Sample records for windows communication foundation

  1. Typical Window, Interior Wall Paint Sequence, Wall Section, and Foundation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Typical Window, Interior Wall Paint Sequence, Wall Section, and Foundation Sections - Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Camp NP-5-C, Barracks No. 5, CCC Camp Historic District at Chapin Mesa, Cortez, Montezuma County, CO

  2. An Evidence-Based Forensic Taxonomy of Windows Phone Communication Apps.

    PubMed

    Cahyani, Niken Dwi Wahyu; Martini, Ben; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Ab Rahman, Nurul Hidayah; Ashman, Helen

    2018-05-01

    Communication apps can be an important source of evidence in a forensic investigation (e.g., in the investigation of a drug trafficking or terrorism case where the communications apps were used by the accused persons during the transactions or planning activities). This study presents the first evidence-based forensic taxonomy of Windows Phone communication apps, using an existing two-dimensional Android forensic taxonomy as a baseline. Specifically, 30 Windows Phone communication apps, including Instant Messaging (IM) and Voice over IP (VoIP) apps, are examined. Artifacts extracted using physical acquisition are analyzed, and seven digital evidence objects of forensic interest are identified, namely: Call Log, Chats, Contacts, Locations, Installed Applications, SMSs and User Accounts. Findings from this study would help to facilitate timely and effective forensic investigations involving Windows Phone communication apps. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Old practices, new windows: reflections on a communications skills innovation.

    PubMed

    Cantillon, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Most of the great innovations in communication skills education, from Balint's concept of the 'doctor as drug' to the Calgary Cambridge conceptualisation of the consultation, were founded in general practice. It can be argued however, that there has been a hiatus in the development of new approaches to analysing the consultation since the mid-1990s. It is most welcome therefore that in this issue of the journal two papers are presented that describe and evaluate a novel approach to consultation analysis entitled 'the windows method'. Building on the more structured approaches that preceded it, the windows method offers some genuine innovations in terms of its emphasis on emotional knowledge and the manner in which it addresses many of the potential deficiencies in feedback practice associated with older methods. The new approach is very much in step with current thinking about emotional development and the establishment of appropriate environments for feedback. The windows method has the potential to breathe fresh life into old and well-established communication skills education practices.

  4. 77 FR 61032 - Proposal Review Panel for Computing Communication Foundations; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Computing Communication Foundations; Notice... National Science Foundation announces the following meeting: Name: Site Visit, Proposal Panel Review for.... Type of Meeting: Partial Closed. Contact Person: Sankar Basu, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson...

  5. 77 FR 65417 - Proposal Review Panel for Computing Communication Foundations; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ...: To assess the progress of the EIC Award, ``Collaborative Research: Computational Behavioral Science... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Computing Communication Foundations; Notice... National Science Foundation announces the following meeting: Name: Site Visit, Proposal Panel Review for...

  6. 78 FR 69138 - Proposal Review Panel for Computing Communication Foundations; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Computing Communication Foundations; Notice... National Science Foundation announces the following meeting: Name: Site Visit, Proposal Panel Review for Science and Technology Centers--Integrative Partnerships ( 1192). Date/Time: December 3, 2013, 6:30 p.m.-8...

  7. 77 FR 70483 - Proposal Review Panel for Computing Communication Foundations; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Computing Communication Foundations; Notice... National Science Foundation announces the following meeting: Name: Site Visit, Proposal Panel Review for Science and Technology Centers--Integrative Partnerships ( 1192). Date/Time: December 3, 2012, 6:30 p.m.-8...

  8. Rough-and-tumble play as a window on animal communication.

    PubMed

    Palagi, Elisabetta; Burghardt, Gordon M; Smuts, Barbara; Cordoni, Giada; Dall'Olio, Stefania; Fouts, Hillary N; Řeháková-Petrů, Milada; Siviy, Stephen M; Pellis, Sergio M

    2016-05-01

    Rough-and-tumble play (RT) is a widespread phenomenon in mammals. Since it involves competition, whereby one animal attempts to gain advantage over another, RT runs the risk of escalation to serious fighting. Competition is typically curtailed by some degree of cooperation and different signals help negotiate potential mishaps during RT. This review provides a framework for such signals, showing that they range along two dimensions: one from signals borrowed from other functional contexts to those that are unique to play, and the other from purely emotional expressions to highly cognitive (intentional) constructions. Some animal taxa have exaggerated the emotional and cognitive interplay aspects of play signals, yielding admixtures of communication that have led to complex forms of RT. This complexity has been further exaggerated in some lineages by the development of specific novel gestures that can be used to negotiate playful mood and entice reluctant partners. Play-derived gestures may provide new mechanisms by which more sophisticated communication forms can evolve. Therefore, RT and playful communication provide a window into the study of social cognition, emotional regulation and the evolution of communication systems. © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  9. Communication Research, the Rockefeller Foundation, and Mobilization for the War on Words, 1938-1944.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Brett

    1996-01-01

    Argues that Rockefeller Foundation served as an unofficial arm of the state from 1938 to 1944 by mobilizing social-scientific expertise to fight fascism when the Roosevelt Administration was politically unable to do so. Notes that Rockefeller Foundation officer John Marshall's role in the history of American mass communication research and the…

  10. Using applet-servlet communication for optimizing window, level and crop for DICOM to JPEG conversion.

    PubMed

    Kamauu, Aaron W C; DuVall, Scott L; Wiggins, Richard H; Avrin, David E

    2008-09-01

    In the creation of interesting radiological cases in a digital teaching file, it is necessary to adjust the window and level settings of an image to effectively display the educational focus. The web-based applet described in this paper presents an effective solution for real-time window and level adjustments without leaving the picture archiving and communications system workstation. Optimized images are created, as user-defined parameters are passed between the applet and a servlet on the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant teaching file server.

  11. 45 CFR 660.7 - How does the Director communicate with state and local officials concerning the Foundation's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 660.7 How does the Director communicate with state...

  12. 45 CFR 660.7 - How does the Director communicate with state and local officials concerning the Foundation's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 660.7 How does the Director communicate with state...

  13. 45 CFR 660.7 - How does the Director communicate with state and local officials concerning the Foundation's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 660.7 How does the Director communicate with state...

  14. 45 CFR 660.7 - How does the Director communicate with state and local officials concerning the Foundation's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 660.7 How does the Director communicate with state...

  15. 45 CFR 660.7 - How does the Director communicate with state and local officials concerning the Foundation's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 660.7 How does the Director communicate with state...

  16. A simple gold-coated microstructure fiber polarization filter in two communication windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xinxing; Li, Shuguang; Du, Huijing; Zhang, Yinan; Liu, Qiang

    2018-03-01

    A polarization filter is designed at two communication windows of 1310 and 1550 nm based on microstructured optical fiber. The model has four large diameter air holes and two gold-coated air holes. The influence of the geometrical parameters of the photonic crystal fiber on the performance of the polarization filter is analyzed by the finite element method. The numerical simulation shows that when the fiber length is 300 μm, the corresponding extinction ratio is 209.7 dB and 179.8 dB, the bandwidth of extinction ratio (ER) better than 20 dB is 150 nm and 350 nm at the communication wavelength of 1310 nm and 1550 nm.

  17. Insights into the genetic foundations of human communication.

    PubMed

    Graham, Sarah A; Deriziotis, Pelagia; Fisher, Simon E

    2015-03-01

    The human capacity to acquire sophisticated language is unmatched in the animal kingdom. Despite the discontinuity in communicative abilities between humans and other primates, language is built on ancient genetic foundations, which are being illuminated by comparative genomics. The genetic architecture of the language faculty is also being uncovered by research into neurodevelopmental disorders that disrupt the normally effortless process of language acquisition. In this article, we discuss the strategies that researchers are using to reveal genetic factors contributing to communicative abilities, and review progress in identifying the relevant genes and genetic variants. The first gene directly implicated in a speech and language disorder was FOXP2. Using this gene as a case study, we illustrate how evidence from genetics, molecular cell biology, animal models and human neuroimaging has converged to build a picture of the role of FOXP2 in neurodevelopment, providing a framework for future endeavors to bridge the gaps between genes, brains and behavior.

  18. Refining Windows and Frames: Visions toward Integration in the Discipline(s) of Communication. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Ken

    1998-01-01

    Detailed analyses are made of the concepts of window (seemingly deep spatial renderings) and frame (flatter, more technique-conscious structures) as they apply to a wide variety of visual media and communicative purposes. Special cases of each of these are detailed, along with their applications in cinema history to a range of realist, formalist,…

  19. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  20. Swiss Life Sciences - a science communication project for both schools and the wider public led by the foundation Science et Cité.

    PubMed

    Röthlisberger, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The foundation Science et Cité was founded 1998 with the aim to inform the wider Swiss public about current scientific topics and to generate a dialogue between science and society. Initiated as an independent foundation by the former State Secretary for Science and Research, Dr. Charles Kleiber, Science et Cité is now attached to the Swiss Academies of Arts and Sciences as a competence center for dialogue with the public. Due to its branches in all language regions of the country, the foundation is ideally suited to initiate and implement communication projects on a nationwide scale. These projects are subdivided into three categories: i) science communication for children/adolescents, ii) establishing a dialogue between science and the wider public, and iii) conducting the role of a national center of competence and networking in science communication. Swiss Life Sciences is a project that fits into all of these categories: a year-round program for schools is complemented with an annual event for the wider public. With the involvement of most of the major Swiss universities, the Swiss National Science Foundation, the foundation Gen Suisse and many other partners, Swiss Life Sciences also sets an example of national networking within the science communication community.

  1. Communication strategies to help reduce the prevalence of non-communicable diseases: Proceedings from the inaugural IFIC Foundation Global Diet and Physical Activity Communications Summit

    PubMed Central

    Fernstrom, Madelyn H; Reed, Kimberly A; Rahavi, Elizabeth B; Dooher, Carrie C

    2012-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which include cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes, all of which are associated with the common risk factors of poor diet and insufficient physical activity, caused 63% of all deaths globally in 2008. The increasing discussion of global NCDs, including at the 2011 United Nations General Assembly High-level Meeting on the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases, and a request for multi-stakeholder engagement, prompted the International Food Information Council Foundation to sponsor the Global Diet and Physical Activity Communications Summit: “Insights to Motivate Healthful, Active Lifestyles” on September 19, 2011, in New York City. The Summit brought together a diverse group of stakeholders, representing 34 nations from governments; communication, health, nutrition, and fitness professions; civil society; nonprofits; academia; and the private sector. The Summit provided expert insights and best practices for the use of science-based, behavior-focused communications to motivate individuals to achieve healthful, active lifestyles, with the goal of reducing the prevalence of NCDs. Presented here are some of the highlights and key findings from the Summit. PMID:22537216

  2. Use of UV-protective windows and window films to aid in the prevention of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Cox, Mary Jude; Becker, Daniel G; Horowitz, Jed H; Nichter, Larry S; Britt, L D; Long, William B; Edlic, Elizabeth C

    2004-01-01

    automotive films in an effort to increase consumer awareness and demand for all professionally installed film window products. The Skin Cancer Foundation has also played a leadership role in certifying window films that limit UV transmission. The Panorama Designer and Safety Films are currently recommended for UV photoprotection by The Skin Cancer Foundation. On the basis of these innovative scientific and industrial advances in window and film photoprotective products, we recommend that they be used in all residential, commercial, and school facilities to provide photoprotection in an effort to reduce skin cancer.

  3. Inter-Cultural Communication: A Foundation of Communicative Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuckovic, Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a model of inter-cultural communication that enumerates and structures latent factors affecting such communication and elaborates on the process of self-reflection as a guiding mechanism of successful communication. Design/methodology/approach: The five factors and various moderators that are…

  4. Borromean Windows for Three-Particle Systems under Screened Coulomb Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zi-Shi; Song, Xiu-Dan; Zhou, Lin; Kar, Sabyasachi

    2017-05-01

    We have carried out calculations to search Borromean windows (BWs) for 11 different three-body systems interacting with screened Coulomb (Yukawa-type) potentials using Hylleraas-type wave functions within the framework of a variational approach. The critical values of the screening parameters for the ground states of the systems under consideration are reported for which the three-body systems are stable, while all the possible fragments are unbound; that is, it shows windows for Borromean binding. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11304086, the University Nursing Program for Young Scholars with Creative Talents in Heilongjiang Province of China under Grant No. UNPYSCT-2015019, and the Natural Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars in Heilongjiang University under Grant No. JCL201503

  5. Novel quantum well gallium arsenide-based lasers for all transmission windows in optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tansu, Nelson

    The thesis covers the development of novel active regions for high-performance edge-emitting lasers (EEL) and vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) in optical communication. Three main themes of the thesis cover the design, fabrication, and physics of the novel and alternative active regions for GaAs-based VCSELs for the three optical communications windows at wavelength regimes of 850-nm, 1300-nm, and 1500-nm, with the emphases on the 1300-nm InGaAsN QW GaAs-based active regions and on the novel design of 1500-nm GaAs-based active regions. The studies include the utilization of compressively-strained InGaAsP quantum well (QW) active regions for the 850-nm VCSELs. The research on the long-wavelength lasers covers the design, growth, temperature analysis, carrier transport, and gain analysis of the InGaAsN (lambda = 1.3 mum) quantum well lasers. The novel and original design of the GaAsSb-(In)GaAsN type-II QWs to achieve 1500--3000 nm GaAs-based active regions is discussed in detail.

  6. Studies on hand-held visual communication device for the deaf and speech-impaired I. Visual display window size.

    PubMed

    Thurlow, W R

    1980-01-01

    Messages were presented which moved from right to left along an electronic alphabetic display which was varied in "window" size from 4 through 32 letter spaces. Deaf subjects signed the messages they perceived. Relatively few errors were made even at the highest rate of presentation, which corresponded to a typing rate of 60 words/min. It is concluded that many deaf persons can make effective use of a small visual display. A reduced cost is then possible for visual communication instruments for these people through reduced display size. Deaf subjects who can profit from a small display can be located by a sentence test administered by tape recorder which drives the display of the communication device by means of the standard code of the deaf teletype network.

  7. Understanding Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  8. Defining window-boundaries for genomic analyses using smoothing spline techniques

    DOE PAGES

    Beissinger, Timothy M.; Rosa, Guilherme J.M.; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; ...

    2015-04-17

    High-density genomic data is often analyzed by combining information over windows of adjacent markers. Interpretation of data grouped in windows versus at individual locations may increase statistical power, simplify computation, reduce sampling noise, and reduce the total number of tests performed. However, use of adjacent marker information can result in over- or under-smoothing, undesirable window boundary specifications, or highly correlated test statistics. We introduce a method for defining windows based on statistically guided breakpoints in the data, as a foundation for the analysis of multiple adjacent data points. This method involves first fitting a cubic smoothing spline to the datamore » and then identifying the inflection points of the fitted spline, which serve as the boundaries of adjacent windows. This technique does not require prior knowledge of linkage disequilibrium, and therefore can be applied to data collected from individual or pooled sequencing experiments. Moreover, in contrast to existing methods, an arbitrary choice of window size is not necessary, since these are determined empirically and allowed to vary along the genome.« less

  9. Governing & Foundation Boards: Fostering Successful Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legon, Richard D.

    1996-01-01

    Public colleges and universities increasingly raise private funds through institutional foundations. A healthy relationship between governing and foundation boards requires open communication, regular interaction, and shared information. The fulcrum of this relationship is the college's president, who has specific responsibilities toward each…

  10. An experimental model of an indigenous BCI based system to help disabled people to communicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, Kazi Sadman; Rahman, Chowdhury M. Abid; Farayez, Araf; Ferdous, Mahbuba

    2017-12-01

    In this paper a Brain Computer Interface (BCI) system has been proposed to help patients suffering from motor disease, paralysis or locked in syndrome to communicate via eye blinking. In this proposed BCI system EEG data is fetched by NeuroSky Headset and then analyzed by the help of WPF (Windows Presentation Foundation) based serial monitor to detect the EEG signal when the eye gives a blink. This detection of eye blinking can be used to select predefined texts and those texts can be converted to speech. The experimental result shows that this system can be used as an effective and efficient tool to communicate through brain.

  11. Exploring Earth's Polar Regions Online at Windows to the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, L.; Johnson, R.; Russell, R.; Genyuk, J.; Bergman, J.; Lagrave, M.

    2007-12-01

    Earth's Polar Regions (www.windows.ucar.edu/polar.html), a new section of the Windows to the Universe Web site, made its debut in March 2007, at the start of International Polar Year. With this new online resource we seek to communicate information about the science, the history and cultures of the Arctic and Antarctic to students, teachers, and the general public. The Web section includes brief articles about diverse aspects of the science of polar regions including the cryosphere, climate change, geography, oceans, magnetic poles, the atmosphere, and ecology. Polar science topics link to related areas of the broader Web site as well. Other articles tell the stories of our human connections to the polar regions including the history of polar exploration and human cultures. Online "Postcards from the Field" allow contributing scientists to share their polar research with a broader audience. We continue to build content, games, puzzles, and interactives to complement and expand the existing resources. A new section about the poles of other planets is also in development. A growing collection of classroom activities which allow students to explore aspects of the polar regions is provided for K-12 educators. An image gallery of photographs from the polar regions and links to IPY and related educational programs provide additional resources for educators. We have been disseminating information about the Earth's Polar Regions Web resources to educators via National Science Teacher Association workshops, the Windows to the Universe educator newsletter, various education Listservs, and Climate Discovery courses offered through NCAR Online Education. Windows to the Universe (www.windows.ucar.edu), a long-standing and widely-used Web resource (with over 20 million user sessions in the past 12 months), provides extensive information about the Earth and space sciences at three levels - beginner, intermediate, and advanced - to serve the needs of upper elementary through lower

  12. Window Selection Tool | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  13. A 1000+ channel bionic communication system.

    PubMed

    Schulman, Joseph H; Mobley, J Phil; Wolfe, James; Stover, Howard; Krag, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    The wireless electronic nervous system interface known as the functional electrical stimulation-battery powered bion system is being developed at the Alfred Mann Foundation. It contains a real-time propagated wave micro-powered multichannel communication system. This system is designed to send bi-directional messages between an external master controller unit (MCU), and each one of a group of injectable stimulator-sensor battery powered bion implants (BPB). The system is capable of communicating in each direction about 90 times per second using a structure of 850 time slots within a repeating 11 millisecond time window. The system's total Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) communication capability is about 77,000 two-way communications per second on a single 5 MHz wide radio channel. Each time slot can be used by one BPB, or shared alternately by two or more BPBs. Each bidirectional communication consists of a 15 data bit message sent from the MCU sequentially to each BPB and 10 data bit message sent sequentially from each BPB to the MCU. Redundancy bits are included to provide error detection and correction. This communication system is designed to draw only a few microamps from the 3.6 volt, 3.0 mAHr lithium ion (LiIon) battery contained in each BPB, and the majority of the communications circuitry is contained within a 1.4x5 mm integrated circuit.

  14. Medical Information Management System (MIMS) CareWindows.

    PubMed Central

    Stiphout, R. M.; Schiffman, R. M.; Christner, M. F.; Ward, R.; Purves, T. M.

    1991-01-01

    The demonstration of MIMS/CareWindows will include: (1) a review of the application environment and development history, (2) a demonstration of a very large, comprehensive clinical information system with a cost effective graphic user server and communications interface. PMID:1807755

  15. Helping Foundations Build a Clean Energy Future | Working with Us | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    climate change globally deserve to be widely recognized and supported." -Sonia Medina, Director for Climate Change, Children's Investment Foundation Fund Photo of one man holding a small window outside with

  16. PBF Reactor Building (PER620) as seen from control room window ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Reactor Building (PER-620) as seen from control room window in PER-619. Photographer stood just outside window. Note exposed communication cables on desert surface. Date: July 2004. INEEL negative no. HD-41-9-3 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Benefits of Efficient Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  18. Windows for New Construction | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  19. Performance Standards for Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  20. Assessing Window Replacement Options | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  1. Non-valvular main pulmonary artery vegetation associated with aortopulmonary window.

    PubMed

    Unal, M; Tuncer, C; Serçe, K; Bostan, M; Gökçe, M; Erem, C

    1995-01-01

    We present a 32-year-old female with aortopulmonary window and vegetation of non-valvular main pulmonary artery. The aortopulmonary window is a rare congenital disease in which the aorta and pulmonary arteries are communicated by a defect of variable diameter. The pulmonic valve is the least commonly involved valve in bacterial endocarditis, but there is no vegetation of non-valvular main pulmonary artery in the literature. Colour duplex sonography showed an aortopulmonary window with aortic regurgitation. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrating the vegetation on the wall of main pulmonary artery, is an useful and complementary method, and can be used for demonstration of congenital and acquired cardiovascular pathologies including aortopulmonary window and subpulmonic or suprapulmonic vegetations.

  2. The impact of the SAGE & THYME foundation level workshop on factors influencing communication skills in health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Michael; Thomas, Joanne M; Orford, Julie A; Schofield, Nicola; Whiteside, Sigrid; Morris, Julie; Heaven, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    The "SAGE & THYME Foundation Level Workshop" delivers evidence-based communication skills training to 30 health care workers in 3 hours. It teaches a structured approach (the SAGE & THYME model) to discuss patient/carer concerns. The aim of this study was to determine whether the workshop had a positive outcome on factors that influence communication skills. The study had a pragmatic, mixed methods design. Workshops were run in an acute hospital. One hundred seventy health care workers completed questionnaires pre- and post-workshop; 141 were sent follow-up questionnaires at 2 weeks and 2 months; and 9 were filmed talking to a simulated patient pre- and post-workshop. From pre- to post-workshop, there was a significant increase in knowledge (p < 0.001), self-efficacy (p < 0.001), and outcome expectancy (p < 0.001). An expert's rating of behavior with the simulated patient also significantly increased after the training (p = 0.011). Motivation to use the training, and the perceived usefulness of the SAGE & THYME model, were high post-workshop. There was a poor response rate in the follow-up period; hence, the quantitative data are not reported. The qualitative data are described, however, as they give an insight into the impact of the training on staff and their patients. The SAGE & THYME Foundation Level Workshop significantly increases communication skills knowledge, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancy of hospital health care workers who are predominantly white, female, nursing, or nonclinical staff. This suggests that the workshop may have a positive impact on some factors influencing communication skills in this group. © 2014 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  3. Double Mine Building (N) wall showing clerestory slot windows opening ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Double Mine Building (N) wall showing clerestory slot windows opening above level of main roof. Note structure is built on poured concrete foundation partly buried in hillside; view in southeast - Fort McKinley, Double Mine Building, East side of East Side Drive, approximately 125 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  4. X-Windows Information Sharing Protocol Widget Class

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.

    2006-01-01

    The X-Windows Information Sharing Protocol (ISP) Widget Class ("Class") is used here in the object-oriented-programming sense of the word) was devised to simplify the task of implementing ISP graphical-user-interface (GUI) computer programs. ISP programming tasks require many method calls to identify, query, and interpret the connections and messages exchanged between a client and an ISP server. Most X-Windows GUI programs use widget sets or toolkits to facilitate management of complex objects. The widget standards facilitate construction of toolkits and application programs. The X-Windows Information Sharing Protocol (ISP) Widget Class encapsulates the client side of the ISP programming libraries within the framework of an X-Windows widget. Using the widget framework, X-Windows GUI programs can interact with ISP services in an abstract way and in the same manner as that of other graphical widgets, making it easier to write ISP GUI client programs. Wrapping ISP client services inside a widget framework enables a programmer to treat an ISP server interface as though it were a GUI. Moreover, an alternate subclass could implement another communication protocol in the same sort of widget.

  5. Success stories showing the diversity of kidney foundations: Turkish Kidney Foundation.

    PubMed

    Erk, Timur

    Founded in 1985, the Turkish Kidney Foundation serves the society with 3 dialysis centers and a 113-bed general hospital. Interacting with public authorities and advocating end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients' rights are essential services of this non-governmental organization (NGO). Over the last 30 years, keeping with the trend of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the country, the foundation raised awareness in the population for this condition and prepared an activity road map by using statistical facts and data. Goals were set keeping in mind the local culture and traditions, debating on them with colleagues, PR agencies, and other experts in this field. The best strategy embrace the society, and all activities are made as cost-effective as possible in keeping with a tight budget. Various communication channels, especially social media, are used to communicate the message to the public, always keeping in mind that such messages are to be succinct and precise. Every effort is taken to make our foundation reliable and trustworthy in the eyes of the public at large. Reliability, credibility, and trust are the key success corner stones of our NGO. Every opportunity is taken to capitalize on participation of celebrities and real stories of people. Testimonies of real ESRD patients are always interesting and can touch the hearts of the rest of the population.

  6. Selection Process for New Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  7. Design Guidance for New Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  8. Selection Process for Replacement Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  9. Design Guidance for Replacement Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  10. Apparatus for preventing particle deposition from process streams on optical access windows

    DOEpatents

    Logan, Ronald G.; Grimm, Ulrich

    1993-01-01

    An electrostatic precipitator is disposed inside and around the periphery of the window of a viewing port communicating with a housing through which a particle-laden gas stream is being passed. The precipitator includes a pair of electrodes around the periphery of the window, spaced apart and connected to a unidirectional voltage source. Application of high voltage from the source to the electrodes causes air molecules in the gas stream to become ionized, attaching to solid particles and causing them to be deposited on a collector electrode. This prevents the particles from being deposited on the window and keeps the window clean for viewing and making optical measurements.

  11. Window Operator Types | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Types Casement Casement Casement windows are hinged at the sides. Hinged windows such as casements operating types to consider. Traditional operable window types include the projected or hinged types such as casement, awning, and hopper, and the sliding types such as double- and single-hung and horizontal sliding

  12. Broad bandwidth and 600 μm length photonic crystal fiber polarization filter at the communication window of 1.55 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Li, Shuguang; Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Shuhuan; Wang, Yujun; Wu, Junjun

    2018-02-01

    A broad bandwidth and 600-μm length photonic crystal fiber polarization filter at the communication window of 1.55 μm is proposed. The physical parameters are analyzed by the finite element method. In the structure, the loss is 705.81 dB/cm for y-polarized mode and 24.06 dB/cm for x-polarized mode at the wavelength of 1.55 μm; the y-polarized mode will be filtered out because of this property. The bandwidth of an extinction ratio (ER) better than -20 dB is 65 nm when the filter length is 600 μm, and the ER is -41 dB at the communication wavelength of 1.55 μm. The filter structure is simple and easy to produce, and it can be used to produce a single-polarization filter.

  13. 22 CFR 1510.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Communications. 1510.160 Section 1510.160 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION § 1510.160 Communications...

  14. 45 CFR 1803.10 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Communications. 1803.10 Section 1803.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP § 1803.10 Communications. (a) The Foundation shall take appropriate steps...

  15. 22 CFR 1005.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Communications. 1005.160 Section 1005.160 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION § 1005.160 Communications. (a) The agency...

  16. 45 CFR 1803.10 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Communications. 1803.10 Section 1803.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP § 1803.10 Communications. (a) The Foundation shall take appropriate steps...

  17. 45 CFR 1803.10 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Communications. 1803.10 Section 1803.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP § 1803.10 Communications. (a) The Foundation shall take appropriate steps...

  18. 22 CFR 1005.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Communications. 1005.160 Section 1005.160 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION § 1005.160 Communications. (a) The agency...

  19. Communicating for policy change.

    PubMed

    2007-11-01

    A decade ago few foundations viewed communications as an important tool for achieving strategic goals, and only a handful specifically relied on communications activities to influence policy change. This history reflects, in large part, the nascent role of communications activities in philanthropy. More focused questions regarding the fit between mission and policy reform objectives, however, have also dampened and continue to moderate support for communications as an instrument for policy change. Funders wishing to utilize communications to facilitate policy change actually have a great deal of latitude to do so, but, until recently, conservative interpretations of lobbying restrictions have made many foundations wary of policy advocacy. Ambitious communications efforts that might appear too vocal or politically pointed were especially uncommon.

  20. Communication, Work Systems and HRD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, R. Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to show the foundational place that communication theory and its practice occupies in functioning work systems. Design/methodology/approach: This paper defines the word communication in terms of the creation and interpretation of displays, describes what it means to have a theoretical foundation for a…

  1. Replacement Windows for Existing Homes Homes | Efficient Windows

    Science.gov Websites

    Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Selection Tool will take you through a series of design conditions pertaining to your design and location

  2. Downsampling Photodetector Array with Windowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patawaran, Ferze D.; Farr, William H.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Quirk, Kevin J.; Sahasrabudhe, Adit

    2012-01-01

    In a photon counting detector array, each pixel in the array produces an electrical pulse when an incident photon on that pixel is detected. Detection and demodulation of an optical communication signal that modulated the intensity of the optical signal requires counting the number of photon arrivals over a given interval. As the size of photon counting photodetector arrays increases, parallel processing of all the pixels exceeds the resources available in current application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and gate array (GA) technology; the desire for a high fill factor in avalanche photodiode (APD) detector arrays also precludes this. Through the use of downsampling and windowing portions of the detector array, the processing is distributed between the ASIC and GA. This allows demodulation of the optical communication signal incident on a large photon counting detector array, as well as providing architecture amenable to algorithmic changes. The detector array readout ASIC functions as a parallel-to-serial converter, serializing the photodetector array output for subsequent processing. Additional downsampling functionality for each pixel is added to this ASIC. Due to the large number of pixels in the array, the readout time of the entire photodetector is greater than the time between photon arrivals; therefore, a downsampling pre-processing step is done in order to increase the time allowed for the readout to occur. Each pixel drives a small counter that is incremented at every detected photon arrival or, equivalently, the charge in a storage capacitor is incremented. At the end of a user-configurable counting period (calculated independently from the ASIC), the counters are sampled and cleared. This downsampled photon count information is then sent one counter word at a time to the GA. For a large array, processing even the downsampled pixel counts exceeds the capabilities of the GA. Windowing of the array, whereby several subsets of pixels are designated

  3. Quantitative study of the opticocarotid and carotid-oculomotor windows for the interpeduncular fossa, before and after internal carotid artery mobilization and posterior communicating division.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Don; Elhadi, Ali M; Mendes, George A C; Maramreddy, Naveen; Agrawal, Abhishek; Kalb, Samuel; Nakaji, Peter; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C

    2015-03-01

    The management of basilar apex (BX) aneurysms remains problematic. We quantified the surgical exposure of the BX through the opticocarotid window (OCW) and the carotid-oculomotor window (COW), before and after mobilization of the internal carotid artery and division of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA). Eleven silicone-injected cadaveric heads were dissected bilaterally. The surgical dissection was divided into 4 major steps: (1) supraorbital modified orbitozygomatic craniotomy, (2) mobilization of the internal carotid artery after drilling out the anterior clinoid process intradurally and cutting the distal dural ring, (3) drilling out the posterior clinoid process and dorsum sellae, and (4) dividing the PCoA from the posterior third portion of the vessel. A frameless navigation system was used to quantify the surgical exposure area of the BX through the OCW and COW. The total surgical area increased significantly from steps 1 to 4 (P < .001) in both OCW and COW groups. Overall, there was a larger total surgical area obtained in the COW compared with the OCW (P = .010). ICA mobilization increased the surgical area for temporary (P < .001) and permanent (P < .003) clip application in both windows. The division of PCoA significantly increased the overall surgical area for permanent clip application (P < .003). Compared with the OCW, the COW had a significantly increased change in the area for permanent clip application in the low-lying group (P = .03). When approaching the BX via the pterion route, the appropriate surgical step and window should be selected according to characteristics of the PCoA and height of the BX.

  4. Secure video communications system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    A secure video communications system having at least one command network formed by a combination of subsystems. The combination of subsystems to include a video subsystem, an audio subsystem, a communications subsystem, and a control subsystem. The video communications system to be window driven and mouse operated, and having the ability to allow for secure point-to-point real-time teleconferencing.

  5. Optimal pulse design for communication-oriented slow-light pulse detection.

    PubMed

    Stenner, Michael D; Neifeld, Mark A

    2008-01-21

    We present techniques for designing pulses for linear slow-light delay systems which are optimal in the sense that they maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and signal-to-noise-plus-interference ratio (SNIR) of the detected pulse energy. Given a communication model in which input pulses are created in a finite temporal window and output pulse energy in measured in a temporally-offset output window, the SNIR-optimal pulses achieve typical improvements of 10 dB compared to traditional pulse shapes for a given output window offset. Alternatively, for fixed SNR or SNIR, window offset (detection delay) can be increased by 0.3 times the window width. This approach also invites a communication-based model for delay and signal fidelity.

  6. Theoretical Foundations for Website Design Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Kristin

    2002-01-01

    Considers how theoretical foundations in website design courses can facilitate students learning the genres of Internet communication. Proposes ways that theories can be integrated into website design courses. Focuses on two students' website portfolios and ways they utilize genre theory and activity theory discussed in class to produce websites…

  7. Windows Instant Messaging App Forensics: Facebook and Skype as Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Teing Yee; Dehghantanha, Ali; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Muda, Zaiton

    2016-01-01

    Instant messaging (IM) has changed the way people communicate with each other. However, the interactive and instant nature of these applications (apps) made them an attractive choice for malicious cyber activities such as phishing. The forensic examination of IM apps for modern Windows 8.1 (or later) has been largely unexplored, as the platform is relatively new. In this paper, we seek to determine the data remnants from the use of two popular Windows Store application software for instant messaging, namely Facebook and Skype on a Windows 8.1 client machine. This research contributes to an in-depth understanding of the types of terrestrial artefacts that are likely to remain after the use of instant messaging services and application software on a contemporary Windows operating system. Potential artefacts detected during the research include data relating to the installation or uninstallation of the instant messaging application software, log-in and log-off information, contact lists, conversations, and transferred files. PMID:26982207

  8. Windows Instant Messaging App Forensics: Facebook and Skype as Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Teing Yee; Dehghantanha, Ali; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Muda, Zaiton

    2016-01-01

    Instant messaging (IM) has changed the way people communicate with each other. However, the interactive and instant nature of these applications (apps) made them an attractive choice for malicious cyber activities such as phishing. The forensic examination of IM apps for modern Windows 8.1 (or later) has been largely unexplored, as the platform is relatively new. In this paper, we seek to determine the data remnants from the use of two popular Windows Store application software for instant messaging, namely Facebook and Skype on a Windows 8.1 client machine. This research contributes to an in-depth understanding of the types of terrestrial artefacts that are likely to remain after the use of instant messaging services and application software on a contemporary Windows operating system. Potential artefacts detected during the research include data relating to the installation or uninstallation of the instant messaging application software, log-in and log-off information, contact lists, conversations, and transferred files.

