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Sample records for wild relative teosinte

  1. Responses of parasitoids to volatiles induced by Chilo partellus oviposition on teosinte, a wild ancestor of maize.

    PubMed

    Mutyambai, Daniel M; Bruce, Toby J A; Midega, Charles A O; Woodcock, Christine M; Caulfield, John C; Van Den Berg, Johnnie; Pickett, John A; Khan, Zeyaur R

    2015-04-01

    Maize, a genetically diverse crop, is the domesticated descendent of its wild ancestor, teosinte. Recently, we have shown that certain maize landraces possess a valuable indirect defense trait not present in commercial hybrids. Plants of these landraces release herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) that attract both egg [Trichogramma bournieri Pintureau & Babault (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)] and larval [Cotesia sesamiae Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)] parasitoids in response to stemborer egg deposition. In this study, we tested whether this trait also exists in the germplasm of wild Zea species. Headspace samples were collected from plants exposed to egg deposition by Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) moths and unexposed control plants. Four-arm olfactometer bioassays with parasitic wasps, T. bournieri and C. sesamiae, indicated that both egg and larval parasitoids preferred HIPVs from plants with eggs in four of the five teosinte species sampled. Headspace samples from oviposited plants released higher amounts of EAG-active compounds such as (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. In oviposition choice bioassays, plants without eggs were significantly preferred for subsequent oviposition by moths compared to plants with prior oviposition. These results suggest that this induced indirect defence trait is not limited to landraces but occurs in wild Zea species and appears to be an ancestral trait. Hence, these species possess a valuable trait that could be introgressed into domesticated maize lines to provide indirect defense mechanisms against stemborers.

  2. Pollination between maize and teosinte: an important determinant of gene flow in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Baltazar, Baltazar M; de Jesús Sánchez-Gonzalez, José; de la Cruz-Larios, Lino; Schoper, John B

    2005-02-01

    Gene flow between maize [Zea mays (L.)] and its wild relatives does occur, but at very low frequencies. Experiments were undertaken in Tapachula, Nayarit, Mexico to investigate gene flow between a hybrid maize, landraces of maize and teosinte (Z. mays ssp. mexicana, races Chalco and Central Plateau). Hybridization, flowering synchrony, pollen size and longevity, silk elongation rates, silk and trichome lengths and tassel diameter and morphology were measured. Hybrid and open-pollinated maize ears produced a mean of 8 and 11 seeds per ear, respectively, when hand-pollinated with teosinte pollen, which is approximately 1-2% of the ovules normally produced on a hybrid maize ear. Teosinte ears produced a mean of 0.2-0.3 seeds per ear when pollinated with maize pollen, which is more than one-fold fewer seeds than produced on a maize ear pollinated with teosinte pollen. The pollination rate on a per plant basis was similar in the context of a maize plant with 400-500 seeds and a teosinte plant with 30-40 inflorescences and 9-12 fruitcases per inflorescence. A number of other factors also influenced gene-flow direction: (1) between 90% and 95% of the fruitcases produced on teosinte that was fertilized by maize pollen were sterile; (2) teosinte collections were made in an area where incompatibility systems that limit fertilization are present; (3) silk longevity was much shorter for teosinte than for maize (approx. 4 days vs. approx. 11 days); (4) teosinte produced more pollen on a per plant basis than the landraces and commercial hybrid maize; (5) teosinte frequently produced lateral branches with silks close to a terminal tassel producing pollen. Collectively these factors tend to favor crossing in the direction of teosinte to maize. Our results support the hypothesis that gene flow and the subsequent introgression of maize genes into teosinte populations most probably results from crosses where teosinte first pollinates maize. The resultant hybrids then backcross with

  3. Identification of alleles conferring resistance to gray leaf spot in maize derived from its wild progenitor species teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gray Leaf Spot [(GLS), causal agent Cercospora zeae-maydis and Cercospora zeina] is an important maize disease in the United States. Current control methods for GLS include using resistant cultivars, crop rotation, chemical applications, and conventional tillage to reduce inoculum levels. Teosinte ...

  4. Gene Flow Among Different Teosinte Taxa and Into the Domesticated Maize Gene Pool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) was domesticated from one wild species ancestor, the Balsas teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) about 9000 years ago. Higher levels of gene diversity are found in teosinte taxa compared to maize following domestication and selection bottlenecks. Diversity in maize can b...

  5. Unavailability of wild relatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unavailability of crop wild relatives may come in many forms, including limited possibilities of gene flow with related species due to clonality, differing ploidy levels, or other crossing barriers between species. Alternatively, it may simply mean that we lack information about the wild relativ...

  6. Some physical properties of teosinte (Zea mays subsp. parviglumis) pollen.

    PubMed

    Aylor, Donald E; Baltazar, Baltazar M; Schoper, John B

    2005-09-01

    In parts of the world where teosinte and maize are grown in close proximity, there is concern about gene flow between them. Pollen is the primary vehicle for gene flow. Quantifying the biophysical properties of pollen, such as its settling speed and dehydration rate, is important for evaluating outcrossing potential. These properties were measured for teosinte (Zea mays subsp. parviglumis) pollen. Pollen was found to have an average settling speed of 0.165 m s(-1), which agrees well with theoretical values based on the size of the pollen grains. The conductance of the pollen wall for water was derived from the time rate of change of pollen grain size and gave an average conductance of 3.42x10(-4) m s(-1). Water potential, psi, of teosinte pollen was determined at various values of relative water content (dry-weight basis), theta, by using a thermocouple psychrometer and by allowing samples of pollen to come to vapour equilibrium with various saturated salt solutions. Non-linear regression analysis of the data yielded psi (MPa) = -4.13 theta(-1.23) (r2=0.77). Results for conductance and psi were incorporated into a model equation for the rate of water loss from pollen grains, which yielded results that agreed well (r2=0.96) with observations of water loss from pollen grains in air. The data reported here are important building blocks in a model of teosinte pollen movement and should be helpful in establishing the main factors influencing the degree and the direction of pollination between teosinte populations and between maize and teosinte. PMID:16014364

  7. Complex Patterns of Local Adaptation in Teosinte

    PubMed Central

    Pyhäjärvi, Tanja; Hufford, Matthew B.; Mezmouk, Sofiane; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Populations of widely distributed species encounter and must adapt to local environmental conditions. However, comprehensive characterization of the genetic basis of adaptation is demanding, requiring genome-wide genotype data, multiple sampled populations, and an understanding of population structure and potential selection pressures. Here, we used single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and data on numerous environmental variables to describe the genetic basis of local adaptation in 21 populations of teosinte, the wild ancestor of maize. We found complex hierarchical genetic structure created by altitude, dispersal events, and admixture among subspecies, which complicated identification of locally beneficial alleles. Patterns of linkage disequilibrium revealed four large putative inversion polymorphisms showing clinal patterns of frequency. Population differentiation and environmental correlations suggest that both inversions and intergenic polymorphisms are involved in local adaptation. PMID:23902747

  8. Seed dormancy in Mexican teosinte

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dormancy in wild Zea species may affect fitness and relate to ecological adaptation. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the variation in seed germination of the wild species of the genus Zea that currently grow in Mexico, and to relate this variation to their ecological zon...

  9. Maize x Teosinte Hybrid Cobs Do Not Prevent Crop Gene Introgression.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Nancy B; Flores, Jose J; Martin, Joseph; Ellstrand, Norman C; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Heredia, Sylvia; Welles, Shana R

    2012-06-01

    Maize x Teosinte Hybrid Cobs Do Not Prevent Crop Gene Introgression. Whether introgression from crops to wild relatives can occur is an important component of transgene risk assessment. In the case of maize, which co-occurs with its wild relative teosinte in Mexico, the possibility of introgression has been controversial. Maize is cross-compatible with teosinte, and spontaneous hybridization is known to occur. Some scientists have hypothesized that the maize x teosinte cob infructescence will prevent progeny dispersal, thus preventing introgression. Motivated by a prior study where we found maize x teosinte hybrid fruits naturally dispersed under field conditions, we tested whether hybrid cobs hold their fruits as tightly as maize cobs. We found the force required to detach hybrid fruits was substantially and significantly less than that for maize. Consequently, we expect that introgression of transgenes from maize into teosinte in Mexico should occur largely unimpeded by the hybrid cob.La mazorca o elote híbrido de maíz x teocintle no impide la introgresión de genes transgénicos provenientes del cultivo. La introgresión entre el maíz cultivado y el maíz silvestre, o teocintle, es un componente importante en la evaluación ambiental relacionada con los riesgos de la introducción de genes transgénicos. La posibilidad de introgresión entre el maíz domesticado y el teocintle ha sido un tema controversial, en particular en México, donde maíz y teocintle coexisten. El maíz es compatible con el teocintle y la hibridización espontánea ocurre entre ellos. Algunos científicos han planteado como hipótesis que al cruzar el maíz con teocintle, la estructura interna de la infrutescencia que sujeta los frutos conocida como la mazorca de maíz o el elote, impide la dispersión de la progenie evitando que la introgresión ocurra. Los resultados de un estudio previo evidencian la dispersión de los frutos híbridos del maíz x teocintle en condiciones naturales

  10. Maize x Teosinte Hybrid Cobs Do Not Prevent Crop Gene Introgression.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Nancy B; Flores, Jose J; Martin, Joseph; Ellstrand, Norman C; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Heredia, Sylvia; Welles, Shana R

    2012-06-01

    Maize x Teosinte Hybrid Cobs Do Not Prevent Crop Gene Introgression. Whether introgression from crops to wild relatives can occur is an important component of transgene risk assessment. In the case of maize, which co-occurs with its wild relative teosinte in Mexico, the possibility of introgression has been controversial. Maize is cross-compatible with teosinte, and spontaneous hybridization is known to occur. Some scientists have hypothesized that the maize x teosinte cob infructescence will prevent progeny dispersal, thus preventing introgression. Motivated by a prior study where we found maize x teosinte hybrid fruits naturally dispersed under field conditions, we tested whether hybrid cobs hold their fruits as tightly as maize cobs. We found the force required to detach hybrid fruits was substantially and significantly less than that for maize. Consequently, we expect that introgression of transgenes from maize into teosinte in Mexico should occur largely unimpeded by the hybrid cob.La mazorca o elote híbrido de maíz x teocintle no impide la introgresión de genes transgénicos provenientes del cultivo. La introgresión entre el maíz cultivado y el maíz silvestre, o teocintle, es un componente importante en la evaluación ambiental relacionada con los riesgos de la introducción de genes transgénicos. La posibilidad de introgresión entre el maíz domesticado y el teocintle ha sido un tema controversial, en particular en México, donde maíz y teocintle coexisten. El maíz es compatible con el teocintle y la hibridización espontánea ocurre entre ellos. Algunos científicos han planteado como hipótesis que al cruzar el maíz con teocintle, la estructura interna de la infrutescencia que sujeta los frutos conocida como la mazorca de maíz o el elote, impide la dispersión de la progenie evitando que la introgresión ocurra. Los resultados de un estudio previo evidencian la dispersión de los frutos híbridos del maíz x teocintle en condiciones naturales

  11. Presence of Zea luxurians (Durieu and Ascherson) Bird in Southern Brazil: Implications for the Conservation of Wild Relatives of Maize

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Records of the occurrence of wild relatives of maize in South American lowlands are unprecedented, especially in sympatric coexistence with landraces. This fact is relevant, because regions of occurrence of wild relatives of cultivated plants should be a priority for conservation, even if they do not correspond to the center of origin of the species. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the wild relatives of maize in the Far West of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Therefore, phenotypic characterization was performed for five populations, based on 22 morphological traits deemed as fundamental for classifying the species of the genus Zea, and validated through the characterization of chromosomal knobs of two populations. The occurrence and distribution of teosinte populations were described through semi-structured interviews applied to a sample of 305 farmers. A total of 136 teosinte populations were identified; 75% of them occur spontaneously, 17% are cultivated populations, and 8% occur both ways, for the same farm. Populations that were characterized morphologically had trapezoidal fruits mostly, upright tassel branch (4–18), non-prominent main branch and glabrous glumes, with two protruding outer ribs and 8 inner ribs, on average. Cytogenetic analysis identified 10 pairs of homologous chromosomes (2n = 20) with 26 knobs, located in the terminal region of all chromosomes. The similarity of these results with the information reported in the literature indicates that the five populations of wild relatives of maize in this region of Santa Catarina belong to the botanical species Zea luxurians. PMID:26488577

  12. Genetic Analysis of Kernel Traits in Maize-Teosinte Introgression Populations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhengbin; Garcia, Arturo; McMullen, Michael D; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A

    2016-01-01

    Seed traits have been targeted by human selection during the domestication of crop species as a way to increase the caloric and nutritional content of food during the transition from hunter-gather to early farming societies. The primary seed trait under selection was likely seed size/weight as it is most directly related to overall grain yield. Additional seed traits involved in seed shape may have also contributed to larger grain. Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) kernel weight has increased more than 10-fold in the 9000 years since domestication from its wild ancestor, teosinte (Z. mays ssp. parviglumis). In order to study how size and shape affect kernel weight, we analyzed kernel morphometric traits in a set of 10 maize-teosinte introgression populations using digital imaging software. We identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for kernel area and length with moderate allelic effects that colocalize with kernel weight QTL. Several genomic regions with strong effects during maize domestication were detected, and a genetic framework for kernel traits was characterized by complex pleiotropic interactions. Our results both confirm prior reports of kernel domestication loci and identify previously uncharacterized QTL with a range of allelic effects, enabling future research into the genetic basis of these traits. PMID:27317774

  13. Genetic Analysis of Kernel Traits in Maize-Teosinte Introgression Populations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhengbin; Garcia, Arturo; McMullen, Michael D.; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A.

    2016-01-01

    Seed traits have been targeted by human selection during the domestication of crop species as a way to increase the caloric and nutritional content of food during the transition from hunter-gather to early farming societies. The primary seed trait under selection was likely seed size/weight as it is most directly related to overall grain yield. Additional seed traits involved in seed shape may have also contributed to larger grain. Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) kernel weight has increased more than 10-fold in the 9000 years since domestication from its wild ancestor, teosinte (Z. mays ssp. parviglumis). In order to study how size and shape affect kernel weight, we analyzed kernel morphometric traits in a set of 10 maize-teosinte introgression populations using digital imaging software. We identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for kernel area and length with moderate allelic effects that colocalize with kernel weight QTL. Several genomic regions with strong effects during maize domestication were detected, and a genetic framework for kernel traits was characterized by complex pleiotropic interactions. Our results both confirm prior reports of kernel domestication loci and identify previously uncharacterized QTL with a range of allelic effects, enabling future research into the genetic basis of these traits. PMID:27317774

  14. Archaeological evidence of teosinte domestication from Guilá Naquitz, Oaxaca

    PubMed Central

    Benz, Bruce F.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of the three most ancient Zea mays inflorescence fragments from Guilá Naquitz, Oaxaca, Mexico shows they did not disarticulate naturally, indicating that agricultural selection of domesticated teosinte was underway by 5,400 14C years before the present (about 4,200 dendrocalibrated years B.C.). The cooccurrence of two-ranked specimens with two rows and four rows of grain and numerous additional morphological characteristics of these specimens support hypotheses based on molecular and quantitative genetic analyses that maize evolved from teosinte. Domestication of the wild ancestor of maize occurred before the end of the 5th millennium B.C. PMID:11172083

  15. Inferences from the Historical Distribution of Wild and Domesticated Maize Provide Ecological and Evolutionary Insight

    PubMed Central

    Hufford, Matthew B.; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Gaut, Brandon S.; Eguiarte, Luis E.; Tenaillon, Maud I.

    2012-01-01

    Background The species Zea mays includes both domesticated maize (ssp. mays) and its closest wild relatives known as the teosintes. While genetic and archaeological studies have provided a well-established history of Z. mays evolution, there is currently minimal description of its current and past distribution. Here, we implemented species distribution modeling using paleoclimatic models of the last interglacial (LI; ∼135,000 BP) and the last glacial maximum (LGM; ∼21,000 BP) to hindcast the distribution of Zea mays subspecies over time and to revisit current knowledge of its phylogeography and evolutionary history. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a large occurrence data set and the distribution modeling MaxEnt algorithm, we obtained robust present and past species distributions of the two widely distributed teosinte subspecies (ssps. parviglumis and mexicana) revealing almost perfect complementarity, stable through time, of their occupied distributions. We also investigated the present distributions of primitive maize landraces, which overlapped but were broader than those of the teosintes. Our data reinforced the idea that little historical gene flow has occurred between teosinte subspecies, but maize has served as a genetic bridge between them. We observed an expansion of teosinte habitat from the LI, consistent with population genetic data. Finally, we identified locations potentially serving as refugia for the teosintes throughout epochs of climate change and sites that should be targeted in future collections. Conclusion/Significance The restricted and highly contrasting ecological niches of the wild teosintes differ substantially from domesticated maize. Variables determining the distributions of these taxa can inform future considerations of local adaptation and the impacts of climate change. Our assessment of the changing distributions of Zea mays taxa over time offers a unique glimpse into the history of maize, highlighting a strategy for the

  16. A cellular study of teosinte Zea mays ssp. parviglumis (Poaceae) caryopsis development showing several processes conserved in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although recent molecular studies elucidate the genetic background leading to changed morphology of maize female inflorescence and the structure of the caryopsis during the domestication of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) from its wild progenitor teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis), the mechanisms under...

  17. Bacterial endophytes from wild maize suppress Fusarium graminearum in modern maize and inhibit mycotoxin accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Walaa K.; Shearer, Charles R.; Limay-Rios, Victor; Zhou, Ting; Raizada, Manish N.

    2015-01-01

    Wild maize (teosinte) has been reported to be less susceptible to pests than their modern maize (corn) relatives. Endophytes, defined as microbes that inhabit plants without causing disease, are known for their ability to antagonize plant pests and pathogens. We hypothesized that the wild relatives of modern maize may host endophytes that combat pathogens. Fusarium graminearum is the fungus that causes Gibberella Ear Rot (GER) in modern maize and produces the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON). In this study, 215 bacterial endophytes, previously isolated from diverse maize genotypes including wild teosintes, traditional landraces and modern varieties, were tested for their ability to antagonize F. graminearum in vitro. Candidate endophytes were then tested for their ability to suppress GER in modern maize in independent greenhouse trials. The results revealed that three candidate endophytes derived from wild teosintes were most potent in suppressing F. graminearum in vitro and GER in a modern maize hybrid. These wild teosinte endophytes could suppress a broad spectrum of fungal pathogens of modern crops in vitro. The teosinte endophytes also suppressed DON mycotoxin during storage to below acceptable safety threshold levels. A fourth, less robust anti-fungal strain was isolated from a modern maize hybrid. Three of the anti-fungal endophytes were predicted to be Paenibacillus polymyxa, along with one strain of Citrobacter. Microscopy studies suggested a fungicidal mode of action by all four strains. Molecular and biochemical studies showed that the P. polymyxa strains produced the previously characterized anti-Fusarium compound, fusaricidin. Our results suggest that the wild relatives of modern crops may serve as a valuable reservoir for endophytes in the ongoing fight against serious threats to modern agriculture. We discuss the possible impact of crop evolution and domestication on endophytes in the context of plant defense. PMID:26500660

  18. Genome size variation in wild and cultivated maize along altitudinal gradients

    PubMed Central

    Díez, Concepción M.; Gaut, Brandon S.; Meca, Esteban; Scheinvar, Enrique; Montes-Hernandez, Salvador; Eguiarte, Luis E.; Tenaillon, Maud I.

    2014-01-01

    Summary • It is still an open question as to whether genome size (GS) variation is shaped by natural selection. One approach to address this question is a population-level survey that assesses both the variation in GS and the relationship of GS to ecological variants. • We assessed GS in Zea mays, a species that includes the cultivated crop, maize, and its closest wild relatives, the teosintes. We measured GS in five plants of each of 22 maize landraces and 21 teosinte populations from Mexico sampled from parallel altitudinal gradients. • GS was significantly smaller in landraces than in teosintes, but the largest component of GS variation was among landraces and among populations. In maize, GS correlated negatively with altitude; more generally, the best GS predictors were linked to geography. By contrast, GS variation in teosintes was best explained by temperature and precipitation. • Overall, our results further document the size flexibility of the Zea genome, but also point to a drastic shift in patterns of GS variation since domestication. We argue that such patterns may reflect the indirect action of selection on GS, through a multiplicity of phenotypes and life-history traits. PMID:23550586

  19. Collecting crop wild relatives: an emerging priority

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild relatives of crop species (CWR) are an important resource to support the development of crops adapted to climate change. Historically, efforts to conserve agricultural biodiversity have relegated the collection of CWR species to the back burner. As a result, significant collecting gaps remain. ...

  20. Three New Teosintes (Zea spp., Poaceae) From Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The discovery of new species of teosinte from México motivated the comparative study of populations from México, Guatemala and Nicaragua through detailed ecogeographic, morphologic, cytogenetic and molecular characterization. The study involved a comparative analysis of morphological, ecogeographic,...

  1. Global conservation priorities for crop wild relatives.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; Khoury, Colin K; Achicanoy, Harold A; Bernau, Vivian; Dempewolf, Hannes; Eastwood, Ruth J; Guarino, Luigi; Harker, Ruth H; Jarvis, Andy; Maxted, Nigel; Müller, Jonas V; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Sosa, Chrystian C; Struik, Paul C; Vincent, Holly; Toll, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The wild relatives of domesticated crops possess genetic diversity useful for developing more productive, nutritious and resilient crop varieties. However, their conservation status and availability for utilization are a concern, and have not been quantified globally. Here, we model the global distribution of 1,076 taxa related to 81 crops, using occurrence information collected from biodiversity, herbarium and gene bank databases. We compare the potential geographic and ecological diversity encompassed in these distributions with that currently accessible in gene banks, as a means to estimate the comprehensiveness of the conservation of genetic diversity. Our results indicate that the diversity of crop wild relatives is poorly represented in gene banks. For 313 (29.1% of total) taxa associated with 63 crops, no germplasm accessions exist, and a further 257 (23.9%) are represented by fewer than ten accessions. Over 70% of taxa are identified as high priority for further collecting in order to improve their representation in gene banks, and over 95% are insufficiently represented in regard to the full range of geographic and ecological variation in their native distributions. The most critical collecting gaps occur in the Mediterranean and the Near East, western and southern Europe, Southeast and East Asia, and South America. We conclude that a systematic effort is needed to improve the conservation and availability of crop wild relatives for use in plant breeding. PMID:27249561

  2. Global conservation priorities for crop wild relatives.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; Khoury, Colin K; Achicanoy, Harold A; Bernau, Vivian; Dempewolf, Hannes; Eastwood, Ruth J; Guarino, Luigi; Harker, Ruth H; Jarvis, Andy; Maxted, Nigel; Müller, Jonas V; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Sosa, Chrystian C; Struik, Paul C; Vincent, Holly; Toll, Jane

    2016-03-21

    The wild relatives of domesticated crops possess genetic diversity useful for developing more productive, nutritious and resilient crop varieties. However, their conservation status and availability for utilization are a concern, and have not been quantified globally. Here, we model the global distribution of 1,076 taxa related to 81 crops, using occurrence information collected from biodiversity, herbarium and gene bank databases. We compare the potential geographic and ecological diversity encompassed in these distributions with that currently accessible in gene banks, as a means to estimate the comprehensiveness of the conservation of genetic diversity. Our results indicate that the diversity of crop wild relatives is poorly represented in gene banks. For 313 (29.1% of total) taxa associated with 63 crops, no germplasm accessions exist, and a further 257 (23.9%) are represented by fewer than ten accessions. Over 70% of taxa are identified as high priority for further collecting in order to improve their representation in gene banks, and over 95% are insufficiently represented in regard to the full range of geographic and ecological variation in their native distributions. The most critical collecting gaps occur in the Mediterranean and the Near East, western and southern Europe, Southeast and East Asia, and South America. We conclude that a systematic effort is needed to improve the conservation and availability of crop wild relatives for use in plant breeding.

  3. Identifying novel resistance genes in rice wild relatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast and sheath blight are major fungal diseases of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L. ) that limit Arkansas rough rice yields and market potential. Resistance to these diseases has been found in rice wild relatives (Oryza spp.) A collection of these wild relatives originating from outside the U...

  4. The role of teosinte glume architecture (tga1) in coordinated regulation and evolution of grass glumes and inflorescence axes.

    PubMed

    Preston, Jill C; Wang, Huai; Kursel, Lisa; Doebley, John; Kellogg, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    • Hardened floral bracts and modifications to the inflorescence axis of grasses have been hypothesized to protect seeds from predation and/or aid seed dispersal, and have evolved multiple times independently within the family. Previous studies have demonstrated that mutations in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) gene teosinte glume architecture (tga1) underlie a reduction in hardened structures, yielding free fruits that are easy to harvest. It remains unclear whether the causative mutation(s) occurred in the cis-regulatory or protein-coding regions of tga1, and whether similar mutations in TGA1-like genes can explain variation in the dispersal unit in related grasses. • To address these questions TGA1-like genes were cloned and sequenced from a number of grasses and analyzed phylogenetically in relation to morphology; protein expression was investigated by immunolocalization. • TGA1-like proteins were expressed throughout the spikelet in the early development of all grasses, and throughout the flower of the grass relative Joinvillea. Later in development, expression patterns differed between Tripsacum dactyloides, maize and teosinte (Z. mays ssp. parviglumis). • These results suggest an ancestral role for TGA1-like genes in early spikelet development, but do not support the hypothesis that TGA1-like genes have been repeatedly modified to affect glume and inflorescence axis diversification.

  5. A rapid and efficient method for assessing pathogenicity of ustilago maydis on maize and teosinte lines.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Suchitra; Smith, Shavannor M

    2014-01-03

    Maize is a major cereal crop worldwide. However, susceptibility to biotrophic pathogens is the primary constraint to increasing productivity. U. maydis is a biotrophic fungal pathogen and the causal agent of corn smut on maize. This disease is responsible for significant yield losses of approximately $1.0 billion annually in the U.S.(1) Several methods including crop rotation, fungicide application and seed treatments are currently used to control corn smut(2). However, host resistance is the only practical method for managing corn smut. Identification of crop plants including maize, wheat, and rice that are resistant to various biotrophic pathogens has significantly decreased yield losses annually(3-5). Therefore, the use of a pathogen inoculation method that efficiently and reproducibly delivers the pathogen in between the plant leaves, would facilitate the rapid identification of maize lines that are resistant to U. maydis. As, a first step toward indentifying maize lines that are resistant to U. maydis, a needle injection inoculation method and a resistance reaction screening method was utilized to inoculate maize, teosinte, and maize x teosinte introgression lines with a U. maydis strain and to select resistant plants. Maize, teosinte and maize x teosinte introgression lines, consisting of about 700 plants, were planted, inoculated with a strain of U. maydis, and screened for resistance. The inoculation and screening methods successfully identified three teosinte lines resistant to U. maydis. Here a detailed needle injection inoculation and resistance reaction screening protocol for maize, teosinte, and maize x teosinte introgression lines is presented. This study demonstrates that needle injection inoculation is an invaluable tool in agriculture that can efficiently deliver U. maydis in between the plant leaves and has provided plant lines that are resistant to U. maydis that can now be combined and tested in breeding programs for improved disease resistance.

  6. Consequences of recurrent gene flow from crops to wild relatives.

    PubMed

    Haygood, Ralph; Ives, Anthony R; Andow, David A

    2003-09-22

    Concern about gene flow from crops to wild relatives has become widespread with the increasing cultivation of transgenic crops. Possible consequences of such gene flow include genetic assimilation, wherein crop genes replace wild ones, and demographic swamping, wherein hybrids are less fertile than their wild parents, and wild populations shrink. Using mathematical models of a wild population recurrently receiving pollen from a genetically fixed crop, we find that the conditions for genetic assimilation are not stringent, and progress towards replacement can be fast, even for disfavoured crop genes. Demographic swamping and genetic drift relax the conditions for genetic assimilation and speed progress towards replacement. Genetic assimilation can involve thresholds and hysteresis, such that a small increase in immigration can lead to fixation of a disfavoured crop gene that had been maintained at a moderate frequency, even if the increase in immigration is cancelled before the gene fixes. Demographic swamping can give rise to 'migrational meltdown', such that a small increase in immigration can lead to not only fixation of a disfavoured crop gene but also drastic shrinkage of the wild population. These findings suggest that the spread of crop genes in wild populations should be monitored more closely. PMID:14561300

  7. Consequences of recurrent gene flow from crops to wild relatives.

    PubMed Central

    Haygood, Ralph; Ives, Anthony R; Andow, David A

    2003-01-01

    Concern about gene flow from crops to wild relatives has become widespread with the increasing cultivation of transgenic crops. Possible consequences of such gene flow include genetic assimilation, wherein crop genes replace wild ones, and demographic swamping, wherein hybrids are less fertile than their wild parents, and wild populations shrink. Using mathematical models of a wild population recurrently receiving pollen from a genetically fixed crop, we find that the conditions for genetic assimilation are not stringent, and progress towards replacement can be fast, even for disfavoured crop genes. Demographic swamping and genetic drift relax the conditions for genetic assimilation and speed progress towards replacement. Genetic assimilation can involve thresholds and hysteresis, such that a small increase in immigration can lead to fixation of a disfavoured crop gene that had been maintained at a moderate frequency, even if the increase in immigration is cancelled before the gene fixes. Demographic swamping can give rise to 'migrational meltdown', such that a small increase in immigration can lead to not only fixation of a disfavoured crop gene but also drastic shrinkage of the wild population. These findings suggest that the spread of crop genes in wild populations should be monitored more closely. PMID:14561300

  8. Consequences of recurrent gene flow from crops to wild relatives.

    PubMed

    Haygood, Ralph; Ives, Anthony R; Andow, David A

    2003-09-22

    Concern about gene flow from crops to wild relatives has become widespread with the increasing cultivation of transgenic crops. Possible consequences of such gene flow include genetic assimilation, wherein crop genes replace wild ones, and demographic swamping, wherein hybrids are less fertile than their wild parents, and wild populations shrink. Using mathematical models of a wild population recurrently receiving pollen from a genetically fixed crop, we find that the conditions for genetic assimilation are not stringent, and progress towards replacement can be fast, even for disfavoured crop genes. Demographic swamping and genetic drift relax the conditions for genetic assimilation and speed progress towards replacement. Genetic assimilation can involve thresholds and hysteresis, such that a small increase in immigration can lead to fixation of a disfavoured crop gene that had been maintained at a moderate frequency, even if the increase in immigration is cancelled before the gene fixes. Demographic swamping can give rise to 'migrational meltdown', such that a small increase in immigration can lead to not only fixation of a disfavoured crop gene but also drastic shrinkage of the wild population. These findings suggest that the spread of crop genes in wild populations should be monitored more closely.

  9. The Genetic Architecture of Complex Traits in Teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis): New Evidence from Association Mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our previous association analyses showed that variation at major regulatory genes contributes to standing variation for complex traits in Balsas teosinte, the progenitor of maize. This study expands our previous association mapping effort in teosinte by testing 123 markers in 52 candidate genes for ...

  10. Beyond biodiversity: Ecosystem services of crop wild relatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop wild relatives (CWRs) and crop progenitors were among the first natural ecosystem services available to humans in building the foundations of agriculture in an era of remarkable climate change some 10,000 years ago. Ever since, spatial and temporal variation in micro- and macro-environments, an...

  11. An inventory of crop wild relatives of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of crop wild relatives (CWR) in breeding is likely to continue to intensify as utilization techniques improve and crop adaptation to climate change becomes more pressing. Significant gaps remain in the conservation of these genetic resources, constraining availability for research. As a fi...

  12. Genetic Architecture of Domestication-Related Traits in Maize.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shang; Bradbury, Peter J; Casstevens, Terry; Holland, James B

    2016-09-01

    Strong directional selection occurred during the domestication of maize from its wild ancestor teosinte, reducing its genetic diversity, particularly at genes controlling domestication-related traits. Nevertheless, variability for some domestication-related traits is maintained in maize. The genetic basis of this could be sequence variation at the same key genes controlling maize-teosinte differentiation (due to lack of fixation or arising as new mutations after domestication), distinct loci with large effects, or polygenic background variation. Previous studies permit annotation of maize genome regions associated with the major differences between maize and teosinte or that exhibit population genetic signals of selection during either domestication or postdomestication improvement. Genome-wide association studies and genetic variance partitioning analyses were performed in two diverse maize inbred line panels to compare the phenotypic effects and variances of sequence polymorphisms in regions involved in domestication and improvement to the rest of the genome. Additive polygenic models explained most of the genotypic variation for domestication-related traits; no large-effect loci were detected for any trait. Most trait variance was associated with background genomic regions lacking previous evidence for involvement in domestication. Improvement sweep regions were associated with more trait variation than expected based on the proportion of the genome they represent. Selection during domestication eliminated large-effect genetic variants that would revert maize toward a teosinte type. Small-effect polygenic variants (enriched in the improvement sweep regions of the genome) are responsible for most of the standing variation for domestication-related traits in maize.

  13. Expanding maize genetic resources with predomestication alleles: maize-teosinte introgression populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) has greater genetic diversity than maize inbreds and landraces (Z. mays ssp. mays). There are, however, limited genetic resources to efficiently evaluate and tap this diversity. To broaden resources for genetic diversity studies in maize, we developed and evaluat...

  14. Plant fitness assessment for wild relatives of insect resistant crops.

    PubMed

    Letourneau, Deborah K; Hagen, Joy A

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessments of new insect-resistant crops will need to estimate the potential for increased weediness of wild crop relatives as a consequence of gene flow. When field experiments are precluded by containment concerns, simulation experiments can identify hazards or measure expected differences between GMOs and parental plants. To measure plant fitness consequences of wild plant protection from Bt-susceptible herbivores, we used topical sprays of bacterial Bacillus thuringiensis larvacide (Bt) on Brassica rapa. Spontaneous crosses between B. rapa and Bt cole crops cannot be precluded, especially if adoption of Bt varieties leads to high exposure. We compared survivorship and seed output of B. rapa that were either protected from or exposed to Bt-susceptible Lepidoptera in the various conditions where hybrids are likely to occur: cultivated (disked) soil, uncultivated agricultural field margins, and nearby non-crop habitats (meadows and ruderal areas). The relative effect of herbivore protection varied among years, habitats, and populations of seedlings. In 2003-2004, Bt sprays did not result in lower herbivory on B. rapa, and plant fitness was not increased. However, in 2004-2006 B. rapa seedlings protected from Bt-susceptible herbivores lived 25% longer, on average, than those that were exposed to these herbivores. In addition, an average B. rapa seedling sprayed with Bt throughout its lifetime was twice as likely to produce siliques and had 251% of the seed output of a seedling exposed to herbivores. The fitness advantage of Bt-based plant protection was apparent in 2004-2005 in half the plants that experienced higher herbivory, and for 2005-2006, was more pronounced in agricultural habitats than in meadows with established, perennial vegetation and less disturbance. Positive effects of Bt-based plant protection and greater fitness in disturbed habitats suggest that crop-wild gene flow may benefit weed populations, and that field tests with herbivore exclusion

  15. Plant fitness assessment for wild relatives of insect resistant crops.

    PubMed

    Letourneau, Deborah K; Hagen, Joy A

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessments of new insect-resistant crops will need to estimate the potential for increased weediness of wild crop relatives as a consequence of gene flow. When field experiments are precluded by containment concerns, simulation experiments can identify hazards or measure expected differences between GMOs and parental plants. To measure plant fitness consequences of wild plant protection from Bt-susceptible herbivores, we used topical sprays of bacterial Bacillus thuringiensis larvacide (Bt) on Brassica rapa. Spontaneous crosses between B. rapa and Bt cole crops cannot be precluded, especially if adoption of Bt varieties leads to high exposure. We compared survivorship and seed output of B. rapa that were either protected from or exposed to Bt-susceptible Lepidoptera in the various conditions where hybrids are likely to occur: cultivated (disked) soil, uncultivated agricultural field margins, and nearby non-crop habitats (meadows and ruderal areas). The relative effect of herbivore protection varied among years, habitats, and populations of seedlings. In 2003-2004, Bt sprays did not result in lower herbivory on B. rapa, and plant fitness was not increased. However, in 2004-2006 B. rapa seedlings protected from Bt-susceptible herbivores lived 25% longer, on average, than those that were exposed to these herbivores. In addition, an average B. rapa seedling sprayed with Bt throughout its lifetime was twice as likely to produce siliques and had 251% of the seed output of a seedling exposed to herbivores. The fitness advantage of Bt-based plant protection was apparent in 2004-2005 in half the plants that experienced higher herbivory, and for 2005-2006, was more pronounced in agricultural habitats than in meadows with established, perennial vegetation and less disturbance. Positive effects of Bt-based plant protection and greater fitness in disturbed habitats suggest that crop-wild gene flow may benefit weed populations, and that field tests with herbivore exclusion

  16. The effect of altered dosage of a mutant allele of Teosinte branched 1 (tb1-ref) on the root system of modern maize

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There was ancient human selection on the wild progenitor of modern maize, Balsas teosinte, for decreased shoot branching (tillering), in order to allow more nutrients to be diverted to grain. Mechanistically, the decline in shoot tillering has been associated with selection for increased expression of the major domestication gene Teosinte Branched 1 (Tb1) in shoot primordia. Therefore, TB1 has been defined as a repressor of shoot branching. It is known that plants respond to changes in shoot size by compensatory changes in root growth and architecture. However, it has not been reported whether altered TB1 expression affects any plant traits below ground. Previously, changes in dosage of a well-studied mutant allele of Tb1 in modern maize, called tb1-ref, from one to two copies, was shown to increase tillering. As a result, plants with two copies of the tb1-ref allele have a larger shoot biomass than heterozygotes. Here we used aeroponics to phenotype the effects of tb1-ref copy number on maize roots at macro-, meso- and micro scales of development. Results An increase in the tb1-ref copy number from one to two copies resulted in: (1) an increase in crown root number due to the cumulative initiation of crown roots from successive tillers; (2) higher density of first and second order lateral roots; and (3) reduced average lateral root length. The resulting increase in root system biomass in homozygous tb1-ref mutants balanced the increase in shoot biomass caused by enhanced tillering. These changes caused homozygous tb1-ref mutants of modern maize to more closely resemble its ancestor Balsas teosinte below ground. Conclusion We conclude that a decrease in TB1 function in maize results in a larger root system, due to an increase in the number of crown roots and lateral roots. Given that decreased TB1 expression results in a more highly branched and larger shoot, the impact of TB1 below ground may be direct or indirect. We discuss the potential implications

  17. Back to the wilds: tapping evolutionary adaptations for resilient crops through systematic hybridization with crop wild relatives.

    PubMed

    Warschefsky, Emily; Penmetsa, R Varma; Cook, Douglas R; von Wettberg, Eric J B

    2014-10-01

    The genetic diversity of our crop plants has been substantially reduced during the process of domestication and breeding. This reduction in diversity necessarily constrains our ability to expand a crop's range of cultivation into environments that are more extreme than those in which it was domesticated, including into "sustainable" agricultural systems with reduced inputs of pesticides, water, and fertilizers. Conversely, the wild progenitors of crop plants typically possess high levels of genetic diversity, which underlie an expanded (relative to domesticates) range of adaptive traits that may be of agricultural relevance, including resistance to pests and pathogens, tolerance to abiotic extremes, and reduced dependence on inputs. Despite their clear potential for crop improvement, wild relatives have rarely been used systematically for crop improvement, and in no cases, have full sets of wild diversity been introgressed into a crop. Instead, most breeding efforts have focused on specific traits and dealt with wild species in a limited and typically ad hoc manner. Although expedient, this approach misses the opportunity to test a large suite of traits and deploy the full potential of crop wild relatives in breeding for the looming challenges of the 21st century. Here we review examples of hybridization in several species, both intentionally produced and naturally occurring, to illustrate the gains that are possible. We start with naturally occurring hybrids, and then examine a range of examples of hybridization in agricultural settings. PMID:25326621

  18. Enhancing the conservation of crop wild relatives in England.

    PubMed

    Fielder, Hannah; Brotherton, Peter; Hosking, Julian; Hopkins, John J; Ford-Lloyd, Brian; Maxted, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Humans require resilient, rapidly renewable and sustainable supplies of food and many other plant-derived supplies. However, the combined effects of climate change and population growth compromise the provision of these supplies particularly in respect to global food security. Crop wild relatives (CWR) contain higher genetic diversity than crops and harbour traits that can improve crop resilience and yield through plant breeding. However, in common with most countries, CWR are poorly conserved in England. There is currently no provision for long-term CWR conservation in situ, and comprehensive ex situ collection and storage of CWR is also lacking. However, there is a commitment to achieve their conservation in England's Biodiversity Strategy and the UK has international commitments to do so as part of the Global Plant Conservation Strategy. Here, we identify a series of measures that could enhance the conservation of English CWR, thereby supporting the achievement of these national and international objectives. We provide an inventory of 148 priority English CWR, highlight hotspots of CWR diversity in sites including The Lizard Peninsula, the Dorset coast and Cambridgeshire and suggest appropriate sites for the establishment of a complementary network of genetic reserves. We also identify individual in situ and ex situ priorities for each English CWR. Based on these analyses, we make recommendations whose implementation could provide effective, long-term conservation of English CWR whilst facilitating their use in crop improvement.

  19. Enhancing the Conservation of Crop Wild Relatives in England

    PubMed Central

    Fielder, Hannah; Brotherton, Peter; Hosking, Julian; Hopkins, John J.; Ford-Lloyd, Brian; Maxted, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Humans require resilient, rapidly renewable and sustainable supplies of food and many other plant-derived supplies. However, the combined effects of climate change and population growth compromise the provision of these supplies particularly in respect to global food security. Crop wild relatives (CWR) contain higher genetic diversity than crops and harbour traits that can improve crop resilience and yield through plant breeding. However, in common with most countries, CWR are poorly conserved in England. There is currently no provision for long-term CWR conservation in situ, and comprehensive ex situ collection and storage of CWR is also lacking. However, there is a commitment to achieve their conservation in England’s Biodiversity Strategy and the UK has international commitments to do so as part of the Global Plant Conservation Strategy. Here, we identify a series of measures that could enhance the conservation of English CWR, thereby supporting the achievement of these national and international objectives. We provide an inventory of 148 priority English CWR, highlight hotspots of CWR diversity in sites including The Lizard Peninsula, the Dorset coast and Cambridgeshire and suggest appropriate sites for the establishment of a complementary network of genetic reserves. We also identify individual in situ and ex situ priorities for each English CWR. Based on these analyses, we make recommendations whose implementation could provide effective, long-term conservation of English CWR whilst facilitating their use in crop improvement. PMID:26110773

  20. Tillering in the sugary1 sweet corn is maintained by overriding the teosinte branched1 repressive signal

    PubMed Central

    Kebrom, Tesfamichael H; Brutnell, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of apical dominance in maize during domestication from teosinte is associated with higher expression from the teosinte branched1 (tb1) gene that inhibits tiller bud outgrowth. Unlike many standard maize varieties, the sweet corn inbred P39 that carries a mutation in a starch biosynthesis gene sugary1 produces multiple tillers and providing an opportunity to explore the diversification of the tb1 signal in maize. Through gene expression analysis, we show that tiller buds in P39 continue to grow by overriding the high expression level of tb1 that arrests bud outgrowth in maize inbred B73. In addition, we demonstrate that while B73 is largely non-responsive to shade, both P39 and teosinte respond through tb1-independent and tb1-dependent molecular mechanisms, respectively, leading to inhibition of tiller bud outgrowth. PMID:26399727

  1. Tillering in the sugary1 sweet corn is maintained by overriding the teosinte branched1 repressive signal.

    PubMed

    Kebrom, Tesfamichael H; Brutnell, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of apical dominance in maize during domestication from teosinte is associated with higher expression from the teosinte branched1 (tb1) gene that inhibits tiller bud outgrowth. Unlike many standard maize varieties, the sweet corn inbred P39 that carries a mutation in a starch biosynthesis gene sugary1 produces multiple tillers and providing an opportunity to explore the diversification of the tb1 signal in maize. Through gene expression analysis, we show that tiller buds in P39 continue to grow by overriding the high expression level of tb1 that arrests bud outgrowth in maize inbred B73. In addition, we demonstrate that while B73 is largely non-responsive to shade, both P39 and teosinte respond through tb1-independent and tb1-dependent molecular mechanisms, respectively, leading to inhibition of tiller bud outgrowth. PMID:26399727

  2. Factors related to the artificial incubation of wild bird eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klimstra, Jon D.; Stebbins, Katherine R.; Heinz, Gary H.; Hoffman, David J.; Kondrad, Shannon R.

    2009-01-01

    Attempts to artificially incubate the eggs of wild birds have failed in many respects in duplicating the success of natural incubation. As part of a larger study we had the opportunity to artificially incubate the eggs of 22 species of birds (three domestic and 19 wild species). We report the successes and failures associated with artificial incubation of these eggs. Moisture loss varied widely, not only for Orders of birds but for similar species within an Order. Overall hatching success and success through to 90% of incubation varied for different Orders and for similar species. Humidity and temperature are critical elements in the artificial incubation of wild bird eggs and must be closely monitored throughout incubation to ensure the best possible chance of hatching. Even when these elements are addressed, artificial incubation still can not duplicate the success of incubation by the parent.

  3. Fruit and nut crop wild relatives in the United States: A surprisingly rich resource

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Native fruit and nut crop wild relatives were an important genetic resource in establishing commercial fruit production in the United States. Today we tend to forget the many native and naturalized plants in the United States that are important crop wild relatives (CWR). Developing a national strate...

  4. Do Cultivated Varieties of Native Plants Have the Ability to Outperform Their Wild Relatives?

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Roland; Prasse, Rüdiger

    2013-01-01

    Vast amounts of cultivars of native plants are annually introduced into the semi-natural range of their wild relatives for re-vegetation and restoration. As cultivars are often selected towards enhanced biomass production and might transfer these traits into wild relatives by hybridization, it is suggested that cultivars and the wild × cultivar hybrids are competitively superior to their wild relatives. The release of such varieties may therefore result in unintended changes in native vegetation. In this study we examined for two species frequently used in re-vegetation (Plantago lanceolata and Lotus corniculatus) whether cultivars and artificially generated intra-specific wild × cultivar hybrids may produce a higher vegetative and generative biomass than their wilds. For that purpose a competition experiment was conducted for two growing seasons in a common garden. Every plant type was growing (a.) alone, (b.) in pairwise combination with a similar plant type and (c.) in pairwise interaction with a different plant type. When competing with wilds cultivars of both species showed larger biomass production than their wilds in the first year only and hybrids showed larger biomass production than their wild relatives in both study years. As biomass production is an important factor determining fitness and competitive ability, we conclude that cultivars and hybrids are competitively superior their wild relatives. However, cultivars of both species experienced large fitness reductions (nearly complete mortality in L. corniculatus) due to local climatic conditions. We conclude that cultivars are good competitors only as long as they are not subjected to stressful environmental factors. As hybrids seemed to inherit both the ability to cope with the local climatic conditions from their wild parents as well as the enhanced competitive strength from their cultivars, we regard them as strong competitors and assume that they are able to outperform their wilds at least over

  5. Ecogeography and utility to plant breeding of the crop wild relatives of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) are a rich source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Combining ecogeographic and phylogenetic techniques can inform both conservation and breeding. Geographic occurrence, bioclimatic, and biophysical data were used to predict species distributions, range overlap and...

  6. Ex situ conservation priorities for the wild relatives of potato (solanum L. Section petota).

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; de Haan, Stef; Juárez, Henry; Khoury, Colin K; Achicanoy, Harold A; Sosa, Chrystian C; Bernau, Vivian; Salas, Alberto; Heider, Bettina; Simon, Reinhard; Maxted, Nigel; Spooner, David M

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives have a long history of use in potato breeding, particularly for pest and disease resistance, and are expected to be increasingly used in the search for tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Their current and future use in crop improvement depends on their availability in ex situ germplasm collections. As these plants are impacted in the wild by habitat destruction and climate change, actions to ensure their conservation ex situ become ever more urgent. We analyzed the state of ex situ conservation of 73 of the closest wild relatives of potato (Solanum section Petota) with the aim of establishing priorities for further collecting to fill important gaps in germplasm collections. A total of 32 species (43.8%), were assigned high priority for further collecting due to severe gaps in their ex situ collections. Such gaps are most pronounced in the geographic center of diversity of the wild relatives in Peru. A total of 20 and 18 species were assessed as medium and low priority for further collecting, respectively, with only three species determined to be sufficiently represented currently. Priorities for further collecting include: (i) species completely lacking representation in germplasm collections; (ii) other high priority taxa, with geographic emphasis on the center of species diversity; (iii) medium priority species. Such collecting efforts combined with further emphasis on improving ex situ conservation technologies and methods, performing genotypic and phenotypic characterization of wild relative diversity, monitoring wild populations in situ, and making conserved wild relatives and their associated data accessible to the global research community, represent key steps in ensuring the long-term availability of the wild genetic resources of this important crop.

  7. Ex situ conservation priorities for the wild relatives of potato (solanum L. Section petota).

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; de Haan, Stef; Juárez, Henry; Khoury, Colin K; Achicanoy, Harold A; Sosa, Chrystian C; Bernau, Vivian; Salas, Alberto; Heider, Bettina; Simon, Reinhard; Maxted, Nigel; Spooner, David M

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives have a long history of use in potato breeding, particularly for pest and disease resistance, and are expected to be increasingly used in the search for tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Their current and future use in crop improvement depends on their availability in ex situ germplasm collections. As these plants are impacted in the wild by habitat destruction and climate change, actions to ensure their conservation ex situ become ever more urgent. We analyzed the state of ex situ conservation of 73 of the closest wild relatives of potato (Solanum section Petota) with the aim of establishing priorities for further collecting to fill important gaps in germplasm collections. A total of 32 species (43.8%), were assigned high priority for further collecting due to severe gaps in their ex situ collections. Such gaps are most pronounced in the geographic center of diversity of the wild relatives in Peru. A total of 20 and 18 species were assessed as medium and low priority for further collecting, respectively, with only three species determined to be sufficiently represented currently. Priorities for further collecting include: (i) species completely lacking representation in germplasm collections; (ii) other high priority taxa, with geographic emphasis on the center of species diversity; (iii) medium priority species. Such collecting efforts combined with further emphasis on improving ex situ conservation technologies and methods, performing genotypic and phenotypic characterization of wild relative diversity, monitoring wild populations in situ, and making conserved wild relatives and their associated data accessible to the global research community, represent key steps in ensuring the long-term availability of the wild genetic resources of this important crop. PMID:25923711

  8. Ex Situ Conservation Priorities for the Wild Relatives of Potato (Solanum L. Section Petota)

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; de Haan, Stef; Juárez, Henry; Khoury, Colin K.; Achicanoy, Harold A.; Sosa, Chrystian C.; Bernau, Vivian; Salas, Alberto; Heider, Bettina; Simon, Reinhard; Maxted, Nigel; Spooner, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives have a long history of use in potato breeding, particularly for pest and disease resistance, and are expected to be increasingly used in the search for tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Their current and future use in crop improvement depends on their availability in ex situ germplasm collections. As these plants are impacted in the wild by habitat destruction and climate change, actions to ensure their conservation ex situ become ever more urgent. We analyzed the state of ex situ conservation of 73 of the closest wild relatives of potato (Solanum section Petota) with the aim of establishing priorities for further collecting to fill important gaps in germplasm collections. A total of 32 species (43.8%), were assigned high priority for further collecting due to severe gaps in their ex situ collections. Such gaps are most pronounced in the geographic center of diversity of the wild relatives in Peru. A total of 20 and 18 species were assessed as medium and low priority for further collecting, respectively, with only three species determined to be sufficiently represented currently. Priorities for further collecting include: (i) species completely lacking representation in germplasm collections; (ii) other high priority taxa, with geographic emphasis on the center of species diversity; (iii) medium priority species. Such collecting efforts combined with further emphasis on improving ex situ conservation technologies and methods, performing genotypic and phenotypic characterization of wild relative diversity, monitoring wild populations in situ, and making conserved wild relatives and their associated data accessible to the global research community, represent key steps in ensuring the long-term availability of the wild genetic resources of this important crop. PMID:25923711

  9. Genetic Patterns of Domestication in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) and Wild Cajanus Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Kassa, Mulualem T.; Penmetsa, R. Varma; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Sarma, Birinchi K.; Datta, Subhojit; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Varshney, Rajeev K.; von Wettberg, Eric J. B.; Cook, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) is an annual or short-lived perennial food legume of acute regional importance, providing significant protein to the human diet in less developed regions of Asia and Africa. Due to its narrow genetic base, pigeonpea improvement is increasingly reliant on introgression of valuable traits from wild forms, a practice that would benefit from knowledge of its domestication history and relationships to wild species. Here we use 752 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived from 670 low copy orthologous genes to clarify the evolutionary history of pigeonpea (79 accessions) and its wild relatives (31 accessions). We identified three well-supported lineages that are geographically clustered and congruent with previous nuclear and plastid sequence-based phylogenies. Among all species analyzed Cajanus cajanifolius is the most probable progenitor of cultivated pigeonpea. Multiple lines of evidence suggest recent gene flow between cultivated and non-cultivated forms, as well as historical gene flow between diverged but sympatric species. Evidence supports that primary domestication occurred in India, with a second and more recent nested population bottleneck focused in tropical regions that is the likely consequence of pigeonpea breeding. We find abundant allelic variation and genetic diversity among the wild relatives, with the exception of wild species from Australia for which we report a third bottleneck unrelated to domestication within India. Domesticated C. cajan possess 75% less allelic diversity than the progenitor clade of wild Indian species, indicating a severe “domestication bottleneck” during pigeonpea domestication. PMID:22745789

  10. Could abiotic stress tolerance in wild relatives of rice be used to improve Oryza sativa?

    PubMed

    Atwell, Brian J; Wang, Han; Scafaro, Andrew P

    2014-02-01

    Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima have been selected to acquire and partition resources efficiently as part of the process of domestication. However, genetic diversity in cultivated rice is limited compared to wild Oryza species, in spite of 120,000 genotypes being held in gene banks. By contrast, there is untapped diversity in the more than 20 wild species of Oryza, some having been collected from just a few coastal locations (e.g. Oryza schlechteri), while others are widely distributed (e.g. Oryza nivara and Oryza rufipogon). The extent of DNA sequence diversity and phenotypic variation is still being established in wild Oryza, with genetic barriers suggesting a vast range of morphologies and function even within species, such as has been demonstrated for Oryza meridionalis. With increasing climate variability and attempts to make more marginal land arable, abiotic and biotic stresses will be managed over the coming decades by tapping into the genetic diversity of wild relatives of O. sativa. To help create a more targeted approach to sourcing wild rice germplasm for abiotic stress tolerance, we have created a climate distribution map by plotting the natural occurrence of all Oryza species against corresponding temperature and moisture data. We then discuss interspecific variation in phenotype and its significance for rice, followed by a discussion of ways to integrate germplasm from wild relatives into domesticated rice.

  11. Genetic patterns of domestication in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) and wild Cajanus relatives.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Mulualem T; Penmetsa, R Varma; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Sarma, Birinchi K; Datta, Subhojit; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Varshney, Rajeev K; von Wettberg, Eric J B; Cook, Douglas R

    2012-01-01

    Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) is an annual or short-lived perennial food legume of acute regional importance, providing significant protein to the human diet in less developed regions of Asia and Africa. Due to its narrow genetic base, pigeonpea improvement is increasingly reliant on introgression of valuable traits from wild forms, a practice that would benefit from knowledge of its domestication history and relationships to wild species. Here we use 752 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived from 670 low copy orthologous genes to clarify the evolutionary history of pigeonpea (79 accessions) and its wild relatives (31 accessions). We identified three well-supported lineages that are geographically clustered and congruent with previous nuclear and plastid sequence-based phylogenies. Among all species analyzed Cajanus cajanifolius is the most probable progenitor of cultivated pigeonpea. Multiple lines of evidence suggest recent gene flow between cultivated and non-cultivated forms, as well as historical gene flow between diverged but sympatric species. Evidence supports that primary domestication occurred in India, with a second and more recent nested population bottleneck focused in tropical regions that is the likely consequence of pigeonpea breeding. We find abundant allelic variation and genetic diversity among the wild relatives, with the exception of wild species from Australia for which we report a third bottleneck unrelated to domestication within India. Domesticated C. cajan possess 75% less allelic diversity than the progenitor clade of wild Indian species, indicating a severe "domestication bottleneck" during pigeonpea domestication.

  12. Conservation of allelic richness in wild crop relatives is aided by assessment of genetic markers.

    PubMed Central

    Schoen, D J; Brown, A H

    1993-01-01

    Wild crop relatives are an important source of genetic variation for improving domesticated species. Given limited resources, methods for maximizing the genetic diversity of collections of wild relatives are needed to help spread protection over a larger number of populations and species. Simulations were conducted to investigate the optimal strategy of sampling materials from populations of wild relatives, with the objective of maximizing the number of alleles (allelic richness) in collections of fixed size. Two methods, based on assessing populations for variation at marker loci (e.g., allozymes, restriction fragment length polymorphisms), were developed and compared with several methods that are not dependent on markers. Marker-assisted methods yielded higher overall allelic richness in the simulated collections, and they were particularly effective in conserving geographically localized alleles, the class of alleles that is most subject to loss. PMID:8248153

  13. Quantifying the introgressive hybridisation propensity between transgenic oilseed rape and its wild/weedy relatives.

    PubMed

    Devos, Yann; De Schrijver, Adinda; Reheul, Dirk

    2009-02-01

    In order to estimate the introgressive hybridisation propensity (IHP) between genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and certain of its cross-compatible wild/weedy relatives at the landscape level, a conceptual approach was developed. A gene flow index was established enclosing the successive steps to successfully achieve introgressive hybridisation: wild/weedy relatives and oilseed rape should co-occur, have overlapping flowering periods, be compatible, produce viable and fertile progeny, and the transgenes should persist in natural/weedy populations. Each step was described and scored, resulting in an IHP value for each cross-compatible oilseed rape wild/weedy relative. The gene flow index revealed that Brassica rapa has the highest introgressive hybridisation propensity (IHP value = 11.5), followed by Hirschfeldia incana and Raphanus raphanistrum (IHP = 6.7), Brassica juncea (IHP = 5.1), Diplotaxis tenuifolia and Sinapis arvensis (IHP = 4.5) in Flanders. Based on the IHP values, monitoring priorities can be defined within the pool of cross-compatible wild/weedy oilseed rape relatives. Moreover, the developed approach enables to select areas where case-specific monitoring of GM oilseed rape could be done in order to detect potential adverse effects on cross-compatible wild/weedy relatives resulting from vertical gene flow. The implementation of the proposed oilseed rape-wild relative gene flow index revealed that the survey design of existing botanical survey networks does not suit general surveillance needs of GM crops in Belgium. The encountered hurdles to implement the gene flow index and proposals to acquire the missing data are discussed.

  14. Natural history of crop-related wild species: Uses in pest habitat management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salick, Jan

    1983-01-01

    The natural histories of crop-related wild species in their native habitats can be used to develop novel pest management strategies. Traditionally, such information has provided insights for biological control, plant breeding, crop management, and applied ecology Further insights can be garnered.

  15. Crop wild relatives of Medicago in Russia and neighboring countries: gap analysis for effective conservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Medicago includes important species used for forage, fodder and land improvement. The countries of the Former Soviet Union have a wide diversity of alfalfa crop wild relatives and annual medic species. The N.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry (VIR) has a long history of collecting and ...

  16. A case for crop wild relative preservation and utilization in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental degradation and climate change pose a threat to global food security. Crop wild relatives (CWR) provide a critical resource to address food security needs by providing genetic diversity for crop improvement, leading to increased plasticity and productivity. However, plant breeders have...

  17. Characterization and expression analysis of a Retinoblastoma-related gene from Chinese wild Vitis pseudoreticulata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Retinoblastoma-related (RBR) genes, a conserved gene family in higher eukaryotes, plays an important role in cell differentiation, development and mammalian cell death in animals; however, little is known about its function in plants. In this study, an RBR gene was isolated from the Chinese wild gr...

  18. Two new antioxidant malonated caffeoylquinic acid isomers in fruits of wild eggplant relatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits of both the cultivated eggplant species Solanum melongena and its wild relative Solanum incanum have a high content of hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates, which along with other phenylpropanoids are implicated in the human health benefits of various fruits and vegetables. Monocaffeoylquinic acid...

  19. New 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in fruit of the wild eggplant relative Solanum viarum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit of cultivated eggplant (Solanum melongena) and several wild relatives (S. aethiopicum, S. macrocarpon, S. anguivi, and S. incanum) have a high content of hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) conjugates. Typically, caffeoylquinic acid esters predominate, and in particular chlorogenic acid [5-O-(E)-caffeo...

  20. Conservation priorities for tree crop wild relatives in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our native crop wild relatives have proved useful as genetic resources in breeding more productive, nutritious, and resilient crops. Their utilization is expected only to increase with better information on the species and improving breeding tools, but may well be constrained by their limited repres...

  1. Ex situ conservation priorities for the wild relatives of potato (Solanum L. section Petota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We analyzed the contemporary ex situ conservation coverage of the wild relatives of cultivated potato (Solanum section Petota) to set priorities and guide future collections and conservation. We conducted a gap analysis for 73 taxa involving seven, 63 and three species from the primary, secondary an...

  2. Initial Steps toward a National Conservation Strategy for Crop Wild Relatives of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An effective strategy for conservation of biodiversity worldwide requires a spectrum of actions enacted from the global to the local level. Agricultural biodiversity is no exception, and the wild relatives of crops (CWR), as important genetic resources for crop improvement, represent a dual challeng...

  3. Outbreak of trichinellosis related to eating imported wild boar meat, Belgium, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Messiaen, Peter; Forier, Annemie; Vanderschueren, Steven; Theunissen, Caroline; Nijs, Jochen; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Bottieau, Emmanuel; De Schrijver, Koen; Gyssens, Inge C; Cartuyvels, Reinoud; Dorny, Pierre; van der Hilst, Jeroen; Blockmans, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Trichinellosis is a rare parasitic zoonosis caused by Trichinella following ingestion of raw or undercooked meat containing Trichinella larvae. In the past five years, there has been a sharp decrease in human trichinellosis incidence rates in the European Union due to better practices in rearing domestic animals and control measures in slaughterhouses. In November 2014, a large outbreak of trichinellosis occurred in Belgium, related to the consumption of imported wild boar meat. After a swift local public health response, 16 cases were identified and diagnosed with trichinellosis. Of the 16 cases, six were female. The diagnosis was confirmed by serology or the presence of larvae in the patients’ muscle biopsies by histology and/or PCR. The ensuing investigation traced the wild boar meat back to Spain. Several batches of imported wild boar meat were recalled but tested negative. The public health investigation allowed us to identify clustered undiagnosed cases. Early warning alerts and a coordinated response remain indispensable at a European level.

  4. Effective conservation of Medicago Crop Wild Relatives in Russia and neighbouring countries: a gap analysis points the way forward

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gap analysis is an effective way to review and refine conservation strategies for crop wild relatives. We developed a comprehensive database containing over 2400 accessions of Medicago crop wild relatives that had been collected in the area of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). Using the data we develop...

  5. Age-Related Toxoplasma gondii Seroprevalence in Dutch Wild Boar Inconsistent with Lifelong Persistence of Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Opsteegh, Marieke; Swart, Arno; Fonville, Manoj; Dekkers, Leo; van der Giessen, Joke

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen that is best known as a cause of abortion or abnormalities in the newborn after primary infection during pregnancy. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in wild boar to investigate the possible role of their meat in human infection and to get an indication of the environmental contamination with T. gondii. The presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was determined by in-house ELISA in 509 wild boar shot in 2002/2003 and 464 wild boar shot in 2007. Most of the boar originated from the “Roerstreek” (n = 673) or the “Veluwe” (n = 241). A binormal mixture model was fitted to the log-transformed optical density values for wild boar up to 20 months old to estimate the optimal cut-off value (−0.685) and accompanying sensitivity (90.6%) and specificity (93.6%). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 24.4% (95% CI: 21.1–27.7%). The prevalence did not show variation between sampling years or regions, indicating a stable and homogeneous infection pressure from the environment. The relation between age and seroprevalence was studied in two stages. Firstly, seroprevalence by age group was determined by fitting the binary mixture model to 200 animals per age category. The prevalence showed a steep increase until approximately 10 months of age but stabilized at approximately 35% thereafter. Secondly, we fitted the age-dependent seroprevalence data to several SIR-type models, with seropositives as infected (I) and seronegatives as either susceptible (S) or resistant (R). A model with a recovery rate (SIS) was superior to a model without a recovery rate (SI). This finding is not consistent with the traditional view of lifelong persistence of T. gondii infections. The high seroprevalence suggests that eating undercooked wild boar meat may pose a risk of infection with T. gondii. PMID:21283764

  6. Age-related Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in Dutch wild boar inconsistent with lifelong persistence of antibodies.

