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Sample records for willow bark extract

  1. Willow Bark

    MedlinePlus

    ... from several varieties of the willow tree, including white willow or European willow, black willow or pussy willow, ... taking a specific product containing glucosamine sulfate, methylsufonlylmethane, white willow bark extract, ginger root concentrate, boswellia extract, turmeric ...

  2. Efficacy and Safety of White Willow Bark (Salix alba) Extracts.

    PubMed

    Shara, Mohd; Stohs, Sidney J

    2015-08-01

    Willow bark extract has been used for thousands of years as an anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic. In spite of its long history of use, relatively few human and animal studies have been published that confirm anecdotal observations. A small number of clinical studies have been conducted that support the use of willow bark extracts in chronic lower back and joint pain and osteoarthritis. Willow bark extracts also are widely used in sports performance and weight loss products presumably because of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, although no human studies have been published that specifically and directly document beneficial effects. In recent years, various in vitro and animal studies have demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory activity of willow bark extract is associated with down regulation of the inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor-kappa B. Although willow bark extracts are generally standardized to salicin, other ingredients in the extracts including other salicylates as well as polyphenols, and flavonoids may also play prominent roles in the therapeutic actions. Adverse effects appear to be minimal as compared to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including aspirin. The primary cause for concern may relate to allergic reactions in salicylate-sensitive individuals. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The Study of Interactions between Active Compounds of Coffee and Willow (Salix sp.) Bark Water Extract

    PubMed Central

    Durak, Agata; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Coffee and willow are known as valuable sources of biologically active phytochemicals such as chlorogenic acid, caffeine, and salicin. The aim of the study was to determine the interactions between the active compounds contained in water extracts from coffee and bark of willow (Salix purpurea and Salix myrsinifolia). Raw materials and their mixtures were characterized by multidirectional antioxidant activities; however, bioactive constituents interacted with each other. Synergism was observed for ability of inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing power, whereas compounds able to scavenge ABTS radical cation acted antagonistically. Additionally, phytochemicals from willow bark possessed hydrophilic character and thermostability which justifies their potential use as an ingredient in coffee beverages. Proposed mixtures may be used in the prophylaxis or treatment of some civilization diseases linked with oxidative stress. Most importantly, strong synergism observed for phytochemicals able to prevent lipids against oxidation may suggest protective effect for cell membrane phospholipids. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes as an ingredient in coffee beverages can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this issue requires further study. PMID:25013777

  4. Fortified extract of red berry, Ginkgo biloba, and white willow bark in experimental early diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Bucolo, Claudio; Marrazzo, Giuseppina; Platania, Chiara Bianca Maria; Drago, Filippo; Leggio, Gian Marco; Salomone, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a complex condition where inflammation and oxidative stress represent crucial pathways in the pathogenesis of the disease. Aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a fortified extract of red berries, Ginkgo biloba and white willow bark containing carnosine and α-lipoic acid in early retinal and plasma changes of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a single streptozotocin injection in Sprague Dawley rats. Diabetics and nondiabetic (control) rats were treated daily with the fortified extract for the ten days. Retina samples were collected and analyzed for their TNF-α and VEGF content. Moreover, plasma oxidative stress was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS). Increased TNF-α and VEGF levels were observed in the retina of diabetic rats. Treatment with the fortified extract significantly lowered retinal cytokine levels and suppressed diabetes-related lipid peroxidation. These data demonstrate that the fortified extract attenuates the degree of retinal inflammation and plasma lipid peroxidation preserving the retina in early diabetic rats.

  5. From plant extract to molecular panacea: a commentary on Stone (1763) ‘An account of the success of the bark of the willow in the cure of the agues’

    PubMed Central

    Wood, John N.

    2015-01-01

    The application of aspirin-like drugs in modern medicine is very broad, encompassing the treatment of inflammation, pain and a variety of cardiovascular conditions. Although anecdotal accounts of willow bark extract as an anti-inflammatory drug have occurred since written records began (for example by Hippocrates), the first convincing demonstration of a potent anti-pyretic effect of willow bark containing salicylates was made by the English cleric Edward Stone in the late eighteenth century. Here, we discuss the route to optimizing and understanding the mechanism of action of anti-inflammatory drugs that have their origins in Stone's seminal study, ‘An account of the success of the bark of the willow in the cure of agues’. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750237

  6. Comprehensive analysis of commercial willow bark extracts by new technology platform: combined use of metabolomics, high-performance liquid chromatography-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high-resolution radical scavenging assay.

    PubMed

    Agnolet, Sara; Wiese, Stefanie; Verpoorte, Robert; Staerk, Dan

    2012-11-02

    Here, proof-of-concept of a new analytical platform used for the comprehensive analysis of a small set of commercial willow bark products is presented, and compared with a traditional standardization solely based on analysis of salicin and salicin derivatives. The platform combines principal component analysis (PCA) of two chemical fingerprints, i.e., HPLC and (1)H NMR data, and a pharmacological fingerprint, i.e., high-resolution 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical cation (ABTS(+)) reduction profile, with targeted identification of constituents of interest by hyphenated HPLC-solid-phase extraction-tube transfer NMR, i.e., HPLC-SPE-ttNMR. Score plots from PCA of HPLC and (1)H NMR fingerprints showed the same distinct grouping of preparations formulated as capsules of Salix alba bark and separation of S. alba cortex. Loading plots revealed this to be due to high amount of salicin in capsules and ampelopsin, taxifolin, 7-O-methyltaxifolin-3'-O-glucoside, and 7-O-methyltaxifolin in S. alba cortex, respectively. PCA of high-resolution radical scavenging profiles revealed clear separation of preparations along principal component 1 due to the major radical scavengers (+)-catechin and ampelopsin. The new analytical platform allowed identification of 16 compounds in commercial willow bark extracts, and identification of ampelopsin, taxifolin, 7-O-methyltaxifolin-3'-O-glucoside, and 7-O-methyltaxifolin in S. alba bark extract is reported for the first time. The detection of the novel compound, ethyl 1-hydroxy-6-oxocyclohex-2-enecarboxylate, is also described. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Anaphylactic reaction to a dietary supplement containing willow bark.

    PubMed

    Boullata, Joseph I; McDonnell, Patrick J; Oliva, Cynthia D

    2003-06-01

    To report a case of anaphylaxis resulting from the use of a willow bark-containing dietary supplement in a patient with a history of an aspirin allergy. A 25-year-old white woman presented to the emergency department of a community teaching hospital with anaphylaxis requiring epinephrine, diphenhydramine, methylprednisolone, and volume resuscitation to which she responded favorably. Medication history revealed that she had ingested 2 capsules of Stacker 2 (NVE Pharmaceuticals, Newton, NJ), a dietary supplement promoted for weight loss, prior to experiencing her initial symptoms. Among other active ingredients, this product contains willow bark. Of significance is that this patient also reported a history of allergy to acetylsalicylic acid. No other causes for anaphylaxis were identified. She continued to receive routine supportive care and the remaining hospital course was uncomplicated. Dietary supplements, including herbal products, are used by many individuals who consider them to be inherently safe despite limited regulatory oversight by the Food and Drug Administration. While there may be value to specific botanical ingredients, a potential for adverse effects also exists. The popular product consumed by our patient is used for weight loss and contains willow bark, a source of salicylates. Based on the Naranjo probability scale, it is probable that this case of anaphylaxis was due to this dietary supplement. The use of any willow bark-containing dietary supplement may present a risk of anaphylactic reaction to patients with a history of allergy to salicylates. Clinicians need to recognize the potential for adverse effects from dietary supplements.

  8. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Allaway, David; Nebrich, Simone; Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina), willow bark (Salix alba), and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG), β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles.

  9. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Allaway, David; Nebrich, Simone; Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina), willow bark (Salix alba), and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG), β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles. PMID:22474508

  10. Spatially distinct responses within willow to bark stripping by deer: effects on insect herbivory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Motonobu; Nakamura, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Within individual plants, cervid herbivory may cause positive or negative plant-mediated effects on insect herbivores, depending on where it occurs. Using a combination of field observations and artificial bark-stripping experiments in Hokkaido, Japan, we examined the plant-mediated effects of bark stripping by sika deer ( Cervus nippon yesoensis) on insect herbivory in two spatially distinct parts of willow ( Salix udensis) trees: resprouting leaves below bark-stripping wounds and canopy leaves above. Natural and artificial bark stripping stimulated resprouting from trunks below wounds. Resprouting leaves on bark-stripped trees had lower total phenolics, condensed tannin, and C/N ratios than did canopy leaves on control trees. Herbivory rates were higher in resprouting leaves on bark-stripped trees than in canopy leaves on controls. Conversely, above-wound canopy leaves on bark-stripped trees had higher total phenolics than did those on controls, while herbivory rates were lower in the canopy leaves of bark-stripped trees than in those on controls. These results demonstrate that plant-mediated effects of bark stripping diverge between plant tissues below and above wounds in individual willow trees. We submit that focusing on multiple plant parts can elucidate plant-mediated effects at the whole-plant scale.

  11. Inhibition of proinflammatory biomarkers in THP1 macrophages by polyphenols derived from chamomile, meadowsweet and willow bark.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Elaine M; Harbourne, Niamh; Marete, Eunice; Martyn, Danika; Jacquier, Jc; O'Riordan, Dolores; Gibney, Eileen R

    2013-04-01

    Antiinflammatory compounds in the diet can alleviate excessive inflammation, a factor in the pathogenesis of common diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis and diabetes. This study examined three European herbs, chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria L.) and willow bark (Salix alba L.), which have been traditionally used to treat inflammation and their potential for use as antiinflammatory agents. Aqueous herbal extracts and isolated polyphenolic compounds (apigenin, quercetin and salicylic acid, 0-100 μM) were incubated with THP1 macrophages, and interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were measured. At concentrations of 10 μM, both apigenin and quercetin reduced IL-6 significantly ( p < 0.05). Apigenin at 10 μM and quercetin at 25 μM reduced TNF-α significantly ( p < 0.05). Amongst the herbal extracts, willow bark had the greatest antiinflammatory activity at reducing IL-6 and TNF-α production. This was followed by meadowsweet and then chamomile. The lowest effective antiinflammatory concentrations were noncytotoxic (MTT mitochondrial activity assay). The Comet assay, which was used to study the protective effect of the isolated phenols against oxidative damage, showed positive results for all three polyphenols. These are the first findings that demonstrate the antiinflammatory capacity of these herbal extracts. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. An in vivo study examining the antiinflammatory effects of chamomile, meadowsweet, and willow bark in a novel functional beverage.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Elaine M; Harbourne, Niamh; Marete, Eunice; Jacquier, J C; O'Riordan, Dolores; Gibney, Eileen R

    2013-12-01

    The antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties of polyphenols are well documented in vitro but there are few human studies. A herbal beverage composed of chamomile, meadowsweet, and willow bark (CMW) was developed and tested for its antiinflammatory effect in a cohort of healthy adults (n = 20) during a 4-week intervention. Subjects were randomised to either the treatment (TG) or placebo group (PG). The three herbs under study, which have been used in traditional and alternative medicine, were delivered in a berry extract matrix. This berry extract was used as a control in the experiment. The objective was to assess the herbs' effects on systemic inflammation and joint function by examining circulating cytokines and mechanical joint flexibility. Blood serum was analyzed for cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα. There was an average decrease of 21.7% IL-1β in the treatment group, whereas the decrease seen in the placebo group was 3% but these were not statistically significant. Quartile analysis based on baseline production of TNFα demonstrated a decrease in the treatment group's IL-6 levels. This group showed improvements in mechanical joint function and pain upon movement of joints specific to the knee and lower back. Overall, no significant antiinflammatory effects were seen. The evidence is therefore inconclusive and further investigations are required using a larger cohort with some degree of elevated inflammatory activity.

  13. Pleiotropic Effects of White Willow Bark and 1,2-Decanediol on Human Adult Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Bassino, Eleonora; Gasparri, Franco; Munaron, Luca

    2018-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin defect, usually occurring during adolescence, but often it can persist in adults leaving permanent face scarring. Acne is usually treated with topical drugs, oral antibiotics, retinoids, and hormonal therapies, but medicinal plants are increasingly employed. To investigate the protective role of white willow bark (WWB) and 1,2-decanediol (DD) on the damage caused by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on human adult keratinocytes (HaCaT). HaCaT were exposed to LPS alone or in association with WWB and DD. Epidermal viability, metabolic modulation, inflammatory activity, and cell migration were assessed with both common standardized protocols or high-throughput screening systems. The preincubation of HaCaT with WWB and DD (used separately or in combination) differently prevented the alterations induced by LPS on HaCaT in terms of growth factor release (IGF, EGF, VEGF), cytokine production (IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8), or expression of the transcription factor FOXO-I. Moreover, they partially restore wound repair lowered by LPS. These results suggest that both natural compounds were able to differently affect several functions of LPS-stressed keratinocytes suggesting their potential role for the prevention of acne vulgaris, without adverse effects. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Detection of Salicylic Acid in Willow Bark: An Addition to a Classic Series of Experiments in the Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Matthew D.; McLeod, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid and its derivative, acetylsalicylic acid, are often encountered in introductory organic chemistry experiments, and mention is often made that salicylic acid was originally isolated from the bark of the willow tree. This biological connection, however, is typically not further pursued, leaving students with an impression that biology…

  15. Willow Leaves' Extracts Contain Anti-Tumor Agents Effective against Three Cell Types

    PubMed Central

    El-Shemy, Hany A.; Aboul-Enein, Ahmed M.; Aboul-Enein, Khalid Mostafa; Fujita, Kounosuke

    2007-01-01

    Many higher plants contain novel metabolites with antimicrobial, antifungal and antiviral properties. However, in the developed world almost all clinically used chemotherapeutics have been produced by in vitro chemical synthesis. Exceptions, like taxol and vincristine, were structurally complex metabolites that were difficult to synthesize in vitro. Many non-natural, synthetic drugs cause severe side effects that were not acceptable except as treatments of last resort for terminal diseases such as cancer. The metabolites discovered in medicinal plants may avoid the side effect of synthetic drugs, because they must accumulate within living cells. The aim here was to test an aqueous extract from the young developing leaves of willow (Salix safsaf, Salicaceae) trees for activity against human carcinoma cells in vivo and in vitro. In vivo Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cells (EACC) were injected into the intraperitoneal cavity of mice. The willow extract was fed via stomach tube. The (EACC) derived tumor growth was reduced by the willow extract and death was delayed (for 35 days). In vitro the willow extract could kill the majority (75%–80%) of abnormal cells among primary cells harvested from seven patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 13 with AML (acute myeloid leukemia). DNA fragmentation patterns within treated cells inferred targeted cell death by apoptosis had occurred. The metabolites within the willow extract may act as tumor inhibitors that promote apoptosis, cause DNA damage, and affect cell membranes and/or denature proteins. PMID:17264881

  16. Salicin from Willow Bark can Modulate Neurite Outgrowth in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    Wölfle, Ute; Haarhaus, Birgit; Kersten, Astrid; Fiebich, Bernd; Hug, Martin J; Schempp, Christoph M

    2015-10-01

    Salicin from willow bark has been used throughout centuries in China and Europe for the treatment of pain, headache, and inflammatory conditions. Recently, it could be demonstrated that salicin binds and activates the bitter taste receptor TAS2R16. Studies on rodent tissues showed the general expression of bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) in rodent brain. Here, we demonstrate the expression of hTAS2R16 in human neuronal tissues and the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. The functionality was analyzed in the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y after stimulation with salicin, a known TAS2R16 agonist. In this setting salicin induced in SH-SY5Y cells phosphorylation of ERK and CREB, the key transcription factor of neuronal differentiation. PD98059, an inhibitor of the ERK pathway, as well as probenecid, a TAS2R16 antagonist, inhibited receptor phosphorylation as well as neurite outgrowth. These data show that salicin might modulate neurite outgrowth by bitter taste receptor activation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Effects of hot water extraction pretreatment on pyrolysis of shrub willow

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Treatment of biomass via hot water extraction (HWE) reduces the amount of hemicellulose and ash in the biomass resulting in a concentration of cellulose and lignin content. In this study, we tested the effect of HWE as a biomass pretreatment on the pyrolysis of shrub willow via both conventional he...

  18. DNA extraction and amplification from contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Ximena; Payacán, Claudia; Arriaza, Francisco; Lobos, Sergio; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Seelenfreund, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Paper mulberry has been used for thousands of years in Asia and Oceania for making paper and bark-cloth, respectively. Museums around the world hold valuable collections of Polynesian bark-cloth. Genetic analysis of the plant fibers from which the textiles were made may answer a number of questions of interest related to provenance, authenticity or species used in the manufacture of these textiles. Recovery of nucleic acids from paper mulberry bark-cloth has not been reported before. We describe a simple method for the extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA from small samples of contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth (tapa) using two types of nuclear markers. We report the amplification of about 300 bp sequences of the ITS1 region and of a microsatellite marker. Sufficient DNA was retrieved from all bark-cloth samples to permit successful PCR amplification. This method shows a means of obtaining useful genetic information from modern bark-cloth samples and opens perspectives for the analyses of small fragments derived from ethnographic materials.

  19. DNA Extraction and Amplification from Contemporary Polynesian Bark-Cloth

    PubMed Central

    Moncada, Ximena; Payacán, Claudia; Arriaza, Francisco; Lobos, Sergio; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Seelenfreund, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background Paper mulberry has been used for thousands of years in Asia and Oceania for making paper and bark-cloth, respectively. Museums around the world hold valuable collections of Polynesian bark-cloth. Genetic analysis of the plant fibers from which the textiles were made may answer a number of questions of interest related to provenance, authenticity or species used in the manufacture of these textiles. Recovery of nucleic acids from paper mulberry bark-cloth has not been reported before. Methodology We describe a simple method for the extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA from small samples of contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth (tapa) using two types of nuclear markers. We report the amplification of about 300 bp sequences of the ITS1 region and of a microsatellite marker. Conclusions Sufficient DNA was retrieved from all bark-cloth samples to permit successful PCR amplification. This method shows a means of obtaining useful genetic information from modern bark-cloth samples and opens perspectives for the analyses of small fragments derived from ethnographic materials. PMID:23437166

  20. Application of high-performance liquid chromatography for research of salicin in bark of different varieties of Salix.

    PubMed

    Kenstaviciene, Palmyra; Nenortiene, Palma; Kiliuviene, Guoda; Zevzikovas, Andrejus; Lukosius, Audronis; Kazlauskiene, Daiva

    2009-01-01

    Willow (Salix L.) species are widely spread in Lithuanian natural dendroflora. Willow bark contains active substances known for anti-inflammatory properties and is known as a phytotherapeutic precursor of aspirin. Bark extracts are components of analgesic and antirheumatic preparations. Therapeutic effectiveness is associated with salicin (2-(hydroxymethyl)phenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside), which turns into salicylic acid. Increasing attention to natural preparations gives primary importance to research of plants. This study focused on 12 willow taxa and employed routine pharmacopoeia methods. High-performance liquid chromatography method was applied for the analysis of bark extractions. The investigation revealed that not all willow species accumulated a therapeutically sufficient amount of salicin. Bark samples were investigated after 1- and 2-year growth in autumn and spring. Salicin content ranged from 0.08 to 12.6%. Higher contents of active materials were determined in autumn and in 2-year-old willows. Certain willow taxa (Salix alba L., Salix mollissima L., Salix triandra L., Salix viminalis "Americana", Salix dasyclados L.) possessed extremely low salicin amounts. In the second year, analysis covered 32 willow species. Results indicated striking differences in salicin amounts (from 0.04% in Salix viminalis "Americana" to 12.06% in Salix acutifolia). Willow species, plant age, and season should be considered when collecting medicinal plant material. The amount of salicylates in 2-year-old willow bark collected in autumn exceeded by 25% that in 1-year-old willow bark collected in spring. Bark of some analyzed willow species contained the amount of salicylates too low for using as anti-inflammatory or antipyretic remedy.

  1. Biological screening of Bangladeshi mango mistletoe bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Islam, R; Khurshid Alam, A H M; Hossain, M A; Mosaddik, M A; Sadik, G

    2004-06-01

    The ethyl acetate extract of the Bangladeshi mango mistletoe (Loranthus globosus) bark was found to be most effective against both Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria and it also showed good cytotoxicity with a LC50 10.83 microg/ml. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Valorisation of softwood bark through extraction of utilizable chemicals. A review.

    PubMed

    Jablonsky, M; Nosalova, J; Sladkova, A; Haz, A; Kreps, F; Valka, J; Miertus, S; Frecer, V; Ondrejovic, M; Sima, J; Surina, I

    2017-11-01

    Softwood bark is an important source for producing chemicals and materials as well as bioenergy. Extraction is regarded as a key technology for obtaining chemicals in general, and valorizing bark as a source of such chemicals in particular. In this paper, properties of 237 compounds identified in various studies dealing with extraction of softwood bark were described. Finally, some challenges and perspectives on the production of chemicals from bark are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dimeric procyanidins: screening for B1 to B8 and semisynthetic preparation of B3, B4, B6, And B8 from a polymeric procyanidin fraction of white willow bark (Salix alba).

    PubMed

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Wray, Victor; Winterhalter, Peter

    2010-07-14

    Fifty-seven samples have been analyzed with regard to the occurrence of dimeric procyanidins B1-B8 as well as the composition of polymeric procyanidins. Fifty-two samples were found to contain polymeric procyanidins. In most of the samples, (-)-epicatechin was the predominant unit present. In white willow bark (Salix alba), however, large amounts of (+)-catechin (81.0%) were determined by means of phloroglucinolysis. White willow bark has therefore been used for the semisynthetic formation of dimeric procyanidins B3 [(+)-C-4alpha --> 8-(+)-C)], B4 [(+)-C-4alpha --> 8-(-)-EC)], B6 [(+)-C-4alpha --> 6-(+)-C)], and B8 [(+)-C-4alpha --> 6-(-)-EC)]. The reaction mixtures of the semisynthesis were successfully fractionated with high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC), and dimeric procyanidins B3, B4, B6, and B8 were obtained on a preparative scale.

  4. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects of Pinus pinaster bark extract

    PubMed Central

    Iravani, S.; Zolfaghari, B.

    2011-01-01

    In everyday life, our body generates free radicals and other reactive oxygen species which are derived either from the endogenous metabolic processes (within the body) or from external sources. Many clinical and pharmacological studies suggest that natural antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage. Among the natural antioxidant products, Pycnogenol® (French Pinus pinaster bark extract) has been received considerable attention because of its strong free radical-scavenging activity against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. P. pinaster bark extract (PBE) contains polyphenolic compounds (these compounds consist of catechin, taxifolin, procyanidins of various chain lengths formed by catechin and epicatechin units, and phenolic acids) capable of producing diverse potentially protective effects against chronic and degenerative diseases. This herbal medication has been reported to have cardiovascular benefits, such as vasorelaxant activity, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibiting activity, and the ability to enhance the microcirculation by increasing capillary permeability. Moreover, effects on the immune system and modulation of nitrogen monoxide metabolism have been reported. This article provides a brief overview of clinical studies describing the beneficial and health-promoting effects of PBE. PMID:22049273

  5. Acute and subacute toxicity of Schinus terebinthifolius bark extract.

    PubMed

    Lima, L B; Vasconcelos, C F B; Maranhão, H M L; Leite, V R; Ferreira, P A; Andrade, B A; Araújo, E L; Xavier, H S; Lafayette, S S L; Wanderley, A G

    2009-12-10

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) has long been used in traditional Brazilian medicine, especially to treat inflammatory and haemostatic diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity (45 days) of Schinus terebinthifolius via the oral route in Wistar rats of both sexes. For the acute toxicity test, the dried extract of Schinus terebinthifolius bark was administered in doses from 0.625 to 5.0 g/kg (n=5/group/sex) and in the subacute toxicity test the following doses were used: 0.25, 0.625 and 1.5625 g/kg/day (n=13/group/sex), for 45 consecutive days. In the acute toxicity test, Schinus terebinthifolius did not produce any toxic signs or deaths. The subacute treatment with Schinus terebinthifolius did not alter either the body weight gain or the food and water consumption. The hematological and biochemical analysis did not show significant differences in any of the parameters examined in female or male groups, except in two male groups, in which the treatment with Schinus terebinthifolius (0.25 and 0.625 g/kg) induced an increase of mean corpuscular volume values (2.9 and 2.6%, respectively). These variations are within the physiological limits described for the specie and does not have clinical relevance. The acute and subacute administration of the dried extract of Schinus terebinthifolius bark did not produced toxic effects in Wistar rats.

  6. SPE-HPTLC of procyanidins from the barks of different species and clones of Salix.

    PubMed

    Pobłocka-Olech, Loretta; Krauze-Baranowska, Mirosława

    2008-11-04

    A SPE-HPTLC method was developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of procyanidin B(1) in willow barks. The chromatography was performed on HPTLC silica gel layer with the mobile phase chloroform-ethanol-formic acid (50:40:6 v/v/v), in the Automatic Developing Chamber-ADC 2. The methanol extracts from willow barks were purified by SPE method on RP-18 silica gel columns with methanol-water (7:93 v/v) as the eluent. The presence of procyanidin B(1) was revealed in the majority of investigated willow barks. The content of procyanidin B(1) varied from 0.26 mg/g in the extract of Salix purpurea clone 1067-2.24 mg/g in the extract of Salix alba clone 1100. The method was validated for linearity, precision, LOD, LOQ and repeatability.

  7. Removal of Water-Soluble Extractives Improves the Enzymatic Digestibility of Steam-Pretreated Softwood Barks.

    PubMed

    Frankó, Balázs; Carlqvist, Karin; Galbe, Mats; Lidén, Gunnar; Wallberg, Ola

    2018-02-01

    Softwood bark contains a large amounts of extractives-i.e., soluble lipophilic (such as resin acids) and hydrophilic components (phenolic compounds, stilbenes). The effects of the partial removal of water-soluble extractives before acid-catalyzed steam pretreatment on enzymatic digestibility were assessed for two softwood barks-Norway spruce and Scots pine. A simple hot water extraction step removed more than half of the water-soluble extractives from the barks, which improved the enzymatic digestibility of both steam-pretreated materials. This effect was more pronounced for the spruce than the pine bark, as evidenced by the 30 and 11% glucose yield improvement, respectively, in the enzymatic digestibility. Furthermore, analysis of the chemical composition showed that the acid-insoluble lignin content of the pretreated materials decreased when water-soluble extractives were removed prior to steam pretreatment. This can be explained by a decreased formation of water-insoluble "pseudo-lignin" from water-soluble bark phenolics during the acid-catalyzed pretreatment, which otherwise results in distorted lignin analysis and may also contribute to the impaired enzymatic digestibility of the barks. Thus, this study advocates the removal of extractives as the first step in the processing of bark or bark-rich materials in a sugar platform biorefinery.

  8. Tannins from Hamamelis virginiana: identification of proanthocyanidins and hamamelitannin quantification in leaf, bark, and stem extracts.

    PubMed

    Vennat, B; Pourrat, H; Pouget, M P; Gross, D; Pourrat, A

    1988-10-01

    The tannins in leaf, bark, and stem extracts of HAMAMELIS VIRGINIANA were analyzed. Four proanthocyanidins were isolated by HPLC. One was a procyanidin polymer containing only one type of flavanol unit; the other three were polymers of procyanidin and prodelphinidin containing two types of flavanol units. A method of assay of hamamelitannin showed the bark extract to be 31 times richer in hamamelitannin than the leaf extract and 87 times richer than the stem extract.

  9. Distribution of P, K, Ca, Mg, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in wood and bark age classes of willows and poplars used for phytoextraction on soils contaminated by risk elements.

    PubMed

    Zárubová, Pavla; Hejcman, Michal; Vondráčková, Stanislava; Mrnka, Libor; Száková, Jiřina; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-12-01

    Fast-growing clones of Salix and Populus have been studied for remediation of soils contaminated by risk elements (RE) using short-rotation coppice plantations. Our aim was to assess biomass yield and distributions of elements in wood and bark of highly productive willow (S1--[Salix schwerinii × Salix viminalis] × S. viminalis, S2--Salix × smithiana clone S-218) and poplar (P1--Populus maximowiczii × Populus nigra, P2--P. nigra) clones with respect to aging. The field experiment was established in April 2008 on moderately Cd-, Pb- and Zn- contaminated soil. Shoots were harvested after four seasons (February 2012) and separated into annual classes of wood and bark. All tested clones grew on contaminated soils, with highest biomass production and lowest mortality exhibited by P1 and S2. Concentrations of elements, with exception of Ca and Pb, decreased with age and were higher in bark than in wood. The Salix clones were characterised by higher removal of Cd, Mn and Zn compared to the Populus clones. Despite generally higher RE content in young shoots, partly due to lower wood/bark ratios and higher RE concentrations in bark, the overall removal of RE was higher in older wood classes due to higher biomass yield. Thus, longer rotations seem to be more effective when phytoextraction strategy is considered. Of the four selected clones, S1 exhibited the best removal of Cd and Zn and is a good candidate for phytoextraction.

  10. Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Bark Extract: Cardiovascular Activity and Myocyte Protection against Oxidative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Chiarini, Alberto; Micucci, Matteo; Ioan, Pierfranco; Fimognari, Carmela; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Comandini, Patrizia; Hrelia, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    This work was aimed at evaluating the cardioprotective effects of Castanea sativa Mill. (CSM) bark extract characterized in its phenolic composition by HPLC-DAD-MS analysis. The study was performed using primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of CSM bark extract and isolated guinea pig left and right atria, left papillary muscle, and aorta to evaluate its direct effect on cholinergic and adrenergic response. In cultured cardiomyocytes the CSM bark extract reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and improved cell viability following oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the extract decreased the contraction induced by noradrenaline (1 μM) in guinea pig aortic strips and induced transient negative chronotropic and positive inotropic effects without involvement of cholinergic or adrenergic receptors in the guinea pig atria. Our results indicate that CSM bark extract exhibits antioxidant activity and might induce cardioprotective effect. PMID:23533692

  11. Salicin, an extract from white willow bark, inhibits angiogenesis by blocking the ROS-ERK pathways.

    PubMed

    Kong, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ka-Hyun; Choi, Jae-Sun; Kim, Ja-Eun; Park, Chan; Jeong, Joo-Won

    2014-08-01

    Salicin has been studied as a potent antiinflammatory agent. Angiogenesis is an essential process for tumor progression, and negative regulation of angiogenesis provides a good strategy for antitumor therapy. However, the potential medicinal value of salicin on antitumorigenic and antiangiogenic effects remain unexplored. In this study, we examined the antitumorigenic and antiangiogenic activity of salicin and its underlying mechanism of action. Salicin suppressed the angiogenic activity of endothelial cells, such as migration, tube formation, and sprouting from an aorta. Moreover, salicin reduced reactive oxygen species production and activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor was also decreased by salicin in endothelial cells. When the salicin was administered to mice, salicin inhibited tumor growth and angiogenesis in a mouse tumor model. Taken together, salicin targets the signaling pathways mediated by reactive oxygen species and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, providing new perspectives into a potent therapeutic agent for hypervascularized tumors. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Antioxidant activity of extracts from the wood and bark of Port OrFord cedar

    Treesearch

    Heng Gao; Todd F. Shupe; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Chung Y. Hse

    2007-01-01

    Heartwood, sapwood, and inner and outer bark of Port Orford cedar were extracted with methanol, and the extracts evaluated for antioxidant activity. The total phenol content (TPC) of the extracts was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as gallic acid equivalent (GAE). Butylated hydroxytoluene was used as a positive control in the free-radical-...

  13. Antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark against Naja venom.

    PubMed

    Soni, Pranay; Bodakhe, Surendra H

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of bark of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom induced pharmacological effects such as lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion, edema, cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Wistar strain rats were challenged with Naja venom and treated with the ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. The effectiveness of the extract to neutralize the lethalities of Naja venom was investigated as recommended by WHO. At the dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark significantly inhibited the Naja venom induced lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion and edema in rats. Ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark was effective in neutralizing the coagulant and defibrinogenating activity of Naja venom. The cardiotoxic effects in isolated frog heart and neurotoxic activity studies on frog rectus abdominus muscle were also antagonized by ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. It is concluded that the protective effect of extract of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom poisoning may be mediated by the cardiotonic, proteolysin neutralization, anti-inflammatory, antiserotonic and antihistaminic activity. It is possible that the protective effect may also be due to precipitation of active venom constituents.

  14. Antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark against Naja venom

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Pranay; Bodakhe, Surendra H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of bark of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom induced pharmacological effects such as lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion, edema, cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Methods Wistar strain rats were challenged with Naja venom and treated with the ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. The effectiveness of the extract to neutralize the lethalities of Naja venom was investigated as recommended by WHO. Results At the dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark significantly inhibited the Naja venom induced lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion and edema in rats. Ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark was effective in neutralizing the coagulant and defibrinogenating activity of Naja venom. The cardiotoxic effects in isolated frog heart and neurotoxic activity studies on frog rectus abdominus muscle were also antagonized by ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. Conclusions It is concluded that the protective effect of extract of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom poisoning may be mediated by the cardiotonic, proteolysin neutralization, anti-inflammatory, antiserotonic and antihistaminic activity. It is possible that the protective effect may also be due to precipitation of active venom constituents. PMID:25183127

  15. Assessment of antidiarrhoeal activity of the methanol extract of Xylocarpus granatum bark in mice model.

    PubMed

    Rouf, Razina; Uddin, Shaikh Jamal; Shilpi, Jamil Ahmad; Alamgir, Mahiuddin

    2007-02-12

    The methanol extract of Xylocarpus granatum bark was studied for its antidiarrhoeal properties in experimental diarrhoea, induced by castor oil and magnesium sulphate in mice. At the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg per oral, the methanol extract showed significant and dose-dependent antidiarrhoeal activity in both models. The extracts also significantly reduced the intestinal transit in charcoal meal test when compared to atropine sulphate (5 mg/kg; i.m.). The results showed that the extracts of Xylocarpus granatum bark have a significant antidiarrhoeal activity and supports its traditional uses in herbal medicine.

  16. Anti-pseudomonas activity of essential oil, total extract, and proanthocyanidins of Pinus eldarica Medw. bark.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Masoud; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Abtahi, Seyed Reza

    2016-01-01

    Pinus eldarica Medw. (Iranian pine) is native to Transcaucasian region and has been vastly planted in Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Various parts of this plant have been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases including infectious conditions (e.g. infectious wounds). In this study we aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of P. eldarica bark extract, essential oil and proanthocyanidins on three important bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antibacterial analysis was performed using standard disk diffusion method with different concentrations of essential oil, bark total hydroalcoholic extract, and bark proanthocyanidins (0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mg/ml). After incubation at 37°C for 24 h, the antibacterial activity was assessed by measuring the zone of growth inhibition surrounding the disks. The results indicated that the essential oil, total hydroalcoholic extract, and proanthocyanidins of the bark of the P. eldarica were effective against the gram negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa, and significantly inhibited its growth in disk diffusion method (P<0.001) of which the essential oil had the most potent inhibitory effect. However, none of the bark preparations could significantly inhibit the growth of S. aureus or E. coli. Our findings showed that P. eldarica bark components have significant anti-pseudomonas activity having potentials for new sources of antibacterial agents or antibacterial herbal preparations.

  17. Anti-pseudomonas activity of essential oil, total extract, and proanthocyanidins of Pinus eldarica Medw. bark

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Masoud; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Abtahi, Seyed Reza

    2016-01-01

    Pinus eldarica Medw. (Iranian pine) is native to Transcaucasian region and has been vastly planted in Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Various parts of this plant have been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases including infectious conditions (e.g. infectious wounds). In this study we aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of P. eldarica bark extract, essential oil and proanthocyanidins on three important bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antibacterial analysis was performed using standard disk diffusion method with different concentrations of essential oil, bark total hydroalcoholic extract, and bark proanthocyanidins (0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mg/ml). After incubation at 37°C for 24 h, the antibacterial activity was assessed by measuring the zone of growth inhibition surrounding the disks. The results indicated that the essential oil, total hydroalcoholic extract, and proanthocyanidins of the bark of the P. eldarica were effective against the gram negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa, and significantly inhibited its growth in disk diffusion method (P<0.001) of which the essential oil had the most potent inhibitory effect. However, none of the bark preparations could significantly inhibit the growth of S. aureus or E. coli. Our findings showed that P. eldarica bark components have significant anti-pseudomonas activity having potentials for new sources of antibacterial agents or antibacterial herbal preparations. PMID:27051433

  18. Comparative evaluation of successive extracts of leaf and stem bark of Albizzia lebbeck for mast cell stabilization activity.

    PubMed

    Shashidhara, S; Bhandarkar, Anant V; Deepak, M

    2008-06-01

    Successive chloroform, methanol and water extracts of bark and leaves of Albizzia lebbeck were tested for its in vitro mast cell stabilizing effect against compound 48/80. Methanolic extract of leaf and methanolic and water extracts of bark have shown maximum activity comparable to that of disodium chromoglycate.

  19. Separation and structural analysis of saponins in a bark extract from Quillaja saponaria Molina.

    PubMed

    Nord, L I; Kenne, L

    1999-07-20

    Six major saponins were isolated from a bark extract from Quillaja saponaria Molina. Solid-phase extraction, followed by a two-step reversed-phase HPLC separation procedure with phosphate and ammonium acetate buffers of different pH values, was used. The compounds were characterised using NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and chemical methods.

  20. Antioxidant activity of extracts from the bark of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murrary) Parl.

    Treesearch

    Heng Gao; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2006-01-01

    The bark of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murray) Parl. was extracted with methanol and sequentially partitioned with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and deionized water. The antioxidant activities of the four extracts were evaluated using the DPPH• and ABTS+• methods. The total phenolic...

  1. Application of Ionic Liquids in the Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Proanthocyanidins from Larix gmelini Bark

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lei; Sun, Xiaowei; Yang, Fengjian; Zhao, Chunjian; Zhang, Lin; Zu, Yuangang

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid based, microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) was successfully applied to the extraction of proanthocyanidins from Larix gmelini bark. In this work, in order to evaluate the performance of ionic liquids in the microwave-assisted extraction process, a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different cations and anions were evaluated for extraction yield, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide was selected as the optimal solvent. In addition, the ILMAE procedure for the proanthocyanidins was optimized and compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Under the optimized conditions, satisfactory extraction yield of the proanthocyanidins was obtained. Relative to other methods, the proposed approach provided higher extraction yield and lower energy consumption. The Larix gmelini bark samples before and after extraction were analyzed by Thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the ILMAE method is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation. PMID:22606036

  2. High-efficient extraction of principal medicinal components from fresh Phellodendron bark (cortex phellodendri).

    PubMed

    Xu, Keqin; He, Gongxiu; Qin, Jieming; Cheng, Xuexiang; He, Hanjie; Zhang, Dangquan; Peng, Wanxi

    2018-05-01

    There are three key medicinal components (phellodendrine, berberine and palmatine) in the extracts of Phellodendron bark, as one of the fundamental herbs of traditional Chinese medicine. Different extraction methods and solvent combinations were investigated to obtain the optimal technologies for high-efficient extraction of these medicinal components. The results showed that combined solvents have higher extracting effect of phellodendrine, berberine and palmatine than single solvent, and the effect of ultrasonic extraction is distinctly better than those of distillation and soxhlet extraction. The hydrochloric acid/methanol-ultrasonic extraction has the best effect for three medicinal components of fresh Phellodendron bark, providing an extraction yield of 103.12 mg/g berberine, 24.41 mg/g phellodendrine, 1.25 mg/g palmatine.

  3. Ameliorative Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus Stem Bark on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ajiboye, Basiru Olaitan; Adeleke Ojo, Oluwafemi; Adeyonu, Oluwatosin; Imiere, Oluwatosin; Emmanuel Oyinloye, Babatunji; Ogunmodede, Oluwafemi

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Diabetes mellitus is one of the major endocrine disorders, characterized by impaired insulin action and deficiency. Traditionally, Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark has been reputably used in the management of diabetes mellitus and its complications. The present study evaluates the ameliorative activity of ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg body weight of alloxan and the animals were orally administered with 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark once daily for 21 days. Results: At the end of the intervention, diabetic control rats showed significant (p<0.05) weight reduction, abnormal haematological parameters, high serum lipids (except high density lipoprotein) concentrations, increased creatinine, bilirubin and urea levels with decreased in albumin level when compared with non-diabetic control rats. All these alterations were reverted to normal after administered with different doses of ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark most especially at 150 mg/kg body weight which exhibited no significant (p>0.05) different with non-diabetic rats. Conclusion: The results suggest that ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark may be useful in ameliorating complications associated with diabetes mellitus patients. PMID:29670849

  4. Ameliorative Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus Stem Bark on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Ajiboye, Basiru Olaitan; Adeleke Ojo, Oluwafemi; Adeyonu, Oluwatosin; Imiere, Oluwatosin; Emmanuel Oyinloye, Babatunji; Ogunmodede, Oluwafemi

    2018-03-01

    Purpose: Diabetes mellitus is one of the major endocrine disorders, characterized by impaired insulin action and deficiency. Traditionally, Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark has been reputably used in the management of diabetes mellitus and its complications. The present study evaluates the ameliorative activity of ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg body weight of alloxan and the animals were orally administered with 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark once daily for 21 days. Results: At the end of the intervention, diabetic control rats showed significant (p<0.05) weight reduction, abnormal haematological parameters, high serum lipids (except high density lipoprotein) concentrations, increased creatinine, bilirubin and urea levels with decreased in albumin level when compared with non-diabetic control rats. All these alterations were reverted to normal after administered with different doses of ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark most especially at 150 mg/kg body weight which exhibited no significant (p>0.05) different with non-diabetic rats. Conclusion: The results suggest that ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark may be useful in ameliorating complications associated with diabetes mellitus patients.

  5. Mimusops elengi bark extract mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and study of its catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Rakhi; Bag, Braja Gopal; Ghosh, Pooja

    2016-04-01

    The bark extract of Mimusops elengi is rich in different types of plant secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids and saponins. The present study shows the usefulness of the bark extract of Mimusops elengi for the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles in water at room temperature under very mild conditions. The synthesis of the gold nanoparticles was complete within a few minutes without any extra stabilizing or capping agents and the polyphenols present in the bark extract acted as both reducing as well as stabilizing agents. The synthesized colloidal gold nanoparticles were characterized by HRTEM, surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The synthesized gold nanoparticles have been used as an efficient catalyst for the reduction of 3-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol to their corresponding aminophenols in water at room temperature.

  6. Bark anatomy, chemical composition and ethanol-water extract composition of Anadenanthera peregrina and Anadenanthera colubrina

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Caroline J.; Miranda, Isabel; Quilhó, Teresa; Mori, Fábio Akira; Pereira, Helena

    2017-01-01

    The bark of Anadenanthera peregrina (L.) Speg and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan were characterized in relation to anatomical and chemical features. The barks were similar and included a thin conducting phloem, a largely dilated and sclerified non-conducting phloem, and a rhyridome with periderms with thin phellem interspersed by cortical tissues. Only small differences between species were observed that cannot be used alone for taxonomic purposes. The summative chemical composition of A. peregrina and A. colubrina was respectively: 8.2% and 7.7% ash; 28.8% and 29.3% extractives; 2.4% and 2.6% suberin; and 18.9% lignin. The monosaccharide composition showed the predominance of glucose (on average 82% of total neutral sugars) and of xylose (9%). The ethanol-water extracts of A. peregrina and A. colubrina barks included a high content of phenolics, respectively: total phenolics 583 and 682 mg GAE/g extract; 148 and 445 mg CE/g extract; tannins 587 and 98 mg CE/g extract. The antioxidant activity was 238 and 269 mg Trolox/g extract. The barks of the Anadenanthera species are a potential source of polar extractives that will represent an important valorization and therefore contribute to improve the overall economic potential and sustainability of A. peregrina and A. colubrina PMID:29281656

  7. Antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic, and apoptotic activity of stem bark extracts of Cephalotaxus griffithii Hook. f.

    PubMed

    Moirangthem, Dinesh Singh; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra; Kasoju, Naresh; Bora, Utpal

    2012-04-03

    Cephalotaxus spp. are known to possess various therapeutic potentials. Cephalotaxus griffithii, however, has not been evaluated for its biological potential. The reason may be the remoteness and inaccessibility of the habitat where it is distributed. The main aim of this study was to: (1) evaluate multiple biological potentials of stem bark of C. griffithii, and (2) identify solvent extract of stem bark of C. griffithii to find the one with the highest specific biological activity. Dried powder of stem bark of C. griffithii was exhaustively extracted serially by soaking in petroleum ether, acetone and methanol to fractionate the chemical constituents into individual fractions or extracts. The extracts were tested for total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant (DPPH radical scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, and reducing power models), antibacterial (disc diffusion assay on six bacterial strains), cytotoxic (MTT assay on HeLa cells), and apoptotic activity (fluorescence microscopy, DNA fragmentation assay, and flow cytometry on HeLa cells). Among the three extracts of stem bark of C. griffithii, the acetone extract contained the highest amount of total phenolics and flavonoids and showed maximum antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic (IC50 of 35.5 ± 0.6 μg/ml; P < 0.05), and apoptotic (46.3 ± 3.6% sub-G0/G1 population; P < 0.05) activity, followed by the methanol and petroleum ether extracts. However, there was no significant difference observed in IC50 values (DPPH scavenging assay) of the acetone and methanol extracts and the positive control (ascorbic acid). In contrast, superoxide radical scavenging assay-based antioxidant activity (IC50) of the acetone and methanol extracts was significantly lower than the positive control (P < 0.05). Correlation analysis suggested that phenolic and flavonoid content present in stem bark of C. griffithii extracts was responsible for the high antioxidant, cytotoxic, and apoptotic activity (P < 0.05). Stem bark

  8. Guarea kunthiana Bark Extract Enhances the Antimicrobial Activities of Human and Bovine Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Jerjomiceva, Natalja; Seri, Hisham; Yaseen, Ragheda; de Buhr, Nicole; Setzer, William N; Naim, Hassan Y; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren

    2016-06-01

    Guarea kunthiana is used in folk remedies for the treatment of several diseases including microbial infections. The mechanism behind this phenomenon still needs to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of G. kunthiana bark extract on antimicrobial functions of human and bovine neutrophils as the first line of defense against infections. For this aim, neutrophils were isolated from either human or bovine blood and treated with G. kunthiana bark extract. The antimicrobial activity of the neutrophils against Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and Escherichia (E.) coli was tested in a bacterial survival assay and a fluorescence-based phagocytosis assay. Furthermore, the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) was visualized by immunofluorescence microscopy. We show that neutrophils treated with G. kunthiana extract distinctly increased phagocytosis of S. aureus or E. coli. Interestingly, we demonstrate that G. kunthiana bark extract induces the formation of NETs in both cell types. This effect was abolished when treating the cells with diphenyleniodonium chloride (DPI) pointing to a direct implication of the NADPH oxidase-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species in this process. In summary, our data strongly suggest that G. kunthiana bark extract boosts the antimicrobial activities of neutrophils as the first line of defense against invading pathogens.

  9. Chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory activities of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark extracts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huan-li; Gan, Xiao-qing; Fan, Qing-fei; Yang, Jing-jing; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Hua-bin; Song, Qi-shi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, 44 compounds in the petroleum ether extract of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark, a traditional Dai herbal medicine, were identified by GC-MS. Major components included 3(2H)-benzofuranone, asarinin and (dimethoxymethyl)-3-methoxy-benzene. A total of 18 compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of Maqian bark by column chromatography and identified by chemical and spectral analyses. Rhoifoline B, zanthoxyline dimethoxy derivative, N-nortidine, nitidine, decarine are the major alkaloids. Both the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts showed significant inhibition on NO production, which imply anti-inflammatory activity, in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells without cell toxicity. Decarine is the major anti-inflammatory constituent with NO IC50 values of 48.43 μM on RAW264.7 cells. The petroleum ether extract, the ethyl acetate extract and decarine showed anti-inflammatory activities through inhibiting TNF-α and IL-1β production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 cells without cell toxicity too. Decarine showed anti-inflammatory activity on human colon cells by reducing IL-6 and IL-8 production in TNF-α+IL-1β-induced Caco-2 cells. These results support the use of Maqian bark as a remedy for enteritis and colitis recorded by Dai medicine in China, and elucidate the major pharmacological compounds in Maqian bark. PMID:28383530

  10. Characterization of condensed tannins and carbohydrates in hot water bark extracts of European softwood species.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Sauro; Kroslakova, Ivana; Janzon, Ron; Mayer, Ingo; Saake, Bodo; Pichelin, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Condensed tannins extracted from European softwood bark are recognized as alternatives to synthetic phenolics. The extraction is generally performed in hot water, leading to simultaneous extraction of other bark constituents such as carbohydrates, phenolic monomers and salts. Characterization of the extract's composition and identification of the extracted tannins' molecular structure are needed to better identify potential applications. Bark from Silver fir (Abies alba [Mill.]), European larch (Larix decidua [Mill.]), Norway spruce (Picea abies [Karst.]), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.]) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) were extracted in water at 60°C. The amounts of phenolic monomers, condensed tannins, carbohydrates, and inorganic compounds in the extract were determined. The molecular structures of condensed tannins and carbohydrates were also investigated (HPLC-UV combined with thiolysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, anion exchange chromatography). Distinct extract compositions and tannin structures were found in each of the analysed species. Procyanidins were the most ubiquitous tannins. The presence of phenolic glucosides in the tannin oligomers was suggested. Polysaccharides such as arabinans, arabinogalactans and glucans represented an important fraction of all extracts. Compared to traditionally used species (Mimosa and Quebracho) higher viscosities as well as faster chemical reactivities are expected in the analysed species. The most promising species for a bark tannin extraction was found to be larch, while the least encouraging results were detected in pine. A better knowledge of the interaction between the various extracted compounds is deemed an important matter for investigation in the context of industrial applications of such extracts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-giardia activity and acute toxicity of a methanol extract of Senna racemosa bark.

    PubMed

    Caamal-Fuentes, Edgar E; Graniel-Sabido, Manlio; Mena-Rejón, Gonzalo J; Moo-Puc, Rosa E

    2016-12-04

    Senna racemosa (Mill.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (syn. Cassia racemosa Mill.) is a plant used in traditional Mayamedicinal practices to treat diarrhea. A methanol extract of S. racemosa bark has been shown to have in vitro activity against Giardia intestinalis. No studies of its efficacy and toxicity in in vivo models have been done. The present study objective was to analyze the activity of this methanol extract of S. racemosa bark against Giardia intestinalis trophozoites in experimentally infected mice, and evaluate its toxicological effects in rats. S. racemosa was collected in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico (21°58'N, 89°36'W) in June 2005. The bark methanol extract was obtained and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) was used to generate a constituent profile. In vivo anti-giardia activity was assayed with an experimental model of G. intestinalis infection in neonatal CD-1 mice. Nine doses ranging from 0.25-15mg extract/kg body weight were tested to determine the dose required to kill 50% of the trophozoites (ED 50 ). An acute toxicity assay was run in which one of four single doses (200, 1000, 2000 and3000mg/kg body weight) was orally administered to adult Wistar rats. Animal weight, death rates, toxic effects and behavioral parameters were observed over a 14-d period. They were then euthanized and a necropsy performed. The S. racemosa bark extract inhibited growth of G. intestinalis (ED 50 =1.14mg/Kg) in neonatal CD-1 mice. No toxic or lethal effects were observed even at the highest dosage (3000mg/Kg), and neither were signs of toxicity observed in internal organs. The active compounds chrysophanol and physcion were present in the extract at a 1.76 ratio. The results strongly support traditional use of S. racemosa bark for treatment of diarrhea caused by Giardia intestinalis infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibition of Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum by Juglans species bark extracts

    Treesearch

    M.J. Moore; M.E. Ostry; A.D. Hegeman; A.C. Martin

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and reliable technique is needed for identifying butternut trees (Juglans cinerea) with resistance to butternut canker. We investigated the potential of a bark extract bioassay to detect levels of resistance to Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum (Oc-j), the causal agent of butternut canker....

  13. Inhibition of Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum by Juglans species bark extracts

    Treesearch

    M.E. Ostry; M. Moore

    2013-01-01

    A rapid and reliable screening technique is needed for selecting trees with resistance to butternut canker. In a laboratory assay, reagent grade naphthoquinones and crude bark extracts of Juglans species variously inhibited spore germination and growth of Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum, the causal fungus of butternut...

  14. Bioaccessibility in vitro of nutraceuticals from bark of selected Salix species.

    PubMed

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Sugier, Danuta; Dziki, Dariusz; Sugier, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare the extractability, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability in vitro of antioxidative compounds from bark of selected Salix species: S. alba (SA), S. daphnoides (SD), S. purpurea (SP), and S. daphnoides x purpurea (SDP) hybrid willow clones originating from their natural habitats and cultivated on the sandy soil. The highest amount of phenolic glycosides was found in the bark of SDP and SD. The best source of phenolics was bark of SDP. The highest content of flavonoids were found in SD bark samples, whereas the highest concentration of bioaccessible and bioavailable phenolic acids was determined in SDP bark. Bark of all tested Salix species showed significant antiradical activity. This properties are strongly dependent on extraction system and genetic factors. Regardless of Salix genotypes, the lowest chelating power was found for chemically-extractable compounds. Bark of all Salix species contained ethanol-extractable compounds with reducing ability. Besides this, high bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vitro of Salix bark phytochemicals were found. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this problem requires further study.

  15. Bioaccessibility In Vitro of Nutraceuticals from Bark of Selected Salix Species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare the extractability, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability in vitro of antioxidative compounds from bark of selected Salix species: S. alba (SA), S. daphnoides (SD), S. purpurea (SP), and S. daphnoides x purpurea (SDP) hybrid willow clones originating from their natural habitats and cultivated on the sandy soil. The highest amount of phenolic glycosides was found in the bark of SDP and SD. The best source of phenolics was bark of SDP. The highest content of flavonoids were found in SD bark samples, whereas the highest concentration of bioaccessible and bioavailable phenolic acids was determined in SDP bark. Bark of all tested Salix species showed significant antiradical activity. This properties are strongly dependent on extraction system and genetic factors. Regardless of Salix genotypes, the lowest chelating power was found for chemically-extractable compounds. Bark of all Salix species contained ethanol-extractable compounds with reducing ability. Besides this, high bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vitro of Salix bark phytochemicals were found. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this problem requires further study. PMID:24696660

  16. Anticonvulsant effects of ethanol stem bark extract of Lannea barteri (Anacardiaceae) in mice and chicks.

    PubMed

    Garba, K; Yaro, A H; Ya'u, J

    2015-08-22

    Preparation of Lannea barteri is used in the treatment of epilepsy, gastritis, childhood convulsions among other uses in northern Nigeria for many years. The popularity of its efficacy is well established among the Traditional Medical Practitioners. The present study aimed at screening the ethanol stem bark extract of Lannea barteri for possible anticonvulsant action. Anticonvulsant screening was carried out using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), strychnine (STN) and picrotoxin (PTC) induced seizures in mice while Maximal electroshock (MES) test was carried out in day old chicks. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract was performed on the extract. The intraperitoneal median lethal dose (LD50) was carried out in mice. The intraperitoneal (i.p.) LD50 of the extract was estimated to be 567.70 mg/kg in mice. Lannea barteri (160 mg/kg) significantly (p ≤ 0.05) delayed the mean onset of seizures induced by PTZ when compared with normal saline treated group. Similarly, the extract at 160 mg/kg significantly (p ≤ 0.05) prolonged the latency of convulsion induced by STN. Lannea barteri (40 mg/kg) significantly (p ≤ 0.05) delayed the mean onset of seizures induced by picrotoxin in mice. The extracts at all the doses tested showed no observable effect in decreasing the mean recovery time of convulsed chicks in MEST. Flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins and glycosides were found present in the stem bark extract. Our findings revealed that the ethanol stem bark extract of Lannea barteri contained bioactive constituents that may be useful in the management of petit mal epilepsy and supports the ethnomedical claim for the use of its stem bark in the management of epilepsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fatty and Waxy Components of Southern Pine Bark-Amounts Present As Free Extractives

    Treesearch

    Elaine T. Howard

    1975-01-01

    Whole bark from six mature trees of each of the four major southern pines was extracted with petroleum ether and with toluene. Trees were 20 to 58 years old and 8.0 to 11.8 inches in d.b.h. Percentages of petroleum ether-solubles were: slash pine, 1.94; loblolly, 2.29; longleaf, 2.64; and shortleaf 3.05. Percentages obtained by toluene extraction were: loblolly, 3.04;...

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Cinnamon Bark, Honey, and Their Combination Effects against Acne-Causing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Julianti, Elin; Rajah, Kasturi K.; Fidrianny, Irda

    2017-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the major skin bacteria that cause the formation of acne. The present study was conducted to investigate antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of cinnamon bark, honey, and their combination against acne bacteria. The antibacterial activity of extract of cinnamon bark and honey were investigated against P. acnes and S. epidermidis using disc diffusion. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were attained using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) methods. The interaction between cinnamon bark extract and honey was determined using a checkerboards method. The results showed that the MICs of cinnamon bark extract and honey against P. acne were 256 µg/mL and 50% v/v, respectively, while those against S. epidermidis were 1024 µg/mL and 50% v/v, respectively. The MBC of cinnamon bark extract against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were more than 2048 µg/mL, whereas the MBC for honey against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were 100%. The combination of cinnamon bark extract and honey against P. acnes and S. epidermidis showed additive activity with a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) value of 0.625. Therefore, the combination of cinnamon bark extract and honey has potential activity against acne-causing bacteria. PMID:28398231

  19. In Vitro Dermo-Cosmetic Evaluation of Bark Extracts from Common Temperate Trees.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Jane; Angelis, Apostolis; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Rosalia, Michalea; Abedini, Amin; Bakiri, Ali; Reynaud, Romain; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Gangloff, Sophie C; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2016-10-01

    Wood residues produced from forestry activities represent an interesting source of biologically active, high value-added secondary metabolites. In this study, 30 extracts from 10 barks of deciduous and coniferous tree species were investigated for their potential dermo-cosmetic use. The extracts were obtained from Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur, Alnus glutinosa, Prunus avium, Acer pseudoplatanus, Fraxinus excelsior, Populus robusta, Larix decidua, Picea abies , and Populus tremula after three successive solid/liquid extractions of the barks with n- heptane, methanol, and methanol/water. All extracts were evaluated for their radical scavenging capacity, for their elastase, collagenase, and tyrosinase inhibitory activities, as well as for their antibacterial activity against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus . In parallel, the global metabolite profiles of all extracts were established by 1D and 2D NMR and related to their biological activity. The results showed that the methanol extracts of Q. robur, A. glutinosa, L. decidua , and P. abies barks exhibit particularly high activities on most bioassays, suggesting their promising use as active ingredients in the dermo-cosmetic industry. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, and Antiproliferative Activities and Total Polyphenol Contents of the Extracts of Geissospermum reticulatum Bark

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Nicholas M.; Wawer, Iwona; Paradowska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Geissospermum species are medically important plants due to their health-promoting effects. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant ability and antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of infusions, tinctures, and ethanolic extracts of Geissospermum reticulatum barks in relation to the contents of total phenolics and flavonoids. Seven samples of barks were collected in various regions of Peruvian Amazonia. We found that the amount of total phenolics in the studied products varied from 212.40 ± 0.69 to 1253.92 ± 11.20 mg GAE/kg. In our study there is a correlation (R 2 = 0.7947) between the results of antioxidants assays: FRAP and ORAC for tinctures, infusions, and ethanolic extracts of G. reticulatum barks. We have also observed antiproliferative activities of the ethanolic extracts on normal T-cells. These extracts have caused death on malignant cell lines (THP-1 and HL-60) and this data correlates well with their antioxidant capacity measured by ORAC method. Interestingly, the highest concentration of the ethanolic extract was not toxic in the zebrafish embryo developmental assay. Our results indicate that G. reticulatum is rich in antioxidants and have cytotoxic and antiproliferative properties. The data suggests potential immunosuppressive role of the extracts. This is the first study presenting the results of chemical and biological analysis of multiple preparations from G. reticulatum. PMID:27446507

  1. Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of Cordia dichotoma (Forster F.) bark extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nariya, Pankaj B.; Bhalodia, Nayan R.; Shukla, V. J.; Acharya, R. N.

    2011-01-01

    Cordia dichotoma Forst.f. bark, identified as botanical source of Shlesmataka in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeias. Present study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of Cordia dichotoma bark. Antibacterial activity of methanol and butanol extracts of the bark was carried out against two gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two Gram positive bacteria (St. pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus). The antifungal activity of the extracts was carried out against three common pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, A.clavatus, and Candida albicans). Zone of inhibition of extracts was compared with that of different standards like Amplicilline, Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Chloramphenicol for antibacterial activity and Nystain and Greseofulvin for antifungal activity. The extracts showed remarkable inhibition of zone of bacterial growth and fungal growth and the results obtained were comparable with that of standards drugs against the organisms tested. The activity of extracts increased linearly with increase in concentration of extract (mg/ml). The results showed the antibacterial and antifungal activity against the organisms tested. PMID:22661859

  2. Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of Cordia dichotoma (Forster F.) bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Nariya, Pankaj B; Bhalodia, Nayan R; Shukla, V J; Acharya, R N

    2011-10-01

    Cordia dichotoma Forst.f. bark, identified as botanical source of Shlesmataka in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeias. Present study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of Cordia dichotoma bark. Antibacterial activity of methanol and butanol extracts of the bark was carried out against two gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two Gram positive bacteria (St. pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus). The antifungal activity of the extracts was carried out against three common pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, A.clavatus, and Candida albicans). Zone of inhibition of extracts was compared with that of different standards like Amplicilline, Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Chloramphenicol for antibacterial activity and Nystain and Greseofulvin for antifungal activity. The extracts showed remarkable inhibition of zone of bacterial growth and fungal growth and the results obtained were comparable with that of standards drugs against the organisms tested. The activity of extracts increased linearly with increase in concentration of extract (mg/ml). The results showed the antibacterial and antifungal activity against the organisms tested.

  3. Anticholinesterase activities of cold and hot aqueous extracts of F. racemosa stem bark.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna

    2010-04-01

    The present study evaluated the anticholinesterase activity of cold and hot aqueous extracts of Ficus racemosa stem bark against rat brain acetylcholinesterase in vitro. Both the cold aqueous extract (FRC) and the hot aqueous extract (FRH) exhibited a dose dependent inhibition of rat brain acetylcholinesterase. FRH showed significantly higher (P extracts did not show 50% inhibition of AChE at the doses tested (200-1000 mug ml(-1)). The IC(50) values of 1813 and 1331 mug ml(-1) were deduced for FRC and FRH, respectively (calculated by extrapolation using Boltzmann's dose response analysis).

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pinus koraiensis Cone Bark Extracts Prepared by Micro-Wave Assisted Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sun-Ae; Kim, Dong-Hee; Hong, Shin-Hyub; Park, Hye-Jin; Kim, Na-Hyun; Ahn, Dong-Hyun; An, Bong-Jeun; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Cho, Young-Je

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we compared the anti-inflammatory activity of Pinus koraiensis cone bark extracts prepared by conventional extraction and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). Water extracts and 50% ethanol extracts prepared using MAE were applied to RAW 264.7 cell at 5, 10, 25, and 50 μg/mL of concentrations, and tested for cytoxicity. The group treated with 50 μg/mL of 50% ethanol extracts showed toxicity. In order to investigate the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells, extracts of water and ethanol were treated with 5, 10, and 25 μg/mL concentrations. The inhibitory activity of water and 50% ethanol extracts groups were determined as 40% and 60% at 25 μg/mL concentration, respectively. We found concentration dependent decreases on inducible NO synthase. The inhibitory effect against forming inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β, was also superior in the 25 μg/mL treated group than the control group. According to these results, the water extracts and 50% ethanol extracts both inhibited inflammatory mediators by reducing the inflammatory response. Therefore, The MAE extracts of P. koraiensis cone bark can be developed as a functional ingredient with anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:27752500

  5. Senna singueana: Antioxidant, Hepatoprotective, Antiapoptotic Properties and Phytochemical Profiling of a Methanol Bark Extract.

    PubMed

    Sobeh, Mansour; Mahmoud, Mona F; Hasan, Rehab A; Cheng, Haroan; El-Shazly, Assem M; Wink, Michael

    2017-09-08

    Natural products are considered as an important source for the discovery of new drugs to treat aging-related degenerative diseases and liver injury. The present study profiled the chemical constituents of a methanol extract from Senna singueana bark using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS and 36 secondary metabolites were identified. Proanthocyanidins dominated the extract. Monomers, dimers, trimers of (epi)catechin, (epi)gallocatechin, (epi)guibourtinidol, (ent)cassiaflavan, and (epi)afzelechin represented the major constituents. The extract demonstrated notable antioxidant activities in vitro: In DPPH (EC 50 of 20.8 µg/mL), FRAP (18.16 mM FeSO₄/mg extract) assays, and total phenolic content amounted 474 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Also, in an in vivo model, the extract increased the survival rate of Caenorhabditis elegans worms pretreated with the pro-oxidant juglone from 43 to 64%, decreased intracellular ROS inside the wild-type nematodes by 47.90%, and induced nuclear translocation of the transcription factor DAF-16 in the transgenic strain TJ356. Additionally, the extract showed a remarkable hepatoprotective activity against d-galactosamine (d-GalN) induced hepatic injury in rats. It significantly reduced elevated AST (aspartate aminotransferase), and total bilirubin. Moreover, the extract induced a strong cytoplasmic Bcl-2 expression indicating suppression of apoptosis. In conclusion, the bark extract of S. sengueana represents an interesting candidate for further research in antioxidants and liver protection.

  6. Chemical composition of barks from Quercus faginea trees and characterization of their lipophilic and polar extracts.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Joana P A; Miranda, Isabel; Sousa, Vicelina B; Pereira, Helena

    2018-01-01

    The bark from Quercus faginea mature trees from two sites was chemically characterized for the first time. The barks showed the following composition: ash 14.6%, total extractives 13.2%, suberin 2.9% and lignin 28.2%. The polysaccharides were composed mainly of glucose and xylose (50.3% and 35.1% of all monosaccharides respectively) with 4.8% of uronic acids. The suberin composition was: ω-hydroxyacids 46.3% of total compounds, ɑ,ω-alkanoic diacids 22.3%, alkanoic acids 5.9%, alkanols 6.7% and aromatics 6.9% (ferulic acid 4.0%). Polar extracts (ethanol-water) had a high phenolic content of 630.3 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of extract, condensed tannins 220.7 mg of catechin equivalents (CE)/g extract, and flavonoids 207.7 mg CE/g of extract. The antioxidant activity was very high corresponding to 1567 mg Trolox equivalents/g of extract, and an IC50 of 2.63 μg extract/ml. The lipophilic extracts were constituted mainly by glycerol and its derivatives (12.3% of all compounds), alkanoic acids (27.8%), sterols (11.5%) and triterpenes (17.8%). In view of an integrated valorization, Quercus faginea barks are interesting sources of polar compounds including phenols and polyphenols with possible interesting bioactivities, while the sterols and triterpenes contained in the lipophilic extracts are also valuable bioactive compounds or chemical intermediates for specific high-value market niches, such as cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and biomedicine.

  7. Chemical composition of barks from Quercus faginea trees and characterization of their lipophilic and polar extracts

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The bark from Quercus faginea mature trees from two sites was chemically characterized for the first time. The barks showed the following composition: ash 14.6%, total extractives 13.2%, suberin 2.9% and lignin 28.2%. The polysaccharides were composed mainly of glucose and xylose (50.3% and 35.1% of all monosaccharides respectively) with 4.8% of uronic acids. The suberin composition was: ω-hydroxyacids 46.3% of total compounds, ɑ,ω-alkanoic diacids 22.3%, alkanoic acids 5.9%, alkanols 6.7% and aromatics 6.9% (ferulic acid 4.0%). Polar extracts (ethanol-water) had a high phenolic content of 630.3 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of extract, condensed tannins 220.7 mg of catechin equivalents (CE)/g extract, and flavonoids 207.7 mg CE/g of extract. The antioxidant activity was very high corresponding to 1567 mg Trolox equivalents/g of extract, and an IC50 of 2.63 μg extract/ml. The lipophilic extracts were constituted mainly by glycerol and its derivatives (12.3% of all compounds), alkanoic acids (27.8%), sterols (11.5%) and triterpenes (17.8%). In view of an integrated valorization, Quercus faginea barks are interesting sources of polar compounds including phenols and polyphenols with possible interesting bioactivities, while the sterols and triterpenes contained in the lipophilic extracts are also valuable bioactive compounds or chemical intermediates for specific high-value market niches, such as cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and biomedicine. PMID:29763441

  8. Black Willow

    Treesearch

    R. M. Krinard

    1980-01-01

    Black willow and other species of Salix together comprise a majority of the stocking. Cottonwood is the chief associate, particularly in the early stages, but green ash, sycamore, pecan, persimmon, waterlocust, American elm, baldcypress, red maple, sugarberry, box-elder, and in some areas, silver maple are invaders preceding the next successional stage.