  9. Interpersonal Communication: The Self and Perception in Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belmore, JaneAnne

    2009-01-01

    The Self and Perception are key components of the foundation of interpersonal communication. Students new to the communication discipline often have a difficult time understanding these concepts and the value of understanding and practicing them. The following teaching unit is designed to introduce the basics of understanding the Self and…

  10. The John and Mary R. Markle Foundation Annual Report 1973/74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John and Mary R. Markle Foundation, New York, NY.

    The John and Mary R. Markle Foundation, chartered in 1927 to promote the advancement and diffusion of knowledge and the general good of mankind, currently conducts a program to strengthen educational use of the mass media and communications technology. The foundation's annual report begins with the president's essay on the history, philosophy, and…

  11. 45 CFR 1803.10 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... interview process or other programs or activities conducted by the Foundation. (i) In determining what type... devices of a personal nature. (2) When the Foundation communicates with applicants and beneficiaries by...

  12. Efficient Windows Collaborative | Home

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  13. Resources | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  14. Links | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  15. Teaching Complicated Conceptual Knowledge with Simulation Videos in Foundational Electrical Engineering Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Baiyun; Wei, Lei; Li, Huihui

    2016-01-01

    Building a solid foundation of conceptual knowledge is critical for students in electrical engineering. This mixed-method case study explores the use of simulation videos to illustrate complicated conceptual knowledge in foundational communications and signal processing courses. Students found these videos to be very useful for establishing…

  16. Window treatments

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nielson, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    This book includes basic material as well as information the professional needs for designing appropriate window treatments for residential and nonresidential buildings: site, orientation, climate, energy efficiency, sound-proofing, privacy, protection, view, ventilation and interior and exterior aesthetics. Also includes a guide to the window treatment industry, a list of manufacturers, distributors, and retailers, information on window treatment fibers and fabrics, three glossaries, an extensive bibliography, and over 800 illustrations.

  17. Method of high speed flow field influence and restrain on laser communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Li-xin; Wang, Chun-hui; Qian, Cun-zhu; Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Li-zhong

    2013-08-01

    For laser communication performance which carried by airplane or airship, due to high-speed platform movement, the air has two influences in platform and laser communication terminal window. The first influence is that aerodynamic effect causes the deformation of the optical window; the second one is that a shock wave and boundary layer would be generated. For subsonic within the aircraft, the boundary layer is the main influence. The presence of a boundary layer could change the air density and the temperature of the optical window, which causes the light deflection and received beam spot flicker. Ultimately, the energy hunting of the beam spot which reaches receiving side increases, so that the error rate increases. In this paper, aerodynamic theory is used in analyzing the influence of the optical window deformation due to high speed air. Aero-optics theory is used to analyze the influence of the boundary layer in laser communication link. Based on this, we focused on working on exploring in aerodynamic and aero-optical effect suppression method in the perspective of the optical window design. Based on planning experimental aircraft types and equipment installation location, we optimized the design parameters of the shape and thickness of the optical window, the shape and size of air-management kit. Finally, deformation of the optical window and air flow distribution were simulated by fluid simulation software in the different mach and different altitude fly condition. The simulation results showed that the optical window can inhibit the aerodynamic influence after optimization. In addition, the boundary layer is smoothed; the turbulence influence is reduced, which meets the requirements of the airborne laser communication.

  18. Optimization of ramp area aircraft push back time windows in the presence of uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupe, William Jeremy

    It is well known that airport surface traffic congestion at major airports is responsible for increased taxi-out times, fuel burn and excess emissions and there is potential to mitigate these negative consequences through optimizing airport surface traffic operations. Due to a highly congested voice communication channel between pilots and air traffic controllers and a data communication channel that is used only for limited functions, one of the most viable near-term strategies for improvement of the surface traffic is issuing a push back advisory to each departing aircraft. This dissertation focuses on the optimization of a push back time window for each departing aircraft. The optimization takes into account both spatial and temporal uncertainties of ramp area aircraft trajectories. The uncertainties are described by a stochastic kinematic model of aircraft trajectories, which is used to infer distributions of combinations of push back times that lead to conflict among trajectories from different gates. The model is validated and the distributions are included in the push back time window optimization. Under the assumption of a fixed taxiway spot schedule, the computed push back time windows can be integrated with a higher level taxiway scheduler to optimize the flow of traffic from the gate to the departure runway queue. To enable real-time decision making the computational time of the push back time window optimization is critical and is analyzed throughout.

  19. BCTC for Windows: Abstract of Issue 9903W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whisnant, David M.; McCormick, James A.

    1999-05-01

    was provided by NSF Grant USE-9151873 and by a BellSouth Foundation Grant. Literature Cited 1. Whisnant, D. M.; McCormick, J. A. BCTC for Windows; J. Chem. Educ. Software 1992, 5B2. 2. Whisnant, D. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 627-629. 3. Whisnant, D. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 42. 4. Camille and Henry Dreyfus Institute on the Chemistry of Water, 1990; Institute for Chemical Education Summer Workshops, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1991. 5. Roberts, L. Science 1991, 251, 624-626; ibid, 254, 377. Keywords Computer Room; Simulation; High School; General; General Science; Environmental Chemistry; Chemistry and Society; Water Chemistry Hardware and Software Requirements for BCTC for Windows

  20. Inside storm window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, J. I.

    1980-11-01

    The work effort to design, build, install, and evaluate an inside storm window (ISW) is presented. The ISW, made of two separated layers of mylar (like a thermopane window) which, when not in use can be rolled up in a shade, is described. The work effort included: development of a prototype model; the development of production facilities to turn out a small number (50) of ISW's; the production of the windows; the installation of the windows into buildings; the building of a test chamber to determine the R value of the ISW and the subsequent determination of the R value; and a survey to determine how the residents of the homes in which ISW's were installed felt about the windows.

  1. Sensitivity distribution of a vibration sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer designed inside the window system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zboril, Ondrej; Nedoma, Jan; Cubik, Jakub; Novak, Martin; Bednarek, Lukas; Fajkus, Marcel; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Interferometric sensors are very accurate and sensitive sensors that due to the extreme sensitivity allow sensing vibration and acoustic signals. This paper describes a new method of implementation of Mach-Zehnder interferometer for sensing of vibrations caused by touching on the window panes. Window panes are part of plastic windows, in which the reference arm of the interferometer is mounted and isolated inside the frame, a measuring arm of the interferometer is fixed to the window pane and it is mounted under the cover of the window frame. It prevents visibility of the optical fiber and this arrangement is the basis for the safety system. For the construction of the vibration sensor standard elements of communication networks are used - optical fiber according to G.652D and 1x2 splitters with dividing ratio 1:1. Interferometer operated at a wavelength of 1550 nm. The paper analyses the sensitivity of the window in a 12x12 measuring points matrix, there is specified sensitivity distribution of the window pane.

  2. 22 CFR 1005.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Communications. 1005.160 Section 1005.160... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION § 1005.160 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants, participants, personnel...

  3. 22 CFR 1510.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Communications. 1510.160 Section 1510.160... IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION § 1510.160 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants...

  4. 45 CFR 2490.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Communications. 2490.160 Section 2490.160 Public... MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION § 2490.160 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants, participants, personnel of other Federal...

  5. [Thematic Issue: International/Intercultural Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxford, Wayne, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Fifteen articles dealing with international/intercultural communication are contained in this journal. The following topics are considered: a communication perspective on aging in Japan and America; Japanese speech characteristics; the development of a communication-conflict test; information systems in the educational institution; the foundation,…

  6. 45 CFR 2490.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Communications. 2490.160 Section 2490.160 Public... MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION § 2490.160 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants, participants, personnel of other Federal...

  7. 22 CFR 1510.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Communications. 1510.160 Section 1510.160... IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION § 1510.160 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants...

  8. 45 CFR 2490.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Communications. 2490.160 Section 2490.160 Public... MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION § 2490.160 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants, participants, personnel of other Federal...

  9. 22 CFR 1005.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Communications. 1005.160 Section 1005.160... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION § 1005.160 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants, participants, personnel...

  10. 45 CFR 2490.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communications. 2490.160 Section 2490.160 Public... MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION § 2490.160 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants, participants, personnel of other Federal...

  11. Interoperability through standardization: Electronic mail, and X Window systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amin, Ashok T.

    1993-01-01

    Since the introduction of computing machines, there has been continual advances in computer and communication technologies and approaching limits. The user interface has evolved from a row of switches, character based interface using teletype terminals and then video terminals, to present day graphical user interface. It is expected that next significant advances will come in the availability of services, such as electronic mail and directory services, as the standards for applications are developed and in the 'easy to use' interfaces, such as Graphical User Interface for example Window and X Window, which are being standardized. Various proprietary electronic mail (email) systems are in use within organizations at each center of NASA. Each system provides email services to users within an organization, however the support for email services across organizations and across centers exists at centers to a varying degree and is often easy to use. A recent NASA email initiative is intended 'to provide a simple way to send email across organizational boundaries without disruption of installed base.' The initiative calls for integration of existing organizational email systems through gateways connected by a message switch, supporting X.400 and SMTP protocols, to create a NASA wide email system and for implementation of NASA wide email directory services based on OSI standard X.500. A brief overview of MSFC efforts as a part of this initiative are described. Window based graphical user interfaces make computers easy to use. X window protocol has been developed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1984/1985 to provide uniform window based interface in a distributed computing environment with heterogenous computers. It has since become a standard supported by a number of major manufacturers. Z Windows systems, terminals and workstations, and X Window applications are becoming available. However impact of its use in the Local Area Network environment on the network

  12. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanismsmore » to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.« less

  13. Proper Installation of New Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    airtight fit and avoid water leakage. Always follow manufacturers installation guidelines and use trained professionals for window installation. Proper installation will: Protect from water damage. Windows should form a continuous water barrier where they meet the wall. With improper installation, water may penetrate

  14. 45 CFR 606.60 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Communications. 606.60 Section 606.60 Public... § 606.60 Communications. (a) The Foundation shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants, participants, personnel of other Federal entities, and members of the public. (1...

  15. 45 CFR 1181.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Communications. 1181.160 Section 1181.160 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE... Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants...

  16. 45 CFR 1181.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Communications. 1181.160 Section 1181.160 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE... Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants...

  17. 45 CFR 606.60 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communications. 606.60 Section 606.60 Public... § 606.60 Communications. (a) The Foundation shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants, participants, personnel of other Federal entities, and members of the public. (1...

  18. 45 CFR 1181.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communications. 1181.160 Section 1181.160 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE... Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants...

  19. 45 CFR 606.60 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Communications. 606.60 Section 606.60 Public... § 606.60 Communications. (a) The Foundation shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants, participants, personnel of other Federal entities, and members of the public. (1...

  20. 45 CFR 1181.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Communications. 1181.160 Section 1181.160 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE... Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants...

  1. James Webb Space Telescope Launch Window Trade Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Wayne; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large-scale space telescope mission designed to study fundamental astrophysical questions ranging from the formation of the universe to the origin of planetary systems and the origins of life. JWSTs orbit design is a Libration Point Orbit (LPO) around the Sun-EarthMoon (SEM) L2 point for a planned mission lifetime of 10.5 years. The launch readiness period for JWST is from Oct 1st, 2018 November 30th, 2018. This paper presents the first launch window analysis for the JWST observatory using finite-burn modeling; previous analysis assumed a single impulsive midcourse correction to achieve the mission orbit. The physical limitations of the JWST hardware stemming primarily from propulsion, communication and thermal requirements alongside updated mission design requirements result in significant launch window within the launch readiness period. Future plans are also discussed.

  2. 45 CFR 2490.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION § 2490.160 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate...

  3. Design Considerations | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  4. Gas Fills | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  5. Books & Publications | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  6. Provide Views | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  7. Reducing Condensation | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  8. Reduced Fading | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  9. EWC Membership | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  10. Visible Transmittance | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  11. EWC Members | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  12. Financing & Incentives | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  13. Pilot Fullerton points Hasselblad camera out forward flight deck window W6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Pilot Fullerton, wearing communications kit assembly (ASSY) mini headset (HDST), points Hasselblad camera out forward flight deck pilots station window W6. Forward flight deck control panels F4, F8, and R1, flight mirror assy, Volume R5 Kit, and pilots ejection seat (S2) headrest appear in view.

  14. Wrap-Around Out-the-Window Sensor Fusion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Jeffrey; Boe, Eric A.; Delgado, Francisco; Secor, James B.; Clark, Michael R.; Ehlinger, Kevin D.; Abernathy, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Cockpit Evaluation System (ACES) includes communication, computing, and display subsystems, mounted in a van, that synthesize out-the-window views to approximate the views of the outside world as it would be seen from the cockpit of a crewed spacecraft, aircraft, or remote control of a ground vehicle or UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle). The system includes five flat-panel display units arranged approximately in a semicircle around an operator, like cockpit windows. The scene displayed on each panel represents the view through the corresponding cockpit window. Each display unit is driven by a personal computer equipped with a video-capture card that accepts live input from any of a variety of sensors (typically, visible and/or infrared video cameras). Software running in the computers blends the live video images with synthetic images that could be generated, for example, from heads-up-display outputs, waypoints, corridors, or from satellite photographs of the same geographic region. Data from a Global Positioning System receiver and an inertial navigation system aboard the remote vehicle are used by the ACES software to keep the synthetic and live views in registration. If the live image were to fail, the synthetic scenes could still be displayed to maintain situational awareness.

  15. Electronic tunability of zero dispersion wavelengths in a spiral photonic crystal fiber for supercontinuum generation in the communication window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md. Nazmul; Alam, M. Shah; Mohsin, K. M.; Hasan, Dihan Md. Nuruddin

    2011-08-01

    A liquid crystal infiltrated spiral photonic crystal fiber (LCSPCF) is presented here for electrical tuning of two zero dispersion wavelengths (ZDWs) in the present communication window. The proposed LCSPCF shows tunability of the ZDWs from 1433 nm to 2136 nm due to the rotation of the infiltrated LC mesogen induced by the external electric field. Therefore, the ZDW can easily be shifted towards the available pump wavelength for effective supercontinuum generation (SCG) over a broad wavelength region. By tuning the bandwidth (BW) in between the two ZDWs the extension of the generated supercontinuum (SC) spectrum can also be electrically controlled. This will help the SCG in our desired band with optimum power budget. Moreover, the index guiding mechanism of the proposed soft glass LCSPCF shows improvement over the narrow operational bandwidth and the low nonlinearity of the band-gap guided silica LCPCF. Additionally, the solid core of the proposed LCSPCF is less lossy than the previously proposed liquid crystal core PCF.

  16. NASA/DARPA advanced communications technology satellite project for evaluation of telemedicine outreach using next-generation communications satellite technology: Mayo Foundation participation.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, B K; Mitchell, M P; Bengali, A R; Khandheria, B K

    1999-08-01

    To describe the development of telemedicine capabilities-application of remote consultation and diagnostic techniques-and to evaluate the feasibility and practicality of such clinical outreach to rural and underserved communities with limited telecommunications infrastructures. In 1992, Mayo Foundation (Rochester, Minn, Jacksonville, Fla, and Scottsdale, Ariz), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency collaborated to create a complex network of fiberoptic landlines, video recording systems, satellite terminals, and specially developed data translators linking Mayo sites with other locations in the continental United States on an on-demand basis. The purpose was to transmit data via the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) digital communications protocol over the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite. The links were intended to provide a conduit for transmission of data for patient-specific consultations between physicians, evaluation of medical imagery, and medical education for clinical staffs at remote sites. Low-data-rate (LDR) experiments went live late in 1993. Mayo Clinic Rochester successfully provided medical consultation and services to 2 small regional medical facilities. High-data-rate (HDR) experiments included studies of remote digital echocardiography, store-and-forward telemedicine, cardiac catheterization, and teleconsultation for congenital heart disease. These studies combined landline data transmission with use of the satellite. The complexity of the routing paths and network components, immaturity of available software, and inexperience with existing telecommunications caused significant study delays. These experiments demonstrated that next-generation satellite technology can provide batch and real-time imagery for telemedicine. The first-generation of the ATM and satellite network technology used in these experiments created several technical problems and inconveniences that should

  17. Typewriting: Personal-Use Typewriting--A Sound Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ownby, Arnola; Rhea, Jeanine

    1977-01-01

    Because educators are recognizing the contributions that typewriting can make as a tool of communication, greater numbers of personal-use typewriting courses are being offered in which students will develop an effective skill for personal use, as well as gain a sound foundation for further study in a vocational course. The major issue is one of…

  18. details: window jamb from first period of construction; window jamb, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    details: window jamb from first period of construction; window jamb, sill profile, and transom profile from second period of construction - Joseph Poffenberger Farm, House, 17834 Mansfield Avenue, Sharpsburg, Washington County, MD

  19. CAVE WINDOW

    DOEpatents

    Levenson, M.

    1960-10-25

    A cave window is described. It is constructed of thick glass panes arranged so that interior panes have smaller windowpane areas and exterior panes have larger areas. Exterior panes on the radiation exposure side are remotely replaceable when darkened excessively. Metal shutters minimize exposure time to extend window life.

  20. Air transparent soundproof window

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon, E-mail: shkim@mmu.ac.kr; Lee, Seong-Hyun

    2014-11-15

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. Themore » sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.« less

  1. The windows of SETI - Frequency and time in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Bernard M.

    1987-01-01

    Since interstellar travel is not economically possible on the time scale of a human lifetime, communication with extraterrestrials can be achieved only by sending some form of energy or matter across space; photons (electromagnetic waves) are best. Of particular interest to SETI is the region from about 1,000-60,000 MHz known as the free-space microwave window. During the course of NASA's Cyclops program, it was pointed out that the hydrogen and hydroxyl lines bounded a band in which there were no other known lines. The threatened loss of the microwave window to earth-based services is discussed.

  2. Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic Window System

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Millett, F,A; Byker,H, J

    2006-10-27

    Pleotint has embarked on a novel approach with our Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic, SRT™, windows. We are integrating dynamic sunlight control, high insulation values and low solar heat gain together in a high performance window. The Pleotint SRT window is dynamic because it reversibly changes light transmission based on thermochromics activated directly by the heating effect of sunlight. We can achieve a window package with low solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), a low U value and high insulation. At the same time our windows provide good daylighting. Our innovative window design offers architects and building designers the opportunity to choose theirmore » desired energy performance, excellent sound reduction, external pane can be self-cleaning, or a resistance to wind load, blasts, bullets or hurricanes. SRT windows would provide energy savings that are estimated at up to 30% over traditional window systems. Glass fabricators will be able to use existing equipment to make the SRT window while adding value and flexibility to the basic design. Glazing installers will have the ability to fit the windows with traditional methods without wires, power supplies and controllers. SRT windows can be retrofit into existing buildings,« less

  3. Systems design study of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Appendices to volume 1, sections 3-6 (part 1 of 3). [design of Venus probe windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design is described of the Venus probe windows, which are required to measure solar flux, infrared flux, aureole, and cloud particles. Window heating and structural materials for the probe window assemblies are discussed along with the magnetometer. The command lists for science, power and communication requirements, telemetry sign characteristics, mission profile summary, mass properties of payloads, and failure modes are presented.

  4. Forum: Learning Outcomes in Communication. "Diversity Matters" Continued: Student Learning Outcomes in Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Shawn T.; Williams, Kesha Morant; Berkos, Kristen M.; Disbrow, Lynn M.

    2016-01-01

    Using the conceptual foundation "diversity matters" (Orbe & Allen, 2008), this essay calls for research examining the NCA learning outcomes in communication related to diversity, inclusion, privilege, and intercultural communication (mostly existing in LOC 8). The authors argue this research will serve as a relevant and vital…

  5. Glossary | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    double-hung windows as a means of counterbalancing the weight of the sash during opening and closing. Bay a fixed sash or a double-hung window. Also referred to as bead stop. Blackbody. The ideal, perfect member of the lower sash which meet at the middle of a double-hung window. Clerestory. A window in the

  6. Double window viewing chamber assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, V. W. (Inventor); Owen, R. B. (Inventor); Elkins, B. R. (Inventor); White, W. T. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A viewing chamber which permits observation of a sample retained therein includes a pair of double window assemblies mounted in opposed openings in the walls thereof so that a light beam can directly enter and exit from the chamber. A flexible mounting arrangement for the outer windows of the window assemblies enables the windows to be brought into proper alignment. An electrical heating arrangement prevents fogging of the outer windows whereas desiccated air in the volume between the outer and inner windows prevents fogging of the latter.

  7. Seminar in Visual Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Washington Univ., Bellingham.

    Teachers involved in the Visual Communication Education project attended a summer program in 1966 at which the following edited lectures were made by resource people who represented diverse points of view: (1) "The Design and Technical Foundations of Visual Communication" by Kenneth G. Scheid examines supply and deman, technological…

  8. Interdisciplinary Analysis of Drought Communication Through Social Media Platforms and Risk Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wygant, M.

    2015-12-01

    As droughts continue to impact businesses and communities throughout the United States, there needs to be a greater emphasis on drought communication through interdisciplinary approaches, risk communication, and digital platforms. The purpose of this research is to provide an overview of the current literature on communicating drought and suggests areas for further improvement. Specifically, this research focuses on communicating drought through social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. It also focuses on the conglomeration of theoretical frameworks within the realm of risk communication, to provide a strong foundation towards future drought communication. This research proposal provides a critical step to advocate for paradigmatic shifts within natural hazard communication.

  9. Protective broadband window coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askinazi, Joel; Narayanan, Authi A.

    1997-06-01

    Optical windows employed in current and future airborne and ground based optical sensor systems are required to provide long service life under extreme environmental conditions including blowing sand and high speed rain. State of the art sensor systems are employing common aperture windows which must provide optical bandpasses from the TV to the LWIR. Operation Desert Storm experience indicates that current optical coatings provide limited environmental protection which adversely affects window life cycle cost. Most of these production coatings also have limited optical bandpasses (LWIR, MWIR, or TV-NIR). A family of optical coatings has been developed which provide a significant increase in rain and sand impact protection to current optical window materials. These coatings can also be tailored to provide either narrow optical bandwidth (e.g., LWIR) or broadband transmittance (TV- LWIR). They have been applied to a number of standard optical window materials. These coating have successfully completed airborne rain and sand abrasion test with minimal impact on optical window performance. Test results are presented. Low cost service life is anticipated as well as the ability to operate windows in even more taxing environments than currently feasible.

  10. Adaptive variability in the duration of critical windows of plasticity: Implications for the programming of obesity.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jonathan C K

    2014-08-05

    Developmental plasticity underlies widespread associations between early-life exposures and many components of adult phenotype, including the risk of chronic diseases. Humans take almost two decades to reach reproductive maturity, and yet the 'critical windows' of physiological sensitivity that confer developmental plasticity tend to close during fetal life or infancy. While several explanations for lengthy human maturation have been offered, the brevity of physiological plasticity has received less attention. I argue that offspring plasticity is only viable within the niche of maternal care, and that as this protection is withdrawn, the offspring is obliged to canalize many developmental traits in order to minimize environmental disruptions. The schedule of maternal care may therefore shape the duration of critical windows, and since the duration of this care is subject to parent-offspring conflict, the resolution of this conflict may shape the duration of critical windows. This perspective may help understand (i) why windows close at different times for different traits, and (ii) why the duration of critical windows may vary across human populations. The issue is explored in relation to population differences in the association between infant weight gain and later body composition. The occupation of more stable environments by western populations may have favoured earlier closure of the critical window during which growth in lean mass is sensitive to nutritional intake. This may paradoxically have elevated the risk of obesity following rapid infant weight gain in such populations. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  11. Increased Light & View | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  12. Air Leakage (AL) | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  13. State Fact Sheets | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  14. Fact Sheets & Publications | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  15. Condensation Resistance (CR) | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  16. Low Conductance Spacers | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  17. Energy & Cost Savings | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  18. Compound curvature laser window development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a unique process for forming flawless compound curvature laser windows. These windows represent a major part of specialized, nonintrusive laser data acquisition systems used in a variety of compressor and turbine research test facilities. This report summarizes the main aspects of compound curvature laser window development. It is an overview of the methodology and the peculiarities associated with the formulation of these windows. Included in this discussion is new information regarding procedures for compound curvature laser window development.

  19. Intensive care window: real-time monitoring and analysis in the intensive care environment.

    PubMed

    Stylianides, Nikolas; Dikaiakos, Marios D; Gjermundrød, Harald; Panayi, George; Kyprianou, Theodoros

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel, open-source middleware framework for communication with medical devices and an application using the middleware named intensive care window (ICW). The middleware enables communication with intensive care unit bedside-installed medical devices over standard and proprietary communication protocol stacks. The ICW application facilitates the acquisition of vital signs and physiological parameters exported from patient-attached medical devices and sensors. Moreover, ICW provides runtime and post-analysis procedures for data annotation, data visualization, data query, and analysis. The ICW application can be deployed as a stand-alone solution or in conjunction with existing clinical information systems providing a holistic solution to inpatient medical condition monitoring, early diagnosis, and prognosis.

  20. Three-dimensional laser window formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a unique process for forming flawless three-dimensional laser windows. These windows represent a major part of specialized, nonintrusive laser data acquisition systems used in a variety of compressor and turbine research test facilities. This report discusses in detail the aspects of three-dimensional laser window formation. It focuses on the unique methodology and the peculiarities associated with the formation of these windows. Included in this discussion are the design criteria, bonding mediums, and evaluation testing for three-dimensional laser windows.

  1. Communicating likelihoods and probabilities in forecasts of volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Emma E. H.; McClure, John; Johnston, David M.; Paton, Douglas

    2014-02-01

    The issuing of forecasts and warnings of natural hazard events, such as volcanic eruptions, earthquake aftershock sequences and extreme weather often involves the use of probabilistic terms, particularly when communicated by scientific advisory groups to key decision-makers, who can differ greatly in relative expertise and function in the decision making process. Recipients may also differ in their perception of relative importance of political and economic influences on interpretation. Consequently, the interpretation of these probabilistic terms can vary greatly due to the framing of the statements, and whether verbal or numerical terms are used. We present a review from the psychology literature on how the framing of information influences communication of these probability terms. It is also unclear as to how people rate their perception of an event's likelihood throughout a time frame when a forecast time window is stated. Previous research has identified that, when presented with a 10-year time window forecast, participants viewed the likelihood of an event occurring ‘today’ as being of less than that in year 10. Here we show that this skew in perception also occurs for short-term time windows (under one week) that are of most relevance for emergency warnings. In addition, unlike the long-time window statements, the use of the phrasing “within the next…” instead of “in the next…” does not mitigate this skew, nor do we observe significant differences between the perceived likelihoods of scientists and non-scientists. This finding suggests that effects occurring due to the shorter time window may be ‘masking’ any differences in perception due to wording or career background observed for long-time window forecasts. These results have implications for scientific advice, warning forecasts, emergency management decision-making, and public information as any skew in perceived event likelihood towards the end of a forecast time window may result in

  2. HSC Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... and social components. The Foundation works with a dynamic network of partners from across the country who ... Foundation Foundation Programs Publications Foundation Partners About the System Calendar of Events News Social Media Copyright © 2016 ...

  3. Music@Microsoft.Windows: Composing Ambience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    It is well known, of course, that all Windows versions except for 3.1 have a brief (four to six second) piece of music indicating that Windows is booted and ready for use. While the music may indicate Windows has booted, it bears no immediately discernable relation to the various uses we might actually put Windows to--working, gaming,…

  4. PM2.5-bound metal metabolic distribution and coupled lipid abnormality at different developmental windows.

    PubMed

    Ku, Tingting; Zhang, Yingying; Ji, Xiaotong; Li, Guangke; Sang, Nan

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is a serious threat to human health. As a toxicant constituent, metal leads to significant health risks in a population, but exposure to PM 2.5 -bound metals and their biological impacts are not fully understood. In this study, we determined the metal contents of PM 2.5 samples collected from a typical coal-burning city and then investigated the metabolic distributions of six metals (Zn, Pb, Mn, As, Cu, and Cd) following PM 2.5 inhalation in mice in different developmental windows. The results indicate that fine particles were mainly deposited in the lung, but PM 2.5 -bound metals could reach and gather in secondary off-target tissues (the lung, liver, heart and brain) with a developmental window-dependent property. Furthermore, elevations in triglycerides and cholesterol levels in sensitive developmental windows (the young and elderly stages) occurred, and significant associations between metals (Pb, Mn, As and Cd) and cholesterol in the heart, brain, liver and lung were observed. These findings suggest that PM 2.5 inhalation caused selective metal metabolic distribution in tissues with a developmental window-dependent property and that the effects were associated with lipid alterations. This provides a foundation for the underlying systemic toxicity following PM 2.5 exposure based on metal components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Window-Washing Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Skyscrapers sure do have a lot of windows, and these windows are cleaned and checked regularly. All this takes time, money, and puts workers at potential risk. Might there be a better way to do it? In this article, the author discusses a window-washing challenge and describes how students can tackle this task, pick up the challenge, and creatively…

  6. Integration in PACS of DICOM with TCP/IP, SQL, and X Windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reijns, Gerard L.

    1994-05-01

    The DICOM standard (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) has been developed in order to obtain compatibility at the higher OSI levels. This paper describes the implementation of DICOM into our developed low cost PACS, which uses as much as possible standard software and standard protocols such as SQL, X Windows and TCP/IP. We adopted the requirement that all messages on the communication network have to be DICOM compatible. The translation between DICOM messages and SQL commands, which drive the relational data base, has been accommodated in our PACS supervisor. The translation takes only between 10 and 20 milliseconds. Images, that will be used the current day are stored in a distributed, parallel operating image base for reasons of performance. Extensive use has been made of X Windows to visualize images. A maximum of 12 images can simultaneously be displayed, of which one selected image can be manipulated (e.g., magnified, rotated, etc.), without affecting the other displayed images. The emphasis of the future work will be on performance measurements and modeling of our PACS and bringing the results of both methods in agreement with each other.

  7. Launch Window Trade Analysis for the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Wayne H.; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large-scale space telescope mission designed to study fundamental astrophysical questions ranging from the formation of the universe to the origin of planetary systems and the origins of life. JWSTs orbit design is a Libration Point Orbit (LPO) around the Sun-Earth/Moon (SEM) L2 point for a planned mission lifetime of 10.5 years. The launch readiness period for JWST is from Oct 1st, 2018 November 30th, 2018. This paper presents the first launch window analysis for the JWST observatory using finite-burn modeling; previous analysis assumed a single impulsive midcourse correction to achieve the mission orbit. The physical limitations of the JWST hardware stemming primarily from propulsion, communication and thermal requirements alongside updated mission design requirements result in significant launch window within the launch readiness period. Future plans are also discussed.

  8. Ultramicrowave communications system, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The ultramicrowave communications system program investigated the feasibility of a solid state system that meets the projected space to space requirements, while using the advantages of the 100 to 200 GHz band. The program successfully demonstrated a laboratory model of a high frequency communications system operating between 100 to 200 GHz. In the process, vendor claims for performance specifications of discrete components were evaluated, and a window was provided into system design and integration problems.

  9. Conformal ALON® and spinel windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Lee M.; Smith, Mark; Ramisetty, Mohan; Jha, Santosh; Sastri, Suri

    2017-05-01

    The requirements for modern aircraft based reconnaissance systems are driving the need for conformal windows for future sensor systems. However, limitations on optical systems and the ability to produce windows in complex geometries currently limit the geometry of existing windows and window assemblies to faceted assemblies of flat windows. ALON consists primarily of aluminum and oxygen, similar to that of alumina, with a small amount of nitrogen added to help stabilize the cubic gamma-AlON phase. ALON's chemical similarity to alumina, translates into a robust manufacturing process. This ease of processing has allowed Surmet to produce ALON windows and domes in a wide variety of geometries and sizes. Spinel (MgAl2O4) contains equal molar amounts of MgO and Al2O3, and is a cubic material, that transmits further into the Infrared than ALON. Spinel is produced via powder processing techniques similar to those used to produce ALON. Surmet is now applying the lessons learned with ALON to produce conformal spinel windows and domes as well.

  10. Color Wheel Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  11. The sonic window: second generation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, William F.; Fuller, Michael I.; Brush, Edward V.; Eames, Matthew D. C.; Owen, Kevin; Ranganathan, Karthik; Blalock, Travis N.; Hossack, John A.

