM; Immunocal: 1.98 +/- 0.9 microM) were less than normal (2.64 +/- 0.7 microM, P = 0.03). Following two weeks of oral supplementation with whey proteins, plasma GSH levels increased in the Protectamin group by 44 +/- 56% (2.79 +/- 1.2 microM, P = 0.004) while the difference in the Immunocal group did not reach significance (+ 24.5 +/- 59%, 2.51 +/- 1.48 microM, P = 0.43). Spontaneous O2- release by blood mononuclear cells was stable (20.1 +/- 14.2 vs. 22.6 +/- 16.1 nmol h-1 10-6 cells, P = 0.52) whereas PMA-induced O2- release decreased in the Protectamin group (53.7 +/- 19 vs. 39.8 +/- 18 nmol h-1 10-6 cells, P = 0.04). Plasma concentrations of TNF-alpha and interleukins 2 and
Qi, Phoebe X; Ren, Daxi; Xiao, Yingping; Tomasula, Peggy M
The effect of homogenization alone or in combination with high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization or UHT processing on the whey fraction of milk was investigated using highly sensitive spectroscopic techniques. In pilot plant trials, 1-L quantities of whole milk were homogenized in a 2-stage homogenizer at 35°C (6.9 MPa/10.3 MPa) and, along with skim milk, were subjected to HTST pasteurization (72°C for 15 s) or UHT processing (135°C for 2 s). Other whole milk samples were processed using homogenization followed by either HTST pasteurization or UHT processing. The processed skim and whole milk samples were centrifuged further to remove fat and then acidified to pH 4.6 to isolate the corresponding whey fractions, and centrifuged again. The whey fractions were then purified using dialysis and investigated using the circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared, and Trp intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. Results demonstrated that homogenization combined with UHT processing of milk caused not only changes in protein composition but also significant secondary structural loss, particularly in the amounts of apparent antiparallel β-sheet and α-helix, as well as diminished tertiary structural contact. In both cases of homogenization alone and followed by HTST treatments, neither caused appreciable chemical changes, nor remarkable secondary structural reduction. But disruption was evident in the tertiary structural environment of the whey proteins due to homogenization of whole milk as shown by both the near-UV circular dichroism and Trp intrinsic fluorescence. In-depth structural stability analyses revealed that even though processing of milk imposed little impairment on the secondary structural stability, the tertiary structural stability of whey protein was altered significantly. The following order was derived based on these studies: raw whole>HTST, homogenized, homogenized and pasteurized>skimmed and pasteurized, and skimmed UHT
Rongsirikul, Narumol; Hongsprabhas, Parichat
Commercial whey protein concentrate (WPC) was modified by heating the acidified protein suspensions (pH 2.0) at 80 °C for 30 min and treating with pepsin at 37 °C for 60 min. Prior to spray-drying, such modification did not change the molecular weights (MWs) of whey proteins determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). After spray-drying the modified whey protein concentrate with trehalose excipient (MWPC-TH), it was found that the α-lactalbumin (α-La) was the major protein that was further hydrolyzed the most. The reconstituted MWPC-TH contained β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) as the major protein and small molecular weight (MW) peptides of less than 6.5 kDa. The reconstituted MWPC-TH had higher NH2 group, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), lower exposed aromatic ring and thiol (SH) contents than did the commercial WPC. Kinetic studies revealed that the addition of MWPC-TH in fructose-glycine solution was able to reduce brown pigment formation in the mixtures heated at 80 to 95 °C by increasing the activation energy (Ea) of brown pigment formation due to the retardation of fluoresced advanced glycation end product (AGEs) formation. The addition of MWPC to reducing sugar-glycine/commercial WPC was also able to lower brown pigment formation in the sterilized (121 °C, 15 min) mixed suspensions containing 0.1 M reducing sugar and 0.5-1.0 % glycine and/or commercial (P < 0.05). It was demonstrated that the modification investigated in this study selectively hydrolyzed α-La and retained β-Lg for the production of antibrowning whey protein concentrate.
Swiątecka, D; Złotkowska, D; Markiewicz, L H; Szyc, A M; Wróblewska, B
Obesity is a serious public health problem and being multifactorial is difficult to tackle. Since the intestinal ecosystem's homeostasis is, at least partially, diet-dependent, its modulation may be triggered by food components that are designed to exert a modulatory action leading to a health-promoting effect. Milk whey proteins, are considered as such promising factors since they influence satiation as well as body weight and constitute the source of biologically active peptides which may modulate health status locally and systemically. This way, whey proteins are associated with obesity. Therefore, this paper is aimed at the estimation of the impact of whey proteins using a commercially available whey protein isolate on the physiological response of mice with diet-induced obesity. The physiological response was evaluated on the local-intestinal level, scrutinizing intestinal microbiota as one of the important factors in obesity and on the systemic level, analyzing the response of the organism. Whey proteins brought about the decrease of the fat mass with a simultaneous increase of the lean mass of animals with diet induced obesity, which is a promising, health-promoting effect. Whey proteins also proved to act beneficially helping restore the number of beneficial bifidobacteria in obese animals and decreasing the calorie intake and fat mass as well as the LDL level. Overall, supplementation of the high fat diet with whey proteins acted locally by restoration of the intestinal ecosystem, thus preventing dysbiosis and its effects and also acted systemically by strengthening the organism increasing the lean mass and thus hindering obesity-related detrimental effects.
Brookheart, Rita T; Lee, Chih-Yung S; Espenshade, Peter J
Sterol homeostasis is tightly controlled by the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcription factor that is highly conserved from fungi to mammals. In fission yeast, SREBP functions in an oxygen-sensing pathway to promote adaptation to decreased oxygen supply that limits oxygen-dependent sterol synthesis. Low oxygen stimulates proteolytic cleavage of the SREBP homolog Sre1, generating the active transcription factor Sre1N that drives expression of sterol biosynthetic enzymes. In addition, low oxygen increases the stability and DNA binding activity of Sre1N. To identify additional signals controlling Sre1 activity, we conducted a genetic overexpression screen. Here, we describe our isolation and characterization of the casein kinase 1 family member Hhp2 as a novel regulator of Sre1N. Deletion of Hhp2 increases Sre1N protein stability and ergosterol levels in the presence of oxygen. Hhp2-dependent Sre1N degradation by the proteasome requires Hhp2 kinase activity, and Hhp2 binds and phosphorylates Sre1N at specific residues. Our results describe a role for casein kinase 1 as a direct regulator of sterol homeostasis. Given the role of mammalian Hhp2 homologs, casein kinase 1δ and 1ε, in regulation of the circadian clock, these findings may provide a mechanism for coordinating circadian rhythm and lipid metabolism.
Whey is a byproduct of cheese making; whey proteins are globular proteins which can be modified and polymerized to add functional benefits, these benefits can be both nutritional and structural in foods. Modified proteins can be used in non-foods, being of particular interest in polymer films and coatings. Food packaging materials, including plastics, can linings, interior coatings of paper containers, and beverage cap sealing materials, are generally made of synthetic petroleum based compounds. These synthetic materials may pose a potential human health risk due to presence of certain chemicals such as Bisphenol A (BPA). They also add to environmental pollution, being difficult to degrade. Protein-based materials do not have the same issues as synthetics and so can be used as alternatives in many packaging types. As proteins are generally hydrophilic they must be modified structurally and their performance enhanced by the addition of waterproofing agents. Polymerization of whey proteins results in a network, adding both strength and flexibility. The most interesting of the food-safe waterproofing agents are the (large aspect ratio) nanoclays. Nanoclays are relatively inexpensive, widely available and have low environmental impact. The clay surface can be modified to make it organophilic and so compatible with organic polymers. The objective of this study is the use of polymerized whey protein (PWP), with reinforcing nanoclays, to produce flexible surface coatings which limit the transfer of contents while maintaining food safety. Four smectite and kaolin type clays, one treated and three natural were assessed for strengthening qualities and the potential waterproofing and plasticizing benefits of other additives were also analyzed. The nutritional benefits of whey proteins can also be used to enhance the protein content of various foodstuffs. Drinkable yogurt is a popular beverage in the US and other countries and is considered a functional food, especially when
Singh, Tanoj K; Øiseth, Sofia K; Lundin, Leif; Day, Li
Protein intake is essential for growth and repair of body cells, the normal functioning of muscles, and health related immune functions. Most food proteins are consumed after undergoing various degrees of processing. Changes in protein structure and assembly as a result of processing impact the digestibility of proteins. Research in understanding to what extent the protein structure impacts the rate of proteolysis under human physiological conditions has gained considerable interest. In this work, four whey protein gels were prepared using heat processing at two different pH values, 6.8 and 4.6, with and without applied shear. The gels showed different protein network microstructures due to heat induced unfolding (at pH 6.8) or lack of unfolding, thus resulting in fine stranded protein networks. When shear was applied during heating, particulate protein networks were formed. The differences in the gel microstructures resulted in considerable differences in their rheological properties. An in vitro gastric and intestinal model was used to investigate the resulting effects of these different gel structures on whey protein digestion. In addition, the rate of digestion was monitored by taking samples at various time points throughout the in vitro digestion process. The peptides in the digesta were profiled using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, reversed-phase-HPLC and LC-MS. Under simulated gastric conditions, whey proteins in structured gels were hydrolysed faster than native proteins in solution. The rate of peptides released during in vitro digestion differed depending on the structure of the gels and extent of protein aggregation. The outcomes of this work highlighted that changes in the network structure of the protein can influence the rate and pattern of its proteolysis under gastrointestinal conditions. Such knowledge could assist the food industry in designing novel food formulations to control the digestion kinetics and the release of biologically
Cheng, Jianjun; Xie, Siyu; Yin, Yuan; Feng, Xianmin; Wang, Shuai; Guo, Mingruo; Ni, Chunlei
Polymerized whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate can be induced to gel in an acidic environment provided during fermentation. The variety of thickening agent has an influence on texture that is an essential aspect of yogurt quality affecting consumer preference. Similar to polysaccharide stabilizers, the cold gelation properties of whey proteins can improve the body texture of yogurt products. Polymerized whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate could be a favorable and interesting thickening agent for making set yogurt. The effects of whey protein isolate (WPI), heat-treated whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate (WPI-STPP), heat-treated WPI and pectin on the storage properties and microstructure of yogurt were investigated. All samples were analyzed for syneresis, pH, titratable acidity, viscosity, texture profile and microstructure during storage. The results showed that incorporating heat-treated WPI-STPP had a significant impact on syneresis (32.22 ± 0.60), viscosity (10 956.67 ± 962.1) and hardness (209.24 ± 12.48) (p < 0.05) with uniform body texture. Yogurt fermented with modified WPI-STPP had higher levels of protein and better hardness compared with yogurt using pectin. The microstructure was observed to be a uniform and denser, complicated network. Heat-treated WPI-STPP may be useful for improving yogurt texture. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Zhou, Ling-Mei; Xu, Jia-Ying; Rao, Chun-Ping; Han, Shufen; Wan, Zhongxiao; Qin, Li-Qiang
Whey supplementation is beneficial for human health, possibly by reducing the circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) level, a sensitive marker of inflammation. Thus, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted to evaluate their relationship. A systematic literature search was conducted in July, 2014, to identify eligible studies. Either a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model was used to calculate pooled effects. The meta-analysis results of nine trials showed a slight, but no significant, reduction of 0.42 mg/L (95% CI −0.96, 0.13) in CRP level with the supplementation of whey protein and its derivates. Relatively high heterogeneity across studies was observed. Subgroup analyses showed that whey significantly lowered CRP by 0.72 mg/L (95% CI −0.97, −0.47) among trials with a daily whey dose ≥20 g/day and by 0.67 mg/L (95% CI −1.21, −0.14) among trials with baseline CRP ≥3 mg/L. Meta-regression analysis revealed that the baseline CRP level was a potential effect modifier of whey supplementation in reducing CRP. In conclusion, our meta-analysis did not find sufficient evidence that whey and its derivates elicited a beneficial effect in reducing circulating CRP. However, they may significantly reduce CRP among participants with highly supplemental doses or increased baseline CRP levels. PMID:25671415
Lo, Hui-Chen; Wang, Yao-Horng; Chiou, Hue-Ying; Lai, Shan-Hu; Yang, Yu
Diets that ameliorate the adverse effects of uric acid (UA) on renal damage deserve attention. The effects of casein or soya protein combined with palm or safflower-seed oil on various serum parameters and renal histology were investigated on hyperuricaemic rats. Male Wistar rats administered with oxonic acid and UA to induce hyperuricaemia were fed with casein or soya protein plus palm- or safflower-seed oil-supplemented diets. Normal rats and hyperuricaemic rats with or without allopurinol treatment (150 mg/l in drinking water) were fed with casein plus maize oil-supplemented diets. After 8 weeks, allopurinol treatment and soya protein plus safflower-seed oil-supplemented diet significantly decreased serum UA in hyperuricaemic rats (one-way ANOVA; P < 0.05). In addition, soya protein and casein attenuated hyperuricaemia-induced decreases in serum albumin and insulin, respectively (two-way ANOVA; P < 0.05). Safflower-seed oil significantly decreased serum TAG and UA, whereas palm oil significantly increased serum cholesterol, TAG, blood urea N and creatinine. However, soya protein significantly decreased renal NO and nitrotyrosine and palm oil significantly decreased renal nitrotyrosine, TNF-alpha and interferon-gamma and increased renal transforming growth factor-beta. Casein with safflower-seed oil significantly attenuated renal tubulointerstitial nephritis, crystals and fibrosis. Comparing casein v. soya protein combined with palm or safflower-seed oil, the results support that casein with safflower-seed oil may be effective in attenuating hyperuricaemia-associated renal damage, while soya protein with safflower-seed oil may be beneficial in lowering serum UA and TAG.
Twenty percent solutions of calcium caseinate (CC), egg albumin (EA), fish protein isolate (FPI), soy protein isolate (SPI), wheat gluten (WG), and whey protein isolate (WPI) were examined during heating by small amplitude oscillatory shear measurements, which provided an indication of protein behav...
Heebøll-Nielsen, Anders; Justesen, Sune F L; Thomas, Owen R T
In this study we describe the design, preparation and testing of superparamagnetic anion-exchangers, and their use together with cation-exchangers in the fractionation of bovine whey proteins as a model study for high-gradient magnetic fishing. Adsorbents prepared by attachment of trimethyl amine to particles activated in sequential reactions with allyl bromide and N-bromosuccinimide yielded a maximum bovine serum albumin binding capacity of 156 mg g(-1) combined with a dissociation constant of 0.60 microM, whereas ion-exchangers created by linking polyethylene imine through superficial aldehydes bound up to 337 mg g(-1) with a dissociation constant of 0.042 microM. The latter anion-exchanger was selected for studies of whey protein fractionation. In these, crude bovine whey was treated with a superparamagnetic cation-exchanger to adsorb basic protein species, and the supernatant arising from this treatment was then contacted with the anion-exchanger. For both adsorbent classes of ion-exchanger, desorption selectivity was subsequently studied by sequentially increasing the concentration of NaCl in the elution buffer. In the initial cation-exchange step quantitative removal of lactoferrin (LF) and lactoperoxidase (LPO) was achieved with some simultaneous binding of immunoglobulins (Ig). The immunoglobulins were separated from the other two proteins by desorbing with a low concentration of NaCl (< or = 0.4 M), whereas lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase were co-eluted in significantly purer form, e.g. lactoperoxidase was purified 28-fold over the starting material, when the NaCl concentration was increased to 0.4-1 M. The anion-exchanger adsorbed beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) selectively allowing separation from the remaining protein.
Simonaitiene, Dovile; Brink, Ieva; Sipailiene, Ausra; Leskauskaite, Daiva
Penicillium expansum causes a major post-harvest disease of apples. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibition effect of chitosan and whey proteins-chitosan films containing different amounts of quince and cranberry juice against P. expansum on the simulation medium and on apples. The mechanical properties of films were also evaluated. The presence of cranberry and quince juice in the composition of chitosan and whey proteins-chitosan films caused a significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in elasticity and decrease in tensile strength of films. Chitosan and whey proteins-chitosan films with quince and cranberry juice demonstrated a significant (P ≤ 0.05) inhibition effect against P. expansum growth on the simulated medium and apples. The presence of cranberry juice in the composition of chitosan and whey proteins-chitosan films resulted in a longer lag phase and a lower P. expansum growth rate on the simulation medium in comparison with films made with the addition of quince juice. These differences were not evident when experiment was conducted with apples. Addition of quince and cranberry juice to the chitosan and whey proteins-chitosan films as natural antifungal agents has some potential for prolonging the shelf life of apples. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Portnaya, Irina; Avni, Sharon; Kesselman, Ellina; Boyarski, Yoav; Sukenik, Shahar; Harries, Daniel; Dan, Nily; Cogan, Uri; Danino, Dganit
Kappa-casein (κCN) and beta-casein (βCN) are disordered proteins present in mammalian milk. In vitro, βCN self-assembles into core-shell micelles. κCN self assembles into similar micelles, as well as into amyloid-like fibrils. Recent studies indicate that fibrillization can be suppressed by mixing βCN and κCN, but the mechanism of fibril inhibition has not been identified. Examining the interactions of native and reduced kappa-caseins (N-κCN and R-κCN) with βCN, we expose a competition between two different self-assembly processes: micellization and fibrillization. Quite surprisingly, however, we find significant qualitative and quantitative differences in the self-assembly between the native and reduced κCN forms. Specifically, thermodynamic analysis reveals exothermic demicellization for βCN and its mixtures with R-κCN, as opposed to endothermic demicellization of N-κCN and its mixtures with βCN at the same temperature. Furthermore, with time, R-κCN/βCN mixtures undergo phase separation into pure βCN micelles and R-κCN fibrils, while in the N-κCN/βCN mixtures fibril formation is considerably delayed and mixed micelles persist for longer periods of time. Fibrils formed in N-κCN/βCN mixtures are shorter and more flexible than those formed in R-κCN/βCN systems. Interestingly, in the N-κCN/βCN mixtures, the sugar moieties of N-κCN oligomers seem to organize on the mixed micelles surface in a manner similar to the organization of κCN in milk casein micelles.
Cinelli, Patrizia; Schmid, Markus; Bugnicourt, Elodie; Coltelli, Maria Beatrice; Lazzeri, Andrea
Multilayer plastic films provide a range of properties, which cannot be obtained from monolayer films but, at present, their recyclability is an open issue and should be improved. Research to date has shown the possibility of using whey protein as a layer material with the property of acting as an excellent barrier against oxygen and moisture, replacing petrochemical non-recyclable materials. The innovative approach of the present research was to achieve the recyclability of the substrate films by separating them, with a simple process compatible with industrial procedures, in order to promote recycling processes leading to obtain high value products that will beneficially impact the packaging and food industries. Hence, polyethyleneterephthalate (PET)/polyethylene (PE) multi-layer film was prepared based on PET coated with a whey protein layer, and then the previous structure was laminated with PE. Whey proteins, constituting the coating, can be degraded by enzymes so that the coating films can be washed off from the plastic substrate layer. Enzyme types, dosage, time, and temperature optima, which are compatible with procedures adopted in industrial waste recycling, were determined for a highly-efficient process. The washing of samples based on PET/whey and PET/whey/PE were efficient when performed with enzymatic detergent containing protease enzymes, as an alternative to conventional detergents used in recycling facilities. Different types of enzymatic detergents tested presented positive results in removing the protein layer from the PET substrate and from the PET/whey/PE multilayer films at room temperature. These results attested to the possibility of organizing the pre-treatment of the whey-based multilayer film by washing with different available commercial enzymatic detergents in order to separate PET and PE, thus allowing a better recycling of the two different polymers. Mechanical properties of the plastic substrate, such as stress at yield, stress and
Zhang, Tiehua; McCarthy, James; Wang, Guorong; Liu, Yanyan; Guo, Mingruo
There is a market demand for nonfat fermented goats' milk products. A nonfat goats' milk yogurt containing probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium spp.) was developed using heat-treated whey protein concentrate (HWPC) as a fat replacer and pectin as a thickening agent. Yogurts containing untreated whey protein concentrate (WPC) and pectin, and the one with only pectin were also prepared. Skim cows' milk yogurt with pectin was also made as a control. The yogurts were analyzed for chemical composition, water holding capacity (syneresis), microstructure, changes in pH and viscosity, mold, yeast and coliform counts, and probiotic survivability during storage at 4 °C for 10 wk. The results showed that the nonfat goats' milk yogurt made with 1.2% HWPC (WPC solution heated at 85 °C for 30 min at pH 8.5) and 0.35% pectin had significantly higher viscosity (P < 0.01) than any of the other yogurts and lower syneresis than the goats' yogurt with only pectin (P < 0.01). Viscosity and pH of all the yogurt samples did not change much throughout storage. Bifidobacterium spp. remained stable and was above 10(6) CFU g(-1) during the 10-wk storage. However, the population of Lactobacillus acidophilus dropped to below 10(6) CFU g(-1) after 2 wk of storage. Microstructure analysis of the nonfat goats' milk yogurt by scanning electron microscopy revealed that HWPC interacted with casein micelles to form a relatively compact network in the yogurt gel. The results indicated that HWPC could be used as a fat replacer for improving the consistency of nonfat goats' milk yogurt and other similar products. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®
Peluzio, M do C; de Miranda, L C; de Moraes, G H; Peluzio, L E
The present work was conducted to obtain a proteic product and to evaluate its biological value in order to be used for human and/or domestic animal consumption. Thus, it were used cassava leaves as a non conventional source of protein. It was produced a freeze-dried, fat-free and colourless proteic isolated from those leaves (CLPI). This was mixed with casein and after the mixture as enzymatically hydrolyzed and resynthesized (Plastein reaction) to obtain a precipitated (PP) and a soluble plastein (SP) fractions. The protein contents observed were 64.39% (PS), 61.36% (PP) and 51.97% (CLPI). Trypsin inhibitor activities values showed a 41% reduction in the PP fraction suggesting that the heat treatment used to inactivated the enzyme also inactiveted partially the inhibitor or the reduction was due to the casein dilution. The amino acid composition of the frations obtained showed values close to the standards established. It can be concluded:--the utilization of non-conventional source should be stimulated when the proteins from those sources have an amino acidic profile that allow them to be used as an amino acid supplementation in food with low level of essential amino acids;--the fractions obtained by the plastein reaction showed satisfactory protein contents and their amino acid profiles were comparable with the FAO/OMS/UNU (1985) recommendations;--the plastein reaction can be utilized in food processing, after industrial scale adaptation remove compounds responsible to bitter taste, fetidness and to discolour protein products.
White, S S; Fox, K M; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A
Previous studies have established that whey protein manufacture unit operations influence the flavor of dried whey proteins. Additionally, manufacturers generally instantize whey protein isolate (WPI; ≥ 90% protein) by agglomeration with lecithin to increase solubility and wettability. Whey protein isolate is often subjected to additional postprocessing steps in beverage manufacturing, including acidification and heat treatment. These postprocessing treatments may further influence formation or release of flavors. The objective of the first study was to characterize the effect of 2 processing steps inherent to manufacturing of acidic protein beverages (acidification and heat treatment) on the flavor of non-instant WPI. The second study sought to determine the effect of lecithin agglomeration, a common form of instantized (INST) WPI used in beverage manufacturing, on the flavor of WPI after acidification and heat treatment. In the first experiment, commercial non-instantized (NI) WPI were rehydrated and evaluated as is (control); acidified to pH 3.2; heated to 85°C for 5 min in a benchtop high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurizer; or acidified to 3.2 and heated to 85°C for 30s (AH-HTST). In the second experiment, INST and NI commercial WPI were subsequently evaluated as control, acidified, heated, or AH-HTST. All samples were evaluated by descriptive sensory analysis, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Acidification of NI WPI produced higher concentrations of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and sensory detection of potato/brothy flavors, whereas heating increased cooked/sulfur flavors. Acidification and heating increased cardboard, potato/brothy, and malty flavors and produced higher concentrations of aldehydes, ketones, and sulfur compounds. Differences between INST and NI WPI existed before treatment; INST WPI displayed cucumber flavors not present in NI WPI. After acidification, INST WPI were distinguished by higher
Shirato, Minayuki; Tsuchiya, Yosuke; Sato, Teruyuki; Hamano, Saki; Gushiken, Takeshi; Kimura, Naoto; Ochi, Eisuke
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of combined β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) and whey protein ingestion on muscle strength and damage following a single bout of eccentric exercise. Eighteen untrained male subjects were assigned to HMB and Whey protein (HMB + Whey; 3 g/day HMB and 36.6 g/day whey protein, n = 6), HMB (3 g/day, n = 6), or whey protein (36.6 g/day, n = 6) groups. Ingestion commenced 7 days before non-dominant elbow flexor eccentric exercise (30 deg/sec, 6 reps × 7 sets) and continued until 4 days post-exercise. The maximal isometric strength, muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were assessed pre-exercise, and at 1, 2, 3, and 5 days after exercise. The change scores of maximal isometric strength significantly decreased at day 1, 2, and 5 in the whey protein group compared to pre value and that in HMB + Whey protein and HMB groups decreased at day 1 and 5. The muscle soreness significantly increased in the whey and HMB + Whey protein groups at day 3 compared to pre value (p < 0.05). CK and LDH significantly increased (time effect: p < 0.05) after exercise. However, all data were not significant difference among the groups. These results suggest that ingestion of combined HMB and whey protein does not have a role to inhibit muscle strength loss and soreness, and decrease in muscle damage markers after eccentric exercise in comparison with HMB and whey protein alone.
Campbell, Caroline L; Foegeding, E Allen; Harris, G Keith
Food formulation with bioactive ingredients is a potential strategy to promote satiety and weight management. Whey proteins are high in leucine and are shown to decrease hunger ratings and increase satiety hormone levels; cocoa polyphenolics moderate glucose levels and slow digestion. This study examined the effects of cocoa and whey proteins on lipid and glucose metabolism and satiety in vitro and in a clinical trial. In vitro, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with 0.5-100 μg/mL cocoa polyphenolic extract (CPE) and/or 1-15 mM leucine (Leu) and assayed for lipid accumulation and leptin production. In vivo, a 6-week clinical trial consisted of nine panelists (age: 22.6 ± 1.7; BMI: 22.3 ± 2.1) consuming chocolate-protein beverages once per week, including placebo, whey protein isolate (WPI), low polyphenolic cocoa (LP), high polyphenolic cocoa (HP), LP-WPI, and HP-WPI. Measurements included blood glucose and adiponectin levels, and hunger ratings at baseline and 0.5-4.0 h following beverage consumption. At levels of 50 and 100 μg/mL, CPE significantly inhibited preadipocyte lipid accumulation by 35% and 50%, respectively, and by 22% and 36% when combined with 15 mM Leu. Leu treatment increased adipocyte leptin production by 26-37%. In the clinical trial, all beverages significantly moderated blood glucose levels 30 min postconsumption. WPI beverages elicited lowest peak glucose levels and HP levels were significantly lower than LP. The WPI and HP beverage treatments significantly increased adiponectin levels, but elicited no significant changes in hunger ratings. These trends suggest that combinations of WPI and cocoa polyphenols may improve markers of metabolic syndrome and satiety.
Gaffney, Kim Alexander; Lucero, Adam; Stoner, Lee; Faulkner, James; Whitfield, Patricia; Krebs, Jeremy; Rowlands, David Stephen
Although intense endurance and resistance exercise training and whey protein supplementation have both been shown to independently improve glycemic control, no known studies have examined the effect of high-intensity mixed-mode interval training (MMIT) and whey supplementation in adults with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study aimed to determine if peritraining whey protein supplementation combined with MMIT can improve glycemic control. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 24 men (55.7 ± 5.6 yr) with T2D performed MMIT with whey (20 g) or placebo control for 10 wk. Glycemic control was assessed via glucose disposal rate during a euglycemic insulin clamp, fasting blood glucose concentration, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Changes in peak oxygen consumption, 1-repetition maximum strength, vastus lateralis muscle, and subcutaneous adipose thicknesses, and waist circumference were also assessed. Ten weeks of MMIT substantially improved glucose disposal rate by 27.5% (90% confidence interval, 1.2%-60.7%) and 24.8% (-5.4% to 64.8%) in the whey and control groups, respectively. There were likely and possible reductions in fasting blood glucose by -17.4% (-30.6% to -1.6%) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance by -14.1% (-25.3% to 1.08%) in the whey group; however, whey effects were not clearly beneficial to glycemic outcomes relative to the control. MMIT also clearly substantially improved 1-repetition maximum by 20.6% (16.3%-24.9%) and 22.7% (18.4%-27.2%), peak oxygen consumption by 22.6% (12.0%-26.2%) and 18.5% (10.5%-27.4%), and vastus lateralis muscle thickness by 18.9% (12.0%-26.2%) and 18.6% (10.5%-27.4%) and possibly reduced waist circumference by -2.1% (-3.1% to -1.0%) and -1.9% (-3.7% to -0.1%) in the control and whey groups, respectively, but the whey-control outcome was trivial or unclear. A clinically meaningful enhancement in glycemic control after 10 wk of MMIT was not clearly advanced with
Brandsch, Corinna; Shukla, Anjali; Hirche, Frank; Stangl, Gabriele I; Eder, Klaus
We assessed the effect of dietary proteins isolated from beef, pork, and turkey meat on concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerols in plasma, lipoproteins, and liver and the composition of the microsomal membrane (fatty acids, phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine ratio) compared with that of casein and soy protein in rats. Five groups of 12 rats each were fed semisynthetic diets for 20 d that contained 200 g/kg of proteins isolated from beef, pork, or turkey meat or, as controls, casein or soy protein. Rats fed beef, pork, or turkey proteins did not differ in cholesterol concentrations of plasma, lipoproteins, and liver and in composition of microsomal membrane from rats fed the casein diet. All groups fed a protein from an animal source had higher very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and liver cholesterol concentrations than did rats fed soy protein. However, rats fed pork protein had lower concentrations of triacylglycerols in liver, plasma, and VLDL and lower mRNA concentrations of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase than did rats fed casein. However, concentrations of plasma and VLDL triacylglycerols in rats fed pork protein were not as low as those observed in rats fed soy protein. Proteins isolated from beef, pork, or turkey meat do not differ from casein in their effects on cholesterol metabolism. Pork protein decreases plasma triacylglycerol concentrations compared with casein but not compared with soy protein. The triacylglycerol-lowering effect of pork protein compared with casein is suggested to be caused by decreased hepatic fatty acid synthesis.
Whey protein supplementation may augment resistance exercise-induced increases in muscle strength and mass. Further studies are required to determine whether this effect extends to functionally compromised older adults. The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of whey protein concent...
A potentially economical and environmentally friendly whey protein fractionation process was developed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) as an acid to produce enriched fractions of alpha-lactalbumin (a-LA) and beta-lactoglobulin (b-LG) from whey protein isolate. To prepare the fractions, so...
de Vries, R.
Electrostatic complexation of flexible polyanions with the whey proteins α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin is studied using Monte Carlo simulations. The proteins are considered at their respective isoelectric points. Discrete charges on the model polyelectrolytes and proteins interact through Debye-Hückel potentials. Protein excluded volume is taken into account through a coarse-grained model of the protein shape. Consistent with experimental results, it is found that α-lactalbumin complexes much more strongly than β-lactoglobulin. For α-lactalbumin, strong complexation is due to localized binding to a single large positive "charge patch," whereas for β-lactoglobulin, weak complexation is due to diffuse binding to multiple smaller charge patches.
Summary The aim of this work is to study the gelation properties of liquid whey protein concentrates (LWPC) produced by ultrafiltration (UF) as raw material for thermally induced gels intended for food applications. LWPC thermal gelation was performed using different types of LWPC (non- -defatted, defatted and diafiltered) of different protein mass fractions and pH. Most of the produced gels showed viscoelastic behaviour. Non-defatted LWPC gave stronger heat-induced gels with a more cohesive microstructure, a higher water holding capacity and also higher elastic modulus (G’) and viscous modulus (G’’). Gel properties were not improved in products with lower content of non-protein compounds. As expected, the increase in protein mass fraction positively influences protein interactions. However, the pH is responsible for the equilibrium between attraction and repulsion forces in the gel components that influence gel hardness and water holding capacity. PMID:29540980
Henriques, Marta; Gomes, David; Pereira, Carlos
The aim of this work is to study the gelation properties of liquid whey protein concentrates (LWPC) produced by ultrafiltration (UF) as raw material for thermally induced gels intended for food applications. LWPC thermal gelation was performed using different types of LWPC (non- -defatted, defatted and diafiltered) of different protein mass fractions and pH. Most of the produced gels showed viscoelastic behaviour. Non-defatted LWPC gave stronger heat-induced gels with a more cohesive microstructure, a higher water holding capacity and also higher elastic modulus (G') and viscous modulus (G''). Gel properties were not improved in products with lower content of non-protein compounds. As expected, the increase in protein mass fraction positively influences protein interactions. However, the pH is responsible for the equilibrium between attraction and repulsion forces in the gel components that influence gel hardness and water holding capacity.
de Vries, R
Electrostatic complexation of flexible polyanions with the whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin is studied using Monte Carlo simulations. The proteins are considered at their respective isoelectric points. Discrete charges on the model polyelectrolytes and proteins interact through Debye-Huckel potentials. Protein excluded volume is taken into account through a coarse-grained model of the protein shape. Consistent with experimental results, it is found that alpha-lactalbumin complexes much more strongly than beta-lactoglobulin. For alpha-lactalbumin, strong complexation is due to localized binding to a single large positive "charge patch," whereas for beta-lactoglobulin, weak complexation is due to diffuse binding to multiple smaller charge patches. Copyright 2004 American Institute of Physics
Sutariya, Suresh; Patel, Hasmukh
Whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions (12.8%w/w protein) were treated with varying concentrations of H 2 O 2 in the range of 0-0.144 H 2 O 2 to protein ratios (HTPR) by the addition of the required quantity of H 2 O 2 and deionized water. The samples were analyzed for heat stability, rheological properties, denaturation level of β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) and α-lactalbumin (α-LA). The samples treated with H 2 O 2 concentration >0.072 (HTPR) showed significant improvement in the heat stability, and decreased whey protein denaturation and aggregation. The WPI solution treated with H 2 O 2 (>0.072 HTPR) remained in the liquid state after heat treatment at 120°C, whereas the control samples formed gel upon heat treatment. Detailed analysis of these samples suggested that the improvement in the heat stability of H 2 O 2 treated WPI solution was attributed to the significant reduction in the sulfhydryl-disulfide interchange reaction during denaturation of β-LG and α-LA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Farup, J; Rahbek, S K; Vendelbo, M H; Matzon, A; Hindhede, J; Bejder, A; Ringgard, S; Vissing, K
In a comparative study, we investigated the effects of maximal eccentric or concentric resistance training combined with whey protein or placebo on muscle and tendon hypertrophy. 22 subjects were allocated into either a high-leucine whey protein hydrolysate + carbohydrate group (WHD) or a carbohydrate group (PLA). Subjects completed 12 weeks maximal knee extensor training with one leg using eccentric contractions and the other using concentric contractions. Before and after training cross-sectional area (CSA) of m. quadriceps and patellar tendon CSA was quantified with magnetic resonance imaging and a isometric strength test was used to assess maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and rate of force development (RFD). Quadriceps CSA increased by 7.3 ± 1.0% (P < 0.001) in WHD and 3.4 ± 0.8% (P < 0.01) in PLA, with a greater increase in WHD compared to PLA (P < 0.01). Proximal patellar tendon CSA increased by 14.9 ± 3.1% (P < 0.001) and 8.1 ± 3.2% (P = 0.054) for WHD and PLA, respectively, with a greater increase in WHD compared to PLA (P < 0.05), with no effect of contraction mode. MVC and RFD increased by 15.6 ± 3.5% (P < 0.001) and 12-63% (P < 0.05), respectively, with no group or contraction mode effects. In conclusion, high-leucine whey protein hydrolysate augments muscle and tendon hypertrophy following 12 weeks of resistance training - irrespective of contraction mode. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Davis, J P; Foegeding, E A
Whipped foams (10%, w/v protein, pH 7.0) were prepared from commercially available samples of whey protein isolate (WPI) and egg white protein (EWP), and subsequently compared based on yield stress (tau(0)), overrun and drainage stability. Adsorption rates and interfacial rheological measurements at a model air/water interface were quantified via pendant drop tensiometry to better understand foaming differences among the ingredients. The highest tau(0) and resistance to drainage were observed for standard EWP, followed by EWP with added 0.1% (w/w) sodium lauryl sulfate, and then WPI. Addition of 25% (w/w) sucrose increased tau(0) and drainage resistance of the EWP-based ingredients, whereas it decreased tau(0) of WPI foams and minimally affected their drainage rates. These differing sugar effects were reflected in the interfacial rheological measurements, as sucrose addition increased the dilatational elasticity for both EWP-based ingredients, while decreasing this parameter for WPI. Previously observed relationships between tau(0) and interfacial rheology did not hold across the protein types; however, these measurements did effectively differentiate foaming behaviors within EWP-based ingredients and within WPI. Interfacial data was also collected for purified beta-lactoglobulin (beta-lg) and ovalbumin, the primary proteins of WPI and EWP, respectively. The addition of 25% (w/w) sucrose increased the dilatational elasticity for adsorbed layers of beta-lg, while minimally affecting the interfacial rheology of adsorbed ovalbumin, in contrast to the response of WPI and EWP ingredients. These experiments underscore the importance of utilizing the same materials for interfacial measurements as used for foaming experiments, if one is to properly infer interfacial information/mechanisms and relate this information to bulk foaming measurements. The effects of protein concentration and measurement time on interfacial rheology were also considered as they relate to bulk
The study of protein adsorption on the membrane surface is of great importance to cheese-making processors that use polymeric membrane-based processes to recover whey protein from the process waste streams. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) is a lab-scale, fast analytical techniq...