    PubMed

    Opsteegh, Marieke; Swart, Arno; Fonville, Manoj; Dekkers, Leo; van der Giessen, Joke

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen that is best known as a cause of abortion or abnormalities in the newborn after primary infection during pregnancy. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in wild boar to investigate the possible role of their meat in human infection and to get an indication of the environmental contamination with T. gondii. The presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was determined by in-house ELISA in 509 wild boar shot in 2002/2003 and 464 wild boar shot in 2007. Most of the boar originated from the "Roerstreek" (n = 673) or the "Veluwe" (n = 241). A binormal mixture model was fitted to the log-transformed optical density values for wild boar up to 20 months old to estimate the optimal cut-off value (-0.685) and accompanying sensitivity (90.6%) and specificity (93.6%). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 24.4% (95% CI: 21.1-27.7%). The prevalence did not show variation between sampling years or regions, indicating a stable and homogeneous infection pressure from the environment. The relation between age and seroprevalence was studied in two stages. Firstly, seroprevalence by age group was determined by fitting the binary mixture model to 200 animals per age category. The prevalence showed a steep increase until approximately 10 months of age but stabilized at approximately 35% thereafter. Secondly, we fitted the age-dependent seroprevalence data to several SIR-type models, with seropositives as infected (I) and seronegatives as either susceptible (S) or resistant (R). A model with a recovery rate (SIS) was superior to a model without a recovery rate (SI). This finding is not consistent with the traditional view of lifelong persistence of T. gondii infections. The high seroprevalence suggests that eating undercooked wild boar meat may pose a risk of infection with T. gondii. PMID:21283764

  7. Introgression potential between safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) and wild relatives of the genus Carthamus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Safflower, Carthamus tinctorius, is a thistle that is grown commercially for the production of oil and birdseed and recently, as a host for the production of transgenic pharmaceutical proteins. C. tinctorius can cross with a number of its wild relatives, creating the possibility of gene flow from safflower to weedy species. In this study we looked at the introgression potential between different members of the genus Carthamus, measured the fitness of the parents versus the F1 hybrids, followed the segregation of a specific transgene in the progeny and tried to identify traits important for adaptation to different environments. Results Safflower hybridized and produced viable offspring with members of the section Carthamus and species with chromosome numbers of n = 10 and n = 22, but not with n = 32. The T-DNA construct of a transgenic C. tinctorius line was passed on to the F1 progeny in a Mendelian fashion, except in one specific cross, where it was deleted at a frequency of approximately 21%. Analyzing fitness and key morphological traits like colored seeds, shattering seed heads and the presence of a pappus, we found no evidence of hybrid vigour or increased weediness in the F1 hybrids of commercial safflower and its wild relatives. Conclusion Our results suggest that hybridization between commercial safflower and its wild relatives, while feasible in most cases we studied, does not generate progeny with higher propensity for weediness. PMID:21401959

  8. Introgression of Novel Traits from a Wild Wheat Relative Improves Drought Adaptation in Wheat1[W

    PubMed Central

    Placido, Dante F.; Campbell, Malachy T.; Folsom, Jing J.; Cui, Xinping; Kruger, Greg R.; Baenziger, P. Stephen; Walia, Harkamal

    2013-01-01

    Root architecture traits are an important component for improving water stress adaptation. However, selection for aboveground traits under favorable environments in modern cultivars may have led to an inadvertent loss of genes and novel alleles beneficial for adapting to environments with limited water. In this study, we elucidate the physiological and molecular consequences of introgressing an alien chromosome segment (7DL) from a wild wheat relative species (Agropyron elongatum) into cultivated wheat (Triticum aestivum). The wheat translocation line had improved water stress adaptation and higher root and shoot biomass compared with the control genotypes, which showed significant drops in root and shoot biomass during stress. Enhanced access to water due to higher root biomass enabled the translocation line to maintain more favorable gas-exchange and carbon assimilation levels relative to the wild-type wheat genotypes during water stress. Transcriptome analysis identified candidate genes associated with root development. Two of these candidate genes mapped to the site of translocation on chromosome 7DL based on single-feature polymorphism analysis. A brassinosteroid signaling pathway was predicted to be involved in the novel root responses observed in the A. elongatum translocation line, based on the coexpression-based gene network generated by seeding the network with the candidate genes. We present an effective and highly integrated approach that combines root phenotyping, whole-plant physiology, and functional genomics to discover novel root traits and the underlying genes from a wild related species to improve drought adaptation in cultivated wheat. PMID:23426195

  9. A metapopulation model for the introgression from genetically modified plants into their wild relatives

    PubMed Central

    Meirmans, Patrick G; Bousquet, Jean; Isabel, Nathalie

    2009-01-01

    Most models on introgression from genetically modified (GM) plants have focused on small spatial scales, modelling gene flow from a field containing GM plants into a single adjacent population of a wild relative. Here, we present a model to study the effect of introgression from multiple plantations into the whole metapopulation of the wild relative. The most important result of the model is that even very low levels of introgression and selection can lead to a high probability that the transgene goes to fixation in the metapopulation. Furthermore, the overall frequency of the transgene in the metapopulation, after a certain number of generations of introgression, depends on the population dynamics. If there is a high rate of migration or a high rate of population turnover, the overall transgene frequency is much higher than with lower rates. However, under an island model of population structure, this increased frequency has only a very small effect on the probability of fixation of the transgene. Considering these results, studies on the potential ecological risks of introgression from GM plants should look not only at the rate of introgression and selection acting on the transgene, but also at the metapopulation dynamics of the wild relative. PMID:25567858

  10. Introgression of novel traits from a wild wheat relative improves drought adaptation in wheat.

    PubMed

    Placido, Dante F; Campbell, Malachy T; Folsom, Jing J; Cui, Xinping; Kruger, Greg R; Baenziger, P Stephen; Walia, Harkamal

    2013-04-01

    Root architecture traits are an important component for improving water stress adaptation. However, selection for aboveground traits under favorable environments in modern cultivars may have led to an inadvertent loss of genes and novel alleles beneficial for adapting to environments with limited water. In this study, we elucidate the physiological and molecular consequences of introgressing an alien chromosome segment (7DL) from a wild wheat relative species (Agropyron elongatum) into cultivated wheat (Triticum aestivum). The wheat translocation line had improved water stress adaptation and higher root and shoot biomass compared with the control genotypes, which showed significant drops in root and shoot biomass during stress. Enhanced access to water due to higher root biomass enabled the translocation line to maintain more favorable gas-exchange and carbon assimilation levels relative to the wild-type wheat genotypes during water stress. Transcriptome analysis identified candidate genes associated with root development. Two of these candidate genes mapped to the site of translocation on chromosome 7DL based on single-feature polymorphism analysis. A brassinosteroid signaling pathway was predicted to be involved in the novel root responses observed in the A. elongatum translocation line, based on the coexpression-based gene network generated by seeding the network with the candidate genes. We present an effective and highly integrated approach that combines root phenotyping, whole-plant physiology, and functional genomics to discover novel root traits and the underlying genes from a wild related species to improve drought adaptation in cultivated wheat. PMID:23426195

  11. Genetic differentiation and hybrid identification using microsatellite markers in closely related wild species.

    PubMed

    Turchetto, Caroline; Segatto, Ana Lúcia A; Beduschi, Júlia; Bonatto, Sandro L; Freitas, Loreta B

    2015-07-17

    Identifying the genetic basis of speciation is critical for understanding the evolutionary history of closely related wild species. Recently diverged species facilitate the study of speciation because many genetic and morphological characteristics are still shared by the organisms under study. The Petunia genus grows in South American grasslands and comprises both recently diverged wild species and commercial species. In this work, we analysed two closely related species: Petunia exserta, which has a narrow endemic range and grows exclusively in rocky shelters, and Petunia axillaris, which is widely distributed and comprises three allopatric subspecies. Petunia axillaris ssp. axillaris and P. exserta occur in sympatry, and putative hybrids between them have been identified. Here, we analysed 14 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) in 126 wild individuals and 13 putative morphological hybrids with the goals of identifying differentially encoded alleles to characterize their natural genetic diversity, establishing a genetic profile for each taxon and to verify the presence of hybridization signal. Overall, 143 alleles were identified and all taxa contained private alleles. Four major groups were identified in clustering analyses, which indicated that there are genetic distinctions among the groups. The markers evaluated here will be useful in evolutionary studies involving these species and may help categorize individuals by species, thus enabling the identification of hybrids between both their putative taxa. The individuals with intermediate morphology presented private alleles of their both putative parental species, although they showed a level of genetic mixing that was comparable with some of the individuals with typical P. exserta morphology. The EST-SSR markers scattered throughout the Petunia genome are very efficient tools for characterizing the genetic diversity in wild taxa of this genus and aid in identifying interspecific hybrids

  12. Testing Taxonomic Predictivity of Foliar and Tuber Resistance to Phytophthora infestans in Wild Relatives of Potato.

    PubMed

    Khiutti, A; Spooner, D M; Jansky, S H; Halterman, D A

    2015-09-01

    Potato late blight, caused by the oomycete phytopathogen Phytophthora infestans, is a devastating disease found in potato-growing regions worldwide. Long-term management strategies to control late blight include the incorporation of host resistance to predominant strains. However, due to rapid genetic changes within pathogen populations, rapid and recurring identification and integration of novel host resistance traits is necessary. Wild relatives of potato offer a rich source of desirable traits, including late blight resistance, but screening methods can be time intensive. We tested the ability of taxonomy, ploidy, crossing group, breeding system, and geography to predict the presence of foliar and tuber late blight resistance in wild Solanum spp. Significant variation for resistance to both tuber and foliar late blight was found within and among species but there was no discernable predictive power based on taxonomic series, clade, ploidy, breeding system, elevation, or geographic location. We observed a moderate but significant correlation between tuber and foliar resistance within species. Although previously uncharacterized sources of both foliar and tuber resistance were identified, our study does not support an assumption that taxonomic or geographic data can be used to predict sources of late blight resistance in wild Solanum spp.

  13. Fruit composition diversity in land races and modern pepino (Solanum muricatum) varieties and wild related species.

    PubMed

    Herraiz, Franscisco J; Raigón, María D; Vilanova, Santiago; García-Martínez, María D; Gramazio, Pietro; Plazas, Mariola; Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián; Prohens, Jaime

    2016-07-15

    Pepino (Solanum muricatum) fruits from 15 accessions of cultivated pepino as well as six accessions from wild relatives were evaluated for contents in dry matter, protein, β-carotene, chlorophylls and seven minerals. Several-fold differences among accessions were found for most traits. Average values obtained were similar to those of melon and cucumber, but the phenolic contents were much higher. Wild species had significantly higher average contents for all traits vs. the cultivated pepino accessions. And, the comparisons among the cultivated pepino varieties showed that the modern varieties were more uniform in composition, and they possessed significantly lower concentrations of protein, P, K, and Zn than local land races. Most of the significant correlations among composition traits were positive. Our studies show that regular consumption of pepino fruits could make a significant contribution to the recommended daily intake of P, K, Fe and Cu as well as to the average daily intake of phenolics. Furthermore, the higher values for most nutrients measured in the wild species and in the local land races indicate that new pepino varieties with improved fruit contents in nutrient and bioactive compounds can be developed. PMID:26948588

  14. Outbreak of trichinellosis related to eating imported wild boar meat, Belgium, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Messiaen, Peter; Forier, Annemie; Vanderschueren, Steven; Theunissen, Caroline; Nijs, Jochen; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Bottieau, Emmanuel; De Schrijver, Koen; Gyssens, Inge C; Cartuyvels, Reinoud; Dorny, Pierre; van der Hilst, Jeroen; Blockmans, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Trichinellosis is a rare parasitic zoonosis caused by Trichinella following ingestion of raw or undercooked meat containing Trichinella larvae. In the past five years, there has been a sharp decrease in human trichinellosis incidence rates in the European Union due to better practices in rearing domestic animals and control measures in slaughterhouses. In November 2014, a large outbreak of trichinellosis occurred in Belgium, related to the consumption of imported wild boar meat. After a swift local public health response, 16 cases were identified and diagnosed with trichinellosis. Of the 16 cases, six were female. The diagnosis was confirmed by serology or the presence of larvae in the patients’ muscle biopsies by histology and/or PCR. The ensuing investigation traced the wild boar meat back to Spain. Several batches of imported wild boar meat were recalled but tested negative. The public health investigation allowed us to identify clustered undiagnosed cases. Early warning alerts and a coordinated response remain indispensable at a European level. PMID:27684098

  15. Fruit composition diversity in land races and modern pepino (Solanum muricatum) varieties and wild related species.

    PubMed

    Herraiz, Franscisco J; Raigón, María D; Vilanova, Santiago; García-Martínez, María D; Gramazio, Pietro; Plazas, Mariola; Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián; Prohens, Jaime

    2016-07-15

    Pepino (Solanum muricatum) fruits from 15 accessions of cultivated pepino as well as six accessions from wild relatives were evaluated for contents in dry matter, protein, β-carotene, chlorophylls and seven minerals. Several-fold differences among accessions were found for most traits. Average values obtained were similar to those of melon and cucumber, but the phenolic contents were much higher. Wild species had significantly higher average contents for all traits vs. the cultivated pepino accessions. And, the comparisons among the cultivated pepino varieties showed that the modern varieties were more uniform in composition, and they possessed significantly lower concentrations of protein, P, K, and Zn than local land races. Most of the significant correlations among composition traits were positive. Our studies show that regular consumption of pepino fruits could make a significant contribution to the recommended daily intake of P, K, Fe and Cu as well as to the average daily intake of phenolics. Furthermore, the higher values for most nutrients measured in the wild species and in the local land races indicate that new pepino varieties with improved fruit contents in nutrient and bioactive compounds can be developed.

  16. Outbreak of trichinellosis related to eating imported wild boar meat, Belgium, 2014.

    PubMed

    Messiaen, Peter; Forier, Annemie; Vanderschueren, Steven; Theunissen, Caroline; Nijs, Jochen; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Bottieau, Emmanuel; De Schrijver, Koen; Gyssens, Inge C; Cartuyvels, Reinoud; Dorny, Pierre; van der Hilst, Jeroen; Blockmans, Daniel

    2016-09-15

    Trichinellosis is a rare parasitic zoonosis caused by Trichinella following ingestion of raw or undercooked meat containing Trichinella larvae. In the past five years, there has been a sharp decrease in human trichinellosis incidence rates in the European Union due to better practices in rearing domestic animals and control measures in slaughterhouses. In November 2014, a large outbreak of trichinellosis occurred in Belgium, related to the consumption of imported wild boar meat. After a swift local public health response, 16 cases were identified and diagnosed with trichinellosis. Of the 16 cases, six were female. The diagnosis was confirmed by serology or the presence of larvae in the patients' muscle biopsies by histology and/or PCR. The ensuing investigation traced the wild boar meat back to Spain. Several batches of imported wild boar meat were recalled but tested negative. The public health investigation allowed us to identify clustered undiagnosed cases. Early warning alerts and a coordinated response remain indispensable at a European level. PMID:27684098

  17. Ecogeography and utility to plant breeding of the crop wild relatives of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Kantar, Michael B; Sosa, Chrystian C; Khoury, Colin K; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; Achicanoy, Harold A; Bernau, Vivian; Kane, Nolan C; Marek, Laura; Seiler, Gerald; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) are a rich source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Combining ecogeographic and phylogenetic techniques can inform both conservation and breeding. Geographic occurrence, bioclimatic, and biophysical data were used to predict species distributions, range overlap and niche occupancy in 36 taxa closely related to sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Taxa lacking comprehensive ex situ conservation were identified. The predicted distributions for 36 Helianthus taxa identified substantial range overlap, range asymmetry and niche conservatism. Specific taxa (e.g., Helianthus deblis Nutt., Helianthus anomalus Blake, and Helianthus divaricatus L.) were identified as targets for traits of interest, particularly for abiotic stress tolerance, and adaptation to extreme soil properties. The combination of techniques demonstrates the potential for publicly available ecogeographic and phylogenetic data to facilitate the identification of possible sources of abiotic stress traits for plant breeding programs. Much of the primary genepool (wild H. annuus) occurs in extreme environments indicating that introgression of targeted traits may be relatively straightforward. Sister taxa in Helianthus have greater range overlap than more distantly related taxa within the genus. This adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that in plants (unlike some animal groups), geographic isolation may not be necessary for speciation. PMID:26500675

  18. Ecogeography and utility to plant breeding of the crop wild relatives of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Kantar, Michael B.; Sosa, Chrystian C.; Khoury, Colin K.; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Achicanoy, Harold A.; Bernau, Vivian; Kane, Nolan C.; Marek, Laura; Seiler, Gerald; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) are a rich source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Combining ecogeographic and phylogenetic techniques can inform both conservation and breeding. Geographic occurrence, bioclimatic, and biophysical data were used to predict species distributions, range overlap and niche occupancy in 36 taxa closely related to sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Taxa lacking comprehensive ex situ conservation were identified. The predicted distributions for 36 Helianthus taxa identified substantial range overlap, range asymmetry and niche conservatism. Specific taxa (e.g., Helianthus deblis Nutt., Helianthus anomalus Blake, and Helianthus divaricatus L.) were identified as targets for traits of interest, particularly for abiotic stress tolerance, and adaptation to extreme soil properties. The combination of techniques demonstrates the potential for publicly available ecogeographic and phylogenetic data to facilitate the identification of possible sources of abiotic stress traits for plant breeding programs. Much of the primary genepool (wild H. annuus) occurs in extreme environments indicating that introgression of targeted traits may be relatively straightforward. Sister taxa in Helianthus have greater range overlap than more distantly related taxa within the genus. This adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that in plants (unlike some animal groups), geographic isolation may not be necessary for speciation. PMID:26500675

  19. Risk factors associated with capture-related death in eastern wild turkey hens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholson, D.S.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Stewart, M.D.; Masters, R.E.; Leslie, David M.

    2000-01-01

    Capture-related mortality has been a notable risk in the handling of eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris). Our objective was to evaluate how environmental factors influence risk and identify physiological correlates that could be used to identify susceptible birds. During winter (January-March) 1995-97, 130 eastern wild turkey hens were captured in southeastern Oklahoma and radiocollared. Of those, 20 hens died ??? 14 days of capture. Serum creatine kinase activity (CK; P < 0.01), body temperature (P < 0.01), processing time (P = 0.02), and ambient temperature (P < 0.01) showed a positive relationship with mortality that occurred within 14 days of capture. Plasma corticosterone concentration (P = 0.08) and relative humidity (P < 0.01) showed a negative relationship with mortalities that occurred within 14 days post-capture. Stepwise logistic regression selected CK activity, relative humidity, and ambient temperature as the best predictors of mortality within 14 days post-capture. Our data suggest that susceptible individuals may be identified from CK activity and that capture-related mortality may be minimized by establishing guidelines of when to curtail capture operations based on various weather conditions.

  20. Ecogeography and utility to plant breeding of the crop wild relatives of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Kantar, Michael B; Sosa, Chrystian C; Khoury, Colin K; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; Achicanoy, Harold A; Bernau, Vivian; Kane, Nolan C; Marek, Laura; Seiler, Gerald; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) are a rich source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Combining ecogeographic and phylogenetic techniques can inform both conservation and breeding. Geographic occurrence, bioclimatic, and biophysical data were used to predict species distributions, range overlap and niche occupancy in 36 taxa closely related to sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Taxa lacking comprehensive ex situ conservation were identified. The predicted distributions for 36 Helianthus taxa identified substantial range overlap, range asymmetry and niche conservatism. Specific taxa (e.g., Helianthus deblis Nutt., Helianthus anomalus Blake, and Helianthus divaricatus L.) were identified as targets for traits of interest, particularly for abiotic stress tolerance, and adaptation to extreme soil properties. The combination of techniques demonstrates the potential for publicly available ecogeographic and phylogenetic data to facilitate the identification of possible sources of abiotic stress traits for plant breeding programs. Much of the primary genepool (wild H. annuus) occurs in extreme environments indicating that introgression of targeted traits may be relatively straightforward. Sister taxa in Helianthus have greater range overlap than more distantly related taxa within the genus. This adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that in plants (unlike some animal groups), geographic isolation may not be necessary for speciation.

  1. Diversity of centromeric repeats in two closely related wild rice species, Oryza officinalis and Oryza rhizomatis.

    PubMed

    Bao, Weidong; Zhang, Wenli; Yang, Qiuying; Zhang, Yu; Han, Bin; Gu, Minghong; Xue, Yongbiao; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2006-05-01

    Oryza officinalis (CC, 2n = 24) and Oryza rhizomatis (CC, 2n = 24) belong to the Oryza genus, which contains more than 20 identified wild rice species. Although much has been known about the molecular composition and organization of centromeres in Oryza sativa, relatively little is known of its wild relatives. In the present study, we isolated and characterized a 126-bp centromeric satellite (CentO-C) from three bacterial artificial chromosomes of O. officinalis. In addition to CentO-C, low abundance of CentO satellites is also present in O. officinalis. In order to determine the chromosomal locations and distributions of CentO-C (126-bp), CentO (155 bp) and TrsC (366 bp) satellite within O. officinalis, fluorescence in situ hybridization examination was done on pachytene or metaphase I chromosomes. We found that only ten centromeres (excluding centromere 7 and 2) contain CentO-C arrays in O. officinalis, while centromere 7 comprises CentO satellites, and centromere 2 is devoid of any detectable satellites. For TrsC satellites, it was detected at multiple subtelomeric regions in O. officinalis, however, in O. rhizomatis, TrsC sequences were detected both in the four centromeric regions (CEN 3, 4, 10, 11) and the multiple subtelomeric regions. Therefore, these data reveal the evolutionary diversification pattern of centromere DNA within/or between close related species, and could provide an insight into the dynamic evolutionary processes of rice centromere.

  2. Taxonomic notes on several wild relatives of Solanum melongena L. (Solanaceae): comments on.

    PubMed

    Samuels, John

    2013-04-01

    In the recent paper by Meyer et al. (2012) some of the taxonomic assumptions relating to the closest wild relatives of Solanum melongena L., the brinjal eggplant, are unsupported. This group is well-known for its taxonomic difficulties, therefore a consistent approach to the identification, nomenclature and species concepts of experimental plant material is essential to the fullest interpretation of the results of a genomic study such as theirs. Effectively, Meyer et al., treat several of the brinjal wild relatives in their study as being conspecific. Neither their nrITS nor AFLP analysis gives confirmation of this. On this basis, the correct name for the taxon known as S. melongena group F is S. cumingii Dunal. This species is distinct from S. incanum L., which is found only as far eastwards as northern India. S. incanum and S. insanum sensu Lester and Hasan are distinct taxa. Meyer et al. hypothesise that there were two separate domestication events for brinjal; re-examination of their data suggests that there was a single domestication event, that took place in India.

  3. Domestication and defence: Foliar tannins and C/N ratios in cassava and a close wild relative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondolot, Laurence; Marlas, Amandine; Barbeau, Damien; Gargadennec, Annick; Pujol, Benoît; McKey, Doyle

    2008-09-01

    Plant domestication is accompanied by shifts in resource allocation, as a result of farmer selection for genotypes that give high yields in agricultural habitats. Relaxed natural selection for chemical and physical defences in these habitats could facilitate resource allocation to yield. We compared the concentrations of tannins, and C/N ratios, which are often correlated with investment in cell-wall compounds, in leaves of landraces of domesticated cassava ( Manihot esculenta) and a close wild relative in French Guiana. Foliar concentrations of tannins were about 1.9 times higher in the wild relative than in domesticated cassava. Histochemical analyses showed that tannins were present in nearly all palisade and spongy parenchyma cells of the wild taxon, but in only some cells of these tissues in M. esculenta. C/N ratios were also 1.9 times higher in leaves of the wild relative than in those of domesticated cassava. Tannins accounted for only a small proportion of total carbon, and the higher C/N ratio in wild than in domesticated cassava may reflect higher investment in carbon-containing compounds additional to tannins, such as cell-wall compounds. The divergence in these traits between cassava and this close wild relative mirrors a broad pattern observed in wild plant species across habitats varying in resource availability. One explanation for our results is that domestication in cassava may have favoured a shift from a resource conservation strategy to a resource acquisition strategy.

  4. Differential inhibition of Helicoverpa armigera gut proteinases by proteinase inhibitors of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and its wild relatives.

    PubMed

    Chougule, Nanasaheb P; Hivrale, Vandana K; Chhabda, Pavanjeet J; Giri, Ashok P; Kachole, Manvendra S

    2003-10-01

    The seeds of 36 pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp.] cultivars, resistant and susceptible to pests and pathogens and 17 of its wild relatives were analysed for inhibitors of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and insect gut proteinases to identify potential inhibitors of insect (Helicoverpa armigera) gut enzymes. Proteinase inhibitors (PIs) of pigeonpea cultivars showed total inhibition of trypsin and chymotrypsin, and moderate inhibition potential towards H. armigera proteinases (HGP). PIs of wild relatives exhibited stronger inhibition of HGP, which was up to 87% by Rhynchosia PIs. Electrophoretic detection of HGPI proteins and inhibition of HGP isoforms by few pigeonpea wild relative PIs supported our enzyme inhibitor assay results. Present results indicate that PIs exhibit wide range of genetic diversity in the wild relatives of pigeonpea whereas pigeonpea cultivars (resistant as well as susceptible to pests and pathogens) are homogeneous. The potent HGPIs identified in this study need further exploration for their use in strengthening pigeonpea defence against H. armigera.

  5. [Book review] Fish Gene Pools: preservation of genetic resources in relation to wild fish stocks, edited by N. Ryman

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Review of: Fish Gene Pools: Preservation of Genetic Resources in Relation to Wild Fish Stocks. Edited by N. Ryman. The Editorial Service/FRN, Box 6710, S-11385, Stockholm, Sweden. 1981. 111 pages. $16.00 (paper).

  6. Comparative genomics and phylogenetic discordance of cultivated tomato and close wild relatives

    PubMed Central

    Bombarely, Aureliano; Munkvold, Jesse D.; York, Thomas; Menda, Naama; Martin, Gregory B.; Mueller, Lukas A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Studies of ancestry are difficult in the tomato because it crosses with many wild relatives and species in the tomato clade that have diverged very recently. As a result, the phylogeny in relation to its closest relatives remains uncertain. By using the coding sequence from Solanum lycopersicum, S. galapagense, S. pimpinellifolium, S. corneliomuelleri, and S. tuberosum and the genomic sequence from S. lycopersicum ‘Heinz’, an heirloom line, S. lycopersicum ‘Yellow Pear’, and two of cultivated tomato’s closest relatives, S. galapagense and S. pimpinellifolium, we have aimed to resolve the phylogenies of these closely related species as well as identify phylogenetic discordance in the reference cultivated tomato. Results. Divergence date estimates suggest that the divergence of S. lycopersicum, S. galapagense, and S. pimpinellifolium happened less than 0.5 MYA. Phylogenies based on 8,857 coding sequences support grouping of S. lycopersicum and S. galapagense, although two secondary trees are also highly represented. A total of 25 genes in our analysis had sites with evidence of positive selection along the S. lycopersicum lineage. Whole genome phylogenies showed that while incongruence is prevalent in genomic comparisons between these genotypes, likely as a result of introgression and incomplete lineage sorting, a primary phylogenetic history was strongly supported. Conclusions. Based on analysis of these genotypes, S. galapagense appears to be closely related to S. lycopersicum, suggesting they had a common ancestor prior to the arrival of an S. galapagense ancestor to the Galápagos Islands, but after divergence of the sequenced S. pimpinellifolium. Genes showing selection along the S. lycopersicum lineage may be important in domestication or selection occurring post-domestication. Further analysis of intraspecific data in these species will help to establish the evolutionary history of cultivated tomato. The use of an heirloom line is helpful

  7. Comparative genomics and phylogenetic discordance of cultivated tomato and close wild relatives.

    PubMed

    Strickler, Susan R; Bombarely, Aureliano; Munkvold, Jesse D; York, Thomas; Menda, Naama; Martin, Gregory B; Mueller, Lukas A

    2015-01-01

    Background. Studies of ancestry are difficult in the tomato because it crosses with many wild relatives and species in the tomato clade that have diverged very recently. As a result, the phylogeny in relation to its closest relatives remains uncertain. By using the coding sequence from Solanum lycopersicum, S. galapagense, S. pimpinellifolium, S. corneliomuelleri, and S. tuberosum and the genomic sequence from S. lycopersicum 'Heinz', an heirloom line, S. lycopersicum 'Yellow Pear', and two of cultivated tomato's closest relatives, S. galapagense and S. pimpinellifolium, we have aimed to resolve the phylogenies of these closely related species as well as identify phylogenetic discordance in the reference cultivated tomato. Results. Divergence date estimates suggest that the divergence of S. lycopersicum, S. galapagense, and S. pimpinellifolium happened less than 0.5 MYA. Phylogenies based on 8,857 coding sequences support grouping of S. lycopersicum and S. galapagense, although two secondary trees are also highly represented. A total of 25 genes in our analysis had sites with evidence of positive selection along the S. lycopersicum lineage. Whole genome phylogenies showed that while incongruence is prevalent in genomic comparisons between these genotypes, likely as a result of introgression and incomplete lineage sorting, a primary phylogenetic history was strongly supported. Conclusions. Based on analysis of these genotypes, S. galapagense appears to be closely related to S. lycopersicum, suggesting they had a common ancestor prior to the arrival of an S. galapagense ancestor to the Galápagos Islands, but after divergence of the sequenced S. pimpinellifolium. Genes showing selection along the S. lycopersicum lineage may be important in domestication or selection occurring post-domestication. Further analysis of intraspecific data in these species will help to establish the evolutionary history of cultivated tomato. The use of an heirloom line is helpful in

  8. Sequencing wild and cultivated cassava and related species reveals extensive interspecific hybridization and genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Bredeson, Jessen V; Lyons, Jessica B; Prochnik, Simon E; Wu, G Albert; Ha, Cindy M; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Rabbi, Ismail Y; Egesi, Chiedozie; Nauluvula, Poasa; Lebot, Vincent; Ndunguru, Joseph; Mkamilo, Geoffrey; Bart, Rebecca S; Setter, Tim L; Gleadow, Roslyn M; Kulakow, Peter; Ferguson, Morag E; Rounsley, Steve; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2016-05-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) provides calories and nutrition for more than half a billion people. It was domesticated by native Amazonian peoples through cultivation of the wild progenitor M. esculenta ssp. flabellifolia and is now grown in tropical regions worldwide. Here we provide a high-quality genome assembly for cassava with improved contiguity, linkage, and completeness; almost 97% of genes are anchored to chromosomes. We find that paleotetraploidy in cassava is shared with the related rubber tree Hevea, providing a resource for comparative studies. We also sequence a global collection of 58 Manihot accessions, including cultivated and wild cassava accessions and related species such as Ceará or India rubber (M. glaziovii), and genotype 268 African cassava varieties. We find widespread interspecific admixture, and detect the genetic signature of past cassava breeding programs. As a clonally propagated crop, cassava is especially vulnerable to pathogens and abiotic stresses. This genomic resource will inform future genome-enabled breeding efforts to improve this staple crop. PMID:27088722

  9. Sequencing wild and cultivated cassava and related species reveals extensive interspecific hybridization and genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Bredeson, Jessen V; Lyons, Jessica B; Prochnik, Simon E; Wu, G Albert; Ha, Cindy M; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Rabbi, Ismail Y; Egesi, Chiedozie; Nauluvula, Poasa; Lebot, Vincent; Ndunguru, Joseph; Mkamilo, Geoffrey; Bart, Rebecca S; Setter, Tim L; Gleadow, Roslyn M; Kulakow, Peter; Ferguson, Morag E; Rounsley, Steve; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2016-05-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) provides calories and nutrition for more than half a billion people. It was domesticated by native Amazonian peoples through cultivation of the wild progenitor M. esculenta ssp. flabellifolia and is now grown in tropical regions worldwide. Here we provide a high-quality genome assembly for cassava with improved contiguity, linkage, and completeness; almost 97% of genes are anchored to chromosomes. We find that paleotetraploidy in cassava is shared with the related rubber tree Hevea, providing a resource for comparative studies. We also sequence a global collection of 58 Manihot accessions, including cultivated and wild cassava accessions and related species such as Ceará or India rubber (M. glaziovii), and genotype 268 African cassava varieties. We find widespread interspecific admixture, and detect the genetic signature of past cassava breeding programs. As a clonally propagated crop, cassava is especially vulnerable to pathogens and abiotic stresses. This genomic resource will inform future genome-enabled breeding efforts to improve this staple crop.

  10. Rapeseed cytoplasm gives advantage in wild relatives and complicates genetically modified crop biocontainment.

    PubMed

    Allainguillaume, J; Harwood, T; Ford, C S; Cuccato, G; Norris, C; Allender, C J; Welters, R; King, G J; Wilkinson, M J

    2009-01-01

    Biocontainment methods for genetically modified crops closest to commercial reality (chloroplast transformation, male sterility) would be compromised (in absolute terms) by seed-mediated gene flow leading to chloroplast capture. Even in these circumstances, however, it can be argued that biocontainment still represses transgene movement, with the efficacy depending on the relative frequency of seed- and pollen-mediated gene flow. In this study, we screened for crop-specific chloroplast markers from rapeseed (Brassica napus) amongst sympatric and allopatric populations of wild B. oleracea in natural cliff-top populations and B. rapa in riverside and weedy populations. We found only modest crop chloroplast presence in wild B. oleracea and in weedy B. rapa, but a surprisingly high incidence in sympatric (but not in allopatric) riverside B. rapa populations. Chloroplast inheritance models indicate that elevated crop chloroplast acquisition is best explained if crop cytoplasm confers selective advantage in riverside B. rapa populations. Our results therefore imply that chloroplast transformation may slow transgene recruitment in two settings, but actually accelerate transgene spread in a third. This finding suggests that the appropriateness of chloroplast transformation for biocontainment policy depends on both context and geographical location.

  11. Gender-related amino acid intake of adult wild Red-legged Partridge (Alectoris rufa).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fígares, I; Lachica, M

    2016-06-01

    The Red-legged Partridge (Alectoris rufa) is under an enormous hunting pressure. It is bred intensively in game farms. The hunting season is during the non-reproductive resting period when partridges are at maintenance conditions. There is a lack of information about the amino acid (AA) composition of the natural diet of the adult birds in their habitat or differences in dietary AA composition related to gender. The objective of this work was to establish a first approach to the AA composition of the natural diet of adult wild Red-legged Partridge. Food content in crops and gizzards of female and male birds hunted in the same hunting season and area was analysed for AA composition. Females food had higher concentrations of individual essential AA (EAA) and non-essential AA (NEAA) than males. There are important differences in the concentration of AA in the natural diet of wild females and males. It may be advisable to use diets differing in the proportion of individual AA in the game farms during the non-reproductive resting period. PMID:27137762

  12. Wide Variability in Seed Characteristics, Kernel Quality, and Zein Profiles Among Diverse Maize Inbreds, Landraces, and Teosinte

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All crop species have been domesticated from their wild relatives, and geneticists are just now beginning to understand the genetic consequences of artificial (human) selection on agronomic traits that are relevant today. The major consequence is severe reduction in genetic diversity for genes unde...

  13. Genomics of Compositae crops: reference transcriptome assemblies and evidence of hybridization with wild relatives.

    PubMed

    Hodgins, Kathryn A; Lai, Zhao; Oliveira, Luiz O; Still, David W; Scascitelli, Moira; Barker, Michael S; Kane, Nolan C; Dempewolf, Hannes; Kozik, Alex; Kesseli, Richard V; Burke, John M; Michelmore, Richard W; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2014-01-01

    Although the Compositae harbours only two major food crops, sunflower and lettuce, many other species in this family are utilized by humans and have experienced various levels of domestication. Here, we have used next-generation sequencing technology to develop 15 reference transcriptome assemblies for Compositae crops or their wild relatives. These data allow us to gain insight into the evolutionary and genomic consequences of plant domestication. Specifically, we performed Illumina sequencing of Cichorium endivia, Cichorium intybus, Echinacea angustifolia, Iva annua, Helianthus tuberosus, Dahlia hybrida, Leontodon taraxacoides and Glebionis segetum, as well 454 sequencing of Guizotia scabra, Stevia rebaudiana, Parthenium argentatum and Smallanthus sonchifolius. Illumina reads were assembled using Trinity, and 454 reads were assembled using MIRA and CAP3. We evaluated the coverage of the transcriptomes using BLASTX analysis of a set of ultra-conserved orthologs (UCOs) and recovered most of these genes (88-98%). We found a correlation between contig length and read length for the 454 assemblies, and greater contig lengths for the 454 compared with the Illumina assemblies. This suggests that longer reads can aid in the assembly of more complete transcripts. Finally, we compared the divergence of orthologs at synonymous sites (Ks) between Compositae crops and their wild relatives and found greater divergence when the progenitors were self-incompatible. We also found greater divergence between pairs of taxa that had some evidence of postzygotic isolation. For several more distantly related congeners, such as chicory and endive, we identified a signature of introgression in the distribution of Ks values. PMID:24103297

  14. Age-related variation in immunity in a wild mammal population

    PubMed Central

    Nussey, Daniel H; Watt, Kathryn; Pilkington, Jill G; Zamoyska, Rose; McNeilly, Tom N

    2012-01-01

    Summary Age-related changes in immunity are well documented in humans and laboratory mammals. Using blood samples collected from wild Soay sheep, we show that pronounced differences in T-cell subsets and inflammatory markers amongst age classes are also evident under natural conditions. These shifts parallel those observed in mammals experiencing protected environments. We found progressive declines in the proportion of naïve CD4 T cells with age, a precipitous drop in γδ T cells after the second year of life and an increase in acute phase protein levels amongst geriatric sheep. Our findings suggest immune aging patterns observed in laboratory and domestic mammals may generalize to more complex, challenging environments and could have fitness costs under natural conditions. PMID:22107028

  15. Reply to J. Samuels: Taxonomic notes on several wild relatives of Solanum melongena L.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Rachel S; Knapp, Sandra; Karol, Kenneth G; Little, Damon P; Nee, Michael H; Litt, Amy

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the study "Phylogeographic relationships among Asian eggplants and new perspectives on eggplant domestication" by Meyer et al. (2012) was to use new and expanded accession sets coupled with molecular data to evaluate possible scenarios of eggplant domestication with as little influence as possible from any previously published nomenclatural scheme, and taking into consideration multiple sources of evidence regarding the history of eggplant in Asia. Samuels (2013) disfavored this system and in his Letter to the Editor attempted to re-evaluate the results according to his system. However, Samuels appears to have misread Meyer et al. and also makes several claims without the support of evidence. We stand by the results of Meyer et al., which are in agreement with the recent and much needed new taxonomic treatment for wild relatives of eggplant.

  16. Genetic Divergence between Camellia sinensis and Its Wild Relatives Revealed via Genome-Wide SNPs from RAD Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Wei, Chao-Ling; Liu, Hong-Wei; Wu, Jun-Lan; Li, Zheng-Guo; Zhang, Liang; Jian, Jian-Bo; Li, Ye-Yun; Tai, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Jiang, Chang-Jun; Xia, Tao; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Tea is one of the most popular beverages across the world and is made exclusively from cultivars of Camellia sinensis. Many wild relatives of the genus Camellia that are closely related to C. sinensis are native to Southwest China. In this study, we first identified the distinct genetic divergence between C. sinensis and its wild relatives and provided a glimpse into the artificial selection of tea plants at a genome-wide level by analyzing 15,444 genomic SNPs that were identified from 18 cultivated and wild tea accessions using a high-throughput genome-wide restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq) approach. Six distinct clusters were detected by phylogeny inferrence and principal component and genetic structural analyses, and these clusters corresponded to six Camellia species/varieties. Genetic divergence apparently indicated that C. taliensis var. bangwei is a semi-wild or transient landrace occupying a phylogenetic position between those wild and cultivated tea plants. Cultivated accessions exhibited greater heterozygosity than wild accessions, with the exception of C. taliensis var. bangwei. Thirteen genes with non-synonymous SNPs exhibited strong selective signals that were suggestive of putative artificial selective footprints for tea plants during domestication. The genome-wide SNPs provide a fundamental data resource for assessing genetic relationships, characterizing complex traits, comparing heterozygosity and analyzing putatitve artificial selection in tea plants.

  17. Genetic Divergence between Camellia sinensis and Its Wild Relatives Revealed via Genome-Wide SNPs from RAD Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-Wei; Wu, Jun-Lan; Li, Zheng-Guo; Zhang, Liang; Jian, Jian-Bo; Li, Ye-Yun; Tai, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Jiang, Chang-Jun; Xia, Tao; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Tea is one of the most popular beverages across the world and is made exclusively from cultivars of Camellia sinensis. Many wild relatives of the genus Camellia that are closely related to C. sinensis are native to Southwest China. In this study, we first identified the distinct genetic divergence between C. sinensis and its wild relatives and provided a glimpse into the artificial selection of tea plants at a genome-wide level by analyzing 15,444 genomic SNPs that were identified from 18 cultivated and wild tea accessions using a high-throughput genome-wide restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq) approach. Six distinct clusters were detected by phylogeny inferrence and principal component and genetic structural analyses, and these clusters corresponded to six Camellia species/varieties. Genetic divergence apparently indicated that C. taliensis var. bangwei is a semi-wild or transient landrace occupying a phylogenetic position between those wild and cultivated tea plants. Cultivated accessions exhibited greater heterozygosity than wild accessions, with the exception of C. taliensis var. bangwei. Thirteen genes with non-synonymous SNPs exhibited strong selective signals that were suggestive of putative artificial selective footprints for tea plants during domestication. The genome-wide SNPs provide a fundamental data resource for assessing genetic relationships, characterizing complex traits, comparing heterozygosity and analyzing putatitve artificial selection in tea plants. PMID:26962860

  18. Space use of African wild dogs in relation to other large carnivores.

    PubMed

    Darnell, Angela M; Graf, Jan A; Somers, Michael J; Slotow, Rob; Szykman Gunther, Micaela

    2014-01-01

    Interaction among species through competition is a principle process structuring ecological communities, affecting behavior, distribution, and ultimately the population dynamics of species. High competition among large African carnivores, associated with extensive diet overlap, manifests in interactions between subordinate African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and dominant lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). Using locations of large carnivores in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa, we found different responses from wild dogs to their two main competitors. Wild dogs avoided lions, particularly during denning, through a combination of spatial and temporal avoidance. However, wild dogs did not exhibit spatial or temporal avoidance of spotted hyenas, likely because wild dog pack sizes were large enough to adequately defend their kills. Understanding that larger carnivores affect the movements and space use of other carnivores is important for managing current small and fragmented carnivore populations, especially as reintroductions and translocations are essential tools used for the survival of endangered species, as with African wild dogs.

  19. Mitochondrial Genome Analysis of Wild Rice (Oryza minuta) and Its Comparison with Other Related Species

    PubMed Central

    Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Waqas, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Shahzad, Raheem; Seo, Chang-Woo; Shin, Jae-Ho; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Oryza minuta (Poaceae family) is a tetraploid wild relative of cultivated rice with a BBCC genome. O. minuta has the potential to resist against various pathogenic diseases such as bacterial blight (BB), white backed planthopper (WBPH) and brown plant hopper (BPH). Here, we sequenced and annotated the complete mitochondrial genome of O. minuta. The mtDNA genome is 515,022 bp, containing 60 protein coding genes, 31 tRNA genes and two rRNA genes. The mitochondrial genome organization and the gene content at the nucleotide level are highly similar (89%) to that of O. rufipogon. Comparison with other related species revealed that most of the genes with known function are conserved among the Poaceae members. Similarly, O. minuta mt genome shared 24 protein-coding genes, 15 tRNA genes and 1 ribosomal RNA gene with other rice species (indica and japonica). The evolutionary relationship and phylogenetic analysis revealed that O. minuta is more closely related to O. rufipogon than to any other related species. Such studies are essential to understand the evolutionary divergence among species and analyze common gene pools to combat risks in the current scenario of a changing environment. PMID:27045847

  20. Rubisco catalytic properties of wild and domesticated relatives provide scope for improving wheat photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Prins, Anneke; Orr, Douglas J; Andralojc, P John; Reynolds, Matthew P; Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Parry, Martin A J

    2016-03-01

    Rubisco is a major target for improving crop photosynthesis and yield, yet natural diversity in catalytic properties of this enzyme is poorly understood. Rubisco from 25 genotypes of the Triticeae tribe, including wild relatives of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), were surveyed to identify superior enzymes for improving photosynthesis in this crop. In vitro Rubisco carboxylation velocity (V c), Michaelis-Menten constants for CO2 (K c) and O2 (K o) and specificity factor (S c/o) were measured at 25 and 35 °C. V c and K c correlated positively, while V c and S c/o were inversely related. Rubisco large subunit genes (rbcL) were sequenced, and predicted corresponding amino acid differences analysed in relation to the corresponding catalytic properties. The effect of replacing native wheat Rubisco with counterparts from closely related species was analysed by modelling the response of photosynthesis to varying CO2 concentrations. The model predicted that two Rubisco enzymes would increase photosynthetic performance at 25 °C while only one of these also increased photosynthesis at 35 °C. Thus, under otherwise identical conditions, catalytic variation in the Rubiscos analysed is predicted to improve photosynthetic rates at physiological CO2 concentrations. Naturally occurring Rubiscos with superior properties amongst the Triticeae tribe can be exploited to improve wheat photosynthesis and crop productivity. PMID:26798025

  1. Rubisco catalytic properties of wild and domesticated relatives provide scope for improving wheat photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Prins, Anneke; Orr, Douglas J; Andralojc, P John; Reynolds, Matthew P; Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Parry, Martin A J

    2016-03-01

    Rubisco is a major target for improving crop photosynthesis and yield, yet natural diversity in catalytic properties of this enzyme is poorly understood. Rubisco from 25 genotypes of the Triticeae tribe, including wild relatives of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), were surveyed to identify superior enzymes for improving photosynthesis in this crop. In vitro Rubisco carboxylation velocity (V c), Michaelis-Menten constants for CO2 (K c) and O2 (K o) and specificity factor (S c/o) were measured at 25 and 35 °C. V c and K c correlated positively, while V c and S c/o were inversely related. Rubisco large subunit genes (rbcL) were sequenced, and predicted corresponding amino acid differences analysed in relation to the corresponding catalytic properties. The effect of replacing native wheat Rubisco with counterparts from closely related species was analysed by modelling the response of photosynthesis to varying CO2 concentrations. The model predicted that two Rubisco enzymes would increase photosynthetic performance at 25 °C while only one of these also increased photosynthesis at 35 °C. Thus, under otherwise identical conditions, catalytic variation in the Rubiscos analysed is predicted to improve photosynthetic rates at physiological CO2 concentrations. Naturally occurring Rubiscos with superior properties amongst the Triticeae tribe can be exploited to improve wheat photosynthesis and crop productivity.

  2. Rubisco catalytic properties of wild and domesticated relatives provide scope for improving wheat photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Anneke; Orr, Douglas J.; Andralojc, P. John; Reynolds, Matthew P.; Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Parry, Martin A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Rubisco is a major target for improving crop photosynthesis and yield, yet natural diversity in catalytic properties of this enzyme is poorly understood. Rubisco from 25 genotypes of the Triticeae tribe, including wild relatives of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), were surveyed to identify superior enzymes for improving photosynthesis in this crop. In vitro Rubisco carboxylation velocity (V c), Michaelis–Menten constants for CO2 (K c) and O2 (K o) and specificity factor (S c/o) were measured at 25 and 35 °C. V c and K c correlated positively, while V c and S c/o were inversely related. Rubisco large subunit genes (rbcL) were sequenced, and predicted corresponding amino acid differences analysed in relation to the corresponding catalytic properties. The effect of replacing native wheat Rubisco with counterparts from closely related species was analysed by modelling the response of photosynthesis to varying CO2 concentrations. The model predicted that two Rubisco enzymes would increase photosynthetic performance at 25 °C while only one of these also increased photosynthesis at 35 °C. Thus, under otherwise identical conditions, catalytic variation in the Rubiscos analysed is predicted to improve photosynthetic rates at physiological CO2 concentrations. Naturally occurring Rubiscos with superior properties amongst the Triticeae tribe can be exploited to improve wheat photosynthesis and crop productivity. PMID:26798025

  3. Antibodies to West Nile virus and related flaviviruses in wild boar, red foxes and other mesomammals from Spain.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Ana-Valeria; Vicente, Joaquín; Sobrino, Raquel; Perez-Ramírez, Elisa; Llorente, Francisco; Höfle, Ursula

    2012-10-12

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and Iberian pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) that are raised extensively outdoors, as well as other wild mesomammals from south central Spain and wild boar from Doñana National Park (DNP), were tested for antibodies against related flaviviruses by ELISA and for antibodies against WNV by VNT. Mean flavivirus seroprevalence according to ELISA was 20.4 ± 7.8% (21 out of 103) in red foxes, 12.6 ± 2.8% (69 out of 545) in wild boars, and 3.3±2.7% (6 out of 177) in Iberian pigs. A stone marten (Martes foina) also tested positive. Flavivirus seroprevalence in wild boar was significantly higher in DNP, and increased with age. Haemolysis of the serum samples limited interpretation of VNT to 28 samples, confirming WNV seroprevalence in one red fox, four Iberian pigs and nine wild boars. ELISA positive, microVNT negative samples suggest presence of non-neutralizing antibodies against WNV or antibodies to other antigenically related flaviviruses. Despite the importance of wetlands for flavivirus maintenance and amplification, WNV/flavivirus seroprevalence in wild boar and red foxes was not associated to wetland habitats. This is the first report of exposure of red foxes to WNV. With view to use of the tested species as sentinels for flavivirus activity, limited exposure of Iberian pigs that would be available for regular sampling, low numbers of foxes collected and concentration of wild boar harvest in the winter season are major drawbacks.

  4. Genomics of crop wild relatives: expanding the gene pool for crop improvement.

    PubMed

    Brozynska, Marta; Furtado, Agnelo; Henry, Robert J

    2016-04-01

    Plant breeders require access to new genetic diversity to satisfy the demands of a growing human population for more food that can be produced in a variable or changing climate and to deliver the high-quality food with nutritional and health benefits demanded by consumers. The close relatives of domesticated plants, crop wild relatives (CWRs), represent a practical gene pool for use by plant breeders. Genomics of CWR generates data that support the use of CWR to expand the genetic diversity of crop plants. Advances in DNA sequencing technology are enabling the efficient sequencing of CWR and their increased use in crop improvement. As the sequencing of genomes of major crop species is completed, attention has shifted to analysis of the wider gene pool of major crops including CWR. A combination of de novo sequencing and resequencing is required to efficiently explore useful genetic variation in CWR. Analysis of the nuclear genome, transcriptome and maternal (chloroplast and mitochondrial) genome of CWR is facilitating their use in crop improvement. Genome analysis results in discovery of useful alleles in CWR and identification of regions of the genome in which diversity has been lost in domestication bottlenecks. Targeting of high priority CWR for sequencing will maximize the contribution of genome sequencing of CWR. Coordination of global efforts to apply genomics has the potential to accelerate access to and conservation of the biodiversity essential to the sustainability of agriculture and food production. PMID:26311018

  5. Genomics of crop wild relatives: expanding the gene pool for crop improvement.

    PubMed

    Brozynska, Marta; Furtado, Agnelo; Henry, Robert J

    2016-04-01

    Plant breeders require access to new genetic diversity to satisfy the demands of a growing human population for more food that can be produced in a variable or changing climate and to deliver the high-quality food with nutritional and health benefits demanded by consumers. The close relatives of domesticated plants, crop wild relatives (CWRs), represent a practical gene pool for use by plant breeders. Genomics of CWR generates data that support the use of CWR to expand the genetic diversity of crop plants. Advances in DNA sequencing technology are enabling the efficient sequencing of CWR and their increased use in crop improvement. As the sequencing of genomes of major crop species is completed, attention has shifted to analysis of the wider gene pool of major crops including CWR. A combination of de novo sequencing and resequencing is required to efficiently explore useful genetic variation in CWR. Analysis of the nuclear genome, transcriptome and maternal (chloroplast and mitochondrial) genome of CWR is facilitating their use in crop improvement. Genome analysis results in discovery of useful alleles in CWR and identification of regions of the genome in which diversity has been lost in domestication bottlenecks. Targeting of high priority CWR for sequencing will maximize the contribution of genome sequencing of CWR. Coordination of global efforts to apply genomics has the potential to accelerate access to and conservation of the biodiversity essential to the sustainability of agriculture and food production.

  6. Domestication Syndrome Is Investigated by Proteomic Analysis between Cultivated Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Its Wild Relatives.

    PubMed

    An, Feifei; Chen, Ting; Stéphanie, Djabou Mouafi Astride; Li, Kaimian; Li, Qing X; Carvalho, Luiz J C B; Tomlins, Keith; Li, Jun; Gu, Bi; Chen, Songbi

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) wild relatives remain a largely untapped potential for genetic improvement. However, the domestication syndrome phenomena from wild species to cultivated cassava remain poorly understood. The analysis of leaf anatomy and photosynthetic activity showed significantly different between cassava cultivars SC205, SC8 and wild relative M. esculenta ssp. Flabellifolia (W14). The dry matter, starch and amylose contents in the storage roots of cassava cultivars were significantly more than that in wild species. In order to further reveal the differences in photosynthesis and starch accumulation of cultivars and wild species, the globally differential proteins between cassava SC205, SC8 and W14 were analyzed using 2-DE in combination with MALDI-TOF tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 175 and 304 proteins in leaves and storage roots were identified, respectively. Of these, 122 and 127 common proteins in leaves and storage roots were detected in SC205, SC8 and W14, respectively. There were 11, 2 and 2 unique proteins in leaves, as well as 58, 9 and 12 unique proteins in storage roots for W14, SC205 and SC8, respectively, indicating proteomic changes in leaves and storage roots between cultivated cassava and its wild relatives. These proteins and their differential regulation across plants of contrasting leaf morphology, leaf anatomy pattern and photosynthetic related parameters and starch content could contribute to the footprinting of cassava domestication syndrome. We conclude that these global protein data would be of great value to detect the key gene groups related to cassava selection in the domestication syndrome phenomena. PMID:27023871

  7. Domestication Syndrome Is Investigated by Proteomic Analysis between Cultivated Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Its Wild Relatives.

    PubMed

    An, Feifei; Chen, Ting; Stéphanie, Djabou Mouafi Astride; Li, Kaimian; Li, Qing X; Carvalho, Luiz J C B; Tomlins, Keith; Li, Jun; Gu, Bi; Chen, Songbi

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) wild relatives remain a largely untapped potential for genetic improvement. However, the domestication syndrome phenomena from wild species to cultivated cassava remain poorly understood. The analysis of leaf anatomy and photosynthetic activity showed significantly different between cassava cultivars SC205, SC8 and wild relative M. esculenta ssp. Flabellifolia (W14). The dry matter, starch and amylose contents in the storage roots of cassava cultivars were significantly more than that in wild species. In order to further reveal the differences in photosynthesis and starch accumulation of cultivars and wild species, the globally differential proteins between cassava SC205, SC8 and W14 were analyzed using 2-DE in combination with MALDI-TOF tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 175 and 304 proteins in leaves and storage roots were identified, respectively. Of these, 122 and 127 common proteins in leaves and storage roots were detected in SC205, SC8 and W14, respectively. There were 11, 2 and 2 unique proteins in leaves, as well as 58, 9 and 12 unique proteins in storage roots for W14, SC205 and SC8, respectively, indicating proteomic changes in leaves and storage roots between cultivated cassava and its wild relatives. These proteins and their differential regulation across plants of contrasting leaf morphology, leaf anatomy pattern and photosynthetic related parameters and starch content could contribute to the footprinting of cassava domestication syndrome. We conclude that these global protein data would be of great value to detect the key gene groups related to cassava selection in the domestication syndrome phenomena.

  8. Domestication Syndrome Is Investigated by Proteomic Analysis between Cultivated Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Its Wild Relatives

    PubMed Central

    An, Feifei; Chen, Ting; Stéphanie, Djabou Mouafi Astride; Li, Kaimian; Li, Qing X.; Carvalho, Luiz J. C. B.; Tomlins, Keith; Li, Jun; Gu, Bi; Chen, Songbi

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) wild relatives remain a largely untapped potential for genetic improvement. However, the domestication syndrome phenomena from wild species to cultivated cassava remain poorly understood. The analysis of leaf anatomy and photosynthetic activity showed significantly different between cassava cultivars SC205, SC8 and wild relative M. esculenta ssp. Flabellifolia (W14). The dry matter, starch and amylose contents in the storage roots of cassava cultivars were significantly more than that in wild species. In order to further reveal the differences in photosynthesis and starch accumulation of cultivars and wild species, the globally differential proteins between cassava SC205, SC8 and W14 were analyzed using 2-DE in combination with MALDI-TOF tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 175 and 304 proteins in leaves and storage roots were identified, respectively. Of these, 122 and 127 common proteins in leaves and storage roots were detected in SC205, SC8 and W14, respectively. There were 11, 2 and 2 unique proteins in leaves, as well as 58, 9 and 12 unique proteins in storage roots for W14, SC205 and SC8, respectively, indicating proteomic changes in leaves and storage roots between cultivated cassava and its wild relatives. These proteins and their differential regulation across plants of contrasting leaf morphology, leaf anatomy pattern and photosynthetic related parameters and starch content could contribute to the footprinting of cassava domestication syndrome. We conclude that these global protein data would be of great value to detect the key gene groups related to cassava selection in the domestication syndrome phenomena. PMID:27023871

  9. The GRIN-Taxonomy Crop Wild Relative Inventory. Pp 453-457 in Maxted, N., Mulloo, M.E., Ford-Lloyd, B.V. Enhnacing crop genepool use: capturing wild relative and landrace diversity for crop improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to provide an informational tool for assessing and prioritizing germplasm needs for ex situ conservation in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), the USDA Agricultural Research Service in 2008 initiated a project to identify crop wild relatives (CWR) of major and minor crops. Eac...

  10. Resistance to Meloidogyne javanica and Rotylenchulus reniformis in Wild Relatives of Pigeonpea.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S B; Remanandan, P; McDonald, D

    1993-12-01

    Meloidogyne javanica and Rotylenchulus reniformis are important nematode pests of pigeonpea. Greenhouse evaluation of 66 accessions of 25 species of Cajanus, Rhynchosia, and Flemingia for resistance to M. javanica based on number and size of galls, galled area of root, and number of egg masses showed resistance to be available in these wild relatives of pigeonpea. Thirty-five accessions had

  11. Resistance to Meloidogyne javanica and Rotylenchulus reniformis in Wild Relatives of Pigeonpea

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, S. B.; Remanandan, P.; McDonald, D.

    1993-01-01

    Meloidogyne javanica and Rotylenchulus reniformis are important nematode pests of pigeonpea. Greenhouse evaluation of 66 accessions of 25 species of Cajanus, Rhynchosia, and Flemingia for resistance to M. javanica based on number and size of galls, galled area of root, and number of egg masses showed resistance to be available in these wild relatives of pigeonpea. Thirty-five accessions had ≤ 10 galls. Five accessions of C. scarabaeoides (ICPW 92, 101, 103, 128, and 133) had very small or no galls. Damage indices (based on gall number, gall size, and galled area of root) ranged between 1 and 8 on a 1 (highly resistant) to 9 (highly susceptible) scale. ICPW 92 was highly resistant to M. javanica, and 38 other accessions were resistant. Accessions of Flemingia spp. and Rhynchosia spp. showed greater susceptibility than accessions of Cajanus spp. Based on the number of egg masses on roots, no accession of the three genera was highly resistant to R. reniformis, and 83% of the tested accessions were susceptible. Two accessions of C. scarabaeoides (ICPW 38 and 92) and one accession each of R. aurea (ICPW 210), R. minima (ICPW 237), and R. rothii (ICPW 257) were resistant to R. reniformis. Species of Cajanus and Flemingia were generally more susceptible to R. reniformis than were Rhynchosia spp. ICPW 92 was identified as a promising genotype with genes for resistance to both nematodes. PMID:19279848

  12. Geography of Genetic Structure in Barley Wild Relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Patrick; Reilley, Ann; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Richards, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity requires knowledge of the distribution and structure of the variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic diversity for barley improvement and co-occurs with the domesticate within the center of origin. We studied the current distribution of genetic diversity and population structure in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan and investigated whether it is correlated with either spatial or climatic variation inferred from publically available climate layers commonly used in conservation and ecogeographical studies. The genetic structure of 32 populations collected in 2012 was analyzed with 37 SSRs. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified. Populations were characterized by admixture and high allelic richness, and genetic diversity was concentrated in the northern part of the study area. Genetic structure, spatial location and climate were not correlated. This may point out a limitation in using large scale climatic data layers to predict genetic diversity, especially as it is applied to regional genetic resources collections in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum. PMID:27513459

  13. Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathera??molting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

  14. Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathermolting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

  15. Geography of Genetic Structure in Barley Wild Relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Thormann, Imke; Reeves, Patrick; Reilley, Ann; Engels, Johannes M M; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Richards, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity requires knowledge of the distribution and structure of the variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic diversity for barley improvement and co-occurs with the domesticate within the center of origin. We studied the current distribution of genetic diversity and population structure in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan and investigated whether it is correlated with either spatial or climatic variation inferred from publically available climate layers commonly used in conservation and ecogeographical studies. The genetic structure of 32 populations collected in 2012 was analyzed with 37 SSRs. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified. Populations were characterized by admixture and high allelic richness, and genetic diversity was concentrated in the northern part of the study area. Genetic structure, spatial location and climate were not correlated. This may point out a limitation in using large scale climatic data layers to predict genetic diversity, especially as it is applied to regional genetic resources collections in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum. PMID:27513459

  16. Declining wild salmon populations in relation to parasites from farm salmon.

    PubMed

    Krkosek, Martin; Ford, Jennifer S; Morton, Alexandra; Lele, Subhash; Myers, Ransom A; Lewis, Mark A

    2007-12-14

    Rather than benefiting wild fish, industrial aquaculture may contribute to declines in ocean fisheries and ecosystems. Farm salmon are commonly infected with salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis), which are native ectoparasitic copepods. We show that recurrent louse infestations of wild juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), all associated with salmon farms, have depressed wild pink salmon populations and placed them on a trajectory toward rapid local extinction. The louse-induced mortality of pink salmon is commonly over 80% and exceeds previous fishing mortality. If outbreaks continue, then local extinction is certain, and a 99% collapse in pink salmon population abundance is expected in four salmon generations. These results suggest that salmon farms can cause parasite outbreaks that erode the capacity of a coastal ecosystem to support wild salmon populations.

  17. Space Use of African Wild Dogs in Relation to Other Large Carnivores

    PubMed Central

    Darnell, Angela M.; Graf, Jan A.; Somers, Michael J.; Slotow, Rob; Szykman Gunther, Micaela

    2014-01-01

    Interaction among species through competition is a principle process structuring ecological communities, affecting behavior, distribution, and ultimately the population dynamics of species. High competition among large African carnivores, associated with extensive diet overlap, manifests in interactions between subordinate African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and dominant lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). Using locations of large carnivores in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa, we found different responses from wild dogs to their two main competitors. Wild dogs avoided lions, particularly during denning, through a combination of spatial and temporal avoidance. However, wild dogs did not exhibit spatial or temporal avoidance of spotted hyenas, likely because wild dog pack sizes were large enough to adequately defend their kills. Understanding that larger carnivores affect the movements and space use of other carnivores is important for managing current small and fragmented carnivore populations, especially as reintroductions and translocations are essential tools used for the survival of endangered species, as with African wild dogs. PMID:24896638

  18. Space use of African wild dogs in relation to other large carnivores.

    PubMed

    Darnell, Angela M; Graf, Jan A; Somers, Michael J; Slotow, Rob; Szykman Gunther, Micaela

    2014-01-01

    Interaction among species through competition is a principle process structuring ecological communities, affecting behavior, distribution, and ultimately the population dynamics of species. High competition among large African carnivores, associated with extensive diet overlap, manifests in interactions between subordinate African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and dominant lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). Using locations of large carnivores in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa, we found different responses from wild dogs to their two main competitors. Wild dogs avoided lions, particularly during denning, through a combination of spatial and temporal avoidance. However, wild dogs did not exhibit spatial or temporal avoidance of spotted hyenas, likely because wild dog pack sizes were large enough to adequately defend their kills. Understanding that larger carnivores affect the movements and space use of other carnivores is important for managing current small and fragmented carnivore populations, especially as reintroductions and translocations are essential tools used for the survival of endangered species, as with African wild dogs. PMID:24896638

  19. Wild Relatives of the Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.: Solanaceae): New Understanding of Species Names in a Complex Group

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S.; Prohens, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Background The common or brinjal eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) belongs to the Leptostemonum Clade (the “spiny” solanums) of the species-rich genus Solanum (Solanaceae). Unlike most of the genus, the eggplant and its relatives are from the Old World; most eggplant wild relatives are from Africa. An informal system for naming eggplant wild relatives largely based on crossing and other biosystematics data has been in use for approximately a decade. This system recognises several forms of two broadly conceived species, S. incanum L. and S. melongena. Recent morphological and molecular work has shown that species-level differences exist between these entities, and a new species-level nomenclature has been identified as necessary for plant breeders and for the maintenance of accurately named germplasm. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined herbarium specimens from throughout the wild species ranges as part of a larger revision of the spiny solanums of Africa. Based on these morphological and molecular studies, we delimited species in the group to which the common eggplant belongs and constructed identification keys for the group. We also examined the monophyly of the group considered as the eggplant relatives by previous authors. Conclusions/Significance We recognise ten species in this group: S. aureitomentosum Bitter, S. campylacanthum A.Rich., S. cerasiferum Dunal, S. incanum L., S. insanum L., S. lichtensteinii Willd., S. linnaeanum Hepper & P.-M.L.Jaeger, S. melongena L., S. rigidum Lam. and S. umtuma Voronts. & S.Knapp. We review the history of naming and provide keys and character lists for all species. Ploidy level differences have not been investigated in the eggplant wild relatives; we identify this as a priority for improvement of crop wild relative use in breeding. The application of species-level names to these entities will help focus new collecting efforts for brinjal eggplant improvement and help facilitate information exchange. PMID:23451138

  20. An ecological approach to measuring the evolutionary consequences of gene flow from crops to wild or weedy relatives1

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Lesley G.; Lee, David; Shukla, Kruti; Waite, Thomas A.; Bartsch, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Agricultural practices routinely create opportunities for crops to hybridize with wild relatives, leading to crop gene introgression into wild genomes. Conservationists typically worry this introgression could lead to genetic homogenization of wild populations, over and above the central concern of transgene escape. Alternatively, viewing introgression as analogous to species invasion, we suggest that increased genetic diversity may likewise be an undesirable outcome. Methods: Here, we compare the sensitivity of conventional population genetic metrics with species diversity indices as indicators of the impact of gene flow on genetic diversity. We illustrate this novel approach using multilocus genotype data (12 allozyme loci) from 10 wild (Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima) and eight putative crop–wild hybrid beet populations (B. vulgaris subsp. vulgaris × B. vulgaris subsp. maritima) scattered throughout Europe. Results: Conventional population genetic metrics mostly failed to detect shifts in genetic composition of putative hybrid populations. By contrast, species diversity indices unambiguously revealed increased genetic diversity in putative hybrid populations. Discussion: We encourage other workers to explore the utility of our more sensitive approach for risk assessment prior to the release of transgenic crops, with a view toward widespread adoption of our method in studies aimed at detecting allelic invasion. PMID:27011898

  1. Coordination of Leaf Photosynthesis, Transpiration, and Structural Traits in Rice and Wild Relatives (Genus Oryza).

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Rita; Koteyeva, Nuria; Voznesenskaya, Elena; Evans, Marc A; Cousins, Asaph B; Edwards, Gerald E

    2013-07-01

    The genus Oryza, which includes rice (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) and wild relatives, is a useful genus to study leaf properties in order to identify structural features that control CO(2) access to chloroplasts, photosynthesis, water use efficiency, and drought tolerance. Traits, 26 structural and 17 functional, associated with photosynthesis and transpiration were quantified on 24 accessions (representatives of 17 species and eight genomes). Hypotheses of associations within, and between, structure, photosynthesis, and transpiration were tested. Two main clusters of positively interrelated leaf traits were identified: in the first cluster were structural features, leaf thickness (Thick(leaf)), mesophyll (M) cell surface area exposed to intercellular air space per unit of leaf surface area (S(mes)), and M cell size; a second group included functional traits, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, M conductance to CO(2) diffusion (g(m)), stomatal conductance to gas diffusion (g(s)), and the g(m)/g(s) ratio.While net photosynthetic rate was positively correlated with gm, neither was significantly linked with any individual structural traits. The results suggest that changes in gm depend on covariations of multiple leaf (S(mes)) and M cell (including cell wall thickness) structural traits. There was an inverse relationship between Thick(leaf) and transpiration rate and a significant positive association between Thick(leaf) and leaf transpiration efficiency. Interestingly, high g(m) together with high g(m)/g(s) and a low S(mes)/g(m) ratio (M resistance to CO(2) diffusion per unit of cell surface area exposed to intercellular air space) appear to be ideal for supporting leaf photosynthesis while preserving water; in addition, thick M cell walls may be beneficial for plant drought tolerance.

  2. The genomics of wild yeast populations sheds light on the domestication of man's best (micro) friend.

    PubMed

    Eberlein, Chris; Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Landry, Christian R

    2015-11-01

    The domestication of plants, animals and microbes by humans are the longest artificial evolution experiments ever performed. The study of these long-term experiments can teach us about the genomics of adaptation through the identification of the genetic bases underlying the traits favoured by humans. In laboratory evolution, the characterization of the molecular changes that evolved specifically in some lineages is straightforward because the ancestors are readily available, for instance in the freezer. However, in the case of domesticated species, the ancestor is often missing, which leads to the necessity of going back to nature in order to infer the most likely ancestral state. Significant and relatively recent examples of this approach include wolves as the closest wild relative to domestic dogs (Axelsson et al. 2013) and teosinte as the closest relative to maize (reviewed in Hake & Ross-Ibarra 2015). In both cases, the joint analysis of domesticated lineages and their wild cousins has been key in reconstructing the molecular history of their domestication. While the identification of closest wild relatives has been done for many plants and animals, these comparisons represent challenges for micro-organisms. This has been the case for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whose natural ecological niche is particularly challenging to define. For centuries, this unicellular fungus has been the cellular factory for wine, beer and bread crafting, and currently for bioethanol and drug production. While the recent development of genomics has lead to the identification of many genetic elements associated with important wine characteristics, the historical origin of some of the domesticated wine strains has remained elusive due to the lack of knowledge of their close wild relatives. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Almeida et al. (2015) identified what is to date the closest known wild population of the wine yeast. This population is found associated with

  3. The genomics of wild yeast populations sheds light on the domestication of man's best (micro) friend.

    PubMed

    Eberlein, Chris; Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Landry, Christian R

    2015-11-01

    The domestication of plants, animals and microbes by humans are the longest artificial evolution experiments ever performed. The study of these long-term experiments can teach us about the genomics of adaptation through the identification of the genetic bases underlying the traits favoured by humans. In laboratory evolution, the characterization of the molecular changes that evolved specifically in some lineages is straightforward because the ancestors are readily available, for instance in the freezer. However, in the case of domesticated species, the ancestor is often missing, which leads to the necessity of going back to nature in order to infer the most likely ancestral state. Significant and relatively recent examples of this approach include wolves as the closest wild relative to domestic dogs (Axelsson et al. 2013) and teosinte as the closest relative to maize (reviewed in Hake & Ross-Ibarra 2015). In both cases, the joint analysis of domesticated lineages and their wild cousins has been key in reconstructing the molecular history of their domestication. While the identification of closest wild relatives has been done for many plants and animals, these comparisons represent challenges for micro-organisms. This has been the case for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whose natural ecological niche is particularly challenging to define. For centuries, this unicellular fungus has been the cellular factory for wine, beer and bread crafting, and currently for bioethanol and drug production. While the recent development of genomics has lead to the identification of many genetic elements associated with important wine characteristics, the historical origin of some of the domesticated wine strains has remained elusive due to the lack of knowledge of their close wild relatives. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Almeida et al. (2015) identified what is to date the closest known wild population of the wine yeast. This population is found associated with

  4. Relative Performance of Non-Local Cultivars and Local, Wild Populations of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) in Competition Experiments.