    2006-03-01

    Medical Ultrasound Imaging is widely used clinically because of its relatively low cost, portability, lack of ionizing radiation, and real-time nature. However, even with these advantages ultrasound has failed to permeate the broad array of clinical applications where its use could be of value. A prime example of this untapped potential is the routine use of ultrasound to guide intravenous access. In this particular application existing systems lack the required portability, low cost, and ease-of-use required for widespread acceptance. Our team has been working for a number of years to develop an extremely low-cost, pocket-sized, and intuitive ultrasound imaging system that we refer to as the "Sonic Window." We have previously described the first generation Sonic Window prototype that was a bench-top device using a 1024 element, fully populated array operating at a center frequency of 3.3 MHz. Through a high degree of custom front-end integration combined with multiplexing down to a 2 channel PC based digitizer this system acquired a full set of RF data over a course of 512 transmit events. While initial results were encouraging, this system exhibited limitations resulting from low SNR, relatively coarse array sampling, and relatively slow data acquisition. We have recently begun assembling a second-generation Sonic Window system. This system uses a 3600 element fully sampled array operating at 5.0 MHz with a 300 micron element pitch. This system extends the integration of the first generation system to include front-end protection, pre-amplification, a programmable bandpass filter, four sample and holds, and four A/D converters for all 3600 channels in a set of custom integrated circuits with a combined area smaller than the 1.8 x 1.8 cm footprint of the transducer array. We present initial results from this front-end and present benchmark results from a software beamformer implemented on the Analog Devices BF-561 DSP. We discuss our immediate plans for further

  12. Tools & Resources | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Selection Tool Mobile App Window Selection Tool Mobile App Use the Window Selection Tool Mobile App for new Window Selection Tool Mobile App. LBNL's RESFEN RESFEN RESFEN is used for calculating the heating and

  13. Two-Band, Low-Loss Microwave Window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcliffe, Michael; Franco, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    A window for a high-sensitivity microwave receiving system allows microwave radiation to pass through to a cryogenically cooled microwave feed system in a vacuum chamber, while keeping ambient air out of the chamber and helping to keep the interior of the chamber cold. The microwave feed system comprises a feed horn and a low-noise amplifier, both of which are required to be cooled to a temperature of 15 K during operation. The window is designed to exhibit very little microwave attenuation in two frequency bands: 8 to 9 GHz and 30 to 40 GHz. The window is 15 cm in diameter. It includes three layers (see figure): 1) The outer layer is made of a poly(tetrafluoroethylene) film 0.025 mm thick. This layer serves primarily to reflect and absorb solar ultraviolet radiation to prolong the life of the underlying main window layer, which is made of a polyimide that becomes weakened when exposed to ultraviolet. The poly(tetrafluoroethylene) layer also protects the main window layer against abrasion. Moreover, the inherent hydrophobicity of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) helps to prevent the highly undesirable accumulation of water on the outer surface. 2) The polyimide main window layer is 0.08 mm thick. This layer provides the vacuum seal for the window. 3) A 20-mm-thick layer of ethylene/ propylene copolymer foam underlies the main polyimide window layer. This foam layer acts partly as a thermal insulator: it limits radiational heating of the microwave feed horn and, concomitantly, limits radiational cooling of the window. This layer has high compressive strength and provides some mechanical support for the main window layer, reducing the strength required of the main window layer. The ethylene/propylene copolymer foam layer is attached to an aluminum window ring by means of epoxy. The outer poly(tetrafluoroethylene) film and the main polyimide window layer are sandwiched together and pressed against the window ring by use of a bolted clamp ring. The window has been found to

  14. False Windows - Yesterday and Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niewitecki, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    The article is concerned with a very interesting aspect of architectural design, namely, a contradiction between the building functions and the necessity of giving the building a desired external appearance. One of the possibilities of reconciling this contradiction is using pseudo windows that are visible on the elevation and generally have the form of a black painted recess accompanied by frames and sashes and often single glazing. Of course, there are no windows or openings in the corresponding places in the walls inside the building. The article discusses the differences between false windows and blind widows (German: blende), also known as blank windows, which, in fact, are shallow recesses in the wall having the external appearance of an arcade or a window and which had already been used in Gothic architecture mostly for aesthetic reasons and sometimes to reduce the load of the wall. Moreover, the article describes various false windows that appeared later than blind windows because they did not appear until the 17th century. Contemporary false windows are also discussed and it is shown that contrary to the common belief they are widely used. In his research, the author not only used the Internet data but also carried out his own in situ exploration. The false windows constitute very interesting albeit rare elements of the architectural design of buildings. They have been used successfully for a few hundred years. It might seem that they should have been discarded by now but this has not happened. Quite contrary, since the second half of the 20th century there has been a rapid development of glass curtain walls that serve a similar function in contemporary buildings as the false windows once did, only in a more extensive way.

  15. A Numerical Study of the Thermal Characteristics of an Air Cavity Formed by Window Sashes in a Double Window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jae-sik; Oh, Eun-Joo; Bae, Min-Jung; Song, Doo-Sam

    2017-12-01

    Given that the Korean government is implementing what has been termed the energy standards and labelling program for windows, window companies will be required to assign window ratings based on the experimental results of their product. Because this has added to the cost and time required for laboratory tests by window companies, the simulation system for the thermal performance of windows has been prepared to compensate for time and cost burdens. In Korea, a simulator is usually used to calculate the thermal performance of a window through WINDOW/THERM, complying with ISO 15099. For a single window, the simulation results are similar to experimental results. A double window is also calculated using the same method, but the calculation results for this type of window are unreliable. ISO 15099 should not recommend the calculation of the thermal properties of an air cavity between window sashes in a double window. This causes a difference between simulation and experimental results pertaining to the thermal performance of a double window. In this paper, the thermal properties of air cavities between window sashes in a double window are analyzed through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations with the results compared to calculation results certified by ISO 15099. The surface temperature of the air cavity analyzed by CFD is compared to the experimental temperatures. These results show that an appropriate calculation method for an air cavity between window sashes in a double window should be established for reliable thermal performance results for a double window.

  16. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. Atmore » a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low

  17. The X-windows interactive navigation data editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinker, G. C.

    1992-01-01

    A new computer program called the X-Windows Interactive Data Editor (XIDE) was developed and demonstrated as a prototype application for editing radio metric data in the orbit-determination process. The program runs on a variety of workstations and employs pull-down menus and graphical displays, which allow users to easily inspect and edit radio metric data in the orbit data files received from the Deep Space Network (DSN). The XIDE program is based on the Open Software Foundation OSF/Motif Graphical User Interface (GUI) and has proven to be an efficient tool for editing radio metric data in the navigation operations environment. It was adopted by the Magellan Navigation Team as their primary data-editing tool. Because the software was designed from the beginning to be portable, the prototype was successfully moved to new workstation environments. It was also itegrated into the design of the next-generation software tool for DSN multimission navigation interactive launch support.

  18. Prism Window for Optical Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    A prism window has been devised for use, with an autocollimator, in aligning optical components that are (1) required to be oriented parallel to each other and/or at a specified angle of incidence with respect to a common optical path and (2) mounted at different positions along the common optical path. The prism window can also be used to align a single optical component at a specified angle of incidence. Prism windows could be generally useful for orienting optical components in manufacture of optical instruments. "Prism window" denotes an application-specific unit comprising two beam-splitter windows that are bonded together at an angle chosen to obtain the specified angle of incidence.

  19. Removable Window System for Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, James P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A window system for a platform comprising a window pane, a retention frame, and a biasing system. The window pane may be configured to contact a sealing system. The retention frame may be configured to contact the sealing system and hold the window pane against the support frame. The biasing system may be configured to bias the retention frame toward the support frame while the support frame and the retention frame are in a configuration that holds the window pane. Removal of the biasing system may cause the retention frame and the window pane to be removable.

  20. High-impact resistance optical sensor windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askinazi, Joel; Ceccorulli, Mark L.; Goldman, Lee

    2011-06-01

    Recent field experience with optical sensor windows on both ground and airborne platforms has shown a significant increase in window fracturing from foreign object debris (FOD) impacts and as a by-product of asymmetrical warfare. Common optical sensor window materials such as borosilicate glass do not typically have high impact resistance. Emerging advanced optical window materials such as aluminum oxynitride offer the potential for a significant improvement in FOD impact resistance due to their superior surface hardness, fracture toughness and strength properties. To confirm the potential impact resistance improvement achievable with these emerging materials, Goodrich ISR Systems in collaboration with Surmet Corporation undertook a set of comparative FOD impact tests of optical sensor windows made from borosilicate glass and from aluminum oxynitride. It was demonstrated that the aluminum oxynitride windows could withstand up to three times the FOD impact velocity (as compared with borosilicate glass) before fracture would occur. These highly encouraging test results confirm the utility of this new highly viable window solution for use on new ground and airborne window multispectral applications as well as a retrofit to current production windows. We believe that this solution can go a long way to significantly reducing the frequency and life cycle cost of window replacement.

  1. Window-closing safety system

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    A safety device includes a wire loop embedded in the glass of a passenger car window and routed near the closing leading-edge of the window. The wire loop carries microwave pulses around the loop to and from a transceiver with separate output and input ports. An evanescent field only and inch or two in radius is created along the wire loop by the pulses. Just about any object coming within the evanescent field will dramatically reduce the energy of the microwave pulses received back by the transceiver. Such a loss in energy is interpreted as a closing area blockage, and electrical interlocks are provided to halt or reverse a power window motor that is actively trying to close the window.

  2. Window-closing safety system

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-08-26

    A safety device includes a wire loop embedded in the glass of a passenger car window and routed near the closing leading-edge of the window. The wire loop carries microwave pulses around the loop to and from a transceiver with separate output and input ports. An evanescent field only an inch or two in radius is created along the wire loop by the pulses. Just about any object coming within the evanescent field will dramatically reduce the energy of the microwave pulses received back by the transceiver. Such a loss in energy is interpreted as a closing area blockage, and electrical interlocks are provided to halt or reverse a power window motor that is actively trying to close the window. 5 figs.

  3. Communication Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penland, Patrick R.

    Three papers are presented which delineate the foundation of theory and principles which underlie the research and instructional approach to communications at the Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Pittsburgh. Cybernetic principles provide the integration, and validation is based in part on a situation-producing…

  4. The Design and Realization of Radio Telescope Control Software in Windows XP System with VC++

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Rong-Bing; Aili, Yu; Zhang, Jin; Yu, Yun

    2007-03-01

    The main function of the radio telescope control software is to drive the radio telescope to track the target accurately. The design of radio telescope control software is based on Windows XP system with VC++. The functions of the software, communication mode and the user interface is introduced in this article.

  5. Right-to-left-shunt detected by c-TCD using the orbital window in comparison with temporal bone windows.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kazuto; Kimura, Kazumi; Iguchi, Yasuyuki; Sakai, Kenichirou; Aoki, Junya; Iwanaga, Takeshi; Shibazaki, Kensaku

    2012-01-01

    There have been some reports on right-to-left shunt as a cause of cryptogenic stroke. Although contrast transcranial Doppler (c-TCD) can detect RLS, an insufficient temporal window has occasionally restricted its applicability. Thus, we compared the rates of detecting RLS among temporal windows for the middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) and the orbital window for the internal carotid artery (ICA) on c-TCD. We used c-TCD to detect RLS in patients with suspected ischemic stroke. We enrolled patients who had both sufficient bilateral temporal windows for MCAs and a right orbital window for ICA and performed c-TCD using all three windows simultaneously. We enrolled 106 consecutive patients and identified microembolic signals (MES) in 30 (28%) of them. Among these 30 patients, 15 had MES from all 3 windows. When these 30 patients were defined as being positive for RLS, the rates of detection were 67%, 73%, and 80% from the right temporal, left temporal, and right orbital windows, respectively (P= .795). The right orbital window as well as the temporal window for c-TCD could detect RLS. Insonation from the orbital window should be useful for patients who lack temporal windows. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  6. BERKELEY LAB WINDOW

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Curcija, Dragan Charlie; Zhu, Ling; Czarnecki, Stephen

    WINDOW features include: - Microsoft Windows TM interface - algorithms for the calculation of total fenestration product U-values and Solar Heat Gain Coefficient consistent with ASHRAE SPC 142, ISO 15099, and the National Fenestration Rating Council - a Condensation Resistance Index in accordance with the NFRC 500 Standard - and integrated database of properties - imports data from other LBNL window analysis software: - Import THERM file into the Frame Library - Import records from IGDB and OPtics5 into the Glass Library for the optical properties of coated and uncoated glazings, laminates, and applied films. Program Capabilities WINDOW 7.2 offersmore » the following features: The ability to analyze products made from any combination of glazing layers, gas layers, frames, spacers, and dividers under any environmental conditions and at any tilt; The ability to model complex glazing systems such as venetian blinds and roller shades. Directly accessible libraries of window system components, (glazing systems, glazing layers, gas fills, frame and divider elements), and environmental conditions; The choice of working in English (IP), or Systeme International (SI) units; The ability to specify the dimensions and thermal properties of each frame element (header, sills, jamb, mullion) in a window; A multi-band (wavelength-by-wavelength) spectral model; A Glass Library which can access spectral data files for many common glazing materials from the Optics5database; A night-sky radiative model; A link with the DOE-2.1E and Energy Plus building energy analysis program. Performance Indices and Other Results For a user-defined fenestration system and user-defined environmental conditions, WINDOW calculates: The U-value, solar heat gain coefficient, shading coefficient, and visible transmittance for the complete window system; The U-value, solar heat gain coefficient, shading coefficient, and visible transmittance for the glazing system (center-of-glass values); The U-values of

  7. A shot through the window.

    PubMed

    Burnett, B R

    2001-03-01

    At issue in this case was whether an unusual window defect seen in two of the crime scene photographs was due to a bullet and if so, if that same bullet fatally wounded the victim. The window appeared to have been cracked prior to the apparent shot through it. A .22 bullet recovered from autopsy, when examined only by light microscopy, failed to show associated glass fragments. A previously cracked test window was shot a number of times with .22 caliber bullets near the cracks in an effort to simulate the window defect seen in the crime scene photographs. Several of the defects produced by the test window shots appeared similar to the crime scene window defect. The .22 bullet taken from the victim and several of the test bullets (collected by a cotton box) were examined by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The test bullets showed glass particles on and embedded in their surfaces. Particles of similar size and composition were found embedded in the surface of the bullet from the victim. The bullet likely struck the window prior to hitting the victim. It was apparent by the morphology of some of the mushroomed test .22 bullets that they hit the window crack. These bullets showed that the glass on one side of a crack often fails before the other side during the strike. Aggregations of powdered glass on many of the mushroomed surfaces of the .22 bullets suggest that as the bullet mushrooms during impact on the window surface, the glass in contact with the bullet powderizes and coats the mushroomed surface of the bullet with a layer of fine glass particles.

  8. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOEpatents

    Deng, Xunming

    2010-02-23

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  9. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOEpatents

    Deng, Xunming [Syvania, OH; Liao, Xianbo [Toledo, OH; Du, Wenhui [Toledo, OH

    2011-10-04

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  10. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOEpatents

    Deng, Xunming [Sylvania, OH; Liao, Xianbo [Toledo, OH; Du, Wenhui [Toledo, OH

    2011-02-01

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  11. National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) | Efficient Windows

    Science.gov Websites

    Collaborative Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring

  12. U-Factor (U-value) | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  13. "Monkeys, babies, idiots" and "primitives": nature-nurture debates and philanthropic foundation support for American anthropology in the 1920s and 1930s.

    PubMed

    Biehn, Kersten Jacobson

    2009-01-01

    There has been a long discussion among historians about the impact that foundation policies had on the development of the social sciences during the interwar era. This discussion has centered on the degree to which foundation officers, particularly from the Rockefeller boards, exercised a hegemonic influence on research. In this essay, I argue that the field of American cultural anthropology has been neglected and must be reconsidered as a window into foundation intervention in nature-nurture debates. Despite foundation efforts to craft an anthropology policy that privileged hereditarian explanations, I contend that cultural anthropologists were committed to proving the primacy of "nurture," even when that commitment cost them valuable research dollars. It was this commitment that provided an essential bulwark for the discipline. Ironically, it was the need to negotiate with foundations about the purpose of their research that helped cultural anthropologists to articulate their unique, and thus intrinsically valuable, approach to nature-nurture debates.

  14. Extension of the PC version of VEPFIT with input and output routines running under Windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schut, H.; van Veen, A.

    1995-01-01

    The fitting program VEPFIT has been extended with applications running under the Microsoft-Windows environment facilitating the input and output of the VEPFIT fitting module. We have exploited the Microsoft-Windows graphical users interface by making use of dialog windows, scrollbars, command buttons, etc. The user communicates with the program simply by clicking and dragging with the mouse pointing device. Keyboard actions are limited to a minimum. Upon changing one or more input parameters the results of the modeling of the S-parameter and Ps fractions versus positron implantation energy are updated and displayed. This action can be considered as the first step in the fitting procedure upon which the user can decide to further adapt the input parameters or to forward these parameters as initial values to the fitting routine. The modeling step has proven to be helpful for designing positron beam experiments.

  15. Challenger Center's Window on the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livengood, T. A.; Goldstein, J. J.; Smith, S.; Bobrowsky, M.; Radnofsky, M.; Perelmuter, J.-M.; Jaggar, L.

    2001-11-01

    Challenger Center for Space Science Education's Window on the Universe program aims to create a network of under-served communities across the nation dedicated to sustained science, math, and technology education. Window communities presently include Broken Arrow, OK; Muncie, IN; Moscow, ID; Nogales, AZ; Tuskegee, AL; Marquette, MI; Altamont, KS; Washington, D.C.; and other emerging sites. Window uses themes of human space flight and the space sciences as interdisciplinary means to inspire entire communities. Practicing scientists and engineers engaged in these disciplines are invited to volunteer to become a part of these communities for a week, each visitor reaching roughly 2000 K-12 students through individual classroom visits and Family Science Night events during an intense Window on the Universe Week. In the same Window Week, Challenger Center scientists and educators present a workshop for local educators to provide training in the use of a K-12 educational module built around a particular space science and exploration theme. Window communities follow a 3-year development: Year 1, join the network, experience Window Week presented by Challenger Center and visiting researchers; Year 2, same as Year 1 plus workshop on partnering with local organizations to develop sources of visiting researchers and to enhance connections with local resources; Year 3 and subsequent, the community stages its own Window Week, with Challenger Center providing new education modules and training workshops for "master educators" from the Window community, after which the master educators return home to conduct training workshops of their own. Challenger Center remains a resource and clearinghouse for Window communities to acquire experience, technical information, and opportunities for distance collaboration with other Window communities. Window on the Universe is dedicated to assessing degree of success vs. failure in each program component and as a whole, using pre- and post

  16. 16 CFR 455.3 - Window form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Window form. 455.3 Section 455.3 Commercial... Window form. (a) Form given to buyer. Give the buyer of a used vehicle sold by you the window form...) Incorporated into contract. The information on the final version of the window form is incorporated into the...

  17. Composition of 12-18 th century window glass in Belgium: Non-figurative windows in secular buildings and stained-glass windows in religious buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schalm, Olivier; Janssens, Koen; Wouters, Hilde; Caluwé, Danielle

    2007-07-01

    A set of ca. 500 window glass fragments originating from different historical sites in Belgium and covering the period 12 th-18 th century was analyzed by means of electron probe microanalysis. Most samples are archaeological finds deriving from non-figurative windows in secular buildings. However, the analyzed set also contains glass sampled from still existing non-figurative windows in secular buildings and stained-glass windows in religious buildings. A sudden compositional change at the end of the 14 th century can be noticed among the series of glass compositions that were obtained. These changes could be related to the use of different glassmaker recipes and to the introduction of new raw materials for glass making.

  18. Using a Foundational Ontology for Reengineering a Software Enterprise Ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perini Barcellos, Monalessa; de Almeida Falbo, Ricardo

    The knowledge about software organizations is considerably relevant to software engineers. The use of a common vocabulary for representing the useful knowledge about software organizations involved in software projects is important for several reasons, such as to support knowledge reuse and to allow communication and interoperability between tools. Domain ontologies can be used to define a common vocabulary for sharing and reuse of knowledge about some domain. Foundational ontologies can be used for evaluating and re-designing domain ontologies, giving to these real-world semantics. This paper presents an evaluating of a Software Enterprise Ontology that was reengineered using the Unified Foundation Ontology (UFO) as basis.

  19. High performance sapphire windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Stephen C.; Liou, Larry

    1993-01-01

    High-quality, wide-aperture optical access is usually required for the advanced laser diagnostics that can now make a wide variety of non-intrusive measurements of combustion processes. Specially processed and mounted sapphire windows are proposed to provide this optical access to extreme environment. Through surface treatments and proper thermal stress design, single crystal sapphire can be a mechanically equivalent replacement for high strength steel. A prototype sapphire window and mounting system have been developed in a successful NASA SBIR Phase 1 project. A large and reliable increase in sapphire design strength (as much as 10x) has been achieved, and the initial specifications necessary for these gains have been defined. Failure testing of small windows has conclusively demonstrated the increased sapphire strength, indicating that a nearly flawless surface polish is the primary cause of strengthening, while an unusual mounting arrangement also significantly contributes to a larger effective strength. Phase 2 work will complete specification and demonstration of these windows, and will fabricate a set for use at NASA. The enhanced capabilities of these high performance sapphire windows will lead to many diagnostic capabilities not previously possible, as well as new applications for sapphire.

  20. High performance sapphire windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Stephen C.; Liou, Larry

    1993-02-01

    High-quality, wide-aperture optical access is usually required for the advanced laser diagnostics that can now make a wide variety of non-intrusive measurements of combustion processes. Specially processed and mounted sapphire windows are proposed to provide this optical access to extreme environment. Through surface treatments and proper thermal stress design, single crystal sapphire can be a mechanically equivalent replacement for high strength steel. A prototype sapphire window and mounting system have been developed in a successful NASA SBIR Phase 1 project. A large and reliable increase in sapphire design strength (as much as 10x) has been achieved, and the initial specifications necessary for these gains have been defined. Failure testing of small windows has conclusively demonstrated the increased sapphire strength, indicating that a nearly flawless surface polish is the primary cause of strengthening, while an unusual mounting arrangement also significantly contributes to a larger effective strength. Phase 2 work will complete specification and demonstration of these windows, and will fabricate a set for use at NASA. The enhanced capabilities of these high performance sapphire windows will lead to many diagnostic capabilities not previously possible, as well as new applications for sapphire.

  1. Window Observational Rack Facility (WORF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Developed by Boeing, at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Space Station Manufacturing building, the Window Observational Rack Facility (WORF) will help Space Station crews take some of the best photographs ever snapped from an orbiting spacecraft by eliminating glare and allowing researchers to control their cameras and other equipment from the ground. The WORF is designed to make the best possible use of the high-quality research window in the Space Station's U.S. Destiny laboratory module. Engineers at the MSFC proposed a derivative of the EXPRESS (Expedite the Processing of Experiments to the Space Station) Rack already used on the Space Station and were given the go-ahead. The EXPRESS rack can hold a wide variety of experiments and provide them with power, communications, data, cooling, fluids, and other utilities - all the things that Earth-observing experiment instruments would need. WORF will supply payloads with power, data, cooling, video downlink, and stable, standardized interfaces for mounting imaging instruments. Similar to specialized orbital observatories, the interior of the rack is sealed against light and coated with a special low-reflectant black paint, so payloads will be able to observe low-light-level subjects such as the faint glow of auroras. Cameras and remote sensing instruments in the WORF can be preprogrammed, controlled from the ground, or operated by a Station crewmember by using a flexible shroud designed to cinch tightly around the crewmember's waist. The WORF is scheduled to be launched aboard the STS-114 Space Shuttle mission in the year 2003.

  2. Batteries: Widening voltage windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-10-01

    The energy output of aqueous batteries is largely limited by the narrow voltage window of their electrolytes. Now, a hydrate melt consisting of lithium salts is shown to expand such voltage windows, leading to a high-energy aqueous battery.

  3. Window Observational Research Facility (WORF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelfrey, Joseph; Sledd, Annette

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document concerns the Window Observational Research Facility (WORF) Rack, a unique facility designed for use with the US Lab Destiny Module window. WORF will provide valuable resources for Earth Science payloads along with serving the purpose of protecting the lab window. The facility can be used for remote sensing instrumentation test and validation in a shirt sleeve environment. WORF will also provide a training platform for crewmembers to do orbital observations of other planetary bodies. WORF payloads will be able to conduct terrestrial studies utilizing the data collected from utilizing WORF and the lab window.

  4. Shaping effective communication skills and therapeutic relationships at work: the foundation of collaboration.

    PubMed

    Grover, Susan M

    2005-04-01

    Effective communication is essential to practice and can result in improved interpersonal relationships at the workplace. Effective communication is shaped by basic techniques such as open-ended questions, listening, empathy, and assertiveness. However, the relationship between effective communication and successful interpersonal relationships is affected by intervening variables. The variables of gender, generation, context, collegiality, cooperation, self-disclosure, and reciprocity can impede or enhance the outcome of quality communication. It is essential for occupational health nurses to qualitatively assess the degree to which each of these concepts affects communication and, in turn, relationships at work.

  5. Using Broken Windows Theory as the Backdrop for a Proactive Approach to Threat Identification in Health Care.

    PubMed

    Boquet, Albert J; Cohen, Tara N; Cabrera, Jennifer S; Litzinger, Tracy L; Captain, Kevin A; Fabian, Michael A; Miles, Steven G; Shappell, Scott A

    2016-09-09

    Historically, health care has relied on error management techniques to measure and reduce the occurrence of adverse events. This study proposes an alternative approach for identifying and analyzing hazardous events. Whereas previous research has concentrated on investigating individual flow disruptions, we maintain the industry should focus on threat windows, or the accumulation of these disruptions. This methodology, driven by the broken windows theory, allows us to identify process inefficiencies before they manifest and open the door for the occurrence of errors and adverse events. Medical human factors researchers observed disruptions during 34 trauma cases at a Level II trauma center. Data were collected during resuscitation and imaging and were classified using a human factors taxonomy: Realizing Improved Patient Care Through Human-Centered Operating Room Design for Threat Window Analysis (RIPCHORD-TWA). Of the 576 total disruptions observed, communication issues were the most prevalent (28%), followed by interruptions and coordination issues (24% each). Issues related to layout (16%), usability (5%), and equipment (2%) comprised the remainder of the observations. Disruptions involving communication issues were more prevalent during resuscitation, whereas coordination problems were observed more frequently during imaging. Rather than solely investigating errors and adverse events, we propose conceptualizing the accumulation of disruptions in terms of threat windows as a means to analyze potential threats to the integrity of the trauma care system. This approach allows for the improved identification of system weaknesses or threats, affording us the ability to address these inefficiencies and intervene before errors and adverse events may occur.

  6. Rigid thin windows for vacuum applications

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Glenn Allyn; Ciarlo, Dino R.; Myers, Booth Richard; Chen, Hao-Lin; Wakalopulos, George

    1999-01-01

    A thin window that stands off atmospheric pressure is fabricated using photolithographic and wet chemical etching techniques and comprises at least two layers: an etch stop layer and a protective barrier layer. The window structure also comprises a series of support ribs running the width of the window. The windows are typically made of boron-doped silicon and silicon nitride and are useful in instruments such as electron beam guns and x-ray detectors. In an electron beam gun, the window does not impede the electrons and has demonstrated outstanding gun performance and survivability during the gun tube manufacturing process.

  7. High-Reliability Waveguide Vacuum/Pressure Window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcliffe, Michael J.; Hanson, Theodore R.; Long, Ezra M.; Montanez, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) uses commercial waveguide windows on the output waveguide of Ka-band (32 GHz) low-noise amplifiers. Mechanical failure of these windows resulted in an unacceptable loss in tracking time. To address this issue, a new Ka-band WR-28 waveguide window has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The window uses a slab of low-loss, low-dielectric constant foam that is bonded into a 1/2-wave-thick waveguide/flange. The foam is a commercially available, rigid, closed-cell polymethacrylimide. It has excellent electrical properties with a dielectric constant of 1.04, and a loss tangent of 0.01. It is relatively strong with a tensile strength of 1 MPa. The material is virtually impermeable to helium. The finished window exhibits a leak rate of less than 3x10(exp -3)cu cm/s with helium. The material is also chemically resistant and can be cleaned with acetone. The window is constructed by fabricating a window body by brazing a short length of WR-28 copper waveguide into a standard rectangular flange, and machining the resulting part to a thickness of 4.6 mm. The foam is machined to a rectangular shape with a dimension of 7.06x3.53 mm. The foam is bonded into the body with a two-part epoxy. After curing, the excess glue and foam are knife-trimmed by hand. The finished window has a loss of less than 0.08 dB (2%) and a return loss of greater than 25 dB at 32 GHz. This meets the requirements for the DSN application. The window is usable for most applications over the entire 26-to-40-GHz waveguide band. The window return loss can be tuned to a required frequency by var y in g the thickness of the window slightly. Most standard waveguide windows use a thin membrane of material bonded into a recess in a waveguide flange, or sandwiched between two flanges with a polymer seal. Designs using the recessed window are prone to mechanical failure over time due to constraints on the dimensions of the recess that allow the bond to fail. Designs using the

  8. Model MTF for the mosaic window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Zhenchong; Hong, Yongfeng; Zhang, Bao

    2017-10-01

    An electro-optical targeting system mounted either within an airframe or housed in separate pods requires a window to form an environmental barrier to the outside world. In current practice, such windows usually use a mosaic or segmented window. When scanning the target, internally gimbaled systems sweep over the window, which can affect the modulation transfer function (MTF) due to wave-front division and optical path differences arising from the thickness/wedge differences between panes. In this paper, a mathematical model of the MTF of the mosaic window is presented that allows an analysis of influencing factors; we show how the model may be integrated into ZEMAX® software for optical design. The model can be used to guide both the design and the tolerance analysis of optical systems that employ a mosaic window.

  9. Communicative Alternatives to Challenging Behavior: Integrating Functional Assessment and Intervention Strategies. Volume 3. Communication and Language Intervention Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichle, Joe, Ed.; Wacker, David P., Ed.

    Emphasizing the use of communication training as the foundation for effective behavioral programming, this book explains how challenging behavior can be redirected into socially acceptable behavior through functional communication intervention. The book offers hands-on assessment and intervention strategies that can be used in school, home, work,…

  10. The impact of windows and daylight on acute-care nurses' physiological, psychological, and behavioral health.

    PubMed

    Zadeh, Rana Sagha; Shepley, Mardelle McCuskey; Williams, Gary; Chung, Susan Sung Eun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the physiological and psychological effects of windows and daylight on registered nurses. To date, evidence has indicated that appropriate environmental lighting with characteristics similar to natural light can improve mood, alertness, and performance. The restorative effects of windows also have been documented. Hospital workspaces generally lack windows and daylight, and the impact of the lack of windows and daylight on healthcare employees' well being has not been thoroughly investigated. Data were collected using multiple methods with a quasi-experimental approach (i.e., biological measurements, behavioral mapping, and analysis of archival data) in an acute-care nursing unit with two wards that have similar environmental and organizational conditions, and similar patient populations and acuity, but different availability of windows in the nursing stations. Findings indicated that blood pressure (p < 0.0001) decreased and body temperature increased (p = 0.03). Blood oxygen saturation increased (p = 0.02), but the difference was clinically insignificant. Communication (p < 0.0001) and laughter (p = 0.03) both increased, and the subsidiary behavior indicators of sleepiness and deteriorated mood (p = 0.02) decreased. Heart rate (p = 0.07), caffeine intake (p = 0.3), self-reported sleepiness (p = 0.09), and the frequency of medication errors (p = 0.14) also decreased, but insignificantly. The findings support evidence from laboratory and field settings of the benefits of windows and daylight. A possible micro-restorative effect of windows and daylight may result in lowered blood pressure and increased oxygen saturation and a positive effect on circadian rhythms (as suggested by body temperature) and morning sleepiness. Critical care/intensive care, lighting, nursing, quality care, work environment.

  11. Orion Hatch Window Testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-09

    Mark Nurge, Ph.D., a physicist in the Applied Physics Lab with the Exploration Research and Technology Programs at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, looks at data during the first optical quality test on a full window stack that is ready for installation in the docking hatch of NASA's Orion spacecraft. The data from the tests will help improve the requirements for manufacturing tolerances on Orion's windows and verify how the window should perform in space. Orion is being prepared for its first integrated uncrewed flight atop NASA's Space Launch System rocket on Exploration Mission-1.

  12. Foundations of Reporting: Or Bartlett's Guide to Evaluation Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Freda M.

    The author believes her ideas on evaluation reporting are old ideas in various fields including communication theory, advertising, social science, and learning theory. The human factor in reporting evaluation must be considered. Those being evaluated often feel threatened by the evaluation. Evaluators need to accept the behaviors of evaluation…

  13. AN ASSESSMENT OF MCNP WEIGHT WINDOWS

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    J. S. HENDRICKS; C. N. CULBERTSON

    2000-01-01

    The weight window variance reduction method in the general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle radiation transport code MCNPTM has recently been rewritten. In particular, it is now possible to generate weight window importance functions on a superimposed mesh, eliminating the need to subdivide geometries for variance reduction purposes. Our assessment addresses the following questions: (1) Does the new MCNP4C treatment utilize weight windows as well as the former MCNP4B treatment? (2) Does the new MCNP4C weight window generator generate importance functions as well as MCNP4B? (3) How do superimposed mesh weight windows compare to cell-based weight windows? (4) What are the shortcomingsmore » of the new MCNP4C weight window generator? Our assessment was carried out with five neutron and photon shielding problems chosen for their demanding variance reduction requirements. The problems were an oil well logging problem, the Oak Ridge fusion shielding benchmark problem, a photon skyshine problem, an air-over-ground problem, and a sample problem for variance reduction.« less

  14. Energy efficient window and skylight assemblies

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Howe, W.C. Jr.