Tarango-Hernández, S; Alarcón-Rojo, A D; Robles-Sánchez, M; Gutiérrez-Méndez, N; Rodríguez-Figueroa, J C
Recently, traditional Mexican Fresco-style cheese production has been increasing, and the volume of cheese whey generated represents a problem. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of Fresco-style cheese wheys and their potential as a source of protein fractions with antioxidant and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activities. Three samples from Fresco, Panela, and Ranchero cheeses whey were physicochemically characterized. Water-soluble extracts were fractionated to obtain whey fractions with different molecular weights: 10-5, 5-3, 3-1 and <1 kDa. The results indicated differences in the lactose, protein, ash, and dry matter contents (% wt/wt) in the different Fresco-style cheese wheys. All whey fractions had antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities. The 10-5 kDa whey fraction of Ranchero cheese had the highest Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (0.62 ± 0.00 mM), and the 3-1 kDa Panela and Fresco cheese whey fractions showed the highest ACE-inhibitory activity (0.57 ± 0.02 and 0.59 ± 0.04 μg/mL 50%-inhibitory concentration values, respectively). These results suggest that Fresco-style cheese wheys may be a source of protein fractions with bioactivity, and thus could be useful ingredients in the manufacture of functional foods with increased nutritional value. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Noello, C; Carvalho, A G S; Silva, V M; Hubinger, M D
Chia seed oil has a high content of α-linolenic acid (60%) and linoleic acid (20%). Use of this oil in different products is limited due to its liquid state, and the presence of insaturation is a trigger for oxidation. In this context, to facilitate the incorporation of chia oil in food products and increase its protection against oxidation, the aim of this work was to produce chia oil microparticles by spray drying using emulsions stabilized by whey protein concentrate (ζ-potential +13.4 at pH3.8) and pectin (ζ-potential -40.4 at pH3.8) through the electrostatic layer-by-layer deposition technique and emulsions prepared with only whey protein concentrate. Emulsions stabilized by whey protein concentrate and stabilized by whey protein concentrate-pectin were prepared using maltodextrin (10 DE) and modified starch (Hi-Cap® 100). They were characterized in relation to stability, droplet size, ζ-Potential and optical microscopy. The microparticles were characterized in relation to moisture content, water activity, particle size, microstructure and oxidative stability by the Rancimat method. Emulsions stabilized by whey protein concentrate-pectin with added maltodextrin 10 DE and emulsions stabilized by whey protein concentrate with added modified starch (Hi-Cap® 100) were stable after 24h. Emulsions stabilized by whey protein concentrate and by whey protein concentrate-pectin showed droplets with mean diameter ranging from 0.80 to 1.31μm, respectively and ζ-potential varying from -6.9 to -27.43mV, respectively. After spray drying, the microparticles showed an mean diameter ranging from 7.00 to 9.00μm. All samples presented high encapsulation efficiency values, above 99%. Microparticles produced with modified starch showed a smoother spherical surface than particles with maltodextrin 10 DE, which presented a wrinkled surface. All microparticles exhibited higher oxidative stability than chia oil in pure form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
West, Daniel W. D.; Abou Sawan, Sidney; Mazzulla, Michael; Williamson, Eric; Moore, Daniel R.
No study has concurrently measured changes in free-living whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during recovery from an acute bout of resistance exercise. We aimed to determine if whey protein ingestion enhances whole body net protein balance and recovery of exercise performance during overnight (10 h) and 24 h recovery after whole body resistance exercise in trained men. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men (76 ± 8 kg, 24 ± 4 years old, 14% ± 5% body fat; means ± standard deviation (SD)) performed resistance exercise in the evening prior to consuming either 25 g of whey protein (PRO; MuscleTech 100% Whey) or an energy-matched placebo (CHO) immediately post-exercise (0 h), and again the following morning (~10 h of recovery). A third randomized trial, completed by the same participants, involving no exercise and no supplement served as a rested control trial (Rest). Participants ingested [15N]glycine to determine whole body protein kinetics and net protein balance over 10 and 24 h of recovery. Performance was assessed pre-exercise and at 0, 10, and 24 h of recovery using a battery of tests. Net protein balance tended to improve in PRO (P = 0.064; effect size (ES) = 0.61, PRO vs. CHO) during overnight recovery. Over 24 h, net balance was enhanced in PRO (P = 0.036) but not in CHO (P = 0.84; ES = 0.69, PRO vs. CHO), which was mediated primarily by a reduction in protein breakdown (PRO < CHO; P < 0.01. Exercise decreased repetitions to failure (REP), maximal strength (MVC), peak and mean power, and countermovement jump performance (CMJ) at 0 h (all P < 0.05 vs. Pre). At 10 h, there were small-to-moderate effects for enhanced recovery of the MVC (ES = 0.56), mean power (ES = 0.49), and CMJ variables (ES: 0.27–0.49) in PRO. At 24 h, protein supplementation improved MVC (ES = 0.76), REP (ES = 0.44), and peak power (ES = 0.55). In conclusion, whey protein supplementation enhances whole body anabolism, and may improve acute recovery of
Kokoszka, Sabina; Debeaufort, Frederic; Lenart, Andrzej; Voilley, Andree
Edible films and coatings based on protein/lipid combinations are among the new products being developed in order to reduce the use of plastic packaging polymers for food applications. This study was conducted to determine the effect of rapeseed oil on selected physicochemical properties of cast whey protein films. Films were cast from heated (80 degrees C for 30 min) aqueous solutions of whey protein isolate (WPI, 100 g kg(-1) of water) containing glycerol (50 g kg(-1) of WPI) as a plasticiser and different levels of added rapeseed oil (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4% w/w of WPI). Measurements of film microstructure, laser light-scattering granulometry, differential scanning calorimetry, wetting properties and water vapour permeability (WVP) were made. The emulsion structure in the film suspension changed significantly during drying, with oil creaming and coalescence occurring. Increasing oil concentration led to a 2.5-fold increase in surface hydrophobicity and decreases in WVP and denaturation temperature (T(max)). Film structure and surface properties explain the moisture absorption and film swelling as a function of moisture level and time and consequently the WVP behaviour. Small amounts of rapeseed oil favourably affect the WVP of WPI films, particularly at higher humidities. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.
Onwulata, C I; Isobe, S; Tomasula, P M; Cooke, P H
Whey proteins have wide acceptance and use in many products due to their beneficial nutritional properties. To further increase the amount of whey protein isolates (WPI) that may be added to products such as extruded snacks and meats, texturization of WPI is necessary. Texturization changes the folding of globular proteins to improve interaction with other ingredients and create new functional ingredients. In this study, WPI pastes (60% solids) were extruded in a twin-screw extruder at 100 degrees C with 4 pH-adjusted water streams: acidic (pH 2.0 +/- 0.2) and alkaline (pH 12.4 +/- 0.4) streams from 2 N HCl and 2 N NaOH, respectively, and acidic (pH 2.5 +/- 0.2) and alkaline (pH 11.5 +/- 0.4) electrolyzed water streams; these were compared with WPI extruded with deionized water. The effects of water acidity on WPI solubility at pH 7, color, microstructure, Rapid Visco Analyzer pasting properties, and physical structure were determined. Alkaline conditions increased insolubility caused yellowing and increased pasting properties significantly. Acidic conditions increased solubility and decreased WPI pasting properties. Subtle structural changes occurred under acidic conditions, but were more pronounced under alkaline conditions. Overall, alkaline conditions increased denaturation in the extruded WPI resulting in stringy texturized WPI products, which could be used in meat applications.
Levin, M A; Burrington, K J; Hartel, R W
Whey protein phospholipid concentrate (WPPC) and delactosed permeate (DLP) are 2 coproducts of cheese whey processing that are currently underused. Past research has shown that WPPC and DLP can be used together as a functional dairy ingredient in foods such as ice cream, soup, and caramel. However, the scope of the research has been limited to 1 WPPC supplier. The objective of this research was to fully characterize a range of WPPC. Four WPPC samples and 1 DLP sample were analyzed for chemical composition and functionality. This analysis showed that WPPC composition was highly variable between suppliers and lots. In addition, the functionality of the WPPC varies depending on the supplier and testing pH, and cannot be correlated with fat or protein content because of differences in processing. The addition of DLP to WPPC affects functionality. In general, WPPC has a high water-holding capacity, is relatively heat stable, has low foamability, and does not aid in emulsion stability. The gel strength and texture are highly dependent on the amount of protein. To be able to use these 2 dairy products, the composition and functionality must be fully understood. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, J; Wu, Y; Ma, Y; Lu, N; Regenstein, J M; Zhou, P
High-protein intermediate moisture food (HPIMF) containing sodium caseinate (NaCN) often gave a harder texture compared with that made from whey proteins or soy proteins, due to the aggregation of protein particles. The objectives of this study were to explore whether the addition of hydrocolloids could soften the texture and illustrate the possible mechanism. Three kinds of hydrocolloids, xanthan gum, κ-carrageenan, and gum arabic were chosen, and samples including of these three kinds of hydrocolloids were studied through texture analysis using a TPA test and microstructure observation by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The texture analysis results showed that xanthan gum was more effective at softening the HPIMF containing NaCN compared to κ-carrageenan and gum arabic. In addition, with the increase of xanthan gum concentration from 0.2 to 2%, the HPIMF matrix became softer, and fractures were observed during the compression for samples with xanthan gum added at low concentrations but not 2%. Microstructure observation suggested that the matrix originally dominated by the network formed through the aggregation of swollen protein particles was inhibited by the addition of xanthan gum, resulting in the softening of the texture and also contributing to the fracture during compression. With the increase of xanthan gum concentration up to 2%, the protein dominating network would be gradually replaced with a matrix dominated by the newly formed network of xanthan gum with protein particles as fillers. Furthermore, this formation of a xanthan gum dominating network structure also resulted in changes in small molecule distribution, as observed using low-field NMR.
Madende, M; Osthoff, G; Patterton, H-G; Patterton, H E; Martin, P; Opperman, D J
The current research reports partial characterization of the caseins and α-lactalbumin (α-LA) of the African elephant with proposed unique structure-function properties. Extensive research has been carried out to understand the structure of the casein micelles. Crystallographic structure elucidation of caseins and casein micelles is not possible. Consequently, several models have been developed in an effort to describe the casein micelle, specifically of cow milk. Here we report the characterization of African elephant milk caseins. The κ-caseins and β-caseins were investigated, and their relative ratio was found to be approximately 1:8.5, whereas α-caseins were not detected. The gene sequence of β-casein in the NCBI database was revisited, and a different sequence in the N-terminal region is proposed. Amino acid sequence alignment and hydropathy plots showed that the κ-casein of African elephant milk is similar to that of other mammals, whereas the β-casein is similar to the human protein, and displayed a section of unique AA composition and additional hydrophilic regions compared with bovine caseins. Elephant milk is destabilized by 62% alcohol, and it is speculated that the β-casein characteristics may allow maintenance of the colloidal nature of the casein micelle, a role that was previously only associated with κ-casein. The oligosaccharide content of milk was reported to be low in dairy animals but high in some other species such as humans and elephants. In the milk of the African elephant, lactose and oligosaccharides both occur at high levels. These levels are typically related to the content of α-LA in the mammary gland and thus point to a specialized carbohydrate synthesis, where the whey protein α-LA plays a role. We report the characterization of African elephant α-LA. Homology modeling of the α-LA showed that it is structurally similar to crystal structures of other mammalian species, which in turn may be an indication that its functional
Lim, S-Y; Swanson, B G; Ross, C F; Clark, S
Previous research demonstrated that application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), particularly at 300 MPa for 15 min, can enhance foaming properties of whey protein concentrate (WPC). The purpose of this research was to determine the practical impact of HHP-treated WPC on the body and texture of lowfat ice cream. Washington State University (WSU)-WPC was produced by ultrafiltration of fresh separated whey received from the WSU creamery. Commercial whey protein concentrate 35 (WPC 35) powder was reconstituted to equivalent total solids as WSU-WPC (8.23%). Three batches of lowfat ice cream mix were produced to contain WSU-WPC without HHP, WSU-WPC with HHP (300 MPa for 15 min), and WPC 35 without HHP. All lowfat ice cream mixes contained 10% WSU-WPC or WPC 35. Overrun and foam stability of ice cream mixes were determined after whipping for 15 min. Ice creams were produced using standard ice cream ingredients and processing. The hardness of ice creams was determined with a TA-XT2 texture analyzer. Sensory evaluation by balanced reference duo-trio test was carried out using 52 volunteers. The ice cream mix containing HHP-treated WSU-WPC exhibited the greatest overrun and foam stability, confirming the effect of HHP on foaming properties of whey proteins in a complex system. Ice cream containing HHP-treated WSU-WPC exhibited significantly greater hardness than ice cream produced with untreated WSU-WPC or WPC 35. Panelists were able to distinguish between ice cream containing HHP-treated WSU-WPC and ice cream containing untreated WPC 35. Improvements of overrun and foam stability were observed when HHP-treated whey protein was used at a concentration as low as 10% (wt/wt) in ice cream mix. The impact of HHP on the functional properties of whey proteins was more pronounced than the impact on sensory properties.
Sreeja, S; Geetha, Rajagopalan; Priyadarshini, Emayavaramban; Bhavani, Krishnamoorthy; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman
Fructose-rich diet is known to cause metabolic dysregulation, oxidative stress, and inflammation. We aimed to compare the effects of two dietary proteins of animal and plant origins on fructose-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory changes in liver. Wistar rats were fed either starch or fructose (60%) diet with casein or soy protein (20%) as the protein source for 8 weeks. Glucose and insulin, glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine, AOPP, and FRAP were determined in circulation. Intracellular ROS, oxidatively modified proteins (4-HNE and 3-NT adducts), adiponectin, TNF- α , IL-6 and PAI-1 mRNA expression, phosphorylation and activation of JNK and IKK β , and NF- κ B binding activity were assayed in liver. In comparison with starch fed group, fructose + casein group registered significant decline in antioxidant potential and increase in plasma glucose, insulin, and glycated proteins. Increased ROS production, 4-HNE and 3-NT modified proteins, JNK and IKK β activation, and NF- κ B binding activity were observed in them along with increased gene expression of PAI-1, IL-6, and TNF- α and decreased adiponectin expression. Substitution of soy protein for casein reduced oxidative modification and inflammatory changes in fructose-fed rats. These data suggest that soy protein but not casein can avert the adverse effects elicited by chronic consumption of fructose.
Strong protein gel networks may result from synergistic interactions with other proteins or food materials above that achievable with a single protein alone. We determined varying flow and viscoelastic behavior of calcium caseinate (CC) or whey protein isolate (WPI) mixed with egg albumin (EA), fish...
Kuan, Yau-Hoong; Bhat, Rajeev; Karim, Alias A
The physicochemical and functional properties of ultraviolet (UV)-treated egg white protein (EW) and sodium caseinate (SC) were investigated. UV irradiation of the proteins was carried out for 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. However, the SC samples were subjected to extended UV irradiation for 4 and 6 h as no difference was found on the initial UV exposure time. Formol titration, SDS-PAGE, and FTIR analyses indicated that UV irradiation could induce cross-linking on proteins and led to improved emulsifying and foaming properties (P < 0.05). These results indicated that the UV-irradiated EW and SC could be used as novel emulsifier and foaming agents in broad food systems for stabilizing and foaming purposes.
Gbassi, Gildas Komenan; Vandamme, Thierry; Ennahar, Saïd; Marchioni, Eric
Whey proteins were used as a coating material to improve encapsulation of Lactobacillus plantarum strains in calcium alginate beads. L. plantarum 299v, L. plantarum 800 and L. plantarum CIP A159 were used in this study. Inactivation experiments were carried out in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). Cross-sections of freeze-dried beads revealed the random distribution of bacteria throughout the alginate network. From an initial count of 10.04+/-0.01 log(10) CFU g(-1) for L. plantarum 299v, 10.12+/-0.04 for L. plantarum CIP A159 and 10.03+/-0.01 for L. plantarum 800, bacteria in coated beads and incubated in SGF (37 degrees C, 60 min) showed a better survival for L. plantarum 299v, L. plantarum CIP A159 and L. plantarum 800 (respectively 7.76+/-0.12, 6.67+/-0.08 and 5.81+/-0.25 log(10) CFU g(-1)) when compared to uncoated beads (2.19+/-0.09, 1.89+/-0.09 and 1.65+/-0.10 log(10) CFU g(-1)) (p<0.05). Only bacteria in the coated beads survived in the SIF medium (37 degrees C, 180 min) after SGF treatment. This preliminary work showed that whey proteins are a convenient, cheap and efficient material for coating alginate beads loaded with bacteria.
Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda; Levada-Pires, Adriana C; Folador, Alessandra; Gorjão, Renata; Alba-Loureiro, Tatiana C; Hirabara, Sandro M; Peres, Fabiano P; Silva, Paulo R S; Curi, Rui; Pithon-Curi, Tania C
Lymphocyte and neutrophil death induced by exercise and the role of hydrolyzed whey protein enriched with glutamine dipeptide (Gln) supplementation was investigated. Nine triathletes performed two exhaustive exercise trials with a 1-week interval in a randomized, double blind, crossover protocol. Thirty minutes before treadmill exhaustive exercise at variable speeds in an inclination of 1% the subjects ingested 50 g of maltodextrin (placebo) or 50 g of maltodextrin plus 4 tablets of 700 mg of hydrolyzed whey protein enriched with 175 mg of glutamine dipeptide dissolved in 250 mL water. Cell viability, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined in lymphocytes and neutrophils. Exhaustive exercise decreased viable lymphocytes but had no effect on neutrophils. A 2.2-fold increase in the proportion of lymphocytes and neutrophils with depolarized mitochondria was observed after exhaustive exercise. Supplementation of maltodextrin plus Gln (MGln) prevented the loss of lymphocyte membrane integrity and the mitochondrial membrane depolarization induced by exercise. Exercise caused an increase in ROS production by neutrophils, whereas supplementation of MGln had no additional effect. MGln supplementation partially prevented lymphocyte apoptosis induced by exhaustive exercise possibly by a protective effect on mitochondrial function.
Dragich, Ann M; Krochta, John M
This study investigated the use of whey protein, as an additional coating, in combination with basic, well-described predust, batter, and breading ingredients, for fat-uptake reduction in fried chicken. Chicken breasts were cut into strips (1 x 5 x 10 cm) and coated with wheat flour (WF) as a predust, dipped in batter, coated with WF as a breading, then dipped in 10% denatured whey protein isolate (DWPI) aqueous solution (wet basis). A WF-batter-WF treatment with no DWPI solution dip was included as a control. Coated chicken strips were deep-fried at 160 degrees C for 5 min. A Soxhlet-type extraction was performed to determine the fat content of the meat fraction of fried samples, the coating fraction of fried samples, raw chicken, and raw coating ingredients. The WF-batter-WF-10% DWPI solution had significantly lower fat uptake than the WF-batter-WF control, by 30.67% (dry basis). This article describes applied research involving fat reduction in coated deep-fried chicken. The methods used in this article were intended to achieve maximized fat reduction while maintaining a simple procedure applicable to actual food processing lines.
Zhang, Hongmei; Sun, Shixin; Wang, Yanqing; Cao, Jian
The objective of this research was to study the interactions of sucralose with whey protein isolate (WPI) by using the three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy and molecular modeling. The results showed that the peptide strands structure of WPI had been changed by sucralose. Sucralose binding induced the secondary structural changes and increased content of aperiodic structure of WPI. Sucralose decreased the thermal stability of WPI and acted as a structure destabilizer during the thermal unfolding process of protein. In addition, the existence of sucralose decreased the reversibility of the unfolding of WPI. Nonetheless, sucralose-WPI complex was less stable than protein alone. The molecular modeling result showed that van der Waals and hydrogen bonding interactions contribute to the complexation free binding energy. There are more than one possible binding sites of WPI with sucralose by surface binding mode.
Misawa, Noriko; Barbano, David M; Drake, MaryAnne
Combinations of fresh liquid microfiltration retentate of skim milk, ultrafiltered retentate and permeate produced from microfiltration permeate, cream, and dried lactose monohydrate were used to produce a matrix of 20 milks. The milks contained 5 levels of casein as a percentage of true protein of about 5, 25, 50, 75, and 80% and 4 levels of true protein of 3.0, 3.76, 4.34, and 5.0% with constant lactose percentage of 5%. The experiment was replicated twice and repeated for both 1 and 2% fat content. Hunter color measurements, relative viscosity, and fat globule size distribution were measured, and a trained panel documented appearance and texture attributes on all milks. Overall, casein as a percentage of true protein had stronger effects than level of true protein on Hunter L, a, b values, relative viscosity, and fat globule size when using fresh liquid micellar casein concentrates and milk serum protein concentrates produced by a combination of microfiltration and ultrafiltration. As casein as a percentage of true protein increased, the milks became more white (higher L value), less green (lower negative a value), and less yellow (lower b value). Relative viscosity increased and d(0.9) generally decreased with increasing casein as a percentage of true protein. Panelists perceived milks with increasing casein as a percentage of true protein as more white, more opaque, and less yellow. Panelists were able to detect increased throat cling and mouthcoating with increased casein as a percentage of true protein in 2% milks, even when differences in appearance among milks were masked. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hansen, Mette; Bangsbo, Jens; Jensen, Jørgen; Bibby, Bo Martin; Madsen, Klavs
This trial aimed to examine the effect of whey protein hydrolysate intake before and after exercise sessions on endurance performance and recovery in elite orienteers during a training camp. Eighteen elite orienteers participated in a randomized controlled intervention trial during a 1-week training camp (13 exercise sessions). Half of the runners (PRO-CHO) ingested a protein drink before (0.3 g kg(-1)) and a protein-carbohydrate drink after (0.3 g protein kg(-1) and 1 g carbohydrate kg(-1)) each exercise session. The others ingested energy and time-matched carbohydrate drinks (CHO). A 4-km run-test with 20 control points was performed before and on the last day of the intervention. Blood and saliva were obtained in the mornings, before and after run-tests, and after the last training session. During the intervention, questionnaires were fulfilled regarding psychological sense of performance capacity and motivation. PRO-CHO and not CHO improved performance in the 4-km run-test (interaction p < .05). An increase in serum creatine kinase was observed during the week, which was greater in CHO than PRO-CHO (interaction p < .01). Lactate dehydrogenase (p < .001) and cortisol (p = .057) increased during the week, but the change did not differ between groups. Reduction in sense of performance capacity during the intervention was greater in CHO (p < .05) than PRO-CHO. In conclusion, ingestion of whey protein hydrolysate before and after each exercise session improves performance and reduces markers of muscle damage during a strenuous 1-week training camp. The results indicate that protein supplementation in conjunction with each exercise session facilitates the recovery from strenuous training in elite orienteers.
Mahmoudi, Najet; Gaillard, Cédric; Boué, François; Axelos, Monique A V; Riaublanc, Alain
We investigated the structure of heat-induced assemblies of whey globular proteins using small angle neutron scattering (SANS), static and dynamic light scattering (SLS and DLS), and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM). Whey protein molecules self-assemble in fractal aggregates with a structure density depending on the electrostatic interactions. We determined the static and dynamic properties of interfacial layer formed by the protein assemblies, upon adsorption and spreading at the air-water interface using surface film balance and interfacial dilatational rheology. Upon spreading, all whey protein systems show a power-law scaling behavior of the surface pressure versus concentration in the semi-dilute surface concentration regime, with an exponent ranging from 5.5 to 9 depending on the electrostatic interactions and the aggregation state. The dilatational modulus derived from surface pressure isotherms shows a main peak at 6-8 mN/m, generally considered to be the onset of a conformational change in the monolayer, and a second peak or a shoulder at 15 mN/m. Long-time adsorption kinetics give similar results for both the native whey proteins and the corresponding self-similar assemblies, with a systematic effect of the ionic strength. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shen, Xue; Zhao, Changhui; Lu, Jing; Guo, Mingruo
Astaxanthin nanodispersion was prepared using whey protein isolate (WPI) and polymerized whey protein (PWP) through an emulsification-evaporation technique. The physicochemical properties of the astaxanthin nanodispersion were evaluated, and the transport of astaxanthin was assessed using a Caco-2 cell monolayer model. The astaxanthin nanodispersions stabilized by WPI and PWP (2.5%, w/w) had a small particle size (121 ± 4.9 and 80.4 ± 5.9 nm, respectively), negative ζ potential (-19.3 ± 1.5 and -35.0 ± 2.2 mV, respectively), and high encapsulation efficiency (92.1 ± 2.9 and 93.5 ± 2.4%, respectively). Differential scanning calorimetry curves indicated that amorphous astaxanthin existed in both astaxanthin nanodispersions. Whey-protein-stabilized astaxanthin nanodispersion showed resistance to pepsin digestion but readily released astaxanthin after trypsin digestion. The nanodispersions showed no cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells at a protein concentration below 10 mg/mL. WPI- and PWP-stabilized nanodispersions improved the apparent permeability coefficient (P app ) of Caco-2 cells to astaxanthin by 10.3- and 16.1-fold, respectively. The results indicated that whey-protein-stabilized nanodispersion is a good vehicle to deliver lipophilic bioactive compounds, such as astaxanthin, and to improve their bioavailability.
Yang, Mei; Cao, Xueyan; Wu, Rina; Liu, Biao; Ye, Wenhui; Yue, Xiqing; Wu, Junrui
Whey, an essential source of dietary nutrients, is widely used in dairy foods for infants. A total of 584 whey proteins in human and bovine colostrum and mature milk were identified and quantified by the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) proteomic method. The 424 differentially expressed whey proteins were identified and analyzed according to gene ontology (GO) annotation, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway, and multivariate statistical analysis. Biological processes principally involved biological regulation and response to stimulus. Major cellular components were extracellular region part and extracellular space. The most prevalent molecular function was protein binding. Twenty immune-related proteins and 13 proteins related to enzyme regulatory activity were differentially expressed in human and bovine milk. Differentially expressed whey proteins participated in many KEGG pathways, including major complement and coagulation cascades and in phagosomes. Whey proteins show obvious differences in expression in human and bovine colostrum and mature milk, with consequences for biological function. The results here increase our understanding of different whey proteomes, which could provide useful information for the development and manufacture of dairy products and nutrient food for infants. The advanced iTRAQ proteomic approach was used to analyze differentially expressed whey proteins in human and bovine colostrum and mature milk.
Polberger, S; Räihä, N C; Juvonen, P; Moro, G E; Minoli, I; Warm, A
To improve the nutritional management of pre-term infants, a new individualized human milk fortification system based on presupplementation milk protein analyses was evaluated. In an open, prospective, randomized multicenter study, 32 healthy preterm infants (birth weights, 920-1750 g) were enrolled at a mean of 21 days of age (range, 9-36 days) when tolerating exclusive enteral feedings of 150 ml/kg per day. All infants were fed human milk and were randomly allocated to fortification with a bovine whey protein fortifier (n = 16) or ultrafiltrated human milk protein (n = 16). All human milk was analyzed for protein content before fortification with the goal of a daily protein intake of 3.5 g/kg. During the study period (mean, 24 days) daily aliquots of the fortified milk were obtained for subsequent analyses of the protein content. Both fortifiers were well tolerated, and growth gain in weight, length, and head circumference, as well as final preprandial concentrations of serum urea, transthyretin, transferrin, and albumin were similar in both groups. The ultimate estimated protein intake was equivalent in both groups (mean 3.1+/-0.1 g/kg per day). Serum amino acid profiles were similar in both feeding groups, except for threonine (significantly higher in the bovine fortifier group) and proline and ornithine (significantly higher in the human milk protein group). Protein analyses of the milk before individual fortification provides a new tool for an individualized feeding system of the preterm infant. The bovine whey protein fortifier attained biochemical and growth results similar to those found in infants fed human milk protein exclusively with the corresponding protein intakes.
Whey protein (WPC34 and 80) has been used as food ingredients and as a base for making biodegradable product. However, there is limited information on the behavior of native microflora associated with these products. WPC 34 and WPC80 were obtained from the manufacturer, and were stored at 5, 10, 15,...
In this study, ß-carotene (BC)-loaded nanoemulsions encapsulated with native whey protein isolate (WPI) and WPI-dextran (DT, 5 kDa, 20 kDa, and 70 kDa) conjugates were prepared and the effects of glycosylation with various molecular weight DTs on the physicochemical property, lipolysis, and BC bioac...
Pal, Gayatri; Paraz, Maria T.Z.; Kellogg, Douglas R.
The Cdc25 phosphatase promotes entry into mitosis by removing cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) inhibitory phosphorylation. Previous work suggested that Cdc25 is activated by Cdk1 in a positive feedback loop promoting entry into mitosis; however, it has remained unclear how the feedback loop is initiated. To learn more about the mechanisms that regulate entry into mitosis, we have characterized the function and regulation of Mih1, the budding yeast homologue of Cdc25. We found that Mih1 is hyperphosphorylated early in the cell cycle and is dephosphorylated as cells enter mitosis. Casein kinase 1 is responsible for most of the hyperphosphorylation of Mih1, whereas protein phosphatase 2A associated with Cdc55 dephosphorylates Mih1. Cdk1 appears to directly phosphorylate Mih1 and is required for initiation of Mih1 dephosphorylation as cells enter mitosis. Collectively, these observations suggest that Mih1 regulation is achieved by a balance of opposing kinase and phosphatase activities. Because casein kinase 1 is associated with sites of polar growth, it may regulate Mih1 as part of a signaling mechanism that links successful completion of growth-related events to cell cycle progression. PMID:18316413
Levin, M A; Burrington, K J; Hartel, R W
Whey protein phospholipid concentrate (WPPC) and delactosed permeate (DLP) are 2 coproducts of cheese whey processing that are currently underutilized. Past research has shown that WPPC and DLP can be used together as a functional dairy ingredient in foods such as ice cream, soup, and caramel. However, the scope of the research has been limited to a single WPPC supplier. The variability of the composition and functionality of WPPC was previously studied. The objective of this research was to expand on the previous study and examine the potential applications of WPPC and DLP blends in foods. In ice cream, WPPC was added as a natural emulsifier to replace synthetic emulsifiers. The WPPC decreased the amount of partially coalesced fat and increased the drip-through rate. In caramel, DLP and WPPC replaced sweetened condensed skim milk and lecithin. Cold flow increased significantly, and hardness and stickiness decreased. In cake, DLP and WPPC were added as a total replacement of eggs, with no change in yield, color, or texture. Overall, WPPC and DLP can be utilized as functional dairy ingredients at a lower cost in ice cream and cake but not in chewy caramel. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chatterjee, Alok; Kanawjia, S K; Khetra, Yogesh
Utilization of Indian sweetened yogurt (colloquially termed as Mishti Dohi), as vehicle for ACE inhibition and antioxidant activity, by added tryptic whey protein hydrolysate (TWPH) (@ 1, 2, 3 % v/milk), was attempted. Yogurt with 3 % TWPH exhibited non-significant (p > 0.05) difference for sensory attributes; but for body & texture; and maximum biofunctional properties, electing it for storage study (5 ± 1 °C). Flavor and body & texture scores registered significant (p < 0.05) decline under 14 days storage. ACE inhibition and antioxidant activity of control increased by 47.95 and 13.18 % and of experimental 24.58 and 13.43 %, correspondingly. Acidity rose to 1.18 % LA. Control samples conveyed 18.07 % and experimental of 20.77 % escalation for wheying-off. Tyrosine value was 27.04 μg.mL(-1). Among rheological attributes, firmness, quantified by texture analyzer TA-XT2i, dropped (p < 0.05), due to decrease of gel rigidity whereas work of adhesion revealed non-significant difference (p > 0.05), throughout.
Cai, B; Ikeda, S
Whey proteins can be used to stabilize foams and emulsions against coalescence because of their ability to form viscoelastic films at the interface that resist film rupture on collision between colloidal particles. However, whey proteins are competitively displaced from the interface if small-molecule surfactants are added, leading to destabilization of the entire system. This is because surfactants are more effective in molecular packing at the interface, and they lower interfacial tension to a greater degree than whey proteins do, but their interfacial films are poor in viscoelasticity. We hypothesized that whey proteins would become more resistant to surfactant-induced competitive displacement if they were conjugated with network-forming polysaccharides. The protein moiety of the conjugate would be expected to enable its adsorption to the interface, and the polysaccharide moiety would be expected to form self-assembled networks, strengthening the interfacial film as a whole. In this study, whey proteins were conjugated with gellan polysaccharides using the Maillard reaction. Atomic force microscopy images of interfacial films formed by the whey protein-gellan conjugate at the air-water interface and transferred onto mica sheets using the Langmuir-Blodgett method revealed that gellan did form self-assembled networks at the interface and that interfacial films also contained a large number of unconjugated whey protein molecules. Following the addition of a small-molecule surfactant (Tween 20) to the sub-phase, surface pressure increased, indicating spontaneous adsorption of surfactants to the interface. Atomic force microscopy images showed decreases in interfacial area coverage by whey proteins as surface pressure increased. At a given surface pressure, the interfacial area coverage by whey protein-gellan conjugates was greater than coverage by unconjugated whey proteins, confirming that whey proteins became more resistant to surfactant-induced displacement after
Cowley, F C; Barber, D G; Houlihan, A V; Poppi, D P
The effects of heat stress on dairy production can be separated into 2 distinct causes: those effects that are mediated by the reduced voluntary feed intake associated with heat stress, and the direct physiological and metabolic effects of heat stress. To distinguish between these, and identify their effect on milk protein and casein concentration, mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 24) were housed in temperature-controlled chambers and either subjected to heat stress [HS; temperature-humidity index (THI) ~78] or kept in a THI<70 environment and pair-fed with heat-stressed cows (TN-R) for 7 d. A control group of cows was kept in a THI<70 environment with ad libitum feeding (TN-AL). A subsequent recovery period (7 d), with THI<70 and ad libitum feeding followed. Intake accounted for only part of the effects of heat stress. Heat stress reduced the milk protein concentration, casein number, and casein concentration and increased the urea concentration in milk beyond the effects of restriction of intake. Under HS, the proportion in total casein of αS1-casein increased and the proportion of αS2-casein decreased. Because no effect of HS on milk fat or lactose concentration was found, these effects appeared to be the result of specific downregulation of mammary protein synthesis, and not a general reduction in mammary activity. No residual effects were found of HS or TN-R on milk production or composition after THI<70 and ad libitum intake were restored. Heat-stressed cows had elevated blood concentrations of urea and Ca, compared with TN-R and TN-AL. Cows in TN-R had higher serum nonesterified fatty acid concentrations than cows in HS. It was proposed that HS and TN-R cows may mobilize different tissues as endogenous sources of energy. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Badr, Gamal; Ramadan, Nancy K; Sayed, Leila H; Badr, Badr M; Omar, Hossam M; Selamoglu, Zeliha
The balance between free radicals and antioxidants is an important factor for maintaining health and slowing disease progression. The use of antioxidants, particularly natural antioxidants, has become an important strategy for dealing with this cause of widespread diseases. Natural antioxidants have been used as therapeutic tools against many diseases because they are safe, effective, and inexpensive and are among the most commonly used adjuvants in the treatment of several diseases. Camel whey protein (CWP) is considered a strong natural antioxidant because it decreases oxidative stress, enhances immune system function, and increases glutathione levels. The structure of CWP is very similar to that of other types of whey protein from different types of milk. CWP contains many components, such as lactoferrin (LF), lactalbumin, lactoglobulins, lactoperoxidase, and lysozyme, and is rich in immunoglobulins. However, in contrast to other WPs, CWP lacks β-lactoglobulin, the main cause of milk allergies in children. The components of CWP have many beneficial effects, including stimulation of both innate and adaptive immunity and anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antibacterial, and antiviral activities. Recently, it has been shown that CWP and its unique components can facilitate the treatment of impaired diabetic wound healing. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of CWP in human and other animal disorders are not fully understood. Therefore, the current review presents a concise summary of the scientific evidence of the beneficial effects of CWP to support its therapeutic use in disease treatment and nutritional intervention. PMID:28804604
Yver, Alexandra L.; Bonnaillie, Laetitia M.; Yee, Winnie; McAloon, Andrew; Tomasula, Peggy M.