    PubMed

    Palik, D J; Snow, A A; Stottlemyer, A L; Miriti, M N; Heaton, E A

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of increased invasiveness in cultivated varieties of native perennial species is a question of interest in biofuel risk assessment. Competitive success is a key factor in the fitness and invasive potential of perennial plants, and thus the large-scale release of high-yielding biomass cultivars warrants empirical comparisons with local conspecifics in the presence of competitors. We evaluated the performance of non-local cultivars and local wild biotypes of the tallgrass species Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) in competition experiments during two growing seasons in Ohio and Iowa. At each location, we measured growth and reproductive traits (plant height, tiller number, flowering time, aboveground biomass, and seed production) of four non-locally sourced cultivars and two locally collected wild biotypes. Plants were grown in common garden experiments under three types of competition, referred to as none, moderate (with Schizachyrium scoparium), and high (with Bromus inermis). In both states, the two "lowland" cultivars grew taller, flowered later, and produced between 2x and 7.5x more biomass and between 3x and 34x more seeds per plant than local wild biotypes, while the other two cultivars were comparable to wild biotypes in these traits. Competition did not affect relative differences among biotypes, with the exception of shoot number, which was more similar among biotypes under high competition. Insights into functional differences between cultivars and wild biotypes are crucial for developing biomass crops while mitigating the potential for invasiveness. Here, two of the four cultivars generally performed better than wild biotypes, indicating that these biotypes may pose more of a risk in terms of their ability to establish vigorous feral populations in new regions outside of their area of origin. Our results support an ongoing assessment of switchgrass cultivars developed for large-scale planting for biofuels. PMID:27120201

  5. Relative Performance of Non-Local Cultivars and Local, Wild Populations of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) in Competition Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Palik, D. J.; Snow, A. A.; Stottlemyer, A. L.; Miriti, M. N.; Heaton, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of increased invasiveness in cultivated varieties of native perennial species is a question of interest in biofuel risk assessment. Competitive success is a key factor in the fitness and invasive potential of perennial plants, and thus the large-scale release of high-yielding biomass cultivars warrants empirical comparisons with local conspecifics in the presence of competitors. We evaluated the performance of non-local cultivars and local wild biotypes of the tallgrass species Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) in competition experiments during two growing seasons in Ohio and Iowa. At each location, we measured growth and reproductive traits (plant height, tiller number, flowering time, aboveground biomass, and seed production) of four non-locally sourced cultivars and two locally collected wild biotypes. Plants were grown in common garden experiments under three types of competition, referred to as none, moderate (with Schizachyrium scoparium), and high (with Bromus inermis). In both states, the two “lowland” cultivars grew taller, flowered later, and produced between 2x and 7.5x more biomass and between 3x and 34x more seeds per plant than local wild biotypes, while the other two cultivars were comparable to wild biotypes in these traits. Competition did not affect relative differences among biotypes, with the exception of shoot number, which was more similar among biotypes under high competition. Insights into functional differences between cultivars and wild biotypes are crucial for developing biomass crops while mitigating the potential for invasiveness. Here, two of the four cultivars generally performed better than wild biotypes, indicating that these biotypes may pose more of a risk in terms of their ability to establish vigorous feral populations in new regions outside of their area of origin. Our results support an ongoing assessment of switchgrass cultivars developed for large-scale planting for biofuels. PMID:27120201

  6. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Vicia faba L. Landraces and Wild Related Species Assessed by Nuclear SSRs

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Manuela; Lopes, Susana; Viegas, Wanda; Veloso, Maria Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a facultative cross-pollinating legume crop with a great importance for food and feed due to its high protein content as well as the important role in soil fertility and nitrogen fixation. In this work we evaluated genetic diversity and population structure of faba bean accessions from the Western Mediterranean basin and wild related species. For that purpose we screened 53 V. faba, 2 V. johannis and 7 V. narbonensis accessions from Portugal, Spain and Morocco with 28 faba bean Single Sequence Repeats (SSR). SSR genotyping showed that the number of alleles detected per locus for the polymorphic markers ranged between 2 and 10, with Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) values between 0.662 and 0.071, and heterozygosity (HO) between 0–0.467. Heterozygosity and inbreeding coefficient levels indicate a higher level of inbreeding in wild related species than in cultivated Vicia. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed a superior genetic diversity within accessions than between accessions even from distant regions. These results are in accordance to population structure analysis showing that individuals from the same accession can be genetically more similar to individuals from far away accessions, than from individuals from the same accession. In all three levels of analysis (whole panel of cultivated and wild accessions, cultivated faba bean accessions and Portuguese accessions) no population structure was observed based on geography or climatic factors. Differences between V. narbonensis and V. johannis are undetectable although these wild taxa are clearly distinct from V. faba accessions. Thus, a limited gene flow occurred between cultivated accessions and wild relatives. Contrastingly, the lack of population structure seems to indicate a high degree of gene flow between V. faba accessions, possibly explained by the partially allogamous habit in association with frequent seed exchange/introduction. PMID:27168146

  7. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Vicia faba L. Landraces and Wild Related Species Assessed by Nuclear SSRs.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Hugo R; Tomás, Diana; Silva, Manuela; Lopes, Susana; Viegas, Wanda; Veloso, Maria Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a facultative cross-pollinating legume crop with a great importance for food and feed due to its high protein content as well as the important role in soil fertility and nitrogen fixation. In this work we evaluated genetic diversity and population structure of faba bean accessions from the Western Mediterranean basin and wild related species. For that purpose we screened 53 V. faba, 2 V. johannis and 7 V. narbonensis accessions from Portugal, Spain and Morocco with 28 faba bean Single Sequence Repeats (SSR). SSR genotyping showed that the number of alleles detected per locus for the polymorphic markers ranged between 2 and 10, with Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) values between 0.662 and 0.071, and heterozygosity (HO) between 0-0.467. Heterozygosity and inbreeding coefficient levels indicate a higher level of inbreeding in wild related species than in cultivated Vicia. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed a superior genetic diversity within accessions than between accessions even from distant regions. These results are in accordance to population structure analysis showing that individuals from the same accession can be genetically more similar to individuals from far away accessions, than from individuals from the same accession. In all three levels of analysis (whole panel of cultivated and wild accessions, cultivated faba bean accessions and Portuguese accessions) no population structure was observed based on geography or climatic factors. Differences between V. narbonensis and V. johannis are undetectable although these wild taxa are clearly distinct from V. faba accessions. Thus, a limited gene flow occurred between cultivated accessions and wild relatives. Contrastingly, the lack of population structure seems to indicate a high degree of gene flow between V. faba accessions, possibly explained by the partially allogamous habit in association with frequent seed exchange/introduction. PMID:27168146

  8. Quantifying heritable variation in fitness-related traits of wild, farmed and hybrid Atlantic salmon families in a wild river environment.

    PubMed

    Reed, T E; Prodöhl, P; Hynes, R; Cross, T; Ferguson, A; McGinnity, P

    2015-08-01

    Farmed fish are typically genetically different from wild conspecifics. Escapees from fish farms may contribute one-way gene flow from farm to wild gene pools, which can depress population productivity, dilute local adaptations and disrupt coadapted gene complexes. Here, we reanalyse data from two experiments (McGinnity et al., 1997, 2003) where performance of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) progeny originating from experimental crosses between farm and wild parents (in three different cohorts) were measured in a natural stream under common garden conditions. Previous published analyses focussed on group-level differences but did not account for pedigree structure, as we do here using modern mixed-effect models. Offspring with one or two farm parents exhibited poorer survival in their first and second year of life compared with those with two wild parents and these group-level inferences were robust to excluding outlier families. Variation in performance among farm, hybrid and wild families was generally similar in magnitude. Farm offspring were generally larger at all life stages examined than wild offspring, but the differences were moderate (5-20%) and similar in magnitude in the wild versus hatchery environments. Quantitative genetic analyses conducted using a Bayesian framework revealed moderate heritability in juvenile fork length and mass and positive genetic correlations (>0.85) between these morphological traits. Our study confirms (using more rigorous statistical techniques) previous studies showing that offspring of wild fish invariably have higher fitness and contributes fresh insights into family-level variation in performance of farm, wild and hybrid Atlantic salmon families in the wild. It also adds to a small, but growing, number of studies that estimate key evolutionary parameters in wild salmonid populations. Such information is vital in modelling the impacts of introgression by escaped farm salmon.

  9. Comment on "Declining wild salmon populations in relation to parasites from farm salmon".

    PubMed

    Riddell, Brian E; Beamish, Richard J; Richards, Laura J; Candy, John R

    2008-12-19

    Krkosek et al. (Reports, 14 December 2007, p. 1772) claimed that sea lice spread from salmon farms placed wild pink salmon populations "on a trajectory toward rapid local extinction." Their prediction is inconsistent with observed pink salmon returns and overstates the risks from sea lice and salmon farming.

  10. Genetic variation in historical and modern apple cultivars compared to wild relatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant domestication is generally modeled as a scenario wherein strong artificial selection is applied to a small subset of the population of a wild species. The result is that the domesticated species exhibits a genome-wide reduction in genetic variation, referred to as a genetic bottleneck. This ...

  11. Identification of Juglans wild relatives resistant to crown gall caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild species are a source of useful agronomic traits for crop plants including but not limited to pathogen resistance, drought tolerance, and salt tolerance (Aradhya and Kluepfel 2012). To exploit this natural diversity of disease resistance, we are conducting the first systematic exploration of th...

  12. Gene flow between wheat and wild relatives: empirical evidence from Aegilops geniculata, Ae. neglecta and Ae. triuncialis.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, Nils; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Lappe, Sylvain; Pasche, Sophie; Parisod, Christian; Felber, François

    2011-09-01

    Gene flow between domesticated species and their wild relatives is receiving growing attention. This study addressed introgression between wheat and natural populations of its wild relatives (Aegilops species). The sampling included 472 individuals, collected from 32 Mediterranean populations of three widespread Aegilops species (Aegilops geniculata, Ae. neglecta and Ae. triuncialis) and compared wheat field borders to areas isolated from agriculture. Individuals were characterized with amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting, analysed through two computational approaches (i.e. Bayesian estimations of admixture and fuzzy clustering), and sequences marking wheat-specific insertions of transposable elements. With this combined approach, we detected substantial gene flow between wheat and Aegilops species. Specifically, Ae. neglecta and Ae. triuncialis showed significantly more admixed individuals close to wheat fields than in locations isolated from agriculture. In contrast, little evidence of gene flow was found in Ae. geniculata. Our results indicated that reproductive barriers have been regularly bypassed during the long history of sympatry between wheat and Aegilops.

  13. Gene flow between wheat and wild relatives: empirical evidence from Aegilops geniculata, Ae. neglecta and Ae. triuncialis

    PubMed Central

    Arrigo, Nils; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Lappe, Sylvain; Pasche, Sophie; Parisod, Christian; Felber, François

    2011-01-01

    Gene flow between domesticated species and their wild relatives is receiving growing attention. This study addressed introgression between wheat and natural populations of its wild relatives (Aegilops species). The sampling included 472 individuals, collected from 32 Mediterranean populations of three widespread Aegilops species (Aegilops geniculata, Ae. neglecta and Ae. triuncialis) and compared wheat field borders to areas isolated from agriculture. Individuals were characterized with amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting, analysed through two computational approaches (i.e. Bayesian estimations of admixture and fuzzy clustering), and sequences marking wheat-specific insertions of transposable elements. With this combined approach, we detected substantial gene flow between wheat and Aegilops species. Specifically, Ae. neglecta and Ae. triuncialis showed significantly more admixed individuals close to wheat fields than in locations isolated from agriculture. In contrast, little evidence of gene flow was found in Ae. geniculata. Our results indicated that reproductive barriers have been regularly bypassed during the long history of sympatry between wheat and Aegilops. PMID:25568015

  14. Risk assessment of gene flow from genetically engineered virus resistant cassava to wild relatives in Africa: an expert panel report.

    PubMed

    Hokanson, Karen E; Ellstrand, Norman C; Dixon, Alfred G O; Kulembeka, Heneriko P; Olsen, Kenneth M; Raybould, Alan

    2016-02-01

    The probability and consequences of gene flow to wild relatives is typically considered in the environmental risk assessment of genetically engineered crops. This is a report from a discussion by a group of experts who used a problem formulation approach to consider existing information for risk assessment of gene flow from cassava (Manihot esculenta) genetically engineered for virus resistance to the 'wild' (naturalized) relative M. glaziovii in East Africa. Two environmental harms were considered in this case: (1) loss of genetic diversity in the germplasm pool, and (2) loss of valued species, ecosystem resources, or crop yield and quality due to weediness or invasiveness of wild relatives. Based on existing information, it was concluded that gene flow will occur, but it is not likely that this will reduce the genetic diversity in the germplasm pool. There is little existing information about the impact of the virus in natural populations that could be used to inform a prediction about whether virus resistance would lead to an increase in reproduction or survival, hence abundance of M. glaziovii. However, an increase in the abundance of M. glaziovii should be manageable, and would not necessarily lead to the identified environmental harms.

  15. Genetic diversity analysis of wild close relatives of barley from Tibet and the Middle East by ISSR and SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aihua; Yu, Zhiyong; Ding, Yi

    2009-04-01

    The genetic diversity analysis of 90 barley samples, including 45 wild close relatives of barley from the Tibet region of China and 45 wild accessions from different countries throughout the Middle East, were carried out using ISSR and SSR markers. The results showed that Tibetan wild close relatives of barley had a higher genetic diversity than those from the Middle East. Ten ISSR primers amplified 91 allelic variants, of which 79 were polymorphic (86.81%), in the Tibetan genotypes and 82 allelic variants, of which 66 were polymorphic (80.49%), in the Middle East genotypes. Eleven primer pairs of SSR markers amplified 100 allelic variants among the Tibetan genotypes with 100 polymorphic bands (100%). Among the Middle East genotypes, 78 allelic variants were produced containing 77 polymorphic bands (98.72%). Moreover, the total gene diversity analysis (HT) values of Tibetan barley (0.227 for ISSRs and 0.126 for SSRs) were higher than those of Middle East (0.212 for ISSRs and 0.102 for SSRs). Cluster analysis of the ISSR and SSR results by the UPGMA method revealed two distinct groups correlated with the geographic origin of sampling. These results offer a new evidence for the theory of the origin of Hordeum vulgare L. PMID:19304270

  16. Phenotyping of Eggplant Wild Relatives and Interspecific Hybrids with Conventional and Phenomics Descriptors Provides Insight for Their Potential Utilization in Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Prashant; Prohens, Jaime; Vilanova, Santiago; Gramazio, Pietro; Plazas, Mariola

    2016-01-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is related to a large number of wild species that are a source of variation for breeding programmes, in particular for traits related to adaptation to climate change. However, wild species remain largely unexploited for eggplant breeding. Detailed phenotypic characterization of wild species and their hybrids with eggplant may allow identifying promising wild species and information on the genetic control and heterosis of relevant traits. We characterizated six eggplant accessions, 21 accessions of 12 wild species (the only primary genepool species S. insanum and 11 secondary genepool species) and 45 interspecific hybrids of eggplant with wild species (18 with S. insanum and 27 with secondary genepool species) using 27 conventional morphological descriptors and 20 fruit morphometric descriptors obtained with the phenomics tool Tomato Analyzer. Significant differences were observed among cultivated, wild and interspecific hybrid groups for 18 conventional and 18 Tomato Analyzer descriptors, with hybrids generally having intermediate values. Wild species were generally more variable than cultivated accessions and interspecific hybrids displayed intermediate ranges of variation and coefficient of variation (CV) values, except for fruit shape traits in which the latter were the most variable. The multivariate principal components analysis (PCA) reveals a clear separation of wild species and cultivated accessions. Interspecific hybrids with S. insanum plotted closer to cultivated eggplant, while hybrids with secondary genepool species generally clustered together with wild species. Many differences were observed among wild species for traits of agronomic interest, which allowed identifying species of greatest potential interest for eggplant breeding. Heterosis values were positive for most vigor-related traits, while for fruit size values were close to zero for hybrids with S. incanum and highly negative for hybrids with secondary genepool

  17. Phenotyping of Eggplant Wild Relatives and Interspecific Hybrids with Conventional and Phenomics Descriptors Provides Insight for Their Potential Utilization in Breeding.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Prashant; Prohens, Jaime; Vilanova, Santiago; Gramazio, Pietro; Plazas, Mariola

    2016-01-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is related to a large number of wild species that are a source of variation for breeding programmes, in particular for traits related to adaptation to climate change. However, wild species remain largely unexploited for eggplant breeding. Detailed phenotypic characterization of wild species and their hybrids with eggplant may allow identifying promising wild species and information on the genetic control and heterosis of relevant traits. We characterizated six eggplant accessions, 21 accessions of 12 wild species (the only primary genepool species S. insanum and 11 secondary genepool species) and 45 interspecific hybrids of eggplant with wild species (18 with S. insanum and 27 with secondary genepool species) using 27 conventional morphological descriptors and 20 fruit morphometric descriptors obtained with the phenomics tool Tomato Analyzer. Significant differences were observed among cultivated, wild and interspecific hybrid groups for 18 conventional and 18 Tomato Analyzer descriptors, with hybrids generally having intermediate values. Wild species were generally more variable than cultivated accessions and interspecific hybrids displayed intermediate ranges of variation and coefficient of variation (CV) values, except for fruit shape traits in which the latter were the most variable. The multivariate principal components analysis (PCA) reveals a clear separation of wild species and cultivated accessions. Interspecific hybrids with S. insanum plotted closer to cultivated eggplant, while hybrids with secondary genepool species generally clustered together with wild species. Many differences were observed among wild species for traits of agronomic interest, which allowed identifying species of greatest potential interest for eggplant breeding. Heterosis values were positive for most vigor-related traits, while for fruit size values were close to zero for hybrids with S. incanum and highly negative for hybrids with secondary genepool

  18. Phenotyping of Eggplant Wild Relatives and Interspecific Hybrids with Conventional and Phenomics Descriptors Provides Insight for Their Potential Utilization in Breeding.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Prashant; Prohens, Jaime; Vilanova, Santiago; Gramazio, Pietro; Plazas, Mariola

    2016-01-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is related to a large number of wild species that are a source of variation for breeding programmes, in particular for traits related to adaptation to climate change. However, wild species remain largely unexploited for eggplant breeding. Detailed phenotypic characterization of wild species and their hybrids with eggplant may allow identifying promising wild species and information on the genetic control and heterosis of relevant traits. We characterizated six eggplant accessions, 21 accessions of 12 wild species (the only primary genepool species S. insanum and 11 secondary genepool species) and 45 interspecific hybrids of eggplant with wild species (18 with S. insanum and 27 with secondary genepool species) using 27 conventional morphological descriptors and 20 fruit morphometric descriptors obtained with the phenomics tool Tomato Analyzer. Significant differences were observed among cultivated, wild and interspecific hybrid groups for 18 conventional and 18 Tomato Analyzer descriptors, with hybrids generally having intermediate values. Wild species were generally more variable than cultivated accessions and interspecific hybrids displayed intermediate ranges of variation and coefficient of variation (CV) values, except for fruit shape traits in which the latter were the most variable. The multivariate principal components analysis (PCA) reveals a clear separation of wild species and cultivated accessions. Interspecific hybrids with S. insanum plotted closer to cultivated eggplant, while hybrids with secondary genepool species generally clustered together with wild species. Many differences were observed among wild species for traits of agronomic interest, which allowed identifying species of greatest potential interest for eggplant breeding. Heterosis values were positive for most vigor-related traits, while for fruit size values were close to zero for hybrids with S. incanum and highly negative for hybrids with secondary genepool

  19. Age-Related Declines and Disease-Associated Variation in Immune Cell Telomere Length in a Wild Mammal

    PubMed Central

    Beirne, Christopher; Delahay, Richard; Hares, Michelle; Young, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Immunosenescence, the deterioration of immune system capability with age, may play a key role in mediating age-related declines in whole-organism performance, but the mechanisms that underpin immunosenescence are poorly understood. Biomedical research on humans and laboratory models has documented age and disease related declines in the telomere lengths of leukocytes (‘immune cells’), stimulating interest their having a potentially general role in the emergence of immunosenescent phenotypes. However, it is unknown whether such observations generalise to the immune cell populations of wild vertebrates living under ecologically realistic conditions. Here we examine longitudinal changes in the mean telomere lengths of immune cells in wild European badgers (Meles meles). Our findings provide the first evidence of within-individual age-related declines in immune cell telomere lengths in a wild vertebrate. That the rate of age-related decline in telomere length appears to be steeper within individuals than at the overall population level raises the possibility that individuals with short immune cell telomeres and/or higher rates of immune cell telomere attrition may be selectively lost from this population. We also report evidence suggestive of associations between immune cell telomere length and bovine tuberculosis infection status, with individuals detected at the most advanced stage of infection tending to have shorter immune cell telomeres than disease positive individuals. While male European badgers are larger and show higher rates of annual mortality than females, we found no evidence of a sex difference in either mean telomere length or the average rate of within-individual telomere attrition with age. Our findings lend support to the view that age-related declines in the telomere lengths of immune cells may provide one potentially general mechanism underpinning age-related declines in immunocompetence in natural populations. PMID:25268841

  20. Age-related declines and disease-associated variation in immune cell telomere length in a wild mammal.

    PubMed

    Beirne, Christopher; Delahay, Richard; Hares, Michelle; Young, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Immunosenescence, the deterioration of immune system capability with age, may play a key role in mediating age-related declines in whole-organism performance, but the mechanisms that underpin immunosenescence are poorly understood. Biomedical research on humans and laboratory models has documented age and disease related declines in the telomere lengths of leukocytes ('immune cells'), stimulating interest their having a potentially general role in the emergence of immunosenescent phenotypes. However, it is unknown whether such observations generalise to the immune cell populations of wild vertebrates living under ecologically realistic conditions. Here we examine longitudinal changes in the mean telomere lengths of immune cells in wild European badgers (Meles meles). Our findings provide the first evidence of within-individual age-related declines in immune cell telomere lengths in a wild vertebrate. That the rate of age-related decline in telomere length appears to be steeper within individuals than at the overall population level raises the possibility that individuals with short immune cell telomeres and/or higher rates of immune cell telomere attrition may be selectively lost from this population. We also report evidence suggestive of associations between immune cell telomere length and bovine tuberculosis infection status, with individuals detected at the most advanced stage of infection tending to have shorter immune cell telomeres than disease positive individuals. While male European badgers are larger and show higher rates of annual mortality than females, we found no evidence of a sex difference in either mean telomere length or the average rate of within-individual telomere attrition with age. Our findings lend support to the view that age-related declines in the telomere lengths of immune cells may provide one potentially general mechanism underpinning age-related declines in immunocompetence in natural populations. PMID:25268841

  1. Edge-related variation in medicinal and other "useful" wild plants of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Olupot, William; Barigyira, Robert; McNeilage, Alastair J

    2009-10-01

    Harvesting of wild plants for nontimber uses is widespread in the tropics, but its impact is usually quantified only for one or a few species at a time. Thus, forest managers are never clear about how well their efforts are protecting such plants. We quantified abundance and edge-related variation in 91 species of useful wild plants commonly harvested by communities around Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP), Uganda, to evaluate the effect of their harvest. Forty percent of these species were harvested exclusively for medicines, 22% for weaving, and 24% for other uses. Fourteen percent were harvested for combinations of uses. Plants were surveyed around the entire periphery of the park transects that extended out 1 km into the forest interior from the edge. Analyses of edge and interior distribution were controlled for effects of topography. Individually, nine (10%) species were very rare, occurring in <0.5% of the plots searched. Of the remaining 82 species, most (50%) decreased significantly away from the park boundary, whereas 4.9% increased and 45.1% showed no pronounced edge-related distributions. Rarer species were no more likely to be less abundant near the edge than commoner species. These results suggest that most plants used for nontimber purposes in BINP are not currently being harvested unsustainably. In this respect many of the species of useful wild plants we examined resembled animals commonly hunted in tropical forests for bushmeat because they increased in abundance in disturbed habitat. Conservation action should initially aim to understand what influences distributions of very rare species. Edge-based assessments of distributions may be valuable for revealing harvest impact on species of useful wild plants commonly harvested by people living around forest islands in the tropics.

  2. Age-related declines in immune response in a wild mammal are unrelated to immune cell telomere length.

    PubMed

    Beirne, Christopher; Waring, Laura; McDonald, Robbie A; Delahay, Richard; Young, Andrew

    2016-02-24

    Senescence has been hypothesized to arise in part from age-related declines in immune performance, but the patterns and drivers of within-individual age-related changes in immunity remain virtually unexplored in natural populations. Here, using a long-term epidemiological study of wild European badgers (Meles meles), we (i) present evidence of a within-individual age-related decline in the response of a key immune-signalling cytokine, interferon-gamma (IFNγ), to ex vivo lymphocyte stimulation, and (ii) investigate three putative drivers of individual variation in the rate of this decline (sex, disease and immune cell telomere length; ICTL). That the within-individual rate of age-related decline markedly exceeded that at the population level suggests that individuals with weaker IFNγ responses are selectively lost from this population. IFNγ responses appeared to decrease with the progression of bovine tuberculosis infection (independent of age) and were weaker among males than females. However, neither sex nor disease influenced the rate of age-related decline in IFNγ response. Similarly, while ICTL also declines with age, variation in ICTL predicted neither among- nor within-individual variation in IFNγ response. Our findings provide evidence of within-individual age-related declines in immune performance in a wild mammal and highlight the likely complexity of the mechanisms that generate them. PMID:26888036

  3. Age-related declines in immune response in a wild mammal are unrelated to immune cell telomere length

    PubMed Central

    Waring, Laura; McDonald, Robbie A.; Delahay, Richard; Young, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Senescence has been hypothesized to arise in part from age-related declines in immune performance, but the patterns and drivers of within-individual age-related changes in immunity remain virtually unexplored in natural populations. Here, using a long-term epidemiological study of wild European badgers (Meles meles), we (i) present evidence of a within-individual age-related decline in the response of a key immune-signalling cytokine, interferon-gamma (IFNγ), to ex vivo lymphocyte stimulation, and (ii) investigate three putative drivers of individual variation in the rate of this decline (sex, disease and immune cell telomere length; ICTL). That the within-individual rate of age-related decline markedly exceeded that at the population level suggests that individuals with weaker IFNγ responses are selectively lost from this population. IFNγ responses appeared to decrease with the progression of bovine tuberculosis infection (independent of age) and were weaker among males than females. However, neither sex nor disease influenced the rate of age-related decline in IFNγ response. Similarly, while ICTL also declines with age, variation in ICTL predicted neither among- nor within-individual variation in IFNγ response. Our findings provide evidence of within-individual age-related declines in immune performance in a wild mammal and highlight the likely complexity of the mechanisms that generate them. PMID:26888036

  4. Gastrointestinal parasites in relation to host traits and group factors in wild meerkats Suricata suricatta.

    PubMed

    Leclaire, Sarah; Faulkner, Charles T

    2014-06-01

    Meerkats are one of the most endearing of South African's wildlife celebrities and one of the most highly studied social mammals. However, although parasites are widely recognized as important regulatory factors in animal population, basic knowledge on meerkats' parasites is lacking. Here 100 fresh fecal samples of wild meerkats were examined for the presence of endoparasitic infection. Endoparasitic taxa identified by the presence of eggs or oocysts included Toxocara suricattae, Oxynema suricattae, Pseudandrya suricattae, Cystoisospora sp. and Eimeria sp. Non-specific diagnoses were made for parasites in the Order Strongylida, Order Spirurida and coccidian based on the morphology and size of the eggs and oocysts. The prevalence of infection with T. suricattae and the strongylate species increased with age, while prevalence of coccidia and intensity of infection by the strongylate species increased with decreasing group size, suggesting that stress associated with living in smaller group may increase susceptibility to parasitism. Moreover, parasite communities were more similar between individuals from the same group than between individuals from different groups, suggesting an important role of the environment in parasite infestation. We did not detect any differences between males and females. This study represents the first detailed report of gastrointestinal parasites in wild meerkats, and is a key starting point for future studies on the effect of endoparasite load in the life history of this species.

  5. Gastrointestinal parasites in relation to host traits and group factors in wild meerkats Suricata suricatta.

    PubMed

    Leclaire, Sarah; Faulkner, Charles T

    2014-06-01

    Meerkats are one of the most endearing of South African's wildlife celebrities and one of the most highly studied social mammals. However, although parasites are widely recognized as important regulatory factors in animal population, basic knowledge on meerkats' parasites is lacking. Here 100 fresh fecal samples of wild meerkats were examined for the presence of endoparasitic infection. Endoparasitic taxa identified by the presence of eggs or oocysts included Toxocara suricattae, Oxynema suricattae, Pseudandrya suricattae, Cystoisospora sp. and Eimeria sp. Non-specific diagnoses were made for parasites in the Order Strongylida, Order Spirurida and coccidian based on the morphology and size of the eggs and oocysts. The prevalence of infection with T. suricattae and the strongylate species increased with age, while prevalence of coccidia and intensity of infection by the strongylate species increased with decreasing group size, suggesting that stress associated with living in smaller group may increase susceptibility to parasitism. Moreover, parasite communities were more similar between individuals from the same group than between individuals from different groups, suggesting an important role of the environment in parasite infestation. We did not detect any differences between males and females. This study represents the first detailed report of gastrointestinal parasites in wild meerkats, and is a key starting point for future studies on the effect of endoparasite load in the life history of this species. PMID:24560215

  6. Improved herbivore resistance in cultivated tomato with the sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway from a wild relative

    PubMed Central

    Bleeker, Petra M.; Mirabella, Rossana; Diergaarde, Paul J.; VanDoorn, Arjen; Tissier, Alain; Kant, Merijn R.; Prins, Marcel; de Vos, Martin; Haring, Michel A.; Schuurink, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Tomato breeding has been tremendously efficient in increasing fruit quality and quantity but did not focus on improving herbivore resistance. The biosynthetic pathway for the production of 7-epizingiberene in a wild tomato was introduced into a cultivated greenhouse variety with the aim to obtain herbivore resistance. 7-Epizingiberene is a specific sesquiterpene with toxic and repellent properties that is produced and stored in glandular trichomes. We identified 7-epizingiberene synthase (ShZIS) that belongs to a new class of sesquiterpene synthases, exclusively using Z-Z-farnesyl-diphosphate (zFPP) in plastids, probably arisen through neo-functionalization of a common ancestor. Expression of the ShZIS and zFPP synthases in the glandular trichomes of cultivated tomato resulted in the production of 7-epizingiberene. These tomatoes gained resistance to several herbivores that are pests of tomato. Hence, introduction of this sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway into cultivated tomatoes resulted in improved herbivore resistance. PMID:23169639

  7. Adolescent social defeat disturbs adult aggression-related impulsivity in wild-type rats.

    PubMed

    Coppens, Caroline M; Coolen, Alex; de Boer, Sietse F; Koolhaas, Jaap M

    2014-10-01

    Adolescence is generally considered as a developmental period during which adverse social experiences may have lasting consequences in terms of an increased vulnerability to affective disorders. This study aimed at determining the individual susceptibility to adolescent social stress using a rat model. We used rats of the Wild-type Groningen strain, which are characterized by a broad variation in adult levels of aggression and impulsivity. We hypothesized that experience of social defeat in adolescence results in heightened aggression and impulsivity levels in adulthood. In contrast to our expectation, adolescent social defeat did not lead to a difference in the average adult level of aggression and impulsivity, but the significant correlation between offensive aggression and impulsivity found in control animals was not present in animals defeated during adolescence.

  8. Distinct Regulatory Changes Underlying Differential Expression of TEOSINTE BRANCHED1-CYCLOIDEA-PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR Genes Associated with Petal Variations in Zygomorphic Flowers of Petrocosmea spp. of the Family Gesneriaceae1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xia; Zhao, Xiao-Ge; Li, Chao-Qun; Liu, Jing; Qiu, Zhi-Jing; Dong, Yang; Wang, Yin-Zheng

    2015-01-01

    CYCLOIDEA (CYC)-like genes, belonging to the plant-specific TCP transcription factor family that is named after TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 (TB1) from maize (Zea mays), CYC from Antirrhinum majus, and the PROLIFERATING CELL FACTORS (PCF) from rice (Oryza sativa), have conserved dorsal identity function in patterning floral zygomorphy mainly through specific expression in dorsal petals of a flower. Their expression changes are usually related to morphological diversity of zygomorphic flowers. However, it is still a challenge to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying their expression differentiation. It is also unknown whether CINCINNATA (CIN)-like TCP genes, locally controlling cell growth and proliferation, are involved in the evolution of floral zygomorphy. To address these questions, we selected two closely related species, i.e. Petrocosmea glabristoma and Petrocosmea sinensis, with distinct petal morphology to conduct expression, hybridization, mutant, and allele-specific expression analyses. The results show that the size change of the dorsal petals between the two species is mainly mediated by the expression differentiation of CYC1C and CYC1D, while the shape variation of all petals is related to the expression change of CIN1. In reciprocal F1 hybrids, the expression of CYC1C, CYC1D, and CIN1 conforms to an additive inheritance mode, consistent with the petal phenotypes of hybrids. Through allele-specific expression analyses, we find that the expression differentiation of these TCP genes is underlain by distinctly different types of regulatory changes. We suggest that highly redundant paralogs with identical expression patterns and interspecific expression differentiation may be controlled by remarkably different regulatory pathways because natural selection may favor different regulatory modifications rather than coding sequence changes of key developmental genes in generating morphological diversity. PMID:26351309

  9. Distinct Regulatory Changes Underlying Differential Expression of TEOSINTE BRANCHED1-CYCLOIDEA-PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR Genes Associated with Petal Variations in Zygomorphic Flowers of Petrocosmea spp. of the Family Gesneriaceae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xia; Zhao, Xiao-Ge; Li, Chao-Qun; Liu, Jing; Qiu, Zhi-Jing; Dong, Yang; Wang, Yin-Zheng

    2015-11-01

    CYCLOIDEA (CYC)-like genes, belonging to the plant-specific TCP transcription factor family that is named after TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 (TB1) from maize (Zea mays), CYC from Antirrhinum majus, and the PROLIFERATING CELL FACTORS (PCF) from rice (Oryza sativa), have conserved dorsal identity function in patterning floral zygomorphy mainly through specific expression in dorsal petals of a flower. Their expression changes are usually related to morphological diversity of zygomorphic flowers. However, it is still a challenge to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying their expression differentiation. It is also unknown whether CINCINNATA (CIN)-like TCP genes, locally controlling cell growth and proliferation, are involved in the evolution of floral zygomorphy. To address these questions, we selected two closely related species, i.e. Petrocosmea glabristoma and Petrocosmea sinensis, with distinct petal morphology to conduct expression, hybridization, mutant, and allele-specific expression analyses. The results show that the size change of the dorsal petals between the two species is mainly mediated by the expression differentiation of CYC1C and CYC1D, while the shape variation of all petals is related to the expression change of CIN1. In reciprocal F1 hybrids, the expression of CYC1C, CYC1D, and CIN1 conforms to an additive inheritance mode, consistent with the petal phenotypes of hybrids. Through allele-specific expression analyses, we find that the expression differentiation of these TCP genes is underlain by distinctly different types of regulatory changes. We suggest that highly redundant paralogs with identical expression patterns and interspecific expression differentiation may be controlled by remarkably different regulatory pathways because natural selection may favor different regulatory modifications rather than coding sequence changes of key developmental genes in generating morphological diversity. PMID:26351309

  10. Exome sequencing of geographically diverse barley landraces and wild relatives gives insights into environmental adaptation.

    PubMed

    Russell, Joanne; Mascher, Martin; Dawson, Ian K; Kyriakidis, Stylianos; Calixto, Cristiane; Freund, Fabian; Bayer, Micha; Milne, Iain; Marshall-Griffiths, Tony; Heinen, Shane; Hofstad, Anna; Sharma, Rajiv; Himmelbach, Axel; Knauft, Manuela; van Zonneveld, Maarten; Brown, John W S; Schmid, Karl; Kilian, Benjamin; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Stein, Nils; Waugh, Robbie

    2016-09-01

    After domestication, during a process of widespread range extension, barley adapted to a broad spectrum of agricultural environments. To explore how the barley genome responded to the environmental challenges it encountered, we sequenced the exomes of a collection of 267 georeferenced landraces and wild accessions. A combination of genome-wide analyses showed that patterns of variation have been strongly shaped by geography and that variant-by-environment associations for individual genes are prominent in our data set. We observed significant correlations of days to heading (flowering) and height with seasonal temperature and dryness variables in common garden experiments, suggesting that these traits were major drivers of environmental adaptation in the sampled germplasm. A detailed analysis of known flowering-associated genes showed that many contain extensive sequence variation and that patterns of single- and multiple-gene haplotypes exhibit strong geographical structuring. This variation appears to have substantially contributed to range-wide ecogeographical adaptation, but many factors key to regional success remain unidentified. PMID:27428750

  11. Urinary oxytocin and social bonding in related and unrelated wild chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Crockford, C.; Wittig, R. M.; Langergraber, K.; Ziegler, T. E.; Zuberbühler, K.; Deschner, T.

    2013-01-01

    Animals that maintain cooperative relationships show gains in longevity and offspring survival. However, little is known about the cognitive or hormonal mechanisms involved in cooperation. Indeed, there is little support for a main hypothesis that non-human animals have the cognitive capacities required for bookkeeping of cooperative exchanges. We tested an alternative hypothesis that cooperative relationships are facilitated by an endocrinological mechanism involving oxytocin, a hormone required for bonding in parental and sexual relationships across mammals. We measured urinary oxytocin after single bouts of grooming in wild chimpanzees. Oxytocin levels were higher after grooming with bond partners compared with non-bond partners or after no grooming, regardless of genetic relatedness or sexual interest. We ruled out other possible confounds, such as grooming duration, grooming direction or sampling regime issues, indicating that changes in oxytocin levels were mediated by social bond strength. Oxytocin, which is thought to act directly on neural reward and social memory systems, is likely to play a key role in keeping track of social interactions with multiple individuals over time. The evolutionary linkage of an ancestral hormonal system with complex social cognition may be the primary mechanism through which long-term cooperative relationships develop between both kin and non-kin in mammals. PMID:23345575

  12. Petrochemical-related DNA damage in wild rodents detected by flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    McBee, K.; Bickham, J.W.

    1988-03-01

    The need for quick, reliable, in situ tests of environmental mutagenicity is evidenced by increasing public concern about potential health effects of pollutants. Conventional tests of clastogenicity usually involve treatment of laboratory test systems with pure samples of suspect compounds followed by scoring numerous metaphase cells for chromosome aberrations. There are at least two shortcomings of these test protocols. They are very time consumptive and are generally restricted to controlled laboratory situations which may not realistically indicate the effects of environmental pollution. The use of flow cytometry to study resident rodent species as bioindicators provides a system by which cytogenetic effects of environmental pollutants upon exposed organisms rapidly and accurately can be ascertained. The authors found that two species of wild rodents (Peromyscus leucopus and Sigmodon hispidus) living at a dump site polluted with a complex mixture of oil, grease, polychlorinated biphenols, hexachlorobenzene, zinc, manganese, cadmium, chromium, copper, and lead had significantly higher frequencies of chromosomal aberrations than did animals from two unpolluted control sites. These data suggest that resident small mammals may be useful as in situ monitors of the presence and action of mutagenic pollutants in the environment. This study was conducted to determine if changes in patterns of DNA content indicative of the action of mutagens could be detected by flow cytometric analysis of tissues from these same animals.

  13. Age-related differences in the cloacal microbiota of a wild bird species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal bacteria play a central role in the health of animals. The bacteria that individuals acquire as they age may therefore have profound consequences for their future fitness. However, changes in microbial community structure with host age remain poorly understood. We characterised the cloacal bacteria assemblages of chicks and adults in a natural population of black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), using molecular methods. Results We show that the kittiwake cloaca hosts a diverse assemblage of bacteria. A greater number of total bacterial OTUs (operational taxonomic units) were identified in chicks than adults, and chicks appeared to host a greater number of OTUs that were only isolated from single individuals. In contrast, the number of bacteria identified per individual was higher in adults than chicks, while older chicks hosted more OTUs than younger chicks. Finally, chicks and adults shared only seven OTUs, resulting in pronounced differences in microbial assemblages. This result is surprising given that adults regurgitate food to chicks and share the same nesting environment. Conclusions Our findings suggest that chick gastrointestinal tracts are colonised by many transient species and that bacterial assemblages gradually transition to a more stable adult state. Phenotypic differences between chicks and adults may lead to these strong differences in bacterial communities. These data provide the framework for future studies targeting the causes and consequences of variation in bacterial assemblages in wild birds. PMID:23531085

  14. Food-related bray calls in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed Central

    Janik, V M

    2000-01-01

    Because cetaceans are difficult to study in the wild, little is known about how they use their sounds in their natural environment. Only the recent development of passive acoustic localization systems has enabled observations of the communication behaviour of individuals for correlation with their surface behaviour. Using such a system, I show that bottlenose dolphins in the Moray Firth, Scotland, produce low-frequency bray calls which are clearly correlated with feeding on salmonids. The production of these calls is followed by fast approaches by conspecifics in the area. In animals which use sound as a foraging tool, it is difficult to distinguish between food calls which have evolved because of their role in attracting conspecifics, and food manipulation or searching calls which may attract conspecifics as a by-product. However, the low-frequency structure of the bottlenose dolphin bray suggests that it evolved because of a role in manipulating prey rather than in attracting conspecifics. This conclusion suggests that dolphins exploit the perceptual systems of their prey to facilitate capture. PMID:10853736

  15. Accumulation of health promoting phytochemicals in wild relatives of tomato and their contribution to in vitro antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Meléndez-Martínez, Antonio J; Fraser, Paul D; Bramley, Peter M

    2010-07-01

    Harnessing natural variation is an important aspect of modern marker assisted breeding. Traditionally breeding programmes have focused on increased yield and resistance to biotic and abiotic pressures. However, consumer demands for improved quality have lead to increased effort into the breeding of nutritional quality traits in crop plants. In the present study, health-related phytochemicals (carotenoids, tocopherols and phenolics) present in green, yellow and red wild relatives of tomato have been analyzed during fruit development and ripening. This study shows that the differences in the final colour of the fruits were due to a distinct accumulation of carotenoids mainly related to the expression of the phytoene synthase-1 gene (Psy-1). In ripe red-fruited tomatoes, the different deposition of pigments gave rise in some cases to colour differences visually discernible by the consumer. Important quantitative differences between and across taxa were noticed for the in vitro antioxidant activity (AA) of the samples. PMID:20457456

  16. Differential Inhibition of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) Gut Proteinases by Proteinase Inhibitors of Okra and It's Wild Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Udamale, Shilpa K.; Moharil, M. P.; Ugale, T. B.; Mankar, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The seeds of ten genotypes and twenty-nine wild relatives of okra were analysed for the presence of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and Helicoverpa gut proteinases (HGPs) inhibitors (HGPIs), with the aim to identify potent inhibitors of H. armigera gut proteinases. Proteinase inhibitors (PIs) obtained from wild relatives of okra exhibited stronger inhibition of HGPs than the genotypes of okra. In in vitro inhibitory assay against HGPs, A. tuberculatus 90396 and 90515 showed high tryptic inhibitory (71.8% and 69.2%), chymotryptic inhibitory (68.5% and 66.2%), and Helicoverpa gut proteinase activity (70.2% and 68.2%). In electrophoretic profile showed the same variation in the number of trypsin inhibitors (TIs), chymotrypsin Inhibitors (CIs), and HGPIs isoforms with different intensities, whereas genotypes of okra mostly showed monomorphic profile. Maximum eight HGPIs isoforms were found in A. tuberculatus (90396 and 90515). In bioassay studies, significant reduction in weight of H. armigera larvae was found, when larvae fed on PIs obtained from A. tuberculatus (90396 and 90515). Thus, the result of the present investigation indicates that further exploration of PIs obtained from A. tuberculatus (90396 and 90515) will be helpful for developing PIs-based insect resistance management strategies. PMID:25937977

  17. Molecular evolution and phylogenetic analysis of genes related to cotton fibers development from wild and domesticated cotton species in Gossypium.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huayu; Lv, Junhong; Zhao, Liang; Tong, Xiangchao; Zhou, Baoliang; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2012-06-01

    The domestication of both diploid and tetraploid cotton species was carried out for fiber utilization. To understand the origin and domestication of fibers, 18 genes related to fiber development were individually cloned and sequenced from 22 different cotton species. Their structures, phylogenetic relationship and molecular evolution were further studied. In the orthologous and homeologous loci of the 18 genes, the sequence and structure of 72.22% were conserved and 27.78% were diverse. Tree topologies constructed based on the combined sequences showed that all 13 D-genome species were congruent with Fryxell's subsection taxonomy, the A- and D-subgenomes independently evolved in the allopolyploid after polyploid formation, and Gossypium raimondii had the closest relationship with all allotetraploids of D-subgenomes. The molecular evolutionary rates revealed approximately equivalent rates among different D-genome species, and purifying selection acted on all genes in the wild D-genome species. Among orthologs and homeologs, the D-subgenomes had higher evolutionary rates than the A-subgenomes in tetraploid cotton species, and the cultivars had higher evolutionary rates than either the semi-domesticated or wild species. Our study revealed that human domestication altered the molecular evolutionary pattern of genes related to fiber development, and Gossypium hirsutum endured greater selective pressures than Gossypium barbadense during the domestication process.

  18. Molecular evolution and phylogenetic analysis of genes related to cotton fibers development from wild and domesticated cotton species in Gossypium.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huayu; Lv, Junhong; Zhao, Liang; Tong, Xiangchao; Zhou, Baoliang; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2012-06-01

    The domestication of both diploid and tetraploid cotton species was carried out for fiber utilization. To understand the origin and domestication of fibers, 18 genes related to fiber development were individually cloned and sequenced from 22 different cotton species. Their structures, phylogenetic relationship and molecular evolution were further studied. In the orthologous and homeologous loci of the 18 genes, the sequence and structure of 72.22% were conserved and 27.78% were diverse. Tree topologies constructed based on the combined sequences showed that all 13 D-genome species were congruent with Fryxell's subsection taxonomy, the A- and D-subgenomes independently evolved in the allopolyploid after polyploid formation, and Gossypium raimondii had the closest relationship with all allotetraploids of D-subgenomes. The molecular evolutionary rates revealed approximately equivalent rates among different D-genome species, and purifying selection acted on all genes in the wild D-genome species. Among orthologs and homeologs, the D-subgenomes had higher evolutionary rates than the A-subgenomes in tetraploid cotton species, and the cultivars had higher evolutionary rates than either the semi-domesticated or wild species. Our study revealed that human domestication altered the molecular evolutionary pattern of genes related to fiber development, and Gossypium hirsutum endured greater selective pressures than Gossypium barbadense during the domestication process. PMID:22381639

  19. Evidence for gene flow via seed dispersal from crop to wild relatives in Beta vulgaris (Chenopodiaceae): consequences for the release of genetically modified crop species with weedy lineages.

    PubMed Central

    Arnaud, J-F; Viard, F; Delescluse, M; Cuguen, J

    2003-01-01

    Gene flow and introgression from cultivated to wild plant populations have important evolutionary and ecological consequences and require detailed investigations for risk assessments of transgene escape into natural ecosystems. Sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) are of particular concern because: (i) they are cross-compatible with their wild relatives (the sea beet, B. vulgaris ssp. maritima); (ii) crop-to-wild gene flow is likely to occur via weedy lineages resulting from hybridization events and locally infesting fields. Using a chloroplastic marker and a set of nuclear microsatellite loci, the occurrence of crop-to-wild gene flow was investigated in the French sugar beet production area within a 'contact-zone' in between coastal wild populations and sugar beet fields. The results did not reveal large pollen dispersal from weed to wild beets. However, several pieces of evidence clearly show an escape of weedy lineages from fields via seed flow. Since most studies involving the assessment of transgene escape from crops to wild outcrossing relatives generally focused only on pollen dispersal, this last result was unexpected: it points out the key role of a long-lived seed bank and highlights support for transgene escape via man-mediated long-distance dispersal events. PMID:12908976

  20. Evidence for gene flow via seed dispersal from crop to wild relatives in Beta vulgaris (Chenopodiaceae): consequences for the release of genetically modified crop species with weedy lineages.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, J-F; Viard, F; Delescluse, M; Cuguen, J

    2003-08-01

    Gene flow and introgression from cultivated to wild plant populations have important evolutionary and ecological consequences and require detailed investigations for risk assessments of transgene escape into natural ecosystems. Sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) are of particular concern because: (i) they are cross-compatible with their wild relatives (the sea beet, B. vulgaris ssp. maritima); (ii) crop-to-wild gene flow is likely to occur via weedy lineages resulting from hybridization events and locally infesting fields. Using a chloroplastic marker and a set of nuclear microsatellite loci, the occurrence of crop-to-wild gene flow was investigated in the French sugar beet production area within a 'contact-zone' in between coastal wild populations and sugar beet fields. The results did not reveal large pollen dispersal from weed to wild beets. However, several pieces of evidence clearly show an escape of weedy lineages from fields via seed flow. Since most studies involving the assessment of transgene escape from crops to wild outcrossing relatives generally focused only on pollen dispersal, this last result was unexpected: it points out the key role of a long-lived seed bank and highlights support for transgene escape via man-mediated long-distance dispersal events.

  1. Natural soil microbes alter flowering phenology and the intensity of selection on flowering time in a wild Arabidopsis relative.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Maggie R; Lundberg, Derek S; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Tringe, Susannah G; Dangl, Jeffery L; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Plant phenology is known to depend on many different environmental variables, but soil microbial communities have rarely been acknowledged as possible drivers of flowering time. Here, we tested separately the effects of four naturally occurring soil microbiomes and their constituent soil chemistries on flowering phenology and reproductive fitness of Boechera stricta, a wild relative of Arabidopsis. Flowering time was sensitive to both microbes and the abiotic properties of different soils; varying soil microbiota also altered patterns of selection on flowering time. Thus, soil microbes potentially contribute to phenotypic plasticity of flowering time and to differential selection observed between habitats. We also describe a method to dissect the microbiome into single axes of variation that can help identify candidate organisms whose abundance in soil correlates with flowering time. This approach is broadly applicable to search for microbial community members that alter biological characteristics of interest.

  2. Feasibility of relating interferon production by wild voles to types of chemical contamination of their environment : Communication.

    PubMed

    Khan, A; Duvall, J; Santolucito, J

    1984-03-01

    In the fall of 1980, a limited field sampling and laboratory analysis profect was undertaken to explore the feasibility of relating immunological responses of field mice (voles) living wild in an area of environmental concern to the level of chemical contamination of that area. The voles were collected in the vicinity of Love Canal by biological sampling teams already there to collect voles for other purposes.The project helped identify those areas of practical uncertainty that must be clarified before the rate of interferon production in voles can be considered as a possible indicator of chemical contamination. Two lines of research are proposed: developing optimumin vitro interferon bioassays systems for vole leukocytes; and characterizing the interferon production responses of voles following controlled exposures to selected carcinogens and other chemicals. PMID:24259144

  3. Production of interspecific hybrids between commercial cultivars of the eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its wild relative S. torvum.

    PubMed

    Kumchai, J; Wei, Y-C; Lee, C-Y; Chen, F-C; Chin, S-W

    2013-03-13

    Interspecific hybrids between cultivars of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its wild relative S. torvum, which has disease resistance and desirable traits for crop improvement, were obtained by cross-hybridization and embryo rescue. Twenty-one hybrid progenies were obtained and examined based on morphological traits, RAPD and ISSR markers. Five of them were confirmed to be true interspecific hybrids. Eighteen and 14 bands from 7 RAPD and 14 ISSR primers, respectively, were polymorphic and present in all five hybrid seedlings and their parents. The morphological characteristics of leaf margin, inflorescence type and spine positions of the five seedlings were intermediate to the parents. These interspecific hybrids had low pollen viability, probably due to abnormal meiosis.

  4. Characterisation and Analysis of the Aegilops sharonensis Transcriptome, a Wild Relative of Wheat in the Sitopsis Section

    PubMed Central

    Bouyioukos, Costas; Moscou, Matthew J.; Champouret, Nicolas; Hernández-Pinzón, Inmaculada; Ward, Eric R.; Wulff, Brande B. H.

    2013-01-01

    Aegilopssharonensis Eig (Sharon goatgrass) is a wild diploid relative of wheat within the Sitopsis section of Aegilops. This species represents an untapped reservoir of genetic diversity for traits of agronomic importance, especially as a source of novel disease resistance. To gain a foothold in this genetic resource, we sequenced the cDNA from leaf tissue of two geographically distinct Ae. sharonensis accessions (1644 and 2232) using the 454 Life Sciences platform. We compared the results of two different assembly programs using different parameter sets to generate 13 distinct assemblies in an attempt to maximize representation of the gene space in de novo transcriptome assembly. The most sensitive assembly (71,029 contigs; N50 674 nts) retrieved 18,684 unique best reciprocal BLAST hits (BRBH) against six previously characterised grass proteomes while the most specific assembly (30,609 contigs; N50 815 nts) retrieved 15,687 BRBH. We combined these two assemblies into a set of 62,243 non-redundant sequences and identified 139 belonging to plant disease resistance genes of the nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat class. Based on the non-redundant sequences, we predicted 37,743 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), equivalent to one per 1,142 bp. We estimated the level of heterozygosity as 1.6% in accession 1644 and 30.1% in 2232. The Ae. sharonensis leaf transcriptome provides a rich source of sequence and SNPs for this wild wheat relative. These sequences can be used with existing monocot genome sequences and EST sequence collections (e.g. barley, Brachypodium, wheat, rice, maize and Sorghum) to assist with genetic and physical mapping and candidate gene identification in Ae. sharonensis. These resources provide an initial framework to further build on and characterise the genetic and genomic structure of Ae. sharonensis. PMID:23951332

  5. Estimating the risk of cattle exposure to tuberculosis posed by wild deer relative to badgers in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Ward, Alastair I; Smith, Graham C; Etherington, Thomas R; Delahay, Richard J

    2009-10-01

    Wild deer populations in Great Britain are expanding in range and probably in numbers, and relatively high prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB, caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis) in deer occurs locally in parts of southwest England. To evaluate the M. bovis exposure risk posed to cattle by wild deer relative to badgers in England and Wales, we constructed and parameterized a quantitative risk model with the use of information from the literature (on deer densities, activity patterns, bTB epidemiology, and pathology) and contemporary data on deer, cattle, and badger (Meles meles) distribution and abundance. The median relative risk score for each of the four deer species studied--red (Cervus elaphus), fallow (Dama dama), and roe (Capreolus capreolus) deer, and muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi)--was lower than unity (the relative risk set for badgers, the putative main wildlife reservoir of M. bovis in England and Wales). However, the 95th percentiles associated with risk estimates were large, and the upper limits for all four deer species exceeded unity. Although M. bovis exposure risks to cattle from deer at pasture are likely to be lower than those from badgers across most areas of England and Wales where cattle are affected by bTB because these areas coincide with high-density badger populations but not high-density deer populations, we predict the presence of localized areas where relative risks posed by deer may be considerable. Moreover, wherever deer are infected, risks to cattle may be additive to those posed by badgers. There are considerable knowledge gaps associated with bTB in deer, badgers, and cattle, and data available for model parameterization were generally of low quality and high variability, and consequently model output were subject to some uncertainty. Improved estimates of the proportion of time that deer of each species spend at pasture, the likelihood and magnitude of M. bovis excretion, and local badger and deer densities appear

  6. Molecular relationships between Australian annual wild rice, Oryza meridionalis, and two related perennial forms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The perennial, Oryza rufipogon distributed from Asia to Australia and the annual O. meridionalis indigenous to Australia are AA genome species in the Oryza. However, recent research has demonstrated that the Australian AA genome perennial populations have maternal genomes more closely related to those of O. meridionalis than to those found in Asian populations of O. rufipogon suggesting that the Australian perennials may represent a new distinct gene pool for rice. Results Analysis of an Oryza core collection covering AA genome species from Asia to Oceania revealed that some Oceania perennials had organellar genomes closely related to that of O meridionalis (meridionalis-type). O. rufipogon accessions from New Guinea carried either the meridionalis-type or rufirpogon-type (like O. rufipogon) organellar genomes. Australian perennials carried only the meridionalis-type organellar genomes when accompanied by the rufipogon-type nuclear genome. New accessions were collected to better characterize the Australian perennials, and their life histories (annual or perennial) were confirmed by field observations. All of the material collected carried only meridionalis-type organellar genomes. However, there were two distinct perennial groups. One of them carried an rufipogon-type nuclear genome similar to the Australian O. rufipogon in the core collection and the other carried an meridionalis-type nuclear genome not represented in the existing collection. Morphologically the rufipogon-type shared similarity with Asian O. rufipogon. The meridionalis-type showed some similarities to O. meridionalis such as the short anthers usually characteristic of annual populations. However, the meridionalis-type perennial was readily distinguished from O. meridionalis by the presence of a larger lemma and higher number of spikelets. Conclusion Analysis of current accessions clearly indicated that there are two distinct types of Australian perennials. Both of them differed

  7. Simple sequence repeats reveal uneven distribution of genetic diversity in chloroplast genomes of Brassica oleracea L. and (n = 9) wild relatives.

    PubMed

    Allender, C J; Allainguillaume, J; Lynn, J; King, G J

    2007-02-01

    Diversity in the chloroplast genome of 171 accessions representing the Brassica 'C' (n = 9) genome, including domesticated and wild B. oleracea and nine inter-fertile related wild species, was investigated using six chloroplast SSR (microsatellite) markers. The lack of diversity detected among 105 cultivated and wild accessions of B. oleracea contrasted starkly with that found within its wild relatives. The vast majority of B. oleracea accessions shared a single haplotype, whereas as many as six haplotypes were detected in two wild species, B. villosa Biv. and B. cretica Lam.. The SSRs proved to be highly polymorphic across haplotypes, with calculated genetic diversity values (H) of 0.23-0.87. In total, 23 different haplotypes were detected in C genome species, with an additional five haplotypes detected in B. rapa L. (A genome n = 10) and another in B. nigra L. (B genome, n = 8). The low chloroplast diversity of B. oleracea is not suggestive of multiple domestication events. The predominant B. oleracea haplotype was also common in B. incana Ten. and present in low frequencies in B. villosa, B. macrocarpa Guss, B. rupestris Raf. and B. cretica. The chloroplast SSRs reveal a wealth of diversity within wild Brassica species that will facilitate further evolutionary and phylogeographic studies of this important crop genus.

  8. Parental food provisioning is related to nestling stress response in wild great tit nestlings: implications for the development of personality

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Variation in early nutrition is known to play an important role in shaping the behavioural development of individuals. Parental prey selection may have long-lasting behavioural influences. In birds foraging on arthropods, for instance, the specific prey types, e.g. spiders and caterpillars, matter as they have different levels of taurine which may have an effect on personality development. Here we investigated how naturally occurring variation in the amounts of spiders and caterpillars, provisioned to nestlings at day 4 and 8 after hatching, is related to the response to handling stress in a wild passerine, the great tit (Parus major). Broods were cross-fostered in a split-brood design allowing us to separate maternal and genetic effects from early rearing effects. Adult provisioning behaviour was monitored on day four and day eight after hatching using video recordings. Individual nestlings were subjected to a handling stress test at an age of 14 days, which is a validated proxy for exploratory behaviour as an adult. Results Variation in handling stress was mainly determined by the rearing environment. We show that, contrary to our predictions, not the amount of spider biomass, but the amount of caterpillar biomass delivered per nestling significantly affected individual performance in the stress test. Chicks provisioned with lower amounts of caterpillars exhibited a stronger stress response, reflecting faster exploratory behaviour later on in life, than individuals who received larger amounts of caterpillars. Conclusions These results suggest that natural variation in parental behaviour in wild birds modulates the developmental trajectories of their offspring's personality via food provisioning. Since parental provisioning behaviour might also reflect the local environmental conditions, provisioning behaviour may influence how nestlings respond to these local environmental conditions. PMID:26913051

  9. Reduced reproductive function in wild baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) related to natural consumption of the African black plum (Vitex doniana).

    PubMed

    Higham, James P; Ross, Caroline; Warren, Ymke; Heistermann, Michael; MacLarnon, Ann M

    2007-09-01

    Several authors have suggested that the consumption of plant compounds may have direct effects on wild primate reproductive biology, but no studies have presented physiological evidence of such effects. Here, for two troops of olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) at Gashaka-Gumti National Park, Nigeria, we show major seasonal increases in levels of fecal progesterone metabolites in females, and provide evidence that this is linked to the consumption of natural plant compounds. Increases in fecal progestogen excretion occurred seasonally in all females, in all reproductive states, including lactation. Detailed feeding data on the study animals showed that only one food species is consumed by both troops at the time of observed progestogen peaks, and at no other times of the year: the African black plum, Vitex doniana. Laboratory tests demonstrated the presence of high concentrations of progestogen-like compounds in V. doniana. Together with published findings linking the consumption of a related Vitex species (Vitex agnus castus) to increased progestogen levels in humans, our data suggest that natural consumption of V. doniana was a likely cause of the observed increases in progestogens. Levels of progestogen excretion in the study baboons during periods of V. doniana consumption are higher than those found during pregnancy, and prevent the expression of the sexual swelling, which is associated with ovulatory activity. As consortship and copulatory activity in baboons occur almost exclusively in the presence of a sexual swelling, V. doniana appears to act on cycling females as both a physiological contraceptive (simulating pregnancy in a similar way to some forms of the human contraceptive pill) and a social contraceptive (preventing sexual swelling, thus reducing association and copulation with males). The negative effects of V. doniana on reproduction may be counter-balanced by the wide-range of medicinal properties attributed to plants in this genus. This is

  10. Wild soybean roots depend on specific transcription factors and oxidation reduction related genesin response to alkaline stress.

    PubMed

    DuanMu, Huizi; Wang, Yang; Bai, Xi; Cheng, Shufei; Deyholos, Michael K; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Li, Dan; Zhu, Dan; Li, Ran; Yu, Yang; Cao, Lei; Chen, Chao; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-11-01

    Soil alkalinity is an important environmental problem limiting agricultural productivity. Wild soybean (Glycine soja) shows strong alkaline stress tolerance, so it is an ideal plant candidate for studying the molecular mechanisms of alkaline tolerance and identifying alkaline stress-responsive genes. However, limited information is available about G. soja responses to alkaline stress on a genomic scale. Therefore, in the present study, we used RNA sequencing to compare transcript profiles of G. soja root responses to sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) at six time points, and a total of 68,138,478 pairs of clean reads were obtained using the Illumina GAIIX. Expression patterns of 46,404 G. soja genes were profiled in all six samples based on RNA-seq data using Cufflinks software. Then, t12 transcription factors from MYB, WRKY, NAC, bZIP, C2H2, HB, and TIFY families and 12 oxidation reduction related genes were chosen and verified to be induced in response to alkaline stress by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The GO functional annotation analysis showed that besides "transcriptional regulation" and "oxidation reduction," these genes were involved in a variety of processes, such as "binding" and "response to stress." This is the first comprehensive transcriptome profiling analysis of wild soybean root under alkaline stress by RNA sequencing. Our results highlight changes in the gene expression patterns and identify a set of genes induced by NaHCO3 stress. These findings provide a base for the global analyses of G. soja alkaline stress tolerance mechanisms.

  11. Domestication and the mitochondrial genome: comparing patterns and rates of molecular evolution in domesticated mammals and birds and their wild relatives.

    PubMed

    Moray, Camile; Lanfear, Robert; Bromham, Lindell

    2014-01-01

    Studies of domesticated animals have led to the suggestion that domestication could have significant effects on patterns of molecular evolution. In particular, analyses of mitochondrial genome sequences from domestic dogs and yaks have yielded higher ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions in the domesticated lineages than in their wild relatives. These results are important because they imply that changes to selection or population size operating over a short timescale can cause significant changes to the patterns of mitochondrial molecular evolution. In this study, our aim is to test whether the impact on mitochondrial genome evolution is a general feature of domestication or whether it is specific to particular examples. We test whether domesticated mammals and birds have consistently different patterns of molecular evolution than their wild relatives for 16 phylogenetically independent comparisons of mitochondrial genome sequences. We find no consistent difference in branch lengths or dN/dS between domesticated and wild lineages. We also find no evidence that our failure to detect a consistent pattern is due to the short timescales involved or low genetic distance between domesticated lineages and their wild relatives. However, removing comparisons where the wild relative may also have undergone a bottleneck does reveal a pattern consistent with reduced effective population size in domesticated lineages. Our results suggest that, although some domesticated lineages may have undergone changes to selective regime or effective population size that could have affected mitochondrial evolution, it is not possible to generalize these patterns over all domesticated mammals and birds.

  12. Potential Implications of Climate Change on Aegilops Species Distribution: Sympatry of These Crop Wild Relatives with the Major European Crop Triticum aestivum and Conservation Issues.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Marie-France; Prosperi, Jean-Marie; David, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Gene flow from crop to wild relatives is a common phenomenon which can lead to reduced adaptation of the wild relatives to natural ecosystems and/or increased adaptation to agrosystems (weediness). With global warming, wild relative distributions will likely change, thus modifying the width and/or location of co-occurrence zones where crop-wild hybridization events could occur (sympatry). This study investigates current and 2050 projected changes in sympatry levels between cultivated wheat and six of the most common Aegilops species in Europe. Projections were generated using MaxEnt on presence-only data, bioclimatic variables, and considering two migration hypotheses and two 2050 climate scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Overall, a general decline in suitable climatic conditions for Aegilops species outside the European zone and a parallel increase in Europe were predicted. If no migration could occur, the decline was predicted to be more acute outside than within the European zone. The potential sympatry level in Europe by 2050 was predicted to increase at a higher rate than species richness, and most expansions were predicted to occur in three countries, which are currently among the top four wheat producers in Europe: Russia, France and Ukraine. The results are also discussed with regard to conservation issues of these crop wild relatives. PMID:27100790

  13. Domestication and the Mitochondrial Genome: Comparing Patterns and Rates of Molecular Evolution in Domesticated Mammals and Birds and Their Wild Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Moray, Camile; Lanfear, Robert; Bromham, Lindell

    2014-01-01

    Studies of domesticated animals have led to the suggestion that domestication could have significant effects on patterns of molecular evolution. In particular, analyses of mitochondrial genome sequences from domestic dogs and yaks have yielded higher ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions in the domesticated lineages than in their wild relatives. These results are important because they imply that changes to selection or population size operating over a short timescale can cause significant changes to the patterns of mitochondrial molecular evolution. In this study, our aim is to test whether the impact on mitochondrial genome evolution is a general feature of domestication or whether it is specific to particular examples. We test whether domesticated mammals and birds have consistently different patterns of molecular evolution than their wild relatives for 16 phylogenetically independent comparisons of mitochondrial genome sequences. We find no consistent difference in branch lengths or dN/dS between domesticated and wild lineages. We also find no evidence that our failure to detect a consistent pattern is due to the short timescales involved or low genetic distance between domesticated lineages and their wild relatives. However, removing comparisons where the wild relative may also have undergone a bottleneck does reveal a pattern consistent with reduced effective population size in domesticated lineages. Our results suggest that, although some domesticated lineages may have undergone changes to selective regime or effective population size that could have affected mitochondrial evolution, it is not possible to generalize these patterns over all domesticated mammals and birds. PMID:24459286

  14. Potential Implications of Climate Change on Aegilops Species Distribution: Sympatry of These Crop Wild Relatives with the Major European Crop Triticum aestivum and Conservation Issues.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Marie-France; Prosperi, Jean-Marie; David, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Gene flow from crop to wild relatives is a common phenomenon which can lead to reduced adaptation of the wild relatives to natural ecosystems and/or increased adaptation to agrosystems (weediness). With global warming, wild relative distributions will likely change, thus modifying the width and/or location of co-occurrence zones where crop-wild hybridization events could occur (sympatry). This study investigates current and 2050 projected changes in sympatry levels between cultivated wheat and six of the most common Aegilops species in Europe. Projections were generated using MaxEnt on presence-only data, bioclimatic variables, and considering two migration hypotheses and two 2050 climate scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Overall, a general decline in suitable climatic conditions for Aegilops species outside the European zone and a parallel increase in Europe were predicted. If no migration could occur, the decline was predicted to be more acute outside than within the European zone. The potential sympatry level in Europe by 2050 was predicted to increase at a higher rate than species richness, and most expansions were predicted to occur in three countries, which are currently among the top four wheat producers in Europe: Russia, France and Ukraine. The results are also discussed with regard to conservation issues of these crop wild relatives.