    1986-03-25

    A totally self-contained apparatus is described for use as a window or skylight assembly, and adapted for simultaneously controlling the amount of both sunlight and air admitted into a building. The apparatus consists of: a head member and a sill member; a first sheet of material through which sunlight can pass, the first sheet of material forming a major portion of the exterior surface of the apparatus and being mounted between the head and sill members; a second sheet of material through which sunlight can pass, the second sheet of material being spaced from the first sheet of material themore » second sheet of material forming a major portion of the interior surface of the window apparatus and being mounted between the head and sill members; first and second window jams positioned between the first and second sheets of material and extending from the head member to the sill member so as to form an essentially enclosed air flow channel; means, positioned in the air flow channel, for regulating the amount of sunlight passing through the apparatus; and ventilation means for directing air through the air flow channel, and comprising a motor-driven fan mounted within the air flow channel at one end thereof so as to circulate air through the air flow channel together with a plurality of apertures disposed in the head and sill members for placing the air flow channel in communication with the interior and exterior of the building and means for selectively opening and closing the apertures whereby air may selectively flow from one of (a) the outside to the inside of the building, (b) from the inside to the outside of the building, (c) from the inside of the building through the air flow channel and back to the inside of the building and (d) from the outside of the building through the air flow channel and back to the outside of the building.« less

  15. Least Squares Moving-Window Spectral Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Jong

    2017-08-01

    Least squares regression is proposed as a moving-windows method for analysis of a series of spectra acquired as a function of external perturbation. The least squares moving-window (LSMW) method can be considered an extended form of the Savitzky-Golay differentiation for nonuniform perturbation spacing. LSMW is characterized in terms of moving-window size, perturbation spacing type, and intensity noise. Simulation results from LSMW are compared with results from other numerical differentiation methods, such as single-interval differentiation, autocorrelation moving-window, and perturbation correlation moving-window methods. It is demonstrated that this simple LSMW method can be useful for quantitative analysis of nonuniformly spaced spectral data with high frequency noise.

  16. Foundations of the Self Awareness and Interpersonal Communication Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keltner, John W.

    A review of the history and development of experiential learning in its educational and therapeutic contexts emphasizes the value of self-awareness as a prerequisite to interpersonal and group development. It also serves to underscore the potential of the Self Awareness and Interpersonal Communication (SAIC) program in an American society with…

  17. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Harry Lawrence; Elliott, Thomas S.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  18. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1998-05-19

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The SRF window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The SRF window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the SRF window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  19. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Harry L.; Elliott, Thomas S.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  20. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1997-03-11

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  1. X-Windows Socket Widget Class

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.

    2006-01-01

    The X-Windows Socket Widget Class ("Class" is used here in the object-oriented-programming sense of the word) was devised to simplify the task of implementing network connections for graphical-user-interface (GUI) computer programs. UNIX Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) socket programming libraries require many method calls to configure, operate, and destroy sockets. Most X Windows GUI programs use widget sets or toolkits to facilitate management of complex objects. The widget standards facilitate construction of toolkits and application programs. The X-Windows Socket Widget Class encapsulates UNIX TCP/IP socket-management tasks within the framework of an X Windows widget. Using the widget framework, X Windows GUI programs can treat one or more network socket instances in the same manner as that of other graphical widgets, making it easier to program sockets. Wrapping ISP socket programming libraries inside a widget framework enables a programmer to treat a network interface as though it were a GUI.

  2. The Windows to the Universe Project: A Facility for Inter-American Geoscience Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. M.; Lagrave, M.; Araujo-Pradere, E.; Russell, R.; Gardiner, L.; Bergman, J.; Genyuk, J.; Henderson, S.; Dimarco, M.; Metcalfe, T.

    2005-05-01

    Windows to the Universe (http://www.windows.ucar.edu) is a popular and comprehensive Earth and space science education web site that uses an interdisciplinary approach to engage our global audience. The entire Windows to the Universe site (roughly 7,000 pages) is being translated into Spanish, with support from the National Science Foundation. Large portions have already been "published" to the web and have been in use since October 2003. Web site statistics indicate that use of the Spanish portion of the site has quickly ramped up to ~20% of total site traffic. Approximately 150,000 users per month have accessed the Spanish-language segments of the site over the past academic year, in addition to the visitors to the English version of the website. The largest fraction of non-US users of the Spanish website come from Mexico, with growing use from countries from Central and South America and Spain. A total of 6.7 million users from around the world accessed the educational resources on this comprehensive website in 2004. An exciting new web-based development interface utilizing templates and an image database allows scientists from around the world to collaborate with the Windows to the Universe team, becoming remote developers on the website. This approach has proven to work effectively for scientists eager to efficiently get their science research results out to the public, taking advantage of their specialized expertise and yet not requiring them to become specialists in informal or formal K-12 education.

  3. Orion Hatch Window Testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-09

    The first optical quality testing on a full window stack that is ready for installation in the docking hatch of NASA's Orion spacecraft is underway inside a laboratory in the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building at the agency's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The test is being performed by a team from the center's Exploration Research and Technology Programs. The data from the tests will help improve the requirements for manufacturing tolerances on Orion's windows and verify how the window should perform in space. Orion is being prepared for its first integrated uncrewed flight atop NASA's Space Launch System rocket on Exploration Mission-1.

  4. Imaging windows for long-term intravital imaging

    PubMed Central

    Alieva, Maria; Ritsma, Laila; Giedt, Randy J; Weissleder, Ralph; van Rheenen, Jacco

    2014-01-01

    Intravital microscopy is increasingly used to visualize and quantitate dynamic biological processes at the (sub)cellular level in live animals. By visualizing tissues through imaging windows, individual cells (e.g., cancer, host, or stem cells) can be tracked and studied over a time-span of days to months. Several imaging windows have been developed to access tissues including the brain, superficial fascia, mammary glands, liver, kidney, pancreas, and small intestine among others. Here, we review the development of imaging windows and compare the most commonly used long-term imaging windows for cancer biology: the cranial imaging window, the dorsal skin fold chamber, the mammary imaging window, and the abdominal imaging window. Moreover, we provide technical details, considerations, and trouble-shooting tips on the surgical procedures and microscopy setups for each imaging window and explain different strategies to assure imaging of the same area over multiple imaging sessions. This review aims to be a useful resource for establishing the long-term intravital imaging procedure. PMID:28243510

  5. Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  6. Building Collective Communication Competence in Interdisciplinary Research Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jessica Leigh

    2009-01-01

    Using a grounded theory approach, this investigation addresses how an interdisciplinary research (IDR) team negotiates meaning and struggles to establish and sustain a sense of collective communication competence (CCC). Certain communication processes were foundational to building CCC, such as spending time together, practicing trust, discussing…

  7. Photorefractive-based adaptive optical windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuexin; Yang, Yi; Wang, Bo; Fu, John Y.; Yin, Shizhuo; Guo, Ruyan; Yu, Francis T.

    2004-10-01

    Optical windows have been widely used in optical spectrographic processing system. In this paper, various window profiles, such as rectangular, triangular, Hamming, Hanning, and Blackman etc., have been investigated in detail, regarding their effect on the generated spectrograms, such as joint time-frequency resolution ΔtΔw, the sidelobe amplitude attenuation etc.. All of these windows can be synthesized in a photorefractive crystal by angular multiplexing holographic technique, which renders the system more adaptive. Experimental results are provided.

  8. Window type: 2x3 fixed multipaned steel window flanked by 1x3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window type: 2x3 fixed multipaned steel window flanked by 1x3 multipaned steel casements. Concrete sill and spandrel also illustrated. Building 43, facing east - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. Switchable Materials for Smart Windows.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Runnerstrom, Evan L; Milliron, Delia J

    2016-06-07

    This article reviews the basic principles of and recent developments in electrochromic, photochromic, and thermochromic materials for applications in smart windows. Compared with current static windows, smart windows can dynamically modulate the transmittance of solar irradiation based on weather conditions and personal preferences, thus simultaneously improving building energy efficiency and indoor human comfort. Although some smart windows are commercially available, their widespread implementation has not yet been realized. Recent advances in nanostructured materials provide new opportunities for next-generation smart window technology owing to their unique structure-property relations. Nanomaterials can provide enhanced coloration efficiency, faster switching kinetics, and longer lifetime. In addition, their compatibility with solution processing enables low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. This review also discusses the importance of dual-band modulation of visible and near-infrared (NIR) light, as nearly 50% of solar energy lies in the NIR region. Some latest results show that solution-processable nanostructured systems can selectively modulate the NIR light without affecting the visible transmittance, thus reducing energy consumption by air conditioning, heating, and artificial lighting.

  10. Window Frame Types | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    metal frames. Metal Frames Metal Frame with Thermal Break Non-metal Frames Non-metal There is a variety of non-metal framing materials for windows including, wood, wood with metal/vinyl cladding, vinyl disadvantages. Non-metal Frames Non-metal Frame, Thermally Improved Does frame material type matter? The

  11. 30 CFR 18.30 - Windows and lenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Windows and lenses. 18.30 Section 18.30 Mineral... § 18.30 Windows and lenses. (a) MSHA may waive testing of materials for windows or lenses except headlight lenses. When tested, material for windows or lenses shall meet the test requirements prescribed in...

  12. Measured Rattle Threshold of Residential House Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sizov, Natalia; Schultz, Troy; Hobbs, Christopher; Klos, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Window rattle is a common indoor noise effect in houses exposed to low frequency noise from such sources as railroads, blast noise and sonic boom. Human perception of rattle can be negative that is a motivating factor of the current research effort to study sonic boom induced window rattle. A rattle study has been conducted on residential houses containing windows of different construction at a variety of geographic locations within the United States. Windows in these houses were excited by a portable, high-powered loudspeaker and enclosure specifically designed to be mounted on the house exterior to cover an entire window. Window vibration was measured with accelerometers placed on different window components. Reference microphones were also placed inside the house and inside of the loudspeaker box. Swept sine excitation was used to identify the vibration threshold at which the response of the structure becomes non-linear and begins to rattle. Initial results from this study are presented and discussed. Future efforts will continue to explore the rattle occurrence in windows of residential houses exposed to sonic booms.

  13. Communication, Ethics, and Relativism: An Interpersonal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John

    This paper proposes that there is available in contemporary philosophy a foundation for an ethic of communication that avoids the naive belief in absolutes and yet provides a coherent, defensible, and practical set of standards to guide communication choices. The philosophers and philosophies identified are Hans-Georg Gadamer and his discussion of…

  14. Evaluation of Energy Efficiency Performance of Heated Windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jammulamadaka, Hari Swarup

    The study about the evaluation of the performance of the heated windows was funded by the WVU Research Office as a technical assistance award at the 2014 TransTech Energy Business Development Conference to the Green Heated Glass company/project owned by Frank Dlubak. The award supports a WVU researcher to conduct a project important for commercialization. This project was awarded to the WVU Industrial Assessment Center in 2015. The current study attempted to evaluate the performance of the heated windows by developing an experimental setup to test the window at various temperatures by varying the current input to the window. The heated double pane window was installed in an insulated box. A temperature gradient was developed across the window by cooling one side of the window using gel based ice packs. The other face of the window was heated by passing current at different wattages through the window. The temperature of the inside and outside panes, current and voltage input, room and box temperature were recorded, and used to calculate the apparent R-value of the window when not being heated vs when being heated. It has been concluded from the study that the heated double pane window is more effective in reducing heat losses by as much as 50% than a non-heated double pane window, if the window temperature is maintained close to the room temperature. If the temperature of the window is much higher than the room temperature, the losses through the window appear to increase beyond that of a non-heated counterpart. The issues encountered during the current round of experiments are noted, and recommendations provided for future studies.

  15. Active noise attenuation in ventilation windows.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huahua; Qiu, Xiaojun; Kang, Jian

    2011-07-01

    The feasibility of applying active noise control techniques to attenuate low frequency noise transmission through a natural ventilation window into a room is investigated analytically and experimentally. The window system is constructed by staggering the opening sashes of a spaced double glazing window to allow ventilation and natural light. An analytical model based on the modal expansion method is developed to calculate the low frequency sound field inside the window and the room and to be used in the active noise control simulations. The effectiveness of the proposed analytical model is validated by using the finite element method. The performance of the active control system for a window with different source and receiver configurations are compared, and it is found that the numerical and experimental results are in good agreement and the best result is achieved when the secondary sources are placed in the center at the bottom of the staggered window. The extra attenuation at the observation points in the optimized window system is almost equivalent to the noise reduction at the error sensor and the frequency range of effective control is up to 390 Hz in the case of a single channel active noise control system. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  16. Window type: 4x4 multipaned steel window flanked by 1x4 multipaned ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window type: 4x4 multipaned steel window flanked by 1x4 multipaned steel, casements. Concrete stoop, entry overhang and pipe rail detail also illustrated. Building 36, facing northwest - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Lagrangian technique to calculate window interface velocity from shock velocity measurements: Application for quartz windows

    DOE PAGES

    McCoy, Chad A.; Knudson, Marcus D.

    2017-08-24

    Measurement of the window interface velocity is a common technique for investigating the dynamic response materials at high strain rates. However, these measurements are limited in pressure to the range where the window remains transparent. The most common window material for this application is lithium fluoride, which under single shock compression becomes opaque at ~200 GPa. To date, no other window material has been identified for use at higher pressures. Here, we present a Lagrangian technique to calculate the interface velocity from a continuously measured shock velocity, with application to quartz. The quartz shock front becomes reflective upon melt, atmore » ~100 GPa, enabling the use of velocity interferometry to continuously measure the shock velocity. This technique overlaps with the range of pressures accessible with LiF windows and extends the region where wave profile measurements are possible to pressures in excess of 2000 GPa. Lastly, we show through simulated data that the technique accurately reproduces the interface velocity within 20% of the initial state, and that the Lagrangian technique represents a significant improvement over a simple linear approximation.« less

  18. Lagrangian technique to calculate window interface velocity from shock velocity measurements: Application for quartz windows

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    McCoy, Chad A.; Knudson, Marcus D.

    Measurement of the window interface velocity is a common technique for investigating the dynamic response materials at high strain rates. However, these measurements are limited in pressure to the range where the window remains transparent. The most common window material for this application is lithium fluoride, which under single shock compression becomes opaque at ~200 GPa. To date, no other window material has been identified for use at higher pressures. Here, we present a Lagrangian technique to calculate the interface velocity from a continuously measured shock velocity, with application to quartz. The quartz shock front becomes reflective upon melt, atmore » ~100 GPa, enabling the use of velocity interferometry to continuously measure the shock velocity. This technique overlaps with the range of pressures accessible with LiF windows and extends the region where wave profile measurements are possible to pressures in excess of 2000 GPa. Lastly, we show through simulated data that the technique accurately reproduces the interface velocity within 20% of the initial state, and that the Lagrangian technique represents a significant improvement over a simple linear approximation.« less

  19. Credit BG. View looks southwest (236°) across concrete foundations towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. View looks southwest (236°) across concrete foundations towards Building 4402 (Hangar No. 2). Building 4412 (Liquid Oxygen Repair Facility) and Building 4444 (Communications Building) appear in center background. Trees in view are locusts (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Old Firehouse T-41, South end of A Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. Current status of photoprotection by window glass, automobile glass, window films, and sunglasses.

    PubMed

    Almutawa, Fahad; Vandal, Robert; Wang, Steven Q; Lim, Henry W

    2013-04-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has known adverse effects on the skin and eyes. Practitioners are becoming more aware of the importance of outdoor photoprotection. However, little attention is directed to the exposure of the skin and eyes to UVR through the window glass or sunglasses. The amount of ultraviolet transmission through glass depends mainly on the type of the glass. All types of commercial and automobile glass block the majority of ultraviolet-B; however, the degree of ultraviolet-A transmission depends on the type of glass. Laminated glass offers better UVA protection than tempered glass; new safety regulations for automobiles may result in increased use of laminated glass for side windows. Window films can be applied to glass to increase UVR protection. Sunglasses need to be compliant with one of the national standards; a wraparound style or side shields offer the best protection. Increased understanding by practitioners on the transmission of UVR through glass, window films, and sunglasses would allow them to better educate the public and to better manage photosensitive patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Window type: paired 3x2 multipaned steel window flanked by 1x3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window type: paired 3x2 multipaned steel window flanked by 1x3 multipaned steel casements, breaking building corner. Broad overhanging eave also illustrated. Second story detail. Building 13, facing east - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. A Simple Laser Microphone for Classroom Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, James M.; Trout, K. P.

    2006-01-01

    Communication through the modulation of electromagnetic radiation has become a foundational technique in modern technology. In this paper we discuss a modern day method of eavesdropping based upon the modulation of laser light reflected from a window pane. A simple and affordable classroom demonstration of a "laser microphone" is…

  3. An Introduction to X Window Application Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-23

    Acquisition and Policy Evaluation program using Cognitive Feed- back ( ESKAPE /CF) from the SunView windowing system to X Window. The new application...the generic X Window System. This thesis converts an Expert System Knowledge Acquisition and Policy Evaluation program using Cognitive Feedback ( ESKAPE ...15 IV. XESKAPE/CF: THE X WINDOW VERSION OF ESKAPE /CF ........................ 16 A. FUNCTIONAL COMPARISON TO

  4. Window Insulation: How to Sort Through the Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Barbara

    This two-part report explores the efforts of businesses and individuals to improve the thermal performance of windows. Part I discusses the basics of what makes a window product insulate or save energy. Topic areas addressed include saving energy lost through windows, key components of window insulation, three basic types of window insulation,…

  5. Orion Hatch Window Testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-09

    Inside a laboratory in the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Mark Nurge, Ph.D., at left, a physicist in the Applied Physics Lab with the center's Exploration Research and Technology Programs, and Bence Bartha, Ph.D., a specialist in non-destructive testing with URS Federal Services, are performing the first optical quality testing on a full window stack that is ready for installation in the docking hatch of NASA's Orion spacecraft. The data from the tests will help improve the requirements for manufacturing tolerances on Orion's windows and verify how the window should perform in space. Orion is being prepared for its first integrated uncrewed flight atop NASA's Space Launch System rocket on Exploration Mission-1.

  6. Window type: paired 2x4 multipaned steel windows flanked by 1x4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window type: paired 2x4 multipaned steel windows flanked by 1x4 multipaned steel casements, breaking building corner. Raised panel door front entry also illustrated. Ground floor detail Building 19, facing north - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. Adult Communication and Teen Sex: Changing a Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Jean Baldwin; Walker, Karen E.; Kotloff, Lauren J.; Pepper, Sarah

    The Plain Talk initiative, developed by the Annie E. Casey Foundation, was designed to increase the amount and quality of communication that parents and community adults provided youth regarding responsible sexual decision making. It offered parents and other community adults information and skills necessary to communicate more effectively with…

  8. Purged window apparatus utilizing heated purge gas

    DOEpatents

    Ballard, Evan O.

    1984-01-01

    A purged window apparatus utilizing tangentially injected heated purge gases in the vicinity of electromagnetic radiation transmitting windows, and a tapered external mounting tube to accelerate these gases to provide a vortex flow on the window surface and a turbulent flow throughout the mounting tube. Use of this apparatus prevents backstreaming of gases under investigation which are flowing past the mouth of the mounting tube which would otherwise deposit on the windows. Lengthy spectroscopic investigations and analyses can thereby be performed without the necessity of interrupting the procedures in order to clean or replace contaminated windows.

  9. How to apply UNESCO World Heritage Criteria to the “Windows to the Universe” Sites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotte, Michel

    2015-08-01

    The following communication proposes a methodic approach trying to link concept of “Windows to the Universe” to the uses of “Criteria” as defined by the World Heritage Convention (1972). The first issue is well advanced today by more than 10 years of active studies and preservation projects like “Starlight Reserves” by specialists of astronomy, archaeo-astronomy and environmental sciences. The second issue is related to a UNESCO Convention ruled by the WH Committee and leading to recognize around 1000 World Heritage sites over 40 years. The official booklet Guideline for the implementation of the World Heritage Convention (last edition 2013) summarizes conceptual ideas and methodological recommendations for WH nominations. In ongoing context the WH Committee’s decisions rely on scientific and professional evaluation of each site by UNESCO’s advisory bodies: ICOMOS for cultural heritage and IUCN for natural heritagesThe first goal is to establish appropriate understanding of a very specific conceptual approach (Windows to the Universe) in the context of a very large UN Convention (WH List) related both to cultural and natural heritage in general. The second goal is to give a readable understanding of the WH requirements coming from the strict evaluation of the “Outstanding Universal Value” (OUV) of a given place, including the choice of WH Criteria expressing OUV in respect of the Guideline Format.Furthermore and due to concepts coming from two very different fields, the communication aims to present a practical methodology in the view of a possible WH nomination: how to understand relationships between different classes of value and how to establish demonstration of the OUV and to justify the choice of Criteria for the place? Beyond possible WH projects, in a obvious limited number, the communication tries to propose an efficient and general methodology for valuable assessment and understanding of places having a “Windows to the Universe

  10. How can UNESCO World Heritage Criteria be applied to the ``Windows to the Universe'' Sites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotte, Michel

    2016-10-01

    This communication proposes a methodical approach trying to link the concept of ``Windows to the Universe'' to the uses of the Criteria defined by the World Heritage Convention (UNESCO 1972). The first issue is well advanced today after more than 10 years of active studies and preservation projects such as ``Starlight Reserves'' by specialists of astronomy, archaeoastronomy and environmental sciences. The second issue is related to a UNESCO Convention ruled by the WH Committee that has led to the recognition of around 1000 World Heritage sites over 40 years. The official booklet Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention (latest edition 2015) (UNESCO 2015) summarizes conceptual ideas and methodological recommendations for WH nominations. In practice the WH Committee's decisions rely on the scientific and professional evaluation of each site by UNESCO's advisory bodies: ICOMOS for cultural heritage and IUCN for natural heritage. The first goal of this presentation is to establish appropriate understanding of a very specific conceptual approach (Windows to the Universe) in the context of a very large UN Convention (the World Heritage List) related both to cultural and natural heritage in general. The second goal is to give a readable understanding of the WH requirements coming from the strict evaluation of the ``Outstanding Universal Value'' (OUV) of a given place, including the choice of WH Criteria expressing OUV with respect to the format of the Guidelines. Furthermore, and due to concepts coming from two very different fields, the communication aims to present a practical methodology in the case of a possible WH nomination: how to understand relationships between different classes of value and how to demonstrate OUV and justify the choice of Criteria for the place. Beyond potential WH projects, obviously limited in number, the communication tries to propose an efficient and general methodology for assessing the value and

  11. The Role of the Foundation Board. Foundation Relations. Board Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simic, Curtis R.

    1998-01-01

    This booklet for trustees of institutions of higher education addresses the role of boards of related non-profit fund-raising foundations. The booklet begins with an explanation of four advantages of such foundations to host institutions, such as separating gift funds from public funds. Suggestions for making foundation boards more effective…

  12. Window Area and Development Drive Spatial Variation in Bird-Window Collisions in an Urban Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Hager, Stephen B.; Cosentino, Bradley J.; McKay, Kelly J.; Monson, Cathleen; Zuurdeeg, Walt; Blevins, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs) and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings in an urban landscape in northwestern Illinois, USA. For each building and season, we conducted 21 daily surveys for carcasses and nine point count surveys to estimate relative abundance, richness, and diversity. Our sampling design was informed by experimentally estimated carcass persistence times and detection probabilities. We used linear and generalized linear mixed models to evaluate how habitat features influenced community structure and how mortality was affected by window area and factors that correlated with community structure. The most-supported model was consistent for all community indices and included effects of season, development, and distance to vegetated lots. BWCs were related positively to window area and negatively to development. We documented mortalities for 16/72 (22%) species (34 total carcasses) recorded at buildings, and BWCs were greater for juveniles than adults. Based on the most-supported model of BWCs, the median number of annual predicted fatalities at study buildings was 3 (range = 0–52). These results suggest that patchily distributed environmental resources and levels of window area in buildings create spatial variation in BWCs within and among urban areas. Current mortality estimates place little emphasis on spatial variation, which precludes a fundamental understanding of the issue. To focus conservation efforts, we illustrate how knowledge of the structural and environmental factors that influence bird-window collisions can be used

  13. Window area and development drive spatial variation in bird-window collisions in an urban landscape.

    PubMed

    Hager, Stephen B; Cosentino, Bradley J; McKay, Kelly J; Monson, Cathleen; Zuurdeeg, Walt; Blevins, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs) and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings in an urban landscape in northwestern Illinois, USA. For each building and season, we conducted 21 daily surveys for carcasses and nine point count surveys to estimate relative abundance, richness, and diversity. Our sampling design was informed by experimentally estimated carcass persistence times and detection probabilities. We used linear and generalized linear mixed models to evaluate how habitat features influenced community structure and how mortality was affected by window area and factors that correlated with community structure. The most-supported model was consistent for all community indices and included effects of season, development, and distance to vegetated lots. BWCs were related positively to window area and negatively to development. We documented mortalities for 16/72 (22%) species (34 total carcasses) recorded at buildings, and BWCs were greater for juveniles than adults. Based on the most-supported model of BWCs, the median number of annual predicted fatalities at study buildings was 3 (range = 0-52). These results suggest that patchily distributed environmental resources and levels of window area in buildings create spatial variation in BWCs within and among urban areas. Current mortality estimates place little emphasis on spatial variation, which precludes a fundamental understanding of the issue. To focus conservation efforts, we illustrate how knowledge of the structural and environmental factors that influence bird-window collisions can be used to

  14. The Microsoft Biology Foundation Applications for High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, S.

    2010-01-01

    w9-2 The need for reusable libraries of bioinformatics functions has been recognized for many years and a number of language-specific toolkits have been constructed. Such toolkits have served as valuable nucleation points for the community, promoting the sharing of code and establishing standards. The majority of DNA sequencing machines and many other standard pieces of lab equipment are controlled by PCs using Windows, and a Microsoft genomics toolkit would enable initial processing and quality control to happen closer to the instrumentation and provide opportunities for added-value services within core facilities. The Microsoft Biology Foundation (MBF) is an open source software library, freely available for both commercial and academic use, available as an early-stage betafrom mbf.codeplex.com. This presentation will describe the structure and goals of MBF and demonstrate some of its uses.

  15. Water bubble in front of JEM window

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-20

    View of water bubble formed in front of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) window. The JEM Exposed Facility (JEF) is visible in the background through the window and reflected in the water. Scratches visible on the window.

  16. Computed Tomography Window Blending: Feasibility in Thoracic Trauma.

    PubMed

    Mandell, Jacob C; Wortman, Jeremy R; Rocha, Tatiana C; Folio, Les R; Andriole, Katherine P; Khurana, Bharti

    2018-02-07

    This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of processing computed tomography (CT) images with a custom window blending algorithm that combines soft-tissue, bone, and lung window settings into a single image; to compare the time for interpretation of chest CT for thoracic trauma with window blending and conventional window settings; and to assess diagnostic performance of both techniques. Adobe Photoshop was scripted to process axial DICOM images from retrospective contrast-enhanced chest CTs performed for trauma with a window-blending algorithm. Two emergency radiologists independently interpreted the axial images from 103 chest CTs with both blended and conventional windows. Interpretation time and diagnostic performance were compared with Wilcoxon signed-rank test and McNemar test, respectively. Agreement with Nexus CT Chest injury severity was assessed with the weighted kappa statistic. A total of 13,295 images were processed without error. Interpretation was faster with window blending, resulting in a 20.3% time saving (P < .001), with no difference in diagnostic performance, within the power of the study to detect a difference in sensitivity of 5% as determined by post hoc power analysis. The sensitivity of the window-blended cases was 82.7%, compared to 81.6% for conventional windows. The specificity of the window-blended cases was 93.1%, compared to 90.5% for conventional windows. All injuries of major clinical significance (per Nexus CT Chest criteria) were correctly identified in all reading sessions, and all negative cases were correctly classified. All readers demonstrated near-perfect agreement with injury severity classification with both window settings. In this pilot study utilizing retrospective data, window blending allows faster preliminary interpretation of axial chest CT performed for trauma, with no significant difference in diagnostic performance compared to conventional window settings. Future studies would be required to assess the

  17. Low-Emissivity, Energy-Control, Retrofit Window Film: Final Report

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Winckler, Lisa

    Solutia Performance Films, utilizing funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Buildings Technologies Program, completed research to develop, validate, and commercialize a range of cost-effective, low-emissivity energy-control retrofit window films with significantly improved emissivity over current technology. These films, sold under the EnerLogic® trade name, offer the energy-saving properties of modern low-e windows, with several advantages over replacement windows, such as: lower initial installation cost, a significantly lower product carbon footprint, and an ability to provide a much faster return on investment. EnerLogic® window films also offer significantly greater energy savings than previously available with window films with similar visiblemore » light transmissions. EnerLogic® window films offer these energy-saving advantages over other window films due to its ability to offer both summer cooling and winter heating savings. Unlike most window films, that produce savings only during the cooling season, EnerLogic® window film is an all-season, low-emissivity (low-e) film that produces both cooling and heating season savings. This paper will present technical information on the development hurdles as well as details regarding the following claims being made about EnerLogic® window film, which can be found at www.EnerLogicfilm.com: 1. Other window film technologies save energy. EnerLogic® window film's patent-pending coating delivers excellent energy efficiency in every season, so no other film can match its annual dollar or energy consumption savings. 2. EnerLogic® window film is a low-cost, high-return technology that compares favorably to other popular energy-saving measures both in terms of energy efficiency and cost savings. In fact, EnerLogic® window film typically outperforms most of the alternatives in terms of simple payback. 3. EnerLogic® window film provides unparalleled glass insulating capabilities for window film products. With

  18. Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Flexible Windows for Blast Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    transparent plastic composite for use as a material for window or as a laminate layer in the blast-resistant glazed window. This program focused...materials for window or as a laminate layer in the blast-resistant glazed window. It is obvious that further increasing the mechanical properties of...Dr. Ben Wang led the effort for design/fabrication of windows from the nanotube assembly and lamination experiments. 6 3. RESULTS AND

  19. Practicing What We Preach: Strategic Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Edward W.

    1987-01-01

    The 1987 Foundation for Public Relations Research and Education lecture asserts that the basic and fundamental principles of public relations remain unchanged and that strategic communication is still the main activity of the field. (MM)

  20. Infrared sensor and window system issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargraves, Charles H., Jr.; Martin, James M.

    1992-12-01

    EO/IR windows are a significant challenge for the weapon system sensor designer who must design for high EO performance, low radar cross section (RCS), supersonic flight, durability, producibility and affordable initial and life cycle costs. This is particularly true in the 8 to 12 micron IR band at which window materials and coating choices are limited by system design requirements. The requirements also drive the optimization of numerous mechanical, optical, materials, and electrical parameters. This paper addresses the EO/IR window as a system design challenge. The interrelationship of the optical, mechanical, and system design processes are examined. This paper presents a summary of the test results, trade studies and analyses that were performed for multi-segment, flight-worthy optical windows with superior optical performance at subsonic and supersonic aircraft velocities and reduced radar cross section. The impact of the window assembly on EO system modulation transfer function (MTF) and sensitivity will be discussed. The use of conductive coatings for shielding/signature control will be discussed.

  1. A Window Toward the World: Older Adults' Experiences of Becoming in Health and Developing as Human Beings Through Interacting With Others Using Real Video Communication.

    PubMed

    Hemberg, Jessica; Santamäki Fischer, Regina

    The population in the Nordic countries, as well as globally, is increasingly becoming older. Concurrently, with an increased aging population, there is an increase in poor health and loneliness among older adults. The aim of this study was to uncover, from a caring science perspective, community-living older adults' experiences of interacting with others via real video communication. The study uses a hermeneutical approach. The material consists of interviews with older adults regarding their experiences of using real video communication. The texts were interpreted through hermeneutical reading. Study participation and data storage and handling for research purposes were approved by the participants when they provided their informed consent. Ethical permission to conduct this study was granted by a research board. The findings uncovered that welfare technology offers a metaphor-a window toward the world-that comprises the overarching core theme "Being in a movement toward becoming a unity as a human being," and 3 main themes: "Alleviating suffering through beating involuntary solitude," "Being in the world as an equal and dignified human being," and "Dedicating new perspectives and meaning in life." Welfare technology seems to be an important means to improve the quality of life for older adults living at home. Welfare technology enables older people to be in contact with other people in an easy way. Further research is needed to uncover issues of welfare technology from different perspectives.

  2. Robust Timing Synchronization in Aeronautical Mobile Communication Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Fu-Qin; Pinchak, Stanley

    2004-01-01

    This work details a study of robust synchronization schemes suitable for satellite to mobile aeronautical applications. A new scheme, the Modified Sliding Window Synchronizer (MSWS), is devised and compared with existing schemes, including the traditional Early-Late Gate Synchronizer (ELGS), the Gardner Zero-Crossing Detector (GZCD), and the Sliding Window Synchronizer (SWS). Performance of the synchronization schemes is evaluated by a set of metrics that indicate performance in digital communications systems. The metrics are convergence time, mean square phase error (or root mean-square phase error), lowest SNR for locking, initial frequency offset performance, midstream frequency offset performance, and system complexity. The performance of the synchronizers is evaluated by means of Matlab simulation models. A simulation platform is devised to model the satellite to mobile aeronautical channel, consisting of a Quadrature Phase Shift Keying modulator, an additive white Gaussian noise channel, and a demodulator front end. Simulation results show that the MSWS provides the most robust performance at the cost of system complexity. The GZCD provides a good tradeoff between robustness and system complexity for communication systems that require high symbol rates or low overall system costs. The ELGS has a high system complexity despite its average performance. Overall, the SWS, originally designed for multi-carrier systems, performs very poorly in single-carrier communications systems. Table 5.1 in Section 5 provides a ranking of each of the synchronization schemes in terms of the metrics set forth in Section 4.1. Details of comparison are given in Section 5. Based on the results presented in Table 5, it is safe to say that the most robust synchronization scheme examined in this work is the high-sample-rate Modified Sliding Window Synchronizer. A close second is its low-sample-rate cousin. The tradeoff between complexity and lowest mean-square phase error determines

  3. Window contamination on Expose-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demets, R.; Bertrand, M.; Bolkhovitinov, A.; Bryson, K.; Colas, C.; Cottin, H.; Dettmann, J.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Elsaesser, A.; Jaramillo, E.; Lebert, M.; van Papendrecht, G.; Pereira, C.; Rohr, T.; Saiagh, K.