An economical and environmentally friendly whey protein fractionation process was developed using supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) as an acid to produce enriched fractions of α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) from a commercial whey protein isolate (WPI) containing 20% α-LA and 55% β-LG, through selective precipitation of α-LA. Pilot-scale experiments were performed around the optimal parameter range (T = 60 to 65 °C, P = 8 to 31 MPa, C = 5 to 15% (w/w) WPI) to quantify the recovery rates of the individual proteins and the compositions of both fractions as a function of processing conditions. Mass balances were calculated in a process flow-sheet to design a large-scale, semi-continuous process model using SuperproDesigner® software. Total startup and production costs were estimated as a function of processing parameters, product yield and purity. Temperature, T, pressure, P, and concentration, C, showed conflicting effects on equipment costs and the individual precipitation rates of the two proteins, affecting the quantity, quality, and production cost of the fractions considerably. The highest α-LA purity, 61%, with 80% α-LA recovery in the solid fraction, was obtained at T = 60 °C, C = 5% WPI, P = 8.3 MPa, with a production cost of $8.65 per kilogram of WPI treated. The most profitable conditions resulted in 57%-pure α-LA, with 71% α-LA recovery in the solid fraction and 89% β-LG recovery in the soluble fraction, and production cost of $5.43 per kilogram of WPI treated at T = 62 °C, C = 10% WPI and P = 5.5 MPa. The two fractions are ready-to-use, new food ingredients with a pH of 6.7 and contain no residual acid or chemical contaminants. PMID:22312250
Atamer, Zeynep; Samtlebe, Meike; Neve, Horst; J. Heller, Knut; Hinrichs, Joerg
As the cheese market faces strong international competition, the optimization of production processes becomes more important for the economic success of dairy companies. In dairy productions, whey from former cheese batches is frequently re-used to increase the yield, to improve the texture and to increase the nutrient value of the final product. Recycling of whey cream and particulated whey proteins is also routinely performed. Most bacteriophages, however, survive pasteurization and may re-enter the cheese manufacturing process. There is a risk that phages multiply to high numbers during the production. Contamination of whey samples with bacteriophages may cause problems in cheese factories because whey separation often leads to aerosol-borne phages and thus contamination of the factory environment. Furthermore, whey cream or whey proteins used for recycling into cheese matrices may contain thermo-resistant phages. Drained cheese whey can be contaminated with phages as high as 109 phages mL-1. When whey batches are concentrated, phage titers can increase significantly by a factor of 10 hindering a complete elimination of phages. To eliminate the risk of fermentation failure during recycling of whey, whey treatments assuring an efficient reduction of phages are indispensable. This review focuses on inactivation of phages in whey by thermal treatment, ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation, and membrane filtration. Inactivation by heat is the most common procedure. However, application of heat for inactivation of thermo-resistant phages in whey is restricted due to negative effects on the functional properties of native whey proteins. Therefore an alternative strategy applying combined treatments should be favored – rather than heating the dairy product at extreme temperature/time combinations. By using membrane filtration or UV treatment in combination with thermal treatment, phage numbers in whey can be reduced sufficiently to prevent subsequent phage accumulations
Vieira-Brock, Paula de Lima; Vaughan, Brent M; Vollmer, David L
Certain food ingredients promote thermogenesis and fat loss. Similarly, whey protein improves body composition. Due to this potential synergistic effect, a blend of thermogenic food ingredients containing African mango, citrus fruit extract, Coleus forskohlii , dihydrocapsiate, and red pepper was tested alone and in combination with a whey protein supplement for its effects on body composition in sedentary mice during high-fat diet. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction of thermogenic foods on improving body composition during consumption of an unhealthy diet. C57BL/6J young adult male mice ( n = 12) were placed on a 60% high-fat diet for 4 weeks and subsequently randomly assigned to receive daily dosing by oral gavage of vehicle, the novel blend alone or with whey protein supplement for another 4 weeks. Body composition, thermal imaging of brown adipose tissue (BAT), mitochondrial BAT uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), and plasma levels of leptin were assessed. Novel blend alone and in combination with protein supplement attenuated body weight gain, fat, and increased surface BAT temperature in comparison to vehicle control and to baseline ( P < 0.5). The combination of novel blend and whey protein supplement also significantly increased UCP1 protein expression in BAT mitochondria in comparison to vehicle control and novel blend alone ( P < 0.5). These data indicate that this novel blend stimulates thermogenesis and attenuates the gain in body weight and fat in response to high-fat diet in mice and these effects were improved when administered in combination with whey protein supplement. 30 days oral administration to mice of a novel blend containing African mango seed extract, citrus fruits extract, Coleus forskohlii root extract, dihydrocapsiate and red pepper fruit extract reduced body weight and fat gain in response to high-fat diet without impairing muscle mass.The novel blend stimulated thermogenesis as shown by the increased thermal imaging
Vieira-Brock, Paula de Lima; Vaughan, Brent M.; Vollmer, David L.
Background: Certain food ingredients promote thermogenesis and fat loss. Similarly, whey protein improves body composition. Due to this potential synergistic effect, a blend of thermogenic food ingredients containing African mango, citrus fruit extract, Coleus forskohlii, dihydrocapsiate, and red pepper was tested alone and in combination with a whey protein supplement for its effects on body composition in sedentary mice during high-fat diet. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction of thermogenic foods on improving body composition during consumption of an unhealthy diet. Materials and Methods: C57BL/6J young adult male mice (n = 12) were placed on a 60% high-fat diet for 4 weeks and subsequently randomly assigned to receive daily dosing by oral gavage of vehicle, the novel blend alone or with whey protein supplement for another 4 weeks. Body composition, thermal imaging of brown adipose tissue (BAT), mitochondrial BAT uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), and plasma levels of leptin were assessed. Results: Novel blend alone and in combination with protein supplement attenuated body weight gain, fat, and increased surface BAT temperature in comparison to vehicle control and to baseline (P < 0.5). The combination of novel blend and whey protein supplement also significantly increased UCP1 protein expression in BAT mitochondria in comparison to vehicle control and novel blend alone (P < 0.5). Conclusions: These data indicate that this novel blend stimulates thermogenesis and attenuates the gain in body weight and fat in response to high-fat diet in mice and these effects were improved when administered in combination with whey protein supplement. SUMMARY 30 days oral administration to mice of a novel blend containing African mango seed extract, citrus fruits extract, Coleus forskohlii root extract, dihydrocapsiate and red pepper fruit extract reduced body weight and fat gain in response to high-fat diet without impairing muscle mass.The novel
Wang, Hao; Wang, Cuina; Wang, Mu; Guo, Mingruo
A set-type fermented goat milk (FGM) using polymerized whey protein (PWP) as main thickening agent and Kefir Mild 01 as starter culture was developed. The FGM with PWP (0.3%, w/v) and pectin (0.2%, w/v) had low syneresis (5.44 ± 0.92%), desirable viscosity (952.86 ± 61.52 mPa⋅s), and hardness (112.57 ± 3.23 g), which were comparable to a fermented cow milk. Sensory evaluation data showed that the FGM with PWP and pectin had higher scores of both flavor (4.41 ± 0.39) and taste (3.72 ± 0.34) than the sample without PWP. Chemical composition of both fermented goat and cow milk were analyzed. The protein content of goat and cow milk samples were 3.50% ± 0.12% and 3.28% ± 0.09% (w/w), respectively. Lactobacillus acidophilus population in both FGM samples remained above 10 6 CFU/g during the 1st 4-wk storage. There was a slight but no significant (P > 0.05) decrease in pH and TA during storage. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs displayed a compact and homogeneous protein network of the FGM with PWP and pectin. Polymerized whey protein may be a novel protein-based thickening agent for formulation of a set-type FGM with starter culture Kefir Mild 01. Fermented goat milk is an increasingly popular dairy product in the world. However, it is difficult to make set type fermented goat milk due to the smaller size and lower content of casein micelles in goat milk. A fermented goat milk with PWP (0.3%, w/v) and pectin (0.2%, w/v) was successfully developed in this study. The product fermented by Kefir Mild 01 starter culture had a similar taste with Kefir but no yeast or alcoholic exists. The new product would be a promising food in the market. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.
... infections as taking a combination of zinc, selenium, glutamine, and metoclopramide. Muscular disease (mitochondrial myopathies). Early research ... or 42-84 grams per day in a glutamine-enriched formula. For red, scaly skin (plaque psoriasis): ...
This data file describes the bioinformatics analysis of uterine RNA-seq data comparing genome wide effects of feeding soy protein isolate compared to casein to ovariectomized female rats age 64 days relative to treatment of casein fed rats with 5 ug/kg/d estradiol and relative to rats treated with e...
Sihvola, Nora; Korpela, Riitta; Henelius, Andreas; Holm, Anu; Huotilainen, Minna; Müller, Kiti; Poussa, Tuija; Pettersson, Kati; Turpeinen, Anu; Peuhkuri, Katri
Dietary components may affect brain function and influence behaviour by inducing the synthesis of neurotransmitters. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of consumption of a whey protein-containing breakfast drink v. a carbohydrate drink v. control on subjective and physiological responses to mental workload in simulated work. In a randomised cross-over design, ten healthy subjects (seven women, median age 26 years, median BMI 23 kg/m(2)) participated in a single-blinded, placebo-controlled study. The subjects performed demanding work-like tasks after having a breakfast drink high in protein (HP) or high in carbohydrate (HC) or a control drink on separate sessions. Subjective states were assessed using the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), the Karolinska sleepiness scale (KSS) and the modified Profile of Mood States. Heart rate was recorded during task performance. The ratio of plasma tryptophan (Trp) to the sum of the other large neutral amino acids (LNAA) and salivary cortisol were also analysed. The plasma Trp:LNAA ratio was 30 % higher after the test drinks HP (median 0·13 (μmol/l)/(μmol/l)) and HC (median 0·13 (μmol/l)/(μmol/l)) than after the control drink (median 0·10 (μmol/l)/(μmol/l)). The increase in heart rate was smaller after the HP (median 2·7 beats/min) and HC (median 1·9 beats/min) drinks when compared with the control drink (median 7·2 beats/min) during task performance. Subjective sleepiness was reduced more after the HC drink (median KSS - 1·5) than after the control drink (median KSS - 0·5). There were no significant differences between the breakfast types in the NASA-TLX index, cortisol levels or task performance. We conclude that a breakfast drink high in whey protein or carbohydrates may improve coping with mental tasks in healthy subjects.
Stobaugh, Heather C; Ryan, Kelsey N; Kennedy, Julie A; Grise, Jennifer B; Crocker, Audrey H; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Litkowski, Patricia E; Maleta, Kenneth M; Manary, Mark J; Trehan, Indi
The utility of dairy ingredients in the supplementary foods used in the treatment of childhood moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) remains unsettled. We evaluated the effectiveness of a peanut-based ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) with soy protein compared with a novel RUSF containing dairy ingredients in the form of whey permeate and whey protein concentrate in the treatment of children with MAM. We conducted a randomized, double-blind clinical effectiveness trial involving rural Malawian and Mozambican children 6-59 mo of age with MAM treated with either soy RUSF or a novel whey RUSF treatment of ~75 kcal · kg(-1) · d(-1) for up to 12 wk. The proportion of children that recovered from MAM was significantly higher in the group that received whey RUSF (960 of 1144; 83.9%) than in the group that received soy RUSF (874 of 1086; 80.5%; P < 0.04; risk difference 3.4%, 95% CI: 0.3%, 6.6%). Children who consumed whey RUSF also demonstrated better growth markers, with a higher mean midupper arm circumference (MUAC) at the time of discharge (P < 0.009), greater MUAC gain during the course of treatment (P < 0.003), higher mean weight-for-height z score at discharge (P < 0.008), and greater weight gain (P < 0.05). No significant differences were identified in length gain or time to recovery between the 2 groups. This study highlights the importance of milk protein in the treatment of MAM, because the use of a novel whey RUSF resulted in higher recovery rates and improved growth than did soy RUSF, although the whey RUSF supplement provided less total protein and energy than the soy RUSF. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01790048. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
MacKenzie-Shalders, Kristen L; Byrne, Nuala M; Slater, Gary J; King, Neil A
Many athletes perform resistance training and consume dietary protein as a strategy to promote anabolic adaptation. Due to its high satiety value, the regular addition of supplemented dietary protein could plausibly displace other key macronutrients such as carbohydrate in an athlete's diet. This effect will be influenced by the form and dose of protein. Therefore, this study assessed the impact of liquid whey protein dose manipulation on subjective sensations of appetite and food intake in a cohort of athletes. Ten male athletes who performed both resistance and aerobic (endurance) training (21.2 ± 2.3 years; 181.7 ± 5.7 cm and 80.8 ± 6.1 kg) were recruited. In four counter-balanced testing sessions they consumed a manipulated whey protein supplement (20, 40, 60 or 80 g protein) 1 hour after a standardised breakfast. Subsequent energy intake was measured 3 hours after the protein supplement using an ad libitum test meal. Subjective appetite sensations were measured periodically during the test day using visual analogue scales. All conditions resulted in a significant decrease in ratings of hunger (50-65%; P < 0.05) at the time of supplement consumption. However, there were no significant differences between the conditions at any time point for subjective appetite sensations or for energy consumed in the ad libitum meal: 4382 ± 1004, 4643 ± 982, 4514 ± 1112, 4177 ± 1494 kJ respectively. Increasing whey protein supplement dose above 20 g did not result in a measurable increase in satiety or decrease in food intake. However, the inclusion of additional whey protein supplementation where not otherwise consumed could plausibly reduce dietary intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bassan, Juliana C.; Goulart, Antonio J.; Nasser, Ana L. M.; Bezerra, Thaís M. S.; Garrido, Saulo S.; Rustiguel, Cynthia B.; Guimarães, Luis H. S.; Monti, Rubens
Milk whey proteins are well known for their high biological value and versatile functional properties, characteristics that allow its wide use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, a 24 kDa protein from buffalo cheese whey was analyzed by mass spectrometry and presented homology with Bos taurus beta-lactoglobulin. In addition, the proteins present in buffalo cheese whey were hydrolyzed with pepsin and with different combinations of trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase-A. When the TNBS method was used the obtained hydrolysates presented DH of 55 and 62% for H1 and H2, respectively. Otherwise for the OPA method the DH was 27 and 43% for H1 and H2, respectively. The total antioxidant activities of the H1 and H2 samples with and without previous enzymatic hydrolysis, determined by DPPH using diphenyl-p-picrylhydrazyl radical, was 4.9 and 12 mM of Trolox equivalents (TE) for H2 and H2Dint, respectively. The increased concentrations for H1 and H2 samples were approximately 99% and 75%, respectively. The in vitro gastrointestinal digestion efficiency for the samples that were first hydrolyzed was higher compared with samples not submitted to previous hydrolysis. After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, several amino acids were released in higher concentrations, and most of which were essential amino acids. These results suggest that buffalo cheese whey is a better source of bioavailable amino acids than bovine cheese whey. PMID:26465145
Bassan, Juliana C; Goulart, Antonio J; Nasser, Ana L M; Bezerra, Thaís M S; Garrido, Saulo S; Rustiguel, Cynthia B; Guimarães, Luis H S; Monti, Rubens
Milk whey proteins are well known for their high biological value and versatile functional properties, characteristics that allow its wide use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, a 24 kDa protein from buffalo cheese whey was analyzed by mass spectrometry and presented homology with Bos taurus beta-lactoglobulin. In addition, the proteins present in buffalo cheese whey were hydrolyzed with pepsin and with different combinations of trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase-A. When the TNBS method was used the obtained hydrolysates presented DH of 55 and 62% for H1 and H2, respectively. Otherwise for the OPA method the DH was 27 and 43% for H1 and H2, respectively. The total antioxidant activities of the H1 and H2 samples with and without previous enzymatic hydrolysis, determined by DPPH using diphenyl-p-picrylhydrazyl radical, was 4.9 and 12 mM of Trolox equivalents (TE) for H2 and H2Dint, respectively. The increased concentrations for H1 and H2 samples were approximately 99% and 75%, respectively. The in vitro gastrointestinal digestion efficiency for the samples that were first hydrolyzed was higher compared with samples not submitted to previous hydrolysis. After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, several amino acids were released in higher concentrations, and most of which were essential amino acids. These results suggest that buffalo cheese whey is a better source of bioavailable amino acids than bovine cheese whey.
Cinelli, Patrizia; Schmid, Markus; Bugnicourt, Elodie; Coltelli, Maria Beatrice; Lazzeri, Andrea
Multilayer plastic films provide a range of properties, which cannot be obtained from monolayer films but, at present, their recyclability is an open issue and should be improved. Research to date has shown the possibility of using whey protein as a layer material with the property of acting as an excellent barrier against oxygen and moisture, replacing petrochemical non-recyclable materials. The innovative approach of the present research was to achieve the recyclability of the substrate films by separating them, with a simple process compatible with industrial procedures, in order to promote recycling processes leading to obtain high value products that will beneficially impact the packaging and food industries. Hence, polyethyleneterephthalate (PET)/polyethylene (PE) multi-layer film was prepared based on PET coated with a whey protein layer, and then the previous structure was laminated with PE. Whey proteins, constituting the coating, can be degraded by enzymes so that the coating films can be washed off from the plastic substrate layer. Enzyme types, dosage, time, and temperature optima, which are compatible with procedures adopted in industrial waste recycling, were determined for a highly-efficient process. The washing of samples based on PET/whey and PET/whey/PE were efficient when performed with enzymatic detergent containing protease enzymes, as an alternative to conventional detergents used in recycling facilities. Different types of enzymatic detergents tested presented positive results in removing the protein layer from the PET substrate and from the PET/whey/PE multilayer films at room temperature. These results attested to the possibility of organizing the pre-treatment of the whey-based multilayer film by washing with different available commercial enzymatic detergents in order to separate PET and PE, thus allowing a better recycling of the two different polymers. Mechanical properties of the plastic substrate, such as stress at yield, stress and
Conesa, Celia; FitzGerald, Richard J
The kinetics and thermodynamics of the thermal inactivation of Corolase PP in two different whey protein concentrate (WPC) hydrolysates with degree of hydrolysis (DH) values of ~10 and 21%, and at different total solids (TS) levels (from 5 to 30% w/v), were studied. Inactivation studies were performed in the temperature range from 60 to 75 °C, and residual enzyme activity was quantified using the azocasein assay. The inactivation kinetics followed a first-order model. Analysis of the activation energy, thermodynamic parameters, and D and z values, demonstrated that the inactivation of Corolase PP was dependent on solution TS. The intestinal enzyme preparation was more heat sensitive at low TS. Moreover, it was also found that the enzyme was more heat sensitive in solutions at higher DH.
Carmo, Eloá Lourenço do; Teodoro, Rhana Amanda Ribeiro; Félix, Pedro Henrique Campelo; Fernandes, Regiane Victória de Barros; Oliveira, Érica Resende de; Veiga, Taís Regina Lima Abreu; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Botrel, Diego Alvarenga
The properties and stability of spray-dried beetroot extract using maltodextrin (MD), inulin (IN), and whey protein isolate (WPI) as carrier agents were evaluated. The values of moisture, betalains content, and retention were 3.33-4.24%, 348.79-385.47 mg/100 g (dry-basis), and 88.45-95.69%, respectively. Higher values of antioxidant activity were observed for the treatments using WPI. The treatment with inulin alone presented higher hygroscopicity in the moisture adsorption isotherms at 25 °C and lower thermal stability when evaluating the thermogravimetric curves. When stored at 60 °C, the use of WPI alone conferred lower stability to the beetroot extract powder. In general, the simultaneous use of IN and WPI as carrier agents resulted in good stability of the beetroot extract powder, representing an opportunity for innovation in food products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
He, Jin-Song; Yang, Hongwei; Zhu, Wanpeng; Mu, Tai-Hua
The kinetic process of pressure-induced gelation of whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions was studied using in situ light scattering. The relationship of the logarithm of scattered light intensity (I) versus time (t) was linear after the induced time and could be described by the Cahn-Hilliard linear theory. With increasing time, the scattered intensity deviated from the exponential relationship, and the time evolution of the scattered light intensity maximum Im and the corresponding wavenumber qm could be described in terms of the power-law relationship as Im~fβ and qm~f-α, respectively. These results indicated that phase separation occurred during the gelation of WPI solutions under high pressure.
Shee, Fabrice Lin Teng; Angers, Paul; Bazinet, Laurent
The separation of residual fats from whey protein concentrates (WPC) results in a better nutritional and functional utilization of this product. Bipolar membrane electroacidification (BMEA) technology allows acidification and demineralization of solutions without any salt addition. The principle of BMEA is based on proton formation from water molecule dissociation at the bipolar membrane interface. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of an electroacidification treatment at pH 4.5 on the precipitation of lipids. WPC electroacidification was carried out with or without preliminary demineralization by conventional electrodialysis. The effect of ionic strength on lipid precipitation rates was also evaluated by dilution of the WPC samples. Lipid precipitation levels of 35-39% were obtained using the electroacidification process without a dilution step, while the combination of BMEA and dilution of the WPC resulted in a decrease in lipid content by six-fold from 0.76 to 0.21%.
Nicholas, K.R.; Fisher, J.A.; Muths, E.; Trott, J.; Janssens, P.A.; Reich, C.; Shaw, D.C.
Milk collected from the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) between day 100 and 260 of lactation showed major changes in milk composition at around day 200 of lactation, the time at which the pouch young begins to temporarily exit the pouch and eat herbage. The carbohydrate content of milk declined abruptly at this time and although there was only a small increase in total protein content, SDS PAGE analysis of milk revealed asynchrony in the secretory pattern of individual proteins. The levels of α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, serum albumin and transferrin remain unchanged during lactation. In contrast, the protease inhibitor cystatin, and the putative protease inhibitor whey acidic protein (WAP) first appeared in milk at elevated concentrations after approximately 150 days of lactation and then ceased to be secreted at approximately 200 days. In addition, a major whey protein, late lactation protein, was first detected in milk around the time whey acidic protein and cystatin cease to be secreted and was present at least until day 260 of lactation. The co-ordinated, but asynchronous secretion of putative protease inhibitors in milk may have several roles during lactation including tissue remodelling in the mammary gland and protecting specific proteins in milk required for physiological development of the dependent young.
Nicholas, K.R.; Fisher, J.A.; Muths, E.; Trott, J.; Janssens, P.A.; Reich, C.; Shaw, D.C.
Milk collected from the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) between day 100 and 260 of lactation showed major changes in milk composition at around day 200 of lactation, the time at which the pouch young begins to temporarily exit the pouch and eat herbage. The carbohydrate content of milk declined abruptly at this time and although there was only a small increase in total protein content, SDS PAGE analysis of milk revealed asynchrony in the secretory pattern of individual proteins. The levels of ??-lactalbumin, ??-lactoglobulin, serum albumin and transferrin remain unchanged during lactation. In contrast, the protease inhibitor cystatin, and the putative protease inhibitor whey acidic protein (WAP) first appeared in milk at elevated concentrations after approximately 150 days of lactation and then ceased to be secreted at approximately 200 days. In addition, a major whey protein, late lactation protein, was first detected in milk around the time whey acidic protein and cystatin cease to be secreted and was present at least until day 260 of lactation. The co-ordinated, but asynchronous secretion of putative protease inhibitors in milk may have several roles during lactation including tissue remodelling in the mammary gland and protecting specific proteins in milk required for physiological development of the dependent young. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Inc.
Md Zain, Siti Norbaizura; Bennett, Rod; Flint, Steve
The objective of this study was to determine the possible source of predominant Bacillus licheniformis contamination in a whey protein concentrate (WPC) 80 manufacturing plant. Traditionally, microbial contaminants of WPC were believed to grow on the membrane surfaces of the ultrafiltration plant as this represents the largest surface area in the plant. Changes from hot to cold ultrafiltration have reduced the growth potential for bacteria on the membrane surfaces. Our recent studies of WPCs have shown the predominant microflora B. licheniformis would not grow in the membrane plant because of the low temperature (10 °C) and must be growing elsewhere. Contamination of dairy products is mostly due to bacteria being released from biofilm in the processing plant rather from the farm itself. Three different reconstituted WPC media at 1%, 5%, and 20% were used for biofilm growth and our results showed that B. licheniformis formed the best biofilm at 1% (low solids). Further investigations were done using 3 different media; tryptic soy broth, 1% reconstituted WPC80, and 1% reconstituted WPC80 enriched with lactose and minerals to examine biofilm growth of B. licheniformis on stainless steel. Thirty-three B. licheniformis isolates varied in their ability to form biofilm on stainless steel with stronger biofilm in the presence of minerals. The source of biofilms of thermo-resistant bacteria such as B. licheniformis is believed to be before the ultrafiltration zone represented by the 1% WPC with lactose and minerals where the whey protein concentration is about 0.6%. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Chidambara Murthy, Kotamballi N; Patil, Bhimanagouda S
To improve bioavailability and enhance colon cancer prevention ability of curcumin, whey protein was used to nanoencapsulate at three different ratios such as 70:30, 50:50 and 35:65 for the first time. The drug loading, entrapment efficiency and structural changes of curcumin was confirmed by quantitative NMR spectroscopy. The nanoparticles prepared using the three ratios had an average diameters of 236.5±8.8, 212±3.4, and 187±11.4nm, as well as zeta (ζ) potentials of -13.1,-9.26, and -4.63mV, respectively, at pH 7.0. The cytotoxicity assay was performed for human colon and prostate cancer (SW480 and LNCap) by MTT assay and results showed significantly higher cytotoxicity of nanoencapsulated curcumin (NEC) (equivalent to 30.91, 20.70 and 16.86µM of NEC-1, 2 and 3 respectively), as compared to plain curcumin at 50µM after 72h of treatment. Cytotoxicity was also confirmed by microscopy of treated cells stained with acridine orange and propidium iodide. The cells treated with 50µM of curcumin, 30.91µM (NEC-1), 20.70µM (NEC-2) and 16.86µM (NEC-3) showed enhanced activation of p53 and elevated bax/Bcl2 expression (NEC-3), increased cytochrome-c in cytosol (NEC-2) confirming the enhanced cytotoxicity. To confirm the increased bioavailability, the intracellular curcumin was measured using fluorescence intensity. The fluorescent signal for intracellular curcumin was increased by 12, 30, and 21% for NEC-1, NEC-2, and NEC-3 respectively as compared to plain curcumin at 4h. Based on these results, we conclude that nanoencapsulated curcumin with whey protein will have potential to be considered for clinical applications for future studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Niitsu, Masaya; Ichinose, Daisuke; Hirooka, Taku; Mitsutomi, Kazuhiko; Morimoto, Yoshitaka; Sarukawa, Junichiro; Nishikino, Shoichi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Kaoru
Elderly patients can be at risk of protein catabolism and malnutrition in the early postoperative period. Whey protein includes most essential amino acids and stimulates the synthesis of muscle protein. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training in combination with whey protein intake in the early postoperative period. We randomized patients to a whey protein group or a control group. The former group received 32.2 g of whey protein pre- and post-rehabilitation in the early postoperative period for two weeks. Outcomes were knee extension strength on either side by Biodex 4.0, and the ability of transfer, walking, toilet use and stair use by the Barthel Index (BI). We performed initial and final assessments in the second and tenth rehabilitation sessions. A total of 38 patients were recruited: 20 in the whey protein group and 18 in the control group. Participants in the whey protein group showed significantly greater improvement in knee extension strength in the operated limb compared with the control group (F = 6.11, P = 0.02). The non-operated limb also showed a similar tendency (F = 3.51, P = 0.07). The abilities of transfer, walking and toilet use showed greater improvements in the whey protein group than in the control group by BI (P < 0.05). The combination of whey protein intake and rehabilitation for two weeks in the early postoperative period has a beneficial effect on knee extension strength in both lower limbs and BI (transfer, walking and toilet use) scores in patients with hip fracture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Monteyne, Alistair; Martin, Alex; Jackson, Liam; Corrigan, Nick; Stringer, Ellen; Newey, Jack; Rumbold, Penny L S; Stevenson, Emma J; James, Lewis J
Protein consumption after resistance exercise potentiates muscle protein synthesis, but its effects on subsequent appetite in this context are unknown. This study examined appetite and energy intake following consumption of protein- and carbohydrate-containing drinks after resistance exercise. After familiarisation, 15 resistance training males (age 21 ± 1 years, body mass 78.0 ± 11.9 kg, stature 1.78 ± 0.07 m) completed two randomised, double-blind trials, consisting of lower-body resistance exercise, followed by consumption of a whey protein (PRO 23.9 ± 3.6 g protein) or dextrose (CHO 26.5 ± 3.8 g carbohydrate) drink in the 5 min post-exercise. An ad libitum meal was served 60 min later, with subjective appetite measured throughout. Drinks were flavoured and matched for energy content and volume. The PRO drink provided 0.3 g/kg body mass protein. Ad libitum energy intake (PRO 3742 ± 994 kJ; CHO 4172 ± 1132 kJ; P = 0.007) and mean eating rate (PRO 339 ± 102 kJ/min; CHO 405 ± 154 kJ/min; P = 0.009) were lower during PRO. The change in eating rate was associated with the change in energy intake (R = 0.661, P = 0.007). No interaction effects were observed for subjective measures of appetite. The PRO drink was perceived as creamier and thicker, and less pleasant, sweet and refreshing (P < 0.05). These results suggest whey protein consumption after resistance exercise reduces subsequent energy intake, and this might be partially mediated by a reduced eating rate. Whilst this reduced energy intake is unlikely to impair hypertrophy, it may be of value in supporting an energy deficit for weight loss.
Background Consumption of moderate amounts of animal-derived protein has been shown to differently influence skeletal muscle hypertrophy during resistance training when compared with nitrogenous and isoenergetic amounts of plant-based protein administered in small to moderate doses. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine if the post-exercise consumption of rice protein isolate could increase recovery and elicit adequate changes in body composition compared to equally dosed whey protein isolate if given in large, isocaloric doses. Methods 24 college-aged, resistance trained males were recruited for this study. Subjects were randomly and equally divided into two groups, either consuming 48 g of rice or whey protein isolate (isocaloric and isonitrogenous) on training days. Subjects trained 3 days per week for 8 weeks as a part of a daily undulating periodized resistance-training program. The rice and whey protein supplements were consumed immediately following exercise. Ratings of perceived recovery, soreness, and readiness to train were recorded prior to and following the first training session. Ultrasonography determined muscle thickness, dual emission x-ray absorptiometry determined body composition, and bench press and leg press for upper and lower body strength were recorded during weeks 0, 4, and 8. An ANOVA model was used to measure group, time, and group by time interactions. If any main effects were observed, a Tukey post-hoc was employed to locate where differences occurred. Results No detectable differences were present in psychometric scores of perceived recovery, soreness, or readiness to train (p > 0.05). Significant time effects were observed in which lean body mass, muscle mass, strength and power all increased and fat mass decreased; however, no condition by time interactions were observed (p > 0.05). Conclusion Both whey and rice protein isolate administration post resistance exercise improved indices of body composition and
Background The secretion of heterologous animal proteins in filamentous fungi is usually limited by bottlenecks in the vesicle-mediated secretory pathway. Results Using the secretion of bovine chymosin in Aspergillus awamori as a model, we found a drastic increase (40 to 80-fold) in cells grown with casein or casein phosphopeptides (CPPs). CPPs are rich in phosphoserine, but phosphoserine itself did not increase the secretion of chymosin. The stimulatory effect is reduced about 50% using partially dephosphorylated casein and is not exerted by casamino acids. The phosphopeptides effect was not exerted at transcriptional level, but instead, it was clearly observed on the secretion of chymosin by immunodetection analysis. Proteomics studies revealed very interesting metabolic changes in response to phosphopeptides supplementation. The oxidative metabolism was reduced, since enzymes involved in fermentative processes were overrepresented. An oxygen-binding hemoglobin-like protein was overrepresented in the proteome following phosphopeptides addition. Most interestingly, the intracellular pre-protein enzymes, including pre-prochymosin, were depleted (most of them are underrepresented in the intracellular proteome after the addition of CPPs), whereas the extracellular mature form of several of these secretable proteins and cell-wall biosynthetic enzymes was greatly overrepresented in the secretome of phosphopeptides-supplemented cells. Another important 'moonlighting' protein (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), which has been described to have vesicle fusogenic and cytoskeleton formation modulating activities, was clearly overrepresented in phosphopeptides-supplemented cells. Conclusions In summary, CPPs cause the reprogramming of cellular metabolism, which leads to massive secretion of extracellular proteins. PMID:22234238
Kosalková, Katarina; García-Estrada, Carlos; Barreiro, Carlos; Flórez, Martha G; Jami, Mohammad S; Paniagua, Miguel A; Martín, Juan F
The secretion of heterologous animal proteins in filamentous fungi is usually limited by bottlenecks in the vesicle-mediated secretory pathway. Using the secretion of bovine chymosin in Aspergillus awamori as a model, we found a drastic increase (40 to 80-fold) in cells grown with casein or casein phosphopeptides (CPPs). CPPs are rich in phosphoserine, but phosphoserine itself did not increase the secretion of chymosin. The stimulatory effect is reduced about 50% using partially dephosphorylated casein and is not exerted by casamino acids. The phosphopeptides effect was not exerted at transcriptional level, but instead, it was clearly observed on the secretion of chymosin by immunodetection analysis. Proteomics studies revealed very interesting metabolic changes in response to phosphopeptides supplementation. The oxidative metabolism was reduced, since enzymes involved in fermentative processes were overrepresented. An oxygen-binding hemoglobin-like protein was overrepresented in the proteome following phosphopeptides addition. Most interestingly, the intracellular pre-protein enzymes, including pre-prochymosin, were depleted (most of them are underrepresented in the intracellular proteome after the addition of CPPs), whereas the extracellular mature form of several of these secretable proteins and cell-wall biosynthetic enzymes was greatly overrepresented in the secretome of phosphopeptides-supplemented cells. Another important 'moonlighting' protein (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), which has been described to have vesicle fusogenic and cytoskeleton formation modulating activities, was clearly overrepresented in phosphopeptides-supplemented cells. In summary, CPPs cause the reprogramming of cellular metabolism, which leads to massive secretion of extracellular proteins.
Kerstetter, Jane E.; Brindisi, Jennifer; Sullivan, Rebecca R.; Mangano, Kelsey M.; Larocque, Sarah; Kotler, Belinda M.; Simpson, Christine A.; Cusano, Anna Maria; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Kleppinger, Alison; Reynolds, Jesse; Dziura, James; Kenny, Anne M.; Insogna, Karl L.
Context: It has been assumed that the increase in urine calcium (Ca) that accompanies an increase in dietary protein was due to increased bone resorption. However, studies using stable Ca isotopes have found that dietary protein increases Ca absorption without increasing bone resorption. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of a moderately high protein diet on bone mineral density (BMD). Design: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of protein supplementation daily for 18 months. Setting: The study was conducted at two institutional research centers. Participants: Two hundred eight older women and men with a body mass index between 19 and 32 kg/m2 and a self-reported protein intake between 0.6 and 1.0 g/kg participated in the study. Intervention: Subjects were asked to incorporate either a 45-g whey protein or isocaloric maltodextrin supplement into their usual diet for 18 months. Main Outcome Measure: BMD by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, body composition, and markers of skeletal and mineral metabolism were measured at baseline and at 9 and 18 months. Results: There were no significant differences between groups for changes in L-spine BMD (primary outcome) or the other skeletal sites of interest. Truncal lean mass was significantly higher in the protein group at 18 months (P = .048). C-terminal telopeptide (P = .0414), IGF-1 (P = .0054), and urinary urea (P < .001) were also higher in the protein group at the end of the study period. There was no difference in estimated glomerular filtration rate at 18 months. Conclusion: Our data suggest that protein supplementation above the recommended dietary allowance (0.8 g/kg) may preserve fat-free mass without adversely affecting skeletal health or renal function in healthy older adults. PMID:25844619
Saberi, Kianoush; Gorji Mahlabani, Mohammad Amin; Tashayoie, Mohammad; Nasiri Nejad, Farinaz
Because the trend of pharmacotherapy is toward controlling diet rather than administration of drugs, in our study we examined the probable relationship between Creatine (Cr) or Whey (Wh) consumption and anesthesia (analgesia effect of ketamine). Creatine and Wh are among the most favorable supplements in the market. Whey is a protein, which is extracted from milk and is a rich source of amino acids. Creatine is an amino acid derivative that can change to ATP in the body. Both of these supplements result in Nitric Oxide (NO) retention, which is believed to be effective in N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor analgesia. The main question of this study was whether Wh and Cr are effective on analgesic and anesthetic characteristics of ketamine and whether this is related to NO retention or amino acids' features. We divided 30 male Wistar rats to three (n = 10) groups; including Cr, Wh and sham (water only) groups. Each group was administered (by gavage) the supplements for an intermediate dosage during 25 days. After this period, they became anesthetized using a Ketamine-Xylazine (KX) and their time to anesthesia and analgesia, and total sleep time were recorded. Data were analyzed twice using the SPSS 18 software with Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and post hoc test; first time we expunged the rats that didn't become anesthetized and the second time we included all of the samples. There was a significant P-value (P < 0.05) for total anesthesia time in the second analysis. Bonferroni multiple comparison indicated that the difference was between Cr and Sham groups (P < 0.021). The data only indicated that there might be a significant relationship between Cr consumption and total sleep time. Further studies, with rats of different gender and different dosage of supplement and anesthetics are suggested.
Fulcher, Luke J; Bozatzi, Polyxeni; Tachie-Menson, Theresa; Wu, Kevin Z L; Cummins, Timothy D; Bufton, Joshua C; Pinkas, Daniel M; Dunbar, Karen; Shrestha, Sabin; Wood, Nicola T; Weidlich, Simone; Macartney, Thomas J; Varghese, Joby; Gourlay, Robert; Campbell, David G; Dingwell, Kevin S; Smith, James C; Bullock, Alex N; Sapkota, Gopal P
Members of the casein kinase 1 (CK1) family of serine-threonine protein kinases are implicated in the regulation of many cellular processes, including the cell cycle, circadian rhythms, and Wnt and Hedgehog signaling. Because these kinases exhibit constitutive activity in biochemical assays, it is likely that their activity in cells is controlled by subcellular localization, interactions with inhibitory proteins, targeted degradation, or combinations of these mechanisms. We identified members of the FAM83 family of proteins as partners of CK1 in cells. All eight members of the FAM83 family (FAM83A to FAM83H) interacted with the α and α-like isoforms of CK1; FAM83A, FAM83B, FAM83E, and FAM83H also interacted with the δ and ε isoforms of CK1. We detected no interaction between any FAM83 member and the related CK1γ1, CK1γ2, and CK1γ3 isoforms. Each FAM83 protein exhibited a distinct pattern of subcellular distribution and colocalized with the CK1 isoform(s) to which it bound. The interaction of FAM83 proteins with CK1 isoforms was mediated by the conserved domain of unknown function 1669 (DUF1669) that characterizes the FAM83 family. Mutations in FAM83 proteins that prevented them from binding to CK1 interfered with the proper subcellular localization and cellular functions of both the FAM83 proteins and their CK1 binding partners. On the basis of its function, we propose that DUF1669 be renamed the polypeptide anchor of CK1 domain. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
Tuteja, Narendra; Reddy, Malireddy Kodandarami; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Yadav, Badam Singh; Chandok, Meena Rani; Sopory, Sudhir Kumar
DNA topoisomerase I catalyzes the relaxation of superhelical DNA tension and is vital for DNA metabolism; therefore, it is essential for growth and development of plants. Here, we have studied the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of topoisomerase I from pea (Pisum sativum). The purified enzyme did not show autophosphorylation but was phosphorylated in an Mg(2+)-dependent manner by endogenous protein kinases present in pea nuclear extracts. This phosphorylation was abolished with calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase and lambda phosphatase. It was also phosphorylated by exogenous casein kinase 2 (CK2), protein kinase C (PKC; from animal sources), and an endogenous pea protein, which was purified using a novel phorbol myristate acetate affinity chromatography method. All of these phosphorylations were inhibited by heparin (inhibitor of CK2) and calphostin (inhibitor of PKC), suggesting that pea topoisomerase I is a bona fide substrate for these kinases. Spermine and spermidine had no effect on the CK2-mediated phosphorylation, suggesting that it is polyamine independent. Phospho-amino acid analysis showed that only serine residues were phosphorylated, which was further confirmed using antiphosphoserine antibody. The topoisomerase I activity increased after phosphorylation with exogenous CK2 and PKC. This study shows that these kinases may contribute to the physiological regulation of DNA topoisomerase I activity and overall DNA metabolism in plants.