  9. Proanthocyanidin-rich Pinus radiata bark extract inhibits mast cell-mediated anaphylaxis-like reactions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun Ho; Song, Chang Ho; Mun, Sung Phil

    2018-02-01

    Mast cells play a critical role in the effector phase of immediate hypersensitivity and allergic reactions. Pinus radiata bark extract exerts multiple biological effects and exhibits immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties. However, its role in mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of proanthocyanidin-rich water extract (PAWE) isolated from P. radiata bark on compound 48/80-induced or antidinitrophenyl (DNP) immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated anaphylaxis-like reactions in vivo. In addition, we evaluated the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of PAWE on mast cell activation, with a specific focus on histamine release, using rat peritoneal mast cells. PAWE attenuated compound 48/80-induced or anti-DNP IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis-like reactions in mice, and it inhibited histamine release triggered by compound 48/80, ionophore A23187, or anti-DNP IgE in rat peritoneal mast cells in vitro. Moreover, PAWE suppressed compound 48/80-elicited calcium uptake in a concentration-dependent manner and promoted a transient increase in intracellular cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate levels. Together, these results suggest that proanthocyanidin-rich P. radiata bark extract effectively inhibits anaphylaxis-like reactions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Vitamin E Supplementation with Rauwolfia Vomitoria Root Bark Extract Improves Hematological Indices

    PubMed Central

    Isaiah, Akpanabiatu Monday; Olawale, Otitoju; Effiong, Edet Emmanuel; Idongesit, Ndem Jessie; Fidelis, Uwah Anthony; Friday, Ufot Usenobong

    2012-01-01

    Background: Vitamin supplementation in Rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract administration may interact and impact significantly on hematology of albino Wistar rats. Aim: In this investigation we studied vitamin E supplementation with Rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract on the hematology of experimental animals. Materials and Methods: Forty two rats weighing 200 – 230 g were randomly selected into six groups of seven animals each. Group 1 animals serve as controls; group 2 received vitamin E (10 IU/kg body weight). Groups 3 and 4 were given the extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) respectively. Groups 5 and 6 were given vitamin E (10 IU/kg body weight), the extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) respectively. The extract and the vitamin were administered daily by oral intubation. Blood samples analyzed for hematological indices. Results: Decrease in white blood cell count (WBC) was observed, indicating improved immunity of animals. Extract at 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight with and without vitamin E affected hemoglobin and packed cell volume. Conclusion: Rauwolfia vomitoria with or without vitamin E improved animal's immunity and enhances their hematology. Interaction of vitamin E with the extract affects medicinal therapeutics of this plant. PMID:22408754

  11. Vitamin e supplementation with rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract improves hematological indices.

    PubMed

    Isaiah, Akpanabiatu Monday; Olawale, Otitoju; Effiong, Edet Emmanuel; Idongesit, Ndem Jessie; Fidelis, Uwah Anthony; Friday, Ufot Usenobong

    2012-02-01

    Vitamin supplementation in Rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract administration may interact and impact significantly on hematology of albino Wistar rats. In this investigation we studied vitamin E supplementation with Rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract on the hematology of experimental animals. Forty two rats weighing 200 - 230 g were randomly selected into six groups of seven animals each. Group 1 animals serve as controls; group 2 received vitamin E (10 IU/kg body weight). Groups 3 and 4 were given the extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) respectively. Groups 5 and 6 were given vitamin E (10 IU/kg body weight), the extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) respectively. The extract and the vitamin were administered daily by oral intubation. Blood samples analyzed for hematological indices. Decrease in white blood cell count (WBC) was observed, indicating improved immunity of animals. Extract at 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight with and without vitamin E affected hemoglobin and packed cell volume. Rauwolfia vomitoria with or without vitamin E improved animal's immunity and enhances their hematology. Interaction of vitamin E with the extract affects medicinal therapeutics of this plant.

  12. Anti-biofilm activity of Marula - a study with the standardized bark extract.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Ratul; Chaudhary, Sushil K; Sharma, Amrita; Yadav, Kirendra K; Nema, Neelesh K; Sekhoacha, Mamello; Karmakar, Sanmoy; Braga, Fernão C; Matsabisa, Motlalepula Gilbert; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Sen, Tuhinadri

    2014-05-28

    Marula (Sclerocarya birrea; family - Anacardiaceae) is an African plant, which enjoys wide socio-economic importance particularly in southern part of Africa. The fruits are consumed as food and also as alcoholic beverage (cream liquor). In different parts of Africa, the decoction of the bark is traditionally used for the treatment of dysentery, diarrhoea, and various other infectious conditions. The aim of the study was to investigate the anti-biofilm properties of the methanol extract of Marula bark (stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea), with a view towards combating the emergence of antimicrobial resistance often associated with bacterial biofilms. The standardized methanol extract was initially tested for its antimicrobial property. The crystal violet assay was used for evaluating anti-biofilm (biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeuginosa) activity. Further in order to study the mechanism of anti-biofilm activity, the same was evaluated for understanding its role on various quorums sensing mediated phenomenon (swarming motility assay, protease and pyoverdin assay) that are known to be associated with the formation of biofilms and pathogenicity. The methanol extract showed no inhibition of bacterial growth up to a concentration of 200 µg/ml. Interestingly, the sample produced anti-biofilm activity (around 75% decrease; 100 µg/ml) at sub-lethal concentration. Further it also significantly reduced the QS mediated swarming motility. The release of various virulent factors (protease and pyoverdin) was found to be lowered when pre-treated with the extract. The present study illustrates the anti-biofilm property Sclerocarya birrea. The standardized extract significantly disrupted the quorum sensing mediated production of biofilm formation and also inhibited swarming ability of the cells. The extract displayed a regulatory role on the secretion of protease and pyoverdin, two QS dependent pathogenic factors found in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study also validates the

  13. An Empire's Extract: Chemical Manipulations of Cinchona Bark in the Eighteenth-Century Spanish Atlantic World.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Matthew James

    2014-01-01

    In 1790, the Spanish Crown sent a "botanist-chemist" to South America to implement production of a chemical extract made from cinchona bark, a botanical medicament from the Andes used throughout the Atlantic World to treat malarial fevers. Even though the botanist-chemist's efforts to produce the extract failed, this episode offers important insight into the role of chemistry in the early modern Atlantic World. Well before the Spanish Crown tried to make it a tool of empire, chemistry provided a vital set of techniques that circulated among a variety of healers, who used such techniques to make botanical medicaments useful and intelligible in new ways.

  14. The paradox of natural products as pharmaceuticals. Experimental evidences of a mango stem bark extract.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Sellés, Alberto J; Delgado-Hernández, René; Garrido-Garrido, Gabino; García-Rivera, Dagmar; Guevara-García, Mariela; Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L

    2007-05-01

    Recent findings regarding basic, pre-clinical and clinical studies on a mango stem bark extract (MSBE) developed in Cuba (Vimang) on an industrial scale are summarized. Ethnomedical studies, extract reproducibility, biological effects and clinical evaluations in terms of patient quality of life are described as experimental evidences to support the statement that natural products, even being a mixture of compounds, could be as effective as "monoceuticals" for medical uses. Discussion about the use of "monoceuticals" versus "natureceuticals" in health care and medicine is based on effectiveness and availability, taking Vimang as an example of a natural product with supported scientific evidence to be used as antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulator.

  15. Stimulant Paste Preparation and Bark Streak Tapping Technique for Pine Oleoresin Extraction.

    PubMed

    Füller, Thanise Nogueira; de Lima, Júlio César; de Costa, Fernanda; Rodrigues-Corrêa, Kelly C S; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2016-01-01

    Tapping technique comprises the extraction of pine oleoresin, a non-wood forest product consisting of a complex mixture of mono, sesqui, and diterpenes biosynthesized and exuded as a defense response to wounding. Oleoresin is used to produce gum rosin, turpentine, and their multiple derivatives. Oleoresin yield and quality are objects of interest in pine tree biotechnology, both in terms of environmental and genetic control. Monitoring these parameters in individual trees grown in the field provides a means to examine the control of terpene production in resin canals, as well as the identification of genetic-based differences in resinosis. A typical method of tapping involves the removal of bark and application of a chemical stimulant on the wounded area. Here we describe the methods for preparing the resin-stimulant paste with different adjuvants, as well as the bark streaking process in adult pine trees.

  16. Magnolia officinalis (Hou Po) bark extract stimulates the Nrf2-pathway in hepatocytes and protects against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Rajgopal, Arun; Missler, Stephen R; Scholten, Jeffery D

    2016-12-04

    The highly aromatic bark of Magnolia officinalis Rehder and EH Wilson, (magnolia bark) has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine where it is known as Hou Po. Historically the bark of the tree has been used for treating variety of disorders the most common use of magnolia bark in traditional prescription has been to treat stress and anxiety disorders. Till date it is not clear regarding the fundamental cellular pathway it modulates. NRF2 signaling has emerged as the central pathway that protects cells from variety of stressors this led us to hypothesize that basis for magnolia bark's effects could be via activating NRF2 pathway. We utilized variety of biochemical procedures like luciferase reporter assay, enzyme induction, gene expression to determine NRF2 inducing activity by magnolia bark extract and its significance. Further we identified the phytochemicals inducing this activity using bio-directed fractionation procedure. In this study, we demonstrate that magnolia bark extract activates Nrf2-dependent gene expression and protects against hydrogen peroxide mediated oxidative stress in hepatocytes. We further identified through HPLC fractionation and mass spectroscopy that magnolol, 4-methoxy honokiol and honokiol are the active phytochemicals inducing the Nrf2-mediated activity. This could be the molecular basis for its numerous beneficial activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Piscicidal activity of leaf and bark extract of Thevetia peruviana plant and their biochemical stress response on fish metabolism.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Yadav, R P; Singh, A

    2010-11-01

    The leaf and bark of Thevetia peruviana (Family: Apocynaceae) plant was administered for 24 h to the freshwater fish Catla catla (Hamilton) to evaluate their piscicidal activity in laboratory and cemented pond condition. The LC0 values of lef and bark extracts of different solvents (i.e., acetone, diethyl ether, ethyl alcohol, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride) of this plant to fish Catla catla were determined. The LC50 values of acetone leaf extract of Thevetia peruviana plant is 88.80 mg/L (24h) in laboratory condition and 529.38 mg/L (24h) in cemented pond condition; acetone bark extract of this plant is 99.43 mg/L (24h) in laboratory condition and 591.78 mg/L (24h) in cemented pond condition against freshwater fish Catla catla. Similar trend was also observed in case of other solvent (i.e., diethyl ether, ethyl alcohol, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride) of leaf and bark extracts of Thevetia peruviana plant against freshwater fish Catla catla in laboratory and cemented pond conditions. The acetone leaf and bark extract of this plant was very effective in comparison to other solvent extract in both the conditions. So, the biochemical analysis is taken only acetone leaf and bark extract of Thevetia peruviana plant in laboratory condition. Exposure of sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of LC,) of acetone leaf and bark extract of this plant over 24 h caused significant (P < 0.05) alterations in total protein, free amino acids, DNA & RNA, protease and acid and alkaline phosphatase activity in muscle, liver and gonadal tissues of fish Catla catla in laboratory condition.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of bark extracts of Syzygium jambos (L.) alston (Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Djipa, C D; Delmée, M; Quetin-Leclercq, J

    2000-07-01

    Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston (Myrtaceae) is a widespread medicinal plant traditionally used in sub-Saharan Africa to treat infectious diseases. Acetone and aqueous extracts from the bark of S. jambos were tested for antimicrobial activity in vitro by the agar dilution method in petri dishes. Both extracts showed some activity against the tested micro-organisms. They proved to be particularly effective on Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica and coagulase negative staphylococci among which Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus cohnii and Staphylococcus warneri. These properties seem to be related to the high tannin content of S. jambos extracts (77 and 83% for the aqueous and acetone extracts, respectively, determined according to the European Pharmacopoeia method) which were generally more active than Hamamelis virginiana, Krameria triandra, Alchemilla vulgaris and Rubus fruticosus extracts containing 48, 44, 46 and 28% tannins, respectively. Furthermore, elimination of tannins totally suppressed these antimicrobial activities.

  19. Toxicological studies of stem bark extract from Schefflera barteri Harms (Araliaceae).

    PubMed

    Atsafack, Serge Secco; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Mouokeu, Raymond Simplice; Koanga Mogtomo, Martin Luther; Tchinda, Alembert Tiabou; De Dieu, Tamokou Jean; Magnifouet Nana, Huguette; Ebelle Etame, Rébecca Madeleine; Biyiti, Lucie; Ngono Ngane, Rosalie Annie

    2015-03-07

    The use of herbal medicines as complements or alternatives to orthodox medicines has been on the increase. There has been the erroneous belief that these medicines are free from adverse effects. Schefflera barteri is popularly used in the West region of Cameroon for the treatment of various diseases such as diarrhea, spasm, pneumonia and animals bite. Considering the ethnopharmacological relevance of this plant, this study was designed to investigate the possible toxic effects of the stem bark extract of S. barteri. The extract was prepared by maceration of stem bark dry powder in methylene chloride/methanol mixture. Phytochemical analysis was performed by chemical reaction method. Oral acute toxicity study was carried out by administering single geometric increasing doses (2 to 16 g/kg body weight) of plant extract to Swiss albino mice. For sub-acute toxicity study, repeated doses (100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg bw) of plant extract were given to Wistar albino rats for 28 consecutive days by oral route. At the end of the treatment period, hematological and biochemical parameters were assessed, as well as histopathological studies. Phytochemical analysis of stem bark extract of S. barteri revealed the presence of anthocyanins, anthraquinons and saponins. Acute toxicity results showed that the LD50 was greater than 16000 mg/kg. Sub-acute treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased the level of serum transaminase, proteins and HDL cholesterol. On the other hand, the extract significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the level of leucocytes as well as neutrophils, basophils and monocytes in female. No significant variation of serum creatinine, LDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides as well as liver, spleen, testicles and ovaries proteins was noted. Histopathological analysis of organs showed vascular congestion, inflammation of peri-portal and vacuolization of hepatocytes at the level of the liver. Leucocytes infiltration of peri-portal veins were noticed on lungs and liver cells

  20. Sub-chronic Hepatotoxicity of Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae) Inner Stem Bark Extract in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Okonkwo, T. J. N.; Okorie, O.; Okonta, J. M.; Okonkwo, C. J.

    2010-01-01

    The extracts of Anacardium occidentale have been used in the management of different cardiovascular disorders in Nigeria. These have necessitated the assessment of the toxicity of this plant extract in sub-chronic administration. The inner stem bark of Anacardium occidentale was extracted with 80 % methanol and quantitatively analysed for antinutrients and some heavy metals. The phytochemical compositions and acute toxicity of the extract were determined also. Toxicity profiles of the extract on some liver function parameters were evaluated following a sub-chronic oral administration at doses of 1.44 and 2.87 g/kg. The phytochemical screening of extract revealed the presence of high amount of tannins, moderate saponins and trace of free reducing sugars. The antinutrient levels were 5.75 % (tannins), 2.50 % (oxalates), 2.00 % (saponins), 0.25 % (phytate) and 0.03 % (cyanide). The quantity of iron detected from dried crude was 8.92 mg/100 g, while lead and cadmium were non-detectable. The extract had LD50of 2.154g/kg p.o. in mice. Sub-chronic administration of the extract significantly increased the serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase and aspartate aminotransaminase, which are indicative of liver damage. The serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and total protein of the treated animals were not significantly increased. The effects of sub-chronically administered extract on hepatocytes were minimal as the serum alkaline phosphatase; total bilirubin and total protein levels in treated animals were not significant (p< 0.05). Thus, sub-chronic administrations of Anacardium occidentale inner stem bark extract did not significantly (p< 0.05) depress the function of hepatocytes in Wistar rats. PMID:21188045

  1. Antiinflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycemic effects of Mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, J A O

    2005-10-01

    Previous studies in our laboratories and elsewhere have shown that some members of Anacardiaceae family possess antiinflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycemic effects in man and mammalian experimental animals. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory, analgesic and antidiabetic properties of the stem-bark aqueous extract of Mangifera indica Linn., M. indica a member of the Anacardiaceae family, in rats and mice. The stem-bark powder of M. indica was Soxhlet extracted with distilled water and used. The analgesic effect of the plant's extract was evaluated by the hot-plate and acetic acid test models of pain in mice, while the antiinflammatory and antidiabetic effects of the stem-bark extract were investigated in rats, using fresh egg albumin-induced paw edema, and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus, respectively. Morphine (MPN, 10 mg/kg i.p.), diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg i.p.), and chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg p.o.) were used respectively as reference analgesic, antiinflammatory, and hypoglycemic agents for comparison. M. indica stem-bark aqueous extract (MIE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) produced dose-dependent and significant (p<0.05-0.001) analgesic effects against thermally and chemically induced nociceptive pain stimuli in mice. MIE (50-800 mg/kg i.p.) also significantly (p<0.05-0.001) inhibited fresh egg albumin-induced paw edema, and caused significant (p<0.05-0.001) hypoglycemic effects in rats. It is suggested that the analgesic effects of MIE (50-800 mg/kg i.p.) may be peripherally and centrally mediated. The different chemical constituents of the plant, especially the polyphenolics, flavonoids, triterpenoids, mangiferin, and other chemical compounds present in the plant may be involved in the observed antiinflammatory, analgesic, and hypoglycemic effects of the plant's extract. However, the results of this experimental animal study lend pharmacological credence to the suggested folkloric uses of the plant in the management

  2. Antispermatogenic, antiandrogenic activities of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth bark extract in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R S; Kachhawa, J B S; Chaudhary, R

    2006-03-01

    Methanolic extract of Albizia lebbeck bark when administered orally at the dose level of 100 mg/rat/day to male rats of proven fertility for 60 days did not cause any significant loss in their body weights but the weights of reproductive organs, i.e. testis, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were decreased in a significant manner when compared to controls. Sperm motility as well as sperm density were reduced significantly which resulted in reduction of male fertility by 100%. Marked decline in the germ cell population was noticed. Population of preleptotene, pachytene, secondary spermatocytes and step-19 spermatid were declined by 60.86%, 65.81%, 71.56% and 66.55%, respectively. Cross-sectional surface area of sertoli cells as well as the cells counts were found to be depleted significantly. Leydig cells nuclear area and number of mature Leydig cells were decreased by 60.03% and 51.56%, respectively. Serum testosterone levels showed significant reduction after A. lebbeck extract feeding. Oral administration of the extract did not affect red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) count, haemoglobin, haematocrit and glucose in the blood and cholesterol, protein, triglyceride and phospholipid in the serum. In conclusion, A. lebbeck bark extract administration arrests spermatogenesis in male rats without noticeable side effects.

  3. [Inflammatory ointment from shea butter and hydro-alcoholic extract of Khaya senegalensis barks (Cailcederat)].

    PubMed

    Thioune, O; Ahodikpe, D; Dieng, M; Diop, A B; Ngom, S; Lo, I

    2000-01-01

    In a former study, it was proved that the alcoholic solution of hydro-alcoholic extract of Khaya senegalensis barks had an anti-inflammatory activity on animals after a local application. In this work, ointments made from the same extract and three different excipients (vaseline, lanoline and shea butter (crude and refined)) have been prepared and tested by the method of the croton oil inhibited ear oedema. Results showed inhibition percentages of the ear oedema of 58.8%, 66.7% and 75.4% when the hydro-alcoholic extract was tested at respective doses of 1%, 2% and 3% in shea butter. The two other excipients, (vaceline and Lanoline) tested at the dose of 3% showed between 52% and 58% of inhibitions. The interest of this study was to demonstrate the possibility to maintain the anti-inflammatory activity of Khaya senegalensis barks by using them in a galenic form, easy to prepare and which is, in addition, more adapted than the extract to possible clinical trials.

  4. Comparison between several techniques of olive tree bark extraction (Tunisian Chemlali variety).

    PubMed

    Issaoui, Aimen; Ksibi, Hatem; Ksibi, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    In order to better understand the chemical composition of the olive tree bark of Tunisian chemlali variety (Olea europaea cv. 'Chemlali'), this material was extracted by different ways. Compositions of extracts were used at best-selected conditions for each technique, and characterised using HPLC, LC/MS and GC-MS techniques. Analyses are conducted to an important variety of high carbon number compounds such as aliphatic compounds as nanocosane and heptacosane, and molecules with high value added tax (VAT) which can be classified as follows: diterpenes as phytol, triterpenes as squalene and also esters as Benzyl cinnamate. Hydrodistillation at high pressure seems to be a very common method to get a wide variety of compounds, the results are better than the ones obtained using supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

  5. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghadirkhomi, Akram; Safaeian, Leila; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Agha Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica) is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg) was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day) of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50) of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels. There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and in monocyte counts at the highest dose of the extract in both male and female rats (p<0.05). Mild inflammation was also found in histological examination of kidney and liver tissues at the highest dose of extract. Conclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg. PMID:27761426

  6. Evaluation of Hypoglycemic and Genotoxic Effect of Polyphenolic Bark Extract from Quercus sideroxyla

    PubMed Central

    Soto-García, Marcela; Rosales-Castro, Martha; Escalona-Cardoso, Gerardo N.

    2016-01-01

    Quercus sideroxyla is a wood species whose bark has phenolic compound and should be considered to be bioactive; the hypoglycemic and genotoxic properties of Q. sideroxyla bark were evaluated in this study. Total phenolic compound was determined in crude extract (CE) and organic extract (OE). The OE has the highest amount of phenols (724.1 ± 12.0 GAE/g). Besides, both CE and OE demonstrated effect over the inhibition of α-amylase in vitro. Hypoglycemic activity was assessed by glucose tolerance curve and the area under curve (UAC); OE showed the highest hypoglycemic activity. In addition, diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) and the extracts (50 mg/kg) were administered for 10 days; OE showed hypoglycemic effect compared with diabetic control and decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation. Acute toxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated in CE; results of acute toxicity did not show any mortality. Besides, the comet assay showed that CE at a dose of 100 mg/kg did not show any genotoxic effect when evaluated at 24 h, whereas it induced slight damage at 200 mg/kg, with the formation of type 1 comets. PMID:27867402

  7. Effects of hot-water extraction on the thermochemical conversion of shrub willow via fast pyrolysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hot-water extraction (TM) (HWE) is a pretreatment technology designed to facilitate the subsequent hydrolysis of cellulose by removing the majority of the hemicellulose and ash content from the solid biomass. The HWE process generates salable sugars and other products as part of the process. The bio...

  8. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidants activities of aqueous stem bark extract of Schotia latifolia Jacq

    PubMed Central

    Mbaebie, BO; Edeoga, HO; Afolayan, AJ

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Schotia latifolia (S. latifolia) bark locally used for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced ailments in South Africa. Methods The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of aqueous extract of the plant was assessed against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the ferric reducing agent. Total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidins were also determined to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. Results The activities of plant extract against DPPH, ABTS and NO radicals were concentration dependent with IC50 value of 0.06, 0.05 and 0.05 mg/mL, respectively. The reducing power of the extract was greater than that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid which were used as standard drugs in a concentration dependent manner. The total phenolics content of the aqueous bark extract was (193.33±0.03 TE/g), followed by flavonoids (72.70±0.01 QE/g), proanthocyanidins (48.76±0.00 CE/g) and flavonols (47.76±0.21 QE/g). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of percentage tannin (11.40±0.02), alkaloid (9.80±0.01), steroids (18.20±0.01), glycosides (29.80±0.01) and saponins (6.80±0.00). The results exhibited a positive linear correlation between these polyphenols and the free radical scavenging activities. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that the crude aqueous extract of S. latifolia is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its uses in folkloric medicines. PMID:23569880

  9. Antidiarrheal activity of methanolic extract of the root bark of Cordia africana

    PubMed Central

    Asrie, Assefa Belay; Abdelwuhab, Mohammedbrhan; Shewamene, Zewdneh; Gelayee, Desalegn Asmelashe; Adinew, Getnet Mequanint; Birru, Eshetie Melese

    2016-01-01

    An ethnobotanical study in Agew-Awi and Amhara peoples in northwest Ethiopia reported that Cordia africana is used traditionally in the treatment of liver disease, amebiasis, stomachache, and diarrhea. The root and root bark are reported to be used in the treatment of diarrhea. Therefore, this study was intended to evaluate the antidiarrheal effect of C. africana against castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. The antidiarrheal effect of the plant was tested on castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice (23–25 g) of either sex. Number of diarrheic defecations, intestinal length traveled by the charcoal meal, and weight of intestinal fluid were taken as important parameters to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of the plant extract. In preliminary phytochemical screening tests, the methanolic extract of C. africana was found to contain phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, and saponins. Reduction in the number of diarrheic drops was observed in groups of mice that received 200 mg/kg (P<0.05) and 400 mg/kg (P<0.01) of the extract compared to the negative controls. The percent inhibition of intestinal fluid accumulation was 26.83%, 46.34%, and 53.66% at the doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. Relative to the negative control group, the mean percent of intestinal length moved by the charcoal meal was decreased by 24.41%, 39.89%, and 51.66% in groups of mice given 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the plant extract, respectively. To iterate the finding, the root bark extract of C. africana was found to be effective in preventing castor oil-induced diarrhea and intestinal motility in a dose-dependent manner. This reveals that the plant material has promising antidiarrheal activity as it is claimed in traditional medical practice. PMID:27799833

  10. Antidiarrheal activity of methanolic extract of the root bark of Cordia africana.

    PubMed

    Asrie, Assefa Belay; Abdelwuhab, Mohammedbrhan; Shewamene, Zewdneh; Gelayee, Desalegn Asmelashe; Adinew, Getnet Mequanint; Birru, Eshetie Melese

    2016-01-01

    An ethnobotanical study in Agew-Awi and Amhara peoples in northwest Ethiopia reported that Cordia africana is used traditionally in the treatment of liver disease, amebiasis, stomachache, and diarrhea. The root and root bark are reported to be used in the treatment of diarrhea. Therefore, this study was intended to evaluate the antidiarrheal effect of C. africana against castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. The antidiarrheal effect of the plant was tested on castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice (23-25 g) of either sex. Number of diarrheic defecations, intestinal length traveled by the charcoal meal, and weight of intestinal fluid were taken as important parameters to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of the plant extract. In preliminary phytochemical screening tests, the methanolic extract of C. africana was found to contain phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, and saponins. Reduction in the number of diarrheic drops was observed in groups of mice that received 200 mg/kg ( P <0.05) and 400 mg/kg ( P <0.01) of the extract compared to the negative controls. The percent inhibition of intestinal fluid accumulation was 26.83%, 46.34%, and 53.66% at the doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. Relative to the negative control group, the mean percent of intestinal length moved by the charcoal meal was decreased by 24.41%, 39.89%, and 51.66% in groups of mice given 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the plant extract, respectively. To iterate the finding, the root bark extract of C. africana was found to be effective in preventing castor oil-induced diarrhea and intestinal motility in a dose-dependent manner. This reveals that the plant material has promising antidiarrheal activity as it is claimed in traditional medical practice.

  11. Abroma augusta Linn bark extract-mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Subhajit; Bag, Braja Gopal; Basu, Ranadhir

    2015-10-01

    The bark extract of Abroma augusta Linn is rich in medicinally important phytochemicals including antioxidants and polyphenols. First one step green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described utilizing the bark extract of Abroma augusta L. and chloroauric acid under very mild reaction conditions. The phytochemicals present in the bark extract acted both as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent, and no additional stabilizing and capping agents were needed. Detailed characterizations of the stabilized AuNPs were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles has been demonstrated for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, and the kinetics of the reduction reaction have been studied spectrophotometrically.

  12. Activity of hawthorn leaf and bark extracts in relation to biological membrane.

    PubMed

    Włoch, Aleksandra; Kapusta, Ireneusz; Bielecki, Krzysztof; Oszmiański, Jan; Kleszczyńska, Halina

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the study was to identify and determine the percent content of polyphenols in extracts from leaves and hawthorn bark, to examine the effect of the extracts on the properties of the biological membrane as well as to determine their antioxidant activity toward membrane lipids. In particular, a biophysical investigation was conducted on the effect of hawthorn extracts on the osmotic resistance and morphology of erythrocyte cells and on the packing of the heads of membrane lipids. Analysis of the polyphenol content of extracts used the HPLC method. Analysis of the polyphenol composition has shown a dominant share of procyanidins and epicatechin in both extracts. The research showed that the polyphenolic compounds contained in hawthorn extracts are incorporated mainly into the hydrophilic part of the erythrocyte membrane, inducing echinocyte shapes. They also diminish the packing order of the lipid polar heads of the membrane, as evidenced by the lowered generalized polarization values of Laurdan. The substances used induced increased osmotic pressure of erythrocytes, making them less sensitive to changes in osmotic pressure. The presence of the extract compounds in the outer hydrophilic part of the erythrocyte membrane, evidenced by examination of the shapes and packing in the hydrophilic part of membrane, indicates that the substances constitute a kind of barrier that protects the erythrocyte membrane against free radicals, while the membrane-bound extracts do not disturb the membrane structure and, thus, do not cause any side effects.

  13. In vivo antioxidant effect of aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves extracts of Vitex doniana in CCl4 induced liver damage rats.

    PubMed

    Adetoro, Kadejo Olubukola; Bolanle, James Dorcas; Abdullahi, Sallau Balarebe; Ahmed, Ozigi Abdulrahaman

    2013-05-01

    The antioxidant effects of aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves of Vitex doniana (V. doniana) were evaluated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage and non induced liver damage albino rats. A total of 60 albino rats (36 induced liver damage and 24 non induced liver damage) were assigned into liver damage and non liver damage groups of 6 rats in a group. The animals in the CCl4 induced liver damage groups, were induced by intraperitoneal injection with a single dose of CCl4 (148 mg·ml(-1)·kg(-1) body weight) as a 1:1 (v/v) solution in olive oil and were fasted for 36 h before the subsequent treatment with aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves extracts of V. doniana and vitamin E as standard drug (100 mg/kg body weighy per day) for 21 d, while the animals in the non induced groups were only treated with the daily oral administration of these extracts at the same dose. The administration of CCl4 was done once a week for a period of three weeks. The liver of CCl4 induced not treated group showed that the induction with CCl4, significantly (P<0.05) increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and significantly (P<0.05) decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). However there was no significant (P>0.05) difference between TBARS, SOD and CAT in the liver of the induced treated groups and normal control group. In the kidney, TBARS showed no significant (P>0.05) difference between the normal and the induced groups, SOD was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in the CCl4 group compared to standard drug and normal control groups, CAT was significantly (P<0.05) increased in root and vitamin E groups when compared to induced not treated group. The studies also showed that when the extracts were administered to normal animals, there was no significant (P>0.05) change in the liver and kidney level of TBARS, SOD and CAT compared with the normal control except in the kidney of animals treated with stem extract where TBARS was significantly

  14. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Prosopis juliflora bark extract: reaction optimization, antimicrobial and catalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Arya, Geeta; Kumari, R Mankamna; Gupta, Nidhi; Kumar, Ajeet; Chandra, Ramesh; Nimesh, Surendra

    2018-08-01

    In the present study, silver nanoparticles (PJB-AgNPs) have been biosynthesized employing Prosopis juliflora bark extract. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was monitored on UV-vis spectrophotometer. The size, charge and polydispersity index (PDI) of PJB-AgNPs were determined using dynamic light scattering (DLS). Different parameters dictating the size of PJB-AgNPs were explored. Nanoparticles biosynthesis optimization studies suggested efficient synthesis of highly dispersed PJB-AgNPs at 25 °C when 9.5 ml of 1 mM AgNO 3 was reduced with 0.5 ml of bark extract for 40 min. Characterization of PJB-AgNPs by SEM showed spherical-shaped nanoparticles with a size range ∼10-50 nm along with a hydrodynamic diameter of ∼55 nm as evaluated by DLS. Further, characterizations were done by FTIR and EDS to evaluate the functional groups and purity of PJB-AgNPs. The antibacterial potential of PJB-AgNPs was tested against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The PJB-AgNPs remarkably exhibited anticancer activity against A549 cell line as evidenced by Alamar blue assay. The dye degradation activity was also evaluated against 4-nitrophenol that has carcinogenic effect. The results thus obtained suggest application of PJB-AgNPs as antimicrobial, anticancer and catalytic agents.

  15. Antimicrobial kinetics of Alstonia scholaris bark extract-mediated AgNPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supraja, N.; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.; David, E.; Giridhara Krishna, T.

    2016-06-01

    Nanobiotechnology is considered as one of the important branches of nanotechnology, and research on synthesis of nanoscale materials, silver in particular, using plant and plant parts has been progressing rapidly. Herein, we used bark extract of Alstonia scholaris one of the most important medicinal plants to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) which exhibited excellent antimicrobial properties against biofilm formed in drinking water PVC pipes. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was done by treating 90 mL of 1 mM AgNO3 aqueous solution with 10 mL of 5 % bark extract. As-prepared silver nanoparticles were characterized using the biophysical techniques such as UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering for the measurement of hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential. The kinetics of the antimicrobial activity against PVC biofilm of prepared silver nanoparticles were done using comparative solution suspension time-killing assessments and which are evidenced in Epi-fluorescent microscopic observations.

  16. Pinus densiflora bark extract prevents selenite-induced cataract formation in the lens of Sprague Dawley rat pups.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun; Choung, Se-Young

    2017-01-01

    Rat pups treated with sodium selenite are typically used as an in vivo model to mimic age-related nuclear cataract. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation, reduction of antioxidant enzymes, crystalline proteolysis, and apoptosis are considered factors that contribute to pathogenesis of age-related nuclear cataract. In the present study, we investigated whether Pinus densiflora bark extract has potential to prevent cataract formation and elucidated the underlying mechanism. Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups (n=10). Group 1 rat pups (the control) were treated with only normal saline. The rat pups in groups 2 to 6 were given a subcutaneous injection with sodium selenite (18 μmol/kg bodyweight) on postnatal (P) day 10. Group 3 rat pups (the positive control) were given gastric intubation with curcumin (80 mg/kg bodyweight) on P9, P10, and P11. The rat pups in groups 4 to 6 were given gastric intubation with P. densiflora bark extract 40 mg/kg, 80 mg/kg, and 120 mg/kg, respectively, on P9, P10, and P11. This study showed that P. densiflora bark extract dose-dependently prevented cataract formation. Water-soluble protein, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activity levels were found to be high, and conversely, water-insoluble protein, malondialdehyde, and Ca 2+ -ATPase were found to be low in the groups treated with P. densiflora bark extract compared to group 2. Real-time PCR analysis showed αA-crystalline, lens-specific m-calpain ( Lp84 ), lens-specific intermediates (filensin and phakinin), and antiapoptotic factor ( Bcl-2 ) were downregulated, and the apoptotic factors (caspase-3 and Bax) and plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase ( PMCA-1 ) were upregulated in group 2 compared to group 1. P. densiflora bark extract regulated the imbalance of these genes. The increased cleavage form of caspase-3 was lowered in the groups treated with P. densiflora bark extract. In conclusion, P. densiflora bark

  17. Effect of oral administration of bark extracts of Pterocarpus santalinus L. on blood glucose level in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Kameswara Rao, B; Giri, R; Kesavulu, M M; Apparao, C

    2001-01-01

    The effect of administration of different doses of Pterocarpus santalinus L. bark extracts in normal and diabetic rats, on blood glucose levels was evaluated in this study. Among the three fractions (aqueous, ethanol and hexane), ethanolic fraction at the dose of 0.25 g/kg body weight showed maximum antihyperglycemic activity. The same dose did not cause any hypoglycemic activity in normal rats. The results were compared with the diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide and the antihyperglycemic activity of ethanolic extract of PS bark at the dose of 0.25 g/kg b.w. was found to be more effective than that of glibenclamide.

  18. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction conditions for preparing lignan-rich extract from Saraca asoca bark using Box-Behnken design.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Shikha; Aeri, Vidhu

    2016-07-01

    Lyoniside is the major constituent of Saraca asoca Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae) bark. There is an immediate need to develop an efficient method to isolate its chemical constituents, since it is a therapeutically important plant. A rapid extraction method for lyoniside based on microwave-assisted extraction of S. asoca bark was developed and optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Lyoniside was analyzed and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). The extraction solvent ratio (%), material solvent ratio (g/ml) and extraction time (min) were optimized using Box-Behnken design (BBD) to obtain the highest extraction efficiency. The optimal conditions were the use of 1:30 material solvent ratio with 70:30 mixture of methanol:water for 10 min duration. The optimized microwave-assisted extraction yielded 9.4 mg/g of lyoniside content in comparison to reflux extraction under identical conditions which yielded 4.2 mg/g of lyoniside content. Under optimum conditions, the experimental values agreed closely with the predicted values. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated a high goodness-of-fit model and the success of the RSM method for optimizing lyoniside extraction from the bark of S. asoca. All the three variables significantly affected the lyoniside content. Increased polarity of solvent medium enhances the lyoniside yield. The present study shows the applicability of microwave-assisted extraction in extraction of lyoniside from S. asoca bark.

  19. Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extracts of fruits and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. in mice and on human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Heroor, Sanjeev; Beknal, Arun Kumar; Mahurkar, Nitin

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extracts of fruit and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. on cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression in mice and the phagocytic effect on human neutrophils. Methanolic extracts of fruits and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. at two dose levels of 250 and 500 mg/kg p.o. were administered for 13 days to albino mice and cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg i.p.) was administered on 11th, 12th, and 13th days, 1 hour after the administration of the respective treatment. On 14th day blood was collected and the hematological parameters were evaluated. The two extracts in the concentration range 100, 50, 25, 12 and 6.25 μg were also tested for phagocytic effect on human neutrophils using the in vitro models-nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) dye test, phagocytosis of Candida albicans, and chemotaxis assay. Methanolic extracts of fruit and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. showed significant counteracting effect (P < 0.01) to cyclophosphamide-induced reduction in total WBC, differential leucocyte count, platelet counts, RBC counts, and hemoglobin levels. The extracts of the plant in the concentration range 100, 50, 25, 12, and 6.25 μg also showed significant (P < 0.01) phagocytic effect on human neutrophils in the parameters studied. Methanolic extracts of fruits and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. exhibited immunomodulatory property in both in vivo and in vitro models.

  20. Antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts and fractions of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark and the involvement of phenolic compounds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antioxidant compounds like phenols and flavonoids scavenge free radicals and thus inhibit the oxidative mechanisms that lead to control degenerative and other diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity in vitro, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in ethanol extracts and fractions of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark. Methods Crescentia cujete leaves and bark crude ethanol extract (CEE) and their partitionates petroleum ether (PEF), chloroform (CHF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and aqueous (AQF) were firstly prepared. Different established testing methods, such as 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, ferric reducing power (FRP), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays were used to detect the antioxidant activity. Further, the total yield, total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) of CEE and all the fractions were determined. Ethanol extracts of both leaves and stem bark were also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening to detect the presence of secondary metabolites, using standard phytochemical methods (Thin layer chromatography and spray reagents). Results Phytochemical screening of crude ethanol extract of both leaves and stem bark revealed the presence of steroids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides and terpenoids. All the fractions and CEE of leaves and bark exhibited antioxidant activities, however, EAF of leaves showing the highest antioxidant activity based on the results of DPPH, FRP and TAC assay tests. The above fraction has shown the significant DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 8.78 μg/ml) when compared with standard ascorbic acid (IC50 =7.68 μg/ml). The TAC and FRP activities increased with increasing crude extract/fractions content. The TPC (371.23 ± 15.77 mg GAE/g extract) and TFC (144.64 ± 5.82 mg QE/g extract) of EAF of leaves were found significantly higher as compared to other solvent fractions for both leaves and bark. TPC were highly

  1. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom; Orekoya, Latifat Olubukola; Yakubu, Musa Toyin

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the toxic implications of ethanolic stem bark extract of Azadirachta indica (A. indica) at 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Fifty male rats of Wistar strains were randomly grouped into five (A-E) of ten animals each. Animals in Group A (control) were orally administered 1 mL of distilled water on daily basis for 21 days while those in Groups B-E received same volume of the extract corresponding to 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight. The extract did not significantly (P>0.05) alter the levels of albumin, total protein, red blood cells and factors relating to it whereas the white blood cell, platelets, serum triacylglycerol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly (P<0.05). In contrast, the final body weights, absolute weights of the liver, kidney, lungs and heart as well as their organ-body weight ratios, serum globulins, total and conjugated bilirubin, serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and computed atherogenic index increased significantly. The spleen-body weight ratio, alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases, sodium, potassium, calcium, feed and water intake were altered at specific doses. Overall, the alterations in the biochemical parameters of toxicity have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the organs of the animals. Therefore, the ethanolic extract of A. indica stem bark at the doses of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary.

  2. Potentiation of the antiinflammatory effect of Anacardium occidentale (Linn.) stem-bark aqueous extract by grapefruit juice.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, J A O

    2004-04-01

    In an attempt to scientifically appraise some of the ethnomedical uses of Anacardium occidentale Linn. (family: Anacardiaceae), the present study was undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory effect of the plant's stem-bark aqueous extract in rats. Young adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used. The antiinflammatory effect of A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract alone and in combination with grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) juice was investigated on fresh egg albumin-induced rat paw edema. Like diclofenac (100 mg/kg p.o.), aqueous extract of A. occidentale stem-bark (800 mg/kg p.o.) produced time-related, sustained and significant reduction (p < 0.05-0.001) of the fresh egg albumin-induced acute inflammation of the rat hind paw. However, the antiinflammatory effect of the plant extract was found to be approximately 8-15 times less than that of diclofenac. Coadministration of grapefruit juice (5 ml/kg p.o.) with A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract (800 mg/kg p.o.) or diclofenac (100 mg/kg p.o.) significantly potentiated (p < 0.05-0.001) the antiinflammatory effects of the crude plant extract and diclofenac on fresh egg albumin-induced rat paw edema. Although A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract is less potent than diclofenac as an antiinflammatory agent, the results of this experimental animal study indicate that the plant extract possesses antiinflammatory activity, and thus lend pharmacological support to the folkloric use of the plant in the management and/or control of arthritis and other inflammatory conditions among the Yoruba-speaking people of western Nigeria.

  3. Histopathological alterations in mice under sub-acute treatment with Hintonia latiflora methanolic stem bark extract.

    PubMed

    Flores-Jiménez, Nancy G; Rojas-Lemus, Marcela; Fortoul, Teresa I; Zepeda-Rodríguez, Armando; López-Camacho, Perla Y; Anacleto-Santos, Jhony; Gutiérrez, Filiberto Malagón; Basurto-Islas, Gustavo; Rivera-Fernández, Norma

    2018-06-20

    The indiscriminate use of herbal products is increasingly growing worldwide; nonetheless consumers are not warned about the potential health risks that these products may cause. Hintonia latiflora (Hl) is a tree native to the American continent belonging to the Rubiaceae family and its stem bark is empirically used mainly to treat diabetes and malaria; supplements containing Hl are sold in America and Europe without medical prescription, thus scientific information regarding its toxicity as a consequence of a regular consumption is needed. In the present study, the histopathological effect of 200 and 1000 mg/kg of Hintonia latiflora methanolic stem bark extract (HlMeOHe) was evaluated in the small bowel, liver, pancreas, kidneys and brain of CD-1 male mice after oral sub-acute treatment for 28 days. No histopathological alterations were observed in the brain and small bowel of the treated animals; however, mice presented diarrhea from day 2 of treatment with both doses. No histological changes were observed in the tissues collected from the animals treated with 200 mg /kg, except for the liver that depicted periportal hepatitis. Animals treated with the higher dose showed in the liver sections hydropic degeneration, hepatitis and necrosis, kidney sections depicted tubular necrosis and in pancreas sections, hydropic degeneration of the pancreatic islets was observed. In conclusion, HlMeOHe damaged the liver with an oral dose of 200 mg/kg, and at 1000 mg/kg injured the kidneys and pancreas of the CD-1 male mice.

  4. Neuroprotective Effects of Korean Red Pine(Pinus densiflora) Bark Extract and Its Phenolics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Won; Im, Sungbin; Jeong, Ha-Ram; Jung, Young-Seung; Lee, Inil; Kim, Kwan Joong; Park, Seung Kook; Kim, Dae-Ok

    2018-03-15

    Korean red pine ( Pinus densiflora ) is one of the major Pinus species in Korea. Red pine barkis removed prior to the chipping process in the wood industry and discarded aswaste. However, red pine bark contains a considerable amount of naturally occurring phenolics including flavonoids and therefore may have a variety of biological effects. In this study, we investigated if Korean red pine bark extract (KRPBE) could protect neuronal PC-12 cells from oxidative stress and inhibit cholinesterase activity.Analysis of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography results revealed four phenolics in KRPBE:vanillin, protocatechuic acid, catechin and taxifolin.Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of KRPBE were 397.9 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (DW) and 248.7 mg catechin equivalents/g DW, respectively. Antioxidant capacities of KRPBE measured using ABTS, DPPH, and ORAC assays were 697.3, 521.8, and 2,627.7 mg vitamin C equivalents/g DW, respectively. KRPBE and its identified phenolics protected against H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, which degrade the neurotransmitter acetylcholine to terminate neurotransmission in synaptic clefts, were inhibited by treatment with KRPBE and its identified phenolics. Taken together, these results suggest that KRPBE and its constituent antioxidative phenolics are potent neuroprotective agents that can maintain cell viability in the context of oxidative stress and inhibit cholinesterase activity.

  5. Analysis of phytochemical profile of Terminalia arjuna bark extract with antioxidative and antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shreya; Patra, Arpita; Samanta, Animesh; Roy, Suchismita; Mandal, Arpita; Mahapatra, Tapasi Das; Pradhan, Shrabani; Das, Koushik; Nandi, Dilip Kumar

    2013-12-01

    To investigate phytochemical screening, antimicrobial activity and qualitative thin layer chromatographic separation of flavonoid components, antioxidant activity and total flavonoid compound of Terminalia arjuna. For phytochemical screening, some common and available standard tests were done. Antimicrobial bioassay was done through agar well diffusion method. Detection of antioxidant activity and flavonoid compounds were done through thin layer chromatography. Total antioxidant activity was measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in colorimetric method. Aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for total flavonoid determination. Phytochemical screening showed the active compounds presence in high concentration, such as phytosterol, lactones, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and tannins and glycosides. The antimicrobial activity of extract showed that greater inhibition zone against Gram negative bacteria than Gram positive bacteria. This methanolic extract showed a promising antioxidant activity, as absorption of DPPH redicles decreased in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Flavonoids components having antioxidant property present in the methanol extract at a level of 199.00 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dried methanol extract in colorimetric method. The Terminalia arjuna bark extract revealed the presence of bio-active constituents which are known to exhibit medicinal as well as physiological activities. Copyright © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of phytochemical profile of Terminalia arjuna bark extract with antioxidative and antimicrobial properties

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Shreya; Patra, Arpita; Samanta, Animesh; Roy, Suchismita; Mandal, Arpita; Mahapatra, Tapasi Das; Pradhan, Shrabani; Das, Koushik; Nandi, Dilip Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate phytochemical screening, antimicrobial activity and qualitative thin layer chromatographic separation of flavonoid components, antioxidant activity and total flavonoid compound of Terminalia arjuna. Methods For phytochemical screening, some common and available standard tests were done. Antimicrobial bioassay was done through agar well diffusion method. Detection of antioxidant activity and flavonoid compounds were done through thin layer chromatography. Total antioxidant activity was measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in colorimetric method. Aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for total flavonoid determination. Results Phytochemical screening showed the active compounds presence in high concentration, such as phytosterol, lactones, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and tannins and glycosides. The antimicrobial activity of extract showed that greater inhibition zone against Gram negative bacteria than Gram positive bacteria. This methanolic extract showed a promising antioxidant activity, as absorption of DPPH redicles decreased in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Flavonoids components having antioxidant property present in the methanol extract at a level of 199.00 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dried methanol extract in colorimetric method. Conclusions The Terminalia arjuna bark extract revealed the presence of bio-active constituents which are known to exhibit medicinal as well as physiological activities. PMID:24093787

  7. Study of Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Myrianthus Arboreus (Cecropiaceae) Root Bark Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kasangana, Pierre Betu; Haddad, Pierre Selim; Stevanovic, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate the therapeutic potential of polyphenolic extracts from root bark of M. arboreus, we have determined the content of various polyphenols in aqueous and ethanol (EtOH) extract as well as two sub-fractions of the latter: ethyl acetate (EAc) and hexane (Hex). The total phenols, flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids and proanthocyanidins have been determined for all studied extracts/fractions by spectrophotometric methods. Both TP content (331.5 ± 2.5 mg GAE/g) and HCA content (201 ± 1.5 mg CAE/g) were determined to be the highest in EAc fraction of EtOH extract. All studied extracts were however determined to have a low content in flavonoids. The determination of antioxidant capacities of the studied extracts has also been performed by the following in vitro antioxidant tests: DPPH scavenging, phosphomolybdenum method and oxygen radical absorbance (ORACFl and ORACPRG) assay. The results of the DPPH free radical and ORACFl assays showed that there is no significant difference between the EAc fraction and Oligopin®, but the EAc fraction exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity as determined by the phosphomolybdenium method. In addition, the EtOH extract was determined to have the same antioxidant efficiency as the synthetic antioxidant BHT or commercial extract Oligopin® by phosphomolybdenum method. On the other hand, a positive correlation (r < 0.6) was found between different classes of polyphenols and the results of the phosphomolybdenum method, ORACFl as well as ORACPRG, except for the DPPH assay, for which a negative correlation was indicated (r < 0.62). Interestingly, it seems that the content in hydroxycinnamic acids played a big role in all assays with r < 0.9. According to the present study, EAc fraction and EtOH extract should be further studied for the potential use in the pharmaceutical and food industry. PMID:26783713

  8. Protective effect of Pterocarpus marsupium bark extracts against cataract through the inhibition of aldose reductase activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, YanLi; Zhao, Yongxia; Sui, YaNan; Lei, XiaoJun

    2018-04-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of Pterocarpus marsupium bark extracts against cataract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rats. Aldose reductase is a key enzyme in the intracellular polyol pathway, which plays a major role in the development of diabetic cataract. Rats were divided into five groups as normal control, diabetic control, and diabetic control treated with different concentrations of Pterocarpus marsupium bark extracts. Presence of major constituents in Pterocarpus marsupium bark extract was performed by qualitative analysis. Body weight changes, blood glucose, blood insulin, and reduced glutathione (GSH) and aldose reductase mRNA and protein expression were determined. Rat body weight gain was noted following treatment with bark extracts. The blood glucose was reduced up to 36% following treatment with bark extracts. The blood insulin and tissue GSH contents were substantially increased more than 100% in diabetic rats following treatment with extracts. Aldose reductase activity was reduced up to 79.3% in diabetic rats following treatment with extracts. V max , K m , and K i of aldose reductase were reduced in the lens tissue homogenate compared to the diabetic control. Aldose reductase mRNA and protein expression were reduced more than 50% following treatment with extracts. Treatment with Pterocarpus marsupium bark was able to normalize these levels. Taking all these data together, it is concluded that the use of Pterocarpus marsupium bark extracts could be the potential therapeutic approach for the reduction of aldose reductase against diabetic cataract.

  9. Antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract of the stem bark of Clausena heptaphylla

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is wide spread interest in drugs derived from plants as green medicine is believed to be safe and dependable, compared with costly synthetic drugs that have adverse effects. Methods We have attempted to evaluate the antioxidant, In vitro thrombolytic, antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic effects of Clausena heptaphylla (Rutaceae) stem bark extract ethanol extract. Results Ethanolic stem bark extract of Clausena heptaphylla (CHET) contains flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and steroids but it lacks tannins, anthraquinones and resins. Phenol content of the extract was 13.42 mg/g and flavonoid content was 68.9 mg/g. CHET exhibited significant DPPH free radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 3.11 μg/ml. Reducing power of CHET was also moderately stronger. In the cytotoxicity assay, LC50 and Chi-square value of the ethanolic extract against brine shrimp nauplii were 144.1461 μg/ml and 0.8533 demonstrating potent cytotoxic effect of the extract. In vitro thrombolytic activity of CHET is significant with 45.38% clot lysis capability compared to that of Streptokinase (65.78%). In antibacterial screening, moderate zone of inhibition (6.5-9.0 mm in diameter) was observed against gram-positive Bacillus subtilis ATCC 11774, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus polymyxa ATCC 842 and Bacillus megaterium ATCC 13578 and less promising zone of inhibition (3.0-4.5 mm in diameter) against gram-negative Salmonella typhi ATCC 65154, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 13315 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Shigella sonnei ATCC 8992 did not show any sensitivity. The MIC values against these bacteria were ranged from 2,000 to 3,500 μg/ml. The extract showed significant zone of inhibition against Rhizopus oryzae DSM 2200, Aspergillus niger DSM 737 and Aspergillus ochraceus DSM 824 in antifungal assay. Conclusions Further advanced research is necessary to isolate and characterize the chemical components

  10. Abortifacient potential of methanolic extract of Anthocephalus cadamba stem bark in mice.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Muhammad Vaseem; Kala, Manika; Ravat, Nirav; Nivsarkar, Manish

    2015-09-15

    Medicinal plants possessing abortifacient activity have been used traditionally for a long time in folk medicine. Anthocephalus cadamba, is one such herb that has been known to possess abortifacient potential in ethnobotanical literature, but has not been validated scientifically. The methanolic extract of Anthocephalus cadamba stem bark (MEAC) was prepared and tested for abortifacient, estrogenic and uterotrophic activity. Pregnant Swiss albino mice were randomized into 5 groups (1-5). Group 1 (negative control) received 0.2% w/v agar, group 2-4 (received extract at the dose of 500, 1000 and 1500mg/kg b.w.) and group 5 received mifepristone at a dose of 5.86mg/kg b.w. respectively, by oral route from 10(th) to 18(th) day post-coitum daily, and various parameters recorded. The uterotrophic bioassay was performed in bilaterally ovariectomized mice dosed from 9(th) to 15(th) day of ovariectomy and change in uterotrophic parameters was observed. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed presence of glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, saponins, triterpenoids, flavonoids and tannins. No signs of clinical toxicity were observed at any time during the period of treatment. The extract significantly reduced (P<0.05) the number of live fetus, weight and survival ratio of the fetus, number of corpora lutea, progesterone, estradiol and luteinizing hormone whereas the number of dead fetus, number of mice that aborted, percentage vaginal opening and post-implantation loss increased significantly (P<0.05). The estrogenicity experiments showed increase in uterine weight (P<0.05), ballooning of uterus, uterine glucose (P<0.05) and ALP (P<0.001) in extract treated group dose dependently. In addition, the extract also induced vaginal bleeding preceding parturition. This study has substantiated the abortifacient potential of the methanolic extract of Anthocephalus cadamba stem bark. The activity was more marked in 1000 and 1500mg/kg b.w. of the extract and was comparable to that of

  11. Biosynthesis, characterization and antimicrobial action of silver nanoparticles from root bark extract of Berberislycium Royle.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Ansar; Murtaza, Ghulam; Bhatti, Tariq Mahmood; Kausar, Rehana; Ahmed, Muhammad Jamil

    2016-01-01

    Various biological methods are being recognized for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles, which are used in several fields. The phytosynthesis of nanoparticles came out as a cost effective and enviro-friendly approach. When root bark extract of Berberis lycium was treated with silver ions, they reduced to silver nanoparticles, which were spherical, crystalline, size ranged from 10-100nm and capped by biomolecules. Synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR). The plant mediated synthesized silver nanoparticles showed pronounced antimicrobial activities against both Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebseilla pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis). The plant mediated process proved to be non-toxic and low cost contender as reducing agent for synthesizing stable silver nanoparticles.

  12. Acacia catechu ethanolic bark extract induces apoptosis in human oral squamous carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Thangavelu; Ezhilarasan, Devaraj; Vijayaragavan, Rajagopal; Bhullar, Sukhwinder Kaur; Rajendran, Ramasamy

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancer is in approximately 30% of all cancers in India. This study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of Acacia catechu bark (ACB) against human squamous cell carcinoma cell line-25 (SCC-25). Cytotoxic effect of ACB extract was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium Bromide assay. A. catechu extract was treated SCC-25 cells with 25 and 50 μg/mL for 24 h. Apoptosis markers such as caspases-8 and 9, bcl-2, bax, and cytochrome c (Cyt-c) were done by RT-PCR. Morphological changes of ACB treated cells were evaluated using acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) dual staining. Nuclear morphology and DNA fragmentation were evaluated using propidium iodide (PI) staining. Further, cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. A. catechu treatment caused cytotoxicity in SCC-25 cells with an IC 50 of 52.09 μg/mL. Apoptotic marker gene expressions were significantly increased on ACB treatment. Staining with AO/EB and PI shows membrane blebbing and nuclear membrane distortion, respectively, and it confirms the apoptosis induction in SCC-25 cells. These results suggest that ACB extract can be used as a modulating agent in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  13. Anti-spermatogenic activity of ethanol extract of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. stem bark.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Neeru; Vats, Manisha

    2011-06-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-spermatogenic efficacy of ethanol extract of stem bark of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. For the in vitro study, semen samples were obtained from 15 healthy fertile men aged 25-35 years. Sperm motility was examined by the Sander-Cramer method. A dose-dependent and time-dependent effect of ethanol extract on sperm motility and sperm viability were observed. Various concentrations affected the motility of sperm. Ethanol extract at a concentration of 20 mg/mL caused complete immobilization within 3 minutes. Sperm viability and hypo-osmotic swelling was significantly reduced at this concentration. The in vivo studies were carried out on Swiss male albino mice. Ethanol extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight resulted in a significant decrease (p<0.001) in weight of the testis and epididymis. A significant decrease (p<0.01) in sperm motility and sperm count in the epididymis were observed. Histological changes in the epididymis and testis were also investigated. Copyright © 2011 Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  14. In vitro antioxidant and antimalarial activities of leaves, pods and bark extracts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Del.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Muhammad Bilal; Tharaphan, Pattamon; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Tarning, Joel; Anal, Anil Kumar

    2017-07-18

    The emergence of drug resistant malaria is threatening our ability to treat and control malaria in the Southeast Asian region. There is an urgent need to develop novel and chemically diverse antimalarial drugs. This study aimed at evaluating the antimalarial and antioxidant potentials of Acacia nilotica plant extracts. The antioxidant activities of leaves, pods and bark extracts were determined by standard antioxidant assays; reducing power capacity, % lipid peroxidation inhibition and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. The antimalarial activities of plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum parasites were determined by the 48 h schizont maturation inhibition assay. Further confirmation of schizonticide activity of extracts was made by extending the incubation period up to 96 h after removing the plant extract residues from parasites culture. Inhibition assays were analyzed by dose-response modelling. In all antioxidant assays, leaves of A. nilotica showed higher antioxidant activity than pods and bark. Antimalarial IC 50 values of leaves, pods and bark extracts were 1.29, 4.16 and 4.28 μg/ml respectively, in the 48 h maturation assay. The IC 50 values determined for leaves, pods and bark extracts were 3.72, 5.41 and 5.32 μg/ml respectively, after 96 h of incubation. All extracts inhibited the development of mature schizont, indicating schizonticide activity against P. falciparum. A. nilotica extracts showed promising antimalarial and antioxidant effects. However, further investigation is needed to isolate and identify the active components responsible for the antimalarial and antioxidant effects.

  15. Tannins from Hamamelis virginiana bark extract: characterization and improvement of the antiviral efficacy against influenza A virus and human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Theisen, Linda L; Erdelmeier, Clemens A J; Spoden, Gilles A; Boukhallouk, Fatima; Sausy, Aurélie; Florin, Luise; Muller, Claude P

    2014-01-01

    Antiviral activity has been demonstrated for different tannin-rich plant extracts. Since tannins of different classes and molecular weights are often found together in plant extracts and may differ in their antiviral activity, we have compared the effect against influenza A virus (IAV) of Hamamelis virginiana L. bark extract, fractions enriched in tannins of different molecular weights and individual tannins of defined structures, including pseudotannins. We demonstrate antiviral activity of the bark extract against different IAV strains, including the recently emerged H7N9, and show for the first time that a tannin-rich extract inhibits human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 infection. As the best performing antiviral candidate, we identified a highly potent fraction against both IAV and HPV, enriched in high molecular weight condensed tannins by ultrafiltration, a simple, reproducible and easily upscalable method. This ultrafiltration concentrate and the bark extract inhibited early and, to a minor extent, later steps in the IAV life cycle and tannin-dependently inhibited HPV attachment. We observed interesting mechanistic differences between tannin structures: High molecular weight tannin containing extracts and tannic acid (1702 g/mol) inhibited both IAV receptor binding and neuraminidase activity. In contrast, low molecular weight compounds (<500 g/mol) such as gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate or hamamelitannin inhibited neuraminidase but not hemagglutination. Average molecular weight of the compounds seemed to positively correlate with receptor binding (but not neuraminidase) inhibition. In general, neuraminidase inhibition seemed to contribute little to the antiviral activity. Importantly, antiviral use of the ultrafiltration fraction enriched in high molecular weight condensed tannins and, to a lesser extent, the unfractionated bark extract was preferable over individual isolated compounds. These results are of interest for developing and improving plant

  16. Tannins from Hamamelis virginiana Bark Extract: Characterization and Improvement of the Antiviral Efficacy against Influenza A Virus and Human Papillomavirus

    PubMed Central

    Theisen, Linda L.; Erdelmeier, Clemens A. J.; Spoden, Gilles A.; Boukhallouk, Fatima; Sausy, Aurélie; Florin, Luise; Muller, Claude P.

    2014-01-01

    Antiviral activity has been demonstrated for different tannin-rich plant extracts. Since tannins of different classes and molecular weights are often found together in plant extracts and may differ in their antiviral activity, we have compared the effect against influenza A virus (IAV) of Hamamelis virginiana L. bark extract, fractions enriched in tannins of different molecular weights and individual tannins of defined structures, including pseudotannins. We demonstrate antiviral activity of the bark extract against different IAV strains, including the recently emerged H7N9, and show for the first time that a tannin-rich extract inhibits human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 infection. As the best performing antiviral candidate, we identified a highly potent fraction against both IAV and HPV, enriched in high molecular weight condensed tannins by ultrafiltration, a simple, reproducible and easily upscalable method. This ultrafiltration concentrate and the bark extract inhibited early and, to a minor extent, later steps in the IAV life cycle and tannin-dependently inhibited HPV attachment. We observed interesting mechanistic differences between tannin structures: High molecular weight tannin containing extracts and tannic acid (1702 g/mol) inhibited both IAV receptor binding and neuraminidase activity. In contrast, low molecular weight compounds (<500 g/mol) such as gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate or hamamelitannin inhibited neuraminidase but not hemagglutination. Average molecular weight of the compounds seemed to positively correlate with receptor binding (but not neuraminidase) inhibition. In general, neuraminidase inhibition seemed to contribute little to the antiviral activity. Importantly, antiviral use of the ultrafiltration fraction enriched in high molecular weight condensed tannins and, to a lesser extent, the unfractionated bark extract was preferable over individual isolated compounds. These results are of interest for developing and improving plant

  17. Antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities and determination of the total tannin content of bark extracts Endopleura uchi.

    PubMed

    Politi, Flávio A S; de Mello, João C P; Migliato, Ketylin F; Nepomuceno, Andréa L A; Moreira, Raquel R D; Pietro, Rosemeire C L R

    2011-01-01

    Endopleura uchi is a typical Amazonian tree and its bark is popularly employed in the preparation of teas against myomas, arthritis, influenza, diarrhea and cancer. In this study, the antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of five different extracts of the bark, selected by their total tannin content, were assessed. The potential antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay and the values found were very similar among the extracts and to the standards antioxidants used in the tests. Cytotoxicity analysis in mammalian cells indicated that all the tested extracts exhibited IC(50) values higher than the highest concentration used, showing that they do not present a risk when consumed under these conditions. Extract tested against five bacterial strains and one yeast strain did not show satisfactory growth inhibitory activity, and even the extracts that showed some antimicrobial activity were not effective at any dilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. The results may serve as a reference for subsequent works, since such reference values described in the literature for the bark of E. uchi.

  18. Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activities and Determination of the Total Tannin Content of Bark Extracts Endopleura uchi

    PubMed Central

    Politi, Flávio A. S.; de Mello, João C. P.; Migliato, Ketylin F.; Nepomuceno, Andréa L. A.; Moreira, Raquel R. D.; Pietro, Rosemeire C. L. R.

    2011-01-01

    Endopleura uchi is a typical Amazonian tree and its bark is popularly employed in the preparation of teas against myomas, arthritis, influenza, diarrhea and cancer. In this study, the antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of five different extracts of the bark, selected by their total tannin content, were assessed. The potential antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay and the values found were very similar among the extracts and to the standards antioxidants used in the tests. Cytotoxicity analysis in mammalian cells indicated that all the tested extracts exhibited IC50 values higher than the highest concentration used, showing that they do not present a risk when consumed under these conditions. Extract tested against five bacterial strains and one yeast strain did not show satisfactory growth inhibitory activity, and even the extracts that showed some antimicrobial activity were not effective at any dilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. The results may serve as a reference for subsequent works, since such reference values described in the literature for the bark of E. uchi. PMID:21731469

  19. Polyphenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts from Uncaria tomentosa Bark and Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Corella, Diego; Moreira-Gonzalez, Ileana; Arnaez-Serrano, Elizabeth; Monagas-Juan, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa constitutes an important source of secondary metabolites with diverse biological activities mainly attributed until recently to alkaloids and triterpenes. We have previously reported for the first-time the polyphenolic profile of extracts from U. tomentosa, using a multi-step process involving organic solvents, as well as their antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial activity on aerial bacteria, and cytotoxicity on cancer cell lines. These promising results prompted the present study using food grade solvents suitable for the elaboration of commercial extracts. We report a detailed study on the polyphenolic composition of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of U. tomentosa bark and leaves (n = 16), using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/TQ-ESI-MS). A total of 32 compounds were identified, including hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan-3-ols monomers, procyanidin dimers and trimers, flavalignans–cinchonains and propelargonidin dimers. Our findings showed that the leaves were the richest source of total phenolics and proanthocyanidins, in particular propelargonidin dimers. Two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) indicated that the contents of procyanidin and propelargonidin dimers were significantly different (p < 0.05) in function of the plant part, and leaves extracts showed higher contents. Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH) values indicated higher antioxidant capacity for the leaves (p < 0.05). Further, correlation between both methods and procyanidin dimers was found, particularly between ORAC and propelargonidin dimers. Finally, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) analysis results clearly indicated that the leaves are the richest plant part in proanthocyanidins and a very homogenous material, regardless of their origin. Therefore, our findings revealed that both ethanol and water extraction processes are adequate for the elaboration of potential

  20. Evaluation of the Analgesic Activity of the Methanolic Stem Bark Extract of Dialium Guineense (Wild)

    PubMed Central

    Ezeja, MI; Omeh, YS; Ezeigbo, II; Ekechukwu, A

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dialium guineense is a medicinal plant used by some communities of Enugu-Ezike in Enugu State, Nigeria for treatment of fever, headache and other diverse ailments. Objectives: The present study evaluated the analgesic activity of the methanolic stem bark extract of the plant. Method: Acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction or writhing, tail immersion and hot plate analgesic models in albino Wistar mice were used for the study. Three test doses (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight) of the extract were administered orally by gastric gavage. The activity was compared with a standard reference drug, acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) (400 mg/kg) and negative control. The results were analysed by SPSS version 17 using ANOVA and Post Hoc Duncan. Result: In the acetic acid-induced writhing reflex model, D. guineense extract and the reference drug significantly (P =0.014 - 0.002) decreased the mean total number of abdominal constriction in the mice in a dose dependent fashion. The percentage inhibition of the abdominal constriction reflex was increased dose dependently from 0% in the negative control group to 71% at the highest dose of the extract (1000mg/kg). In the tail immersion model the extract at the dose of 1000 mg/kg significantly (P = 0. 048) increased the pain reaction time (PRT) while in hot plate model the extract and drug also significantly (P = 0.048 - 0.05) increased the mean PRT at the doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg. The dose of 250 mg/kg showed no analgesic activity in tail immersion and hot plate models. Conclusion: Dialium guineense demonstrated significant analgesic activity that may be mediated through peripheral pain mechanism. PMID:23209955

  1. Evaluation of the analgesic activity of the methanolic stem bark extract of dialium guineense (wild).

    PubMed

    Ezeja, Mi; Omeh, Ys; Ezeigbo, Ii; Ekechukwu, A

    2011-01-01

    Dialium guineense is a medicinal plant used by some communities of Enugu-Ezike in Enugu State, Nigeria for treatment of fever, headache and other diverse ailments. The present study evaluated the analgesic activity of the methanolic stem bark extract of the plant. Acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction or writhing, tail immersion and hot plate analgesic models in albino Wistar mice were used for the study. Three test doses (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight) of the extract were administered orally by gastric gavage. The activity was compared with a standard reference drug, acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) (400 mg/kg) and negative control. The results were analysed by SPSS version 17 using ANOVA and Post Hoc Duncan. In the acetic acid-induced writhing reflex model, D. guineense extract and the reference drug significantly (P =0.014 - 0.002) decreased the mean total number of abdominal constriction in the mice in a dose dependent fashion. The percentage inhibition of the abdominal constriction reflex was increased dose dependently from 0% in the negative control group to 71% at the highest dose of the extract (1000mg/kg). In the tail immersion model the extract at the dose of 1000 mg/kg significantly (P = 0. 048) increased the pain reaction time (PRT) while in hot plate model the extract and drug also significantly (P = 0.048 - 0.05) increased the mean PRT at the doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg. The dose of 250 mg/kg showed no analgesic activity in tail immersion and hot plate models. Dialium guineense demonstrated significant analgesic activity that may be mediated through peripheral pain mechanism.