    2015-01-01

    Expose is a multi-user instrument for astrobiological and astrochemical experiments in space. Installed at the outer surface of the International Space Station, it enables investigators to study the impact of the open space environment on biological and biochemical test samples. Two Expose missions have been completed so far, designated as Expose-E (Rabbow et al. 2012) and Expose-R (Rabbow et al. this issue). One of the space-unique environmental factors offered by Expose is full-spectrum, ultraviolet (UV)-rich electromagnetic radiation from the Sun. This paper describes and analyses how on Expose-R, access of the test samples to Solar radiation degraded during space exposure in an unpredicted way. Several windows in front of the Sun-exposed test samples acquired a brown shade, resulting in a reduced transparency in visible light, UV and vacuum UV (VUV). Post-flight investigations revealed the discolouration to be caused by a homogenous film of cross-linked organic polymers at the inside of the windows. The chemical signature varied per sample carrier. No such films were found on windows from sealed, pressurized compartments, or on windows that had been kept out of the Sun. This suggests that volatile compounds originating from the interior of the Expose facility were cross-linked and photo-fixed by Solar irradiation at the rear side of the windows. The origin of the volatiles was not fully identified; most probably there was a variety of sources involved including the biological test samples, adhesives, plastics and printed circuit boards. The outer surface of the windows (pointing into space) was chemically impacted as well, with a probable effect on the transparency in VUV. The reported analysis of the window contamination on Expose-R is expected to help the interpretation of the scientific results and offers possibilities to mitigate this problem on future missions - in particular Expose-R2, the direct successor of Expose-R.

  4. What We Talk About When We Talk About Morality: Deontological, Consequentialist, and Emotive Language Use in Justifications Across Foundation-Specific Moral Violations.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Melissa A; Laham, Simon M

    2016-09-01

    Morality is inherently social, yet much extant work in moral psychology ignores the central role of social processes in moral phenomena. To partly address this, this article examined the content of persuasive moral communication-the way people justify their moral attitudes in persuasive contexts. Across two studies, we explored variation in justification content (deontological, consequentialist, or emotive) as a function of moral foundations. Using justification selection techniques (Study 1) and open-ended justification production (Study 2), results demonstrate a preference (a) for deontological appeals in justifications for the sanctity foundation, (b) for consequentialist appeals for the individualizing foundations (care and fairness), and (c) for emotive appeals in justifications for the binding foundations (loyalty, authority and sanctity). The present research questions the generality of inferences about the primacy of emotions/intuition in moral psychology research and highlights the important role of reasons in persuasive moral communication. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  5. Interior and Exterior Low-E Storm Window Installation

    ScienceCinema

    Witters, Sarah

    2018-01-16

    Until recently, energy-efficient window retrofit options have largely been limited to repair or replacement; leaving the homeowner to decide between affordability and deeper energy savings. A new and improved low-e storm window boasts a combination of curb appeal and energy efficiency, all for a fraction of the cost of window replacement. A recent whole-home experiment performed by PNNL suggests that attaching low-e storm windows can result in as much energy savings replacing the windows.

  6. Window Cleaner—New and Improved?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Erica K.

    2007-11-01

    A recent coupon advertisement for window cleaner in the Sunday newspaper was reminiscent of a past JCE Classroom Activity . The new product says it offers a cheaper way to clean your windows and is a way to cut down on the number of plastic spray containers you throw away.

  7. Communication issues in migraine diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Edmeads, John

    2002-06-01

    To examine the importance of good communication when informing the patient of the diagnosis of migraine; to review the essentials of successful communication between physician and patient on the aspect of diagnosis; to survey learning resources for physicians on communicating information to patients. This paper is based on observations made by the author of the successful interactions of numerous international "headache experts" with their patients, on a review of the medical education literature pertaining to the teaching of communication skills, and on 30 years of not always successful communication with patients. Communicating the diagnosis of migraine is an opportunity to educate and reassure the patient, to lay the foundation for rational treatment and to help establish the successful doctor-patient relationship which is essential for effective management. No matter how accurate the diagnosis, failure to communicate it effectively to the patient (and often to significant others) may impair interactions with the patient and compromise therapy. Effective communication of a diagnosis requires clarity, relevance to the patient, a positive attitude, and reinforcement through repetition, questioning and dialogue. In terms of using the diagnosis to lay a foundation for therapy, it is useful to explain the symptoms as transient physical dysfunction of normal tissues, to indicate that there are multiple mechanisms underlying the dysfunction of which only some may presently be susceptible to treatment and to stress the relevance of emotions as factors which may powerfully affect, for better or worse, the underlying disturbed physiology of migraine. Into this model can be "plugged" all the relevant therapies for migraine. This is the ideal, but every day experience in the headache consultant's office suggest that in both primary care and specialist practice, it is infrequently attained. There are scant resources other than example for physicians to learn communication of

  8. Practitioner perspectives on foundational capabilities.

    PubMed

    Leider, Jonathon P; Juliano, Chrissie; Castrucci, Brian C; Beitsch, Leslie M; Dilley, Abby; Nelson, Rachel; Kaiman, Sherry; Sprague, James B

    2015-01-01

    National efforts are underway to classify a minimum set of public health services that all jurisdictions throughout the United States should provide regardless of location. Such a set of basic programs would be supported by crosscutting services, known as the "foundational capabilities" (FCs). These FCs are assessment services, preparedness and disaster response, policy development, communications, community partnership, and organizational support activities. To ascertain familiarity with the term and concept of FCs and gather related perspectives from state and local public health practitioners. In fall 2013, we interviewed 50 leaders from state and local health departments. We asked about familiarity with the term "foundational capabilities," as well as the broader concept of FCs. We attempted to triangulate the utility of the FC concept by asking respondents about priority programs and services, about perceived unique contributions made by public health, and about prevalence and funding for the FCs. Telephone-based interviews. Fifty leaders of state and local health departments. Practitioner familiarity with and perspectives on the FCs, information about current funding streams for public health, and the likelihood of creating nationwide FCs that would be recognized and accepted by all jurisdictions. Slightly more than half of the leaders interviewed said that they were familiar with the concept of FCs. In most cases, health departments had all of the capabilities to some degree, although operationalization varied. Few indicated that current funding levels were sufficient to support implementing a minimum level of FCs nationally. Respondents were not able to articulate the current or optimal levels of services for the various capabilities, nor the costs associated with them. Further research is needed to understand the role of FCs as part of the foundational public health services.

  9. USB Storage Device Forensics for Windows 10.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Ayesha; Iqbal, Waseem; Abbas, Haider

    2018-05-01

    Significantly increased use of USB devices due to their user-friendliness and large storage capacities poses various threats for many users/companies in terms of data theft that becomes easier due to their efficient mobility. Investigations for such data theft activities would require gathering critical digital information capable of recovering digital forensics artifacts like date, time, and device information. This research gathers three sets of registry and logs data: first, before insertion; second, during insertion; and the third, after removal of a USB device. These sets are analyzed to gather evidentiary information from Registry and Windows Event log that helps in tracking a USB device. This research furthers the prior research on earlier versions of Microsoft Windows and compares it with latest Windows 10 system. Comparison of Windows 8 and Windows 10 does not show much difference except for new subkey under USB Key in registry. However, comparison of Windows 7 with latest version indicates significant variances. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. 46 CFR 127.440 - Operability of window coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operability of window coverings. 127.440 Section 127.440... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.440 Operability of window coverings. Any covering or protection placed over a window or porthole that could be used as a means of...

  11. High-Temperature Optical Window Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeloffs, Norman; Taranto, Nick

    1995-01-01

    A high-temperature optical window is essential to the optical diagnostics of high-temperature combustion rigs. Laser Doppler velocimetry, schlieren photography, light sheet visualization, and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy are a few of the tests that require optically clear access to the combustor flow stream. A design was developed for a high-temperature window that could withstand the severe environment of the NASA Lewis 3200 F Lean Premixed Prevaporized (LPP) Flame Tube Test Rig. The development of this design was both time consuming and costly. This report documents the design process and the lessons learned, in an effort to reduce the cost of developing future designs for high-temperature optical windows.

  12. 14 CFR 27.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Windshields and windows. 27.775 Section 27.775 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... § 27.775 Windshields and windows. Windshields and windows must be made of material that will not break...

  13. 14 CFR 29.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Windshields and windows. 29.775 Section 29.775 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Accommodations § 29.775 Windshields and windows. Windshields and windows must be made of material that will not...

  14. 14 CFR 27.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Windshields and windows. 27.775 Section 27.775 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... § 27.775 Windshields and windows. Windshields and windows must be made of material that will not break...

  15. 14 CFR 27.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Windshields and windows. 27.775 Section 27.775 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... § 27.775 Windshields and windows. Windshields and windows must be made of material that will not break...

  16. 14 CFR 29.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Windshields and windows. 29.775 Section 29.775 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Accommodations § 29.775 Windshields and windows. Windshields and windows must be made of material that will not...

  17. 14 CFR 29.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Windshields and windows. 29.775 Section 29.775 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Accommodations § 29.775 Windshields and windows. Windshields and windows must be made of material that will not...

  18. 14 CFR 29.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Windshields and windows. 29.775 Section 29.775 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Accommodations § 29.775 Windshields and windows. Windshields and windows must be made of material that will not...

  19. 14 CFR 27.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Windshields and windows. 27.775 Section 27.775 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... § 27.775 Windshields and windows. Windshields and windows must be made of material that will not break...

  20. 14 CFR 29.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Windshields and windows. 29.775 Section 29.775 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Accommodations § 29.775 Windshields and windows. Windshields and windows must be made of material that will not...

  1. 14 CFR 27.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Windshields and windows. 27.775 Section 27.775 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... § 27.775 Windshields and windows. Windshields and windows must be made of material that will not break...

  2. Weighted Parzen Windows for Pattern Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    Nearest-Neighbor Rule The k-Nearest-Neighbor ( kNN ) technique is nonparametric, assuming nothing about the distribution of the data. Stated succinctly...probabilities P(wj I x) from samples." Raudys and Jain [20:255] advance this interpretation by pointing out that the kNN technique can be viewed as the...34Parzen window classifier with a hyper- rectangular window function." As with the Parzen-window technique, the kNN classifier is more accurate as the

  3. Combined Pressure and Thermal Window System for Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svartstrom, Kirk Nils (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A window system for a vehicle comprising a pressure and thermal window pane, a seal system, and a retainer system. The pressure and thermal window pane may be configured to provide desired pressure protection and desired thermal protection when exposed to an environment around the vehicle during operation of the vehicle. The pressure and thermal window pane may have a desired ductility. The seal system may be configured to contact the pressure and thermal window pane to seal the pressure and thermal window pane. The retainer system may be configured to hold the seal system and the pressure and thermal window pane.

  4. Combined Pressure and Thermal Window System for Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svartstrom, Kirk Nils (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A window system for a vehicle comprising a pressure and thermal window pane, a seal system, and a retainer system. The pressure and thermal window pane may be configured to provide desired pressure protection and desired thermal protection when exposed to an environment around the vehicle during operation of the vehicle. The pressure and thermal window pane may have a desired ductility. The seal system may be configured to contact the pressure and thermal window pane to seal the pressure and thermal window pane. The retainer system may be configured to hold the seal system and the pressure and thermal window pane.

  5. Looking through the postdisaster policy window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solecki, William D.; Michaels, Sarah

    1994-07-01

    Policy windows are transitory opportunities during which the likelihood of adopting new policy or legislative proposals is greater than usual. Accepted wisdom has held that natural disasters serve as focusing events that generate policy windows in their wake. This paper highlights the need for a more circumscribed understanding of when and where policy windows occur based on the experiences of three US regional planning organizations: a hand-picked commission of community leaders, a council of governments, and a special-purpose substate organization. The first operated in the San Francisco Bay Area of California following the Loma Prieta earthquake (October 1989), and the other two in South Carolina's Atlantic coastal plain after Hurricane Hugo (September 1989). The analysis concludes that natural disasters did not transform the agenda or mission of these entities. Policy windows were neither automatic outcomes of focusing events nor did they ensure the adoption of pertinent policy within the organizations investigated. Several conditions are minimally necessary for using policy windows to bring about hazard mitigation: comprehensive institutional conceptualization of hazards management, institutional strength and flexibility, and well-placed, effective policy entrepreneurs.

  6. VIS-IR transmitting BGG glass windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayya, Shyam S.; Chin, Geoff D.; Sanghera, Jasbinder S.; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.

    2003-09-01

    BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 (BGG) glasses have the desired properties for various window applications in the 0.5-5 μm wavelength region. These glasses are low cost alternatives to the currently used window materials. Fabrication of a high optical quality 18" diameter BGG glass window has been demonstrated with a transmitted wave front error of λ/10 at 632 nm. BGG substrates have also been successfully tested for environmental weatherability (MIL-F-48616) and rain erosion durability up to 300 mph. Preliminary EMI grids have been successfully applied on BGG glasses demonstrating attenuation of 20dB in X and Ku bands. Although the mechanical properties of BGG glasses are acceptable for various window applications, it is demonstrated here that the properties can be further improved significantly by the glassceramization process. The ceramization process does not add any significant cost to the final window material. The crystallite size in the present glass-ceramic limits its transmission to the 2-5 μm region.

  7. Compound windows of the Hénon-map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Edward N.

    2008-08-01

    For the two-parameter second-order Hénon map, the shapes and locations of the periodic windows-continua of parameter values for which solutions x0,x1,… can be stably periodic, embedded in larger regions where chaotic solutions or solutions of other periods prevail-are found by a random searching procedure and displayed graphically. Many windows have a typical shape, consisting of a central “body” from which four narrow “antennae” extend. Such windows, to be called compound windows, are often arranged in bands, to be called window streets, that are made up largely of small detected but poorly resolved compound windows. For each fundamental subwindow-the portion of a window where a fundamental period prevails-a stability measure U is introduced; where the solution is stable, |U|<1. Curves of constant U are found by numerical integration. Along one line in parameter space the Hénon-map reduces to the one-parameter first-order logistic map, and two antennae from each compound window intersect this line. The curves where U=1 and U=-1 that bound either antenna are close together within these intersections, but, as either curve with U=-1 leaves the line, it diverges from the curve where U=1, crosses the other curve where U=-1, and nears the other curve where U=1, forming another antenna. The region bounded by the numerically determined curves coincides with the subwindow as found by random searching. A fourth-degree equation for an idealized curve of constant U is established. Points in parameter space producing periodic solutions where x0=xm=0, for given values of m, are found to lie on Cantor sets of curves that closely fit the window streets. Points producing solutions where x0=xm=0 and satisfying a third condition, approximating the condition that xn be bounded as n→-∞, lie on curves, to be called street curves of order m, that approximate individual members of the Cantor set and individual window streets. Compound windows of period m+m‧ tend to

  8. Manufacturing of diamond windows for synchrotron radiation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Schildkamp, W.; Nikitina, L.

    2012-09-15

    A new diamond window construction is presented and explicit manufacturing details are given. This window will increase the power dissipation by about a factor of 4 over present day state of the art windows to absorb 600 W of power. This power will be generated by in-vacuum undulators with the storage ring ALBA operating at a design current of 400 mA. Extensive finite element (FE) calculations are included to predict the windows behavior accompanied by explanations for the chosen boundary conditions. A simple linear model was used to cross-check the FE calculations.

  9. Window acoustic study for advanced turboprop aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prydz, R. A.; Balena, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    An acoustic analysis was performed to establish window designs for advanced turboprop powered aircraft. The window transmission loss requirements were based on A-weighted interior noise goals of 80 and 75 dBA. The analytical results showed that a triple pane window consisting of two glass outer panes and an inner pane of acrylic would provide the required transmission loss and meet the sidewall space limits. Two window test articles were fabricated for laboratory evaluation and verification of the predicted transmission loss. Procedures for performing laboratory tests are presented.

  10. Multi-Window Controllers for Autonomous Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, B, J.; Hadaegh, F. Y.

    1997-01-01

    Multi-window controllers select between elementary linear controllers using nonlinear windows based on the amplitude and frequency content of the feedback error. The controllers are relatively simple to implement and perform much better than linear controllers. The commanders for such controllers only order the destination point and are freed from generating the command time-profiles. The robotic missions rely heavily on the tasks of acquisition and tracking. For autonomous and optimal control of the spacecraft, the control bandwidth must be larger while the feedback can (and, therefore, must) be reduced.. Combining linear compensators via multi-window nonlinear summer guarantees minimum phase character of the combined transfer function. It is shown that the solution may require using several parallel branches and windows. Several examples of multi-window nonlinear controller applications are presented.

  11. The Moving Window Technique: A Window into Developmental Changes in Attention during Facial Emotion Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birmingham, Elina; Meixner, Tamara; Iarocci, Grace; Kanan, Christopher; Smilek, Daniel; Tanaka, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The strategies children employ to selectively attend to different parts of the face may reflect important developmental changes in facial emotion recognition. Using the Moving Window Technique (MWT), children aged 5-12 years and adults ("N" = 129) explored faces with a mouse-controlled window in an emotion recognition task. An…

  12. Cupola windows during Joint Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-17

    ISS022-E-066963 (17 Feb. 2010) --- This image is among the first taken through a first of its kind ?bay window? on the International Space Station, the seven-windowed Cupola. The image shows the coast of Algeria featuring (in the Cupola?s round window) an area between the cities of Dellys and Algiers. The image was recorded with a digital still camera using a 28mm lens setting. The Cupola, which a week and half ago was brought up to the orbital outpost by the STS-130 crew on the space shuttle Endeavour, will house controls for the station robotics and will be a location where crew members can operate the robotic arms and monitor other exterior activities.

  13. Scale up of large ALON® and spinel windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Lee M.; Kashalikar, Uday; Ramisetty, Mohan; Jha, Santosh; Sastri, Suri

    2017-05-01

    Aluminum Oxynitride (ALON® Transparent Ceramic) and Magnesia Aluminate Spinel (Spinel) combine broadband transparency with excellent mechanical properties. Their cubic structure means that they are transparent in their polycrystalline form, allowing them to be manufactured by conventional powder processing techniques. Surmet has scaled up its ALON® production capability to produce and deliver windows as large as 4.4 sq ft. We have also produced our first 6 sq ft window. We are in the process of producing 7 sq ft ALON® window blanks for armor applications; and scale up to even larger, high optical quality blanks for Recce window applications is underway. Surmet also produces spinel for customers that require superior transmission at the longer wavelengths in the mid wave infra-red (MWIR). Spinel windows have been limited to smaller sizes than have been achieved with ALON. To date the largest spinel window produced is 11x18-in, and windows 14x20-in size are currently in process. Surmet is now scaling up its spinel processing capability to produce high quality window blanks as large as 19x27-in for sensor applications.

  14. Graphic Communications. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Board for Vocational Education, Bismarck.

    This guide provides the basic foundation to develop a one-semester course based on the cluster concept, graphic communications. One of a set of six guides for an industrial arts curriculum at the junior high school level, it suggests exploratory experiences designed to (1) develop an awareness and understanding of the drafting and graphic arts…

  15. Commander Truly on aft flight deck holding communication kit assembly (ASSY)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    On aft flight deck, Commander Truly holds communication kit assembly (ASSY) headset (HDST) interface unit (HIU) and mini-HDST in front of the onorbit station. HASSELBLAD camera is positioned on overhead window W8.

  16. The Technical Communicator as Corporate Spokesperson: A Public Relations Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troester, Rod; Warburton, Terrence L.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the changing role of the technical communication professional in the rapidly evolving environment of organizational life. Presents five principles that serve as an initial step in laying a foundation for the preparation of technical communicators for the challenges and opportunities awaiting in contemporary organizations and the…

  17. Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase Program Final Report

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    None

    2013-04-01

    This report documents the development, execution outcomes and lessons learned of the Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase (WVP) Program carried out over a three-year period from 2009 through 2012. The primary goals of the program were met: 1) reduce the incremental cost of highly insulating windows compared to ENERGY STAR windows; and 2) raise the public and potential buyers’ awareness of highly insulating windows and their benefits. A key outcome of the program is that the 2013 ENERGY STAR Most Efficient criteria for primary residential windows were adopted from the technical specifications set forth in the WVP program.

  18. Vibration Based Wind Turbine Tower Foundation Design Utilizing Soil-Foundation-Structure Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Satari, P. E. Mohamed; Hussain, S. E. Saif

    2008-07-01

    Wind turbines have been used to generate electricity as an alternative energy source to conventional fossil fuels. This case study is for multiple wind towers located at different villages in Alaska where severe arctic weather conditions exist. The towers are supported by two different types of foundations; large mat or deep piles foundations. Initially, a Reinforced Concrete (RC) mat foundation was utilized to provide the system with vertical and lateral support. Where soil conditions required it, a pile foundation solution was devised utilizing a 30″ thick RC mat containing an embedded steel grillage of W18 beams supported by 20″-24″ grouted or un-grouted piles. The mixing and casting of concrete in-situ has become the major source of cost and difficulty of construction at these remote Alaska sites. An all-steel foundation was proposed for faster installation and lower cost, but was found to impact the natural frequencies of the structural system by significantly softening the foundation system. The tower-foundation support structure thus became near-resonant with the operational frequencies of the wind turbine leading to a likelihood of structural instability or even collapse. A detailed 3D Finite-Element model of the original tower-foundation-pile system with RC foundation was created using SAP2000. Soil springs were included in the model based on soil properties obtained from the geotechnical consultant. The natural frequency from the model was verified against the tower manufacturer analytical and the experimental values. Where piles were used, numerous iterations were carried out to eliminate the need for the RC and optimize the design. An optimized design was achieved with enough separation between the natural and operational frequencies to prevent damage to the structural system eliminating the need for any RC encasement to the steel foundation or grouting to the piles.

  19. Electronic Health Record for Intensive Care based on Usual Windows Based Software.

    PubMed

    Reper, Arnaud; Reper, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    In Intensive Care Units, the amount of data to be processed for patients care, the turn over of the patients, the necessity for reliability and for review processes indicate the use of Patient Data Management Systems (PDMS) and electronic health records (EHR). To respond to the needs of an Intensive Care Unit and not to be locked with proprietary software, we developed an EHR based on usual software and components. The software was designed as a client-server architecture running on the Windows operating system and powered by the access data base system. The client software was developed using Visual Basic interface library. The application offers to the users the following functions: medical notes captures, observations and treatments, nursing charts with administration of medications, scoring systems for classification, and possibilities to encode medical activities for billing processes. Since his deployment in September 2004, the EHR was used to care more than five thousands patients with the expected software reliability and facilitated data management and review processes. Communications with other medical software were not developed from the start, and are realized by the use of basic functionalities communication engine. Further upgrade of the system will include multi-platform support, use of typed language with static analysis, and configurable interface. The developed system based on usual software components was able to respond to the medical needs of the local ICU environment. The use of Windows for development allowed us to customize the software to the preexisting organization and contributed to the acceptability of the whole system.

  20. Mind as Organization: An Optimistic Metaphorical Base for the Study of Intrapersonal Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, David S.

    The mind as organization metaphor asserts an optimistic and multi-faceted foundation for the examination of intrapersonal communication. Definitions of intrapersonal communication have not been developed without debate and controversy. As with many other ambiguous terms and definitions in the field of communication, an operational definition of…

  1. Creating a Successful Affiliated Foundation. Foundation Relations. Board Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedgepeth, Royster C.

    1999-01-01

    This booklet for trustees of institutions of higher education offers guidelines for the creation of effective affiliated foundations. An introductory section notes the increased use of such foundations by public colleges and universities for institutional fund-raising and management of property and endowments. The booklet finds that successful…

  2. climwin: An R Toolbox for Climate Window Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Liam D; van de Pol, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    When studying the impacts of climate change, there is a tendency to select climate data from a small set of arbitrary time periods or climate windows (e.g., spring temperature). However, these arbitrary windows may not encompass the strongest periods of climatic sensitivity and may lead to erroneous biological interpretations. Therefore, there is a need to consider a wider range of climate windows to better predict the impacts of future climate change. We introduce the R package climwin that provides a number of methods to test the effect of different climate windows on a chosen response variable and compare these windows to identify potential climate signals. climwin extracts the relevant data for each possible climate window and uses this data to fit a statistical model, the structure of which is chosen by the user. Models are then compared using an information criteria approach. This allows users to determine how well each window explains variation in the response variable and compare model support between windows. climwin also contains methods to detect type I and II errors, which are often a problem with this type of exploratory analysis. This article presents the statistical framework and technical details behind the climwin package and demonstrates the applicability of the method with a number of worked examples.

  3. Noise Transmission Characteristics of Damped Plexiglas Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, Gary P.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Klos, Jacob; Brown, Sherilyn A.

    2002-01-01

    Most general aviation aircraft utilize single layer plexiglas material for the windshield and side windows. Adding noise control treatments to transparent panels is a challenging problem. In this paper, damped plexiglas windows are evaluated for replacement of conventional windows in general aviation aircraft to reduce the structure-borne and airborne noise transmitted into the interior. In contrast to conventional solid windows, the damped plexiglas window panels are fabricated using two or three layers of plexiglas with transparent viscoelastic damping material sandwiched between the layers. Results from acoustic tests conducted in the NASA Langley Structural Acoustic Loads and Transmission (SALT) facility are used to compare different designs of the damped plexiglas panels with solid windows of the same nominal thickness. Comparisons of the solid and damped plexiglas panels show reductions in the radiated sound power of up to 8 dB at low frequency resonances and as large as 4.5 dB over a 4000 Hz bandwidth. The weight of the viscoelastic treatment was approximately 1% of the panel mass. Preliminary FEM/BEM modeling shows good agreement with experimental results for radiated sound power.

  4. Windowed multipole for cross section Doppler broadening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josey, C.; Ducru, P.; Forget, B.; Smith, K.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an in-depth analysis on the accuracy and performance of the windowed multipole Doppler broadening method. The basic theory behind cross section data is described, along with the basic multipole formalism followed by the approximations leading to windowed multipole method and the algorithm used to efficiently evaluate Doppler broadened cross sections. The method is tested by simulating the BEAVRS benchmark with a windowed multipole library composed of 70 nuclides. Accuracy of the method is demonstrated on a single assembly case where total neutron production rates and 238U capture rates compare within 0.1% to ACE format files at the same temperature. With regards to performance, clock cycle counts and cache misses were measured for single temperature ACE table lookup and for windowed multipole. The windowed multipole method was found to require 39.6% more clock cycles to evaluate, translating to a 7.9% performance loss overall. However, the algorithm has significantly better last-level cache performance, with 3 fewer misses per evaluation, or a 65% reduction in last-level misses. This is due to the small memory footprint of the windowed multipole method and better memory access pattern of the algorithm.

  5. A note on windowing for the waveform relaxation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Hong

    1994-01-01

    The technique of windowing has been often used in the implementation of the waveform relaxations for solving ODE's or time dependent PDE's. Its efficiency depends upon problem stiffness and operator splitting. Using model problems, the estimates for window length and convergence rate are derived. The electiveness of windowing is then investigated for non-stiff and stiff cases respectively. lt concludes that for the former, windowing is highly recommended when a large discrepancy exists between the convergence rate on a time interval and the ones on its subintervals. For the latter, windowing does not provide any computational advantage if machine features are disregarded. The discussion is supported by experimental results.

  6. Pilot case-control study of paediatric falls from windows.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Brian D; Quistberg, D Alexander; Shandro, Jamie R; Partridge, Rebecca L; Song, Hyun Rae; Ebel, Beth E

    2011-12-01

    Unintentional falls from windows are an important cause of paediatric morbidity. There have been no controlled studies to identify modifiable environmental risk factors for window falls in young children. The authors have piloted a case-control study to test procedures for case identification, subject enrolment, and environmental data collection. Case windows were identified when a child 0-9 years old presented for care after a fall from that window. Control windows were identified (1) from the child's home and (2) from the home of an age- and gender-matched child seeking care for an injury diagnosis not related to a window fall. Study staff visited enrolled homes to collect window measurements and conduct window screen performance tests. The authors enrolled and collected data on 18 case windows, 18 in-home controls, and 14 matched community controls. Six potential community controls were contacted for every one enrolled. Families who completed the home visit viewed study procedures positively. Case windows were more likely than community controls to be horizontal sliders (100% vs 50%), to have deeper sills (6.28 vs 4.31 inches), to be higher above the exterior surface (183 vs 82 inches), and to have screens that failed below a threshold derived from the static pressure of a 3-year-old leaning against the mesh (60.0% vs 16.7%). Case windows varied very little from in-home controls. Case-control methodology can be used to study risk factors for paediatric falls from windows. Recruitment of community controls is challenging but essential, because in-home controls tend to be over-matched on important variables. A home visit allows direct measurement of window type, height, sill depth, and screen performance. These variables should all be investigated in subsequent, larger studies covering major housing markets.

  7. Sound transmission loss of windows on high speed trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yumei; Xiao, Xinbiao; Thompson, David; Squicciarini, Giacomo; Wen, Zefeng; Li, Zhihui; Wu, Yue

    2016-09-01

    The window is one of the main components of the high speed train car body structure through which noise can be transmitted. To study the windows’ acoustic properties, the vibration of one window of a high speed train has been measured for a running speed of 250 km/h. The corresponding interior noise and the noise in the wheel-rail area have been measured simultaneously. The experimental results show that the window vibration velocity has a similar spectral shape to the interior noise. Interior noise source identification further indicates that the window makes a contribution to the interior noise. Improvement of the window's Sound Transmission Loss (STL) can reduce the interior noise from this transmission path. An STL model of the window is built based on wave propagation and modal superposition methods. From the theoretical results, the window's STL property is studied and several factors affecting it are investigated, which provide indications for future low noise design of high speed train windows.

  8. Netscape Communicator 4.5. Volume I: The Basic Functions of the Navigator Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Gail; Wichowski, Chester P.

    This first of two guides on Netscape Communicator 4.5 contains six lessons on the basic functions of the Navigator component. Lesson 1 covers terminology and methods to connect to the World Wide Web, hardware needed, and a Netscape Communicator overview. Lesson 2 introduces the Navigator window, toolbars, and menus, and how to change the default…

  9. NREL Electrochromic Window Research Wins Award

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2017-12-09

    Winners of the CO-LABS Governor's Award for High-Impact Research in Energy Efficiency, Dr. Satyen Deb at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) discovered that a small electrical charge can change the opacity of tungsten oxide from clear to tinted. He, Dr. Dane Gillaspie, and their fellow scientists at NREL then applied this knowledge to develop and transfer the technologies required to construct an electrochromic window, which can switch between clear and heavily tinted states. Electrochromic windows allow natural light in while adding tint to reduce summer heat and glare, and going clear to allow sunlight through in the winter. Broad adaptation of these windows could reduce US total energy use by four percent and reduce building cooling loads by 20%, much of this during expensive peak hours. Windows based on these discoveries are now being installed worldwide.

  10. UV conformal window for asymptotic safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Andrew D.; Litim, Daniel F.; Vazquez, Gustavo Medina; Steudtner, Tom

    2018-02-01

    Interacting fixed points in four-dimensional gauge theories coupled to matter are investigated using perturbation theory up to three loop order. It is shown how fixed points, scaling exponents, and anomalous dimensions are obtained as a systematic power series in a small parameter. The underlying ordering principle is explained and contrasted with conventional perturbation theory and Weyl consistency conditions. We then determine the conformal window with asymptotic safety from the complete next-to-next-to-leading order in perturbation theory. Limits for the conformal window arise due to fixed point mergers, the onset of strong coupling, or vacuum instability. A consistent picture is uncovered by comparing various levels of approximation. The theory remains perturbative in the entire conformal window, with vacuum stability dictating the tightest constraints. We also speculate about a secondary conformal window at strong coupling and estimate its lower limit. Implications for model building and cosmology are indicated.

  11. Computerized tomography magnified bone windows are superior to standard soft tissue windows for accurate measurement of stone size: an in vitro and clinical study.

    PubMed

    Eisner, Brian H; Kambadakone, Avinash; Monga, Manoj; Anderson, James K; Thoreson, Andrew A; Lee, Hang; Dretler, Stephen P; Sahani, Dushyant V

    2009-04-01

    We determined the most accurate method of measuring urinary stones on computerized tomography. For the in vitro portion of the study 24 calculi, including 12 calcium oxalate monohydrate and 12 uric acid stones, that had been previously collected at our clinic were measured manually with hand calipers as the gold standard measurement. The calculi were then embedded into human kidney-sized potatoes and scanned using 64-slice multidetector computerized tomography. Computerized tomography measurements were performed at 4 window settings, including standard soft tissue windows (window width-320 and window length-50), standard bone windows (window width-1120 and window length-300), 5.13x magnified soft tissue windows and 5.13x magnified bone windows. Maximum stone dimensions were recorded. For the in vivo portion of the study 41 patients with distal ureteral stones who underwent noncontrast computerized tomography and subsequently spontaneously passed the stones were analyzed. All analyzed stones were 100% calcium oxalate monohydrate or mixed, calcium based stones. Stones were prospectively collected at the clinic and the largest diameter was measured with digital calipers as the gold standard. This was compared to computerized tomography measurements using 4.0x magnified soft tissue windows and 4.0x magnified bone windows. Statistical comparisons were performed using Pearson's correlation and paired t test. In the in vitro portion of the study the most accurate measurements were obtained using 5.13x magnified bone windows with a mean 0.13 mm difference from caliper measurement (p = 0.6). Measurements performed in the soft tissue window with and without magnification, and in the bone window without magnification were significantly different from hand caliper measurements (mean difference 1.2, 1.9 and 1.4 mm, p = 0.003, <0.001 and 0.0002, respectively). When comparing measurement errors between stones of different composition in vitro, the error for calcium oxalate

  12. Use of reinforced soil foundation (RSF) to support shallow foundation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-11-01

    This research study aims at investigating the potential benefits of using reinforced soil foundations to improve the bearing capacity and reduce the settlement of shallow foundations on soils. To implement this objective, a total of 117 tests, includ...

  13. Use of reinforced soil foundation (RSF) to support shallow foundation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-11-01

    The main objective of this research study is to investigate potential benefits of using the reinforced soil foundations to improve the bearing capacity and to reduce the settlement of shallow foundations on soils. This includes examining influences o...