Tuteja, Narendra; Reddy, Malireddy Kodandarami; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Yadav, Badam Singh; Chandok, Meena Rani; Sopory, Sudhir Kumar
DNA topoisomerase I catalyzes the relaxation of superhelical DNA tension and is vital for DNA metabolism; therefore, it is essential for growth and development of plants. Here, we have studied the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of topoisomerase I from pea (Pisum sativum). The purified enzyme did not show autophosphorylation but was phosphorylated in an Mg2+-dependent manner by endogenous protein kinases present in pea nuclear extracts. This phosphorylation was abolished with calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase and lambda phosphatase. It was also phosphorylated by exogenous casein kinase 2 (CK2), protein kinase C (PKC; from animal sources), and an endogenous pea protein, which was purified using a novel phorbol myristate acetate affinity chromatography method. All of these phosphorylations were inhibited by heparin (inhibitor of CK2) and calphostin (inhibitor of PKC), suggesting that pea topoisomerase I is a bona fide substrate for these kinases. Spermine and spermidine had no effect on the CK2-mediated phosphorylation, suggesting that it is polyamine independent. Phospho-amino acid analysis showed that only serine residues were phosphorylated, which was further confirmed using antiphosphoserine antibody. The topoisomerase I activity increased after phosphorylation with exogenous CK2 and PKC. This study shows that these kinases may contribute to the physiological regulation of DNA topoisomerase I activity and overall DNA metabolism in plants. PMID:12913165
Ren, Guangxu; Yi, Suqing; Zhang, Hongru; Wang, Jing
This study sought to determine the effects of soy-whey blended protein supplementation on sports performance and related biochemical parameters after long-term training. After a week of adaptation, eighteen 6-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups: the standard chow diet plus whey protein (Whey) group, the standard chow diet plus soy-whey blended protein (BP) group and the standard chow diet only (control) group. Each group included 6 rats for the seven-week experiment. Before the experiment, the baseline values of body weight, grasping force and time to exhaustion due to the loaded-swimming test were recorded for each group. During the experimental period, all rats performed the loaded-swimming test until exhaustion five days each week. The results showed that the mean maximum grasping force of the BP group significantly increased between the 5 th and the 7 th week (p < 0.05) compared with the other groups. The ingestion of blended protein for 7 weeks significantly increased the mean time to exhaustion due to swimming by 1.5-fold and 1.2-fold compared with the control and Whey groups, respectively. The plasma levels of leucine, isoleucine and valine were significantly higher at 60 min after the blended protein intervention compared with the Whey and control interventions (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the ingestion of soy-whey blended protein enhanced the activities of lactate dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase and decreased the levels of malondialdehyde in serum. These results collectively suggest that soy-whey blended protein ingestion with resistance exercise can improve sports performance and ameliorate exercise-induced fatigue in rats.
Day, L; Williams, R P W; Otter, D; Augustin, M A
Milk samples from individual cows producing small (148-155 nm) or large (177-222 nm) casein micelles were selected to investigate the relationship between the individual casein proteins, specifically κ- and β-casein phenotypes, and casein micelle size. Only κ-casein AA and β-casein A1A1, A1A2 and A2A2 phenotypes were found in the large casein micelle group. Among the small micelle group, both κ-casein and β-casein phenotypes were more diverse. κ-Casein AB was the dominant phenotype, and 3 combinations (AA, AB, and BB) were present in the small casein micelle group. A considerable mix of β-casein phenotypes was found, including B and I variants, which were only found in the small casein micelle group. The relative amount of κ-casein to total casein was significantly higher in the small micelle group, and the nonglycosylated and glycosylated κ-casein contents were higher in the milks with small casein micelles (primarily with κ-casein AB and BB variants) compared with the large micelle group. The ratio of glycosylated to nonglycosylated κ-casein was higher in the milks with small casein micelles compared with the milks with large casein micelles. This suggests that although the amount of κ-casein (both glycosylated and nonglycosylated) is associated with micelle size, an increased proportion of glycosylated κ-casein could be a more important and favorable factor for small micelle size. This suggests that the increased spatial requirement due to addition of the glycosyl group with increasing extent of glycosylation of κ-casein is one mechanism that controls casein micelle assembly and growth. In addition, increased electrostatic repulsion due to the sialyl residues on the glycosyl group could be a contributory factor. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Galus, Sabina; Kadzińska, Justyna
The objective of this work is to study the effect of the rapeseed oil content on the physical properties of whey protein emulsion films. For this purpose, whey protein films with the addition of 0, 1, 2 and 3% of rapeseed oil, and glycerol as a plasticizer were obtained by the casting method. Film-forming emulsions were evaluated and compared using light scattering granulometry. The Sauter mean diameters ( d 32 ) of lipid droplets in film-forming solutions showed an increasing trend when increasing the oil volume fractions. The inclusion of rapeseed oil enhanced the hydrophobic character of whey protein films, reducing moisture content and film solubility in water. All emulsified films showed high lightness ( L* ≈90). Parameter a * decreased and parameter b* and total colour difference (∆ E ) increased with the increase of the volume fractions of oil. These results were consistent with visual observations; control films were transparent and those containing oil opaque. Water vapour sorption experimental data at the full range of water activity values from 0.11 to 0.93 were well described with Peleg's equation (R 2 ≥0.99). The tensile strength, Young's modulus and elongation at break increased with the increase of rapeseed oil volume fraction, which could be explained by interactions between lipids and the protein matrix. These results revealed that rapeseed oil has enormous potential to be incorporated into whey protein to make edible film or coating for some food products. The mechanical resistance decreased with the addition of the lipids, and the opacity and soluble matter content increased.
Summary The objective of this work is to study the effect of the rapeseed oil content on the physical properties of whey protein emulsion films. For this purpose, whey protein films with the addition of 0, 1, 2 and 3% of rapeseed oil, and glycerol as a plasticizer were obtained by the casting method. Film-forming emulsions were evaluated and compared using light scattering granulometry. The Sauter mean diameters (d32) of lipid droplets in film-forming solutions showed an increasing trend when increasing the oil volume fractions. The inclusion of rapeseed oil enhanced the hydrophobic character of whey protein films, reducing moisture content and film solubility in water. All emulsified films showed high lightness (L*≈90). Parameter a* decreased and parameter b* and total colour difference (∆E) increased with the increase of the volume fractions of oil. These results were consistent with visual observations; control films were transparent and those containing oil opaque. Water vapour sorption experimental data at the full range of water activity values from 0.11 to 0.93 were well described with Peleg’s equation (R2≥0.99). The tensile strength, Young’s modulus and elongation at break increased with the increase of rapeseed oil volume fraction, which could be explained by interactions between lipids and the protein matrix. These results revealed that rapeseed oil has enormous potential to be incorporated into whey protein to make edible film or coating for some food products. The mechanical resistance decreased with the addition of the lipids, and the opacity and soluble matter content increased. PMID:27904396
Foam separation of high concentration chromium in leather tanning wastewater was investigated using casein protein as a foaming reagent5mL of5w/v% ammonium acetate buffer was added to the sample chromium water. After adjusting the pH to 9.0,4g/L concentrations of casein and gelatin solution were added to recovery the coagulating flocs of chromium resulting foam separation. The sample water containing chromium flocs was incased in reactor, then mixed with distilled water and 1mL of ethanol to sum 200mL total. The foam separation was performed at time intervals of 3min with an air flow rate of 300mL/min. With casein reagent, the removal rate of chromium was not influenced by the presence of NaCl, however, the rate decreased tendency using with the use of gelatin. The proposed method, utilizing 4g/L of casein solution with water, was not influenced by the presence of calcium (<34mM), magnesium (<1mM), carbonate (<0.5mM), bicarbonate (<1.2mM) nor sulfate (<350mM) ions, and is ideal for foam separation in chromium concentrations of about 100mgCr/L.
Cheema, M; Mohan, M S; Campagna, S R; Jurat-Fuentes, J L; Harte, F M
The agreed biological function of the casein micelles in milk is to carry minerals (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) from mother to young along with amino acids for growth and development. Recently, native and modified casein micelles were used as encapsulating and delivery agents for various hydrophobic low-molecular-weight probes. The ability of modified casein micelles to bind certain probes may derive from the binding affinity of native casein micelles. Hence, a study with milk from single cows was conducted to further elucidate the association of hydrophobic molecules into native casein micelles and further understand their biological function. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic extraction followed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry analysis were performed over protein fractions obtained from size exclusion fractionation of raw skim milk. Hydrophobic compounds, including phosphatidylcholine, lyso-phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and sphingomyelin, showed strong association exclusively to casein micelles as compared with whey proteins, whereas hydrophilic compounds did not display any preference for their association among milk proteins. Further analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detected 42 compounds associated solely with the casein-micelles fraction. Mass fragments in tandem mass spectrometry identified 4 of these compounds as phosphatidylcholine with fatty acid composition of 16:0/18:1, 14:0/16:0, 16:0/16:0, and 18:1/18:0. These results support that transporting low-molecular-weight hydrophobic molecules is also a biological function of the casein micelles in milk. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
El-Sayed, Mayyada; Chase, Howard
This paper describes the cation-exchange adsorption of the two major whey proteins, alpha-lactalbumin (ALA) and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) with the purpose of establishing a process for isolating them from cow's milk whey. The single- and two-component adsorption of 1.5 mg/ml ALA and 3 mg/ml BLG to the cation-exchanger SP Sepharose FF at 20° C using 0.1 M acetate buffer of pH 3.7 was studied. Langmuir isotherm parameters were determined for the pure proteins. In two-component systems, BLG breakthrough curve exhibited an overshoot phenomenon that gave evidence for the presence of a competitive adsorption between the two proteins. Complete separation occurred and it was possible to obtain each of the two proteins in a pure form. The process was then applied to a whey concentrate mixture where incomplete separation took place. However, BLG was produced with 95% purity and a recovery of 80%, while ALA showed an 84% recovery with low purity.
Madani, S; Prost, J; Belleville, J
The effects of different proportions (10, 20, and 30%) of dietary casein or highly purified soybean protein on lipid metabolism were studied in growing Wistar rats. Hepatic, plasma and lipoprotein lipid, and protein concentrations, plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels, and resistance of red blood cells against free-radical attack were determined after a 4-wk dietary regimen. Compared with the 20% casein diet, the 20% soybean protein diet exhibited similar cholesterolemia but lower plasma triacylglycerol concentrations and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle number, as measured by diminished contents of VLDL-triacylglycerol, VLDL-protein, and VLDL-apolipoprotein (Apo) B (B-100 and B-48). The soybean protein diet raised high-density lipoprotein (HDL)(2-3) particle number, as measured by enhanced concentrations of HDL(2-3) cholesterol, HDL-phospholipid, and HDL-ApoA-I. Increasing casein or soybean protein level (from 10 to 30%) in the diet involved higher VLDL-ApoB (B-100 and B-48), indicating an increase in the number of VLDL particles. Feeding the 30% casein or 30% soybean protein diet enhanced LDL-HDL(1) cholesterol contents. Despite similar HDL(2-3)-ApoA-I levels, the 30% casein diet enhanced the HDL(2-3) mass and its cholesterol concentrations. In contrast, feeding either the 10 or 30% soybean protein diet significantly lowered HDL(2-3) cholesterol and ApoA-I levels. These effects on cholesterol distribution in lipoprotein fractions occurred despite unchanged total cholesterol concentrations in plasma. Feeding 20% soybean protein versus 20% casein involved lower plasma TBARS concentrations. Decreasing casein or soybean protein levels in the diet were associated with higher plasma TBARS concentrations and had a lower resistance of red blood cells against free-radical attack. The present study shows that dietary protein level and origin play an important role in lipoprotein metabolism and the antioxidative defense status but do not
Nery-Diez, Ana Cláudia C; Carvalho, Iara R; Amaya-Farfán, Jaime; Abecia-Soria, Maria Inés; Miyasaka, Célio K; Ferreira, Clécio da S
Because consumption of whey protein hydrolysates is on the increase, the possibility that prolonged ingestion of whey protein hydrolysates affect the digestive system of mammals has prompted us to evaluate the enzymatic activities of pepsin, leucine-aminopeptidase, chymotrypsin, trypsin, and glutaminase in male Wistar rats fed diets containing either a commercial whey isolate or a whey protein hydrolysate with medium degree of hydrolysis and to compare the results with those produced by physical training (sedentary, sedentary-exhausted, trained, and trained-exhausted) in the treadmill for 4 weeks. The enzymatic activities were determined by classical procedures in all groups. No effect due to the form of the whey protein in the diet was seen in the activities of pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and leucine-aminopeptidase. Training tended to increase the activity of glutaminase, but exhaustion promoted a decrease in the trained animals, and consumption of the hydrolysate decreased it even further. The results are consistent with the conclusion that chronic consumption of a whey protein hydrolysate brings little or no modification of the proteolytic digestive system and that the lowering of glutaminase activity may be associated with an antistress effect, counteracting the effect induced by training in the rat.
van Dijk, Miriam; Dijk, Francina J.; Bunschoten, Annelies; van Dartel, Dorien A.M.; van Norren, Klaske; Walrand, Stephane; Jourdan, Marion; Verlaan, Sjors; Luiking, Yvette
Antioxidant (AOX) deficiencies are commonly observed in older adults and oxidative stress has been suggested to contribute to sarcopenia. Here we investigate if 1) low levels of dietary antioxidants had a negative impact on parameters of muscle mass, function and quality, and 2) to study if nutritional interventions with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein could improve these muscle parameters in aged mice. 18-months-old mice were fed a casein-based antioxidant-deficient (lowox) diet or a casein-based control-diet (CTRL) for 7 months. During the last 3 months, lowox-mice were subjected to either: a) continued lowox, b) supplementation with vitamin A/E, Selenium and Zinc (AOX), c) substitution of casein with leucine-enriched whey protein (PROT) or d) a combination of both AOX and PROT (TOTAL). After 7 months lowox-mice displayed lower muscle strength and more muscle fatigue compared to CTRL. Compared to lowox-mice, PROT-mice showed improved muscle power, grip strength and less muscle fatigue. AOX-mice showed improved oxidative status, less muscle fatigue, improved grip strength and mitochondrial dynamics compared to lowox-mice. The TOTAL-mice showed the combined effects of both interventions compared to lowox-mice. In conclusion, nutritional intervention with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein can play a role in improving muscle health in a AOX-deficient mouse model. PMID:26943770
Resistance exercise and protein intake are both strong stimuli for muscle protein synthesis. The potential for a protein to acutely increase muscle protein synthesis seems partly dependent on absorption kinetics and the amino acid composition. The aim of this double-blinded randomized cross-over stu...
Sato, A C K; Perrechil, F A; Costa, A A S; Santana, R C; Cunha, R L
The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of laccase and ferulic acid on the characteristics of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate at different pH (3, 5 and 7). Emulsions were prepared by high pressure homogenization of soybean oil with sodium caseinate solution containing varied concentrations of laccase (0, 1 and 5mg/mL) and ferulic acid (5 and 10mM). Laccase treatment and pH exerted a strong influence on the properties with a consequent effect on stability, structure and rheology of emulsions stabilized by Na-caseinate. At pH7, O/W emulsions were kinetically stable due to the negative protein charge which enabled electrostatic repulsion between oil droplets resulting in an emulsion with small droplet size, low viscosity, pseudoplasticity and viscoelastic properties. The laccase treatment led to emulsions showing shear-thinning behavior as a result of a more structured system. O/W emulsions at pH5 and 3 showed phase separation due to the proximity to protein pI, but the laccase treatment improved their stability of emulsions especially at pH3. At pH3, the addition of ferulic acid and laccase produced emulsions with larger droplet size but with narrower droplet size distribution, increased viscosity, pseudoplasticity and viscoelastic properties (gel-like behavior). Comparing laccase treatments, the combined addition of laccase and ferulic acid generally produced emulsions with lower stability (pH5), larger droplet size (pH3, 5 and 7) and higher pseudoplasticity (pH5 and 7) than emulsion with only ferulic acid. The results suggested that the cross-linking of proteins by laccase and ferulic acid improved protein emulsifying properties by changing functional mechanisms of the protein on emulsion structure and rheology, showing that sodium caseinate can be successfully used in acid products when treated with laccase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ooi, E M; Adams, L A; Zhu, K; Lewis, J R; Kerr, D A; Meng, X; Solah, V; Devine, A; Binns, C W; Prince, R L
Protein consumption has been associated with cardio-metabolic benefits, including weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity, and may have potential benefits for individuals with fatty liver disease (FLD). We investigated the effect of increasing dietary protein intake from whey relative to carbohydrate on hepatic steatosis. A two-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 30 g/day whey protein-supplemented beverage (protein) or an energy-matched low-protein high-carbohydrate beverage (control) for cardio-metabolic and bone health in 219 healthy elderly women, recruited from the Western Australian general population. Hepatic steatosis was quantified using computed tomographic liver-to-spleen (L/S) ratio. FLD was defined as liver-to-spleen difference <10 Hounsfield units. At baseline, FLD prevalence was 11.4%. Control and protein groups were similar in body mass index (BMI), insulin resistance, L/S ratio and FLD prevalence at baseline. At two-years, dietary protein increased by 20 g in the protein, but not the control, group. Total energy intake and physical activity remained similar between groups. At two-years, BMI and FLD prevalence increased in both groups, with no between group differences. L/S ratio increased in control, but not protein, group at two-years, with no between group differences. In a within group comparison, change in BMI correlated with changes in L/S ratio in control (r = 0.37, P = 0.0007), but not with protein group (r = 0.04, P = 0.73). Increasing dietary protein intake from whey relative to carbohydrate does not reduce weight, hepatic steatosis or the prevalence of FLD in elderly women. However, it may prevent worsening of hepatic steatosis associated with weight gain. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (Registration no. ACTRN012607000163404). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Akhavan, T; Luhovyy, B L; Anderson, G H
It is hypothesized that a solid form of food or food components suppresses subjective appetite and short-term food intake (FI) more than a liquid form. To compare the effect of eating solid vs drinking liquid forms of gelatin, sucrose and its component mixtures, and whey protein, on subjective appetite and FI in young men. A randomized crossover design was used in three experiments in which the subjects were healthy males of normal weight. Solid and liquid forms of gelatin (6 g) (experiment 1, n=14), sucrose (75 g) and a mixture of 50% glucose/50% fructose (G50:F50) (experiment 2, n=15), and acid and sweet whey protein (50 g) (experiment 3, n=14) were compared. The controls were water (experiments 1 and 3) and calorie-free sweetened water with gelatin (sweet gelatin, experiment 1) or calorie-free sweetened water (sweet control, experiment 2). Subjective average appetite was measured by visual analog scales over 1 h and ad libitum FI was measured 1 h after treatment consumption. Average appetite area under the curve was not different between solid and liquid forms of sugars, but was larger, indicating greater satiety for solid compared with liquid forms of gelatin and sweet, but not acid whey protein. The FI was not different from that of control because of solid or liquid sugars or gelatin treatments. However, both solid and liquid forms of whey protein, with no difference among them, suppressed FI compared with control (P<0.05). Macronutrient composition is more important than physical state of foods in determining subjective appetite and FI.
Mohammadian, Mehdi; Madadlou, Ashkan
Whey protein nanofibrils are gaining interest to fabricate cold-set hydrogels due to their ability to gel at lower concentrations than parent proteins. In the present research, fibrillated protein solution was gelled with three different divalent cation salts including CaCl2, MnCl2 and ZnCl2 and the textural and functional characteristics of the resulting hydrogel samples were studied. Atomic force microscopy indicated that the flexible micron-scaled fibrils with nanometric thickness (up to 8.0nm) that formed at pH 2.0 underwent breaking in length upon post-formation pH rise to 7.5. Whilst heat-denatured protein solution failed to form self-supporting gel at pH 7.5, fibrillated protein solution gelled by all three types of cations. Fibrillation increased the protein solution consistency coefficient (K) much more than heat denaturation. It was suggested based on Fourier-transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectra that some hydrogen bonds were disrupted by fibrillation. Zn(2+)-induced gel was firmer, had a higher water holding capacity and a more compact microstructure, as well, required a higher compressive stress to fracture than its counterparts. Nonetheless, the Mn(2+)- and Ca(2+)-induced gels disintegrated to a much lesser extent in both pepsin-free and pepsin-present simulated gastric juice than Zn(2+)-induced sample. Chitosan coating approximately halved the simulated degradability of all gel samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sarkar, Anwesha; Zhang, Shuning; Murray, Brent; Russell, Jessica A; Boxal, Sally
In this study, we designed emulsions with an oil-water interface consisting of a composite layer of whey protein isolate (WPI, 1wt%) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) (1-3wt%). The hypothesis was that a secondary layer of CNCs at the WPI-stabilized oil-water interface could protect the interfacial protein layer against in vitro gastric digestion by pepsin at 37°C. A combination of transmission electron microscopy, ζ-potential measurements, interfacial shear viscosity measurements and theoretical surface coverage considerations suggested the presence of CNCs and WPI together at the O/W interface, owing to the electrostatic attraction between complementarily charged WPI and CNCs at pH 3. Microstructural analysis and droplet sizing revealed that the presence of CNCs increased the resistance of the interfacial protein film to rupture by pepsin, thus inhibiting droplet coalescence in the gastric phase, which occurs rapidly in an emulsion stabilized by WPI alone. It appeared that there was an optimum concentration of CNCs at the interface for such barrier effects. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results further confirmed that the presence of 3wt% of CNCs reduced the rate and extent of proteolysis of protein at the interface. Besides, evidence of adsorption of CNCs to the protein-coated droplets to form more rigid layers, there is also the possibility that network formation by the CNCs in the bulk (continuous) phase reduced the kinetics of proteolysis. Nevertheless, structuring emulsions with mixed protein-particle layers could be an effective strategy to tune and control interfacial barrier properties during gastric passage of emulsions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liu, Jing; Wang, Xinxia; Zhao, Zheng
In order to improve the antioxidant and anti-fatigue capacities of whey protein for wider utilization, it was hydrolyzed by chymotrypsin (EC 220.127.116.11) to produce whey protein hydrolysate (WPH). Fractions of WPH with different molecular weight (MW) were separated by ultrafiltration. Kunming mice in various treatment groups were orally administered (1.5 g kg(-1) body weight) whey protein isolate (WPI), WPH or WPHs with different MW (<5, 5-10, 10-30 or >30 kDa) for 6 weeks to explore whether different MW fractions of WPH affected mice fatigue. Compared with the control group (orally administered 9 g kg(-1) saline) or the WPI group, low-MW (<10 kDa) WPH groups showed prolonged swimming time (P < 0.05) and had higher concentrations (P < 0.05) of glucose, non-esterfied fatty acid, liver glycogen, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and lower concentration of lactate. Low-MW (<10 kDa) WPHs had higher hydroxyl- and α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl-scavenging abilities and ferrous-chelating capacity than WPI. The results proved that low-MW (<10 kDa) WPHs with higher anti-fatigue capacity showed higher free radical-scavenging and ferrous-chelating activities. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Sobral, Pablo A; Palazolo, Gonzalo G; Wagner, Jorge R
Thermal behavior of lyophilized soy whey (LSW) and whey soy proteins (WSP) at different water contents (WC) was studied by DSC. In anhydrous condition, Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) and lectin (L) were more heat stable for WSP with respect to LSW sample. The increase of WC destabilized both proteins but differently depending on the sample analyzed. Thermal stability inversion of KTI and L was observed for WSP and LSW at 50.0% and 17.0% WC, respectively, which correspond to the same water-protein content mass ratio (W/P ≈ 1.9). At W/P < 1.9, KTI was more heat stable than L. Before the inversion point, WC strongly modified the peak temperatures (T(p)) of KTI and L for WSP, whereas this behavior was not observed for LSW. The high sugar content was responsible for the thermal behavior of KTI and L in LSW under anhydrous condition and low WC. These results have important implications for the soy whey processing and inactivation of antinutritional factors.
Ticinesi, Andrea; Meschi, Tiziana; Lauretani, Fulvio; Felis, Giovanna; Franchi, Fabrizio; Pedrolli, Carlo; Barichella, Michela; Benati, Giuseppe; Di Nuzzo, Sergio; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Maggio, Marcello
Chronic activation of the inflammatory response, defined as inflammaging, is the key physio-pathological substrate for anabolic resistance, sarcopenia and frailty in older individuals. Nutrients can theoretically modulate this phenomenon. The underlying molecular mechanisms reducing the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators have been elucidated, particularly for vitamin D, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and whey proteins. In this paper, we review the current evidence emerging from observational and intervention studies, performed in older individuals, either community-dwelling or hospitalized with acute disease, and evaluating the effects of intake of vitamin D, n-3 PUFA and whey proteins on inflammatory markers, such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). After the analysis, we conclude that there is sufficient evidence for an anti-inflammatory effect in aging only for n-3 PUFA intake, while the few existing intervention studies do not support a similar activity for vitamin D and whey supplements. There is need in the future of large, high-quality studies testing the effects of combined dietary interventions including the above mentioned nutrients on inflammation and health-related outcomes.
Ticinesi, Andrea; Meschi, Tiziana; Lauretani, Fulvio; Felis, Giovanna; Franchi, Fabrizio; Pedrolli, Carlo; Barichella, Michela; Benati, Giuseppe; Di Nuzzo, Sergio; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Maggio, Marcello
Chronic activation of the inflammatory response, defined as inflammaging, is the key physio-pathological substrate for anabolic resistance, sarcopenia and frailty in older individuals. Nutrients can theoretically modulate this phenomenon. The underlying molecular mechanisms reducing the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators have been elucidated, particularly for vitamin D, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and whey proteins. In this paper, we review the current evidence emerging from observational and intervention studies, performed in older individuals, either community-dwelling or hospitalized with acute disease, and evaluating the effects of intake of vitamin D, n-3 PUFA and whey proteins on inflammatory markers, such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). After the analysis, we conclude that there is sufficient evidence for an anti-inflammatory effect in aging only for n-3 PUFA intake, while the few existing intervention studies do not support a similar activity for vitamin D and whey supplements. There is need in the future of large, high-quality studies testing the effects of combined dietary interventions including the above mentioned nutrients on inflammation and health-related outcomes. PMID:27043616
Dąbrowska, Anna; Babij, Konrad; Szołtysik, Marek; Chrzanowska, Józefa
The effect of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) addition on growth of standard yoghurt cultures and Bifidobacterium adolescentis during co-fermentation and its viability during storage at 4ºC in yoghurts has been evaluated. WPH was obtained with the use of serine protease from Y. lipolytica yeast. Stirred probiotic yoghurts were prepared by using whole milk standardized to 16% of dry matter with the addition of either whey protein concentrate, skim milk powder (SMP), WPH-SMP (ratio 1:1), WPH. The hydrolysate increased the yoghurt culture counts at the initial stage of fermentation and significantly inhibited the decrease in population viability throughout the storage at 4ºC in comparison to the control. The post-fermentation acidification was also retarded by the addition of WPH. The hydrolysate did not increase the Bifidobacterium adolescentis counts at the initial stage. However, the WPH significantly improved its viability. After 21 days of storage, in the yogurts supplemented with WPH, the population of these bacteria oscillated around 3.04 log10 CFU/g, while in samples where SMP or whey protein concentrate was used, the bacteria were no longer detected.
Caubet, Jean Christoph; Bencharitiwong, Ramon; Ross, Andrew; Sampson, Hugh A; Berin, M Cecilia; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-mediated food allergy manifesting within 1 to 4 hours of food ingestion with repetitive emesis and lethargy. We sought to characterize immune responses to casein in children with FPIES caused by cow's milk (CM). Total IgE and IgM, CM-specific IgG, and casein-specific IgE, IgG, IgG 4 , and IgM levels, as well as immunoglobulin free light chains, were measured in both patients with active and those with resolved CM-FPIES. Proliferating casein/T-effector cell counts were measured in children with CM-FPIES, children with IgE-mediated CM allergy, and those tolerating CM. Cytokine concentrations in the supernatants were quantified. Serum cytokine and tryptase levels were measured before and after a positive oral food challenge (OFC) result and compared with levels in those with a negative OFC result. We found low levels of CM and casein-specific IgG and casein-specific IgG 4 in patients with CM-FPIES versus those tolerating CM (P < .05). Although we found both a high CD4 + T cell-proliferative response and T H 2 cytokines production after casein stimulation in children with CM-FPIES, results were similar to those in control subjects. Significantly lower secretion of IL-10 and higher secretion of IL-9 by casein-stimulated T cells were found in patients with CM-FPIES versus those with IgE-mediated CM allergy. Lower baseline serum levels of IL-10 and higher tryptase levels were found in active CM-FPIES versus resolved CM-FPIES. We found a significant increase in serum IL-10 and IL-8 levels after a positive OFC result. We confirm the paucity of humoral response in patients with CM-FPIES. IL-10 might play a key role in acquisition of tolerance in patients with CM-FPIES. Increased serum IL-8 levels in patients with active FPIES suggest neutrophil involvement. Elevated baseline serum tryptase levels in patients with active FPIES suggest low-grade intestinal mast cell activation or increased mast cell load
Mantovani, Raphaela Araujo; Cavallieri, Ângelo Luiz Fazani; Netto, Flavia Maria; Cunha, Rosiane Lopes
The effect of pH and high-pressure homogenization on the properties of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions stabilized by lecithin and/or whey proteins (WPI) was evaluated. For this purpose, emulsions were characterized by visual analysis, droplet size distribution, zeta potential, electrophoresis, rheological measurements and their response to in vitro digestion. Lecithin emulsions were stable even after 7 days of storage and WPI emulsions were unstable only at pH values close to the isoelectric point (pI) of proteins. Systems containing the mixture of lecithin and WPI showed high kinetic instability at pH 3, which was attributed to the electrostatic interaction between the emulsifiers oppositely charged at this pH value. At pH 5.5 and 7, the mixture led to reduction of the droplet size with enhanced emulsion stability compared to the systems with WPI or lecithin. The stability of WPI emulsions after the addition of lecithin, especially at pH 5.5, was associated with the increase of droplet surface charge density. The in vitro digestion evaluation showed that WPI emulsion was more stable against gastrointestinal conditions.
Garg, Geetika; Singh, Sandeep; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim
Whey protein concentrate (WPC) is a rich source of sulfur-containing amino acids and is consumed as a functional food, incorporating a wide range of nutritional attributes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of WPC on rat brain during aging. Young (4 months) and old (24 months) male Wistar rats were supplemented with WPC (300 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in terms of ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), lipid hydroperoxide (LHP), total thiol (T-SH), protein carbonyl (PC), reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were measured in brain of control and experimental (WPC supplemented) groups. In addition, gene expression and histopathological studies were also performed. The results indicate that WPC augmented the level of FRAP, T-SH, and AChE in old rats as compared with the old control. Furthermore, WPC-treated groups exhibited significant reduction in LHP, PC, ROS, and NO levels in aged rats. WPC supplementation also downregulated the expression of inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6), and upregulated the expression of marker genes associated with autophagy (Atg3, Beclin-1, LC3B) and neurodegeneration (neuron specific enolase, Synapsin-I, MBP-2). The findings suggested WPC to be a potential functional nutritional food supplement that prevents the progression of age-related oxidative damage in Wistar rats.
Ahmadi, Maede; Madadlou, Ashkan; Saboury, Ali Akbar
Whey protein hydrogels blended with nanocrystalline and microcrystalline cellulose particles (NCC and MCC, respectively) were prepared, followed by freeze-drying, to produce aerogels. NCC blending increased the Young's modulus, and elastic character, of the protein aerogel. Aerogels were microporous and mesoporous materials, as characterized by the pores sizing 1.2 nm and 12.2 nm, respectively. Blending with NCC decreased the count of both microporous and mesoporous-classified pores at the sub-100 nm pore size range investigated. In contrast, MCC blending augmented the specific surface area and pores volume of the aerogel. It also increased moisture sorption affinity of aerogel. The feasibility of conveying hydrophobic nutraceuticals by aerogels was evaluated through loading fish oil into the non-blended aerogel. Oil loading altered its microstructure, corresponding to a peak displacement in Fourier-transform infra-red spectra, which was ascribed to increased hydrophobic interactions. Surface coating of aerogel with zein decreased the oxidation susceptibility of the loaded oil during subsequent storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reyna, Nadia; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Mendoza, Laura; Urdaneta, Andrés; Artigas, Carlos; Reyna, Eduardo; Cámara Martos, Fernando
the nutritional content and energy density of foods is related to greater control of appetite, satiety and reducing food intake. the randomized crossover study included 20 healthy women, aged 20 and 30 years with a BMI of 20 to 24.9 kg/m2 and who completed that included 3 day trial comparing 8 hours 130 kcal snacks consumed afternoon: yoghurt with added whey protein (PSL), biscuits and chocolate. Participants consumed a standardized menu; snack was consumed 3 hours after lunch. Perceived hunger and fullness were evaluated during the afternoon until dinner voluntary intake ad libitum. They repeat the same snack 3 times. consumption of yogurt with PSL led to a further reduction of appetite in the afternoon in front of the snack of chocolate and biscuits (p < 0.001). No differences of appetite in the afternoon between chocolate vs cookies but significant difference between yogurt with PSL and other treatments (p < 0.001) were detected. At snack, yogurt there was a significant reduction in caloric intake compared to other snacks (p < 0.001) and a later request for dinner with about 45 minutes apart. snacks with less energy density and rich in protein (yogurt with PSL) improve the control of appetite, satiety and reduces food intake in healthy women later. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Xu, Xingfeng; Zhong, Junzhen; Chen, Jun; Liu, Chengmei; Luo, Liping; Luo, Shunjing; Wu, Lixin; McClements, David Julian
The emulsifying properties of partially hydrolyzed rice glutelin (H-RG, 2% degree of hydrolysis) were compared to those of whey isolate protein (WPI), a commonly used protein-based emulsifier. The surface load of WPI (1% emulsifier, d32=167.5nm) was 2.8 times lower than that of H-RG (3% emulsifier, d32=159.0nm). Emulsions containing WPI-coated lipid droplets had better stability to pH changes (2-8), NaCl addition (0-500mM) and thermal processing (30-90°C, 0 or 200mM NaCl). Nevertheless, H-RG emulsions were stable over a range of conditions: pH 6-8; NaCl≤200 (pH 7); temperatures≤90°C in the absence of salt (pH 7); and temperatures≤50°C in the presence of 200mM NaCl (pH 7). This study indicates that H-RG may be utilized as a natural emulsifier in the development of label-friendly emulsion-based food products, but that further work is needed to increase the range of applications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Wu, Jiande; Shi, Mengxuan; Li, Wei; Zhao, Luhai; Wang, Ze; Yan, Xinzhong; Norde, Willem; Li, Yuan
A Pickering (o/w) emulsion was formed and stabilized by whey protein isolate nanoparticles (WPI NPs). Those WPI NPs were prepared by thermal cross-linking of denatured WPI proteins within w/o emulsion droplets at 80°C for 15 min. During heating of w/o emulsions containing 10% (w/v) WPI proteins in the water phase, the emulsions displayed turbid-transparent-turbid phase transitions, which is ascribed to the change in the size of the protein-containing water droplets caused by thermal cross-linking between denatured protein molecules. The transparent stage indicated the formation of WPI NPs. WPI NPs of different sizes were obtained by varying the mixing speed. WPI NPs of 200-500 nm were selected to prepare o/w Pickering emulsions because of their good stability against coalescence. By Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, it was observed that WPI NPs were closely packed and distributed at the surface of the emulsion droplets. By measuring water contact angles of WPI NPs films, it was found that under most conditions WPI NPs present good partial wetting properties, but that at the isoelectric point (pI) and high ionic strength the particles become more hydrophobic, resulting in less stable Pickering emulsion. Thus, at pH above and below the pI of WPI NPs and low to moderate ionic strengths (1-10 mM), and with a WPI NPs concentration of 2% (w/v), a stable Pickering emulsion can be obtained. The results may provide useful information for applications of WPI NPs in environmentally friendly and food grade applications, notably in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ma, X Y; Liu, S B; Lu, L; Li, S F; Xie, J J; Zhang, L Y; Zhang, J H; Luo, X G
An experiment was carried out to determine the bioavailability of organic Fe as Fe proteinate (Alltech, Nicholasville, KY) relative to inorganic Fe source (FeSO4•7H2O) for broiler chicks fed a casein-dextrose diet. A total of 448 1-d-old Arbor Acres commercial male broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 1 of 8 replicate cages (8 chicks per cage) for each of 7 treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 Fe sources (Fe proteinate and Fe sulfate) and 3 levels of added Fe (10, 20, or 40 mg of Fe/kg) plus a Fe-unsupplemented control diet containing 4.56 mg of Fe/kg by analysis. Feed and distilled-deionized water were available ad libitum for an experimental phase of 14 d. At 14 d of age, blood samples were collected for testing hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit, and calculating total body Hb Fe, whereas liver and kidney samples were excised for Fe analyses. The results showed that ADG, ADFI, blood Hb, hematocrit, and total body Hb Fe and Fe concentrations in liver and kidney increased linearly (P < 0.0001), whereas mortality decreased linearly (P < 0.0001) as dietary Fe level increased. However, only blood Hb concentration and total body Hb Fe differed (P < 0.004) between the 2 Fe sources. Based on slope ratios from the multiple linear regression of Hb concentration and total body Hb Fe on daily intake of analyzed dietary Fe, the bioavailability of Fe proteinate relative to FeSO4•7H2O (100%) was 117 and 114%, respectively (P < 0.009). The results indicated that blood Hb concentration and total body Hb Fe were sensitive indices in reflecting differences in bioavailability among different Fe sources, and Fe proteinate was significantly more available to broilers than inorganic Fe sulfate in enhancing Hb concentration and total body Hb Fe.