  2. Polyphenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts from Uncaria tomentosa Bark and Leaves.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Hoyos, Mirtha; Alvarado-Corella, Diego; Moreira-Gonzalez, Ileana; Arnaez-Serrano, Elizabeth; Monagas-Juan, Maria

    2018-05-11

    Uncaria tomentosa constitutes an important source of secondary metabolites with diverse biological activities mainly attributed until recently to alkaloids and triterpenes. We have previously reported for the first-time the polyphenolic profile of extracts from U. tomentosa , using a multi-step process involving organic solvents, as well as their antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial activity on aerial bacteria, and cytotoxicity on cancer cell lines. These promising results prompted the present study using food grade solvents suitable for the elaboration of commercial extracts. We report a detailed study on the polyphenolic composition of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of U. tomentosa bark and leaves ( n = 16), using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/TQ-ESI-MS). A total of 32 compounds were identified, including hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan-3-ols monomers, procyanidin dimers and trimers, flavalignans⁻cinchonains and propelargonidin dimers. Our findings showed that the leaves were the richest source of total phenolics and proanthocyanidins, in particular propelargonidin dimers. Two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) indicated that the contents of procyanidin and propelargonidin dimers were significantly different ( p < 0.05) in function of the plant part, and leaves extracts showed higher contents. Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH) values indicated higher antioxidant capacity for the leaves ( p < 0.05). Further, correlation between both methods and procyanidin dimers was found, particularly between ORAC and propelargonidin dimers. Finally, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) analysis results clearly indicated that the leaves are the richest plant part in proanthocyanidins and a very homogenous material, regardless of their origin. Therefore, our findings revealed that both ethanol and water extraction processes are adequate for the elaboration of potential

  3. Effect of a total extract from Fraxinus ornus stem bark and esculin on zymosan- and carrageenan-induced paw oedema in mice.

    PubMed

    Stefanova, Z; Neychev, H; Ivanovska, N; Kostova, I

    1995-05-01

    This study investigates the total ethanol extract (TE) of the stem bark of Fraxinus ornus and its constituent esculin (EN). They inhibited classical pathway (CP) and alternative pathway (AP) of complement activation in mouse serum. After intraperitoneal administration the total extract displayed antiinflammatory activity in both zymosan- and carrageenan-induced paw oedema in mice. The results suggest that the traditional use of Fraxinus ornus stem bark extracts in the treatment of inflammatory disorders is at least partially due to its coumarin constituents.

  4. Utilization of Tahongai stem bark (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) extract as corrosion inhibitor on API 5L steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizky, Yoel; Novita, Eli; Rinda, Shaimah; Sulistijono, Triana, Yunita

    2018-04-01

    Tahongai (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) is one of herbal plant cultivated in Kalimantan. Tahongai stem bark extract (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) is known containing antioxidant to prevent cancer cell growing, therefore it is expected to become a good organic corrosion inhibitor. Tests conducted in this study were: DPPH to prove the content of antioxidant compounds in Tahongai woods (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) from which IC50 number is found to be 153.78 µg/mL, indicating intermediate power, Fourier Transform Infrared Specroscopy (FTIR) to determine the functional groups and compounds in Tahongai stem bark extract (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) and suspected that flavonoid compound contained in extract, Open Circuit Potential (OCP) to obtain corrosion rate data and found that the slowest corrosion occurred on 400 ppm (30 days) with corrosion rate 8,74 × 10-4 mm/year. The most efficient inhibitor found in 400 ppm (30 days) with 92,063%.

  5. In vitro study on the antioxidant activity of a polyphenol-rich extract from Pinus brutia bark and its fractions.

    PubMed

    Cretu, Elena; Karonen, Maarit; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Mircea, Cornelia; Trifan, Adriana; Charalambous, Christiana; Constantinou, Andreas I; Miron, Anca

    2013-11-01

    A crude hydromethanolic extract from Pinus brutia bark and its fractions (diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous fractions) were studied with regard to their phenolic content and antioxidant activities. The total phenolics and proanthocyanidins in each extract were quantified by spectrophotometric methods; the polyphenolic profile was analyzed by RP-HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. All extracts were tested with regard to their ability to scavenge free radicals (ABTS radical cation, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals), reduce ferric ions, and inhibit 15-lipoxygenase. P. brutia bark extracts had high phenolic contents (303.79±7.34-448.90±1.39 mg/g). Except diethyl ether extract, all other extracts contained proanthocyanidins ranging from 225.79±3.94 to 250.40±1.44 mg/g. Several polyphenols were identified by RP-HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS: taxifolin in diethyl ether extract, a taxifolin-O-hexoside, catechin, procyanidin dimers, and trimers in ethyl acetate extract. Except diethyl ether extract, all other extracts were effective scavengers of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals (EC₅₀=33.5±1.1-54.93±2.85 μg/mL and 0.47±0.06-0.6±0.0 mg/mL, respectively). All extracts had noticeable 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory effects (EC₅₀=22.47±0.75-34.43±2.25 μg/mL). We conclude that P. brutia bark is very promising for the dietary supplements industry due to its high free radical scavenging and 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory effects.

  6. Enhanced yield of phenolic extracts from banana peels (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) and cinnamon barks (Cinnamomum varum) and their antioxidative potentials in fish oil.

    PubMed

    Anal, Anil Kumar; Jaisanti, Sirorat; Noomhorm, Athapol

    2014-10-01

    The bioactive compounds of banana peels and cinnamon barks were extracted by vacuum microwave and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods at pre-determined temperatures and times. These methods enhance the yield extracts in shorter time. The highest yields of both extracts were obtained from the conditions which employed the highest temperature and the longest time. The extracts' yield from cinnamon bark method was higher by ultrasonic than vacuum microwave method, while vacuum microwave method gave higher extraction yield from banana peel than ultrasonic method. The phenolic contents of cinnamon bark and banana peel extracts were 467 and 35 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract, respectively. The flavonoid content found in banana peel and cinnamon bark extracts were 196 and 428 mg/g quercetin equivalent, respectively. In addition, it was found that cinnamon bark gave higher 2,2-Diphenyl-1-1 picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity (TAA). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was analyzed by measuring the peroxide and p-anisidine values after oxidation of fish oils, stored for a month (30 days) at 25 °C and showed lesser peroxide and p-anisidine values in the fish oils containing the sample extracts in comparison to the fish oil without containing any extract. The banana peel and cinnamon extracts had shown the ability as antioxidants to prevent the oxidation of fish oil and might be considered as rich sources of natural antioxidant.

  7. Gastroprotective activity of the ethanol extract from the inner bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Roseli S; Diniz, Polyana B F; Estevam, Charles S; Pinheiro, Malone S; Albuquerque-Júnior, Ricardo L C; Thomazzi, Sara M

    2013-05-20

    Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae), known as "catingueira", has been used in folk medicine in the treatment of various disorders such as gastritis, heartburn, indigestion, and stomach ache. However, the gastroprotective properties of this species have not yet been studied. The ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis inner bark was used in rats via oral route, at the doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg. The antiulcer assays were performed using the ethanol- and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced ulcer models. Gastric secretion parameters (volume, pH, and total acidity) were also evaluated by the pylorus ligated model, and the mucus in the gastric content was determined. The anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of the ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis was performed using the agar-well diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The ethanol extract (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg) produced dose dependent inhibition (P<0.01) on the ulcer lesion index, the total lesion area, and the percentage of lesion area in the ethanol-induced ulcer model. The ethanol extract (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg) also reduced (P<0.001) the ulcer index in the indomethacin-induced ulcer model. In the model ligature pylorus, the treatment with Caesalpinia pyramidalis ethanol extract failed to significantly change the gastric secretion parameters. However, after treatment with the ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg), there was a significant increase (P<0.05) in mucus production. The ethanol extract showed anti-Helicobacter pylori activity, with inhibition halos of 12.0 ± 1.7 mm at 10,000 μg/mL. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of the ethanol extract were of 625 and 10,000 μg/mL, respectively. Collectively, the present results suggest that the ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis displays gastroprotective actions, supporting the folkloric usage of the plant to treat various

  8. Analgesic effects of stem bark extracts of Trichilia monadelpha (Thonn.) JJ De Wilde.

    PubMed

    Woode, Eric; Amoh-Barimah, Ama Kyeraa; Abotsi, Wonder Kofi Mensah; Ainooson, George Kwaw; Owusu, George

    2012-01-01

    Various parts of Trichilia monadelpha (Thonn) JJ De Wilde (Fam. Meliaceae) are used in Ghanaian traditional medicine for the treatment of painful and inflammatory conditions. The present study examined the analgesic properties of the petroleum ether (PEE), ethyl acetate (EAE), and the hydro-ethanolic (HAE) extract of the stem bark of the plant in murine models. PEE, EAE, and HAE were assessed in chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and formalin tests), thermal (hot plate test), and mechanical (Randall-Selitto paw pressure test) pain models. The possible mechanisms of the antinociceptive action were also examined with various antagonists in the formalin test. HAE, EAE, and PEE, each at doses of 10-100 mg/kg orally, and the positive controls (morphine and diclofenac) elicited significant dose-dependent antinociceptive activity in the chemical (acetic acid abdominal writhing and formalin tests), thermal (hot plate test), and mechanical (Randall-Selitto paw pressure test) pain models in rodents. The antinociceptive effect of HAE was partly or wholly reversed by systemic administration of atropine, naloxone, and glibenclamide. The antinociceptive effects of EAE and PEE were inhibited by atropine. The extracts HAE, EAE, and PEE caused dose-related antinociception in chemical, thermal, and mechanical models of pain in animals. The mechanism of action of HAE involves an interaction with muscarinic cholinergic, adenosinergic, opioidergic pathways, and ATP-sensitive K+ channels while that of EAE and PEE involve the muscarinic cholinergic system.

  9. Behavioral and anticonvulsant effects of the standardized extract of Ficus platyphylla stem bark.

    PubMed

    Chindo, Ben A; Ya'U, Jamilu; Danjuma, Nuhu M; Okhale, Samuel E; Gamaniel, Karniyus S; Becker, Axel

    2014-06-11

    Decoctions of Ficus platyphylla Del.-Holl (Family: Moraceae) are used in Nigeria׳s folk medicine for the management of epilepsy and their efficacies are widely acclaimed among the rural communities of northern Nigeria. The aim of the study is to examine the behavioral and anticonvulsant properties of the standardized methanol extract of Ficus platyphylla (FP) stem bark, in order to scientifically describe its potential values in the management of convulsive disorders. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and preliminary phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract were utilized and the intraperitoneal median lethal dose (LD50) determined in mice. The effects of FP were investigated on some murine models of behavior and its anticonvulsant effects studied on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, strychnine (STN)-, picrotoxin (PCT)-, isoniazid (INH)-, aminophylline (AMI)- and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures in mice. The intraperitoneal oral LD50 of FP was estimated to be 5000mg/kg. FP significantly reduced the locomotor activities including the total distance covered, speed, active time and rearing counts. It shortened the onset and prolonged the duration of diazepam-induced sleep, but had no effect on motor coordination on the rota-rod treadmill or beam-walking assay in mice at the doses tested. The extract protected the mice against PTZ- and STN-induced seizures and significantly delayed the latencies of myoclonic jerks and tonic seizures induced by all the standard convulsant agents (PTZ, PCT, INH, STN and AMI) used in this study, but failed to protect the mice against MES seizures at the doses tested. The HPLC fingerprint of the extract shows a spectrum profile characteristic of Ficus platyphylla, while the preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids and tannins. Our study provides scientific evidence that FP may contain psychoactive principles with potential anticonvulsant properties, thus supporting further

  10. Parasiticidal effects of Morus alba root bark extracts against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infecting grass carp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is an important fish parasite that can result in significant losses in aquaculture. In order to find efficacious drugs to control Ich, the root bark of Morus alba, a traditional Chinese medicine, was evaluated for its antiprotozoal activity. The M. alba root bark w...

  11. Evaluation of antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of psidium guajava in albino rats and albino mice.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, N Chandra; Jayasree, T; Ubedulla, Shaikh; Dixit, Rohit; V S, Manohar; J, Shankar

    2014-09-01

    Psidium guajava is commonly known as guava. Psidium guajava is a medium sized tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae found throughout the tropics. All the parts of the plant, the leaves, followed by the fruits, bark and the roots are used in traditional medicine. The traditional uses of the plant are Antidiarrheal, Antimicrobial Activity, Antimalarial/Antiparasitic Activity, Antitussive and antihyperglycaemic. Leaves are used as Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antinociceptive effects. To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava in albino rats with that of control and standard analgesic drugs aspirin and tramadol. Mechanical (Tail clip method) and thermal (Tail flick method using Analgesiometer), 0.6% solution of acetic acid writhing models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. Six groups of animals, each consists of 10 animals, first one as control, second and third as standard drugs, Aspirin and Tramadol, fourth, fifth and sixth groups as text received the extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/ kg) orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. The results obtained demonstrated that aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava produced significant antinociceptive response in all the mechanical and thermal-induced nociception models. AEPG antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms.

  12. Evaluation of Antinociceptive Activity of Aqueous Extract of Bark of Psidium Guajava in Albino Rats and Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jayasree, T.; Ubedulla, Shaikh; Dixit, Rohit; V S, Manohar; J, Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psidium guajava is commonly known as guava. Psidium guajava is a medium sized tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae found throughout the tropics. All the parts of the plant, the leaves, followed by the fruits, bark and the roots are used in traditional medicine. The traditional uses of the plant are Antidiarrheal, Antimicrobial Activity, Antimalarial/Antiparasitic Activity, Antitussive and antihyperglycaemic. Leaves are used as Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antinociceptive effects. Aim: To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava in albino rats with that of control and standard analgesic drugs aspirin and tramadol. Materials and Methods: Mechanical (Tail clip method) and thermal (Tail flick method using Analgesiometer), 0.6% solution of acetic acid writhing models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. Six groups of animals, each consists of 10 animals, first one as control, second and third as standard drugs, Aspirin and Tramadol, fourth, fifth and sixth groups as text received the extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/ kg) orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. Results: The results obtained demonstrated that aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava produced significant antinociceptive response in all the mechanical and thermal-induced nociception models. Conclusion: AEPG antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms. PMID:25386462

  13. Evaluation of the systemic toxicity and mutagenicity of OLIGOPIN®, procyanidolic oligomers (OPC) extracted from French Maritime Pine Bark extract.

    PubMed

    Segal, L; Penman, M G; Piriou, Y

    2018-01-01

    The potential systemic toxicity of Oligopin®, a French Maritime Pine Bark extract (FMPBE) rich in procyanidolic oligomers, was evaluated in an acute oral limit test and a 90-day repeated dose oral toxicity study with Sprague Dawley rats. The potential mutagenicity was assessed in a bacterial reverse mutation assay and in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration assay with human lymphocytes. The results indicate that Oligopin® was nongenotoxic in both bacterial and human cell assays, was not acutely toxic via oral administration at up to 2000 mg/kg and was well tolerated following 90 days of oral administration to SD rats, with a no observed adverse effect level of 1000 mg/kg/day. The lack of significant adverse systemic effects in the 90 day study is concordant with findings from several human clinical trials. The acute toxicity and mutagenicity data are consistent with data reported by AFSSA in a summary of FMPBE safety, in which a NOAEL of 100 mg/kg/day was established. In contrast, the NOAEL derived from the 90-day study with Oligopin® was 1000 mg/kg/day, suggesting that it is less systemically toxic than other FMPBE previously evaluated in subchronic studies, and comparable to proanthocyanidins extracted from grape seeds, which are widely used as nutritional supplement ingredients.

  14. Anti-inflammatory activity of Theobroma cacao L. stem bark ethanol extract and its fractions in experimental models.

    PubMed

    Oyeleke, Sabitiu A; Ajayi, Abayomi M; Umukoro, Solomon; Aderibigbe, A O; Ademowo, Olusegun George

    2018-08-10

    The stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. have been used for the treatment of inflammation, toothache, measles and malaria in ethnomedicine. However, the anti-inflammatory activity of Theobroma cacao stem bark has not been fully elucidated. The anti-inflammatory activity of Theobroma cacao stem bark ethanol extract and its fractions was investigated in this study. The anti-inflammatory effect of ethanol extract of Theobroma cacao stem bark (EETc) and its dichloromethane (DCMF), ethylacetate (EAF) and aqueous (AQF) fractions was investigated in erythrocytes membrane stabilizing assay and carrageenan-induced paw oedema. The anti-inflammatory activity of the EAF and EETc was investigated in carrageenan induced-granuloma air pouch models. The extract and fractions showed significant membrane stabilizing action on rat erythrocytes cell membrane. The oral administration of DCMF, EAF and AQF (250 mg/kg) significantly inhibited paw oedema induced by carrageenan (41.3%, 55.0% and 45.0%, respectively) compared to control group. The EAF (62.5, 125 and 250 mg/kg) and EETc (250 mg/kg) significantly inhibited exudates formation in carrageenan air pouch by (63.8, 71.5, 74.5, 64.3%) at 24 h and by (69.4%, 75.7%, 77.1% and 68.4%) at 72 h respectively. The EETc and EAF significantly reduced neutrophil counts, protein, nitrite, Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and malondialdehyde (MDA) but increased reduced glutathione (GSH) levels compared to control in pouch exudates. The HPLC fingerprint of EAF revealed presence of caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid and morin. Ethanol extract of Theobroma cacao and its ethylacetate fraction demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity partly by reducing neutrophil migration and inflammatory mediator production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ameliorative effects of pine bark extract on cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Chul; Ko, Je-Won; Park, Sung-Hyeuk; Shin, Na-Rae; Shin, In-Sik; Kim, Yun-Bae; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the dose-response effects of pine bark extract (PBE, pycnogenol ® ) on oxidative stress-mediated apoptotic changes induced by cisplatin (Csp) in rats. The ameliorating potential of PBE was evaluated after orally administering PBE at doses of 10 or 20 mg/kg for 10 days. Acute kidney injury was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of Csp at 7 mg/kg on test day 5. Csp treatment caused acute kidney injury manifested by elevated levels of serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CRE) with corresponding histopathological changes, including degeneration of tubular epithelial cells, hyaline casts in the tubular lumen, and inflammatory cell infiltration (interstitial nephritis). Csp also induced significant apoptotic changes in renal tubular cells. In addition, Csp treatment induced high levels of oxidative stress, as evidenced by an increased level of malondialdehyde, depletion of the reduced glutathione (GSH) content, and decreased activities of glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in kidney tissues. On the contrary, PBE treatment lowered BUN and CRE levels and effectively attenuated histopathological alterations and apoptotic changes induced by Csp. Additionally, treatment with PBE suppressed lipid peroxidation, prevented depletion of GSH, and enhanced activities of the antioxidant enzymes in kidney tissue. These results indicate that PBE has a cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress-mediated apoptotic changes caused by Csp in the rat kidney, which may be attributed to both increase of antioxidant enzyme activities and inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  16. Controllable biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles from a Eucommia ulmoides bark aqueous extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Mingxia; Li, Wei; Yang, Feng; Liu, Huihong

    2015-05-01

    The present work reports the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by water extract of Eucommia ulmoides (E. ulmoides) bark. The effects of various parameters such as the concentration of reactants, pH of the reaction mixture, temperature and the time of incubation were explored to the controlled formation of gold nanoparticles. The characterization through high resolution-transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) infer that the as-synthesized AuNPs were spherical in shape with a face cubic crystal (FCC) structure. The results from zeta potential and dynamic light scattering (DLS) suggest the good stability and narrow size distribution of the AuNPs. This method for synthesis of AuNPs is simple, economic, nontoxic and efficient. The as-synthesized AuNPs show excellent catalytic activity for the catalytic reducing decoloration of model compounds of azo-dye: reactive yellow 179 and Congo red.

  17. Antinociceptive effects of the extracts of Xylopia parviflora bark and its alkaloidal components in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yumi; Moriyasu, Masataka; Ichimaru, Momoyo; Iwasa, Kinuko; Kato, Atsushi; Mathenge, Simon G; Chalo Mutiso, Patrick B; Juma, Francis D

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we attempted to elucidate the antinociceptive activity of Xylopia parviflora bark using the acetic acid-induced writhing test, hot plate test, and formalin test in mice. The MeOH extract (100 and 200 mg/kg, administered intraperitoneally (i.p.)) had an antinociceptive effect demonstrated by its inhibitory effects on writhing number induced by acetic acid. Three alkaloidal fractions exhibited significant antinociceptive effects in three animal models; the chloroform-soluble fraction, including secondary and tertiary alkaloids, exhibited the strongest effect. This result supported its use in folk medicine as an analgesic agent. We tested the main alkaloids of these fractions for their antinociceptive effects to clarify the active components. (+)-Corytuberine (6.3 and 12.5 mg/kg, i.p.) showed very strong activity, had a significant antinociceptive effect in the acetic acid-induced writhing test (with 49.4 and 98.9% reduction of writhes), in the hot plate test, and in the formalin test (with 55.4 and 90.6% inhibition during the first phase, and 73.9 and 99.9% during the second phase, respectively). (+)-Glaucine (12.5 and 25 mg/kg, i.p.) showed strong activity in three animal models, too. The activity of these compounds was also observed following oral administration in the acetic acid-induced writhing test.

  18. Ameliorative effects of pine bark extract on spermatotoxicity by α-chlorohydrin in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hwan; Lee, In-Chul; Baek, Hyung-Seon; Moon, Changjong; Bae, Chun-Sik; Kim, Sung-Ho; Park, Seung-Chun; Kim, Hyoung-Chin; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the protective effects of pine bark extract (Pycnogenol®, PYC, Horphag Research Ltd., Route de Belis, France) against α-chlorohydrin (ACH)-induced spermatotoxicity in rats. Rats were orally administered ACH (30 mg/kg/day) with or without PYC (20 mg/kg/day) for 7 days. Administration of ACH significantly decreased sperm motility. α-Chlorohydrin also caused histopathological alterations and apoptotic changes in caput epididymides. An increased malondialdehyde concentration and decreased glutathione content, as well as catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were also found. In contrast, PYC treatment significantly prevented ACH-induced spermatotoxicity, including decreased sperm motility, histopathological lesions, and apoptotic changes in the caput epididymis. Pycnogenol® also had an antioxidant benefit by decreasing malondialdehyde and increasing levels of the antioxidant glutathione and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and peroxidase in epididymal tissues. These results indicate that PYC treatment attenuated ACH-induced spermatotoxicity through antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Antioxidant and gastric cytoprotective prostaglandins properties of Cassia sieberiana roots bark extract as an anti-ulcerogenic agent.

    PubMed

    Nartey, Edmund T; Ofosuhene, Mark; Kudzi, William; Agbale, Caleb M

    2012-05-20

    Cassia sieberiana is a savannah tree with a wide phytotherapeutic application including the use of its roots in the management of various stomach disorders including gastric ulcer, stomach pains and indigestion. The aim of the study is to evaluate the antioxidant, gastric cytoprotective prostaglandins, secretory phospholipase A2, phytochemical and acute toxicity properties of Cassia sieberiana roots bark extract in a bid to justify its phytotherapeutic applications in gastric ulcer. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of the roots bark extract of Cassia sieberiana were assayed. Serum secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) concentration and activity and the formation of gastric mucosal prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) and I2 (PGI2) were also assessed. Comparisons between means were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Students Standard Newman-Keuls post hoc analysis to determine statistical significance. P < 0.05 was considered significant. The extract was found to possess significant ferric reducing antioxidant power and can scavenge hydroxyl radicals. The extract also possesses DPPH scavenging activity, can chelate ferrous ion and a dose-dependent protective effect against lipid peroxidation and free radical generation. Prostaglandin studies showed that the roots bark extract dose dependently increased gastric mucosal PGE2 and PGI2 levels and also decreased serum sPLA2 activity. Phytochemical analyses suggest that the roots extract contains polyhydroxyl/phenolic substances. Acute toxicity test showed no sign of toxicity up to a dose level of 2000 mg/kg body weight p.o. C. sieberiana roots extract possesses significant antioxidant and gastric cytoprotective prostaglandin properties as well as serum secretory phospholipase A2 inhibitory activity which could be due to its content of polyhydroxy and/or phenolic substances. This may justify its use as an anti-ulcerogenic agent in traditional medicine in West Africa.

  20. Innate catalytic and free radical scavenging activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Dillenia indica bark extract.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Alfa S; Jena, Bhabani S

    2017-06-15

    A green approach was envisaged for the rapid synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles in an aqueous medium using phenolic rich ethanolic bark extract from D. indica with marked free radical scavenging and reducing ability. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was confirmed and characterized by using UV-visible spectroscopy, particle size analyzer, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Bio-reduction of Ag+ was confirmed with the appearance of golden yellow coloration within 5-10min at 45°C with maximum absorbance at 421nm. XRD analysis of AgNPs indicated the crystalline nature of metallic Ag. As analyzed by TEM, AgNPs were found to be spherical in shape, well dispersed and size varied from 15 to 35nm and dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies showed the average particle size of 29nm with polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.280. Synthesized AgNPs were showing surface functionalization as revealed through FTIR studies. These AgNPs were observed to be highly stable at room temperature (28±2°C) for more than 3months, thereby indicating the ethanolic extract of D. indica was a reducing as well as a capping agent for stabilization of AgNPs. Moreover, these green synthesized AgNPs showed enhanced free radical scavenging and excellent catalytic activities when used in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and methylene blue dye, at room temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Boring in response to bark and phloem extracts from North American trees does not explain host acceptance behavior of Orthotomicus erosus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).

    PubMed

    Walter, Abigail J; Kells, Stephen A; Venette, Robert C; Seybold, Steven J

    2010-04-01

    When invasive herbivorous insects encounter novel plant species, they must determine whether the novel plants are hosts. The Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston), an exotic bark beetle poised to expand its range in North America, accepts hosts after contacting the bark. To test the hypothesis that O. erosus accepts hosts on the basis of gustatory cues, we prepared bark and phloem extracts from logs of four North American tree species that we had used in previous host acceptance experiments. Water, methanol, and hexane extracts of red pine, tamarack, balsam fir, and paper birch were presented alone and in combination on a neutral filter paper substrate in a section of a plastic drinking straw. Boring behavior in response to the three-extract combinations differed from the pattern of acceptance previously observed among species when the beetles were in contact with the bark surface. Only the aqueous extracts of tamarack, Larix laricina, increased the initiation and the extent of boring by O. erosus on the filter paper substrate. We conclude that the effects of extracted chemicals do not match the behavior of the beetles observed when penetrating excised bark and phloem discs, indicating that host selection by O. erosus may not be predictable from bark and phloem chemistry alone. Instead, host acceptance may be determined by nongustatory stimuli or by a combination of stimuli including gustatory and nongustatory cues.

  2. Effect of Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae) stem bark methylene chloride/methanol extract on streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Dimo, Théophile; Rakotonirina, Silvere V; Tan, Paul V; Azay, Jacqueline; Dongo, Etienne; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Cros, Gérard

    2007-04-04

    Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae) is used as a traditional treatment of diabetes in Cameroon. In this study, we investigated the possible antidiabetic effect of the stem bark extract in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg/kg) to male Wistar rats. Experimental animals (six per group), were treated by oral administration of plant extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) and metformin (500 mg/kg; reference drug) for comparison, during 21 days. The stem bark methanol/methylene chloride extract of Sclerocarya birrea exhibited at termination, a significant reduction in blood glucose and increased plasma insulin levels in diabetic rats. The extract also prevented body weight loss in diabetic rats. The effective dose of the plant extract (300 mg/kg) tended to reduce plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and urea levels toward the normal levels. Four days after diabetes induction, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was also performed in experimental diabetic rats. The results showed a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in rats treated with Sclerocarya birrea extract. Metformin, a known antidiabetic drug (500 mg/kg), significantly decreased the integrated area under the glucose curve. These data indicate that Sclerocarya birrea treatment may improve glucose homeostasis in STZ-induced diabetes which could be associated with stimulation of insulin secretion.

  3. [Studies on extraction process of the main saponin constituents from the stem bark of Kalopanax septemlobus in Guangxi].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yue; Yang, Xin-ping; Liu, Xiao-fu; Jiang, Xiao-jun

    2009-09-01

    Using orthogonal experiment design, the total saponin constituents were obtained by refluxing extraction with alcohol and separated by macroporous adsorption resin and n-Butyl alcohol from the stem bark of Kalopanax septemlobus. According to the purity analysis and the yield, the extraction process was optimized. The results showed that the main saponin constituents were gained with a yield of 1.32% by using macroporous adsorption resin but 1.05% by using n-Butyl alcohol. The former was more efficient than the latter on both yield and color. The optimal process with isolation by macroporous adsorption resin is cheap, simple and practical.

  4. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark

    SciTech Connect

    Adnalizawati, A. Siti Noor; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    The in vitro activity of methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark was studied against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and MRSA BM1 (clinical strain) using time-kill curves in conjunction with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The extract showed more markedly bactericidal activity in MRSA BM1 clinical strain within less than 4 h by 6.25-12.5 mg/mL and within 6 h by 1.56 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy of MRSA BM1 revealed distortion of cell whilst transmission electron microscopy revealed disruption in cell wall division.

  5. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnalizawati, A. Siti Noor; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2013-11-01

    The in vitro activity of methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark was studied against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and MRSA BM1 (clinical strain) using time-kill curves in conjunction with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The extract showed more markedly bactericidal activity in MRSA BM1 clinical strain within less than 4 h by 6.25-12.5 mg/mL and within 6 h by 1.56 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy of MRSA BM1 revealed distortion of cell whilst transmission electron microscopy revealed disruption in cell wall division.

  6. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using bark extracts of Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. and study of their antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Manoja; Smita, Soumya Shuvra

    2018-03-01

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved using bark extract of Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub., a native plant of Indian subcontinent and southeast Asia. The plant parts are familiar for ailment of different diseases. The bioactive compounds present in bark of the plant were extracted with Soxhlet extractor. Silver nitrate (AgNO3) was used as a raw material for preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The ratio of bark extract and silver nitrate solution for synthesis of AgNPs was standardized as 3:5. The change in colour of the solution from pale yellow to deep brown can be correlated to reduction reaction catalyzed by plant bioactive compounds. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) maxima, λmax, were recorded at 452 nm. SPR indicates the nature and type of particles present in the solution. The suitable concentration of AgNO3 was found to be 10 mM to carry out reduction reaction with the bark extract. Alkaline environment (pH 9) suitably promotes the reaction. FTIR graph of synthesized AgNPs shows the shifting peak of 3265.0 wavelength/cm and 1635.40 wavelength/cm indicates that AgNPs were coated with plant biomolecules, which is attributed to the stabilization of AgNPs. XRD and SEM photograph of the AgNPs showed that they were spherical in shape and capped with bioactive compounds. Thus, the synthesized AgNPs are more stable, less toxic and homogenous in shape. The average diameter of the nanoparticles was 81 nm. The synthesized AgNPs had efficacy against a Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli), a Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), and a mold (Aspergillus niger). The maximum conversion was 66%. From the present investigation, it can be concluded that the bioactive compounds present in the bark of Butea have the capacity to reduce silver ion into silver nanoparticles in aqueous condition and the synthesized AgNPs are stabilized and loss toxic. Moreover, they also possess

  7. Ethnobotanical survey, chemical composition, and antioxidant capacity of methanolic extract of the root bark of Annona cuneata Oliv.

    PubMed

    Khallouki, Farid; Haubner, Roswitha; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Owen, Robert W

    2011-11-01

    The root bark of Annona cuneata Oliv. is traditionally used in the Democratic Republic of Congo to treat several debilitating conditions, such as hernia, female sterility, sexual asthenia, and parasitic infections. However, little is known about the composition of the secondary plant substances, which may contribute to these traditional medicinal effects. We conducted an ethnobotanical study and then evaluated the composition of the secondary plant substances in extracts of the root bark by using spectroscopic methods. After delipidation, the root bark was lixiviated in methanol, and components in the extract were studied by gas chromatography-mass spectometry, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrospray ionization-MS and nano-electrospray ionization-MS-MS. These methods identified 13 secondary plant substances (almost exclusively phenolic compounds): p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (I), vanillin (II), tyrosol (III), 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (IV), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (V), vanillyl alcohol (VI), syringaldehyde (VII), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethanol (VIII), vanillic acid (IX), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (X), syringic acid (XI), and ferulic acid (XII), along with the phytosterol squalene (XIII). In the HPLC-based hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase antioxidant assay system, the methanolic extract exhibited potent antioxidant capacity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 72 μL, equivalent to 1.38 mg/mL of raw extract. Thus, a methanol extract of A. cuneata Oliv. contained a range of polyphenolic compounds, which may be partly responsible for its known traditional medicinal effects. More detailed studies on the phytochemistry of this important plant species are therefore warranted.

  8. [Studies on technology optimization for extraction and purification of total flavones from root bark of Artocarpus styracifolius].

    PubMed

    Ren, Gang; Liu, Rong-hua; Shao, Feng; Huang, Hui-lian; Wen, Li-rong

    2010-08-01

    To study the technology optimization for extraction and purification of total flavones from root bark of Artocarpus styracifolius. The optimum extraction conditions were investigated by the contents of the total flavones, using orthogonal test; Static adsorption capacity and desorption rate were employed as examine items for the screening of optimum macroporous resin and optimum technology for the purification of total flavones with selected macroporous were also investigated. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: using 60% alcohol of seven times than amounts of original material soaking 12 hours,extracting once with hot reflux method at 50 degrees C. HPD-500 type macroporous resin showed better adsorption and desorption property. The optimum purification conditions were as follows: the sample solution was prepared at the concentration of 50.0 mg/mL, subjected to HPD-500 type macroporous resin column chromatography with a load ratio of 22.0 mg total flavones per gram of resin. After standing for 1 hour, the column was eluted with 4 BV water before being eluted with 4 BV 80% alcohol. The purity of the product was 86.4%, which enhanced the content of total flavones by 533%. The optimum conditions for extraction and purification of total flavones from root bark of Artocarpus styractifolius are convenient and practical, and could be used as a reference for industrial production.

  9. Unstable simple volatiles and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of essential oil from the roots bark of Oplopanax horridus extracted by supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Shao, Li; Bao, Mei-Hua; Ouyang, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2014-11-27

    Volatile oil from the root bark of Oplopanax horridus is regarded to be responsible for the clinical uses of the title plant as a respiratory stimulant and expectorant. Therefore, a supercritical fluid extraction method was first employed to extract the volatile oil from the roots bark of O. horridus, which was subsequently analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-eight volatile compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis, including (S,E)-nerolidol (52.5%), τ-cadinol (21.6%) and S-falcarinol (3.6%). Accordingly, the volatile oil (100 g) was subjected to chromatographic separation and purification. As a result, the three compounds, (E)-nerolidol (2 g), τ-cadinol (62 mg) and S-falcarinol (21 mg), were isolated and purified from the volatile oil, the structures of which were unambiguously elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques.

  10. Effect of composting on the Cd, Zn and Mn content and fractionation in feedstock mixtures with wood chips from a short-rotation coppice and bark.

    PubMed

    Vandecasteele, B; Willekens, K; Zwertvaegher, A; Degrande, L; Tack, F M G; Du Laing, G

    2013-11-01

    Micronutrient content and availability in composts may be affected by the addition of wood chips or tree bark as a bulking agent in the compost feedstock. In the first part of this study, micronutrient levels were assessed in bark and wood of poplar and willow clones in a short-rotation coppice. Large differences between species were observed in bark concentrations for Cd, Zn and Mn. In the second part of the study, we aimed to determine the effect of feedstock composition and composting on Cd, Zn and Mn concentrations and availability. By means of three composting experiments we examined the effect of (a) bark of different tree species, (b) the amount of bark, and (c) the use of bark versus wood chips. In general, compost characteristics such as pH, organic matter and nutrient content varied due to differences in feedstock mixture and composting process. During the composting process, the availability of Cd, Zn and Mn decreased, although the use of willow and poplar bark or wood chips resulted in elevated total Cd, Zn or Mn concentrations in the compost. Cd concentrations in some composts even exceeded legal criteria. Cd and Zn were mainly bound in the reducible fraction extracted with 0.5M NH2OH⋅HCl. A higher acid-extractable fraction for Mn than for Cd and Zn was found. Higher Cd concentrations in the compost due to the use of bark or wood chips did not result in higher risk of Cd leaching. The results of the pH-stat experiment with gradual acidification of composts illustrated that only a strong pH decline in the compost results in higher availability of Cd, Zn and Mn. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Blue Willow Story Plates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  12. Living Willow Huts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2007-01-01

    Living Willow Huts are inexpensive to make, fun to plant, easy to grow, and make beautiful spaces for children. They involve planting dormant willow shoots in the ground and weaving them into shapes that will sprout and grow over time. People have been creating similar living architecture throughout the world for centuries in the forms of living…

  13. COMPARISON OF MINIMUM INHIBITORY CONCENTRATION OF WATER SOLUBLE EXTRACTS OF EUGENIA JAMBOLANA LAM. (FAM. MYRTACEAE) BARKS OF DIFFERENT AGES ON DYSENTERY AND DIARRHOEA FORMING MICRO – ORGANISMS

    PubMed Central

    Maiti, Asis Prosun; Pal, Subodh Chandra; Chattopadhyay, Debaprasad; De, Samar; Nandy, Anutosh

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary investigations was carried out to study the antibacterial activity of the water soluble extracts of five and ten years old barks of Eugenia Jambolana Lam. (fam. Myrtaceae) on dysentery and diarrhoea forming micro organisms. It was observed that the barks of young plants have a better inhibitory effect on micro – organisms like Salmonella viballerup, Shigella dysenteriae 10, Shigella boydii 5, Sgigella dysenteriae 2. PMID:22557509

  14. High Performance Thin layer Chromatography: Densitometry Method for Determination of Rubraxanthone in the Stem Bark Extract of Garcinia cowa Roxb.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Dachriyanus; Aulia, Hilyatul; Susanti, Meri

    2017-01-01

    Garcinia cowa is a medicinal plant widely grown in Southeast Asia and tropical countries. Various parts of this plant have been used in traditional folk medicine. The bark, latex, and root have been used as an antipyretic agent, while fruit and leaves have been used as an expectorant, for indigestion and improvement of blood circulation. This study aims to determine the concentration of rubraxanthone found in ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of G. cowa by the high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). HPTLC method was performed on precoated silica gel G 60 F254 plates using an HPTLC system with a developed mobile-phase system of chloroform: ethyl acetate: methanol: formic acid (86:6:3:5). A volume of 5 μL of standard and sample solutions was applied to the chromatographic plates. The plates were developed in saturated mode of twin trough chamber at room temperature. The method was validated based on linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and specificity. The spots were observed at ultraviolet 243 nm. The linearity of rubraxanthone was obtained between 52.5 and 157.5 ppm/spot. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 4.03 and 13.42 ppm/spot, respectively. The proposed method showed good linearity, precision, accuracy, and high sensitivity. Therefore, it may be applied for the quantification of rubraxanthone in ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of G. cowa . High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method provides rapid qualitative and quantitative estimation of rubraxanthone as a marker com¬pound in G. cowa extract used for commercial productRubraxanthone found in ethyl acetate extracts of G. cowa was successfully quantified using HPTLC method. Abbreviations Used : TLC: Thin-layer chromatography, HPTLC: High-performance thin-layer chromatography, LOD: Limit of detection, LOQ: Limit of quantification, ICH: International Conference on Harmonization.

  15. Renal effects of Mammea africana Sabine (Guttiferae) stem bark methanol/methylene chloride extract on L-NAME hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Nguelefack-Mbuyo, Elvine Pami; Dimo, Théophile; Nguelefack, Télesphore Benoit; Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Kamanyi, Albert

    2010-08-01

    The present study aims at evaluating the effects of methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of Mammea africana on the renal function of L-NAME treated rats. Normotensive male Wistar rats were divided into five groups respectively treated with distilled water, L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day), L-NAME + L-arginine (100 mg/kg/day), L-NAME + captopril (20 mg/kg/day) or L-NAME + M. africana extract (200 mg/kg/day) for 30 days. Systolic blood pressure was measured before and at the end of treatment. Body weight was measured at the end of each week. Urine was collected 6 and 24 h after the first administration and further on day 15 and 30 of treatment for creatinine, sodium and potassium quantification, while plasma was collected at the end of treatment for the creatinine assay. ANOVA two way followed by Bonferonni or one way followed by Tukey were used for statistical analysis. M. africana successfully prevented the rise in blood pressure and the acute natriuresis and diuresis induced by L-NAME. When given chronically, the extract produced a sustained antinatriuretic effect, a non-significant increase in urine excretion and reduced the glomerular hyperfiltration induced by L-NAME. The above results suggest that the methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of M. africana may protect kidney against renal dysfunction and further demonstrate that its antihypertensive effect does not depend on a diuretic or natriuretic activity.

  16. Antihyperalgesic effects of an aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L.: role of mangiferin isolated from the extract.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Suárez, Bárbara B; Garrido, Gabino; García, Mary Elena; Delgado-Hernández, René

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of a Mangifera indica stem bark extract (MSBE) and mangiferin (MG) on pain-related acute behaviors in the formalin 5% test. Rats received repeated oral MSBE (125-500 mg/kg) once daily for 7 days before formalin injection. Other four groups with the same treatments were performed in order to study the effect of MSBE on the formalin-induced long-term secondary mechano-hyperalgesia at 7 days after the injury by means of the pin-prick method. Additional groups received a single oral MSBE dose (250 mg/kg) plus ascorbic acid (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Also, repeated oral MG doses (12.5-50 mg/kg) during 7 days were administered. MSBE decreased licking/biting and flinching behaviors only in phase II and reduced the long-term formalin injury-induced secondary chronic mechano-hyperalgesia. The combination of MSBE plus ascorbic acid produced a reinforcement of this effect for flinching behavior, advising that antioxidant mechanisms are involved, at least in part, in these actions. Chronic administration of MG reproduced the effects of MSBE. For the first time, the antihyperalgesic effects of MSBE and MG in formalin 5% test, a recommended concentration for studying the antinociceptive activity of nitric oxide-related and N-methyl-d-aspartate-related compounds, were reported. These results could represent an important contribution to explain the analgesic ethnobotanical effects recognized to M. indica and other species containing MG. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. An aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica (Vimang) inhibits T cell proliferation and TNF-induced activation of nuclear transcription factor NF-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Gabino; Blanco-Molina, Magdalena; Sancho, Rocío; Macho, Antonio; Delgado, René; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2005-03-01

    A commercial aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. (Vimang) has been reported to have antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities. The molecular basis for these diverse properties is still unknown. This study shows that a stem bark extract of M. indica inhibits early and late events in T cell activation, including CD25 cell surface expression, progression to the S-phase of the cell cycle and proliferation in response to T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. Moreover, the extract prevented TNFalpha-induced IkappaBalpha degradation and the binding of NF-kappaB to the DNA. This study may help to explain at the molecular level some of the biological activities attributed to the aqueous stem bark extract of M. indica (Vimang).

  18. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract, fractions and compounds from stem bark of Albizia adianthifolia (Mimosoideae).

    PubMed

    Tamokou, Jean de Dieu; Simo Mpetga, Deke James; Keilah Lunga, Paul; Tene, Mathieu; Tane, Pierre; Kuiate, Jules Roger

    2012-07-18

    Albizia adianthifolia is used traditionally in Cameroon to treat several ailments, including infectious and associated diseases. This work was therefore designed to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract, fractions and compounds isolated from the stem bark of this plant. The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate. Its fractionation was done by column chromatography and the structures of isolated compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic data in conjunction with literature data. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays were used to detect the antioxidant activity. Broth micro-dilution method was used for antimicrobial test. Total phenol content was determined spectrophotometrically in the extracts by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The fractionation of the extract afforded two known compounds: lupeol (1) and aurantiamide acetate (2) together with two mixtures of fatty acids: oleic acid and n-hexadecanoic acid (B₁); n-hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and docosanoic acid (B₂). Aurantiamide acetate was the most active compound. The total phenol concentration expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) was found to vary from 1.50 to 13.49 μg/ml in the extracts. The antioxidant activities were well correlated with the total phenol content (R² = 0.946 for the TEAC method and R² = 0.980 for the DPPH free-radical scavenging assay). Our results clearly reveal that the ethyl acetate extract from the stem bark of A. adianthifolia possesses antioxidant and antimicrobial principles. The antioxidant activity of this extract as well as that of compound 2 are being reported herein for the first time. These results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of this plant as well as compound 2 in the treatment of oxidative damage and infections associated with the studied microorganisms.

  19. Antihyperglycemic activity of Albizzia lebbeck bark extract in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type II diabetes mellitus rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Priyank A.; Parikh, Mihir P.; Johari, Sarika; Gandhi, Tejal R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (Family - Leguminosae) extract is a proven mast cell stabilizing agent. Mast cells are involved in the inflammatory processes leading to the diabetes mellitus. Aim: To evaluate the effect of A. lebbeck against experimentally induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Materials and Method: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to six groups (n = 6). Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) given after 15 min of nicotinamide administration (110 mg/kg). Treatment with methanolic extract of A. lebbeck bark (MEAL) and metformin drug as standard was given for 21 days. Serum glucose (GLU) levels were measured on the 0 day and on 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day after diabetes induction. After completion of study period, various biochemical parameters in serum such as - GLU, lipid profile, urea and creatinine were estimated. One-way analysis of variance followed with post-hoc Dunnett's test was used to analyse the data. Statistical significance for the values was set at P< 0.05. Results: MEAL significantly decreased the level of serum GLU, creatinine, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein levels. Conclusion: A. lebbeck bark extract showed antihyperglycaemic activity along with antihyperlipidemic effect. PMID:27313423

  20. Antihyperglycemic activity of Albizzia lebbeck bark extract in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type II diabetes mellitus rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Priyank A; Parikh, Mihir P; Johari, Sarika; Gandhi, Tejal R

    2015-01-01

    Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (Family - Leguminosae) extract is a proven mast cell stabilizing agent. Mast cells are involved in the inflammatory processes leading to the diabetes mellitus. To evaluate the effect of A. lebbeck against experimentally induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to six groups (n = 6). Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) given after 15 min of nicotinamide administration (110 mg/kg). Treatment with methanolic extract of A. lebbeck bark (MEAL) and metformin drug as standard was given for 21 days. Serum glucose (GLU) levels were measured on the 0 day and on 1(st), 7(th), 14(th) and 21(st) day after diabetes induction. After completion of study period, various biochemical parameters in serum such as - GLU, lipid profile, urea and creatinine were estimated. One-way analysis of variance followed with post-hoc Dunnett's test was used to analyse the data. Statistical significance for the values was set at P< 0.05. MEAL significantly decreased the level of serum GLU, creatinine, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein levels. A. lebbeck bark extract showed antihyperglycaemic activity along with antihyperlipidemic effect.

  1. Evaluation of in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity for different extracts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. root bark

    PubMed Central

    Ganga Rao, B.; Umamaheswara Rao, P.; Sambasiva Rao, E.; Mallikarjuna Rao, T.; Praneeth. D, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity of orally administered different extracts (Hydro-alcoholic, methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane) of Rauvolfia tetraphylla (R. tetraphylla) root bark in Carrageenan induced acute inflammation in rats. Methods In-vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated for extracts against four Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria by using cylinder plate assay. Hydro-alcoholic extract (70% v/v ethanol) at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg doses and methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts at doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model and paw thickness was measured every one hour up to 6 hrs. Results All extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark showed good zone of inhibition against tested bacterial strains. In Carrageenan induced inflammation model, hydro-alcoholic and methanolic extract of R. tetraphylla root bark at three different doses produced significant (P<0.001) reduction when compared to vehicle treated control group and hexane, ethyl acetate extracts. Conclusions In the present study extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark shows good in-vitro antibacterial activity and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rats. PMID:23569853

  2. Evaluation of in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity for different extracts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. root bark.

    PubMed

    Ganga Rao, B; Umamaheswara Rao, P; Sambasiva Rao, E; Mallikarjuna Rao, T; Praneeth D, V S

    2012-10-01

    To assess the in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity of orally administered different extracts (Hydro-alcoholic, methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane) of Rauvolfia tetraphylla (R. tetraphylla) root bark in Carrageenan induced acute inflammation in rats. In-vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated for extracts against four Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria by using cylinder plate assay. Hydro-alcoholic extract (70% v/v ethanol) at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg doses and methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts at doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model and paw thickness was measured every one hour up to 6 hrs. All extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark showed good zone of inhibition against tested bacterial strains. In Carrageenan induced inflammation model, hydro-alcoholic and methanolic extract of R. tetraphylla root bark at three different doses produced significant (P<0.001) reduction when compared to vehicle treated control group and hexane, ethyl acetate extracts. In the present study extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark shows good in-vitro antibacterial activity and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rats.

  3. Effect of aqueous bark extract of Garuga pinnata Roxb. in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shirwaikar, Annie; Rajendran, K; Barik, Rakesh

    2006-09-19

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of aqueous extract of bark of Garuga pinnata Roxb. (Burseraceae). The various parameters studied included fasting blood sugar levels, serum lipid levels, liver glycogen content, serum insulin level and glycated hemoglobin in diabetic and normal rats. Streptozotocin-nicotinamide was used to induce type-II diabetes mellitus. Treatment with the extract at two dose levels showed a significant increase in the liver glycogen and serum insulin level and a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels. The total cholesterol and serum triglycerides levels were also significantly reduced and the HDL cholesterol levels were significantly increased upon treatment with the extract thus proving the potent antidiabetic property of the plant.

  4. Nutrients, Antioxidant Capacity and Safety of Hot Water Extract from Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum M.) and Red Maple (Acer rubrum L.) Bark.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, Sagar; Ratti, Cristina; Poubelle, Patrice E; Stevanovic, Tatjana

    2018-03-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum M.) and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) barks were treated with hot water to extract nutrients in order to explore, for the first time, its potential as safe dietary antioxidants. The organic and inorganic nutrients of these extracts, as well as their safety on human PLB-985 cells differentiated into neutrophils-like cells, were determined. Proximate analysis showed that both bark extracts were low in moisture and fat. Sugar maple bark extract (SM-BX) showed crude protein and ash content higher than those found in red maple bark extract (RM-BX). In addition, SM-BX had total sugars higher than those evaluated in RM-BX, while complex sugars (oligo- and/or poly-saccharides) were similarly abundant in both bark extracts. Furthermore, SM-BX demonstrated a wide array of vital minerals (K, Ca, Mg, P, Na, Fe and Cu) in quantity larger than that evaluated in RM-BX, whereas RM-BX have Zn and Mn levels higher than those found in SM-BX. Phytochemical analyses showed that RM-BX exhibited total phenolic and flavonoid contents higher than those measured in SM-BX. Consequently, RM-BX presented an antioxidant activity higher than that of SM-BX: 2.85-fold ABTS radical cation scavenging capacity and 1.9-fold oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Finally, RM-BX and SM-BX were greatly safe since, at concentration up to 100 μg/ml, they did not modify the viability of neutrophils as determined by flow-cytometry assay using Annexin V-FITC/Propidum Iodide as markers. In conclusion, our in vitro studies indicate that both red and sugar maple bark extracts have a real potential as food additives.

  5. Pharmacological and Genotoxic Properties of Polyphenolic Extracts of Cedrela odorata L. and Juglans regia L. Barks in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Almonte-Flores, Dulce Carolina; Paniagua-Castro, Norma; Escalona-Cardoso, Gerardo; Rosales-Castro, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Cedrela odorata L. and Juglans regia L. bark extracts was performed in vitro. Juglans regia showed greater extract concentration and higher antioxidant activity. Hypoglycemic activity in rats was assessed by generating a glucose tolerance curve and determining the area under the curve (AUC). Diabetes was later induced by an injection with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg of b.w.) and confirmed after 24 hours. The extract was administered (200 mg/kg b.w.) over 10 days, and blood glucose was monitored and compared with a control group. The glucose AUC showed a hypoglycemic effect of J. regia and C. odorata in normal rats. Both extracts reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation in diabetic rats. Polyphenolic extracts reduced cholesterol levels in a hypercholesterolemic mouse model and decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation. Polyphenolic extract doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. were administered alone or with cyclophosphamide (CPA) 50 mg/kg ip, which was used as a positive control. Analyses were performed using leukocytes in a comet assay after 4 and 24 h of treatment. Genotoxic effects were evaluated by the comet assay, which showed that while J. regia extract had no effect, C. odorata extract induced slight damage at 200 mg/kg, with the formation of type 0 and 1 comets. PMID:25945104

  6. The Effect of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) Bark Extract on Histamine-Induced Paw Edema and Ileum Smooth Muscle Contraction.

    PubMed

    Nunes-Neto, Paulo Alexandre; Peixoto-Sobrinho, Tadeu José da Silva; da Silva Júnior, Edilson Dantas; Leopoldina da Silva, Jamilka; Rodrigo da Silva Oliveira, Alisson; Pupo, André Sampaio; Araújo, Alice Valença; da Costa-Silva, João Henrique; Wanderley, Almir Gonçalves

    2017-01-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), popularly known as red aroeira, is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory, gastric, and respiratory disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihistaminic activity of S. terebinthifolius (St) bark extract by using in vivo and in vitro experimental models. The effects of St were investigated on contractions induced by histamine, carbachol, and potassium chloride in isolated guinea pig ileum. St was also studied in response to hind paw edema induced by histamine in rats. Experiments revealed that although St (250, 500, and 1,000  µ g/mL) reduced the histamine-induced contractions by 9.1 ± 1.8, 50.2 ± 2.0, and 68.9 ± 2.0%, respectively, it did not inhibit contractions induced by carbachol or KCl. The association of St (250 and 500  µ g/mL) with hydroxyzine, an H 1 -antihistamine (0.125 and 0.250  µ M), increased the inhibitory effect to 67.0 ± 3.2 and 85.1 ± 2.1%, respectively. Moreover, St (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) decreased paw edema from its peak by 33.9, 48.4, and 54.8%, respectively, whereas hydroxyzine (70 mg/kg) inhibited the peak edema by 56.5%. Altogether, the results suggest that the bark extract of S. terebinthifolius has an antihistaminic effect (H 1 ).

  7. The Effect of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) Bark Extract on Histamine-Induced Paw Edema and Ileum Smooth Muscle Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Nunes-Neto, Paulo Alexandre; da Silva Júnior, Edilson Dantas; Leopoldina da Silva, Jamilka; Rodrigo da Silva Oliveira, Alisson; Pupo, André Sampaio; Araújo, Alice Valença

    2017-01-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), popularly known as red aroeira, is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory, gastric, and respiratory disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihistaminic activity of S. terebinthifolius (St) bark extract by using in vivo and in vitro experimental models. The effects of St were investigated on contractions induced by histamine, carbachol, and potassium chloride in isolated guinea pig ileum. St was also studied in response to hind paw edema induced by histamine in rats. Experiments revealed that although St (250, 500, and 1,000 µg/mL) reduced the histamine-induced contractions by 9.1 ± 1.8, 50.2 ± 2.0, and 68.9 ± 2.0%, respectively, it did not inhibit contractions induced by carbachol or KCl. The association of St (250 and 500 µg/mL) with hydroxyzine, an H1-antihistamine (0.125 and 0.250 µM), increased the inhibitory effect to 67.0 ± 3.2 and 85.1 ± 2.1%, respectively. Moreover, St (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) decreased paw edema from its peak by 33.9, 48.4, and 54.8%, respectively, whereas hydroxyzine (70 mg/kg) inhibited the peak edema by 56.5%. Altogether, the results suggest that the bark extract of S. terebinthifolius has an antihistaminic effect (H1). PMID:28928787

  8. Influence of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of fruit juices enriched with pine bark extract on intestinal microflora.

    PubMed

    López-Nicolás, Rubén; González-Bermúdez, Carlos A; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Frontela-Saseta, Carmen

    2014-08-15

    The selective antimicrobial effect of fruit juices enriched with pine bark extract (PBE) (0.5 g/L) has been studied before and after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. PBE (a concentrate of water-soluble bioflavonoids, mainly including phenolic compounds) has been proven to have high stability to the digestion process. Pure phenolic compounds such as gallic acid had a high antimicrobial effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, maintaining the lactic acid bacteria population (≈100%). Otherwise, E. coli O157:H7 only growth 50% when PBE was added to the culture media, while a slight increase on the growth of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria was observed after exposition to the bark extract. Fresh fruit juices enriched with PBE showed the highest inhibitory effect on pathogenic intestinal bacterial growth, mainly E. coli and Enterococcus faecalis. The in vitro digestion process reduced the antibacterial effect of juices against most pathogenic bacteria in approximately 10%. However, the beneficial effect of fruit juices enriched with PBE (0.5 g/L) on gut microbiota is still considerable after digestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Saraca indica Bark Extract Shows In Vitro Antioxidant, Antibreast Cancer Activity and Does Not Exhibit Toxicological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Navneet Kumar; Saini, Karan Singh; Hossain, Zakir; Omer, Ankur; Sharma, Chetan; Gayen, Jiaur R.; Singh, Poonam; Arya, K. R.; Singh, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a complementary and alternative medicine in treatment of various diseases including cancer worldwide, because of their ease of accessibility and cost effectiveness. Multicomposed mixture of compounds present in a plant extract has synergistic activity, increases the therapeutic potential many folds, compensates toxicity, and increases bioavailability. Saraca indica (family Caesalpiniaceae) is one of the most ancient sacred plants with medicinal properties, exhibiting a number of pharmacological effects. Antioxidant, antibreast cancer activity and toxicological evaluation of Saraca indica bark extract (SIE) were carried out in the present study. The results of the study indicated that this herbal preparation has antioxidant and antibreast cancer activity. Toxicological studies suggest that SIE is safer to use and may have a potential to be used as complementary and alternative medicine for breast cancer therapy. PMID:25861411

  10. Microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasonic extraction to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in needles and bark of Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L. by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Ratola, Nuno; Lacorte, Sílvia; Barceló, Damià; Alves, Arminda

    2009-01-15

    Two different extraction strategies (microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasonic extraction (USE)) were tested in the extraction of the 16 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from pine trees. Extraction of needles and bark from two pine species common in the Iberian Peninsula (Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L.) was optimized using two amounts of sample (1g and 5 g) and two PAHs spiking levels (20 ng/g and 100 ng/g). In all cases, the clean-up procedure following extraction consisted in solid-phase extraction (SPE) with alumina cartridges. Quantification was done by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry (MS), using five deuterated PAH surrogate standards as internal standards. Limits of detection were globally below 0.2 ng/g. The method was robust for the matrices studied regardless of the extraction procedures. Recovery values between 70 and 130% were reached in most cases, except for high molecular weight PAHs (indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and benzo[ghi]perylene). A field study with naturally contaminated samples from eight sites (four in Portugal and four in Catalonia, Spain) showed that needles are more suitable biomonitors for PAHs, yielding concentrations from 2 to 17 times higher than those found in bark. The levels varied according to the sampling site, with the sum of the individual PAH concentrations between 213 and 1773 ng/g (dry weight). Phenanthrene was the most abundant PAH, followed by fluoranthene, naphthalene and pyrene.

  11. Long-lasting endothelium-dependent relaxation of isolated arteries caused by an extract from the bark of Combretum leprosum

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Francisco das Chagas; Cavalcanti, Paulo Marques da Silva; Passaglia, Rita de Cassia Aleixo Tostes; Ballejo, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe and to characterize the relaxing effect of an extract of the bark of Combretum leprosum on isolated arterial rings from different animals. Methods Rings (3 to 4mm) from rabbit, rat, or porcine arteries rings were suspended in an organ bath (Krebs, 37°C, 95%O2/5%CO2) to record isometric contractions. After the stabilization period (2 to 3 hours) contractions were induced by the addition of phenylephrine (0.1 to 0.3µM) or U46619 (10 to 100nM), and Combretum leprosum extract was added on the plateau of the contractions. Experiments were performed to determine the potency, duration, reversibility, and to get insights on the potential mechanism involved in extract-induced relaxations. Results In all rings tested, Combretumleprosum extract (1.5μg/mL) was able to cause relaxations, which were strictly endothelium-dependent. In rabbit or rat thoracic aorta rings, the relaxations were reversed by vitamin B12a or L-NG-nitroarginine. In porcine right coronary arteries and rabbit abdominal aorta, extract caused both L-NG-nitroarginine-sensitive and L-NG-nitroarginine-resistant relaxations. In rabbit thoracic aorta, the extract was relatively potent (EC50=0.20µg/mL) and caused relaxations; intriguingly the endothelium continued to produce relaxing factors for a long period after removing the extract. The magnitude of extract-induced relaxations was significantly reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca2+; in addition, the TRPs channels blocker ruthenium red (10µM) was able to revert extract-induced relaxations. Phytochemical analyses indicated that the extract was rich in polyphenol-like reacting substances. Conclusions Combretum leprosum extract contains bioactive compounds capable of promoting Ca2+-dependent stimulation of endothelial cells which results in a prolonged production of relaxing factors. PMID:26466063

  12. In vitro multimodal-effect of Trichilia catigua A. Juss. (Meliaceae) bark aqueous extract in CNS targets.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, João; Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Ángel; Videira, Romeu António; Valentão, Patrícia; Veiga, Francisco; Andrade, Paula B

    2018-01-30

    The bark of Trichilia catigua A. Juss. (Meliaceae), popularly known as "big catuaba", is traditionally used in Brazilian folk medicine for its neuroactive potential as memory stimulant, and antinociceptive and antidepressant effects. To study the aqueous extract of T. catigua bark as dual inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). To explore its antioxidant potential through interaction with xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO) pathway, and to attempt a relationship between its phenolic profile and effects displayed. Phenolic profiling was achieved by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS n and UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS analyses. The capacity to inhibit hMAO-A was assessed in vitro, as was that for AChE, evaluated in rat brain homogenates. The direct inhibition of the X/XO pathway and the scavenging of superoxide anion radical were the selected in vitro models to explore the antioxidant potential. The cytotoxic effects were assayed in the human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells by MTT reduction, after direct exposure (24h). Twenty-six compounds were identified and quantified (551.02 ± 37.61mg/g of lyophilized extract). The phenylpropanoid substituted flavan-3-ols were the most representative compounds (~81% of quantified mass). The extract inhibited hMAO activity in a concentration-dependent manner (IC 50 = 121.06 ± 2.13μg/mL). A mixed model of inhibition of AChE activity was observed, reflected by the pronounced increase of Km values and a more discreet effect over the Vmax parameters, calculated from Michaelis-Menten fitted equations. In addition, it was demonstrated that the extract directly inhibits the X/XO pathway (IC 50 = 121.06 ± 2.13μg/mL) and also imbalances the oxidative stress acting as superoxide anion radical scavenger (EC 50 = 104.42 ± 10.67μg/mL), an oxidative by-product of this reaction. All these neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects were displayed within the non-toxic range of concentrations (0.063-0.500μg/mL) in SH-SY5Y cells. Our results validate

  13. Maerua angolensis stem bark extract reverses anxiety and related behaviours in zebrafish-Involvement of GABAergic and 5-HT systems.

    PubMed

    Benneh, Charles Kwaku; Biney, Robert Peter; Mante, Priscilla Kolibea; Tandoh, Augustine; Adongo, Donatus Wewura; Woode, Eric

    2017-07-31

    Maerua angolensis DC (Capparaceae) has been employed in the management of several central nervous system (CNS) disorders including anxiety. This study evaluated the anxiolytic effects of the petroleum ether/ethyl acetate fraction stem bark extract and its possible mechanism(s) using zebrafish anxiety models. Adult zebrafish, tested in the novel tank and light dark tests, have shown by previous authors to be sensitive to the anxiolytic effects of known anxiolytic drugs. Adult zebrafish were treated with M. angolensis extract, fluoxetine, desipramine, and diazepam followed by testing in the novel tank and light dark tests. We further assessed the effect of the extract on anxiety after inducing an anxiogenic phenotype using the ethanol-withdrawal and chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) tests. The anxiolytic effect was further investigated after pretreatment with flumazenil, granisetron, cyproheptadine, methysergide and pizotifen. M. angolensis extract, similar to fluoxetine and desipramine, demonstrated significant anxiolytic behaviour at doses that did not reduce locomotor activity significantly. Similar anxiolytic effects were recorded in the ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety test. Furthermore, the anxiogenic effects induced by the CUS paradigm were significantly reversed by treatment M. angolensis extract and fluoxetine. The anxiolytic effects of M. angolensis extract were however reversed after pre-treatment with flumazenil, granisetron, cyproheptadine, methysergide and pizotifen. Taken together, this suggests that the petroleum ether/ ethyl acetate fraction of M. angolensis possesses significant anxiolytic activity, which could partly be accounted for by an interaction with the serotoninergic system and the GABA A receptor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of Rhizophora mangle aqueous bark extract (RMABE) in the treatment of aphthous ulcers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    de Armas, Elizabeth; Sarracent, Yamina; Marrero, Eva; Fernández, Octavio; Branford-White, Christopher

    2005-11-01

    Rhizophora mangle aqueous bark extract (RMABE) (CIKRON-H), has been used as antiseptic and skin wound healing promoter. The present study was a randomised, single-blinded, placebo control trial conducted to asses the efficacy of RMABE in treating oral aphthous ulcers. Patients (n = 32) with aphthous ulcers were randomised to received placebo solution or RMABE topically, once a day, from Monday to Friday, until they healed. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated by physician clinical observations (time to heal, change in condition), the quality of the patient's life and the tolerability through recording adverse effects. No demographic differences were noted between the two groups at base-line. Seven days after treatment, 12 of the 17 patients in the RMABE group (71%) were completely healed of their aphthous ulcers, with repaired mucosa and no symptoms of ulcers, compared with one in 15 patients in the placebo group (7%) (p < 0.0001). The time taken for the signs and symptoms of ulcers to diminish was also higher in the placebo than in RMABE-treatment group (erythema: placebo 10.54 +/- 1.24, RMABE 4.94 +/- 0.72 days, p = 0.0003; ardour: placebo 7.00 +/- 0.76, RMABE 2.93 +/- 0.49 days, p = 0.0001; and pain: placebo 7.43 +/- 1.21, RMABE 2.92 +/- 0.23 days, p = 0.0011). No subject showed any sign of adverse effects. These observations demonstrate that the R. mangle aqueous bark extract reduced the time to repair mucosal tissue, erythema, ardour and pain persistence. There was no evidence any adverse effects. This is the first time that the R. mangle extract has been reported to have mouth mucosa healing properties.