  15. Potential Implications of Climate Change on Aegilops Species Distribution: Sympatry of These Crop Wild Relatives with the Major European Crop Triticum aestivum and Conservation Issues

    PubMed Central

    Prosperi, Jean-Marie; David, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Gene flow from crop to wild relatives is a common phenomenon which can lead to reduced adaptation of the wild relatives to natural ecosystems and/or increased adaptation to agrosystems (weediness). With global warming, wild relative distributions will likely change, thus modifying the width and/or location of co-occurrence zones where crop-wild hybridization events could occur (sympatry). This study investigates current and 2050 projected changes in sympatry levels between cultivated wheat and six of the most common Aegilops species in Europe. Projections were generated using MaxEnt on presence-only data, bioclimatic variables, and considering two migration hypotheses and two 2050 climate scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Overall, a general decline in suitable climatic conditions for Aegilops species outside the European zone and a parallel increase in Europe were predicted. If no migration could occur, the decline was predicted to be more acute outside than within the European zone. The potential sympatry level in Europe by 2050 was predicted to increase at a higher rate than species richness, and most expansions were predicted to occur in three countries, which are currently among the top four wheat producers in Europe: Russia, France and Ukraine. The results are also discussed with regard to conservation issues of these crop wild relatives. PMID:27100790

  16. Domestication and the mitochondrial genome: comparing patterns and rates of molecular evolution in domesticated mammals and birds and their wild relatives.

    PubMed

    Moray, Camile; Lanfear, Robert; Bromham, Lindell

    2014-01-01

    Studies of domesticated animals have led to the suggestion that domestication could have significant effects on patterns of molecular evolution. In particular, analyses of mitochondrial genome sequences from domestic dogs and yaks have yielded higher ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions in the domesticated lineages than in their wild relatives. These results are important because they imply that changes to selection or population size operating over a short timescale can cause significant changes to the patterns of mitochondrial molecular evolution. In this study, our aim is to test whether the impact on mitochondrial genome evolution is a general feature of domestication or whether it is specific to particular examples. We test whether domesticated mammals and birds have consistently different patterns of molecular evolution than their wild relatives for 16 phylogenetically independent comparisons of mitochondrial genome sequences. We find no consistent difference in branch lengths or dN/dS between domesticated and wild lineages. We also find no evidence that our failure to detect a consistent pattern is due to the short timescales involved or low genetic distance between domesticated lineages and their wild relatives. However, removing comparisons where the wild relative may also have undergone a bottleneck does reveal a pattern consistent with reduced effective population size in domesticated lineages. Our results suggest that, although some domesticated lineages may have undergone changes to selective regime or effective population size that could have affected mitochondrial evolution, it is not possible to generalize these patterns over all domesticated mammals and birds. PMID:24459286

  17. Genic Microsatellite Markers in Brassica rapa: Development, Characterization, Mapping, and Their Utility in Other Cultivated and Wild Brassica Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Ramchiary, Nirala; Nguyen, Van Dan; Li, Xiaonan; Hong, Chang Pyo; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Yu, Ge; Piao, Zhong Yun; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2011-01-01

    Genic microsatellite markers, also known as functional markers, are preferred over anonymous markers as they reveal the variation in transcribed genes among individuals. In this study, we developed a total of 707 expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers (EST-SSRs) and used for development of a high-density integrated map using four individual mapping populations of B. rapa. This map contains a total of 1426 markers, consisting of 306 EST-SSRs, 153 intron polymorphic markers, 395 bacterial artificial chromosome-derived SSRs (BAC-SSRs), and 572 public SSRs and other markers covering a total distance of 1245.9 cM of the B. rapa genome. Analysis of allelic diversity in 24 B. rapa germplasm using 234 mapped EST-SSR markers showed amplification of 2 alleles by majority of EST-SSRs, although amplification of alleles ranging from 2 to 8 was found. Transferability analysis of 167 EST-SSRs in 35 species belonging to cultivated and wild brassica relatives showed 42.51% (Sysimprium leteum) to 100% (B. carinata, B. juncea, and B. napus) amplification. Our newly developed EST-SSRs and high-density linkage map based on highly transferable genic markers would facilitate the molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci and the positional cloning of specific genes, in addition to marker-assisted selection and comparative genomic studies of B. rapa with other related species. PMID:21768136

  18. Bioactive compounds extracted from Indian wild legume seeds: antioxidant and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition properties.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Basanta; Vadivel, Vellingiri; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Biesalski, Hans K

    2012-03-01

    Seven different wild legume seeds (Acacia leucophloea, Bauhinia variegata, Canavalia gladiata, Entada scandens, Mucuna pruriens, Sesbania bispinosa and Tamarindus indica) from various parts of India were analyzed for total free phenolics, l-Dopa (l-3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine), phytic acid and their antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] assay) and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition activitiy (α-amylase). S. bispinosa had the highest content in both total free phenolics and l-Dopa, and relatively low phytic acid when compared with other seeds. Phytic acid content, being highest in E. scandens, M. pruriens and T. indica, was highly predictive for FRAP (r = 0.47, p < 0.05) and DPPH (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) assays. The phenolic extract from T. indica and l-Dopa extract from E. scandens showed significantly higher FRAP values among others. All seed extracts demonstrated a remarkable reducing power (7-145 mM FeSO4 per mg extract), DPPH radical scavenging activity (16-95%) and α-amylase enzyme inhibition activity (28-40%).

  19. Genic microsatellite markers in Brassica rapa: development, characterization, mapping, and their utility in other cultivated and wild Brassica relatives.

    PubMed

    Ramchiary, Nirala; Nguyen, Van Dan; Li, Xiaonan; Hong, Chang Pyo; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Yu, Ge; Piao, Zhong Yun; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2011-10-01

    Genic microsatellite markers, also known as functional markers, are preferred over anonymous markers as they reveal the variation in transcribed genes among individuals. In this study, we developed a total of 707 expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers (EST-SSRs) and used for development of a high-density integrated map using four individual mapping populations of B. rapa. This map contains a total of 1426 markers, consisting of 306 EST-SSRs, 153 intron polymorphic markers, 395 bacterial artificial chromosome-derived SSRs (BAC-SSRs), and 572 public SSRs and other markers covering a total distance of 1245.9 cM of the B. rapa genome. Analysis of allelic diversity in 24 B. rapa germplasm using 234 mapped EST-SSR markers showed amplification of 2 alleles by majority of EST-SSRs, although amplification of alleles ranging from 2 to 8 was found. Transferability analysis of 167 EST-SSRs in 35 species belonging to cultivated and wild brassica relatives showed 42.51% (Sysimprium leteum) to 100% (B. carinata, B. juncea, and B. napus) amplification. Our newly developed EST-SSRs and high-density linkage map based on highly transferable genic markers would facilitate the molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci and the positional cloning of specific genes, in addition to marker-assisted selection and comparative genomic studies of B. rapa with other related species.

  20. Bioactive compounds extracted from Indian wild legume seeds: antioxidant and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition properties.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Basanta; Vadivel, Vellingiri; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Biesalski, Hans K

    2012-03-01

    Seven different wild legume seeds (Acacia leucophloea, Bauhinia variegata, Canavalia gladiata, Entada scandens, Mucuna pruriens, Sesbania bispinosa and Tamarindus indica) from various parts of India were analyzed for total free phenolics, l-Dopa (l-3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine), phytic acid and their antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] assay) and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition activitiy (α-amylase). S. bispinosa had the highest content in both total free phenolics and l-Dopa, and relatively low phytic acid when compared with other seeds. Phytic acid content, being highest in E. scandens, M. pruriens and T. indica, was highly predictive for FRAP (r = 0.47, p < 0.05) and DPPH (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) assays. The phenolic extract from T. indica and l-Dopa extract from E. scandens showed significantly higher FRAP values among others. All seed extracts demonstrated a remarkable reducing power (7-145 mM FeSO4 per mg extract), DPPH radical scavenging activity (16-95%) and α-amylase enzyme inhibition activity (28-40%). PMID:21970446

  1. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Colin K.; Heider, Bettina; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Achicanoy, Harold A.; Sosa, Chrystian C.; Miller, Richard E.; Scotland, Robert W.; Wood, John R. I.; Rossel, Genoveva; Eserman, Lauren A.; Jarret, Robert L.; Yencho, G. C.; Bernau, Vivian; Juarez, Henry; Sotelo, Steven; de Haan, Stef; Struik, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here, we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme Southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding. PMID:25954286

  2. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas].

    PubMed

    Khoury, Colin K; Heider, Bettina; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; Achicanoy, Harold A; Sosa, Chrystian C; Miller, Richard E; Scotland, Robert W; Wood, John R I; Rossel, Genoveva; Eserman, Lauren A; Jarret, Robert L; Yencho, G C; Bernau, Vivian; Juarez, Henry; Sotelo, Steven; de Haan, Stef; Struik, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here, we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme Southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding.

  3. Phenolic Profile and Biological Activities of the Pepino (Solanum muricatum) Fruit and Its Wild Relative S. caripense

    PubMed Central

    Herraiz, Francisco J.; Villaño, Débora; Plazas, Mariola; Vilanova, Santiago; Ferreres, Federico; Prohens, Jaime; Moreno, Diego A.

    2016-01-01

    The pepino (Solanum muricatum) is an edible and juicy fruit native to the Andean region which is becoming increasingly important. However, little information is available on its phenolic composition and bioactive properties. Four pepino varieties (37-A, El Camino, Puzol, and Valencia) and one accession (E-7) of its close wild relative S. caripense were characterized by HPLC-DAD-MSn/ESI. Twenty-four hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were detected (5 to 16 compounds per variety or accession), with differences of more than two-fold for their total content among the materials studied. The major phenolics in the pepino varieties were chlorogenic acids and derivatives, while in S. caripense a caffeoyl-synapoyl-quinic acid was the major compound. The in vitro antioxidant capacity (DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate), ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity), and TRC (total reducing capacity) tests) was higher in S. caripense. Pepino and S. caripense extracts were not toxic for RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, and the raw extracts inhibited NO production of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages by 36% (El Camino) to 67% (37-A). No single variety ranked high simultaneously for hydroxycinnamic acids content, antioxidant activity and biological activity. We suggest the screening of large collections of germplasm or the use of complementary crosses between Puzol (high for hydroxycinnamic acids and biological activity) and S. caripense E-7 (high for antioxidant activity) to select and breed pepino varieties with enhanced properties. PMID:26999114

  4. Phenolic Profile and Biological Activities of the Pepino (Solanum muricatum) Fruit and Its Wild Relative S. caripense.

    PubMed

    Herraiz, Francisco J; Villaño, Débora; Plazas, Mariola; Vilanova, Santiago; Ferreres, Federico; Prohens, Jaime; Moreno, Diego A

    2016-03-16

    The pepino (Solanum muricatum) is an edible and juicy fruit native to the Andean region which is becoming increasingly important. However, little information is available on its phenolic composition and bioactive properties. Four pepino varieties (37-A, El Camino, Puzol, and Valencia) and one accession (E-7) of its close wild relative S. caripense were characterized by HPLC-DAD-MS(n)/ESI. Twenty-four hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were detected (5 to 16 compounds per variety or accession), with differences of more than two-fold for their total content among the materials studied. The major phenolics in the pepino varieties were chlorogenic acids and derivatives, while in S. caripense a caffeoyl-synapoyl-quinic acid was the major compound. The in vitro antioxidant capacity (DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate), ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity), and TRC (total reducing capacity) tests) was higher in S. caripense. Pepino and S. caripense extracts were not toxic for RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, and the raw extracts inhibited NO production of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages by 36% (El Camino) to 67% (37-A). No single variety ranked high simultaneously for hydroxycinnamic acids content, antioxidant activity and biological activity. We suggest the screening of large collections of germplasm or the use of complementary crosses between Puzol (high for hydroxycinnamic acids and biological activity) and S. caripense E-7 (high for antioxidant activity) to select and breed pepino varieties with enhanced properties.

  5. The occurrence of Dechlorane Plus and related norbornene-based flame retardants in Baltic wild salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Rjabova, Jekaterina; Bartkevics, Vadims; Zacs, Dzintars

    2016-03-01

    Twenty five Baltic wild salmon (Salmo salar) specimens were analysed for the content of Dechlorane-related compounds (DRCs). Out of the ten analysed DRCs, seven compounds were detected in the muscle tissues of salmon, including Dechlorane (Dec) 602, Dec 603, syn- and anti-stereoisomers of Dechlorane Plus (DP), Dechlorane Plus monoadduct (1,3-DPMA), hexachlorocyclopentadienyl-dibromocyclooctane (DBHCTD), and Mirex. The concentrations of Dec 604 and two DP dechlorinated compounds - decachloropentacyclooctadecadiene (Cl10DP) and undecachloropentacyclooctadecadiene (Cl11DP) - were below the limit of detection in all samples. The aggregated concentrations of DRCs (ΣDRC) were in the range of 551-3339 pg g(-1) fresh weight (f.w.) with 1,3-DPMA being the predominant DRC component contributing up to 70% to the ΣDRC. The fractional abundance of syn- and anti-DP stereoisomers showed a pronounced enrichment of anti-DP and was close to the composition of OxyChem(®) DP commercial product. The obtained concentrations of DRCs were substantially lower than those reported in previous studies of biotic samples (among them fish, mollusks, white stork and peregrine falcon eggs) from inland freshwater reservoirs in more industrialised areas throughout Europe and North America. A statistically significant relationships between the concentrations of Dec 602 and the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was observed.

  6. Identification of Novel and Conserved miRNAs from Extreme Halophyte, Oryza coarctata, a Wild Relative of Rice

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Debnath, Ananda Bhusan

    2015-01-01

    Oryza coarctata, a halophyte and wild relative of rice, is grown normally in saline water. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that play pivotal roles in every domain of life including stress response. There are very few reports on the discovery of salt-responsive miRNAs from halophytes. In this study, two small RNA libraries, one each from the control and salt-treated (450 mM NaCl for 24 h) leaves of O. coarctata were sequenced, which yielded 338 known and 95 novel miRNAs. Additionally, we used publicly available transcriptomics data of O. coarctata which led to the discovery of additional 48 conserved miRNAs along with their pre-miRNA sequences through in silico analysis. In total, 36 known and 7 novel miRNAs were up-regulated whereas, 12 known and 7 novel miRNAs were down-regulated under salinity stress. Further, 233 and 154 target genes were predicted for 48 known and 14 novel differentially regulated miRNAs respectively. These targets with the help of gene ontology analysis were found to be involved in several important biological processes that could be involved in salinity tolerance. Relative expression trends of majority of the miRNAs as detected by real time-PCR as well as predicted by Illumina sequencing were found to be coherent. Additionally, expression of most of the target genes was negatively correlated with their corresponding miRNAs. Thus, the present study provides an account of miRNA-target networking that is involved in salinity adaption of O. coarctata. PMID:26506249

  7. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resources potential of crop wild relatives of sweeetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. I. series Batatas)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, and the limited availability of germplasm wi...

  8. Collaboration between the US Forest Service and the USDA Agricultural Research Service on the complementary conservation of crop wild relatives in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two USDA agencies, the Forest Service (USFS) and the Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) are cooperating on the complementary conservation of crop wild relatives (CWR) native to the United States. The USFS manages 193 million acres of National Forest System lands in 43 states and provides suppo...

  9. Nuclear and cytoplasmic genetic diversity in weed beet and sugar beet accessions compared to wild relatives: new insights into the genetic relationships within the Beta vulgaris complex species.

    PubMed

    Fénart, Stéphane; Arnaud, Jean-François; De Cauwer, Isabelle; Cuguen, Joël

    2008-05-01

    Hybridization between cultivated species and their wild relatives is now widely considered to be common. In the Beta vulgaris complex, the sugar beet seed multiplication areas have been the scene of inadvertent pollination of sugar beet seed bearers by wild ruderal pollen donors, generating a weedy form of beet which infests sugar beet fields in European countries. Up to now, investigations of evolutionary dynamics of genetic diversity within the B. vulgaris complex were addressed using few genetical markers and few accessions. In this study, we tackled this issue using a panel of complementary markers: five nuclear microsatellite loci, four mitochondrial minisatellite loci and one chloroplastic PCR-RFLP marker. We sampled 1,640 individuals that illustrate the actual distribution of inland ruderal beets of South Western France, weed beets and wild sea beets of northern France as well as the diversity of 35 contemporary European diploid cultivars. Nuclear genetic diversity in weed beets appeared to be as high as those of ruderal beets and sea beets, whereas the narrowness of cultivar accessions was confirmed. This genetic bottleneck in cultivars is even more important in the cytoplasmic genome as only one haplotype was found among all sugar beet cultivars. The large majority of weed beet populations also presented this unique cytoplasmic haplotype, as expected owing to their maternal cultivated origin. Nonetheless, various cytoplasmic haplotypes were found within three populations of weed beets, implying wild-to-weed seed flows. Finally, our findings gave new insights into the genetical relationships between the components of the B. vulgaris complex: (1) we found a very strong genetic divergence between wild sea beet and other relatives, which was unexpected given the recent evolutionary history and the full cross-compatibility of all taxa and (2) we definitely confirmed that the classification into cultivated, wild, ruderal and weed forms according to their

  10. Cadmium-induced ultramorphological and physiological changes in leaves of two transgenic cotton cultivars and their wild relative.

    PubMed

    Daud, M K; Variath, M T; Ali, Shafaqat; Najeeb, U; Jamil, Muhammad; Hayat, Y; Dawood, M; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Zaffar, M; Cheema, Sardar Alam; Tong, X H; Zhu, Shuijin

    2009-09-15

    The present study describes cadmium-induced alterations in the leaves as well as at the whole plant level in two transgenic cotton cultivars (BR001 and GK30) and their wild relative (Coker 312) using both ultramorphological and physiological indices. With elevated levels of Cd (i.e. 10, 100, 1000 microM), the mean lengths of root, stem and leaf and leaf width as well as their fresh and dry biomasses linearly decreased over their respective controls. Moreover, root, stem and leaf water absorption capacities progressively stimulated, which were high in leaves followed by roots and stems. BR001 accumulated more cadmium followed by GK30 and Coker 312. Root and shoot cadmium uptakes were significantly and directly correlated with each other as well as with leaf, stem and root water absorption capacities. The ultrastructural modifications in leaf mesophyll cells were triggered with increase in Cd stress regime. They were more obvious in BR001 followed by GK30 and Coker 312. Changes in morphology of chloroplast, increase in number and size of starch grains as well as increase in number of plastoglobuli were the noticed qualitative effects of Cd on photosynthetic organ. Cd in the form of electron dense granules could be seen inside the vacuoles and attached to the cell walls in all these cultivars. From the present experiment, it can be well established that both apoplastic and symplastic bindings are involved in Cd detoxification in these cultivars. Absence of tonoplast invagination reveals that Cd toxic levels did not cause water stress in any cultivars. Additionally, these cultivars possess differential capabilities towards Cd accumulation and its sequestration.

  11. Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study; Relative Reproductive Success of Hatchery and Wild Steelhead in the Hood River, Final Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Blouin, Michael

    2003-05-01

    analysis, the relative total reproductive success (adult-to-adult production) of hatchery (H{sub old} or H{sub new}) and wild (W) fish for two populations, over multiple brood years. Our analyses of samples from fish that bred in the early to mid 1990's show that fish of 'old' hatchery stocks have much lower total fitness than wild fish (17% to 54% of wild fitness), but that 'new' stocks have fitness that is similar to that of wild fish (ranging from 85% to 108% of wild fitness, depending on parental gender and run year). Therefore, our results show that the decision to phase out the old, out-of-basin stocks and replace them with new, conservation hatchery stocks was well founded. We also conclude that the H{sub new} fish are leaving behind substantial numbers of wild-born offspring. The similar fitnesses of H{sub new} and W fish suggests that wild-born offspring of H{sub new} fish are unlikely to have negative genetic effects on the population when they in turn spawn in the wild. We will test this hypothesis once enough F2 offspring have returned. Another interesting result is that we were unable to match a large fraction of the unclipped, returning fish with parents from their brood year. Furthermore, we were missing more fathers than mothers. Because we sampled almost every possible anadromous parent, these results suggest that nonanadromous trout or precocious parr may be obtaining a substantial number of matings. Substantial reproduction by precocious parr could be one unintended consequence of the hatchery program.

  12. Pollen-mediated gene flow from a commercial potato cultivar to the wild relative S. chacoense Bitter under experimental field conditions in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Capurro, Mauricio A; Camadro, Elsa L; Masuelli, Ricardo W

    2013-12-01

    The common potato, Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum (tbr, 2n = 4x = 48; 4EBN), has many closely related wild tuber-bearing species. Around 28 to 35 of them spontaneously grow in Argentina overlapping, in some areas, with the crop and/or experimental transgenic potatoes. Although it is well proven that hybridization barriers in potatoes can be incomplete, information on gene flow between cultivated and wild germplasm is scarce. Thus, a gene flow field experiment with a circular array was set up in Balcarce, Argentina, in 2009, and evaluated over two seasons. The tetraploid tbr cultivar Huinkul MAG and one compatible cloned genotype of the related wild potato S. chacoense Bitter (chc, 2n = 2x = 24; 2EBN), which produced 2n eggs, were used, respectively, as pollen donor and receptor. Berries with hybrid seeds - as revealed by ploidy and RAPD profiles - were obtained in one season, at 30 m from the pollen donor. These results reinforce others previously obtained with the same pollen donor and a male sterile tbr cultivar in a similar array, pointing out to the need of increasing isolation distances in areas of overlap between cultivated and wild potato germplasm to prevent or minimize undesirable pollen-mediated gene flow.

  13. The Wild Bunch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Bibi; Brook, Richard; Tisdale, Mary; Wooster, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes the history of wild horses in North America and explains the social structure of horses. Discusses issues related to wildlife management. Presents activities for classroom use and includes a list of references and resources. (YDS)

  14. Genome scans reveal candidate domestication and improvement genes in cultivated sunflower, as well as post-domestication introgression with wild relatives.

    PubMed

    Baute, Gregory J; Kane, Nolan C; Grassa, Christopher J; Lai, Zhao; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2015-04-01

    The development of modern crops typically involves both selection and hybridization, but to date most studies have focused on the former. In the present study, we explore how both processes, and their interactions, have molded the genome of the cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus), a globally important oilseed. To identify genes targeted by selection during the domestication and improvement of sunflower, and to detect post-domestication hybridization with wild species, we analyzed transcriptome sequences of 80 genotypes, including wild, landrace, and modern lines of H. annuus, as well as two cross-compatible wild relatives, Helianthus argophyllus and Helianthus petiolaris. Outlier analyses identified 122 and 15 candidate genes associated with domestication and improvement, respectively. As in several previous studies, genes putatively involved in oil biosynthesis were the most extreme outliers. Additionally, several promising associations were observed with previously mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs), such as branching. Admixture analyses revealed that all the modern cultivar genomes we examined contained one or more introgressions from wild populations, with every chromosome having evidence of introgression in at least one modern line. Cumulatively, introgressions cover c. 10% of the cultivated sunflower genome. Surprisingly, introgressions do not avoid candidate domestication genes, probably because of the reintroduction of branching.

  15. Towards harmonised procedures in wildlife epidemiological investigations: a serosurvey of infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related agents in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Beerli, Olivia; Blatter, Sohvi; Boadella, Mariana; Schöning, Janne; Schmitt, Sarah; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a (re-)emerging disease in European countries, including Switzerland. This study assesses the seroprevalence of infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related agents in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland, because wild boar are potential maintenance hosts of these pathogens. The study employs harmonised laboratory methods to facilitate comparison with the situation in other countries. Eighteen out of 743 blood samples tested seropositive (2.4%, CI: 1.5-3.9%) by ELISA, and the results for 61 animals previously assessed using culture and PCR indicated that this serological test was not 100% specific for M. bovis, cross-reacting with M. microti. Nevertheless, serology appears to be an appropriate test methodology in the harmonisation of wild boar testing throughout Europe. In accordance with previous findings, the low seroprevalence found in wild boar suggests wildlife is an unlikely source of the M. bovis infections recently detected in cattle in Switzerland. This finding contrasts with the epidemiological situation pertaining in southern Spain.

  16. Wild Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

  17. Wild analysis.

    PubMed

    Schafer, R

    1985-01-01

    Contemporary debates over psychoanalytic theory and practice warrant a reconsideration of the concept of wild analysis. Freud's initial formulation of the problem, subsequent developments in the Freudian conventions, and the work of Melanie Klein, Kohut, and Gill are compared in order to bring out different conceptions of interpretation that is wild, sound, or too tame. These different conceptions are system-bound. Moral implications of Klein's, Kohut's, and Gill's critiques and alternative systems are taken up. PMID:4020025

  18. Expression of Pokeweed Antiviral Protein in Transgenic Plants Induces Virus Resistance in Grafted Wild-Type Plants Independently of Salicylic Acid Accumulation and Pathogenesis-Related Protein Synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Smirnov, S.; Shulaev, V.; Tumer, N. E.

    1997-01-01

    Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP), a 29-kD protein isolated from Phytolacca americana, inhibits translation by catalytically removing a specific adenine residue from the large rRNA of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants expressing PAP or a variant (PAP-v) were shown to be resistant to a broad spectrum of plant viruses. Expression of PAP-v in transgenic plants induces synthesis of pathogenesis-related proteins and a very weak (<2-fold) increase in salicylic acid levels. Using reciprocal grafting experiments, we demonstrate here that transgenic tobacco rootstocks expressing PAP-v induce resistance to tobacco mosaic virus infection in both N. tabacum NN and nn scions. Increased resistance to potato virus X was also observed in N. tabacum nn scions grafted on transgenic rootstocks. PAP expression was not detected in the wild-type scions or rootstocks that showed virus resistance, nor was there any increase in salicylic acid levels or pathogenesis-related protein synthesis. Grafting experiments with transgenic plants expressing an inactive PAP mutant demonstrated that an intact active site of PAP is necessary for induction of virus resistance in wild-type scions. These results indicate that enzymatic activity of PAP is responsible for generating a signal that renders wild-type scions resistant to virus infection in the absence of increased salicylic acid levels and pathogenesis-related protein synthesis. PMID:12223762

  19. Control of reproduction and sex related behaviour in exotic wild carnivores with the GnRH analogue deslorelin: preliminary observations.

    PubMed

    Bertschinger, H J; Asa, C S; Calle, P P; Long, J A; Bauman, K; DeMatteo, K; Jöchle, W; Trigg, T E; Human, A

    2001-01-01

    The GnRH analogue deslorelin, in long-acting implants, was used in an attempt to temporarily control reproduction or aggression in wild carnivores in southern Africa and the USA. In the southern African study, 6 mg deslorelin was administered to cheetahs (eight females, four males), one female leopard and wild dogs (six females, one male) housed in groups, and 12 mg deslorelin was administered to two lionesses. None of the animals became pregnant after deslorelin administration apart from one wild dog that was mated at the initial treatment-induced oestrus. Two wild dogs and one lioness came into oestrus 12 and 18 months after deslorelin administration, respectively, thus demonstrating that the anti-fertility effects of deslorelin are reversible. Two lionesses and four cheetahs underwent oestrus without allowing mating 2-14 days after treatment. Simultaneous administration of progestins to three bitches and one lioness did not suppress oestrus. Male cheetahs had no spermatozoa on day 82 after treatment and did not impregnate two untreated females. Of three untreated female wild dogs housed with treated males, only the first female to enter oestrus (21 days after deslorelin administration) became pregnant. One month after treatment, plasma testosterone concentrations of male dogs were at basal values. In the USA study, three male sea otters that had been treated with 6 mg deslorelin ceased antagonistic behaviour and blood testosterone concentrations and size of the testes were still sharply reduced 24 months after treatment. Male red (n = 7) and grey (n = 5) wolves received 6 mg deslorelin in December 1998 but no effects on seasonal spermatogenesis and behaviour were observed. In a black-footed cat, sperm production, libido and aggressiveness decreased in response to treatment with 3 mg deslorelin and penile spines were not observed within 3 months after treatment, but were observed again 4-6 months later. Treatment of female red (n = 5) and grey (n = 5) wolves with

  20. Yield-related salinity tolerance traits identified in a nested association mapping (NAM) population of wild barley.

    PubMed

    Saade, Stephanie; Maurer, Andreas; Shahid, Mohammed; Oakey, Helena; Schmöckel, Sandra M; Negrão, Sónia; Pillen, Klaus; Tester, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Producing sufficient food for nine billion people by 2050 will be constrained by soil salinity, especially in irrigated systems. To improve crop yield, greater understanding of the genetic control of traits contributing to salinity tolerance in the field is needed. Here, we exploit natural variation in exotic germplasm by taking a genome-wide association approach to a new nested association mapping population of barley called HEB-25. The large population (1,336 genotypes) allowed cross-validation of loci, which, along with two years of phenotypic data collected from plants irrigated with fresh and saline water, improved statistical power. We dissect the genetic architecture of flowering time under high salinity and we present genes putatively affecting this trait and salinity tolerance. In addition, we identify a locus on chromosome 2H where, under saline conditions, lines homozygous for the wild allele yielded 30% more than did lines homozygous for the Barke allele. Introgressing this wild allele into elite cultivars could markedly improve yield under saline conditions.

  1. Parasites of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from an urban area in Germany, in relation to worldwide results.

    PubMed

    Frank, Raphael; Kuhn, Thomas; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Rueckert, Sonja; Pham, Daniel; Klimpel, Sven

    2013-12-01

    The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) belongs to the most invasive and successful mammalian species, which is distributed nearly worldwide. In Europe, they inhabit broad parts of the mainland and subsequently reached several European islands via anthropogenic diversion. Rabbits can also serve as hosts for numerous parasite species. The parasite and pathogen fauna of O. cuniculus have been well documented in various European countries, although studies in Germany are scarce. Until now, a comprehensive survey combining recent international studies over parasite fauna of wild rabbits had not been conducted. We examined 50 wild rabbits from an urban area near Aachen (Germany) to identify their metazoan parasite fauna, and then compared our findings to previous international investigations. A total of nine parasite species were isolated consisting of four endoparasite species (Cittotaenia denticulata, Graphidium strigosum, Passalurus ambiguus, and Trichostrongylus retortaeformis) and five ectoparasite species (Cheyletiella parasitivorax, Ixodes ricinus, Leporacarus gibbus, Haemodipsus ventricosus, and Spilopsyllus cuniculi). Among the ectoparasites were two verifiable human pathogenic species and two potentially pathogenic species. In comparison to previous studies, a high number of similarities in composition of helminth species fauna were revealed. Furthermore, our results showed partial agreement with international surveys in prevalence and mean intensity of the parasites C. denticulata, G. strigosum, P. ambiguus, and T. retortaeformis.

  2. Yield-related salinity tolerance traits identified in a nested association mapping (NAM) population of wild barley.

    PubMed

    Saade, Stephanie; Maurer, Andreas; Shahid, Mohammed; Oakey, Helena; Schmöckel, Sandra M; Negrão, Sónia; Pillen, Klaus; Tester, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Producing sufficient food for nine billion people by 2050 will be constrained by soil salinity, especially in irrigated systems. To improve crop yield, greater understanding of the genetic control of traits contributing to salinity tolerance in the field is needed. Here, we exploit natural variation in exotic germplasm by taking a genome-wide association approach to a new nested association mapping population of barley called HEB-25. The large population (1,336 genotypes) allowed cross-validation of loci, which, along with two years of phenotypic data collected from plants irrigated with fresh and saline water, improved statistical power. We dissect the genetic architecture of flowering time under high salinity and we present genes putatively affecting this trait and salinity tolerance. In addition, we identify a locus on chromosome 2H where, under saline conditions, lines homozygous for the wild allele yielded 30% more than did lines homozygous for the Barke allele. Introgressing this wild allele into elite cultivars could markedly improve yield under saline conditions. PMID:27585856

  3. Yield-related salinity tolerance traits identified in a nested association mapping (NAM) population of wild barley

    PubMed Central

    Saade, Stephanie; Maurer, Andreas; Shahid, Mohammed; Oakey, Helena; Schmöckel, Sandra M.; Negrão, Sónia; Pillen, Klaus; Tester, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Producing sufficient food for nine billion people by 2050 will be constrained by soil salinity, especially in irrigated systems. To improve crop yield, greater understanding of the genetic control of traits contributing to salinity tolerance in the field is needed. Here, we exploit natural variation in exotic germplasm by taking a genome-wide association approach to a new nested association mapping population of barley called HEB-25. The large population (1,336 genotypes) allowed cross-validation of loci, which, along with two years of phenotypic data collected from plants irrigated with fresh and saline water, improved statistical power. We dissect the genetic architecture of flowering time under high salinity and we present genes putatively affecting this trait and salinity tolerance. In addition, we identify a locus on chromosome 2H where, under saline conditions, lines homozygous for the wild allele yielded 30% more than did lines homozygous for the Barke allele. Introgressing this wild allele into elite cultivars could markedly improve yield under saline conditions. PMID:27585856

  4. The relative biological effectiveness of densely ionizing heavy-ion radiation for inducing ocular cataracts in wild type versus mice heterozygous for the ATM gene.

    PubMed

    Hall, Eric J; Worgul, Basil V; Smilenov, Lubomir; Elliston, Carl D; Brenner, David J

    2006-07-01

    The accelerated appearance of ocular cataracts at younger ages has been recorded in both astronauts and airline pilots, and is usually attributed to high-energy heavy ions in galactic cosmic ray radiation. We have previously shown that high-LET 1-GeV/nucleon (56)Fe ions are significantly more effective than X-rays in producing cataracts in mice. We have also shown that mice haploinsufficient for ATM develop cataracts earlier than wild-type animals, when exposed to either low-LET X-rays or high-LET (56)Fe ions. In this paper we derive quantitative estimates for the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of high energy (56)Fe ions compared with X-rays, both for wild type and for mice haploinsufficient for ATM. There is a clear trend toward higher RBE's in haploinsufficient animals, both for low- and high-grade cataracts. Haploinsufficiency for ATM results in an enhanced sensitivity to X-rays compared with the wild type, and this enhancement appears even larger after exposure to high-LET heavy ions. PMID:16799786

  5. Wild Marshmallows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallas, John N.

    1984-01-01

    Provides information for teaching a unit on wild plants, including resources to use, plants to learn, safety considerations, list of plants (with scientific name, edible parts, and uses), list of plants that might cause allergic reactions when eaten. Also describes the chickweed, bull thistle, and common mallow. (BC)

  6. Molecular ecology and selection in the drought-related Asr gene polymorphisms in wild and cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The abscisic acid (ABA) pathway plays an important role in the plants’ reaction to drought stress and ABA-stress response (Asr) genes are important in controlling this process. In this sense, we accessed nucleotide diversity at two candidate genes for drought tolerance (Asr1 and Asr2), involved in an ABA signaling pathway, in the reference collection of cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and a core collection of wild common bean accessions. Results Our wild population samples covered a range of mesic (semi-arid) to very dry (desert) habitats, while our cultivated samples presented a wide spectrum of drought tolerance. Both genes showed very different patterns of nucleotide variation. Asr1 exhibited very low nucleotide diversity relative to the neutral reference loci that were previously surveyed in these populations. This suggests that strong purifying selection has been acting on this gene. In contrast, Asr2 exhibited higher levels of nucleotide diversity, which is indicative of adaptive selection. These patterns were more notable in wild beans than in cultivated common beans indicting that natural selection has played a role over long time periods compared to farmer selection since domestication. Conclusions Together these results suggested the importance of Asr1 in the context of drought tolerance, and constitute the first steps towards an association study between genetic polymorphism of this gene family and variation in drought tolerance traits. Furthermore, one of our major successes was to find that wild common bean is a reservoir of genetic variation and selection signatures at Asr genes, which may be useful for breeding drought tolerance in cultivated common bean. PMID:22799462

  7. Evolutionary analysis of the APA genes in the Phaseolus genus: wild and cultivated bean species as sources of lectin-related resistance factors?

    PubMed

    Lioi, L; Galasso, I; Lanave, C; Daminati, M G; Bollini, R; Sparvoli, F

    2007-11-01

    The APA (Arcelin/Phytohemagglutinin/alpha-Amylase inhibitor) gene family is composed of various members, present in Phaseolus species and coding for lectin and lectin-related seed proteins having the double role of storage and defense proteins. Here members of the APA family have been identified by immunological, functional, and molecular analyses and representative genes were sequenced in nine wild species of Phaseolus. All taxa possessed at least one member of the true lectin gene. No arcelin type sequences have been isolated from the species examined. Among the wild species studied, only P. costaricensis contained an alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha-AI). In addition P. augusti, P. maculatus, P. microcarpus, and P. oligospermus showed the presence of the lectin-related alpha-amylase inhibitor-like (AIL) genes and alpha-AI activity. Data from Southern blot analysis indicated the presence of only one lectin gene in P. parvulus and P. filiformis, while an extensive gene duplication of the APA locus was found in the other Phaseolus species. Phylogenetic analysis carried out on the nucleotide sequences showed the existence of two main clusters and clearly indicated that lectin-related genes originated from a paralogous duplication event preceding the development of the ancestor to the Phaseolus genus. The finding of detectable alpha-AI activity in species containing AIL genes suggests that exploiting APA genes variability in the Phaseolus genus may represent a valuable tool to find new members that may have acquired insecticidal activities.

  8. Genomic resources for wild populations of the house mouse, Mus musculus and its close relative Mus spretus

    PubMed Central

    Harr, Bettina; Karakoc, Emre; Neme, Rafik; Teschke, Meike; Pfeifle, Christine; Pezer, Željka; Babiker, Hiba; Linnenbrink, Miriam; Montero, Inka; Scavetta, Rick; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Molins, Marta Puente; Schlegel, Mathias; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Altmüller, Janine; Franitza, Marek; Büntge, Anna; Künzel, Sven; Tautz, Diethard

    2016-01-01

    Wild populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus) represent the raw genetic material for the classical inbred strains in biomedical research and are a major model system for evolutionary biology. We provide whole genome sequencing data of individuals representing natural populations of M. m. domesticus (24 individuals from 3 populations), M. m. helgolandicus (3 individuals), M. m. musculus (22 individuals from 3 populations) and M. spretus (8 individuals from one population). We use a single pipeline to map and call variants for these individuals and also include 10 additional individuals of M. m. castaneus for which genomic data are publically available. In addition, RNAseq data were obtained from 10 tissues of up to eight adult individuals from each of the three M. m. domesticus populations for which genomic data were collected. Data and analyses are presented via tracks viewable in the UCSC or IGV genome browsers. We also provide information on available outbred stocks and instructions on how to keep them in the laboratory. PMID:27622383

  9. Genomic resources for wild populations of the house mouse, Mus musculus and its close relative Mus spretus.

    PubMed

    Harr, Bettina; Karakoc, Emre; Neme, Rafik; Teschke, Meike; Pfeifle, Christine; Pezer, Željka; Babiker, Hiba; Linnenbrink, Miriam; Montero, Inka; Scavetta, Rick; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Molins, Marta Puente; Schlegel, Mathias; Ulrich, Rainer G; Altmüller, Janine; Franitza, Marek; Büntge, Anna; Künzel, Sven; Tautz, Diethard

    2016-01-01

    Wild populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus) represent the raw genetic material for the classical inbred strains in biomedical research and are a major model system for evolutionary biology. We provide whole genome sequencing data of individuals representing natural populations of M. m. domesticus (24 individuals from 3 populations), M. m. helgolandicus (3 individuals), M. m. musculus (22 individuals from 3 populations) and M. spretus (8 individuals from one population). We use a single pipeline to map and call variants for these individuals and also include 10 additional individuals of M. m. castaneus for which genomic data are publically available. In addition, RNAseq data were obtained from 10 tissues of up to eight adult individuals from each of the three M. m. domesticus populations for which genomic data were collected. Data and analyses are presented via tracks viewable in the UCSC or IGV genome browsers. We also provide information on available outbred stocks and instructions on how to keep them in the laboratory. PMID:27622383

  10. Genomic resources for wild populations of the house mouse, Mus musculus and its close relative Mus spretus.

    PubMed

    Harr, Bettina; Karakoc, Emre; Neme, Rafik; Teschke, Meike; Pfeifle, Christine; Pezer, Željka; Babiker, Hiba; Linnenbrink, Miriam; Montero, Inka; Scavetta, Rick; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Molins, Marta Puente; Schlegel, Mathias; Ulrich, Rainer G; Altmüller, Janine; Franitza, Marek; Büntge, Anna; Künzel, Sven; Tautz, Diethard

    2016-01-01

    Wild populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus) represent the raw genetic material for the classical inbred strains in biomedical research and are a major model system for evolutionary biology. We provide whole genome sequencing data of individuals representing natural populations of M. m. domesticus (24 individuals from 3 populations), M. m. helgolandicus (3 individuals), M. m. musculus (22 individuals from 3 populations) and M. spretus (8 individuals from one population). We use a single pipeline to map and call variants for these individuals and also include 10 additional individuals of M. m. castaneus for which genomic data are publically available. In addition, RNAseq data were obtained from 10 tissues of up to eight adult individuals from each of the three M. m. domesticus populations for which genomic data were collected. Data and analyses are presented via tracks viewable in the UCSC or IGV genome browsers. We also provide information on available outbred stocks and instructions on how to keep them in the laboratory.

  11. Unexpected mitochondrial matrix localization of Parkinson's disease-related DJ-1 mutants but not wild-type DJ-1.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Waka; Kujuro, Yuki; Okatsu, Kei; Bruno, Queliconi; Koyano, Fumika; Kimura, Mayumi; Yamano, Koji; Tanaka, Keiji; Matsuda, Noriyuki

    2016-07-01

    DJ-1 has been identified as a gene responsible for recessive familial Parkinson's disease (familial Parkinsonism), which is caused by a mutation in the PARK7 locus. Consistent with the inferred correlation between Parkinson's disease and mitochondrial impairment, mitochondrial localization of DJ-1 and its implied role in mitochondrial quality control have been reported. However, the mechanism by which DJ-1 affects mitochondrial function remains poorly defined, and the mitochondrial localization of DJ-1 is still controversial. Here, we show the mitochondrial matrix localization of various pathogenic and artificial DJ-1 mutants by multiple independent experimental approaches including cellular fractionation, proteinase K protection assays, and specific immunocytochemistry. Localization of various DJ-1 mutants to the matrix is dependent on the membrane potential and translocase activity in both the outer and the inner membranes. Nevertheless, DJ-1 possesses neither an amino-terminal alpha-helix nor a predictable matrix-targeting signal, and a post-translocation processing-derived molecular weight change is not observed. In fact, wild-type DJ-1 does not show any evidence of mitochondrial localization at all. Such a mode of matrix localization of DJ-1 is difficult to explain by conventional mechanisms and implies a unique matrix import mechanism for DJ-1 mutants. PMID:27270837

  12. Salinity-related variation in gene expression in wild populations of the black-chinned tilapia from various West African coastal marine, estuarine and freshwater habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tine, Mbaye; McKenzie, David J.; Bonhomme, François; Durand, Jean-Dominique

    2011-01-01

    This study measured the relative expression of the genes coding for Na +, K +-ATPase 1α(NAKA), voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), cytochrome c oxidase-1 (COX), and NADH dehydrogenase (NDH), in gills of six wild populations of a West African tilapia species, acclimatised to a range of seasonal (rainy or dry) salinities in coastal, estuarine and freshwater sites. Previous laboratory experiments have demonstrated that these genes, involved in active ion transport, oxidative phosphorylation, and intra-cellular ATP transport, are relatively over-expressed in gill tissues of this species acclimated to high salinity. Positive correlations between relative expression and ambient salinity were found for all genes in the wild populations (Spearman rank correlation, p < 0.05), although for some genes these were only significant in either the rainy season or dry season. Most significantly, however, relative expression was positively correlated amongst the four genes, indicating that they are functionally interrelated in adaptation of Sarotherodon melanotheron to salinity variations in its natural environment. In the rainy season, when salinity was unstable and ranged between zero and 37 psu across the sites, overall mean expression of the genes was higher than in the dry season, which may have reflected more variable particularly sudden fluctuations in salinity and poorer overall water quality. In the dry season, when the salinity is more stable but ranged between zero and 100 psu across the sites, NAKA, NDH and VDAC expression revealed U-shaped relationships with lowest relative expression at salinities approaching seawater, between 25 and 45 psu. Although it is not simple to establish direct relationship between gene expression levels and energy requirement for osmoregulation, these results may indicate that costs of adaptation to salinity are lowest in seawater, the natural environment of this species. While S. melanotheron can colonise environments with extremely

  13. A Comparative Study of Age-Related Hearing Loss in Wild Type and Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Raquel; Cediel, Rafael; Contreras, Julio; Lourdes, Rodriguez-de la Rosa; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Hernandez-Sanchez, Catalina; Zubeldia, Jose M.; Cerdan, Sebastian; Varela-Nieto, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) belongs to the family of insulin-related peptides that fulfils a key role during the late development of the nervous system. Human IGF1 mutations cause profound deafness, poor growth and mental retardation. Accordingly, Igf1−/− null mice are dwarfs that have low survival rates, cochlear alterations and severe sensorineural deafness. Presbycusis (age-related hearing loss) is a common disorder associated with aging that causes social and cognitive problems. Aging is also associated with a decrease in circulating IGF-I levels and this reduction has been related to cognitive and brain alterations, although there is no information as yet regarding the relationship between presbycusis and IGF-I biodisponibility. Here we present a longitudinal study of wild type Igf1+/+ and null Igf1−/− mice from 2 to 12 months of age comparing the temporal progression of several parameters: hearing, brain morphology, cochlear cytoarchitecture, insulin-related factors and IGF gene expression and IGF-I serum levels. Complementary invasive and non-invasive techniques were used, including auditory brainstem-evoked response (ABR) recordings and in vivo MRI brain imaging. Igf1−/− null mice presented profound deafness at all the ages studied, without any obvious worsening of hearing parameters with aging. Igf1+/+ wild type mice suffered significant age-related hearing loss, their auditory thresholds and peak I latencies augmenting as they aged, in parallel with a decrease in the circulating levels of IGF-I. Accordingly, there was an age-related spiral ganglion degeneration in wild type mice that was not evident in the Igf1 null mice. However, the Igf1−/− null mice in turn developed a prematurely aged stria vascularis reminiscent of the diabetic strial phenotype. Our data indicate that IGF-I is required for the correct development and maintenance of hearing, supporting the idea that IGF-I-based therapies could contribute to prevent or

  14. Whole genome sequencing of a banana wild relative Musa itinerans provides insights into lineage-specific diversification of the Musa genus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Yang, Yu-Lan; He, Wei-Ming; Rouard, Mathieu; Li, Wei-Ming; Xu, Meng; Roux, Nicolas; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2016-08-17

    Crop wild relatives are valuable resources for future genetic improvement. Here, we report the de novo genome assembly of Musa itinerans, a disease-resistant wild banana relative in subtropical China. The assembled genome size was 462.1 Mb, covering 75.2% of the genome (615.2Mb) and containing 32, 456 predicted protein-coding genes. Since the approximate divergence around 5.8 million years ago, the genomes of Musa itinerans and Musa acuminata have shown conserved collinearity. Gene family expansions and contractions enrichment analysis revealed that some pathways were associated with phenotypic or physiological innovations. These include a transition from wood to herbaceous in the ancestral Musaceae, intensification of cold and drought tolerances, and reduced diseases resistance genes for subtropical marginally distributed Musa species. Prevalent purifying selection and transposed duplications were found to facilitate the diversification of NBS-encoding gene families for two Musa species. The population genome history analysis of M. itinerans revealed that the fluctuated population sizes were caused by the Pleistocene climate oscillations, and that the formation of Qiongzhou Strait might facilitate the population downsizing on the isolated Hainan Island about 10.3 Kya. The qualified assembly of the M. itinerans genome provides deep insights into the lineage-specific diversification and also valuable resources for future banana breeding.

  15. Whole genome sequencing of a banana wild relative Musa itinerans provides insights into lineage-specific diversification of the Musa genus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Yang, Yu-Lan; He, Wei-Ming; Rouard, Mathieu; Li, Wei-Ming; Xu, Meng; Roux, Nicolas; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Crop wild relatives are valuable resources for future genetic improvement. Here, we report the de novo genome assembly of Musa itinerans, a disease-resistant wild banana relative in subtropical China. The assembled genome size was 462.1 Mb, covering 75.2% of the genome (615.2Mb) and containing 32, 456 predicted protein-coding genes. Since the approximate divergence around 5.8 million years ago, the genomes of Musa itinerans and Musa acuminata have shown conserved collinearity. Gene family expansions and contractions enrichment analysis revealed that some pathways were associated with phenotypic or physiological innovations. These include a transition from wood to herbaceous in the ancestral Musaceae, intensification of cold and drought tolerances, and reduced diseases resistance genes for subtropical marginally distributed Musa species. Prevalent purifying selection and transposed duplications were found to facilitate the diversification of NBS-encoding gene families for two Musa species. The population genome history analysis of M. itinerans revealed that the fluctuated population sizes were caused by the Pleistocene climate oscillations, and that the formation of Qiongzhou Strait might facilitate the population downsizing on the isolated Hainan Island about 10.3 Kya. The qualified assembly of the M. itinerans genome provides deep insights into the lineage-specific diversification and also valuable resources for future banana breeding. PMID:27531320

  16. Whole genome sequencing of a banana wild relative Musa itinerans provides insights into lineage-specific diversification of the Musa genus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Yang, Yu-Lan; He, Wei-Ming; Rouard, Mathieu; Li, Wei-Ming; Xu, Meng; Roux, Nicolas; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Crop wild relatives are valuable resources for future genetic improvement. Here, we report the de novo genome assembly of Musa itinerans, a disease-resistant wild banana relative in subtropical China. The assembled genome size was 462.1 Mb, covering 75.2% of the genome (615.2Mb) and containing 32, 456 predicted protein-coding genes. Since the approximate divergence around 5.8 million years ago, the genomes of Musa itinerans and Musa acuminata have shown conserved collinearity. Gene family expansions and contractions enrichment analysis revealed that some pathways were associated with phenotypic or physiological innovations. These include a transition from wood to herbaceous in the ancestral Musaceae, intensification of cold and drought tolerances, and reduced diseases resistance genes for subtropical marginally distributed Musa species. Prevalent purifying selection and transposed duplications were found to facilitate the diversification of NBS-encoding gene families for two Musa species. The population genome history analysis of M. itinerans revealed that the fluctuated population sizes were caused by the Pleistocene climate oscillations, and that the formation of Qiongzhou Strait might facilitate the population downsizing on the isolated Hainan Island about 10.3 Kya. The qualified assembly of the M. itinerans genome provides deep insights into the lineage-specific diversification and also valuable resources for future banana breeding. PMID:27531320

  17. Immune parameters of QX-resistant and wild caught Saccostrea glomerata hemocytes in relation to Marteilia sydneyi infection.

    PubMed

    Dang, Cécile; Lambert, Christophe; Soudant, Philippe; Delamare-Deboutteville, Jérome; Zhang, May M; Chan, Janlin; Green, Timothy J; Le Goïc, Nelly; Barnes, Andrew C

    2011-12-01

    Sydney rock oysters (SRO) Saccostrea glomerata suffer mass mortalities during summer and autumn as a result of infection by a protozoan parasite Marteilia sydneyi (QX disease). Mass selected disease resistant (QXR) lines have been used with some success in affected estuaries in recent years, with resistance attributed to oxidative defense systems. However, the role of hemocytes in resistance to QX by SRO has not been fully explored. In the present study, fifty QXR and fifty wild caught (WC) oysters were collected from a lease at Pimpama River during a QX outbreak in January 2011. Hemocytes characteristics (type, morphology) and functions (mortality, phagocytosis and oxidative activity) from both oyster lines were analyzed by flow cytometry in the context of infection intensity and parasite viability (determined histologically). Amongst the QXR oysters, 20% were diseased containing viable parasite, 74% had killed M. sydneyi and 6% were uninfected. In contrast, 86% of WC oysters were diseased, 2% had killed M. sydneyi and 12% were healthy. Significant differences in hemocyte number and physiology between the two oyster lines were found (ANOVA). Phagocytosis rate and the mean oxidative activity per cell were similar between both oyster lines. Higher numbers of infiltrating and circulating hemocytes, higher percentage of circulating granulocytes, their higher size and complexity in QXR oysters, and the production of reactive oxygen species were associated with the ability to kill the parasite. High abundance of M. sydneyi in the digestive tubule epithelium of both oyster lines implied inability to kill the parasite at the beginning of the infection. However, QXR oysters had the ability to kill M. sydneyi at the stage of sporangiosorae in the epithelium of digestive tubules. The similar phagocytic ability of hemocytes from both oyster lines, the size of the parasite at this infection stage, and its localization suggested that encapsulation is likely to be the main

  18. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of RrNHX1 and RrVHA-c genes related to salt tolerance in wild Rosa rugosa.

    PubMed

    Feng, Liguo; Ding, Han; Wang, Jia; Wang, Meng; Xia, Wei; Zang, Shu; Sheng, Lixia

    2015-07-01

    Salt stress is one important factor influencing the growth and development of plants, and salt tolerance of plants is a result of combined action of multiple genes and mechanisms. Rosa rugosa is not only an important ornamental plant, but also the natural aromatic plant of high value. Wild R. rugosa which is naturally distributed on the coast and islands of China has a good salt tolerance due to the special living environment. Here, the vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) reverse transporter gene (NHX1) and the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase subunit C gene (VHA-c) closely related to plant salt tolerance were isolated from wild R. rugosa, and the expression patterns in R. rugosa leaves of the two genes under NaCl stress were determined by real-time quantitative fluorescence PCR. The results showed that the RrNHX1 protein is a constitutive Na(+)/H(+) reverse transporter, the expression of the RrNHX1 gene first increased and then decreased with the increasing salt concentration, and had a time-controlled effect. The RrVHA-c gene is suggestive of the housekeeping feature, its expression pattern showed a similar variation trend with the RrNHX1 gene under the stress of different concentrations of NaCl, and its temporal expression level under 200 mM NaCl stress presented bimodal change. These findings indicated that RrNHX1 and RrVHA-c genes are closely associated with the salt tolerance trait of wild R. rugosa. PMID:26150747

  19. Traffic-Related Trace Element Accumulation in Roadside Soils and Wild Grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guanxing; Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Fan; Zeng, Chen; Gao, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This research examines traffic-source trace elements accumulations and distributions in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. A total of 100 soil samples and 100 grass samples including Achnatherum splendens, Anaphalis nepalensis, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Carex moorcroftii, Iris lacteal, Kobresia myosuroides, Oreosolen wattii, Oxytropis ochrocephala and Stellera chamaejasme were collected at 100 sites from different road segments. The contents of metals and metalloids, including Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and As, in the soil and grass samples were analyzed using ICP-MS. The total mean concentrations of the eight trace elements in soils are Cu (22.84 mg/kg), Zn (100.56 mg/kg), Cd (0.28 mg/kg), Pb (28.75 mg/kg), Cr (36.82 mg/kg), Co (10.24 mg/kg), Ni (32.44 mg/kg) and As (21.43 mg/kg), while in grasses are Cu (9.85 mg/kg), Zn (31.47 mg/kg), Cd (0.05 mg/kg), Pb (2.06 mg/kg), Cr (14.16 mg/kg), Co (0.55 mg/kg), Ni (4.03 mg/kg) and As (1.33 mg/kg). The metal and metalloid concentrations in the nine grass species were all below the critical values of hyperaccumulators. The mean values and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) results indicate that: (1) the concentrations of the trace elements in the soils are higher than those in the grasses, (2) the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in the soils decrease as the roadside distance increases, (3) the concentrations of trace elements in the grasses are the highest at 10 m from the road edge, (4) the higher the traffic volume, the higher the concentrations of the trace elements in the roadside soils and grasses, and (5) when the land cover is meadow, the lower the sand content in the soil, the lower the trace element concentrations. With a trace element’s bioavailability represented by its transfer factor (TF) from the soil to the grass, the TFs of the eight trace elements are not in the same orders for different grass species. PMID:24380977

  20. Traffic-related trace element accumulation in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanxing; Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Fan; Zeng, Chen; Gao, Dan

    2013-12-30

    This research examines traffic-source trace elements accumulations and distributions in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. A total of 100 soil samples and 100 grass samples including Achnatherum splendens, Anaphalis nepalensis, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Carex moorcroftii, Iris lacteal, Kobresia myosuroides, Oreosolen wattii, Oxytropis ochrocephala and Stellera chamaejasme were collected at 100 sites from different road segments. The contents of metals and metalloids, including Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and As, in the soil and grass samples were analyzed using ICP-MS. The total mean concentrations of the eight trace elements in soils are Cu (22.84 mg/kg), Zn (100.56 mg/kg), Cd (0.28 mg/kg), Pb (28.75 mg/kg), Cr (36.82 mg/kg), Co (10.24 mg/kg), Ni (32.44 mg/kg) and As (21.43 mg/kg), while in grasses are Cu (9.85 mg/kg), Zn (31.47 mg/kg), Cd (0.05 mg/kg), Pb (2.06 mg/kg), Cr (14.16 mg/kg), Co (0.55 mg/kg), Ni (4.03 mg/kg) and As (1.33 mg/kg). The metal and metalloid concentrations in the nine grass species were all below the critical values of hyperaccumulators. The mean values and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) results indicate that: (1) the concentrations of the trace elements in the soils are higher than those in the grasses, (2) the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in the soils decrease as the roadside distance increases, (3) the concentrations of trace elements in the grasses are the highest at 10 m from the road edge, (4) the higher the traffic volume, the higher the concentrations of the trace elements in the roadside soils and grasses, and (5) when the land cover is meadow, the lower the sand content in the soil, the lower the trace element concentrations. With a trace element's bioavailability represented by its transfer factor (TF) from the soil to the grass, the TFs of the eight trace elements are not in the same orders for different grass species.

  1. Contribution of heavy metals to toxicity of coal combustion related fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Caenorhabditis elegans with wild-type or susceptible genetic background.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lingmei; Wu, Quli; Liao, Kai; Yu, Peihang; Cui, Qiuhong; Rui, Qi; Wang, Dayong

    2016-02-01

    Contribution of chemical components in coal combustion related fine particulate matter (PM2.5) to its toxicity is largely unclear. We focused on heavy metals in PM2.5 to investigate their contribution to toxicity formation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Among 8 heavy metals examined (Fe, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni), Pb, Cr, and Cu potentially contributed to PM2.5 toxicity in wild-type nematodes. Combinational exposure to any two of these three heavy metals caused higher toxicity than exposure to Pb, Cr, or Cu alone. Toxicity from the combinational exposure to Pb, Cr, and Cu at the examined concentrations was higher than exposure to PM2.5 (100 mg/L). Moreover, mutation of sod-2 or sod-3 gene encoding Mn-SOD increased susceptibility in nematodes exposed to Fe, Zn, or Ni, although Fe, Zn, or Ni at the examined concentration did not lead to toxicity in wild-type nematodes. Our results highlight the potential contribution of heavy metals to PM2.5 toxicity in environmental organisms.

  2. Traffic-related heavy metals uptake by wild plants grow along two main highways in Hunan Province, China: effects of soil factors, accumulation ability, and biological indication potential.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yunbo; Dai, Qingyun; Jiang, Kang; Zhu, Yun; Xu, Bibo; Peng, Chuan; Wang, Tengfei; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-07-01

    This study was performed to investigate pollution of traffic-related heavy metals (HMs-Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Cd) in roadside soils and their uptake by wild plants growing along highways in Hunan Province, China. For this, we analyzed the concentration and chemical fractionation of HMs in soils and plants. Soil samples were collected with different depths in the profile and different distances from highway edge. And leaves and barks of six high-frequency plants were collected. Results of the modified European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) showed that the mobile fraction of these HMs was in the order of Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu > Cr. A high percentage of the mobile fraction indicates Cd, Pb, and Zn were labile and available for uptake by wild plants. The total concentration and values of risk assessment code (RAC) showed that Cd was the main risk factor, which were in the range high to very high risk. The accumulation ability of HMs in plants was evaluated by the biological accumulation factor (BAF) and the metal accumulation index (MAI), and the results showed that all those plant species have good phyto-extraction ability, while accumulation capacity for most HMs plants tissues was bark > leaf. The highest MAI value (5.99) in Cinnamomum camphora (L) Presl indicates the potential for bio-monitoring and a good choice for planting along highways where there is contamination with HMs.

  3. Hematology and blood chemistry reference values and age-related changes in wild Bearded Vultures (Gypaetus barbatus).

    PubMed

    Hernández, M; Margalida, A

    2010-04-01

    Normal hematologic and blood chemistry values for clinical use and age-related changes are reported as reference values for the endangered Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus). Blood samples were obtained from 21 nestlings and 26 free-living subadults and adults. No significant differences were found between subadults and adults or between sexes for any of the studied parameters. Reference ranges have been established for Bearded Vulture nestlings (less than 3 mo of age) and for free-living Bearded Vultures, with subadult and adult data combined without affecting clinical interpretation. Some reference values for the parameters reported in this study are similar to those previously described for vultures and other raptor species, although creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were higher than those reported for birds of prey. Significant age-related differences were identified in urea, uric acid, triglycerides, total serum protein, inorganic phosphorus, and magnesium concentrations, as well as aspartate aminotransferase, creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, and lipase activities (P<0.05). Additionally, significant age-related differences were noted in red and white blood cell counts, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, fibrinogen level, and heterophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils (P<0.005). The results obtained from this study provide reference ranges that will be useful for evaluating the pathologic conditions and general health of Bearded Vulture populations and reveal the existence of important age-related differences in the species.

  4. Theobroxide Treatment Inhibits Wild Fire Disease Occurrence in Nicotiana benthamiana by the Overexpression of Defense-related Genes.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Soon Young; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Moon, Yong Sun; Yun, Hae Keun

    2013-03-01

    Theobroxide, a novel compound isolated from a fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, stimulates potato tuber formation and induces flowering of morning glory by initiating the jasmonic acid synthesis pathway. To elucidate the effect of theobroxide on pathogen resistance in plants, Nicotiana benthamiana plants treated with theobroxide were immediately infiltrated with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci. Exogenous application of theobroxide inhibited development of lesion symptoms, and growth of the bacterial cells was significantly retarded. Semi-quantitative RT-PCRs using the primers of 18 defense-related genes were performed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of resistance. Among the genes, the theobroxide treatment increased the expression of pathogenesis-related protein 1a (PR1a), pathogenesis-related protein 1b (PR1b), glutathione S-transferase (GST), allen oxide cyclase (AOC), and lipoxyganase (LOX). All these data strongly indicate that theobroxide treatment inhibits disease development by faster induction of defense responses, which can be possible by the induction of defense-related genes including PR1a, PR1b, and GST triggered by the elevated jasmonic acid. PMID:25288936

  5. Theobroxide Treatment Inhibits Wild Fire Disease Occurrence in Nicotiana benthamiana by the Overexpression of Defense-related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Soon Young; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Moon, Yong Sun; Yun, Hae Keun

    2013-01-01

    Theobroxide, a novel compound isolated from a fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, stimulates potato tuber formation and induces flowering of morning glory by initiating the jasmonic acid synthesis pathway. To elucidate the effect of theobroxide on pathogen resistance in plants, Nicotiana benthamiana plants treated with theobroxide were immediately infiltrated with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci. Exogenous application of theobroxide inhibited development of lesion symptoms, and growth of the bacterial cells was significantly retarded. Semi-quantitative RT-PCRs using the primers of 18 defense-related genes were performed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of resistance. Among the genes, the theobroxide treatment increased the expression of pathogenesis-related protein 1a (PR1a), pathogenesis-related protein 1b (PR1b), glutathione S-transferase (GST), allen oxide cyclase (AOC), and lipoxyganase (LOX). All these data strongly indicate that theobroxide treatment inhibits disease development by faster induction of defense responses, which can be possible by the induction of defense-related genes including PR1a, PR1b, and GST triggered by the elevated jasmonic acid. PMID:25288936

  6. Ecotoxicology of wild mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Shore, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    An international group of 32 scientists has critically reviewed the scientific literature on exposure and effects of environmental contaminants in wild mammals. Although the absolute number of toxicological studies in domesticated and wild mammals eclipses that for birds, a detailed examination of scientific publications and databases reveal that information for 'wild' birds is actually greater than that for 'wild' mammals. Of the various taxa of mammals, ecotoxicological data is most noticeably lacking for marsupials and monotremes. In contrast, rodents (comprising 43% of all mammal species) have been studied extensively, despite evidence of their tolerance to some organochlorine compounds, rodenticides, and even radionuclides. Mammalian species at greatest risk of exposure include those that consume a high percentage of their body weight on a daily basis (e.g., shrews, moles and bats). Aquatic mammals tend to bioaccumulate tremendous burdens of lipophilic contaminants, although storage in their fat depots may actually limit toxicity. Carnivores appear to be more sensitive to adverse effects of environmental contaminants than herbivores. Remarkably few of the thousands of compounds manufactured worldwide have been toxicologically evaluated in wild mammals, and concentrations of even fewer have been monitored in tissues. Overarching research needs include: development of new exposure/effects models and better methods for estimation of species sensitivities; generation of comparative data on contaminant bioavailability, sublethal responses and detoxication mechanisms; enhanced understanding of pesticide, industrial contaminant and metal interactions; identification of endocrine disruptive contaminants and their overall ecological significance; and finally, estimating the relative contribution of environmental contamination as a factor affecting wild mammal populations.

  7. First insight into divergence, representation and chromosome distribution of reverse transcriptase fragments from L1 retrotransposons in peanut and wild relative species.