Cheema, M; Hristov, A N; Harte, F M
Casein proteins (α S1 -, α S2 -, β- and κ-casein) account for 80% of the total protein content in bovine milk and form casein micelles (average diameter = 130 nm, approximately 10 15 micelles/mL). The affinity of native casein micelles with the 3 hydrophobic active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), meloxicam [351.4 g/mol; log P = 3.43; acid dissociation constant (pK a ) = 4.08], flunixin (296.2 g/mol; log P = 4.1; pK a = 5.82), and thiabendazole (201.2 g/mol; log P = 2.92; pK a = 4.64), was evaluated in bovine milk collected from dosed Holstein cows. Native casein micelles were separated from raw bovine milk by mild techniques such as ultracentrifugation, diafiltration, isoelectric point precipitation (pH 4.6), and size exclusion chromatography. Acetonitrile extraction of hydrophobic API was then done, followed by quantification using HPLC-UV. For the API or metabolites meloxicam, 5-hyroxy flunixin and 5-hydroxy thiabendazole, 31 ± 3.90, 31 ± 1.3, and 28 ± 0.5% of the content in milk was associated with casein micelles, respectively. Less than ∼5.0% of the recovered hydrophobic API were found in the milk fat fraction, and the remaining ∼65% were associated with the whey/serum fraction. A separate in vitro study showed that 66 ± 6.4% of meloxicam, 29 ± 0.58% of flunixin, 34 ± 0.21% of the metabolite 5-hyroxy flunixin, 50 ± 4.5% of thiabendazole, and 33 ± 3.8% of metabolite 5-hydroxy thiabendazole was found partitioned into casein micelles. Our study supports the hypothesis that casein micelles are native carriers for hydrophobic compounds in bovine milk. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bendtsen, Line Q.; Lorenzen, Janne K.; Bendsen, Nathalie T.; Rasmussen, Charlotte; Astrup, Arne
Evidence supports that a high proportion of calories from protein increases weight loss and prevents weight (re)gain. Proteins are known to induce satiety, increase secretion of gastrointestinal hormones, and increase diet-induced thermogenesis, but less is known about whether various types of proteins exert different metabolic effects. In the Western world, dairy protein, which consists of 80% casein and 20% whey, is a large contributor to our daily protein intake. Casein and whey differ in absorption and digestion rates, with casein being a “slow” protein and whey being a “fast” protein. In addition, they differ in amino acid composition. This review examines whether casein, whey, and other protein sources exert different metabolic effects and targets to clarify the underlying mechanisms. Data indicate that whey is more satiating in the short term, whereas casein is more satiating in the long term. In addition, some studies indicate that whey stimulates the secretion of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide more than other proteins. However, for the satiety (cholecystokinin and peptide YY) and hunger-stimulating (ghrelin) hormones, no clear evidence exists that 1 protein source has a greater stimulating effect compared with others. Likewise, no clear evidence exists that 1 protein source results in higher diet-induced thermogenesis and promotes more beneficial changes in body weight and composition compared with other protein sources. However, data indicate that amino acid composition, rate of absorption, and protein/food texture may be important factors for protein-stimulated metabolic effects. PMID:23858091
Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Tananuwong, Kanitha; Krochta, John M
Residual O(2) in a package headspace can be removed by an O(2)-absorbing sachet, which can be harmful if swallowed by the consumer, or by a chemically-active plastic packaging film, which is difficult to recycle. An edible, O(2)-absorbing film would avoid these disadvantages. The objective of our research was to assess the O(2)-scavenging potential of an edible whey protein isolate (WPI) film incorporating ascorbic acid (AA). AA at 0.05, 0.1, or 0.2 M was added to 5% (w/w) heat-denatured WPI film-forming solutions with WPI : glycerol (Gly) ratio of 1: 1.00, 1: 0.80, or 1: 0.67. The pH of solutions was then adjusted to 3.5 (below pK(a1) of AA), to stabilize AA against oxidation, before film casting. The mechanical properties, O(2) permeabilities, and thermal transitions of films were measured. Activation of the O(2)-scavenging function of the AA-incorporated films was accomplished by adjustment of the films to pH ≥ 7. O(2)-scavenging ability of AA-incorporated WPI films was determined by measuring residual O(2) in the headspace of a high-barrier container. Incorporation of AA into WPI film decreased film tensile strength and further reduced O(2) permeability at each WPI : Gly ratio. AA-containing films adjusted to pH ≥ 7 demonstrated O(2) absorption proportional to AA content, consistent with theoretical O(2)-scavenging capacity. Thermal transition measurements indicated that AA was involved in WPI structural modification and decreased the degradation temperature of WPI-based film. The demonstrated O(2)-scavenging function, improved O(2) barrier and acceptable mechanical properties of AA-incorporated films indicate potential commercial usefulness. Ascorbic acid-incorporated whey protein film with oxygen scavenging function can be used to extend shelf lives of a wide variety of oxygen-sensitive products by eliminating headspace oxygen as well as oxygen permeating through the packaging wall over time. Edible oxygen-scavenger film has the advantages of avoiding
Berwig, Karina Hammel; Baldasso, Camila; Dettmer, Aline
Whey after acid protein precipitation was used as substrate for PHB production in orbital shaker using Alcaligenes latus. Statistical analysis determined the most appropriate hydroxide for pH neutralization of whey after protein precipitation among NH4OH, KOH and NaOH 10%w/v. The results were compared to those of commercial lactose. A scale-up test in a 4L bioreactor was done at 35°C, 750rpm, 7L/min air flow, and 6.5 pH. The PHB was characterized through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. NH4OH provided the best results for productivity (p), 0.11g/L.h, and for polymer yield, (YP/S), 1.08g/g. The bioreactor experiment resulted in lower p and YP/S. PHB showed maximum degradation temperature (291°C), melting temperature (169°C), and chemical properties similar to those of standard PHB. The use of whey as a substrate for PHB production did not affect significantly the final product quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maharjan, Pankaj; Campi, Eva M; De Silva, Kirthi; Woonton, Brad W; Jackson, W Roy; Hearn, Milton T W
Several new types of temperature-responsive ion exchange resins of different polymer composition have been prepared by grafting the products from the co-polymerisation of N-phenylacrylamide, N-iso-propylacrylamide and acrylic acid derivatives onto cross-linked agarose. Analysis of the binding isotherms for these different resins obtained under batch adsorption conditions indicated that the resin based on N-iso-propylacrylamide containing 5% (w/w) N-phenylacrylamide and 5% (w/w) acrylic acid resulted in the highest adsorption capacity, Bmax, for the whey protein, bovine lactoferrin, e.g. 14 mg bovine lactoferrin/mL resin at 4 °C and 62 mg bovine lactoferrin/mL resin at 40 °C, respectively. Under dynamic loading conditions at 40 °C, 94% of the loaded bovine lactoferrin on a normalised mg protein per mL resin basis was adsorbed by this new temperature-responsive ion-exchanger, and 76% was eluted by a single cycle temperature shift to 4 °C without varying the composition of the 10mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer, pH 6.5, or the flow rate. The binding characteristics of these different ion exchange resins with bovine lactoferrin were also compared to results obtained using other resins based on N-isopropylacrylamide but contained N-tert-butylacrylamide rather than N-phenylacrylamide, where the corresponding dynamic capture and release properties for bovine lactoferrin required different temperature conditions of 20 °C and 50 °C, respectively for optimal desorption/adsorption. The cationic protein, bovine lactoperoxidase, was also adsorbed and desorbed with these temperature-responsive resins under similar conditions of changing temperature, whereas the anionic protein, bovine β-lactoglobulin, was not adsorbed under this regime of temperature conditions but instead eluted in the flow-through. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kinsey, Amber W.; Cappadona, Stacy R.; Panton, Lynn B.; Allman, Brittany R.; Contreras, Robert J.; Hickner, Robert C.; Ormsbee, Michael J.
We have previously shown that ingesting protein at night before sleep is either beneficial or non-detrimental to metabolism, health, and body composition in obese women. However, the overnight protein-induced lipolytic actions and mechanism for improved metabolism and body composition have not been fully established. Therefore, in a crossover design, twelve obese men (age, 27.0 ± 2.2 years) were randomly assigned to ingest (within 30 min of sleep) casein protein (CAS, 120 kcal) or a non-nutritive placebo (PLA) before going to sleep. Markers of fat metabolism (lipolysis, substrate utilization, growth hormone), insulin, glucose, resting energy expenditure (REE), and appetite (questionnaire and ghrelin) were measured. During sleep and the next morning, interstitial glycerol from the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) was measured using microdialysis. There were no differences in SCAAT glycerol (overnight: CAS, 177.4 ± 26.7; PLA, 183.8 ± 20.2 μmol/L; morning: CAS, 171.6 ± 19.1; PLA, 161.5 ± 18.6 μmol/L), substrate utilization, REE, or any blood markers between CAS and PLA. Desire to eat was greater for CAS compared to baseline (p = 0.03), but not different from PLA (baseline: 39 ± 6, CAS: 62 ± 8, PLA: 55 ± 5 mm). CAS consumption before sleep did not affect fat or glucose metabolism, REE, or suppress appetite in hyperinsulemic obese men. CAS may be consumed before sleep without impeding overnight or morning fat metabolism in young, obese men. PMID:27472361
Kumura, H; Ishido, T; Shimazaki, K
Several attempts have been made to incorporate whey proteins into curd to increase cheese yield. For some types of cheese, degradation of whey proteins that have been incorporated into the curd would be required to obtain acceptable flavor and texture. On the basis of the high potential for protease synthesis in Aspergillus oryzae, sodium nitrate as a nitrogen source in a minimal medium for fungi, known as Czapek-Dox medium, was replaced with whey protein isolate to induce the protease to hydrolyze whey protein using A. oryzae AHU7146. A solid-phase medium adjusted to pH 6 was suitable for this purpose when incubation was carried out at 25°C for 2 wk. The application of column chromatography enabled the resolution of 3 proteolytic components (1, 2, and 3). With respect to optimal temperature and zymographic analysis, component 1 was similar to component 3. In contrast, component 2 was less abundant than the other components and exhibited activity in the alkaline pH region. The degradation of β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin in whey protein isolate solution by the crude enzyme was primarily attributed to the action of components 1 and 3, based on HPLC analysis and the N-terminal amino acid sequences; however, zymography demonstrated evident proteolysis due to component 2. Because heat-denatured whey protein aggregates were digestible by the crude enzyme, the proteolytic system from A. oryzae has the potential as an additive to stimulate the ripening of cheese enriched with whey protein. Copyright Â© 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schmid, Markus; Prinz, Tobias K.; Stäbler, Andreas; Sängerlaub, Sven
Whey protein coatings and cast films are promising for use as food packaging materials. Ongoing research is endeavoring to reduce their permeability. The intention of this study was to evaluate the effect of the reactive additives sodium sulfite, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and urea on the oxygen barrier, water vapor barrier, and protein solubility of whey protein cast films. The concentration of the reactive additives was 1 to 20 wt.-%. Dried whey protein cast films were used as substrate materials. The water vapor transmission rate, the oxygen permeability, and the protein solubility were measured. Effective diffusion coefficients and effective sorption coefficients were calculated from the results of the water vapor sorption experiments. The presence of sodium sulfite resulted in an increased number of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds and a slightly decreased number of disulfide bonds. The oxygen permeability decreased from 68 to 46 cm3 (STP/standard temperature and pressure) 100 μm (m2 d bar)−1 for 1 wt.-% SDS in the whey protein cast film. The water vapor transmission rate decreased from 165 to 44 g 100 μm (m2 d)−1 measured at 50 to 0% r. h. for 20 wt.-% SDS in the whey protein cast film. The reduction in the water vapor transmission rate correlated with the lower effective diffusion coefficient. PMID:28149835
Schmid, Markus; Prinz, Tobias K.; Stäbler, Andreas; Sängerlaub, Sven
Whey protein coatings and cast films are promising for use as food packaging materials. Ongoing research is endeavoring to reduce their permeability. The intention of this study was to evaluate the effect of the reactive additives sodium sulfite, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and urea on the oxygen barrier, water vapor barrier, and protein solubility of whey protein cast films. The concentration of the reactive additives was 1 to 20 wt.-%. Dried whey protein cast films were used as substrate materials. The water vapor transmission rate, the oxygen permeability, and the protein solubility were measured. Effective diffusion coefficients and effective sorption coefficients were calculated from the results of the water vapor sorption experiments. The presence of sodium sulfite resulted in an increased number of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds and a slightly decreased number of disulfide bonds. The oxygen permeability decreased from 68 to 46 cm³ (STP / standard temperature and pressure) 100 µm (m² d bar)-1 for 1 wt.-% SDS in the whey protein cast film. The water vapor transmission rate decreased from 165 to 44 g 100 µm (m² d)-1 measured at 50 to 0 % r. h. for 20 wt.-% SDS in the whey protein cast film. The reduction in the water vapor transmission rate correlated with the lower effective diffusion coefficient.
Odila Pereira, Joana; Soares, José; J P Monteiro, Maria; Gomes, Ana; Pintado, Manuela
Edible coatings/films with functional ingredients may be a solution to consumers' demands for high-quality food products and an extended shelf-life. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficiency of edible coatings incorporated with probiotics on sliced ham preservation. Coatings was developed based on whey protein isolates with incorporation of Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12® or Lactobacillus casei-01. The physicochemical analyses showed that coating decreased water and weight loss on the ham. Furthermore, color analysis showed that coated sliced ham, exhibited no color change, comparatively to uncoated slices. The edible coatings incorporating the probiotic strains inhibited detectable growth of Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts/molds, at least, for 45days of storage at 4°C. The sensory evaluation demonstrated that there was a preference for the sliced coated ham. Probiotic bacteria viable cell numbers were maintained at ca. 10 8 CFU/g throughout storage time, enabling the slice of ham to act as a suitable carrier for the beneficial bacteria. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Phupoksakul, Thunyaluck; Leuangsukrerk, Manusawee; Somwangthanaroj, Anongnat; Tananuwong, Kanitha; Janjarasskul, Theeranun
The use of biodegradable polymeric materials has been proposed as an environmentally-friendly alternative to petroleum-based packaging. To extend the shelf life of food products, these bioplastics must possess appropriate barrier properties and food-package stability. In the present study, shelf life analysis of packaged baby formula in biopolymeric, multilayer film, fabricated from poly(lactide) (PLA) and whey protein isolate (WPI), PLA/WPI/PLA and PLA pouches was performed at 4-35 o C and 50-59% relative humidity. Despite the possible sorption of food components into contact PLA surfaces, the results demonstated that the transparency and barrier properties of PLA-based pouches were insignificantly changed over time (P > 0.05), although the films showed a slow rate of color change. The baby formula packaged in PLA/WPI/PLA had a delayed lipid oxidation compared to the sample in the PLA pouch, especially at a higher temperature. The application of WPI in the multilayer structure shifted the shelf life determination factor from lipid oxidation to moisture gain. The results indicate that the PLA/WPI/PLA pouch has good storage stability. The film could be used to package dry food properly at 4-35 o C and 50-59% relative humidity for an extended period of time. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Zolfi, Mohsen; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Mousavi, Mohammad; Hashemi, Maryam
Biodegradable kefiran-whey protein isolate (WPI)-titanium dioxide (TiO2) blend films were developed and characterized as a function of incorporating amount of TiO2 nanoparticles (1, 3 and 5% wt.). Results showed that the water vapor permeability, moisture content, moisture absorption and water solubility decreased by increasing the nano-TiO2 content. Mechanical tests revealed the plasticizing effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on the kefiran-WPI-TiO2 film. Addition of TiO2 nanoparticles to kefiran-WPI films significantly decreased tensile strength and Young's modulus, while increased its elongation at break. Differential scanning calorimetry data indicated that the glass transition temperature significantly changed by adding nano-TiO2. X-ray diffraction analysis also demonstrated that crystal type in kefiran-WPI was not affected by incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles. A uniform distribution at 1 and 3% wt. loading levels of TiO2 nanoparticles was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zolfi, Mohsen; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Mousavi, Mohammad; Hashemi, Maryam
Biodegradable kefiran-whey protein isolate (WPI) nanocomposites were produced using montmorillonite (MMT) and nano-TiO2 as nanoparticles in the percentage of 1, 3, and 5% (w/w) by a casting and solvent-evaporation method. Physical, mechanical, and water-vapor permeability (WVP) properties were determined as a function of nanoparticle concentration. The results revealed that the effect of these nanoparticles was different according to their nature and percentage. The films incorporated with 5% (w/w) MMT showed the highest tensile strength, Young's modulus, puncture strength, and the lowest WVP compared with the control and TiO2 added films. In contrast to MMT, addition of TiO2 nanoparticles due to the plasticizing effect led to a significant change in color and transparency of nanocomposite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations demonstrated the films' properties in relation to their microstructures. The surface topography results also showed a considerable increase in roughness parameters by incorporating the nanoparticles in kefiran-WPI matrix. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sun, Chanchan; Liu, Rui; Liang, Bin; Wu, Tao; Sui, Wenjie; Zhang, Min
This article reports caloric value changes, stability and rheological properties of mayonnaises affected by fat mimetic based on Microparticulated whey protein (MWP) and high-methoxy pectin. Lipid was partially substituted at different levels of 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%, and the samples were referred to as FM20, FM40, FM60, FM80 and FFM, respectively. The full fat (FF) mayonnaise was used as a control experiment. For rheological properties, the addition of fat mimetic resulted in the gradual decrease of pseudoplastic behavior, relative thixotropic area and viscosity index, while elasticity index exhibited the opposite trend. After 30 days of storage, all mayonnaises except FM20 were categorized as weak gels under oscillatory tests, while FM20 displayed high storage stability. Long-term stability studies showed that the addition of the fat mimetic up to 60% could significantly enhance the storage stability of mayonnaises by preventing the coalescence and flocculation of the droplets. Both the dynamic mechanical measurement and stability study results suggested that MWP and pectin could be a potential fat mimetic used in mayonnaise. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Qi, Weiwei; Chen, Chong; Liu, Mujun; Yu, Guoping; Cai, Xinghang; Guo, Peipei; Yao, Yuxiu; Mei, Sijie
Whey protein isolate and commercial soybean salad oil were used to produce the WPI emulsion dispersions. The properties of TG-catalyzed emulsion gelation produced from WPI emulsion dispersions were investigated by the amount of TG, temperature, pH and reaction time. Specifically, the texture properties (hardness and springiness), water-holding capacity and rheological properties (G' and G") were assessed. The result of Orthogonal tests showed WPI emulsion can form better hardness and springiness gel when the ratio of TG and WPI was 20U/g, pH 7.5, treatment temperature and time were 50°C and 3 h, respectively. The microstructure of TG emulsion gels was more compact, gel pore is smaller, distribution more uniform, the oil droplets size smaller compared with untreated emulsion gels. Compared to the control of rheological properties, G' and G" were significantly increased and G' > G", results showed that the gel was solid state, and TG speeded up the process of gelation.
Jiang, Yujun; Zheng, Zhe; Zhang, Tiehua; Hendricks, Gregory; Guo, Mingruo
Survivability of probiotics in foods is essential for developing functional food containing probiotics. We investigated polymerized whey protein (PWP)-based microencapsulation process which is developed for protecting probiotics like Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and compared with the method using sodium alginate (SA). The entrapment rate was 89.3 ± 4.8% using PWP, while it was 73.2 ± 1.4% for SA. The microencapsulated NCFM by PWP and SA were separately subjected to digestion juices and post-fermentation storage of fermented cows' and goats' milk using the encapsulated culture. The log viable count of NCFM in PWP-based microencapsulation was 4.56, compared with that of 4.26 in SA-based ones and 3.13 for free culture. Compared with using SA as wall material, PWP was more effective in protecting probiotic. Microencapsulation of L. acidophilus NCFM using PWP as wall material can be exploited in the development of fermented dairy products with better survivability of probiotic organism.
Fernández-Pan, Idoya; Mendoza, Mauricio; Maté, Juan I
Whey protein isolate edible films with oregano or clove essential oils (EOs) incorporated as natural antimicrobials have been developed, with the aim of enhancing the microbial quality of poultry. The effectiveness of the films was determined against both the whole and selected microbiota developed during different periods of cold storage on the surface of skinless chicken breast. Tests were conducted by using both turbidimetric and agar disc diffusion methods. The antimicrobial edible films developed showed high effectiveness against the main spoilers developed on the surface of skinless chicken breasts cold-stored for 8 days. The films based on oregano EO showed greater effectiveness than those based on clove EO. Still, clove EO could be part of an effective antimicrobial edible film. Enterobacteriaceae was the most susceptible to the effect of the films when lower concentrations of EO were incorporated. The largest inhibition surfaces obtained were provoked by films with the highest concentration of oregano EO incorporated against lactic acid bacteria. The antimicrobial edible films developed in this study inhibited the growth of the microbial populations that developed through storage of the chicken breast and caused its spoilage. The results of this research have direct application in the food industry to enhance the control of the development of spoilers such as Pseudomonas spp. or lactic acid bacteria. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Marín-Gallén, Silvia; Castell, Margarida; Rodríguez-Palmero, María; Rivero, Montserrat; Franch, Angels; Castellote, Cristina
During neonatal life, challenges from breast milk and microbial flora promote immune system maturation. Immunonutrition in these stages may become an important way to increase natural defence systems. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a daily bovine milk whey protein concentrate (WPC) supplement on the intestinal and systemic immune systems in suckling rats. The composition of intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocytes (IEL and LPL) was analysed by flow cytometry. Systemic and intestinal humoral immune responses were determined by sera Ig levels and Ig-secreting cell quantification by ELISA and ELISPOT, respectively. From birth, suckling Wistar rats were supplemented with WPC or standard infant formula (SIF). The WPC group showed the same proportion of most of the main mucosal cell subsets as the reference animals. However, in the first days of life WPC enhanced the innate immunity by increasing the NK cell proportion in both epithelial and lamina propria (LP) compartments. A rise in intestinal CD8alphaalpha+ IEL was also induced by WPC supplementation. A time-course of sera Ig levels and spontaneous IgA, IgM and IgG production by LPL and mononuclear cells from blood and spleen, in the WPC group, exhibited a similar pattern to those pups fed only by dam's milk. In summary, the present results show the effects of WPC on enhancing mucosal innate immunity during early life.
Fu, Wei; Nakamura, Takashi
The effects of tapioca starch (TS) and potato starch (PS) on texture properties of whey protein isolate (WPI)/starch co-gels were investigated for fracture structures. We focused on two types of WPI network structures. In a fine-stranded structure at pH 6.8, the WPI/TS co-gel fractured similarly to the WPI single gel. The WPI/PS co-gel was broken at a lower strain and lower stress. In a random aggregation at pH 5.8, the WPI/TS co-gel reached a yielding point at a lower strain, whereas the WPI/PS co-gel fractured at a higher strain and higher stress. In the fracture structures, it was revealed that breaks occurred in different places in these cases, which could explain the different texture properties of samples. This study tries to explain the texture properties of WPI/starch co-gels from fracture structures and provides a reference to predict texture properties of the WPI/starch food system.
Han, J H; Hwang, H-M; Min, S; Krochta, J M
Physical properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) coating solution incorporating ascorbic palmitate (AP) and alpha-tocopherol (tocopherol) were characterized, and the antioxidant activity of dried WPI coatings against lipid oxidation in roasted peanuts were investigated. The AP and tocopherol were mixed into a 10% (w/w) WPI solution containing 6.7% glycerol. Process 1 (P1) blended an AP and tocopherol mixture directly into the WPI solution using a high-speed homogenizer. Process 2 (P2) used ethanol as a solvent for dissolving AP and tocopherol into the WPI solution. The viscosity and turbidity of the WPI coating solution showed the Newtonian fluid behavior, and 0.25% of critical concentration of AP in WPI solution rheology. After peanuts were coated with WPI solutions, color changes of peanuts were measured during 16 wk of storage at 25 degrees C, and the oxidation of peanuts was determined by hexanal analysis using solid-phase micro-extraction samplers and GC-MS. Regardless of the presence of antioxidants in the coating layer, the formation of hexanal from the oxidation of peanut lipids was reduced by WPI coatings, which indicates WPI coatings protected the peanuts from oxygen permeation and oxidation. However, the incorporation of antioxidants in the WPI coating layer did not show a significant difference in hexanal production from that of WPI coating treatment without incorporation of antioxidants.
Reading, James L; Meyers, Adrienne F A; Vyakarnam, Annapurna
To discuss how whey acidic proteins (WAPs), a new class of immunomodulatory soluble mediators, impact innate immunity to HIV infection. Innate immunity to HIV infection is increasingly being recognized as critical in determining initial virus transmission and dissemination and may, therefore, be exploited in vaccine and microbicide intervention strategies to combat HIV infection. Several important innate immune mediators have recently been shown to regulate HIV infection in vitro and are, thus, implicated in in vivo immunity to the virus. These include soluble mediators, such as type I interferon, the defensins and more recently WAPs. Recent evidence is discussed, which show that WAPs are pleiotropic soluble mediators that may impact the course of HIV infection in two ways: as regulators of HIV replication and as regulators of innate and adaptive immunity. A better understanding of host factors that regulate HIV transmission is essential in the development of novel therapeutic strategies. This review focuses on recent findings that highlight the HIV regulatory and anti-inflammatory function of WAPs and assesses their potential to be exploited as novel therapeutics.
Agboola; Singh; Munro; Dalgleish; Singh
Oil-in-water emulsions (4 wt % soy oil) were prepared with 0.5-5 wt % whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) (27% degree of hydrolysis), in a two-stage homogenizer using various first-stage pressures of 10.3, 20.6, and 34.3 MPa and a constant second-stage pressure of 3.4 MPa. Destabilization studies on the emulsions were carried out for up to 24 h, using both laser light scattering and confocal laser microscopy. It was found that emulsions formed with <2% WPH showed oiling off and coalescence at all homogenization pressures. Emulsions formed with 2, 3, and 4% WPH showed coalescence and creaming only, while slight flocculation but no creaming occurred in emulsions formed with 5% WPH. Furthermore, the apparent rate of coalescence increased with homogenization pressure but decreased with WPH concentration. In contrast, the surface concentration of WPH increased with the WPH concentration in the emulsions but decreased with homogenization pressure. Analysis of WPH by high-performance liquid chromatography showed an increase in the concentration of high molecular weight peptides at the droplet surface compared to the WPH solution. This was considered very important for the stability of these oil-in-water emulsions.
Mollahosseini, Mehdi; Shab-Bidar, Sakineh; Rahimi, Mohammad Hossein; Djafarian, Kurosh
Specific components of dairy, such as whey proteins may have beneficial effects on body composition by suppressing appetite, although the findings of existing studies have been inconsistent. Therefore, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was performed to investigate effect of whey protein supplementation on long and short term appetite. A systematic search was conducted to identify eligible publications. Means and SDs for hunger, fullness, satiety, desire to eat and prospective consumption of food, before and after intervention, were extracted and then composite appetite score (CAS) calculated. To pool data, either a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model and for assessing heterogeneity, Cochran's Q and I 2 tests were used. Eight publications met inclusion criteria that 5 records were on short term and 3 records on long term appetite. The meta-analysis showed a significant reduction in long term appetite by 4.13 mm in combined appetite score (CAS) (95% Confidence interval (CI): -6.57, -1.96; p = 0.001). No significant reduction in short term appetite was also seen (Mean difference (MD) = -0.39 95% CI = -2.07, 1.30; p = 0.653). Subgroup analyses by time showed that compared with carbohydrate, the reduction in appetite following consumption of whey consumption was not significant (MD = -0.39, 95% CI = -2.07, 1.3, p = 0.65, I 2 = 0.0%.)A significant reduction in prospective food consumption was seen (MD = -2.17, 95% CI = -3.86, -0.48). The results of our meta-analysis showed that whey protein may reduce the long and short term appetite, but our finding did not show any significant difference in appetite reduction between whey protein and carbohydrate in short duration. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Madden, S. C.; Woods, R. R.; Shull, F. W.; Whipple, G. H.
When blood plasma proteins are depleted by bleeding with return of red cells suspended in saline (plasmapheresis) it is possible to bring dogs to a steady state of hypoproteinemia and a constant level of plasma protein production if the diet nitrogen intake is controlled and limited. Such dogs are outwardly normal but have a lowered resistance to infection and to certain intoxications. The ten growth essential amino acids of Rose plus glycine will maintain nitrogen balance and produce as much new plasma protein as will good diet proteins. This good utilization is demonstrated over periods of several months when the amino acids are given either orally or parenterally. There is no evidence of toxicity in general nor to unnatural forms of these synthetic amino acids in particular. Given parenterally appropriate mixtures of these amino acids are well tolerated even upon rapid injection. The minimal daily requirements for a 10 kilo dog may be given intravenously in 10 minutes without reaction. Subcutaneously a 10 per cent solution may be given rapidly without reaction. Among various mixtures tested Vt approximates a minimum for a 10 kilo dog. It contains in grams (dl-threonine 0.7, dl-valine 1.5, l-(-) leucine 1.5, dl-isoleucine 1.4, dl-lysine hydrochloride 1.5, l(-) tryptophane 0.4, dl-phenylalanine 1.0, dl-methionine 0.6, l(+)-histidine hydrochloride 0.5, l(+)-arginine hydrochloride 0.5, and glycine 1.0. The presence of glycine improves tolerance to rapid intravenous injection, but excess glycine does not improve utilization of the mixture. Over a long period this mixture appears suboptimal in quantity. Doubled it is more than ample. Of two casein digests tested the one prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis provided good nitrogen retention and fairly good plasma protein production but was much less tolerable upon intravenous injection than certain mixtures of pure amino acids. The other one prepared by acid hydrolysis and tryptophane fortification afforded bare nitrogen
Beta-carotene (BC) was encapsulated by sodium caseinate (SC), whey protein isolate (WPI), and soybean protein isolate (SPI) by the homogenization-evaporation method forming nanoparticles of 78, 90 and 370 nm diameter. Indices of the chemical antioxidant assays, the reducing power, DPPH radical scave...
Bumrungpert, Akkarach; Pavadhgul, Patcharanee; Nunthanawanich, Pornpimon; Sirikanchanarod, Anchalee; Adulbhan, Araya
Clinical side effects from medical therapy play an important role in causing malnutrition among cancer patients. Whey protein isolates (WPIs) have the potential to improve the nutritional status of cancer patients. The present study determined the effects of whey protein supplementation on nutritional status, glutathione (GSH) levels, immunity, and inflammatory markers in cancer patients in Thailand. A total of 42 cancer patients (41-63 years old) who received intravenous chemotherapy were randomized in a double-blind controlled trial at the National Cancer Institute in Thailand. Patients received 40 g of WPI plus zinc and selenium (intervention group, n = 23) or a maltodextrin oral snack (control group, n = 19) every day during the daytime for 12 weeks. Nutritional status, GSH levels, immunity, and inflammatory markers were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 weeks. Whey protein supplementation significantly increased albumin (2.9%) and immunoglobulin G (4.8%) levels compared to the control group at week 12. Controls showed a significantly lower percent change in GSH levels (6.0%), whereas there was a significant time-dependent increase in the intervention group (11.7%). Whey protein supplementation improved nutrition status scores in the intervention group compared to the control. These data indicate that whey protein supplementation can increase GSH levels and improve nutritional status and immunity in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. These results will facilitate implementation of malnutrition risk prevention strategies and improve protein status, including immune function, during chemotherapy.
Ziegenfuss, T N; Lopez, H L; Kedia, A; Habowski, S M; Sandrock, J E; Raub, B; Kerksick, C M; Ferrando, A A
Previous research has demonstrated the permissive effect of insulin on muscle protein kinetics, and the enhanced insulin sensitizing effect of chromium. In the presence of adequate whole protein and/or essential amino acids (EAA), insulin has a stimulatory effect on muscle protein synthesis, whereas in conditions of lower blood EAA concentrations, insulin has an inhibitory effect on protein breakdown. In this study, we determined the effect of an amylopectin/chromium (ACr) complex on changes in plasma concentrations of EAA, insulin, glucose, and the fractional rate of muscle protein synthesis (FSR). Using a double-blind, cross-over design, ten subjects (six men, four women) consumed 6 g whey protein + 2 g of the amylopectin-chromium complex (WPACr) or 6 g whey protein (WP) after an overnight fast. FSR was measured using a primed, continuous infusion of ring-d 5 -phenylalanine with serial muscle biopsies performed at 2, 4, and 8 h. Plasma EAA and insulin were assayed by ion-exchange chromatography and ELISA, respectively. After the biopsy at 4 h, subjects ingested their respective supplement, completed eight sets of bilateral isotonic leg extensions at 80% of their estimated 1-RM, and a final biopsy was obtained 4 h later. Both trials increased EAA similarly, with peak levels noted 30 min after ingestion. Insulin tended ( p = 0.09) to be higher in the WPACr trial. Paired samples t-tests using baseline and 4-h post-ingestion FSR data separately for each group revealed significant increases in the WPACr group (+0.0197%/h, p = 0.0004) and no difference in the WP group (+0.01215%/hr, p = 0.23). Independent t-tests confirmed significant ( p = 0.045) differences in post-treatment FSR between trials. These data indicate that the addition of ACr to a 6 g dose of whey protein (WPACr) increases the FSR response beyond what is seen with a suboptimal dose of whey protein alone.
Park, Curtis W; Bastian, Eric; Farkas, Brian; Drake, MaryAnne
Off-flavors in whey protein negatively influence consumer acceptance of whey protein ingredient applications. Clear acidic beverages are a common application of whey protein, and recent studies have demonstrated that beverage processing steps, including acidification, enhance off-flavor production from whey protein. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of preacidification of liquid ultrafiltered whey protein concentrate (WPC) before spray drying on flavor of dried WPC. Two experiments were performed to achieve the objective. In both experiments, Cheddar cheese whey was manufactured, fat-separated, pasteurized, bleached (250 mg/kg of hydrogen peroxide), and ultrafiltered (UF) to obtain liquid WPC that was 13% solids (wt/wt) and 80% protein on a solids basis. In experiment 1, the liquid retentate was then acidified using a blend of phosphoric and citric acids to the following pH values: no acidification (control; pH 6.5), pH 5.5, or pH 3.5. The UF permeate was used to normalize the protein concentration of each treatment. The retentates were then spray dried. In experiment 2, 150 μg/kg of deuterated hexanal (D₁₂-hexanal) was added to each treatment, followed by acidification and spray drying. Both experiments were replicated 3 times. Flavor properties of the spray-dried WPC were evaluated by sensory and instrumental analyses in experiment 1 and by instrumental analysis in experiment 2. Preacidification to pH 3.5 resulted in decreased cardboard flavor and aroma intensities and an increase in soapy flavor, with decreased concentrations of hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, decanal, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide compared with spray drying at pH 6.5 or 5.5. Adjustment to pH 5.5 before spray drying increased cabbage flavor and increased concentrations of nonanal at evaluation pH values of 3.5 and 5.5 and dimethyl trisulfide at all evaluation pH values. In general, the flavor effects of preacidification were consistent regardless of the pH to
Teo, Jiunn Yeong
Novel microporous membranes made of whey protein isolate (WPI) were developed. Aggregates of WPI comprised the bulk of the membrane, the size and packing density of which were varied by changing CaCl2 concentration (0.05--0.3M) and WPI concentration (30--40wt%), respectively. Aggregate sizes of the membranes made with 0.3M, 0.1M, 0.05M CaCl2 were roughly 1.5mum, 1mum, and 0.8mum, respectively. Skin layer of thickness about 0.5mum was found on either side of the membrane, but the thickness could reach 5mum at 0.3M CaCl2. Additionally, the porosity of the skin layer was shown to be modifiable with the addition of surfactant. Membranes were stable in hexane with flux values on the order of 1--1000gal/ft 2·d depending on the morphology of the membrane. The molecular weight cutoffs (MWCOs) of the WPI membranes with skins were evaluated using two different methods: (i) dextran marker method and (ii) protein/vitamin marker method. Membranes were found to have MWCOs of 1,000 or greater with variations when the concentration of salt used to control aggregate size, or surfactant used to modify skin properties were selected. The microporous WPI gel was also used as a cation exchanger and a hydrophobic adsorbent. The WPI cation exchanger has a maximum capacity of 68mg cupric chloride per gram dry WPI gel at neutral pH and can be regenerated effectively by reducing the pH of the solution. The WPI gel has also been found to be an excellent adsorbent for total phenolic compounds from grape extract with a partition coefficient higher than 1000 in aqueous system. The mechanism for total phenolic compounds adsorption is believed to be physical sorption, particularly sorption/condensation of total phenolic compounds in the pores and on all surfaces of WPI gel. The gel has a low extractables of 1ng/ml.g gel, and has an isoelectric point of 5.5. Although WPI gel was made into a monolith for continuous bed chromatography, channeling problems have made it very hard to evaluate the
Li, Yanqi; Østergaard, Mette V; Jiang, Pingping; Chatterton, Dereck E W; Thymann, Thomas; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Sangild, Per T
Immaturity of the gut predisposes preterm infants to nutritional challenges potentially leading to clinical complications such as necrotizing enterocolitis. Feeding milk formulas is associated with greater risk than fresh colostrum or milk, probably due to loss of bioactive proteins (e.g., immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, insulin-like growth factor, transforming growth factor-β) during industrial processing (e.g., pasteurization, filtration, spray-drying). We hypothesized that the processing method for whey protein concentrate (WPC) would affect gut maturation in formula-fed preterm pigs used as a model for preterm infants. Fifty-five caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were distributed into 4 groups given 1 of 4 isoenergetic diets: formula containing conventional WPC (filtration, multi-pasteurization, standard spray-drying) (CF); formula containing gently treated WPC (reduced filtration and pasteurization, gentle spray-drying) (GF); formula containing minimally treated WPC (rennet precipitation, reduced filtration, heat treatment <40°C, freeze-drying) (MF); and bovine colostrum (used as a positive reference group) (BC). Relative to CF, GF, and MF pigs, BC pigs had greater villus heights, lactose digestion, and absorption and lower gut permeability (P < 0.05). MF and BC pigs had greater plasma citrulline concentrations than CF and GF pigs and intestinal interleukin-8 was lower in BC pigs than in the other groups (P < 0.05). MF pigs had lower concentrations of intestinal claudin-4, cleaved caspase-3, and phosphorylated c-Jun than CF pigs (P < 0.05). The conventional and gently treated WPCs had similar efficacy in stimulating proliferation of porcine intestinal epithelial cells. We conclude that processing of WPC affects intestinal structure, function, and integrity when included in formulas for preterm pigs. Optimization of WPC processing technology may be important to preserve the bioactivity and nutritional value of formulas for sensitive newborns.