  15. The Ethanolic Stem-Bark Extract of Antrocaryon micraster Inhibits Carrageenan-Induced Pleurisy and Pedal Oedema in Murine Models of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Essel, Leslie B.; Duduyemi, Babatunde M.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of a 70% v/v ethanol extract of the stem bark of Antrocaryon micraster on murine models of carrageenan-induced pleurisy and paw oedema. Rat pleural fluid was analysed for volume, protein content, and leucocytes, while lung histology was assessed for damage. Lung tissue homogenates were assayed for glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Phytochemical analysis was carried out on the stem bark. Acute toxicity studies were conducted in rats. In the pleurisy model the extract (30–300 mg/kg) significantly reduced the volume and amount of proteins and leucocytes in the exudate and also protected against lung injury. Tissue level of GSH and SOD and CAT expression were increased while MDA level and MPO activity were reduced. The peak and total oedema responses were significantly suppressed when given both preemptively and curatively in the mice paw oedema test. Saponins, alkaloids, triterpenoids, and tannins were present in the stem bark. A. micraster extract exhibited no apparent acute toxicity. We conclude that the ethanolic stem-bark extract of A. micraster has antioxidant action and exhibits significant anti-inflammatory activity through suppression of pleurisy and paw oedema induced with carrageenan. PMID:28798953

  16. In vitro antiplasmodial activity and prophylactic potentials of extract and fractions of Trema orientalis (Linn.) stem bark.

    PubMed

    Olanlokun, John Oludele; David, Oluwole Moses; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2017-08-15

    Trema orientalis (T. orientalis Linn) has been used in the management of malaria in the western part of Nigeria and despite its application in ethnomedicine, there is dearth of scientific evidence to justify the acclaimed prophylactic antimalarial usage of the plant. The aim of this study is to assess the in vitro antiplasmodial cell-free assay and chemopreventive efficacy of the methanol extract of the stem bark of T. orientalis and its fractions as a prophylactic regimen for malaria prevention. Also, the antimicrobial activities of the extract and the fractions were investigated. Vacuum liquid chromatography was used to obtain dichloromethane, ethylacetate and methanol fractions from the methanol extract of T. orientalis. The fractions were tested for their prophylactic and cell-free antimalarial activity using murine models and β-hematin formation assay respectively. Disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of the extract and its fractions against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In the prophylactic experiment, dichloromethane (DCMF), methanol fraction (MF) and extract (ME) (in this order) showed significant chemopreventive effects against P. berghei invasion of the red blood cells when compared with both Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) and untreated controls. Results of the in vitro study showed that the DCMF had the highest effect in preventing the formation of β-hematin when compared with other fractions. The DCMF also had the highest percentage inhibition of β-hematin formation when compared with chloroquine. The extract and fractions showed a concentration dependent antibacterial activity. Methanol extract had a pronounced inhibitory effect on Enterobacter cloaca ATCC 13047 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Serratia mercescens ATCC 9986 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 19582 were the most susceptible bacteria. The results obtained showed that both extract and fractions of T. orientalis possessed

  17. Chemopreventive and remediation effect of Adansonia digitata L. Baobab (Bombacaceae) stem bark extracts in mouse model malaria.

    PubMed

    Adeoye, A O; Bewaji, C O

    2018-01-10

    Adansonia digitata L. Baobab (Bombacaceae) solvent extracts have been reported to possess medicinal properties and are currently been used traditionally for the treatment of malaria and several other diseases and infection; however few reports exist in literature that provides supportive scientific evidence in favour of its medicinal use. This study investigated the efficacy of Adansonia digitata stem bark extract in offering protection against experimental malaria and also examined its remediation effect when administered after established infection. Weanling albino mice were used in the study. The mice were transfected intraperitonially with an inoculums size of 1× 10 7 of chloroquine susceptible strain of plasmodium berghei infected erythrocytes. Mechanisms of action of the extract were investigated by measuring the degree of tissue peroxidation and tissue antioxidant status. Severity of malaria was determined by measuring the serum C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and serum and tissue Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. There was a significant increase in serum CRP, TNF-α concentrations and serum and tissue ALP activity in the control mice following Plasmodium berghei infection. All the treatment had effect on the growth of Plasmodium berghei parasites in mice. The extracts showed a significant dose dependent increase packed cell volume (PCV), percentage chemosupression/clearance and a significant decrease in percentage parasitemia at the two doses when administered after established infection. Methanolic extract (MEAD) at 400mg/kg exhibited the highest chemosupressive activity. The extract significantly reduced the degree of tissue peroxidation, increased the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase and superoxide dismutase activity. Administration of the extract after established infection reduced serum CRP and TNF-α concentrations and serum and tissue ALP activity. Our study suggests that Adansonia digitata protects

  18. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic action of Cinnamomi Cassiae (Cinnamon bark) extract in C57BL/Ks db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Hee; Choung, Se Young

    2010-02-01

    In previous study, the anti-diabetic effect of Cinnamomi Cassiae extract (Cinnamon bark: Lauraceae) in a type II diabetic animal model (C57BIKsj db/db) has been reported. To explore their mechanism of action, in present study, the effect of cinnamon extract on anti-hyperglycemia and anti-hyperlipidemia was evaluated by measuring the blood glucose levels, serum insulin, and adiponectin levels, serum and hepatic lipids, PPARalpha mRNA expression in liver and PPARgamma mRNA expression in adipose tissue, respectively. Male C57BIKs db/db mice were divided into a diabetic group and cinnamon extract treated group and examined for a period of 12 weeks (200 mg/kg, p.o). The fasting blood glucose and postprandial 2 h blood glucose levels in the cinnamon treated group were significantly lower than those in the control group (p < 0.01), whereas the serum insulin and adiponectin levels were significantly higher in the cinnamon treated group than in the control group (p < 0.05). The serum lipids and hepatic lipids were improved in the cinnamon administered group. Also the PPARalpha mRNA (liver) and PPARgamma mRNA (adipose tissue) expression levels were increased significantly in the cinnamon treated group (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that cinnamon extract significantly increases insulin sensitivity, reduces serum, and hepatic lipids, and improves hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia possibly by regulating the PPAR-medicated glucose and lipid metabolism.

  19. Pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts: antioxidant activity and comprehensive characterization of bioactive compounds by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS.

    PubMed

    de la Luz Cádiz-Gurrea, María; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-11-06

    The consumption of polyphenols has frequently been associated with low incidence of degenerative diseases. Most of these natural antioxidants come from fruits, vegetables, spices, grains and herbs. For this reason, there has been increasing interest in identifying plant extract compounds. Polymeric tannins and monomeric flavonoids, such as catechin and epicatechin, in pine bark and green tea extracts could be responsible for the higher antioxidant activities of these extracts. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic compounds in pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). A total of 37 and 35 compounds from pine bark and green tea extracts, respectively, were identified as belonging to various structural classes, mainly flavan-3-ol and its derivatives (including procyanidins). The antioxidant capacity of both extracts was evaluated by three complementary antioxidant activity methods: Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Higher antioxidant activity values by each method were obtained. In addition, total polyphenol and flavan-3-ol contents, which were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and vanillin assays, respectively, exhibited higher amounts of gallic acid and (+)-catechin equivalents.

  20. Pine Bark and Green Tea Concentrated Extracts: Antioxidant Activity and Comprehensive Characterization of Bioactive Compounds by HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS

    PubMed Central

    Cádiz-Gurrea, María de la Luz; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of polyphenols has frequently been associated with low incidence of degenerative diseases. Most of these natural antioxidants come from fruits, vegetables, spices, grains and herbs. For this reason, there has been increasing interest in identifying plant extract compounds. Polymeric tannins and monomeric flavonoids, such as catechin and epicatechin, in pine bark and green tea extracts could be responsible for the higher antioxidant activities of these extracts. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic compounds in pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS). A total of 37 and 35 compounds from pine bark and green tea extracts, respectively, were identified as belonging to various structural classes, mainly flavan-3-ol and its derivatives (including procyanidins). The antioxidant capacity of both extracts was evaluated by three complementary antioxidant activity methods: Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Higher antioxidant activity values by each method were obtained. In addition, total polyphenol and flavan-3-ol contents, which were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu and vanillin assays, respectively, exhibited higher amounts of gallic acid and (+)-catechin equivalents. PMID:25383680

  1. Phytochemical Screening and Antinociceptive and Antidiarrheal Activities of Hydromethanol and Petroleum Benzene Extract of Microcos paniculata Barks

    PubMed Central

    Moushome, Rafath Ara; Akter, Mst. Irin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Microcos paniculata is traditionally used for treating diarrhea, wounds, cold, fever, hepatitis, dyspepsia, and heat stroke. Objective. To investigate the qualitative phytochemical constituents of hydromethanol (HMPB) and petroleum benzene extract of Microcos paniculata barks (PBMPB) and to evaluate their antinociceptive and antidiarrheal activities. Methods. Phytochemical constituents and antinociceptive and antidiarrheal activities were determined and evaluated by different tests such as Molisch's, Fehling's, Mayer's, Wagner's, Dragendorff's, frothing, FeCl3, alkali, Pew's, and Salkowski's test, general test of glycosides, Baljet and NH4OH test, formalin-induced paw licking, acetic acid-induced writhing, tail immersion, and hot plate tests, and castor oil and MgSO4 induced diarrheal tests. Results. These extracts revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, and triterpenoids and significantly (⁎ P < 0.05, versus control) reduced paw licking and abdominal writhing of mice. At 30 min after their administration, PBMPB revealed significant increase in latency (⁎ P < 0.05, versus control) in tail immersion test. In hot plate test, HMPB and PBMPB 200 mg/kg showed significant increase in response latency (⁎ P < 0.05, versus control) at 30 min after their administration. Moreover, both extracts significantly (⁎ P < 0.05, versus control) inhibited percentage of diarrhea in antidiarrheal models. Conclusion. Study results indicate that M. paniculata may provide a source of plant compounds with antinociceptive and antidiarrheal activities. PMID:27777944

  2. Antigenotoxic and Antioxidant Activity of Methanol Stem Bark Extract of Napoleona Vogelii Hook & Planch (Lecythidaceae) In Cyclophosphamide-Induced Genotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ikumawoyi, Victor; Agbaje, Esther; Awodele, Olufunsho

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Napoleona vogelii is used in traditional medicine for cancer management. AIM: The study was conducted to evaluate the antigenotoxic and antioxidant activities of methanol stem bark extract of N. vogelii in male Sprague Dawley rats. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into group 1 (control) administered 10 mL/kg distilled water, groups 2 and 3 were co-administered 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg of N. vogelli and 5 mg/kg cyclophosphamide (CPA) respectively for 7 days p.o. Groups 4 and 5 were administered only 5 mg/kg CPA and 200 mg/kg NV respectively. RESULTS: The LD50 oral was greater than 4 g/kg. There were significant (p < 0.0001) increases in plasma enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant enzymes and significant (p < 0.0001) decrease in percentage micronuclei in bone marrow of extract treated rats compared to rats administered 5 mg/kg CPA alone. There was steatosis pointing to cytotoxic injury in the liver of rats co-administered 200 mg/kg NV and 5 mg/kg CPA. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the extract showed the presence of phytol and unsaturated fatty acids. CONCLUSION: N. vogelii possesses antigenotoxic and antioxidant activities associated with the presence of phytochemicals, phytol and unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:29362611

  3. WILLOW CREEK RECLAMATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Working in cooperation with the EPA, Colorado Division of Minerals and Geology, and others, the Willow Creek Reclamation Committee (WCRC) will investigate the sources and character of water entering the mine workings on the Amethyst vein near the town of Creede, Colorado. Activi...

  4. Antioxidants of Phyllanthus emblica L. Bark Extract Provide Hepatoprotection against Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Damage: A Comparison with Silymarin

    PubMed Central

    Chaphalkar, Renuka; Apte, Kishori G.; Talekar, Yogesh

    2017-01-01

    Phyllanthus emblica L. (amla) has been used in Ayurveda as a potent rasayan for treatment of hepatic disorders. Most of the pharmacological studies, however, are largely focused on PE fruit, while the rest of the parts of PE, particularly, bark, remain underinvestigated. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Phyllanthus emblica bark (PEE) in ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity model in rats. Total phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin content and in vitro antioxidant activities were determined by using H2O2 scavenging and ABTS decolorization assays. Our results showed that PEE was rich in total phenols (99.523 ± 1.91 mg GAE/g), total flavonoids (389.33 ± 1.25 mg quercetin hydrate/g), and total tannins (310 ± 0.21 mg catechin/g), which clearly support its strong antioxidant potential. HPTLC-based quantitative analysis revealed the presence of the potent antioxidants gallic acid (25.05 mg/g) and ellagic acid (13.31 mg/g). Moreover, one-month PEE treatment (500 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o.) followed by 30-day 70% ethanol (10 mL/kg) administration showed hepatoprotection as evidenced by significant restoration of ALT (p < 0.01), AST (p < 0.001), ALP (p < 0.05), and TP (p < 0.001) and further confirmed by liver histopathology. PEE-mediated hepatoprotection could be due to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity that may be ascribed to its antioxidant components, namely, ellagic acid and gallic acid. Thus, the results of the present study support the therapeutic claims made in Ayurveda about Phyllanthus emblica. PMID:28168009

  5. Selection of ectomycorrhizal willow genotype in phytoextraction of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna; Baum, Christel

    2013-01-01

    Willow clones are used for the phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils and are usually mycorrhizal. The receptiveness of willow clones for mycorrhizal inoculum varies specific to genotype; however, it is unknown if this might have a significant impact on their efficiency in phytoextraction of heavy metals. Therefore, a model system with mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal willows of two different genotypes--one with usually stronger natural mycorrhizal colonization (Salix dasyclados), and one with lower natural mycorrhizal colonization (S. viminalis)--was investigated for its efficiency of phytoextraction of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) from contaminated soil. Inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria significantly decreased the biomass of leaves of both inoculated willow clones, and increased or had no effect on the biomass of trunks and roots of S. dasyclados and S. viminalis, respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals in the biomass of S. dasyclados were in general higher than in S. viminalis irrespective of inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus. Inoculation with A. muscaria significantly decreased the concentration of Cu in the trunks of both Salix taxa, but did not affected the concentrations of other heavy metals in the biomass. In conclusion, stronger receptiveness of willow clones for mycorrhizal inoculum was correlated with an increased total extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils. Therefore, this seems to be a suitable criterion for effective willow clone selection for phytoremediation. Increased biomass production with relatively constant metal concentrations seems to be a major advantage of mycorrhizal formation of willows in phytoremediation of contaminated soils.

  6. Influence of the Oil Phase and Topical Formulation on the Wound Healing Ability of a Birch Bark Dry Extract

    PubMed Central

    Steinbrenner, Isabel; Houdek, Pia; Pollok, Simone; Brandner, Johanna M.; Daniels, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Triterpenes from the outer bark of birch are known for various pharmacological effects including enhanced wound healing (WH). A birch bark dry extract (TE) obtained by accelerated solvent extraction showed the ability to form oleogels when it is suspended in oils. Consistency of the oleogels and the dissolved amount of triterpenes varies largely with the used oil. Here we wanted to know to what extent different oils and formulations (oleogel versus o/w emulsion) influence WH. Looking at the plain oils, medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) enhanced WH (ca. 1.4-fold), while e.g. castor oil (ca.0.3-fold) or light liquid paraffin (LLP; ca. 0.5-fold) significantly decreased WH. Concerning the respective oleogels, TE-MCT showed no improvement although the solubility of the TE was high. In contrast, the oleogel of sunflower oil which alone showed a slight tendency to impair WH, enhanced WH significantly (ca. 1.6-fold). These results can be explained by release experiments where the release rate of betulin, the main component of TE, from MCT oleogels was significantly lower than from sunflower oil oleogels. LLP impaired WH as plain oil and even though it released betulin comparable to sunflower oil it still results in an overall negative effect of the oleogel on WH. As a further formulation option also surfactant free o/w emulsions were prepared using MCT, sunflower oil and LLP as a nonpolar oil phase. Depending on the preparation method (suspension or oleogel method) the distribution of the TE varied markedly and affected also release kinetics. However, the released betulin was clearly below the values measured with the respective oleogels. Consequently, none of the emulsions showed a significantly positive effect on WH. In conclusion, our data show that the oil used as a vehicle influences wound healing not only by affecting the release of the extract, but also by having its own vehicle effect on wound healing. This is also of importance for other applications where drugs

  7. Lack of in vivo embryotoxic and genotoxic activities of orally administered stem bark aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. (Vimang).

    PubMed

    González, J E; Rodríguez, M D; Rodeiro, I; Morffi, J; Guerra, E; Leal, F; García, H; Goicochea, E; Guerrero, S; Garrido, G; Delgado, R; Nuñez-Selles, A J

    2007-12-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) stem bark aqueous extract (MSBE) is a new natural product with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects known by the brand name of its formulations as Vimang. Previously, the oral toxicity studies of the extract showed a low toxicity potential up to 2000 mg/kg. This work reports the results about teratogenic and genotoxicologic studies of MSBE. For embryotoxicity study, MSBE (20, 200, or 2000 mg/kg/day) was given to Sprague-Dawley rats by gavage on days 6-15 of gestation. For genotoxicity, MSBE was administered three times during 48 h to NMRI mice. Cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg) was used as a positive control. No maternal or developmental toxicities were observed when the rats were killed on day 20th. The maternal body-weight gain was not affected. No dose-related effects were observed in implantations, fetal viability or external fetal development. Skeletal and visceral development was similar among fetuses from all groups. No genotoxicity was observed in bone marrow erythrocytes and liver cells after administration. MSBE appears to be neither embryotoxic nor genotoxic as measured by bone marrow cytogenetics in rodents.

  8. Antimutagenic properties of Mangifera indica L. stem bark extract and evaluation of its effects on hepatic CYP1A1.

    PubMed

    Morffi, Janet; Rodeiro, Idania; Hernández, Sandra Luz; González, Leonora; Herrera, Jose; Espinosa-Aguirre, J Javier

    2012-09-01

    Mangifera indica stem bark extract (MSBE) is a Cuban natural product which has shown strong antioxidant properties. In this work, the antimutagenic effect of MSBE was tested against 10 well-known mutagens/carcinogens in the Ames test in the absence or presence of metabolic fraction (S9). The chemical mutagens tested included: cyclophosphamide, mitomycin C, bleomycin, cisplatin, dimethylnitrosamine (DMNA), benzo[a]pyrene (BP), 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), sodium azide, 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and picrolonic acid. Protective effects of the extract were also evaluated by comparing the efficiency of S9 fraction obtained from rats treated during 28 days with oral doses of MSBE (50-500 mg/kg) with that obtained from rats treated with vehicle (control) to activate bleomycin and cyclophosphamide in the Ames test. MSBE concentrations between 50 and 500 μg/plate significantly reduced the mutagenicity mediated by all the chemicals tested with the exception of sodium azide. Higher mutagenicity was found when bleomycin and cyclophosphamide (CP) were activated by control S9 than by MSBE S9. In addition, inhibition of CYP1A1 microsomal activity was observed in the presence of MSBE (10-20 μg/ml). We can conclude that besides its potent antioxidant activity previously reported, MSBE may also exert a chemoprotective effect due to its capacity to inhibit CYP activity.

  9. Gastroprotective activity of alkaloid extract and 2-phenylquinoline obtained from the bark of Galipea longiflora Krause (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Zanatta, Francielle; Gandolfi, Renan Becker; Lemos, Marivane; Ticona, Juan Carlos; Gimenez, Alberto; Clasen, Bruna Kurz; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2009-07-15

    As part of our continuing search for bioactive natural products from plants, the present study was carried out in order to evaluate the gastroprotective properties of alkaloid extract and 2-phenylquinoline obtained from the bark of Galipea longiflora (Rutaceae). Anti-ulcer assays were performed using the following protocols in mice: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)/bethanecol-induced ulcer, ethanol/HCl-induced ulcer, and stress-induced ulcer. The effects of the extract on gastric content volume, pH and total acidity were also evaluated, using the pylorus ligated model. Treatment using doses of 50, 125 and 250 mg/kg of G. longiflora alkaloid extract and positive controls (omeprazol or cimetidine) significantly diminished the lesion index, total lesion area, and percentage of lesion, in comparison with the negative control groups in all the models evaluated. Regarding the model of gastric secretion, a reduction in volume of gastric juice and total acidity was observed, as well as an increase in gastric pH. The main alkaloid of the plant, 2-phenylquinoline, was also evaluated in the ethanol-induced ulcer model. The results showed that at a dose of 50 mg/kg, it significantly inhibited ulcerative lesions. However, this effect was less than that of the alkaloid extract. All these results taken together show that G. longiflora displays gastroprotective activity, as evidenced by its significant inhibition of the formation of ulcers induced by different models. There are indications that mechanisms involved in anti-ulcer activity are related to a decrease in gastric secretion and an increase in gastric mucus content. Also, there is evidence of involvement of NO in the gastroprotector mechanisms. These effects may be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of some alkaloids, particularly 2-phenylquinoline.

  10. Antioxidant activity and phenol content of extracts of bark, stems, and young and mature leaves from Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth) O. Berg.

    PubMed

    Habermann, E; Imatomi, M; Pontes, F C; Gualtieri, S C J

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are a group of plant secondary metabolites known to have a variety of bioactivities, including the ability to function as antioxidants. Because of the side effects of the use of synthetic substances, the search for natural and less toxic compounds has increased significantly. This study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant activity and phenol content of hexane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous extracts of the bark (suber) and stems as well as the young and mature leaves of Blepharocalyx salicifolius. The extracts were obtained by extraction with organic solvents and subsequent fractionation by chromatographic partition coefficient. Preliminary tests for the presence of antioxidants were performed using bioautography in thin-layer chromatography. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, and the phenol content of the extracts was quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteu technique. The results showed that 9 of the 12 extracts evaluated displayed very strong antioxidant activity and three displayed moderate activity. Aqueous extracts of the young leaves and bark and the ethyl acetate extract of the young leaves showed the highest levels of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (TPC). A correlation was observed between TPC and antioxidant activity index (AAI) with a correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.7999. Thus, the high phenol content of B. salicifolius extracts and its correlation with antioxidant activity provide substrates for further studies.

  11. BIOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF EXTRACTS FROM PTEROCARPUS ERINACEUS POIR (FABACEAE) ROOT BARKS

    PubMed Central

    Noufou, Ouédraogo; Anne-Emmanuelle, Hay; Claude W, Ouédraogo Jean; Richard, Sawadogo W; André, Tibiri; Marius, Lompo; Jean-baptiste, Nikiema; Jean, Koudou; Marie-Genevieve, Dijoux-Franca; Pierre, Guissou Innocent

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. belonging to Fabacae familly is used as medicinal plant in Burkina Faso’s folk medicine. Roots of P. erinaceus are used to treat ulcer, stomach ache and inflammatory diseases. The objective of the present study was to carry out phytochemical composition of methanol (MeOH) and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts from Pterocarpus erinaceus roots, to isolate pure compounds, and to evaluate their pharmacological activities. Methods: Chromatographic fractionation led to the isolation of active components of the extracts. The structures were established by NMR analysis and comparison with data from literature. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using croton oil-induced edema of mice ear as well as the effect of extracts against lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation was evaluated. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts. Results: Friedelin (1), 3a-hydroxyfriedelan-2-one (2), a-sophoradiol (3) and stigmasterol (4) were isolated from DCM extract and maltol-6-O-apiofuranoside-glucopyranoside (5) isolated from MeOH. DCM extract and friedelin, 3a-hydroxyfriedelan-2-one, a-sophoradiol showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect against ear edema. Friedelin (1), α-sophoradiol (3) and maltol-6-O-apiofuranoside-glucopyranoside (5) exhibited lipoxygenase inhibition. MeOH extract (100 μg/mL) inhibited lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation activities at 45.1 ± 3% and 30.7 ± 0.5% respectively. MeOH extract, ethyl acetate fraction and butanol fraction exhibited antioxidant property with both two methods used. Conclusion: The results suggested that the extracts and compounds from roots of Pterocarpus erinaceus possessed local anti-inflammatory effect, antioxidant properties and inhibitor effect against lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation activities. PMID:28480397

  12. Willow System Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    possibility of terrorists attempting to breach airport security . If a few terrorists attempt to smuggle weapons at any single airport, most will be...introduction of law- enforcement officials, and so on. For airport security , secu- rity staff would indicate when a banned object was found using a touch...necessary responses could be communicated to the airport security staff. In the Willow architecture, the various components and all of the algorithms

  13. Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic Properties, and Phytochemical Characterization of Stem Bark Extract and Fractions of Anthocleista nobilis

    PubMed Central

    Ngwoke, Kenneth Gerald; Akwagbulam, Amaka Godsaveus; Erhirhie, Ernest Oghenesuvwe; Ajaghaku, Daniel Lotanna; Okoye, Festus Basden Chiedu; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2018-01-01

    Background: Anthocleista nobilis (Loganiaceae) is used by Mbano people of Imo State, Nigeria, for the treatment of various ailments Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties of the methanol extract, fractions, and subfractions of A. nobilis. Materials and Methods: The powdered stem bark was extracted with methanol and sequentially fractionated into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. The constituents of the fractions were analyzed using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the components were identified by dereplication. Antioxidant potential of the extracts and fractions was investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging method. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the extract and fractions were also investigated using xylene-induced inflammation and acetic acid-induced writhing models, respectively. Results: A total of five compounds isovitexin (Rt = 18.77 min), isovitexin-2''-O-xyl (Rt = 19.68 min), p-Hydroxybenzoic acid (Rt = 11.88 min), Sarasinoside L (Rt = 19.64 min), isovitexin (Rt = 18.77), and apigenin monoglycoside (Rt = 19.64 min) were identified by HPLC analysis and dereplication. The ethyl acetate fraction and subfraction elicited the best anti-inflammatory activity. The ethyl acetate subfraction also inhibited acetic acid-induced pain by 79% and 85.0% at the doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, respectively, which was better than 71.1% and 81.3% observed for diclofenac at similar doses. Conclusion: A. nobilis could be a potential source of anti-inflammatory and analgesic lead compounds. SUMMARY The extract, fractions and subfractions of Anthocleista nobilis were screened or antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and Analgesic properties in vitro and in mice models. Some of the components were identified by dereplication after HPLC analysis. The results demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic property of the extracts and

  14. Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic Properties, and Phytochemical Characterization of Stem Bark Extract and Fractions of Anthocleista nobilis.

    PubMed

    Ngwoke, Kenneth Gerald; Akwagbulam, Amaka Godsaveus; Erhirhie, Ernest Oghenesuvwe; Ajaghaku, Daniel Lotanna; Okoye, Festus Basden Chiedu; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2018-01-01

    Anthocleista nobilis ( Loganiaceae ) is used by Mbano people of Imo State, Nigeria, for the treatment of various ailments. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties of the methanol extract, fractions, and subfractions of A. nobilis . The powdered stem bark was extracted with methanol and sequentially fractionated into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. The constituents of the fractions were analyzed using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the components were identified by dereplication. Antioxidant potential of the extracts and fractions was investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging method. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the extract and fractions were also investigated using xylene-induced inflammation and acetic acid-induced writhing models, respectively. A total of five compounds isovitexin ( R t = 18.77 min), isovitexin-2''-O-xyl ( R t = 19.68 min), p-Hydroxybenzoic acid ( R t = 11.88 min), Sarasinoside L ( R t = 19.64 min), isovitexin ( R t = 18.77), and apigenin monoglycoside ( R t = 19.64 min) were identified by HPLC analysis and dereplication. The ethyl acetate fraction and subfraction elicited the best anti-inflammatory activity. The ethyl acetate subfraction also inhibited acetic acid-induced pain by 79% and 85.0% at the doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, respectively, which was better than 71.1% and 81.3% observed for diclofenac at similar doses. A. nobilis could be a potential source of anti-inflammatory and analgesic lead compounds. The extract, fractions and subfractions of Anthocleista nobilis were screened or antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and Analgesic properties in vitro and in mice models. Some of the components were identified by dereplication after HPLC analysis. The results demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic property of the extracts and fractions. The dereplication analysis also identified vitexin and

  15. Evaluation of the mechanism of gelation of an oleogel based on a triterpene extract from the outer bark of birch.

    PubMed

    Grysko, M; Daniels, R

    2013-07-01

    Oleogels are known for their high physical, chemical, and mechanical stability and good in vivo efficacy, which make them appropriate vehicles for dermal drug delivery and skin care for very dry skin. Modern formulation research focusses on well tolerated and sustainable formulation concepts. This paper deals with an innovative oleogel, which is based on a triterpene dry extract from the outer bark of birch (TE). In this formulation TE does not only act as an excipient but provides interesting pharmacological properties at the same time. The oleogel was formulated using solely Simmondsia Chinensis seed oil (jojoba oil) and TE. Fluorescence microscopy and confocal Raman microscopy showed that suspended TE particles arrange in a three-dimensional gel network. Infrared spectroscopy revealed that the formation of hydrogen bonds between TE particles is responsible for the self-assembly of TE in oil. Moreover, the influence of TE concentration and morphology of the TE particles on the viscoelasticity of the resulting oleogels was analyzed. Gel strength increased with TE concentration and was critical to the specific surface area of the TE particles.

  16. Induction of apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells by an extract from Erythrina suberosa stem bark.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Satyam Kumar; Agrawal, Madhunika; Sharma, Parduman Raj; Gupta, Bishan Datt; Arora, Saroj; Saxena, Ajit Kumar

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the apoptosis-inducing effect of an alcoholic extract from Erythrina suberosa stem bark (ESB) was investigated using human promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells. Cell viability was estimated by MTT assay. We found that the ESB inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. A series of well-documented morphological changes, such as cell shrinkage, condensation of nuclear chromatin, and nuclear fragmentation, were observed by fluorescence microscopy. The gold standard scanning electron micrographs showed apoptotic bodies and formation of blebs. Cell cycle analysis showed a significant increase in Sub G(0) population of cells above 50 μg/ml. ESB treatment resulted in a dose-dependent increase in annexin V positive cells. Increase in intracellular ROS production up to sixfold was detected in ESB-treated HL60 cells by DCFH-DA assay. Dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential of intact cells accompanied by increase in cytosolic cytochrome c was observed, which was followed by activation of caspase-9 and -3 but not caspase-8. DNA fragmentation analysis revealed typical ladders as early as 18 h indicative of caspase-3 role in the apoptotic pathway. The overall results suggest that ESB induces mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathway in HL60 cells and might have therapeutic value against human leukemia.

  17. Bark extract mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles: Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and antiproliferative response against osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Debasis; Ashe, Sarbani; Rauta, Pradipta Ranjan; Kumari, Manisha; Nayak, Bismita

    2016-01-01

    In the current investigation we report the biosynthesis potentials of bark extracts of Ficus benghalensis and Azadirachta indica for production of silver nanoparticle without use of any external reducing or capping agent. The appearance of dark brown color indicated the complete nanoparticle synthesis which was further validated by absorbance peak by UV-vis spectroscopy. The morphology of the synthesized particles was characterized by Field emission- scanning electron microscopy (Fe-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns clearly illustrated the crystalline phase of the synthesized nanoparticles. ATR-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was performed to identify the role of various functional groups in the nanoparticle synthesis. The synthesized nanoparticles showed promising antimicrobial activity against Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae) and Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis) bacteria. The synthesized nano Ag also showed antiproliferative activity against MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line in a dose dependent manner. Thus, these synthesized Ag nanoparticles can be used as a broad spectrum therapeutic agent against osteosarcoma and microorganisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Antioxidant and orofacial anti-nociceptive activities of the stem bark aqueous extract of Anadenanthera colubrina (Velloso) Brenan (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Damascena, N P; Souza, M T S; Almeida, A F; Cunha, R S; Damascena, N P; Curvello, R L; Lima, A C B; Almeida, E C V; Santos, C C S; Dias, A S; Paixão, M S; Souza, L M A; Quintans Júnior, L J; Estevam, C S; Araujo, B S

    2014-01-01

    The anti-nociceptive and antioxidant activities of the Anadenantheracolubrina stem bark aqueous extract (AEAC) were investigated. AEAC (30 μg/mL) reduced 94.8% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and prevented 64% (200 μg/mL) of lipid peroxidation caused by 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride-induced peroxyl radicals. AEAC treatment (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.001) reduced mice orofacial nociception in the first (61.4% and 62.6%, respectively) and second (48.9% and 61.9%, respectively) phases of the formalin test. Nociception caused by glutamate was significantly (p < 0.001) reduced by up to 79% at 400 mg/kg, while 56-60% of the nociceptive behaviour induced by capsaicin was significantly inhibited by AEAC (100-400 mg/kg). Mice treated with AEAC did not show changes in motor performance in the Rota-rod apparatus. It appears that AEAC is of pharmacological importance in treating pain due to its anti-nociceptive effects, which were shown to be mediated by central and peripheral mechanisms.

  19. Inhibitory effects of Pycnogenol® (French maritime pine bark extract) on airway inflammation in ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Shin, In-Sik; Shin, Na-Rae; Jeon, Chan-Mi; Hong, Ju-Mi; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Kim, Jong-Choon; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Hahn, Kyu-Woung; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2013-12-01

    Pycnogenol® (PYC) is a standardized extracts from the bark of the French maritime pine (Pinus maritime) and used as a herbal remedy for various diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of PYC on airway inflammation using a model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma and RAW264.7 cells. PYC decreased nitric oxide production and reduced the interleukine (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. PYC also reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and enhanced the expression of hemeoxygenase (HO)-1. In the in vivo experiment, PYC decreased the inflammatory cell count and the levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and immunoglobulin (Ig) E in BALF or serum. These results are consistent with the histological analysis findings, which showed that PYC attenuated the airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion induced by OVA challenge. In addition, PYC enhanced the expression of HO-1. In contrast, PYC inhibited the elevated expression of iNOS and MMP-9 proteins induced by OVA challenge. In conclusion, PYC exhibits protective effects against OVA-induced asthma and LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that PYC has potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of allergic asthma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Oral administration of French maritime pine bark extract (Flavangenol(®)) improves clinical symptoms in photoaged facial skin.

    PubMed

    Furumura, Minao; Sato, Noriko; Kusaba, Nobutaka; Takagaki, Kinya; Nakayama, Juichiro

    2012-01-01

    French maritime pine bark extract (PBE) has gained popularity as a dietary supplement in the treatment of various diseases due to its polyphenol-rich ingredients. Oligometric proanthocyanidins (OPCs), a class of bioflavonoid complexes, are enriched in French maritime PBE and have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Previous studies have suggested that French maritime PBE helps reduce ultraviolet radiation damage to the skin and may protect human facial skin from symptoms of photoaging. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of French maritime PBE in the improvement of photodamaged facial skin, we conducted a randomized trial of oral supplementation with PBE. One hundred and twelve women with mild to moderate photoaging of the skin were randomized to either a 12-week open trial regimen of 100 mg PBE supplementation once daily or to a parallel-group trial regimen of 40 mg PBE supplementation once daily. A significant decrease in clinical grading of skin photoaging scores was observed in both time courses of 100 mg daily and 40 mg daily PBE supplementation regimens. A significant reduction in the pigmentation of age spots was also demonstrated utilizing skin color measurements. Clinically significant improvement in photodamaged skin could be achieved with PBE. Our findings confirm the efficacy and safety of PBE.

  1. Phytochemical, antioxidant and protective effect of Rhus tripartitum root bark extract against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Alimi, Hichem; Mbarki, Sakhria; Barka, Zeineb B; Feriani, Anwer; Bouoni, Zouhour; Hfaeidh, Najla; Sakly, Mohsen; Tebourbi, Olfa; Rhouma, Khémais B

    2013-03-01

    Rhus tripartitum (sumac) is an Anacardiaceae tree with a wide phytotherapeutic application including the use of its roots in the management of gastric ulcer. In the present study the Rhus tripartitum root barks extract (RTE) was phytochemical studied, in vitro tested for their potential antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay and in vivo evaluated for its ability to prevent ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The RTE was rich in phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and polysaccharide contents and exhibited a low but not weak in vitro antioxidant activity when compared with (+)-catechin. Pre-treatment with RTE at oral doses 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against ethanol-induced ulcer by averting the deep ulcer lesions of the gastric epithelium, by reducing gastric juice and acid output, by enhancing gastric mucus production by preserving normal antioxidant enzymes activities, and inhibiting the lipid peroxidation. The antiulcerogenic activity of RTE might be due to a possible synergistic antioxidant and antisecretory effects.

  2. Toxicological evaluation of Terminalia paniculata bark extract and its protective effect against CCl4-induced liver injury in rodents.

    PubMed

    Talwar, Sahil; Jagani, Hitesh V; Nayak, Pawan G; Kumar, Nitesh; Kishore, Anoop; Bansal, Punit; Shenoy, Rekha R; Nandakumar, Krishnadas

    2013-06-06

    Based on the reported antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of Terminalia paniculata, the bark aqueous extract (TPW) was investigated against liver damage. Intrinsic cytotoxicity was tested on normal human liver (Chang) cell lines, followed by acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies in mice. TPW was then evaluated against CCl4-induced liver toxicity in rats. Liver enzymes (AST, ALT, and ALP) and antioxidant markers were assessed. The effect of TPW on isolated hepatic cells, post-CCl4 administration, was assessed by isolated mitochondrial membrane staining. The actions of TPW on apoptotic pathway in CCl4-treated Chang cells were also elucidated. TPW was found to be safe at all doses tested in both in vitro and in vivo toxicity studies. TPW (400 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (*p <0.05) improved liver enzyme activity as compared to CCl4. Also, it improved antioxidant status (GSH, GST, MDA and total thiol) and preserved hepatic cell architecture. TPW pre-treatment significantly attenuated the levels of phospho-p53, p53, cleaved caspase-3, phospho-Bad, Bad and cleaved PARP in CCl4-treated Chang cells, improving the viability considerably. The findings support a protective role for Terminalia paniculata in pathologies involving oxidative stress.

  3. Extract of Rhus verniciflua Bark Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrofluorobenzene-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Ki; Lee, Yang Gi; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RV) has traditionally been used as a food supplement and a traditional herbal medicine for centuries in Korea. Recent studies suggest that RV has potent antioxidative, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of RV from mice sensitized with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) and activated macrophages were investigated. The results showed that RV reduced ear swelling and hyperplasia of ear tissue as well as an increase in vascular permeability, which are characteristics of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) with evident histomorphological changes in epidermis and dermis. Decreased numbers of infiltrated mast cells were seen in RV extract treated group, using toluidine blue staining. RV extract significantly regulates the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at the translational level in activated macrophages. Furthermore, RV extract and its active compound, fisetin, attenuated the level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) mRNA in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Anti-ACD effect of RV extract may be due to the suppression of iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines which might be mediated via the NFκB signaling pathways. Collectively, RV extract has potential for alleviating ACD-like symptoms induced by DNFB in the mouse. PMID:23710240

  4. Modulatory potentials of the aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Adeneye, Adejuwon Adewale; Awodele, Olufunsho; Aiyeola, Sheriff Aboyade; Benebo, Adokiye Senibo

    2015-01-01

    Among Yoruba herbalists (Southwest Nigeria), hot water infusion of Mangifera indica L. (芒果 Máng Guǒ) stem bark is reputedly used for the treatment of fever, jaundice and liver disorders. The present study, therefore, investigates the protective effects and mechanism(s) of chemopreventive and curative effects of 125–500 mg/kg/day of Mangifera indica aqueous stem bark extract (MIASE) in acute CCl4-induced liver damage in rats. Rats were treated intragastrically with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of MIASE for 7 days before and after the administration of CCl4 (3 ml/kg of 20% CCl4, i.p.). The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), total bilirubin (TB), conjugated bilirubin (CB) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were estimated. In addition, hepatic tissue reduced glutathione (GSH) and the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, catalase (CAT), superoxide (SOD) activities in the hepatic homogenate, and histopathological changes in the rat liver sections were determined. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening for bioactive compounds in MIASE was also conducted. Results showed that oral treatment with 125–500 mg/kg/day of MIASE significantly attenuated the increase in serum ALT, AST, ALP, FBG, TB, CB and LDL-c levels in acute liver injury induced by CCl4 treatment. Findings also revealed significant elevations in the serum TC, TG, HDL-c, TP and ALB levels. There was marked architectural remodeling in the hepatic lesions of hepatocyte vacuolation and centrilobular necrosis induced by CCl4 treatment, coupled with significant weight loss. MIASE also markedly enhanced SOD and CAT activities while reducing MAD formation; and increased GSH concentration in the hepatic homogenate compared with untreated CCl4-intoxicated

  5. A Comparative Study on Phytochemical Profiles and Biological Activities of Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich.) Hochst Leaf and Bark Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Daniela; Miglionico, Rocchina; Carmosino, Monica; Bisaccia, Faustino; Armentano, Maria Francesca

    2018-01-01

    Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich.) Hochst (Anacardiaceae) is a savannah tree that has long been used in sub-Saharan Africa as a medicinal remedy for numerous ailments. The purpose of this study was to increase the scientific knowledge about this plant by evaluating the total content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins in the methanol extracts of the leaves and bark (MLE and MBE, respectively), as well as the in vitro antioxidant activity and biological activities of these extracts. Reported results show that MLE is rich in flavonoids (132.7 ± 10.4 mg of quercetin equivalents/g), whereas MBE has the highest content of tannins (949.5 ± 29.7 mg of tannic acid equivalents/g). The antioxidant activity was measured using four different in vitro tests: β-carotene bleaching (BCB), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), O2−•, and nitric oxide (NO•) assays. In all cases, MBE was the most active compared to MLE and the standards used (Trolox and ascorbic acid). Furthermore, MBE and MLE were tested to evaluate their activity in HepG2 and fibroblast cell lines. A higher cytotoxic activity of MBE was evidenced and confirmed by more pronounced alterations in cell morphology. MBE induced cell death, triggering the intrinsic apoptotic pathway by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which led to a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential with subsequent cytochrome c release from the mitochondria into the cytosol. Moreover, MBE showed lower cytotoxicity in normal human dermal fibroblasts, suggesting its potential as a selective anticancer agent. PMID:29316691

  6. A Comparative Study on Phytochemical Profiles and Biological Activities of Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich.) Hochst Leaf and Bark Extracts.

    PubMed

    Russo, Daniela; Miglionico, Rocchina; Carmosino, Monica; Bisaccia, Faustino; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; Milella, Luigi; Armentano, Maria Francesca

    2018-01-08

    Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich.) Hochst (Anacardiaceae) is a savannah tree that has long been used in sub-Saharan Africa as a medicinal remedy for numerous ailments. The purpose of this study was to increase the scientific knowledge about this plant by evaluating the total content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins in the methanol extracts of the leaves and bark (MLE and MBE, respectively), as well as the in vitro antioxidant activity and biological activities of these extracts. Reported results show that MLE is rich in flavonoids (132.7 ± 10.4 mg of quercetin equivalents/g), whereas MBE has the highest content of tannins (949.5 ± 29.7 mg of tannic acid equivalents/g). The antioxidant activity was measured using four different in vitro tests: β-carotene bleaching (BCB), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), O₂ -• , and nitric oxide (NO • ) assays. In all cases, MBE was the most active compared to MLE and the standards used (Trolox and ascorbic acid). Furthermore, MBE and MLE were tested to evaluate their activity in HepG2 and fibroblast cell lines. A higher cytotoxic activity of MBE was evidenced and confirmed by more pronounced alterations in cell morphology. MBE induced cell death, triggering the intrinsic apoptotic pathway by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which led to a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential with subsequent cytochrome c release from the mitochondria into the cytosol. Moreover, MBE showed lower cytotoxicity in normal human dermal fibroblasts, suggesting its potential as a selective anticancer agent.

  7. Suitability of DPPH spiking for antioxidant screening in natural products: the example of galloyl derivatives from red maple bark extract.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, Thibaud R; Meda, Naamwin R; Stevanovic, Tatjana

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the antioxidant potential in natural products, radical scavenging tests (ABTS, DPPH, ORAC, etc.) are usually considered as the first approach. In addition to the standard colorimetric assays, methods using separation techniques (on-line and pre-column assays) have been developed in the past decades. Based on the peak area (PA) reductions of compounds monitored by HPLC, the pre-column spiking method allows rapid characterisation of natural matrices avoiding laborious isolation steps. However, available information about the significance of the results produced remains scarce. Here, we report, for the first time, a discussion of the potential of the pre-column DPPH spiking method to pinpoint antioxidant compounds using red maple bark extract (RMBE). First, DPPH spiking was conventionally applied to the galloyl compounds in the extract showing the inadequacy of assessing results by PA reductions. The method was then applied to pure galloyl derivatives, evaluating their molar amount reacted (MAR) for more significance. The comparison with the standard DPPH-HPLC/AE method directly monitoring DPPH • inhibition highlighted the inability to retrieve the respective antioxidant efficiencies (AE) of each compound by using DPPH spiking. Despite its limitations, the DPPH spiking method brought to light an autoxidation phenomenon and a matrix/mixture effect investigated through tertiary mixtures of galloyl compounds. Although restricted to the compounds from one natural matrix, this study questions the validity of the spiking method as usually performed and could serve as a basis for further investigations (explorations of other natural products, kinetics considerations). Graphical abstract Investigation of the pre-column DPPH spiking method through the case of galloyl derivatives.

  8. Antidiabetic Effects of Aqueous and Dichloromethane/Methanol Stem Bark Extracts of Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub (Papilionaceae) on Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tchamadeu, Marie Claire; Dzeufiet, Paul Désiré Djomeni; Blaes, Nelly; Girolami, Jean-Pierre; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Dimo, Théophile

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the Study: The aim is to evaluate the hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effects of aqueous and CH2Cl2/CH3OH stem bark extracts of Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub in normal and diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic and normal adult Wistar rats were orally administered with aqueous and CH2Cl2/CH3OH plant extracts of P. soyauxii at various doses (38–300 mg/kg) in a single administration. In addition, STZ-induced diabetic rats received prolonged daily administration for 14 days. Glibenclamide (GB) (10 mg/kg) was used as reference treatment. In acute test, fasting blood glucose was followed for 5 h. In subacute test, body weight, food and water intakes, and blood glucose were followed weekly and serum biochemical parameters evaluated after 14 days treatment. Results: Acute administration of aqueous and CH2Cl2/CH3OH stem bark extracts moderately decreased fasting blood glucose compared to GB, significantly in normal rats (P < 0.05 to P < 0.01) but, as GB, not significantly in diabetic rats. Prolonged treatments in diabetic rats with aqueous and CH2Cl2/CH3OH extracts reduced blood glucose to an extent, respectively, superior or similar to GB. Moreover, P. soyauxii also significantly (P < 0.01) reduced weight loss, and diabetes increased serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and transaminases (alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase) elevations. Conclusion: P. soyauxii Taub stem bark extracts have possible value for antidiabetic oral medication. SUMMARY Aqueous and Dichloromethane/Methanol stem bark extracts of Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub have potent (compared to Glibenclamide) antidiabetic effects in STZ-diabetic rats, with specific kinetics and dose-responses.Moderate hypoglycemia effects upon acute P. soyauxii administration.Potent anti-hyperglycemic effects of sub-acute P. soyauxii administration in STZ-diabetic rats.Potent anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sub-acute P. soyauxii administration in STZ-diabetic rats

  9. The anti-inflammatory activity of standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. as evident in inhibition of Group IA sPLA2.

    PubMed

    Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa; Shivalingaiah, Sudharshan

    2016-03-01

    The standard aqueous stem bark extract is consumed as herbal drink and used in the pharmaceutical formulations to treat patients suffering from various disease conditions in Cuba. This study was carried out to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on Group IA sPLA2. M. indica extract, dose dependently inhibited the GIA sPLA2 (NN-XIa-PLA2) activity with an IC50 value 8.1 µg/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 98% at ~40 µg/ml concentration and at various concentrations (0-50 µg/ml), it dose dependently inhibited the edema formation. When examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration, there was no relieve of inhibitory effect on the GIA sPLA2. Furthermore, the inhibition was irreversible as evidenced from binding studies. It is observed that the aqueous extract ofM. indica effectively inhibits sPLA2 and it is associated inflammatory activities, which substantiate their anti-inflammatory properties. The mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract, with sPLA2 enzyme. Further studies on understanding the principal constituents, responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity would be interesting to develop this into potent anti-inflammatory agent.

  10. Ameliorative Activity of Ethanol Extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus Stem Bark on Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ajiboye, Basiru O.; Ojo, Oluwafemi A.; Adeyonu, Oluwatosin; Imiere, Oluwatosin D.; Fadaka, Adewale O.; Osukoya, Adetutu O.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the ameliorative effects of ethanol extract Artocarpus heterophyllus (EAH) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The rats were divided into 6 groups, with groups 1 and 2 serving as nondiabetic and diabetic control, respectively; group 3 serving as diabetic rats treated with 5 mg/kg glibenclamide; and groups 4 to 6 were diabetic rats treated with 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of EAH, respectively. Assays determined were serum insulin, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme activities. EAH stem bark reduced fasting blood glucose and lipid peroxidation levels and increased serum insulin levels and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Data obtained demonstrated the ability of EAH stem bark to ameliorate pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. PMID:29279019

  11. Ameliorative Activity of Ethanol Extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus Stem Bark on Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Ajiboye, Basiru O; Ojo, Oluwafemi A; Adeyonu, Oluwatosin; Imiere, Oluwatosin D; Fadaka, Adewale O; Osukoya, Adetutu O

    2017-10-01

    This study sought to investigate the ameliorative effects of ethanol extract Artocarpus heterophyllus (EAH) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The rats were divided into 6 groups, with groups 1 and 2 serving as nondiabetic and diabetic control, respectively; group 3 serving as diabetic rats treated with 5 mg/kg glibenclamide; and groups 4 to 6 were diabetic rats treated with 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of EAH, respectively. Assays determined were serum insulin, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme activities. EAH stem bark reduced fasting blood glucose and lipid peroxidation levels and increased serum insulin levels and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Data obtained demonstrated the ability of EAH stem bark to ameliorate pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  12. The high-performance liquid chromatography/multistage electrospray mass spectrometric investigation and extraction optimization of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) bark polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Tamás; Nebehaj, Esztella; Albert, Levente

    2015-05-08

    The aim of the present work was the high-performance liquid chromatographic separation and multistage mass spectrometric characterization of the polyphenolic compounds of beech bark, as well as the extraction optimization of the identified compounds. Beech is a common and widely used material in the wood industry, yet its bark is regarded as a by-product. Using appropriate extraction methods these compounds could be extracted and utilized in the future. Different extraction methods (stirring, sonication, microwave assisted extraction) using different solvents (water, methanol:water 80:20 v/v, ethanol:water 80:20 v/v) and time/temperature schedules have been compared basing on total phenol contents (Folin-Ciocâlteu) and MRM peak areas of the identified compounds to investigate optimum extraction efficiency. Altogether 37 compounds, including (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, quercetin-O-hexoside, taxifolin-O-hexosides (3), taxifolin-O-pentosides (4), B-type (6) and C-type (6) procyanidins, syringic acid- and coumaric acid-di-O-glycosides, coniferyl alcohol- and sinapyl alcohol-glycosides, as well as other unknown compounds with defined [M-H](-) m/z values and MS/MS spectra have been tentatively identified. The choice of the method, solvent system and time/temperature parameters favors the extraction of different types of compounds. Pure water can extract compounds as efficiently as mixtures containing organic solvents under high-pressure and high temperature conditions. This supports the implementation of green extraction methods in the future. Extraction times that are too long and high temperatures can result in the decrease of the concentrations. Future investigations will focus on the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity and utilization possibilities of the prepared extracts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of methanolic crude extract of Lophopetalum javanicum (bark).

    PubMed

    Ansari, Prawej; Badhan, Sanjeeda Sarmin; Azam, Shofiul; Sultana, Nasrin; Anwar, Sabbir; Mohamed Abdurahman, Mohamed Sheikh; Hannan, J M A

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the scientific basis of the traditional application of Lophopetalum javanicum for measuring anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity and phytochemical screening. Present study includes the preliminary screening of the phytochemical composition and in vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of L. javanicum (MELJ). Hot-plate test and tail immersion method were used to investigate acute analgesic effects of L. javanicum, and the potency in inhibition of chronic inflammation in mice was tested by carrageenan-induced paw edema and formalin-induced edema method. One hour after the administration of carrageenan, rat's paw was inflamed, and after treating it with 500 mg/kg dose, increase in the significant inhibitory effect on paw was observed. At the third hour after carrageenan injection, extreme inhibition (55.61%±0.015%; p<0.001) resulted by methanolic extract. By using hot plate method, it was found that L. javanicum increases pain tolerance time up to 17.89±0.079 min, whereas the compared standard's interval was 21.48±0.397 min. In tail immersion method, the pain threshold was 3.02±0.074 (p<0.001) at 400 mg/kg by L. javanicum at 90 min of experiment. This study manifested that the methanolic extract of L. javanicum is efficient in inhibiting pain mediators to release, and conceivably, this report should get priority while searching for a new analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent.

  14. Stem bark extract and fraction of Persea americana (Mill.) exhibits bactericidal activities against strains of bacillus cereus associated with food poisoning.

    PubMed

    Akinpelu, David A; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A; Akinpelu, Oluseun F; Okoh, Anthony I

    2014-12-30

    The study investigates the in vitro antibacterial potentials of stem bark extracts of Persea americana on strains of Bacillus cereus implicated in food poisoning. The crude stem bark extracts and butanolic fraction at a concentration of 25 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively, exhibited antibacterial activities against test isolates. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the crude extract and the fraction ranged between 10 mm and 26 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged between 0.78 and 5.00 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged between 3.12 mg/mL-12.5 mg/mL and 1.25-10 mg/mL for the extract and the fraction, respectively. The butanolic fraction killed 91.49% of the test isolates at a concentration of 2× MIC after 60 min of contact time, while a 100% killing was achieved after the test bacterial cells were exposed to the butanolic fraction at a concentration of 3× MIC after 90 min contact time. Intracellular protein and potassium ion leaked out of the test bacterial cells when exposed to certain concentrations of the fraction; this is an indication of bacterial cell wall disruptions by the extract's butanolic fraction and, thus, caused a biocidal effect on the cells, as evident in the killing rate test results.

  15. Investigation of hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Terminalia paniculata bark in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Subramaniam; Rajasekaran, Aiyalu; Manisenthilkumar, KT

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Terminalia paniculata bark (AETPB) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods Acute toxicity was studied in rats after the oral administration of AETPB to determine the dose to assess hypoglycemic activity. In rats, diabetes was induced by injection of STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) and diabetes was confirmed 72 h after induction, and then allowed for 14 days to stabilize blood glucose level. In diabetic rats, AETPB was orally given for 28 days and its effect on blood glucose and body weight was determined on a weekly basis. At the end of the experimental day, fasting blood sample was collected to estimate the haemoglobin (Hb), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), serum creatinine, urea, serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and insulin levels. The liver and kidney were collected to determine antioxidants levels in diabetic rats. Results Oral administration of AETPB did not exhibit toxicity and death at a dose of 2 000 mg/kg. AETPB treated diabetic rats significantly (P<0.001, P<0.01 and P<0.05) reduced elevated blood glucose, HbA1c, creatinine, urea, SGPT and SGOT levels when compared with diabetic control rats. The body weight, Hb, insulin and total protein levels were significantly (P<0.001, P<0.01 and P<0.05) increased in diabetic rats treated with AETPB compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, AETPB treatment significantly reversed abnormal status of antioxidants and lipid profile levels towards near normal levels compared to diabetic control rats. Conclusions Present study results confirm that AETPB possesses significant hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities in diabetic condition. PMID:23569911

  16. In vitro evaluation of the antioxidant potential, phenolic and flavonoid contents of the stem bark ethanol extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus.

    PubMed

    Olugbami, J O; Gbadegesin, M A; Odunola, O A

    2014-09-01

    Plant-derived antioxidants with free radical scavenging activities can be relevant as chemopreventive agents against the numerous diseases associated with free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Some phytoconstituents possess antioxidant activities in biological systems. On this basis, we evaluated the antioxidant potential, and determined the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the e thanol e xtract of the s tem bark of A nogeissus l eiocarpus [ EESAL ]. Antioxidant assays carried out include: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, phosphomolybdate, β-carotene bleaching, ferric reducing, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. Results of DPPH assay showed no significant difference ( p < 0.001) between EESAL and butylated hydroxyanisole [BHA], while EESAL exhibited a significantly ( p < 0.001) higher activity than BHT [butylated hydroxytoluene]. Phosphomolybdate method recorded a total antioxidant capacity of 190.00 ± 70.53 µg butylated hydroxytoluene equivalents [BHTE]/mg dry extract, while β-carotene bleaching assay gave percent antioxidant activities of both EESAL and BHT as 81.46±1.62 and 80.90±1.39 respectively. Ferric reducing abilities of both EESAL and ascorbic acid increased in a concentration-dependent manner with EESAL displaying a significantly ( p < 0.001) higher reductive activity than vitamin C. EESAL displayed a significantly higher hydroxyl radical scavenging activity as compared with BHT at the lowest concentration with no significant difference at the highest concentration. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of EESAL were obtained as 608.10 ± 2.12 µg GAE/mg and 78.96 ± 3.37 µg QE/mg respectively. Taken together, the free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of EESAL is likely due to its high phenolic content with complementary effects of the flavonoid components.

  17. Antinociceptive properties of the aqueous and methanol extracts of the stem bark of Petersianthus macrocarpus (P. Beauv.) Liben (Lecythidaceae) in mice.

    PubMed

    Bomba, Francis Desire Tatsinkou; Wandji, Bibiane Aimee; Piegang, Basile Nganmegne; Awouafack, Maurice Ducret; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Kamanyi, Albert; Nguelefack, Telesphore Benoit

    2015-11-04

    Aqueous maceration from the stem barks of Petersianthus macrocarpus (P. Beauv.) Liben (Lecythidaceae) is taken orally in the central Africa for the management of various ailments, including pain. This work was carried out to evaluate in mice, the antinociceptive effects of the aqueous and methanol extracts of the stem bark of P. macrocarpus. The chemical composition of the aqueous and methanol extracts prepared as cold macerations was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LCMS). The antinociceptive effects of these extracts administered orally at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were evaluated using behavioral pain model induced by acetic acid, formalin, hot-plate, capsaicin and glutamate. The rotarod test was also performed at the same doses. The oral acute toxicity of both extracts was studied at the doses of 800, 1600, 3200 and 6400 mg/kg in mice. The LCMS analysis revealed the presence of ellagic acid as the major constituent in the methanol extract. Both extracts of P. macrocarpus significantly and dose dependently reduced the time and number of writhing induced by acetic acid. They also significantly inhibited the two phases of formalin-induced pain. These effects were significantly inhibited by a pretreatment with naloxone, except for the analgesic activity of the methanol extract at the earlier phase. In addition, nociception induced by hot plate, intraplantar injection of capsaicin or glutamate was significantly inhibited by both extracts. Acute toxicity test showed no sign of toxicity. These results demonstrate that aqueous and methanol extracts of P. macrocarpus are none toxic substances with good central and peripheral antinociceptive effects that are at least partially due to the presence of ellagic acid. These extracts may induce their antinociceptive effect by interfering with opioid, capsaicin and excitatory amino acid pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. IN VIVO AND IN VITRO ANTILEISHMANIAL EFFECTS OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT FROM BARK OF BURSERA APTERA.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Yañez, O J; Resendiz-Albor, A A; Ruiz-Hurtado, P A; Rivera-Yañez, N; Rodriguez-Canales, M; Rodriguez-Sosa, M; Juarez-Avelar, I; Rodriguez-Lopez, M G; Canales-Martinez, M M; Rodriguez-Monroy, M A

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis lacks effective and well-tolerated treatments. The current therapies mainly rely on antimonial drugs that are inadequate because of their poor efficacy. Traditional medicine offers a complementary alternative for the treatment of various diseases. Additionally, several plants have shown success as anti-leishmanial agents. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo activity of MEBA against Leishmania mexicana . Methanolic extract of B. aptera was obtained by macetration, after we determined in vitro anti-leishmanial activity of MEBA by MTT assay and the induced apoptosis in promastigotes by flow cytometry. To analyze the in vivo anti-leishmanial activity, we used infected mice that were treated and not treated with MEBA and we determined the levels of cytokines using ELISA. The phytochemical properties were determined by CG-MS and DPPH assay. We determined of LC 50 of 0.408 mg/mL of MEBA for in vitro anti-leishmanial activity. MEBA induced apoptosis in promastigotes (15.3% ± 0.86). Treated mice exhibited smaller lesions and contained significantly fewer parasites than did untreated mice; in addition, we found that IFN-γ and TNF-α increased in the sera of MEBA-treated mice. GC-MS analysis showed that podophyllotoxin was the most abundant compound. Evaluation of the activity by DPPH assay demonstrated an SC 50 of 11.72 μg/mL. Based on the above data, it was concluded that MEBA is a good candidate in the search for new anti-leishmanial agents.

  19. IN VIVO AND IN VITRO ANTILEISHMANIAL EFFECTS OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT FROM BARK OF BURSERA APTERA

    PubMed Central

    Nieto-Yañez, O. J.; Resendiz-Albor, A. A.; Ruiz-Hurtado, P. A.; Rivera-Yañez, N.; Rodriguez-Canales, M.; Rodriguez-Sosa, M.; Juarez-Avelar, I.; Rodriguez-Lopez, M. G.; Canales-Martinez, M. M.; Rodriguez-Monroy, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis lacks effective and well-tolerated treatments. The current therapies mainly rely on antimonial drugs that are inadequate because of their poor efficacy. Traditional medicine offers a complementary alternative for the treatment of various diseases. Additionally, several plants have shown success as anti-leishmanial agents. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo activity of MEBA against Leishmania mexicana. Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of B. aptera was obtained by macetration, after we determined in vitro anti-leishmanial activity of MEBA by MTT assay and the induced apoptosis in promastigotes by flow cytometry. To analyze the in vivo anti-leishmanial activity, we used infected mice that were treated and not treated with MEBA and we determined the levels of cytokines using ELISA. The phytochemical properties were determined by CG-MS and DPPH assay. Results: We determined of LC50 of 0.408 mg/mL of MEBA for in vitro anti-leishmanial activity. MEBA induced apoptosis in promastigotes (15.3% ± 0.86). Treated mice exhibited smaller lesions and contained significantly fewer parasites than did untreated mice; in addition, we found that IFN-γ and TNF-α increased in the sera of MEBA-treated mice. GC-MS analysis showed that podophyllotoxin was the most abundant compound. Evaluation of the activity by DPPH assay demonstrated an SC50 of 11.72 μg/mL. Conclusion: Based on the above data, it was concluded that MEBA is a good candidate in the search for new anti-leishmanial agents. PMID:28573235

  20. A fraction of stem bark extract of Entada africana suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Ayissi Owona, Brice; Njayou, Nico Frederic; Laufer, Stefan; Moundipa, Paul Fewou; Schluesener, Hermann J

    2013-08-26

    Entada africana is a plant used in African traditional medicine for the treatment of stomachache, fever, liver related diseases, wound healing, cataract and dysentery. This study aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory activity of fractions of the stem bark extract of the plant using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophages model. The crude extract was prepared using the mixture CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1, v/v) and fractionated by flash chromatography using solvents of increasing polarity to obtain five different fractions. The effects of the fractions on the cells viability were studied by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and their inhibitory activity against LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production screened by Griess test. The most active fraction was further investigated for its effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production using flux cytometry, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL1β, TNFα, IL6, IL10 and IL13) by RT-PCR, and the activity of the enzyme p38 MAPK kinase by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The fractions presented no significant effect on the viability of macrophages at 100 μg/ml after 24h incubation. The CH2Cl2/MeOH 5% (Ea5) fraction was found to be the most potent in inhibiting NO production with a half inhibition concentration (IC50)=18.36 μg/ml, and showed the highest inhibition percentage (89.068%) in comparison with Baicalin (63.34%), an external standard at 50 μg/ml. Ea5, as well as Baicalin significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the expression of TNFα, IL6 and IL1β mRNA, attenuated mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase in a concentration-dependent manner, stimulated the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL10 and IL13), and showed a 30% inhibition of the activity of p38 MAPK kinase. The results of the present study indicate that the fraction Ea5 of Entada africana possesses most potent in

  1. Comparison of the protection effectiveness of acrylic polyurethane coatings containing bark extracts on three heat-treated North American wood species: Surface degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocaefe, Duygu; Saha, Sudeshna

    2012-04-01

    High temperature heat-treatment of wood is a very valuable technique which improves many properties (biological durability, dimensional stability, thermal insulating characteristics) of natural wood. Also, it changes the natural color of wood to a very attractive dark brown color. Unfortunately, this color is not stable if left unprotected in external environment and turns to gray or white depending on the wood species. To overcome this problem, acrylic polyurethane coatings are applied on heat-treated wood to delay surface degradations (color change, loss of gloss, and chemical modifications) during aging. The acrylic polyurethane coatings which have high resistance against aging are further modified by adding bark extracts and/or lignin stabilizer to enhance their effectiveness in preventing the wood aging behavior. The aging characteristic of this coating is compared with acrylic polyurethane combined with commercially available organic UV stabilizers. In this study, their performance on three heat-treated North American wood species (jack pine, quaking aspen and white birch) are compared under accelerated aging conditions. Both the color change data and visual assessment indicate improvement in protective characteristic of acrylic polyurethane when bark extracts and lignin stabilizer are used in place of commercially available UV stabilizer. The results showed that although acrylic polyurethane with bark extracts and lignin stabilizer was more efficient compared to acrylic polyurethane with organic UV stabilizers in protecting heat-treated jack pine, it failed to protect heat-treated aspen and birch effectively after 672 h of accelerated aging. This degradation was not due to the coating adhesion loss or coating degradation during accelerated aging; rather, it was due to the significant degradation of heat-treated aspen and birch surface beneath this coating. The XPS results revealed formation of carbonyl photoproducts after aging on the coated surfaces and

  2. The effect of zinc lactate and magnolia bark extract added tablets on volatile sulfur-containing compounds in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Porciani, Pier Francesco; Grandini, Simone; Chazine, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    A controlled, clinical, double-blind study was conducted to assess the efficacy of sugar-free tablets containing zinc lactate and magnolia bark extract (MBE) on oral volatile sulfur-containing compounds (VSC) versus placebo tablets for two hours. In order to join the study, subjects had to have at least 24 teeth, no report of oral and systemic diseases, and no removable dentures. All 128 eligible participants had to avoid any professional oral hygiene, refrain from taking medicines for two weeks, be not menstruating, and not brush their teeth and tongue, smoke, drink alcohol, coffee or tea, eat onion, garlic, or licorice for a six-hour period before the visit and during the test. Moreover, to join the protocol, they had to show a VSC score of ≥ 75 ppb at the baseline measurement. Each qualified subject was placed in the test or the control group using a table of random numbers. The test tablet (0.7 g) contained 0.17 mg of zinc, in the form of zinc lactate, and 0.84 mg magnolia bark extract; the control tablet was identical, but without these active agents. The OralChroma2 device was utilized to evaluate total oral VSC. Their levels were recorded at baseline, after eight minutes of sucking two tablets in succession, after one hour, and after two hours. Data were analyzed with SPSS software and the level of significance was set at α = 0.05. One hundred subjects completed the trial (50 in the control group and 50 in the test group); 52 men and 48 women, mean age 38. None reported problems linked to zinc lactate or magnolia bark extract. The mean percentage reduction from baseline at the end of eight minutes of tablet sucking was 39% in the control group (p < 0.001) and 62% in the test group (p < 0.001); one hour later it was 6% in the control group and 30% in the test group (p < 0.001), and two hours later it was 2% in the control group and 18% in the test group (p < 0.001). The comparisons between the two groups after baseline adjustment showed a statistically

  3. In vitro antibacterial and time-kill assessment of crude methanolic stem bark extract of Acacia mearnsii de wild against bacteria in shigellosis.