    PubMed

    Samoluk, Sergio Sebastián; Robledo, Germán; Podio, Maricel; Chalup, Laura; Ortiz, Juan Pablo A; Pessino, Silvina Claudia; Seijo, José Guillermo

    2015-02-01

    Peanut is an allotetraploid (2n = 2x = 40, AABB) of recent origin. Arachis duranensis and A. ipaënsis, the most probable diploid ancestors of the cultigen, and several other wild diploid species with different genomes (A, B, D, F and K) are used in peanut breeding programs. However, the genomic relationships and the evolutionary pathways of genome differentiation of these species are poorly understood. We performed a sequence-based phylogenetic analysis of the L1 reverse transcriptase and estimated its representation and chromosome distribution in species of five genomes and three karyotype groups with the aim of contributing to the knowledge of the genomic structure and evolution of peanut and wild diploid relatives. All the isolated rt fragments were found to belong to plant L1 lineage and were named ALI. The best supported phylogenetic groups were not concordant with the genomes or karyotype groups. The copy number of ALI sequences was higher than the expected one for plants and directly related to genome size. FISH experiments revealed that ALI is mainly located on the euchromatin of interstitial and distal regions of most chromosome arms. Divergence of ALI sequences would have occurred before the differentiation of the genomes and karyotype groups of Arachis. The representation and chromosome distribution of ALI in peanut was almost additive of those of the parental species suggesting that the spontaneous hybridization of the two parental species of peanut followed by chromosome doubling would not have induced a significant burst of ALI transposition. PMID:25633099

  8. Comparisons of mutation rate variation at genome-wide microsatellites: evolutionary insights from two cultivated rice and their wild relatives

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Mutation rate (μ) per generation per locus is an important parameter in the models of population genetics. Studies on mutation rate and its variation are of significance to elucidate the extent and distribution of genetic variation, further infer evolutionary relationships among closely related species, and deeply understand genetic variation of genomes. However, patterns of rate variation of microsatellite loci are still poorly understood in plant species. Furthermore, how their mutation rates vary in di-, tri-, and tetra-nucleotide repeats within the species is largely uninvestigated across related plant genomes. Results Genome-wide variation of mutation rates was first investigated by means of the composite population parameter θ (θ = 4Nμ, where N is the effective population size and μ is the mutation rate per locus per generation) in four subspecies of Asian cultivated rice O. sativa and its three related species, O. rufipogon, O. glaberrima, and O. officinalis. On the basis of three data sets of microsatellite allele frequencies throughout the genome, population mutation rate (θ) was estimated for each locus. Our results reveal that the variation of population mutation rates at microsatellites within each studied species or subspecies of cultivated rice can be approximated with a gamma distribution. The mean population mutation rates of microsatellites do not significantly differ in motifs of di-, tri-, and tetra-nucleotide repeats for the studied rice species. The shape parameter was also estimated for each subspecies of rice as well as other related rice species. Of them, different subspecies of O. sativa possesses similar shape parameters (α) of the gamma distribution, while other species extensively vary in their population mutation rates. Conclusion Through the analysis of genome-wide microsatellite data, the population mutation rate can be approximately fitted with a gamma distribution in most of the studied species. In general

  9. The Solanum commersonii Genome Sequence Provides Insights into Adaptation to Stress Conditions and Genome Evolution of Wild Potato Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Aversano, Riccardo; Contaldi, Felice; Ercolano, Maria Raffaella; Grosso, Valentina; Iorizzo, Massimo; Tatino, Filippo; Xumerle, Luciano; Dal Molin, Alessandra; Avanzato, Carla; Ferrarini, Alberto; Delledonne, Massimo; Sanseverino, Walter; Cigliano, Riccardo Aiese; Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador; Gabaldón, Toni; Frusciante, Luigi; Bradeen, James M.; Carputo, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Solanum commersonii, which consists of ∼830 megabases with an N50 of 44,303 bp anchored to 12 chromosomes, using the potato (Solanum tuberosum) genome sequence as a reference. Compared with potato, S. commersonii shows a striking reduction in heterozygosity (1.5% versus 53 to 59%), and differences in genome sizes were mainly due to variations in intergenic sequence length. Gene annotation by ab initio prediction supported by RNA-seq data produced a catalog of 1703 predicted microRNAs, 18,882 long noncoding RNAs of which 20% are shown to target cold-responsive genes, and 39,290 protein-coding genes with a significant repertoire of nonredundant nucleotide binding site-encoding genes and 126 cold-related genes that are lacking in S. tuberosum. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that domesticated potato and S. commersonii lineages diverged ∼2.3 million years ago. Three duplication periods corresponding to genome enrichment for particular gene families related to response to salt stress, water transport, growth, and defense response were discovered. The draft genome sequence of S. commersonii substantially increases our understanding of the domesticated germplasm, facilitating translation of acquired knowledge into advances in crop stability in light of global climate and environmental changes. PMID:25873387

  10. The Solanum commersonii Genome Sequence Provides Insights into Adaptation to Stress Conditions and Genome Evolution of Wild Potato Relatives.

    PubMed

    Aversano, Riccardo; Contaldi, Felice; Ercolano, Maria Raffaella; Grosso, Valentina; Iorizzo, Massimo; Tatino, Filippo; Xumerle, Luciano; Dal Molin, Alessandra; Avanzato, Carla; Ferrarini, Alberto; Delledonne, Massimo; Sanseverino, Walter; Cigliano, Riccardo Aiese; Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador; Gabaldón, Toni; Frusciante, Luigi; Bradeen, James M; Carputo, Domenico

    2015-04-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Solanum commersonii, which consists of ∼830 megabases with an N50 of 44,303 bp anchored to 12 chromosomes, using the potato (Solanum tuberosum) genome sequence as a reference. Compared with potato, S. commersonii shows a striking reduction in heterozygosity (1.5% versus 53 to 59%), and differences in genome sizes were mainly due to variations in intergenic sequence length. Gene annotation by ab initio prediction supported by RNA-seq data produced a catalog of 1703 predicted microRNAs, 18,882 long noncoding RNAs of which 20% are shown to target cold-responsive genes, and 39,290 protein-coding genes with a significant repertoire of nonredundant nucleotide binding site-encoding genes and 126 cold-related genes that are lacking in S. tuberosum. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that domesticated potato and S. commersonii lineages diverged ∼2.3 million years ago. Three duplication periods corresponding to genome enrichment for particular gene families related to response to salt stress, water transport, growth, and defense response were discovered. The draft genome sequence of S. commersonii substantially increases our understanding of the domesticated germplasm, facilitating translation of acquired knowledge into advances in crop stability in light of global climate and environmental changes.

  11. Radiation-induced DNA damage and the relative biological effectiveness of 18F-FDG in wild-type mice

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Taylor, Kristina; Lemon, Jennifer A.; Boreham, Douglas R.

    2014-05-28

    Clinically, the most commonly used positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer is the glucose analog 2-[18F] fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (18F-FDG), however little research has been conducted on the biological effects of 18F-FDG injections. The induction and repair of DNA damage and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of radiation from 18F-FDG relative to 662 keV γ-rays were investigated. The study also assessed whether low-dose radiation exposure from 18F-FDG was capable of inducing an adaptive response. DNA damage to the bone marrow erythroblast population was measured using micronucleus formation and lymphocyte γH2A.X levels. To test the RBE of 18F-FDG, mice were injected with a rangemore » of activities of 18F-FDG (0–14.80 MBq) or irradiated with Cs-137 γ-rays (0–100 mGy). The adaptive response was investigated 24 h after the 18F-FDG injection by 1 Gy in vivo challenge doses for micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) formation or 1, 2 and 4 Gy in vitro challenges doses for γH2A.X formation. A significant increase in MN-RET formation above controls occurred following injection activities of 3.70, 7.40 or 14.80 MBq (P < 0.001) which correspond to bone marrow doses of ~35, 75 and 150 mGy, respectively. Per unit dose, the Cs-137 radiation exposure induced significantly more damage than the 18F-FDG injections (RBE = 0.79 ± 0.04). A 20% reduction in γH2A.X fluorescence was observed in mice injected with a prior adapting low dose of 14.80 MBq 18F-FDG relative to controls (P < 0.019). A 0.74 MBq 18F-FDG injection, which gives mice a dose approximately equal to a typical human PET scan, did not cause a significant increase in DNA damage nor did it generate an adaptive response. Typical 18F-FDG injection activities used in small animal imaging (14.80 MBq) resulted in a decrease in DNA damage, as measured by γH2A.X formation, below spontaneous levels observed in control mice. Lastly, the 18F-FDG RBE was <1.0, indicating that the mixed radiation quality

  12. Evidence That the Origin of Naked Kernels During Maize Domestication Was Caused by a Single Amino Acid Substitution in tga1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huai; Studer, Anthony J; Zhao, Qiong; Meeley, Robert; Doebley, John F

    2015-07-01

    teosinte glume architecture1 (tga1), a member of the SBP-box gene family of transcriptional regulators, has been identified as the gene conferring naked kernels in maize vs. encased kernels in its wild progenitor, teosinte. However, the identity of the causative polymorphism within tga1 that produces these different phenotypes has remained unknown. Using nucleotide diversity data, we show that there is a single fixed nucleotide difference between maize and teosinte in tga1, and this difference confers a Lys (teosinte allele) to Asn (maize allele) substitution. This substitution transforms TGA1 into a transcriptional repressor. While both alleles of TGA1 can bind a GTAC motif, maize-TGA1 forms more stable dimers than teosinte-TGA1. Since it is the only fixed difference between maize and teosinte, this alteration in protein function likely underlies the differences in maize and teosinte glume architecture. We previously reported a difference in TGA1 protein abundance between maize and teosinte based on relative signal intensity of a Western blot. Here, we show that this signal difference is not due to tga1 but to a second gene, neighbor of tga1 (not1). Not1 encodes a protein that has 92% amino acid similarity to TGA1 and that is recognized by the TGA1 antibody. Genetic mapping and phenotypic data show that tga1, without a contribution from not1, controls the difference in covered vs. naked kernels. No trait differences could be associated with the maize vs. teosinte alleles of not1. Our results document how morphological evolution can be driven by a simple nucleotide change that alters protein function.

  13. Highly Diverse Morbillivirus-Related Paramyxoviruses in Wild Fauna of the Southwestern Indian Ocean Islands: Evidence of Exchange between Introduced and Endemic Small Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Mélade, Julien; Dietrich, Muriel; Ramasindrazana, Beza; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Lagadec, Erwan; le Minter, Gildas; Tortosa, Pablo; Heraud, Jean-Michel; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Goodman, Steven M.; Dellagi, Koussay

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Paramyxoviridae form an increasingly diverse viral family, infecting a wide variety of different hosts. In recent years, they have been linked to disease emergence in many different animal populations and in humans. Bats and rodents have been identified as major animal populations capable of harboring paramyxoviruses, and host shifting between these animals is likely to be an important driving factor in the underlying evolutionary processes that eventually lead to disease emergence. Here, we have studied paramyxovirus circulation within populations of endemic and introduced wild small mammals of the southwestern Indian Ocean region and belonging to four taxonomic orders: Rodentia, Afrosoricida, Soricomorpha, and Chiroptera. We report elevated infection levels as well as widespread paramyxovirus dispersal and frequent host exchange of a newly emerging genus of the Paramyxoviridae, currently referred to as the unclassified morbillivirus-related viruses (UMRVs). In contrast to other genera of the Paramyxoviridae, where bats have been shown to be a key host species, we show that rodents (and, in particular, Rattus rattus) are significant spreaders of UMRVs. We predict that the ecological particularities of the southwestern Indian Ocean, where small mammal species often live in densely packed, multispecies communities, in combination with the increasing invasion of R. rattus and perturbations of endemic animal communities by active anthropological development, will have a major influence on the dynamics of UMRV infection. IMPORTANCE Identification of the infectious agents that circulate within wild animal reservoirs is essential for several reasons: (i) infectious disease outbreaks often originate from wild fauna; (ii) anthropological expansion increases the risk of contact between human and animal populations and, as a result, the risk of disease emergence; (iii) evaluation of pathogen reservoirs helps in elaborating preventive measures to limit the risk

  14. Hybridization between transgenic Brassica napus L. and its wild relatives: Brassica rapa L., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz.

    PubMed

    Warwick, S I; Simard, M-J; Légère, A; Beckie, H J; Braun, L; Zhu, B; Mason, P; Séguin-Swartz, G; Stewart, C N

    2003-08-01

    The frequency of gene flow from Brassica napus L. (canola) to four wild relatives, Brassica rapa L., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Sinapis arvensis L. and Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz, was assessed in greenhouse and/or field experiments, and actual rates measured in commercial fields in Canada. Various marker systems were used to detect hybrid individuals: herbicide resistance traits (HR), green fluorescent protein marker (GFP), species-specific amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and ploidy level. Hybridization between B. rapa and B. napus occurred in two field experiments (frequency approximately 7%) and in wild populations in commercial fields (approximately 13.6%). The higher frequency in commercial fields was most likely due to greater distance between B. rapa plants. All F(1) hybrids were morphologically similar to B. rapa, had B. napus- and B. rapa-specific AFLP markers and were triploid (AAC, 2n=29 chromosomes). They had reduced pollen viability (about 55%) and segregated for both self-incompatible and self-compatible individuals (the latter being a B. napus trait). In contrast, gene flow between R. raphanistrum and B. napus was very rare. A single R. raphanistrum x B. napus F1 hybrid was detected in 32,821 seedlings from the HR B. napus field experiment. The hybrid was morphologically similar to R. raphanistrum except for the presence of valves, a B. napus trait, in the distorted seed pods. It had a genomic structure consistent with the fusion of an unreduced gamete of R. raphanistrum and a reduced gamete of B. napus (RrRrAC, 2n=37), both B. napus- and R. raphanistrum-specific AFLP markers, and had <1% pollen viability. No hybrids were detected in the greenhouse experiments (1,534 seedlings), the GFP field experiment (4,059 seedlings) or in commercial fields in Québec and Alberta (22,114 seedlings). No S. arvensis or E. gallicum x B. napus hybrids were detected (42,828 and 21,841 seedlings, respectively) from commercial fields in

  15. Hybridization between transgenic Brassica napus L. and its wild relatives: Brassica rapa L., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz.

    PubMed

    Warwick, S I; Simard, M-J; Légère, A; Beckie, H J; Braun, L; Zhu, B; Mason, P; Séguin-Swartz, G; Stewart, C N

    2003-08-01

    The frequency of gene flow from Brassica napus L. (canola) to four wild relatives, Brassica rapa L., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Sinapis arvensis L. and Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz, was assessed in greenhouse and/or field experiments, and actual rates measured in commercial fields in Canada. Various marker systems were used to detect hybrid individuals: herbicide resistance traits (HR), green fluorescent protein marker (GFP), species-specific amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and ploidy level. Hybridization between B. rapa and B. napus occurred in two field experiments (frequency approximately 7%) and in wild populations in commercial fields (approximately 13.6%). The higher frequency in commercial fields was most likely due to greater distance between B. rapa plants. All F(1) hybrids were morphologically similar to B. rapa, had B. napus- and B. rapa-specific AFLP markers and were triploid (AAC, 2n=29 chromosomes). They had reduced pollen viability (about 55%) and segregated for both self-incompatible and self-compatible individuals (the latter being a B. napus trait). In contrast, gene flow between R. raphanistrum and B. napus was very rare. A single R. raphanistrum x B. napus F1 hybrid was detected in 32,821 seedlings from the HR B. napus field experiment. The hybrid was morphologically similar to R. raphanistrum except for the presence of valves, a B. napus trait, in the distorted seed pods. It had a genomic structure consistent with the fusion of an unreduced gamete of R. raphanistrum and a reduced gamete of B. napus (RrRrAC, 2n=37), both B. napus- and R. raphanistrum-specific AFLP markers, and had <1% pollen viability. No hybrids were detected in the greenhouse experiments (1,534 seedlings), the GFP field experiment (4,059 seedlings) or in commercial fields in Québec and Alberta (22,114 seedlings). No S. arvensis or E. gallicum x B. napus hybrids were detected (42,828 and 21,841 seedlings, respectively) from commercial fields in

  16. Reproductive and morphological condition of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lutra canadensis) in relation to chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination.

    PubMed

    Harding, L E; Harris, M L; Stephen, C R; Elliott, J E

    1999-02-01

    We assessed chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination of mink and river otters on the Columbia and Fraser River systems of northwestern North America, in relation to morphological measures of condition. We obtained carcasses of mink and river otters from commercial trappers during the winters 1994-1995 and 1995-1996. Necropsies included evaluation of the following biological parameters: sex, body mass and length, age, thymus, heart, liver, lung, spleen, pancreas, kidney, gonad, omentum, adrenal gland and baculum masses, baculum length, and stomach contents. Livers were analyzed, individually or in pools, for residues of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans. Contaminant levels were relatively low compared to those documented in other North American populations, although they ranged higher than those detected during an earlier survey (1990-1992) of these regional populations. Body condition varied slightly among collection regions, but showed no relationship with contaminant burden. Mink from the upper Fraser River had less fat stores and also had some of the lowest OC contamination levels observed. Similarly, a few individuals with enlarged livers and kidneys had low contaminant levels. Although a few individual animals with gross abnormalities of reproductive systems did not show high levels of contamination, there was a significant negative correlation between total PCB concentrations (as Aroclor 1260) and baculum length in juvenile mink (r = 0.707; p = 0.033; n = 8). The association of juvenile baculum length with eventual reproductive success is unknown, but further characterization of reproductive organ morphology and relationship to contaminants should be undertaken in a larger subset of these populations. PMID:9924010

  17. Density-related effects on the infectivity and aggressiveness of a sterilising smut in a wild population of Digitaria sanguinalis.

    PubMed

    Verdú, A M C; Mas, M T

    2015-01-01

    Understanding host-pathogen evolutionary dynamics needs characterisation and quantification of processes occurring at many spatiotemporal scales. With this aim, the effects of smut on a naturally infected population of the summer annual Digitaria sanguinalis were followed for 4 years in an uncropped field. The main purpose of the study was to quantify the effects of within-population density on the infectivity and the aggressiveness of the pathogen in a range of densities that occurred naturally. The infectivity-related variable measured was the proportion of smutted plants at the end of each growing season; proportions were analysed using a generalised linear model with a binomial distribution considering the year, the density and their interaction as effects. The aggressiveness-related variables chosen were the number of smutted inflorescences per plant and per area, obtained over the last 2 years; they were analysed by means of ancova considering disease status (seeded or smutted), year, density and all the interactions between them. Although the disease is monocyclic, results showed clearly that infectivity increased with plant density. The number of inflorescences per plant was 1.5 times higher in smutted plants than in healthy plants throughout the range of densities. This variable declined when density increased, but as the infectivity increased at a higher rate, the aggressiveness also increased with density. The surprising results on infectivity are discussed in the context of current knowledge of plant-pathogen interaction dynamics, as well as neighbour effects on pathogen aggressiveness. Moreover, the results could be useful to develop weed biological control strategies.

  18. Contrasting adaptive strategies to terminal drought-stress gradients in Mediterranean legumes: phenology, productivity, and water relations in wild and domesticated Lupinus luteus L.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, J. D.; Ludwig, C.

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of within-species annual plant adaptation to rainfall gradients is fragmented. Broad-scale ecological applications of Grime’s C-S-R triangle are often superficial, while detailed drought physiology tends to be narrow, focusing on elite cultivars. The former lack the detail to explain how plants respond, while the latter provide little context to investigate trade-offs among traits, to explain where/why these might be adaptive. Ecophysiology, combining the breadth of the former with the detail of the latter, can resolve this disconnect and is applied here to describe adaptive strategies in the Mediterranean legume Lupinus luteus. Wild and domesticated material from low- and high-rainfall environments was evaluated under contrasting terminal drought. These opposing environments have selected for contrasting, integrated, adaptive strategies. Long-season, high-rainfall habitats select for competitive (C) traits: delayed phenology, high above- and below-ground biomass, productivity, and fecundity, leading to high water-use and early stress onset. Terminal drought-prone environments select for the opposite: ruderal (R) traits that facilitate drought escape/avoidance but limit reproductive potential. Surprisingly, high-rainfall ecotypes generate lower critical leaf water potentials under water deficit, maintaining higher relative water content than the latter. Given that L. luteus evolved in sandy, low-water-holding capacity soils, this represents a bet-hedging response to intermittent self-imposed water-deficits associated with a strongly C-selected adaptive strategy that is therefore redundant in R-selected low-rainfall ecotypes. Domesticated L. luteus is even more R-selected, reflecting ongoing selection for early maturity. Introgression of appropriate C-selected adaptive traits from wild germplasm may widen the crop production range. PMID:24591050

  19. Contrasting adaptive strategies to terminal drought-stress gradients in Mediterranean legumes: phenology, productivity, and water relations in wild and domesticated Lupinus luteus L.

    PubMed

    Berger, J D; Ludwig, C

    2014-11-01

    Our understanding of within-species annual plant adaptation to rainfall gradients is fragmented. Broad-scale ecological applications of Grime's C-S-R triangle are often superficial, while detailed drought physiology tends to be narrow, focusing on elite cultivars. The former lack the detail to explain how plants respond, while the latter provide little context to investigate trade-offs among traits, to explain where/why these might be adaptive. Ecophysiology, combining the breadth of the former with the detail of the latter, can resolve this disconnect and is applied here to describe adaptive strategies in the Mediterranean legume Lupinus luteus. Wild and domesticated material from low- and high-rainfall environments was evaluated under contrasting terminal drought. These opposing environments have selected for contrasting, integrated, adaptive strategies. Long-season, high-rainfall habitats select for competitive (C) traits: delayed phenology, high above- and below-ground biomass, productivity, and fecundity, leading to high water-use and early stress onset. Terminal drought-prone environments select for the opposite: ruderal (R) traits that facilitate drought escape/avoidance but limit reproductive potential. Surprisingly, high-rainfall ecotypes generate lower critical leaf water potentials under water deficit, maintaining higher relative water content than the latter. Given that L. luteus evolved in sandy, low-water-holding capacity soils, this represents a bet-hedging response to intermittent self-imposed water-deficits associated with a strongly C-selected adaptive strategy that is therefore redundant in R-selected low-rainfall ecotypes. Domesticated L. luteus is even more R-selected, reflecting ongoing selection for early maturity. Introgression of appropriate C-selected adaptive traits from wild germplasm may widen the crop production range.

  20. Different Transcript Patterns in Response to Specialist and Generalist Herbivores in the Wild Arabidopsis Relative Boechera divaricarpa

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Heiko; Kroymann, Juergen; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Background Plants defend themselves against herbivorous insects, utilizing both constitutive and inducible defenses. Induced defenses are controlled by several phytohormone-mediated signaling pathways. Here, we analyze transcriptional changes in the North American Arabidopsis relative Boechera divaricarpa in response to larval herbivory by the crucifer specialist lepidopteran Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth) and by the generalist lepidopteran Trichoplusia ni (cabbage semilooper), and compare them to wounding and exogenous phytohormone application. Methodology/Principal Findings We use a custom macroarray constructed from B. divaricarpa herbivory-regulated cDNAs identified by suppression subtractive hybridization and from known stress-responsive A. thaliana genes for transcript profiling after insect herbivory, wounding and in response to jasmonate, salicylate and ethylene. In addition, we introduce path analysis as a novel approach to analyze transcript profiles. Path analyses reveal that transcriptional responses to the crucifer specialist P. xylostella are primarily determined by direct effects of the ethylene and salicylate pathways, whereas responses to the generalist T. ni are influenced by the ethylene and jasmonate pathways. Wound-induced transcriptional changes are influenced by all three pathways, with jasmonate having the strongest effect. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that insect herbivory is distinct from simple mechanical plant damage, and that different lepidopteran herbivores elicit different transcriptional responses. PMID:17957263

  1. Salicylic acid differently impacts ethylene and polyamine synthesis in the glycophyte Solanum lycopersicum and the wild-related halophyte Solanum chilense exposed to mild salt stress.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Emna; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Benahmed, Hela; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Lutts, Stanley; Quinet, Muriel

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) on the toxic effects of salt in relation to ethylene and polyamine synthesis, and to correlate these traits with the expression of genes involved in ethylene and polyamine metabolism in two tomato species differing in their sensitivity to salt stress, Solanum lycopersicum cv Ailsa Craig and its wild salt-resistant relative Solanum chilense. In S. chilense, treatment with 125 mM NaCl improved plant growth, increased production of ethylene, endogenous salicylic acid and spermine. The production was related to a modification of expression of genes involved in ethylene and polyamine metabolism. In contrast, salinity decreased plant growth in S. lycopersicum without affecting endogenous ethylene, salicylic or polyamine concentrations. Exogenous application of salicylic acid at 0.01 mM enhanced shoot growth in both species and affected ethylene and polyamine production in S. chilense. Concomitant application of NaCl and salicylic acid improved osmotic adjustment, thus suggesting that salt and SA may act in synergy on osmolyte synthesis. However, the beneficial impact of exogenous application of salicylic acid was mitigated by salt stress since NaCl impaired endogenous SA accumulation in the shoot and salicylic acid did not improve plant growth in salt-treated plants. Our results thus revealed that both species respond differently to salinity and that salicylic acid, ethylene and polyamine metabolisms are involved in salt resistance in S. chilense. PMID:27105808

  2. Salicylic acid differently impacts ethylene and polyamine synthesis in the glycophyte Solanum lycopersicum and the wild-related halophyte Solanum chilense exposed to mild salt stress.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Emna; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Benahmed, Hela; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Lutts, Stanley; Quinet, Muriel

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) on the toxic effects of salt in relation to ethylene and polyamine synthesis, and to correlate these traits with the expression of genes involved in ethylene and polyamine metabolism in two tomato species differing in their sensitivity to salt stress, Solanum lycopersicum cv Ailsa Craig and its wild salt-resistant relative Solanum chilense. In S. chilense, treatment with 125 mM NaCl improved plant growth, increased production of ethylene, endogenous salicylic acid and spermine. The production was related to a modification of expression of genes involved in ethylene and polyamine metabolism. In contrast, salinity decreased plant growth in S. lycopersicum without affecting endogenous ethylene, salicylic or polyamine concentrations. Exogenous application of salicylic acid at 0.01 mM enhanced shoot growth in both species and affected ethylene and polyamine production in S. chilense. Concomitant application of NaCl and salicylic acid improved osmotic adjustment, thus suggesting that salt and SA may act in synergy on osmolyte synthesis. However, the beneficial impact of exogenous application of salicylic acid was mitigated by salt stress since NaCl impaired endogenous SA accumulation in the shoot and salicylic acid did not improve plant growth in salt-treated plants. Our results thus revealed that both species respond differently to salinity and that salicylic acid, ethylene and polyamine metabolisms are involved in salt resistance in S. chilense.

  3. Does density influence relative growth performance of farm, wild and F1 hybrid Atlantic salmon in semi-natural and hatchery common garden conditions?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Alison C; Juleff, Gareth; Carvalho, Gary R; Taylor, Martin I; Solberg, Monica F; Creer, Simon; Dyrhovden, Lise; Matre, Ivar-Helge; Glover, Kevin A

    2016-07-01

    The conditions encountered by Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in aquaculture are markedly different from the natural environment. Typically, farmed salmon experience much higher densities than wild individuals, and may therefore have adapted to living in high densities. Previous studies have demonstrated that farmed salmon typically outgrow wild salmon by large ratios in the hatchery, but these differences are much less pronounced in the wild. Such divergence in growth may be explained partly by the offspring of wild salmon experiencing higher stress and thus lower growth when compared under high-density farming conditions. Here, growth of farmed, wild and F1 hybrid salmon was studied at contrasting densities within a hatchery and semi-natural environment. Farmed salmon significantly outgrew hybrid and wild salmon in all treatments. Importantly, however, the reaction norms were similar across treatments for all groups. Thus, this study was unable to find evidence that the offspring of farmed salmon have adapted more readily to higher fish densities than wild salmon as a result of domestication. It is suggested that the substantially higher growth rate of farmed salmon observed in the hatchery compared with wild individuals may not solely be caused by differences in their ability to grow in high-density hatchery scenarios. PMID:27493772

  4. Does density influence relative growth performance of farm, wild and F1 hybrid Atlantic salmon in semi-natural and hatchery common garden conditions?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Alison C; Juleff, Gareth; Carvalho, Gary R; Taylor, Martin I; Solberg, Monica F; Creer, Simon; Dyrhovden, Lise; Matre, Ivar-Helge; Glover, Kevin A

    2016-07-01

    The conditions encountered by Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in aquaculture are markedly different from the natural environment. Typically, farmed salmon experience much higher densities than wild individuals, and may therefore have adapted to living in high densities. Previous studies have demonstrated that farmed salmon typically outgrow wild salmon by large ratios in the hatchery, but these differences are much less pronounced in the wild. Such divergence in growth may be explained partly by the offspring of wild salmon experiencing higher stress and thus lower growth when compared under high-density farming conditions. Here, growth of farmed, wild and F1 hybrid salmon was studied at contrasting densities within a hatchery and semi-natural environment. Farmed salmon significantly outgrew hybrid and wild salmon in all treatments. Importantly, however, the reaction norms were similar across treatments for all groups. Thus, this study was unable to find evidence that the offspring of farmed salmon have adapted more readily to higher fish densities than wild salmon as a result of domestication. It is suggested that the substantially higher growth rate of farmed salmon observed in the hatchery compared with wild individuals may not solely be caused by differences in their ability to grow in high-density hatchery scenarios.

  5. Does density influence relative growth performance of farm, wild and F1 hybrid Atlantic salmon in semi-natural and hatchery common garden conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Juleff, Gareth; Carvalho, Gary R.; Taylor, Martin I.; Creer, Simon; Dyrhovden, Lise; Matre, Ivar-Helge; Glover, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    The conditions encountered by Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in aquaculture are markedly different from the natural environment. Typically, farmed salmon experience much higher densities than wild individuals, and may therefore have adapted to living in high densities. Previous studies have demonstrated that farmed salmon typically outgrow wild salmon by large ratios in the hatchery, but these differences are much less pronounced in the wild. Such divergence in growth may be explained partly by the offspring of wild salmon experiencing higher stress and thus lower growth when compared under high-density farming conditions. Here, growth of farmed, wild and F1 hybrid salmon was studied at contrasting densities within a hatchery and semi-natural environment. Farmed salmon significantly outgrew hybrid and wild salmon in all treatments. Importantly, however, the reaction norms were similar across treatments for all groups. Thus, this study was unable to find evidence that the offspring of farmed salmon have adapted more readily to higher fish densities than wild salmon as a result of domestication. It is suggested that the substantially higher growth rate of farmed salmon observed in the hatchery compared with wild individuals may not solely be caused by differences in their ability to grow in high-density hatchery scenarios. PMID:27493772

  6. Phenotypic comparisons between wild relatives and cultivars of kiwifruit, persimmon, mulberry, and olive at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Davis, CA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotypic traits were characterized for 23 wild species and 4 cultivars of 4 clonal fruit crops including, Kiwifruit (Actinidia), Persimmon (Diospyros), Mulberry (Morus) and Olive (Olea). Across all four crops, the wild species varied distinctly, especially when compared with the cultivars. The wil...

  7. Comparative studies of senescence-related enzymes in the cotyledon of chlorophyll b-deficient mutant and its wild type oilseed rape during senescence.

    PubMed

    Qin, Tingting; Fu, Jingfeng; Zhang, Nianhui; Du, Linfang

    2006-09-01

    The change patterns of senescence-related enzymes during cotyledon senescence were studied in a chlorophyll (Chl) b-deficient mutant type (MT, Cr3529) and its wild type (WT) of Brassica napus L. seedlings. The fresh weight on the basis of cotyledon number initially increased till 20 days after planting (DAP) and then kept relative constant. The protein content decreased sharply since 20 DAP and Chl content reduced since 10 DAP in both types; however the rate of degradation in protein and Chl in the MT was slower than that in the WT since 20 DAP. Superoxide dismutase (SOD; E.C.1.15.1.1) activity declined in the WT but increased in the MT since 20 DAP. Activity of peroxidase (POD; E.C.1.11.1.7) increased markedly after 20 DAP in both types. Esterase (EST; E.C.3.1.1.1) activity increased in both types since 10 DAP, whereas at 40 DAP it was much lower in the MT than that in the WT. In addition, bands patterns of SOD, POD and EST isozymes were changed during cotyledon development in both types, but some differences were observed. Cu/ZnSODs activities were higher in the MT at 40 DAP as compared with the WT. These results showed that day 20 was the turning point during the cotyledon development and the senescence in the MT cotyledon was slower than that in the WT. PMID:22980198

  8. Diversity of begomoviruses associated with mosaic disease of cultivated cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and its wild relative (Manihot glaziovii Mull. Arg.) in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Sserubombwe, W S; Briddon, R W; Baguma, Y K; Ssemakula, G N; Bull, S E; Bua, A; Alicai, T; Omongo, C; Otim-Nape, G W; Stanley, J

    2008-07-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) growing in Uganda during 2001-2002 has been screened for the presence of begomoviruses using PCR-RFLP, cloning full-length genomic components and nucleotide sequence analysis. In contrast with a recent survey in neighbouring Kenya, which identified three distinct strains of East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV, EACMV-UG and EACMV-KE2) as well as East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus and the new species East African cassava mosaic Kenya virus, only EACMV-UG and, to a lesser extent, African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) were found associated with cassava in Uganda. The integrity of the cloned genomic components of representative virus isolates was confirmed by demonstrating their infectivity in Nicotiana benthamiana and cassava using biolistic inoculation, providing a convenient means to screen cassava varieties for disease resistance. Both EACMV-UG and ACMV were also associated with Manihot glaziovii. Infectivity studies using cloned components confirmed that viruses from one host could infect the other, suggesting that this wild relative of cassava might be a reservoir host for the disease. The relatively low level of diversity of begomoviruses associated with cassava mosaic disease in Uganda is consistent with reports that EACMV-UG has displaced other begomovirus species and strains during the recent epidemic that swept through the country.

  9. Little gene flow between domestic silkmoth Bombyx mori and its wild relative Bombyx mandarina in Japan, and possible artificial selection on the CAD gene of B. mori.

    PubMed

    Yukuhiro, Kenji; Sezutsu, Hideki; Tamura, Toshiki; Kosegawa, Eiichi; Iwata, Kazuya; Ajimura, Masahiro; Gu, Shi-Hong; Wang, Min; Xia, Qingyou; Mita, Kazuei; Kiuchi, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed PCR-amplified carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase (CAD) gene fragments from 146 Bombyx mori native strains and found extremely low levels of DNA polymorphism. Two haplotypes were identified, one of which was predominant. CAD haplotype analysis of 42 samples of Japanese B. mandarina revealed four haplotypes. No common haplotype was shared between the two species and at least five base substitutions were detected. This result was suggestive of low levels of gene flow between the two species. The nucleotide diversity (π) scores of the two samples differed markedly: lower π values were estimated for B. mori native strains than Japanese B. mandarina. We further analyzed 12 Chinese B. mandarina derived from seven areas of China, including Taiwan. The results clearly indicated that the π score was ~80-fold greater in Chinese B. mandarina than in B. mori. The extremely low level of DNA polymorphism in B. mori compared to its wild relatives suggested that the CAD gene itself or its tightly linked regions are possible targets for silkworm domestication. PMID:23412635

  10. The control of tomato fruit elongation orchestrated by sun, ovate and fs8.1 in a wild relative of tomato.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shan; Clevenger, Josh P; Sun, Liang; Visa, Sofia; Kamiya, Yuji; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Blakeslee, Joshua; van der Knaap, Esther

    2015-09-01

    Within the cultivated tomato germplasm, sun, ovate and fs8.1 are the three predominant QTLs controlling fruit elongation. Although SUN and OVATE have been cloned, their role in plant growth and development are not well understood. To compare and contrast the effects of the three QTLs in a homogeneous background, we developed near isogenic lines (NILs) in the wild species Solanum pimpinellifolium LA1589 background. We carried out detailed morphological characterization of reproductive and vegetative organs in the single, double and triple NILs and determined the epistatic interactions of the three loci affecting fruit shape. The phenotypic evaluations demonstrated that the three loci regulate unique aspects of ovary and fruit elongation and in different temporal manners. The strongest effect on organ shape was caused by sun. In addition to fruit shape, sun also affected leaf and sepal elongation and stem thickness. The synergistic interaction between sun and ovate or fs8.1 suggested that the pathways involving SUN, OVATE and the gene(s) underlying fs8.1 may converge at a common node. The results of an extensive profiling analysis suggested that the degree of fruit elongation was not related to the accumulation of any of the classical hormones. PMID:26259178

  11. The control of tomato fruit elongation orchestrated by sun, ovate and fs8.1 in a wild relative of tomato.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shan; Clevenger, Josh P; Sun, Liang; Visa, Sofia; Kamiya, Yuji; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Blakeslee, Joshua; van der Knaap, Esther

    2015-09-01

    Within the cultivated tomato germplasm, sun, ovate and fs8.1 are the three predominant QTLs controlling fruit elongation. Although SUN and OVATE have been cloned, their role in plant growth and development are not well understood. To compare and contrast the effects of the three QTLs in a homogeneous background, we developed near isogenic lines (NILs) in the wild species Solanum pimpinellifolium LA1589 background. We carried out detailed morphological characterization of reproductive and vegetative organs in the single, double and triple NILs and determined the epistatic interactions of the three loci affecting fruit shape. The phenotypic evaluations demonstrated that the three loci regulate unique aspects of ovary and fruit elongation and in different temporal manners. The strongest effect on organ shape was caused by sun. In addition to fruit shape, sun also affected leaf and sepal elongation and stem thickness. The synergistic interaction between sun and ovate or fs8.1 suggested that the pathways involving SUN, OVATE and the gene(s) underlying fs8.1 may converge at a common node. The results of an extensive profiling analysis suggested that the degree of fruit elongation was not related to the accumulation of any of the classical hormones.

  12. Copper storage in the liver of the wild mute swan (Cygnus olor). Its possible relation to pollution of harbor waters by antifouling paints

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, J.J.

    1983-12-01

    Postmortem examination of three wild mute swans (Cygnus olor) from a harbor area disclosed an unusual black discoloration of the liver. Chemical, histochemical, and microscopic studies, along with electron-probe microanalysis, showed that cytoplasmic pigment granules in the liver cells contained a copper-protein complex. Similar findings have been reported in Danish and English studies on large numbers of wild mute swans. Two control mute swans from The Bronx Zoo had negligible amounts of hepatic copper. The striking difference between the wild and the captive swans in hepatic copper content suggests that the copper in the wild swans was of environmental origin, most likely from copper-rich antifouling paint used extensively in the marine industry. Flakes of this paint may be ingested by swans searching for food in the sediment of harbor waters.

  13. Prdm9, a major determinant of meiotic recombination hotspots, is not functional in dogs and their wild relatives, wolves and coyotes.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Di Rienzo, Anna; Vilà, Carles

    2011-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is a fundamental process needed for the correct segregation of chromosomes during meiosis in sexually reproducing organisms. In humans, 80% of crossovers are estimated to occur at specific areas of the genome called recombination hotspots. Recently, a protein called PRDM9 was identified as a major player in determining the location of genome-wide meiotic recombination hotspots in humans and mice. The origin of this protein seems to be ancient in evolutionary time, as reflected by its fairly conserved structure in lineages that diverged over 700 million years ago. Despite its important role, there are many animal groups in which Prdm9 is absent (e.g. birds, reptiles, amphibians, diptera) and it has been suggested to have disruptive mutations and thus to be a pseudogene in dogs. Because of the dog's history through domestication and artificial selection, we wanted to confirm the presence of a disrupted Prdm9 gene in dogs and determine whether this was exclusive of this species or whether it also occurred in its wild ancestor, the wolf, and in a close relative, the coyote. We sequenced the region in the dog genome that aligned to the last exon of the human Prdm9, containing the entire zinc finger domain, in 4 dogs, 17 wolves and 2 coyotes. Our results show that the three canid species possess mutations that likely make this gene non functional. Because these mutations are shared across the three species, they must have appeared prior to the split of the wolf and the coyote, millions of years ago, and are not related to domestication. In addition, our results suggest that in these three canid species recombination does not occur at hotspots or hotspot location is controlled through a mechanism yet to be determined.

  14. Full-length genome sequence of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infecting a captive agile mangabey (Cercocebus agilis) is closely related to SIVrcm infecting wild red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Liegeois, Florian; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Foupouapouognini, Yacouba; Nerrienet, Eric; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine

    2010-12-01

    Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) are lentiviruses that infect an extensive number of wild African primate species. Here we describe for the first time SIV infection in a captive agile mangabey (Cercocebus agilis) from Cameroon. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length genome sequence of SIVagi-00CM312 showed that this novel virus fell into the SIVrcm lineage and was most closely related to a newly characterized SIVrcm strain (SIVrcm-02CM8081) from a wild-caught red-capped mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus) from Cameroon. In contrast to red-capped mangabeys, no 24 bp deletion in CCR5 has been observed in the agile mangabey. Further studies on wild agile mangabeys are needed to determine whether agile and red-capped mangabeys are naturally infected with the same SIV lineage, or whether this agile mangabey became infected with an SIVrcm strain in captivity. However, our study shows that agile mangabeys are susceptible to SIV infection.

  15. Purification and Partial Characterization of Trypsin-Specific Proteinase Inhibitors from Pigeonpea Wild Relative Cajanus platycarpus L. (Fabaceae) Active against Gut Proteases of Lepidopteran Pest Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Swathi, Marri; Mishra, Prashant K.; Lokya, Vadthya; Swaroop, Vanka; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Dutta-Gupta, Aparna; Padmasree, Kollipara

    2016-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors (PIs) are natural defense proteins of plants found to be active against gut proteases of various insects. A pigeonpea wild relative Cajanus platycarpus was identified as a source of resistance against Helicoverpa armigera, a most devastating pest of several crops including pigeonpea. In the light of earlier studies, trypsin-specific PIs (CpPI 63) were purified from mature dry seeds of C. platycarpus (ICPW-63) and characterized their biochemical properties in contributing to H. armigera resistance. CpPI 63 possessed significant H. armigera gut trypsin-like proteinase inhibitor (HGPI) activity than trypsin inhibitor (TI) activity. Analysis of CpPI 63 using two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry revealed that it contained several isoinhibitors and small oligomers with masses ranging between 6 and 58 kDa. The gelatin activity staining studies suggest that these isoinhibitors and oligomers possessed strong inhibitory activity against H. armigera gut trypsin-like proteases (HGPs). The N-terminal sequence of the isoinhibitors (pI 6.6 and pI 5.6) of CpPI 63 exhibited 80% homology with several Kunitz trypsin inhibitors (KTIs) as well as miraculin-like proteins (MLPs). Further, modification of lysine residue(s) lead to 80% loss in both TI and HGPI activities of CpPI 63. In contrast, the TI and HGPI activities of CpPI 63 were stable over a wide range of temperature and pH conditions. The reported results provide a biochemical basis for pod borer resistance in C. platycarpus. PMID:27656149

  16. Molecular evolution and phylogenetic analysis of eight COL superfamily genes in group I related to photoperiodic regulation of flowering time in wild and domesticated cotton (Gossypium) species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Ding, Jian; Liu, Chunxiao; Cai, Caiping; Zhou, Baoliang; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-01-01

    Flowering time is an important ecological trait that determines the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Flowering time in cotton is controlled by short-day photoperiods, with strict photoperiod sensitivity. As the CO-FT (CONSTANS-FLOWER LOCUS T) module regulates photoperiodic flowering in several plants, we selected eight CONSTANS genes (COL) in group I to detect their expression patterns in long-day and short-day conditions. Further, we individually cloned and sequenced their homologs from 25 different cotton accessions and one outgroup. Finally, we studied their structures, phylogenetic relationship, and molecular evolution in both coding region and three characteristic domains. All the eight COLs in group I show diurnal expression. In the orthologous and homeologous loci, each gene structure in different cotton species is highly conserved, while length variation has occurred due to insertions/deletions in intron and/or exon regions. Six genes, COL2 to COL5, COL7 and COL8, exhibit higher nucleotide diversity in the D-subgenome than in the A-subgenome. The Ks values of 98.37% in all allotetraploid cotton species examined were higher in the A-D and At-Dt comparison than in the A-At and D-Dt comparisons, and the Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) of Ks between A vs. D and At vs. Dt also showed positive, high correlations, with a correlation coefficient of at least 0.797. The nucleotide polymorphism in wild species is significantly higher compared to G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, indicating a genetic bottleneck associated with the domesticated cotton species. Three characteristic domains in eight COLs exhibit different evolutionary rates, with the CCT domain highly conserved, while the B-box and Var domain much more variable in allotetraploid species. Taken together, COL1, COL2 and COL8 endured greater selective pressures during the domestication process. The study improves our understanding of the domestication-related genes/traits during cotton

  17. Purification and Partial Characterization of Trypsin-Specific Proteinase Inhibitors from Pigeonpea Wild Relative Cajanus platycarpus L. (Fabaceae) Active against Gut Proteases of Lepidopteran Pest Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Swathi, Marri; Mishra, Prashant K.; Lokya, Vadthya; Swaroop, Vanka; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Dutta-Gupta, Aparna; Padmasree, Kollipara

    2016-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors (PIs) are natural defense proteins of plants found to be active against gut proteases of various insects. A pigeonpea wild relative Cajanus platycarpus was identified as a source of resistance against Helicoverpa armigera, a most devastating pest of several crops including pigeonpea. In the light of earlier studies, trypsin-specific PIs (CpPI 63) were purified from mature dry seeds of C. platycarpus (ICPW-63) and characterized their biochemical properties in contributing to H. armigera resistance. CpPI 63 possessed significant H. armigera gut trypsin-like proteinase inhibitor (HGPI) activity than trypsin inhibitor (TI) activity. Analysis of CpPI 63 using two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry revealed that it contained several isoinhibitors and small oligomers with masses ranging between 6 and 58 kDa. The gelatin activity staining studies suggest that these isoinhibitors and oligomers possessed strong inhibitory activity against H. armigera gut trypsin-like proteases (HGPs). The N-terminal sequence of the isoinhibitors (pI 6.6 and pI 5.6) of CpPI 63 exhibited 80% homology with several Kunitz trypsin inhibitors (KTIs) as well as miraculin-like proteins (MLPs). Further, modification of lysine residue(s) lead to 80% loss in both TI and HGPI activities of CpPI 63. In contrast, the TI and HGPI activities of CpPI 63 were stable over a wide range of temperature and pH conditions. The reported results provide a biochemical basis for pod borer resistance in C. platycarpus.

  18. Age-Related Changes in Pre- and Postsynaptic Partners of the Cholinergic C-Boutons in Wild-Type and SOD1G93A Lumbar Motoneurons

    PubMed Central

    Milan, Léa; Courtand, Gilles; Cardoit, Laura; Masmejean, Frédérique; Barrière, Grégory; Cazalets, Jean-René; Garret, Maurice; Bertrand, Sandrine S.

    2015-01-01

    Large cholinergic synaptic terminals known as C-boutons densely innervate the soma and proximal dendrites of motoneurons that are prone to neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Studies using the Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) mouse model of ALS have generated conflicting data regarding C-bouton alterations exhibited during ALS pathogenesis. In the present work, a longitudinal study combining immunohistochemistry, biochemical approaches and extra- and intra-cellular electrophysiological recordings revealed that the whole spinal cholinergic system is modified in the SOD1 mouse model of ALS compared to wild type (WT) mice as early as the second postnatal week. In WT motoneurons, both C-bouton terminals and associated M2 postsynaptic receptors presented a complex age-related dynamic that appeared completely disrupted in SOD1 motoneurons. Indeed, parallel to C-bouton morphological alterations, analysis of confocal images revealed a clustering process of M2 receptors during WT motoneuron development and maturation that was absent in SOD1 motoneurons. Our data demonstrated for the first time that the lamina X cholinergic interneurons, the neuronal source of C-boutons, are over-abundant in high lumbar segments in SOD1 mice and are subject to neurodegeneration in the SOD1 animal model. Finally, we showed that early C-bouton system alterations have no physiological impact on the cholinergic neuromodulation of newborn motoneurons. Altogether, these data suggest a complete reconfiguration of the spinal cholinergic system in SOD1 spinal networks that could be part of the compensatory mechanisms established during spinal development. PMID:26305672

  19. Purification and Partial Characterization of Trypsin-Specific Proteinase Inhibitors from Pigeonpea Wild Relative Cajanus platycarpus L. (Fabaceae) Active against Gut Proteases of Lepidopteran Pest Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Swathi, Marri; Mishra, Prashant K; Lokya, Vadthya; Swaroop, Vanka; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Dutta-Gupta, Aparna; Padmasree, Kollipara

    2016-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors (PIs) are natural defense proteins of plants found to be active against gut proteases of various insects. A pigeonpea wild relative Cajanus platycarpus was identified as a source of resistance against Helicoverpa armigera, a most devastating pest of several crops including pigeonpea. In the light of earlier studies, trypsin-specific PIs (CpPI 63) were purified from mature dry seeds of C. platycarpus (ICPW-63) and characterized their biochemical properties in contributing to H. armigera resistance. CpPI 63 possessed significant H. armigera gut trypsin-like proteinase inhibitor (HGPI) activity than trypsin inhibitor (TI) activity. Analysis of CpPI 63 using two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry revealed that it contained several isoinhibitors and small oligomers with masses ranging between 6 and 58 kDa. The gelatin activity staining studies suggest that these isoinhibitors and oligomers possessed strong inhibitory activity against H. armigera gut trypsin-like proteases (HGPs). The N-terminal sequence of the isoinhibitors (pI 6.6 and pI 5.6) of CpPI 63 exhibited 80% homology with several Kunitz trypsin inhibitors (KTIs) as well as miraculin-like proteins (MLPs). Further, modification of lysine residue(s) lead to 80% loss in both TI and HGPI activities of CpPI 63. In contrast, the TI and HGPI activities of CpPI 63 were stable over a wide range of temperature and pH conditions. The reported results provide a biochemical basis for pod borer resistance in C. platycarpus. PMID:27656149

  20. Ecotoxicology of Wild Mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2001-01-01

    An international group of 32 scientists has critically reviewed the scientific literature on exposure and effects of environmental contaminants in wild mammals. The underlying theme of this text is encompassed by the following four questions: What exactly do we know about environmental contaminants in mammals? What are the commonalities and differences between mammal orders/species in the effects that contaminants have? How and to what degree of accuracy can we predict the adverse effects of environmental contaminants on mammalian wildlife? How significant are contaminant insults compared with other density-independent and -dependent factors such as habitat loss, climatic factors and disease? The book is organized three topical sections including introductory chapters that provide a background on environmental contaminants and the mammalian orders, eight taxonomic chapters discussing all aspects of the exposure to and effects of contaminants in mammalian orders, and four thematic chapters that review and discuss generic issues including biomarkers, prediction and extrapolation of exposure and effects, hazard and risk assessment, and the relative significance of contaminants on mammals compared with other commonly encountered stressors. A final a summary chapter identifies phylogenetic trends, critical data gaps, and overarching research needs. Although the absolute number of toxicological studies in domesticated and wild mammals eclipses that wildlife species, a detailed examination of our knowledge base reveals that information for 'wild' birds is actually greater than that for 'wild' mammals. Of the various mammalian taxa, ecotoxicological data is most noticeably lacking for marsupials and monotremes. In contrast, rodents (comprising 43% of all mammal species) have been studied extensively, despite evidence of their tolerance to some organochlorine compounds, rodenticides, and even radionuclides. Mammalian species at greatest risk of exposure include those that

  1. A Morphometric Study of Species Boundaries of the Wild Potato Solanum Series Piurana (Solanaceae) and putatively related species from seven other series in Solanum Sect. Petota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are about 190 wild potato (Solanum section Petota) species distributed from the southwestern United States to central Argentina and adjacent Chile and Uruguay. Their overall morphological similarity has led to widely conflicting taxonomic treatments. Solanum series Piurana is one of 21 series ...

  2. Comprehensive Serology Based on a Peptide ELISA to Assess the Prevalence of Closely Related Equine Herpesviruses in Zoo and Wild Animals

    PubMed Central

    Abdelgawad, Azza; Hermes, Robert; Damiani, Armando; Lamglait, Benjamin; Czirják, Gábor Á.; East, Marion; Aschenborn, Ortwin; Wenker, Christian; Kasem, Samy; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2015-01-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) causes respiratory disorders and abortion in equids while EHV-1 regularly causes equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM), a stroke-like syndrome following endothelial cell infection in horses. Both EHV-1 and EHV-9 infections of non-definitive hosts often result in neuronal infection and high case fatality rates. Hence, EHV-1 and EHV-9 are somewhat unusual herpesviruses and lack strict host specificity, and the true extent of their host ranges have remained unclear. In order to determine the seroprevalence of EHV-1 and EHV-9, a sensitive and specific peptide-based ELISA was developed and applied to 428 sera from captive and wild animals representing 30 species in 12 families and five orders. Members of the Equidae, Rhinocerotidae and Bovidae were serologically positive for EHV-1 and EHV-9. The prevalence of EHV-1 in the sampled wild zebra populations was significantly higher than in zoos suggesting captivity may reduce exposure to EHV-1. Furthermore, the seroprevalence for EHV-1 was significantly higher than for EHV-9 in zebras. In contrast, EHV-9 antibody prevalence was high in captive and wild African rhinoceros species suggesting that they may serve as a reservoir or natural host for EHV-9. Thus, EHV-1 and EHV-9 have a broad host range favoring African herbivores and may have acquired novel natural hosts in ecosystems where wild equids are common and are in close contact with other perissodactyls. PMID:26378452

  3. Comprehensive Serology Based on a Peptide ELISA to Assess the Prevalence of Closely Related Equine Herpesviruses in Zoo and Wild Animals.

    PubMed

    Abdelgawad, Azza; Hermes, Robert; Damiani, Armando; Lamglait, Benjamin; Czirják, Gábor Á; East, Marion; Aschenborn, Ortwin; Wenker, Christian; Kasem, Samy; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Greenwood, Alex D

    2015-01-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) causes respiratory disorders and abortion in equids while EHV-1 regularly causes equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM), a stroke-like syndrome following endothelial cell infection in horses. Both EHV-1 and EHV-9 infections of non-definitive hosts often result in neuronal infection and high case fatality rates. Hence, EHV-1 and EHV-9 are somewhat unusual herpesviruses and lack strict host specificity, and the true extent of their host ranges have remained unclear. In order to determine the seroprevalence of EHV-1 and EHV-9, a sensitive and specific peptide-based ELISA was developed and applied to 428 sera from captive and wild animals representing 30 species in 12 families and five orders. Members of the Equidae, Rhinocerotidae and Bovidae were serologically positive for EHV-1 and EHV-9. The prevalence of EHV-1 in the sampled wild zebra populations was significantly higher than in zoos suggesting captivity may reduce exposure to EHV-1. Furthermore, the seroprevalence for EHV-1 was significantly higher than for EHV-9 in zebras. In contrast, EHV-9 antibody prevalence was high in captive and wild African rhinoceros species suggesting that they may serve as a reservoir or natural host for EHV-9. Thus, EHV-1 and EHV-9 have a broad host range favoring African herbivores and may have acquired novel natural hosts in ecosystems where wild equids are common and are in close contact with other perissodactyls.

  4. Eco-Heroes out of Place and Relations: Decolonizing the Narratives of "Into the Wild" and "Grizzly Man" through Land Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korteweg, Lisa; Oakley, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Eco-heroic quests for environmental communion continue to be represented, mediated, and glorified through film and media narratives. This paper examines two eco-heroic quests in the Alaskan "wilderness" that have been portrayed in two Hollywood motion pictures: the movies "Grizzly Man" and "Into the Wild". Both films…

  5. Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetic Analysis of Eight COL Superfamily Genes in Group I Related to Photoperiodic Regulation of Flowering Time in Wild and Domesticated Cotton (Gossypium) Species

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Ding, Jian; Liu, Chunxiao; Cai, Caiping; Zhou, Baoliang; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-01-01

    Flowering time is an important ecological trait that determines the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Flowering time in cotton is controlled by short-day photoperiods, with strict photoperiod sensitivity. As the CO-FT (CONSTANS-FLOWER LOCUS T) module regulates photoperiodic flowering in several plants, we selected eight CONSTANS genes (COL) in group I to detect their expression patterns in long-day and short-day conditions. Further, we individually cloned and sequenced their homologs from 25 different cotton accessions and one outgroup. Finally, we studied their structures, phylogenetic relationship, and molecular evolution in both coding region and three characteristic domains. All the eight COLs in group I show diurnal expression. In the orthologous and homeologous loci, each gene structure in different cotton species is highly conserved, while length variation has occurred due to insertions/deletions in intron and/or exon regions. Six genes, COL2 to COL5, COL7 and COL8, exhibit higher nucleotide diversity in the D-subgenome than in the A-subgenome. The Ks values of 98.37% in all allotetraploid cotton species examined were higher in the A-D and At-Dt comparison than in the A-At and D-Dt comparisons, and the Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) of Ks between A vs. D and At vs. Dt also showed positive, high correlations, with a correlation coefficient of at least 0.797. The nucleotide polymorphism in wild species is significantly higher compared to G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, indicating a genetic bottleneck associated with the domesticated cotton species. Three characteristic domains in eight COLs exhibit different evolutionary rates, with the CCT domain highly conserved, while the B-box and Var domain much more variable in allotetraploid species. Taken together, COL1, COL2 and COL8 endured greater selective pressures during the domestication process. The study improves our understanding of the domestication-related genes/traits during cotton

  6. Seasonal and sex-related variations in serum steroid hormone levels in wild and farmed brown trout Salmo trutta L. in the north-west of Spain.

    PubMed

    Fregeneda-Grandes, Juan M; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Fernandez-Coppel, Ignacio A; Correa-Guimaraes, Adriana; Ruíz-Potosme, Norlan; Navas-Gracia, Luis M; Aller-Gancedo, J Miguel; Martín-Gil, Francisco J; Martín-Gil, Jesús

    2013-12-01

    Serum steroid profiles were investigated in order to evaluate the potential use of circulating sex steroid levels as a tool for sex identification in brown trout. Changes in the serum concentrations of testosterone (T), progesterone (P), 17-β-estradiol (E2), and cortisol (F) in wild and farmed mature female and male brown trout, Salmo trutta L., were measured in each season (January, May, July, and October) in six rivers and four hatcheries located in the north-west of Spain. Serum cortisol levels in farmed brown trout were significantly higher and showed a seasonal pattern opposite to that found in wild trout. Because levels of the hormones under study can be affected by disruptive factors such as exposure to phytoestrogens (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis) and infection with Saprolegnia parasitica (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis), both factors are taken into account.

  7. Transcriptional differences between the male-sterile mutant bcms and wild-type Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis reveal genes related to pollen development.

    PubMed

    Huang, L; Cao, J; Ye, W; Liu, T; Jiang, L; Ye, Y

    2008-05-01

    A novel male-sterile mutant which lacks mature pollen, Brassisa campestris male sterile (bcms), was identified in Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino (syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis). Genetic analysis revealed that bcms was controlled by a single recessive mutation locus. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling was performed on the flower buds of both the bcms mutant and the wild-type from which it originated, and profiling analysis indicated that there were numerous changes in gene expression attributable to the gene mutation. This mutation resulted in down-regulation of a variety of genes and up-regulated expression of a few other genes. A total of 51 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were isolated: 32 specifically and 12 predominantly accumulated in wild-type flower buds, and two specifically and five predominantly accumulated in bcms flower buds. Sequence analysis showed that some of these TDFs share significant similarities with genes involved in different aspects of cellular development, such as signal transduction, cell wall biosynthesis and regulation. Most other TDFs showed no or very poor sequence similarities to entries in any database and might represent new candidate proteins involved in pollen development. Furthermore, spatial and temporal expression pattern analysis of 20 genes derived from cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism in different tissues of both the bcms and wild-type plants revealed their complex and dynamic expression patterns. The bcms mutant and the genes isolated in this paper provide excellent material for future studies on the molecular mechanism of male sterility.

  8. Nitrogen Fixation and Hydrogen Metabolism in Relation to the Dissolved Oxygen Tension in Chemostat Cultures of the Wild Type and a Hydrogenase-Negative Mutant of Azorhizobium caulinodans

    PubMed Central

    Boogerd, Fred C.; Ferdinandy-van Vlerken, Marijke M. A.; Mawadza, Crispen; Pronk, Annemieke F.; Stouthamer, Adriaan H.; van Verseveld, Henk W.

    1994-01-01

    Both the wild type and an isogenic hydrogenase-negative mutant of Azorhizobium caulinodans growing ex planta on N2 as the N source were studied in succinate-limited steady-state chemostat cultures under 0.2 to 3.0% dissolved O2 tension. Production or consumption of O2, H2, and CO2 was measured with an on-line-connected mass spectrometer. In the range of 0.2 to 3.0%, growth of both the wild type and the mutant was equally dependent on the dissolved O2 tension: the growth yield decreased, and the specific O2 consumption and CO2 production increased. A similar dependency on the dissolved O2 tension was found for the mutant with 2.5% H2 in the influent gas. The H2/N2 ratio (moles of H2 evolved per mole of N2 consumed via nitrogenase) of the mutant, growing with or without 2.5% H2, increased with increasing dissolved O2 tensions. This increase in the H2/N2 ratio was small but significant. The dependencies of the ATP/N2 ratio (moles of ATP consumed per mole of N2 fixed) and the ATP/2e- ratio [moles of ATP consumed per mole of electron pairs transferred from NAD(P)H to nitrogenase] on the dissolved O2 tension were estimated. These dependencies were interpreted in terms of the physiological concepts of respiratory protection and autoprotection. PMID:16349280

  9. Comparisons of ectomycorrhizal colonization of transgenic american chestnut with those of the wild type, a conventionally bred hybrid, and related fagaceae species.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Katherine M; Horton, Thomas R; Maynard, Charles A; Stehman, Stephen V; Oakes, Allison D; Powell, William A

    2015-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata [Marsh.] Borkh.) dominated the eastern forests of North America, serving as a keystone species both ecologically and economically until the introduction of the chestnut blight, Cryphonectria parasitica, functionally eradicated the species. Restoration efforts include genetic transformation utilizing genes such as oxalate oxidase to produce potentially blight-resistant chestnut trees that could be released back into the native range. However, before such a release can be undertaken, it is necessary to assess nontarget impacts. Since oxalate oxidase is meant to combat a fungal pathogen, we are particularly interested in potential impacts of this transgene on beneficial fungi. This study compares ectomycorrhizal fungal colonization on a transgenic American chestnut clone expressing enhanced blight resistance to a wild-type American chestnut, a conventionally bred American-Chinese hybrid chestnut, and other Fagaceae species. A greenhouse bioassay used soil from two field sites with different soil types and land use histories. The number of colonized root tips was counted, and fungal species were identified using morphology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and DNA sequencing. Results showed that total ectomycorrhizal colonization varied more by soil type than by tree species. Individual fungal species varied in their colonization rates, but there were no significant differences between colonization on transgenic and wild-type chestnuts. This study shows that the oxalate oxidase gene can increase resistance against Cryphonectria parasitica without changing the colonization rate for ectomycorrhizal species. These findings will be crucial for a potential deregulation of blight-resistant American chestnuts containing the oxalate oxidase gene.

  10. Genetic Variability and Evolutionary Implications of RNA Silencing Suppressor Genes in RNA1 of Sweet Potato Chlorotic Stunt Virus Isolates Infecting Sweetpotato and Related Wild Species

    PubMed Central

    Tugume, Arthur K.; Amayo, Robert; Weinheimer, Isabel; Mukasa, Settumba B.; Rubaihayo, Patrick R.; Valkonen, Jari P. T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The bipartite single-stranded RNA genome of Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV, genus Crinivirus; Closteroviridae) encodes a Class 1 RNase III (RNase3), a putative hydrophobic protein (p7) and a 22-kDa protein (p22) from genes located in RNA1. RNase3 and p22 suppress RNA silencing, the basal antiviral defence mechanism in plants. RNase3 is sufficient to render sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) virus-susceptible and predisposes it to development of severe diseases following infection with unrelated virus. The incidence, strains and gene content of SPCSV infecting wild plant species have not been studied. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty SPCSV isolates were characterized from 10 wild Ipomoea species, Hewittia sublobata or Lepistemon owariensis (family Convolvulaceae) in Uganda and compared with 34 local SPCSV isolates infecting sweetpotatoes. All isolates belonged to the East African (EA) strain of SPCSV and contained RNase3 and p7, but p22 was not detected in six isolates. The three genes showed only limited genetic variability and the proteins were under purifying selection. SPCSV isolates lacking p22 synergized with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, genus potyvirus; Potyviridae) and caused severe symptoms in co-infected sweetpotato plants. One SPCSV isolate enhanced accumulation of SPFMV, but no severe symptoms developed. A new whitefly-transmitted virus (KML33b) encoding an RNase3 homolog (<56% identity to SPCSV RNase3) able to suppresses sense-mediated RNA silencing was detected in I. sinensis. Conclusions/Significance SPCSV isolates infecting wild species and sweetpotato in Uganda were genetically undifferentiated, suggesting inter-species transmission of SPCSV. Most isolates in Uganda contained p22, unlike SPCSV isolates characterized from other countries and continents. Enhanced accumulation of SPFMV and increased disease severity were found to be uncoupled phenotypic outcomes of RNase3-mediated viral synergism in sweetpotato. A

  11. Genetic and component content differentiation between wild and cultivated populations of Paeonia lactiflora and related species used as Chishao and Baishao in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuling; Xiao, Peigen; Luo, Kun; Song, Jingyuan; Wei, Shengli; Jian, Zaiyou; Hou, Junling; Peng, Yong; Wang, Wenquan

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and forty-four samples of Chishao and Baishao, which represented six species of Paeonia L. were evaluated for their genetic variation, genetic differentiation and phylogenetic relationship, based on the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Samples from representative of the population were then used to do a cultivation comparison experiment, and then to identify the contents of the active ingredients. The results showed there were differences in the haplotype distribution and frequency between populations of Chishao and Baishao. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated statistically significant (p<0.001) genetic differentiation between the populations of wild and cultivated Paeonia lactiflora PALL. The albiflorin content between Chishao and Baishao was also significantly different (p<0.05). All the results clearly illustrate that currently cultivated P. lactiflora cannot be used as a substitute for Chishao. PMID:25008237

  12. Ovarian development and related changes in steroid hormones in female wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio), from the south-eastern Caspian Sea.

    PubMed

    Vazirzadeh, A; Mojazi Amiri, B; Fostier, A

    2014-12-01

    Wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) is a native valuable but threatened species from the south-eastern Caspian Sea in which the endocrine control of its reproduction has not been studied. The objectives of this research were to study the reproductive strategy and changes in steroid hormones during ovarian development. From October 2009 to June 2010, 65 adult females were caught from the Golestan coast (Iran) and the ovarian histology, and gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices (GSI and HSI) were studied. Also, the plasma profiles of steroid hormones including testosterone (T), 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-, 20β-dihydroxyprogesterone (DHP) were measured by radioimmunoassay. The GSI increased gradually during sampling times and reached maximum value at the peak of reproduction season, but the HSI decreased during spawning season. All stages of ovarian development, except the stage of Balbiani bodies, were recorded macro- and microscopically. Spent fish were caught at six of nine sampling times. The peaks of spawning were at late winter and early spring. The results of this study showed that the majority of wild carp collected during the sampling period displayed asynchronous oocyte development. Plasma T showed no significant differences during sampling times or at different stages of ovarian development. The level of E2 decreased gradually during sampling times reached minimum value at the spawning season, and highest value was recorded at tertiary vitellogenesis stage. The plasma levels of DHP during late winter and early spring were significantly higher than those of other sampling periods and its maximum level associated with oocyte maturation stage.

  13. Comparisons of Ectomycorrhizal Colonization of Transgenic American Chestnut with Those of the Wild Type, a Conventionally Bred Hybrid, and Related Fagaceae Species

    PubMed Central

    D'Amico, Katherine M.; Horton, Thomas R.; Maynard, Charles A.; Stehman, Stephen V.; Oakes, Allison D.