Lei, Zhao; Chen, Xiao Dong
N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) was used to verify that no new disulfide crosslinks were formed during the fascinating rheology of the alkali cold-gelation of whey proteins, which show Sol-Gel-Sol transitions with time at pH > 11.5. These dynamic transitions involve the formation and subsequent destruction of non-covalent interactions between soluble whey aggregates. Therefore, incubation of aggregates with NEM was expected not to affect much the rheology. Experiments show that very little additions of NEM, such as 0.5 mol per mol of protein, delayed and significantly strengthened the metastable gels formed. Interactions between whey protein aggregates were surprisingly enhanced during incubation with NEM as inferred from oscillatory rheometry at different protein concentrations, dynamic swelling, Trp fluorescence and SDS-PAGE measurements. PMID:27732644
Lopes Gomes, Daniela; Moehlecke, Milene; Lopes da Silva, Fernanda Bassan; Dutra, Eliane Said; D'Agord Schaan, Beatriz; Baiocchi de Carvalho, Kenia Mara
The ideal nutritional approach for weight regain after bariatric surgery remains unclear. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of whey protein supplementation on weight loss and body composition of women who regained weight 24 or more months after bariatric surgery. This is a 16-week open-label, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial of women who regained at least 5 % of their lowest postoperative weight after a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). A total of 34 participants were treated with hypocaloric diet and randomized (1:1) to receive or not supplementation with whey protein, 0.5 g/kg of the ideal body weight. The primary outcomes were changes in body weight, fat free mass (FFM), and fat mass (FM), evaluated by tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Secondary outcomes included resting energy expenditure, blood glucose, lipids, adiponectin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and cholecystokinin levels. Statistical analyses included generalized estimating equations adjusted for age and physical activity. Fifteen patients in each group were evaluated: mean age was 45 ± 11 years, body mass index (BMI) was 35.7 ± 5.2 kg/m 2 , and time since surgery was 69 ± 23 months. Protein intake during follow-up increased by approximately 75 % in the intervention group (p = 0.01). The intervention group presented more body weight loss (1.86 kg, p = 0.017), accounted for FM loss (2.78, p = 0.021) and no change in FFM, as compared to controls (gain of 0.42 kg of body weight and 0.6 kg of FM). No differences in secondary outcomes were observed between groups. Whey protein supplementation promoted body weight and FM loss in women with long-term weight regain following RYGB.
Using a homogenization-evaporation method, beta-carotene (BC) loaded nano-particles were prepared with different ratios of food-grade sodium caseinate (SC), whey protein isolate (WPI), or soy protein isolate (SPI) to BC and evaluated for their physiochemical stability, in vitro cytotoxicity, and cel...
Ruger, P R; Baer, R J; Kasperson, K M
Ice cream samples were made with a mix composition of 11% milk fat, 11% milk solids-not-fat, 13% sucrose, 3% corn syrup solids (36 dextrose equivalent), 0.28% stabilizer blend, or 0.10% emulsifier and vanilla extract. Mixes were high temperature short time pasteurized at 80 degrees C for 25 s, homogenized at 141 kg/cm2 pressure on the first stage and 35 kg/cm2 pressure on the second, and cooled to 3 degrees C. The study included six treatments from four batches of mix. Mix from batch one contained 0.10% emulsifier. Half of this batch (treatment 1), was subsequently frozen and the other half (upon exiting the pasteurizer) was reheated to 60 degrees C, rehomogenized at 141 kg/cm2 pressure on the first stage and 35 kg/cm2 pressure on the second (treatment 2), and cooled to 3 degrees C. Mix from batch two contained 0.28% stabilizer blend. Half of this batch was used as the control (treatment 3), the other half upon exiting the pasteurizer was reheated to 60 degrees C, rehomogenized at 141 kg/cm2 pressure on the first stage and 35 kg/cm2 pressure on the second (treatment 4), and cooled to 3 degrees C. Batch three, containing 0.10% emulsifier and 1% whey protein concentrate substituted for 1% nonfat dry milk, upon exiting the pasteurizer was reheated to 60 degrees C, rehomogenized at 141 kg/cm2 pressure on the first stage and 35 kg/cm2 pressure on the second (treatment 5), and cooled to 3 degrees C. Batch four, containing 0.28% stabilizer blend and 1% whey protein concentrate substituted for 1% nonfat dry milk, upon exiting the pasteurizer was reheated to 60 degrees C, rehomogenized at 141 kg/ cm2 pressure on the first stage and 35 kg/cm2 pressure on the second (treatment 6), and cooled to 3 degrees C. Consistency was measured by flow time through a pipette. Flow time of treatment 3 was greater than all treatments, and the flow times of treatments 4 and 6 were greater than treatments 1, 2, and 5. Flow time was increased in ice cream mix by the addition of stabilizer
Reidy, P T; Walker, D K; Dickinson, J M; Gundermann, D M; Drummond, M J; Timmerman, K L; Cope, M B; Mukherjea, R; Jennings, K; Volpi, E; Rasmussen, B B
Increasing amino acid availability (via infusion or ingestion) at rest or postexercise enhances amino acid transport into human skeletal muscle. It is unknown whether alterations in amino acid availability, from ingesting different dietary proteins, can enhance amino acid transport rates and amino acid transporter (AAT) mRNA expression. We hypothesized that the prolonged hyperaminoacidemia from ingesting a blend of proteins with different digestion rates postexercise would enhance amino acid transport into muscle and AAT expression compared with the ingestion of a rapidly digested protein. In a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, we studied 16 young adults at rest and after acute resistance exercise coupled with postexercise (1 h) ingestion of either a (soy-dairy) protein blend or whey protein. Phenylalanine net balance and transport rate into skeletal muscle were measured using stable isotopic methods in combination with femoral arteriovenous blood sampling and muscle biopsies obtained at rest and 3 and 5 h postexercise. Phenylalanine transport into muscle and mRNA expression of select AATs [system L amino acid transporter 1/solute-linked carrier (SLC) 7A5, CD98/SLC3A2, system A amino acid transporter 2/SLC38A2, proton-assisted amino acid transporter 1/SLC36A1, cationic amino acid transporter 1/SLC7A1] increased to a similar extent in both groups (P < 0.05). However, the ingestion of the protein blend resulted in a prolonged and positive net phenylalanine balance during postexercise recovery compared with whey protein (P < 0.05). Postexercise myofibrillar protein synthesis increased similarly between groups. We conclude that, while both protein sources enhanced postexercise AAT expression, transport into muscle, and myofibrillar protein synthesis, postexercise ingestion of a protein blend results in a slightly prolonged net amino acid balance across the leg compared with whey protein. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.
Reidy, P. T.; Walker, D. K.; Dickinson, J. M.; Gundermann, D. M.; Drummond, M. J.; Timmerman, K. L.; Cope, M. B.; Mukherjea, R.; Jennings, K.; Volpi, E.
Increasing amino acid availability (via infusion or ingestion) at rest or postexercise enhances amino acid transport into human skeletal muscle. It is unknown whether alterations in amino acid availability, from ingesting different dietary proteins, can enhance amino acid transport rates and amino acid transporter (AAT) mRNA expression. We hypothesized that the prolonged hyperaminoacidemia from ingesting a blend of proteins with different digestion rates postexercise would enhance amino acid transport into muscle and AAT expression compared with the ingestion of a rapidly digested protein. In a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, we studied 16 young adults at rest and after acute resistance exercise coupled with postexercise (1 h) ingestion of either a (soy-dairy) protein blend or whey protein. Phenylalanine net balance and transport rate into skeletal muscle were measured using stable isotopic methods in combination with femoral arteriovenous blood sampling and muscle biopsies obtained at rest and 3 and 5 h postexercise. Phenylalanine transport into muscle and mRNA expression of select AATs [system L amino acid transporter 1/solute-linked carrier (SLC) 7A5, CD98/SLC3A2, system A amino acid transporter 2/SLC38A2, proton-assisted amino acid transporter 1/SLC36A1, cationic amino acid transporter 1/SLC7A1] increased to a similar extent in both groups (P < 0.05). However, the ingestion of the protein blend resulted in a prolonged and positive net phenylalanine balance during postexercise recovery compared with whey protein (P < 0.05). Postexercise myofibrillar protein synthesis increased similarly between groups. We conclude that, while both protein sources enhanced postexercise AAT expression, transport into muscle, and myofibrillar protein synthesis, postexercise ingestion of a protein blend results in a slightly prolonged net amino acid balance across the leg compared with whey protein. PMID:24699854
Babault, Nicolas; Païzis, Christos; Deley, Gaëlle; Guérin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Saniez, Marie-Hélène; Lefranc-Millot, Catherine; Allaert, François A
The effects of protein supplementation on muscle thickness and strength seem largely dependent on its composition. The current study aimed at comparing the impact of an oral supplementation with vegetable Pea protein (NUTRALYS®) vs. Whey protein and Placebo on biceps brachii muscle thickness and strength after a 12-week resistance training program. One hundred and sixty one males, aged 18 to 35 years were enrolled in the study and underwent 12 weeks of resistance training on upper limb muscles. According to randomization, they were included in the Pea protein (n = 53), Whey protein (n = 54) or Placebo (n = 54) group. All had to take 25 g of the proteins or placebo twice a day during the 12-week training period. Tests were performed on biceps muscles at inclusion (D0), mid (D42) and post training (D84). Muscle thickness was evaluated using ultrasonography, and strength was measured on an isokinetic dynamometer. Results showed a significant time effect for biceps brachii muscle thickness (P < 0.0001). Thickness increased from 24.9 ± 3.8 mm to 26.9 ± 4.1 mm and 27.3 ± 4.4 mm at D0, D42 and D84, respectively, with only a trend toward significant differences between groups (P = 0.09). Performing a sensitivity study on the weakest participants (with regards to strength at inclusion), thickness increases were significantly different between groups (+20.2 ± 12.3%, +15.6 ± 13.5% and +8.6 ± 7.3% for Pea, Whey and Placebo, respectively; P < 0.05). Increases in thickness were significantly greater in the Pea group as compared to Placebo whereas there was no difference between Whey and the two other conditions. Muscle strength also increased with time with no statistical difference between groups. In addition to an appropriate training, the supplementation with pea protein promoted a greater increase of muscle thickness as compared to Placebo and especially for people starting or returning to a muscular strengthening
Damodaran, Srinivasan; Li, Yan
A two-step enzymatic approach to reduce immuno-reactivity of whey protein isolate and casein has been studied. The method involves partial hydrolysis of proteins with proteases, followed by repolymerization with microbial transglutaminase. Whey protein isolate partially hydrolyzed with chymotrypsin, trypsin, or thermolysin retained about 80%, 30%, and 20% of the original immuno-reactivity, respectively. Upon repolymerization the immuno-reactivity decreased to 45%, 35%, and 5%, respectively. The immuno-reactivity of hydrolyzed and repolymerized casein was negligible compared to native casein. The repolymerized products were partially resistant to in vitro digestion. Peptides released during digestion of repolymerized thermolysin-whey protein hydrolysate had less than 5% immuno-reactivity, whereas those of whey protein control exhibited a sinusoidal immuno-reactivity ranging from 5 to 20%. Peptides released during digestion of repolymerized thermolysin-casein hydrolysates had no immuno-reactivity. These results indicated that it is possible to produce hypoallergenic milk protein products using the two-step enzymatic modification method involving thermolysin and transglutaminase. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Westerik, Nieke; Scholten, Elke; Corredig, Milena
Protein microparticles were formed through emulsification of 25% (w/w) whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions containing various concentrations of calcium (0.0-400.0mM) in an oil phase stabilized by polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR). The emulsions were heated (at 80°C) and the microparticles subsequently re-dispersed in an aqueous phase. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed that control particles and those prepared with 7.4mM calcium were spherical and smooth. Particles prepared with 15.0mM calcium gained an irregular, cauliflower-like structure, and at concentrations larger than 30.0mM, shells formed and the particles were no longer spherical. These results describe, for the first time, the potential of modulating the properties of dense whey protein particles by using calcium, and may be used as structuring agents for the design of functional food matrices with increased protein and calcium content. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bergia, Robert E; Hudson, Joshua L; Campbell, Wayne W
A preponderance of evidence supports the beneficial effects of whey protein (WP) supplementation on body composition in men; however, there is currently insufficient evidence to make an equivalent claim in women. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the effects of WP supplementation with or without energy restriction (ER) and resistance training (RT) on changes in body mass, lean mass, and fat mass in women. Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane, and CINAHL were searched using the keywords "whey protein," "body composition," and "lean mass." Two researchers independently screened 1845 abstracts and extracted 276 articles. Thirteen randomized controlled trials with 28 groups met the inclusion criteria. Globally, WP supplementation increased lean mass (WMD, 0.37 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06 to 0.67) while not influencing changes in fat mass (-0.20 kg; 95%CI, -0.67 to 0.27) relative to non-WP control. The beneficial effect of WP on lean mass was lost when only studies with RT were included in the analysis (n = 7 comparisons; 0.23 kg; 95%CI, -0.17 to 0.63). The beneficial effect of WP on lean mass was more robust when only studies with an ER component were included (n = 6 comparisons; 0.90 kg; 95%CI, 0.31 to 1.49). There was no effect of WP on lean mass in studies without ER (n = 9 comparisons; 0.22 kg; 95%CI, -0.12 to 0.57). Whey protein supplementation improves body composition by modestly increasing lean mass without influencing changes in fat mass. Body composition improvements from WP are more robust when combined with ER .
van den Berg, B.M.; Reesink, J.; Reesink, W.
It was the aim of the present study to test whey as protective protein for the sperm cell in the long-term boar semen preservation medium TRIXcell. Analyses of sperm cell motility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) indicated that the whey protein Porex has a similar protective effect as bovine serum albumin (BSA) in maintaining viability of stored boar sperm. Boar sperm diluted in TRIXcell+ maintains commercially acceptable motility (>60%) for 10 days, while swine sperm diluted in the semen preservation medium Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS) maintains commercially acceptable motility (>60%) for 3-5 days for most boars. To test the on-farm fertility performance of TRIXcell+ compared to BTS, inseminations were started on 35 commercial pig production farms in the summer of 2006. During the period of July 2006 until July 2012 for each farm and each calendar year the mean farrowing rate and litter size for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and stored for 3-5 days was found higher than that of semen stored for 1-2 days in BTS. Based on data gained from a total of 583.749 sows inseminated through the years 2006-2012, the mean farrowing rate for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and BTS was 90.4 ± 4.0 and 87.9 ± 3.6, respectively, which is not significantly different. Based on the same data, the mean total number of piglets born alive for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and BTS was 14.2 ± 0.7 and 13.6 ± 0.6, respectively, which is significantly different. We conclude that whey protein can effectively be used in the long-term preservation medium TRIXcell resulting in a higher litter size. PMID:26623335
Oztop, Mecit H; Rosenberg, Moshe; Rosenberg, Yael; McCarthy, Kathryn L; McCarthy, Michael J
Effective means for controlled delivery of nutrients and nutraceuticals are needed. Whey protein-based gels, as a model system and as a potential delivery system, exhibit pH-dependent swelling when placed in aqueous solutions. Understanding the physics that govern gel swelling is thus important when designing gel-based delivery platforms. The extent of swelling over time was monitored gravimetrically. In addition to gravimetric measurements, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) a real-time noninvasive imaging technique that quantified changes in geometry and water content of these gels was utilized. Heat-set whey protein gels were prepared at pH 7 and swelling was monitored in aqueous solutions with pH values of 2.5, 7, and 10. Changes in dimension over time, as characterized by the number of voxels in an image, were correlated to gravimetric measurements. Excellent correlations between mass uptake and volume change (R(2)= 0.99) were obtained for the gels in aqueous solutions at pH 7 and 10, but not for gels in the aqueous solution at pH 2.5. To provide insight into the mechanisms for water uptake, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation times were measured in independent experiments. The relaxation spectrum for the spin-spin relaxation time (T(2)) showed the presence of 3 proton pools for pH 7 and 10 trials and 4 proton pools for pH 2.5 trials. Results demonstrate that MRI and NMR relaxation measurements provided information about swelling in whey protein gels that can constitute a new means for investigating and developing effective delivery systems for foods.
Gudbrandsen, Oddrun Anita; Wergedahl, Hege; Berge, Rolf Kristian
Dietary supplementation of a soy protein enriched with isoflavones (HDI) has been shown to improve fatty liver in obese rats. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether HDI would influence the inflammatory status in livers of obese rats with fatty liver. Male obese Zucker fa/fa rats were fed casein (controls) or casein supplemented with HDI (containing 4.00 g of genistein and 4.50 g of daidzein per kilogram of diet) for 6 wk. The HDI-fed rats had a markedly lower hepatic concentration of triacylglycerol when compared with controls. The decreased aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase ratio in plasma, together with lower circulating levels of alkaline phosphatase and bile acids after HDI feeding, implied an improved hepatitis. This was supported by decreased plasma and hepatic mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, lower plasma levels of interleukin-1beta and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and an increased anti-inflammatory fatty acid index in plasma. HDI also seemed to protect the rats from oxidative damage, because the level of lipid peroxides in triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins after in vitro copper oxidation was lower for HDI-fed rats when compared with controls. These results show that isoflavone-enriched soy protein favorably affects biomarkers of hepatic inflammation in obese Zucker fa/fa rats with fatty liver. Thus, dietary soy proteins enriched in isoflavones may be a promising agent to improve steatohepatitis in patients.
ROZENFELD, P; DOCENA, G H; AÑÓN, M C; FOSSATI, C A
Soy-based formulas are the most employed cow's milk substitutes in the treatment of cow's milk allergy in our country. Since adverse reactions have been reported in allergic patients as a consequence of exposure to soy proteins, we have investigated the possible cross-reactivity between components from soybean and cow's milk. A cow's milk specific polyclonal antiserum and casein specific monoclonal antibodies were used in immunoblotting and competitive ELISA studies to identify a 30-kD component from soybean that cross-reacts with cow's milk caseins. Its IgE binding capacity was tested by EAST, employing sera from cow's milk allergic patients, not previously exposed to soy proteins. The 30 kD protein was isolated and partially sequenced. It is constituted by two polypeptides (A5 and B3) linked by a disulphide bond. The protein's capacity to bind to the different antibodies relies on the B3 poly-peptide. These results indicate that soy-based formula, which contains the A5-B3 glycinin molecule, could be involved in allergic reactions observed in cow's milk allergic patients exposed to soy-containing foods. PMID:12296853
Gums and proteins are valuable ingredients with a wide spectrum of applications. Surface properties (surface tension, interfacial tension, emulsion activity index “EAI” and emulsion stability index “ESI”) of 4% whey protein concentrate (WPC) in a combination with '- carrageenan (0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.5...
Avila, Eudes Thiago Pereira; da Rosa Lima, Thiago; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; de Almeida, Paula Caroline; Fraga, Géssica Alves; de Souza Sena, Mariana; Corona, Luiz Felipe Petusk; Navalta, James Wilfred; Rezaei, Sajjad; Ghayomzadeh, Morteza; Damazo, Amílcar Sabino; Prestes, Jonato; Voltarelli, Fabrício Azevedo
Isolated whey protein (IWP) can decrease body fat compared with other protein sources. The present study verified the effects of high protein diet (HD) containing IWP on several parameters of rats subjected to resistance training (RT). Thirty-two male Wistar rats (60 days of age) were separated into four groups (n = 8/group): sedentary normoproteic (IWP 14%; SN); sedentary hyperproteic (IWP 35%; SH); trained normoproteic (IWP 14%; TN), and trained hyperproteic (WPI 35%; TH). Relative tissue/organ weight (g): perirenal and retroperitoneal adipose tissues were lower in SH and TH compared with SN (no difference to TN); omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues were higher in SN compared with SH. Epididymal adipose tissue was higher in SN compared with other groups. Heart weight was higher in TH compared with TN and SN, but not SH; kidney and liver higher in TH and SH compared with SN and TN; gastrocnemius lower in SN compared with other groups; soleus higher in SH in relation to other groups. The triglycerides levels (mg/dL) was reduced in the TH groups compared with SH, TN, and SN. There were no changes both in the concentrations of adiponectin and leptin and in the protein expression of GLUT-4 and p70 s6k . HD containing WPI improved body composition, increased the weight of the heart, kidneys, liver and gastrocnemius and soleus muscles; however, this diet maintained the normal histomorphology of muscle and liver and, when associated with RT, reduced the serum levels of triglycerides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
O'Chiu, Emily; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh
Heated soluble complexes of whey protein isolate (WPI) with polysaccharides may be used to modify the properties of aerated dairy gels, which could be formulated into novel-textured high-protein desserts. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of polysaccharide charge density and concentration within a WPI-polysaccharide complex on the physical properties of aerated gels. Three polysaccharides having different degrees of charge density were chosen: low-methoxyl pectin, high-methoxyl type D pectin, and guar gum. Heated complexes were prepared by heating the mixed dispersions (8% protein, 0 to 1% polysaccharide) at pH 7. To form aerated gels, 2% glucono-δ-lactone was added to the dispersions of skim milk powder and heated complex and foam was generated by whipping with a handheld frother. The foam set into a gel as the glucono-δ-lactone acidified to a final pH of 4.5. The aerated gels were evaluated for overrun, drainage, gel strength, and viscoelastic properties. Without heated complexes, stable aerated gels could not be formed. Overrun of aerated gel decreased (up to 73%) as polysaccharide concentration increased from 0.105 to 0.315% due to increased viscosity, which limited air incorporation. A negative relationship was found between percent drainage and dispersion viscosity. However, plotting of drainage against dispersion viscosity separated by polysaccharide type revealed that drainage decreased most in samples with high-charge-density, low-methoxyl pectin followed by those with low-charge-density, high-methoxyl type D pectin. Aerated gels with guar gum (no charge) did not show improvement to stability. Rheological results showed no significant difference in gelation time among samples; therefore, stronger interactions between WPI and high-charge-density polysaccharide were likely responsible for increased stability. Stable dairy aerated gels can be created from WPI-polysaccharide complexes. High-charge-density polysaccharides, at
Martin, A H; de Jong, G A H
This paper investigates the possibility for iron fortification of food using a new preparation method for protein gel particles in which iron is entrapped in the presence of ascorbate using cold-set gelation. The effect of ascorbate on the iron-induced cold-set gelation process of whey protein was studied in order to optimize the ratio of iron/ascorbate. Subsequently, the effect of ascorbate on iron bio-accessibility was assessed in vitro. Rheology was used to study the protein gel formation, and the stability of the gel particles was determined by measuring the iron and protein content at different pH. In vitro studies were performed with the TNO Intestinal Model (TIM). Ascorbate appeared to affect the gel formation process and increased the gel strength of the iron-induced cold-set gels at specific iron/ascorbate ratio. With the Fe-protein gel particles being stable at a broad pH range, the release of iron from the particles was studied as a function of time. The low release of iron indicated a good encapsulation efficiency and the capability of whey protein to keep iron bound at different conditions (pH and presence of calcium). Results obtained with the TIM showed that ascorbate, when added to the protein gel particles, was very successful in enhancing the recovery and absorption of iron. The in vitro Fe(2+) bio-accessibility in the presence of ascorbate in iron-protein particles increased from 10% to almost 80%. This suggests that the concept of using protein particles with iron and ascorbate can effectively be used to fortify food products with iron for human consumption.
Woodward, N C; Gunning, A P; Mackie, A R; Wilde, P J; Morris, V J
Displacement of sodium caseinate from the air-water interface by nonionic surfactants Tween 20 and Tween 60 was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The interfacial structure was sampled by Langmuir-Blodgett deposition onto freshly cleaved mica substrates. Protein displacement occurred through an orogenic mechanism: it involved the nucleation and growth of surfactant domains within the protein network, followed by failure of the protein network. The surface pressure at which failure of the protein network occurred was essentially independent of the type of surfactant. The major component of sodium caseinate is beta-casein, and previous studies at the air-water interface have shown that beta-casein networks are weak, failing at surface pressures below that observed for sodium caseinate. The other components of sodium caseinate are alpha(s)- and kappa-caseins. Studies of the displacement of alpha(s)-caseins from air-water interfaces show that these proteins also form weak networks that fail at surface pressures below that observed for sodium caseinate. However, kappa-casein was found to form strong networks that resisted displacement and failed at surface pressures comparable to those observed for sodium caseinate. The AFM images of the displacement suggest that, despite kappa-casein being a minor component, it dominates the failure of sodium caseinate networks: alpha(s)-casein and beta-casein are preferentially desorbed at lower surface pressures, allowing the residual kappa-casein to control the breakdown of the sodium caseinate network at higher surface pressures.
The effect of homogenization alone or in combination with high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization or UHT processing on the whey fraction of milk was investigated using highly sensitive spectroscopic techniques. In pilot plant trials, 1-L quantities of whole milk were homogenized in a two-...
Overduin, Joost; Guérin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Wils, Daniel; Lambers, Tim T.
Background Pea protein (from Pisum sativum) is under consideration as a sustainable, satiety-inducing food ingredient. Objective In the current study, pea-protein-induced physiological signals relevant to satiety were characterized in vitro via gastric digestion kinetics and in vivo by monitoring post-meal gastrointestinal hormonal responses in rats. Design Under in vitro simulated gastric conditions, the digestion of NUTRALYS® pea protein was compared to that of two dairy proteins, slow-digestible casein and fast-digestible whey. In vivo, blood glucose and gastrointestinal hormonal (insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin [CCK], glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1], and peptide YY [PYY]) responses were monitored in nine male Wistar rats following isocaloric (11 kcal) meals containing 35 energy% of either NUTRALYS® pea protein, whey protein, or carbohydrate (non-protein). Results In vitro, pea protein transiently aggregated into particles, whereas casein formed a more enduring protein network and whey protein remained dissolved. Pea-protein particle size ranged from 50 to 500 µm, well below the 2 mm threshold for gastric retention in humans. In vivo, pea-protein and whey-protein meals induced comparable responses for CCK, GLP-1, and PYY, that is, the anorexigenic hormones. Pea protein induced weaker initial, but equal 3-h integrated ghrelin and insulin responses than whey protein, possibly due to the slower gastric breakdown of pea protein observed in vitro. Two hours after meals, CCK levels were more elevated in the case of protein meals compared to that of non-protein meals. Conclusions These results indicate that 1) pea protein transiently aggregates in the stomach and has an intermediately fast intestinal bioavailability in between that of whey and casein; 2) pea-protein- and dairy-protein-containing meals were comparably efficacious in triggering gastrointestinal satiety signals. PMID:25882536
Cooke, Matthew B.; Stathis, Christos G.; Hayes, Alan
The myoprotective effects of creatine monohydrate (CR) and whey protein (WP) are equivocal, with the use of proxy measures of muscle damage making interpretation of their effectiveness limited. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of CR and WP supplementation on muscle damage and recovery following controlled, chemically-induced muscle damage. Degeneration of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle was induced by bupivacaine in rats supplemented with either CR, WP, or standard rat chow (CON). At day 7 and 14 post-myotoxic injury, injured EDL muscles were surgically removed and tested for isometric contractile properties, followed by the contralateral, non-injured EDL muscle. At the completion of testing, muscles were snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored for later analysis. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance. Creatine-supplemented muscles displayed a greater proportion of non-damaged (intact) fibers (p = 0.002) and larger cross-sectional areas of regenerating and non-damaged fibers (p = 0.024) compared to CON muscles at day 7 post-injury. At day 14 post-injury, CR-supplemented muscles generated higher absolute forces concomitant with greater contractile protein levels compared to CON (p = 0.001, p = 0.008) and WP-supplemented muscles (p = 0.003, p = 0.006). Creatine supplementation appears to offer an element of myoprotection which was not observed following whey protein supplementation. PMID:29710855
Makowska, Agnieszka; Cais-Sokolińska, Dorota; Lasik, Agata
The value of water activity in extruded products constitutes a significant indicator of their quality and stability. The state, in which water is found in extruded products, is an indicator of the conducted extrusion process and the used raw material. The aim of the study was to assess water activity in extruded products made from a mixture of com grits with 12.5 and 15.0% moisture contents and different level of addition of whey proteins. It was shown that the degree of mixture moisture content did not have an effect on the value of aw in produced puffs. The greatest difference was recorded when introducing 3% proteins in comparison to aw of puffs produced solely from corn grits. Δaw = 0.023. The greater the content of whey proteins, the lower the aw value. A 3-month storage at a temperature of 18 ±0.5°C influenced aw of snacks produced from a mixture with a higher moisture content.
Berry, Tristan K; Yang, Xin; Foegeding, E Allen
The effects of sucrose on the physical properties and thermal stability of foams prepared from 10% (w/v) protein solutions of whey protein isolate (WPI), egg white protein (EWP), and their combinations (WPI/EWP) were investigated in wet foams and angel food cakes. Incorporation of 12.8 (w/v) sucrose increased EWP foam stability (drainage 1/2 life) but had little effect on the stability of WPI and WPI/EWP foams. Increased stability was not due to viscosity alone. Sucrose increased interfacial elasticity (E ') of EWP and decreased E' of WPI and WPI/EWP combinations, suggesting that altered interfacial properties increased stability in EWP foams. Although 25% WPI/75% EWP cakes had similar volumes as EWP cakes, cakes containing WPI had larger air cells. Changes during heating showed that EWP foams had network formation starting at 45 degrees C, which was not observed in WPI and WPI/EWP foams. Moreover, in batters, which are foams with additional sugar and flour, a stable foam network was observed from 25 to 85 degrees C for batters made from EWP foams. Batters containing WPI or WPI/EWP mixtures showed signs of destabilization starting at 25 degrees C. These results show that sucrose greatly improved the stability of wet EWP foams and that EWP foams form network structures that remain stable during heating. In contrast, sucrose had minimal effects on stability of WPI and WPI/EWP wet foams, and batters containing these foams showed destabilization prior to heating. Therefore, destabilization processes occurring in the wet foams and during baking account for differences in angel food cake quality.
Finete, Virgínia de Lourdes Mendes; Gouvêa, Marcos Martins; Marques, Flávia Ferreira de Carvalho; Netto, Annibal Duarte Pereira
The Kjeldahl method and four classic spectrophotometric methods (Biuret, Lowry, Bradford and Markwell) were applied to evaluate the protein content of samples of UHT whole milk deliberately adulterated with melamine, ammonium sulphate or urea, which can be used to defraud milk protein and whey contents. Compared with the Kjeldahl method, the response of the spectrophotometric methods was unaffected by the addition of the nitrogen compounds to milk or whey. The methods of Bradford and Markwell were most robust and did not exhibit interference subject to composition. However, the simultaneous interpretation of results obtained using these methods with those obtained using the Kjeldahl method indicated the addition of nitrogen-rich compounds to milk and/or whey. Therefore, this work suggests a combination of results of Kjeldahl and spectrophotometric methods should be used to screen for milk adulteration by these compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Xu, Lei; Gong, Yuansheng; Gern, James E; Ikeda, Shinya; Lucey, John A
A growing concern around the world is the number of people who are suffering from food protein allergies. One potential approach to decrease protein allergenicity is to block IgE-binding epitopes of the protein allergen by attachment of polysaccharides via the Maillard reaction (i.e., glycation). Protein glycation has been extensively studied to modify various functional properties. We wanted to examine whether glycates could reduce IgE binding in patients with cow milk protein allergy and to explore how the size (molar mass; M W ) of the polysaccharide affects this IgE-binding capacity. Glycation was performed using the initial step of the Maillard reaction performed in aqueous solutions. The specific goal of this study was to reduce the IgE-binding capacity of whey protein isolate (WPI) through glycation with dextran (DX). Blood sera were obtained from 8 patients who had been diagnosed with cow milk protein allergy, and a composite sera sample was used for IgE-binding analysis by the ImmunoCap (Phadia, Uppsala, Sweden) method. The WPI was glycated with DX of M W ranging from 1 to 2,000 kDa, and the M W of purified glycates was determined using size-exclusion chromatography coupled with multiangle laser light scattering. The WPI to DX molar ratios in the glycates made from DX that had M W values of 1, 3.5, 10 (G10), 150, 500, and 2,000 kDa were 1:4, 1:3, 1:2, 1:1.5, 1:1, and 1:1, respectively. With the increase in the M W of DX, there was an increase in the M W values of the corresponding glycates but a decrease in the number of bound DX. The WPI-DX glycates had lower whey protein IgE-binding capacity than native WPI, with the lowest IgE-binding capacity obtained in the G10 glycate. The DX binding ratios and morphology results from atomic force microscopy images suggested that glycation of WPI with small-M W DX resulted in extensive protein surface coverage, probably due to the attachment of up to 4 DX molecules per whey protein. The lower IgE binding of the G10
Pan, Xiao-Wen; Zhao, Xin-Huai
Casein and soy protein were digested by papain to three degrees of hydrolysis (DH) 7.3%-13.3%, to obtain respective six casein and soy protein hydrolysates, aiming to clarify their in vitro proliferation and anti-apoptosis towards a human osteoblastic cell line (hFOB1.19 cells). Six casein and soy protein hydrolysates at five levels (0.01-0.2 mg/mL) mostly showed proliferation as positive 17β-estradiol did, because they conferred the osteoblasts with cell viability of 100%-114% and 104%-123%, respectively. The hydrolysates of higher DH values had stronger proliferation. Casein and soy protein hydrolysates of the highest DH values altered cell cycle progression, and enhanced cell proportion of S-phase from 50.5% to 56.5% and 60.5%. The two also antagonized etoposide- and NaF-induced osteoblast apoptosis. In apoptotic prevention, apoptotic cells were decreased from 31.6% to 22.6% and 15.6% (etoposide treatment), or from 19.5% to 17.7% and 12.4% (NaF treatment), respectively. In apoptotic reversal, soy protein hydrolysate decreased apoptotic cells from 13.3% to 11.7% (etoposide treatment), or from 14.5% to 11.0% (NaF treatment), but casein hydrolysate showed no reversal effect. It is concluded that the hydrolysates of two kinds had estradiol-like action on the osteoblasts, and soy protein hydrolysates had stronger proliferation and anti-apoptosis on the osteoblasts than casein hydrolysates.
Norwood, E-A; Le Floch-Fouéré, C; Briard-Bion, V; Schuck, P; Croguennec, T; Jeantet, R
The market for dairy powders, including high added-value products (e.g., infant formulas, protein isolates) has increased continuously over the past decade. However, the processing and storage of whey protein isolate (WPI) powders can result in changes in their structural and functional properties. It is therefore of great importance to understand the mechanisms and to identify the structural markers involved in the aging of WPI powders to control their end use properties. This study was performed to determine the effects of different storage conditions on protein lactosylations, protein denaturation in WPI, and in parallel on their foaming and interfacial properties. Six storage conditions involving different temperatures (θ) and water activities (aw) were studied for periods of up to 12mo. The results showed that for θ≤20°C, foaming properties of powders did not significantly differ from nonaged whey protein isolates (reference), regardless of the aw. On the other hand, powders presented significant levels of denaturation/aggregation and protein modification involving first protein lactosylation and then degradation of Maillard reaction products, resulting in a higher browning index compared with the reference, starting from the early stage of storage at 60°C. These changes resulted in a higher foam density and a slightly better foam stability (whisking) at 6mo. At 40°C, powders showed transitional evolution. The findings of this study will make it possible to define maximum storage durations and to recommend optimal storage conditions in accordance with WPI powder end-use properties. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... liquid, condensed, or dry form of whey, reduced lactose whey, reduced minerals whey, or whey protein concentrate, non-lactose-containing whey components, casein, or caseinate; or other suitable edible protein...
... liquid, condensed, or dry form of whey, reduced lactose whey, reduced minerals whey, or whey protein concentrate, non-lactose-containing whey components, casein, or caseinate; or other suitable edible protein...