    PubMed

    Olajuyigbe, Olufunmiso Olusola; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2012-02-21

    Shigellosis is an important cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality among young children and old people for which treatment with antimicrobial agents is limited. Hence, the need for curative potentials obtainable from medicinal plants becomes inevitable. This study was carried out to assess the antibacterial potentials of crude methanolic extract of the stem bark of Acacia mearnsii against some selected bacteria of clinical importance in shigellosis. The bacteria were inhibited by the extract to produce concentration dependent inhibition zones. The extract exhibited a varied degree of antibacterial activity against all the tested isolates. The MIC values for Gram negative (0.0391-0.3125) mg/mL and those of Gram positive bacteria (0.0781-0.625) mg/mL indicated that the Gram negative bacteria were more inhibited by the extract than the Gram positive bacteria. Average log reduction in viable cell count in time-kill assay ranged between -2.456 Log₁₀ to 2.230 Log₁₀ cfu/mL after 4 h of interaction, and between -2.921 Log₁₀ and 1.447 Log₁₀ cfu/mL after 8 h interaction in 1× MIC and 2× MIC of the extract. The study provided scientific justification for the use of the crude methanolic extract from the stem bark of A. mearnsii in shigellosis. The degree of the antibacterial activity indicated that the crude extract is a potential source of bioactive compounds that could be useful for the development of new antimicrobial agents capable of decreasing the burden of drug resistance and cost of management of diseases of clinical and public health importance in South Africa.

  4. Green synthesis and characterization of monodispersed silver nanoparticles using root bark aqueous extract of Annona muricata Linn and their antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezealisiji, K. M.; Noundou, X. S.; Ukwueze, S. E.

    2017-11-01

    In recent time, various phytosynthetic methods have been employed for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles; these unique metal nanoparticles are used in several applications which include pharmaceuticals and material engineering. The current research reports a rapid and simple synthetic partway for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using root bark aqueous extract of Annona muricata and the evaluation of its antimicrobial efficacy against pathogenic microorganisms. The root bark extract was treated with aqueous silver nitrate solution. Silver ions were reduced to silver atoms which on aggregation gave Silver nanoparticles; the biosynthesized AgNPs were characteristically spherical, discreet and stabilized by phytochemical entities and were characterized using ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and photon correlation microscopy. The aqueous plant extract-AgNPs suspension was subjected to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. TEM result for the average particle size is 22 ± 2 nm. The polydispersity index and zeta-potential were found to be 0.44 ± 0.02 and - 27.90 ± 0.01 mV, respectively (Zeta-Sizer). The antimicrobial evaluation result showed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles at different concentration were very active against the Gram-positive bacteria ( B. subtilis, S. aureous) and Gram-negative bacteria ( K. Pneumonia, E. Coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), P. aeruginosa being most susceptible to the anti microbial effect of the silver nanoparticles. Stable silver nanoparticles with antimicrobial activity were obtained through biosynthesis.

  5. Antibacterial activity of the essential oils extracted from cassia bark, bay fruits and cloves against Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria spp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spices are added into foods mainly for enhancing the organoleptic quality of the food. The application of spices and their derivatives in foods as preservatives has been investigated for years. In this study, we determined the antibacterial activity of the essential oils of three spices, cassia bark...

  6. In vitro and in vivo cysticidal activity of extracts and isolated flavanone from the bark of Prunus serotina: A bio-guided study.

    PubMed

    Palomares-Alonso, Francisca; Rojas-Tomé, Irma Susana; Palencia Hernández, Guadalupe; Jiménez-Arellanes, María Adelina; Macías-Rubalcava, Martha Lydia; González-Maciel, Angélica; Ramos-Morales, Andrea; Santiago-Reyes, Rosalba; Castro, Nelly; González-Hernández, Iliana; Rufino-González, Yadira; Jung-Cook, Helgi

    2017-06-01

    Currently, neurocysticercosis treatment involves two drugs: albendazole and praziquantel; however, their efficacy is suboptimal and new cysticidal drugs are needed. The present paper reports the cysticidal activity of extracts of the bark from Prunus serotina against Taenia crassiceps cysts and the isolation and identification of the main components of the most active extract. Results showed that all extracts displayed in vitro cysticidal activity (EC 50 =17.9-88.5μg/mL), being the methanolic the most active and selective. Also, methanolic extract exhibited in vivo efficacy at 300mg/kg which was similar to that obtained with albendazole. Bio-guided fractionation of methanolic extract led the isolation of 2,3-dihydro-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (naringenin, NGN), 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid and 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene. NGN exhibited in vitro activity, in a time-concentration-dependent manner (EC 50 =89.3μM]. Furthermore, NGN at a dose of 376.1μmol/kg displayed similar in vivo efficacy than those obtained with albendazole at 188.4μmol/kg. NGN also caused a high level of damage in all parasite tissue in a similar manner than that observed with the methanolic extract. This study represents the first report of the cysticidal properties of the bark of P. serotina. NGN was identified as the main active compound of this specie and other studies are required to explore the potential of this flavanone as cysticidal agent. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Anti-diabetic activity of methanol/methylene chloride stem bark extracts of Terminalia superba and Canarium schweinfurthii on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kamtchouing, P; Kahpui, S M; Dzeufiet, P-D Djomeni; Tédong, L; Asongalem, E A; Dimo, T

    2006-04-06

    Stem bark extracts of Terminalia superba Engl. and Diels and Canarium schweinfurthii Engl. are used in Africa for the treatment of various ailments, including diabetes mellitus. The anti-diabetic effects of the methanol/methylene chloride extracts of the stem barks on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes were evaluated on male rats. Through the subcutaneous route, diabetes was induced using 60 mg/mL of streptozotocin. After 2 days, the rats received, by gavage, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg of extract daily for 14 days. At 300 mg/kg, the two extracts (Terminalia superba and Canarium schweinfurthii), significantly showed at least 67.1% and 69.9% reduction in blood glucose level, respectively, while insulin (three units) given subcutaneously and once daily, had 76.8% reduction compared to diabetic untreated control rats. Similarly, the weight gains were 6.6% and 4.9%, respectively, and were comparable to the normal rats, whereas, diabetic untreated rats lost 14.1% body weight. Still with the same dose, there was 68.5% and 58.5% (p < 0.001) significant decrease in food consumption and 79.7% and 64.0% (p < 0.001) in fluid intake by diabetic rats treated with the respective plant extracts. The insulin-treated rats showed 56.4% and 75.8% decrease in food and fluid intake compared to an augmentation for diabetic control rats, 43.0% and 383.8%, respectively, at the end of the second week of experimentation. These results showed that the plant extracts can reverse hyperglycemia, polyphagia and polydipsia provoked by streptozotocin, and thus, they have anti-diabetic properties.

  8. Assessment of the in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo anti-tumor activity of the alcoholic stem bark extract/fractions of Mimusops elengi Linn.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Harish; Savaliya, Mihir; Biswas, Subhankar; Nayak, Pawan G; Maliyakkal, Naseer; Manjunath Setty, M; Gourishetti, Karthik; Pai, K Sreedhara Ranganath

    2016-08-01

    Various parts of Mimusops elengi Linn. (Sapotaceae) have been used widely in traditional Indian medicine for the treatment of pain, inflammation and wounds. The study was conducted to explore the use of stem bark of M. elengi on pharmacological grounds and to evaluate the scientific basis of cytotoxic and anti-tumor activity. Extract/fractions were prepared and in vitro cytotoxicity was assessed using SRB assay. Most effective fractions were subjected to fluorescence microscopy based acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) and Hoechst 33342 staining to determine apoptosis induction and DNA fragmentation assay. Comet and micronuclei assay were performed to assess genotoxicity. Cell cycle analysis was also performed. In vivo anti-tumor potential was evaluated by Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model in mice. The alcoholic stem bark extract of M. elengi along with four fractions showed potential in vitro cytotoxicity in SRB assay. Of these, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions were selected for further studies. The fractions revealed apoptosis inducing potential in AO/EB and Hoechst 33342 staining, which was further confirmed by DNA fragmentation assay. Genotoxic potential was revealed by comet and micronuclei assay. Fractions also exhibited specific cell cycle inhibition in G0/G1 phase. In EAC model, ethyl acetate fraction along with the standard (cisplatin) effectively reduced the increase in body weight compared to control and improved mean survival time. Both fractions were able to restore the altered hematological and biochemical parameters. Hence, M. elengi stem bark may be a possible therapeutic candidate having cytotoxic and anti-tumor potential.

  9. Methanol Extract from Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC) Guill. et Perr. (Combretaceae) Stem Bark Quenches the Quorum Sensing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Vincent; Kiendrebeogo, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to its extensive arsenal of virulence factors and inherent resistance to antibiotics, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a threat particularly in immunocompromised patients. Considering the central role of quorum sensing in the production of virulence factors, inhibition of bacterial communication mechanism constitute an opportunity to attenuate pathogenicity of bacteria resistant to available antibiotics. Our study aimed to assess the anti-quorum sensing activity of Anogeissus leiocarpus, traditionally used in Burkina Faso, for the treatment of infected burn wounds. Methods: Investigations were carried out on methanol extract from A. leiocarpus stem bark. The reporter strains Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and P. aeruginosa PAO1 derivatives were used to evidence any interference with the bacterial quorum sensing and expression of related genes. P. aeruginosa PAO1 was used to measure the impact on pyocyanin production. Results: At a sub-inhibitory concentration (100 µg/mL), A. leiocarpus methanol extract quenched the quorum sensing mechanism of P. aeruginosa PAO1 by down-streaming the rhlR gene, with a subsequent reduction of pyocyanin production. Moreover, the antioxidant polyphenols evidenced are able to reduce the oxidative stress induced by pyocyanin. Conclusion: The antioxidant and anti-quorum sensing activities of A. leiocarpus stem bark could justify its traditional use in the treatment of infected burn wounds. PMID:28930136

  10. Differences in uptake and translocation of selenate and selenite by the weeping willow and hybrid willow.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2008-09-01

    .01). Volatilization of Se by plant leaves was estimated to be approximately 10% of the total applied selenite or selenate. Significant reduction (>20%) of selenate was observed in the sealed vessel with excised roots of willows, whereas trace amounts of selenite were eliminated from the hydroponic solution in the presence of roots. Detached leaves from neither of them reduced the concentration of selenite or selenate in the solution. Due to the significant difference in the removal rate and the distribution of the two chemical forms of Se in plant materials, the conversion of selenate to selenite in hydroponic solution prior to uptake and within plant tissues is unlikely. An independent uptake and translocation mechanisms are likely to exist for each Se chemical species. Uptake of selenate is mediated possibly through an active transport mechanism, whereas that of selenite may possibly depend on plant transpiration. Uptake velocities of selenite are linear (zero-order kinetics), while selenate removal processes obey first-order kinetics. In experiments with detached leaves in closed bottles, the cuticle of leaves was the major obstacle to extract both chemical forms of Se from the hydroponic solution. Phytovolatilization is a biological process playing an important role in Se removal. Although faster removal rates of selenate than selenite from plant growth media were observed by both willow species, selenite in plant materials was more mobile than selenate. Significant decrease in removal rates of both chemical forms of Se was detected for willows without any leaves. Significant differences in extraction, assimilation and transport pathways for selenite and selenate exist in willow trees. Phytoremediation of Se is an attractive approach of cleaning up Se contaminated environmental sites. More detailed investigation on the assimilation of Se in plant roots and transport in tissues will provide further biochemical evidence to explain the differences in uptake and translocation

  11. Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of acetone and aqueous extracts of the stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae).

    PubMed

    Njume, Collise; Afolayan, Anthony J; Ndip, Roland N

    2011-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance and other problems associated with combination therapy have generated a considerable interest in the search for alternative therapeutic agents. In order to identify novel sources of such agents, the antimicrobial activity of five solvent extracts of the stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea was investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori and a reference strain NCTC 11638 using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. The active phytocomponents were detected by TLC and indirect bioautography. All the extracts exhibited anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 21 mm. The acetone and aqueous extracts showed potent anti-H. pylori activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC(90)) values ranging from 0.06-2.50 mg/mL, whereas those for the control antibiotics ranged from 0.001-5.0 mg/mL. The acetone extract was highly bactericidal at 1.2 mg/mL with complete elimination of the organisms within 18 h. The activity of both acetone and aqueous extracts was better than metronidazole (p<0.05). Most of the active phytocomponents were located in the acetone extract; R(f)≤0.62 with >90% inhibition. These results demonstrate that the acetone and aqueous extracts of S. birrea may contain compounds with therapeutic activity; therefore, they may represent potential sources of new anti-H. pylori regimen. Copyright © 2011 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Anti-hypertensive effects of the methanol/methylene chloride stem bark extract of Mammea africana in l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Nguelefack-Mbuyo, P E; Nguelefack, T B; Dongmo, A B; Afkir, S; Azebaze, A G B; Dimo, T; Legssyer, A; Kamanyi, A; Ziyyat, A

    2008-05-22

    The methanol/methylene chloride (CH(3)OH/CH(2)Cl(2)) extract from the stem bark of Mammea africana was showed to possess vasodilating effect in the presence and the absence of N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME). The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of the methanol/methylene chloride from the stem bark of Mammea africana. The extract (200 mg/(kg day)) was administered orally in rats treated concurrently with l-NAME (40 mg/(kg day)). l-Arginine (100 mg/(kg day)) and captopril (20 mg/(kg day))were used as positive controls. Bodyweight, systolic arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured weekly throughout the experiment period (28 days). At the end of treatment, animals were killed and the cardiac mass index evaluated. The aorta was used to evaluate the endothelium-dependant relaxation to carbachol. The aorta contraction induced by noradrenalin was also examined and expressed as a percentage of that induced by KCl. The extract neither affected the body weight nor the heart rate. The extract as captopril completely prevented the development of arterial hypertension. Both the substances failed to restore the endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation and increased the vascular contraction to norepinephrine in relation to KCl contraction. They also significantly reduced the left ventricular hypertrophy induced by l-NAME. These findings are in agreement with the traditional use of Mammea africana in the treatment of arterial hypertension and indicate that it may have a beneficial effect in patients with NO deficiency but will be unable to improve their endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation.

  13. Effects of the aqueous extract of Pittosporum mannii Hook. f. (Pittosporaceae) stem barks on spontaneous and spasmogen-induced contractile activity of isolated rat duodenum.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Njiaza; Tom Esther, Ngo Lemba; Télesphore Benoît, Nguelefack; Paul Désiré, Dzeufiet Djomeni; Oumarou Bibi-Farouck, Aboubakar; Théophile, Dimo; Pierre, Kamtchouing

    2015-08-22

    Pittosporum mannii Hook. f. (Pittosporaceae) is a plant widely used in traditional medicine in Cameroon for the treatment of many gastrointestinal disorders including diarrhea. To date, no pharmacological study on the antidiarrheal and the antispasmodic properties of this plant has been reported. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the relaxant activity of the aqueous extract of stem barks of P. mannii (PMAE) on rat duodenum. Different concentrations of PMAE were tested separately (10-80 µg/mL) or cumulatively (5-80 µg/mL) on spontaneous and spasmogen (carbachol, histamine and KCl)-induced contractions of isolated rat duodenum strips. At concentrations ranging from 10 to 80 µg/mL, PMAE significantly decreased the tonus and the amplitude of spontaneous contractions. However, at high concentration (80 µg/mL), the extract elicited a transient relaxation was followed by a slight increase of tonus, while the amplitude remained lower compared to the normal spontaneous activity. The relaxant effect of the extract was not significantly affected in the presence of atropine (0.713 µg/mL) and promethazine (0.5 µg/mL). In addition, PMAE (20, 40, and 80 µg/mL) partially but significantly inhibited in a concentration related manner the contractions induced by carbachol (10(-9)-10(-4)M) and histamine (10(-9)-10(-4)M) on rat duodenum. PMAE (10-80 µg/mL) also significantly induced a concentration-dependent relaxation on KCl (20mM, 50mM, 10(-3)-6.10(-3)M)-induced contraction of rat duodenum. These results show that the aqueous extract of P. mannii stem barks possesses antispasmodic and spasmolytic effects at lower concentrations; therefore, supporting the use of the stem barks of this plant in the folk medicine for the treatment of diarrhea. However, caution should be paid while using higher concentrations that instead might produce spasmogenic effect and might worsen the diarrheal condition. The relaxant effect of PMAE appears to be non-specific of

  14. Antidiabetic, renal/hepatic/pancreas/cardiac protective and antioxidant potential of methanol/dichloromethane extract of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. stem bark (ALEx) on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Danish; Kumar, Vikas; Verma, Amita; Gupta, Pushpraj S; Kumar, Hemant; Dhingra, Vishal; Mishra, Vatsala; Sharma, Manju

    2014-07-16

    Hypoglycemic and/or anti-hyperglycemic activities have been recorded with numerous plants, many of which are used as traditional herbal treatments of diabetes. Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. stem bark have been used in traditional medicine along with some preliminary reports on its hypoglycemic action. The aim of present investigation was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The powdered stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth.. was extracted with methanol (MeOH) using soxhlation method and subjected to phytochemical analysis. The methanol/dichloromethane extract of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. (ALEx) was concentrated to dryness using Rotary Evaporator. Diabetes was experimentally induced in the rats by single intraperitoneal administration of Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). They glycemic control was measured by the blood glucose, glycated heamoglobin and plasma insulin. The oxidative stress was evaluated in the liver and kidney by level of antioxidant markers and various biochemical parameters were assessed in diabetic control and extract treated rats. Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats depicted the increased blood glucose levels, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), diminished level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) level and perturb level of antioxidant markers. Oral administration of MeAL at a concentration of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg b.w daily for 30 days results a momentous decrease in fasting blood glucose, glycated heamoglobin and enhancement of plasma insulin level as compared with STZ induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, it significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the level of TC, TG, and LDL-c, VLDL-c. While it increases the level of HDL-c to a significant (p < 0.05) level. The treatment also resulted in a marked increase in reduced glutathione, glutathione Peroxidase, catalase and superoxide

  15. Antidiabetic, renal/hepatic/pancreas/cardiac protective and antioxidant potential of methanol/dichloromethane extract of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. stem bark (ALEx) on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypoglycemic and/or anti-hyperglycemic activities have been recorded with numerous plants, many of which are used as traditional herbal treatments of diabetes. Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. stem bark have been used in traditional medicine along with some preliminary reports on its hypoglycemic action. The aim of present investigation was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods The powdered stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth.. was extracted with methanol (MeOH) using soxhlation method and subjected to phytochemical analysis. The methanol/dichloromethane extract of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. (ALEx) was concentrated to dryness using Rotary Evaporator. Diabetes was experimentally induced in the rats by single intraperitoneal administration of Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). They glycemic control was measured by the blood glucose, glycated heamoglobin and plasma insulin. The oxidative stress was evaluated in the liver and kidney by level of antioxidant markers and various biochemical parameters were assessed in diabetic control and extract treated rats. Results Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats depicted the increased blood glucose levels, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), diminished level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) level and perturb level of antioxidant markers. Oral administration of MeAL at a concentration of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg b.w daily for 30 days results a momentous decrease in fasting blood glucose, glycated heamoglobin and enhancement of plasma insulin level as compared with STZ induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, it significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the level of TC, TG, and LDL-c, VLDL-c. While it increases the level of HDL-c to a significant (p < 0.05) level. The treatment also resulted in a marked increase in reduced glutathione

  16. Comparative anti-platelet and antioxidant properties of polyphenol-rich extracts from: berries of Aronia melanocarpa, seeds of grape and bark of Yucca schidigera in vitro.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Tomczak, Anna; Erler, Joachim; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the anti-platelet action of extracts from three different plants: bark of Yucca schidigera, seeds of grape and berries of Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry). Anti-platelet action of tested extracts was compared with action of well characterized antioxidative and anti-platelet commercial monomeric polyphenol-resveratrol. The effects of extracts on platelet adhesion to collagen, collagen-induced platelet aggregation and on the production of O2-* in resting platelets and platelets stimulated by a strong platelet agonist-thrombin were studied. The in vitro experiments have shown that all three tested extracts (5-50 microg/ml) rich in polyphenols reduce platelet adhesion, aggregation and generation of O2-* in blood platelets. Comparative studies indicate that all three plant extracts were found to be more reactive in reduction of platelet processes than the solution of pure resveratrol. The tested extracts due to their anti-platelet effects may play an important role as components of human diet in prevention of cardiovascular or inflammatory diseases, where blood platelets are involved.

  17. Inhibition of secretary PLA₂--VRV-PL-VIIIa of Russell's viper venom by standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L.

    PubMed

    Dhananjaya, B L; Sudarshan, S

    2015-03-01

    The aqueous extract of Mangifera indica is known to possess anti-snake venom activities. However, its inhibitory potency and mechanism of action on multi-toxic phospholipases A2s, which are the most toxic and lethal component of snake venom is still unknown. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on VRV-PL-VIIIa of Indian Russells viper venom. Mangifera indica extract dose dependently inhibited the GIIB sPLA2 (VRV-PL-VIIIa) activity with an IC50 value of 6.8±0.3 μg/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 96% at ~40 μg/ml concentration. Further, M. indica extract at different concentrations (0-50 μg/ml) inhibited the edema formed in a dose dependent manner. It was found that there was no relieve of inhibitory effect of the extract when examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration. The inhibition was irreversible as evident from binding studies. The in vitro inhibition is well correlated with in situ and in vivo edema inducing activities. As the inhibition is independent of substrate, calcium concentration and was irreversible, it can be concluded that M. indica extracts mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract with PLA2 enzyme. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of M. indica effectively inhibits svPLA2 (Snake venom phospholipase A2) enzymatic and its associated toxic activities, which substantiate its anti-snake venom properties. Further in-depth studies are interesting to known on the role and mechanism of the principal inhibitory constituents present in the extract, so as to develop them into potent anti-snake venom and as an anti-inflammatory agent.

  18. Hepatoprotective effect of the aqueous extract of Simarouba amara Aublet (Simaroubaceae) stem bark against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Maranhão, Hélida M L; Vasconcelos, Carlos F B; Rolim, Larissa A; Neto, Pedro J Rolim; Neto, Jacinto da C Silva; Filho, Reginaldo C da Silva; Fernandes, Mariana P; Costa-Silva, João H; Araújo, Alice V; Wanderley, Almir G

    2014-10-31

    Simarouba amara stem bark decoction has been traditionally used in Brazil to treat malaria, inflammation, fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, wounds and as a tonic. In this study, we investigate the hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract of S. amara stem bark (SAAE) on CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats. SAAE was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography. The animals were divided into six groups (n = 6/group). Groups I (vehicle-corn oil), II (control-CCl4), III, IV, V and VI were pretreated during 10 consecutive days, once a day p.o, with Legalon® 50 mg/kg b.w, SAAE at doses 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w, respectively. The hepatotoxicity was induced on 11th day with 2 mL/kg of 20% CCl4 solution. 24 h after injury, the blood samples were collected and their livers were removed to biochemical and immunohistochemical analyzes. The SAAE decreased the levels of liver markers and lipid peroxidation in all doses and increased the catalase levels at doses 250 and 500 mg/kg. Immunohistochemical results suggested hepatocyte proliferation in all doses. These results may be related to catechins present in SAAE. Thus, SAAE prevented the oxidative damage at the same time that increased regenerative and reparative capacities of the liver.

  19. Cytoprotective Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Pinus eldarica Bark against H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress in Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Babaee, Fatemeh; Safaeian, Leila; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Haghjoo Javanmard, Shaghayegh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pinus eldarica is a widely growing pine in Iran consisting of biologically active constituents with antioxidant properties. This study investigates the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark against oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Methods: The total phenolic content of P. eldarica extract was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The cytotoxicity of P. eldarica extract (25-1000 µg/ml) on HUVECs was assessed using 3-(4,5- Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. Cytoprotective effect of P. eldarica extract (25-500 µg/ml) on H2O2-induced oxidative stress was also evaluated by MTT assay. The intra- and extra-cellular hydroperoxides concentration and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were measured in pretreated cells. Results: The total phenolic content of P. eldarica extract was estimated as 37.04±1.8% gallic acid equivalent. P. eldarica extract (25-1000 µg/ml) had no cytotoxic effect on HUVECs viability. The pretreatment of HUVECs with P. eldarica extract at the concentrations of 50-500 µg/ml significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of H2O2. P. eldarica extract decreased hydroperoxides concentration and increased FRAP value in intra-cellular fluid at the concentration range of 100-500 µg/ml and in extra-cellular fluid at the concentration range of 25-500 µg/ml. Conclusions: This study revealed the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of P. eldarica extract against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in HUVECs. Concerning the high content of phenolic compounds in P. eldarica, more research is needed to evaluate its clinical value in endothelial dysfunction and in other oxidative conditions. PMID:26931383

  20. Comparative study of teratogenic potentials of crude ethanolic root bark and leaf extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria (apocynaceae) on the fetal heart

    PubMed Central

    Eluwa, Mokutima A.; Udoaffah, Matilda T.; Vulley, Moses B. G.; Ekanem, Theresa B.; Akpantah, Amabe O.; Asuquo, Olaitan A.; Ekong, Moses B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Rauwolfia vomitoria, a tropical shrub, is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of a variety of ailments. It is popular to the locals because of its anti-hypertensive and sedative properties. Aim: This is to find the probable teratogenic effects of ethanolic leaf and root bark extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria on the morphological and histological features of the fetal heart. Material and Methods: Twenty five female rats weighing between 170-200g were used for this study. The rats were divided into five groups labeled A, B, C, D and E, with each group consisting of five rats. Pregnancy was induced by caging the female rats with sexually matured males. The presence of vaginal plug and tail structures in the vaginal smear the following morning confirmed coition, and it was regarded as day 0 of pregnancy. Group A was given sham treatment of distilled water. Group B and C received respectively 150mg/kg and 250mg/kg body weight doses of ethanolic leaf extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria, and those in groups D and E received respectively 150mg/kg and 250mg/kg body weight doses of ethanolic root bark extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria. These treatments were on days 7-11 of gestation (5 days) with the aid of an orogastric tube. On the day 20 of gestation, the rats were sacrificed and the fetuses examined for gross anomalies, preserved and latter process for histological studies. Results: There were no mortality in this study, and no obvious gross malformations in the fetuses. Histological observations of the fetal heart showed marked distortion of the cardiac muscle nuclei and myocardial fibers in the treated groups particularly those whose mothers received 250mg/kg of the extracts. These effects were more pronounced in the groups whose mothers received the root extract when compared with the control and the groups whose mothers received the leaf extract. Conclusion: This result suggests that high doses of ethanolic leaf and root extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria may be

  1. Comparative study of teratogenic potentials of crude ethanolic root bark and leaf extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria (apocynaceae) on the fetal heart.

    PubMed

    Eluwa, Mokutima A; Udoaffah, Matilda T; Vulley, Moses B G; Ekanem, Theresa B; Akpantah, Amabe O; Asuquo, Olaitan A; Ekong, Moses B

    2010-12-01

    Rauwolfia vomitoria, a tropical shrub, is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of a variety of ailments. It is popular to the locals because of its anti-hypertensive and sedative properties. This is to find the probable teratogenic effects of ethanolic leaf and root bark extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria on the morphological and histological features of the fetal heart. Twenty five female rats weighing between 170-200g were used for this study. The rats were divided into five groups labeled A, B, C, D and E, with each group consisting of five rats. Pregnancy was induced by caging the female rats with sexually matured males. The presence of vaginal plug and tail structures in the vaginal smear the following morning confirmed coition, and it was regarded as day 0 of pregnancy. Group A was given sham treatment of distilled water. Group B and C received respectively 150mg/kg and 250mg/kg body weight doses of ethanolic leaf extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria, and those in groups D and E received respectively 150mg/kg and 250mg/kg body weight doses of ethanolic root bark extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria. These treatments were on days 7-11 of gestation (5 days) with the aid of an orogastric tube. On the day 20 of gestation, the rats were sacrificed and the fetuses examined for gross anomalies, preserved and latter process for histological studies. There were no mortality in this study, and no obvious gross malformations in the fetuses. Histological observations of the fetal heart showed marked distortion of the cardiac muscle nuclei and myocardial fibers in the treated groups particularly those whose mothers received 250mg/kg of the extracts. These effects were more pronounced in the groups whose mothers received the root extract when compared with the control and the groups whose mothers received the leaf extract. This result suggests that high doses of ethanolic leaf and root extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria may be cardiotoxic to the developing rat's heart.

  2. Cationized milled pine bark as an adsorbent for orthophosphate anions

    Treesearch

    Mandla A. Tshabalala; K.G. Karthikeyan; D. Wang

    2004-01-01

    More efficient adsorption media are needed for removing dissolved phosphorus in surface water runoff. We studied the use of cationized pine bark as a sorbent for dissolved phosphorus in water. Cationized pine bark was prepared by treating extracted milled pine bark with polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAA HCl) and epichlorohydrin (ECH) in aqueous medium. Attachment of...

  3. Fungistatic activity of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. bark extracts against fungal plant pathogens and investigation on mechanism of action in Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Carotenuto, Gennaro; Carrieri, Raffaele; Tarantino, Paola; Alfieri, Mariaevelina; Leone, Antonella; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Lahoz, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived compounds are emerging as an alternative choice to synthetic fungicides. Chloroform-methanol extract, obtained from the bark of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium, a member of Rutaceae, showed a fungistatic effect on Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Clonostachys rosea, when added to the growth medium at different concentrations. A fraction obtained by gel separation and containing the alkaloid O-Methylcapaurine showed significant fungistatic effect against B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum, two of the most destructive phytopathogenic fungi. The underlying mechanism of such an inhibition was further investigated in B. cinerea, a fungus highly prone to develop fungicide resistance, by analysing the expression levels of a set of genes (BcatrB, P450, CYP51 and TOR). O-Methylcapaurine inhibited the expression of all the analysed genes. In particular, the expression of BcatrB gene, encoding a membrane drug transporter involved in the resistance to a wide range of xenobiotic compounds, was strongly inhibited (91%).

  4. Effects of the Methanolic Extract of Vitellaria paradoxa Stem Bark Against Scopolamine-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in the Rat Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Foyet, Harquin Simplice; Asongalem, Acha Emmanuel; Oben, Eyong Kenneth; Cioanca, Oana; Hancianu, Monica; Hritcu, Lucian

    2016-10-01

    Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn (Sapotaceae) is a perennial three which naturally grows in the northern part of Cameroon. It has been traditionally used in the Cameroonian folk medicine for treating inflammation and pain. In the present study, we evaluate the possible anti-amnesic and antioxidative effects of the methanolic extract of V. paradoxa stem bark in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) rat model of scopolamine. Rats received a single injection of scopolamine (1.5 mg/kg) before behavioral testing and were treated with the methanolic extract (25 and 50 mg/kg), daily, for eight continuous days. Also, the antioxidant activity in the hippocampus was assessed using the total content of reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde levels. The scopolamine-treated rats exhibited the following: decrease of exploratory time and discrimination index within the novel object recognition test, decrease of spontaneous alternations percentage within Y-maze task, and increase of working memory errors, reference memory errors, and time taken to consume all five baits within radial arm-maze task. Administration of the methanolic extract significantly improved these parameters, suggesting positive effects on memory formation processes and antioxidant potential. Our results suggest that the methanolic extract ameliorates scopolamine-induced memory impairment by attenuation of the oxidative stress in the rat hippocampus.

  5. Green and Efficient Processing of Cinnamomum cassia Bark by Using Ionic Liquids: Extraction of Essential Oil and Construction of UV-Resistant Composite Films from Residual Biomass.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Mohit J; Kumar, Arvind

    2017-12-14

    There is significant interest in the development of a sustainable and integrated process for the extraction of essential oils and separation of biopolymers by using novel and efficient solvent systems. Herein, cassia essential oil enriched in coumarin is extracted from Cinnamomum cassia bark by using a protic ionic liquid (IL), ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), through dissolution and the creation of a biphasic system with the help of diethyl ether. The process has been perfected, in terms of higher biomass dissolution ability and essential oil yield through the addition of aprotic ILs (based on the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (C 4 mim) cation and chloride or acetate anions) to EAN. After extraction of oil, cellulose-rich material and free lignin were regenerated from biomass-IL solutions by using a 1:1 mixture of acetone-water. The purity of the extracted essential oil and biopolymers were ascertained by means of FTIR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, and GC-MS techniques. Because lignin contains UV-blocking chromophores, the oil-free residual lignocellulosic material has been directly utilized to construct UV-light-resistant composite materials in conjunction with the biopolymer chitosan. Composite material thus obtained was processed to form biodegradable films, which were characterized for mechanical and optical properties. The films showed excellent UV-light resistance and mechanical properties, thereby making it a material suitable for packaging and light-sensitive applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Benefits from Thinning Black Willow

    Treesearch

    R. L. Johnson; J. S. McKnight

    1969-01-01

    Black willow stands 18 and 24 years old were cut from about 130 square feet of basal area per acre to near 95, 75, and 55 square feet. Growth was best on plots thinned to 55 square feet in the 24-year-old stand and to 95 square feet in the 18-yearold stand. The stands were along the Mississippi River.

  7. Antidepressant-like synergism of extracts from magnolia bark and ginger rhizome alone and in combination in mice.

    PubMed

    Yi, Li-Tao; Xu, Qun; Li, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Lei; Kong, Ling-Dong

    2009-06-15

    Magnolia bark and ginger rhizome is a drug pair in many prescriptions for treatment of mental disorders in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, compatibility and synergism mechanism of two herbs on antidepressant actions have not been reported. The aim of this study was to approach the rationale of the drug pair in TCM. We evaluated antidepressant-like effects of mixture of honokiol and magnolol (HMM), polysaccharides (PMB) from magnolia bark, essential oil (OGR) and polysaccharides (PGR) from ginger rhizome alone, and the possibility of synergistic interactions in their combinations in the mouse forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NE) levels in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum were also examined. 30 mg/kg HMM decreased immobility in the FST and TST in mice after one- and two-week treatment. OGR (19.5 or 39 mg/kg) alone was ineffective. The combination of an ineffective dose of 39 mg/kg OGR with 15 mg/kg HMM was the most effective and produced a synergistic action on behaviors after two-week treatment. Significant increase in 5-HT and synergistic increase in NE in prefrontal cortex were observed after co-administration of HMM with OGR. These results demonstrated that HMM was the principal component of this drug pair, whereas OGR served as adjuvant fraction. Compatibility of HMM with OGR was suggested to exert synergistic antidepressant actions by attenuating abnormalities in serotonergic and noradrenergic system functions. Therefore, we confirmed the rationality of drug pair in clinical application and provided a novel perspective in drug pair of TCM researches.

  8. White Willow in Russian Literature: Folklore "Roots" of Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudareva, Marianna A.; Goeva, Nina P.

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with a complicated archetypal tree complex in Russian literature. The object chosen here is "white willow" (vetla) as one of the species of willow in its different variations--daphne willow (verba) and goat willow (rakita), and willow itself. In the 19th century Russian literature we can find the image of white willow…

  9. Phytochemical and Antibacterial Investigations of the Extracts and Fractions from the Stem Bark of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne and Effect on Ultrastructure of Staphylococcus aureus Induced by Hydroalcoholic Extract

    PubMed Central

    Dimech, Gustavo Santiago; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Ferreira, Magda Assunção; de Oliveira, Anne Gabrielle Vasconcelos; Carvalho, Maria da Conceição; Ximenes, Eulália Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of different extracts and fractions obtained from Hymenaea stigonocarpa stem barks. The cyclohexanic, ethyl acetate, ethanol, aqueous, and hydroalcoholic extracts were obtained by maceration. The hydroalcoholic extract was partitioned, which resulted in the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. All extracts and fractions were subjected to phytochemical screening and evaluation of total phenol and tannin contents. An HPLC-DAD and ultrastructural alterations analysis were performed. Terpenes and coumarins were detected in the cyclohexanic extract. Flavonoids and condensed tannins were present in the other extracts and fractions. The extracts with the highest contents of tannins, ethanol (EE), hydroalcoholic (HE), and aqueous fraction (AF) showed also the highest antimicrobial activity. The MIC values ranged from 64 to 526 µg/mL. The chromatographic fingerprints suggest the presence of astilbin and other flavonoids in EE and HE. Presence of the thick cell wall, undulating outer layer, abnormal septa, and leakage of the cytoplasmic contents and absence of cell wall and cell lyses were the main alterations observed on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 33591 after treatment with the Hymenaea stigonocarpa hydroalcoholic extract. The presence of phenolic compounds like flavonoids and tannins is possibly the reason for the antimicrobial activity. PMID:24396311

  10. Effects of sub-acute methanol extract treatment of Calliandra portoricensis root bark on antioxidant defence capacity in an experimental rat model.

    PubMed

    Siemuri, Ese O; Akintunde, Jacob K; Salemcity, Anuoluwapo J

    2015-07-01

    The attendant side effects associated with some synthetic drugs used in the management of diseases have led to the search for safer alternative therapies that are relatively cheaper with minimal side effects. The methanol extract of Calliandra portoricensis root bark (CPRB) was orally administered at the doses of 5, 10, 20, and 25 mg/kg body weight for 14 consecutive days of 5 rats in each group. The control rats were given distilled water. The 95% methanol extract of CPRB significantly (p<0.05) scavenged NO• and OH• radicals compared to vitamin C. The level of lipid peroxidative products (malondialdehyde, MDA) was significantly (p<0.05) attenuated in a dose-dependent manner. Antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly (p<0.05) exercabated in both liver and kidney in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, serum AST, alanine aminotransaminase and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity depicted non-significant (p>0.05) increase in the treated animals. The histological examination showed mild vacuolar, portal congestion and cell infiltration by mononuclear of the hepatic tissues. The study then concluded that a therapeutic dose of the methanol extract of CPRB triggered the antioxidant defence systems in male rats. It is, therefore, recommended that the doses should be carefully and clinically chosen because higher doses may cause some health risks.

  11. Effects of a Mangifera indica L. stem bark extract and mangiferin on radiation-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes and lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed

    Rodeiro, I; Delgado, R; Garrido, G

    2014-02-01

    Mangifera indica L. (mango) stem bark aqueous extract (MSBE) that has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, can be obtained in Cuba. It is rich in polyphenols, where mangiferin is the main component. In this study, we have tested DNA damage and protection effects of MSBE and mangiferin on primary human lymphocytes and lymphoblastoid cells. Cell suspensions were incubated with the products (50-1000 μg/ml) for experiments on damage induction, and evaluation of any potential protective effects (5-100 μg/ml) for 60 min at 37 °C. Irradiation was performed using a γ-ray source, absorbed dose 5 Gy. At the end of exposure, DNA damage, protection and repair processes were evaluated using the comet assay. MSBE (100-1000 μg/ml) induced DNA damage in a concentration dependent manner in both cell types tested, primary cells being more sensitive. Mangiferin (200 μg/ml) only induced light DNA damage at higher concentrations. DNA repair capacity was not affected after MSBE or mangiferin exposure. On the other hand, MSBE (25 and 50 μg/ml) and mangiferin (5-25 ug/ml) protected against gamma radiation-induced DNA damage. These results show MSBE has protector or harmful effects on DNA in vitro depending on the experimental conditions, which suggest that the extract could be acting as an antioxidant or pro-oxidant product. Mangiferin was involved in protective effects of the extract. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. In vitro modulation of Drimys winteri bark extract and the active compound polygodial on Salmo salar immune genes after exposure to Saprolegnia parasitica.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Torres, D; Gonçalves, A T; Ulloa, V; Martínez, R; Carrasco, H; Olea, A F; Espinoza, L; Gallardo-Escárate, C; Astuya, A

    2016-12-01

    The rapid development of the aquaculture industry has global concerns with health management and control strategies to prevent and/or treat diseases and increase sustainability standards. Saprolegniosis is a disease caused by Saprolegnia parasitica, and is characterized by promoting an immunosuppression in the host. This study evaluated in vitro the extract and one active compound (polygodial) of Drimys winteri, a Chilean medicinal tree as a potential early immunostimulatory aid in Saprolegniosis control. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) head kidney cells (ASK-1) were incubated with both extract and pure polygodial before exposure to S. parasitica mycelium, and the expression of the immune-related genes interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interferon α (IFNα), and major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII) was evaluated. Both evidenced immunomodulatory capacities by increasing gene expressions. This immunomodulation related to a mitigatory action counteracting the immunosuppressing effects of S. parasitica. Despite that most immune-related genes were up-regulated, the down-regulation of MHCII, characteristic of S. parasitica infection, was lessened by pre-incubation with the compounds. This study provides the first insight on the potential of D. winteri bark extract as a possible immunomodulatory and defensive strategy against this oomycete infection in fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Proteomic analysis of the protective effects of aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) on isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Jahangir Alam, Md; Prabhakar, Pankaj; Ahmad, Sayeed; Maulik, Subir K; Sharma, Manish; Goswami, Shyamal K

    2017-02-23

    Aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) has been in use as an ethnomedicine for cardiovascular ailments in the Indian subcontinent for centuries. Studies using hemodynamic, ROS scavenging and anti-inflammatory parameters in animal models have shown its anti-atherogenic, hypotensive, inotropic, anti-inflammatory effects. However, details analysis on its effects on established molecular and cell biological markers are a prerequisite for its wider acceptance to the medical community. To test the efficacy of TA extract in ameliorating cardiac hypertrophy induced by ISO in rats. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by ISO (5mg/kg/day s.c. for 14 days) in rats and a standardized aqueous extract of TA stem bark was orally administered by gavage. Total RNA and protein were isolated from control, ISO, ISO plus TA and TA treated rat hearts and analyzed for the transcripts for the markers of hypertrophy, signaling kinases, transcription factors and total protein profile. TA extract reversed the induction of fetal genes like β-myosin heavy chain, skeletal α-actin and brain natriuretic peptide in hypertrophic rat hearts. While ISO slightly increased the level of phospho-ERK, TA repressed it to about one third of the base line level. Survival kinase Akt, ER stress marker Grp78 and epigenetic regulator HDAC5 were augmented by ISO and TA restored them by various extents. ISO administration moderately increased the transcription factor NFκB binding activity, while coadministration of TA further increased it. AP-1 binding activity was largely unchanged by ISO treatment but it was upregulated when administered along with TA. MEF2D binding activity was increased by ISO and TA restored it to the baseline level. Global proteomic analysis revealed that TA treatment restored a subset of proteins up- and down-regulated in the hypertrophied hearts. Amongst those restored by TA were purinergic receptor X, myosin light chain 3, tropomyosin, and kininogen; suggesting a nodal role of TA in

  14. Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro anti-helicobacter pylori activity of extracts of the stem bark of Bridelia micrantha (Hochst., Baill., Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Okeleye, Benjamin I; Bessong, Pascal O; Ndip, Roland N

    2011-07-25

    Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for gastritis, ulcers and gastric cancer. This study was aimed to determine the antimicrobial activity of the stem bark of Bridelia. micrantha on H. pylori isolated in South Africa. Extracts and clarithromycin were tested against 31 clinical strains, including a standard strain (NCTC 11638) of H. pylori, by measuring the diameters of the corresponding inhibition zones, followed by determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) (using metronidazole, and amoxicillin as control antibiotics) and the rate of kill. Preliminary phytochemical screening was also done. Inhibition zone diameters which ranged from 0-23 mm were observed for all five of the extracts and 0-35 mm for clarithromycin. Marked susceptibility of strains (100%) was noted for the acetone extract (P < 0.05), followed by ethyl acetate extract (93.5%). The MIC₅₀ values ranged from 0.0048 to 0.156 mg/mL for the ethyl acetate extract and 0.0048 to 0.313 mg/mL for the acetone extract. The MIC₉₀ values ranged from 0.0048 to 2.5 mg/mL for the ethyl acetate extract and 0.078 to > 0.625 mg/mL for the acetone extract, respectively. Insignificant statistical difference in potency was observed when comparing the crude ethyl acetate extract to metronidazole and amoxicillin (P > 0.05). Complete killing of strain PE430C by the ethyl acetate extract was observed at 0.1 mg/mL (2 × MIC) and 0.2 mg/mL (4 × MIC) at 66 and 72 h. For strain PE369C, 100% killing was observed at 0.1 mg/mL (2 × MIC) in 66 and 72 h. The ethyl acetate extract could thus be a potential source of lead molecules for the design of new anti-Helicobacter pylori therapies as this study further confirmed the presence of phytochemicals including alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, tannins and saponins.

  15. The Ethanolic Extract of Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ort.) Sarg. Bark and Its Fractions Delay the Progression of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Show Antinociceptive Activity in Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Pablo-Pérez, Saudy Saret; Parada-Cruz, Benjamín; Barbier, Olivier Christophe; Meléndez-Camargo, María Estela

    2018-01-01

    Eysenhardtia polystachya is widely used in folk medicine as an anti-rheumatic and analgesic agent, but no systematic study of its effects on several markers associated with rheumatoid arthritis and its ethnomedical use as analgesic agent has been performed. We evaluated the anti-arthritic and antinociceptive properties of an ethanolic extract of E. polystachya (EE) bark and its rich-flavonoids fractions in murine models. The EE was administered orally at doses of 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day, and its fractions at 25 mg/kg/day in all animal models. Anti-arthritic activity was evaluated using a complete Freund´s adjuvant (CFA)-induced rheumatoid arthritis model in rats. The severity of arthritis was evaluated by changes in paw oedema, body weight, arthritic index, radiological scores, histological assessment of synovial joints, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, haematocrit, haemoglobin, serum rheumatoid factor, serum C-reactive protein and serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-18, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-10, IL-13. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using an acetic acid-induced abdominal contraction test and a hot-plate test in mice. EE and its rich-flavonoids fractions inhibited secondary inflammatory reactions, diminished the specific histopathological alterations in the joint capsule and reduced the serum concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and GM-CSF in arthritic rats. EE also reduced the number of writhes produced by acetic acid and increased the response time on the hot plate for mice. Our findings support the use of Eysenhardtia polystachya bark for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and pain management. PMID:29755555

  16. The standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. inhibits toxic PLA2 - NN-XIb-PLA2 of Indian cobra venom.

    PubMed

    Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa; Sudarshan, Shivalingaiah; Dongol, Yashad; More, Sunil S

    2016-05-01

    The aqueous extract of Mangifera indica is known to possess diverse medicinal properties, which also includes anti-snake venom activities. However, its inhibitory potency and mechanism of action on multi-toxic snake venom phospholipases A2s are still unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on NN-XIb-PLA2 of Indian cobra venom. The in vitro sPLA2, in situ hemolytic and in vivo edema inhibition effect were carried out as described. Also the effect of substrate and calcium concentration was carried out. M. indica extract dose dependently inhibited the GIA sPLA2 (NN-XIb-PLA2) activity with an IC50 value of 7.6 μg/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 98% at ∼40 μg/ml concentration. Further, M. indica extract (0-50 μg/ml) inhibited the edema formed in a dose dependent manner. When examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration, there was no relieve of inhibitory effect of M. indica extract on the NN-XIb-PLA2. Further, the inhibition was irreversible as evident from binding studies. The in vitro inhibition is well correlated with in situ and in vivo edema inhibiting activities of M. indica. As the inhibition is independent of substrate and calcium and was irreversible, it can be concluded that M. indica extract mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract with the PLA2 enzyme. The aqueous extract of M. indica effectively inhibits svPLA2 enzymatic and its associated toxic activities, which substantiate their anti-snake venom properties. Further in-depth studies on the role and mechanism of the principal constituents present in the extract, responsible for the anti-PLA2 activity will be interesting to develop them into potent antisnake component and also as an anti-inflammatory agent.

  17. A novel extract SB-300 from the stem bark latex of Croton lechleri inhibits CFTR-mediated chloride secretion in human colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Horst; Machen, Terry E; Widdicombe, Jonathan H; Carlson, Thomas J S; King, Steven R; Chow, John W S; Illek, Beate

    2004-08-01

    An oligomeric proanthocyanidin (SP-303) extracted from the bark latex of the tree Croton lechleri (family Euphorbiaceae) is a potent inhibitor of cholera toxin-induced fluid accumulation and chloride secretion. The manufacturing process for SP-303 was optimized and simplified to produce an increased yield of the herbal extract. The novel extract (named SB-300) contained on average 70.6+/-7.2% SP-303 by weight (mean +/- S.D.; n=56 lots). Here, we describe the effectiveness of SB-300 on cAMP-regulated chloride secretion, which is mediated by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- channel (CFTR) in human colonic T84 cells. Exposure of the apical surface to SB-300 blocked forskolin-stimulated Cl- secretion by 92.2+/-3.0% with a half-maximal inhibition constant (KB) of 4.8+/-0.8 microM. For SP-303, stimulated Cl- currents were decreased by 98.0+/-7.2 % and KB averaged 4.1+/-1.3 microM. There was no significant difference between the blocking kinetics of SP-303 and SB-300. Forskolin-stimulated whole cell Cl- currents were effectively blocked by extracellular addition of SB-300 (63+/-8.5%; n=3) and to a similar extent by SP-303 (83 +/- 0.6%; n=2; at 50 microM each). Both extracts inhibited a time- and voltage-independent Cl- conductance, which indicated the involvement of CFTR Cl- channels. We conclude that both SP-303 (used in Provir) and SB-300 (used in NSF Normal Stool Formula) are novel natural products that target the CFTR Cl- channel. SB-300 is a low cost herbal extract and may present a complementary and alternative medicine approach for the treatment of fluid loss in watery diarrhea.

  18. The effect of zinc acetate and magnolia bark extract added to chewing gum on volatile sulfur-containing compounds in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Porciani, Pier Francesco; Grandini, Simone

    2012-01-01

    A controlled, clinical, double-blind study was conducted to assess the efficacy of a sugar-free chewing gum containing zinc acetate and magnolia bark extract (MBE) on oral volatile sulfur-containing compounds (VSC) versus a placebo sugar-free chewing gum for two hours. To participate in the study, subjects had to have at least 24 of their teeth, no report of oral and systemic diseases, and no removable dentures. All 168 eligible participants had to avoid any professional oral hygiene, refrain from taking medicine for two weeks, and not be menstruating. They were also instructed not to brush their teeth and tongue, smoke, drink alcohol, or eat onion, garlic, or licorice for the six-hour period before the visit and during the test. Moreover, to join the protocol, they had to show a VSC score of > or = 75 ppb at the baseline measurement. One-hundred and twenty-three subjects (67 men and 56 women, mean age 37) met the criteria at baseline and were entered into either the test or control group by assignment from a table of randomized numbers. The test chewing gum (2.23 g) contained zinc acetate 0.012% and magnolia bark extract 0.15% in weight; the control gum was equivalent without these active agents. The OralChroma device was utilized to evaluate total oral VSC. Their levels were recorded at baseline, after ten minutes of mastication, after one hour, and after two hours. Data were analyzed with SPSS software and the level of significance was set at alpha = 0.05. One-hundred and twenty-three subjects completed the trial (62 in the control group and 61 in the test group); none reported problems linked to zinc acetate or magnolia bark extract. The mean percentage reductions from baseline at the end of the 10-minute chewing were 31.2% in the control group (p < 0.05) and 50.9% in the test group (p < 0.05). One hour later the reductions were 6.9% in the control group and 27.6% in the test group (p < 0.05); two hours later the reductions were 2.3% in the control group and 13

  19. Hydroethanolic extract of the inner stem bark of Cedrela odorata has low toxicity and reduces hyperglycemia induced by an overload of sucrose and glucose.

    PubMed

    Giordani, Morenna Alana; Collicchio, Thiago Carvalho Mamede; Ascêncio, Sergio Donizeti; Martins, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira; Balogun, Sikiru Olaitan; Bieski, Isanete Geraldini Costa; da Silva, Leilane Aparecida; Colodel, Edson Moleta; de Souza, Roberto Lopes; de Souza, Damiana Luiza Pereira; de França, Suélem Aparecida; Andrade, Claudia Marlise Balbinotti; Kawashita, Nair Honda

    2015-03-13

    Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae) is a native plant of the Amazon region and its inner stem bark is used in the treatment of diabetes in the form of maceration in Brazilian popular medicine. Until now, there is no scientific study on this activity. The present study was aimed at evaluating the anti-hyperglycemic activity, anti-diabetic, toxicity, antioxidant and potential mechanism of action of hydroethanolic extract of the inner stem bark of Cedrela odorata. The inner stem bark extract of Cedrela odorata was prepared by maceration in 70% ethanol for 7 days to obtain hydroethanolic extract of Cedrela odorata (HeECo). The preliminary phytochemical analysis was performed according to procedures described in the literature. Selected secondary metabolites detected were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Acute toxicity of HeECo was investigated in male and female mice with oral administration of graded doses of HeECo from 10 to 5000 mg/kg. Subchronic oral toxicity study was done by oral administration of HeECo (500 mg/kg) and vehicle for 30 days to both sexes of Wistar rats. Clinical observations and toxicological related parameters were determined. Blood was collected for biochemical and hematological analyses, while histological examinations were performed on selected organs. Anti-hiperglycemic and antidiabetic effects were evaluated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In acute evaluation, the animals received pretreatment with 250 and 500 mg/kg of HeECo, before carbohydrate overload. For subchronic effect, the antidiabetic activity of HeECo was evaluated using the same doses for 21 days. At the end of the treatments, the levels of triacylglycerols, malondialdehyde, total antioxidant status, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were evaluated in the plasma. The extract showed low acute toxicity. HeECo exhibited inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and caused a lowering in the peak levels of blood glucose in

  20. Hydroalcoholic extract from bark of Persea major (Meisn.) L.E. Kopp (Lauraceae) exerts antiulcer effects in rodents by the strengthening of the gastric protective factors.

    PubMed

    Somensi, Lincon Bordignon; Boeing, Thaise; Cury, Benhur Judah; Steimbach, Viviane Miranda Bispo; Niero, Rivaldo; de Souza, Lauro Mera; da Silva, Luisa Mota; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2017-09-14

    The Persea major (Meisn.) L.E. Kopp (Lauraceae) (botanical synonym: Persea pyrifolia (D. Don) Spreng, Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart., Persea cordata var. major (Meisn.) Mez and Persea willdenovii Kosterm) is a medicinal plant native in the south of Brazil, where is popularly known as Pau de Andrade, Maçaranduba or Abacate-do-Mato. Its barks are commonly used to prepare an infusion which is administered orally or topically to treat ulcers and wounds, respectively. Thus, this study has been undertaken to contribute to the validation of the popular use of P. major to treat of ulcerative disorders from gastrointestinal system, using different experimental models in rodents. Firstly, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrophotometer has been performed. Next, the potential gastroprotective of hydroalcoholic extract of P. major barks (HEPM) (30-300mg/kg) has been evaluated in ulcer models acute as: ethanol, ethanol/HCl and indomethacin-induced ulcer. The extract (300mg/kg) has been also tested in acetic acid-induced chronic ulcer model. Histological, toxicological, histochemical, oxidative stress and gastric secretion parameters were analyzed. The main compounds found in HEPM were polyphenols as condensed tannins, flavonoids heterosides derivatives from quercetin and kaempferol. HEPM (300mg/kg, p.o) prevented gastric lesions induced by ethanol or indomethacin in rats by 58.98% and 97.48%, respectively, compared to vehicle group (148.00±14.83mm 2 and 12.07±1.61mm 2 , respectively). In acetic acid-induced chronic ulcer model the HEPM (300mg/kg, p.o) reduced the ulcer are by 40.58%, compared to vehicle group (127.90±12.04mm 2 ). The healing effect was confirmed histologically, by an increase in mucin content and by the reduction in oxidative and inflammatory parameters at the ulcer site. Neither significant effect on gastric acid secretion nor toxicological effects and cytotoxicity were provoked by administration of HEPM. The results allows to

  1. Evaluation of genotoxicity and DNA protective effects of mangiferin, a glucosylxanthone isolated from Mangifera indica L. stem bark extract.

    PubMed

    Rodeiro, I; Hernandez, S; Morffi, J; Herrera, J A; Gómez-Lechón, M J; Delgado, R; Espinosa-Aguirre, J J

    2012-09-01

    Mangiferin is a glucosylxantone isolated from Mangifera indica L. stem bark. Several studies have shown its pharmacological properties which make it a promising candidate for putative therapeutic use. This study was focused to investigate the in vitro genotoxic effects of mangiferin in the Ames test, SOS Chromotest and Comet assay. The genotoxic effects in bone marrow erythrocytes from NMRI mice orally treated with mangiferin (2000 mg/kg) were also evaluated. Additionally, its potential antimutagenic activity against several mutagens in the Ames test and its effects on CYP1A1 activity were assessed. Mangiferin (50-5000 μg/plate) did not increased the frequency of reverse mutations in the Ames test, nor induced primary DNA damage (5-1000 μg/mL) to Escherichia coli PQ37 cells under the SOS Chromotest. It was observed neither single strand breaks nor alkali-labile sites in blood peripheral lymphocytes or hepatocytes after 1h exposition to 10-500 μg/mL of mangiferin under the Comet assay. Furthermore, micronucleus studies showed mangiferin neither induced cytotoxic activity nor increased the frequency of micronucleated/binucleated cells in mice bone marrow. In short, mangiferin did not induce cytotoxic or genotoxic effects but it protect against DNA damage which would be associated with its antioxidant properties and its capacity to inhibit CYP enzymes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibitory Effect of a French Maritime Pine Bark Extract-Based Nutritional Supplement on TNF-α-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Kristine C. Y.; Li, Xiao-Hong; McRobb, Lucinda S.; Heather, Alison K.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation, leading to endothelial dysfunction, contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The popularity of natural product supplements has increased in recent years, especially those with purported anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant effects. The efficacy and mechanism of many of these products are not yet well understood. In this study, we tested the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of a supplement, HIPER Health Supplement (HIPER), on cytokine-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). HIPER is a mixture of French maritime pine bark extract (PBE), honey, aloe vera, and papaya extract. Treatment for 24 hours with HIPER reduced TNF-α-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation that was associated with decreased NADPH oxidase 4 and increased superoxide dismutase-1 expression. HIPER inhibited TNF-α induced monocyte adhesion to HCAECs that was in keeping with decreased expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and decreased nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. Further investigation of mechanism showed HIPER reduced TNF-α induced IκBα and p38 and MEK1/2 MAP kinases phosphorylation. Our findings show that HIPER has potent inhibitory effects on HCAECs inflammatory and oxidative stress responses that may protect against endothelial dysfunction that underlies early atherosclerotic lesion formation. PMID:26664450

  3. Multiparametric evaluation of the cytoprotective effect of the Mangifera indica L. stem bark extract and mangiferin in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, Laia; Rodeiro, Idania; Donato, M Teresa; Herrera, José A; Delgado, René; Castell, José V; Gómez-Lechón, M José

    2013-07-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) stem bark extract (MSBE) is a natural product with biological properties and mangiferin is the major component. This paper reported the evaluation of the protective effects of MSBE and mangiferin against the toxicity induced in HepG2 cells by tert-butyl hydroperoxide or amiodarone. Nuclear morphology, cell viability, intracellular calcium concentration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were measured by using a high-content screening multiparametric assay. MSBE and mangiferin produced no toxicity below 500 mg/ml doses. A marked recovery in cell viability, which was reduced by the toxicants, was observed in cells pre-exposed to MSBE or mangiferin at 5-100 mg/ml doses. We also explored the possible interaction of both products over P-glycoprotein (P-gp). MSBE and mangiferin above 100 mg/ml inhibited the activity of P-gp in HepG2 cells. MSBE and mangiferin showed cytoprotective effects of against oxidative damage and mitochondrial toxicity induced by xenobiotics to human hepatic cells but it seemed that other constituents of the extract could contribute to MSBE protective properties. In addition, the drug efflux should be taken into account because of the inhibition of the P-gp function observed in those cells exposed to both natural products. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. Direct assessment by electron spin resonance spectroscopy of the antioxidant effects of French maritime pine bark extract in the maxillofacial region of hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Ayaka; Yoshino, Fumihiko; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Nakamura, Takeshi; Lee, Masaichi-Chang-il

    2011-01-01

    Flavangenol, one of extract of French maritime pine bark, is a complex mixture of bioflavonoids with oligometric proanthocyanidins as the major constituents. These constituents, catechin and procyanidin B1, are water-soluble derivatives of flavangenol. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant effects of flavangenol on reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion and singlet oxygen using electron spin resonance and spin trapping. The effect of flavangenol on oxidative stress in the skin from the maxillofacial region of hairless mice was investigated using an in vivo L-band electron spin resonance imaging system. Flavangenol attenuated oxidative stress in the maxillofacial skin by acting as a reactive oxygen species scavenger, as demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo electron spin resonance imaging analysis. The absorption and metabolism of flavangenol were also examined. After oral administration of flavangenol in human and rat, most of the catechin in plasma was in the conjugated form, while 45% to 78% of procyanidin B1 was unconjugated, indicating that non-conjugated procyanidin B1 would be active in the circulation. The ability of flavangenol to reduce reactive oxygen species levels in the circulation of the maxillofacial region suggests that this extract may be beneficial for skin protection from exposure to ultraviolet irradiation. PMID:21980222

  5. The traditional use of Vachellia nilotica for sexually transmitted diseases is substantiated by the antiviral activity of its bark extract against sexually transmitted viruses.

    PubMed

    Donalisio, Manuela; Cagno, Valeria; Civra, Andrea; Gibellini, Davide; Musumeci, Giuseppina; Rittà, Massimo; Ghosh, Manik; Lembo, David

    2018-03-01

    Vachellia (Acacia) nilotica and other plants of this genus have been used in traditional medicine of Asian and African countries to treat many disorders, including sexually transmitted diseases, but few studies were performed to validate their anti-microbial and anti-viral activity against sexually transmitted infections. The present study was undertaken to explore whether the ethnomedical use of V.nilotica to treat genital lesions is substantiated by its antiviral activity against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the herpes simplex virus (HSV) and the human papillomavirus (HPV). The antiviral activity of V.nilotica was tested in vitro by virus-specific inhibition assays using HSV-2 strains, sensible or resistant to acyclovir, HIV-1IIIb strain and HPV-16 pseudovirion (PsV). The potential mode of action of extract against HSV-2 and HPV-16 was further investigated by virus inactivation and time-of-addition assays on cell cultures. V.nilotica chloroform, methanolic and water bark extracts exerted antiviral activity against HSV-2 and HPV-16 PsV infections; among these, methanolic extract showed the best EC50s with values of 4.71 and 1.80µg/ml against HSV-2 and HPV-16, respectively, and it was also active against an acyclovir-resistant HSV-2 strain with an EC50 of 6.71µg/ml. By contrast, no suppression of HIV infection was observed. Investigation of the mechanism of action revealed that the methanolic extract directly inactivated the infectivity of the HPV-16 particles, whereas a partial virus inactivation and interference with virus attachment (EC50 of 2.74µg/ml) were both found to contribute to the anti-HSV-2 activity. These results support the traditional use of V.nilotica applied externally for the treatment of genital lesions. Further work remains to be done in order to identify the bioactive components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Antihypernociceptive and antioxidant effects of Petersianthus macrocarpus stem bark extracts in rats with complete Freund's adjuvant-induced persistent inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Bomba, Francis Desire Tatsinkou; Wandji, Bibiane Aimée; Fofié, Christian Kuete; Kamanyi, Albert; Nguelefack, Télesphore Benoit

    2017-03-14

    Background Petersianthus macrocarpus (P. Beauv.) Liben (Lecythidaceae) is a plant used in Cameroonian folk medicine to cure ailments such as inflammation and pain. Previous work showed that aqueous (AEPM) and methanol (MEPM) extracts from the stem bark of P. macrocarpus possess acute analgesic activities. The present study evaluates whether the same extracts could inhibit persistent hyperalgesia induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in rats. Methods Inflammatory pain was induced by intraplantar injection of CFA into the left hind paw of Wistar rats. AEPM and MEPM were administered either acutely or chronically by the oral route at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day. The mechanical hyperalgesia was tested using an analgesimeter, while the locomotion activity at the end of experiment was evaluated with an open-field device. Nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) contents were assayed in the brain and spinal cord of rats subjected to 14 days chronic treatment. Results AEPM and MEPM at both doses significantly (p<0.001) inhibited the acute and chronic mechanical hyperalgesia induced by CFA. Although not significant, both extracts increased the mobility of CFA-injected animals. AEPM significantly (p<0.01) reduced the level of nitrate at 100 mg/kg, MDA at 200 mg/kg and significantly (p<0.05) increased the SOD in the spinal cord. MEPM significantly increased the SOD content and reduced the MDA concentration in the brain but had no effect on the nitrate. Conclusions AEPM and MEPM exhibit acute and chronic antihyperalgesic activities. In addition, both extracts possess antioxidant properties that might strengthen their chronic antihyperalgesic effects.

  7. Boring in response to bark and phloem extracts from North American trees does not explain host acceptance behavior of Orthotomicus erosus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Treesearch

    Abigail J. Walter; Stephen A. Kells; Robert C. Venette; Steven J. Seybold

    2010-01-01

    When invasive herbivorous insects encounter novel plant species, they must determine whether the novel plants are hosts. The Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston), an exotic bark beetle poised to expand its range in North America, accepts hosts after contacting the bark. To test the hypothesis that O. erosus...

  8. Study of pharmacological properties of the methanolic extract of Dichrostachys cinerea bark (L.) Wight et Arn (Leguminosae) in isolated myometrium from pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Aworet Samseny, Reine Rr; Angone, Sophie Aboughe; Madingou, Noreen Koumba; Mounanga, Marlaine Boukandou; Datté, Jacques Y

    2015-07-01

    The use of medicinal plants in Gabon contributes widely to the primary health care of the people of this area of Central Africa. This paper investigates the pharmacological properties of Dichrostachys cinerea, the plant barks are traditionally used by Gabonese and Ivorian populations to treat bronchial asthma, rheumatism, and other various diseases. Although D. cinerea barks have been reported to be used by population to facilitate childbirth, to the best of our knowledge no scientific evidence has been published. In the present study, we investigated the pharmacological properties of D. cinerea methanolic extract, on isolated uterine smooth muscle and compared its effects to those of oxytocin, which is used by obstetricians to facilitate childbirth. We also explored the possible mechanism pathways of the in vitro uterine contraction induced by D. cinerea. The effects of different concentrations (3.2µg/ml, 16µg/ml, 80µg/ml, 400µg/ml, and 2mg/ml) of the methanolic extract of D. cinerea on isolated strips of the uteri of pregnant rats were studied. These effects were compared to those of oxytocin (8.4×10(-5)µg/ml, 8.4×10(-4)µg/ml, 8.4×10(-3)µg/ml, 8.4×10(-2)µg/ml). The EC (50) and E (max) was determined graphically and statistically analysed using one-way ANOVA and Dunnett post hoc test. Cumulative concentrations of D. cinerea have caused rise in the contractile force of the uterine fragments that were isolated from the pregnant rats, as seen with oxytocin concentrations. We observed contractions amplitude of 30.41mN (12%) at 80µg/ml and amplitude of 39.68mN (14.17%) at 400µg/ml for D. cinerea. In parallel, oxytocin concentration of 8.4×10(-3)µg/ml induced contractions of 45.82mN with the highest concentration (8.4×10(-2)µg/ml) that induced contractions of 55.82mN. Our results revealed that D. cinerea increased the contractile force and the frequency of muscle contractions. These findings support the use of D. cinerea to facilitate childbirth, as it

  9. In vitro effects of aqueous extract from Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell stem bark on egg hatching, larval migration and adult worms of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Zangueu, Calvin Bogning; Olounlade, Abiodoun Pascal; Ossokomack, Marlyse; Djouatsa, Yolande Noelle Nangue; Alowanou, Goue Géorcelin; Azebaze, Anatole Guy Blaise; Llorent-Martínez, Eulogio José; de Córdova, Maria Luisa Fernández; Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Hounzangbe-Adote, Mawulé Sylvie

    2018-05-02

    Maytenus senegalensis is a common shrub which is scattered in tropical Africa. Different parts of this plant have been reported to be useful in traditional medicine against gastrointestinal disorders and intestinal worms. This study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous stem bark extract of M. senegalensis using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA) and adult worms' motility inhibition assay (AMIA). On EHA, the extract concentrations tested resulted in a significant (p < 0.01) inhibition of egg hatching in concentration-dependent manner and ranged between 31.86% at 75 μg.mL - 1 to 54.92% at 2400 μg.mL - 1 after a 48 h post-exposure with eggs. For the LMI assays, the aqueous extract of M. senegalensis showed a significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of larval migration in a concentration-dependent manner. The highest concentration used (2400 μg.mL - 1 ) showed a 37.77% inhibition. The use of polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP) indicated that tannins and flavonoids were partly involved in the effect since the larval migration was inhibited by 15.5%, but other biochemical compounds were also implicated. On AMIA, M. senegalensis was associated with a reduced worm motility after a 24 h post exposure compared to phosphate buffered saline as control (p < 0.05). By this time 66.66% of the worms' were found immotile or dead in the wells containing plant extract at 2400 μg.mL - 1 . The Phytochemical analysis of aqueous extract of M. senegalensis by HPLC-ESI-MS n detected the presence of proanthocyanidins (20%) and flavonoids (> 50%). These in vitro results suggest the presence of some anthelmintic properties in M. senegalensis extract, which is traditionally used by small farmers in west and central Africa. These effects may be due to the flavonoids and proanthocyanidins present in the extract and need to be studied under in vivo conditions.