  14. Probabilistic direct counterfactual quantum communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Sheng

    2017-02-01

    It is striking that the quantum Zeno effect can be used to launch a direct counterfactual communication between two spatially separated parties, Alice and Bob. So far, existing protocols of this type only provide a deterministic counterfactual communication service. However, this counterfactuality should be payed at a price. Firstly, the transmission time is much longer than a classical transmission costs. Secondly, the chained-cycle structure makes them more sensitive to channel noises. Here, we extend the idea of counterfactual communication, and present a probabilistic-counterfactual quantum communication protocol, which is proved to have advantages over the deterministic ones. Moreover, the presented protocol could evolve to a deterministic one solely by adjusting the parameters of the beam splitters. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61300203).

  15. Consensus statement on round window vibroplasty.

    PubMed

    Beltrame, Achille M; Todt, Ingo; Sprinzl, Georg; Profant, Milan; Schwab, Burkhard

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to review current knowledge regarding implantation of the Vibrant Soundbridge floating mass transducer (FMT) at the round window (round window vibroplasty) as well as to form a consensus on steps for a reliable, stable surgical procedure. Review of the literature and experimental observations by the authors. Round window (RW) vibroplasty has been established as a reliable procedure that produces good and stable results for patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss. The experience gained over the past few years of the authors' more than 200 implantations has led to consensus on several key points: (1) a wide and bloodless access to the middle ear with facial nerve monitoring, (2) the careful and correct identification and exposure of the round window membrane, (3) a good setup for efficient energy transition of the FMT, namely, perpendicular placement of the FMT with no contact to bone and the placement of cartilage behind the FMT to create a preloaded "spring" function, and (4) 4 points of FMT fixation: a rim of the round window bony overhang left intact both anterior and posterior to the FMT, conductor link stabilization, and cartilage behind the FMT. In addition, the FMT should be covered with soft tissue. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. ForistomApp a Web application for scientific and technological information management of Forsitom foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra-Duarte, L. A.; Angarita-Jerardino, A.; Ruiz, P. A.; Dulce-Moreno, H. J.; Vera-Rivera, F. H.; V-Niño, E. D.

    2017-12-01

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are essential in the transfer of knowledge, and the Web tools, as part of ICT, are important for institutions seeking greater visibility of the products developed by their researchers. For this reason, we implemented an application that allows the information management of the FORISTOM Foundation (Foundation of Researchers in Science and Technology of Materials). The application shows a detailed description, not only of all its members also of all the scientific production that they carry out, such as technological developments, research projects, articles, presentations, among others. This application can be implemented by other entities committed to the scientific dissemination and transfer of technology and knowledge.

  17. Novel windowing technique realized in FPGA for radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escamilla-Hernandez, E.; Kravchenko, V. F.; Ponomaryov, V. I.; Ikuo, Arai

    2006-02-01

    To improve the weak target detection ability in radar applications a pulse compression is usually used that in the case linear FM modulation can improve the SNR. One drawback in here is that it can add the range side-lobes in reflectivity measurements. Using weighting window processing in time domain it is possible to decrease significantly the side-lobe level (SLL) and resolve small or low power targets those are masked by powerful ones. There are usually used classical windows such as Hamming, Hanning, etc. in window processing. Additionally to classical ones in this paper we also use a novel class of windows based on atomic functions (AF) theory. For comparison of simulation and experimental results we applied the standard parameters, such as coefficient of amplification, maximum level of side-lobe, width of main lobe, etc. To implement the compression-windowing model on hardware level it has been employed FPGA. This work aims at demonstrating a reasonably flexible implementation of FM-linear signal, pulse compression and windowing employing FPGA's. Classical and novel AF window technique has been investigated to reduce the SLL taking into account the noise influence and increasing the detection ability of the small or weak targets in the imaging radar. Paper presents the experimental hardware results of windowing in pulse compression radar resolving several targets for rectangular, Hamming, Kaiser-Bessel, (see manuscript for formula) functions windows. The windows created by use the atomic functions offer sufficiently better decreasing of the SLL in case of noise presence and when we move away of the main lobe in comparison with classical windows.

  18. The Future of Foundations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Lawrence

    1974-01-01

    On account of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 (taxing income of a foundation) foundations have developed more rationale grant-making philosophies, longer term grants, more evaluation of grantees, and greater responsibility on the part of the foundations for grantee survival. (Author/PG)

  19. Large Acrylic Spherical Windows In Hyperbaric Underwater Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lones, Joe J.; Stachiw, Jerry D.

    1983-10-01

    Both acrylic plastic and glass are common materials for hyperbaric optical windows. Although glass continues to be used occasionally for small windows, virtually all large viewports are made of acrylic. It is easy to uderstand the wide use of acrylic when comparing design properties of this plastic with those of glass, and glass windows are relatively more difficult to fabricate and use. in addition there are published guides for the design and fabrication of acrylic windows to be used in the hyperbaric environment of hydrospace. Although these procedures for fabricating the acrylic windows are somewhat involved, the results are extremely reliable. Acrylic viewports are now fabricated to very large sizes for manned observation or optical quality instrumen tation as illustrated by the numerous acrylic submersible vehicle hulls for hu, an occupancy currently in operation and a 3600 large optical window recently developed for the Walt Disney Circle Vision under-water camera housing.

  20. Transparency of 2μ m window of Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rannou, P.; Seignovert, B.; Le Mouélic, S.; Maltagliati, L.; Rey, M.; Sotin, C.

    2018-02-01

    Titan's atmosphere is optically thick and hides the surface and the lower layers from the view at almost all wavelengths. However, because gaseous absorptions are spectrally selective, some narrow spectral intervals are relatively transparent and allow to probe the surface. To use these intervals (called windows) a good knowledge of atmospheric absorption is necessary. Once gas spectroscopic linelists are well established, the absorption inside windows depends on the way the far wings of the methane absorption lines are cut-off. We know that the intensity in all the windows can be explained with the same cut-off parameters, except for the window at 2 μm. This discrepancy is generally treated with a workaround which consists in using a different cut-off description for this specific window. This window is relatively transparent and surface may have specific spectral signatures that could be detected. Thus, a good knowledge of atmosphere opacities is essential and our scope is to better understand what causes the difference between the 2 μm window and the other windows. In this work, we used scattered light at the limb and transmissions in occultation observed with VIMS (Visual Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) onboard Cassini, around the 2 μm window. Data shows an absorption feature that participates to the shape of this window. Our atmospheric model fits well the VIMS data at 2 μm with the same cut-off than for the other windows, provided an additional absorption is introduced in the middle of the window around ≃ 2.065 μm. It explains well the discrepency between the cut-off used at 2 μm, and we show that a gas with a fairly constant mixing ratio, possibly ethane, may be the cause of this absorption. Finally, we studied the impact of this absorption on the retrieval of the surface reflectivity and found that it is significant.

  1. COMSKIL Communication Training in Oncology-Adaptation to German Cancer Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Tim J; Kissane, David; Mehnert, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Medical communication is a skill which can be learned and taught and which can substantially improve treatment outcomes, especially if patients' communication preferences are taken into account. Here, we give an overview of communication training research and outline the COMSKIL program as a state-of-the-art communication skills training in oncology. COMSKIL has a solid theoretical foundation and teaches core elements of medical communication in up to ten fully operationalized modules. These address typical situations ranging from breaking bad news to responding to difficult emotions, shared decision-making, and communicating via interpreters.

  2. Multilayered microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus for packaging of microelectronic devices is disclosed, wherein the package includes an integral window. The microelectronic device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can comprise, for example, a cofired ceramic frame or body. The package has an internal stepped structure made of a plurality of plates, with apertures, which are patterned with metallized conductive circuit traces. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded on the plate to these traces, and oriented so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A cover lid can be attached to the opposite side of the package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, having an integral window that can be hermetically-sealed. The package body can be formed by low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the window being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. Multiple chips can be located within a single package, according to some embodiments. The cover lid can include a window. The apparatus is particularly suited for packaging of MEMS devices, since the number of handling steps is greatly reduced, thereby reducing the potential for contamination. The integral window can further include a lens for optically transforming light passing through the window. The package can include an array of binary optic lenslets made integral with the window. The package can include an electrically-switched optical modulator, such as a lithium niobate window attached to the package, for providing a very fast electrically-operated shutter.

  3. Weibull Analysis and Area Scaling for Infrared Window Materials (U)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    the strength of a window scales inversely with the size of the window. This report was reviewed for technical accuracy by Howard Poisl, Thomas M...strength of a window scales inversely with the size of the window. Test data are given for aluminum oxynitride (ALON), calcium fluoride, chemical vapor...failure of an optical window in the absence of slow crack growth. This report illustrates how the strength of a window scales inversely with the size of

  4. Buyers Guide: Communications Software--Overview; Ratings Digest; Reviews; Benchmarks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Russ; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Contains articles which review communications software. Includes "Crosstalk Mark 4,""ProComm,""Freeway Advanced,""Windows InTalk,""Relay Silver," and "Smartcom III." Compares in terms of text proprietary, MCI upload, Test ASCII, Spreadsheet Proprietary, Text XMODEM, Spreadsheet XMODEM, MCI Download, Documentation, Support and Service, ease of use,…

  5. Mind the Gap: Summary of Window Residential Retrofit Solutions

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Petersen, Joseph M.; Cort, Katherine A.; Widder, Sarah H.

    Improving the insulation, solar heat gain, and infiltration characteristics of windows in a home has the potential to significantly improve the overall thermal performance by reducing heat transfer through the window and also by decreasing infiltration of outdoor air into the home. As approximately 43% of existing homes still have single-pane clear windows (~50 million houses) and millions of other homes have only double-pane clear windows (Cort 2013), improving window performance also presents a significant opportunity for energy savings in the residential sector. Today, various energy-saving window retrofit opportunities are available to homeowners, ranging from window coverings and storm panelsmore » to highly-insulating triple-pane R-5 window replacements. Many of these technologies have been evaluated in the field, in the “Lab Homes” at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and through modeling to prove their cost-effectiveness and performance in different climate regions. Recently, the Pacific Northwest’s Regional Technical Forum approved a utility measure for low- emissivity storm windows based on such data. This action represents a watershed moment for increasing the variety and prevalence of fenestration options in utility programs, especially for the low-income demographic. This paper will review various window retrofit options, the most recent field test and modeling data regarding their performance and cost-effectiveness, and discuss future rating efforts. This information is useful for utilities and energy-efficiency program managers to help effectively implement incentive measures for these technologies.« less

  6. The rarefaction wave propagation in transparent windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glam, B.; Porat, E.; Horovitz, Y.; Yosef-Hai, A.

    2017-01-01

    The radial (lateral) rarefaction wave velocity of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and Lithium Fluoride (LiF) windows were studied by plate impact experiments that were carried out at Soreq NRC up to a pressure of 146 kbar in the PMMA and 334 kbar in the LiF. The windows were glued to Lead targets that were impacted by a copper impactor. The VISAR measurement was done in the window interface with the target. This information was utilized to identify the radial rarefaction arrival time at the center of different diameter windows after the shock event, and served as a measurement to the radial wave velocity in the shocked material. It was found that for both windows, LiF or PMMA, the measured radial wave velocity increases with the pressure. Furthermore, this velocity is significantly higher compared to the expected longitudinal sound velocity at the same pressure, calculated by the Steinberg EOS in the PMMA and by ab initio calculation in the LiF. Here we present the experimental results and a comparison with analytical calculation of the sound velocity using the Steinberg EOS.

  7. Bispectral analysis: comparison of two windowing functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvagni, D.; Djerroud, C.; Réveillé, T.; Gravier, E.

    2018-02-01

    Amongst all the normalized forms of bispectrum, the bicoherence is shown to be a very useful diagnostic tool in experimental studies of nonlinear wave interactions in plasma, as it measures the fraction of wave power due to the quadratic wave coupling in a self-excited fluctuation spectrum [1, 2]. In order to avoid spectral leakage, the application of a windowing function is needed during the bicoherence computation. Spectral leakage from statistically dependent components are of crucial importance in the discrimination between coupled and uncoupled modes, as they will introduce in the bicoherence spectrum phase-coupled modes which in reality do not exist. Therefore, the windowing function plays a key role in the bicoherence estimation. In this paper, two windowing methods are compared: the multiplication of the initial signal by the Hanning function and the subtraction of the straight line which links the two extremities of the signal. The influence of these two windowing methods on both the power spectrum and the bicoherence spectrum is showed. Although both methods give precise results, the Hanning function appears to be the more suitable window.

  8. Collaborative Communication in Pediatric Palliative Care: A Foundation for Problem-Solving and Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Feudtner, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Summary In an ideal world, all of us – patients, parents, family members, nurses, physicians, social workers, therapists, pastoral care workers, and others – would always work together in a collaborative manner to provide the best care possible to the patient: this article is committed to this ideal. The chapter will base the frameworks and suggestions in part upon studies of communication between patients, families, and clinicians, as well as more general works on communication, collaboration, decision-making, mediation, and ethics. This article unfolds in four parts. In Part I, we will explore what we mean by collaborative communication. In Part II, we will examine key concepts that influence how we frame the situations that children with life-threatening conditions confront and how these frameworks shape the care we provide. In Part III, we will consider a few general topics that are quite important to the task of collaborative communication, specifically how we use little “habits of thought”– called heuristics – when we set about to solve complicated problems; how emotion affects the exchange of information between people; and how we can avoid certain pitfalls when engaging in difficult conversations. In Part IV, we will proceed through three common tasks of collaborative communication offering practical advice for patient care. PMID:17933613

  9. Three-dimensional laser window formation for industrial application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.; Kowalski, David

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a unique process for forming flawless three-dimensional, compound-curvature laser windows to extreme accuracies. These windows represent an integral component of specialized nonintrusive laser data acquisition systems that are used in a variety of compressor and turbine research testing facilities. These windows are molded to the flow surface profile of turbine and compressor casings and are required to withstand extremely high pressures and temperatures. This method of glass formation could also be used to form compound-curvature mirrors that would require little polishing and for a variety of industrial applications, including research view ports for testing devices and view ports for factory machines with compound-curvature casings. Currently, sodium-alumino-silicate glass is recommended for three-dimensional laser windows because of its high strength due to chemical strengthening and its optical clarity. This paper discusses the main aspects of three-dimensional laser window formation. It focuses on the unique methodology and the peculiarities that are associated with the formation of these windows.

  10. Vacuum chamber with a supersonic flow aerodynamic window

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, Clark L.

    1982-01-01

    A supersonic flow aerodynamic window, whereby a steam ejector situated in a primary chamber at vacuum exhausts superheated steam toward an orifice to a region of higher pressure, creating a barrier to the gas in the region of higher pressure which attempts to enter through the orifice. In a mixing chamber outside and in fluid communication with the primary chamber, superheated steam and gas are combined into a mixture which then enters the primary chamber through the orifice. At the point of impact of the ejector/superheated steam and the incoming gas/superheated steam mixture, a barrier is created to the gas attempting to enter the ejector chamber. This barrier, coupled with suitable vacuum pumping means and cooling means, serves to keep the steam ejector and primary chamber at a negative pressure, even though the primary chamber has an orifice to a region of higher pressure.

  11. Vacuum chamber with a supersonic-flow aerodynamic window

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, C.L.

    1980-10-14

    A supersonic flow aerodynamic window is disclosed whereby a steam ejector situated in a primary chamber at vacuum exhausts superheated steam toward an orifice to a region of higher pressure, creating a barrier to the gas in the region of higher pressure which attempts to enter through the orifice. In a mixing chamber outside and in fluid communication with the primary chamber, superheated steam and gas are combined into a mixture which then enters the primary chamber through the orifice. At the point of impact of the ejector/superheated steam and the incoming gas/superheated steam mixture, a barrier is created to the gas attempting to enter the ejector chamber. This barrier, coupled with suitable vacuum pumping means and cooling means, serves to keep the steam ejector and primary chamber at a negative pressure, even though the primary chamber has an orifice to a region of higher pressure.

  12. Design of the beryllium window for Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nayak, S.; Mapes, M.; Raparia, D.

    2015-11-01

    In the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) beam line, there were two Beryllium (Be) windows with an air gap to separate the high vacuum upstream side from low vacuum downstream side. There had been frequent window failures in the past which affected the machine productivity and increased the radiation dose received by workers due to unplanned maintenance. To improve the window life, design of Be window is reexamined. Detailed structural and thermal simulations are carried out on Be window for different design parameters and loading conditions to come up with better design to improve the window life. The new designmore » removed the air gap and connect the both beam lines with a Be window in-between. The new design has multiple advantages such as 1) reduces the beam energy loss (because of one window with no air gap), 2) reduces air activation due to nuclear radiation and 3) increased the machine reliability as there is no direct pressure load during operation. For quick replacement of this window, an aluminum bellow coupled with load binder was designed. There hasn’t been a single window failure since the new design was implemented in 2012.« less

  13. Cultivating Foundation Support for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Mary Kay, Ed.

    The process of acquiring financial support from private foundations is discussed in 26 essays, divided into five categories (Targeting the Foundation Market; Getting Started: Tools of the Trade; The Process of Foundation Fund Raising; The Grant Maker's Perspective; and Focused Programs and Foundation Support). A prologue, "Ethics and Foundation…

  14. Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) powered electrochromic window

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Crandall, Richard S.; Deb, Satyendra K.; Stone, Jack L.

    1995-01-01

    A variable transmittance double pane window includes an electrochromic material that has been deposited on one pane of the window in conjunction with an array of photovoltaic cells deposited along an edge of the pane to produce the required electric power necessary to vary the effective transmittance of the window. A battery is placed in a parallel fashion to the array of photovoltaic cells to allow the user the ability to manually override the system when a desired transmittance is desired.

  15. Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) powered electrochromic window

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Crandall, R.S.; Deb, S.K.; Stone, J.L.

    1995-01-24

    A variable transmittance double pane window includes an electrochromic material that has been deposited on one pane of the window in conjunction with an array of photovoltaic cells deposited along an edge of the pane to produce the required electric power necessary to vary the effective transmittance of the window. A battery is placed in a parallel fashion to the array of photovoltaic cells to allow the user the ability to manually override the system when a desired transmittance is desired. 11 figures.

  16. Development of Multispectral Sandwich-Type IR Windows.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-04-01

    Coatings 52 4.4 Thermophyslcal Properties 59 4.5 Mechanical Properties 62 4.5.1 Hardness and Strength of Window Components ... 62 4.5.2 Bond...AR coating ) 51 36 Transmittance vs. wavelength for a 0.050 in. thick CVD ZnS plate (No AR coating ) 53 37 Transmittance of a ZnS/ZnSe composite...compared to 67% calculated for the ZnSe window alone. As described below, anti -reflection coatings deposited onto the composite window will further enhance

  17. Window Performance in Extreme Cold,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    outdoor temperatures ranging between -40 and 20*F Alaska that have undergone an extensive window re- as shown in Table 2. We made these observations in...good predictor of when We made icing and condensation observations over moisture or ice would occur on a window pane. the temperature spectrum shown...tions were made during the daytime, it was often likely sashes or frames, and 4) vapor-loose indoor sashes that ATIo at the time of observation would

  18. Nonuniform Effects of Reinstatement within the Time Window

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galluccio, Llissa; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    A time window is a limited period after an event initially occurs in which additional information can be integrated with the memory of that event. It shuts when the memory is forgotten. The time window hypothesis holds that the impact of a manipulation at different points within the time window is nonuniform. In two operant conditioning…

  19. Intelligent Propulsion System Foundation Technology: Summary of Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, James C.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this cooperative agreement was to develop a foundation of intelligent propulsion technologies for NASA and industry that will have an impact on safety, noise, emissions and cost. These intelligent engine technologies included sensors, electronics, communications, control logic, actuators, and smart materials and structures. Furthermore this cooperative agreement helped prepare future graduates to develop the revolutionary intelligent propulsion technologies that will be needed to ensure pre-eminence of the U.S. aerospace industry. The program consisted of three primary research areas (and associated work elements at Ohio universities): 1.0 Turbine Engine Prognostics, 2.0 Active Controls for Emissions and Noise Reduction, and 3.0 Active Structural Controls.

  20. Windows Program For Driving The TDU-850 Printer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Brett T.

    1995-01-01

    Program provides WYSIWYG compatibility between video display and printout. PDW is Microsoft Windows printer-driver computer program for use with Raytheon TDU-850 printer. Provides previously unavailable linkage between printer and IBM PC-compatible computers running Microsoft Windows. Enhances capabilities of Raytheon TDU-850 hardcopier by emulating all textual and graphical features normally supported by laser/ink-jet printers and makes printer compatible with any Microsoft Windows application. Also provides capabilities not found in laser/ink-jet printer drivers by providing certain Windows applications with ability to render high quality, true gray-scale photographic hardcopy on TDU-850. Written in C language.

  1. Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles

    DOEpatents

    Logan, Clinton M.

    1996-01-01

    A window that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 .mu.m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons.

  2. Data in support of energy performance of double-glazed windows.

    PubMed

    Shakouri, Mahmoud; Banihashemi, Saeed

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides the data used in a research project to propose a new simplified windows rating system based on saved annual energy ("Developing an empirical predictive energy-rating model for windows by using Artificial Neural Network" (Shakouri Hassanabadi and Banihashemi Namini, 2012) [1], "Climatic, parametric and non-parametric analysis of energy performance of double-glazed windows in different climates" (Banihashemi et al., 2015) [2]). A full factorial simulation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of 26 different types of windows in a four-story residential building. In order to generalize the results, the selected windows were tested in four climates of cold, tropical, temperate, and hot and arid; and four different main orientations of North, West, South and East. The accompanied datasets include the annual saved cooling and heating energy in different climates and orientations by using the selected windows. Moreover, a complete dataset is provided that includes the specifications of 26 windows, climate data, month, and orientation of the window. This dataset can be used to make predictive models for energy efficiency assessment of double glazed windows.

  3. Hilbert's 'Foundations of Physics': Gravitation and electromagnetism within the axiomatic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brading, K. A.; Ryckman, T. A.

    2008-01-01

    In November and December 1915, Hilbert presented two communications to the Göttingen Academy of Sciences under the common title 'The Foundations of Physics'. Versions of each eventually appeared in the Nachrichten of the Academy. Hilbert's first communication has received significant reconsideration in recent years, following the discovery of printer's proofs of this paper, dated 6 December 1915. The focus has been primarily on the 'priority dispute' over the Einstein field equations. Our contention, in contrast, is that the discovery of the December proofs makes it possible to see the thematic linkage between the material that Hilbert cut from the published version of the first communication and the content of the second, as published in 1917. The latter has been largely either disregarded or misinterpreted, and our aim is to show that (a) Hilbert's two communications should be regarded as part of a wider research program within the overarching framework of 'the axiomatic method' (as Hilbert expressly stated was the case), and (b) the second communication is a fine and coherent piece of work within this framework, whose principal aim is to address an apparent tension between general invariance and causality (in the precise sense of Cauchy determination), pinpointed in Theorem I of the first communication. This is not the same problem as that found in Einstein's 'hole argument'-something that, we argue, never confused Hilbert.

  4. Exclusion of particulate allergens by window air conditioners.

    PubMed

    Solomon, W R; Burge, H A; Boise, J R

    1980-04-01

    Effects of window air-conditioner operation on intramural particle levels were assessed in the bedrooms of 20 homes and in 10 outpatient clinic examining rooms during late summer periods. At each site, pollen and spore collections in the mechanically cooled room and a normally ventilated counterpart were compared using volumetric impactors. Substantially lower particle recoveries (median = 16/m3) were found in air-conditioned rooms than in those with open windows alone (median = 253 particles/m3). Furthermore, substantial exclusion of small (e.g., Ganoderma spores) as well as large (ragweed pollens) aerosol components were found by window units. Control studies within normally ventilated rooms and outside their open windows showed a marked but variable inward flux of particles. Window units appear to substantially reduce indoor allergan levels by maintaining the isolation of enclosed spaces from particle-bearing outdoor air.

  5. Designing communication and remote controlling of virtual instrument network system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Lin; Wang, Houjun; Zhou, Xue; Zhou, Wenjian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a virtual instrument network through the LAN and finally remote control of virtual instruments is realized based on virtual instrument and LabWindows/CVI software platform. The virtual instrument network system is made up of three subsystems. There are server subsystem, telnet client subsystem and local instrument control subsystem. This paper introduced virtual instrument network structure in detail based on LabWindows. Application procedure design of virtual instrument network communication, the Client/the programming mode of the server, remote PC and server communication far realizing, the control power of the workstation is transmitted, server program and so on essential technical were introduced. And virtual instruments network may connect to entire Internet on. Above-mentioned technology, through measuring the application in the electronic measurement virtual instrument network that is already built up, has verified the actual using value of the technology. Experiment and application validate that this design is resultful.

  6. [The effect of a scenario-based simulation communication course on improving the communication skills of nurses].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Hsuan; Hsieh, Suh-Ing; Hsu, Li-Ling

    2014-04-01

    Limited disease knowledge is frequently the cause of disease-related anxiety in myocardial infarction patients. The ability to communicate effectively serves multiple purposes in the professional nursing practice. By communicating effectively with myocardial infarction patients, nurses may help reduce their anxiety by keeping them well informed about their disease and teaching them self-care strategies. This research evaluates the communication skills of nurses following scenario-based simulation education in the context of communication with myocardial infarction patients. This study used an experimental design and an educational intervention. The target population comprised nurses of medicine (clinical qualified level N to N2 for nursing) working at a municipal hospital in Taipei City, Taiwan. A total 122 participants were enrolled. Stratified block randomization divided participants into an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group received clinical scenario-based simulation education for communication. The control group received traditional class-based education for communication. Both groups received a pre-test and a Communication Skills Checklist post-test assessment. Results were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 for Windows software. A t-test showed significant increases in communication skills (p < .001) in the experimental group and ANCOVA results identified significant between-group differences (p < .001) in communication skills following the education intervention. The results indicate that clinical scenario-based simulation education for communication is significantly more effective than traditional class-based education in enhancing the ability of nurses to communicate effectively with myocardial infarction patients.

  7. Forward the Foundation: Local Education Foundations Offer an Alternative Source for School Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Young, Susan

    2007-01-01

    February's column "Going Corporate" discussed ideas for approaching private foundations for funding. Some districts take this idea several steps further by partnering with the community and local businesses to establish a not-for-profit foundation, or local education foundation (LEF). It probably comes as no surprise that the idea of forming a LEF…

  8. No Special Equipment Required: The Accessibility Features Built into the Windows and Macintosh Operating Systems make Computers Accessible for Students with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball,Walter H.; Cohen,Libby G.; Dimmick,Deb; Mills,Rick

    2003-01-01

    The proliferation of computers and other electronic learning devices has made knowledge and communication accessible to people with a wide range of abilities. Both Windows and Macintosh computers have accessibility options to help with many different special needs. This documents discusses solutions for: (1) visual impairments; (2) hearing…

  9. Hypersonic Flight Test Windows for Technology Development Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    used. 2.1 Propulsion and Controls Test Window The technologies dealing with scramjet propulsion (inlets, fuel injection, etc.) and hypersonic ...AFRL-RQ-WP-TM-2013-0260 HYPERSONIC FLIGHT TEST WINDOWS FOR TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT TESTING Barry M. Hellman Vehicle Technology Branch...DATES COVERED (From - To) November 2013 Final 01 November 2013 – 25 November 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HYPERSONIC FLIGHT TEST WINDOWS FOR

  10. Can Innate, modular "foundations" explain morality? Challenges for Haidt's Moral Foundations Theory.

    PubMed

    Suhler, Christopher L; Churchland, Patricia

    2011-09-01

    Jonathan Haidt's Moral Foundations Theory is an influential scientific account of morality incorporating psychological, developmental, and evolutionary perspectives. The theory proposes that morality is built upon five innate "foundations," each of which is believed to have been selected for during human evolution and, subsequently, tuned-up by learning during development. We argue here that although some general elements of Haidt's theory are plausible, many other important aspects of his account are seriously flawed. First, innateness and modularity figure centrally in Haidt's account, but terminological and conceptual problems foster confusion and ambiguities. Second, both the theory's proposed number of moral foundations and its taxonomy of the moral domain appear contrived, ignoring equally good candidate foundations and the possibility of substantial intergroup differences in the foundations' contents. Third, the mechanisms (viz., modules) and categorical distinctions (viz., between foundations) proposed by the theory are not consilient with discoveries in contemporary neuroscience concerning the organization, functioning, and development of the brain. In light of these difficulties, we suggest that Haidt's theory is inadequate as a scientific account of morality. Nevertheless, the theory's weaknesses are instructive, and hence, criticism may be useful to psychologists, neuroscientists, and philosophers attempting to advance theories of morality, as well as to researchers wishing to invoke concepts such as innateness and modularity more generally.

  11. Graphene Reinforced Glassy Carbon (GRGC) Beam Windows

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Renomeron, Lynda L.

    Secondary particle beams require beam windows that isolate the target (usually in air) from the primary particle beam vacuum. Advanced beam window solutions are needed that can withstand anticipated increases in beam power and intensity that will result in higher thermal shock on the window and increased oxidative erosion rates on the air-side caused by increased temperatures. Carbon-based windows, in particular, glassy carbon windows are of interest to minimize interaction with the beam. The attractive properties of glassy carbon are: 1. Low atomic number 2. Low thermal expansion 3. High strength and low Young's modulus 4. Low gas permeability andmore » low outgassing for ultrahigh vacuum use The one liability of glassy carbon is its low thermal conductivity, nominally 5 W/mK, which will exacerbate temperature rise, oxidation, and thermal shock concerns as beam powers increase. TA&T proposes the development of graphene reinforced glassy carbon (GRGC) composites to increase the thermal conductivity and address this Achilles heel of glassy carbon. Graphene as a reinforcing phase has shown the capability to increase the thermal conductivity of the matrix material by up to two orders of magnitude. For beam windows this would substantially increase heat spreading away from the beam zone of the window and improve thermal shock resistance, and reduce maximum temperature and air-side oxidation of the window. Increased thermal conductivity would also improve the effectiveness of edge-cooling schemes to minimize temperature increase. In the Phase I effort, graphene oxide (GO) particles were dispersed into glassy carbon precursor at different content levels and cast into solid shapes. The goal was to determine the effect of graphene concentration on the mechanical properties (flexure strength), and thermal (thermal conductivity). The Phase I results indicated that addition of graphene did have a significant effect on thermal conductivity; however the microstructural

  12. "Broken windows" and the risk of gonorrhea.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, D; Spear, S; Scribner, R; Kissinger, P; Mason, K; Wildgen, J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined the relationships between neighborhood conditions and gonorrhea. METHODS: We assessed 55 block groups by rating housing and street conditions. We mapped all cases of gonorrhea between 1994 and 1996 and calculated aggregated case rates by block group. We obtained public school inspection reports and assigned findings to the block groups served by the neighborhood schools. A "broken windows" index measured housing quality, abandoned cars, graffiti, trash, and public school deterioration. Using data from the 1990 census and 1995 updates, we determined the association between "broken windows," demographic characteristics, and gonorrhea rates. RESULTS: The broken windows index explained more of the variance in gonorrhea rates than did a poverty index measuring income, unemployment, and low education. In high-poverty neighborhoods, block groups with high broken windows scores had significantly higher gonorrhea rates than block groups with low broken windows scores (46.6 per 1000 vs 25.8 per 1000; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The robust association of deteriorated physical conditions of local neighborhoods with gonorrhea rates, independent of poverty, merits an intervention trial to test whether the environment has a causal role in influencing high-risk sexual behaviors. PMID:10667184

  13. Oscillatory integration windows in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nitin; Singh, Swikriti Saran; Stopfer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory synchrony among neurons occurs in many species and brain areas, and has been proposed to help neural circuits process information. One hypothesis states that oscillatory input creates cyclic integration windows: specific times in each oscillatory cycle when postsynaptic neurons become especially responsive to inputs. With paired local field potential (LFP) and intracellular recordings and controlled stimulus manipulations we directly test this idea in the locust olfactory system. We find that inputs arriving in Kenyon cells (KCs) sum most effectively in a preferred window of the oscillation cycle. With a computational model, we show that the non-uniform structure of noise in the membrane potential helps mediate this process. Further experiments performed in vivo demonstrate that integration windows can form in the absence of inhibition and at a broad range of oscillation frequencies. Our results reveal how a fundamental coincidence-detection mechanism in a neural circuit functions to decode temporally organized spiking. PMID:27976720

  14. Single-agent parallel window search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powley, Curt; Korf, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    Parallel window search is applied to single-agent problems by having different processes simultaneously perform iterations of Iterative-Deepening-A(asterisk) (IDA-asterisk) on the same problem but with different cost thresholds. This approach is limited by the time to perform the goal iteration. To overcome this disadvantage, the authors consider node ordering. They discuss how global node ordering by minimum h among nodes with equal f = g + h values can reduce the time complexity of serial IDA-asterisk by reducing the time to perform the iterations prior to the goal iteration. Finally, the two ideas of parallel window search and node ordering are combined to eliminate the weaknesses of each approach while retaining the strengths. The resulting approach, called simply parallel window search, can be used to find a near-optimal solution quickly, improve the solution until it is optimal, and then finally guarantee optimality, depending on the amount of time available.

  15. 45 CFR 681.30 - Are ex parte communications between a party and the ALJ permitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are ex parte communications between a party and... (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Procedures § 681.30 Are ex parte communications between a party and the ALJ permitted? Ex parte communications between...