Moeckel, Ulrike; Duerasch, Anja; Weiz, Alexander; Ruck, Michael; Henle, Thomas
After suspensions of micellar casein or nonmicellar sodium caseinate had been heated, respectively, in the presence and absence of glucose for 0-4 h at 100 °C, glycation compounds were quantitated. The formation of Amadori products as indicators for the "early" Maillard reaction were in the same range for both micellar and nonmicellar caseins, indicating that reactive amino acid side chains within the micelles are accessible for glucose in a comparable way as in nonmicellar casein. Significant differences, however, were observed concerning the formation of the advanced glycation end products (AGEs), namely, N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine (CML), pyrraline, pentosidine, and glyoxal-lysine dimer (GOLD). CML could be observerd in higher amounts in nonmicellar casein, whereas in the micelles the pyrraline formation was increased. Pentosidine and GOLD were formed in comparable amounts. Furthermore, the extent of protein cross-linking was significantly higher in the glycated casein micelles than in the nonmicellar casein samples. Dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy showed that glycation has no influence on the size of the casein micelles, indicating that cross-linking occurs only in the interior of the micelles, but altered the surface morphology. Studies on glycation and nonenzymatic cross-linking can contribute to the understanding of the structure of casein micelles.
Schmid, M; Krimmel, B; Grupa, U; Noller, K
This study examined how and to what extent the degree of denaturation affected the technological-functional properties of whey protein isolate (WPI)-based coatings. It was observed that denaturation affected the material properties of WPI-coated films significantly. Surface energy decreased by approximately 20% compared with native coatings. Because the surface energy of a coating should be lower than that of the substrate, this might result in enhanced wettability characteristics between WPI-based solution and substrate surface. Water vapor barrier properties increased by about 35% and oxygen barrier properties increased by approximately 33%. However, significant differences were mainly observed between coatings made of fully native WPI and ones with a degree of denaturation of 25%. Higher degrees of denaturation did not lead to further improvement of material properties. This observation offers cost-saving potential: a major share of denatured whey proteins may be replaced by fully native ones that are not exposed to energy-intensive heat treatment. Furthermore, native WPI solutions can be produced with higher dry matter content without gelatinizing. Hence, less moisture has to be removed through drying, resulting in reduced energy consumption. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Azevedo, Viviane Machado; Dias, Marali Vilela; de Siqueira Elias, Heloisa Helena; Fukushima, Katia Lumi; Silva, Eric Keven; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; de Fátima Ferreira Soares, Nilda; Borges, Soraia Vilela
The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of bioactive whey protein isolate/montmorillonite films containing citric acid on the inhibition of enzymatic browning and physicochemical properties in minimally processed apples. Whey protein isolate films incorporated with montmorillonite (3 g/100 g) and citric acid (5 and 10 g/100 g) were applied to the apples slices. All samples were packaged in polypropylene trays (14.6 cm × 11.4 cm × 6.5 cm) and stored at 5 ± 2 °C and 85 ± 3% RH for eight days. Every two days, the apples samples were evaluated for color, acidity, pH, soluble solids, water activity and polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activity. The enzymatic browning of the apples slices was reduced for all films during storage. However, the films containing citric acid maintained the color characteristics, reducing the loss of quality associated the maintenance of acidity, soluble solids, water activity, reduction of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activity, thus prolonging the shelf life of the apples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Postprandial metabolic and appetitive responses of proteins are dependent on protein source and processing technique prior to ingestion. Studies on the postprandial effects of enzymatic crosslinking of milk proteins are sparse. Our aim was to study the effect of transglutaminase (TG)-induced crosslinking of sodium caseinate on postprandial metabolic and appetite responses. Whey protein was included as reference protein. Methods Thirteen healthy individuals (23.3 ± 1.1 y, BMI 21.7 ± 0.4 kg/m2) participated in a single-blind crossover design experiment in which the subjects consumed three different isovolumic (500 g) pourable beverages containing either sodium caseinate (Cas, 29 g), TG-treated sodium caseinate (Cas-TG, 29 g) or whey protein (Wh, 30 g) in a randomized order. Blood samples were collected at baseline and for 4 h postprandially for the determination of plasma glucose, insulin and amino acid (AA) concentrations. Gastric emptying (GE) was measured using the 13 C-breath test method. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales. Results All examined postprandial responses were comparable with Cas and Cas-TG. The protein type used in the beverages was reflected as differences in plasma AA concentrations between Wh and Cas, but there were no differences in plasma glucose or insulin responses. A tendency for faster GE rate after Wh was detected. Appetite ratings or subsequent energy intake did not differ among the protein beverages. Conclusions Our results indicate that the metabolic responses of enzymatically crosslinked and native sodium caseinate in a liquid matrix are comparable, suggesting similar digestion and absorption rates and first pass metabolism despite the structural modification of Cas-TG. PMID:22657838
Juvonen, Kristiina R; Lille, Martina E; Laaksonen, David E; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Niskanen, Leo K; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Karhunen, Leila J
Postprandial metabolic and appetitive responses of proteins are dependent on protein source and processing technique prior to ingestion. Studies on the postprandial effects of enzymatic crosslinking of milk proteins are sparse. Our aim was to study the effect of transglutaminase (TG)-induced crosslinking of sodium caseinate on postprandial metabolic and appetite responses. Whey protein was included as reference protein. Thirteen healthy individuals (23.3 ± 1.1 y, BMI 21.7 ± 0.4 kg/m2) participated in a single-blind crossover design experiment in which the subjects consumed three different isovolumic (500 g) pourable beverages containing either sodium caseinate (Cas, 29 g), TG-treated sodium caseinate (Cas-TG, 29 g) or whey protein (Wh, 30 g) in a randomized order. Blood samples were collected at baseline and for 4 h postprandially for the determination of plasma glucose, insulin and amino acid (AA) concentrations. Gastric emptying (GE) was measured using the 13 C-breath test method. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales. All examined postprandial responses were comparable with Cas and Cas-TG. The protein type used in the beverages was reflected as differences in plasma AA concentrations between Wh and Cas, but there were no differences in plasma glucose or insulin responses. A tendency for faster GE rate after Wh was detected. Appetite ratings or subsequent energy intake did not differ among the protein beverages. Our results indicate that the metabolic responses of enzymatically crosslinked and native sodium caseinate in a liquid matrix are comparable, suggesting similar digestion and absorption rates and first pass metabolism despite the structural modification of Cas-TG.
Sarkar, Anwesha; Kanti, Farah; Gulotta, Alessandro; Murray, Brent S; Zhang, Shuying
Aqueous lubrication has emerged as an active research area in recent years due to its prevalence in nature in biotribological contacts and its enormous technological soft-matter applications. In this study, we designed aqueous dispersions of biocompatible whey-protein microgel particles (WPM) (10-80 vol %) cross-linked via disulfide bonding and focused on understanding their rheological, structural and biotribological properties (smooth polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) contacts, R a < 50 nm, ball-on-disk set up). The WPM particles (D h = 380 nm) displayed shear-thinning behavior and good lubricating performance in the plateau boundary as well as the mixed lubrication regimes. The WPM particles facilitated lubrication between bare hydrophobic PDMS surfaces (water contact angle 108°), leading to a 10-fold reduction in boundary friction force with increased volume fraction (ϕ ≥ 65%), largely attributed to the close packing-mediated layer of particles between the asperity contacts acting as "true surface-separators", hydrophobic moieties of WPM binding to the nonpolar surfaces, and particles employing a rolling mechanism analogous to "ball bearings", the latter supported by negligible change in size and microstructure of the WPM particles after tribology. An ultralow boundary friction coefficient, μ ≤ 0.03 was achieved using WPM between O 2 plasma-treated hydrophilic PDMS contacts coated with bovine submaxillary mucin (water contact angle 47°), and electron micrographs revealed that the WPM particles spread effectively as a layer of particles even at low ϕ∼ 10%, forming a lubricating load-bearing film that prevented the two surfaces from true adhesive contact. However, above an optimum volume fraction, μ increased in HL+BSM surfaces due to the interpenetration of particles that possibly impeded effective rolling, explaining the slight increase in friction. These effects are reflected in the highly shear thinning nature of the WPM dispersions themselves plus the
McMahon, D J; Oommen, B S
The supramolecular structure of colloidal casein micelles in milk was investigated by using a sample preparation protocol based on adsorption of proteins onto a poly-l-lysine and parlodion-coated copper grid, staining of proteins and calcium phosphate by uranyl oxalate, instantaneous freezing, and drying under a high vacuum. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy stereo-images were obtained showing the interior structure of casein micelles. On the basis of our interpretation of these images, an interlocked lattice model was developed in which both casein-calcium phosphate aggregates and casein polymer chains act together to maintain casein micelle integrity. The caseins form linear and branched chains (2 to 5 proteins long) interlocked by the casein-stabilized calcium phosphate nanoclusters. This model suggests that stabilization of calcium phosphate nanoclusters by phosphoserine domains of alpha(s1)-, alpha(s2)-, or beta-casein, or their combination, would orient their hydrophobic domains outward, allowing interaction and binding to other casein molecules. Other interactions between the caseins, such as calcium bridging, could also occur and further stabilize the supramolecule. The combination of having an interlocked lattice structure and multiple interactions results in an open, sponge-like colloidal supramolecule that is resistant to spatial changes and disintegration. Hydrophobic interactions between caseins surrounding a calcium phosphate nanocluster would prevent complete dissociation of casein micelles when the calcium phosphate nanoclusters are solubilized. Likewise, calcium bridging and other electrostatic interactions between caseins would prevent dissociation of the casein micelles into casein-calcium phosphate nanocluster aggregates when milk is cooled or urea is added to milk, and hydrophobic interactions are reduced. The appearance of both polymer chains and small aggregate particles during milk synthesis would also be expected based on
Perez, Adrián A; Sánchez, Cecilio Carrera; Patino, Juan M Rodríguez; Rubiolo, Amelia C; Santiago, Liliana G
In this contribution, we present experimental information about the effect of xanthan gum (XG) on the adsorption behaviour of two milk whey protein samples (MWP), beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) and whey protein concentrate (WPC), at the air-water interface. The MWP concentration studied corresponded to the protein bulk concentration which is able to saturate the air-water interface (1.0 wt%). Temperature, pH and ionic strength of aqueous systems were kept constant at 20 degrees C, pH 7 and 0.05 M, respectively, while the XG bulk concentration varied in the range 0.00-0.25 wt%. Biopolymer interactions in solution were analyzed by extrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy using 1-anilino-8-naphtalene sulphonic acid (ANS) as a protein fluorescence probe. Interfacial biopolymer interactions were evaluated by dynamic tensiometry and surface dilatational rheology. Adsorption behaviour was discussed from a rheokinetic point of view in terms of molecular diffusion, penetration and conformational rearrangement of adsorbed protein residues at the air-water interface. Differences in the interaction magnitude, both in solution and at the interface vicinity, and in the adsorption rheokinetic parameters were observed in MWP/XG mixed systems depending on the protein type (beta-LG or WPC) and biopolymer relative concentration. beta-LG adsorption in XG presence could be promoted by mechanisms based on biopolymer segregative interactions and thermodynamic incompatibility in the interface vicinity, resulting in better surface and viscoelastic properties. The same mechanism could be responsible of WPC interfacial adsorption in the presence of XG. The interfacial functionality of WPC was improved by the synergistic interactions with XG, although WPC chemical complexity might complicate the elucidation of molecular events that govern adsorption dynamics of WPC/XG mixed systems at the air-water interface. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Xiao-Peng; Zhao, Xin-Huai
Glycation of food proteins via the Maillard reaction has been widely studied in the recent years; however, the amount of saccharide connected to proteins is usually not determined. An enzymatic galactose assay was proposed firstly in this study to detect lactose glycation extents of caseinate and soybean protein isolate (SPI) during the Maillard reaction at two temperatures and different times. The separated glycated proteins were hydrolysed to release galactose necessary for the enzymatic assay and glycation calculation. Caseinate and SPI both obtained the highest lactose glycation extents at 100 °C or 121 °C by a reaction time of 180 or 20 min. Short- and long-time reaction resulted in lower glycation extents. During the reaction, three chemical indices (absorbences at 294/490 nm and fluorescence intensities) of reaction mixtures increased continually, but another index reactable NH 2 of glycated proteins showed the opposite trend. In general, changing profiles of the four indices were inconsistent with those profiles of lactose glycation extents of glycated proteins, implying practical limitation of the four indices in studies. This proposed enzymatic assay could directly detect lactose glycation of the two proteins, and thus was more useful than the four chemical indices to monitor glycation of the two proteins. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Baum, A; Hansen, P W; Nørgaard, L; Sørensen, John; Mikkelsen, J D
In this study, we introduce enzymatic perturbation combined with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as a concept for quantifying casein in subcritical heated skim milk using chemometric multiway analysis. Chymosin is a protease that cleaves specifically caseins. As a result of hydrolysis, all casein proteins clot to form a creamy precipitate, and whey proteins remain in the supernatant. We monitored the cheese-clotting reaction in real time using FTIR and analyzed the resulting evolution profiles to establish calibration models using parallel factor analysis and multiway partial least squares regression. Because we observed casein-specific kinetic changes, the retrieved models were independent of the chemical background matrix and were therefore robust against possible covariance effects. We tested the robustness of the models by spiking the milk solutions with whey, calcium, and cream. This method can be used at different stages in the dairy production chain to ensure the quality of the delivered milk. In particular, the cheese-making industry can benefit from such methods to optimize production control. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gay, Frederick P.; Robertson, T. Brailsford
This study of globin and its compound with casein (globin caseinate) shows that globin fails to produce fixation antibodies in rabbits after repeated injections, thus agreeing with our own work and with that of others with similar histon bodies which are primarily toxic. When globin is combined with casein, however, it gives rise to antibodies that react not only with globin caseinate and casein but also with globin. The antibodies in antiglobin casein serum are apparently separate, one for globin and one for casein. In other words, the change in globin undergone on combination with casein has apparently rendered it antigenic. We did not succeed in demonstrating the genesis of this new antigenic property by anaphylaxis experiments. A further investigation of similar and more complex combined proteins is indicated and gives promise of more light on the nature of biological specificity. PMID:19867665
Naclerio, Fernando; Seijo-Bujia, Marco; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Earnest, Conrad P
Beef powder is a new high-quality protein source scarcely researched relative to exercise performance. The present study examined the impact of ingesting hydrolyzed beef protein, whey protein, and carbohydrate on strength performance (1RM), body composition (via plethysmography), limb circumferences and muscular thickness (via ultrasonography), following an 8-week resistance-training program. After being randomly assigned to one of the following groups: Beef, Whey, or Carbohydrate, twenty four recreationally physically active males (n = 8 per treatment) ingested 20 g of supplement, mixed with orange juice, once a day (immediately after workout or before breakfast). Post intervention changes were examined as percent change and 95% CIs. Beef (2.0%, CI, 0.2-2.38%) and Whey (1.4%, CI, 0.2-2.6%) but not Carbohydrate (0.0%, CI, -1.2-1.2%) increased fat-free mass. All groups increased vastus medialis thickness: Beef (11.1%, CI, 6.3-15.9%), Whey (12.1%, CI, 4.0, -20.2%), Carbohydrate (6.3%, CI, 1.9-10.6%). Beef (11.2%, CI, 5.9-16.5%) and Carbohydrate (4.5%, CI, 1.6-7.4%), but not Whey (1.1%, CI, -1.7-4.0%), increased biceps brachialis thickness, while only Beef increased arm (4.8%, CI, 2.3-7.3%) and thigh (11.2%, 95%CI 0.4-5.9%) circumferences. Although the three groups significantly improved 1RM Squat (Beef 21.6%, CI 5.5-37.7%; Whey 14.6%, CI, 5.9-23.3%; Carbohydrate 19.6%, CI, 2.2-37.1%), for the 1RM bench press the improvements were significant for Beef (15.8% CI 7.0-24.7%) and Whey (5.8%, CI, 1.7-9.8%) but not for carbohydrate (11.4%, CI, -0.9-23.6%). Protein-carbohydrate supplementation supports fat-free mass accretion and lower body hypertrophy. Hydrolyzed beef promotes upper body hypertrophy along with similar performance outcomes as observed when supplementing with whey isolate or maltodextrin.
A Maillard type reaction in the dry state was utilized to create conjugates between whey protein isolate (WPI) and sugar beet pectin (SBP) to achieve improved functional properties including solubility, colloidal stability and oil-in-water emulsion stability. To optimize the reaction conditions, mi...
In a previous study, we reported viability loss of Escherichia coli populations in corn (CP) and whey protein products (WPP) extruded at different temperatures. However, information on the effect of storage temperatures on injured bacterial populations was not addressed. The objective of this study ...
A, Anila H; G, Upendar Reddy; Ali, Firoj; Taye, Nandaraj; Chattopadhyay, Samit; Das, Amitava
We report a new chemodosimetric probe () for specific recognition of cysteine (Cys) in aqueous buffer and in whey protein isolated from fresh cow's milk. Using this reagent we could develop a luminescence-based methodology for estimation of Cys released from a commercially available Cys-supplement drug by aminoacylase-1 in live cells.
Cai, Bingqing; Saito, Anna; Ikeda, Shinya
Whey protein adsorbed to an interface forms a viscoelastic interfacial film but is displaced competitively from the interface by a small-molecule surfactant added afterward. The present study evaluated the impact of the covalent conjugation of high- or low-molecular-weight sodium alginate (HA or LA) to whey protein isolate (WPI) via the Maillard reaction on the ability of whey protein to resist surfactant-induced competitive displacement from the air-water interface. Surfactant added after the pre-adsorption of conjugate to the interface increased surface pressure. At a given surface pressure, the WPI-LA conjugate showed a significantly higher interfacial area coverage and lower interfacial film thickness compared to those of the WPI-HA conjugate or unconjugated WPI. The addition of LA to the aqueous phase had little effect on the interfacial area and thickness of pre-adsorbed WPI. These results suggest the importance of the molecular weight of the polysaccharide moiety in determining interfacial properties of whey protein-alginate conjugates.
Azevedo, Viviane Machado; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Marconcini, José Manoel; Yoshida, Maria Irene; Neto, Alfredo Rodrigues Sena; Pereira, Tamara Coelho; Pereira, Camila Ferreira Gonçalves
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn starch by whey protein isolated (WPI) in biodegradable polymer blends developed by extrusion. X-ray diffraction showed the presence of a Vh-type crystalline arrangement. The films were homogeneous, indicating strong interfacial adhesion between the protein and the thermoplastic starch matrix (TPS) as observed in scanning electron microscopy. The addition of WPI on TPS matrix promoted an increase in the thermal stability of the materials. It was observed 58.5% decrease in the water vapor permeability. The effect of corn starch substitution by WPI on mechanical properties resulted in a more resistant and less flexible film when compared the TPS film. The addition of WPI caused greenish yellow color and less transparent films. The substitution of corn starch by WPI made it possible to obtain polymer blends with improved properties and represents an innovation for application as a packaging material. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Çabuk, Burcu; Tellioğlu Harsa, Şebnem
In this research, whey protein/pullulan (WP/pullulan) microcapsules were developed in order to assess its protective effect on the viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL-B 4495 under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions. Results demonstrated that WP/pullulan microencapsulated cells exhibited significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher resistance to simulated gastric acid and bile salt. Pullulan incorporation into protein wall matrix resulted in improved survival as compared to free cells after 3 h incubation in simulated gastric solution. Moreover WP/pullulan microcapsules were found to release over 70% of encapsulated L. acidophilus NRRL-B 4495 cells within 1 h. The effect of encapsulation during refrigerated storage was also studied. Free bacteria exhibited 3.96 log reduction while, WP/pullulan encapsulated bacteria showed 1.64 log reduction after 4 weeks of storage. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Leiva, Graciela E; Naranjo, Gabriela B; Malec, Laura S
This study examined different indicators of each stage of Maillard reaction under adverse storage conditions in a system with whey proteins and lactose or glucose. The analysis of lysine loss by the o-phthaldialdehyde method can be considered a good indicator of the early stage, showing considerable differences in reactivity when systems with mono and disaccharides were analyzed. Capillary electrophoresis proved to be a sensitive method for evaluating the extent of glycosylation of the native proteins, providing valuable information when the loss of lysine was not significant. The estimation of the Amadori compound from the determination of total 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde would have correlate well with reactive lysine content if the advanced stages of the reaction had not been reached. For assessing the occurrence of the intermediate and final stages, the measurement of free 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde and color, proved not to be suitable for storage conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Johansson, Annette; Lugand, Damien; Rolet-Répécaud, Odile; Mollé, Daniel; Delage, Marie-Madeleine; Peltre, Gabriel; Marchesseau, Sylvie; Léonil, Joëlle; Dupont, Didier
In milk, kappa-, beta-, alphas(1)- and alphas(2)-casein (CN) are associated into a supramolecular assembly, the micelle. In this work, CN micelles contained in fresh skim milk were used to produce over 100 monoclonal antibodies. The specificity of these probes was determined using libraries of synthetic peptides and peptides fractionated from tryptic hydrolysis of purified CNs. Although kappa-CN and alphas(2)-CN are minor proteins in the micelle (ratio 1:1:4:4 for kappa, alphas(2), alphas(1), beta) a proportionally high number of clones were produced towards these two proteins (32 for each), compared to 9 and 29 for alphas(1)-CN and beta-CN, respectively. Most of the beta-CN and kappa-CN epitopes were identified, while about 50% of alphas(1)-CN and alphas(2)-CN antibodies were suspected to react to conformational linear or discontinuous epitopes, since no peptide binding could be identified. Antibody binding to the phosphoserine rich regions of the three calcium sensitive CNs was weak or non-existing, suggesting them to be hidden in the micelle structure together with alphas(1)-CN. The C-terminal glycomacropeptide of kappa-CN and the C-terminal moiety of beta-CN were well exposed generating the majority of the antibodies specific for these two proteins. The two major antigenic sites of alphas(2) were alphas(2)-CN (f96-114) and (f16-35). Cross-reaction between alphas(2)-CN specific antibodies with alphas(1)-CN illustrated the tangled structure between the two proteins. Immuno-dominant epitopes identified in the present study totally differ from those known for the purified caseins suggesting they were specific for the micelle supramolecular structure.
Zamora, A; Trujillo, A J; Armaforte, E; Waldron, D S; Kelly, A L
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of conventional and ultra-high-pressure homogenization on interactions between proteins within drained rennet curds. The effect of fat content of milk (0.0, 1.8, or 3.6%) and homogenization treatment on dissociation of proteins by different chemical agents was thus studied. Increasing the fat content of raw milk increased levels of unbound whey proteins and calcium-bonded caseins in curds; in contrast, hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds were inhibited. Both homogenization treatments triggered the incorporation of unbound whey proteins in the curd, and of caseins through ionic bonds involving calcium salts. Conventional homogenization-pasteurization enhanced interactions between caseins through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. In contrast, ultra-high-pressure homogenization impaired hydrogen bonding, led to the incorporation of both whey proteins and caseins through hydrophobic interactions and increased the amount of unbound caseins. Thus, both homogenization treatments provoked changes in the protein interactions within rennet curds; however, the nature of the changes depended on the homogenization conditions. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mora, Leticia; Escudero, Elizabeth; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel
Peptidomics is a necessary alternative in the analysis of naturally generated peptides in dry-fermented processing. The intense proteolysis occurred during the processing of dry-fermented sausages is due to the action of endopeptidases and exopeptidases from both, endogenous muscle origin and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) added in the starter. Sodium caseinate is frequently used as an additive in this type of products because of its emulsifying properties, and consequently influences the protein profile available during the proteolysis. In this study, a mass spectrometry approach has been used to determine the impact of added sodium caseinate in the final peptide profile as well as to analyse its possible influence in the presence of certain previously described casein-derived bioactive peptides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Iskandar, Michèle M; Dauletbaev, Nurlan; Kubow, Stan; Mawji, Nadir; Lands, Larry C
Whey proteins (WP) exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Hyperbaric pressurisation of whey increases its digestibility and changes the spectrum of peptides released during digestion. We have shown that dietary supplementation with pressurised whey improves nutritional status and systemic inflammation in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Both clinical indices are largely affected by airway processes, to which respiratory epithelial cells actively contribute. Here, we tested whether peptides released from the digestion of pressurised whey can attenuate the inflammatory responses of CF respiratory epithelial cells. Hydrolysates of pressurised WP (pWP) and native WP (nWP, control) were generated in vitro and tested for anti-inflammatory properties judged by the suppression of IL-8 production in CF and non-CF respiratory epithelial cell lines (CFTE29o- and 1HAEo-, respectively). We observed that, in both cell lines, pWP hydrolysate suppressed IL-8 production stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to a greater magnitude compared with nWP hydrolysate. Neither hydrolysate suppressed IL-8 production induced by TNF-α or IL-1β, suggesting an effect on the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 pathway, the cellular sensor for LPS. Further, neither hydrolysate affected TLR4 expression or neutralised LPS. Both pWP and nWP hydrolysates similarly reduced LPS binding to surface TLR4, while pWP tended to more potently increase extracellular antioxidant capacity. (1) anti-inflammatory properties of whey are enhanced by pressurisation; (2) suppression of IL-8 production may contribute to the clinical effects of pressurised whey supplementation on CF; (3) this effect may be partly explained by a combination of reduced LPS binding to TLR4 and enhanced extracellular antioxidant capacity.
Lee, Sang Mi; Kim, Ji Woo; Jeong, Young-Hee; Kim, Se Eun; Kim, Yeong Ji; Moon, Seung Ju; Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Keun-Jung; Kim, Min-Kyu; Kang, Man-Jong
Transgenic animals have become important tools for the production of therapeutic proteins in the domestic animal. Production efficiencies of transgenic animals by conventional methods as microinjection and retrovirus vector methods are low, and the foreign gene expression levels are also low because of their random integration in the host genome. In this study, we investigated the homologous recombination on the porcine β-casein gene locus using a knock-in vector for the β-casein gene locus. We developed the knock-in vector on the porcine β-casein gene locus and isolated knock-in fibroblast for nuclear transfer. The knock-in vector consisted of the neomycin resistance gene (neo) as a positive selectable marker gene, diphtheria toxin-A gene as negative selection marker, and 5' arm and 3' arm from the porcine β-casein gene. The secretion of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was more easily detected in the cell culture media than it was by western blot analysis of cell extract of the HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cells transfected with EGFP knock-in vector. These results indicated that a knock-in system using β-casein gene induced high expression of transgene by the gene regulatory sequence of endogenous β-casein gene. These fibroblasts may be used to produce transgenic pigs for the production of therapeutic proteins via the mammary glands.
Lee, Sang Mi; Kim, Ji Woo; Jeong, Young-Hee; Kim, Se Eun; Kim, Yeong Ji; Moon, Seung Ju; Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Keun-Jung; Kim, Min-Kyu; Kang, Man-Jong
Transgenic animals have become important tools for the production of therapeutic proteins in the domestic animal. Production efficiencies of transgenic animals by conventional methods as microinjection and retrovirus vector methods are low, and the foreign gene expression levels are also low because of their random integration in the host genome. In this study, we investigated the homologous recombination on the porcine β-casein gene locus using a knock-in vector for the β-casein gene locus. We developed the knock-in vector on the porcine β-casein gene locus and isolated knock-in fibroblast for nuclear transfer. The knock-in vector consisted of the neomycin resistance gene (neo) as a positive selectable marker gene, diphtheria toxin-A gene as negative selection marker, and 5′ arm and 3′ arm from the porcine β-casein gene. The secretion of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was more easily detected in the cell culture media than it was by western blot analysis of cell extract of the HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cells transfected with EGFP knock-in vector. These results indicated that a knock-in system using β-casein gene induced high expression of transgene by the gene regulatory sequence of endogenous β-casein gene. These fibroblasts may be used to produce transgenic pigs for the production of therapeutic proteins via the mammary glands. PMID:25358326
Kütt, Mary-Liis; Stagsted, Jan
A model system of bovine colostrum and piscidin, a fish-derived antimicrobial peptide, was developed to study potential interactions of antimicrobial peptides in colostrum. We did not detect any antimicrobial activity of colostrum using the radial plate diffusion assay; in fact colostrum completely abrogated activity of added piscidin. This could not be explained by degradation of piscidin by colostrum, which was less than ten percent. We found that colostrum even protected piscidin against degradation by added proteases. We further observed that colostrum and milk rapidly quenched the fluorescence of fluorescein-piscidin but not that of fluorescein. This effect was not seen with BSA and the specific quenching of fluorescein-piscidin by colostrum was saturably inhibited with unlabeled piscidin. Size exclusion chromatography indicated that fluorescein-piscidin bound to casein micelles with no apparent binding to IgG or whey proteins. Further, addition of pure caseins was able to quench fluorescence of fluorescein-piscidin and to inhibit the antimicrobial activity of piscidin. The interaction between caseins and piscidin could be dissociated by guanidine hydrochloride and recovered piscidin had antimicrobial activity against bacteria. Based on our results we propose that caseins could be carriers for antimicrobial peptides in colostrum and milk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Baum, Florian; Fedorova, Maria; Ebner, Jennifer; Hoffmann, Ralf; Pischetsrieder, Monika
Milk is an excellent source of bioactive peptides. However, the composition of the native milk peptidome has only been partially elucidated. The present study applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) directly or after prefractionation of the milk peptides by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) or OFFGEL fractionation for the comprehensive analysis of the peptide profile of raw milk. The peptide sequences were determined by MALDI-TOF/TOF or nano-ultra-performance liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray ionization-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS. Direct MALDI-TOF-MS analysis led to the assignment of 57 peptides. Prefractionation by both complementary methods led to the assignment of another 191 peptides. Most peptides originate from α(S1)-casein, followed by β-casein, and α(S2)-casein. κ-Casein and whey proteins seem to play only a minor role as peptide precursors. The formation of many, but not all, peptides could be explained by the activity of the endogenous peptidases, plasmin or cathepsin D, B, and G. Database searches revealed the presence of 22 peptides with established physiological function, including those with angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, immunomodulating, or antimicrobial activity.
Drummond, Elaine; Flynn, Sarah; Whelan, Helena; Nongonierma, Alice B; Holton, Thérèse A; Robinson, Aisling; Egan, Thelma; Cagney, Gerard; Shields, Denis C; Gibney, Eileen R; Newsholme, Philip; Gaudel, Celine; Jacquier, Jean-Christophe; Noronha, Nessa; FitzGerald, Richard J; Brennan, Lorraine
Evidence exists to support the role of dairy derived proteins whey and casein in glycemic management. The objective of the present study was to use a cell screening method to identify a suitable casein hydrolysate and to examine its ability to impact glycemia related parameters in an animal model and in humans. Following screening for the ability to stimulate insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells, a casein hydrolysate was selected and further studied in the ob/ob mouse model. An acute postprandial study was performed in 62 overweight and obese adults. Acute and long-term supplementation with the casein hydrolysate in in vivo studies in mice revealed a glucose lowering effect and a lipid reducing effect of the hydrolysate (43% reduction in overall liver fat). The postprandial human study revealed a significant increase in insulin secretion ( p = 0.04) concomitant with a reduction in glucose ( p = 0.03). The area under the curve for the change in glucose decreased from 181.84 ± 14.6 to 153.87 ± 13.02 ( p = 0.009). Overall, the data supports further work on the hydrolysate to develop into a functional food product.
Nakayama, Kyosuke; Sanbongi, Chiaki; Ikegami, Shuji
To stimulate muscle protein synthesis, it is important to increase the plasma levels of essential amino acids (EAA), especially leucine, by ingesting proteins. Protein hydrolysate ingestion can induce postprandial hyperaminoacidemia; however, it is unclear whether protein hydrolysate is associated with higher levels of aminoacidemia compared with a free amino acid mixture when both are ingested orally. We assessed the effects of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) ingestion on postprandial aminoacidemia, especially plasma leucine levels, compared to ingestion of a free amino acid mixture. This study was an open-label, randomized, 4 × 4 Latin square design. After 12–15 h of fasting, 11 healthy young men ingested the WPH (3.3, 5.0, or 7.5 g of protein) or the EAA mixture (2.5 g). Blood samples were collected before ingestion and at time points from 10 to 120 min after ingestion, and amino acids, insulin, glucose and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations in plasma were measured. Even though the EAA mixture and 5.0 g of the WPH contained similar amounts of EAA and leucine, the WPH was associated with significantly higher plasma EAA and leucine levels. These results suggest that the WPH can induce a higher level of aminoacidemia compared with a free amino acid mixture when both are ingested orally. PMID:29671767
Nakayama, Kyosuke; Sanbongi, Chiaki; Ikegami, Shuji
To stimulate muscle protein synthesis, it is important to increase the plasma levels of essential amino acids (EAA), especially leucine, by ingesting proteins. Protein hydrolysate ingestion can induce postprandial hyperaminoacidemia; however, it is unclear whether protein hydrolysate is associated with higher levels of aminoacidemia compared with a free amino acid mixture when both are ingested orally. We assessed the effects of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) ingestion on postprandial aminoacidemia, especially plasma leucine levels, compared to ingestion of a free amino acid mixture. This study was an open-label, randomized, 4 × 4 Latin square design. After 12⁻15 h of fasting, 11 healthy young men ingested the WPH (3.3, 5.0, or 7.5 g of protein) or the EAA mixture (2.5 g). Blood samples were collected before ingestion and at time points from 10 to 120 min after ingestion, and amino acids, insulin, glucose and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations in plasma were measured. Even though the EAA mixture and 5.0 g of the WPH contained similar amounts of EAA and leucine, the WPH was associated with significantly higher plasma EAA and leucine levels. These results suggest that the WPH can induce a higher level of aminoacidemia compared with a free amino acid mixture when both are ingested orally.
Masson, Félix-André; Mikhaylin, Sergey; Bazinet, Laurent
Finding new green ways of producing proteins has never been of such critical public interest, both to meet consumers' needs and to preserve the environment. Milk proteins are among the most attractive protein types due to their high nutritional value and attractive functional properties. In this work, the separation of caseins by conventional chemical acidification was compared with electrodialysis with bipolar membrane coupled to an ultrafiltration module (EDBM-UF), a green process that allows the precipitation of caseins by H + generated in situ by the bipolar membrane and, simultaneously, the production of a separated NaOH stream from OH - electrogenerated by the bipolar membrane. Caseinate production using this NaOH stream by-product and the quantity of NaOH needed to produce caseinates from both methods were also investigated. Hence, the purity and composition of caseins and caseinates were compared in terms of protein, ash, and lactose contents as well as mineral composition. The results showed for the first time that caseinates can be produced by solubilizing caseins with NaOH stream from the EDBM process. Furthermore, the caseins and caseinates produced by EDBM-UF were equivalent in terms of lactose and protein contents to their respective caseins and caseinates that were chemically produced but presented slightly lower sodium content and 3 to 4 times higher magnesium and calcium contents. The fact that calcium and magnesium are likely bound to milk caseins would ensure their favorable absorbability. These caseins or caseinates from the new EDBM-UF process could be suitable as an improved protein-based calcium or magnesium supplement, both for their enhanced nutritional quality and because they are produced by a green process. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sinha, Rajeshwari; Khare, S K
The present work targets the fabrication of an active, stable, reusable enzyme preparation using functionalized silica nanoparticles as an effective enzyme support for crude halophilic Bacillus sp. EMB9 protease. The immobilization efficiency under optimized conditions was 60%. Characterization of the immobilized preparation revealed marked increase in pH and thermal stability. It retained 80% of its original activity at 70 °C while t 1/2 at 50 °C showed a five-fold enhancement over that for the free protease. Kinetic constants K m and V max were indicative of a higher reaction velocity along with decreased affinity for substrate. The preparation could be efficiently reused up to 6 times and successfully hydrolysed whey proteins with high degree of hydrolysis. Immobilization of a crude halophilic protease on a nanobased scaffold makes the process cost effective and simple.
Mehyar, Ghadeer F; Al-Ismail, Khalid M; Al-Isamil, Khalid M; Al-Ghizzawi, Hana'a M; Holley, Richard A
The effects of microencapsulating cardamom essential oil (CEO) in whey protein isolate (WPI) alone and combined with guar gum (GG) and carrageen (CG) on microencapsulation efficiency, oil chemical stability, and microcapsule structure were investigated. Freeze-dried microcapsules were prepared from emulsions containing (w/w): 15% and 30% WPI; 0.1% GG, and 0.2% CG as wall materials with CEO (at 10% of polymer concentration) as core material, and physical properties and chemical stability were compared. Bulk density of microcapsules was highest in WPI without GG or CG and in 30% WPI + GG microcapsules, and was more affected by moisture content (r = -0.6) than by mean particle diameter (d43 ; r = -0.2) and span (r = 0.1). Microcapsules containing only WPI had the highest entrapped oil (7.5%) and microencapsulation efficiency (98.5%). The concentrations of 1,8-cineole and d-limonene were used as indicators for microcapsule chemical stability since they were the main components of CEO. Microcapsules retained higher (P ≤ 0.05) concentrations of both components than non-microencapsulated CEO during 16 wk storage at 20 ºC, but higher loss of both components was noted at 35 ºC. Microencapsulated d-limonene was reduced faster than 1,8-cineole regardless of temperature. The 30% WPI and 30% WPI + GG microcapsules retained CEO best throughout storage at both storage temperatures. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that WPI microcapsules had smooth surfaces, were relatively homogenous and regular in shape, whereas GG and CG addition increased visual surface porosity and reduced shape regularity. It was concluded that the best formulation for encapsulating CEO was 30% WPI. Encapsulating cardamom essential oil in whey protein isolate alone or combined with guar gum produced dried powders that effectively retained and chemically stabilized CEO, and therefore enhanced its handling and storability. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®
Perez, Adrián A; Sánchez, Cecilio Carrera; Patino, Juan M Rodríguez; Rubiolo, Amelia C; Santiago, Liliana G
Milk whey proteins (MWP) and pectins (Ps) are biopolymer ingredients commonly used in the manufacture of colloidal food products. Therefore, knowledge of the interfacial characteristics of these biopolymers and their mixtures is very important for the design of food dispersion formulations (foams and/or emulsions). In this paper, we examine the adsorption and surface dilatational behaviour of MWP/Ps systems under conditions in which biopolymers can saturate the air-water interface on their own. Experiments were performed at constant temperature (20 °C), pH 7 and ionic strength 0.05 M. Two MWP samples, β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) and whey protein concentrate (WPC), and two Ps samples, low-methoxyl pectin (LMP) and high-methoxyl pectin (HMP) were evaluated. The contribution of biopolymers (MWP and Ps) to the interfacial properties of mixed systems was evaluated on the basis of their individual surface molecular characteristics. Biopolymer bulk concentration capable of saturating the air-water interface was estimated from surface pressure isotherms. Under conditions of interfacial saturation, dynamic adsorption behaviour (surface pressure and dilatational rheological characteristics) of MWP/Ps systems was discussed from a kinetic point of view, in terms of molecular diffusion, penetration and configurational rearrangement at the air-water interface. The main adsorption mechanism in MWP/LMP mixtures might be the MWP interfacial segregation due to the thermodynamic incompatibility between MWP and LMP (synergistic mechanism); while the interfacial adsorption in MWP/HMP mixtures could be characterized by a competitive mechanism between MWP and HMP at the air-water interface (antagonistic mechanism). The magnitude of these phenomena could be closely related to differences in molecular composition and/or aggregation state of MWP (β-LG and WPC). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Buehlmeier, Judith; Mulder, Edwin; Noppe, Alexandra; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Angerer, Oliver; Rudwill, Floriane; Biolo, Gianni; Smith, Scott M.; Blanc, Stéphane; Heer, Martina
Inactivity, as it appears during space flight and in bed rest, induces reduction of lean body and bone mass, glucose intolerance, and weakening of the cardiovascular system. Increased protein intake, whey protein in particular, has been proposed to counteract some of these effects, but has also been associated with negative effects on bone, likely caused by a correspondingly high ratio of acid to alkali precursors in the diet.