  10. Characterisation of the antioxidant effects of Aesculus hippocastanum L. bark extract on the basis of radical scavenging activity, the chemiluminescence of human neutrophil bursts and lipoperoxidation assay.

    PubMed

    Braga, P C; Marabini, L; Wang, Y Y; Lattuada, N; Calò, R; Bertelli, A; Falchi, M; Dal Sasso, M; Bianchi, T

    2012-07-01

    Oxidative stress is increasingly recognised as a pivotal factor that plays a number of roles in the inflammatory response to environmental signals. It has been claimed that Aesculus hippocastanum extracts have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, but these claims are mainly based on the results of chemical reactions and folk-medicine. The aim of this study was to examine whether a bark extract of Aesculus hippocastanum interferes with reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) during the course of human neutrophil respiratory bursts, and to establish the lowest concentration at which it still has antioxidant activity by means of luminol amplified chemiluminescence (LACL). We also studied its ability to counteract lipid peroxidation (LPO) in human cells. Before investigating its antioxidant effects on human cells, we analysed its scavenging activity against ABTS*+, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion, and Fremy's salt (those last three by means of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry). The extract of Aesculus hippocastanum exerted its anti-ROS/RNS activity in a concentration-dependent manner with significant effects being observed for even very low concentrations: 10 microg/ml without L-Arg, and 5 microg/ml when L-Arg was added to the fMLP test. The LPO assay confirmed these results, which were paralleled by the EPR study. These findings are interesting for improving the antioxidant network and restoring redox balance in human cells, and extend the possibility of using plant-derived molecules to antagonise the oxidative stress generated in living organisms when the balance is in favour of free radicals as a result of the depletion of cell antioxidants.

  11. In vitro antioxidant and anti-lipoperoxidative activities of bark extracts of Xylopia aethiopica against ion-mediated toxicity on liver homogenates.

    PubMed

    Moukette Moukette, Bruno; Pieme, Constant Anatole; Nya Biapa, Prosper Cabral; Ngogang, Jeanne Yonkeu

    2015-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), products of normal cell metabolism may cause damage to biological macromolecules leading to severe health threats when they are present in high concentrations. Aromatic plants contain phytochemicals rich of antioxidants that prevent oxidant formation or scavenge oxidants produced under oxidative stress conditions. In the present study, we investigated the free radical scavenging effects, the antioxidant and ion toxicity preventive effect of Xylopia aethiopica (X. aethiopica), a plant of the family of Annonaceae used as spice in Cameroon. The scavenging properties of extracts of X. aethiopica were tested on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), hydroxyl (OH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals. The total antioxidant capacity was assayed by ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), phosphomolybdenum antioxidant power (PAP), reduction assays. The protective potential was carried on superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and peroxidases. The results showed that both the ethanolic (BEE) and the hydroethanolic (BEH) extracts from the barks of X. aethiopica scavenged all the tested radicals. The sample BEH showed the highest total antioxidant capacity both in the FRAP and the PAP. This result was positively correlated to its higher phenolic content (30.74±0.44 CAE/g dried extract). The higher protective capacity of BEH on SOD, catalase and peroxidase activities was comparable to that of the vitamin C used as standard. In conclusion, X. aethiopica has a higher antioxidant and protective potential against ion-mediated oxidative damage and may be considered as a potential drug against metal-mediated toxicity.

  12. Characterization and quantitation of yohimbine and its analogs in botanicals and dietary supplements using LC/QTOF-MS and LC/QQQ-MS for determination of the presence of bark extract and yohimbine adulteration.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Derick; Neal-Kababick, James; Zweigenbaum, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    The compound yohimbine HCl has been restricted in Australia and categorized as a scheduled prescription drug in other parts of the world, including the United States where it is monographed as a drug in the U. S. Pharmacopeia. However, the bark of the yohimbe plant and its extract is considered a botanical that can be used as a dietary supplement in some parts of the world. For these reasons, methods to characterize the indole alkaloids of the bark and quantify yohimbine and its analogs are presented using accurate mass LC/quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF)-MS and triple quadrupole LC/MS, respectively. Samples were extracted with a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) method to characterize and quantify the indole alkaloids. With the LC/QTOF-MS in auto MS/MS mode the indole alkaloids were identified, and the isomeric response of each could be used to determine whether the actual bark or extract was in samples of dietary supplements and not adulteration with yohimbine HCl. Analogs were identified and include yohimbic acid, methyl yohimbine, and hydroxyl yohimbine. Many isomers of each were also detected, but identified only by the number of chromatographic peaks. Quantification of yohimbine and ajmalicine spiked extracts showed recoveries of 99 to 103% with RSD of 3.6% or lower and LODs of less than 100 ppt. Calibration of the two standards gave r(2) = 0.9999 in a range from 0.1 to 100 ppb. Dietary supplements quantified for these two compounds showed a range from not detected to 3x the amounts found in the bark.

  13. Phytochemicals Analysis and Medicinal Potentials of Hydroalcoholic Extract from Curtisia dentata (Burm.f) C.A. Sm Stem Bark

    PubMed Central

    Oyedemi, Sunday Oyewole; Oyedemi, Blessing Ogochukwuamaka; Arowosegbe, Sunday; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2012-01-01

    Curtisia dentata (CD) is a vulnerable medicinal plant used for the treatment of stomach ailments in South Africa. However, there is a lack of sufficient data on its phytochemical components and medicinal properties. The phytochemical analysis of the extract was estimated using standard assay methods while its antibacterial activity was determined by the agar dilution method against selected bacteria. The antioxidant activity of the extract was done using ferric reducing power, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS), nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). The cytotoxicity assay of the extract was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality test with LC50 value of 0.302 mg/mL. The antibacterial activity of the extract demonstrated an appreciable broad spectrum activity against the tested bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges between 5000 and 0.5 mg/L. Both phenol and flavonoid concentrations were 14.86 mg tannic acid equivalent/g and 13.64 mg quercetin equivalent/g, respectively. The percentage composition of saponins (13.26) was highest, followed by steroids (1.42), while alkaloids and tannins had the same value of 0.51. Similarly, IC50 values of the extract against DPPH, ABTS, H2O2, LPO and NO were 0.017, 0.018, 0.159, 0.06 and 0.052 mg/mL, respectively. The reducing power of the extract was found to be concentration dependent. Our data suggest that the 70% ethanol extract from the CD extract has antibacterial and antioxidant properties due to the presence of bio-active compounds and thus support its folkloric use in the treatment of diseases. PMID:22754358

  14. Bark And Its Possible Uses

    Treesearch

    J. M. Harkin; J. W. Rowe

    1971-01-01

    What to do with bark is a major question facing the wood conversion industries. Optimum utilization of bark residues demands appreciation of the complexity of bark and the extreme variation in chemical and physical properties between barks of different wood species. This report discusses bark structure, past and present utilization, and methods of upgrading bark both...

  15. Musings on Willower's "Fog": A Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Fenwick

    1998-01-01

    Professor Willower complains about the "fog" encountered in postmodernist literature and the author's two articles in "Journal of School Leadership." On closer examination, this miasma is simply the mildew on Willower's Cartesian glasses. Educational administration continues to substitute management and business fads for any…

  16. Performance of Willow Clones on Sharkey Clay

    Treesearch

    Robert B. Ferguson

    1983-01-01

    Random clones of black willow (Salix nigra) and sandbar willow (S. exigua) from near Stoneville, MS and of S. argebtinensis and S. babylonica X S. alba were grown in Sharkey clay near Stoneville, MS for 11 years. S. babylonica X S. alba grew best throughout the...

  17. The Ethanol Extract of the Inner Bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul.) Reduces Urinary Bladder Damage during Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Janaína P.; Pereira, Denyson S.; Matos, Alexandre S.; Santana, Danielle G.; Santos, Cliomar A.; Estevam, Charles S.; Fakhouri, Ricardo; de Lucca Junior, Waldecy; Camargo, Enilton A.

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a common side effect of cyclophosphamide therapy, which deserves new therapeutic strategies, such as those based on natural products. The ethanol extract of the inner bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul.) (EECp) possesses anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antioxidant activities as previously showed by our group. We have investigated the effect of EECp on the cyclophosphamide-induced HC. Cystitis was induced in male Wistar rats by the injection of cyclophosphamide. These animals were pretreated with EECp (100–400 mg/kg), vehicle, or mesna. Myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde formation were measured in urinary bladder and other tissues. Bladder edema and histopathological alterations and serum nitric oxide metabolites concentration NOx − were also evaluated. Treatment with EECp (100–400 mg/kg) or mesna impaired the increase of myeloperoxidase activity in urinary bladder and the serum NOx − induced by cyclophosphamide but did not reduce edema in this tissue, as did mesna. Total histological score was reduced by EECp (100 mg/kg). Lung myeloperoxidase activity, which was increased by cyclophosphamide, was decreased significantly by EECp (400 mg/kg). EECp also diminished the malondialdehyde formation in bladder, lung, and spleen, although these parameters were not affected by cyclophosphamide. These results indicate that EECp reduced urinary bladder damage during cyclophosphamide-induced HC in rats. PMID:24348180

  18. alpha-Glucosidase inhibitory activity of Mangifera indica bark.

    PubMed

    Prashanth, D; Amit, A; Samiulla, D S; Asha, M K; Padmaja, R

    2001-08-01

    The ethanolic extracts of Lawsonia inermis leaves, Holarrhena antidysenterica bark, Swertia chirata whole plant and Mangifera indica bark were tested (in-vitro) for alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity. M. indica extract was found to be the most potent, with an IC(50) value of 314 microg/ml.

  19. Hypoglycemic activities of A- and B-type procyanidin oligomer-rich extracts from different Cinnamon barks.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhaolian; Jia, Qi; Wang, Rui; Wu, Ximin; Wu, Yingchun; Huang, Caiguo; Li, Yiming

    2011-02-15

    Procyanidin oligomers in Cinnamon are thought to be responsible for the biological activity in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). To clarify types of procyanidin oligomers in different Cinnamon species and investigate their different effects, the present study investigated procyanidin oligomers in polyphenolic oligomer-rich extracts of three Cinnamon samples by LC-MS methods, and their hypoglycemic activities were detected in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that two of the three samples from Cinnamomum cassia were rich in B-type procyanidin oligomers, and the other sample was rich in A-type procyanidin oligomers. The Cinnamon extracts were administered at doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg body wt. in high-fat diet-fed and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice for 14 days. The results showed that blood glucose concentrations were significantly decreased in all Cinnamon extract groups compared with the control group (p<0.05). Administration of the Cinnamon extracts significantly increased the consumption of extracellular glucose in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells and normal HepG2 cells compared with the control group. These results suggest that both A- and B-type procyanidin oligomers in different Cinnamon species have hypoglycemic activities and may improve insulin sensitivity in type 2 DM. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) leaf, bark, and core extracts on germination of five plant species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The chemical interaction between plants, which is referred to as allelopathy, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plant extracts on the germination and post-germination development ...

  1. A standardized bark extract of Pinus pinaster Aiton (Pycnogenol®) attenuated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease via Erk-sp1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Shin, Na-Rae; Ryu, Hyung-Won; Ko, Je-Won; Park, Ji-Won; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Kim, Jong-Choon; Shin, In-Sik; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2016-12-24

    A standardized bark extract of Pinus pinaster Aiton (Pycnogenol ® ; PYC) used as an herbal medicine to treat various diseases in Europe and North America. This study evaluates the ability of PYC to inhibit chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-stimulated human airway epithelial cell line NCI-H292 and in a cigarette smoke (CS) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse model. To induce COPD, the mice intranasally received LPS on day 4 and were exposed to CS for 1h per day (total eight cigarettes per day) from days 1-7. The mice were administered PYC at a dose of 15mg/kg and 30mg/kg 1h before CS exposure. In the CSE-stimulated NCI-H292 cells, PYC significantly inhibited Erk phosphorylation, sp1 expression, MUC5AC, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in a concentration-dependent manner, as evidenced by a reduction in their mRNA levels. Co-treatment with PYC and Erk inhibitors markedly reduced the levels inflammatory mediators compared to only PYC-treatment. In the COPD mice model, PYC decreased the inflammatory cell count and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid compared with COPD mice. PYC attenuated the recruitment of inflammatory cells in the airways and decreased the expression levels of Erk phosphorylation and sp1. PYC also inhibited the expression of myeloperoxidase and matrix metalloproteinases-9 in lung tissue. Our results indicate that PYC inhibited the reduction in the inflammatory response in CSE-stimulated NCI-H292 cells and the COPD mouse model via the Erk-sp1 pathway. Therefore, we suggest that PYC has the potential to treat COPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Autoclave mediated one-pot-one-minute synthesis of AgNPs and Au-Ag nanocomposite from Melia azedarach bark extract with antimicrobial activity against food pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pani, Alok; Lee, Joong Hee; Yun, Soon-Ii

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of nanoparticles and nanocomposite in pharmaceutical and processed food industry have increased the demand for nontoxic and inert metallic nanostructures. Chemical and physical method of synthesis of nanostructures is most popular in industrial production, despite the fact that these methods are labor intensive and/or generate toxic effluents. There has been an increasing demand for rapid, ecofriendly and relatively cheaper synthesis of nanostructures. Here, we propose a strategy, for one-minute green synthesis of AgNPs and a one-pot one-minute green synthesis of Au-Ag nanocomposite, using Melia azedarach bark aqueous extract as reducing agent. The hydrothermal mechanism of the autoclave technology has been successfully used in this study to accelerate the nucleation and growth of nano-crystals. The study also presents high antimicrobial potential of the synthesized nano solutions against common food and water born pathogens. The multistep characterization and analysis of the synthesized nanomaterial samples, using UV-visible spectroscopy, ICP-MS, FT-IR, EDX, XRD, HR-TEM and FE-SEM, also reveal the reaction dynamics of AgNO3, AuCl3 and plant extract in synthesis of the nanoparticles and nanocomposite. The antimicrobial effectiveness of the synthesized Au-Ag nanocomposite, with high gold to silver ratio, reduces the dependency on the AgNPs, which is considered to be environmentally more toxic than the gold counterpart. We hope that this new strategy will change the present course of green synthesis. The rapidity of synthesis will also help in industrial scale green production of nanostructures using Melia azedarach.

  3. Antifungal Properties of Crude Extracts, Fractions, and Purified Compounds from Bark of Curatella americana L. (Dilleniaceae) against Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    Mendes de Toledo, Cleyton Eduardo; Santos, Patrícia Regina; Palazzo de Mello, João Carlos; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia

    2015-01-01

    The ethnomedicinal plant Curatella americana L. (Dilleniaceae) is a common shrub in the Brazilian cerrado, in which crude extract showed antifungal activity in a preliminary study. In this work, the antifungal and cytotoxic properties of the crude extract, fractions, and isolated compounds from C. americana were evaluated against the standard yeast strains Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis, clinical isolates, and fluconazole-resistant strains. The combinatory effects between subfractions and isolated compounds and effects on cell morphology, virulence factors, and exogenous ergosterol were also evaluated. The MIC obtained against the Candida species including fluconazole-resistant strain ranged from 15.3 to 31.3 µg/mL for crude extract, 3.9 to 15.6 µg/mL for ethyl acetate fraction, and 7.8 to 31.3 µg/mL for subfractions. The isolated compounds identified as 4′-O-methyl-catechin, epicatechin-3-O-gallate, and 4′-O-methyl-catechin-3-O-gallate showed lower antifungal activity than the crude extract and fractions (MIC ranging from 31.3 to 125.0 µg/mL). The addition of exogenous ergosterol to yeast culture did not interfere in the antifungal activity of the extract and its fractions. Synergistic antifungal activity was observed between subfractions and isolated compounds. The effects on virulence factors and the different mechanisms of action compared to fluconazole and nystatin suggest that this ethnomedicinal plant may be an effective alternative treatment for candidiasis. PMID:26347790

  4. Cinnamon Bark, Water Soluble Cinnamon Extract, and Metformin as Initial Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-14

    REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 1 . REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 6...estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the...Cinnamon Extract, and Metformin as Initial Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Paul Crawford, MD Clinical Investigation

  5. The potential for phytoremediation of iron cyanide complex by willows.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Zhou, Pu-Hua; Yang, Yong-Miao

    2006-07-01

    Hybrid willows (Salix matsudana Koidz x Salix alba L.), weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) and hankow willows (Salix matsudana Koidz) were exposed to potassium ferrocyanide to determine the potential of these plants to extract, transport and metabolize this iron cyanide complex. Young rooted cuttings were grown in hydroponic solution at 24.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C for 144 h. Ferrocyanide in solution, air, and aerial tissues of plants was analyzed spectrophotometrically. Uptake of ferrocyanide from the aqueous solution by plants was evident for all treatments and varied with plant species, ranging from 8.64 to 15.67% of initial mass. The uptake processes observed from hydroponic solution showed exponential disappearance kinetics. Very little amounts of the applied ferrocyanide were detected in all parts of plant materials, confirming passage of ferrocyanide through the plants. No ferrocyanide in air was found due to plant transpiration. Mass balance analysis showed that a large fraction of the reduction of initial mass in hydroponic solution was metabolized during transport within the plant materials. The difference in the metabolic rate of ferrocyanide between the three plant species was comparably small, indicating transport of ferrocyanide from hydroponic solution to plant materials and further transport within plant materials was a limiting step for assimilating this iron cyanide complex. In conclusion, phytoremediation of ferrocyanide by the plants tested in this study has potential field application.

  6. In vitro Cytotoxicity and Anti-herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Activity of Hydroethanolic Extract, Fractions, and Isolated Compounds from Stem Bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

    PubMed Central

    Nocchi, Samara Requena; de Moura-Costa, Gislaine Franco; Novello, Claudio Roberto; Rodrigues, Juliana; Longhini, Renata; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is associated with orofacial infections and is transmitted by direct contact with infected secretions. Several efforts have been expended in the search for drugs to the treatment for herpes. Schinus terebinthifolius is used in several illnesses and among them, for the topical treatment of skin wounds, especially wounds of mucous membranes, whether infected or not. Objective: To evaluate the cytotoxicity and anti-HSV-1 activity of the crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) from the stem bark of S. terebinthifolius, as well as its fractions and isolated compounds. Materials and Methods: The CHE was subjected to bioguided fractionation. The anti-HSV-1 activity and the cytotoxicity of the CHE, its fractions, and isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro by SRB method. A preliminar investigation of the action of CHE in the virus–host interaction was conducted by the same assay. Results: CHE presented flavan-3-ols and showed anti-HSV-1 activity, better than its fractions and isolated compounds. The class of substances found in CHE can bind to proteins to form unstable complexes and enveloped viruses, as HSV-1 may be vulnerable to this action. Our results suggest that the CHE interfered with virion envelope structures, masking viral receptors that are necessary for adsorption or entry into host cells. Conclusion: The plant investigated exhibited potential for future development treatment against HSV-1, but further tests are necessary, especially to elucidate the mechanism of action of CHE, as well as preclinical and clinical studies to confirm its safety and efficacy. SUMMARY Crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) presents promising activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1), with selectivity index (SI) = 22.50CHE has flavan-3-ols in its composition, such as catechin and gallocatechinThe fractions and isolated compounds obtained from CHE by bioguided fractionation are less active than the CHE against HSV-1CHE interferes

  7. In vitro Cytotoxicity and Anti-herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Activity of Hydroethanolic Extract, Fractions, and Isolated Compounds from Stem Bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi.

    PubMed

    Nocchi, Samara Requena; de Moura-Costa, Gislaine Franco; Novello, Claudio Roberto; Rodrigues, Juliana; Longhini, Renata; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is associated with orofacial infections and is transmitted by direct contact with infected secretions. Several efforts have been expended in the search for drugs to the treatment for herpes. Schinus terebinthifolius is used in several illnesses and among them, for the topical treatment of skin wounds, especially wounds of mucous membranes, whether infected or not. To evaluate the cytotoxicity and anti-HSV-1 activity of the crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) from the stem bark of S. terebinthifolius, as well as its fractions and isolated compounds. The CHE was subjected to bioguided fractionation. The anti-HSV-1 activity and the cytotoxicity of the CHE, its fractions, and isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro by SRB method. A preliminar investigation of the action of CHE in the virus-host interaction was conducted by the same assay. CHE presented flavan-3-ols and showed anti-HSV-1 activity, better than its fractions and isolated compounds. The class of substances found in CHE can bind to proteins to form unstable complexes and enveloped viruses, as HSV-1 may be vulnerable to this action. Our results suggest that the CHE interfered with virion envelope structures, masking viral receptors that are necessary for adsorption or entry into host cells. The plant investigated exhibited potential for future development treatment against HSV-1, but further tests are necessary, especially to elucidate the mechanism of action of CHE, as well as preclinical and clinical studies to confirm its safety and efficacy. Crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) presents promising activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1), with selectivity index (SI) = 22.50CHE has flavan-3-ols in its composition, such as catechin and gallocatechinThe fractions and isolated compounds obtained from CHE by bioguided fractionation are less active than the CHE against HSV-1CHE interferes with viral entry process in the host cell and acts directly on the viral

  8. Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha L.) bark extract regulates antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated enzyme expression via Nrf2 pathway activation in normal hepatocyte cell line.

    PubMed

    Krajka-Kuźniak, Violetta; Paluszczak, Jarosław; Oszmiański, Jan; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2014-04-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha L.), a plant used in traditional medicine, is a rich source of procyanidins which have been reported to exhibit antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic activity. In this study, we assessed the effect of hawthorn bark extract (HBE) on Nrf2 pathway activation in THLE-2 and HepG2 cells. Treatment with 1.1 µg/mL, 5.5 µg/mL and 11 µg/mL of HBE resulted in the translocation of Nrf2 from the cytosol to the nucleus in both cell lines; however, the accumulation of phosphorylated Nrf2 was observed only in THLE-2. Accordingly, treatment of cells with HBE was associated with an increase in the mRNA and protein level of such Nrf2-dependent genes as glutathione S-transferases (GSTA, GSTP, GSTM, GSTT), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) (0.2-1.1-fold change, p < 0.05), however, only in normal THLE-2 hepatocytes. The induction of NQO1 correlated with an increased level of p53 (0.21-0.42-fold change, p < 0.05). These effects may be related to induction of phosphorylation of upstream ERK and JNK kinases. Collectively, the results suggest that the Nrf2/ARE pathway may play an important role in the regulation of procyanidin-mediated antioxidant/detoxifying effects in hepatocytes, and this may explain the hepatoprotective and chemopreventive properties of these phytochemicals. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Nociceptive Activities of Stem-Bark Extracts and Fractions of Carpolobia Lutea (Polygalaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Nwidu, Lucky Legbosi; Airhihen, Blessing; Ahmadu, Augustine

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Niger Delta, ethnomedicine hydroalcoholic extract of Carpolobia lutea (CL) (Polygalaceae) is used to relieve inflammatory pains. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of ethanolic stem extract (ESE) and to fractionate the ESE for the elucidation of bioactive molecules. Materials and Methods: The antinociceptive effects for ESE were tested against two noxious stimuli; chemical (acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin-induced pain) and thermal (hot plate) stimuli. The effects of paracetamol (130 mg/kg), indomethacin (10 mg/kg), and morphine (5 mg/kg) pretreatment were investigated. To isolate the bioactive compounds with anti-inflammatory effect, two doses (86.6 and 173.2 mg/kg) of four fractions (methanol fraction MTF, ethyl acetate fraction EAF, chloroform fraction CHF, and n-hexane fraction n-HF) obtained from fractionating ESE were utilized. Carrageenan, egg albumin, and capsaicin-induced edema of the hind paw of the rats were the models adopted. Paw volume was measured by a digital vernier caliper from 0 to 6 h after injection. This was compared to standard drugs. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The ESE decreased significantly (P < 0.001) the writhing of acetic acid-induced abdominal contractions and licking of formalin-induced pains but does not have any effects on the hot plate test. Of the four fractions obtained, the EAFs demonstrated a significant (P < 0.001) inflammatory inhibition of 98.97% and 41.91% at 86.6 and 173.2 mg/kg, respectively, compared to 65.75% inhibition demonstrated by the reference drug, acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg) on the carrageenan model while 36.36% and 29.87% inhibition of inflammation at 86.6 and 173.2 mg/kg, respectively, on the egg albumin models; there was no significant effect on the capsaicin model. Conclusion: The isolation of quercetin and kaemferol from CL gave credence to its anti-inflammatory and

  10. Coastal Energy Corporation, Willow Springs, MO

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Coastal Energy Corporation, located at 232 Burnham Road, Willow Springs, Missouri, for alleged violations at the facility located at or near that facility.

  11. Pinus densiflora bark extract ameliorates 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice by regulating Th1/Th2 balance and skin barrier function.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Woo; Wu, Qianwen; Jang, Young Pyo; Choung, Se Young

    2018-06-01

    Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora) bark has been traditionally used in Korea and other parts of East Asia to relieve inflammatory diseases. Although many studies using P. densiflora bark have been reported, its effect on atopic dermatitis (AD) has not been elucidated. Thus, we investigated whether the P. densiflora bark extract (PBE) has potential to attenuate AD symptoms and elucidated the molecular mechanism. Oral administration of PBE to mice with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD lessened dermatitis scores and scratching behavior and significantly reduced measures of epidermal thickness, infiltration of mast cells and eosinophils, levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE), and IgG 1 /IgG 2a ratio in serum. PBE not only inhibited IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 but also increased IFN-γ in splenic production. Furthermore, PBE significantly suppressed mRNA expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and further downregulated the mRNA expression of Th2 and Th17 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-13, IL-17, IL-31, and TNF-α. In addition, the protein expressions of filaggrin, involucrin, and loricrin in lesional skin were recovered by PBE. These results suggest that PBE attenuates DNCB-induced AD via regulating Th1/Th2 balance and skin barrier function. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. In vivo estrogenic-like activities of Gouania longipetala Hemsl. (Rhamnaceae) bark extracts in a post-menopause-like model of ovariectomized Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Paul Désiré, Dzeufiet Djomeni; Yolande Sandrine, Mengue Ngadena; Danielle Claude, Bilanda; Mireille, Kameni; Oumarou Bibi-Farouck, Aboubakar; Théophile, Dimo; Pierre, Kamtchouing

    2015-06-20

    Gouania longipetala is commonly used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to manage women fertility and menopausal complaints. However, despite this use, the estrogenic properties of G. longipetala have not been studied until now. The present study was aimed to assess estrogenic activities of the stem bark aqueous (GLA) and ethanolic (GLE) extracts of G. longipetala in post-menopause-like model of ovariectomized (Ovx) Wistar rats. Animals were either sham-operated or Ovx. 84 days after ovariectomy, animals were divided into seven groups of five animals and were daily treated for 28 days with distilled water (10 mL/kg) for group 1, 2% solution of Tween 80 (10 mL/kg) for group 2, estradiol valerate (1 mg/kg) for group 3, GLA (45 or 180 mg/kg) and GLE (40 or 160 mg/kg) for groups 4 to 7 respectively. Sham-operated animals daily received distilled water (10 mL/kg). During the experimental period, the body weight was registered every week. At the day 29, blood pressure was registered by invasive method while uterine and vagina morphometry as well as body, uterine and abdominal fat weights changes were analyzed. Serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were determined. Moreover, oxidative stress markers such as nitrites, reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in homogenized liver and aorta. Compared with the sham control, vagina and uterine dystrophy and elevated blood pressure were observed in Ovx rats treated with vehicles. Biochemical parameters showed a significant increase of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and MDA as well as a significant decrease of nitrites and GSH in Ovx animals treated with vehicle as compared to sham group. GLA and GLE displayed estrogen-like effects on vagina and did not affect uterine wet weight and epithelial height compared with vehicle groups. Both extracts displayed anti-atherogenic properties by reducing AI, AIP and LDL-cholesterol level as compared

  13. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of plant extracts traditionally used in organic and biodynamic farming.

    PubMed

    Andreu, Vanessa; Levert, Annabel; Amiot, Anaïs; Cousin, Anaïs; Aveline, Nicolas; Bertrand, Cédric

    2018-03-07

    Five plant extracts traditionally used in organic and biodynamic farming for pest control and antifungal (downy mildew) disease management were selected after a farmer survey and analyzed for their chemical composition in LC-PDA-MS-MS and using adapted analytical method from food chemistry for determination of class of component (e.g., protein, sugar, lipids…). Their antifungal activity against Penicillium expansum, Botrytis cinerea, Botrytis allii, brown rot causing agents (Monilinia laxa and Monilinia fructigena), and grape downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) was examined in vitro. White willow (Salix alba) and absinthe (Artemisia absinthium) ethanolic extracts were found to be the most effective in particular against Plasmopara viticola, with a total inhibition of spores germination when applied at 1000 mg/L. These extracts also showed a relatively low toxicity during preliminary ecotoxicological assays on Daphnia pulex. Extract from the bark of white willow contained some flavonoids, especially flavanones (eriodyctiol and derivates) and flavanols (catechins and derivates), as major compounds, whereas absinthe extract was rich in O-methylated flavanols and hydroxycinnamic acids. Thujone content in this extract was also determined by external calibration in GC-MS analysis, and its value was 0.004% dry extract.

  14. In Vitro Ion Chelating, Antioxidative Mechanism of Extracts from Fruits and Barks of Tetrapleura tetraptera and Their Protective Effects against Fenton Mediated Toxicity of Metal Ions on Liver Homogenates

    PubMed Central

    Moukette, Bruno Moukette; Pieme, Anatole Constant; Biapa, Prosper Cabral Nya; Njimou, Jacques Romain; Bravi, Marco; Yonkeu Ngogang, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant activity and protective potential of T. tetraptera extracts against ion toxicity. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was investigated spectrophotometrically against several radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•), hydroxyl radical (HO•), and nitric oxide (NO•)), followed by the ferric reducing power, total phenols, flavonoid, and flavonol contents. The effects of the extracts on catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase activities were also determined using the standard methods as well as the polyphenol profile using HPLC. The results showed that the hydroethanolic extract of T. tetraptera (CFH) has the lowest IC50 value with the DPPH, ABTS, OH, and NO radicals. The same extract also exhibited the significantly higher level of total phenols (37.24 ± 2.00 CAE/g dried extract); flavonoids (11.36 ± 1.88 QE/g dried extract); and flavonols contents (3.95 ± 0.39 QE/g dried extract). The HPLC profile of T. tetraptera revealed that eugenol (958.81 ± 00 mg/g DW), quercetin (353.78 ± 00 mg/g DW), and rutin (210.54 ± 00 mg/g DW) were higher in the fruit than the bark extracts. In conclusion, extracts from T. tetraptera may act as a protector against oxidative mediated ion toxicity. PMID:26356679

  15. Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) for the Isolation of Willow Lignin (Salix matsudana cv. Zhuliu)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tengfei; Liu, Yu; Lou, Rui; Yang, Guihua; Chen, Jiachuan; Saeed, Haroon A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are a potentially high-value lignin extraction methodology. DESs prepared from choline chloride (ChCl) and three hydrogen-bond donors (HBD)—lactic acid (Lac), glycerol, and urea—were evaluated for isolation of willow (Salix matsudana cv. Zhuliu) lignin. DESs types, mole ratio of ChCl to HBD, extraction temperature, and time on the fractionated DES-lignin yield demonstrated that the optimal DES-lignin yield (91.8 wt % based on the initial lignin in willow) with high purity of 94.5% can be reached at a ChCl-to-Lac molar ratio of 1:10, extraction temperature of 120 °C, and time of 12 h. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) , 13C-NMR, and 31P-NMR showed that willow lignin extracted by ChCl-Lac was mainly composed of syringyl and guaiacyl units. Serendipitously, a majority of the glucan in willow was preserved after ChCl-Lac treatment. PMID:29143790

  16. Phytotoxicity of cyanide to weeping willow trees.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaozhang; Trapp, Stefan; Zhou, Puhua

    2005-01-01

    Cyanide is found predominantly in industrial effluents generated by metallurgical operations. It is an extremely toxic compound, so that problems and catastrophic accidents have recently occurred all around the globe. The goal of this study was to determine the toxicity of cyanide to a Chinese willow species, and to determine the removal capacity. The toxicity of potassium cyanide (KCN) to weeping willow trees (Salix babylonica L.) was tested. The normalized, relative transpiration of the plants was used to determine the phytotoxicity of cyanide. The cyanide removal capacity of weeping willows was also determined. In hydroponic solution, no chlorosis of leaves and only a small reduction in normalized relative transpiration was observed when weeping willows were exposed to low doses of cyanide (< or = 0.93 mg CN/L). Severe signs of toxicity were found for the treatment groups exposed to higher doses of cyanide (> or = 9.3 mg CN/L). Weeping willows grown in sandy soils survived the entire period (216 hours) without any toxic effect when irrigated with low doses of cyanide (3.72 mg CN/L). High doses of cyanide (> or = 18.6 mg CN/L) in irrigation water were fatal for the weeping willows within 216 hours. EC50 values for a 50% inhibition of the transpiration of the trees were estimated to be between 3.27 and 8.23 mg CN/L, depending on the duration of the exposure. The results obtained for the Chinese willow species Salix babylonica were very similar to those obtained for the European species S. viminalis in earlier studies. Phytotoxic effects were only found at high doses of cyanide. A large proportion of applied cyanide was removed from the contaminated media in the presence of weeping willows. This gives rise to the conclusion that the metabolism of cyanide by weeping willows is possible. Cyanide elimination with trees seems to be a feasible option for cleaning soils and water contaminated with cyanide. A full-scale treatment has been installed in Denmark. For

  17. Partitioning of pine bark components to obtain a value-added product for plywood manufacture

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Karen G. Reed; Chi-Leung So

    2009-01-01

    Southern yellow pine (SYP) bark particles and bark extracts have been used only to a limited extent in wood-based composites due to poor performance relative to existing products and/or economic barriers. Our efforts to identify alternative applications for this biomass resource require the development of an improved understanding of the interrelationships between bark...

  18. Grinding and classification of pine bark for use as plywood adhesive filler

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Karen G. Reed

    2005-01-01

    Prior efforts to incorporate bark or bark extracts into composites have met with only limited success because of poor performance relative to existing products and/or economic barriers stemming from high levels of processing. We are currently investigating applications for southern yellow pine (SYP) bark that require intermediate levels of processing, one being the use...

  19. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of condensed tannins with potent antioxidant activity from the leaf, stem bark and root bark of Acacia confusa.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shu-Dong; Zhou, Hai-Chao; Lin, Yi-Ming; Liao, Meng-Meng; Chai, Wei-Ming

    2010-06-15

    The structures of the condensed tannins from leaf, stem bark and root bark of Acacia confusa were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis, and their antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results showed that the condensed tannins from stem bark and root bark include propelargonidin and procyanidin, and the leaf condensed tannins include propelargonidin, procyanidin and prodelphinidin, all with the procyanidin dominating. The condensed tannins had different polymer chain lengths, varying from trimers to undecamers for leaf and root bark and to dodecamers for stem bark. The condensed tannins extracted from the leaf, stem bark and root bark all showed a very good DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power.

  20. Beech Bark Disease

    Treesearch

    David R. Houston; James T. O' Brien

    1983-01-01

    Beech bark disease causes significant mortality and defect in American beech, Fagus grandifolia (Ehrh.). The disease results when bark, attacked and altered by the beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind., is invaded and killed by fungi, primarily Nectria coccinea var. faginata Lohman, Watson, and Ayers, and sometimes N. galligena Bres.

  1. Loblolly pine bark flavanoids

    Treesearch

    J.J. Karchesy; R.W. Hemingway

    1980-01-01

    The inner bark of Pinus taeda L. contains (+)-catechin, the procyanidin 8.1 (a C-4 to C-8 linked (-)-epicatechin to (+)-catechin dimer), and three polymeric procyanidins that have distinctly different solubility and chromatographic properties. An ethyl acetate soluble polymer (0.20% of bark, Mn = 1200) was purified by chromatography on LH-20 Sephadex. A water-soluble...

  2. Beech bark disease

    Treesearch

    David R. Houston

    1998-01-01

    In forests of North America the beech bark disease (BBD) complex affects American beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. BBD begins when bark tissues, attacked by the exotic beech scale insect, Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind. are rendered susceptible to killing attacks by fungi of the genus Nectria. The principal fungus,...

  3. Primary song by a juvenile willow flycatcher

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sogge, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    The timing of song development in suboscines, in which song appears not to be learned from other adults is poorly known. The Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) is a suboscine with a primary song typically referred to as fitz-bew. I report here an instance of very early singing by a 6-8-wk-old Willow Flycatcher, which sang in an aggressive context in response to a recording of adult flycatcher song. This is exceptionally early development of primary song, even among suboscines. Early song development may assist in the defense of winter territories.

  4. Barking and mobbing.

    PubMed

    Lord, Kathryn; Feinstein, Mark; Coppinger, Raymond

    2009-07-01

    Barking is most often associated with the domestic dog Canis familiaris, but it is a common mammalian and avian vocalization. Like any vocalization, the acoustic character of the bark is likely to be a product of adaptation as well as an expression of the signaler's internal motivational state. While most authors recognize that the bark is a distinct signal type, no consistent description of its acoustic definition or function is apparent. The bark exhibits considerable variability in its acoustic form and occurs in a wide range of behavioral contexts, particularly in dogs. This has led some authors to suggest that dog barking might be a form of referential signaling, or an adaptation for heightened capability to communicate with humans. In this paper we propose a general 'canonical' acoustic description of the bark. Surveying relevant literature on dogs, wild canids, other mammals and birds, we explore an alternative functional hypothesis, first suggested by [Morton, E.S., 1977. On the occurrence and significance of motivation-structural rules in some bird and mammal sounds. Am. Nat. 111, 855-869] and consistent with his motivational-structural rules theory: that barking in many animals, including the domestic dog, is associated with mobbing behavior and the motivational states that accompany mobbing.

  5. Irrigation water quality influences heavy metal uptake by willows in biosolids.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, W Scott; Baker, Alan J M; Gregory, David; Arndt, Stefan K

    2015-05-15

    Phytoextraction is an effective method to remediate heavy metal contaminated landscapes but is often applied for single metal contaminants. Plants used for phytoextraction may not always be able to grow in drier environments without irrigation. This study investigated if willows (Salix x reichardtii A. Kerner) can be used for phytoextraction of multiple metals in biosolids, an end-product of the wastewater treatment process, and if irrigation with reclaimed and freshwater influences the extraction process. A plantation of willows was established directly onto a tilled stockpile of metal-contaminated biosolids and irrigated with slightly saline reclaimed water (EC ∼2 dS/cm) at a wastewater processing plant in Victoria, Australia. Biomass was harvested annually and analysed for heavy metal content. Phytoextraction of cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc was benchmarked against freshwater irrigated willows. The minimum irrigation rate of 700 mm per growing season was sufficient for willows to grow and extract metals. Increasing irrigation rates produced no differences in total biomass and also no differences in the extraction of heavy metals. The reclaimed water reduced both the salinity and the acidity of the biosolids significantly within the first 12 months after irrigation commenced and after three seasons the salinity of the biosolids had dropped to <15% of initial values. A flushing treatment to remove excess salts was therefore not necessary. Irrigation had an impact on biosolids attributes such as salinity and pH, and that this had an influence on metal extraction. Reclaimed water irrigation reduced the biosolid pH and this was associated with reductions of the extraction of Ni and Zn, it did not influence the extraction of Cu and enhanced the phytoextraction of Cd, which was probably related to the high chloride content of the reclaimed water. Our results demonstrate that flood-irrigation with reclaimed water was a successful treatment to grow willows in a

  6. Willow Fire Near Payson, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    On July 3, 2004, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite acquired this image of the Willow fire near Payson, Arizona. The image is being used by the United States Department of Agriculture's Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC). The image combines data from the visible and infrared wavelength regions to highlight: the burned areas in dark red; the active fires in red-orange; vegetation in green; and smoke in blue.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. Science Team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort dedicated to understanding the Earth as an integrated system and applying Earth System Science to improve prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards using the unique vantage point of

  7. The anti-tumor effect and biological activities of the extract JMM6 from the stem-barks of the Chinese Juglans mandshurica Maxim on human hepatoma cell line BEL-7402.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongli; Cui, Yuqiang; Zhu, Jiayong; Li, Hongzhi; Mao, Jianwen; Jin, Xiaobao; Wang, Xiangsheng; Du, Yifan; Lu, Jiazheng

    2013-01-01

    Juglans mandshurica Maxim is a traditional herbal medicines in China, and its anti-tumor bioactivities are of research interest. Bioassay-guided fractionation method was employed to isolate anti-tumor compounds from the stem barks of the Juglans mandshurica Maxim. The anti-tumor effect and biological activities of the extracted compound JMM6 were studied in BEL-7402 cells by MTT, Cell cycle analysis, Hoechst 33342 staining, Annexin V-FITC/PI assay and Detection of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). After treatment with the JMM6, the growth of BEL-7402 cells was inhibited and cells displayed typical morphological apoptotic characteristics. Further investigations revealed that treatment with JMM6 mainly caused G2/M cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in BEL-7402 cells. To evaluate the alteration of mitochondria in JMM6 induced apoptosis. The data showed that JMM6 decreased significantly the ΔΨm, causing the depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane. Our results show that the JMM6 will have a potential advantage of anti-tumor, less harmful to normal cells. This paper not only summarized the JMM6 pick-up technology from Juglans mandshurica Maxim and biological characteristic, but also may provide further evidence to exploit the potential medicine compounds from the stem-barks of the Chinese Juglans mandshurica Maxim.

  8. Pollen limitation of reproductive effort in willows.

    PubMed

    Fox, John F

    1992-05-01

    Pollen limitation of seed set differs from resource limitation in its implications for the evolution of floral traits. Willow flowers attract insects, but also abundantly produce wind-dispersed pollen. I demonstrated pollen limitation in single branches bearing 2-4 inflorescences (catkins) in a field experiment with five species by artificially increasing or decreasing the pollen load. Because the responses by single branches might be explained by diversion of resources to better-pollinated branches within a plant, a second experiment with one species tested both pollen limitation of whole plants and the autonomy of catkins. Seed set of single willow catkins is unaffected by experimental alterations of seed set in other catkins on the same plant. Hand-pollination of single catkins and of whole plants increased seed set to the same degree, suggesting there is little or no competition for resources between catkins only 5-10 cm apart. Thus, seed set in willows appears to be pollen limited, favoring insect pollination and the evolution of entomophilous traits. The data support previous views that willows have a dual pollination system utilizing wind and insects.

  9. Environmental applications of poplars and willows

    Treesearch

    J.G. Isebrands; P. Aronsson; M. Carlson; R. Ceulemans; M. Coleman; N. Dickinson; J. Dimitriou; S. Doty; E. Gardiner; K. Heinsoo; J.D. Johnson; Y.B. Koo; J. Kort; J. Kuzovkina; L. Licht; A.R. McCracken; I. McIvor; P. Mertens; K. Perttu; D. Riddell-Black; B. Robins; G. Scarascia-Mugnozza; W.R. Schroeder; John Stanturf; T.A. Volk; M. Weih

    2014-01-01

    Poplars and willows have been planted for environmental purposes for millennia. There are reports that poplars were planted to improve the human environment 4000 years ago in the third dynasty of Ur, for streamside stabilization 2000 years ago in what is now the south-western USA by native North Americans and for urban amenities by the early Chinese dynasties (see...

  10. Gastroprotective Effect of Combination of Hot Water Extracts of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Pulasari Stem Bark (Alyxia reinwardtii), and Sembung Leaf (Blumea balsamifera) Against Aspirin-Induced Gastric Ulcer Model Rats.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Wijayanti, Agustin; Mutmainah, Mutmainah; Susilowati, Rina; Rahmawati, Nuning

    2016-10-01

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Pulasari stem bark (Alyxia reinwardtii) and Sembung leaf (Blumea balsamifera) are traditionally used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of the study was to investigate gastroprotective effect of hot water extracts combination of those herbal against aspirin-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. The combination consisted of fixed doses of Licorice 273 mg/kg BW and Sembung leaf 457.5 mg/kg BW, and also consisted of Pulasari stem in various doses i.e. 100 mg/kg BW (first group), 200 mg/kg BW (second and sixth group) and 300 mg/kg BW (third group). The fourth grup rats received sucralfate 360 mg/kg BW. Ten minute after seven consecutive days of drug administration, the rats were induced with aspirin 450 mg/kg BW except sixth group rats. The fifth group rats only received aspirin without any protective agents. The number and area of gastric ulcers were evaluated macroscopically. Whereas, histopatological observation was used for evaluation of mucosal damage score, and the number of eosinophils and mast cells. In the study, herbal extracts combination markedly exhibited protective effects indicated by less number and smaller area of gastric ulcers in comparison to those of aspirin group (P < 0.05). The score of mucosal damages were also decreased in herbal extracts combination groups. The number of eosinophils and mast cells of herbal combination groups were observed to be smaller than those of aspirin group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, herbal combination of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Pulasari stem bark (Alyxia reinwardtii) and Sembung leaf (Blumea balsamifera) is potential to develop as a gastroprotective agent. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Phytoscreening and phytoextraction of heavy metals at Danish polluted sites using willow and poplar trees.

    PubMed

    Algreen, Mette; Trapp, Stefan; Rein, Arno

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine typical concentrations of heavy metals (HM) in wood from willows and poplars, in order to test the feasibility of phytoscreening and phytoextraction of HM. Samples were taken from one strongly, one moderately, and one slightly polluted site and from three reference sites. Wood from both tree species had similar background concentrations at 0.5 mg kg(-1) for cadmium (Cd), 1.6 mg kg(-1) for copper (Cu), 0.3 mg kg(-1) for nickel (Ni), and 25 mg kg(-1) for zinc (Zn). Concentrations of chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) were below or close to detection limit. Concentrations in wood from the highly polluted site were significantly elevated, compared to references, in particular for willow. The conclusion from these results is that tree coring could be used successfully to identify strongly heavy metal-polluted soil for Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and that willow trees were superior to poplars, except when screening for Ni. Phytoextraction of HMs was quantified from measured concentration in wood at the most polluted site. Extraction efficiencies were best for willows and Cd, but below 0.5% over 10 years, and below 1‰ in 10 years for all other HMs.

  12. Clinical efficacy of water extract of stem bark of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn. in patients of chronic heart failure: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Maulik, Subir K; Wilson, Vinu; Seth, Sandeep; Bhargava, Balram; Dua, Pamila; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Katiyar, Chandra K

    2016-10-15

    The stem bark of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight and Arn. (Arjuna) is used in Indian system of medicine (Ayurveda) for treatment of various cardiac diseases, including heart failure. However, well designed clinical trials exploring its efficacy and safety in chronic heart failure (CHF) are lacking. To ascertain the add-on efficacy and safety of a standardized water extract of stem bark of Arjuna (Arjuna extract) in CHF patients on standard pharmacotherapy. Double-blind, parallel, randomized, placebo-controlled add-on clinical trial. After approval of institutional ethics committee, 100 patients of CHF of New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II on standard pharmacotherapy having an echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 40% were consecutively recruited with informed consent and randomized 1:1 to Arjuna extract 750 mg or matching placebo twice daily. The primary outcome measure was change in LVEF at 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included changes in (i) NYHA functional class, (ii) distance covered in 6 min walk test (6MWT), (iii) quality of life (QoL), as determined by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), (iv) plasma brain natriuretic peptide, (v) plasma cytokines (interleukin-6, high sensitivity C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor-α) and (vi) oxidative stress markers [serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), red blood cell (RBC) superoxide dismutase (SOD), RBC catalase and RBC glutathione (GSH)] at 6 and 12 weeks. Safety assessment was done by adverse event monitoring and laboratory investigations. Results were expressed as mean ± SD or median (interquartile range) and analysed with intention-to- treat principle using appropriate two-sided statistical tests. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Arjuna extract was well-tolerated, but did not change LVEF (24.3 ± 7.1 versus 25.5 ± 7.7%; p = 0.4) or secondary outcome measures except preservation of RBC catalase

  13. Longleaf pine inner bark and outer bark thicknesses: Measurement and relevance

    Treesearch

    Thomas Eberhardt

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of bark thickness generally ignore the fact that bark is comprised of both living inner bark (phloem) and essentially dead outer bark (rhytidome).Discerning between them has ramifications for the utility of bark as a byproduct of timber harvesting and its functionality on a living tree. Inner bark and outer bark thicknesses for longleaf pine (Pinus...

  14. Screening of willow species for resistance to heavy metals: comparison of performance in a hydroponics system and field trials.

    PubMed

    Watson, C; Pulford, I D; Riddell-Black, D

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether metal resistance in willow (Salix) clones grown in a hydroponics screening test correlated with data from the same clones grown independently in a field trial. If so, results from a short-term, glasshouse-based system could be extrapolated to the field, allowing rapid identification of willows suitable for planting in metal-contaminated substrates without necessitating longterm field trials. Principal Components Analysis was used to show groups of clones and to assess the relative importance of the parameters measured in both the hydroponics system and the field; including plant response factors such as increase in stem height, as well as metal concentrations in plant tissues. The clones tested fell into two distinct groups. Salix viminalis clones and the basket willow Black Maul (S. triandra) were less resistant to elevated concentrations of heavy metals than a group of hardier clones, including S. burjatica 'Germany,' S.x dasyclados, S. candida and S. spaethii. The more resistant clones produced more biomass in the glasshouse and field, and had higher metal concentrations in the wood. The less resistant clones had greater concentrations of Cu and Ni in the bark, and produced less biomass in the glasshouse and field. Significant relationships were found between the response of the same clones grown the in short-term glasshouse hydroponics system and in the field.

  15. The involvement of cyclin D1 degradation through GSK3β-mediated threonine-286 phosphorylation-dependent nuclear export in anti-cancer activity of mulberry root bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Eo, Hyun Ji; Park, Gwang Hun; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2016-02-15

    Mulberry root bark was shown to induce cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation in the human colorectal cancer cells. Still, the molecular mechanisms whereby mulberry root bark induces cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation remain largely unknown. In this study, the inhibitory effect of mulberry root bark (MRB) on the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells and the mechanism of action were examined to evaluate its anti-cancer activity. Anti-proliferative effect was determined by MTT assay. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to assess the mRNA and protein expression of related proteins. MRB inhibited markedly the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116, SW480 and LoVo). In addition, the proliferation of human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) was suppressed by MRB treatment. However, MRB did not affect the growth of HepG-2 cells as a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. MRB effectively decreased cyclin D1 protein level in human colorectal cancer cells and breast cancer cells, but not in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Contrast to protein levels, cyclin D1 mRNA level did not be changed by MRB treatment. Inhibition of proteasomal degradation by MG132 attenuated MRB-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation and the half-life of cyclin D1 was decreased in the cells treated with MRB. In addition, MRB increased phosphorylation of cyclin D1 at threonine-286 and a point mutation of threonine-286 to alanine attenuated MRB-mediated cyclin D1 degradation. Inhibition of GSK3β by LiCl suppressed cyclin D1 phosphorylation and downregulation by MRB. MRB decreased the nuclear level of cyclin D1 and the inhibition of nuclear export by LMB attenuated MRB-mediated cyclin D1 degradation. MRB has anti-cancer activity by inducing cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation through cyclin D1 nuclear export via GSK3β-dependent threonine-286 phosphorylation. These findings suggest that possibly its extract could be used for treating colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  16. Amate Bark Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by a beautiful bookmark one of the author's students made for him as a gift, he began a lesson exploring the vibrant bark paintings popular all over Mexico. The majority of his students have Mexican ancestry, so exploring the arts of Mexico is always popular and well received. Amate paintings can also be a great way to introduce the…

  17. Toxicity and antioxidant capacity of Frangula alnus Mill. bark and its active component emodin.

    PubMed

    Brkanac, Sandra Radić; Gerić, Marko; Gajski, Goran; Vujčić, Valerija; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Kremer, Dario; Domijan, Ana-Marija

    2015-12-01

    In the present study toxicity of Frangula alnus Mill. bark, widely used as laxative, was investigated. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) were treated with F. alnus bark extract or emodin (emodin is bark component with laxative property), and cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and parameters of oxidative stress were assessed. Also, polyphenol content of bark extract and antioxidant activity of the extract and emodin measured by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods were examined. The bark extract (500 μg/ml) produced cell death and DNA damage, while level of ROS changed at 250 μg/ml. Emodin induced cell death and DNA damage at 150 μg/ml and 200 μg/ml, respectively, and the increase of ROS was observed at 25 μg/ml. These results suggest that both, bark extract and emodin, are cyto/genotoxic to HPBLs and that oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism of their toxicity. The results on antioxidant activity showed that, unlike emodin, bark extract possess moderate antioxidant capacity (44.6%, 46.8% and 2.25 mmol Fe(2+)/g measured by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assay, respectively) that can be related to relatively high phenolic content (116.07 mg/g). However, due to toxicological properties use of F. alnus bark as well as emodin-containing preparations should be taken with caution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Status, ecology, and conservation of the southwestern willow flycatcher

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch; Scott H. Stoleson

    2000-01-01

    This publication was prepared in response to a need expressed by southwestern agencies and organizations for a comprehensive assessment of the population status, history, biology, ecology, habitats, threats, and conservation of the southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). The southwestern willow flycatcher was federally listed as...

  19. Adsorption Property and Mechanism of Oxytetracycline onto Willow Residues

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Di; Xu, Haiyang; Yang, Shengke; Wang, Wenke; Wang, Yanhua

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate the adsorption property and the mechanism of plant residues to reduce oxytetracycline (OTC), the adsorption of OTC onto raw willow roots (WR-R), stems (WS-R), leaves (WL-R), and adsorption onto desugared willow roots (WR-D), stems (WS-D), and leaves (WL-D) were investigated. The structural characterization was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectra, and an elemental analyzer. OTC adsorption onto the different tissues of willow residues was compared and correlated with their structures. The adsorption kinetics of OTC onto willow residues was found to follow the pseudo-first-order model. The isothermal adsorption process of OTC onto the different tissues of willow residues followed the Langmuir and Freundlich model and the process was also a spontaneous endothermic reaction, which was mainly physical adsorption. After the willow residues were desugared, the polarity decreased and the aromaticity increased, which explained why the adsorption amounts of the desugared willow residues were higher than those of the unmodified residues. These observations suggest that the raw and modified willow residues have great potential as adsorbents to remove organic pollutants. PMID:29271892

  20. Models in Educational Administration: Revisiting Willower's "Theoretically Oriented" Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Paul; Burgess, David; Burns, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Three decades ago, Willower (1975) argued that much of what we take to be theory in educational administration is in fact only theoretically oriented. If we accept Willower's assessment of the field as true, what implications does this statement hold for the academic study and practical application of the theoretically oriented aspects of our…

  1. Guide to the willows of Shoshone National Forest

    Treesearch

    Walter Fertig; Stuart Markow

    2001-01-01

    Correct identification of willow species is an important part of land management. This guide describes the 29 willows that are known to occur on the Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming. Keys to pistillate catkins and leaf morphology are included with illustrations and plant descriptions.

  2. Testing of Willow Clones for Biomass Production in Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiske, Marke E.

    A core experiment with 31 willow clones and 8 standard poplar clones was established at the Harshaw Experimental Farm, Rhinelander, WI in 1997. Data analysis is continuing for survival, growth, and biomass data for all willow test sites in this project.

  3. Bark factors for Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    Floyd. Johnson

    1966-01-01

    Recent emphasis on the measurement of upper stem tree diameters with optical dendrometers has directed attention to procedures for converting these outside-bark diameters to inside-bark diameters. One procedure that has been used requires an assumption that the ratio of diameter inside bark to diameter outside bark (henceforth called bark factor) remains the same up...

  4. Response of the Imported Willow Leaf Beetle to Bacillus thuringiensis var. san diego on Poplar Willow1

    Treesearch

    Leah S. Bauer

    1992-01-01

    The imported willow leaf beetle, Plagiodera versicolora (Laicharting) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a multivoltine defoliator of willow and poplar (Salicaceae), is considered a significant pest throughout eastern North America (W.T. Johnson and H.H Lyon, "Insects that Feed on Trees and Shrubs," Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 1988)....

  5. Anti-ulcer polysaccharides from Cola cordifolia bark and leaves.

    PubMed

    Austarheim, Ingvild; Mahamane, Haidara; Sanogo, Rokia; Togola, Adiaratou; Khaledabadi, Mehdi; Vestrheim, Anne C; Inngjerdingen, Kari T; Michaelsen, Terje E; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit S

    2012-08-30

    Aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of C. cordifolia are traditionally used in Mali (West Africa) in the treatment of wounds and gastric ailments like abdominal pain, gastritis and gastric ulcers. To evaluate and compare the anti-ulcer and immunological activities, as well as the toxicity of polysaccharide rich water extracts from the bark and leaves of C. cordifolia. Gastric ulcers were induced in rats and the inhibition of ulcer formation was calculated based on lesion index. Immunological activities were measured by complement fixation and macrophage activation. Toxicity was tested on brine shrimps. The two extracts were characterised by GC, Yariv-precipitation and quantification of phenolic compounds. An ethnomedical survey on C. cordifolia was carried out in Siby (Mali, West-Africa) to generate more knowledge about the traditional use. Bark and leaf extracts from C. cordifolia significantly inhibited the formation of gastric lesions in rodents in a dose depending manner. CCbark50 showed a high complement fixation activity in vitro. No toxicity was found. The ethnomedical survey showed that C. cordifolia was mainly used for treating pain and wounds. Our results shows that the bark and the leaves comprise a dose dependant anti-ulcer activity in an experimental rat model (no statistical difference between the plant parts). Clinical studies should be performed to evaluate the effect of both bark and leaves of C. cordifolia as a remedy against gastric ulcer in human. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal barks used in Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Kloucek, P; Svobodova, B; Polesny, Z; Langrova, I; Smrcek, S; Kokoska, L

    2007-05-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of six barks traditionally used in Callería District (Ucayali Department, Peru) for treating conditions likely to be associated with microorganisms. Ethanol extracts of stem barks of Abuta grandifolia (Menispermaceae), Dipteryx micrantha (Leguminosae), Cordia alliodora (Boraginaceae), Naucleopsis glabra (Moraceae), Pterocarpus rohrii (Leguminosae), and root bark of Maytenus macrocarpa (Celastraceae) were tested against nine bacteria and one yeast using the broth microdilution method. All plants possessed significant antimicrobial effect, however, the extract of Naucleopsis glabra exhibited the strongest activity against Gram-positive bacteria (MICs ranging from 62.5 to 125 microg/ml), while the broadest spectrum of action was shown by the extract of Maytenus macrocarpa, which inhibited all the strains tested with MICs ranging from 125 to 250 microg/ml.

  7. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic stem bark extract of Antrocaryon klaineanum Pierre (Anacardiaceae) in mice and rat.

    PubMed

    Fongang, Annie Laure Magne; Laure Nguemfo, Edwige; Djouatsa Nangue, Yolande; Bogning Zangueu, Calvin; Fouokeng, Yannick; Azebaze, Anatole Guy Blaise; José Llorent-Martínez, Eulogio; Córdova, Maria Luisa Fernández-de; Bertrand Dongmo, Alain; Vierling, Wolfgang

    2017-05-05

    Antrocaryon klaineanum is used by traditional healers to treat many disorders including pain and inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of methanol extract of A. klaineanum in mice and rats. Reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was performed to establish the chromatographic fingerprint and to identify various chemical components of the plant extract. The anti-nociceptive activity of methanol extract of A. klaineanum was assessed using the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction model, formalin test, capsaicin and cinnamaldehyde induced-neurogenic pain and hot plate test. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed on carrageenan-induced inflammation. Extract was administrated orally at 200, 400 and 600mg/kg. Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of proanthocyanidins, phenolic acids and flavonoids. The results of anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities showed that methanol extract significantly (p<0.01) reduced the pain induced by acetic acid with an inhibition percentage of 45.49% (600mg/kg). In the formalin test, the extract also significantly (p<0.01) reduced linking time in both phase (neurogenic and inflammatory) of the test with inhibition percentage of 56.28% and 60.73% respectively at the dose of 600mg/kg. The methanol extract of A. klaineanum significantly (P<0.001) reduced neurogenic pain linking time induced by capsaicin and cinnamaldehyde by 82.54% and 75.94% at the highest dose (600mg/kg) respectively. More over the extract significantly increase the reaction time in hot plate test. In the inflammatory test, the plant extract significantly reduced the carrageen induced rat paw oedema from 30min to 6h with a maximum percentage inhibition of 89.88% (6h) at the dose of 600mg/kg. These results demonstrate that the methanol extract of A. klaineanum may possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects and provide support of the traditional use of this plant in

  8. Simultaneous ultrasound-assisted water extraction and β-cyclodextrin encapsulation of polyphenols from Mangifera indica stem bark in counteracting TNFα-induced endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Mura, Marzia; Palmieri, Daniela; Garella, Davide; Di Stilo, Antonella; Perego, Patrizia; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Palombo, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes an alternative technique to prevent heat degradation induced by classic procedures of bioactive compound extraction, comparing classical maceration/decoction in hot water of polyphenols from Mango (Mangifera indica L.) (MI) with ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) in a water solution of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) at room temperature and testing their biological activity on TNFα-induced endothelial dysfunction. Both extracts counteracted TNFα effects on EAhy926 cells, down-modulating interleukin-6, interleukin-8, cyclooxygenase-2 and intracellular adhesion molecule-1, while increasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase levels. β-CD extract showed higher efficacy in improving endothelial function. These effects were abolished after pre-treatment with the oestrogen receptor inhibitor ICI1182,780. Moreover, the β-CD extract induced Akt activation and completely abolished the TNFα-induced p38MAPK phosphorylation. UAE and β-CD encapsulation provide an efficient extraction protocol that increases polyphenol bioavailability. Polyphenols from MI play a protective role on endothelial cells and may be further considered as oestrogen-like molecules with vascular protective properties.

  9. Winter distribution of willow flycatcher subspecies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, E.H.; Unitt, P.; Sogge, M.K.; Whitfield, M.; Keim, P.

    2011-01-01

    Documenting how different regions across a species' breeding and nonbreeding range are linked via migratory movements is the first step in understanding how events in one region can influence events in others and is critical to identifying conservation threats throughout a migratory animal's annual cycle. We combined two studies that evaluated migratory connectivity in the Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii), one using mitochondrial DNA sequences from 172 flycatchers sampled throughout their winter range, and another which examined morphological characteristics of 68 museum specimens collected in the winter range. Our results indicate that the four subspecies occupy distinct but overlapping regions of the winter range. Connectivity between specific breeding and winter grounds appears to be moderate to strong, with distributions that suggest migration patterns of both the chain and leap-frog types connecting the breeding and nonbreeding grounds. The Pacific lowlands of Costa Rica appear to be a key winter location for the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (E. t. extimus), although other countries in Central America may also be important for the subspecies. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  10. Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm Bark Crude Extract Induces Apoptosis in MCF-7 Cells via G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest, Bcl-2/Bax/Bcl-xl Signaling Pathways, and ROS Generation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yi Li; Wong, Won Fen; Ali Mohd, Mustafa; Hadi, A. Hamid A.

    2014-01-01

    Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm is a member of the Lauraceae family, widely distributed in Southeast Asia. It is from the same genus with avocado (Persea americana Mill), which is widely consumed as food and for medicinal purposes. In the present study, we examined the anticancer properties of Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm bark methanolic crude extract (PDM). PDM exhibited a potent antiproliferative effect in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, with an IC50 value of 16.68 µg/mL after 48 h of treatment. We observed that PDM caused cell cycle arrest and subsequent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, as exhibited by increased population at G0/G1 phase, higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and DNA fragmentation. Mechanistic studies showed that PDM caused significant elevation in ROS production, leading to perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell permeability, and activation of caspases-3/7. On the other hand, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that PDM treatment increased the expression of the proapoptotic molecule, Bax, but decreased the expression of prosurvival proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings imply that PDM could inhibit proliferation in MCF-7 cells via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction, indicating its potential as a therapeutic agent worthy of further development. PMID:24808916

  11. Bioenergy from willow. 1995 Annual report, November 1987--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.

    Experiments were established at Tully, New York, by the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, in cooperation with the University of Toronto and the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, to assess the potential of willows for wood biomass production. Specific objectives included determining the effects of clone type, fertilization, spacing, cutting cycle, and irrigation on biomass production. Production was high, with willow clone SV1 yielding nearly 32 oven dry tons per acre (odt ac{sup -1}) with three-year harvest cycle, irrigation, and fertilization. Clone type, fertilization, spacing, cutting cycle, and irrigation all significantly affected biomass production.more » Willow clone-site trials planted at Massena, and Tully, NY in 1993 grew well during 1994 and 1995, but some clones in the Massena trial were severely damaged by deer browse. Several new cooperators joined the project, broadening the funding base, and enabling establishment of additional willow plantings. Willow clone-site trials were planted at Himrod, King Ferry, Somerset, and Tully, NY, during 1995. A willow cutting orchard was planted during 1995 at the NYS Department of Environmental Conservation Saratoga Tree Nursery in Saratoga, NY. Plans are to begin site preparation for a 100+ acre willow bioenergy demonstration farm in central New York, and additional clone-site trials, in 1996.« less

  12. Antileishmanial Potential of Tropical Rainforest Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Monzote, Lianet; Piñón, Abel; Setzer, William N.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 115 different plant extracts from our collection, representing 96 plant species, have been evaluated for in vitro antileishmanial activity against L. amazonensis promastigotes. In addition, the extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against BALB/c mouse macrophages in order to assess a selectivity index. Crude extracts that showed a selectivity index (CC50 for macrophage / IC50 for promastigotes) ≥ 5 or with IC50 < 12.5 μg/mL against promastigotes, a total of 28 extracts, were further screened for anti-amastigote activity. A total of 25 extracts showed promising activity against L. amazonensis promastigotes with low cytotoxic activity. Ten of these extracts showed selectivity indices, (CC50 for macrophages / IC50 for amastigotes) greater than 10 and are considered “hits”, worthy candidates for further phytochemical exploration: Conostegia xalapensis methanol bark extract, Endiandra palmerstonii bark extract, Eugenia monteverdensis acetone bark extract, Eugenia sp. “fine leaf” acetone bark extract, Exothea paniculata chloroform bark extract, Mallotus paniculatus ethanol bark extract, Matelea pseudobarbata ethanol extract, Quercus insignis ethanol bark extract, Sassafras albidum dichloromethane bark extract, and Stemmadenia donnell-smithii acetone bark extract. PMID:28933376

  13. Cognitive-enhancing and antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract from Markhamia tomentosa (Benth.) K. Schum. stem bark in a rat model of scopolamine.