  16. Communications Transceivers for Venus Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Force, Dale A.

    2004-01-01

    tubes on the surface of Venus. While microwave windows will need to be designed for the high pressure, diamond windows have already been demonstrated, so high-pressure microwave windows can be designed and built. Thus, all of these devices could be useful for Venus surface missions. Current electronic power conditioners to supply the high voltages used in these microwave devices cannot operate at high temperatures, but earlier electronic power conditioners that used vacuum tubes can be modified to work at high temperature. Evaluating the various devices in this study, the M-type traveling wave tube (where a traveling wave structure is used in a crossed-field device, similar to the Amplitron used on the Apollo missions) stood out for the high power amplifier since it requires a single high voltage, simplifying the power supply design. Since the receiver amplifier is a low power amplifier, the loss of efficiency in linear beam devices without a depressed collector (and thus needing a single high voltage) is not important; a low noise TWT is a possible solution. Before solid-state microwave amplifiers were available, such TWTs were built with a 1-2 dB noise figure. A microwave triode or transistor made from a wide bandgap material may be preferable, if available. Much of the development work needed for Venusian communication devices will need to focus on the packaging of the devices, and their connections, but the technology is available to build transceivers that can operate on the surface of Venus indefinitely.

  17. Window classification of brain CT images in biomedical articles.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhiyun; Antani, Sameer; Long, L Rodney; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R

    2012-01-01

    Effective capability to search biomedical articles based on visual properties of article images may significantly augment information retrieval in the future. In this paper, we present a new method to classify the window setting types of brain CT images. Windowing is a technique frequently used in the evaluation of CT scans, and is used to enhance contrast for the particular tissue or abnormality type being evaluated. In particular, it provides radiologists with an enhanced view of certain types of cranial abnormalities, such as the skull lesions and bone dysplasia which are usually examined using the " bone window" setting and illustrated in biomedical articles using "bone window images". Due to the inherent large variations of images among articles, it is important that the proposed method is robust. Our algorithm attained 90% accuracy in classifying images as bone window or non-bone window in a 210 image data set.

  18. Single level microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-12-09

    A package with an integral window for housing a microelectronic device. The integral window is bonded directly to the package without having a separate layer of adhesive material disposed in-between the window and the package. The device can be a semiconductor chip, CCD chip, CMOS chip, VCSEL chip, laser diode, MEMS device, or IMEMS device. The package can be formed of a multilayered LTCC or HTCC cofired ceramic material, with the integral window being simultaneously joined to the package during cofiring. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip interconnected so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A glob-top encapsulant or protective cover can be used to protect the microelectronic device and electrical interconnections. The result is a compact, low profile package having an integral window that is hermetically sealed to the package prior to mounting and interconnecting the microelectronic device.

  19. SNS Proton Beam Window Disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, Irina; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Trotter, Steven

    2017-09-01

    In order to support the disposal of the proton beam window assembly of the Spallation Neutron Source beamline to the target station, waste classification analyses are performed. The window has a limited life-time due to radiation-induced material damage. Analyses include calculation of the radionuclide inventory and shielding analyses for the transport package/container to ensure that the container is compliant with the transportation and waste management regulations. In order to automate this procedure and minimize manual work a script in Perl language was written.

  20. Blue-light digital communication in underwater environments utilizing orbital angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghdady, Joshua; Miller, Keith; Osler, Sean; Morgan, Kaitlyn; Li, Wenzhe; Johnson, Eric; Cochenour, Brandon

    2016-05-01

    Underwater optical communication has recently become the topic of much investigation as the demands for underwater data transmission have rapidly grown in recent years. The need for reliable, high-speed, secure underwater communication has turned increasingly to blue-light optical solutions. The blue-green visible wavelength window provides an attractive solution to the problem of underwater data transmission thanks to its low attenuation, where traditional RF solutions used in free-space communications collapse. Beginning with GaN laser diodes as the optical source, this work explores the encoding and transmission of digital data across underwater environments of varying turbidities. Given the challenges present in an underwater environment, such as the mechanical and optical turbulences that make proper alignment difficult to maintain, it is desirable to achieve extremely high data rates in order to allow the time window of alignment between the transmitter and receiver to be as small as possible. In this paper, work is done to increase underwater data rates through the use of orbital angular momentum. Results are shown for a range of data rates across a variety of channel types ranging in turbidity from that of a clear ocean to a dirty harbor.

  1. Agenda Setting and Mass Communication Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Eugene F.

    The agenda-setting concept in mass communication asserts that the news media determine what people will include or exclude in their cognition of public events. Findings in uses and gratification research provide the foundation for this concept: an initial focus on people's needs, particularly the need for information. The agenda-setting concept…

  2. Deliberative Communication Goes to College: The "Deliberation Forum" Project as a Democratic Agent of Empowerment for Communication Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malka, Vered

    2016-01-01

    A new field of research has developed over the last few decades, called "Deliberative Communication". It focuses on the potential contribution of public deliberations to strengthening the foundations of democracy and the promotion of social-political goals and objectives. The current research focuses on a unique case study, the…

  3. Thermal and Optical Properties of Low-E Storm Windows and Panels

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Culp, Thomas D.; Widder, Sarah H.; Cort, Katherine A.

    Installing low-emissivity (low-E) storm windows and panels over existing windows has been identified as a cost-effective new approach for improving the energy efficiency of existing buildings where window replacement is impractical or too expensive. As such, it is desirable to characterize the key energy performance properties of low-E storm windows and panels when installed over different types of existing primary windows. this paper presents the representative U-factors, solar heat gain coefficients (SGHCs) and visible transmittance properties of the combined assemblies of various storm windows and panel types installed over different primary windows.

  4. Bi-level microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2004-01-06

    A package with an integral window for housing a microelectronic device. The integral window is bonded directly to the package without having a separate layer of adhesive material disposed in-between the window and the package. The device can be a semiconductor chip, CCD chip, CMOS chip, VCSEL chip, laser diode, MEMS device, or IMEMS device. The multilayered package can be formed of a LTCC or HTCC cofired ceramic material, with the integral window being simultaneously joined to the package during LTCC or HTCC processing. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. The package has at least two levels of circuits for making electrical interconnections to a pair of microelectronic devices. The result is a compact, low-profile package having an integral window that is hermetically sealed to the package prior to mounting and interconnecting the microelectronic device(s).

  5. Asay window: A new spall diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCluskey, Craig W.; Wilke, Mark D.; Anderson, William W.; Byers, Mark E.; Holtkamp, David B.; Rigg, Paulo A.; Furnish, Michael D.; Romero, Vincent T.

    2006-11-01

    By changing from the metallic foil of the Asay foil diagnostic, which can detect ejecta from a shocked surface, to a lithium fluoride (LiF) or polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) window, it is possible to detect multiple spall layers and interlayer rubble. Past experiments to demonstrate this diagnostic have used high explosives (HEs) to shock metals to produce multiple spall layers. Because the exact characteristics of HE-induced spall layers cannot be predetermined, two issues exist in the quantitative interpretation of the data. First, to what level of fidelity is the Asay window method capable of providing quantitative information about spall layers, possibly separated by rubble, and second, contingent on the first, can an analytic technique be developed to convert the data to a meaningful description of spall from a given experiment? In this article, we address the first issue. A layered projectile fired from a gas gun was used to test the new diagnostic's accuracy and repeatability. We impacted a LiF or PMMA window viewed by a velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) probe with a projectile consisting of four thin stainless steel disks spaced apart 200μm with either vacuum or polyethylene. The window/surface interface velocity measured with a VISAR probe was compared with calculations. The good agreement observed between the adjusted calculation and the measured data indicates that, in principle and given enough prior information, it is possible to use the Asay window data to model a density distribution from spalled material with simple hydrodynamic models and only simple adjustments to nominal predictions.

  6. Lower HVAC Costs | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov Websites

    system. Smaller HVAC systems cost less and as such can offset some of the cost of the efficient windows dehumidification. First cost savings - Smaller HVAC units cost less. If, for example, down-sizing the HVAC system by half a ton saves $275, the cost premium of energy-efficient windows does not present as big an up

  7. Power in the Classroom V: Behavior Alteration Techniques, Communication Training, and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCroskey, James C.; And Others

    Data gathered from 42 secondary school speech communication teachers and their students formed the foundation for a study that examined the relationship between: (1) differential use of Behavior Alteration Techniques (BATs) by teachers trained or untrained in communication in instruction and (2) learning of students of varying quality levels.…

  8. Rigorous Numerical Study of Low-Period Windows for the Quadratic Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galias, Zbigniew

    An efficient method to find all low-period windows for the quadratic map is proposed. The method is used to obtain very accurate rigorous bounds of positions of all periodic windows with periods p ≤ 32. The contribution of period-doubling windows on the total width of periodic windows is discussed. Properties of periodic windows are studied numerically.

  9. Microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for packaging of microelectronic devices, including an integral window. The microelectronic device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can include a cofired ceramic frame or body. The package can have an internal stepped structure made of one or more plates, with apertures, which are patterned with metallized conductive circuit traces. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded on the plate to these traces, and oriented so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A cover lid can be attached to the opposite side of the package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, having an integral window that can be hermetically-sealed. The package body can be formed by low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the window being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. Multiple chips can be located within a single package. The cover lid can include a window. The apparatus is particularly suited for packaging of MEMS devices, since the number of handling steps is greatly reduced, thereby reducing the potential for contamination.

  10. Rugged sensor window materials for harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayya, Shyam; Villalobos, Guillermo; Kim, Woohong; Sanghera, Jasbinger; Hunt, Michael; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.

    2014-09-01

    There are several military or commercial systems operating in very harsh environments that require rugged windows. On some of these systems, windows become the single point of failure. These applications include sensor or imaging systems, high-energy laser weapons systems, submarine photonic masts, IR countermeasures and missiles. Based on the sea or land or air based platforms the window or dome on these systems must withstand wave slap, underwater or ground based explosions, or survive flight through heavy rain and sand storms while maintaining good optical transmission in the desired wavelength range. Some of these applications still use softer ZnS or fused silica windows because of lack of availability of rugged materials in shapes or sizes required. Sapphire, ALON and spinel are very rugged materials with significantly higher strengths compared to ZnS and fused silica. There have been recent developments in spinel, ALON and sapphire materials to fabricate in large sizes and conformal shapes. We have been developing spinel ceramics for several of these applications. We are also developing β-SiC as a transparent window material as it has higher hardness, strength, and toughness than sapphire, ALON and spinel. This paper gives a summary of our recent findings.

  11. Overview of Fabrication Techniques and Lessons Learned with Accelerator Vacuum Windows

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ader, C. R.; McGee, M. W.; Nobrega, L. E.

    Vacuum thin windows have been used in Fermilab's accelerators for decades and typically have been overlooked in terms of their criticality and fragility. Vacuum windows allow beam to pass through while creating a boundary between vacuum and air or high vacuum and low vacuum areas. The design of vacuum windows, including Titanium and Beryllium windows, will be discussed as well as fabrication, testing, and operational concerns. Failure of windows will be reviewed as well as safety approaches to mitigating failures and extending the lifetimes of vacuum windows. Various methods of calculating the strengths of vacuum windows will be explored, includingmore » FEA.« less

  12. Teaching communication in clinical clerkships: models from the macy initiative in health communications.

    PubMed

    Kalet, Adina; Pugnaire, Michele P; Cole-Kelly, Kathy; Janicik, Regina; Ferrara, Emily; Schwartz, Mark D; Lipkin, Mack; Lazare, Aaron

    2004-06-01

    Medical educators have a responsibility to teach students to communicate effectively, yet ways to accomplish this are not well-defined. Sixty-five percent of medical schools teach communication skills, usually in the preclinical years; however, communication skills learned in the preclinical years may decline by graduation. To address these problems the New York University School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, and the University of Massachusetts Medical School collaborated to develop, establish, and evaluate a comprehensive communication skills curriculum. This work was funded by the Josiah P. Macy, Jr. Foundation and is therefore referred to as the Macy Initiative in Health Communication. The three schools use a variety of methods to teach third-year students in each school a set of effective clinical communication skills. In a controlled trial this cross-institutional curriculum project proved effective in improving communication skills of third-year students as measured by a comprehensive, multistation, objective structured clinical examination. In this paper the authors describe the development of this unique, collaborative initiative. Grounded in a three-school consensus on the core skills and critical components of a communication skills curriculum, this article illustrates how each school tailored the curriculum to its own needs. In addition, the authors discuss the lessons learned from conducting this collaborative project, which may provide guidance to others seeking to establish effective cross-disciplinary skills curricula.

  13. An Attosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy Setup with a Water Window Attosecond source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, Andrew; Yin, Yanchun; Li, Jie; Ren, Xiaoming; Wang, Yang; Wu, Yi; Chang, Zenghu

    2017-04-01

    Attosecond transient absorption, or time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy, are excellent tools that can be used to investigate fast electron dynamics for a given atomic or molecular system. Recent push for high energy long wavelength few cycle laser sources has resulted in the production of x-ray spectra that would allow the probing of electron dynamics at the carbon k-edge in molecules such as CH4 and CO2. The motion of charges can be caused by photo-dissociation and charge migration. We present here the first results from our experimental setup where we produce a broadband attosecond pulse with spectra that stretches into the water window. National Science Foundation (1068604), Army Research Oce (W911NF-14-1-0383), Air Force Oce of Scientic Research (FA9550-15-1-0037, FA9550-16-1-0013) and the DARPA PULSE program by a Grant from AMRDEC (W31P4Q1310017).

  14. Development of a graphical user interface for the global land information system (GLIS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alstad, Susan R.; Jackson, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The process of developing a Motif Graphical User Interface for the Global Land Information System (GLIS) involved incorporating user requirements, in-house visual and functional design requirements, and Open Software Foundation (OSF) Motif style guide standards. Motif user interface windows have been developed using the software to support Motif window functions war written using the C programming language. The GLIS architecture was modified to support multiple servers and remote handlers running the X Window System by forming a network of servers and handlers connected by TCP/IP communications. In April 1993, prior to release the GLIS graphical user interface and system architecture modifications were test by developers and users located at the EROS Data Center and 11 beta test sites across the country.

  15. Project on Application of Modern Communication Technologies to Educational Networking. Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Robert P.; Eastwood, Lester F., Jr.

    Research on this National Science Foundation grant to study the application of modern communications technology to educational networking was divided into three parts: assessment of the role of technology in non-traditional post-secondary education; assessment of communications technologies and educational services of current or potential future…

  16. THERM 5 / WINDOW 5 NFRC simulation manual

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mitchell, Robin; Kohler, Christian; Arasteh, Dariush

    This document, the ''THERM 5/WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual', discusses how to use the THERM and WINDOW programs to model products for NFRC certified simulations and assumes that the user is already familiar with those programs. In order to learn how to use these programs, it is necessary to become familiar with the material in both the ''THERM User's Manual'' and the ''WINDOW User's Manual''. In general, this manual references the User's Manuals rather than repeating the information. If there is a conflict between either of the User Manual and this ''THERM 5/''WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'', the ''THERM 5/WINDOWmore » 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'' takes precedence. In addition, if this manual is in conflict with any NFRC standards, the standards take precedence. For example, if samples in this manual do not follow the current taping and testing NFRC standards, the standards not the samples in this manual, take precedence.« less

  17. Nonlinear Schrödinger equation in foundations: summary of 4 catches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diósi, Lajos

    2016-03-01

    Fundamental modifications of the standard Schrödinger equation by additional nonlinear terms have been considered for various purposes over the recent decades. It came as a surprise when, inverting Abner Shimonyi's observation of “peaceful coexistence” between standard quantum mechanics and relativity, N. Gisin proved in 1990 that any (deterministic) nonlinear Schrödinger equation would allow for superluminal communication. This is by now the most spectacular and best known anomaly. We discuss further anomalies, simple but foundational, less spectacular but not less dramatic.

  18. Due-Window Assignment Scheduling with Variable Job Processing Times

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Bin

    2015-01-01

    We consider a common due-window assignment scheduling problem jobs with variable job processing times on a single machine, where the processing time of a job is a function of its position in a sequence (i.e., learning effect) or its starting time (i.e., deteriorating effect). The problem is to determine the optimal due-windows, and the processing sequence simultaneously to minimize a cost function includes earliness, tardiness, the window location, window size, and weighted number of tardy jobs. We prove that the problem can be solved in polynomial time. PMID:25918745

  19. Use of reinforced soil foundation (RSF) to support shallow foundation : summary report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-05-01

    This research study investigates the potential benefits of using reinforced soil foundations to improve the bearing capacity and reduce the settlement of shallow foundations on soils. To implement this objective, a total of 117 tests, including 38 la...

  20. 26 CFR 31.3406(b)(2)-3 - Window transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Window transactions. 31.3406(b)(2)-3 Section 31... SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(b)(2)-3 Window transactions. (a) Requirement to backup withhold. Withholding under section 3406 applies to a window transaction (as defined in paragraph...

  1. Defining the flexibility window in ordered aluminosilicate zeolites

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Stephen A.; Leung, Ka Ming; Edwards, Peter P.; Tucker, Matt G.

    2017-01-01

    The flexibility window in zeolites was originally identified using geometric simulation as a hypothetical property of SiO2 systems. The existence of the flexibility window in hypothetical structures may help us to identify those we might be able to synthesize in the future. We have previously found that the flexibility window in silicates is connected to phase transitions under pressure, structure amorphization and other physical behaviours and phenomena. We here extend the concept to ordered aluminosilicate systems using softer ‘bar’ constraints that permit additional flexibility around aluminium centres. Our experimental investigation of pressure-induced amorphization in sodalites is consistent with the results of our modelling. The softer constraints allow us to identify a flexibility window in the anomalous case of goosecreekite. PMID:28989777

  2. Noguchi at JPM window during Expedition 22

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-12

    ISS022-E-091518 (12 March 2010) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Soichi Noguchi, Expedition 22 flight engineer, looks through a window in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station. The Japanese robotic Small Fine Arm (SFA), also known as ?Ko-bot?, is visible through the window.

  3. Windows in direct dissociative recombination cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.

    1986-01-01

    Model potential curves are used to show that large windows are present in direct dissociative-recombination cross sections from excited molecular-ion vibrational levels. The windows are due to the overlap of vibrational wave functions of the repulsive neutral states with the nodes of the ion vibrational wave function.

  4. Development and Validation of the Foundational Healthcare Leadership Self-assessment.

    PubMed

    Van Hala, Sonja; Cochella, Susan; Jaggi, Rachel; Frost, Caren J; Kiraly, Bernadette; Pohl, Susan; Gren, Lisa

    2018-04-01

    We sought to develop and validate a self-assessment of foundational leadership skills for early-career physicians. We developed a leadership self-assessment from a compilation of materials on health care leadership skills. A sequential exploratory study was conducted using qualitative and quantitative analysis for face, content, and construct validity of the self-assessment. First, two focus groups were conducted with leaders in medicine and family medicine residents, to refine the pilot self-assessment. The self-assessment pilot was then tested with family medicine residents across the country, and the results were quantitatively evaluated with principal component analysis. This data was used to reduce and group the statements into leadership domains for the final self-assessment. Twenty-two invited family medicine residency programs agreed to distribute the survey. A total of 163 family medicine residents completed the survey, representing 16 to 20 residency programs from 12 states (response rate 28.9% to 34.8%). Analysis showed important differences by residency year, with more advanced residents scoring higher. The analysis reduced the number of items from 33 on the pilot assessment to 21 on the final assessment, which the authors titled the Foundational Healthcare Leadership Self-assessment (FHLS). The 21 items were grouped into five leadership domains: accountability, collaboration, communication, team management, and self-management. The FHLS is a validated 21-item self-assessment of foundational leadership skills for early career physicians. It takes less than 5 minutes to complete, and quantifies skill within five domains of foundational leadership. The FHLS is a first step in developing educational and evaluative assessments for training medical residents as clinician leaders.

  5. Design and comparison of laser windows for high-power lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Yanxiong; Liu, Wenwen; Liu, Haixia; Wang, Caili; Niu, Haisha; Man, Da

    2014-11-01

    High-power laser systems are getting more and more widely used in industry and military affairs. It is necessary to develop a high-power laser system which can operate over long periods of time without appreciable degradation in performance. When a high-energy laser beam transmits through a laser window, it is possible that the permanent damage is caused to the window because of the energy absorption by window materials. So, when we design a high-power laser system, a suitable laser window material must be selected and the laser damage threshold of the window must be known. In this paper, a thermal analysis model of high-power laser window is established, and the relationship between the laser intensity and the thermal-stress field distribution is studied by deducing the formulas through utilizing the integral-transform method. The influence of window radius, thickness and laser intensity on the temperature and stress field distributions is analyzed. Then, the performance of K9 glass and the fused silica glass is compared, and the laser-induced damage mechanism is analyzed. Finally, the damage thresholds of laser windows are calculated. The results show that compared with K9 glass, the fused silica glass has a higher damage threshold due to its good thermodynamic properties. The presented theoretical analysis and simulation results are helpful for the design and selection of high-power laser windows.

  6. The role of foundations: Rockefeller Foundation.

    PubMed

    Rockefeller, David

    The consequences of climate change and the impacts of human activity on the environment have made it clearer than ever before that we must evolve our current model of public health to better account for the inextricable link between human health and the natural systems on which it depends-creating a "public health 2.0" that builds on the innovations of the twentieth century to account for a world where humans have bypassed planetary boundaries to achieve well-being. First coined at the Rockefeller Foundation's Centennial gathering in Beijing in 2013, "Planetary Health" will factor in future health and environmental harms over present-day gains, particularly those that disproportionately affect the poor and those in developing nations. To build this new field, foundations must address the challenge of information, increasing support for research to bridge knowledge gaps on the links between economic development, natural systems, and human health.

  7. Centroid measurement error of CMOS detector in the presence of detector noise for inter-satellite optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Zhou, Shihong; Ma, Jing; Tan, Liying; Shen, Tao

    2013-08-01

    CMOS is a good candidate tracking detector for satellite optical communications systems with outstanding feature of sub-window for the development of APS (Active Pixel Sensor) technology. For inter-satellite optical communications it is critical to estimate the direction of incident laser beam precisely by measuring the centroid position of incident beam spot. The presence of detector noise results in measurement error, which degrades the tracking performance of systems. In this research, the measurement error of CMOS is derived taking consideration of detector noise. It is shown that the measurement error depends on pixel noise, size of the tracking sub-window (pixels number), intensity of incident laser beam, relative size of beam spot. The influences of these factors are analyzed by numerical simulation. We hope the results obtained in this research will be helpful in the design of CMOS detector satellite optical communications systems.

  8. Adaptive Window Zero-Crossing-Based Instantaneous Frequency Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekhar, S. Chandra; Sreenivas, TV

    2004-12-01

    We address the problem of estimating instantaneous frequency (IF) of a real-valued constant amplitude time-varying sinusoid. Estimation of polynomial IF is formulated using the zero-crossings of the signal. We propose an algorithm to estimate nonpolynomial IF by local approximation using a low-order polynomial, over a short segment of the signal. This involves the choice of window length to minimize the mean square error (MSE). The optimal window length found by directly minimizing the MSE is a function of the higher-order derivatives of the IF which are not available a priori. However, an optimum solution is formulated using an adaptive window technique based on the concept of intersection of confidence intervals. The adaptive algorithm enables minimum MSE-IF (MMSE-IF) estimation without requiring a priori information about the IF. Simulation results show that the adaptive window zero-crossing-based IF estimation method is superior to fixed window methods and is also better than adaptive spectrogram and adaptive Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD)-based IF estimators for different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

  9. Window decompression in laser-heated MagLIF targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodbury, Daniel; Peterson, Kyle; Sefkow, Adam

    2015-11-01

    The Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) concept requires pre-magnetized fuel to be pre-heated with a laser before undergoing compression by a thick solid liner. Recent experiments and simulations suggest that yield has been limited to date by poor laser preheat and laser-induced mix in the fuel region. In order to assess laser energy transmission through the pressure-holding window, as well as resultant mix, we modeled window disassembly under different conditions using 1D and 2D simulations in both Helios and HYDRA. We present results tracking energy absorption, time needed for decompression, risk of laser-plasma interaction (LPI) that may scatter laser light, and potential for mix from various window thicknesses, laser spot sizes and gas fill densities. These results indicate that using thinner windows (0.5-1 μm windows) and relatively large laser spot radii (600 μm and above) can avoid deleterious effects and improve coupling with the fuel. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the National Nuclear Security Administration under DE-AC04- 94AL85000.

  10. Commander Truly on aft flight deck holding communication kit assembly (ASSY)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-09-05

    STS008-04-106 (30 Aug-5 Sept 1983) --- On aft flight deck, Richard M. Truly, STS-8 commander, holds communication kit assembly (ASSY) headset (HDST) interface unit (HIU) and mini-HDST in front of the on orbit station. Hasselblad camera is positioned on overhead window W8.

  11. Mouse Driven Window Graphics for Network Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makinson, G. J.; And Others

    Computer enhanced teaching of computational mathematics on a network system driving graphics terminals is being redeveloped for a mouse-driven, high resolution, windowed environment of a UNIX work station. Preservation of the features of networked access by heterogeneous terminals is provided by the use of the X Window environment. A dmonstrator…

  12. But…What about My Epistemological Foundations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curin, Raquel Isabel Barrera

    2015-01-01

    At one time or another, all researchers in mathematics education must face the rather complex question of their epistemological foundations. Discussing epistemological foundations naturally leads to a conversation about theories. Theories and epistemological foundations work in a circular fashion: theories can have epistemological foundations and…

  13. 30 CFR 18.66 - Tests of windows and lenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests of windows and lenses. 18.66 Section 18... Tests § 18.66 Tests of windows and lenses. (a) Impact tests. A 4-pound cylindrical weight with a 1-inch-diameter hemispherical striking surface shall be dropped (free fall) to strike the window or lens in its...

  14. Extended Horizon Liftings for Periodic Gain Adjustments in Control Systems, and for Equalization of Communication Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Periodic gain adjustment in plants of irreducible order, n, or for equalization of communications channels is effected in such a way that the plant (system) appears to be minimum phase by choosing a horizon time N greater then n of liftings in periodic input and output windows Pu and Py, respectively, where N is an integer chosen to define the extent (length) of each of the windows Pu and Py, and n is the order of an irreducible input/output plant. The plant may be an electrical, mechanical or chemical system, in which case output tracking (OT) is carried out for feedback control or a communication channel, in which case input tracking (IT) is carried out. Conditions for OT are distinct from IT in terms of zero annihilation, namely for OT and of IT, where the OT conditions are intended for gain adjustments in the control system, and IT conditions are intended for equalization for communication channels.

  15. Error-Based Design Space Windowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papila, Melih; Papila, Nilay U.; Shyy, Wei; Haftka, Raphael T.; Fitz-Coy, Norman

    2002-01-01

    Windowing of design space is considered in order to reduce the bias errors due to low-order polynomial response surfaces (RS). Standard design space windowing (DSW) uses a region of interest by setting a requirement on response level and checks it by a global RS predictions over the design space. This approach, however, is vulnerable since RS modeling errors may lead to the wrong region to zoom on. The approach is modified by introducing an eigenvalue error measure based on point-to-point mean squared error criterion. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the benefit of the error-based DSW.

  16. Multilayered Microelectronic Device Package With An Integral Window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2004-10-26

    A microelectronic package with an integral window mounted in a recessed lip for housing a microelectronic device. The device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can be formed of a low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) or high temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayered material, with the integral window being simultaneously joined (e.g. co-fired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded and oriented so that a light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. The result is a compact, low profile package, having an integral window mounted in a recessed lip, that can be hermetically sealed.

  17. Study of noise transmission through double wall aircraft windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaicaitis, R.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical and experimental procedures were used to predict the noise transmitted through double wall windows into the cabin of a twin-engine G/A aircraft. The analytical model was applied to optimize cabin noise through parametric variation of the structural and acoustic parameters. The parametric study includes mass addition, increase in plexiglass thickness, decrease in window size, increase in window cavity depth, depressurization of the space between the two window plates, replacement of the air cavity with a transparent viscoelastic material, change in stiffness of the plexiglass material, and different absorptive materials for the interior walls of the cabin. It was found that increasing the exterior plexiglass thickness and/or decreasing the total window size could achieve the proper amount of noise reduction for this aircraft. The total added weight to the aircraft is then about 25 lbs.

  18. A large, switchable optical clearing skull window for cerebrovascular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Feng, Wei; Zhao, Yanjie; Yu, Tingting; Li, Pengcheng; Xu, Tonghui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Rationale: Intravital optical imaging is a significant method for investigating cerebrovascular structure and function. However, its imaging contrast and depth are limited by the turbid skull. Tissue optical clearing has a great potential for solving this problem. Our goal was to develop a transparent skull window, without performing a craniotomy, for use in assessing cerebrovascular structure and function. Methods: Skull optical clearing agents were topically applied to the skulls of mice to create a transparent window within 15 min. The clearing efficacy, repeatability, and safety of the skull window were then investigated. Results: Imaging through the optical clearing skull window enhanced both the contrast and the depth of intravital imaging. The skull window could be used on 2-8-month-old mice and could be expanded from regional to bi-hemispheric. In addition, the window could be repeatedly established without inducing observable inflammation and metabolic toxicity. Conclusion: We successfully developed an easy-to-handle, large, switchable, and safe optical clearing skull window. Combined with various optical imaging techniques, cerebrovascular structure and function can be observed through this optical clearing skull window. Thus, it has the potential for use in basic research on the physiopathologic processes of cortical vessels. PMID:29774069

  19. Foundation for Sarcoidosis Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Clinical Trial Our mission is to stop sarcoidosis — join us. The sarcoidosis community needs your help ... receive periodic emails from the Foundation. Foundation For Sarcoidosis Research 1820 W. Webster Ave., Ste 304 Chicago, ...

  20. A prospective randomized controlled trial of the two-window technique without membrane versus the solo-window technique with membrane over the osteotomy window for maxillary sinus augmentation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huajie; He, Danqing; Qiu, Lixin

    2017-12-01

    Maturation of the grafted volume after lateral sinus elevation is crucial for the long-term survival of dental implants. To compare endo-sinus histomorphometric bone formation between the solo- and two-window maxillary sinus augmentation techniques with or without membrane coverage for the rehabilitation of multiple missing posterior teeth. Patients with severely atrophic posterior maxillae were randomized to receive lateral sinus floor elevation via the solo-window technique with membrane coverage (Control Group) or the two-window technique without coverage (Test Group). Six months after surgery, bone core specimens harvested from the lateral aspect were histomorphometrically analyzed. Ten patients in each group underwent 21 maxillary sinus augmentations. Histomorphometric analysis revealed mean newly formed bone values of 26.08 ± 16.23% and 27.14 ± 18.11%, mean connective tissue values of 59.34 ± 12.42% and 50.03 ± 17.13%, and mean residual graft material values of 14.6 ± 14.56% and 22.78 ± 10.83% in the Test and Control Groups, respectively, with no significant differences. The two-window technique obtained comparative maturation of the grafted volume even without membrane coverage, and is a viable alternative for the rehabilitation of severely atrophic posterior maxillae with multiple missing posterior teeth. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. SOT: A rapid prototype using TAE windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Mark; Eike, David; Harris, Elfrieda; Miller, Dana

    1986-01-01

    The development of the window interface extension feature of the Transportable Applications Executive (TAE) is discussed. This feature is being used to prototype a space station payload interface in order to demonstrate and assess the benefits of using windows on a bit mapped display and also to convey the concept of telescience, the control and operation of space station payloads from remote sites. The prototype version of the TAE with windows operates on a DEC VAXstation 100. This workstation has a high resolution 19 inch bit mapped display, a keyboard and a three-button mouse. The VAXstation 100 is not a stand-alone workstation, but is controlled by software executing on a VAX/8600. A short scenario was developed utilizing the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) as an example payload. In the scenario the end-user station includes the VAXstation 100 plus an image analysis terminal used to display the CCD images. The layout and use of the prototype elements, i.e., the root menu, payload status window, and target acquisition menu is described.

  2. WinSCP for Windows File Transfers | High-Performance Computing | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    WinSCP for Windows File Transfers WinSCP for Windows File Transfers WinSCP for can used to securely transfer files between your local computer running Microsoft Windows and a remote computer running Linux

  3. DETAIL VIEW, WEST VENETIAN WINDOW IN SOUTH WALL. (NOTE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW, WEST VENETIAN WINDOW IN SOUTH WALL. (NOTE THE IRON BARS ON THE CELLAR WINDOW BELOW. THIS WINDOW LETS ONTO WHAT WAS LIKELY THE ESTATE OFFICE DURING THE HAMILTONIAN RESIDENCY - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Short wavelength infrared optical windows for evaluation of benign and malignant tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordillo, Diana C.; Sordillo, Laura A.; Sordillo, Peter P.; Shi, Lingyan; Alfano, Robert R.

    2017-04-01

    There are three short wavelength infrared (SWIR) optical windows outside the conventionally used first near-infrared (NIR) window (650 to 950 nm). They occur in the 1000- to 2500-nm range and may be considered second, third, and fourth NIR windows. The second (1100 to 1350 nm) and third windows (1600 to 1870 nm) are now being explored through label-free linear and multiphoton imaging. The fourth window (2100 to 2350 nm) has been mostly ignored because of water absorption and the absence of sensitive detectors and ultrafast lasers. With the advent of new technology, use of window IV is now possible. Absorption and scattering properties of light through breast and prostate cancer, bone, lipids, and intralipid solutions at these windows were investigated. We found that breast and prostate cancer and bone have longer total attenuation lengths at NIR windows III and IV, whereas fatty tissues and intralipid have longest lengths at windows II and III. Since collagen is the major chromophore at 2100 and 2350 nm, window IV could be especially valuable in evaluating cancers and boney tissues, whereas windows II and III may be more useful for tissues with high lipid content. SWIR windows may be utilized as additional optical tools for the evaluation of collagen in tissues.