    2014-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata [Marsh.] Borkh.) dominated the eastern forests of North America, serving as a keystone species both ecologically and economically until the introduction of the chestnut blight, Cryphonectria parasitica, functionally eradicated the species. Restoration efforts include genetic transformation utilizing genes such as oxalate oxidase to produce potentially blight-resistant chestnut trees that could be released back into the native range. However, before such a release can be undertaken, it is necessary to assess nontarget impacts. Since oxalate oxidase is meant to combat a fungal pathogen, we are particularly interested in potential impacts of this transgene on beneficial fungi. This study compares ectomycorrhizal fungal colonization on a transgenic American chestnut clone expressing enhanced blight resistance to a wild-type American chestnut, a conventionally bred American-Chinese hybrid chestnut, and other Fagaceae species. A greenhouse bioassay used soil from two field sites with different soil types and land use histories. The number of colonized root tips was counted, and fungal species were identified using morphology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and DNA sequencing. Results showed that total ectomycorrhizal colonization varied more by soil type than by tree species. Individual fungal species varied in their colonization rates, but there were no significant differences between colonization on transgenic and wild-type chestnuts. This study shows that the oxalate oxidase gene can increase resistance against Cryphonectria parasitica without changing the colonization rate for ectomycorrhizal species. These findings will be crucial for a potential deregulation of blight-resistant American chestnuts containing the oxalate oxidase gene. PMID:25326296

  14. Project Wild (Project Tame).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegenthaler, David

    For 37 states in the United States, Project Wild has become an officially sanctioned, distributed and funded "environemtnal and conservation education program." For those who are striving to implement focused, sequential, learning programs, as well as those who wish to promote harmony through a non-anthropocentric world view, Project Wild may…

  15. Call of the wild.

    PubMed

    Berman, Emanuel

    2007-09-01

    Freud described "wild analysis" as an undisciplined version of psychoanalysis; but the new Penguin series of Freud's writings collects many of his papers under the title Wild Analysis, challenging the differentiation. This paper traces wild elements at the core of psychoanalytic thought, crediting Groddeck, Ferenczi, and Winnicott for bringing them to the open. The image of the wild analyst can serve us as the image of the deeply involved, personally motivated analyst, whose work is intense and emotionally risky. This is the opposite of the "civilized" analyst who uses well-defined existing paths, takes no personal risks, and therefore stays at an emotional distance from his/her patients. Every analyst's capacity to develop a unique analytic self, based on his/her genuine life experience and worldview, is endangered if stepping out of line is slandered as "wild analysis" or as insanity. The relevance of these issues for contemporary psychoanalytic thought and education is demonstrated.

  16. High-resolution mapping of a major effect QTL from wild tomato Solanum habrochaites that influences water relations under root chilling.

    PubMed

    Arms, Erin M; Bloom, Arnold J; St Clair, Dina A

    2015-09-01

    QTL stm9 controlling rapid-onset water stress tolerance in S. habrochaites was high-resolution mapped to a chromosome 9 region that contains genes associated with abiotic stress tolerances. Wild tomato (Solanum habrochaites) exhibits tolerance to abiotic stresses, including drought and chilling. Root chilling (6 °C) induces rapid-onset water stress by impeding water movement from roots to shoots. S. habrochaites responds to such changes by closing stomata and maintaining shoot turgor, while cultivated tomato (S. lycopersicum) fails to close stomata and wilts. This response (shoot turgor maintenance under root chilling) is controlled by a major QTL (designated stm9) on chromosome 9, which was previously fine-mapped to a 2.7-cM region. Recombinant sub-near-isogenic lines for chromosome 9 were marker-selected, phenotyped for shoot turgor maintenance under root chilling in two sets of replicated experiments (Fall and Spring), and the data were used to high-resolution map QTL stm9 to a 0.32-cM region. QTL mapping revealed a single QTL that was coincident for both the Spring and Fall datasets, suggesting that the gene or genes contributing to shoot turgor maintenance under root chilling reside within the marker interval H9-T1673. In the S. lycopersicum reference genome sequence, this chromosome 9 region is gene-rich and contains representatives of gene families that have been associated with abiotic stress tolerance.

  17. Subcellular localization of SREBP1 depends on its interaction with the C-terminal region of wild-type and disease related A-type lamins

    PubMed Central

    Duband-Goulet, Isabelle; Woerner, Stephanie; Gasparini, Sylvaine; Attanda, Wikayatou; Kondé, Emilie; Tellier-Lebègue, Carine; Craescu, Constantin T.; Gombault, Aurélie; Roussel, Pascal; Vadrot, Nathalie; Vicart, Patrick; Östlund, Cecilia; Worman, Howard J.; Zinn-Justin, Sophie; Buendia, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Lamins A and C are nuclear intermediate filament proteins expressed in most differentiated somatic cells. Previous data suggested that prelamin A, the lamin A precursor, accumulates in some lipodystrophy syndromes caused by mutations in the lamin A/C gene, and binds and inactivates the sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1). Here we show that, in vitro, the tail regions of prelamin A, lamin A and lamin C bind a polypeptide of SREBP1. Such interactions also occur in HeLa cells, since expression of lamin tail regions impedes nucleolar accumulation of the SREBP1 polypeptide fused to a nucleolar localization signal sequence. In addition, the tail regions of A-type lamin variants that occur in Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy of (R482W) and Hutchison Gilford progeria syndrome (Δ607–656) bind to the SREBP1 polypeptide in vitro, and the corresponding FLAG-tagged full-length lamin variants co-immunoprecipitate the SREBP1 polypeptide in cells. Overexpression of wild-type A-type lamins and variants favors SREBP1 polypeptide localization at the intranuclear periphery, suggesting its sequestration. Our data support the hypothesis that variation of A-type lamin protein level and spatial organization, in particular due to disease-linked mutations, influences the sequestration of SREBP1 at the nuclear envelope and thus contributes to the regulation of SREBP1 function. PMID:21993218

  18. Subcellular localization of SREBP1 depends on its interaction with the C-terminal region of wild-type and disease related A-type lamins

    SciTech Connect

    Duband-Goulet, Isabelle; Woerner, Stephanie; Gasparini, Sylvaine; Attanda, Wikayatou; Konde, Emilie; Tellier-Lebegue, Carine; Craescu, Constantin T.; Roussel, Pascal; Vadrot, Nathalie; Vicart, Patrick; Oestlund, Cecilia; Worman, Howard J.; and others

    2011-12-10

    Lamins A and C are nuclear intermediate filament proteins expressed in most differentiated somatic cells. Previous data suggested that prelamin A, the lamin A precursor, accumulates in some lipodystrophy syndromes caused by mutations in the lamin A/C gene, and binds and inactivates the sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1). Here we show that, in vitro, the tail regions of prelamin A, lamin A and lamin C bind a polypeptide of SREBP1. Such interactions also occur in HeLa cells, since expression of lamin tail regions impedes nucleolar accumulation of the SREBP1 polypeptide fused to a nucleolar localization signal sequence. In addition, the tail regions of A-type lamin variants that occur in Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy of (R482W) and Hutchison Gilford progeria syndrome ( Increment 607-656) bind to the SREBP1 polypeptide in vitro, and the corresponding FLAG-tagged full-length lamin variants co-immunoprecipitate the SREBP1 polypeptide in cells. Overexpression of wild-type A-type lamins and variants favors SREBP1 polypeptide localization at the intranuclear periphery, suggesting its sequestration. Our data support the hypothesis that variation of A-type lamin protein level and spatial organization, in particular due to disease-linked mutations, influences the sequestration of SREBP1 at the nuclear envelope and thus contributes to the regulation of SREBP1 function.

  19. Wild fire impact on copper, zinc, lead and cadmium distribution in soil and relation with abundance in selected plants of Lamiaceae family from Vidlic Mountain (Serbia).

    PubMed

    Stankov Jovanovic, V P; Ilic, M D; Markovic, M S; Mitic, V D; Nikolic Mandic, S D; Stojanovic, G S

    2011-09-01

    Fire has been considered as an improving factor in soil quality, but only if it is controlled. Severe wild fire occurred in the summer 2007 on the Vidlic Mountain (Serbia) overspreading a huge area of meadows and forests. Main soil characteristics and content of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn) in different fractions obtained after sequential extraction of soil from post-fire areas and from fire non disturbed areas were studied. In four plant species of Lamiaceae family (Ajuga genevensis L., Lamium galeobdolon (L.) L., Teucrium chamaedrys L., Acinos alpinus (L.) Moench.), that grow in typical habitats of the mountain, distribution of heavy metals in aerial parts and roots was investigated too. For all samples from post-fire area cation exchange capacity and soil organic matter content are increased while rH is decreased. Fire caused slightly increased bioavailability of the observed metals but more significant rise happened in metal amounts bound to oxides and organics. The plants showed variable behavior. T. chamaedrys collected on the post-fire area contained elevated concentrations of all analyzed metals. A. alpinus showed higher phytoaccumulation for Zn and Cd, while the other two plant species for Pb and Cd in the post-fire areas.

  20. Scanning Ultrasound (SUS) Causes No Changes to Neuronal Excitability and Prevents Age-Related Reductions in Hippocampal CA1 Dendritic Structure in Wild-Type Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, Robert John; Leinenga, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Scanning ultrasound (SUS) is a noninvasive approach that has recently been shown to ameliorate histopathological changes and restore memory functions in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Although no overt neuronal damage was reported, the short- and long-term effects of SUS on neuronal excitability and dendritic tree morphology had not been investigated. To address this, we performed patch-clamp recordings from hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in wild-type mice 2 and 24 hours after a single SUS treatment, and one week and 3 months after six weekly SUS treatments, including sham treatments as controls. In both treatment regimes, no changes in CA1 neuronal excitability were observed in SUS-treated neurons when compared to sham-treated neurons at any time-point. For the multiple treatment groups, we also determined the dendritic morphology and spine densities of the neurons from which we had recorded. The apical trees of sham-treated neurons were reduced at the 3 month time-point when compared to one week; however, surprisingly, no longitudinal change was detected in the apical dendritic trees of SUS-treated neurons. In contrast, the length and complexity of the basal dendritic trees were not affected by SUS treatment at either time-point. The apical dendritic spine densities were reduced, independent of the treatment group, at 3 months compared to one week. Collectively, these data suggest that ultrasound can be employed to prevent an age-associated loss of dendritic structure without impairing neuronal excitability. PMID:27727310

  1. Wild boar attacks.

    PubMed

    Gunduz, Abdulkadir; Turedi, Suleyman; Nuhoglu, Irfan; Kalkan, Asim; Turkmen, Suha

    2007-01-01

    Attacks on humans by wild boar (Sus scrofa) are occasionally reported in rural areas of Turkey. While fatalities are rare, individuals may sustain significant soft tissue trauma. Lower extremity lacerations of up to 10 cm in length and 4 cm deep were seen in the 3 cases reviewed. Injuries to the upper abdomen and chest occurred in one case. Attacks frequently occur in forested areas covered by dense brushwood, and their incidence is increased during the rutting season. In contrast to other large, feral animal attacks, injuries sustained from wild boar typically are limited to the lower extremities. This case series examines 3 attacks by wild boar in rural Turkey.

  2. Study of phytochelatins and other related thiols as complexing biomolecules of As and Cd in wild type and genetically modified Brassica juncea plants.

    PubMed

    Navaza, Ana Pereira; Montes-Bayón, Maria; LeDuc, Danika L; Terry, Norman; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2006-03-01

    The accumulation of As and Cd in Brassica juncea plants and the formation of complexes of these elements with bioligands such as glutathione and/or phytochelatins (PCs) is studied. The genetic manipulation of these plants to induce higher As and Cd accumulation has been achieved by overexpressing the genes encoding for gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (gamma-ECS) and glutathione synthetase (GS). These two enzymes are responsible for glutathione (GSH) formation in plants, which is the first step in the production of PCs. The biomass produced in both the wild type and the genetically modified plants, has been evaluated. Additionally, the total Cd and As concentration accumulated in the plant tissues was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after extraction. Speciation studies on the extracts were conducted using size exclusion liquid chromatography (SEC) coupled online with ICP-MS to monitor As, Cd and S. For further purification of the As fractions, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was used. Structural elucidation of the PCs and other thiols, as well as their complexes with As and Cd, was performed by electrospray-quadrupole-time-of-flight (ESI-Q-TOF). In both the Cd and As exposed plants it was possible to observe the presence of oxidized PC2 ([M + H]+, m/z 538), GS-PC2(-Glu) ([M + H]+, m/z 716) as well as reduced GSH ([M + H]+, m/z 308) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ([M + H]+, m/z 613). However, only the GS plants exhibited the presence of As(GS)3 complex ([M + H]+, m/z 994) that was further confirmed by MS/MS. This species is reported for the first time in B. juncea plant tissues. PMID:16421878

  3. Study of phytochelatins and other related thiols as complexing biomolecules of As and Cd in wild type and genetically modified Brassica juncea plants.

    PubMed

    Navaza, Ana Pereira; Montes-Bayón, Maria; LeDuc, Danika L; Terry, Norman; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2006-03-01

    The accumulation of As and Cd in Brassica juncea plants and the formation of complexes of these elements with bioligands such as glutathione and/or phytochelatins (PCs) is studied. The genetic manipulation of these plants to induce higher As and Cd accumulation has been achieved by overexpressing the genes encoding for gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (gamma-ECS) and glutathione synthetase (GS). These two enzymes are responsible for glutathione (GSH) formation in plants, which is the first step in the production of PCs. The biomass produced in both the wild type and the genetically modified plants, has been evaluated. Additionally, the total Cd and As concentration accumulated in the plant tissues was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after extraction. Speciation studies on the extracts were conducted using size exclusion liquid chromatography (SEC) coupled online with ICP-MS to monitor As, Cd and S. For further purification of the As fractions, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was used. Structural elucidation of the PCs and other thiols, as well as their complexes with As and Cd, was performed by electrospray-quadrupole-time-of-flight (ESI-Q-TOF). In both the Cd and As exposed plants it was possible to observe the presence of oxidized PC2 ([M + H]+, m/z 538), GS-PC2(-Glu) ([M + H]+, m/z 716) as well as reduced GSH ([M + H]+, m/z 308) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ([M + H]+, m/z 613). However, only the GS plants exhibited the presence of As(GS)3 complex ([M + H]+, m/z 994) that was further confirmed by MS/MS. This species is reported for the first time in B. juncea plant tissues.

  4. Pestiviruses in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Vilcek, S; Nettleton, P F

    2006-08-25

    Pestiviruses are not strictly host-species specific and can infect not only domestic but also wild animals. The most important pestivirus, CSFV, infects domestic pigs and wild boars, which may cause a major problem for successful CSFV eradication programmes. Mainly BVDV specific antibodies have been reported in captive and free-living animals. Virus has been isolated from some of these animal species, but since BVDV can contaminate cell cultures and foetal calf serum, early reports of BVDV isolation have to be considered with caution. Genetic typing of early pestivirus isolates from wild species revealed that the majority were BVDV-1. Of the pestiviruses identified so far three species (CSFV, BVDV-1, giraffe pestivirus) and three genotypes (BDV-2, BDV-4, pronghorn) appear to circulate in wildlife animal populations. The potential for pestiviruses to spread between farm animals and free-living animals is discussed as are epidemiological and technical problems, and the future direction of research. PMID:16839713

  5. Evaluation of the potential for interspecific hybridization between Camelina sativa and related wild Brassicaceae in anticipation of field trials of GM camelina.

    PubMed

    Julié-Galau, Stéphane; Bellec, Yannick; Faure, Jean-Denis; Tepfer, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) is a re-emergent oilseed crop that is also becoming important as a model for applied projects based on studies in Arabidopsis thaliana, since the two species are closely related members of the tribe Camelineae of the Brassicaeae. Since camelina can be transformed genetically by floral dip, genetically modified (GM) camelina is being created in many laboratories, and small-scale field trials are already being conducted in the US and Canada. Although camelina does not cross-fertilize Brassica crop species, such as oilseed rape, nothing was known about its ability to cross with other members of the tribe Camelineae, which in addition to arabidopsis includes the widespread weed, shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris). We have tested the ability of camelina to cross with arabidopsis and C. bursa-pastoris, as well as with the more distantly related Cardamine hirsuta, tribe cardamineae. No seeds were produced in crosses with arabidopsis, and a few seeds were obtained in crosses with C. hirsuta, but the embryos aborted at an early stage of development. A few seeds were also obtained in crosses with C. bursa-pastoris, which germinated to produce plants of a phenotype intermediate to that of the parents, but the hybrids were both male and female sterile. Therefore, the likelihood of pollen-mediated gene flow from camelina to these related species is low. PMID:23793580

  6. Endangered Species: Wild & Rare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Endangered Species: Wild and Rare." Contents are organized into the following…

  7. Marc Chagall: "Wild Poppies."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Carolyn

    1987-01-01

    Based on a full-color reproduction of Marc Chagall's painting, "Wild Poppies," the goals of this lesson plan are to introduce students to artist's use of dreams and memories in making art, to communicate the idea that artists include their visual memories of people and things they love in their artwork, and to introduce the concepts of line and…

  8. Taming the Wild Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allyn, Pam

    2012-01-01

    As a well-known advocate for promoting wider reading and reading engagement among all children--and founder of a reading program for foster children--Pam Allyn knows that struggling readers often face any printed text with fear and confusion, like Max in the book Where the Wild Things Are. She argues that teachers need to actively create a…

  9. Heavy metals in wild house mice from coal-mining areas of Colombia and expression of genes related to oxidative stress, DNA damage and exposure to metals.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Castilla, Angélica; Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Marrugo-Negrete, José

    2014-03-01

    Coal mining is a source of pollutants that impact on environmental and human health. This study examined the metal content and the transcriptional status of gene markers associated with oxidative stress, metal transport and DNA damage in livers of feral mice collected near coal-mining operations, in comparison with mice obtained from a reference site. Mus musculus specimens were caught from La Loma and La Jagua, two coal-mining sites in the north of Colombia, as well as from Valledupar (Cesar Department), a city located 100km north of the mines. Concentrations in liver tissue of Hg, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu and As were determined by differential stripping voltammetry, and real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression. Compared with the reference group (Valledupar), hepatic concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn were significantly higher in animals living near mining areas. In exposed animals, the mRNA expression of NQ01, MT1, SOD1, MT2, and DDIT3 was 4.2-, 7.3-, 2.5-, 4.6- and 3.4-fold greater in coal mining sites, respectively, than in animals from the reference site (p<0.05). These results suggest that activities related to coal mining may generate pollutants that could affect the biota, inducing the transcription of biochemical markers related to oxidative stress, metal exposure, and DNA damage. These changes may be in part linked to metal toxicity, and could have implications for the development of chronic disease. Therefore, it is essential to implement preventive measures to minimize the effects of coal mining on its nearby environment, in order to protect human health.

  10. Radiation-induced DNA damage and the relative biological effectiveness of 18F-FDG in wild-type mice

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Kristina; Lemon, Jennifer A.; Boreham, Douglas R.

    2014-05-28

    Clinically, the most commonly used positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer is the glucose analog 2-[18F] fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (18F-FDG), however little research has been conducted on the biological effects of 18F-FDG injections. The induction and repair of DNA damage and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of radiation from 18F-FDG relative to 662 keV γ-rays were investigated. The study also assessed whether low-dose radiation exposure from 18F-FDG was capable of inducing an adaptive response. DNA damage to the bone marrow erythroblast population was measured using micronucleus formation and lymphocyte γH2A.X levels. To test the RBE of 18F-FDG, mice were injected with a range of activities of 18F-FDG (0–14.80 MBq) or irradiated with Cs-137 γ-rays (0–100 mGy). The adaptive response was investigated 24 h after the 18F-FDG injection by 1 Gy in vivo challenge doses for micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) formation or 1, 2 and 4 Gy in vitro challenges doses for γH2A.X formation. A significant increase in MN-RET formation above controls occurred following injection activities of 3.70, 7.40 or 14.80 MBq (P < 0.001) which correspond to bone marrow doses of ~35, 75 and 150 mGy, respectively. Per unit dose, the Cs-137 radiation exposure induced significantly more damage than the 18F-FDG injections (RBE = 0.79 ± 0.04). A 20% reduction in γH2A.X fluorescence was observed in mice injected with a prior adapting low dose of 14.80 MBq 18F-FDG relative to controls (P < 0.019). A 0.74 MBq 18F-FDG injection, which gives mice a dose approximately equal to a typical human PET scan, did not cause a significant increase in DNA damage nor did it generate an adaptive response. Typical 18F-FDG injection activities used in small animal imaging (14.80 MBq) resulted in a decrease in DNA damage, as measured by γH2A.X formation

  11. Do attacks by jaguars Panthera onca and pumas Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae) on livestock correlate with species richness and relative abundance of wild prey?

    PubMed

    Burgas, Albert; Amit, Ronit; Lopez, Bernat C

    2014-12-01

    Abstract: Attacks by big cats on livestock are one of the major causes of human-felid conflicts and, therefore, an important factor in the conservation of these species. It has been argued that a reduction in natural prey abundance promotes attacks on domestic species, but few studies have tested this statement, and some have delivered contradictory results. We investigated whether the occurrence of attacks to livestock by jaguar and puma relates to the abundance and richness of their natural prey. In the rainy season 2009, we tracked potential prey species counting signs of presence along linear transects in 14 non-attacked cattle farms (control) and in 14 attacked cattle farms in NW Costa Rica. There was a negative relationship between the occurrence of attacks and both species richness (p = 0.0014) and abundance (p = 0.0012) of natural prey. Our results support the establishment of actions to promote support and recovery of natural prey, in order to diminish attacks on livestock, while maintaining jaguar and puma populations.

  12. Do attacks by jaguars Panthera onca and pumas Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae) on livestock correlate with species richness and relative abundance of wild prey?

    PubMed

    Burgas, Albert; Amit, Ronit; Lopez, Bernat C

    2014-12-01

    Abstract: Attacks by big cats on livestock are one of the major causes of human-felid conflicts and, therefore, an important factor in the conservation of these species. It has been argued that a reduction in natural prey abundance promotes attacks on domestic species, but few studies have tested this statement, and some have delivered contradictory results. We investigated whether the occurrence of attacks to livestock by jaguar and puma relates to the abundance and richness of their natural prey. In the rainy season 2009, we tracked potential prey species counting signs of presence along linear transects in 14 non-attacked cattle farms (control) and in 14 attacked cattle farms in NW Costa Rica. There was a negative relationship between the occurrence of attacks and both species richness (p = 0.0014) and abundance (p = 0.0012) of natural prey. Our results support the establishment of actions to promote support and recovery of natural prey, in order to diminish attacks on livestock, while maintaining jaguar and puma populations. PMID:25720180

  13. 43 CFR 4750.3-1 - Application for private maintenance of wild horses and burros.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... wild horses and burros. 4750.3-1 Section 4750.3-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.3-1 Application for private maintenance of wild horses and burros. An individual applying for a wild horse...

  14. 43 CFR 4750.3-1 - Application for private maintenance of wild horses and burros.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... wild horses and burros. 4750.3-1 Section 4750.3-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.3-1 Application for private maintenance of wild horses and burros. An individual applying for a wild horse...

  15. 43 CFR 4750.3-1 - Application for private maintenance of wild horses and burros.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... wild horses and burros. 4750.3-1 Section 4750.3-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.3-1 Application for private maintenance of wild horses and burros. An individual applying for a wild horse...

  16. 43 CFR 4750.3-1 - Application for private maintenance of wild horses and burros.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... wild horses and burros. 4750.3-1 Section 4750.3-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.3-1 Application for private maintenance of wild horses and burros. An individual applying for a wild horse...

  17. Flow sorting of C-genome chromosomes from wild relatives of wheat Aegilops markgrafii, Ae. triuncialis and Ae. cylindrica, and their molecular organization

    PubMed Central

    Molnár, István; Vrána, Jan; Farkas, András; Kubaláková, Marie; Cseh, András; Molnár-Láng, Márta; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Aegilops markgrafii (CC) and its natural hybrids Ae. triuncialis (UtUtCtCt) and Ae. cylindrica (DcDcCcCc) represent a rich reservoir of useful genes for improvement of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), but the limited information available on their genome structure and the shortage of molecular (cyto-) genetic tools hamper the utilization of the extant genetic diversity. This study provides the complete karyotypes in the three species obtained after fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with repetitive DNA probes, and evaluates the potential of flow cytometric chromosome sorting. Methods The flow karyotypes obtained after the analysis of 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-stained chromosomes were characterized and the chromosome content of the peaks on the flow karyotypes was determined by FISH. Twenty-nine conserved orthologous set (COS) markers covering all seven wheat homoeologous chromosome groups were used for PCR with DNA amplified from flow-sorted chromosomes and genomic DNA. Key Results FISH with repetitive DNA probes revealed that chromosomes 4C, 5C, 7Ct, T6UtS.6UtL-5CtL, 1Cc and 5Dc could be sorted with purities ranging from 66 to 91 %, while the remaining chromosomes could be sorted in groups of 2–5. This identified a partial wheat–C-genome homology for group 4 and 5 chromosomes. In addition, 1C chromosomes were homologous with group 1 of wheat; a small segment from group 2 indicated 1C–2C rearrangement. An extensively rearranged structure of chromosome 7C relative to wheat was also detected. Conclusions The possibility of purifying Aegilops chromosomes provides an attractive opportunity to investigate the structure and evolution of the Aegilops C genome and to develop molecular tools to facilitate the identification of alien chromatin and support alien introgression breeding in bread wheat. PMID:26043745

  18. Wild Duck Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    On April 7, 2005, the Deep Impact spacecraft's Impactor Target Sensor camera recorded this image of M11, the Wild Duck cluster, a galactic open cluster located 6 thousand light years away. The camera is located on the impactor spacecraft, which will image comet Tempel 1 beginning 22 hours before impact until about 2 seconds before impact. Impact with comet Tempel 1 is planned for July 4, 2005.

  19. Distinct Lineages of Bufavirus in Wild Shrews and Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Michihito; Orba, Yasuko; Anindita, Paulina D; Ishii, Akihiro; Ueno, Keisuke; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Ito, Kimihito; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2015-07-01

    Viral metagenomic analysis identified a new parvovirus genome in the intestinal contents of wild shrews in Zambia. Related viruses were detected in spleen tissues from wild shrews and nonhuman primates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that these viruses are related to human bufaviruses, highlighting the presence and genetic diversity of bufaviruses in wildlife. PMID:26079728

  20. Antibiotic resistance in wild birds

    PubMed Central

    Bonnedahl, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Wild birds have been postulated as sentinels, reservoirs, and potential spreaders of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been isolated from a multitude of wild bird species. Several studies strongly indicate transmission of resistant bacteria from human rest products to wild birds. There is evidence suggesting that wild birds can spread resistant bacteria through migration and that resistant bacteria can be transmitted from birds to humans and vice versa. Through further studies of the spatial and temporal distribution of resistant bacteria in wild birds, we can better assess their role and thereby help to mitigate the increasing global problem of antibiotic resistance. PMID:24697355

  1. Antibiotic resistance in wild birds.

    PubMed

    Bonnedahl, Jonas; Järhult, Josef D

    2014-05-01

    Wild birds have been postulated as sentinels, reservoirs, and potential spreaders of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been isolated from a multitude of wild bird species. Several studies strongly indicate transmission of resistant bacteria from human rest products to wild birds. There is evidence suggesting that wild birds can spread resistant bacteria through migration and that resistant bacteria can be transmitted from birds to humans and vice versa. Through further studies of the spatial and temporal distribution of resistant bacteria in wild birds, we can better assess their role and thereby help to mitigate the increasing global problem of antibiotic resistance. PMID:24697355

  2. Teaching in wild meerkats.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Alex; McAuliffe, Katherine

    2006-07-14

    Despite the obvious benefits of directed mechanisms that facilitate the efficient transfer of skills, there is little critical evidence for teaching in nonhuman animals. Using observational and experimental data, we show that wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta) teach pups prey-handling skills by providing them with opportunities to interact with live prey. In response to changing pup begging calls, helpers alter their prey-provisioning methods as pups grow older, thus accelerating learning without the use of complex cognition. The lack of evidence for teaching in species other than humans may reflect problems in producing unequivocal support for the occurrence of teaching, rather than the absence of teaching.

  3. Teaching in wild meerkats.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Alex; McAuliffe, Katherine

    2006-07-14

    Despite the obvious benefits of directed mechanisms that facilitate the efficient transfer of skills, there is little critical evidence for teaching in nonhuman animals. Using observational and experimental data, we show that wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta) teach pups prey-handling skills by providing them with opportunities to interact with live prey. In response to changing pup begging calls, helpers alter their prey-provisioning methods as pups grow older, thus accelerating learning without the use of complex cognition. The lack of evidence for teaching in species other than humans may reflect problems in producing unequivocal support for the occurrence of teaching, rather than the absence of teaching. PMID:16840701

  4. Identification of a new androgen receptor (AR) co-regulator BUD31 and related peptides to suppress wild-type and mutated AR-mediated prostate cancer growth via peptide screening and X-ray structure analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Liu, Jai-Shin; Wu, Po-Long; Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Chen, Yuh-Ling; Lin, An-Chi; Ting, Huei-Ju; Pang, See-Tong; Yeh, Shauh-Der; Ma, Wen-Lung; Chen, Chung-Jung; Wu, Wen-Guey; Chang, Chawnshang

    2014-01-01

    Treatment with individual anti-androgens is associated with the development of hot-spot mutations in the androgen receptor (AR), including T877A (hydroxyflutamide [HF]) and W741(C/L) (bicalutamide [CDX]). Here, we found that anti-androgens bound mt-ARs (HF-T877A-AR-LBD and CDX-W741L-AR-LBD) have similar binary structure to the 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) bound wild type (wt) AR (DHT-wt-AR-LBD). Phage display revealed that these ARs bound to similar peptides, including BUD31, containing an Fxx(F/H/L/W/Y)Y motif cluster with Tyr in the +5 position. Structural analyses of the AR-LBD-BUD31 complex at 2.1 Å resolution revealed formation of an extra hydrogen bond between the Tyr+5 residue of the peptide and Gln733 of the AR AF2 domain, suggesting that peptides with Fxx(F/H/L/W/Y)Y motifs can interact with wt or mutated ARs. Functional studies showed that BUD31-related peptides suppressed transactivation of both DHT-wt-AR and HF-T877A-AR by interrupting AR N- and C-terminal interactions, thereby inhibiting wt and mutant AR-mediated prostate cancer cell growth. Collectively, these results suggest the combination of peptide screening and X-ray structure analysis as a new strategy for developing anti-androgens that simultaneously suppress both wt and mutated AR function. PMID:25091737

  5. Wild Reading: This Madness to Our Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra Tarc, Aparna Rita

    2013-01-01

    My paper theorizes the possibilities of a qualitative method that engages with promiscuous aspects of human existence and difference foreclosed by established research methods and representations. I locate the not known of knowledge in the unconscious time of the maternal relation where the infant is put upon to wildly and without symbolic…

  6. The Gut Microbiota of Wild Mice.

    PubMed

    Weldon, Laura; Abolins, Stephen; Lenzi, Luca; Bourne, Christian; Riley, Eleanor M; Viney, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota profoundly affects the biology of its host. The composition of the microbiota is dynamic and is affected by both host genetic and many environmental effects. The gut microbiota of laboratory mice has been studied extensively, which has uncovered many of the effects that the microbiota can have. This work has also shown that the environments of different research institutions can affect the mouse microbiota. There has been relatively limited study of the microbiota of wild mice, but this has shown that it typically differs from that of laboratory mice (and that maintaining wild caught mice in the laboratory can quite quickly alter the microbiota). There is also inter-individual variation in the microbiota of wild mice, with this principally explained by geographical location. In this study we have characterised the gut (both the caecum and rectum) microbiota of wild caught Mus musculus domesticus at three UK sites and have investigated how the microbiota varies depending on host location and host characteristics. We find that the microbiota of these mice are generally consistent with those described from other wild mice. The rectal and caecal microbiotas of individual mice are generally more similar to each other, than they are to the microbiota of other individuals. We found significant differences in the diversity of the microbiotas among mice from different sample sites. There were significant correlations of microbiota diversity and body weight, a measure of age, body-mass index, serum concentration of leptin, and virus, nematode and mite infection.

  7. The Gut Microbiota of Wild Mice

    PubMed Central

    Weldon, Laura; Abolins, Stephen; Lenzi, Luca; Bourne, Christian; Riley, Eleanor M.; Viney, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota profoundly affects the biology of its host. The composition of the microbiota is dynamic and is affected by both host genetic and many environmental effects. The gut microbiota of laboratory mice has been studied extensively, which has uncovered many of the effects that the microbiota can have. This work has also shown that the environments of different research institutions can affect the mouse microbiota. There has been relatively limited study of the microbiota of wild mice, but this has shown that it typically differs from that of laboratory mice (and that maintaining wild caught mice in the laboratory can quite quickly alter the microbiota). There is also inter-individual variation in the microbiota of wild mice, with this principally explained by geographical location. In this study we have characterised the gut (both the caecum and rectum) microbiota of wild caught Mus musculus domesticus at three UK sites and have investigated how the microbiota varies depending on host location and host characteristics. We find that the microbiota of these mice are generally consistent with those described from other wild mice. The rectal and caecal microbiotas of individual mice are generally more similar to each other, than they are to the microbiota of other individuals. We found significant differences in the diversity of the microbiotas among mice from different sample sites. There were significant correlations of microbiota diversity and body weight, a measure of age, body-mass index, serum concentration of leptin, and virus, nematode and mite infection. PMID:26258484

  8. Genetic Architecture of Palm Oil Fatty Acid Composition in Cultivated Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Compared to Its Wild Relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Carmenza; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Cros, David; Lopes, Ricardo; Cuellar, Teresa; Espeout, Sandra; Syaputra, Indra; Villeneuve, Pierre; Pina, Michel; Ritter, Enrique; Leroy, Thierry; Billotte, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL), 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs), 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs), 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL), and 40% (two QTLs) for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level. PMID:24816555

  9. Genetic architecture of palm oil fatty acid composition in cultivated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) compared to its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Carmenza; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Cros, David; Lopes, Ricardo; Cuellar, Teresa; Espeout, Sandra; Syaputra, Indra; Villeneuve, Pierre; Pina, Michel; Ritter, Enrique; Leroy, Thierry; Billotte, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL), 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs), 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs), 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL), and 40% (two QTLs) for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level.

  10. First wild XXY house mice.

    PubMed

    Hauffe, Heidi C; Giménez, Mabel D; Garagna, Silvia; Searle, Jeremy B

    2010-07-01

    Laboratory house mice (Mus musculus) with the XXY condition can be generated with ease and have been used as a biomedical model. However, although the XXY constitution has been described in humans and many domestic and wild mammal species, and a very large number of wild house mice have been karyotyped previously, no wild individuals of M. musculus with an XXY karyotype have ever been reported. Therefore, it is rather extraordinary that two wild XXY house mice were caught by us on two different farms in northern Italy in 2008. Except for the extra X chromosome, one male had a standard karyotype (2n = 40) and the other, the karyotype of the Cremona metacentric population (2n = 22). In this paper, the phenotype of these two individuals is described. Observations for both of these wild males agree with those of laboratory XXY mice, i.e., they had a normal body mass and appearance, but significantly smaller testes than normal, and no visible germ cells. The incidence of the XXY chromosome anomaly in wild mice (two among 5,123 wild mice surveyed by us and our colleagues, i.e., approximately 0.08% among wild-caught males) is intermediate between that found in male laboratory mice (approximately 0.04%) and that found in male humans (0.2%).

  11. Genetic analysis of Streptococcus suis isolates from wild rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sánchez del Rey, V; Fernández-Garayzábal, J F; Briones, V; Iriso, A; Domínguez, L; Gottschalk, M; Vela, A I

    2013-08-30

    This work aims to investigate the presence of Streptococcus suis in wild rabbits. A total of 65 S. suis isolates were recovered from 33.3% of the wild rabbits examined. Most isolates (86.2%) belong to genotype cps9. These isolates were further characterized by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and virulence genotyping. Overall, S. suis exhibited a low genetic diversity. Only 5 genetic profiles were obtained by PFGE and most isolates (71.4%) were included in two pulsotypes that were also widely distributed among the wild rabbit population. MLST analysis assigned all cps9 isolates into three new singlestones (ST216, ST217 and ST284), which were not genetically related to the European ST87 and Spanish ST61 widespread swine clones, indicating a different genetic background for the S. suis isolates from wild rabbits and pigs. Wild rabbit isolates exhibited the genotype mrp-/epf-/sly-, different from those showed by most of the swine S. suis isolates of the ST87 and ST61 clones. None of the S. suis isolated from wild rabbits exhibited the genotype cps2/mrp+/epf+/sly+ associated with human infections. These results indicate that S. suis isolates from wild rabbits are not genetically related with prevalent clones usually associated with infections in pigs or humans in Europe and do not exhibit either their virulence genotypes. Therefore, although wild rabbits could represent an unknown reservoir of this pathogen, they could not represent a potential risk for pigs or humans.

  12. The Wilde analyst.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joel

    2013-03-01

    Oscar Wilde (1854-1900) took on the challenge of teaching us how to live artfully. From the dynamic successes and tragedies of his own life Oscar knew that everything worthy of existence is worthy of art, including its ugliness and suffering. Oscar observed much about human nature, especially his own, in an era when convention was not challenged, knowledge was taught and appearances were everything. For him, "The supreme vice is shallowness."(1) Society and psychoanalysis can still be honored and shaken by his words. The paradoxical and complex nature of Oscar's insights was as good as any coming from a thoughtful psychoanalyst. After the first two attempts to write about Oscar fell flat, it became clear that I must engage with him and try to match the unsparing commitment to explore his unconscious and interior life. In the process of creating the array of sketches of my psychoanalytic encounters with Oscar, I also found the words to describe what drew me to the field some 20 years ago-the art of psychoanalysis.

  13. Genetic differences in growth and survival of juvenile hatchery and wild steelhead trout, Salmo gairdneri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisenbichler, R.R.; McIntyre, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    Relative growth and survival of offspring from matings of hatchery and wild Deschutes River (Oregon) summer steelhead trout, Salmo gairdneri, were measured to determine if hatchery fish differ genetically from wild fish in traits that can affect the stock–recruitment relationship of wild populations. Sections of four natural streams and a hatchery pond were each stocked with genetically marked (lactate dehydrogenase genotypes) eyed eggs or unfed swim-up fry from each of three matings: hatchery × hatchery (HH), hatchery × wild (HW), and wild × wild (WW). In streams, WW fish had the highest survival and HW fish the highest growth rates when significant differences were found; in the hatchery pond, HH fish had the highest survival and growth rates. The hatchery fish were genetically different from wild fish and when they interbreed with wild fish may reduce the number of smolts produced. Hatchery procedures can be modified to reduce the genetic differences between hatchery and wild fish.

  14. Consumer beliefs regarding farmed versus wild fish.

    PubMed

    Claret, Anna; Guerrero, Luis; Ginés, Rafael; Grau, Amàlia; Hernández, M Dolores; Aguirre, Enaitz; Peleteiro, José Benito; Fernández-Pato, Carlos; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carmen

    2014-08-01

    Aquaculture is a food-producing activity, alternative to traditional extractive fishing, which still acts as a reference for most consumers. The main objective of the present paper was to study which consumer beliefs, regarding farmed versus wild fish, hinder the potential development of the aquaculture sector. To achieve this purpose the study was organized into two complementary steps: a qualitative approach (focus groups) aimed at assessing consumer perception about wild and farmed fish and to identify the salient beliefs that differentiate them; and a quantitative approach (survey by means of a questionnaire) to validate the results obtained in the focus group discussions over a representative sample of participants (n = 919). Results showed that participants perceive clear differences between farmed and wild fish. Although no significant differences between both kinds of fish were detected on safety, in general farmed fish was perceived to be less affected by marine pollution, heavy metals and parasites. In the contrary, wild fish was considered to have healthier feeding, to contain fewer antibiotics and to be fresher, healthier, less handled and more natural. Beliefs related to quality were in favour of wild fish, while those related to availability and price were in favour of farmed fish. Significant differences were observed in the perception of both kinds of fish depending on the consumers' objective knowledge about fish, on the level of education, age and gender and on the three segments of consumers identified: "Traditional/Conservative", "Connoisseur", "Open to aquaculture". The results provided could play an important role when planning and designing efficient marketing strategies for promoting farmed fish by adapting the information provided to the perception of each segment of consumers identified by the present study. PMID:24709486

  15. Consumer beliefs regarding farmed versus wild fish.

    PubMed

    Claret, Anna; Guerrero, Luis; Ginés, Rafael; Grau, Amàlia; Hernández, M Dolores; Aguirre, Enaitz; Peleteiro, José Benito; Fernández-Pato, Carlos; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carmen

    2014-08-01

    Aquaculture is a food-producing activity, alternative to traditional extractive fishing, which still acts as a reference for most consumers. The main objective of the present paper was to study which consumer beliefs, regarding farmed versus wild fish, hinder the potential development of the aquaculture sector. To achieve this purpose the study was organized into two complementary steps: a qualitative approach (focus groups) aimed at assessing consumer perception about wild and farmed fish and to identify the salient beliefs that differentiate them; and a quantitative approach (survey by means of a questionnaire) to validate the results obtained in the focus group discussions over a representative sample of participants (n = 919). Results showed that participants perceive clear differences between farmed and wild fish. Although no significant differences between both kinds of fish were detected on safety, in general farmed fish was perceived to be less affected by marine pollution, heavy metals and parasites. In the contrary, wild fish was considered to have healthier feeding, to contain fewer antibiotics and to be fresher, healthier, less handled and more natural. Beliefs related to quality were in favour of wild fish, while those related to availability and price were in favour of farmed fish. Significant differences were observed in the perception of both kinds of fish depending on the consumers' objective knowledge about fish, on the level of education, age and gender and on the three segments of consumers identified: "Traditional/Conservative", "Connoisseur", "Open to aquaculture". The results provided could play an important role when planning and designing efficient marketing strategies for promoting farmed fish by adapting the information provided to the perception of each segment of consumers identified by the present study.

  16. Sleeping distance in wild wolf packs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knick, S.T.; Mech, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Sleeping distances were observed among members of 13 wild wolf (Canis lupus) packs and 11 pairs in northeastern Minnesota to determine if the distances correlated with pack size and composition. The study utilized aerial radio-tracking and observation during winter. Pack size and number of adults per pack were inversely related to pack average sleeping distance and variability. No correlation between sleeping distance and microclimate was observed. Possible relationships between social bonding and our results are discussed.

  17. Wild bootstrap for quantile regression.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xingdong; He, Xuming; Hu, Jianhua

    2011-12-01

    The existing theory of the wild bootstrap has focused on linear estimators. In this note, we broaden its validity by providing a class of weight distributions that is asymptotically valid for quantile regression estimators. As most weight distributions in the literature lead to biased variance estimates for nonlinear estimators of linear regression, we propose a modification of the wild bootstrap that admits a broader class of weight distributions for quantile regression. A simulation study on median regression is carried out to compare various bootstrap methods. With a simple finite-sample correction, the wild bootstrap is shown to account for general forms of heteroscedasticity in a regression model with fixed design points.

  18. Metabolic fingerprinting reveals differences between shoots of wild and cultivated carrot (Daucus carota L.) and suggests maternal inheritance or wild trait dominance in hybrids.

    PubMed

    Grebenstein, C; Choi, Y H; Rong, J; de Jong, T J; Tamis, W L M

    2011-08-01

    Differences between the metabolic content of cultivars and their related wild species not only have implications for breeding and food quality, but also for the increasingly studied area of crop to wild introgression. Wild and cultivated western carrots belong to the same outcrossing species and hybridize under natural conditions. The metabolic fingerprinting of Dutch wild carrot and of western orange carrot cultivar shoots using (1)H NMR showed only quantitative differences in chemical content, indicating relatively low divergence after domestication. Main differences reside in the primary metabolite content and in the concentrations of chlorogenic acid and feruloyl quinic acid in the shoots of the different carrot types. Wild×cultivar hybrids cannot be distinguished from wild plants based on the metabolome, suggesting maternal, maternal environment, or dominance effects, and indicating high hybrid fitness in wild conditions. Considering these similarities, introgression is a real possibility in carrots, but understanding its consequences would require further studies using backcrosses in a multiple environments.

  19. 43 CFR 4740.2 - Standards for vehicles used for transport of wild horses and burros.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of wild horses and burros. 4740.2 Section 4740.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Motor Vehicles and Aircraft § 4740.2 Standards for vehicles used for transport of wild horses and burros. (a) Use of motor vehicles...

  20. 43 CFR 4740.2 - Standards for vehicles used for transport of wild horses and burros.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of wild horses and burros. 4740.2 Section 4740.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Motor Vehicles and Aircraft § 4740.2 Standards for vehicles used for transport of wild horses and burros. (a) Use of motor vehicles...

  1. 43 CFR 4740.2 - Standards for vehicles used for transport of wild horses and burros.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of wild horses and burros. 4740.2 Section 4740.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Motor Vehicles and Aircraft § 4740.2 Standards for vehicles used for transport of wild horses and burros. (a) Use of motor vehicles...

  2. 43 CFR 4740.2 - Standards for vehicles used for transport of wild horses and burros.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of wild horses and burros. 4740.2 Section 4740.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Motor Vehicles and Aircraft § 4740.2 Standards for vehicles used for transport of wild horses and burros. (a) Use of motor vehicles...

  3. Tuberization Response to Photoperiod in Potato Haploid-Wild Species Hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many useful quality and disease resistance traits for potato improvement come from wild Solanum relatives. Thus, an understanding of inheritance of tuberization in hybrid populations between wild and cultivated potatoes is important for the integration of good traits from wild potatoes. Four familie...

  4. Organophosphate toxicity in wild turkeys.

    PubMed

    Nettles, V F

    1976-10-01

    An accidental poisoning of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) by O,O-Diethyl O-[p-(methylsulfinyl) phenyl] phosphorothioate is reported. Diagnosis was achieved by history, clinical observations, postmortem lesions, diagnostic therapy and pesticide analysis.

  5. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F.; Eskridge, Pamela H.; Hoss, Shannon K.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Schuett, Gordon W.

    2012-01-01

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)—asexual reproduction by bisexual species—has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes—the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

  6. Zebrafish Social Behavior in the Wild.

    PubMed

    Suriyampola, Piyumika S; Shelton, Delia S; Shukla, Rohitashva; Roy, Tamal; Bhat, Anuradha; Martins, Emília P

    2016-02-01

    Wild zebrafish exhibit a wide range of behavior. We found abundant wild zebrafish in flowing rivers and still water, in large, tightly-knit groups of hundreds of individuals, as well as in small, loose shoals. In two still-water populations, zebrafish were quite small in body size, common, and in tight groups of up to 22 fish. As in earlier laboratory studies, these zebrafish exhibited very low levels of aggression. In slowly flowing water in central India, zebrafish were relatively rare and gathered in small shoals (4-12 fish), often with other small fish, such as Rasbora daniconius. These stream zebrafish were larger in body size (27 mm TL) and much more aggressive than those in still water. In a second river population with much faster flowing water, zebrafish were abundant and again relatively large (21 mm TL). These zebrafish occurred in very large (up to 300 individuals) and tightly-knit (nearest-neighbor distances up to 21 mm) groups that exhibited collective rheotaxis and almost no aggression. This remarkable variation in social behavior of wild zebrafish offers an opportunity for future studies of behavioral genetics, development, and neuroscience.

  7. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F; Eskridge, Pamela H; Hoss, Shannon K; Mendelson, Joseph R; Schuett, Gordon W

    2012-12-23

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)-asexual reproduction by bisexual species-has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes-the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

  8. Travel fosters tool use in wild chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Thibaud; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Neumann, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Ecological variation influences the appearance and maintenance of tool use in animals, either due to necessity or opportunity, but little is known about the relative importance of these two factors. Here, we combined long-term behavioural data on feeding and travelling with six years of field experiments in a wild chimpanzee community. In the experiments, subjects engaged with natural logs, which contained energetically valuable honey that was only accessible through tool use. Engagement with the experiment was highest after periods of low fruit availability involving more travel between food patches, while instances of actual tool-using were significantly influenced by prior travel effort only. Additionally, combining data from the main chimpanzee study communities across Africa supported this result, insofar as groups with larger travel efforts had larger tool repertoires. Travel thus appears to foster tool use in wild chimpanzees and may also have been a driving force in early hominin technological evolution. PMID:27431611

  9. Porcine hokovirus in wild boar in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Carla; Coelho, Catarina; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena; Thompson, Gertrude

    2016-04-01

    Porcine hokovirus (PHoV), also referred to as porcine parvovirus 4 (P-PARV4), a recently discovered parvovirus of swine that is closely related to human parvovirus 4/5 (H-PARV4/5), was first described in Hong Kong. To evaluate the occurrence of P-PARV4 in Portuguese wild boars in the hunting season of 2011/2012, liver and serum samples were tested. P-PARV4 was detected in 24 % of the wild boars analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship between the P-PARV4 isolates and other P-PARV4 reference strains. This virus appears to be emerging, with yet unknown implications for public health.

  10. Porcine hokovirus in wild boar in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Carla; Coelho, Catarina; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena; Thompson, Gertrude

    2016-04-01

    Porcine hokovirus (PHoV), also referred to as porcine parvovirus 4 (P-PARV4), a recently discovered parvovirus of swine that is closely related to human parvovirus 4/5 (H-PARV4/5), was first described in Hong Kong. To evaluate the occurrence of P-PARV4 in Portuguese wild boars in the hunting season of 2011/2012, liver and serum samples were tested. P-PARV4 was detected in 24 % of the wild boars analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship between the P-PARV4 isolates and other P-PARV4 reference strains. This virus appears to be emerging, with yet unknown implications for public health. PMID:26711454

  11. [Wild is not really wild: brain weight of wild domestic mammals].

    PubMed

    Röhrs, M; Ebinger, P

    1999-01-01

    Domestication leads to the reduction of brain weight, decreases reach from 8.1% in laboratory rats up to 33.6% in domesticated pigs. The question is: Do brain weights increase by feralization? We compared the brain weights of domesticated mammals (cat, dog, pig, goat, ass) with their feral forms. In none of the cases studied, brain weight is increased in wild domestic mammals. So, feral mammals do not return back to the status of their wild species.

  12. The Fecal Viral Flora of Wild Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Tung G.; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Wang, Chunlin; Rose, Robert K.; Lipton, Howard L.; Delwart, Eric L.

    2011-01-01

    The frequent interactions of rodents with humans make them a common source of zoonotic infections. To obtain an initial unbiased measure of the viral diversity in the enteric tract of wild rodents we sequenced partially purified, randomly amplified viral RNA and DNA in the feces of 105 wild rodents (mouse, vole, and rat) collected in California and Virginia. We identified in decreasing frequency sequences related to the mammalian viruses families Circoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Picornaviridae, Astroviridae, Parvoviridae, Papillomaviridae, Adenoviridae, and Coronaviridae. Seventeen small circular DNA genomes containing one or two replicase genes distantly related to the Circoviridae representing several potentially new viral families were characterized. In the Picornaviridae family two new candidate genera as well as a close genetic relative of the human pathogen Aichi virus were characterized. Fragments of the first mouse sapelovirus and picobirnaviruses were identified and the first murine astrovirus genome was characterized. A mouse papillomavirus genome and fragments of a novel adenovirus and adenovirus-associated virus were also sequenced. The next largest fraction of the rodent fecal virome was related to insect viruses of the Densoviridae, Iridoviridae, Polydnaviridae, Dicistroviriade, Bromoviridae, and Virgaviridae families followed by plant virus-related sequences in the Nanoviridae, Geminiviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Secoviridae, Partitiviridae, Tymoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae, and Tombusviridae families reflecting the largely insect and plant rodent diet. Phylogenetic analyses of full and partial viral genomes therefore revealed many previously unreported viral species, genera, and families. The close genetic similarities noted between some rodent and human viruses might reflect past zoonoses. This study increases our understanding of the viral diversity in wild rodents and highlights the large number of still uncharacterized viruses in mammals. PMID:21909269

  13. Relationship of farm salmon, sea lice, and wild salmon populations.

    PubMed

    Marty, Gary D; Saksida, Sonja M; Quinn, Terrance J

    2010-12-28

    Increased farm salmon production has heightened concerns about the association between disease on farm and wild fish. The controversy is particularly evident in the Broughton Archipelago of Western Canada, where a high prevalence of sea lice (ectoparasitic copepods) was first reported on juvenile wild pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in 2001. Exposure to sea lice from farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was thought to be the cause of the 97% population decline before these fish returned to spawn in 2002, although no diagnostic investigation was done to rule out other causes of mortality. To address the concern that sea lice from fish farms would cause population extinction of wild salmon, we analyzed 10-20 y of fish farm data and 60 y of pink salmon data. We show that the number of pink salmon returning to spawn in the fall predicts the number of female sea lice on farm fish the next spring, which, in turn, accounts for 98% of the annual variability in the prevalence of sea lice on outmigrating wild juvenile salmon. However, productivity of wild salmon is not negatively associated with either farm lice numbers or farm fish production, and all published field and laboratory data support the conclusion that something other than sea lice caused the population decline in 2002. We conclude that separating farm salmon from wild salmon--proposed through coordinated fallowing or closed containment--will not increase wild salmon productivity and that medical analysis can improve our understanding of complex issues related to aquaculture sustainability.

  14. Fitness of Crop-Wild Hybrid Sunflower under Competitive Conditions: Implications for Crop-to-Wild Introgression

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Kristin L.; Emry, D. Jason; Snow, Allison A.; Kost, Matthew A.; Pace, Brian A.; Alexander, Helen M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids) under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking a full life cycle

  15. Fitness of crop-wild hybrid sunflower under competitive conditions: implications for crop-to-wild introgression.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Kristin L; Emry, D Jason; Snow, Allison A; Kost, Matthew A; Pace, Brian A; Alexander, Helen M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids) under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking a full life cycle

  16. Fitness of crop-wild hybrid sunflower under competitive conditions: implications for crop-to-wild introgression.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Kristin L; Emry, D Jason; Snow, Allison A; Kost, Matthew A; Pace, Brian A; Alexander, Helen M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids) under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking a full life cycle

  17. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... horticultural commodities.” Transplanted branches which were cut from plants growing wild in the field or forest... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural...

  18. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... horticultural commodities.” Transplanted branches which were cut from plants growing wild in the field or forest... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural...

  19. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... horticultural commodities.” Transplanted branches which were cut from plants growing wild in the field or forest... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural...

  20. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... horticultural commodities.” Transplanted branches which were cut from plants growing wild in the field or forest... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural...

  1. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... horticultural commodities.” Transplanted branches which were cut from plants growing wild in the field or forest... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural...

  2. Linkage Disequilibrium in Wild Mice

    PubMed Central

    Laurie, Cathy C; Nickerson, Deborah A; Anderson, Amy D; Weir, Bruce S; Livingston, Robert J; Dean, Matthew D; Smith, Kimberly L; Schadt, Eric E; Nachman, Michael W

    2007-01-01

    Crosses between laboratory strains of mice provide a powerful way of detecting quantitative trait loci for complex traits related to human disease. Hundreds of these loci have been detected, but only a small number of the underlying causative genes have been identified. The main difficulty is the extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) in intercross progeny and the slow process of fine-scale mapping by traditional methods. Recently, new approaches have been introduced, such as association studies with inbred lines and multigenerational crosses. These approaches are very useful for interval reduction, but generally do not provide single-gene resolution because of strong LD extending over one to several megabases. Here, we investigate the genetic structure of a natural population of mice in Arizona to determine its suitability for fine-scale LD mapping and association studies. There are three main findings: (1) Arizona mice have a high level of genetic variation, which includes a large fraction of the sequence variation present in classical strains of laboratory mice; (2) they show clear evidence of local inbreeding but appear to lack stable population structure across the study area; and (3) LD decays with distance at a rate similar to human populations, which is considerably more rapid than in laboratory populations of mice. Strong associations in Arizona mice are limited primarily to markers less than 100 kb apart, which provides the possibility of fine-scale association mapping at the level of one or a few genes. Although other considerations, such as sample size requirements and marker discovery, are serious issues in the implementation of association studies, the genetic variation and LD results indicate that wild mice could provide a useful tool for identifying genes that cause variation in complex traits. PMID:17722986

  3. A diet supplement for captive wild ruminants.

    PubMed

    Baker, D L; Stout, G W; Miller, M W

    1998-06-01

    Nutritional husbandry of captive wild ruminants often requires feeding these animals a supplemental diet to enhance their health, reproductive performance, and productivity. Although supplemental diets for wild ruminants are commercially available, few have been evaluated in controlled intake and digestion trials. Voluntary intake, digestive efficiency, nitrogen retention, and gross energy utilization of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), mountain sheep (Ovis canadensis), mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), and wapiti (Cervus elaphus) consuming a high-energy, high-protein pelleted supplement were compared. Voluntary intake of dry matter, energy, and nitrogen were similar (P > 0.34) between mountain goats and mountain sheep and consistently lower (P < 0.03) for these species than for pronghorn, mule deer, and wapiti. Differences in digestive efficiency among species were inversely related to dry matter intake rates. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral-detergent fiber was 10-20% higher for mountain goats and mountain sheep than for the other species (P < 0.04). Although these findings suggest a superior digestive efficiency for mountain goats and mountain sheep, species comparisons are inconclusive because of the confounding effects of season and ambient temperature on voluntary intake and digestion. Under the conditions of this experiment, the diet tested was safe, nutritious, and highly palatable. Protein and energy concentrations appear to be sufficient to meet or exceed known nutritional requirements of captive wild ruminants. PMID:9732028

  4. Wild bootstrap for quantile regression.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xingdong; He, Xuming; Hu, Jianhua

    2011-12-01

    The existing theory of the wild bootstrap has focused on linear estimators. In this note, we broaden its validity by providing a class of weight distributions that is asymptotically valid for quantile regression estimators. As most weight distributions in the literature lead to biased variance estimates for nonlinear estimators of linear regression, we propose a modification of the wild bootstrap that admits a broader class of weight distributions for quantile regression. A simulation study on median regression is carried out to compare various bootstrap methods. With a simple finite-sample correction, the wild bootstrap is shown to account for general forms of heteroscedasticity in a regression model with fixed design points. PMID:23049133

  5. Dental eruption in East African wild chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Machanda, Zarin; Brazeau, Nick F; Bernard, Andrew B; Donovan, Ronan M; Papakyrikos, Amanda M; Wrangham, Richard; Smith, Tanya M

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of chimpanzee development has played an essential role in our understanding of the evolution of human ontogeny. However, recent studies of wild ape dentitions have cast doubt on the use of developmental standards derived from captive individuals. Others have called into question the use of deceased wild individuals to infer normative development. We conducted a high resolution photographic study of living known-age subadults in the Kanyawara community (Kibale National Park, Uganda) to generate a comprehensive three year record of dental eruption (including tooth emergence ages). These non-invasive data allow comparisons of captive and wild chimpanzees, establish accurate developmental standards for relatively healthy wild individuals, and facilitate direct assessments of primate-wide associations between dental development and life history. Emergence ages in the Kanyawara chimpanzees are very similar to living Gombe chimpanzees, and are broadly comparable to deceased Taï Forest chimpanzees. Early-emerging teeth such as the deciduous dentition and first molar (M1) appear during a time of maternal dependence, and are almost indistinguishable from captive chimpanzee emergence ages, while later forming teeth in the Kanyawara population emerge in the latter half of captive age ranges or beyond. Five juveniles whose lower M1s emerged by or before 3.3 years of age continued to nurse for a year or more beyond M1 emergence, and their mothers showed considerable variation in reproductive rates. The third molars of two adolescent females emerged several months to several years prior to the birth of their first offspring. Given that broad primate-wide relationships between molar emergence and life history do not necessarily hold within this population of chimpanzees, particularly for variables that are reported to be coincident with molar emergence, we suggest that further study is required in order to predict life history variables in hominins or hominoids.

  6. Wild, scenic, and transcendental rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    “A more lovely stream than this has never flowed on Earth,” 19th century American author Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote about the confluence of the Assabet and Concord Rivers, streams that meander about 40 km west of Boston, Massachusetts.Segments of these streams as well as the Assabet River became the newest additions to the U.S. National Wild and Scenic Rivers System, when President Bill Clinton signed into law the “Sudbury, Assabet, and Concord Wild and Scenic River Act” on April 9.

  7. Serological anthrax surveillance in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Bagamian, Karoun H; Skrypnyk, Artem; Rodina, Yana; Bezymennyi, Maksym; Nevolko, Oleg; Skrypnyk, Valeriy; Blackburn, Jason K

    2014-08-01

    Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is an acute disease affecting wildlife, livestock, and humans worldwide, although its impact on these populations is underappreciated. In Ukraine, surveillance is passive, and anthrax is often detected in livestock. However, wildlife is not subject to surveillance, although anthrax deaths (such as in wild boar, Sus scrofa) have been documented. The wild boar is a plentiful and widespread species in Ukraine and is frequently hunted. We initiated a screening study testing Ukrainian wild boar blood samples for antibodies to B. anthracis. We mapped results relative to known livestock anthrax hotspots. We discovered evidence of exposure in wild boar up to 35 km from livestock anthrax hotspots and over 400 km from previous anthrax reports in boars. We make recommendations about using wildlife species as biosentinels for anthrax in Ukraine.

  8. Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Budak, Hikmet; Kantar, Melda; Yucebilgili Kurtoglu, Kuaybe

    2013-01-01

    The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by “omics” studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides), which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance. PMID:23766697

  9. Bee-Wild about Pollinators!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bonnie; Kil, Jenny; Evans, Elaine; Koomen, Michele Hollingsworth

    2014-01-01

    With their sunny stripes and fuzzy bodies, bees are beloved--but unfortunately, they are in trouble. Bee decline, of both wild bees as well as managed bees like honey bees, has been in the news for the last several years. Habitat loss, diseases, pests, and pesticides have made it difficult for bees to survive in many parts of our world (Walsh…

  10. Laboratory Animal Management: Wild Birds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    This is a report on the care and use of wild birds in captivity as research animals. Chapters are presented on procurement and identification, housing, nutrition, health of birds and personnel, reproduction in confinement, and surgical procedures. Also included are addresses of federal, state, and provencial regulatory agencies concerned with wild…

  11. Capillariasis in penned wild turkeys.

    PubMed

    Hurst, G A; Turner, L W; Tucker, F S

    1979-07-01

    Capillariasis caused by Capillaria annulata was associated with dilated crops, emaciation and mortality of 23 juvenile wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) in a captive flock. Gross lesions in the crops ranged from slithtly-thickened lining folds to a thick necrotic diphtheritic membrane covering the entire inside surface. The parasites were in the squamous epithelium. Hygromycin controlled the outbreak.

  12. Evaluating the potential of the sterile insect technique for malaria control: relative fitness and mating compatibility between laboratory colonized and a wild population of Anopheles arabiensis from the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The successful suppression of a target insect population using the sterile insect technique (SIT) partly depends on the premise that the laboratory insects used for mass rearing are genetically compatible with the target population, that the mating competitiveness of laboratory reared males is at least comparable to that of their wild counterparts, and that mass rearing and sterilization processes do not in themselves compromise male fitness to a degree that precludes them from successfully competing for mates in the wild. This study investigated the fitness and sexual cross-compatibility between samples of field collected and laboratory reared An. arabiensis under laboratory conditions. Results The physiological and reproductive fitness of the MALPAN laboratory strain is not substantially modified with respect to the field population at Malahlapanga. Further, a high degree of mating compatibility between MALPAN and the Malahlapanga population was established based on cross-mating experiments. Lastly, the morphological characteristics of hybrid ovarian polytene chromosomes further support the contention that the MALPAN laboratory colony and the An. arabiensis population at Malahlapanga are genetically homogenous and therefore compatible. Conclusions It is concluded that the presence of a perennial and isolated population of An. arabiensis at Malahlapanga presents a unique opportunity for assessing the feasibility of SIT as a malaria vector control option. The MALPAN laboratory colony has retained sufficient enough measures of reproductive and physiological fitness to present as a suitable candidate for male sterilization, mass rearing and subsequent mass release of sterile males at Malahlapanga in order to further assess the feasibility of SIT in a field setting. PMID:22041133

  13. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-08-04

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits.

  14. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits. PMID:27527154

  15. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits. PMID:27527154

  16. Survival and flowering of hybrids between cultivated and wild carrots (Daucus carota) in Danish grasslands.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Thure P; Shim, Sang In

    2007-01-01

    Many crop species are able to hybridize with related weedy or wild relatives, which could lead to transfer of cultivar genes, and among them transgenes, into wild populations. It is not clear, however, whether the hybrids and their descendants are able to survive and reproduce in natural habitats, as inherited cultivar traits may be maladaptive under such conditions. To test this, we produced hybrid (F(1)) seeds by controlled crosses between wild [see text for formula] and cultivated carrots (Daucus carota ssp. carota and ssp. sativa, respectively) and sowed them into three Danish grasslands of different age, in parallel with seeds of wild carrots. Replicate plots were sown in fall and spring. Survival and flowering of the emerging plants were monitored for the following three years. Both hybrid and wild carrots survived and flowered in highest frequency at a recently disturbed site, and much less at two older sites. Hybrids emerged in higher proportions than wild carrots in the first year and survived to similar or slightly lower frequencies at the end of the experiment. Hybrids flowered as frequently or slightly less frequently than wild plants, and developed fewer and smaller umbels. Despite a somewhat lower reproductive potential compared to wild carrots, first generation hybrids between cultivated and wild carrots are likely to survive and produce offspring in natural grasslands in Denmark. This, together with other studies, suggests that cultivar genes may transfer relatively easily into wild carrot populations.

  17. The control of classical swine fever in wild boar

    PubMed Central

    Moennig, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a viral disease with severe economic consequences for domestic pigs. Natural hosts for the CSF virus (CSFV) are members of the family Suidae, i.e., Eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa) are also susceptible. CSF in wild boar poses a serious threat to domestic pigs. CSFV is an enveloped RNA virus belonging to the pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Transmission of the infection is usually by direct contact or by feeding of contaminated meat products. In recent decades CSF has been successfully eradicated from Australia, North America, and the European Union. In areas with dense wild boar populations CSF tends to become endemic whereas it is often self-limiting in small, less dense populations. In recent decades eradication strategies of CSF in wild boar have been improved considerably. The reduction of the number of susceptible animals to a threshold level where the basic reproductive number is R0 < 1 is the major goal of all control efforts. Depending on the epidemiological situation, hunting measures combined with strict hygiene may be effective in areas with a relatively low density of wild boar. Oral immunization was shown to be highly effective in endemic situations in areas with a high density of wild boar. PMID:26594202

  18. Contrasting responses to novelty by wild and captive orangutans.

    PubMed

    Forss, Sofia I F; Schuppli, Caroline; Haiden, Dominique; Zweifel, Nicole; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-10-01

    Several studies have suggested that wild primates tend to behave with caution toward novelty, whereas captive primates are thought to be less neophobic, more exploratory, and more innovative. However, few studies have systematically compared captive and wild individuals of the same species to document this "captivity effect" in greater detail. Here we report the responses of both wild and captive orangutans to the same novel items. Novel objects were presented to wild orangutans on multiple platforms placed in the canopy and equipped with motion-triggered video cameras. The same and different novel objects were also presented to orangutans in two different zoos. The results demonstrate extreme conservatism in both Bornean and Sumatran wild orangutans, who gradually approached the novel objects more closely as they became familiar, but avoided contact with them over many encounters spanning several months. Their zoo-living conspecifics, in contrast, showed an immediate neophilic response. Our results thus confirm the "captivity effect." To the various ecological explanations proposed before (reduced risk and increased time and energy balance for captive individuals relative to wild ones), we add the social information hypothesis, which claims that individuals confronted with novel items preferentially rely on social cues whenever possible. This caution toward novelty disappears when human caretakers become additional role models and can also be eroded when all experience with novelty is positive.

  19. The control of classical swine fever in wild boar.

    PubMed

    Moennig, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a viral disease with severe economic consequences for domestic pigs. Natural hosts for the CSF virus (CSFV) are members of the family Suidae, i.e., Eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa) are also susceptible. CSF in wild boar poses a serious threat to domestic pigs. CSFV is an enveloped RNA virus belonging to the pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Transmission of the infection is usually by direct contact or by feeding of contaminated meat products. In recent decades CSF has been successfully eradicated from Australia, North America, and the European Union. In areas with dense wild boar populations CSF tends to become endemic whereas it is often self-limiting in small, less dense populations. In recent decades eradication strategies of CSF in wild boar have been improved considerably. The reduction of the number of susceptible animals to a threshold level where the basic reproductive number is R 0 < 1 is the major goal of all control efforts. Depending on the epidemiological situation, hunting measures combined with strict hygiene may be effective in areas with a relatively low density of wild boar. Oral immunization was shown to be highly effective in endemic situations in areas with a high density of wild boar. PMID:26594202

  20. Mink Farms Predict Aleutian Disease Exposure in Wild American Mink

    PubMed Central

    Nituch, Larissa A.; Bowman, Jeff; Beauclerc, Kaela B.; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I.