Kalman, Douglas S
A protein concentrate (Oryzatein-80™) and a protein isolate (Oryzatein-90™) from organic whole-grain brown rice were analyzed for their amino acid composition. Two samples from different batches of Oryzatein-90™ and one sample of Oryzatein-80™ were provided by Axiom Foods (Los Angeles, CA, USA). Preparation and analysis was carried out by Covance Laboratories (Madison, WI, USA). After hydrolysis in 6-N hydrochloric acid for 24 h at approximately 110 °C and further chemical stabilization, samples were analyzed by HPLC after pre-injection derivitization. Total amino acid content of both the isolate and the concentrate was approximately 78% by weight with 36% essential amino acids and 18% branched-chain amino acids. These results are similar to the profiles of raw and cooked brown rice except in the case of glutamic acid which was 3% lower in the isolate and concentrate. The amino acid content and profile of the Oryzatein-90™ isolate was similar to published values for soy protein isolate but the total, essential, and branched-chain amino acid content of whey protein isolate was 20%, 39% and 33% greater, respectively, than that of Oryzatein-90™. These results provide a valuable addition to the nutrient database of protein isolates and concentrates from cereal grains.
Kalman, Douglas S.
A protein concentrate (Oryzatein-80™) and a protein isolate (Oryzatein-90™) from organic whole-grain brown rice were analyzed for their amino acid composition. Two samples from different batches of Oryzatein-90™ and one sample of Oryzatein-80™ were provided by Axiom Foods (Los Angeles, CA, USA). Preparation and analysis was carried out by Covance Laboratories (Madison, WI, USA). After hydrolysis in 6-N hydrochloric acid for 24 h at approximately 110 °C and further chemical stabilization, samples were analyzed by HPLC after pre-injection derivitization. Total amino acid content of both the isolate and the concentrate was approximately 78% by weight with 36% essential amino acids and 18% branched-chain amino acids. These results are similar to the profiles of raw and cooked brown rice except in the case of glutamic acid which was 3% lower in the isolate and concentrate. The amino acid content and profile of the Oryzatein-90™ isolate was similar to published values for soy protein isolate but the total, essential, and branched-chain amino acid content of whey protein isolate was 20%, 39% and 33% greater, respectively, than that of Oryzatein-90™. These results provide a valuable addition to the nutrient database of protein isolates and concentrates from cereal grains. PMID:28234326
Piccolo, Brian D; Comerford, Kevin B; Karakas, Sidika E; Knotts, Trina A; Fiehn, Oliver; Adams, Sean H
It has been suggested that perturbations in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism are associated with insulin resistance and contribute to elevated systemic BCAAs. Evidence in rodents suggests dietary protein rich in BCAAs can increase BCAA catabolism, but there is limited evidence in humans. We hypothesize that a diet rich in BCAAs will increase BCAA catabolism, which will manifest in a reduction of fasting plasma BCAA concentrations. The metabolome of 27 obese women with metabolic syndrome before and after weight loss was investigated to identify changes in BCAA metabolism using GC-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Subjects were enrolled in an 8-wk weight-loss study including either a 20-g/d whey (whey group, n = 16) or gelatin (gelatin group, n = 11) protein supplement. When matched for total protein by weight, whey protein has 3 times the amount of BCAAs compared with gelatin protein. Postintervention plasma abundances of Ile (gelatin group: 637 ± 18, quantifier ion peak height ÷ 100; whey group: 744 ± 65), Leu (gelatin group: 1210 ± 33; whey group: 1380 ± 79), and Val (gelatin group: 2080 ± 59; whey group: 2510 ± 230) did not differ between treatment groups. BCAAs were significantly correlated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance at baseline (r = 0.52, 0.43, and 0.49 for Leu, Ile, and Val, respectively; all, P < 0.05), but correlations were no longer significant at postintervention. Pro- and Cys-related pathways were found discriminant of whey protein vs. gelatin protein supplementation in multivariate statistical analyses. These findings suggest that BCAA metabolism is, at best, only modestly affected at a whey protein supplementation dose of 20 g/d. Furthermore, the loss of an association between postintervention BCAA and homeostasis model assessment suggests that factors associated with calorie restriction or protein intake affect how plasma BCAAs relate to insulin sensitivity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials
Silva, Naaman F Nogueira; Saint-Jalmes, Arnaud; de Carvalho, Antônio F; Gaucheron, Frédéric
Casein micelles are porous colloidal particles, constituted of casein molecules, water, and minerals. The vulnerability of the supramolecular structure of casein micelles face to changes in the environmental conditions restrains their applications in other domains besides food. Thus, redesigning casein micelles is a challenge to create new functionalities for these biosourced particles. The objective of this work was to create stable casein microgels from casein micelles using a natural cross-linker, named genipin. Suspensions of purified casein micelles (25 g L(-1)) were mixed with genipin solutions to have final concentrations of 5, 10, and 20 mM genipin. Covalently linked casein microgels were formed via cross-linking of lysyl and arginyl residues of casein molecules. The reacted products exhibited blue color. The cross-linking reaction induced gradual changes on the colloidal properties of the particles. The casein microgels were smaller and more negatively charged and presented smoother surfaces than casein micelles. These results were explained based on the cross-linking of free NH2 present in an external layer of κ-casein. Light scattering and rheological measurements showed that the reaction between genipin and casein molecules was intramicellar, as one single population of particles was observed and the values of viscosity (and, consequently, the volume fraction of the particles) were reduced. Contrary to the casein micelles, the casein microgels were resistant to the presence of dissociating agents, e.g., citrate (calcium chelating) and urea, but swelled as a consequence of internal electrostatic repulsion and the disruption of hydrophobic interactions between protein chains. The casein microgels did not dissociate at the air-solution interface and formed solid-like interfaces rather than a viscoelastic gel. The potential use of casein microgels as adaptable nanocarriers is proposed in the article.
Elegbede, Jennifer L; Li, Min; Jones, Owen G; Campanella, Osvaldo H; Ferruzzi, Mario G
With growing interest in formulating new food products with added protein and flavonoid-rich ingredients for health benefits, direct interactions between these ingredient classes becomes critical in so much as they may impact protein functionality, product quality, and flavonoids bioavailability. In this study, sodium caseinate (SCN)-based model products (foams and emulsions) were formulated with grape seed extract (GSE, rich in galloylated flavonoids) and green tea extract (GTE, rich in nongalloylated flavonoids), respectively, to assess changes in functional properties of SCN and impacts on flavonoid bioaccessibility. Experiments with pure flavonoids suggested that galloylated flavonoids reduced air-water interfacial tension of 0.01% SCN dispersions more significantly than nongalloylated flavonoids at high concentrations (>50 μg/mL). This observation was supported by changes in stability of 5% SCN foam, which showed that foam stability was increased at high levels of GSE (≥50 μg/mL, P < 0.05) but was not affected by GTE. However, flavonoid extracts had modest effects on SCN emulsion. In addition, galloylated flavonoids had higher bioaccessibility in both SCN foam and emulsion. These results suggest that SCN-flavonoid binding interactions can modulate protein functionality leading to difference in performance and flavonoid bioaccessibility of protein-based products. As information on the beneficial health effects of flavonoids expands, it is likely that usage of these ingredients in consumer foods will increase. However, the necessary levels to provide such benefits may exceed those that begin to impact functionality of the macronutrients such as proteins. Flavonoid inclusion within protein matrices may modulate protein functionality in a food system and modify critical consumer traits or delivery of these beneficial plant-derived components. The product matrices utilized in this study offer relevant model systems to evaluate how fortification with flavonoid
Wang, Wanyi; Ding, Zhenping; Solares, Geoffrey J.; Choi, Soon-Mi; Wang, Bo; Yoon, Aram; Farrar, Roger P.; Ivy, John L.
The objective of the study was to investigate whether co-ingestion of carbohydrate and protein as compared with protein alone augments muscle protein synthesis (MPS) during early exercise recovery. Two months old rats performed 10 repetitions of ladder climbing with 75% of body weight attached to their tails. Placebo (PLA), whey protein (WP), or whey protein plus carbohydrate (CP) was then given to rats by gavage. An additional group of sedentary rats (SED) was used as controls. Blood samples were collected immediately and at either 1 or 2 h after exercise. The flexor hallucis longus muscle was excised at 1 or 2 h post exercise for analysis of MPS and related signaling proteins. MPS was significantly increased by CP compared with PLA (p<0.05), and approached significance compared with WP at 1 h post exercise (p = 0.08). CP yielded a greater phosphorylation of mTOR compared with SED and PLA at 1 h post exercise and SED and WP at 2 h post exercise. CP also increased phosphorylation of p70S6K compared with SED at 1 and 2 h post exercise. 4E-BP1 phosphorylation was inhibited by PLA at 1 h but elevated by WP and CP at 2 h post exercise relative to SED. The phosphorylation of AMPK was elevated by exercise at 1 h post exercise, and this elevated level was sustained only in the WP group at 2 h. The phosphorylation of Akt, GSK3, and eIF2Bε were unchanged by treatments. Plasma insulin was transiently increased by CP at 1 h post exercise. In conclusion, post-exercise CP supplementation increases MPS post exercise relative to PLA and possibly WP, which may have been mediated by greater activation of the mTOR signaling pathway. PMID:28296942
Li, H.; Roux, S. J.
A casein kinase II (CK II)-like protein kinase was identified and partially isolated from a purified envelope-matrix fraction of pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei. When [gamma-32P]ATP was directly added to the envelope-matrix preparation, the three most heavily labeled protein bands had molecular masses near 71, 48, and 46 kDa. Protein kinases were removed from the preparation by sequential extraction with Triton X-100, EGTA, 0.3 M NaCl, and a pH 10.5 buffer, but an active kinase still remained bound to the remaining lamina-matrix fraction after these treatments. This kinase had properties resembling CK II kinases previously characterized from animal and plant sources: it preferred casein as an artificial substrate, could use GTP as efficiently as ATP as the phosphoryl donor, was stimulated by spermine, was calcium independent, and had a catalytic subunit of 36 kDa. Some animal and plant CK II kinases have regulatory subunits near 29 kDa, and a lamina-matrix-bound protein of this molecular mass was recognized on immunoblot by anti-Drosophila CK II polyclonal antibodies. Also found associated with the envelope-matrix fraction of pea nuclei were p34cdc2-like and Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases, but their properties could not account for the protein kinase activity bound to the lamina. The 71-kDa substrate of the CK II-like kinase was lamin A-like, both in its molecular mass and in its cross-reactivity with anti-intermediate filament antibodies. Lamin phosphorylation is considered a crucial early step in the entry of cells into mitosis, so lamina-bound CK II kinases may be important control points for cellular proliferation.
Tabatabaee Amid, Bahareh; Mirhosseini, Hamed
The present work was conducted to investigate the effect of purification and conjugation processes on functional properties of durian seed gum (DSG) used for stabilization of water in oil in water (W/O/W) emulsion. Whey protein isolate (WPI) was conjugated to durian seed gum through the covalent linkage. In order to prepare WPI-DSG conjugate, covalent linkage of whey protein isolate to durian seed gum was obtained by Maillard reaction induced by heating at 60 °C and 80% (±1%) relative humidity. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to test the formation of the covalent linkage between whey protein isolate and durian seed gum after conjugation process. In this study, W/O/W stabilized by WPI-conjugated DSG A showed the highest interface activity and lowest creaming layer among all prepared emulsions. This indicated that the partial conjugation of WPI to DSG significantly improved its functional characteristics in W/O/W emulsion. The addition of WPI-conjugated DSG to W/O/W emulsion increased the viscosity more than non-conjugated durian seed gum (or control). This might be due to possible increment of the molecular weight after linking the protein fraction to the structure of durian seed gum through the conjugation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Quan, Wei; Zhang, Chong; Zheng, Meixia; Lu, Zhaoxin; Lu, Fengxia
The effects of small laccase (SLAC) from Streptomyces coelicolor on the properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) films were studied. WPI was catalyze by SLAC without phenolic acid assistance. Particle size distribution results showed that some complexes with higher relative molecular weight formed in WPI samples treated with SLAC. The content of α-helixes decreased while those of β-sheets and random coils increased following SLAC treatment according to circular dichroism results. Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis suggested that some conformational changes occurred in WPI following SLAC treatment. Analysis of WPI films prepared by casting after SLAC treatment indicated that their film properties were all improved, including mechanical properties, solubility, water vapor, oxygen and carbon dioxide barrier properties, film color, light transmission, transparency and thermal properties. Compared with that of the control film, some obvious differences in the morphology of the WPI films were observed following SLAC treatment. This report demonstrates that laccase can directly catalyze protein cross-linking, which may be useful to improve the performance of protein films. In this study, SLAC was applied to WPI edible film during the film-making process. The results showed that SLAC can catalyze WPI cross-linking without phenolic acid assistance, and WPI film properties were improved after SLAC treatment. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
Macdermid, Paul W; Stannard, Stephen R
This study compared a training diet recommended for endurance athletes (H-CHO) with an isoenergetic high protein (whey supplemented), moderate carbohydrate (H-Pro) diet on endurance cycling performance. Over two separate 7-d periods subjects (n = 7) ingested either H-CHO (7.9 +/- 1.9 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) carbohydrate; 1.2 +/- 0.3 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) fat; 1.3 +/- 0.4 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) protein) or H-Pro (4.9 +/- 1.8 g x kg(-1) x d(-1); 1.3 +/- 0.3 g x kg(-1) x d(-1); 3.3 +/- 0.4 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)) diet in a randomized, balanced order. On day 8 subjects cycled (self-paced) for a body weight dependent (60 kJ/bm) amount of work. No differences occurred between energy intake (P = 0.422) or fat intake (P = 0.390) during the two dietary conditions. Performance was significantly (P = 0.010) impaired following H-Pro (153 +/- 36) compared with H-CHO (127 +/- 34 min). No differences between treatments were observed for physiological measures taken during the performance trials. These results indicate an ergolytic effect of a 7-d high protein diet on self-paced endurance cycling performance.
Bonuccelli, Gloria; Castello-Cros, Remedios; Capozza, Franco; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Lin, Zhao; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Xuanmao, Jiao; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Howell, Anthony; Lisanti, Michael P.; Sotgia, Federica
Here, we identified the milk protein α-casein as a novel suppressor of tumor growth and metastasis. Briefly, Met-1 mammary tumor cells expressing α-casein showed a ~5-fold reduction in tumor growth and a near 10-fold decrease in experimental metastasis. To identify the molecular mechanism(s), we performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Interestingly, our results show that α-casein upregulates gene transcripts associated with interferon/STAT1 signaling and downregulates genes associated with “stemness.” These findings were validated by immunoblot and FACS analysis, which showed the upregulation and hyperactivation of STAT1 and a decrease in the number of CD44(+) “cancer stem cells.” These gene signatures were also able to predict clinical outcome in human breast cancer patients. Thus, we conclude that a lactation-based therapeutic strategy using recombinant α-casein would provide a more natural and non-toxic approach to the development of novel anticancer therapies. PMID:23047602
Kumar, S; Clarke, A R; Hooper, M L; Horne, D S; Law, A J; Leaver, J; Springbett, A; Stevenson, E; Simons, J P
beta-Casein is a major protein component of milk and, in conjunction with the other caseins, it is assembled into micelles. The casein micelles determine many of the physical characteristics of milk, which are important for stability during storage and for milk-processing properties. There is evidence that suggests that beta-casein may also possess other, nonnutritional functions. To address the function of beta-casein, the mouse beta-casein gene was disrupted by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. Homozygous beta-casein mutant mice are viable and fertile; females can lactate and successfully rear young. beta-Casein was expressed at a reduced level in heterozygotes and was completely absent from the milk of homozygous mutant mice. Despite the deficiency of beta-casein, casein micelles were assembled in heterozygous and homozygous mutants, albeit with reduced diameters. The absence of beta-casein expression was reflected in a reduced total protein concentration in milk, although this was partially compensated for by an increased concentration of other proteins. The growth of pups feeding on the milk of homozygous mutants was reduced relative to those feeding on the milk of wild-type mice. Various genetic manipulations of caseins have been proposed for the qualitative improvement of cow's milk composition. The results presented here demonstrate that beta-casein has no essential function and that the casein micelle is remarkably tolerant of changes in composition. Images PMID:8016126
Markus, C Rob; Olivier, Berend; de Haan, Edward H F
Cognitive performance often declines under chronic stress exposure. The negative effect of chronic stress on performance may be mediated by reduced brain serotonin function. The uptake of the serotonin precursor tryptophan into the brain depends on nutrients that influence the availability of tryptophan by changing the ratio of plasma tryptophan to the sum of the other large neutral amino acids (Trp-LNAA ratio). In addition, a diet-induced increase in tryptophan may increase brain serotonergic activity levels and improve cognitive performance, particularly in high stress-vulnerable subjects. We tested whether alpha-lactalbumin, a whey protein with a high tryptophan content, would increase the plasma Trp-LNAA ratio and improve cognitive performance in high stress- vulnerable subjects. Twenty-three high stress-vulnerable subjects and 29 low stress-vulnerable subjects participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. All subjects conducted a memory-scanning task after the intake of a diet enriched with either alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-lactalbumin diet) or sodium caseinate (control diet). Blood samples were taken to measure the effect of dietary manipulation on the plasma Trp-LNAA ratio. A significantly greater increase in the plasma Trp-LNAA ratio after consumption of the alpha-lactalbumin diet than after the control diet (P = 0.0001) was observed; memory scanning improved significantly only in the high stress-vulnerable subjects (P = 0.019). Because an increase in the plasma Trp-LNAA ratio is considered to be an indirect indication of increased brain serotonin function, the results suggest that dietary protein rich in alpha-lactalbumin improves cognitive performance in stress-vulnerable subjects via increased brain tryptophan and serotonin activities.
Zhao, Jing-Lu; Zhao, Yu-Yun; Zhu, Wei-Jie
The interaction between obesity and chronic inflammation has been studied. Diet-induced obesity or chronic inflammation could reduce the testicular functions of males. However, the mechanism underlying the reproductive effects of fattening foods in males with or without chronic inflammation still needs further discussion. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of high-fat, high-protein diet on testicular steroidogenesis and sperm parameters in adult mice under physiological and chronic inflammatory conditions. Because casein can trigger a non-infectious systemic inflammatory response, we used casein injection to induce chronic inflammation in male adult Kunming mice. Twenty-four mice were randomly and equally divided into four groups: (i) normal diet+saline (Control); (ii) normal diet+casein (ND+CS); (iii) high-fat, high-protein diet+saline (HFPD+SI); (iv) high-fat, high-protein diet+casein (HFPD+CS). After 8weeks, there was a significant increase in body weight for groups HFPD+SI and HFPD+CS and a decrease in group ND+CS compared with the control. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and lipid profiles were increased markedly in groups ND+CS, HFPD+SI and HFPD+CS compared with the control. A remarkable reduction of serum adiponectin level occurred in group HFPD+CS compared with group ND+CS. Sperm parameters (sperm count, viability and abnormality) were also adversely affected in groups ND+CS and HFPD+SI. Groups ND+CS and HFPD+SI showed severe pathological changes in testicular tissues. Semiquantitative RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical staining also showed significant reductions in both testicular mRNA and protein levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) and cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1) in groups HFPD+SI and HFPD+CS compared with the control, whereas testicular mRNA and protein levels of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in groups HFPD+SI and HFPD+CS significantly increased. The m
Nagy, Krisztina; Váró, György; Szalontai, Balázs
In our previous paper (Nagy et al. in J Biol Chem 285:38811-38817, 2010) by using a multilayered model system, we showed that, from α-casein, aggregates (similar to natural casein micelles) can be built up step by step if Ca-phosphate nanocluster incorporation is ensured between the protein adsorption steps. It remained, however, an open question whether the growth of the aggregates can be terminated, similarly to in nature with casein micelles. Here, we show that, in the presence of Ca-phosphate nanoclusters, upon adsorbing onto earlier α-casein surfaces, the secondary structure of α-casein remains practically unaffected, but κ-casein exhibits considerable changes in its secondary structure as manifested by a shift toward having more β-structures. In the absence of Ca-phosphate, only κ-casein can still adsorb onto the underlying casein surface; this κ-casein also expresses considerable shift toward β-structures. In addition, this κ-casein cover terminates casein aggregation; no further adsorption of either α- or κ-casein can be achieved. These results, while obtained on a model system, may show that the Ca-insensitive κ-casein can, indeed, be the outer layer of the casein micelles, not only because of its "hairy" extrusion into the water phase, but because of its "softer" secondary structure, which can "occlude" the interacting motifs serving casein aggregation. We think that the revealed nature of the molecular interactions, and the growth mechanism found here, might be useful to understand the aggregation process of casein micelles also in vivo.
Knipping, Karen; van Esch, Betty C A M; van Ieperen-van Dijk, Adrie G; van Hoffen, Els; van Baalen, Ton; Knippels, Léon M J; van der Heide, Sicco; Dubois, Anthony E J; Garssen, Johan; Knol, Edward F
Cow's milk (CM) hydrolysates are frequently used as milk substitutes for children with CM allergy. In hydrolysates, allergenic epitopes within CM proteins are diminished by enzymatic treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the allergenic and immunogenic properties of whey proteins during hydrolysis. During hydrolysis, samples were obtained at 0, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 min. Degradation was checked by HPLC and SDS-PAGE. Allergenic potential was analyzed by IgE crosslinking capacity of human Fcε receptor type 1-transduced rat basophilic leukemia cells sensitized with serum of CM-allergic patients. Whey-sensitized C3H/HeOuJ mice were ear challenged intracutaneously with the hydrolysates. Immunogenicity was tested using whey-specific human T-cell clones and T-cell lines at the level of proliferation and release of IL-4, IL-10, IL-13 and IFN-γ. After 15 min of hydrolysis, the majority of the proteins were degraded. Hydrolysis for 15 min resulted in 92% inhibition of mast cell degranulation and in 82% reduction of ear swelling in the mouse model. In contrast, T-cell-stimulatory capacity was less affected by hydrolysis: reduction of human T-cell proliferation was only 9%. This was further reduced to 57 and 74% after 30 and 45 min of hydrolysis, respectively. Cytokine production followed the pattern of T-cell proliferation. Via differential analysis of allergenic versus immunogenic properties of the time kinetics of hydrolysis of whey proteins, we have demonstrated specific hydrolysis conditions with reduced IgE-crosslinking responses but retained T-cell activating properties. This approach might be useful in better defining CM hydrolysates. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
McIntyre, Irene; O'Sullivan, Michael; O'Riordan, Dolores
Calcium and protein solubilisation during small-scale manufacture of semi-solid casein-based food matrices was investigated and found to be very different in the presence or absence of calcium chelating salts. Calcium concentrations in the dispersed phase increased and calcium-ion activity (A Ca ++ ) decreased during manufacture of the matrices containing calcium chelating salts; with ∼23% of total calcium solubilised by the end of manufacture. In the absence of calcium chelating salts, these concentrations were significantly lower at equivalent processing times and remained unchanged as did A Ca ++ , throughout manufacture. The protein content of the dispersed phase was low (≤3% of total protein), but was significantly higher for matrices containing calcium chelating salts. This study elucidates the critical role of calcium chelating salts in modulating casein hydration and dispersion and gives an indication of the levels of soluble calcium and protein required to allow matrix formation during manufacture of casein-based food structures e.g. processed and analogue cheese. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Yong-Hui; Yuan, Yang; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Wang, Jin-Mei; Guo, Jian; Lin, Yuan
The aims of this work were to construct corn protein hydrolysate (CPH)-based curcumin nanoparticles (Cur NPs) and to compare the colloidal stability, bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of the Cur NPs stabilized CPH and sodium caseinate (NaCas) respectively. The results indicated that Cur solubility could be considerably improved after the Cur NPs fabrication. The spectroscopy results demonstrated that the solubilization of Cur should be attributed to its complexation with CPH or NaCas. The Cur NPs exhibited good colloidal stability after 1 week's storage but showed smaller (40 nm) size in CPH than in NaCas (100 nm). After lyophilization, the Cur NPs powders showed good rehydration properties and chemical stability, and compared with NaCas, the size of Cur NPs stabilized by CPH was still smaller. Additionally, the Cur NPs exhibited higher chemical stability against the temperature compared with free Cur, and the CPH could protect Cur from degradation more efficiently. Comparing with NaCas, the Cur NPs stabilized by CPH exhibited better bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity. This study demonstrated that CPH may be better than NaCas in Cur NPs fabrication and it opens up the possibility of using hydrophobic protein hydrolysate to construct the NPs delivery system.
Wright, Christian S; Craddock, Amy; Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M; Lim, Eunjung; Conley, Travis B; Janle, Elsa M; Campbell, Wayne W
Research suggests that subclinical hypothyroidism (SHT) influences insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Reductions in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations are associated with exercise training (ExTr), which improves insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake. A secondary analysis of previously published data was conducted to examine the relationship between SHT, TSH and glucose homeostatic control at baseline and to assess the impact of ExTr on thyroid status and how SHT affects changes in insulin sensitivity after ExTr. Data were obtained from a 36-week ExTr and whey protein supplementation intervention trial. Subjects (n = 304, 48 ± 7 years, females = 186) were randomized to a specific whey protein group (0, 20, 40, or 60 g per day) and all subjects participated in a resistance (2 d/wk) and aerobic (1 d/wk) training program. Testing was conducted at baseline and post-intervention. At baseline, 36% (n = 110) and 12% (n = 35) of subjects were classified with SHT based on the TSH ≥ 3 µIU/L or TSH ≥ 4.5 µIU/L cut-offs, respectively. No association was found between baseline TSH and baseline measures of glucose homeostatic control. Whey protein supplementation did not influence intervention outcomes. Post-intervention (n = 164), no change was observed in TSH. SHT did not affect changes in insulin sensitivity following ExTr. These results support that the health benefits of ExTr for the management of insulin resistance (IR) are not blunted by SHT.
Zhang, Wei; Chen, Jiwang; Chen, Yue; Xia, Wenshui; Xiong, Youling L; Wang, Hongxun
Chitosan/whey protein isolate film incorporated with sodium laurate-modified TiO2 nanoparticles was developed. The nanocomposite film was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, and investigated in physicochemical properties as color, tensile strength, elongation at break, water vapor permeability and water adsorption isotherm. Our results showed that the nanoparticles improved the compatibility of whey protein isolate and chitosan. Addition of nanoparticles increased the whiteness of chitosan/whey protein isolate film, but decreased its transparency. Compared with binary film, the tensile strength and elongation at break of nanocomposite film were increased by 11.51% and 12.01%, respectively, and water vapor permeability was decreased by 7.60%. The equilibrium moisture of nanocomposite film was lower than binary film, and its water sorption isotherm of the nanocomposite film fitted well to Guggenheim-Anderson-deBoer model. The findings contributed to the development of novel food packaging materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
de Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo; Caporossi, Cervantes; Metelo, José Sebastião; Tanajura, Guilherme Henrique; Canevari-de-Oliveira, Mariana; da Cunha Costa, Rodrigo
To investigate the gastric emptying of an oral supplement containing carbohydrate plus whey protein drunk before sedation for gastroscopy. This is a randomized double-blind trial including adult patients (ages 18-65) with a chief complaint of epigastric burning and who were candidates to elective gastroscopy. After overnight fast subjects were randomized to drink 200 mL of an oral nutritional supplement containing maltodextrine in addition to whey protein 150 to 210 min before the gastroscopy (intervention group, n = 12) or to undergo the endoscopic procedure with no supplement (control group, n = 12). The residual gastric volume (RGV) suctioned and measured during the exam was the main endpoint of the study. There were no complications during all exams. The median (range) fasting time was greater (P < 0.001) in control group (770 min, ranging from 660-917 min) than in the study group (175 min ranging from 150 to 210 min). The median (range) RGV was similar in between the two groups (control group: 25 (10-70) mL versus intervention group: 10 (0-100) mL; p = 0.32). Gastric emptying 150-210 min after the ingestion of an oral supplement containing carbohydrate plus whey protein is similar to an overnight fasting condition. Although limited by the number of cases, the sedation for endoscopic procedures is safe with this fasting protocol. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Kramer, Irene Fleur; Verdijk, Lex B; Hamer, Henrike M; Verlaan, Sjors; Luiking, Yvette C; Kouw, Imre W K; Senden, Joan M; van Kranenburg, Janneau; Gijsen, Annemarie P; Bierau, Jörgen; Poeze, Martijn; van Loon, Luc J C
Studying the muscle protein synthetic response to food intake in elderly is important, as it aids the development of interventions to combat sarcopenia. Although sarcopenic elderly are the target group for many of these nutritional interventions, no studies have assessed basal or post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates in this population. To assess the basal and post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates between healthy and sarcopenic older men. A total of 15 healthy (69 ± 1 y) and 15 sarcopenic (81 ± 1 y) older men ingested a leucine-enriched whey protein nutritional supplement containing 21 g of protein, 9 g of carbohydrate, and 3 g of fat. Stable isotope methodology combined with frequent collection of blood and muscle samples was applied to assess basal and post-prandial muscle protein fractional synthetic rates. Handgrip strength, muscle mass, and gait speed were assessed to identify sarcopenia, according to international criteria. Basal mixed muscle protein fractional synthetic rates (FSR) averaged 0.040 ± 0.005 and 0.032 ± 0.003%/h (mean ± SEM) in the sarcopenic and healthy group, respectively (P = 0.14). Following protein ingestion, FSR increased significantly to 0.055 ± 0.004 and 0.053 ± 0.004%/h in the post-prandial period in the sarcopenic (P = 0.003) and healthy groups (P < 0.001), respectively, with no differences between groups (P = 0.45). Furthermore, no differences were observed between groups in muscle protein synthesis rates during the early (0.058 ± 0.007 vs 0.060 ± 0.008%/h, sarcopenic vs healthy, respectively) and late (0.052 ± 0.004 vs 0.048 ± 0.003%/h) stages of the post-prandial period (P = 0.93 and P = 0.34, respectively). Basal muscle protein synthesis rates are not lower in sarcopenic older men compared to healthy older men. The ingestion of 21 g of a leucine-enriched whey protein effectively increases muscle protein synthesis rates in both sarcopenic and healthy older men. Public
Background Lupin proteins exert hypocholesterolemic effects in man and animals, although the underlying mechanism remains uncertain. Herein we investigated whether lupin proteins compared to casein modulate sterol excretion and mRNA expression of intestinal sterol transporters by use of pigs as an animal model with similar lipid metabolism as humans, and cellular cholesterol-uptake by Caco-2 cells. Methods Two groups of pigs were fed cholesterol-containing diets with either 230 g/kg of lupin protein isolate from L. angustifolius or 230 g/kg casein, for 4 weeks. Faeces were collected quantitatively over a 5 d period for analysis of neutral sterols and bile acids by gas chromatographically methods. The mRNA abundances of intestinal lipid transporters were analysed by real-time RT-PCR. Cholesterol-uptake studies were performed with Caco-2 cells that were incubated with lupin conglutin γ, phytate, ezetimibe or albumin in the presence of labelled [4-14C]-cholesterol. Results Pigs fed the lupin protein isolate revealed lower cholesterol concentrations in total plasma, LDL and HDL than pigs fed casein (P < 0.05). Analysis of faeces revealed a higher output of cholesterol in pigs that were fed lupin protein isolate compared to pigs that received casein (+57.1%; P < 0.05). Relative mRNA concentrations of intestinal sterol transporters involved in cholesterol absorption (Niemann-Pick C1-like 1, scavenger receptor class B, type 1) were lower in pigs fed lupin protein isolate than in those who received casein (P < 0.05). In vitro data showed that phytate was capable of reducing the uptake of labelled [4-14C]-cholesterol into the Caco-2 cells to the same extend as ezetimibe when compared to control (−20.5% vs. −21.1%; P < 0.05). Conclusions Data reveal that the cholesterol-lowering effect of lupin protein isolate is attributable to an increased faecal output of cholesterol and a reduced intestinal uptake of cholesterol. The findings indicate phytate as a
Teba, Carla da Silva; Silva, Erika Madeira Moreira da; Chávez, Davy William Hidalgo; Carvalho, Carlos Wanderlei Piler de; Ascheri, José Luis Ramírez
The influence of whey protein concentrate (WPC), feed moisture and temperature on the physicochemical properties of rice-based extrudates has been investigated. WPC (0.64-7.36g/100g rice) was extruded under 5 moisture (16.64-23.36g/100g) and 5 temperature (106.36-173.64°C) established by a 3 2 central composite rotational design. Physicochemical properties [color, porosimetry, crystallinity, water solubility and absorption, pasting properties, reconstitution test, proximate composition, amino acids, minerals and electrophoresis] were determined. WPC and feed moisture increased redness, yellowness and decreased luminosity. Feed moisture and temperature increased density and total volume pore. WPC and moisture increased crystallinity, but only WPC increased solubility and decrease the retrogradation tendency. Increasing temperature increased the viscosity of the extrudates. The addition of WPC improved the nutritional composition of the extrudates, especially proteins. It is suggested that the extrusion process positively affected the retention of most of the polypeptides chains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, Fei; Jiang, Yanfeng; Du, Bingjian; Chai, Zhi; Jiao, Tong; Zhang, Chunyue; Ren, Fazheng; Leng, Xiaojing
This paper describes an investigation into the properties of a doubly emulsified film incorporated with protein-polysaccharide microcapsules, which serves as a multifunctional food packaging film prepared using common edible materials in place of petroleum--based plastics. The relationships between the microstructural properties and controlled release features of a series of water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) microcapsulated edible films prepared in thermodynamically incompatible conditions were analyzed. The hydrophilic riboflavin (V(B2)) nano-droplets (13-50 nm) dispersed in α-tocopherol (V(E)) oil phase were embedded in whey protein-polysaccharide (WPs) microcapsules with a shell thickness of 20-56 nm. These microcapsules were then integrated in 103 μm thick WPs films. Different polysaccharides, including gum arabic (GA), low-methoxyl pectin (LMP), and κ-carrageenan (KCG), exhibited different in vitro synergistic effects on the ability of both films to effect enteric controlled release of both vitamins. GA, which showed a strong emulsifying ability, also showed better control of V(E) than other polysaccharides, and the highly charged KCG showed better control of V(B2) than GA did.
Ozturk, Bengu; Argin, Sanem; Ozilgen, Mustafa; McClements, David Julian
Natural biopolymers, whey protein isolate (WPI) and gum arabic (GA), were used to fabricate emulsion-based delivery systems for vitamin E-acetate. Stable delivery systems could be formed when vitamin E-acetate was mixed with sufficient orange oil prior to high pressure homogenization. WPI (d32=0.11 μm, 1% emulsifier) was better than GA (d32=0.38 μm, 10% emulsifier) at producing small droplets at low emulsifier concentrations. However, WPI-stabilized nanoemulsions were unstable to flocculation near the protein isoelectric point (pH 5.0), at high ionic strength (>100mM), and at elevated temperatures (>60 °C), whereas GA-stabilized emulsions were stable. This difference was attributed to differences in emulsifier stabilization mechanisms: WPI by electrostatic repulsion; GA by steric repulsion. These results provide useful information about the emulsifying and stabilizing capacities of natural biopolymers for forming food-grade vitamin-enriched delivery systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cecchini, Juan Pablo; Spotti, María J; Piagentini, Andrea M; Milt, Viviana G; Carrara, Carlos R
Edible films with whey protein concentrate (WPC) with a lipid component, sunflower oil (O) or beeswax (W), to enhance barrier to water vapor were obtained. Brea gum was used as emulsifier and also as matrix component. In order to achieve emulsion with small and homogeneous droplet size, an ultrasonicator equipment was used after obtaining a pre-emulsion using a blender. The films were made by casting. Effects of lipid fraction on droplet size, zeta potential, mechanical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP), solubility, and optical properties were determined. T