    PubMed

    Ionita, Radu; Postu, Paula Alexandra; Beppe, Galba Jean; Mihasan, Marius; Petre, Brindusa Alina; Hancianu, Monica; Cioanca, Oana; Hritcu, Lucian

    2017-03-28

    Plants of the genus Markhamia have been traditionally used by different tribes in various parts of West African countries, including Cameroun. Markhamia tomentosa (Benth.) K. Schum. (Bignoniaceae) is used as an antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant and anti-Alzheimer agent. The current study was undertaken in order to investigate its anti-amnesic and antioxidant potential on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment and to determine its possible mechanism of action. Rats were pretreated with the aqueous extract (50 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.), for 10 days, and received a single injection of scopolamine (0.7 mg/kg, i.p.) before training in Y-maze and radial arm-maze tests. The biochemical parameters in the rat hippocampus were also assessed to explore oxidative status. Statistical analyses were performed using two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test. F values for which p < 0.05 were regarded as statistically significant. In the scopolamine-treated rats, the aqueous extract improved memory in behavioral tests and decreased the oxidative stress in the rat hippocampus. Also, the aqueous extract exhibited anti-acetylcholinesterase activity. These results suggest that the aqueous extract ameliorates scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment by attenuation of the oxidative stress in the rat hippocampus.

  14. Fire and bark beetle interactions

    Treesearch

    Ken Gibson; Jose F. Negron

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetle populations are at outbreak conditions in many parts of the western United States and causing extensive tree mortality. Bark beetles interact with other disturbance agents in forest ecosystems, one of the primary being fires. In order to implement appropriate post-fire management of fire-damaged ecosystems, we need a better understanding of...

  15. Forest health and bark beetles

    Treesearch

    C. J. Fettig

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, bark beetles have caused significant tree mortality in the Sierra Nevada, rivaling mortality caused by wildfire in some locations. This chapter addresses two important questions: How can managers prepare for and influence levels of bark beetle-caused tree mortality given current forest conditions and future climate uncertainties? and How would the...

  16. Soil trace element changes during a phytoremediation trial with willows in southern Québec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Courchesne, François; Turmel, Marie-Claude; Cloutier-Hurteau, Benoît; Tremblay, Gilbert; Munro, Lara; Masse, Jacynthe; Labrecque, Michel

    2017-07-03

    This study determined the changes in trace elements (TE) (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) chemistry in the soils of a willow ("Fish Creek" - Salix purpurea, SV1 - Salix x dasyclados and SX67 - Salix miyabeana) plantation growing under a cold climate during a three-year trial. The soil HNO 3 -extractable and H 2 O-soluble TE concentrations and pools significantly decreased under most cultivars (Fish, SX67). Yet, TE changes showed inconsistent patterns and localized soil TE increases (Ni, Pb) were measured. Temporal changes in soil TE were also detected in control plots and sometimes exceeded changes in planted plots. Discrepancies existed between the amount of soil TE change and the amount of TE uptake by willows, except for Cd and Zn. Phytoremediation with willows could reduce soil Cd and Zn within a decadal timeframe indicating that they can be remediated by willows in moderately contaminated soils. However, the time needed to reduce soil As, Cu, Ni and Pb was too long to be efficient. We submit that soil leaching contributed to the TE decrease in controls and the TE discrepancies, and that the plantation could have secondary effects such as the accelerated leaching of soil TE.

  17. The Willow Microbiome Is Influenced by Soil Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Concentration with Plant Compartment-Specific Effects

    PubMed Central

    Tardif, Stacie; Yergeau, Étienne; Tremblay, Julien; Legendre, Pierre; Whyte, Lyle G.; Greer, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between plants and microorganisms, which is the driving force behind the decontamination of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination in phytoremediation technology, is poorly understood. Here, we aimed at characterizing the variations between plant compartments in the microbiome of two willow cultivars growing in contaminated soils. A field experiment was set-up at a former petrochemical plant in Canada and after two growing seasons, bulk soil, rhizosphere soil, roots, and stems samples of two willow cultivars (Salix purpurea cv. FishCreek, and Salix miyabeana cv. SX67) growing at three PHC contamination concentrations were taken. DNA was extracted and bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were amplified and sequenced using an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Following multivariate statistical analyses, the level of PHC-contamination appeared as the primary factor influencing the willow microbiome with compartment-specific effects, with significant differences between the responses of bacterial, and fungal communities. Increasing PHC contamination levels resulted in shifts in the microbiome composition, favoring putative hydrocarbon degraders, and microorganisms previously reported as associated with plant health. These shifts were less drastic in the rhizosphere, root, and stem tissues as compared to bulk soil, probably because the willows provided a more controlled environment, and thus, protected microbial communities against increasing contamination levels. Insights from this study will help to devise optimal plant microbiomes for increasing the efficiency of phytoremediation technology. PMID:27660624

  18. Fast-growing willow shrub named `Canastota`

    DOEpatents

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2007-05-15

    A distinct male cultivar of Salix sachalinensis.times.S. miyabeana named `Canastota`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing greater than 2.7-fold more woody biomass than its female parent (Salix sachalinensis `SX61`), 28% greater woody biomass yield than its male parent (Salix miyabeana `SX64`), and 20% greater woody biomass yield than a standard production cultivar, Salix dasyclados `SV1` when grown in the same field for the same length of time (two growing seasons after coppice) in Tully, N.Y. `Canastota` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice, and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested after two to four years of growth. This harvest cycle can be repeated several times. `Canastota` displays a low incidence of rust disease or damage by willow sawfly.

  19. Antimicrobial properties of the stem bark of Saraca indica (Caesalpiniaceae).

    PubMed

    Sainath, R Shilpakala; Prathiba, J; Malathi, R

    2009-01-01

    Chloroform, methanol, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the stem bark of Saraca indica were investigated for their antibacterial and antifungal activity against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhimurium and Streptococcus pneumoniae and the fungi: Candida albicans and Cryptococcus albidus. Methanolic and aqueous extract exhibited antimicrobial activity with MIC ranging from 0.5-2% and 1-3% respectively. Methanolic extract exhibited the strongest activity against both bacteria and fungi.

  20. Response of Organ Structure and Physiology to Autotetraploidization in Early Development of Energy Willow Salix viminalis.

    PubMed

    Dudits, Dénes; Török, Katalin; Cseri, András; Paul, Kenny; Nagy, Anna V; Nagy, Bettina; Sass, László; Ferenc, Györgyi; Vankova, Radomira; Dobrev, Petre; Vass, Imre; Ayaydin, Ferhan

    2016-03-01

    The biomass productivity of the energy willow Salix viminalis as a short-rotation woody crop depends on organ structure and functions that are under the control of genome size. Colchicine treatment of axillary buds resulted in a set of autotetraploid S. viminalis var. Energo genotypes (polyploid Energo [PP-E]; 2n = 4x = 76) with variation in the green pixel-based shoot surface area. In cases where increased shoot biomass was observed, it was primarily derived from larger leaf size and wider stem diameter. Autotetraploidy slowed primary growth and increased shoot diameter (a parameter of secondary growth). The duplicated genome size enlarged bark and wood layers in twigs sampled in the field. The PP-E plants developed wider leaves with thicker midrib and enlarged palisade parenchyma cells. Autotetraploid leaves contained significantly increased amounts of active gibberellins, cytokinins, salicylic acid, and jasmonate compared with diploid individuals. Greater net photosynthetic CO2 uptake was detected in leaves of PP-E plants with increased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Improved photosynthetic functions in tetraploids were also shown by more efficient electron transport rates of photosystems I and II. Autotetraploidization increased the biomass of the root system of PP-E plants relative to diploids. Sections of tetraploid roots showed thickening with enlarged cortex cells. Elevated amounts of indole acetic acid, active cytokinins, active gibberellin, and salicylic acid were detected in the root tips of these plants. The presented variation in traits of tetraploid willow genotypes provides a basis to use autopolyploidization as a chromosome engineering technique to alter the organ development of energy plants in order to improve biomass productivity. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Coastal Energy Corporation, Willow Springs, MO - Public Notice Document

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Coastal Energy Corporation, located at 232 Burnham Road, Willow Springs, Missouri, for alleged violations at the facility located at or near that facility

  2. 3. VIEW OF WILLOW CREEK TRESTLE FROM CORNER BASELINE AVENUE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WILLOW CREEK TRESTLE FROM CORNER BASELINE AVENUE AND 185TH AVENUE, FACING NORTHEAST - Oregon Electric Railway Westside Corridor, Between Watson & 185th Avenues, Beaverton, Washington County, OR

  3. 8. Inverted siphon structure carrying ditch flow under Willow Creek, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Inverted siphon structure carrying ditch flow under Willow Creek, looking southwest - Natomas Ditch System, Blue Ravine Segment, Juncture of Blue Ravine & Green Valley Roads, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  4. 7. Inverted siphon structure carrying ditch flow under Willow Creek, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Inverted siphon structure carrying ditch flow under Willow Creek, looking east - Natomas Ditch System, Blue Ravine Segment, Juncture of Blue Ravine & Green Valley Roads, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  5. Phytochemical analysis of Pinus eldarica bark

    PubMed Central

    Iravani, S.; Zolfaghari, B.

    2014-01-01

    Bark extract of Pinus pinaster contains numerous phenolic compounds such as catechins, taxifolin, and phenolic acids. These compounds have received considerable attentions because of their anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, antimetastatic and high antioxidant activities. Although P. pinaster bark has been intensely investigated in the past; there is comparably less information available in the literature in regard to P. eldarica bark. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of P. eldarica commonly found in Iran. A reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and taxifolin in P. pinaster and P. eldarica was developed. A mixture of 0.1% formic acid in deionized water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile was used as the mobile phase, and chromatographic separation was achieved on a Nova pack C18 at 280 nm. The two studied Pinus species contained high amounts of polyphenolic compounds. Among four marker compounds, the main substances identified in P. pinaster and P. eldarica were taxifolin and catechin, respectively. Furthermore, the composition of the bark oil of P. eldarica obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Thirty-three compounds accounting for 95.1 % of the oil were identified. The oils consisted mainly of mono- and sesquiterpenoid fractions, especially α-pinene (24.6%), caryophyllene oxide (14.0%), δ-3-carene (10.7%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (7.9%), and myrtenal (3.1%). PMID:25657795

  6. Rapid analysis of inner and outer bark composition of southern yellow pine bark from industrial sources

    Treesearch

    Chi-Leung So; Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2006-01-01

    Differences in bark chemistry between inner and outer bark are well known and may affect the suitability of various bark supplies for a particular application. Accordingly, there is a need for quality control protocols to assess variability and predict product yields. Southern yellow pine bark samples from two industrial sources were separated into inner and outer bark...

  7. Processing hardwood bark residues by screening

    Treesearch

    David M. Emanuel

    1978-01-01

    Most of the hardwood bark residues removed by floating-cutterhead or rosserhead debarkers can be processed into acceptable bark products by screening alone. And by prescreening bark residues, operators of bark processing plants can use smaller hammermills than otherwise are required, thus lowering investment and energy costs.

  8. Estimating bark thicknesses of common Appalachian hardwoods

    Treesearch

    R. Edward Thomas; Neal D. Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the thickness of bark along the stem of a tree is critical to accurately estimate residue and, more importantly, estimate the volume of solid wood available. Determining the volume or weight of bark for a log is important because bark and wood mass are typically separated while processing logs, and accurate determination of volume is problematic. Bark thickness...

  9. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by willows growing in biosolids under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, W S; Arndt, S K; Huynh, T T; Gregory, D; Baker, A J M

    2012-01-01

    Biosolids produced by sewage treatment facilities can exceed guideline thresholds for contaminant elements. Phytoextraction is one technique with the potential to reduce these elements allowing reuse of the biosolids as a soil amendment. In this field trial, cuttings of seven species/cultivars of Salix(willows) were planted directly into soil and into biosolids to identify their suitability for decontaminating biosolids. Trees were irrigated and harvested each year for three consecutive years. Harvested biomass was weighed and analyzed for the contaminant elements: As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Ni, and Zn. All Salix cultivars, except S. chilensis, growing in soils produced 10 to 20 t ha(-1) of biomass, whereas most Salix cultivars growing in biosolids produced significantly less biomass (<6 t ha(-1)). Salix matsudana (30 t ha(-1)) and S. × reichardtii A. Kerner (18 t ha(-1)) had similar aboveground biomass production in both soil and biosolids. These were also the most successful cultivars in extracting metals from biosolids, driven by superior biomass increases and not high tissue concentrations. The willows were effectual in extracting the most soluble/exchangeable metals (Cd, 0.18; Ni, 0.40; and Zn, 11.66 kg ha(-1)), whereas Cr and Cu were extracted to a lesser degree (0.02 and 0.11 kg ha(-1)). Low bioavailable elements, As, Hg, and Pb, were not detectable in any of the aboveground biomass of the willows. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Cork Containing Barks - a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, Carla; Pereira, Helena

    2016-12-01

    Tree barks are among the less studied forest products notwithstanding their relevant physiological and protective role in tree functioning. The large diversity in structure and chemical composition of barks makes them a particularly interesting potential source of chemicals and bio-products, at present valued in the context of biorefineries. One of the valuable components of barks is cork (phellem in anatomy) due to a rather unique set of properties and composition. Cork from the cork oak (Quercus suber) has been extensively studied, mostly because of its economic importance and worldwide utilization of cork products. However, several other species have barks with substantial cork amounts that may constitute additional resources for cork-based bioproducts. This paper makes a review of the tree species that have barks with significant proportion of cork and on the available information regarding their bark structural and chemical characterization. A general integrative appraisal of the formation and types of barks and of cork development is also given. The knowledge gaps and the potential interesting research lines are identified and discussed, as well as the utilization perspectives.

  11. Describing Willow Flycatcher habitats: scale perspectives and gender differences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedgwick, James A.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1992-01-01

    We compared habitat characteristics of nest sites (female-selected sites) and song perch sites (male-selected sites) with those of sites unused by Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) at three different scales of vegetation measurement: (1) microplot (central willow [Salix spp.] bush and four adjacent bushes); (2) mesoplot (0.07 ha); and, (3) macroplot (flycatcher territory size). Willow Flycatchers exhibited vegetation preferences at all three scales. Nest sites were distinguished by high willow density and low variability in willow patch size and bush height. Song perch sites were characterized by large central shrubs, low central shrub vigor, and high variability in shrub size. Unused sites were characterized by greater distances between willows and willow patches, less willow coverage, and a smaller riparian zone width than either nest or song perch sites. At all scales, nest sites were situated farther from unused sites in multivariate habitat space than were song perch sites, suggesting (1) a correspondence among scales in their ability to describe Willow Flycatcher habitat, and (2) females are more discriminating in habitat selection than males. Microhabitat differences between male-selected (song perch) and female-selected (nest) sites were evident at the two smaller scales; at the finest scale, the segregation in habitat space between male-selected and female-selected sites was greater than that between male-selected and unused sites. Differences between song perch and nest sites were not apparent at the scale of flycatcher territory size, possibly due to inclusion of (1) both nest and song perch sites, (2) defended, but unused habitat, and/or (3) habitat outside of the territory, in larger scale analyses. The differences between nest and song perch sites at the finer scales reflect their different functions (e.g., nest concealment and microclimatic requirements vs. advertising and territorial defense, respectively), and suggest that the exclusive use

  12. Songbird response to increased willow (Salix spp.) growth in Yellowstone's northern range.

    PubMed

    Baril, Lisa M; Hansen, Andrew J; Renkin, Roy; Lawrence, Rick

    2011-09-01

    After nearly a century of height suppression, willows (Salix spp.) in the northern range of Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A., are increasing in height growth as a possible consequence of wolf (Canis lupus) restoration, climate change, or other factors. Regardless of the drivers, the recent release of this rare but important habitat type could have significant implications for associated songbirds that are exhibiting declines in the region. Our objective was to evaluate bird response to releasing willows by comparing willow structure and bird community composition across three willow growth conditions: height suppressed, recently released, and previously tall (i.e., tall prior to the height increase of released willows). Released and previously tall willows exhibited high and similar vertical structure, but released willows were significantly lower in horizontal structure. Suppressed willows were significantly shorter and lower in horizontal cover than released or previously tall willows. Bird richness increased along a gradient from lowest in suppressed to highest in previously tall willows, but abundance and diversity were similar between released and previously tall willows, despite lower horizontal cover in the released condition. Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) and Lincoln's Sparrow (Melospiza lincolnii) were found in all three growth conditions; however, Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia), Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus), Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii), and Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodii) were present in released and previously tall willows only. Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla) was found in previously tall willows only, appearing to specialize on tall, dense willows. The results of our a priori habitat models indicated that foliage height diversity was the primary driver of bird richness, abundance, and diversity. These results indicate that vertical structure was a more important driver of bird community variables than horizontal

  13. Assessment of the short-term safety and tolerability of a quantified 80 % ethanol extract from the stem bark of Nauclea pobeguinii (PR 259 CT1) in healthy volunteers: a clinical phase I study.

    PubMed

    Mesia, Kahunu; Cimanga, Kanyanga; Tona, Lutete; Mampunza, Ma Miezi; Ntamabyaliro, Nsengi; Muanda, Tsobo; Muyembe, Tamfum; Totté, Jozef; Mets, Tony; Pieters, Luc; Vlietinck, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term safety and tolerability of an antimalarial herbal medicinal product (PR 259 CT1) consisting of a quantified 80 % ethanol extract from the stem bark of Nauclea pobeguinii when given orally to healthy adult male volunteers. The amount of the major alkaloid strictosamide in the extract was determined by a validated HPLC method and was shown to be 5.6 %. The herbal preparation was formulated in a gelatine capsule form containing 500 mg of PCR 259 CT1. A sample of 15 healthy male volunteers, selected using the Lot Quality Assurance of Sampling (LQAS) method, was eligible for inclusion after fulfillment of the inclusion criteria and clinical examination by a physician. The volunteers were treated in an outpatient clinic with a drug regimen of two 500 mg capsules three times daily (each eight hours) for seven days, during meals. Safety and tolerability were monitored clinically, haematologically, biochemically and by electrocardiographic (ECG) examination at days 0, 1, 3, 7 and 14. Adverse effects were recorded by self-reporting of the participants or by detection of abnormalities in clinical examinations by a physician. The oral administration of PR 259 CT1 at high doses of 2 × 500 mg/capsule/day for 7 days was found to induce no significant changes in the concentration levels of all investigated haematological, biochemical, electrocardiogram and vital sign parameters and physical characteristics after 14 days of treatment compared to those seen in the baseline data. The concentration levels of all evaluated parameters were within the normal limits as reported in the literature. All adverse events noted were mild and self-resolving including increase of appetite (33 %), headache (20 %) and nausea (20 %). Other minor side effects were insomnia, somnolence and asthenia (7 %). Thus, PR 259 CT1 presented a significant safety and tolerability in healthy volunteers to allow its further development by starting a phase II

  14. Bottom-up factors influencing riparian willow recovery in Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tercek, M.T.; Stottlemyer, R.; Renkin, R.

    2010-01-01

    After the elimination of wolves (Canis lupis L.) in the 1920s, woody riparian plant communities on the northern range of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) declined an estimated 50%. After the reintroduction of wolves in 19951996, riparian willows (Salix spp.) on YNP's northern range showed significant growth for the first time since the 1920s. However, the pace of willow recovery has not been uniform. Some communities have exceeded 400 cm, while others are still at pre-1995 levels of 250 cm max. height) willow sites where willows had escaped elk (Cervus elaphus L.) browsing with "short" willow sites that could still be browsed. Unlike studies that manipulated willow height with fences and artificial dams, we examined sites that had natural growth differences in height since the reintroduction of wolves. Tall willow sites had greater water availability, more-rapid net soil nitrogen mineralization, greater snow depth, lower soil respiration rates, and cooler summer soil temperatures than nearby short willow sites. Most of these differences were measured both in herbaceous areas adjacent to the willow patches and in the willow patches themselves, suggesting that they were not effects of varying willow height recovery but were instead preexisting site differences that may have contributed to increased plant productivity. Our results agree with earlier studies in experimental plots which suggest that the varying pace of willow recovery has been influenced by abiotic limiting factors that interact with top-down reductions in willow browsing by elk. ?? 2010 Western North American Naturalist.

  15. Steaming Chips Facilitates Bark Removal

    Treesearch

    John R. Erickson

    1976-01-01

    Whole tree chipping is a productive and economical harvesting system. The resultant product, however, is barky chips. THis paper outlines a promising method for removing the bark particles from whole tree chips.

  16. Fast-growing willow shrub named `Canastota`

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P; Kopp, Richard F; Smart, Lawrence B

    A distinct male cultivar of Salix sachalinensis.times.S. miyabeana named `Canastota`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing greater than 2.7-fold more woody biomass than its female parent (Salix sachalinensis `SX61`), 28% greater woody biomass yield than its male parent (Salix miyabeana `SX64`), and 20% greater woody biomass yield than a standard production cultivar, Salix dasyclados `SV1` when grown in the same field for the same length of time (two growing seasons after coppice) in Tully, N.Y. `Canastota` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice, and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant.more » In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested after two to four years of growth. This harvest cycle can be repeated several times. `Canastota` displays a low incidence of rust disease or damage by willow sawfly.« less

  17. Soil Profile Observations Relating to Drouth Damage in Black Willow Stands

    Treesearch

    WIlliam R. Beaufait

    1955-01-01

    During drouth, black willow (Salix nigra Karsh.) is quite sensitive to subsoil differences. Surface inspection alone rarely gives an adequate clue to the quality of the variously stratified alluvial soils on which willow may occur.

  18. Competition favors elk over beaver in a riparian willow ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, B.W.; Peinetti, H.R.; Coughenour, M.C.; Johnson, T.L.

    2012-01-01

    Beaver (Castor spp.) conservation requires an understanding of their complex interactions with competing herbivores. Simulation modeling offers a controlled environment to examine long-term dynamics in ecosystems driven by uncontrollable variables. We used a new version of the SAVANNA ecosystem model to investigate beaver (C. Canadensis) and elk (Cervus elapses) competition for willow (Salix spp.). We initialized the model with field data from Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, to simulate a 4-ha riparian ecosystem containing beaver, elk, and willow. We found beaver persisted indefinitely when elk density was or = 30 elk km_2. The loss of tall willow preceded rapid beaver declines, thus willow condition may predict beaver population trajectory in natural environments. Beaver were able to persist with slightly higher elk densities if beaver alternated their use of foraging sites in a rest-rotation pattern rather than maintained continuous use. Thus, we found asymmetrical competition for willow strongly favored elk over beaver in a simulated montane ecosystem. Finally, we discuss application of the SAVANNA model and mechanisms of competition relative to beaver persistence as metapopulations, ecological resistance and alternative state models, and ecosystem regulation.

  19. Phytochemical and physical-chemical analysis of Polish willow (Salix spp.) honey: identification of the marker compounds.

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Kuś, Piotr Marek; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Šarolić, Mladenka

    2014-02-15

    The case study of Polish Salix spp. honey was compared with published data on willow honey from other regions. GC-FID/MS (after HS-SPME and ultrasonic solvent extraction) and targeted HPLC-DAD were applied. Phenolic content, FRAP/DPPH assays and the colour coordinates were determined spectrophotometrically. Beside ubiquitous linalool derivatives, borneol (up to 10.9%), bicyclic monoterpenes with pinane skeleton (pinocarvone up to 10.6%, myrtenal up to 4.8% and verbenone up to 3.4%) and trans-β-damascenone (up to 13.0%) dominated in the headspace. The main compounds of the extractives were vomifoliol (up to 39.6%) and methyl syringate (up to 16.5%) along with not common 4-hydroxy-3-(1-methylethyl)benzaldehyde (up to 11.1%). Abscisic acid (ABA) was found (up to 53.7 mg/kg) with the isomeric ratio (Z,E)-ABA:(E,E)-ABA=1:2. The honey exhibited low antioxidant potential with pale yellow colour. The composition of Polish willow honey is similar to Mediterranean willow honeys with several relevant differences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 76 FR 179 - General Motors Company, Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation, Willow Run Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ..., Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation, Willow Run Transmission Plant, Including On-Site Leased... to workers of General Motors Company, formerly known as General Motors Corporation, Willow Run... location of General Motors Company, formerly known as General Motors Corporation, Willow Run Transmission...

  1. 75 FR 76038 - General Motors Company Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation Willow Run Transmission Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation Willow Run Transmission Plant Including On-Site Leased Workers... Company, formerly known as General Motors Corporation, Willow Run Transmission Plant, Ypsilanti, Michigan... Motors Company, formerly known as General Motors Corporation, Willow Run Transmission Plant. The...

  2. 75 FR 49527 - General Motors Company Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation, Willow Run Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation, Willow Run Transmission Plant Including On-Site Leased... Corporation, Willow Run Transmission Plant, Ypsilanti, Michigan. The notice was published in the Federal... Motors Corporation, Willow Run Transmission Plant. The Department has determined that these workers were...

  3. (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone, a new gastrointestinal smooth muscle L-type calcium channel inhibitor, which underlies the spasmolytic properties of Garcinia buchananii stem bark extract

    PubMed Central

    Balemba, Onesmo B.; Stark, Timo D.; Lösch, Sofie; Patterson, Savannah; McMillan, John S.; Mawe, Gary M.; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Garcinia buchananii Baker stem bark extract (GBB) is a traditional medication of diarrhea and dysentery in sub-Saharan Africa. It is believed that GBB causes gastrointestinal smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to determine whether GBB has spasmolytic actions and identify compounds underlying these actions. Calcium (Ca2+) imaging was used to analyze the effect of GBB on Ca2+ flashes and Ca2+ waves in guinea pig gallbladder and distal colon smooth muscle. Intracellular microelectrode recording was used to determine the effect of GBB, six fractions of GBB, M1–5 and M7, and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone, a compound isolated from M3 on action potentials in gallbladder smooth muscle. The technique was also used to analyze the effect of GBB, M3, and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone on action potentials in the circular muscle of mouse and guinea pig distal colons, and the effect of GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone on slow waves in porcine ileum. GBB inhibited Ca2+ flashes and Ca2+ waves. GBB, M3 and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone inhibited action potentials. L-type Ca2+ channel activator Bay K 8644 increased the discharge of action potentials in mouse colon but did not trigger or increase action potentials in the presence of GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone. GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone inhibited action potentials in the presence of Bay K 8644. GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone reduced the amplitude but did not alter the frequency of slow waves in the porcine ileum. In conclusion, GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone relax smooth muscle by inhibiting L-type Ca2+ channels, thus have potential for use as therapies of gastrointestinal smooth muscle spasms, and arrhythmias. PMID:26081368

  4. A multiscaled model of southwestern willow flycatcher breeding habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, J.R.; Paradzick, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    The southwestern willow flycatcher (SWFL; Empidonax traillii extimus) is an endangered songbird whose habitat has declined dramatically over the last century. Understanding habitat selection patterns and the ability to identify potential breeding areas for the SWFL is crucial to the management and conservation of this species. We developed a multiscaled model of SWTL breeding habitat with a Geographic Information System (GIS), survey data, GIS variables, and multiple logistic regressions. We obtained presence and absence survey data from a riverine ecosystem and a reservoir delta in south-central Arizona, USA, in 1999. We extracted the GIS variables from satellite imagery and digital elevation models to characterize vegetation and floodplain within the project area. We used multiple logistic regressions within a cell-based (30 X 30 m) modeling environment to (1) determine associations between GIS variables and breeding-site occurrence at different spatial scales (0.09-72 ha), and (2) construct a predictive model. Our best model explained 54% of the variability in breeding-site occurrence with the following variables: vegetation density at the site (0.09 ha), proportion of dense vegetation and variability in vegetation density within a 4.5-ha neighborhood, and amount of floodplain or flat terrain within a 41-ha neighborhood. The density of breeding sites was highest in areas that the model predicted to be most suitable within the project area and at an external test site 200 km away. Conservation efforts must focus on protecting not only occupied patches, but also surrounding riparian forests and floodplain to ensure long-term viability of SWTL. We will use the multiscaled model to map SWTL breeding habitat in Arizona, prioritize future survey effort, and examine changes in habitat abundance and quality over time.

  5. Southwestern willow flycatchers recaptured at wintering sites in Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koronkiewicz, Thomas J.; Sogge, Mark K.

    2001-01-01

    An adult Southwestern Willow Flycatcher banded in summer 1998 at Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada, was recaptured the following winter in Santa Cruz, Costa Rica, then relocated at Ash Meadows during the 1999 breeding season. Another Southwestern Willow Flycatcher banded in 1999 as a nestling at Roosevelt Lake, Arizona, was recaptured in January 2000 on its wintering grounds in Bolsen, Costa Rica. The bird was recaptured at Roosevelt Lake in summer 2000, returned to the same wintering site in Bolsen the following winter, and was relocated at Roosevelt Lake in summer 2001.

  6. Depositional characteristics of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers on tree barks

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Man Young

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to determine the depositional characteristics of several tree barks, including Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), Pine (Pinus densiflora), Platanus (Platanus), and Metasequoia (Metasequoia glyptostroboides). These were used as passive air sampler (PAS) of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Methods Tree barks were sampled from the same site. PBDEs were analyzed by highresolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometer, and the lipid content was measured using the gravimetric method by n-hexane extraction. Results Gingko contained the highest lipid content (7.82 mg/g dry), whereas pine (4.85 mg/g dry), Platanus (3.61 mg/g dry), and Metasequoia (0.97 mg/g dry) had relatively lower content. The highest total PBDEs concentration was observed in Metasequoia (83,159.0 pg/g dry), followed by Ginkgo (53,538.4 pg/g dry), Pine (20,266.4 pg/g dry), and Platanus (12,572.0 pg/g dry). There were poor correlations between lipid content and total PBDE concentrations in tree barks (R2=0.1011, p =0.682). Among the PBDE congeners, BDE 206, 207 and 209 were highly brominated PBDEs that are sorbed to particulates in ambient air, which accounted for 90.5% (84.3-95.6%) of the concentration and were therefore identified as the main PBDE congener. The concentrations of particulate PBDEs deposited on tree barks were dependent on morphological characteristics such as surface area or roughness of barks. Conclusions Therefore, when using the tree barks as the PAS of the atmospheric PBDEs, samples belonging to same tree species should be collected to reduce errors and to obtain reliable data. PMID:25116365

  7. Depositional characteristics of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers on tree barks.

    PubMed

    Chun, Man Young

    2014-07-17

    This study was conducted to determine the depositional characteristics of several tree barks, including Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), Pine (Pinus densiflora), Platanus (Platanus), and Metasequoia (Metasequoia glyptostroboides). These were used as passive air sampler (PAS) of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Tree barks were sampled from the same site. PBDEs were analyzed by highresolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometer, and the lipid content was measured using the gravimetric method by n-hexane extraction. Gingko contained the highest lipid content (7.82 mg/g dry), whereas pine (4.85 mg/g dry), Platanus (3.61 mg/g dry), and Metasequoia (0.97 mg/g dry) had relatively lower content. The highest total PBDEs concentration was observed in Metasequoia (83,159.0 pg/g dry), followed by Ginkgo (53,538.4 pg/g dry), Pine (20,266.4 pg/g dry), and Platanus (12,572.0 pg/g dry). There were poor correlations between lipid content and total PBDE concentrations in tree barks (R(2)=0.1011, p =0.682). Among the PBDE congeners, BDE 206, 207 and 209 were highly brominated PBDEs that are sorbed to particulates in ambient air, which accounted for 90.5% (84.3-95.6%) of the concentration and were therefore identified as the main PBDE congener. The concentrations of particulate PBDEs deposited on tree barks were dependent on morphological characteristics such as surface area or roughness of barks. Therefore, when using the tree barks as the PAS of the atmospheric PBDEs, samples belonging to same tree species should be collected to reduce errors and to obtain reliable data.

  8. An Efficient, Robust, and Inexpensive Grinding Device for Herbal Samples like Cinchona Bark.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Steen Honoré; Holmfred, Else; Cornett, Claus; Maldonado, Carla; Rønsted, Nina

    2015-01-01

    An effective, robust, and inexpensive grinding device for the grinding of herb samples like bark and roots was developed by rebuilding a commercially available coffee grinder. The grinder was constructed to be able to provide various particle sizes, to be easy to clean, and to have a minimum of dead volume. The recovery of the sample when grinding as little as 50 mg of crude Cinchona bark was about 60%. Grinding is performed in seconds with no rise in temperature, and the grinder is easily disassembled to be cleaned. The influence of the particle size of the obtained powders on the recovery of analytes in extracts of Cinchona bark was investigated using HPLC.

  9. Bark structure of southern upland oaks

    Treesearch

    E.T. Howard

    1977-01-01

    Bark structure of eleven oak species commonly found on southern pine sites was examined and described. In inner bark (phloem), groups of thick-walled lignified fibers and sclereids are interspersed among thin-walled cellulosic elements (parenchyma, sieve tube members, and companion cells). These fibers and sclereids greatly influence the bark's density, hardness,...

  10. Power mulchers can apply hardwood bark mulch

    Treesearch

    David M. Emanuel

    1971-01-01

    Two makes of power mulchers were evaluated for their ability to apply raw or processed hardwood bark mulch for use in revegetating disturbed soils. Tests were made to determine the uniformity of bark coverage and distance to which coverage was obtained. Moisture content and particle-size distribution of the barks used were also tested to determine whether or not these...

  11. Estimating sugar maple bark thickness and volume.

    Treesearch

    Charles L. Stayton; Michael Hoffman

    1970-01-01

    Sugar maple bark thickness and volume were estimated using first a published method, then equations developed by the authors. Both methods gave estimates that compared closely with measured values. Information is also presented on variation in bark thickness and on weight and volume of bark as a percentage of total merchantable stem weight and volume.

  12. Segregating wood and bark chips by photosorting.

    Treesearch

    John A. Sturos; Douglas B. Brumm

    1978-01-01

    Spectral transmittance measurements on aspen, sugar maple, and loblolly pine wood and bark chips resulted in peak wood-to-bark transmission ratio ranges from 10 to 50. Preliminary segregation results from an experimental photosorter indicate than 70 to 80% of the wood fiber can be recovered with less than a 2% bark content.

  13. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity of Cordia dichotoma (Forst f.) bark

    PubMed Central

    Nariya, Pankaj B.; Bhalodia, Nayan R.; Shukla, Vinay J.; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Nariya, Mukesh B.

    2013-01-01

    Cordia dichotoma Forst. f. bark, identified as botanical source of Shleshmataka in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Present investigation was undertaken to evaluate possible antioxidant potential of methanolic and butanol extract of C. dichotoma bark. In vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic and butanol extract was determined by 1,1, diphenyl–2, picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The extracts were also evaluated for their phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. Phenolic content was measured using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as Gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of methanolic extract was measured by DPPH assay and was compared to ascorbic acid and ferric reducing power of the extract was evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study three in vitro models were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. The first two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and remaining one method evaluated the reducing power. The present study revealed that the C. dichotoma bark has significant radical scavenging activity. PMID:24049418

  14. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity of Cordia dichotoma (Forst f.) bark.

    PubMed

    Nariya, Pankaj B; Bhalodia, Nayan R; Shukla, Vinay J; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Nariya, Mukesh B

    2013-01-01

    Cordia dichotoma Forst. f. bark, identified as botanical source of Shleshmataka in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Present investigation was undertaken to evaluate possible antioxidant potential of methanolic and butanol extract of C. dichotoma bark. In vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic and butanol extract was determined by 1,1, diphenyl-2, picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The extracts were also evaluated for their phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as Gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of methanolic extract was measured by DPPH assay and was compared to ascorbic acid and ferric reducing power of the extract was evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study three in vitro models were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. The first two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and remaining one method evaluated the reducing power. The present study revealed that the C. dichotoma bark has significant radical scavenging activity.

  15. The antiplasmodial agents of the stem bark of Entandrophragma angolense (Meliaceae).

    PubMed

    Bickii, Jean; Tchouya, Guy Raymond Feuya; Tchouankeu, Jean Claude; Tsamo, Etienne

    2006-11-13

    In the search of active principles from the stem bark of Entandrophragma angolense, we submitted the compounds isolated from the dichloromethane-methanol (1:1) extract of the stem bark to antimalarial test against chloroquine resistant strain W2 of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite. Only 7alpha-obacunyl acetate and a cycloartane derivative exhibited a good activity, with IC(50)s of 2 and 5.4 microg/ml respectively. Other compounds were moderately active.

  16. Quadruple high-resolution α-glucosidase/α-amylase/PTP1B/radical scavenging profiling combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for identification of antidiabetic constituents in crude root bark of Morus alba L.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Kongstad, Kenneth Thermann; Jäger, Anna Katharina; Nielsen, John; Staerk, Dan

    2018-06-29

    In this paper, quadruple high-resolution α-glucosidase/α-amylase/PTP1B/radical scavenging profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR were used for studying the polypharmacological properties of crude root bark extract of Morus alba L. This species is used as an anti-diabetic principle in many traditional treatment systems around the world, and the crude ethyl acetate extract of M. alba root bark was found to inhibit α-glucosidase, α-amylase and protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) with IC 50 values of 1.70 ± 0.72, 5.16 ± 0.69, and 5.07 ± 0.68 μg/mL as well as showing radical scavenging activity equaling a TEAC value of (3.82 ± 0.14) × 10 4  mM per gram extract. Subsequent investigation of the crude extract using quadruple high-resolution α-glucosidase/α-amylase/PTP1B/radical scavenging profiling provided a quadruple biochromatogram that allowed direct correlation of the HPLC peaks with one or more of the tested bioactivities. This was used to target subsequent HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR analysis towards peaks representing bioactive analytes, and led to identification of a new Diels-Alder adduct named Moracenin E as well as a series of Diels-Alder adducts and isoprenylated flavonoids as potent α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitors with IC 50 values in the range of 0.60-27.15 μM and 1.22-69.38 μM, respectively. In addition, these compounds and two 2-arylbenzofurans were found to be potent PTP1B inhibitors with IC 50 values ranging from 4.04 to 21.67 μM. The high-resolution radical scavenging profile also revealed that almost all of the compounds possess radical scavenging activity. In conclusion the quadruple high-resolution profiling method presented here allowed a detailed profiling of individual constituents in crude root bark extract of M. alba, and the method provides a general tool for detailed mapping of bioactive constituents in polypharmacological herbal remedies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Microbial expression profiles in the rhizosphere of willows depend on soil contamination

    PubMed Central

    Yergeau, Etienne; Sanschagrin, Sylvie; Maynard, Christine; St-Arnaud, Marc; Greer, Charles W

    2014-01-01

    The goal of phytoremediation is to use plants to immobilize, extract or degrade organic and inorganic pollutants. In the case of organic contaminants, plants essentially act indirectly through the stimulation of rhizosphere microorganisms. A detailed understanding of the effect plants have on the activities of rhizosphere microorganisms could help optimize phytoremediation systems and enhance their use. In this study, willows were planted in contaminated and non-contaminated soils in a greenhouse, and the active microbial communities and the expression of functional genes in the rhizosphere and bulk soil were compared. Ion Torrent sequencing of 16S rRNA and Illumina sequencing of mRNA were performed. Genes related to carbon and amino-acid uptake and utilization were upregulated in the willow rhizosphere, providing indirect evidence of the compositional content of the root exudates. Related to this increased nutrient input, several microbial taxa showed a significant increase in activity in the rhizosphere. The extent of the rhizosphere stimulation varied markedly with soil contamination levels. The combined selective pressure of contaminants and rhizosphere resulted in higher expression of genes related to competition (antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation) in the contaminated rhizosphere. Genes related to hydrocarbon degradation were generally more expressed in contaminated soils, but the exact complement of genes induced was different for bulk and rhizosphere soils. Together, these results provide an unprecedented view of microbial gene expression in the plant rhizosphere during phytoremediation. PMID:24067257

  18. Migration of the Willow Flycatcher along the Middle Rio Grande

    Treesearch

    Wang Yong; Deborah M. Finch

    1997-01-01

    We studied timing, abundance, subspecies composition, fat stores, stopover length, and habitat use of Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) during spring and fall stopover along the Middle Rio Grande, New Mexico. Spring migration started in mid-May and lasted about a month. Fall migration started in early-August and also lasted about a month. The most abundant...

  19. Seasonal Variation in the Hormone Content of Willow

    PubMed Central

    Alvim, Ronald; Thomas, Sheila; Saunders, Peter F.

    1978-01-01

    Levels of abscisic acid were followed in the xylem sap, mature leaves, and apices of field-grown willow (Salix viminalis L.) during the summer months, under natural and artificially extended photoperiods. Although the long day treatment prevented the general onset of dormancy, the plants grown under natural daylengths showed lower concentration of abscisic acid than those kept under long days. PMID:16660604

  20. 75 FR 63431 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Willow Creek, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ...] Radio Broadcasting Services; Willow Creek, CA AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... filing procedures for comments, see 47 CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission...

  1. Phylogenetic Relationships of American Willows (Salix L., Salicaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Lauron-Moreau, Aurélien; Pitre, Frédéric E.; Argus, George W.; Labrecque, Michel; Brouillet, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Salix L. is the largest genus in the family Salicaceae (450 species). Several classifications have been published, but taxonomic subdivision has been under continuous revision. Our goal is to establish the phylogenetic structure of the genus using molecular data on all American willows, using three DNA markers. This complete phylogeny of American willows allows us to propose a biogeographic framework for the evolution of the genus. Material was obtained for the 122 native and introduced willow species of America. Sequences were obtained from the ITS (ribosomal nuclear DNA) and two plastid regions, matK and rbcL. Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference) were performed on the data. Geographic distribution was mapped onto the tree. The species tree provides strong support for a division of the genus into two subgenera, Salix and Vetrix. Subgenus Salix comprises temperate species from the Americas and Asia, and their disjunction may result from Tertiary events. Subgenus Vetrix is composed of boreo-arctic species of the Northern Hemisphere and their radiation may coincide with the Quaternary glaciations. Sixteen species have ambiguous positions; genetic diversity is lower in subg. Vetrix. A molecular phylogeny of all species of American willows has been inferred. It needs to be tested and further resolved using other molecular data. Nonetheless, the genus clearly has two clades that have distinct biogeographic patterns. PMID:25880993

  2. Wind in the Willows--Theatre Activity Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    Part of the New York City Board of Education's Early Stages program, and intended for elementary and secondary school teachers who wish to include a unit on theater in their classes, this guide offers suggestions for lessons and activities to accompany viewing a performance of "Wind in the Willows" at the Nederlander Theater. Part one of…

  3. "The Wind in the Willows" and the Style of Romance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The style of Kenneth Grahame's "The Wind in the Willows" arises from an alternative vision and choice of values characteristic of romance. Romance seeks fulfillment beyond the consequences of everyday relationships and the constrictions of ordinary life. Causal relationships give way to lists of independent items, unmotivated outcomes, and…

  4. Recovering southwestern willow flycatcher populations will benefit riparian health

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch

    1999-01-01

    When the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) listed the southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii exigua) as federally endangered in 1995, new incentives, controversies and energy were generated to conserve and restore southwestern riparian ecosystems. Close attention has been focused on river and stream conservation in the Southwest since at least 1977,...

  5. Willow on Yellowstone's northern range: evidence for a trophic cascade?

    PubMed

    Beyer, Hawthorne L; Merrill, Evelyn H; Varley, Nathan; Boyce, Mark S

    2007-09-01

    Reintroduction of wolves (Canis lupus) to Yellowstone National Park in 1995-1996 has been argued to promote a trophic cascade by altering elk (Cervus elaphus) density, habitat-selection patterns, and behavior that, in turn, could lead to changes within the plant communities used by elk. We sampled two species of willow (Salix boothii and S. geyeriana) on the northern winter range to determine whether (1) there was quantitative evidence of increased willow growth following wolf reintroduction, (2) browsing by elk affected willow growth, and (3) any increase in growth observed was greater than that expected by climatic and hydrological factors alone, thereby indicating a trophic cascade caused by wolves. Using stem sectioning techniques to quantify historical growth patterns we found an approximately twofold increase in stem growth-ring area following wolf reintroduction for both species of willow. This increase could not be explained by climate and hydrological factors alone; the presence of wolves on the landscape was a significant predictor of stem growth above and beyond these abiotic factors. Growth-ring area was positively correlated with the previous year's ring area and negatively correlated with the percentage of twigs browsed from the stem during the winter preceding growth, indicating that elk browse impeded stem growth. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis of a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade on Yellowstone's northern winter range following wolf reintroduction. We suggest that the community-altering effects of wolf restoration are an endorsement of ecological-process management in Yellowstone National Park.

  6. Geologic associations of Arizona willow in the White Mountains, Arizona

    Treesearch

    Jonathan W. Long; Alvin L. Medina

    2007-01-01

    The Arizona willow (Salix arizonica Dorn) is a rare species growing in isolated populations at the margins of the Colorado Plateau. Although its habitat in the White Mountains of Arizona has been mischaracterized as basaltic, the area is actually a complex mixture of felsic, basaltic and epiclastic formations. Comparing the distribution of the...

  7. Epicormic branches affect lumber grade and value in willow oak

    Treesearch

    James S. Meadows; E.C. Burkhardt

    2001-01-01

    A case study was conducted in a 50-yr-old bottomland oak stand in central Alabama to investigate the relationship between epicormic branches and lumber grade and value in willow oak (Quercus phellos L.). The stand had been thinned from below 7–10 yr earlier, resulting in a wide variety of epicormic branch conditions on the residual trees. A...

  8. Weight distribution in the current annual twigs of barclay willow.

    Treesearch

    John F. Thilenius

    1988-01-01

    The current annual twigs of unbrowsed Barclay willow (Salix barclayi Anderss.) grow as gently tapering cylinders. Consequently, the distal half of the twig has only 33 to 41 percent of the total weight. Longer twigs have proportionally less weight in the distal end. The total weight of an unbrowsed twig can be estimated by simple regression of...

  9. Impact of phosphate on glyphosate uptake and toxicity in willow.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; Le Manac'h, Sarah Gingras; Moingt, Matthieu; Smedbol, Elise; Paquet, Serge; Labrecque, Michel; Lucotte, Marc; Juneau, Philippe

    2016-03-05

    Phosphate (PO4(3-)) has been shown to increase glyphosate uptake by willow, a plant species known for its phytoremediation potential. However, it remains unclear if this stimulation of glyphosate uptake can result in an elevated glyphosate toxicity to plants (which could prevent the use of willows in glyphosate-remediation programs). Consequently, we studied the effects of PO4(3-) on glyphosate uptake and toxicity in a fast growing willow cultivar (Salix miyabeana SX64). Plants were grown in hydroponic solution with a combination of glyphosate (0, 0.001, 0.065 and 1 mg l(-1)) and PO4(3-) (0, 200 and 400 mg l(-1)). We demonstrated that PO4(3-) fertilization greatly increased glyphosate uptake by roots and its translocation to leaves, which resulted in increased shikimate concentration in leaves. In addition to its deleterious effects in photosynthesis, glyphosate induced oxidative stress through hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Although it has increased glyphosate accumulation, PO4(3-) fertilization attenuated the herbicide's deleterious effects by increasing the activity of antioxidant systems and alleviating glyphosate-induced oxidative stress. Our results indicate that in addition to the glyphosate uptake, PO4(3-) is involved in glyphosate toxicity in willow by preventing glyphosate induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Maturation of Acorns of Cherrybark, Water, and Willow Oaks

    Treesearch

    F. T. Bonner

    1974-01-01

    Acorns of cherrybark, water, and willow oaks grew slowly but steadily in July and August and reached maximum size in September, when fats and carbohydrates, the major storage foods, accumulated rapidly. At physiological maturity in late October or early November, crude fat levels were 15 to 20 percent of seed dry weight and carbohydrates totaled 25 percent.

  11. Root growth studies of willow cuttings using Rhizoboxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omarova, Dinara; Lammeranner, Walter; Florineth, Florin

    2014-05-01

    Riparian forests (Tugay forests) in Central Asia (Kazakhstan) play a significant in soil protection. However, unadapted forest use leads to damage and loss of these fragile ecosystems. Willows have a crucial function in the ecosystem of these riparian forests. Willows facilitate the colonization with other important tree species and furthermore they protect the soil from wind and water erosion. To propagate willows and to estimate the beneficial effects of these plants it is important to know the root growth development. The research design is planned as model experiment with rhizoboxes. Rhizoboxes are non-invasive investigation methods which offer the possibility to survey the root system growth dynamics in time and space. A total of 33 rhizoboxes in size of 50cm x 75 cm x 5 cm will be constructed. The rhizoboxes will be tilted by 45 degrees using the gravitropism of the roots. The willow cuttings (Salix purpurea) will be planted in three different soil types. Each test series (growth period) will take three months. Investigated parameters will be root architecture, dynamic of root growth and above and below ground biomass allocation. Data will be drawn from photographic surveys which will be performed once a week. The contribution will present the methodology of these rhizobox investigations.

  12. Differences in uptake and translocation of hexavalent and trivalent chromium by two species of willows.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Gu, Ji-Dong; Xing, Li-Qun

    2008-11-01

    Uptake and translocation of chromium (Cr) by two willow species was investigated. Intact pre-rooted weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) and hankow willows (Salix matsudana Koidz) were grown hydroponically and spiked with hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] or trivalent chromium [Cr (III)] at 25.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C for 120 h. Removal of leaves was also performed as a treatment to quantify the effect of transpiration on uptake and translocation of either of the Cr species. Although the two willow species were able to eliminate Cr (VI) and Cr (III) from the hydroponic solution, significant differences in the removal rate for both chemical species were observed between the two willows (p < 0.05): faster removal rate for Cr (III) than Cr (VI) was detected in both willow species; hankow willows showed higher removal potential for both chemical species than weeping willows. Remarkable decreases in the removal rates for both Cr species were detected in the willows with leaves removed (p < 0.05). The results from the treatments spiked with Cr (VI) also revealed that Cr was more mobile in plant materials of hankow willows than that in weeping willows (p < 0.01), while higher translocation efficiency of Cr was observed in weeping willows than hankow willows for the Cr (III) treated (p < 0.01). However, a convincing decrease in the translocation efficiency due to the removal of leaves was only observed in the treatments spiked with Cr (VI) (p < 0.05). Substantial differences existed in the distribution of Cr species in plant materials after exposure of either of the chemical forms: roots and lower stems were the major sites for accumulation in weeping willows exposed to Cr (VI) and Cr (III), respectively; in contrast roots were the only sink in hankow willows exposed to both chemical species. The capacity of willows to assimilate both Cr species was also evaluated using detached leaves and roots of both willow species in sealed glass vessels in vivo. The results indicated that

  13. Predation and bark beetle dynamics

    Treesearch

    John D. Reeve

    1997-01-01

    Bark beetle populations may undergo dramatic fluctuations and are often important pests in coniferous forests.Their dynamics are thought to be primarily driven by factors affecting the resistance of the host tree to attack, i.e., bottom-up forces, while natural enemies are usually assigned a minor role in these systems.I present behavioral experiments that suggest that...

  14. Tree physiology and bark beetles

    Treesearch

    Michael G. Ryan; Gerard Sapes; Anna Sala; Sharon Hood

    2015-01-01

    Irruptive bark beetles usually co-occur with their co-evolved tree hosts at very low (endemic) population densities. However, recent droughts and higher temperatures have promoted widespread tree mortality with consequences for forest carbon, fire and ecosystem services (Kurz et al., 2008; Raffa et al., 2008; Jenkins et al., 2012). In this issue of New Phytologist,...

  15. Southern Pine Bark Beetle Guild

    Treesearch

    T. Evan Nebeker

    2011-01-01

    Dendroctonus frontalis (southern pine beetle), D. terebrans (black turpentine beetle), Ips avulsus (small southern pine engraver or four-spined engraver), I. grandicollis (five-spined engraver), and I. calligraphus (six-spined engraver) comprise the southern pine bark beetle guild. Often they are found sharing the same hosts in the Southeastern United States. They...

  16. The action of Saraca asoca Roxb. de Wilde bark on the PGH2 synthetase enzyme complex of the sheep vesicular gland.

    PubMed

    Middelkoop, T B; Labadie, R P

    1985-01-01

    Extracts of S. asoca bark and pure compounds isolated from the bark were tested for properties that might inhibit the conversion of arachidonic acid by the PGH2 synthetase. They were assayed spectrophotometrically with adrenaline as cofactor. Methanol- and ethyl acetate extracts inhibited the conversion. The observed inhibition was confirmed in an oxygraphic assay. Two procyanidin dimers from the ethyl acetate extract showed enzyme catalyzed oxidation in our assay. The ether extract of the bark was also found to contain yet unknown substances which were capable of being oxidised by the PGH2 synthetase. The combined action of the components of the bark may explain the mode of action of the drug Asoka Aristha, the main ingredient of which is the bark of S. asoca. The drug is traditionally used in Sri Lanka to treat menorrhagia.

  17. Response of Organ Structure and Physiology to Autotetraploidization in Early Development of Energy Willow Salix viminalis1

    PubMed Central

    Dudits, Dénes; Török, Katalin; Cseri, András; Paul, Kenny; Nagy, Bettina; Sass, László; Ferenc, Györgyi; Vankova, Radomira; Dobrev, Petre; Vass, Imre; Ayaydin, Ferhan

    2016-01-01

    The biomass productivity of the energy willow Salix viminalis as a short-rotation woody crop depends on organ structure and functions that are under the control of genome size. Colchicine treatment of axillary buds resulted in a set of autotetraploid S. viminalis var. Energo genotypes (polyploid Energo [PP-E]; 2n = 4x = 76) with variation in the green pixel-based shoot surface area. In cases where increased shoot biomass was observed, it was primarily derived from larger leaf size and wider stem diameter. Autotetraploidy slowed primary growth and increased shoot diameter (a parameter of secondary growth). The duplicated genome size enlarged bark and wood layers in twigs sampled in the field. The PP-E plants developed wider leaves with thicker midrib and enlarged palisade parenchyma cells. Autotetraploid leaves contained significantly increased amounts of active gibberellins, cytokinins, salicylic acid, and jasmonate compared with diploid individuals. Greater net photosynthetic CO2 uptake was detected in leaves of PP-E plants with increased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Improved photosynthetic functions in tetraploids were also shown by more efficient electron transport rates of photosystems I and II. Autotetraploidization increased the biomass of the root system of PP-E plants relative to diploids. Sections of tetraploid roots showed thickening with enlarged cortex cells. Elevated amounts of indole acetic acid, active cytokinins, active gibberellin, and salicylic acid were detected in the root tips of these plants. The presented variation in traits of tetraploid willow genotypes provides a basis to use autopolyploidization as a chromosome engineering technique to alter the organ development of energy plants in order to improve biomass productivity. PMID:26729798

  18. The Mobile Bark Blower: An Evaluation of Performance and Costs

    Treesearch

    Raymond L. Sarles; David M. Emanuel

    1977-01-01

    A custom-built bark blower truck (MOBLOW) developed in Oregon was tested for its effectiveness in applying bark mulches, sawdust, and shavings in the eastern United States. Tests determined the bark blower's performance and cost in mulching grass-legume seedings and shrub beds with 10 bark products or wood residues. Bark blower trucks built to MOBLOW...

  19. Hexavalent chromium induced stress and metabolic responses in hybrid willows.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Gu, Ji-Dong; Huang, Shen-Zhuo

    2007-04-01

    Metabolic responses to hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)) stress and the uptake and translocation of Cr(6+ )were investigated using pre-rooted hybrid willows (Salix matsudana Koidz x Salix alba L.) exposed to hydroponic solution spiked with K(2)CrO(4) at 24.0 +/- 1 degrees C for 192 h. Various physiological parameters of the plants were monitored to determine toxicity from Cr(6+ )exposure. At Cr(6+) treatments of 50% higher than that of the non-treated control plants. As Cr concentrations were increased further, a slight increase in the transpiration rate was also observed compared with the controls. Negligible difference in the chlorophyll contents in leaves between the treated and the non-treated control plants was measured, except for willows exposed to 1.05 mg Cr/l. The response of soluble proteins in leaves of willows to Cr treatments was remarkable. Cr-induced toxicity appeared in all treatments resulting in reduced activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) compared to the controls. Superoxide dismutases (SOD) activity in the leaf cells showed a positive increase after Cr exposure. Of all selected parameters, soluble proteins in leaves were the most sensitive to Cr(6+ )doses, showing a significant linear correlation negatively (R (2) = 0.931). Uptake of Cr(6+) by willows grown in flasks was found to increase linearly with the added Cr(6+ )(a zero order kinetics), as indicated by the high R (2) (0.9322). Recovery of Cr in different parts of plant materials varied significantly with roots being the dominant site of Cr accumulation. Although the translocation to shoots was detected, the amount of Cr translocated to shoots was considerably small. The capacity of willows to assimilate Cr(6+ )was also evaluated using detached leaves and roots in sealed glass vessels in vivo. Uptake of Cr by roots was mediated possibly through an active transport mechanism, whereas the cuticle of leaves was the major obstacle

  20. Condensed Tannins from Longan Bark as Inhibitor of Tyrosinase: Structure, Activity, and Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chai, Wei-Ming; Huang, Qian; Lin, Mei-Zhen; Ou-Yang, Chong; Huang, Wen-Yang; Wang, Ying-Xia; Xu, Kai-Li; Feng, Hui-Ling

    2018-01-31

    In this study, the content, structure, antityrosinase activity, and mechanism of longan bark condensed tannins were evaluated. The findings obtained from mass spectrometry demonstrated that longan bark condensed tannins were mixtures of procyanidins, propelargonidins, prodelphinidins, and their acyl derivatives (galloyl and p-hydroxybenzoate). The enzyme analysis indicated that these mixtures were efficient, reversible, and mixed (competitive is dominant) inhibitor of tyrosinase. What's more, the mixtures showed good inhibitions on proliferation, intracellular enzyme activity and melanogenesis of mouse melanoma cells (B 16 ). From molecular docking, the results showed the interactions between inhibitors and tyrosinase were driven by hydrogen bond, electrostatic, and hydrophobic interactions. In addition, high levels of total phenolic and extractable condensed tannins suggested that longan bark might be a good source of tyrosinase inhibitor. This study would offer theoretical basis for the development of longan bark condensed tannins as novel food preservatives and medicines of skin diseases.

  1. Fraxinus paxiana bark mediated photosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and their size modulation using swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Hemant; Vendamani, V. S.; Pathak, Anand P.; Tiwari, Archana

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthesis of silver nanoparticles is presented using bark extracts of Fraxinus paxiana var. sikkimensis. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterised by UV-Vis absorption, photoluminescence, powder X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the bark samples are irradiated with 100 MeV silver ions and the subsequent structural modifications are analyzed. The swift heavy ion irradiated Fraxinus paxiana var. sikkimensis bark is also used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. It is illustrated that the irradiated bark assists in synthesizing smaller nanoparticles of homogenous size distribution as compared to when the pristine bark is used. The newly synthesized silver nanoparticles are also used to demonstrate the antimicrobial activities on Escherichia coli bacteria.

  2. Leishmanicidal evaluation of extracts from native plants of the Yucatan peninsula.

    PubMed

    Peraza-Sánchez, S R; Cen-Pacheco, F; Noh-Chimal, A; May-Pat, F; Simá-Polanco, P; Dumonteil, E; García-Miss, M R; Mut-Martín, M

    2007-06-01

    Methanol extracts were prepared from different parts of 18 plants collected in the Yucatan peninsula and evaluated in an in vitro bioassay for leishmanicidal activity against Leishmania mexicana promastigotes. The ten most potent plant extracts (IC(50)<50 microg/ml) were Aphelandra scabra leaves, Byrsonima bucidaefolia bark, Byrsonima crassifolia bark, Clusia flava leaves, Cupania dentata bark, Diphysa carthagenensis leaves, Dorstenia contrajerva whole plant, Milleria quinqueflora roots, Tridax procumbens whole plant, and Vitex gaumeri bark.

  3. Barking up the Right Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Paul D.

    2006-01-01

    There is a childhood saying about a confused dog who thinks he sees a possum in a tree. The problem is that the possum is actually in a different tree so the dog barks up the wrong tree. American education is constantly playing both dog and possum. Sometimes they are the prey, and sometimes they are just confused about what and where the prey is.…

  4. Barks Essential Oil, Secondary Metabolites and Biological Activities of Four Organs of Tunisian Calligonum azel Maire.

    PubMed

    Bannour, Marwa; Aouadhi, Chedia; Khalfaoui, Houssem; Aschi-Smiti, Samira; Khadhri, Ayda

    2016-11-01

    This study is the first to investigate the chemical composition of barks essential oil (EO), secondary metabolites and biological activities of the MeOH and infusions extracts of seeds, leaves, barks and roots of Calligonum azel Maire (Polygonaceae) harvested from Tunisian desert. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) results showed the presence of fifty-four compounds in barks EO. The major components were: viridiflorol (14.6%), α-eudesmol (8.65%), trans-caryophyllene (6.72%), elemol (6.63%), β-eudesmol (6.21%). The obtained results showed that C. azel is a very rich plant in secondary metabolites. High contents in polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins were observed in both extracts of all studied organs. Significant differences were found between both extracts of the four organs. Thus, polyphenols and tannins were more abundant in leaves infusion extract, while, flavonoids showed a high level in barks extract. The antioxidant activity data demonstrated that all extracts showed strong antioxidant and radical scavenging activities. The MeOH extracts presented potential for antibacterial and antifungal activities against all tested microorganisms. The inhibition zones diameters and minimal inhibitrice concentration values were in the range of 9 - 15 mm and 2.5 - 20 μg/ml, respectively. This study demonstrated that C. azel can be regarded as an excellent plant source for natural antimicrobial agents. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  5. Willow Flycatcher nonbreeding territory defense behavior in Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sogge, M.K.; Koronkiewicz, T.J.; van Riper, Charles; Durst, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the intraspecific territorial defense behavior of wintering Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) in Costa Rica using a randomized playback experiment that exposed male and female birds to recordings of Willow Flycatcher songs and calls, Lesser Ground Cuckoo (Morococcyx erythropygius) vocalizations, and random noise. Flycatchers of both sexes responded most strongly to simulated conspecific territory intrusion, and the agonistic behaviors that we observed were similar to those seen during natural intraspecific encounters in winter. Both males and females engaged in song and aggressive behaviors in defense of territories, and there was no significant difference between the sexes in scored agonistic responses. The similarity between the sexes in intraspecific territorial defense behaviors and aggressiveness may account for both sexes of flycatchers using the same habitats at our study sites in Costa Rica, and wintering females defending territories against males. The Willow Flycatcher, a sexually monomorphic species, differs in this way from a number of sexually dimorphic passerines, in which behaviorally dominant males occur in more optimal winter habitats. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2007.

  6. Phytoextraction of risk elements by willow and poplar trees.

    PubMed

    Kacálková, Lada; Tlustoš, Pavel; Száková, Jiřina

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the phytoextraction efficiency of two clones of willow trees (Salix x smithiana Willd., Salix rubens) and two clones of poplar trees (Populus nigra x maximowiczii, Populus nigra Wolterson) were planted in contaminated soil (0.4-2.0 mg Cd.kg(-1), 78-313 mg Zn.kg(-1), 21.3-118 mg Cu.kg(-1)). Field experiment was carried out in Czech Republic. The study investigated their ability to accumulate heavy metals (Cd, Zn, and Cu) in harvestable plant parts. The poplars produced higher amount of biomass than willows. Both Salix clones accumulated higher amount of Cd, Zn and Cu in their biomass (maximum 6.8 mg Cd.kg(-1), 909 mg Zn.kg(-1), and 17.7 mg Cu.kg(-1)) compared to Populus clones (maximum 2.06 mg Cd.kg(-1), 463 mg Zn.kg(-1), and 11.8 mg Cu.kg(-1)). There were no significant differences between clones of individual species. BCs for Cd and Zn were greater than 1 (the highest in willow leaves). BCs values of Cu were very low. These results indicate that Salix is more suitable plant for phytoextraction of Cd and Zn than Populus. The Cu phytoextraction potential of Salix and Populus trees was not confirmed in this experiment due to low soil availability of this element.

  7. Wolf presence and increased willow consumption by Yellowstone elk: implications for trophic cascades.

    PubMed

    Creel, Scott; Christianson, David

    2009-09-01

    Recent increases in the height and growth ring width of willow (Salix spp.) and other woody plants in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) have been attributed to a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade from wolves (Canis lupus) to elk (Cervus elaphus) to willows. This hypothesis predicts that individual elk consume less willow in response to the presence of wolves, but this prediction has not been directly tested with data from elk. We collected 727 fecal samples from elk in the Gallatin Canyon portion of the GYE over three winters and used microhistological methods to quantify the proportion of willow in each sample. We then tested the effect of wolf presence on willow consumption by elk, controlling for the effects of snow conditions, sex, and habitat type. During the period of study, 8-17 wolves occupied the study area, and wolves were locally present on 49% of 260 sampling days, stratified at two-week intervals across three drainages. Over the three years combined, willow consumption was related to snow conditions, wolf presence, and a wolf X sex interaction. As expected, willow consumption increased with deeper and less penetrable snow, and this effect was strong. Contrary to expectation, willow consumption increased in the presence of wolves. As with other aspects of antipredator behavior, wolves had different effects on willow consumption by males and females. Finally, we aggregated the data to estimate winter-long mean willow consumption within each drainage; at this broader scale, willow consumption again increased as predation risk increased. In summary, willow consumption was more strongly affected by snow conditions than by the presence of wolves. Interactions between elk and willow were affected by wolves, but not as predicted by the hypothesis that wolf presence favors willow release through a reduction in the selection of willow by individual elk. If a trophic cascade is operating, our results suggest that a decline in the size of the elk

  8. Interaction of beaver and elk herbivory reduces standing crop of willow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, B.W.; Mitchell, D.C.S.; Ducharme, H.C.; Stanley, T.R.; Peinetti, H.R.

    2005-01-01

    Populations of beaver and willow have not thrived in riparian environments that are heavily browsed by livestock or ungulates, such as elk. The interaction of beaver and elk herbivory may be an important mechanism underlying beaver and willow declines in this competitive environment. We conducted a field experiment that compared the standing crop of willow three years after simulated beaver cutting on paired plants with and without intense elk browsing (∼85% utilization rate). Simulated beaver cutting with intense elk browsing produced willow that was small (biomass and diameter) and short, with far fewer, but longer, shoots and a higher percentage of dead biomass. In contrast, simulated beaver cutting without elk browsing produced willow that was large, tall, and leafy, with many more, but shorter, shoots (highly branched) and a lower percentage of dead biomass. Total stem biomass after three years was 10 times greater on unbrowsed plants than on browsed plants. Unbrowsed plants recovered 84% of their pre-cut biomass after only two growing seasons, whereas browsed plants recovered only 6%. Thus, the interaction of beaver cutting and elk browsing strongly suppressed the standing crop of willow. We predict that a lack of willow suitable as winter food for beaver can cause beaver populations to decline, creating a feedback mechanism that reduces beaver and willow populations. Thus, intense herbivory by ungulates or livestock can disrupt beaver–willow mutualisms that naturally occur in less competitive environments.

  9. Influences of herbivory and water on willow in elk winter range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeigenfuss, L.C.; Singer, F.J.; Williams, S.A.; Johnson, T.L.

    2002-01-01

    Elimination of large predators and reduced hunter harvest have led to concerns that an increasing elk (Cervus elaphus) population may be adversely affecting vegetation on the low-elevation elk winter range of Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA. Beaver (Castor canadensis) and their impoundments also have declined dramatically (94%) in the same area over the past 50 years coincident with a 20% decline in willow (Salix spp.) cover. From 1994 to 1998, we studied vegetation production responses of willow communities to elk herbivory and water availability. We estimated willow production by measuring current annual growth of shrubs in 9.3-m2 circular plots, and we measured herbaceous production by clipping vegetation within 0.25-m2 circular plots. Elk herbivory suppressed willow heights, leader lengths, annual production, and herbaceous productivity of willow communities. Water impoundment had a positive effect on herbaceous plant production, but little effect on shrubs, possibly because water tables were naturally high on the study sites even without beaver dams. Nevertheless, the winter range environment previously included more riparian willow habitat because of more stream area (47-69%) due to larger beaver populations. Elk herbivory appears to be the dominant force determining vegetation productivity in willow sites, but the effects may be exacerbated by lowered water tables. Fewer elk or protection from browsing, and water enhancement for <10 years along with management to encourage elk movement away from willow communities, could possibly work as strategies to reestablish sustainable willow communities.