    2011-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases can often be of conservation importance for wildlife. Spillover, when infectious disease is transmitted from a reservoir population to sympatric wildlife, is a particular threat. American mink (Neovison vison) populations across Canada appear to be declining, but factors thus far explored have not fully explained this population trend. Recent research has shown, however, that domestic mink are escaping from mink farms and hybridizing with wild mink. Domestic mink may also be spreading Aleutian disease (AD), a highly pathogenic parvovirus prevalent in mink farms, to wild mink populations. AD could reduce fitness in wild mink by reducing both the productivity of adult females and survivorship of juveniles and adults. Methods To assess the seroprevalence and geographic distribution of AD infection in free-ranging mink in relation to the presence of mink farms, we conducted both a large-scale serological survey, across the province of Ontario, and a smaller-scale survey, at the interface between a mink farm and wild mink. Conclusions/Significance Antibodies to AD were detected in 29% of mink (60 of 208 mink sampled); however, seroprevalence was significantly higher in areas closer to mink farms than in areas farther from farms, at both large and small spatial scales. Our results indicate that mink farms act as sources of AD transmission to the wild. As such, it is likely that wild mink across North America may be experiencing increased exposure to AD, via disease transmission from mink farms, which may be affecting wild mink demographics across their range. In light of declining mink populations, high AD seroprevalence within some mink farms, and the large number of mink farms situated across North America, improved biosecurity measures on farms are warranted to prevent continued disease transmission at the interface between mink farms and wild mink populations. PMID:21789177

  1. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  2. Wheel running in the wild.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Johanna H; Robbers, Yuri

    2014-07-01

    The importance of exercise for health and neurogenesis is becoming increasingly clear. Wheel running is often used in the laboratory for triggering enhanced activity levels, despite the common objection that this behaviour is an artefact of captivity and merely signifies neurosis or stereotypy. If wheel running is indeed caused by captive housing, wild mice are not expected to use a running wheel in nature. This however, to our knowledge, has never been tested. Here, we show that when running wheels are placed in nature, they are frequently used by wild mice, also when no extrinsic reward is provided. Bout lengths of running wheel behaviour in the wild match those for captive mice. This finding falsifies one criterion for stereotypic behaviour, and suggests that running wheel activity is an elective behaviour. In a time when lifestyle in general and lack of exercise in particular are a major cause of disease in the modern world, research into physical activity is of utmost importance. Our findings may help alleviate the main concern regarding the use of running wheels in research on exercise.

  3. Quantitative profiling of sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its mycelia by using UHPLC-MS.

    PubMed

    Mi, Jia-Ning; Wang, Jing-Rong; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2016-02-12

    In the present study, 101 sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its five mycelia were quantitatively profiled by using a fully validated UHPLC-MS method. The results revealed that a general rank order for the abundance of different classes of sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its mycelia is sphingoid bases/ceramides > phosphosphingolipids > glycosphingolipids. However, remarkable sphingolipid differences between wild Cordyceps and its mycelia were observed. One is that sphingoid base is the dominant sphingolipid in wild Cordyceps, whereas ceramide is the major sphingolipid in mycelia. Another difference is that the abundance of sphingomyelins in wild Cordyceps is almost 10-folds higher than those in most mycelia. The third one is that mycelia contain more inositol phosphorylceramides and glycosphingolipids than wild Cordyceps. Multivariate analysis was further employed to visualize the difference among wild Cordyceps and different mycelia, leading to the identification of respective sphingolipids as potential chemical markers for the differentiation of wild Cordyceps and its related mycelia. This study represents the first report on the quantitative profiling of sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its related mycelia, which provided comprehensive chemical evidence for the quality control and rational utilization of wild Cordyceps and its mycelia.

  4. Quantitative profiling of sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its mycelia by using UHPLC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Jia-Ning; Wang, Jing-Rong; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, 101 sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its five mycelia were quantitatively profiled by using a fully validated UHPLC-MS method. The results revealed that a general rank order for the abundance of different classes of sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its mycelia is sphingoid bases/ceramides > phosphosphingolipids > glycosphingolipids. However, remarkable sphingolipid differences between wild Cordyceps and its mycelia were observed. One is that sphingoid base is the dominant sphingolipid in wild Cordyceps, whereas ceramide is the major sphingolipid in mycelia. Another difference is that the abundance of sphingomyelins in wild Cordyceps is almost 10-folds higher than those in most mycelia. The third one is that mycelia contain more inositol phosphorylceramides and glycosphingolipids than wild Cordyceps. Multivariate analysis was further employed to visualize the difference among wild Cordyceps and different mycelia, leading to the identification of respective sphingolipids as potential chemical markers for the differentiation of wild Cordyceps and its related mycelia. This study represents the first report on the quantitative profiling of sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its related mycelia, which provided comprehensive chemical evidence for the quality control and rational utilization of wild Cordyceps and its mycelia. PMID:26868933

  5. Quantitative profiling of sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its mycelia by using UHPLC-MS.

    PubMed

    Mi, Jia-Ning; Wang, Jing-Rong; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, 101 sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its five mycelia were quantitatively profiled by using a fully validated UHPLC-MS method. The results revealed that a general rank order for the abundance of different classes of sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its mycelia is sphingoid bases/ceramides > phosphosphingolipids > glycosphingolipids. However, remarkable sphingolipid differences between wild Cordyceps and its mycelia were observed. One is that sphingoid base is the dominant sphingolipid in wild Cordyceps, whereas ceramide is the major sphingolipid in mycelia. Another difference is that the abundance of sphingomyelins in wild Cordyceps is almost 10-folds higher than those in most mycelia. The third one is that mycelia contain more inositol phosphorylceramides and glycosphingolipids than wild Cordyceps. Multivariate analysis was further employed to visualize the difference among wild Cordyceps and different mycelia, leading to the identification of respective sphingolipids as potential chemical markers for the differentiation of wild Cordyceps and its related mycelia. This study represents the first report on the quantitative profiling of sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its related mycelia, which provided comprehensive chemical evidence for the quality control and rational utilization of wild Cordyceps and its mycelia. PMID:26868933

  6. Biologists finally horn in on senescence in the wild.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Christine C; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2002-11-27

    In 1995, biologists discovered an unusual new species, the antler fly (Protophila litigata). Antler flies inhabit discarded moose and deer antlers for most of their life cycle, and male antler flies exhibit sexually selected behaviors on their home antlers. It now turns out that these curious flies might provide new insights into the evolution of aging. For years, biologists assumed that senescence did not occur in the wild. But over the past decade, several studies of natural populations of birds and mammals have found age-related declines in rates of reproduction or survival, indicating senescence. A new study of antler flies by Bonduriansky and Brassil provides the first evidence for senescence in a wild invertebrate. The researchers are able to mark individual flies and follow them throughout their entire, albeit short, life-spans. This small species offers huge opportunities to study senescence and age-related selection on fitness characters in the wild. PMID:14603017

  7. Biologists finally horn in on senescence in the wild.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Christine C; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2002-11-27

    In 1995, biologists discovered an unusual new species, the antler fly (Protophila litigata). Antler flies inhabit discarded moose and deer antlers for most of their life cycle, and male antler flies exhibit sexually selected behaviors on their home antlers. It now turns out that these curious flies might provide new insights into the evolution of aging. For years, biologists assumed that senescence did not occur in the wild. But over the past decade, several studies of natural populations of birds and mammals have found age-related declines in rates of reproduction or survival, indicating senescence. A new study of antler flies by Bonduriansky and Brassil provides the first evidence for senescence in a wild invertebrate. The researchers are able to mark individual flies and follow them throughout their entire, albeit short, life-spans. This small species offers huge opportunities to study senescence and age-related selection on fitness characters in the wild.

  8. Hemoplasmas in wild canids and felids in Brazil.

    PubMed

    André, Marcos Rogerio; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2011-06-01

    Hemotropic mycoplasmas, epicellular erythrocytic bacterial parasites lacking a cell wall, are the causative agents of infectious anemia in numerous mammalian species. The presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas in blood samples of neotropical and exotic wild canids and felids from Brazilian zoos were recorded using molecular techniques. Blood samples were collected from 146 Brazilian wild felids, 19 exotic felids, 3 European wolves (Canis lupus), and from 97 Brazilian wild canids from zoos in the Brazilian states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso and the Federal District. Using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), this work found 22 (13%) wild felids positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum [4 jaguars (Panthera onca); 3 pumas (Puma concolor); 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 jaguarondis (Puma yagouaroundi); and 3 little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus)]. Only one little spotted cat (Leopardus tigrinus) was positive to Mycoplasma haemofelis, and none was positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis. Two bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum, and two European wolves were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum. This is the first study regarding the molecular detection of hemotropic mycoplasmas in wild canids. PMID:22946419

  9. Hemoplasmas in wild canids and felids in Brazil.

    PubMed

    André, Marcos Rogerio; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2011-06-01

    Hemotropic mycoplasmas, epicellular erythrocytic bacterial parasites lacking a cell wall, are the causative agents of infectious anemia in numerous mammalian species. The presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas in blood samples of neotropical and exotic wild canids and felids from Brazilian zoos were recorded using molecular techniques. Blood samples were collected from 146 Brazilian wild felids, 19 exotic felids, 3 European wolves (Canis lupus), and from 97 Brazilian wild canids from zoos in the Brazilian states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso and the Federal District. Using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), this work found 22 (13%) wild felids positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum [4 jaguars (Panthera onca); 3 pumas (Puma concolor); 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 jaguarondis (Puma yagouaroundi); and 3 little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus)]. Only one little spotted cat (Leopardus tigrinus) was positive to Mycoplasma haemofelis, and none was positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis. Two bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum, and two European wolves were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum. This is the first study regarding the molecular detection of hemotropic mycoplasmas in wild canids.

  10. Travel fosters tool use in wild chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Thibaud; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Neumann, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Ecological variation influences the appearance and maintenance of tool use in animals, either due to necessity or opportunity, but little is known about the relative importance of these two factors. Here, we combined long-term behavioural data on feeding and travelling with six years of field experiments in a wild chimpanzee community. In the experiments, subjects engaged with natural logs, which contained energetically valuable honey that was only accessible through tool use. Engagement with the experiment was highest after periods of low fruit availability involving more travel between food patches, while instances of actual tool-using were significantly influenced by prior travel effort only. Additionally, combining data from the main chimpanzee study communities across Africa supported this result, insofar as groups with larger travel efforts had larger tool repertoires. Travel thus appears to foster tool use in wild chimpanzees and may also have been a driving force in early hominin technological evolution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16371.001 PMID:27431611

  11. Assessing European wild fire vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehler, F.; Oliveira, S.; Barredo, J. I.; Camia, A.; Ayanz, J. San Miguel; Pettenella, D.; Mavsar, R.

    2012-04-01

    Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE Land Cover, a restoration cost was established for each land cover class at country level, and an average restoration time was assigned according to the recovery capacity of the land cover. The damage caused by fire was then assessed by discounting the cost of restoring the previous land cover over the restoration period. Three different vulnerability scenarios were considered assuming low, medium and high fire severity causing different levels of damage. Over Europe, the potential damage of wild land fires ranges from 10 - 13, 732 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for low fire severity, 32 - 45,772 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for medium fire severity and 54 - 77,812 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for high fire severity. The least vulnerable are natural grasslands, moors and heathland and sclerophyllous vegetation, while the highest cost occurs for restoring broad-leaved forest. Preliminary validation comparing these estimates with official damage assessments for past fires shows reasonable results. The restoration cost approach allows for a straightforward, data extensive assessment of fire vulnerability at European level. A disadvantage is the inherent simplification of the evaluation procedure with the underestimation of non-markets goods and services. Thus, a second approach has been developed, valuing individual wild land goods and services and assessing their annual flow which is lost for a certain period of time in case of a fire event. However

  12. Genetic diversity of wild potato of the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato of commerce has two wild relatives in the USA, Solanum jamesii (jam) and S. fendleri (fen). The authors have collected samples at the natural habitats since 1992 (new), greatly increasing the geographic coverage and number of populations compared to what was in the US Potato Genebank avai...

  13. Knemidocoptic Mange in Wild Golden Eagles, California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Nicole; Rogers, Krysta; Hawkins, Michelle G.; Sadar, Miranda; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Bell, Douglas A.; Smallwood, Kenneth S.; Wells, Amy; Shipman, Jessica; Foley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    During 2012–2013 in California, USA, 3 wild golden eagles were found with severe skin disease; 2 died. The cause was a rare mite, most closely related to Knemidocoptes derooi mites. Cautionary monitoring of eagle populations, habitats, and diseases is warranted. PMID:25271842

  14. Knemidocoptic mange in wild golden eagles, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Mete, Aslı; Stephenson, Nicole; Rogers, Krysta; Hawkins, Michelle G; Sadar, Miranda; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Bell, Douglas A; Smallwood, Kenneth S; Wells, Amy; Shipman, Jessica; Foley, Janet

    2014-10-01

    During 2012-2013 in California, USA, 3 wild golden eagles were found with severe skin disease; 2 died. The cause was a rare mite, most closely related to Knemidocoptes derooi mites. Cautionary monitoring of eagle populations, habitats, and diseases is warranted. PMID:25271842

  15. Echolocation signals of wild dolphins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, W. W. L.

    2004-07-01

    Most of our understanding of dolphin echolocation has come from studies of captive dolphins performing various echolocation tasks. Recently, measurements of echolocation signals in the wild have expanded our understanding of the characteristics of these signals in a natural setting. Measuring undistorted dolphin echolocation signals with free swimming dolphins in the field can be a challenging task. A four hydrophone array arranged in a symmetrical star pattern was used to measure the echolocation signals of four species of dolphins in the wild. Echolocation signals of the following dolphins have been measured with the symmetrical star array: white-beaked dolphins in Iceland, Atlantic spotted dolphins in the Bahamas, killer whales in British Columbia, and dusky dolphins in New Zealand. There are many common features in the echolocation signals of the different species. Most of the signals had spectra that were bimodal: two peaks, one at low frequencies and another about an octave higher in frequency. The source level of the sonar transmission varies as a function of 20log R, suggesting a form of time-varying gain but on the transmitting end of the sonar process rather than the receiving end. The results of the field work call into question the issue of whether the signals used by captive dolphins may be shaped by the task they are required to perform rather than what they would do more naturally.

  16. Echolocation in wild toothed whales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyack, Peter L.; Johnson, Mark; Madsen, Peter Teglberg; Zimmer, Walter M. X.

    2001-05-01

    Don Griffin showed more than 50 years ago that bats echolocate for orientation and to capture prey. Experiments also demonstrated that captive dolphins can echolocate; more recent work parallels Griffin's work with bats in the wild. Digital acoustic recording tags were attached to sperm and beaked whales, Ziphius cavirostris and Mesoplodon densirostris, to record outgoing clicks and incoming echoes. The sperm whale data show echoes from the sea surface and seafloor, which are probably used for orientation and obstacle avoidance. When diving, sperm whales adjust their interclick interval as they change their pitch angle, consistent with the hypothesis that they are echolocating on a horizontal layer at the depth at which they will feed. This suggests that they may be listening for volume reverberation to select a prey patch. The beam pattern of sperm whales includes a narrow, forward-directed high-frequency beam probably used for prey detection, and a broader, backward-directed lower-frequency beam probably used for orientation. Beaked whales produce directional clicks with peak frequencies in the 25-40-kHz region. Echoes from individual prey items have been detected from clicks of beaked whales. This opens a new window into the study of how animals use echolocation to forage in the wild.

  17. The presence of Bt-transgenic oilseed rape in wild mustard populations affects plant growth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongbo; Stewart, C Neal; Li, Junsheng; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Xitao

    2015-12-01

    The adventitious presence of transgenic plants in wild plant populations is of ecological and regulatory concern, but the consequences of adventitious presence are not well understood. Here, we introduced Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac (Bt)-transgenic oilseed rape (Bt OSR, Brassica napus) with various frequencies into wild mustard (Brassica juncea) populations. We sought to better understand the adventitious presence of this transgenic insecticidal crop in a wild-relative plant population. We assessed the factors of competition, resource availability and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) infestation on plant population dynamics. As expected, Bt OSR performed better than wild mustard in mixed populations under herbivore attack in habitats with enough resources, whereas wild mustard had higher fitness when Bt OSR was rarer in habitats with limited resources. Results suggest that the presence of insect-resistant transgenic plants could decrease the growth of wild mustard and Bt OSR plants and their populations, especially under high herbivore pressure.

  18. The presence of Bt-transgenic oilseed rape in wild mustard populations affects plant growth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongbo; Stewart, C Neal; Li, Junsheng; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Xitao

    2015-12-01

    The adventitious presence of transgenic plants in wild plant populations is of ecological and regulatory concern, but the consequences of adventitious presence are not well understood. Here, we introduced Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac (Bt)-transgenic oilseed rape (Bt OSR, Brassica napus) with various frequencies into wild mustard (Brassica juncea) populations. We sought to better understand the adventitious presence of this transgenic insecticidal crop in a wild-relative plant population. We assessed the factors of competition, resource availability and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) infestation on plant population dynamics. As expected, Bt OSR performed better than wild mustard in mixed populations under herbivore attack in habitats with enough resources, whereas wild mustard had higher fitness when Bt OSR was rarer in habitats with limited resources. Results suggest that the presence of insect-resistant transgenic plants could decrease the growth of wild mustard and Bt OSR plants and their populations, especially under high herbivore pressure. PMID:26338267

  19. Genetic structure of wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations from East Asia based on microsatellite loci analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wild boar, Sus scrofa, is an extant wild ancestor of the domestic pig as an agro-economically important mammal. Wild boar has a worldwide distribution with its geographic origin in Southeast Asia, but genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild boar in East Asia are poorly understood. To characterize the pattern and amount of genetic variation and population structure of wild boar in East Asia, we genotyped and analyzed microsatellite loci for a total of 238 wild boar specimens from ten locations across six countries in East and Southeast Asia. Results Our data indicated that wild boar populations in East Asia are genetically diverse and structured, showing a significant correlation of genetic distance with geographic distance and implying a low level of gene flow at a regional scale. Bayesian-based clustering analysis was indicative of seven inferred genetic clusters in which wild boars in East Asia are geographically structured. The level of genetic diversity was relatively high in wild boars from Southeast Asia, compared with those from Northeast Asia. This gradient pattern of genetic diversity is consistent with an assumed ancestral population of wild boar in Southeast Asia. Genetic evidences from a relationship tree and structure analysis suggest that wild boar in Jeju Island, South Korea have a distinct genetic background from those in mainland Korea. Conclusions Our results reveal a diverse pattern of genetic diversity and the existence of genetic differentiation among wild boar populations inhabiting East Asia. This study highlights the potential contribution of genetic variation of wild boar to the high genetic diversity of local domestic pigs during domestication in East Asia. PMID:25034725

  20. Wild boar populations up, numbers of hunters down? A review of trends and implications for Europe.

    PubMed

    Massei, Giovanna; Kindberg, Jonas; Licoppe, Alain; Gačić, Dragan; Šprem, Nikica; Kamler, Jiří; Baubet, Eric; Hohmann, Ulf; Monaco, Andrea; Ozoliņš, Janis; Cellina, Sandra; Podgórski, Tomasz; Fonseca, Carlos; Markov, Nickolay; Pokorny, Boštjan; Rosell, Carme; Náhlik, András

    2015-04-01

    Across Europe, wild boar numbers increased in the 1960s-1970s but stabilised in the 1980s; recent evidence suggests that the numbers and impact of wild boar has grown steadily since the 1980s. As hunting is the main cause of mortality for this species, we reviewed wild boar hunting bags and hunter population trends in 18 European countries from 1982 to 2012. Hunting statistics and numbers of hunters were used as indicators of animal numbers and hunting pressure. The results confirmed that wild boar increased consistently throughout Europe, while the number of hunters remained relatively stable or declined in most countries. We conclude that recreational hunting is insufficient to limit wild boar population growth and that the relative impact of hunting on wild boar mortality had decreased. Other factors, such as mild winters, reforestation, intensification of crop production, supplementary feeding and compensatory population responses of wild boar to hunting pressure might also explain population growth. As populations continue to grow, more human-wild boar conflicts are expected unless this trend is reversed. New interdisciplinary approaches are urgently required to mitigate human-wild boar conflicts, which are otherwise destined to grow further.

  1. Analysis of wild-species introgressions in tomato inbreds uncovers ancestral origins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decades of intensive tomato breeding using wild germplasm has resulted in genomes of domesticated accessions (Solanum lycopersicum) to be intertwined with introgressions from their wild relatives. Here we present the first whole genome sequences of two tomato inbreds Gh13 and BTI87, both carrying a ...

  2. Diversity in oil content and fatty acid profile in seeds of wild cassava germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the only commercial species of the Manihot genus, cultivated for its starchy tuber roots. However, cassava seeds are known to be rich in oils and fats, there are scant reports on the content and properties of oil from cassava seeds and its wild relatives. Wild Manihot ...

  3. Differentiation among Israeli Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici isolates originating from wild vs. domesticated Triticum species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Israel and its vicinity constitute a center of diversity of domesticated wheat species (Triticum aestivum and T. durum) and their sympatrically growing wild relatives, including wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides). The present study explored differentiation within the forma specialis of their obligat...

  4. Nongenetic Inheritance of Induced Resistance in a Wild Annual Plant.

    PubMed

    Lankinen, Åsa; Abreha, Kibrom B; Alexandersson, Erik; Andersson, Stefan; Andreasson, Erik

    2016-08-01

    Nongenetic inheritance (e.g., transgenerational epigenetic effects) has received increasing interest in recent years, particularly in plants. However, most studies have involved a few model species and relatively little is known about wild species in these respects. We investigated transgenerational induced resistance to infection by the devastating oomycete Phytophthora infestans in Solanum physalifolium, a wild relative of cultivated potato. We treated plants with β-aminobutyric acid (BABA), a nontoxic compound acting as an inducing agent, or infected plants with P. infestans. BABA treatment reduced lesion size in detached-leaf assays inoculated by P. infestans in two of three tested genotypes, suggesting that resistance to oomycetes can be induced by BABA within a generation not only in crops or model species but also in wild species directly collected from nature. Both BABA treatment and infection in the parental generation reduced lesions in the subsequent generation in one of two genotypes, indicating a transgenerational influence on resistance that varies among genotypes. We did not detect treatment effects on seed traits, indicating the involvement of a mechanism unrelated to maternal effects. In conclusion, our study provides data on BABA induction and nongenetic inheritance of induced resistance in a wild relative of cultivated potato, implying that this factor might be important in the ecological and agricultural landscape. PMID:27070426

  5. Influenza infection in wild raccoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, J.S.; Bentler, K.T.; Landolt, G.; Elmore, S.A.; Minnis, R.B.; Campbell, T.A.; Barras, S.C.; Root, J.J.; Pilon, J.; Pabilonia, K.; Driscoll, C.; Slate, D.; Sullivan, H.; McLean, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are common, widely distributed animals that frequently come into contact with wild waterfowl, agricultural operations, and humans. Serosurveys showed that raccoons are exposed to avian influenza virus. We found antibodies to a variety of influenza virus subtypes (H10N7, H4N6, H4N2, H3, and H1) with wide geographic variation in seroprevalence. Experimental infection studies showed that raccoons become infected with avian and human influenza A viruses, shed and transmit virus to virus-free animals, and seroconvert. Analyses of cellular receptors showed that raccoons have avian and human type receptors with a similar distribution as found in human respiratory tracts. The potential exists for co-infection of multiple subtypes of influenza virus with genetic reassortment and creation of novel strains of influenza virus. Experimental and field data indicate that raccoons may play an important role in influenza disease ecology and pose risks to agriculture and human health.

  6. Vocal communication of wild parrots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury, Jack

    2001-05-01

    Field studies of four sympatric parrot species in Costa Rica are revealing several possible functions for the well-known ability of parrots to mimic new sounds throughout life. Despite earlier suggestions that this might facilitate exchanges of environmental information, all data so far suggest that vocal mimicry in the wild is associated with mediation of the fission/fusion of groups of parrots and/or of conflicts between mated pairs. Recent results using array recording and interactive playback will be summarized, and several technical problems created by the mechanisms of parrot vocal signal production discussed. [Research supported by NSF Grant IBN-022927 and by continued encouragement and logistics provided by the staff of the Area Conservacion Guanacaste (Costa Rica).

  7. Blood values in wild and captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis).

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Don; Frye, Frederic L.; Stockham, Steven L.; Fredeking, Terry

    2000-01-01

    The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) is the largest living lizard and occupies a range smaller than that of any other large carnivore in the world. Samples from 33 free-ranging animals at five localities in Komodo National Park, Indonesia were evaluated to assess underlying health problems. To build a comparative database, samples from 44 Komodo dragons in both Indonesian and U.S. zoos were also analyzed. Tests performed included complete blood counts, clinical chemistry profiles, vitamin A, D(3), and E analyses, mineral levels, and screening for chlorinated pesticides or other toxins in wild specimens. Blood samples from wild dragons were positive for hemogregarines, whereas captive specimens were all negative. Total white blood cell counts were consistently higher in captive Komodo dragons than in wild specimens. Reference intervals were established for some chemistry analytes, and values obtained from different groups were compared. Vitamin A and E ranges were established. Vitamin D(3) levels were significantly different in Komodo dragons kept in captive, indoor exhibits versus those with daily ultraviolet-B exposure, whether captive or wild specimens. Corrective measures such as ultraviolet-permeable skylights, direct sunlight exposure, and self-ballasted mercury vapor ultraviolet lamps increased vitamin D(3) concentrations in four dragons to levels comparable with wild specimens. Toxicology results were negative except for background-level chlorinated pesticide residues. The results indicate no notable medical, nutritional, or toxic problems in the wild Komodo dragon population. Problems in captive specimens may relate to, and can be corrected by, husbandry measures such as regular ultraviolet-B exposure. Zoo Biol 19:495-509, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Blood values in wild and captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis).

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Don; Frye, Frederic L.; Stockham, Steven L.; Fredeking, Terry

    2000-01-01

    The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) is the largest living lizard and occupies a range smaller than that of any other large carnivore in the world. Samples from 33 free-ranging animals at five localities in Komodo National Park, Indonesia were evaluated to assess underlying health problems. To build a comparative database, samples from 44 Komodo dragons in both Indonesian and U.S. zoos were also analyzed. Tests performed included complete blood counts, clinical chemistry profiles, vitamin A, D(3), and E analyses, mineral levels, and screening for chlorinated pesticides or other toxins in wild specimens. Blood samples from wild dragons were positive for hemogregarines, whereas captive specimens were all negative. Total white blood cell counts were consistently higher in captive Komodo dragons than in wild specimens. Reference intervals were established for some chemistry analytes, and values obtained from different groups were compared. Vitamin A and E ranges were established. Vitamin D(3) levels were significantly different in Komodo dragons kept in captive, indoor exhibits versus those with daily ultraviolet-B exposure, whether captive or wild specimens. Corrective measures such as ultraviolet-permeable skylights, direct sunlight exposure, and self-ballasted mercury vapor ultraviolet lamps increased vitamin D(3) concentrations in four dragons to levels comparable with wild specimens. Toxicology results were negative except for background-level chlorinated pesticide residues. The results indicate no notable medical, nutritional, or toxic problems in the wild Komodo dragon population. Problems in captive specimens may relate to, and can be corrected by, husbandry measures such as regular ultraviolet-B exposure. Zoo Biol 19:495-509, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11180411

  9. Population genetics of the wild yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Louise J; Koufopanou, Vassiliki; Goddard, Matthew R; Hetherington, Richard; Schäfer, Stefanie M; Burt, Austin

    2004-01-01

    Saccharomyces paradoxus is the closest known relative of the well-known S. cerevisiae and an attractive model organism for population genetic and genomic studies. Here we characterize a set of 28 wild isolates from a 10-km(2) sampling area in southern England. All 28 isolates are homothallic (capable of mating-type switching) and wild type with respect to nutrient requirements. Nine wild isolates and two lab strains of S. paradoxus were surveyed for sequence variation at six loci totaling 7 kb, and all 28 wild isolates were then genotyped at seven polymorphic loci. These data were used to calculate nucleotide diversity and number of segregating sites in S. paradoxus and to investigate geographic differentiation, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium. Synonymous site diversity is approximately 0.3%. Extensive incompatibilities between gene genealogies indicate frequent recombination between unlinked loci, but there is no evidence of recombination within genes. Some localized clonal growth is apparent. The frequency of outcrossing relative to inbreeding is estimated at 1.1% on the basis of heterozygosity. Thus, all three modes of reproduction known in the lab (clonal replication, inbreeding, and outcrossing) have been important in molding genetic variation in this species. PMID:15020405

  10. Wild boar tuberculosis in Iberian Atlantic Spain: a different picture from Mediterranean habitats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infections with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) are shared between livestock, wildlife and sporadically human beings. Wildlife reservoirs exist worldwide and can interfere with bovine tuberculosis (TB) eradication efforts. The Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is a MTC maintenance host in Mediterranean Iberia (Spain and Portugal). However, few systematic studies in wild boar have been carried out in Atlantic regions. We describe the prevalence, distribution, pathology and epidemiology of MTC and other mycobacteria from wild boar in Atlantic Spain. A total of 2,067 wild boar were sampled between 2008 and 2012. Results The results provide insight into the current status of wild boar as MTC and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) hosts in temperate regions of continental Europe. The main findings were a low TB prevalence (2.6%), a low proportion of MTC infected wild boar displaying generalized TB lesions (16.7%), and a higher proportion of MAC infections (4.5%). Molecular typing revealed epidemiological links between wild boar and domestic – cattle, sheep and goat – and other wildlife – Eurasian badger (Meles meles) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) – hosts. Conclusions This study shows that the likelihood of MTC excretion by wild boar in Atlantic habitats is much lower than in Mediterranean areas. However, wild boar provide a good indicator of MTC circulation and, given the current re-emergence of animal TB, similar large-scale surveys would be advisable in other Atlantic regions of continental Europe. PMID:24010539

  11. An integrated assessment of wild vegetable resources in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, China

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This paper was based on ethnobotanical investigations conducted from 2004-2006 in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of northern China. Today, due to their nutritious and relatively pollution-free characteristics, wild vegetables are playing an increasingly important role in peoples' health and well-being. This paper aims to provide scientific clues for the selection of special and high quality wild vegetables species. Methods An ethnobotanical study, consisting of a literature survey, open-ended and semi-structured interviews, and collection and identification of voucher specimens was carried out to gather information on wild vegetables in Inner Mongolia. Next, an integrated assessment of 90 species of wild vegetables was performed using the linearity weighted integrative mathematical analysis method. Results According to an integrated assessment of 90 species of wild vegetables in Inner Mongolia, there are 5 species with the highest integrated value, 40 species of high-integrated value, 43 species of general integrated value, and 2 species of low value. The results indicate that the vast majority of wild vegetables have high value in Inner Mongolia. Conclusions Inner Mongolia is rich in wild vegetable resources. A comprehensive assessment indicates that the vast majority of wild vegetables are of high value. However, these wild vegetables are seldom collected or cultivated by local people. Most of the collected species require further research and investigation into their nutrient content, toxicity and ethnobotany to illuminate their potential as new cultivars or products. PMID:21134268

  12. The demography of wild carrot in Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild carrot was likely introduced to North America as a weed from Europe. It has spread since its introduction, now occurs in every state and has been declared invasive. Because wild carrot can easily hybridize with cultivated carrots, is an outcrosser and is pollinated by various insects, the intro...

  13. Genomic and environmental selection patterns in two distinct lettuce crop–wild hybrid crosses

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Yorike; Uwimana, Brigitte; Hooftman, Danny A P; Schranz, Michael E; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Smulders, Marinus J M; Visser, Richard G F; van Tienderen, Peter H

    2013-01-01

    Genomic selection patterns and hybrid performance influence the chance that crop (trans)genes can spread to wild relatives. We measured fitness(-related) traits in two different field environments employing two different crop–wild crosses of lettuce. We performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses and estimated the fitness distribution of early- and late-generation hybrids. We detected consistent results across field sites and crosses for a fitness QTL at linkage group 7, where a selective advantage was conferred by the wild allele. Two fitness QTL were detected on linkage group 5 and 6, which were unique to one of the crop–wild crosses. Average hybrid fitness was lower than the fitness of the wild parent, but several hybrid lineages outperformed the wild parent, especially in a novel habitat for the wild type. In early-generation hybrids, this may partly be due to heterosis effects, whereas in late-generation hybrids transgressive segregation played a major role. The study of genomic selection patterns can identify crop genomic regions under negative selection across multiple environments and cultivar–wild crosses that might be applicable in transgene mitigation strategies. At the same time, results were cultivar-specific, so that a case-by-case environmental risk assessment is still necessary, decreasing its general applicability. PMID:23789025

  14. Oscar Wilde and the brain cell.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Elisha

    2013-01-01

    This chapter considers Oscar Wilde's interest in the brain cell as an aesthetic object. Offering an account of Wilde's career that analyzes his early interest in physiology and philosophy, this chapter argues that Wilde's uniquely aesthetic take on the brain suggests that he rejects an account of the self as autonomous or self-determining. For many late Victorians brain science threatened both the freedom of human action and the legitimacy of beauty because it had the potential to invalidate conscious experience. But writers whose work Wilde knew, like John Ruskin, W. K. Clifford, and John Tyndall, avoided the despair of materialism by using aesthetic terms in their own discussions of life's invisible materials. Wilde's art collaborates with the contemporary sciences. His depictions of the cell direct the senses to a new field of being that emphasizes the molecular life all humans have in common, in which individual responsibility and activity matter less than the necessity of beauty.

  15. Oscar Wilde and the brain cell.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Elisha

    2013-01-01

    This chapter considers Oscar Wilde's interest in the brain cell as an aesthetic object. Offering an account of Wilde's career that analyzes his early interest in physiology and philosophy, this chapter argues that Wilde's uniquely aesthetic take on the brain suggests that he rejects an account of the self as autonomous or self-determining. For many late Victorians brain science threatened both the freedom of human action and the legitimacy of beauty because it had the potential to invalidate conscious experience. But writers whose work Wilde knew, like John Ruskin, W. K. Clifford, and John Tyndall, avoided the despair of materialism by using aesthetic terms in their own discussions of life's invisible materials. Wilde's art collaborates with the contemporary sciences. His depictions of the cell direct the senses to a new field of being that emphasizes the molecular life all humans have in common, in which individual responsibility and activity matter less than the necessity of beauty. PMID:24290258

  16. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  17. Wild Western Lowland Gorillas Signal Selectively Using Odor

    PubMed Central

    Klailova, Michelle; Lee, Phyllis C.

    2014-01-01

    Mammals communicate socially through visual, auditory and chemical signals. The chemical sense is the oldest sense and is shared by all organisms including bacteria. Despite mounting evidence for social chemo-signaling in humans, the extent to which it modulates behavior is debated and can benefit from comparative models of closely related hominoids. The use of odor cues in wild ape social communication has been only rarely explored. Apart from one study on wild chimpanzee sniffing, our understanding is limited to anecdotes. We present the first study of wild gorilla chemo-communication and the first analysis of olfactory signaling in relation to arousal levels and odor strength in wild apes. If gorilla scent is used as a signaling mechanism instead of only a sign of arousal or stress, odor emission should be context specific and capable of variation as a function of the relationships between the emitter and perceiver(s). Measured through a human pungency scale, we determined the factors that predicted extreme levels of silverback odor for one wild western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group silverback. Extreme silverback odor was predicted by the presence and intensity of inter-unit interactions, silverback anger, distress and long-calling auditory rates, and the absence of close proximity between the silverback and mother of the youngest infant. Odor strength also varied according to the focal silverback's strategic responses during high intensity inter-unit interactions. Silverbacks appear to use odor as a modifiable form of communication; where odor acts as a highly flexible, context dependent signaling mechanism to group members and extra-group units. The importance of olfaction to ape social communication may be especially pertinent in Central African forests where limited visibility may necessitate increased reliance on other senses. PMID:25006973

  18. Wild western lowland gorillas signal selectively using odor.

    PubMed

    Klailova, Michelle; Lee, Phyllis C

    2014-01-01

    Mammals communicate socially through visual, auditory and chemical signals. The chemical sense is the oldest sense and is shared by all organisms including bacteria. Despite mounting evidence for social chemo-signaling in humans, the extent to which it modulates behavior is debated and can benefit from comparative models of closely related hominoids. The use of odor cues in wild ape social communication has been only rarely explored. Apart from one study on wild chimpanzee sniffing, our understanding is limited to anecdotes. We present the first study of wild gorilla chemo-communication and the first analysis of olfactory signaling in relation to arousal levels and odor strength in wild apes. If gorilla scent is used as a signaling mechanism instead of only a sign of arousal or stress, odor emission should be context specific and capable of variation as a function of the relationships between the emitter and perceiver(s). Measured through a human pungency scale, we determined the factors that predicted extreme levels of silverback odor for one wild western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group silverback. Extreme silverback odor was predicted by the presence and intensity of inter-unit interactions, silverback anger, distress and long-calling auditory rates, and the absence of close proximity between the silverback and mother of the youngest infant. Odor strength also varied according to the focal silverback's strategic responses during high intensity inter-unit interactions. Silverbacks appear to use odor as a modifiable form of communication; where odor acts as a highly flexible, context dependent signaling mechanism to group members and extra-group units. The importance of olfaction to ape social communication may be especially pertinent in Central African forests where limited visibility may necessitate increased reliance on other senses.

  19. The Viruses of Wild Pigeon Droppings

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Tung Gia; Vo, Nguyen Phung; Boros, Ákos; Pankovics, Péter; Reuter, Gábor; Li, Olive T. W.; Wang, Chunling; Deng, Xutao; Poon, Leo L. M.; Delwart, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Birds are frequent sources of emerging human infectious diseases. Viral particles were enriched from the feces of 51 wild urban pigeons (Columba livia) from Hong Kong and Hungary, their nucleic acids randomly amplified and then sequenced. We identified sequences from known and novel species from the viral families Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, Picornaviridae, Reoviridae, Adenovirus, Astroviridae, and Caliciviridae (listed in decreasing number of reads), as well as plant and insect viruses likely originating from consumed food. The near full genome of a new species of a proposed parvovirus genus provisionally called Aviparvovirus contained an unusually long middle ORF showing weak similarity to an ORF of unknown function from a fowl adenovirus. Picornaviruses found in both Asia and Europe that are distantly related to the turkey megrivirus and contained a highly divergent 2A1 region were named mesiviruses. All eleven segments of a novel rotavirus subgroup related to a chicken rotavirus in group G were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. This study provides an initial assessment of the enteric virome in the droppings of pigeons, a feral urban species with frequent human contact. PMID:24023772

  20. Strategies for determining kinship in wild populations using genetic data.

    PubMed

    Städele, Veronika; Vigilant, Linda

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge of kin relationships between members of wild animal populations has broad application in ecology and evolution research by allowing the investigation of dispersal dynamics, mating systems, inbreeding avoidance, kin recognition, and kin selection as well as aiding the management of endangered populations. However, the assessment of kinship among members of wild animal populations is difficult in the absence of detailed multigenerational pedigrees. Here, we first review the distinction between genetic relatedness and kinship derived from pedigrees and how this makes the identification of kin using genetic data inherently challenging. We then describe useful approaches to kinship classification, such as parentage analysis and sibship reconstruction, and explain how the combined use of marker systems with biparental and uniparental inheritance, demographic information, likelihood analyses, relatedness coefficients, and estimation of misclassification rates can yield reliable classifications of kinship in groups with complex kin structures. We outline alternative approaches for cases in which explicit knowledge of dyadic kinship is not necessary, but indirect inferences about kinship on a group- or population-wide scale suffice, such as whether more highly related dyads are in closer spatial proximity. Although analysis of highly variable microsatellite loci is still the dominant approach for studies on wild populations, we describe how the long-awaited use of large-scale single-nucleotide polymorphism and sequencing data derived from noninvasive low-quality samples may eventually lead to highly accurate assessments of varying degrees of kinship in wild populations. PMID:27648229

  1. Eating from the wild: diversity of wild edible plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la region, Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Locally harvested wild edible plants (WEPs) provide food as well as cash income for indigenous people and are of great importance in ensuring global food security. Some also play a significant role in maintaining the productivity and stability of traditional agro-ecosystems. Shangri-la region of Yunnan Province, SW China, is regarded as a biodiversity hotspot. People living there have accumulated traditional knowledge about plants. However, with economic development, WEPs are threatened and the associated traditional knowledge is in danger of being lost. Therefore, ethnobotanical surveys were conducted throughout this area to investigate and document the wild edible plants traditionally used by local Tibetan people. Methods Twenty-nine villages were selected to carry out the field investigations. Information was collected using direct observation, semi-structured interviews, individual discussions, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, questionnaires and participatory rural appraisal (PRA). Results Information about 168 wild edible plant species in 116 genera of 62 families was recorded and specimens were collected. Most species were edible greens (80 species) or fruits (78). These WEPs are sources for local people, especially those living in remote rural areas, to obtain mineral elements and vitamins. More than half of the species (70%) have multiple use(s) besides food value. Some are crop wild relatives that could be used for crop improvement. Several also have potential values for further commercial exploitation. However, the utilization of WEPs and related knowledge are eroding rapidly, especially in the areas with convenient transportation and booming tourism. Conclusion Wild food plants species are abundant and diverse in Shangri-la region. They provide food and nutrients to local people and could also be a source of cash income. However, both WEPs and their associated indigenous knowledge are facing various threats. Thus

  2. Genome re-sequencing of semi-wild soybean reveals a complex Soja population structure and deep introgression.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jie; Wang, Yu; Wu, Sanling; Wang, Ying-Ying; Ye, Chu-Yu; Bai, Xuefei; Li, Zefeng; Yan, Chenghai; Wang, Weidi; Wang, Ziqiang; Shu, Qingyao; Xie, Jiahua; Lee, Suk-Ha; Fan, Longjiang

    2014-01-01

    Semi-wild soybean is a unique type of soybean that retains both wild and domesticated characteristics, which provides an important intermediate type for understanding the evolution of the subgenus Soja population in the Glycine genus. In this study, a semi-wild soybean line (Maliaodou) and a wild line (Lanxi 1) collected from the lower Yangtze regions were deeply sequenced while nine other semi-wild lines were sequenced to a 3-fold genome coverage. Sequence analysis revealed that (1) no independent phylogenetic branch covering all 10 semi-wild lines was observed in the Soja phylogenetic tree; (2) besides two distinct subpopulations of wild and cultivated soybean in the Soja population structure, all semi-wild lines were mixed with some wild lines into a subpopulation rather than an independent one or an intermediate transition type of soybean domestication; (3) high heterozygous rates (0.19-0.49) were observed in several semi-wild lines; and (4) over 100 putative selective regions were identified by selective sweep analysis, including those related to the development of seed size. Our results suggested a hybridization origin for the semi-wild soybean, which makes a complex Soja population structure. PMID:25265539

  3. Genome re-sequencing of semi-wild soybean reveals a complex Soja population structure and deep introgression.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jie; Wang, Yu; Wu, Sanling; Wang, Ying-Ying; Ye, Chu-Yu; Bai, Xuefei; Li, Zefeng; Yan, Chenghai; Wang, Weidi; Wang, Ziqiang; Shu, Qingyao; Xie, Jiahua; Lee, Suk-Ha; Fan, Longjiang

    2014-01-01

    Semi-wild soybean is a unique type of soybean that retains both wild and domesticated characteristics, which provides an important intermediate type for understanding the evolution of the subgenus Soja population in the Glycine genus. In this study, a semi-wild soybean line (Maliaodou) and a wild line (Lanxi 1) collected from the lower Yangtze regions were deeply sequenced while nine other semi-wild lines were sequenced to a 3-fold genome coverage. Sequence analysis revealed that (1) no independent phylogenetic branch covering all 10 semi-wild lines was observed in the Soja phylogenetic tree; (2) besides two distinct subpopulations of wild and cultivated soybean in the Soja population structure, all semi-wild lines were mixed with some wild lines into a subpopulation rather than an independent one or an intermediate transition type of soybean domestication; (3) high heterozygous rates (0.19-0.49) were observed in several semi-wild lines; and (4) over 100 putative selective regions were identified by selective sweep analysis, including those related to the development of seed size. Our results suggested a hybridization origin for the semi-wild soybean, which makes a complex Soja population structure.

  4. The irony of being Oscar: the legendary life and death of Oscar Wilde.

    PubMed

    Mai, R; Rutka, J

    2000-08-01

    In this second in a series of famous historic personages who suffered from ear disease (see Yardley M, Rutka J. Troy, Mycenae, and the Otologic Demise of Herr Heinrich Schliemann. J Otolaryngol 1998; 27:217-221), we review the life and otology-related death of the legendary playwright Oscar Wilde. In his time, Wilde ridiculed the social hypocrisy of the Victorian age, championed the individual, and pleaded for a more tolerant and forgiving society in his many books, plays, and letters. Very much the acerbic and iconoclastic wit, Wilde's private and later very public affair de coeur with Lord Alfred Douglas, the son of the Marquis of Queensberry, still continues to interest and paradoxically shock our sensitivities. Wilde's ultimate demise from an otogenic bacterial meningitis appears all the more ironic when one considers the role his father, Sir William Wilde, played as one of the founding fathers of modern otology.

  5. A Comparison of Walking Rates Between Wild and Zoo African Elephants.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lance J; Chase, Michael J; Hacker, Charlotte E

    2016-01-01

    With increased scrutiny surrounding the welfare of elephants in zoological institutions, it is important to have empirical evidence on their current welfare status. If elephants are not receiving adequate exercise, it could lead to obesity, which can lead to many issues including acyclicity and potentially heart disease. The goal of the current study was to compare the walking rates of elephants in the wild versus elephants in zoos to determine if elephants are walking similar distances relative to their wild counterparts. Eleven wild elephants throughout different habitats and locations in Botswana were compared to 8 elephants at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park. Direct comparisons revealed no significant difference in average walking rates of zoo elephants when compared with wild elephants. These results suggest that elephants at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park walk similar rates to those of wild elephants and may be meeting their exercise needs.

  6. Oral and dental conditions in adult African wild dog skulls: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Steenkamp, G; Gorrel, C

    1999-06-01

    Skulls of 29 adult African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) originating from museum collections were examined for evidence of oral pathology. A wide variety of conditions similar to those seen in the domestic dog were detected. Although other reports suggest that captive African wild dogs suffer more extensively from dental disease than those in the wild, we conclude that these wild carnivores suffer from the same oral diseases as their domestic relatives, suggesting that a natural diet does not protect against these diseases. As the African wild dog is threatened by extinction, further investigation of the incidence and development of oral and dental disease in this species may be of value. Preventive measures could be instituted leading to improved health for those held in captivity.

  7. A Comparison of Walking Rates Between Wild and Zoo African Elephants.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lance J; Chase, Michael J; Hacker, Charlotte E

    2016-01-01

    With increased scrutiny surrounding the welfare of elephants in zoological institutions, it is important to have empirical evidence on their current welfare status. If elephants are not receiving adequate exercise, it could lead to obesity, which can lead to many issues including acyclicity and potentially heart disease. The goal of the current study was to compare the walking rates of elephants in the wild versus elephants in zoos to determine if elephants are walking similar distances relative to their wild counterparts. Eleven wild elephants throughout different habitats and locations in Botswana were compared to 8 elephants at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park. Direct comparisons revealed no significant difference in average walking rates of zoo elephants when compared with wild elephants. These results suggest that elephants at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park walk similar rates to those of wild elephants and may be meeting their exercise needs. PMID:26963741

  8. Wild Steelhead Studies, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Holubetz, Terry B.

    1995-11-01

    Significant progress was attained in implementing the complex and challenging studies of wild steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss production in Idaho. Study sites were selected and techniques were developed to collect the needed data in remote wilderness locations. Cursory examination of existing data provides indication that most wild steelhead stocks are under escaped, especially the Group B stocks. Abundance of wild steelhead is generally declining in recent years. The portable weir concept and electronic fish counting developed through this project have been well received by land owners and reviewing governmental agencies with less impact to the land, stream, and fishery resources than conventional permanent weirs.

  9. Mycoplasma gallopavonis in eastern wild turkeys.

    PubMed

    Luttrell, M P; Eleazer, T H; Kleven, S H

    1992-04-01

    Serum samples and tracheal cultures were collected from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris) trapped for relocation in South Carolina (USA) during 1985 to 1990. Sera were tested for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by the rapid plate agglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests and were found to be negative. Tracheal cultures were negative for all pathogenic Mycoplasma spp., including M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, M. meleagridis, and M. iowae. However, M. gallopavonis was isolated from every group of wild turkeys tested in 1986 to 1990. These data suggest that M. gallopavonis, which is generally considered nonpathogenic, may be a common microorganism in eastern wild turkeys.

  10. Fine-scale geographical structure of genetic diversity in inland wild beet populations.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, Jean-François; Fénart, Stéphane; Godé, Cécile; Deledicque, Sylvie; Touzet, Pascal; Cuguen, Joël

    2009-08-01

    Introgression arising from crop-to-wild gene flow provides novel sources of genetic variation in plant species complexes. Hybridization within the Beta vulgaris species complex is of immediate concern; crop lineages (B. vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) hybridize easily with their wild relatives (B. vulgaris ssp. maritima) thereby threatening wild beet gene diversity with genetic swamping. Hybridization 'hotspots' occur in European seed production areas because inland ruderal wild beets occur and reproduce in sympatry with cultivated beets. We studied gene flow occurring between seed-producing cultivars and ruderal wild B. vulgaris in southwestern France to determine whether feral beets, arising from unharvested cultivated seed, represent an opportunity for crop-to-wild gene flow. We surveyed 42 inland ruderal beet populations located near seed production fields for nucleo-cytoplasmic variation and used a cytoplasmic marker diagnostic of cultivated lines. Occurrence of cultivated-type cytoplasm within ruderal populations clearly reflected events of crop seed escape. However, we found no genetic signatures of nuclear cultivated gene introgression, which suggests past introgression of cultivated cytoplasm into a wild nuclear background through seed escape rather than recent direct pollen flow. Overall, patterns of genetic structure suggested that inland ruderal wild beet populations act as a metapopulation, with founding events involving a few sib groups, followed by low rates of seed or pollen gene flow after populations are established. Altogether, our results indicate that a long-lived seed bank plays a key role in maintaining cultivated-type cytoplasm in the wild and highlight the need for careful management of seed production areas where wild and cultivated relatives co-occur.

  11. [Leaf morphology and photosynthetic characteristics of wild Ussurian pear in China].

    PubMed

    Dong, Xing-guang; Cao, Yu-fen; Tian, Lu-ming; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Ying; Qi, Dan

    2015-05-01

    The wild Ussurian pear was the most important wild pear resource in northern China, belonging to the most hardiness species. Taking 48 accessions of wild Ussurian pear and 2 accessions of cultivated Ussurian pear as test materials, this paper studied the morphology of leaves, chlorophyll content, and photosynthetic characteristics. We compared the difference between the wild and cultivated Ussurian pear, analyzed the photosynthetic characteristics of wild Ussurian pear, clarified the interrelationships between the indices, and established significant linear equations of photosynthesis and water-related physiological indices. The results showed that the leaf morphological index, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic indices for cultivated Ussurian pear were significantly lower than their average values for wild Ussurian pear. The specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content ( LDMC) , and intercellular CO2 concentration had low coefficients of variation, and the other 8 indices had variation coefficient indices between 0.12-0.41. So, the level of diversity was high, indicating obvious difference in photosynthetic characteristic of wild pear resources in China. The photosynthetic indices were significantly correlated with chlorophyll composition (Chl a/b) and LDMC. The photosynthetic rate had significant exponential correlation with the intercellular CO2 concentration, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance. The photosynthetic rate was mainly affected by stomatal limitation. The wild variety 'Jinzhoushanli' was selected as high photosynthetic genetic resource.

  12. [Leaf morphology and photosynthetic characteristics of wild Ussurian pear in China].

    PubMed

    Dong, Xing-guang; Cao, Yu-fen; Tian, Lu-ming; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Ying; Qi, Dan

    2015-05-01

    The wild Ussurian pear was the most important wild pear resource in northern China, belonging to the most hardiness species. Taking 48 accessions of wild Ussurian pear and 2 accessions of cultivated Ussurian pear as test materials, this paper studied the morphology of leaves, chlorophyll content, and photosynthetic characteristics. We compared the difference between the wild and cultivated Ussurian pear, analyzed the photosynthetic characteristics of wild Ussurian pear, clarified the interrelationships between the indices, and established significant linear equations of photosynthesis and water-related physiological indices. The results showed that the leaf morphological index, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic indices for cultivated Ussurian pear were significantly lower than their average values for wild Ussurian pear. The specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content ( LDMC) , and intercellular CO2 concentration had low coefficients of variation, and the other 8 indices had variation coefficient indices between 0.12-0.41. So, the level of diversity was high, indicating obvious difference in photosynthetic characteristic of wild pear resources in China. The photosynthetic indices were significantly correlated with chlorophyll composition (Chl a/b) and LDMC. The photosynthetic rate had significant exponential correlation with the intercellular CO2 concentration, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance. The photosynthetic rate was mainly affected by stomatal limitation. The wild variety 'Jinzhoushanli' was selected as high photosynthetic genetic resource. PMID:26571648

  13. Functional flexibility in wild bonobo vocal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Clay, Zanna; Archbold, Jahmaira; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    A shared principle in the evolution of language and the development of speech is the emergence of functional flexibility, the capacity of vocal signals to express a range of emotional states independently of context and biological function. Functional flexibility has recently been demonstrated in the vocalisations of pre-linguistic human infants, which has been contrasted to the functionally fixed vocal behaviour of non-human primates. Here, we revisited the presumed chasm in functional flexibility between human and non-human primate vocal behaviour, with a study on our closest living primate relatives, the bonobo (Pan paniscus). We found that wild bonobos use a specific call type (the "peep") across a range of contexts that cover the full valence range (positive-neutral-negative) in much of their daily activities, including feeding, travel, rest, aggression, alarm, nesting and grooming. Peeps were produced in functionally flexible ways in some contexts, but not others. Crucially, calls did not vary acoustically between neutral and positive contexts, suggesting that recipients take pragmatic information into account to make inferences about call meaning. In comparison, peeps during negative contexts were acoustically distinct. Our data suggest that the capacity for functional flexibility has evolutionary roots that predate the evolution of human speech. We interpret this evidence as an example of an evolutionary early transition away from fixed vocal signalling towards functional flexibility. PMID:26290789

  14. Functional flexibility in wild bonobo vocal behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Archbold, Jahmaira; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    A shared principle in the evolution of language and the development of speech is the emergence of functional flexibility, the capacity of vocal signals to express a range of emotional states independently of context and biological function. Functional flexibility has recently been demonstrated in the vocalisations of pre-linguistic human infants, which has been contrasted to the functionally fixed vocal behaviour of non-human primates. Here, we revisited the presumed chasm in functional flexibility between human and non-human primate vocal behaviour, with a study on our closest living primate relatives, the bonobo (Pan paniscus). We found that wild bonobos use a specific call type (the “peep”) across a range of contexts that cover the full valence range (positive-neutral-negative) in much of their daily activities, including feeding, travel, rest, aggression, alarm, nesting and grooming. Peeps were produced in functionally flexible ways in some contexts, but not others. Crucially, calls did not vary acoustically between neutral and positive contexts, suggesting that recipients take pragmatic information into account to make inferences about call meaning. In comparison, peeps during negative contexts were acoustically distinct. Our data suggest that the capacity for functional flexibility has evolutionary roots that predate the evolution of human speech. We interpret this evidence as an example of an evolutionary early transition away from fixed vocal signalling towards functional flexibility. PMID:26290789

  15. Functional flexibility in wild bonobo vocal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Clay, Zanna; Archbold, Jahmaira; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    A shared principle in the evolution of language and the development of speech is the emergence of functional flexibility, the capacity of vocal signals to express a range of emotional states independently of context and biological function. Functional flexibility has recently been demonstrated in the vocalisations of pre-linguistic human infants, which has been contrasted to the functionally fixed vocal behaviour of non-human primates. Here, we revisited the presumed chasm in functional flexibility between human and non-human primate vocal behaviour, with a study on our closest living primate relatives, the bonobo (Pan paniscus). We found that wild bonobos use a specific call type (the "peep") across a range of contexts that cover the full valence range (positive-neutral-negative) in much of their daily activities, including feeding, travel, rest, aggression, alarm, nesting and grooming. Peeps were produced in functionally flexible ways in some contexts, but not others. Crucially, calls did not vary acoustically between neutral and positive contexts, suggesting that recipients take pragmatic information into account to make inferences about call meaning. In comparison, peeps during negative contexts were acoustically distinct. Our data suggest that the capacity for functional flexibility has evolutionary roots that predate the evolution of human speech. We interpret this evidence as an example of an evolutionary early transition away from fixed vocal signalling towards functional flexibility.

  16. Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, Louis; Beyer, W. Nelson; Mateo, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Four waterfowl were collected in the TriState Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

  17. Vaccinating captive chimpanzees to save wild chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Warfield, Kelly L; Goetzmann, Jason E; Biggins, Julia E; Kasda, Mary Beth; Unfer, Robert C; Vu, Hong; Aman, M Javad; Olinger, Gene Gerrard; Walsh, Peter D

    2014-06-17

    Infectious disease has only recently been recognized as a major threat to the survival of Endangered chimpanzees and Critically Endangered gorillas in the wild. One potentially powerful tool, vaccination, has not been deployed in fighting this disease threat, in good part because of fears about vaccine safety. Here we report on what is, to our knowledge, the first trial in which captive chimpanzees were used to test a vaccine intended for use on wild apes rather than humans. We tested a virus-like particle vaccine against Ebola virus, a leading source of death in wild gorillas and chimpanzees. The vaccine was safe and immunogenic. Captive trials of other vaccines and of methods for vaccine delivery hold great potential as weapons in the fight against wild ape extinction.

  18. Wild Plants Used by the Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nature Study, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes 10 wild plants used by Native Americans. They include: rose hips; the common milkweed; cattails; elderberries; cactus fruits; lamb's quarters pigweeds (Chenopodium sp.); persimmons; mints (Monardo sp.); the yucca; and the hawthorn. Illustrations of each plant are included. (JN)

  19. Learning to Walk on the Wild Side

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faught, Jon

    1977-01-01

    A program at Moorpark Community College, in Moorpark, California, offers a two-and-a-half-year major in Exotic Animal Training and Management. Emphasis is on the practical, everyday handling and training of wild animals. (LBH)

  20. THE CHALLENGE OF RESTORING WILD SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

  1. Histomoniasis in wild turkeys in Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Hurst, G A

    1980-07-01

    Blackhead (histomoniasis, enterohepatitis) was diagnosed as the cause of death for three wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) found in widely separated areas in Mississippi. The turkeys came from areas with high turkey population densities and supplemental feeding programs. Finding three sick and/or dead wild turkeys in a year's period suggests that the disease is more prevalent than generally believed. Recommendations for management programs are presented.

  2. William Wilde in the West of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Coakley, D

    2016-05-01

    It is widely believed that Sir William Wilde's forebears were in Ireland for just two or three generations. This belief stems from a number of short biographies of Wilde which were published during his lifetime. These biographies gave different versions of the origin of the Wilde family and appear to have been generated by the creative imagination of Lady Jane Wilde or, as she was better known by her nom de plume, Speranza. She was equally imaginative in creating narratives about her own family background and in one she claimed descent from the Italian poet Dante Alighieri. So it was not a great challenge for her to invent biographies of her husband which she deemed suitable for a knight living at the prestigious address of 1 Merrion Square, leading many to believe that William and his son Oscar were more English than Irish. It was also important for Speranza to distance Sir William from any connection which the Wilde family might have had with trade. In this paper published and unpublished material are used, together with a careful examination of family deeds in the Registry of Deeds office, to elucidate the real roots of the Wilde family in Dublin and in the West of Ireland.

  3. William Wilde in the West of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Coakley, D

    2016-05-01

    It is widely believed that Sir William Wilde's forebears were in Ireland for just two or three generations. This belief stems from a number of short biographies of Wilde which were published during his lifetime. These biographies gave different versions of the origin of the Wilde family and appear to have been generated by the creative imagination of Lady Jane Wilde or, as she was better known by her nom de plume, Speranza. She was equally imaginative in creating narratives about her own family background and in one she claimed descent from the Italian poet Dante Alighieri. So it was not a great challenge for her to invent biographies of her husband which she deemed suitable for a knight living at the prestigious address of 1 Merrion Square, leading many to believe that William and his son Oscar were more English than Irish. It was also important for Speranza to distance Sir William from any connection which the Wilde family might have had with trade. In this paper published and unpublished material are used, together with a careful examination of family deeds in the Registry of Deeds office, to elucidate the real roots of the Wilde family in Dublin and in the West of Ireland. PMID:27083456

  4. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Wild Rats, United States

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Kylie; Van Den Bussche, Ronald A.

    2012-01-01

    The role of rodents in the epidemiology of zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has been a subject of considerable debate. Seroprevalence studies suggest widespread HEV infection in commensal Rattus spp. rats, but experimental transmission has been largely unsuccessful and recovery of zoonotic genotype 3 HEV RNA from wild Rattus spp. rats has never been confirmed. We surveyed R. rattus and R. norvegicus rats from across the United States and several international populations by using a hemi-nested reverse transcription PCR approach. We isolated HEV RNA in liver tissues from 35 of 446 rats examined. All but 1 of these isolates was relegated to the zoonotic HEV genotype 3, and the remaining sequence represented the recently discovered rat genotype from the United States and Germany. HEV-positive rats were detected in urban and remote localities. Genetic analyses suggest all HEV genotype 3 isolates obtained from wild Rattus spp. rats were closely related. PMID:22840202

  5. Impact of managed honey bee viruses on wild bees.

    PubMed

    Tehel, Anja; Brown, Mark Jf; Paxton, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    Several viruses found in the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) have recently been detected in other bee species, raising the possibility of spill-over from managed to wild bee species. Alternatively, these viruses may be shared generalists across flower-visiting insects. Here we explore the former hypothesis, pointing out weaknesses in the current evidence, particularly in relation to deformed wing virus (DWV), and highlighting research areas that may help test it. Data so far suggest that DWV spills over from managed to wild bee species and has the potential to cause population decline. That DWV and other viruses of A. mellifera are found in other bee species needs to be considered for the sustainable management of bee populations.

  6. Wild great apes as sentinels and sources of infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Calvignac-Spencer, S; Leendertz, S A J; Gillespie, T R; Leendertz, F H

    2012-06-01

    Emerging zoonotic infectious diseases pose a serious threat to global health. This is especially true in relation to the great apes, whose close phylogenetic relationship with humans results in a high potential for microorganism exchange. In this review, we show how studies of the microorganisms of wild great apes can lead to the discovery of novel pathogens of importance for humans. We also illustrate how these primates, living in their natural habitats, can serve as sentinels for outbreaks of human disease in regions with a high likelihood of disease emergence. Greater sampling efforts and improvements in sample preservation and diagnostic capacity are rapidly improving our understanding of the diversity and distribution of microorganisms in wild great apes. Linking non-invasive diagnostic data with observational health data from great apes habituated to human presence is a promising approach for the discovery of pathogens of high relevance for humans.

  7. Impact of managed honey bee viruses on wild bees.

    PubMed

    Tehel, Anja; Brown, Mark Jf; Paxton, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    Several viruses found in the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) have recently been detected in other bee species, raising the possibility of spill-over from managed to wild bee species. Alternatively, these viruses may be shared generalists across flower-visiting insects. Here we explore the former hypothesis, pointing out weaknesses in the current evidence, particularly in relation to deformed wing virus (DWV), and highlighting research areas that may help test it. Data so far suggest that DWV spills over from managed to wild bee species and has the potential to cause population decline. That DWV and other viruses of A. mellifera are found in other bee species needs to be considered for the sustainable management of bee populations. PMID:27351468

  8. Hepatitis E virus genotype 3 in wild rats, United States.

    PubMed

    Lack, Justin B; Volk, Kylie; Van Den Bussche, Ronald A

    2012-08-01

    The role of rodents in the epidemiology of zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has been a subject of considerable debate. Seroprevalence studies suggest widespread HEV infection in commensal Rattus spp. rats, but experimental transmission has been largely unsuccessful and recovery of zoonotic genotype 3 HEV RNA from wild Rattus spp. rats has never been confirmed. We surveyed R. rattus and R. norvegicus rats from across the United States and several international populations by using a hemi-nested reverse transcription PCR approach. We isolated HEV RNA in liver tissues from 35 of 446 rats examined. All but 1 of these isolates was relegated to the zoonotic HEV genotype 3, and the remaining sequence represented the recently discovered rat genotype from the United States and Germany. HEV-positive rats were detected in urban and remote localities. Genetic analyses suggest all HEV genotype 3 isolates obtained from wild Rattus spp. rats were closely related. PMID:22840202

  9. Ecology and Neurophysiology of Sleep in Two Wild Sloth Species

    PubMed Central

    Voirin, Bryson; Scriba, Madeleine F.; Martinez-Gonzalez, Dolores; Vyssotski, Alexei L.; Wikelski, Martin; Rattenborg, Niels C.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Interspecific variation in sleep measured in captivity correlates with various physiological and environmental factors, including estimates of predation risk in the wild. However, it remains unclear whether prior comparative studies have been confounded by the captive recording environment. Herein we examine the effect of predation pressure on sleep in sloths living in the wild. Design: Comparison of two closely related sloth species, one exposed to predation and one free from predation. Setting: Panamanian mainland rainforest (predators present) and island mangrove (predators absent). Participants: Mainland (Bradypus variegatus, five males and four females) and island (Bradypus pygmaeus, six males) sloths. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded using a miniature data logger. Although both species spent between 9 and 10 h per day sleeping, the mainland sloths showed a preference for sleeping at night, whereas island sloths showed no preference for sleeping during the day or night. Standardized EEG activity during nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep showed lower low-frequency power, and increased spindle and higher frequency power in island sloths when compared to mainland sloths. Conclusions: In sloths sleeping in the wild, predation pressure influenced the timing of sleep, but not the amount of time spent asleep. The preference for sleeping at night in mainland sloths may be a strategy to avoid detection by nocturnal cats. The pronounced differences in the NREM sleep EEG spectrum remain unexplained, but might be related to genetic or environmental factors. Citation: Voirin B; Scriba MF; Martinez-Gonzalez D; Vyssotski AL; Wikelski M; Rattenborg NC. Ecology and neurophysiology of sleep in two wild sloth species. SLEEP 2014;37(4):753-761. PMID:24899764

  10. Potential gene flow of two herbicide-tolerant transgenes from oilseed rape to wild B. juncea var. gracilis.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoling; Wang, Zhou; Zuo, Jiao; Huangfu, Chaohe; Qiang, Sheng

    2010-05-01

    Four successive reciprocal backcrosses between F(1) (obtained from wild Brassica juncea as maternal plants and transgenic glyphosate- or glufosinate-tolerant oilseed rape, B. napus, as paternal plants) or subsequent herbicide-tolerant backcross progenies and wild B. juncea were achieved by hand pollination to assess potential transgene flow. The third and forth reciprocal backcrosses produced a number of seeds per silique similar to that of self-pollinated wild B. juncea, except in plants with glufosinate-tolerant backcross progeny used as maternal plants and wild B. juncea as paternal plants, which produced fewer seeds per silique than did self-pollinated wild B. juncea. Germination percentages of reciprocal backcross progenies were high and equivalent to those of wild B. juncea. The herbicide-tolerant first reciprocal backcross progenies produced fewer siliques per plant than did wild B. juncea, but the herbicide-tolerant second or third reciprocal backcross progenies did not differ from the wild B. juncea in siliques per plant. The herbicide-tolerant second and third reciprocal backcross progenies produced an amount of seeds per silique similar to that of wild B. juncea except for with the glufosinate-tolerant first and second backcross progeny used as maternal plants and wild B. juncea as paternal plants. In the presence of herbicide selection pressure, inheritance of the glyphosate-tolerant transgene was stable across the second and third backcross generation, whereas the glufosinate-tolerant transgene was maintained, despite a lack of stabilized introgression. The occurrence of fertile, transgenic weed-like plants after only three crosses (F(1), first backcross, second backcross) suggests a potential rapid spread of transgenes from oilseed rape into its wild relative wild B. juncea. Transgene flow from glyphosate-tolerant oilseed rape might be easier than that from glufosinate-tolerant oilseed rape to wild B. juncea. The original insertion site of the

  11. Potential gene flow of two herbicide-tolerant transgenes from oilseed rape to wild B. juncea var. gracilis.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoling; Wang, Zhou; Zuo, Jiao; Huangfu, Chaohe; Qiang, Sheng

    2010-05-01

    Four successive reciprocal backcrosses between F(1) (obtained from wild Brassica juncea as maternal plants and transgenic glyphosate- or glufosinate-tolerant oilseed rape, B. napus, as paternal plants) or subsequent herbicide-tolerant backcross progenies and wild B. juncea were achieved by hand pollination to assess potential transgene flow. The third and forth reciprocal backcrosses produced a number of seeds per silique similar to that of self-pollinated wild B. juncea, except in plants with glufosinate-tolerant backcross progeny used as maternal plants and wild B. juncea as paternal plants, which produced fewer seeds per silique than did self-pollinated wild B. juncea. Germination percentages of reciprocal backcross progenies were high and equivalent to those of wild B. juncea. The herbicide-tolerant first reciprocal backcross progenies produced fewer siliques per plant than did wild B. juncea, but the herbicide-tolerant second or third reciprocal backcross progenies did not differ from the wild B. juncea in siliques per plant. The herbicide-tolerant second and third reciprocal backcross progenies produced an amount of seeds per silique similar to that of wild B. juncea except for with the glufosinate-tolerant first and second backcross progeny used as maternal plants and wild B. juncea as paternal plants. In the presence of herbicide selection pressure, inheritance of the glyphosate-tolerant transgene was stable across the second and third backcross generation, whereas the glufosinate-tolerant transgene was maintained, despite a lack of stabilized introgression. The occurrence of fertile, transgenic weed-like plants after only three crosses (F(1), first backcross, second backcross) suggests a potential rapid spread of transgenes from oilseed rape into its wild relative wild B. juncea. Transgene flow from glyphosate-tolerant oilseed rape might be easier than that from glufosinate-tolerant oilseed rape to wild B. juncea. The original insertion site of the

  12. Evolutionary ecology of the wild cereals

    SciTech Connect

    Blumler, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    The evolutionary ecology of the Near Eastern wild cereal grasses sheds light on the environmental conditions under which the Neolithic Revolution took place. Globally, as well as in the Near East, the annual habit, large seed size, and seasonal drought are associated with each other and with agricultural origins. The connection with agricultural appears to involve ease of cultivation and necessity for seasonal storage rather than hunter-gatherer preference for large seeds. The Near Eastern wild cereal species separate ecologically according to seasonality of precipitation, primarily, though there may also be minor differences in temperature and edaphic tolerances. This reflects the evolution, over the course of the Quaternary, of species with increased seed size in response to increasingly pronounced seasonal drought. Wild emmer and wild barley, the progenitors of perhaps the very first domesticates, are evolutionary monstrosities that represent the culmination of this trend. The possibly complex changes in seasonality, aridity, and atmospheric CO2 during the millenia leading up to the Neolithic should have produced equally complex, but to some extent predictable, changes in the abundance and distribution of the different wild cereal species.