  10. Status and breeding ecology of the southwestern willow flycatcher in the Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sogge, M.K.; Tibbitts, T.J.; Petterson, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Ernpidonax trailIll extirnus is one of several recognized subspecies of the Willow Flycatcher (Unitt 1987, Browning 1993), a neotropical migrant that breeds across much of North America. This southwestern race is a riparian obligate, nesting in dense patches of willow (Salix sp.), willow-cottonwood (Populus sp.), or other similarly structured habitats. In some areas of the Southwest, it nests in dense stands of tamarisk (Tamarix sp.). Willow Flycatchers were once widespread and locally common in the Southwest (Unitt 1987) but have declined to the point that E. t. extirnus was listed as an endangered subspecies in 1995 (USFWS 1995).

  11. Phytoremediation of Metal Contaminated Soil Using Willow: Exploiting Plant-Associated Bacteria to Improve Biomass Production and Metal Uptake.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Jolien; Weyens, Nele; Croes, Sarah; Beckers, Bram; Meiresonne, Linda; Van Peteghem, Pierre; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    Short rotation coppice (SRC) of willow and poplar is proposed for economic valorization and concurrently as remediation strategy for metal contaminated land in northeast-Belgium. However, metal phytoextraction appears insufficient to effectuate rapid reduction of soil metal contents. To increase both biomass production and metal accumulation of SRC, two strategies are proposed: (i) in situ selection of the best performing clones and (ii) bioaugmentation of these clones with beneficial plant-associated bacteria. Based on field data, two experimental willow clones, a Salix viminalis and a Salix alba x alba clone, were selected. Compared to the best performing commercial clones, considerable increases in stem metal extraction were achieved (up to 74% for Cd and 91% for Zn). From the selected clones, plant-associated bacteria were isolated and identified. All strains were subsequently screened for their plant growth-promoting and metal uptake enhancing traits. Five strains were selected for a greenhouse inoculation experiment with the selected clones planted in Cd-Zn-Pb contaminated soil. Extraction potential tended to increase after inoculation of S. viminalis plants with a Rahnella sp. strain due to a significantly increased twig biomass. However, although bacterial strains showing beneficial traits in vitro were used for inoculation, increments in extraction potential were not always observed.

  12. Test of aerobic TCE degradation by willows (Salix viminalis) and willows inoculated with TCE-cometabolizing strains of Burkholderia cepacia.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard; Broholm, Mette Martina; Gosewinkel, Ulrich; Trapp, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widespread soil and groundwater pollutant and clean-up is often problematic and expensive. Phytoremediation may be a cost-effective solution at some sites. This study investigates TCE degradation by willows (S. viminalis) and willows inoculated with three strains of B. cepacia (301C, PR1-31 and VM1330-pTOM), using chloride formation as an indicator of dehalogenation. Willows were grown in non-sterile, hydroponic conditions for 3 weeks in chloride-free nutrient solution spiked with TCE. TCE was added weekly due to rapid loss by volatilization. Chloride and TCE in solution were measured every 2-3 days and chloride and metabolite concentrations in plants were measured at test termination. Based on transpiration, no tree toxicity of TCE exposure was observed. However, trees grown in chloride-free solution showed severely inhibited transpiration. No or very little chloride was formed during the test, and levels of chloride in TCE-exposed trees were not elevated. Chloride concentrations in chloride containing TCE-free nutrient solution doubled within 23 days, indicating active exclusion of chloride by root cell membranes. Only traces of TCE-metabolites were detected in plant tissue. We conclude that TCE is not, or to a limited extent (less than 3%), aerobically degraded by the willow trees. The three strains of B. cepacia did not enhance TCE mineralization. Future successful application of rhizo- and phytodegradation of TCE requires measures to be taken to improve the degradation rates.

  13. Aporphine alkaloids and feruloylamides from the bark of Xylopia benthamii R.E. Fries (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Pimenta, L P S; Mendonça, D D

    2012-01-01

    The bark of Xylopia benthamii R.E. Fries was investigated in a search for new bioactive compounds. The ethanolic extract of the air-dried bark of X. benthamii was obtained and submitted to an acidic extraction procedure to obtain an alkaloid mixture. Chromatographic fractionation led to the isolation of two aporphine alkaloids, nornantenine and laurotetanine, and a mixture of trans- and cis-feruloyltyramine, isolated for the first time in this genus. Structures were established by spectroscopic methods as NMR (1D and 2D) and mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

  14. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark

    PubMed Central

    Dah-Nouvlessounon, Durand; Adoukonou-Sagbadja, Hubert; Diarrassouba, Nafan; Sina, Haziz; Adjanohoun, Adolphe; Inoussa, Mariam; Akakpo, Donald; Gbenou, Joachim D.; Kotchoni, Simeon O.; Dicko, Mamoudou H.; Baba-Moussa, Lamine

    2015-01-01

    Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida's bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5 ± 0.7 mm (C. albicans) to 9.5 ± 0.7 mm (P. vulgaris). The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida's bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine. PMID:25767723

  15. Absorption of sound by tree bark

    Treesearch

    G. Reethof; L. D. Frank; O. H. McDaniel

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted with a standing wave tube to measure the acoustic absorption of normally incident sound by the bark of six species of trees. Twelve bark samples, 10 cm in diameter, were tested. Sound of seven frequencies between 400 and 1600 Hz was used in the measurements. Absorption was generally about 5 percent; it exceeded 10 percent for only three...

  16. Modelling spruce bark beetle infestation probability

    Treesearch

    Paulius Zolubas; Jose Negron; A. Steven Munson

    2009-01-01

    Spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) risk model, based on pure Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) stand characteristics in experimental and control plots was developed using classification and regression tree statistical technique under endemic pest population density. The most significant variable in spruce bark beetle...

  17. Interactions of Root Disease and Bark Beetles

    Treesearch

    George T. Ferrell; J. Richard Parmeter Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Associations between root diseases and bark beetles (Scolytidae) constitute some of the most serious pest complexes affecting forests in North America and elsewhere. The interactive functioning of these pests derives from the following relationships: 1) root diseases predispose trees to bark beetle infestation by lowering resistance, and perhaps...

  18. What's in your Douglas-fir bark?

    Treesearch

    M. Gabriela Buamscha; James E. Altland

    2008-01-01

    Douglas-fir bark is a common waste product of forest industry, and has potential use as a substrate in container nurseries. Douglas-fir bark (DFB) is strongly acidic and contains amounts of phosphorus, potassium, iron, copper and manganese within or above the levels recommended for growing container crops. As the pH of DFB decreases, electrical conductivity and amounts...

  19. Bark beetles in a changing climate

    Treesearch

    John E. Lundquist; Barbara J. Bentz

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, native bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) have killed billions of trees across millions of hectares of forest from Alaska to Mexico. Although bark beetle infestations are a regular force of natural change in forested ecosystems, several current outbreaks occurring simultaneously across western North America are the largest and most...

  20. Bark structure of the southern pines

    Treesearch

    Elaine T. Howard

    1971-01-01

    The living inner bark is composed of thin-walled elements - soeve cells, albuminous cells, longitudinal and ray parenchyma, and epithelial cells. the rhytidome or outer bark is dead and has alternating areas of distorted phloem enclosed by periderm layers. Periderms consist of phellogen and its derivative cells -- phelloderm and phellem. Phelloderm cells, to the inside...

  1. Chemical Analysis and Study of Phenolics, Antioxidant Activity, and Antibacterial Effect of the Wood and Bark of Maclura tinctoria (L.) D. Don ex Steud.

    PubMed Central

    Lamounier, K. C.; Cunha, L. C. S.; de Morais, S. A. L.; de Aquino, F. J. T.; Chang, R.; do Nascimento, E. A.; de Souza, M. G. M.; Martins, C. H. G.; Cunha, W. R.

    2012-01-01

    Maclura tinctoria (L.) D. Don ex Steud. has one of the highest qualities among the coefficients for Brazilian woods (up to 9.6) and resistance rates equivalent to Indian teak (Tectona grandis). In this study, the macromolecular constituents and total phenols compounds as well as the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of this wood were evaluated. Total phenols and proanthocyanidin levels were higher in wood when compared with bark levels. The antioxidant activity of wood extracts (IC50 = 18.7 μg/mL) was more effective than that of bark extracts (IC50 = 20.9 μg/mL). Wood and bark extracts revealed a high potential for inhibition of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The bark extracts were the most active (MIC from 20 to 60 μg/mL). Both antioxidant activity and high potential for bacteria inhibition turn these extracts promising for drug formulations, especially as antibacterial agent. PMID:22454666

  2. Antioxidant tannins from stem bark and fine root of Casuarina equisetifolia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shang-Ju; Lin, Yi-Ming; Zhou, Hai-Chao; Wei, Shu-Dong; Lin, Guang-Hui; Ye, Gong-Fu

    2010-08-16

    Structures of condensed tannins from the stem bark and fine root of Casuarina equisetifolia were identified using MALDI-TOF MS and HPLC analyses. The condensed tannins from stem bark and fine root consist predominantly of procyanidin combined with prodelphinidin and propelargonidin, and epicatechin is the main extension unit. The condensed tannins had different polymer chain lengths, varying from trimers to tridecamer for stem bark and to pentadecamer for fine root. The antioxidant activities were measured by two models: 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing/ antioxidant power (FRAP). The condensed tannins extracted from C. equisetifolia showed very good DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing/ antioxidant power, suggesting that these extracts may be considered as new sources of natural antioxidants for food and nutraceutical products.

  3. Antioxidants from the bark of Burkea africana, an African medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Mathisen, Elin; Diallo, Drissa; Andersen, Øyvind M; Malterud, Karl Egil

    2002-03-01

    The bark of the tree Burkea africana is used medicinally in large areas of sub-Saharan Africa. The constituents responsible for its putative activity are not well known. We have investigated the bark of B. africana for antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. A hydroethanol bark extract showed high activity, and most of this activity was located in semipolar fractions of the extract. From chromatographic purification and spectroscopical structure studies, we conclude that the active constituents are proanthocyanidins. Two major components appear to be fisetinidol-(4alpha- --> 8)-catechin 3-gallate and bis-fisetinidol-(4alpha- --> 6, 4alpha- --> 8)-catechin 3-gallate. The latter compound is a new natural product. Smaller amounts of monomeric flavan-3-ols (catechin, epicatechin and fisetinidol) were also found. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Effects of Bark Beetle Infestation on Secondary Organic Aerosol Precursors in the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff Hartz, K. E.; Amin, H.; Dodson, C.; Atkins, P. T.; Hallar, G.

    2009-12-01

    Bark beetles are a potentially destructive force in forest ecosytems; however, it is not known how insect attacks affect the atmosphere. Other insects, such as the weevil (Strophosoma melanogrammum) attacks on spruce trees in Denmark, have a significant local effect on monoterpene emissions. In fact, a single weevil induced a three-fold increase in monoterpene emission, and the response lasted for several weeks. Mountain pine bark beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) have infested the forests in the vicinity of Storm Peak Laboratory near Steamboat Springs, Colorado. Emissions were sampled from the headspace of bark at the trunk and from the tree branches in the canopy from bark beetle infested and healthy lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) trees. The emissions were collected onto scent traps, containing 110 mg of Porapak Q sorbent, using PAS-500 micro air samplers set to a 0.4 mL/min flow rate for two hours. After collection, the scent traps were spiked with a recovery standard, perdeutrated decane, and extracted with 1.5 mL hexanes (in three portions). The analytes in the extracts were separated and detected using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The analytes were identified and quantified using calibration curves from authentic standards, and when authentic standards were not available, the NIST mass spectra library and Adams retention time indices were used. The samples from lodgepole pine trees suggest an enhancement in the 3-carene, beta-phellandrene, and estragole (methyl chavicol) emissions upon bark beetle infestation. The samples from the Engelmann spruce trees suggest an enhancement in the 1,4-cineole, p-cymene, and beta-phellandrene emissions upon bark beetle infestation. A shift in the type and the quantity of VOC emissions due to bark beetle infestation may lead increases in SOA from these forests, since potent SOA precursors are produced.

  5. Arthropods of native and exotic vegetation and their association with willow flycatchers and Wilson's warblers

    Treesearch

    Linda S. DeLay; Deborah M. Finch; Sandra Brantley; Richard Fagerlund; Michael D. Means; Jeffrey F. Kelly

    1999-01-01

    We compared abundance of migrating Willow Flycatchers and Wilson's Warblers to the abundance of arthropods in exotic and native vegetation at Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge. We trapped arthropods using glue-boards in 1996 and 1997 in the same cottonwood, saltcedar, and willow habitats where we mist-netted birds during spring and fall migration. There...

  6. Willow establishment in relation to cattle grazing on an eastern Oregon stream

    Treesearch

    Nancy L. Shaw; Warren P. Clary

    1996-01-01

    Natural regeneration and growth of coyote willow (Salix exigua Nutt. ssp. exigua) and whiplash willow (S. lasiandra Bemth. var. caudata [Nutt.] Sudw.) were monitored from 1987 to 1993 on a low-elevation eastern Oregon stream degraded by more than a century of heavy livestock grazing. Treatments were no grazing, moderate spring grazing, moderate fall grazing, and...

  7. Final recovery plan of the southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus)

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch; Stephen I. Rothstein; Jon C. Boren; William L. Graf; Jerry L. Holechek; Barbara E. Kus; Robert M. Marshall; Molly M. Pohl; Susan J. Sferra; Mark K. Sogge; Julie C. Stromberg; Bradley A. Valentine; Mary J. Whitfield; Sartor O. Williams

    2002-01-01

    The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Recovery Team is composed of a Technical Subgroup (pg. ii), six Implementation Subgroups (Appendix A), and a Tribal Working Group. The Technical Subgroup consists of 14 academic scientists, researchers, and resource managers with a wide range of expertise in avian biology and ecology, southwestern willow flycatcher ecology, cowbird...

  8. Conservation assessment for the autumn willow in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Treesearch

    J. Hope Hornbeck; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Deanna J. Reyher

    2003-01-01

    Autumn willow, Salix serissima (Bailey) Fern., is an obligate wetland shrub that occurs in fens and bogs in the northeastern United States and eastern Canada. Disjunct populations of autumn willow occur in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Only two populations occur on Black Hills National Forest lands: a large population at McIntosh Fen and a small...

  9. Valuation of ecosystem services of commercial shrub willow (Salix spp.) woody biomass crops.

    PubMed

    Bressler, Alison; Vidon, Philippe; Hirsch, Paul; Volk, Timothy

    2017-04-01

    The development of shrub willow as a bioenergy feedstock contributes to renewable energy portfolios in many countries with temperate climates and marginal croplands due to excessive moisture. However, to fully understand the potential of shrub willow as an alternative crop on marginal cropland, more research is needed to understand the potential of shrub willow for providing a variety of ecosystem services. At the same time, there is much need for research developing strategies to value ecosystem services beyond conventional valuation systems (e.g., monetary, intrinsic). In this context, this project investigates the ecosystem services of shrub willow woody biomass from an environmental science perspective, and proposes a new avenue to assess ecosystem services for management purposes based on the relative value of key ecosystem services under various land management strategies (i.e., willow vs. corn vs. hay). On marginal cropland in the US Northeast, shrub willow may be used to replace crops like corn or hay. Transitioning from conventional corn or hay to willow tends to reduce nutrient loss and erosion, improve biodiversity and adaptability to climate change, and increase access to recreational activities. However, it is unlikely to change soil carbon pools or greenhouse gas emissions at the soil-atmosphere interface. By encouraging decision makers to weigh the pros and cons of each management decision (i.e., willow vs. corn vs. hay) based on the situation, the ecosystems services valuation method used here provides a clear framework for decision making in a watershed management context.

  10. Microhabitat use by breeding Southwestern Willow Flycatchers on the Gila River, New Mexico

    Treesearch

    Scott H. Stoleson; Deborah M. Finch

    2003-01-01

    The endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) breeds at numerous sites throughout its range that vary greatly in floristics, vegetation structure, and the extent of human alteration of the habitat. Here we present information on nesting habitat characteristics of Willow Flycatchers in the largest extant population of the subspecies along...

  11. 77 FR 2603 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; Willow Run Airport; Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ..., Hydra-Matic Division, Willow Run Plant Property, South 01 degree 27 minutes 26 seconds West along the..., Hydra-Matic Division, Willow Run Plant Property; thence the following courses and distance along the Southerly line of said Hydra-Matic Division, Willow Run Plant Property, South 89 degrees 55 minutes 54...

  12. Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Breeding Site and Territory Summary - 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durst, Scott L.; Sogge, Mark K.; Stump, Shay D.; Walker, Hira A.; Kus, Barbara E.; Sferra, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    The Southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus; hereafter references to willow flycatcher and flycatcher refer to E.t. extimus, except where specifically noted) is an endangered bird that breeds only in dense riparian habitats in parts of six Southwestern states (Arizona, New Mexico, southern California, extreme southern Nevada, southern Utah, and southwestern Colorado). Since 1993, hundreds of Southwestern willow flycatcher surveys have been conducted each year, and many new flycatcher breeding sites located. This document synthesizes the most current information available on all known Southwestern willow flycatcher breeding sites. This rangewide data synthesis was designed to meet two objectives: (1) identify all known Southwestern willow flycatcher breeding sites and (2) assemble data to estimate population size, location, habitat, and other information for all breeding sites, for as many years as possible, from 1993 through 2007. This report provides data summaries in terms of the number of flycatcher sites and the number of territories. When interpreting and using this information, it must be kept in mind that a 'site' is a geographic location where one or more willow flycatchers establishes a territory. Sites with unpaired territorial males are considered breeding sites, even if no nesting attempts were documented. A site is often a discrete patch of riparian habitat but may also be a cluster of riparian patches; there is no standardized definition for site, and its use varies within and among states. For example, five occupied habitat patches along a 10-km stretch of river might be considered five different sites in one state but only a single site in another state. This lack of standardization makes comparisons based on site numbers problematic. Researchers for this report generally deferred to statewide summary documents or to local managers and researchers when delineating a site for inclusion in the database. However, to avoid inflating

  13. PROGRESS REPORT: COFIRING PROJECTS FOR WILLOW ISLAND AND ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    During the period April 1, 2001--June 30, 2001, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) accelerated construction of the Willow Island cofiring project, completed the installation of foundations for the fuel storage facility, the fuel receiving facility, and the processing building. Allegheny received all processing equipment to be installed at Willow Island. Allegheny completed the combustion modeling for the Willow Island project. During this time period construction of the Albright Generating Station cofiring facility was completed, with few items left for final action. The facility was dedicated at a ceremony on June 29. Initial testing of cofiring at the facility commenced.more » This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. It details the construction activities at both sites along with the combustion modeling at the Willow Island site.« less

  14. Elucidating spatially explicit behavioral landscapes in the Willow Flycatcher

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakian, Amanda V.; Sullivan, Kimberly A.; Paxton, Eben H.

    2012-01-01

    Animal resource selection is a complex, hierarchical decision-making process, yet resource selection studies often focus on the presence and absence of an animal rather than the animal's behavior at resource use locations. In this study, we investigate foraging and vocalization resource selection in a population of Willow Flycatchers, Empidonax traillii adastus, using Bayesian spatial generalized linear models. These models produce “behavioral landscapes” in which space use and resource selection is linked through behavior. Radio telemetry locations were collected from 35 adult Willow Flycatchers (n = 14 males, n = 13 females, and n = 8 unknown sex) over the 2003 and 2004 breeding seasons at Fish Creek, Utah. Results from the 2-stage modeling approach showed that habitat type, perch position, and distance from the arithmetic mean of the home range (in males) or nest site (in females) were important factors influencing foraging and vocalization resource selection. Parameter estimates from the individual-level models indicated high intraspecific variation in the use of the various habitat types and perch heights for foraging and vocalization. On the population level, Willow Flycatchers selected riparian habitat over other habitat types for vocalizing but used multiple habitat types for foraging including mountain shrub, young riparian, and upland forest. Mapping of observed and predicted foraging and vocalization resource selection indicated that the behavior often occurred in disparate areas of the home range. This suggests that multiple core areas may exist in the home ranges of individual flycatchers, and demonstrates that the behavioral landscape modeling approach can be applied to identify spatially and behaviorally distinct core areas. The behavioral landscape approach is applicable to a wide range of animal taxa and can be used to improve our understanding of the spatial context of behavior and resource selection.

  15. Nestling sex ratio in the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, E.H.; Sogge, M.K.; McCarthey, T.D.; Keim, P.

    2002-01-01

    Using molecular-genetic techniques, we determined the gender of 202 Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) nestlings from 95 nests sampled over a five-year period. Overall nestling sex ratio did not vary significantly from 50:50 among years, by clutch order, or by mating strategy (monogamous vs. polygamous pairings). However, we did observe significant differences among the four sites sampled, with sex ratios biased either toward males or females at the different sites. Given the small population sizes and geographic isolation of many of the endangered subspecies' breeding populations, sex-ratio differences may have localized negative impacts. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2002.

  16. Nestling sex ratios in the southwestern willow flycatcher

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, E.H.; Sogge, M.K.; McCarthey, Tracy; Keim, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Using molecular-genetic techniques, we determined the gender of 202 Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) nestlings from 95 nests sampled over a five-year period. Overall nestling sex ratio did not vary significantly from 50:50 among years, by clutch order, or by mating strategy (monogamous vs. polygamous pairings). However, we did observe significant differences among the four sites sampled, with sex ratios biased either toward males or females at the different sites. Given the small population sizes and geographic isolation of many of the endangered subspecies' breeding populations, sex-ratio differences may have localized negative impacts.

  17. Hydromulch: a potential use for hardwood bark residue

    Treesearch

    David M. Emanual

    1976-01-01

    Hardwood bark fines and two hardwood bark fibers were compared with wood-cellulose fiber and paper fiber mulch to determine their effectiveness as hydromulches in revegetating disturbed soil. The results showed that either bark fines or bark fibers can be utilized as a hydromulch to aid in the revegetation of strip mines, highway construction sites, and similar earth-...

  18. Some ecological, economic, and social consequences of bark beetle infestations

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Progar; Adris Eglitis; John E. Lundquist

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetles are powerful agents of change in dynamic forest ecosystems. Most assessments of the effects of bark beetle outbreaks have been based on negative impacts on timber production. The positive effects of bark beetle activities are much less well understood. Bark beetles perform vital functions at all levels of scale in forest ecosystems. At the landscape...

  19. Isolation and structure determination of a lignan from the bark of Salix alba.

    PubMed

    Du, Qizhen; Jerz, Gerold; Shen, Lianqing; Xiu, Lili; Winterhalter, Peter

    2007-05-01

    A lignan, sisymbrifolin (1) found in the fruits of Solanum sisymbriflolium has been isolated from the bark extract of Salix alba (Salicaceae). Its structure was elucidated by its direct spectrum data of ESI-MS and one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy for the first time.

  20. A new flavanolignan and a new alkane from the Stem bark of Newtonia griffoniana.

    PubMed

    Kinyok, Mc Jesus; Bonnet, Susan; Noté, Olivier Placide; Ngo Mbing, Joséphine; Kamto, Eutrophe Ledoux; Van der Westhuizen, Jan Hendrik; Pegnyemb, Dieudonné Emmanuel

    2017-10-01

    Two new compounds a flavanolignan (1), and an alkane (2) along with four known compounds including two fatty acid esters (3-4) and two isocoumarins (5-6) were isolated from the methanolic extract of the stem bark of Newtonia griffoniana. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods including extensive 1-D and 2-D NMR experiments.

  1. Water tables constrain height recovery of willow on Yellowstone's northern range.

    PubMed

    Bilyeu, Danielle M; Cooper, David J; Hobbs, N Thompson

    2008-01-01

    Excessive levels of herbivory may disturb ecosystems in ways that persist even when herbivory is moderated. These persistent changes may complicate efforts to restore ecosystems affected by herbivores. Willow (Salix spp.) communities within the northern range in Yellowstone National Park have been eliminated or degraded in many riparian areas by excessive elk (Cervus elaphus L.) browsing. Elk browsing of riparian willows appears to have diminished following the reintroduction of wolves (Canis lupis L.), but it remains uncertain whether reduced herbivory will restore willow communities. The direct effects of elk browsing on willows have been accompanied by indirect effects from the loss of beaver (Castor canadensis Kuhl) activity, including incision of stream channels, erosion of fine sediments, and lower water tables near streams historically dammed by beaver. In areas where these changes have occurred, lowered water tables may suppress willow height even in the absence of elk browsing. We conducted a factorial field experiment to understand willow responses to browsing and to height of water tables. After four years of protection from elk browsing, willows with ambient water tables averaged only 106 cm in height, with negligible height gain in two of three study species during the last year of the experiment. Willows that were protected from browsing and had artificially elevated water tables averaged 147 cm in height and gained 19 cm in the last year of the experiment. In browsed plots, elevated water tables doubled height gain during a period of slightly reduced browsing pressure. We conclude that water availability mediates the rate of willow height gain and may determine whether willows grow tall enough to escape the browse zone of elk and gain resistance to future elk browsing. Consequently, in areas where long-term beaver absence has resulted in incised stream channels and low water tables, a reduction in elk browsing alone may not be sufficient for recovery

  2. Injury due to leg bands in willow flycatchers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedgwick, J.A.; Klus, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    We report an apparently unusually high incidence of leg injury in Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) as a result of banding and color banding. Color bands and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) bands applied to Willow Flycatchers from 1988-1995 resulted in an overall leg injury rate of 9.6% to birds returning to our study areas in subsequent years. Most injuries occurred on legs with only color band(s) (58.3%) or on legs with both a USFWS band and a color band (35%); only 6.7% of injuries (4/60) were due to USFWS bands alone, yielding an overall USFWS band injury rate of only 0.6%. Injuries ranged from severe (swollen, bleeding legs; a missing foot) to relatively minor (irritations on the tarsus). Amputation of the foot occurred in 33.9% of the cases. Return rates of adult injured birds in the year(s) following injury were significantly lower than for the population at large.

  3. Temporal and spatial variation of hematozoans in Scandinavian willow warblers.

    PubMed

    Bensch, Staffan; Akesson, Susanne

    2003-04-01

    We examined temporal and geographical distribution of Haemoproteus sp. and Plasmodium sp. parasites in Swedish willow warblers, Phylloscopus trochilus. Parasite lineages were detected with molecular methods in 556 birds from 41 sites distributed at distances up to 1,500 km. Two mitochondrial lineages of Haemoproteus sp. were detected, WW1 in 56 birds and WW2 in 75 birds, that differed by 5.2% sequence divergence. We discuss the reasons behind the observed pattern of variation and identify 3 possible causes: (1) variation in the geographic distribution of the vector species, (2) the degree of parasite sharing with other bird species coexisting with the willow warbler, and (3) timing of transmission. Our results support a fundamental and rarely tested assumption of the now classical Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis of sexual selection, namely, that these parasites vary in both time and space. Such fluctuations of parasites and the selection pressure they supposedly impose on the host population are likely to maintain variation in immune system genes in the host population.

  4. Simulation of rain floods on Willow Creek, Valley County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, Charles

    1986-01-01

    The Hydrologic Engineering Center-1 rainfall-runoff simulation model was used to assess the effects of a system of reservoirs and waterspreaders in the 550-sq mi Willow Creek Basin in northeastern Montana. For simulation purposes, the basin was subdivided into 100 subbasins containing 84 reservoirs and 14 waterspreaders. Precipitation input to the model was a 24-hr duration, 100-yr frequency synthetic rainstorm developed from National Weather Service data. Infiltration and detention losses were computed using the U.S. Soil Conservation Service Curve Number concept, and the dimensionless unit hydrograph developed by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service was used to compute runoff. Channel and reservoir flow routing was based on the modified Puls storage routing procedure. Waterspreaders were simulated by assuming that each dike in a spreader system functions as a reservoir, with only an emergency spillway discharging directly into the next dike. Waterspreader and reservoir volumes were calculated from surface areas measured on maps. The first simulation run was made with no structures in place, and resulted in a 100-yr frequency peak at the mouth of Willow Creek of 22,700 cu ft/sec. With all structures in place, the 100-yr frequency peak was decreased by 74% to 5,870 cu ft/sec. (USGS)

  5. Extracellular enzyme activity in a willow sewage treatment system.

    PubMed

    Brzezinska, Maria Swiontek; Lalke-Porczyk, Elżbieta; Kalwasińska, Agnieszka

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the results of studies on the activity of extra-cellular enzymes in soil-willow vegetation filter soil which is used in the post-treatment of household sewage in an onsite wastewater treatment system located in central Poland. Wastewater is discharged from the detached house by gravity into the onsite wastewater treatment system. It flows through a connecting pipe into a single-chamber septic tank and is directed by the connecting pipe to a control well to be further channelled in the soil-willow filter by means of a subsurface leaching system. Soil samples for the studies were collected from two depths of 5 cm and 1 m from three plots: close to the wastewater inflow, at mid-length of the plot and close to its terminal part. Soil samples were collected from May to October 2009. The activity of the extra-cellular enzymes was assayed by the fluorometric method using 4-methylumbelliferyl and 7-amido-4-methylcoumarin substrate. The ranking of potential activity of the assayed enzymes was the same at 5 cm and 1 m soil depths, i.e. esterase > phosphmomoesterase > leucine-aminopeptidase > β-glucosidase > α-glucosidase. The highest values of enzymatic activity were recorded in the surface layer of the soil at the wastewater inflow and decreased with increasing distance from that point.

  6. Genetic variation in the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busch, Joseph; Miller, Mark P.; Paxton, E.H.; Sogge, M.K.; Keim, Paul

    2000-01-01

    The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is an endangered Neotropical migrant that breeds in isolated remnants of dense riparian habitat in the southwestern United States. We estimated genetic variation at 20 breeding sites of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (290 individuals) using 38 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Our results suggest that considerable genetic diversity exists within the subspecies and within local breeding sites. Statistical analyses of genetic variation revealed only slight, although significant, differentiation among breeding sites (Mantel's r = 0.0705, P < 0.0005; θ = 0.0816, 95% CI = 0.0608 to 0.1034; ΦST = 0.0458, P < 0.001). UPGMA cluster analysis of the AFLP markers indicates that extensive gene flow has occurred among breeding sites. No one site stood out as being genetically unique or isolated. Therefore, the small level of genetic structure that we detected may not be biologically significant. Ongoing field studies are consistent with this conclusion. Of the banded birds that were resighted or recaptured in Arizona during the 1996 to 1998 breeding seasons, one-third moved between breeding sites and two-thirds were philopatric. Low differentiation may be the result of historically high rangewide diversity followed by recent geographic isolation of breeding sites, although observational data indicate that gene flow is a current phenomenon. Our data suggest that breeding groups of E. t. extimus act as a metapopulation.

  7. Condensed tannins from acacia mangium bark: Characterization by spot tests and FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharudin, Muhammad Azizi; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes the adaptation and evaluation of one chemical tests for tannins characterization in acacia mangium bark. Acid butanol test developed to identify respectively condensed tannins is described. The two traditional tests used for tannin characterization namely ferric test and vanillin test were also performed and their functional also discussed. Condensed tannins were extracted from acacia mangium bark using water medium in presence of three different concentration basic reagent of NaOH(5%,10% and 15%) and were characterized by FT-IR spectrometry.

  8. 3D numerical modelling of a willow vegetated river/floodplain system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. A. M. E.; Yagci, O.; Rauch, H.-P.; Olsen, N. R. B.

    2006-07-01

    SummaryUsing a three-dimensional finite volume code with standard k- ɛ turbulence closure the hydraulic impact of willow stands ( Salix alba and Salix fragilis) on the velocity distribution was modelled. The additional hydraulic resistance of the willow stands was modelled separately to the bed resistance using a drag force term that was introduced into the Navier-Stokes equations. Two flood events of varying magnitude and stages of plant development were simulated using this approach. The river comprises an asymmetric compound channel with vegetated floodplain of reach length 170 m. The willow development has been monitored annually and this information was used to define the density of the willow stands (average number per m 2) and its variation as a function of stand height. During both flood events the willow stands were submerged and in pronation. The willow stands were modelled in bending as well as in their undisturbed vertical state. Modelling the willow stands as vertical or in bending was found to have a major impact on the computed velocity profiles. The impact of using a drag-force approach based on a non-uniform projected area distribution was found to be greater when the plants are modelled vertically than when the plants are modelled in high degrees of bending. In field studies involving flexible plants without leaves, the determination of the drag coefficient is of less importance compared to the need to quantify the degree by which plants are in pronation.

  9. Ungulate herbivory on alpine willow in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeigenfuss, L.C.; Schoenecker, K.A.; Amburg, L.K.V.

    2011-01-01

    In many areas of the Rocky Mountains, elk (Cervus elaphus) migrate from low-elevation mountain valleys during spring to high-elevation subalpine and alpine areas for the summer. Research has focused on the impacts of elk herbivory on winter-range plant communities, particularly on woody species such as willow and aspen; however, little information is available on the effects of elk herbivory on alpine willows. In the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of south central Colorado, select alpine areas appear to receive high levels of summer elk herbivory, while other areas are nearly unbrowsed. In 2005 and 2008, we measured willow height, cover, and utilization on sites that appeared to be used heavily by elk, as well as on sites that appeared to be used lightly, to determine differences between these communities over time. We found less willow cover and shorter willows at sites that received higher levels of browsing compared to those that had lower levels of browsing. Human recreational use was greater at lightly browsed sites than at highly browsed sites. From 2005 to 2008, willow utilization declined, and willow cover and height increased at sites with heavy browsing, likely owing to ownership change of adjacent valley land which led to (1) removal of grazing competition from, cattle at valley locations and (2) increased human use in alpine areas, which displaced elk. We discuss the implications of increased human use and climate change on elk use of these alpine habitats. ?? 2011.

  10. An Efficient, Robust, and Inexpensive Grinding Device for Herbal Samples like Cinchona Bark

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Steen Honoré; Holmfred, Else; Cornett, Claus; Maldonado, Carla; Rønsted, Nina

    2015-01-01

    An effective, robust, and inexpensive grinding device for the grinding of herb samples like bark and roots was developed by rebuilding a commercially available coffee grinder. The grinder was constructed to be able to provide various particle sizes, to be easy to clean, and to have a minimum of dead volume. The recovery of the sample when grinding as little as 50 mg of crude Cinchona bark was about 60%. Grinding is performed in seconds with no rise in temperature, and the grinder is easily disassembled to be cleaned. The influence of the particle size of the obtained powders on the recovery of analytes in extracts of Cinchona bark was investigated using HPLC. PMID:26839823

  11. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis of yohimbe bark and related dietary supplements using UHPLC/UV/MS.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

    2012-03-05

    A practical ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method was developed for fingerprint analysis of and determination of yohimbine in yohimbe barks and related dietary supplements. Good separation was achieved using a Waters Acquity BEH C(18) column with gradient elution using 0.1% (v/v) aqueous ammonium hydroxide and 0.1% ammonium hydroxide in methanol as the mobile phases. The study is the first reported chromatographic method that separates corynanthine from yohimbine in yohimbe bark extract. The chromatographic fingerprint analysis was applied to the analysis of 18 yohimbe commercial dietary supplement samples. Quantitation of yohimbine, the traditional method for analysis of yohimbe barks, were also performed to evaluate the results of the fingerprint analysis. Wide variability was observed in fingerprints and yohimbine content among yohimbe dietary supplement samples. For most of the dietary supplements, the yohimbine content was not consistent with the label claims. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Salty bark as a soil amendment

    Treesearch

    W.B. Bollen

    1971-01-01

    Bark from Douglas-fir logs floated in sea water contained 0.75 to 1.94 percent salt (NaCl). Leaching by natural and simulated rainfall and by soaking readily removed this salt. Bush bean and tomato plants were grown in the greenhouse on a sandy loam soil to which bark of three different proportions of salt was applied as a mulch and as an incorporation at the rate of...

  13. Anti-emetic principles of Magnolia obovata bark and Zingiber officinale rhizome.

    PubMed

    Kawai, T; Kinoshita, K; Koyama, K; Takahashi, K

    1994-02-01

    Magnolol and honokiol, biphenyl compounds, were isolated as anti-emetic principles from the methanolic extract of Magnolia obovata bark. [6]-, [8]-, and [10]-shogaols and [6]-, [8]-, and [10]-gingerols were isolated from the methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizome as anti-emetic principles. Some phenyl-propanoids with allyl side-chains were found to show the same activity. They inhibited the emetic action induced by the oral administration of copper sulfate pentahydrate to leopard and ranid frogs.

  14. A characterization of the antimalarial activity of the bark of Cylicodiscus gabunensis Harms.

    PubMed

    Aldulaimi, Omar; Uche, Fidelia I; Hameed, Hamza; Mbye, Haddijatou; Ullah, Imran; Drijfhout, Falko; Claridge, Timothy D W; Horrocks, Paul; Li, Wen-Wu

    2017-02-23

    A decoction of the bark of Cylicodiscus gabunensis Harms is used as a traditional medicine in the treatment of malaria in Nigeria. This study aims to validate the antimalarial potency of this decoction in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum and define potential bioactive constituents within the C. gabunensis bark. A bioassay-guided separation and fractionation protocol was applied to C. gabunensis extracts, exploiting the use of a Malaria Sybr Green I Fluorescence assay method to monitor antiproliferative effects on parasites as well as define 50% inhibition concentrations. Spectroscopic techniques, including GC-MS, TOF LC-MS and 1 H NMR were used to identify phytochemicals present in bioactive fractions. Analogues of gallic acid were synthesized de novo to support the demonstration of the antimalarial action of phenolic acids identified in C. gabunensis bark. In vitro cytotoxicity of plant extracts, fractions and gallate analogues was evaluated against the HepG2 cell line. The antimalarial activity of ethanolic extracts of C. gabunensis bark was confirmed in vitro, with evidence for phenolic acids, primarily gallic acid and close analogues such as ethyl gallate, likely providing this effect. Further fractionation produced the most potent fraction with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 4.7µg/ml. Spectroscopic analysis, including 1 H NMR, LC-MS and GC-MS analysis of this fraction and its acid hydrolyzed products, indicated the presence of conjugates of gallic acid with oligosaccharides. The extracts/fractions and synthetic alkyl and alkenyl gallates showed moderate selectivity against P. falciparum. These results support the use of the bark of C. gabunensis as a traditional medicine in the treatment of human malaria, with phenolic acid oligosaccharide complexes evident in the most bioactive fractions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. AmeriFlux US-WCr Willow Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, Ankur

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-WCr Willow Creek. Site Description - Upland decduous broadleaf forest. Mainly sugar maple, also basswood. Uniform stand atop a very modest hill. Clearcut approximately 80 years ago. Chosen to be representative of the upland deciduous broadleaf forests within the WLEF tall tower flux footprint. It appears to be more heavily forested and more productive than most of the upland deciduous broadleaf forests in the WLEF flux footprint (see publications for more details). It is also important that SE winds are screened from the flux data (see Cookmore » et al, 2004 for details). Propane generator power.« less

  16. Characterisation of the willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene family reveals expression differences compared with poplar

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Femke; Hanley, Steven J.; Beale, Michael H.; Karp, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Willow is an important biomass crop for the bioenergy industry, and therefore optimal growth with minimal effects of biotic and abiotic stress is essential. The phenylpropanoid pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of not only lignin but also of flavonoids, condensed tannins, benzenoids and phenolic glycosides which all have a role in protecting the plant against biotic and abiotic stress. All products of the phenylpropanoid pathway are important for the healthy growth of short rotation cropping species such as willow. However, the phenylpropanoid pathway in willow remains largely uncharacterised. In the current study we identified and characterised five willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) genes, which encode enzymes that catalyse the deamination of l-phenylalanine to form trans-cinnamic acid, the entry point into the phenylpropanoid pathway. Willow PAL1, PAL2, PAL3 and PAL4 genes were orthologous to the poplar genes. However no orthologue of PAL5 appears to be present in willow. Moreover, two tandemly repeated PAL2 orthologues were identified in a single contig. Willow PALs show similar sub-cellular localisation to the poplar genes. However, the enzyme kinetics and gene expression of the willow PAL genes differed slightly, with willow PAL2 being more widely expressed than its poplar orthologues implying a wider role for PALs in the production of flavonoids, condensed tannins, benzenoids, and phenolic glycosides, in willow. PMID:26070140

  17. Evaluating growth effects from an imidacloprid treatment in black willow and eastern cottonwood cuttings

    Treesearch

    Luciano de Sene Fernandes; Ray A. Souter; Theodor D. Leininger

    2015-01-01

    Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) and eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartram ex Marsh.), two species native in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley, have importance in short rotation woody crop (SRWC) systems for biomass production (Ruark 2006).

  18. Modification of the semitransparent Prunus serrula bark film: Making rubber out of bark

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.; Zaremba, C.; Stucky, G.D.

    1998-11-01

    The authors report an extensive structural and mechanical characterization of the semitransparent bark of Prunus serrula. Variations in the properties were observed. Mechanical properties along the fiber axis of these films are strongly related to the cell dimensions. Several trends can be seen with increasing cell length: tensile strength and Young`s modulus increase; ductility decreases. Perpendicular to the fiber axis, similar radial dimensions of the bark cells contributes to similar mechanical properties. Plasticization not only shrinks the dimension of the bulk films along the tangential axis, which is unique, but also dramatically changes the mechanical properties. The authors have shown,more » for the first time, that the mechanical properties of the Prunus serrula bark can be effectively tailored with different plasticization and modification agents. The plastic bark can be successfully converted to rubberlike material either temporally or permanently, or it can be strengthened by tensile deformation of the plasticized bark.« less

  19. Melampsora rust species on biomass willows in central and north-eastern Germany.

    PubMed

    Bubner, Ben; Wunder, Sebastian; Zaspel, Irmtraut; Zander, Matthias; Gloger, Jan; Fehrenz, Steffen; Ulrichs, Christian

    2014-11-01

    Melampsora willow rusts are the most important fungal pathogens in short rotation coppices of biomass willows. In the past, breeding programmes for rust resistant biomass willows concentrated on the distinction of races within the forma specialis Melampsora larici-epitea f. sp. larici-epitea typica that colonized Salix viminalis and related clones. In a new breeding program that is based on a wider range of willow species it is necessary to identify further Melampsora species and formae specialis that are pathogens of willow species other than S. viminalis. Therefore, three stock collections with Salix daphnoides, Salix purpurea, and other shrub willow species (including S. viminalis) species were sampled in north-eastern Germany. A fourth stock collection in central Germany contributed rusts of tree willows (Salix fragilis and Salix alba) and the large shrub Salix caprea. Out of 156 rust samples, 149 were successfully sequenced for ITS rDNA. A phylogenetic analysis combining Neighbour-Joining, Maximum-Likelihood and Bayesian analysis revealed six species: Melampsora ribesii-purpureae, Melampsora allii-salicis-albae, Melampsora sp. aff. allii-fragilis, Melampsora larici-pentandrae, Melampsora larici-caprearum, and Melampsora larici-epitea. The first four species were found exclusively on the expected hosts. Melampsora larici-caprearum had a wider host range comprising S. caprea and S. viminalis hybrids. Melampsora larici-epitea can be further differentiated into two formae speciales. The forma specialis larici-epitea typica (59 samples) colonized Salix viminalis clones, Salix purpurea, Salix×dasyclados, and Salix×aquatica. In contrast to this relatively broad host range, f. sp. larici-daphnoides (65 samples) was found exclusively on Salix daphnoides. With the distinction and identification of the rust species/formae speciales it is now possible to test for race-specific resistances in a more targeted manner within the determined pairings of rust and willow

  20. Elk browsing increases aboveground growth of water-stressed willows by modifying plant architecture.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Danielle B; Cooper, David J; Hobbs, N Thompson

    2007-12-01

    In the northern elk wintering range of Yellowstone National Park, USA, wolf (Canis lupus) removal allowed elk (Cervus elaphus) to overbrowse riparian woody plants, leading to the exclusion of beaver (Castor canadensis) and a subsequent water table decline in many small stream valleys. Reduced elk browsing following wolf reintroduction may or may not facilitate willow (Salix sp.) recovery in these areas. To determine if the effect of elk browsing on willow interacts with that of beaver abandonment, we manipulated elk browsing and the water table in a factorial experiment. Under the condition of an ambient (low) water table, elk browsing increased shoot water potential (Psis), photosynthesis per unit leaf area (A), stomatal conductance per unit leaf area (gs), and aboveground current annual growth (CAG) by 50%. Elk browsing occurred entirely during dormancy and did not affect total plant leaf area (L). Improved water balance, photosynthetic rate, and annual aboveground productivity in browsed willows appeared to be due to morphological changes, such as increased shoot diameter and decreased branching, which typically increase plant hydraulic conductivity. An elevated water table increased Psis, A, gs, CAG, and L, and eliminated or lessened the positive effect of browsing on CAG for most species. Because low water tables create conditions whereby high willow productivity depends on the morphological effects of annual elk browsing, removing elk browsing in areas of water table decline is unlikely to result in vigorous willow stands. As large willow standing crops are required by beaver, a positive feedback between water-stressed willow and beaver absence may preclude the reestablishment of historical conditions. In areas with low water table, willow restoration may depend on actions to promote the re-establishment of beaver in addition to reducing elk browsing.

  1. Effect of browsing on willow in the Steel Creek grazing allotment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keigley, R.B.; Gale, Gil

    2000-01-01

    View upstream from the study area. Salix geyerriana is the dominant willow species. Salix drummondiana and S. Boothii are less common; older individuals of both species grow to about 2-m tall. Salix bebbiana is much less common, and where present, is browsed close to ground level. The carcass of an old Bebb willow that had attained typical stature is located near the study area. Beaver are absent. The remains of relic beaver dams indicate that beaver were once an important hydrologic influence.

  2. Tannins from Acacia mearnsii De Wild. Bark: Tannin Determination and Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Sosuke; Yazaki, Yoshikazu

    2018-04-05

    The bark of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (black wattle) contains significant amounts of water-soluble components acalled "wattle tannin". Following the discovery of its strong antioxidant activity, a wattle tannin dietary supplement has been developed and as part of developing new dietary supplements, a literature search was conducted using the SciFinder data base for " Acacia species and their biological activities". An analysis of the references found indicated that the name of Acacia nilotica had been changed to Vachellia nilotica , even though the name of the genus Acacia originated from its original name. This review briefly describes why and how the name of A. nilotica changed. Tannin has been analyzed using the Stiasny method when the tannin is used to make adhesives and the hide-powder method is used when the tannin is to be used for leather tanning. A simple UV method is also able to be used to estimate the values for both adhesives and leather tanning applications. The tannin content in bark can also be estimated using NIR and NMR. Tannin content estimations using pyrolysis/GC, electrospray mass spectrometry and quantitative 31 P-NMR analyses have also been described. Tannins consists mostly of polyflavanoids and all the compounds isolated have been updated. Antioxidant activities of the tannin relating to anti-tumor properties, the viability of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and also anti-hypertensive effects have been studied. The antioxidant activity of proanthocyanidins was found to be higher than that of flavan-3-ol monomers. A total of fourteen papers and two patents reported the antimicrobial activities of wattle tannin. Bacteria were more susceptible to the tannins than the fungal strains tested. Several bacteria were inhibited by the extract from A. mearnsii bark. The growth inhibition mechanisms of E. coli were investigated. An interaction between extracts from A. mearnsii bark and antibiotics has also been studied. The extracts from A. mearnsii

  3. Quantum non-barking dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imari Walker, Sara; Davies, Paul C. W.; Samantray, Prasant; Aharonov, Yakir

    2014-06-01

    Quantum weak measurements with states both pre- and post-selected offer a window into a hitherto neglected sector of quantum mechanics. A class of such systems involves time dependent evolution with transitions possible. In this paper we explore two very simple systems in this class. The first is a toy model representing the decay of an excited atom. The second is the tunneling of a particle through a barrier. The post-selection criteria are chosen as follows: at the final time, the atom remains in its initial excited state for the first example and the particle remains behind the barrier for the second. We then ask what weak values are predicted in the physical environment of the atom (to which no net energy has been transferred) and in the region beyond the barrier (to which the particle has not tunneled). Thus, just as the dog that didn't bark in Arthur Conan Doyle's story Silver Blaze gave Sherlock Holmes meaningful information about the dog's non-canine environment, here we probe whether the particle that has not decayed or has not tunneled can provide measurable information about physical changes in the environment. Previous work suggests that very large weak values might arise in these regions for long durations between pre- and post-selection times. Our calculations reveal some distinct differences between the two model systems.

  4. Antimicrobial study of bark from five tree species.

    PubMed

    Pérez G, S; Zavala S, M A; Arias G, L; Pérez G, C; Pérez G, R M

    2001-06-01

    The antimicrobial activities of chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of the bark of Gymnanthes lucida, Gliricidia sepium, Lysiloma divaricata, Lysiloma tergemina and Coccolaba cozumelensis were tested against S. lutea, E. coli, S. epidermidis, L. monocytogenes, S. choleraesuis, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, B. pumillus, S. typhimurium, P. vulgaris, V. cholerae and C. albicans. It was found that methanol extracts of the two Lysiloma species and G. sepium had antimicrobial effects against S. epidermidis, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, B. pumillus and V. cholerae at doses of 200 microg. The major inhibitory effect was observed with L. tergemina which showed a bacteriostatic effect on S. epidermidis at doses of 400 microg/mL. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Cholinesterase inhibitory triterpenoids from the bark of Garcinia hombroniana.

    PubMed

    Jamila, Nargis; Khairuddean, Melati; Yeong, Khaw Kooi; Osman, Hasnah; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran

    2015-02-01

    Context: Garcinia hombroniana Pierre, known as manggis hutan in Malaysia is a rich source of xanthones and benzophenones. This study was aimed to isolate and characterize potential cholinesterase inhibitors from the extracts of G. hombroniana bark and investigate their interactions with the enzymes. The dichloromethane extract afforded five triterpenoids which were characterized by NMR and mass spectral techniques. Cholinesterase inhibitory assay and molecular docking were performed to get insight of the inhibitory activity and molecular interactions of the compounds. The compounds were also tested for their antioxidant capacity. The isolated triterpenoids were identified as: 2β-hydroxy-3α-O-caffeoyltaraxar-14-en-28-oic acid (1), taraxerol (2), taraxerone (3), betulin (4) and betulinic acid (5). Compound 1 was the most active dual inhibitor of both AChE and BChE. Compound 1 also showed good antioxidant activities. Compound 1 had dual and moderate inhibitory activity on AChE and BChE worthy for further investigations.

  6. Salt intrusion in tidal wetlands: European willow species tolerate oligohaline conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markus-Michalczyk, Heike; Hanelt, Dieter; Ludewig, Kristin; Müller, David; Schröter, Brigitte; Jensen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experience salt intrusion due to the effects of climate change. This study clarifies that the European flood plain willows species Salix alba and Salix viminalis tolerate oligohaline conditions. Salix alba L. and Salix viminalis L. are distributed on flood plains up to transitional waters of the oligohaline to the mesohaline estuarine stretch in temperate climates. They experience spatial and temporal variations in flooding and salinity. In the past, willows dominated the vegetation above the mean high water line, attenuated waves and contributed to sedimentation. In recent centuries, human utilization reduced willow stands. Today, the Elbe estuary - a model system for an estuary in temperate zones - exhibits increasing flooding and salinity due to man-induced effects and climatic changes. Willows were described as having no salinity tolerance. In contrast, our soil water salinity measurements at willows in tidal wetlands prove that mature Salix individuals tolerate oligohaline conditions. To assess immature plant salinity tolerance, we conducted a hydroponic greenhouse experiment. Vegetative propagules originating from a freshwater and an oligohaline site were treated in four salinities. Related to growth rates and biomass production, we found interspecific similarities and a salinity tolerance up to salinity 2. Vitality and chlorophyll fluorescence indicated an acclimation of Salix viminalis to oligohaline conditions. We conclude, that the survival of S. alba and S. viminalis and the restoration of willow stands in estuarine flood plains - with regard to wave attenuation and sedimentation - might be possible, despite increasing salinity in times of climate change.

  7. Effects of soil conditions on survival and growth of black willow cuttings.

    PubMed

    Schaff, Steven D; Pezeshki, S Reza; Shields, F Douglas

    2003-06-01

    Current streambank restoration efforts focus on providing bank stability, enhancing water quality, and improving woody habitat using native vegetation rather than traditional engineering techniques. However, in most cases harsh site conditions limit restoration success. A two-year field study was conducted at Twentymile Creek, in northern Mississippi, investigating edaphic factors governing the survival of black willow (Salix nigra) cuttings used for streambank restoration. Low height growth, above-ground biomass production, and average leaf area were observed in willow cuttings grown in plots subjected to moisture deficits. However, sediment texture emerged as the dominant factor determining willow post growth, health, and survival. Shoot biomass, leaf biomass, and total above-ground biomass were 15-, 10-, and 14-fold greater for large willow cuttings (posts) grown in plots with sandy sediments relative to those grown in plots with similar moisture and soil redox potential but with silt and clay sediments. Average leaf size, average leaf mass and specific leaf area were all lower in fine textured plots. Under moisture conditions present at our sites, coarse-grained sediment (sand) was more conducive to willow growth, biomass production, and survival than were fine-grained sediments (silt/clay). Our results strongly suggest that soil texture and moisture conditions can determine restoration success. Therefore, it is critical that site conditions are factored into the selection of project locations prior to the initiation of willow planting restoration projects.

  8. 4. Hopper was used to collect bark from the Chipper ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Hopper was used to collect bark from the Chipper Building. Processed bark was loaded into trucks for disposal at a pit on site. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, Log Peeling Operation, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  9. Mites associated with bark beetles and their hyperphoretic ophiostomatoid fungi

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hofstetter; John Moser; Stacy Blomquist

    2014-01-01

    The role that mites play in many ecosystems is often overlooked or ignored. Within bark beetle habitats, more than 100 mite species exist and they have important impacts on community dynamics, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity of bark beetle systems. Mites use bark beetles to access and disperse among beetle-infested trees and the associations may range from...

  10. Sound absorption characteristics of tree bark and forest floor

    Treesearch

    G. Reethof; O. H. McDaniel; G. M. Heisler

    1977-01-01

    Results of basic research on absorption of sound by tree bark and forest floors are presented. Amount of sound absorption by tree bark was determined by laboratory experiments with bark samples in a standing-wave tube. A modified portable standing-wave tube was used to measure absorption of sound by forest floors with different moisture contents, with and without leaf...

  11. Uptake, accumulation and metabolic response of ferricyanide in weeping willows.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2009-01-01

    The remediation potential and metabolic responses of plants to ferricyanide were investigated using pre-rooted weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) grown hydroponically in growth chambers and treated with potassium ferricyanide. Positive responses were observed for the plants exposed to willows can take up

  12. ESI-MS, ESI-MS/MS fingerprint and LC-ESI-MS analysis of proathocyanidins from Bursera simaruba Sarg bark.

    PubMed

    Maldini, Mariateresa; Montoro, Paola; Piacente, Sonia; Pizza, Cosimo

    2009-12-01

    Direct flow injection/electrospray ionization/ion trap tandem mass spectrometry was used to investigate the presence of proanthocyanidins (PAs) in the methanolic extract of B. simaruba bark. Additionally, an LC-ESI-MS qualitative study was performed by using a monolithic stationary phase. The fragmentation pattern obtained evidenced the presence in B. simaruba bark of PAs belonging to the series of polymers of epicatechin, along with their glycosilated derivatives.

  13. A survey protocol for the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tibbitts, Timothy J.; Sogge, Mark K.; Sferra, Susan J.

    1994-01-01

    The southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is a riparian obligate neotropical migrant, nesting in cottonwood-willow associations and structurally similar riparian vegetation associations. The southwestern willow flycatcher has declined through the twentieth century, primarily due to a number of factors, including loss and fragmentation of riparian habitat, brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), invasion of riparian habitat by the exotic tamarisk (Tamarix sp.), and predation (Hunter et al. 1987), Unitt 1987, Hunter et al. 1988, Whitfield 1990, Harris 1991, Rosenberg et al. 1991). In 1991 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) designated the southwestern willow flycatcher as a candidate category 1 species (USFWS 1991), indicating that the USFWS had sufficient information to support listing under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), but that a proposal to list was precluded by other listing actions of higher priority. In July 1993, the USFWS proposed to list E. t. extimus as an endangered species and to designate critical habitat under the Act (USFWS 1993). The states of Arizona, New Mexico, and California comprise most of the southwestern willow flycatcher's historic and current range. Each of these states lists the species as endangered [Arizona Game and Fish Department (AGFD) 1988, New Mexico Department of Game and Fish (NMDGF) 1988, California Department of Game and Fish 1991]. Because of the precarious status of the southwestern willow flycatcher (Unitt 1987, USFWS 1993), there is a need to identify as many remaining breeding locations as possible. This survey protocol was developed to facilitate and standardize breeding surveys, and is based primarily on extensive 1992 and 1993 field surveys. It was developed at the request of the Arizona Partners in flight, and organization of Federal and State agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and individuals. This protocol is intended to be useful

  14. Use of Cordia dichotoma bark in the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ganjare, Anjali B; Nirmal, Sunil A; Rub, Ruksana A; Patil, Anuja N; Pattan, Shashikant R

    2011-08-01

    The plant Cordia dichotoma Forst. f. (Boraginaceae) is commonly known as "Bhokar" in Marathi. This tree species has been of interest to researchers because traditionally its bark is reported in the treatment of ulcer and colic pain. The present work was undertaken to validate its folk use in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) by using scientific methods. Dried bark powder was extracted with methanol and this crude methanol extract was fractionated using various solvents. These fractions were tested for effectiveness against UC. Macroscopical study and histopathology of the colon, level of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in colon and blood were studied for the assessment of the activity. Antioxidant activity of these fractions was screened by using various methods. Animals treated with the methanol fraction of the crude methanol extract showed lower pathological scores and good healing. This fraction reduced MPO and MDA levels significantly in blood and tissue. It showed antioxidant potential [in DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay IC₅₀ value is 26.25; trolox equivalent (TE) antioxidant capacity µg/ml TE/g of plant material on dry basis in ABTS (2,2'-azinobis[3-ethylbenzthiazoline]-6-sulfonic acid) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant potential) assay is 2.03 and 2.45, respectively]. The fraction contains a high level of phenolics. The methanol fraction of crude methanol extract of C. dichotoma bark is effective in the treatment of UC.

  15. Phytochemicals and antidiabetic activity of Eusideroxylon zwageri stem bark collected from East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusuma, I. W.; Rahmini; Ramadhan, R.; Rahmawati, N.; Suwasono, R. A.; Sari, NM

    2018-04-01

    Eusideroxylon zwagery (Lauraceae), a tropical tree species known as ulin or borneo iron wood and traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes in the Ethnic of Kutai. Plant extract was prepared by maceration using ethanol. The plant extract was evaluated its DPPH and superoxide radicals scavenging activity, the inhibition on α-glucosidase and α-amylase activity as antidiabetic potential and the analysis of the total phenolic, total flavonoids and proanthocyanidin contents. The ethanolic extract of the stem bark was 8.62% on the dry weight basis. The IC50 values of antioxidant activity of the extract in DPPH and superoxide radical scavenging mechanisms were 44.90 µg/ml and 30.47 µg/ml. In antidiabetic assay, the E. zwageri stem bark extract showed IC50 value 58.45µg/ml in ɑ-glucosidase inhibition, and 9.04 µg/ml in ɑ-amylase inhibition. Quercetin, an antidiabetic activity-having flavonoid, displayed IC50 values 2.00 µg/ml and 4.04 µg/ml in ɑ-glucosidase and ɑ-amylase inhibitory assays. In phytochemical assay, the extract had 31.28 GAE/g extract (mg), 30.48 CE/g extract (mg) and 183.3 PE/g extract (mg) for the total phenolic, total flavonoid and total proanthocyanidin contents. The limited reports of E. zwageri indicated the needs to search the active compounds from plant as potential antidiabetic agents by considering plant conservation status.

  16. Willow Creek Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Today`s notice announces BPA`s proposal to fund land acquisition or acquisition of a conservation easement and a wildlife management plan to protect and enhance wildlife habitat at the Willow Creek Natural Area in Eugene, Oregon. This action would provide partial mitigation for wildlife and wildlife habitat lost by the development of Federal hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin. The project is consistent with BPA`s obligations under provisions of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 as outlined by the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. BPA has prepared anmore » environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1023) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.« less

  17. Glyphosate-Dependent Inhibition of Photosynthesis in Willow.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marcelo P; Le Manac'h, Sarah G; Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Labrecque, Michel; Lucotte, Marc; Juneau, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    We studied the physiological mechanisms involved in the deleterious effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide (Factor ® 540) on photosynthesis and related physiological processes of willow ( Salix miyabeana cultivar SX64) plants. Sixty-day-old plants grown under greenhouse conditions were sprayed with different rates (0, 1.4, 2.1, and 2.8 kg a.e ha -1 ) of the commercial glyphosate formulated salt Factor ® 540. Evaluations were performed at 0, 6, 24, 48, and 72 h after herbicide exposure. We established that the herbicide decreases chlorophyll, carotenoid and plastoquinone contents, and promotes changes in the photosynthetic apparatus leading to decreased photochemistry which results in hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) accumulation. H 2 O 2 accumulation triggers proline production which can be associated with oxidative protection, NADP + recovery and shikimate pathway stimulation. Ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase appeared to be the main peroxidases involved in the H 2 O 2 scavenging. In addition to promoting decreases of the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, the herbicide induced decreases in ascorbate pool. For the first time, a glyphosate-based herbicide mode of action interconnecting its effects on shikimate pathway, photosynthetic process and oxidative events in plants were presented.

  18. Glyphosate-Dependent Inhibition of Photosynthesis in Willow

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Marcelo P.; Le Manac’h, Sarah G.; Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Labrecque, Michel; Lucotte, Marc; Juneau, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    We studied the physiological mechanisms involved in the deleterious effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide (Factor® 540) on photosynthesis and related physiological processes of willow (Salix miyabeana cultivar SX64) plants. Sixty-day-old plants grown under greenhouse conditions were sprayed with different rates (0, 1.4, 2.1, and 2.8 kg a.e ha-1) of the commercial glyphosate formulated salt Factor® 540. Evaluations were performed at 0, 6, 24, 48, and 72 h after herbicide exposure. We established that the herbicide decreases chlorophyll, carotenoid and plastoquinone contents, and promotes changes in the photosynthetic apparatus leading to decreased photochemistry which results in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation. H2O2 accumulation triggers proline production which can be associated with oxidative protection, NADP+ recovery and shikimate pathway stimulation. Ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase appeared to be the main peroxidases involved in the H2O2 scavenging. In addition to promoting decreases of the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, the herbicide induced decreases in ascorbate pool. For the first time, a glyphosate-based herbicide mode of action interconnecting its effects on shikimate pathway, photosynthetic process and oxidative events in plants were presented. PMID:28261257

  19. Vitamin C deficiency in growing willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus lagopus).

    PubMed

    Hanssen, I; Grav, H J; Steen, J B; Lysnes, H

    1979-12-01

    Willow ptarmigan chicks raised on a diet containing 265 mg ascorbic acid/kg develop scury-like symptoms and die by 4 weeks of age. If blueberry plants are given as an ad libitum supplement to this diet, the malady is prevented. We have described the clinical, pathological and histological changes which accompany this malnutrition and conclude that they are in accord with the description of scurvy in guinea pig and man. Biochemical determination of ascorbic acid synthesis in the kidney of ptarmigan chicks indicated a rate of synthesis five times that found in livers of growing white rats. Blueberry plants and many other plants found in the natural diet of ptarmigan chicks contain 2,000 to 5,000 mg ascorbic acid/kg dry weight. Feeding experiments showed that the pathological signs were avoided and that already afflicted chicks recovered if the vitamin C content of the diet was raised to 750 mg/kg dry weight of food. Since the food intake of the chicks was 5 to 8 g/day the daily requirement of external vitamin C is about 150 mg/kg body weight. To our knowledge this is the first example of an animal which, while producing vitamin C itself, requires substantial amounts of external vitamin C to survive.

  20. Simulation modeling to understand how selective foraging by beaver can drive the structure and function of a willow community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peinetti, H.R.; Baker, B.W.; Coughenour, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Beaver-willow (Castor-Salix) communities are a unique and vital component of healthy wetlands throughout the Holarctic region. Beaver selectively forage willow to provide fresh food, stored winter food, and construction material. The effects of this complex foraging behavior on the structure and function of willow communities is poorly understood. Simulation modeling may help ecologists understand these complex interactions. In this study, a modified version of the SAVANNA ecosystem model was developed to better understand how beaver foraging affects the structure and function of a willow community in a simulated riparian ecosystem in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado (RMNP). The model represents willow in terms of plant and stem dynamics and beaver foraging in terms of the quantity and quality of stems cut to meet the energetic and life history requirements of beaver. Given a site where all stems were equally available, the model suggested a simulated beaver family of 2 adults, 2 yearlings, and 2 kits required a minimum of 4 ha of willow (containing about10 stems m-2) to persist in a steady-state condition. Beaver created a willow community where the annual net primary productivity (ANPP) was 2 times higher and plant architecture was more diverse than the willow community without beaver. Beaver foraging created a plant architecture dominated by medium size willow plants, which likely explains how beaver can increase ANPP. Long-term simulations suggested that woody biomass stabilized at similar values even though availability differed greatly at initial condition. Simulations also suggested that willow ANPP increased across a range of beaver densities until beaver became food limited. Thus, selective foraging by beaver increased productivity, decreased biomass, and increased structural heterogeneity in a simulated willow community.

  1. Tannin bark Melalauca cajuputi powell (gelam) as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel

    SciTech Connect

    Talib, Nur Atiqah Abu; Zakaria, Sarani; Hua, Chia Chin

    Tannin was extracted from gelam bark and used to produce corrosion inhibitor for mild steel. Tannin was extracted from gelam bark using 70% aqueous acetone for 6 hour. Tannin powder was characterization using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to analyse chemical component in tannin and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) for tannin physical structure. The tannin effect on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel has been investigated in 1Mol HCl solution for 6 hour followed ASTM. The weight loss method were applied to study the mild steel corrosion behavior in the present and absend of different concentration of tannin (250, 300, 350)ppm.more » Tannin act good inhibitor as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acid medium. Surface morphology of carbon steel with and without inhibitor was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.« less

  2. Tannin bark Melalauca cajuputi powell (gelam) as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talib, Nur Atiqah Abu; Zakaria, Sarani; Hua, Chia Chin; Othman, Norinsan Kamil

    2014-09-01

    Tannin was extracted from gelam bark and used to produce corrosion inhibitor for mild steel. Tannin was extracted from gelam bark using 70% aqueous acetone for 6 hour. Tannin powder was characterization using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to analyse chemical component in tannin and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) for tannin physical structure. The tannin effect on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel has been investigated in 1Mol HCl solution for 6 hour followed ASTM. The weight loss method were applied to study the mild steel corrosion behavior in the present and absend of different concentration of tannin (250, 300, 350)ppm. Tannin act good inhibitor as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acid medium. Surface morphology of carbon steel with and without inhibitor was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

  3. Salix transect of Europe: latitudinal patterns in willow diversity from Greece to arctic Norway

    PubMed Central

    Ruzzier, Enrico; Belyaeva, Irina; Percy, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Willows (Salix spp.) are ecosystem "foundation species" that are hosts to large numbers of associated insects. Determining their patterns of distribution across Europe is therefore of interest for understanding the spatial distribution of associated fauna. The aim of this study was to record species composition at multiple sites on a long latitudinal gradient (megatransect) across Europe as a baseline for the future detailed analysis of insect fauna at these sites. In this way we used willow stands as comparable mesocosms in which to study floristic and faunistic changes with latitude across Europe. New information To determine spatial patterning of  an ecologically important group on a latitudinal gradient across Europe, we sampled willows at the stand level in 42 sites, approximately 100 km apart, from the Aegean (38.8°N) to the Arctic Ocean (70.6°N), but at a similar longitude (21.2 to 26.1°E). The sites were predominantly lowland (elevations 1 to 556 metres amsl, median = 95 m) and wet (associated with rivers, lakes, drainage ditches or wet meadows). The median number of willow ta