  13. Molecular identification of trypanosomatids in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Tenório, M S; Oliveira e Sousa, L; Alves-Martin, M F; Paixão, M S; Rodrigues, M V; Starke-Buzetti, W A; Araújo Junior, J P; Lucheis, S B

    2014-06-16

    Diverse wild animal species can be reservoirs of zoonotic flagellate parasites, which can cause pathologic Chagas disease. The present study aimed to detect the natural occurrence of flagellate parasites through direct microscopic examination of the parasites in blood samples and through PCR of whole blood and blood culture (haemoculture) samples from 38 captive and 65 free-living wild animals in the Centre for Conservation of Wild Fauna (CCWF), an area endemic for leishmaniasis. For this study, PCR was accomplished using primers for the ribosomal region (ITS-1) of the flagellate parasites. The amplified fragments were cloned and sequenced to identify DNA of the Trypanosomatid parasite species, observed in blood cultures from 3.9% (04/103) of the animals. Through these techniques, Trypanosoma cruzi was identified in haemoculture samples of the following three free-living species: common agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), white-eared opossum (Didelphis albiventris), and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus). Furthermore, Trypanosoma minasense was identified in whole blood samples from 01 (0.9%) captive animal (black howler monkey-Alouatta caraya). These results demonstrated the first report of T. cruzi isolation in wild species from the CCWF using blood culture, which can be applied in addition to molecular tools for epidemiological studies and to identify trypanosomatids in wild animals.

  14. Wild boar helminths: risks in animal translocations.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-de-Mera, Isabel G; Gortazar, Christian; Vicente, Joaquin; Höfle, Ursula; Fierro, Yolanda

    2003-08-14

    The helminth populations found in a group of wild boars collected in central Spain were compared to those in a group of animals imported from a French game farm that produces boars for restocking. Eleven helminth species, including ten nematodes and one acanthocephalan, were found. Gongylonema pulchrum and Macracanthorhynchus hirundinaceus were only detected in autochthonous wild boars, while Oesophagostomum dentatum, Ascaris suum, and Trichuris suis were detected in imported animals only. Autochthonous wild boars were more frequently and more intensely parasitised by Ascarops strongylina than the imported ones. No differences in prevalence nor intensity were found for the species Capillaria garfiai, Globocephalus urosubulatus, Metastrongylus sp., Physocephalus sexalatus and Simondsia paradoxa. To our knowledge, G. urosubulatus, G. pulchrum and S. paradoxa have not previously been described in wild boars in Spain. Our results highlight the risks of translocating wild animals, with regard to their helminth parasites. Until improved control measures are established, it would be wise to avoid long-distance translocations in order to prevent the potential introduction of foreign parasites.

  15. Protective effect of wild ginseng cambial meristematic cells on d-galactosamine-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok-Joo; Choi, Hyo-Sun; Cho, Hong-Ik; Jin, Young-Woo; Lee, Eun-Kyong; Ahn, Jeung Youb; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2015-01-01

    Background Panax ginseng has a wide range of biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory functions. Wild ginseng cambial meristematic cells (CMCs) were obtained from P. ginseng cambium. This study examined the protective mechanism of wild ginseng CMCs against d-galactosamine (GalN)-induced liver injury. GalN, a well-known hepatotoxicant, causes severe hepatocellular inflammatory damage and clinical features similar to those of human viral hepatitis in experimental animals. Methods Hepatotoxicity was induced in rats using GalN (700 mg/kg, i.p.). Wild ginseng CMCs was administered orally once a day for 2 wks, and then 2 h prior to and 6 h after GalN injection. Results Wild ginseng CMCs attenuated the increase in serum aminotransferase activity that occurs 24 h after GalN injection. Wild ginseng CMCs also attenuated the GalN-induced increase in serum tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 level, and hepatic cyclooxygenase-2 protein and mRNA expression. Wild ginseng CMCs augmented the increase in serum interleukin -10 and hepatic heme oxygenase-1 protein and mRNA expression that was induced by GalN, inhibited the increase in the nuclear level of nuclear factor-kappa B, and enhanced the increase in NF-E2-related factor 2. Conclusion Our findings suggest that wild ginseng CMCs protects liver against GalN-induced inflammation by suppressing proinflammatory mediators and enhancing production of anti-inflammatory mediators. PMID:26869831

  16. Handling-induced stress and mortalities in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    de Villiers, M S; Meltzer, D G; van Heerden, J; Mills, M G; Richardson, P R; van Jaarsveld, A S

    1995-11-22

    Recently it was suggested that the handling of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) by researchers in the Serengeti ecosystem created stress, resulting in the reactivation of latent rabies viruses in carrier animals. We present data from ongoing studies on free-ranging and captive wild dogs elsewhere in Africa which do not support this hypothesis. Cortisol profiles suggest that immobilization of wild dogs does not cause the chronic stress required for stress-reactivation of latent viruses. Furthermore, there is no evidence of handling-related mortalities in wild dogs: the survivorship of unhandled and handled free-ranging wild dogs did not differ and no captive animals died within a year of handling (immobilization and/or vaccination against rabies). We suggest that the mortalities observed in Tanzania were due to an outbreak of a disease which rabies vaccination was unable to prevent. Intensive monitoring and active management research programmes on wild dogs are essential as without these, critically endangered wild dog populations have little hope of survival.

  17. Gene flow among wild and domesticated almond species: insights from chloroplast and nuclear markers

    PubMed Central

    Delplancke, Malou; Alvarez, Nadir; Espíndola, Anahí; Joly, Hélène; Benoit, Laure; Brouck, Elise; Arrigo, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization has played a central role in the evolutionary history of domesticated plants. Notably, several breeding programs relying on gene introgression from the wild compartment have been performed in fruit tree species within the genus Prunus but few studies investigated spontaneous gene flow among wild and domesticated Prunus species. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of genetic relationships and levels of gene flow between domesticated and wild Prunus species is needed. Combining nuclear and chloroplastic microsatellites, we investigated the gene flow and hybridization among two key almond tree species, the cultivated Prunus dulcis and one of the most widespread wild relative Prunus orientalis in the Fertile Crescent. We detected high genetic diversity levels in both species along with substantial and symmetric gene flow between the domesticated P. dulcis and the wild P. orientalis. These results were discussed in light of the cultivated species diversity, by outlining the frequent spontaneous genetic contributions of wild species to the domesticated compartment. In addition, crop-to-wild gene flow suggests that ad hoc transgene containment strategies would be required if genetically modified cultivars were introduced in the northwestern Mediterranean. PMID:25568053

  18. 7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60.133... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and shellfish means naturally-born or hatchery-originated fish or shellfish released in the wild, and...

  19. 7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60.133... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and shellfish means naturally-born or hatchery-originated fish or shellfish released in the wild, and...

  20. 7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60.133... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and shellfish means naturally-born or hatchery-originated fish or shellfish released in the wild, and...

  1. 7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60.133... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and shellfish means naturally-born or hatchery-originated fish or shellfish released in the wild, and...

  2. Function of loud calls in wild bonobos.

    PubMed

    White, Frances; Waller, Michel; Boose, Klaree; Merrill, Michelle; Wood, Kimberley

    2015-07-20

    Under the social origins hypothesis, human language is thought to have evolved within the framework of non-human primate social contexts and relationships. Our two closest relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos, however, have very different social relationships and this may be reflected in their use of loud calls. Much of loud calling in the male-bonded and aggressive chimpanzee functions for male alliance formation and intercommunity aggression. Bonobos, however, are female bonded and less aggressive and little is known on the use and function of their loud calls. Data on frequencies, context, and locations of vocalizations were collected for wild bonobos, Pan paniscus, at the Lomako Forest study site in the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1983 to 2009. Both males and females participated in loud calls used for inter-party communication. Calling and response rates by both males and females were higher during party fusion than party fission and were common at evening nesting. The distribution of loud calls within the community range of loud calls was not random with males calling significantly more towards the periphery of the range and females calling significantly more in central areas. Calling and party fission were common at food patches. Responses were more frequent for female calls than for male calls. Calling, followed by fusion, was more frequent when a small party called from a large patch. We conclude that bonobo females and males loud calls can function in inter-party communication to call others to large food patches. Females call to attract potential allies and males call to attract potential mates. Our results support the social hypothesis of the origin of language because differences in the function and use of loud calls reflect the differing social systems of chimpanzees and bonobos. Bonobo loud calls are important for female communication and function in party coordination and, unlike chimpanzees, are less important in male cooperative aggression

  3. Function of loud calls in wild bonobos.

    PubMed

    White, Frances; Waller, Michel; Boose, Klaree; Merrill, Michelle; Wood, Kimberley

    2015-07-20

    Under the social origins hypothesis, human language is thought to have evolved within the framework of non-human primate social contexts and relationships. Our two closest relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos, however, have very different social relationships and this may be reflected in their use of loud calls. Much of loud calling in the male-bonded and aggressive chimpanzee functions for male alliance formation and intercommunity aggression. Bonobos, however, are female bonded and less aggressive and little is known on the use and function of their loud calls. Data on frequencies, context, and locations of vocalizations were collected for wild bonobos, Pan paniscus, at the Lomako Forest study site in the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1983 to 2009. Both males and females participated in loud calls used for inter-party communication. Calling and response rates by both males and females were higher during party fusion than party fission and were common at evening nesting. The distribution of loud calls within the community range of loud calls was not random with males calling significantly more towards the periphery of the range and females calling significantly more in central areas. Calling and party fission were common at food patches. Responses were more frequent for female calls than for male calls. Calling, followed by fusion, was more frequent when a small party called from a large patch. We conclude that bonobo females and males loud calls can function in inter-party communication to call others to large food patches. Females call to attract potential allies and males call to attract potential mates. Our results support the social hypothesis of the origin of language because differences in the function and use of loud calls reflect the differing social systems of chimpanzees and bonobos. Bonobo loud calls are important for female communication and function in party coordination and, unlike chimpanzees, are less important in male cooperative aggression.

  4. Cognitive ability influences reproductive life history variation in the wild.

    PubMed

    Cole, Ella F; Morand-Ferron, Julie; Hinks, Amy E; Quinn, John L

    2012-10-01

    Cognition has been studied intensively for several decades, but the evolutionary processes that shape individual variation in cognitive traits remain elusive [1-3]. For instance, the strength of selection on a cognitive trait has never been estimated in a natural population, and the possibility that positive links with life history variation [1-5] are mitigated by costs [6] or confounded by ecological factors remains unexplored in the wild. We assessed novel problem-solving performance in 468 wild great tits Parus major temporarily taken into captivity and subsequently followed up their reproductive performance in the wild. Problem-solver females produced larger clutches than nonsolvers. This benefit did not arise because solvers timed their breeding better, occupied better habitats, or compromised offspring quality or their own survival. Instead, foraging range size and day length were relatively small and short, respectively, for solvers, suggesting that they were more efficient at exploiting their environment. In contrast to the positive effect on clutch size, problem solvers deserted their nests more often, leading to little or no overall selection on problem-solving performance. Our results are consistent with the idea that variation in cognitive ability is shaped by contrasting effects on different life history traits directly linked to fitness [1, 3]. PMID:22940473

  5. Brain cholinesterase activity of apparently normal wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are potent anticholinesterase substances that have killed large numbers of wild birds of various species. Cause of death is diagnosed by demonstration of depressed brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity in combination with chemical detection of anticholinesterase residue in the affected specimen. ChE depression is determined by comparison of the affected specimen to normal ChE activity for a sample of control specimens of the same species, but timely procurement of controls is not always possible. Therefore, a reference file of normal whole brain ChE activity is provided for 48 species of wild birds from North America representing 11 orders and 23 families for use as emergency substitutes in diagnosis of anticholinesterase poisoning. The ChE values, based on 83 sets of wild control specimens from across the United States, are reproducible provided the described procedures are duplicated. Overall, whole brain ChE activity varied nearly three-fold among the 48 species represented, but it was usually similar for closely related species. However, some species were statistically separable in most families and some species of the same genus differed as much as 50%.

  6. Feather damage due to mycotic infections in wild turkeys.

    PubMed

    Davidson, W R; Shotts, E B; Teska, J; Moreland, D W

    1989-10-01

    Wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) from Pearl River Wildlife Management Area, St. Tammany Parish and from adjacent St. Helena Parish, Louisiana (USA) were observed to have broken and frayed rectrices. The condition was noted in 21% of 90 wild turkeys harvested by hunters during the springs of 1985 through 1988 from the Pearl River Wildlife Management Area. Damage to feathers ranged from mild to severe. Histologic and microbiologic study of five birds disclosed colonization and invasion of the rachis sheath and pulp by fungi of the genera Aspergillus, Curvularia, Cladosporium, Dactylella, Exophiala, Helminthosporium and Trichophyton and by Streptomyces. Sterilized normal rectrices from wild turkeys were inoculated with these organisms and subsequently developed damage that was histologically compatible with field cases. The condition was diagnosed as a multiple etiology mycosis. Successful colonization and invasion of experimentally inoculated feathers required addition of moisture and elevation of relative humidity within the cultures. The apparent high moisture requirements of the fungi suggest that late winter and early spring flooding may be a probable predisposing factor for this condition.

  7. The status of wild food plants in Bulamogi County, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Tabuti, J R S; Dhillion, S S; Lye, K A

    2004-09-01

    We present here an inventory of the edible plants of Bulamogi, Uganda, and related aspects of exploitation of wild food plants (WFPs) by the local community. The edible plants consist of 105 species distributed in 77 genera and 39 families. Most of the edible plants are herbaceous (70.7%) and are cultivated (49.1%). Some introduced food plants have become naturalised and grow wild. Most of the edible plants yield fruits that are consumed as snacks (41.4%). The major food crops of the Balamogi are consumed locally, while few are traded. The proportion of WFPs is only 32.8% of the edible plants. WFPs are infrequently eaten and their consumption is limited to casual encounters, periods of food shortages and as supplements to major food crops. The main reasons for their neglect are the wide variety of introduced cultivated foods and the increasing difficulty of finding WFPs in the wild. Erosion of traditional knowledge about WFPs has also contributed to their declining use.

  8. Marked seasonal variation in the wild mouse gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Maurice, Corinne F; CL Knowles, Sarah; Ladau, Joshua; Pollard, Katherine S; Fenton, Andy; Pedersen, Amy B; Turnbaugh, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have provided an unprecedented view of the microbial communities colonizing captive mice; yet the host and environmental factors that shape the rodent gut microbiota in their natural habitat remain largely unexplored. Here, we present results from a 2-year 16 S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing-based survey of wild wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) in two nearby woodlands. Similar to other mammals, wild mice were colonized by 10 bacterial phyla and dominated by the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Within the Firmicutes, the Lactobacillus genus was most abundant. Putative bacterial pathogens were widespread and often abundant members of the wild mouse gut microbiota. Among a suite of extrinsic (environmental) and intrinsic (host-related) factors examined, seasonal changes dominated in driving qualitative and quantitative differences in the gut microbiota. In both years examined, we observed a strong seasonal shift in gut microbial community structure, potentially due to the transition from an insect- to a seed-based diet. This involved decreased levels of Lactobacillus, and increased levels of Alistipes (Bacteroidetes phylum) and Helicobacter. We also detected more subtle but statistically significant associations between the gut microbiota and biogeography, sex, reproductive status and co-colonization with enteric nematodes. These results suggest that environmental factors have a major role in shaping temporal variations in microbial community structure within natural populations. PMID:26023870

  9. Phylogenomic evidence for recombination of adenoviruses in wild gorillas.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Eileen; Pauly, Maude; Robbins, Martha; Gray, Maryke; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Nishuli, Radar; Boji Mungu-Akonkwa, Dieu-Donné; Leendertz, Fabian H; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2015-10-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) of species Human mastadenovirus B (HAdV-B) are genetically highly diverse and comprise several pathogenic types. AdVs closely related to members of HAdV-B infect African great apes and the evolutionary origin of HAdV-B has recently been determined in ancient gorillas. Genetic evidence for intra- and inter-species recombination has been obtained for AdVs of humans and captive great apes, but evidence from wild great apes is lacking. In this study, potential HAdV-B members of wild Eastern gorillas were analysed for evidence of recombination. One near-complete genome was amplified from primary sample material and sequenced, and from another six individuals genome fragments were obtained. In phylogenomic analysis, their penton base, pVII-pVI, hexon and fiber genes were compared with those of all publicly available HAdV-B full-genome sequences of humans and captive great apes. Evidence for intra-species recombination between different HAdV-B members of wild gorillas as well as between HAdV-B members of chimpanzees and gorillas was obtained. Since zoonotic AdVs have been reported to cause respiratory outbreaks in both humans and monkeys, and humans in West and Central Africa frequently hunt and butcher primates thereby increasing the chance of zoonotic transmission, such HAdV-B recombinants might widen the pool of potential human pathogens. PMID:26219820

  10. Stereotypic behavior in wild marine carnivores?

    PubMed

    Miller, L J; Kuczaj, S; Herzing, D

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic behavior is observed in many species within zoological institutions. Attempts to reduce such behavior typically involve some form of environmental enrichment that provides opportunities for species appropriate behavior or some degree of control within the environment. However, environmental enrichment has never been completely successful in eliminating stereotypic behavior for an entire group of animals within a zoological facility. In the wild, stereotypic behavior is rarely observed. Documenting the occurrence of stereotypic behavior in the wild, and circumstances in which it occurs, could help provide insight into the causes of such behavior within zoological institutions. The following commentary details the observations of wild lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) engaging in a stereotyped swimming pattern behind a research vessel north of Grand Bahama Island, Bahamas. We consider a possible explanation for the sharks' behavior and hope to stimulate conversation as well as increase examination of animal management routines in zoological facilities.

  11. Postharmostomiasis in wild turkeys in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pence, D B

    1994-04-01

    Postharmostomum gallinum (Trematoda: Digenea; Brachylaimidae) is reported for the second time from the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in North America. Seventy-six, 14 and three sexually mature specimens, respectively, were removed from the ceca of three of five wild turkeys collected in south-eastern New Mexico (USA). Local transmission of this infection was inferred since 10 immature specimens of P. gallinum also were collected from one host. In the turkey with the greatest intensity of mature trematodes, a concurrent hemorrhagic inflammation of the cecum apparently was associated with this infection. Specimens of P. gallinum from these wild turkeys were morphologically indistinguishable from, but their body and egg measurements were larger than, specimens described from the usual Eurasian galliform and columbiform hosts.

  12. Rabies and African wild dogs in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kat, P W; Alexander, K A; Smith, J S; Munson, L

    1995-11-22

    Three packs of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) ranging to the north of the Masai Mara National Reserve in southwestern Kenya were monitored from 1988 to 1990. During a six week period (August 2-September 14, 1989), 21 of 23 members of one of these packs died. Histological examination of two brain samples revealed eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Negri bodies), supporting a diagnosis of rabies viral encephalitis. An additional brain sample tested positive for rabies with a fluorescent antibody test. Nucleotide sequence of the rabies viral N and G genes from isolates of four African wild dogs (including an individual from Tanzania) indicated that infection was with a viral variant common among domestic dogs in Kenya and Tanzania. A hypothesis linking African wild dog rabies deaths to researcher handling is evaluated and considered implausible.

  13. Stereotypic behavior in wild marine carnivores?

    PubMed

    Miller, L J; Kuczaj, S; Herzing, D

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic behavior is observed in many species within zoological institutions. Attempts to reduce such behavior typically involve some form of environmental enrichment that provides opportunities for species appropriate behavior or some degree of control within the environment. However, environmental enrichment has never been completely successful in eliminating stereotypic behavior for an entire group of animals within a zoological facility. In the wild, stereotypic behavior is rarely observed. Documenting the occurrence of stereotypic behavior in the wild, and circumstances in which it occurs, could help provide insight into the causes of such behavior within zoological institutions. The following commentary details the observations of wild lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) engaging in a stereotyped swimming pattern behind a research vessel north of Grand Bahama Island, Bahamas. We consider a possible explanation for the sharks' behavior and hope to stimulate conversation as well as increase examination of animal management routines in zoological facilities. PMID:20872877

  14. Oscar Wilde's skin disease: allergic contact dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Nater, J P

    1992-07-01

    During the last years of his life, Oscar Wilde (1856-1900) suffered from a suppurating otitis media as well as from an unidentified skin disease. The eruption was localized to his face, arms, chest and back and itched severely. A new theory is suggested, based on the fact that Wilde almost certainly used a dye to conceal his rapidly graying hair. He sensitized himself to p-phenylenediamine and developed a stubborn allergic contact dermatitis. Patch testing, the only proof of such a diagnosis, had not yet been devised.

  15. Avian influenza surveillance of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slota, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The President's National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza directs federal agencies to expand the surveillance of United States domestic livestock and wildlife to ensure early warning of hightly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the U.S. The immediate concern is a potential introduction of HPAI H5N1 virus into the U.S. The presidential directive resulted in the U.S. Interagency Strategic Plan for Early Detection of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds (referred to as the Wild Bird Surveillance Plan or the Plan).

  16. Genetic variation among wild and cultivated populations of the Chinese medicinal plant Coptis chinensis (Ranunculaceae).

    PubMed

    Shi, W; Yang, C-F; Chen, J-M; Guo, Y-H

    2008-07-01

    To examine if the cultivation process has reduced the genetic variation of modern cultivars of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant, Coptis chinensis, the levels and distribution of genetic variation was investigated using ISSR markers. A total of 214 C. chinensis individuals from seven wild and three cultivated populations were included in the study. Seven ISSR primers were used and a total of 91 DNA fragments were scored. The levels of genetic diversity in cultivated populations were similar as those in wild populations (mean PPL = 65.2% versus PPL = 52.4%, mean H = 0.159 versus H = 0.153 and mean I = 0.255 versus I = 0.237), suggesting that cultivation did not seriously influence genetic variation of present-day cultivated populations. Neighbour-joining cluster analysis showed that wild populations and cultivated populations were not separated into two groups. The coefficient of genetic differentiation between a cultivar and its wild progenitor was 0.066 (G(st)), which was in good accordance with the result by amova analysis (10.9% of total genetic variation resided on the two groups), indicating that cultivated populations were not genetically differentiated from wild progenitors. For the seven wild populations, a significant genetic differentiation among populations was found using amova analysis (45.9% of total genetic variation resided among populations). A number of causes, including genetic drift and inbreeding in the small and isolated wild populations, the relative limited gene flow between wild populations (N(m) = 0.590), and high gene flow between cultivars and their wild progenitors (N(m) = 7.116), might have led to the observed genetic profiles of C. chinensis.

  17. Comparative metabolite profiling of Solanum tuberosum against six wild Solanum species with Colorado potato beetle resistance.

    PubMed

    Tai, Helen H; Worrall, Kraig; Pelletier, Yvan; De Koeyer, David; Calhoun, Larry A

    2014-09-10

    The Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (CPB) is a coleopteran herbivore that feeds on the foliage on Solanum species, in particular, potato. Six resistant wild Solanum species were identified, and two of these species had low levels of glycoalkaloids. Comparative analysis of the untargeted metabolite profiles of the foliage using UPLC-qTOF-MS was done to find metabolites shared between the wild species but not with Solanum tuberosum (L.) to identify resistance-related metabolites. It was found that only S. tuberosum produced the triose glycoalkaloids solanine and chaconine. Instead, the six wild species produced glycoalkaloids that shared in common tetrose sugar side chains. Additionally, there were non-glycoalkaloid metabolites associated with resistance including hydroxycoumarin and a phenylpropanoid, which were produced in all wild species but not in S. tuberosum. PMID:25144460

  18. Detecting mitochondrial signatures of selection in wild Tibetan pigs and domesticated pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingzhou; Jin, Long; Ma, Jideng; Tian, Shilin; Li, Ruiqiang; Li, Xuewei

    2016-01-01

    Selection in genomic regions is prevalent in mammals; however, the effects of selection on the mitogenome are not clearly understood. We determined the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from six wild Tibetan pigs from the Tibetan plateau and four domestic pig breeds from the lowland of neighboring southwest China. Nucleotide diversity analysis using the sliding window method showed that the nucleotide diversity of wild Tibetan pigs in most regions of the mitogenome was higher than that of domestic pigs. The 12 s ribosomal RNA showed relatively lower nucleotide diversity in Tibetan pigs, suggesting purifying selection of these genes during high-altitude adaptation. More non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions in the ATP6 were found in wild Tibetan pigs, indicating adaptive selection in Tibetan pigs. The results suggested distinct impacts of natural selection and artificial selection upon the mitogenome, especially the mitochondrial signatures of adaptive evolution in wild Tibetan pigs under natural selection.

  19. Genetic Analysis of East Asian Grape Cultivars Suggests Hybridization with Wild Vitis

    PubMed Central

    Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Sawler, Jason; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Koshu is a grape cultivar native to Japan and is one of the country’s most important cultivars for wine making. Koshu and other oriental grape cultivars are widely believed to belong to the European domesticated grape species Vitis vinifera. To verify the domesticated origin of Koshu and four other cultivars widely grown in China and Japan, we genotyped 48 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and estimated wild and domesticated ancestry proportions. Our principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation revealed that Koshu is 70% V. vinifera, and that the remaining 30% of its ancestry is most likely derived from wild East Asian Vitis species. Partial sequencing of chloroplast DNA suggests that Koshu’s maternal line is derived from the Chinese wild species V. davidii or a closely related species. Our results suggest that many traditional East Asian grape cultivars such as Koshu were generated from hybridization events with wild grape species. PMID:26488600

  20. Comparative metabolite profiling of Solanum tuberosum against six wild Solanum species with Colorado potato beetle resistance.

    PubMed

    Tai, Helen H; Worrall, Kraig; Pelletier, Yvan; De Koeyer, David; Calhoun, Larry A

    2014-09-10

    The Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (CPB) is a coleopteran herbivore that feeds on the foliage on Solanum species, in particular, potato. Six resistant wild Solanum species were identified, and two of these species had low levels of glycoalkaloids. Comparative analysis of the untargeted metabolite profiles of the foliage using UPLC-qTOF-MS was done to find metabolites shared between the wild species but not with Solanum tuberosum (L.) to identify resistance-related metabolites. It was found that only S. tuberosum produced the triose glycoalkaloids solanine and chaconine. Instead, the six wild species produced glycoalkaloids that shared in common tetrose sugar side chains. Additionally, there were non-glycoalkaloid metabolites associated with resistance including hydroxycoumarin and a phenylpropanoid, which were produced in all wild species but not in S. tuberosum.

  1. Genetic Analysis of East Asian Grape Cultivars Suggests Hybridization with Wild Vitis.

    PubMed

    Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Sawler, Jason; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Koshu is a grape cultivar native to Japan and is one of the country's most important cultivars for wine making. Koshu and other oriental grape cultivars are widely believed to belong to the European domesticated grape species Vitis vinifera. To verify the domesticated origin of Koshu and four other cultivars widely grown in China and Japan, we genotyped 48 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and estimated wild and domesticated ancestry proportions. Our principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation revealed that Koshu is 70% V. vinifera, and that the remaining 30% of its ancestry is most likely derived from wild East Asian Vitis species. Partial sequencing of chloroplast DNA suggests that Koshu's maternal line is derived from the Chinese wild species V. davidii or a closely related species. Our results suggest that many traditional East Asian grape cultivars such as Koshu were generated from hybridization events with wild grape species.

  2. Is a wild mammal kept and reared in captivity still a wild animal?

    PubMed

    Künzl, Christine; Kaiser, Sylvia; Meier, Edda; Sachser, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    This study compared domestic guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus; DGP) and two different populations of the wild cavy (Cavia aperea), its ancestor, to examine whether rearing of wild mammals in captivity affects their behavior and physiological stress responses. One population of wild cavies consisted of wild-trapped animals and their first laboratory-reared offspring (WGP-1). The animals of the other population were reared in captivity for about 30 generations (WGP-30). The spontaneous behavior of each of six groups of WGP-1 and WGP-30 and nine groups of DGP, each consisting of one adult male and two adult females, was analyzed quantitatively. Blood samples of the males were taken to determine cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine concentrations. In addition, the exploratory behavior of 60-day-old male WGP-1, WGP-30, and DGP was investigated in an exploration apparatus. The domesticated animals displayed significantly less aggression, but significantly more sociopositive and male courtship behavior than their wild ancestors. In addition, DGP were much less attentive to their physical environment. Surprisingly, no behavioral difference was found between WGP-1 and WGP-30. Basal cortisol concentrations did not differ between wild and domestic guinea pigs. Catecholamine concentrations, however, as well as the challenge values of cortisol, were distinctly reduced in the DGP. WGP-1 and WGP-30 did not differ with respect to their endocrine stress responses. In the exploration apparatus both forms of wild cavies were much more explorative than the domestic animals. These data suggest that the long-term breeding and rearing of wild guinea pigs in captivity do not result in significant changes in behavior and hormonal stress responses. It appears to take much longer periods of time and artificial selection by humans to bring about characters of domestication in wild animals.

  3. Mandibulodental allometry in the African wild dog, Lycaon pictus.

    PubMed

    Kieser, J A; Groeneveld, H T

    1992-08-01

    Mandibulodental relations were evaluated in a sample of 34 adult Lycaon pictus crania (18 males, 16 females). Standard mesiodistal and buccolingual measurements, together with 8 mandibular measurements (intercondylar distance, intercarnassial breadth, mandibular length, arch length, condylar height, canine-condylar length, mandibular width, mandibular height) were allometrically scaled to total skull length. These results were then compared with those of domestic dogs and of 3 smaller southern African canids, Vulpes chama, Canis adustus and C. mesomelas. The results highlighted the differences in mandibulodental relations between males and females and provided support for the theory that females have relatively larger postcanine tooth sizes to match the higher masticatory demands of lactation and pregnancy. The African wild dog is shown to be more closely related dentally to the domestic dog than has previously been supposed.

  4. Who Speaks for Wolf? Not Project WILD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwood, Bert

    Project WILD, a Canadian elementary school curriculum supplement about wildlife and the environment, is seriously flawed in that it presents a human-centered view of the world while purporting to be unbiased. This anthropocentric perspective, in which humans are alienated from the environment and in control of nature by technological means, is in…

  5. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection in Small Wild Mammals.

    PubMed

    Sbeghen, Mônica Raquel; Zanata, Thais Bastos; Macagnan, Rafaela; de Abreu, Kaue Cachuba; da Cunha, Willian Luiz; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Ono, Mario Augusto

    2015-12-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis prevalent in Brazil and other Latin American countries. The etiological agents of PCM are the thermo-dimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii. Taking into account that the natural habitat of Paracoccidioides spp. is still undefined, domestic and wild animals could be useful as indicators of Paracoccidioides spp. presence in endemic areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the infection of small wild mammals by P. brasiliensis in an endemic area for human PCM. Samples from 38 wild mammals from different species such as Akodon sp., Thaptomys nigrita, Euryoryzomys russatus, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Monodelphis sp., Sooretamys angouya, Abrawayaomys angouya, Abrawayaomys ruschii and Akodontinae sp. were evaluated by ELISA, immunodiffusion, histopathology, nested PCR and culture. The overall positivity to gp43 observed in the ELISA was 23.7%. Samples from heart and liver of one O. nigripes were PCR positive, and the animal was also seropositive to gp43 in ELISA. This study showed that wild animals living in endemic areas for PCM are infected with P. brasiliensis and can be valuable epidemiological markers of the fungus presence in the environment. This is the first evidence of PCM infection in Akodon sp., E. russatus, T. nigrita and O. nigripes. PMID:26232125

  6. Nutritional evaluation of some Nigerian wild seeds.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ekperigin, M Mofoluso

    2004-04-01

    Some wild seeds, namely Parkia biglobosa, Tetracarpidum conophorum, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Irvingia gabonensis, Afzelia africana, Prosporis africana and Monodora myristica, were randomly collected from various parts of Nigeria and analyzed with regard to their proximate, mineral, antinutrient composition and zinc bioavailability. The results revealed that the seeds had high protein (6.5-24.2%), fat (19.0-58.5%), mineral (Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Ca, Na, K, P) and phytate (1043.6-2905.2 mg/100 g) contents, while the cyanide content was low (3.7-6.4 mg/kg). However, Co, Pb and Ni were not detected in all the samples. The calculated [Ca] [phytate]/[Zn] molar ratios (which is the best index for predicting Zn bioavailability) for all the seeds revealed that Parkia biglobosa, Irvingia gabonensis and Prosporis africana had a calculated molar ratio above 0.50 mol/kg (critical level), thus indicating reduced bioavailability of Zn to a critical level. In view of the high fat, protein, mineral and low cyanide contents, the high phytate content would not be expected to reduce bioavailability of Zn in some of the wild seeds (Afzelia africana, Pentaclethra macrophylla and Monodora myristica). These wild seeds could be good nutrient sources if integrated fully into human and animal nutrition. However, further studies will be carried out on the protein quality and toxicological potentials of these wild seeds.

  7. Project WILD--From Awareness to Action!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Cheryl; Schafer, Rudy

    1984-01-01

    Discusses goals of Project WILD, an environmental and conservation program emphasizing wildlife. Includes instructions for using and sample of "dilemma cards" which allow students to read, discuss, make judgments, and write about hypothetical dilemmas concerning wildlife and/or natural resources. (BC)

  8. Maple Sugar Harvesting/Wild Rice Harvesting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    Comprised of two separate booklets, this resource unit assists elementary teachers in explaining how the Ojibwe people harvest maple sugar and wild rice. The first booklet explains the procedure of tapping the maple trees for sap, preparation for boiling the sap, and the three forms the sugar is made into (granulated, "molded," and "taffy"). The…

  9. Lynne Cherry's "A River Ran Wild."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Carolyn; Brent, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    Paraphrases the book "A River Ran Wild" by Lynne Cherry, contrasts how Native American and European settlers use a river, and discusses the pollution and cleanup of the river. Provides classroom discussion questions, and individual or group activities in language arts, art, role-playing, geography, and interviewing. Includes an annotated…

  10. Does Comet WILD-2 contain Gems?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chi, M.; Ishii, H.; Dai, Z. R.; Toppani, A.; Joswiak, D. J.; Leroux, H.; Zolensky, M.; Keller, L. P.; Browning, N. D.

    2007-01-01

    It is expected that Comet Wild-2 dust should resemble anhydrous carbon-rich, chondritic porous (CP) interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere because some CP IDPs are suspected to be from comets. The rarity of carbonaceous grains and presolar silicates, as well as the presence of high-temperature inner solar nebula minerals in the Wild-2 sample (e.g. osbornite and melilite), appear incompatible with most CP IDPs. However, it is premature to draw firm conclusions about the mineralogy of comet Wild-2 because only approx. 1% of the sample has been examined. The most abundant silicates in CP IDPs are GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides). Nonsolar O isotopic compositions confirm that at least some GEMS in IDPs are presolar amorphous silicates. The presence or absence of GEMS in the Wild-2 sample is important because it addresses, (a) the relationship between CP IDPs and comets, and (b) the hypothesis that other GEMS in IDPs formed in the solar nebula. Here we show that most of the GEMSlike materials so far identified in Stardust aerogel were likely impact generated during collection. At the nanometer scale, they are compositionally and crystallographically distinct from GEMS in IDPs.

  11. Saving Wild Species through Habitat Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlen, Janet

    1980-01-01

    Describes the conservation approach adopted by World Wildlife Fund which focuses on habitat protection to save wild plant and animal species. Priority attention to tropical forests is explained. Examples are given of techniques (e.g., radiotelemetry and aerial survey) for studying ecological behavior patterns of specific animals. (CS)

  12. "Wild Beasts" Roam the Art Room

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Virginia P.

    2012-01-01

    Fauvism is a style of painting based on the use of intensely vivid colors that were not natural to the faces, landscapes and objects being painted. It was how artists expressed themselves during the first decade of the 20th century, and lasted only a short time. The artists were called "les Fauves," which means "the wild beasts." In this article,…

  13. Wild about Elk: An Educator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Carolyn; And Others

    The goal of Project WILD, a K-12 interdisciplinary conservation and environmental education program emphasizing wildlife, is to assist learners of any age in developing awareness, knowledge, skills, and commitment resulting in informed decisions, responsible behavior, and constructive actions concerning wildlife and the environment. This…

  14. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection in Small Wild Mammals.

    PubMed

    Sbeghen, Mônica Raquel; Zanata, Thais Bastos; Macagnan, Rafaela; de Abreu, Kaue Cachuba; da Cunha, Willian Luiz; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Ono, Mario Augusto

    2015-12-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis prevalent in Brazil and other Latin American countries. The etiological agents of PCM are the thermo-dimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii. Taking into account that the natural habitat of Paracoccidioides spp. is still undefined, domestic and wild animals could be useful as indicators of Paracoccidioides spp. presence in endemic areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the infection of small wild mammals by P. brasiliensis in an endemic area for human PCM. Samples from 38 wild mammals from different species such as Akodon sp., Thaptomys nigrita, Euryoryzomys russatus, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Monodelphis sp., Sooretamys angouya, Abrawayaomys angouya, Abrawayaomys ruschii and Akodontinae sp. were evaluated by ELISA, immunodiffusion, histopathology, nested PCR and culture. The overall positivity to gp43 observed in the ELISA was 23.7%. Samples from heart and liver of one O. nigripes were PCR positive, and the animal was also seropositive to gp43 in ELISA. This study showed that wild animals living in endemic areas for PCM are infected with P. brasiliensis and can be valuable epidemiological markers of the fungus presence in the environment. This is the first evidence of PCM infection in Akodon sp., E. russatus, T. nigrita and O. nigripes.

  15. "The Call of the Wild": Thematic Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinsen, Tammy

    This unit intends for students to explore various literary devices such as theme, characterization, and vocabulary while they read Jack London's "The Call of the Wild." While reading this text, students will explore the relationship of these devices in connection to the unit's overall theme: survival. Students will be exposed to history, new…

  16. Brachypodium distachyon: making hay with a wild grass.

    PubMed

    Opanowicz, Magdalena; Vain, Philippe; Draper, John; Parker, David; Doonan, John H

    2008-04-01

    Brachypodium distachyon is a wild grass with a short life cycle. Although it is related to small grain cereals such as wheat, its genome is only a fraction of the size. A draft genome sequence is currently available, and molecular and genetic tools have been developed for transformation, mutagenesis and gene mapping. Accessions collected from across its ancestral range show a surprising degree of phenotypic variation in many traits, including those implicated in domestication of the cereals. Thus, given its rapid cycling time and ease of cultivation, Brachypodium will be a useful model for investigating problems in grass biology. PMID:18343709

  17. Synoptic circulation control on wild fire occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassomenos, Pavlos

    Wild fires have gained increasing interest during the last decade worldwide. Millions of hectares are burned out every year in various countries in all continents. Most of them are burned by the villagers to increase the areas which are available to cultivation but many fires also start by natural causes. Especially in the Mediterranean regions the demise of the traditional landscape management practices along the last decades is another relevant cause of wild fires, since large amounts of fuels are accumulated in the forests, increasing the risk of forest fires. The continuous drought, the rarity of precipitation and the intensity of the winds play a significant role in the onset and evolution of a wild fire. In this work we are trying to link synoptic weather types with events of forest fires that took place in Greece during the 20-year period 1985-2004. To find possible associations with the weather systems prevailing in an area we used the synoptic classification proposed by the ESF’s COST 733 action-release 1.2 and the classification software v.17-01. Since the onset of a wild fire is a rather complex phenomenon and is largely determined by the combination of high air temperatures and absence (or rareness) of precipitation during a certain period before the event, we used the sequential option of the classifications. Specifically we applied 3, 7 and 15 days sequences, for 9 and 18 classes, and for KMEANS, DKMEANS, KHC, LUND, HCl and SANDRAS synoptic catalogues in Domain 10 of the COST 733 scheme, in which Greece is located. The analysis shows that if we use KMEANS and HCl for both the 9 and 18 classes and for all sequences the number of synoptic types that are associated with wild fires is reduced to 2-3. These 2-3 categories are associated with almost 70-90% of the total wild fires events in Greece. On the other hand the KHC and LUND catalogues are not very successful since wild fire events are almost evenly dispersed among the categories.

  18. Epidemiological survey of enteric viruses in wild boars in the Czech Republic: First evidence of close relationship between wild boar and human rotavirus A strains.

    PubMed

    Moutelíková, Romana; Dufková, Lucie; Kamler, Jiří; Drimaj, Jakub; Plhal, Radim; Prodělalová, Jana

    2016-09-25

    Population of wild boar is increasing in the whole Europe, the animals migrate close to human habitats which greatly increases the possibility of natural transmission between domestic animals or humans and wild boars. The aim of the study was to estimate in population of free-living wild boar in the Czech Republic the prevalence of enteric viral pathogens, namely rotavirus groups A and C (RVA and RVC), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and members of family Coronaviridae (transmissible gastroenteritis virus - TGEV, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus - PEDV, porcine respiratory coronavirus - PRCV, and porcine hemagglutination encephalomyelitis virus - PHEV) and Picornaviridae,(teschovirus A - PTV, sapelovirus A - PSV, and enterovirus G - EV-G). In our study, stool samples from 203 wild boars culled during hunting season 2014-2015 (from October to January) were examined by RT-PCR. RVA was detected in 2.5% of tested samples. Nucleotide analysis of VP7, VP4, and VP6 genes revealed that four RVA strains belong to G4P[25]I1, G4P[6]I5, G11P[13]I5, and G5P[13]I5 genotypes and phylogenetic analysis suggested close relation to porcine and human RVAs. The prevalence of RVC in wild boar population reached 12.8%, PTV was detected in 20.2%, PSV in 8.9%, and EV-G in 2.5% of samples. During our study no PRRSV or coronaviruses were detected. Our study provides the first evidence of RVC prevalence in wild boars and indicates that wild boars might contribute to the genetic variability of RVA and also serve as an important reservoir of other enteric viruses. PMID:27599927

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants in edible wild plants.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P

    2004-01-01

    Human beings evolved on a diet that was balanced in the omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and was high in antioxidants. Edible wild plants provide alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and higher amounts of vitamin E and vitamin C than cultivated plants. In addition to the antioxidant vitamins, edible wild plants are rich in phenols and other compounds that increase their antioxidant capacity. It is therefore important to systematically analyze the total antioxidant capacity of wild plants and promote their commercialization in both developed and developing countries. The diets of Western countries have contained increasingly larger amounts of linoleic acid (LA), which has been promoted for its cholesterol-lowering effect. It is now recognized that dietary LA favors oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and increases platelet response to aggregation. In contrast, ALA intake is associated with inhibitory effects on the clotting activity of platelets, on their response to thrombin, and on the regulation of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. In clinical studies, ALA contributed to lowering of blood pressure, and a prospective epidemiological study showed that ALA is inversely related to the risk of coronary heart disease in men. Dietary amounts of LA as well as the ratio of LA to ALA appear to be important for the metabolism of ALA to longer-chain omega-3 PUFAs. Relatively large reserves of LA in body fat. as are found in vegans or in the diet of omnivores in Western societies, would tend to slow down the formation of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from ALA. Therefore, the role of ALA in human nutrition becomes important in terms of long-term dietary intake. One advantage of the consumption of ALA over omega-3 fatty acids from fish is that the problem of insufficient vitamin E intake does not exist with high intake of ALA from plant sources.

  20. Lack of stable inheritance of introgressed transgene from oilseed rape in wild radish.

    PubMed

    Al Mouemar, Anoir; Darmency, Henri

    2004-01-01

    Hybridization of Brassica napus L. (oilseed rape) and Raphanus raphanistrum L. (wild radish) has been demonstrated, and may be the first step towards introgression of transgenes in this wild relative. If wild radish were to display a new adaptive advantage by expressing the transgene, this could modify the ecological balance of species within the agro-ecosystem. To determine if transgenes remained stable in the hybrid, the frequency of herbicide resistance was studied over four advanced generations of hybrid progeny (G8 to G11) that were subjected to herbicide selection pressure. It is expected that hemizygous resistant plants containing an herbicide resistance transgene back-crossed to wild radish would have 50% resistant progeny. In each of the G8 to G11 generations, only 18% of the progeny from resistant plants were resistant. The chromosome complement of herbicide-susceptible progenies, analyzed at G9, was not different from that of wild populations of wild radish. Herbicide-resistant G9 progeny showed higher chromosome instability, and one third of the progeny contained a supernumerary chromosome. These results suggest that in the presence of herbicide selection pressure, the transgene for herbicide resistance would be maintained despite a lack of stabilized introgression. In the absence of selection, the frequency of resistance in the population is expected to decline.

  1. Performance of hybrid progeny formed between genetically modified herbicide-tolerant soybean and its wild ancestor.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zheng-Jun; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Wei, Wei; Mi, Xiang-Cheng; Kang, Ding-Ming; Liu, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to wild relatives might affect the evolutionary dynamics of weedy populations and result in the persistence of escaped genes. To examine the effects of this gene flow, the growth of F1 hybrids that were formed by pollinating wild soybean (Glycine soja) with glyphosate-tolerant GM soybean (G. max) or its non-GM counterpart was examined in a greenhouse. The wild soybean was collected from two geographical populations in China. The performance of the wild soybean and the F2 hybrids was further explored in a field trial. Performance was measured by several vegetative and reproductive growth parameters, including the vegetative growth period, pod number, seed number, above-ground biomass and 100-seed weight. The pod setting percentage was very low in the hybrid plants. Genetically modified hybrid F1 plants had a significantly longer period of vegetative growth, higher biomass and lower 100-seed weight than the non-GM ones. The 100-seed weight of both F1 and F2 hybrids was significantly higher than that of wild soybean in both the greenhouse and the field trial. No difference in plant growth was found between GM and non-GM F2 hybrids in the field trial. The herbicide-resistant gene appeared not to adversely affect the growth of introgressed wild soybeans, suggesting that the escaped transgene could persist in nature in the absence of herbicide use. PMID:26507568

  2. Wild buckwheat is unlikely to pose a risk to buckwheat-allergic individuals.

    PubMed

    Nordlee, Julie A; Panda, Rakhi; Baumert, Joseph L; Goodman, Richard E; Taylor, Steve L

    2011-10-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a commonly allergenic food especially in Asia where buckwheat is more commonly consumed. Wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus, recently changed to Fallopia convolvulus) is an annual weed prevalent in grain-growing areas of the United States. Wild buckwheat is not closely related to edible buckwheat although the seeds do have some physical resemblance. A large shipment of wheat into Japan was halted by the discovery of the adventitious presence of wild buckwheat seeds over possible concerns for buckwheat-allergic consumers. However, IgE-binding was not observed to an extract of wild buckwheat using sera from 3 buckwheat-allergic individuals either by radio-allergosorbent test inhibition or by immunoblotting after protein separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, the extract of wild buckwheat was not detected in a buckwheat enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed with antisera against common buckwheat. Thus, wild buckwheat is highly unlikely to pose any risk to buckwheat-allergic individuals. The common names of plants should not be a factor in the risk assessment for possible cross-allergenicity.

  3. Performance of hybrid progeny formed between genetically modified herbicide-tolerant soybean and its wild ancestor

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zheng-Jun; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Wei, Wei; Mi, Xiang-Cheng; Kang, Ding-Ming; Liu, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to wild relatives might affect the evolutionary dynamics of weedy populations and result in the persistence of escaped genes. To examine the effects of this gene flow, the growth of F1 hybrids that were formed by pollinating wild soybean (Glycine soja) with glyphosate-tolerant GM soybean (G. max) or its non-GM counterpart was examined in a greenhouse. The wild soybean was collected from two geographical populations in China. The performance of the wild soybean and the F2 hybrids was further explored in a field trial. Performance was measured by several vegetative and reproductive growth parameters, including the vegetative growth period, pod number, seed number, above-ground biomass and 100-seed weight. The pod setting percentage was very low in the hybrid plants. Genetically modified hybrid F1 plants had a significantly longer period of vegetative growth, higher biomass and lower 100-seed weight than the non-GM ones. The 100-seed weight of both F1 and F2 hybrids was significantly higher than that of wild soybean in both the greenhouse and the field trial. No difference in plant growth was found between GM and non-GM F2 hybrids in the field trial. The herbicide-resistant gene appeared not to adversely affect the growth of introgressed wild soybeans, suggesting that the escaped transgene could persist in nature in the absence of herbicide use. PMID:26507568

  4. Molecular Surveillance for Lymphoproliferative Disease Virus in Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) from the Eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jesse M; Allison, Andrew B; Holmes, Edward C; Phillips, Jamie E; Bunting, Elizabeth M; Yabsley, Michael J; Brown, Justin D

    2015-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is a poorly understood, oncogenic avian retrovirus of domestic turkeys that has historically been restricted to Europe and Israel. However, a recent study reported LPDV in multiple wild turkey diagnostic cases from throughout the eastern United States of America (USA). To better understand the distribution of LPDV in the eastern USA, we surveyed 1,164 reportedly asymptomatic hunter-harvested wild turkeys from 17 states for the presence of LPDV proviral DNA by PCR. In total, 564/1,164 (47%) turkeys were positive for LPDV. Wild turkeys from each state had a relatively high prevalence of LPDV, although statewide prevalence varied from 26 to 83%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two major clades of LPDV in the USA, although one was at a low frequency suggesting restricted transmission, as well as significant clustering by state of isolation. To determine the best tissue to target for diagnostic purposes, liver, spleen, and bone marrow were tested from a subset of 15 hunter-harvested wild turkeys and 20 wild turkey diagnostic cases. Overall, bone marrow provided the highest level of detection for both hunter-harvested turkeys and diagnostic cases. The sensitivity of LPDV detection between tissues was not significantly different for diagnostic cases, but was for hunter-harvested birds. These results indicate that LPDV infection is common and widespread in wild turkey populations throughout the eastern USA, even without overt signs of disease.

  5. Molecular Surveillance for Lymphoproliferative Disease Virus in Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) from the Eastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jesse M.; Allison, Andrew B.; Holmes, Edward C.; Phillips, Jamie E.; Bunting, Elizabeth M.; Yabsley, Michael J.; Brown, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is a poorly understood, oncogenic avian retrovirus of domestic turkeys that has historically been restricted to Europe and Israel. However, a recent study reported LPDV in multiple wild turkey diagnostic cases from throughout the eastern United States of America (USA). To better understand the distribution of LPDV in the eastern USA, we surveyed 1,164 reportedly asymptomatic hunter-harvested wild turkeys from 17 states for the presence of LPDV proviral DNA by PCR. In total, 564/1,164 (47%) turkeys were positive for LPDV. Wild turkeys from each state had a relatively high prevalence of LPDV, although statewide prevalence varied from 26 to 83%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two major clades of LPDV in the USA, although one was at a low frequency suggesting restricted transmission, as well as significant clustering by state of isolation. To determine the best tissue to target for diagnostic purposes, liver, spleen, and bone marrow were tested from a subset of 15 hunter-harvested wild turkeys and 20 wild turkey diagnostic cases. Overall, bone marrow provided the highest level of detection for both hunter-harvested turkeys and diagnostic cases. The sensitivity of LPDV detection between tissues was not significantly different for diagnostic cases, but was for hunter-harvested birds. These results indicate that LPDV infection is common and widespread in wild turkey populations throughout the eastern USA, even without overt signs of disease. PMID:25897755

  6. Resource base influences genome-wide DNA methylation levels in wild baboons (Papio cynocephalus).

    PubMed

    Lea, Amanda J; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C; Tung, Jenny

    2016-04-01

    Variation in resource availability commonly exerts strong effects on fitness-related traits in wild animals. However, we know little about the molecular mechanisms that mediate these effects, or about their persistence over time. To address these questions, we profiled genome-wide whole-blood DNA methylation levels in two sets of wild baboons: (i) 'wild-feeding' baboons that foraged naturally in a savanna environment and (ii) 'Lodge' baboons that had ready access to spatially concentrated human food scraps, resulting in high feeding efficiency and low daily travel distances. We identified 1014 sites (0.20% of sites tested) that were differentially methylated between wild-feeding and Lodge baboons, providing the first evidence that resource availability shapes the epigenome in a wild mammal. Differentially methylated sites tended to occur in contiguous stretches (i.e., in differentially methylated regions or DMRs), in promoters and enhancers, and near metabolism-related genes, supporting their functional importance in gene regulation. In agreement, reporter assay experiments confirmed that methylation at the largest identified DMR, located in the promoter of a key glycolysis-related gene, was sufficient to causally drive changes in gene expression. Intriguingly, all dispersing males carried a consistent epigenetic signature of their membership in a wild-feeding group, regardless of whether males dispersed into or out of this group as adults. Together, our findings support a role for DNA methylation in mediating ecological effects on phenotypic traits in the wild and emphasize the dynamic environmental sensitivity of DNA methylation levels across the life course.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of paramyxoviruses in Zambian wild rodents and shrews.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Michihito; Muleya, Walter; Ishii, Akihiro; Orba, Yasuko; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Moonga, Ladslav; Thomas, Yuka; Kimura, Takashi; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2014-02-01

    Rodents and shrews are known to harbour various viruses. Paramyxoviruses have been isolated from Asian and Australian rodents, but little is known about them in African rodents. Recently, previously unknown paramyxovirus sequences were found in South African rodents. To date, there have been no reports related to the presence and prevalence of paramyxoviruses in shrews. We found a high prevalence of paramyxoviruses in wild rodents and shrews from Zambia. Semi-nested reverse transcription-PCR assays were used to detect paramyxovirus RNA in 21 % (96/462) of specimens analysed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these viruses were novel paramyxoviruses and could be classified as morbillivirus- and henipavirus-related viruses, and previously identified rodent paramyxovirus-related viruses. Our findings suggest the circulation of previously unknown paramyxoviruses in African rodents and shrews, and provide new information regarding the geographical distribution and genetic diversity of paramyxoviruses. PMID:24189618

  8. Impact of gene flow from cultivated beet on genetic diversity of wild sea beet populations

    PubMed

    Bartsch; Lehnen; Clegg; Pohl-Orf; Schuphan; Ellstrand

    1999-10-01

    Gene flow and introgression from cultivated plants may have important consequences for the conservation of wild plant populations. Cultivated beets (sugar beet, red beet and Swiss chard: Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) are of particular concern because they are cross-compatible with the wild taxon, sea beet (B.vs. ssp. maritima). Cultivated beet seed production areas are sometimes adjacent to sea beet populations; the numbers of flowering individuals in the former typically outnumber those in the populations of the latter. In such situations, gene flow from cultivated beets has the potential to alter the genetic composition of the nearby wild populations. In this study we measured isozyme allele frequencies of 11 polymorphic loci in 26 accessions of cultivated beet, in 20 sea beet accessions growing near a cultivated beet seed production region in northeastern Italy, and 19 wild beet accessions growing far from seed production areas. We found one allele that is specific to sugar beet, relative to other cultivated types, and a second that has a much higher frequency in Swiss chard and red beet than in sugar beet. Both alleles are typically rare in sea beet populations that are distant from seed production areas, but both are common in those that are near the Italian cultivated beet seed production region, supporting the contention that gene flow from the crop to the wild species can be substantial when both grow in proximity. Interestingly, the introgressed populations have higher genetic diversity than those that are isolated from the crop. The crop-to-wild gene flow rates are unknown, as are the fitness consequences of such alleles in the wild. Thus, we are unable to assess the long-term impact of such introgression. However, it is clear that gene flow from a crop to a wild taxon does not necessarily result in a decrease in the genetic diversity of the native plant.

  9. Impact of gene flow from cultivated beet on genetic diversity of wild sea beet populations

    PubMed

    Bartsch; Lehnen; Clegg; Pohl-Orf; Schuphan; Ellstrand

    1999-10-01

    Gene flow and introgression from cultivated plants may have important consequences for the conservation of wild plant populations. Cultivated beets (sugar beet, red beet and Swiss chard: Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) are of particular concern because they are cross-compatible with the wild taxon, sea beet (B.vs. ssp. maritima). Cultivated beet seed production areas are sometimes adjacent to sea beet populations; the numbers of flowering individuals in the former typically outnumber those in the populations of the latter. In such situations, gene flow from cultivated beets has the potential to alter the genetic composition of the nearby wild populations. In this study we measured isozyme allele frequencies of 11 polymorphic loci in 26 accessions of cultivated beet, in 20 sea beet accessions growing near a cultivated beet seed production region in northeastern Italy, and 19 wild beet accessions growing far from seed production areas. We found one allele that is specific to sugar beet, relative to other cultivated types, and a second that has a much higher frequency in Swiss chard and red beet than in sugar beet. Both alleles are typically rare in sea beet populations that are distant from seed production areas, but both are common in those that are near the Italian cultivated beet seed production region, supporting the contention that gene flow from the crop to the wild species can be substantial when both grow in proximity. Interestingly, the introgressed populations have higher genetic diversity than those that are isolated from the crop. The crop-to-wild gene flow rates are unknown, as are the fitness consequences of such alleles in the wild. Thus, we are unable to assess the long-term impact of such introgression. However, it is clear that gene flow from a crop to a wild taxon does not necessarily result in a decrease in the genetic diversity of the native plant. PMID:10583835

  10. Hybridization between GM soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.) under field conditions in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mizuguti, Aki; Ohigashi, Kentaro; Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Kaga, Akito; Kuroda, Yosuke; Matsuo, Kazuhito

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of information about natural hybridization between GM soybean (Glycine max) and wild soybean (Glycine soja) is required for risk assessment evaluation and to establish biosafety regulations in Japan. This is particularly important in areas where wild relatives of cultivated soybean are grown (i.e. East Asia including Japan). To collect information on temporal and spatial factors affecting variation in hybridization between wild and GM soybean, a two year hybridization experiment was established that included one wild soybean and five GM soybean cultivars with different maturity dates. Hybridization frequencies ranged from 0 to 0.097%. The maximum hybridization frequency (0.097%) was obtained from wild soybean crossed with GM soybean cv. AG6702RR, which were adjacently cultivated with wild soybean, with 25 hybrids out of 25 741 seedlings tested. Cultivar AG6702RR had the most synchronous flowering period with wild soybean. Ten hybrids out of 25 741 were produced by crossing with cv. AG5905RR, which had the second most synchronous flowering period with wild soybean. Most hybrids were found where GM and wild soybeans were adjacently cultivated, whereas only one hybrid was detected from wild soybean plants at 2 m, 4 m and 6 m from a pollen source (GM soybean). Differences in flowering phenology, isolation distance and presence of buffer plants accounted for half of the variation in hybridization frequency in this study. Temporal and spatial isolation will be effective strategies to minimize hybridization between GM and wild soybean.

  11. Exposure of wild waterfowl to Mycoplasma anatis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Goldberg, D.R.; Thomas, C.B.; Sharp, P.; Robb, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    We developed an ELISA procedure to assess the presence of M. anatis-specific serum antibody in ducks. Sera from exposed and unexposed Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were used to standardize the ELISA and to establish reference ranges to classify ELISA results as exposed or not exposed. We conducted serological surveys of female waterfowl in the central and eastern United States between 1988 and 1992 to assess the frequency of exposure in wild waterfowl. Adult breeding mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), wintering mallards, and black ducks (Anas rubripes) had high prevalences of exposure to M. anatis (25% to >80%). In comparison, none of the breeding adult canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) had serum antibody levels indicating exposure. Approximately 50% of the juvenile mallards and black ducks were exposed to M. anatis by 8 months of age, indicating high transmission rates among wild birds.

  12. Exposure of wild waterfowl to Mycoplasma anatis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Goldberg, D.R.; Thomas, C.B.; Sharp, P.; Robb, J.R.; Krapu, G.L.; Nersessian, B.N.; Kenow, K.P.; Korschgen, C.E.; Chipley, W.H.; Conroy, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    We developed an ELISA procedure to assess the presence of M. Anatis-specific serum antibody in ducks. Sera from exposed and unexposed Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were used to standardize tile ELISA and to establish reference ranges to classify ELISA results as exposed or not exposed. We conducted serological surveys of female waterfowl in the central and eastern United States between 1988 and 1992 to assess the frequency of exposure in wild waterfowl. Adult breeding mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), wintering mallards, and black ducks (Anas rubripes) had high prevalences of exposure to M. Anatis (25% to >80%). In comparison, none of the breeding adult canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) had serum antibody levels indicating exposure. Approximately 50% of the juvenile mallards and black ducks were exposed to M. Anatis by 8 months of age, indicating high transmission rates among wild birds.

  13. Locomotion dynamics of hunting in wild cheetahs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A M; Lowe, J C; Roskilly, K; Hudson, P E; Golabek, K A; McNutt, J W

    2013-06-13

    Although the cheetah is recognised as the fastest land animal, little is known about other aspects of its notable athleticism, particularly when hunting in the wild. Here we describe and use a new tracking collar of our own design, containing a combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial measurement units, to capture the locomotor dynamics and outcome of 367 predominantly hunting runs of five wild cheetahs in Botswana. A remarkable top speed of 25.9 m s(-1) (58 m.p.h. or 93 km h(-1)) was recorded, but most cheetah hunts involved only moderate speeds. We recorded some of the highest measured values for lateral and forward acceleration, deceleration and body-mass-specific power for any terrestrial mammal. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed locomotor information on the hunting dynamics of a large cursorial predator in its natural habitat.

  14. Wild turkey poult survival in southcentral Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, M.W.; Garner, D.L.; Klaas, E.E.

    1999-01-01

    Poult survival is key to understanding annual change in wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) populations. Survival of eastern wild turkey poults (M. g. silvestris) 0-4 weeks posthatch was studied in southcentral Iowa during 1994-97. Survival estimates of poults were calculated based on biweekly flush counts and daily locations acquired via radiotelemetry. Poult survival averaged 0.52 ?? 0.14% (?? ?? SE) for telemetry counts and 0.40 ?? 0.15 for flush counts. No within-year or across-year differences were detected between estimation techniques. More than 72% (n = 32) of documented poult mortality occurred ???14 days posthatch, and mammalian predation accounted for 92.9% of documented mortality. If mortality agents are not of concern, we suggest biologists conduct 4-week flush counts to obtain poult survival estimates for use in population models and development of harvest recommendations.

  15. Endoparasites of Wild Rodents in Southeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nateghpour, Mehdi; Motevalli-Haghi, Afsaneh; Akbarzadeh, Kamran; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Mohebali, Mehdi; Mobedi, Iraj; Farivar, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was aimed to collect wild rodents for endoparasites determination in some parts of Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran nearby Pakistan and Afghanistan countries. Methods: A total of 100 wild rodents were captured alive with cage traps. Various samples were collected from blood and feces, also impression smear prepared from different organs. The samples were prepared by formalin-ether or stained with Giemsa, after that were examined under microscope. Results: All the caught rodents (47 Tatera indica, 44 Meriones hurriana, 5 Gerbilus nanus and 4 Meriones libycus) were studied for endoparasites emphasizing to their zoonotic aspects. Endoparasites including Spirurida, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana feraterna, Trichuris trichiura, Skerjabino taenia, Trichostrongylus spp, Entamoeba muris, Chilomastix mesnili and Leishmania spp were parasitologically identified. Conclusion: Among 9 genera or species of the identified parasites at least 5 of them have zoonotic and public health importance. PMID:26114139

  16. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern Wild Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  17. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern wild turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  18. Analogues for Wild2: Carbonaceous Chondrites Shot into Aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, L. J.; Bridges, J. C.; MacArthur, J. L.; Wickham-Eade, J. E.; Price, M. C.; Burchell, M. J.; Butterworth, A. L.; Baker, S. H.

    2016-08-01

    Comet Wild2 particles show similarities to carbonaceous chondrites. We compare Wild2 grains to analogue shots of CV3 and CR2 powders in aerogel tracks, using the same techniques, to make accurate comparisons.

  19. POLICY CONUNDRUM: RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restoring wild salmon runs to the Pacific Northwest is technically challenging, politically nasty, and socially divisive. Past restoration efforts have been largely unsuccessful. Society's failure to reverse the continuing decline of wild salmon has the characteristics of a pol...

  20. Mycobacterium spp. in wild game in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Pate, Mateja; Zajc, Urška; Kušar, Darja; Žele, Diana; Vengušt, Gorazd; Pirš, Tina; Ocepek, Matjaž

    2016-02-01

    Wildlife species are an important reservoir of mycobacterial infections that may jeopardise efforts to control and eradicate bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Slovenia is officially free of bTB, but no data on the presence of mycobacteria in wild animals has been reported. In this study, samples of liver and lymph nodes were examined from 306 apparently healthy free-range wild animals of 13 species in Slovenia belonging to the families Cervidae, Suidae, Canidae, Mustelidae and Bovidae. Mycobacteria were isolated from 36/306 (11.8%) animals (red deer, roe deer, fallow deer, wild boar and jackal) and identified by PCR, commercial diagnostic kits and sequencing. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria identified in five species were Mycobacterium peregrinum, M. avium subsp. hominissuis, M. intracellulare, M. confluentis, M. fortuitum, M. terrae, M. avium subsp. avium, M. celatum, M. engbaekii, M. neoaurum, M. nonchromogenicum and M. vaccae.