  5. Short wavelength infrared optical windows for evaluation of benign and malignant tissues.

    PubMed

    Sordillo, Diana C; Sordillo, Laura A; Sordillo, Peter P; Shi, Lingyan; Alfano, Robert R

    2017-04-01

    There are three short wavelength infrared (SWIR) optical windows outside the conventionally used first near-infrared (NIR) window (650 to 950 nm). They occur in the 1000- to 2500-nm range and may be considered second, third, and fourth NIR windows. The second (1100 to 1350 nm) and third windows (1600 to 1870 nm) are now being explored through label-free linear and multiphoton imaging. The fourth window (2100 to 2350 nm) has been mostly ignored because of water absorption and the absence of sensitive detectors and ultrafast lasers. With the advent of new technology, use of window IV is now possible. Absorption and scattering properties of light through breast and prostate cancer, bone, lipids, and intralipid solutions at these windows were investigated. We found that breast and prostate cancer and bone have longer total attenuation lengths at NIR windows III and IV, whereas fatty tissues and intralipid have longest lengths at windows II and III. Since collagen is the major chromophore at 2100 and 2350 nm, window IV could be especially valuable in evaluating cancers and boney tissues, whereas windows II and III may be more useful for tissues with high lipid content. SWIR windows may be utilized as additional optical tools for the evaluation of collagen in tissues.

  6. Farm Foundation Annual Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farm Foundation, Oak Brook, IL.

    The Farm Foundation was established in 1933 as a private agency to help coordinate the work of other public and private groups and agencies to improve agriculture and rural life without taking political positions or supporting specific legislation. An operating rather than a grant-making foundation, the foundation develops national and regional…

  7. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Search How We Work Our Focus Areas About RWJF Search Menu How We Work Grants and Grant ... more For Grantees and Grantseekers The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funds a wide array of programs which ...

  8. Measure Guideline: Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Baker, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  9. InP solar cell with window layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K. (Inventor); Landis, Geoffrey A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention features a thin light transmissive layer of the ternary semiconductor indium aluminum arsenide (InAlAs) as a front surface passivation or 'window' layer for p-on-n InP solar cells. The window layers of the invention effectively reduce front surface recombination of the object semiconductors thereby increasing the efficiency of the cells.

  10. Students' Perceptions of Foundation Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooms, A.; Burke, L. M.; Marks-Maran, D. J.; Webb, M.; Cooper, D.

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 there were 87,339 people enrolled on foundation degrees (FDs) in the UK (Foundation Degree Forward, 2009), and educational institutions in the UK offered 1700 different foundation degrees in over 25 subjects, with nearly 900 more in development (Action on Access, 2010). In addition, student views are seen to be of importance, as…

  11. The Windows to the Universe Project: Using the Internet to Support K-12 Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, L.; Johnson, R.; Bergman, J.; Russell, R.; Genyuk, J.; La Grave, M.

    2003-12-01

    The World Wide Web can be a powerful tool for reaching the public as well as students and teachers around the world, supporting both formal and informal science education. The Windows to the Universe Project, initiated in 1995, provides a case study of approaches for the use of the web to support earth and space science education and literacy efforts. Through the use of innovative approaches such as easy to use design, multi-level content, and science concepts presented in a broader background context that includes connections to culture and the humanities, Windows to the Universe is an accessible format for individuals of various ages and learning styles. A large global audience regularly uses the web site to learn about earth and space science as well as related humanities content such as myths from around the world. User surveys show that the site has over 4 millions users per year, 65 percent of which are K-12 teachers and students. Approximately 46 percent of users access the site once per week or more. Recently, we have had the opportunity to expand our efforts while we continue to update existing content based on new scientific findings and events. Earth science content on Windows to the Universe is currently growing with a new geology section and development efforts are underway to expand our space weather content with a new curriculum. Educational games allow users to learn about space in a playful context, and an online journaling tool further integrates literacy into the learning experience. In addition, we are currently translating the entire Windows to the Universe web site into Spanish. We have included educators in the project as co-designers from its inception, and by aggressively utilizing and providing professional development opportunities for teachers, the web site is now used in thousands of classrooms around the world. In the past year we have continued to support K-12 educators by adding to our suite of classroom activities and leading

  12. A Supervised Approach to Windowing Detection on Dynamic Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-07-01

    A supervised approach to windowing detection on dynamic networks Benjamin Fish University of Illinois at Chicago 1200 W. Harrison St. Chicago...Using this framework, we introduce windowing algorithms that take a supervised approach : they leverage ground truth on training data to find a good...windowing of the test data. We compare the supervised approach to previous approaches and several baselines on real data. ACM Reference format: Benjamin

  13. Context Switching with Multiple Register Windows: A RISC Performance Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konsek, Marion B.; Reed, Daniel A.; Watcharawittayakul, Wittaya

    1987-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown that a large file of overlapping register windows can greatly reduce procedure call/return overhead, the effects of register windows in a multiprogramming environment are poorly understood. This paper investigates the performance of multiprogrammed, reduced instruction set computers (RISCs) as a function of window management strategy. Using an analytic model that reflects context switch and procedure call overheads, we analyze the performance of simple, linearly self-recursive programs. For more complex programs, we present the results of a simulation study. These studies show that a simple strategy that saves all windows prior to a context switch, but restores only a single window following a context switch, performs near optimally.

  14. Foundation doctors and dyslexia: a qualitative study of their experiences and coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Newlands, Freda; Shrewsbury, Duncan; Robson, Jean

    2015-03-01

    Dyslexia is the most common form of specific learning difficulty affecting approximately 6% of the general UK population and believed to affect approximately 2% of UK medical students. The impact of dyslexia on early practice has not been studied. To develop an understanding of the challenges faced by doctors with dyslexia in the first year of practice and their support requirements. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with seven foundation year 1 doctors with dyslexia from Scottish hospitals between March 2013 and August 2013. Foundation doctors indicated that due to their dyslexia, they experience difficulty with all forms of communication, time management and anxiety. There were concerns about disclosure of their dyslexia to colleagues and supervisors. Coping strategies used frequently were safety-netting and planning; technology solutions did offer some assistance. Although technological interventions have the potential to offer benefits to foundation doctors with dyslexia, increased openness about a diagnosis of dyslexia with discussion between doctor and supervisors about the challenges and anxieties is likely to provide the most benefit. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Dallas's Nonprofit Foundation Founders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Dan

    1979-01-01

    Describes the scandals that have destroyed the Foundation for Quality Education, the foundation the Dallas (Texas) school district created to raise money for the schools through real estate management and the marketing of school-system-developed curriculum materials. (Author/IRT)

  16. Skin Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... You at Risk? UVA & UVB Skin of Color Tanning Teacher Resources Related: What Is Skin Cancer? | Window ... Tribute Page | Share Your Story | Skin Cancer Information | Tanning | Get Involved Healthy Lifestyle Go With Your Own ...

  17. State-of-the-art software for window energy-efficiency rating and labeling

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Arasteh, D.; Finlayson, E.; Huang, J.

    1998-07-01

    Measuring the thermal performance of windows in typical residential buildings is an expensive proposition. Not only is laboratory testing expensive, but each window manufacturer typically offers hundreds of individual products, each of which has different thermal performance properties. With over a thousand window manufacturers nationally, a testing-based rating system would be prohibitively expensive to the industry and to consumers. Beginning in the early 1990s, simulation software began to be used as part of a national program for rating window U-values. The rating program has since been expanded to include Solar Hear Gain Coefficients and is now being extended to annualmore » energy performance. This paper describes four software packages available to the public from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). These software packages are used to evaluate window thermal performance: RESFEN (for evaluating annual energy costs), WINDOW (for calculating a product`s thermal performance properties), THERM (a preprocessor for WINDOW that determines two-dimensional heat-transfer effects), and Optics (a preprocessor for WINDOW`s glass database). Software not only offers a less expensive means than testing to evaluate window performance, it can also be used during the design process to help manufacturers produce windows that will meet target specifications. In addition, software can show small improvements in window performance that might not be detected in actual testing because of large uncertainties in test procedures.« less

  18. Kellogg Foundation Initiative: Rewriting the Way Foundations Do Business in Indian Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Describes the multi-million dollar initiative announced by W. K. Kellogg Foundation in 1995 to support the Native American Higher Education Initiative, and how the Kellogg initiative deserves attention from the nation as a whole because it is attempting to fundamentally rewrite the way foundations do business with Indian communities. (VWC)

  19. Ultrasound-guided identification of cardiac imaging windows.

    PubMed

    Liu, Garry; Qi, Xiu-Ling; Robert, Normand; Dick, Alexander J; Wright, Graham A

    2012-06-01

    Currently, the use of cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify cardiac quiescent periods relative to the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is insufficient for producing submillimeter-resolution coronary MR angiography (MRA) images. In this work, the authors perform a time series comparison between tissue Doppler echocardiograms of the interventricular septum (IVS) and concurrent biplane x-ray angiograms. Our results indicate very close agreement between the diastasis gating windows identified by both the IVS and x-ray techniques. Seven cath lab patients undergoing diagnostic angiograms were simultaneously scanned during a breath hold by ultrasound and biplane x-ray for six to eight heartbeats. The heart rate of each patient was stable. Dye was injected into either the left or right-coronary vasculature. The IVS was imaged using color tissue Doppler in an apical four-chamber view. Diastasis was estimated on the IVS velocity curve. On the biplane angiograms, proximal, mid, and distal regions were identified on the coronary artery (CA). Frame by frame correlation was used to derive displacement, and then velocity, for each region. The quiescent periods for a CA and its subsegments were estimated based on velocity. Using Pearson's correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis, the authors compared the start and end times of the diastasis windows as estimated from the IVS and CA velocities. The authors also estimated the vessel blur across the diastasis windows of multiple sequential heartbeats of each patient. In total, 17 heartbeats were analyzed. The range of heart rate observed across patients was 47-79 beats per minute (bpm) with a mean of 57 bpm. Significant correlations (R > 0.99; p < 0.01) were observed between the IVS and x-ray techniques for the identification of the start and end times of diastasis windows. The mean difference in the starting times between IVS and CA quiescent windows was -12.0 ms. The mean difference in end times between IVS and CA

  20. Intelligent windows using new thermotropic layers with long-term stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Haruo

    1995-08-01

    This paper concerns the autonomous responsive type light adjustment window (intelligent windows) among smart windows which adjust the light upon receiving environmental energy. More specifically, this is a thermotropic window panel that laminates and seals a new type of highly viscous polymer aqueous solution gel. A conventional thermotropic window panel has never been put to practical use since the reversible change between the colorless, transparent state (water-clear) and translucent scattered state (paper-white) with uniformity was not possible. The change involved phase separation and generated non-uniformity. The author, after fundamental studies of hydrophobic bonding, successfully solved the problem by developing a polymer aqueous solution gel with amphiphatic molecule as the third component in addition to water and water-soluble polymer with hydrophobic radical, based on the molecular spacer concept. In addition, the author established peripheral technologies and succeeded in experimentally fabricating a panel type 'Affinity's Intelligent Window (AIW)' that has attained the level of practical use.

  1. Space station proximity operations windows: Human factors design guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1987-01-01

    Proximity operations refers to all activities outside the Space Station which take place within a 1-km radius. Since there will be a large number of different operations involving manned and unmanned vehicles, single- and multiperson crews, automated and manually controlled flight, a wide variety of cargo, and construction/repair activities, accurate and continuous human monitoring of these operations from a specially designed control station on Space Station will be required. Total situational awareness will be required. This paper presents numerous human factors design guidelines and related background information for control windows which will support proximity operations. Separate sections deal with natural and artificial illumination geometry; all basic rendezvous vector approaches; window field-of-view requirements; window size; shape and placement criteria; window optical characteristics as they relate to human perception; maintenance and protection issues; and a comprehensive review of windows installed on U.S. and U.S.S.R. manned vehicles.

  2. Development of a collapsible reinforced cylindrical space observation window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, A. Q.

    1971-01-01

    Existing material technology was applied to the development of a collapsible transparent window suitable for manned spacecraft structures. The effort reported encompasses the evaluation of flame retardants intended for use in the window matrix polymer, evaluation of reinforcement angle which would allow for a twisting pantographing motion as the cylindrical window is mechanically collapsed upon itself, and evaluation of several reinforcement embedment methods. A fabrication technique was developed to produce a reinforced cylindrical space window of 45.7 cm diameter and 61.0 cm length. The basic technique involved the application of a clear film on a male-section mold; winding axial and girth reinforcements and vacuum casting the outer layer. The high-strength transparent window composite consisted of a polyether urethane matrix reinforced with an orthogonal pattern of black-coated carbon steel wire cable. A thin film of RTV silicone rubber was applied to both surfaces of the urethane. The flexibility, retraction system, and installation system are described.

  3. Humeral windows in revision total elbow arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Peach, Chris A; Salama, Amir; Stanley, David

    2016-04-01

    The use of cortical windows for revision elbow arthroplasty has not previously been widely reported. Their use aids safe revision of a well fixed humeral prosthesis and can be used in the setting of dislocation, periprosthetic fracture or aseptic loosening of the ulnar component. We describe our technique and results of cortical windows in the distal humerus for revision elbow arthroplasty surgery.

  4. Towards quantum communications in free-space seawater.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ling; Gao, Jun; Yang, Ai-Lin; Feng, Zhen; Lin, Xiao-Feng; Li, Zhong-Gen; Jin, Xian-Min

    2017-08-21

    Long-distance quantum channels capable of transferring quantum states faithfully for unconditionally secure quantum communication have been so far confirmed to be feasible in both fiber and free-space air. However, it remains unclear whether seawater, which covers more than 70% of the earth, can also be utilized, leaving global quantum communication incomplete. Here we experimentally demonstrate that polarization quantum states including general qubits of single photon and entangled states can survive well after travelling through seawater. We perform experiments with seawater collected over a range of 36 kilometers in the Yellow Sea. For single photons at 405 nm in a blue-green window, we obtain an average process fidelity above 98%. For entangled photons at 810nm, albeit very high loss, we observe the violation of Bell inequality with 33 standard deviations. Our results confirm the feasibility of a seawater quantum channel, representing the first step towards underwater quantum communication.

  5. Understanding the Effect of Audio Communication Delay on Distributed Team Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    means for members to socialize and learn about each other, engenders development cooperative relationships, and lays a foundation for future interaction...length will result in increases in task completion time and mental workload. 3. Audiovisual technology will moderate the effect of communication...than audio alone. 4. Audiovisual technology will moderate the effect of communication delays such that task completion time and mental workload will

  6. 49 CFR 393.61 - Truck and truck tractor window construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck and truck tractor window construction. 393... REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Glazing and Window Construction § 393.61 Truck and truck tractor window construction. Each truck and truck tractor (except trucks engaged in armored...

  7. Suppression of sound radiation to far field of near-field acoustic communication system using evanescent sound field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Ayaka; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Mizutani, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    A method of suppressing sound radiation to the far field of a near-field acoustic communication system using an evanescent sound field is proposed. The amplitude of the evanescent sound field generated from an infinite vibrating plate attenuates exponentially with increasing a distance from the surface of the vibrating plate. However, a discontinuity of the sound field exists at the edge of the finite vibrating plate in practice, which broadens the wavenumber spectrum. A sound wave radiates over the evanescent sound field because of broadening of the wavenumber spectrum. Therefore, we calculated the optimum distribution of the particle velocity on the vibrating plate to reduce the broadening of the wavenumber spectrum. We focused on a window function that is utilized in the field of signal analysis for reducing the broadening of the frequency spectrum. The optimization calculation is necessary for the design of window function suitable for suppressing sound radiation and securing a spatial area for data communication. In addition, a wide frequency bandwidth is required to increase the data transmission speed. Therefore, we investigated a suitable method for calculating the sound pressure level at the far field to confirm the variation of the distribution of sound pressure level determined on the basis of the window shape and frequency. The distribution of the sound pressure level at a finite distance was in good agreement with that obtained at an infinite far field under the condition generating the evanescent sound field. Consequently, the window function was optimized by the method used to calculate the distribution of the sound pressure level at an infinite far field using the wavenumber spectrum on the vibrating plate. According to the result of comparing the distributions of the sound pressure level in the cases with and without the window function, it was confirmed that the area whose sound pressure level was reduced from the maximum level to -50 dB was

  8. Arcjet exploratory tests of ARC optical window design for the AFE vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiting, Ellis E.; Terrazas-Salinas, Imelda; Craig, Roger A.; Sobeck, Charles K.; Sarver, George L., III; Salerno, Louis J.; Love, Wendell; Maa, Scott; Covington, AL

    1991-01-01

    Tests were made in the 20 MW arc jet facility at the NASA ARC to determine the suitability of sapphire and fused silica as window materials for the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) entry vehicle. Twenty nine tests were made; 25 at a heating rate about 80 percent of that expected during the AFE entry and 4 at approximately the full, 100 percent AFE heating rate profile, that produces a temperature of about 2900 F on the surface of the tiles that protect the vehicle. These tests show that a conductively cooled window design using mechanical thermal contacts and sapphire is probably not practical. Cooling the window using mechanical thermal contacts produces thermal stresses in the sapphire that cause the window to crack. An insulated design using sapphire, that cools the window as little as possible, appears promising although some spectral data in the vacuum-ultra-violet (VUV) will be lost due to the high temperature reached by the sapphire. The surface of the insulated sapphire windows, tested at the 100 percent AFE heating rate, showed some slight ablation, and cracks appeared in two of three test windows. One small group of cracks were obviously caused by mechanical binding of the window in the assembly, which can be eliminated with improved design. Other cracks were long, straight, thin crystallographic cracks that have very little effect on the optical transmission of the window. Also, the windows did not fall apart along these crystallographic cracks when the windows were removed from their assemblies. Theoretical results from the thermal analysis computer program SINDA indicate that increasing the window thickness from 4 to 8 mm may enable surface ablation to be avoided. An insulated design using a fused silica window tested at the nominal AFE heating rate experienced severe ablation, thus fused silica is not considered to be an acceptable window material.

  9. Foundations for Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy; Chun, Marc; Daly, William T.; Harrington, Christine; Tobolowsky, Barbara F.

    2015-01-01

    "Foundations for Critical Thinking" explores the landscape of critical-thinking skill development and pedagogy through foundational chapters and institutional case studies involving a range of students in diverse settings. By establishing a link between active learning and improved critical thinking, this resource encourages all higher…

  10. Bird-Window Collisions at a West-Coast Urban Park Museum: Analyses of Bird Biology and Window Attributes from Golden Gate Park, San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Logan Q; Flannery, Maureen E; Dumbacher, John P

    2016-01-01

    Bird-window collisions are a major and poorly-understood generator of bird mortality. In North America, studies of this topic tend to be focused east of the Mississippi River, resulting in a paucity of data from the Western flyways. Additionally, few available data can critically evaluate factors such as time of day, sex and age bias, and effect of window pane size on collisions. We collected and analyzed 5 years of window strike data from a 3-story building in a large urban park in San Francisco, California. To evaluate our window collision data in context, we collected weekly data on local bird abundance in the adjacent parkland. Our study asks two overarching questions: first-what aspects of a bird's biology might make them more likely to fatally strike windows; and second, what characteristics of a building's design contribute to bird-window collisions. We used a dataset of 308 fatal bird strikes to examine the relationships of strikes relative to age, sex, time of day, time of year, and a variety of other factors, including mitigation efforts. We found that actively migrating birds may not be major contributors to collisions as has been found elsewhere. We found that males and young birds were both significantly overrepresented relative to their abundance in the habitat surrounding the building. We also analyzed the effect of external window shades as mitigation, finding that an overall reduction in large panes, whether covered or in some way broken up with mullions, effectively reduced window collisions. We conclude that effective mitigation or design will be required in all seasons, but that breeding seasons and migratory seasons are most critical, especially for low-rise buildings and other sites away from urban migrant traps. Finally, strikes occur throughout the day, but mitigation may be most effective in the morning and midday.

  11. Bird-Window Collisions at a West-Coast Urban Park Museum: Analyses of Bird Biology and Window Attributes from Golden Gate Park, San Francisco

    PubMed Central

    Kahle, Logan Q.; Flannery, Maureen E.; Dumbacher, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Bird-window collisions are a major and poorly-understood generator of bird mortality. In North America, studies of this topic tend to be focused east of the Mississippi River, resulting in a paucity of data from the Western flyways. Additionally, few available data can critically evaluate factors such as time of day, sex and age bias, and effect of window pane size on collisions. We collected and analyzed 5 years of window strike data from a 3-story building in a large urban park in San Francisco, California. To evaluate our window collision data in context, we collected weekly data on local bird abundance in the adjacent parkland. Our study asks two overarching questions: first–what aspects of a bird’s biology might make them more likely to fatally strike windows; and second, what characteristics of a building’s design contribute to bird-window collisions. We used a dataset of 308 fatal bird strikes to examine the relationships of strikes relative to age, sex, time of day, time of year, and a variety of other factors, including mitigation efforts. We found that actively migrating birds may not be major contributors to collisions as has been found elsewhere. We found that males and young birds were both significantly overrepresented relative to their abundance in the habitat surrounding the building. We also analyzed the effect of external window shades as mitigation, finding that an overall reduction in large panes, whether covered or in some way broken up with mullions, effectively reduced window collisions. We conclude that effective mitigation or design will be required in all seasons, but that breeding seasons and migratory seasons are most critical, especially for low-rise buildings and other sites away from urban migrant traps. Finally, strikes occur throughout the day, but mitigation may be most effective in the morning and midday. PMID:26731417

  12. AKI in the very elderly patients without preexisting chronic kidney disease: a comparison of 48-hour window and 7-day window for diagnosing AKI using the KDIGO criteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinglin; Zhao, Meng; Wang, Xiaodan

    2018-01-01

    To compare the differences between the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria of the 48-hour window and the 7-day window in the diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) in very elderly patients, as well as the relationship between the 48-hour and 7-day windows for diagnosis and 90-day mortality. We retrospectively enrolled very elderly patients (≥75 years old) from the geriatrics department of the Chinese PLA General Hospital between January 2007 and December 2015. AKI patients were divided into 48-hour and 7-day groups by their diagnosis criteria. AKI patients were divided into survivor and nonsurvivor groups by their outcomes within 90 days after diagnosis of AKI. In total, 652 patients were included in the final analysis. The median age of the cohort was 87 (84-91) years, the majority (623, 95.6%) of whom were male. Of the 652 AKI patients, 334 cases (51.2%) were diagnosed with AKI by the 48-hour window for diagnosis, while 318 cases (48.8%) were by the 7-day window for diagnosis. The 90-day mortality was 42.5% in patients with 48-hour window AKI and 24.2% in patients with 7-day window AKI. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that 90-day mortality was lower in the 7-day window AKI group than in the 48-hour window AKI group (log rank: P <0.001). Multivariate analysis by the Cox model revealed that 48-hour window for diagnosis hazard ratio (HR=1.818; 95% CI: 1.256-2.631; P =0.002) was associated with higher 90-day mortality. The 90-day mortality was higher in 48-hour window AKI than in 7-day window AKI in very elderly patients. The 48-hour KDIGO window definition may be less sensitive. The 48-hour KDIGO window definition is significantly better correlated with subsequent mortality and is, therefore, still appropriate for clinical use. Finding early, sensitive biomarkers of kidney damage is a future direction of research.

  13. Quantification of solute entry into cochlear perilymph through the round window membrane.

    PubMed

    Salt, A N; Ma, Y

    2001-04-01

    The administration of drugs to the inner ear via the round window membrane is becoming more widely used for both clinical and experimental purposes. The actual drug levels achieved in different regions of the inner ear by this method have not been established. The present study has made use of simulations of solute movements in the cochlear fluids to describe the distribution of a marker solute in the guinea pig cochlear fluid spaces. Simulation parameters were derived from experimental measurements using a marker ion, trimethylphenylammonium (TMPA). The distribution of this ion in the cochlea was monitored without volume disturbance using TMPA-selective microelectrodes sealed into the first and second turns of scala tympani (ST). TMPA was applied to perilymph by irrigation of the intact round window membrane with 2 mM solution. At the end of a 90 min application period, TMPA in the first turn, 1.4 mm from the base of ST, reached an average concentration of 330 microM (standard deviation (S.D.) 147 microM, n = 8). TMPA in the second turn, 7.5 mm from the base of ST reached a concentration of 15 microM (S.D. 33 microM, n = 5). The measured time courses of TMPA concentration change were interpreted using the Washington University Cochlear Fluids Simulator (V 1.4), a public-domain program available on the internet at http ://oto.wustl.edu/cochlea/. Simulations with parameters producing concentration time courses comparable to those measured were: (1) round window permeability: 1.9 x 10(-80 cm/s; (2) ST clearance half-time: 60 min; (3) longitudinal perilymph flow rate: 4.4 nl/min, directed from base to apex. Solute concentrations in apical regions of the cochlea were found to be determined primarily by the rate at which the solute diffuses, balanced by the rate of clearance of the solute from perilymph. Longitudinal perilymph flow was not an important factor in solute distribution unless the bony otic capsule was perforated, which rapidly caused substantial changes to

  14. Are Students Prepared to Communicate? A Case Study of an Australian Degree Course in Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondston, Joanne; Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2010-01-01

    Public concerns about biotechnology have resulted in greater attention being paid to the mechanisms by which biotechnology is communicated with non-scientists, including the provision of science communication training. As undergraduate and postgraduate courses form the foundation of the biotechnology sector by providing a pipeline of university…

  15. Radiation-transparent windows, method for imaging fluid transfers

    DOEpatents

    Shu, Deming [Darien, IL; Wang, Jin [Burr Ridge, IL

    2011-07-26

    A thin, x-ray-transparent window system for environmental chambers involving pneumatic pressures above 40 bar is presented. The window allows for x-ray access to such phenomena as fuel sprays injected into a pressurized chamber that mimics realistic internal combustion engine cylinder operating conditions.

  16. Foundations of Intervention Research in Instrumental Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hatfield, Johannes L.; Lemyre, Pierre-Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the present study are to evaluate, implement, and adapt psychological skills used in the realm of sports into music performance. This research project also aims to build foundations on how to implement future interventions to guide music students on how to optimize practice toward performance. A 2-month psychological skills intervention was provided to two students from the national music academy's bachelor program in music performance to better understand how to adapt and construct psychological skills training programs for performing music students. The program evaluated multiple intervention tools including the use of questionnaires, performance profiling, iPads, electronic practice logs, recording the perceived value of individual and combined work, as well as the effectiveness of different communication forms. Perceived effects of the intervention were collected through semi-structured interviews, observations, and logs. PMID:26834660

  17. Theoretical vibro-acoustic modeling of acoustic noise transmission through aircraft windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloufi, Badr; Behdinan, Kamran; Zu, Jean

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a fully vibro-acoustic model for sound transmission across a multi-pane aircraft window is developed. The proposed model is efficiently applied for a set of window models to perform extensive theoretical parametric studies. The studied window configurations generally simulate the passenger window designs of modern aircraft classes which have an exterior multi-Plexiglas pane, an interior single acrylic glass pane and a dimmable glass ("smart" glass), all separated by thin air cavities. The sound transmission loss (STL) characteristics of three different models, triple-, quadruple- and quintuple-paned windows identical in size and surface density, are analyzed for improving the acoustic insulation performances. Typical results describing the influence of several system parameters, such as the thicknesses, number and spacing of the window panes, on the transmission loss are then investigated. In addition, a comparison study is carried out to evaluate the acoustic reduction capability of each window model. The STL results show that the higher frequencies sound transmission loss performance can be improved by increasing the number of window panels, however, the low frequency performance is decreased, particularly at the mass-spring resonances.

  18. Fenestration: a window of opportunity for carnivorous plants.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, H Martin; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2014-01-01

    A long-standing but controversial hypothesis assumes that carnivorous plants employ aggressive mimicry to increase their prey capture success. A possible mechanism is that pitcher plants use aggressive mimicry to deceive prey about the location of the pitcher's exit. Specifically, species from unrelated families sport fenestration, i.e. transparent windows on the upper surfaces of pitchers which might function to mimic the exit of the pitcher. This hypothesis has not been evaluated against alternative hypotheses predicting that fenestration functions to attract insects from afar. By manipulating fenestration, we show that it does not increase the number of Drosophila flies or of two ant species entering pitchers in Sarracenia minor nor their retention time or a pitcher's capture success. However, fenestration increased the number of Drosophila flies alighting on the pitcher compared with pitchers of the same plant without fenestration. We thus suggest that fenestration in S. minor is not an example of aggressive mimicry but rather functions in long-range attraction of prey. We highlight the need to evaluate aggressive mimicry relative to alternative concepts of plant-animal communication.

  19. Round window closure affects cochlear responses to suprathreshold stimuli.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qunfeng; Whitcomb, Carolyn; Eggleston, Jessica; Sun, Wei; Salvi, Richard; Hu, Bo Hua

    2013-12-01

    The round window acts as a vent for releasing inner ear pressure and facilitating basilar membrane vibration. Loss of this venting function affects cochlear function, which leads to hearing impairment. In an effort to identify functional changes that might be used in clinical diagnosis of round window atresia, the current investigation was designed to examine how the cochlea responds to suprathreshold stimuli following round window closure. Prospective, controlled, animal study. A rat model of round window occlusion (RWO) was established. With this model, the thresholds of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and the input/output (IO) functions of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and acoustic startle responses were examined. Round window closure caused a mild shift in the thresholds of the auditory brainstem response (13.5 ± 9.1 dB). It also reduced the amplitudes of the distortion product otoacoustic emissions and the slope of the input/output functions. This peripheral change was accompanied by a significant reduction in the amplitude, but not the threshold, of the acoustic startle reflex, a motor response to suprathreshold sounds. In addition to causing mild increase in the threshold of the auditory brainstem response, round window occlusion reduced the slopes of both distortion product otoacoustic emissions and startle reflex input/output functions. These changes differ from those observed for typical conductive or sensory hearing loss, and could be present in patients with round window atresia. However, future clinical observations in patients are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Spectral Analysis Tool 6.2 for Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Feiming; Sue, Miles; Peng, Ted; Tan, Harry; Liang, Robert; Kinman, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Spectral Analysis Tool 6.2 is the latest version of a computer program that assists in analysis of interference between radio signals of the types most commonly used in Earth/spacecraft radio communications. [An earlier version was reported in Software for Analyzing Earth/Spacecraft Radio Interference (NPO-20422), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 4 (April 2001), page 52.] SAT 6.2 calculates signal spectra, bandwidths, and interference effects for several families of modulation schemes. Several types of filters can be modeled, and the program calculates and displays signal spectra after filtering by any of the modeled filters. The program accommodates two simultaneous signals: a desired signal and an interferer. The interference-to-signal power ratio can be calculated for the filtered desired and interfering signals. Bandwidth-occupancy and link-budget calculators are included for the user s convenience. SAT 6.2 has a new software structure and provides a new user interface that is both intuitive and convenient. SAT 6.2 incorporates multi-tasking, multi-threaded execution, virtual memory management, and a dynamic link library. SAT 6.2 is designed for use on 32- bit computers employing Microsoft Windows operating systems.

  1. Deployment of the SBS-4 communications satellite

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-08-30

    41D-36-034 (30 Aug 1984) --- Less than nine hours after the first launch of the Discovery, its astronaut crewmembers photographed deployment of the SBS-4 communications satellite. The cylindrical spacecraft spins and rises from its cradle-like protective shield to begin life in space. A number of maneuvers will place it in its desired orbit. A 70mm camera, aimed through the spacecraft’s aft flight deck windows, was used to expose the frame.

  2. Orthogonal sets of data windows constructed from trigonometric polynomials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, C. A.

    1989-01-01

    Suboptimal, easily computable substitutes for the discrete prolate-spheroidal windows used by Thomson for spectral estimation are given. Trigonometric coefficients and energy leakages of the window polynomials are tabulated.

  3. Perception on Ideal Qualities of a Communication Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelayo, Jose Maria G., III; Mallari, Shaedy Dee C.; Manio, Joana C.; Pelayo, Jose Juancho S.

    2015-01-01

    This research study focused on the opinions and contemporary perceptions of Bachelor of Arts in Communication students in Systems Plus College Foundation. The researchers determined the acuity of the students perse on ideal qualities that the respondents should possess or acquire. It addressed with the opinions, insights and also thoughts about…

  4. Low-E Storm Windows Gain Acceptance as a Home Weatherization Measure

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gilbride, Theresa L.; Cort, Katherine A.

    This article for Home Energy Magazine describes work by the U.S. Department of Energy to develop low-emissivity storm windows as an energy efficiency-retrofit option for existing homes. The article describes the low-emissivity invisible silver metal coatings on the glass, which reflect heat back into the home in winter or back outside in summer and the benefits of low-e storm windows including insulation, air sealing, noise blocking, protection of antique windows, etc. The article also describes Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's efforts on behalf of DOE to overcome market barriers to adoption of the technology, including performance validation studies in the PNNLmore » Lab Homes, cost effectiveness analysis, production of reports, brochures, how-to guides on low-e storm window installation for the Building America Solution Center, and a video posted on YouTube. PNNL's efforts were reviewed by the Pacific Northwest Regional Technical Forum (RTF), which serves as the advisory board to the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning Council and Bonneville Power Administration. In late July 2015, the RTF approved the low-e storm window measure’s savings and specifications, a critical step in integrating low-e storm windows into energy-efficiency planning and utility weatherization and incentive programs. PNNL estimates that more than 90 million homes in the United States with single-pane or low-performing double-pane windows would benefit from the technology. Low-e storm windows are suitable not only for private residences but also for small commercial buildings, historic properties, and facilities that house residents, such as nursing homes, dormitories, and in-patient facilities. To further assist in the market transformation of low-e storm windows and other high-efficiency window attachments, DOE helped found the window Attachment Energy Rating Council (AERC) in 2015. AERC is an independent, public interest, non-profit organization whose mission is to rate

  5. Catalog of Window Taper Functions for Sidelobe Control

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Doerry, Armin W.

    Window taper functions of finite apertures are well-known to control undesirable sidelobes, albeit with performance trades. A plethora of various taper functions have been developed over the years to achieve various optimizations. We herein catalog a number of window functions, and com pare principal characteristics.

  6. Conformal, Transparent Printed Antenna Developed for Communication and Navigation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Simons, Rainee N.

    1999-01-01

    Conformal, transparent printed antennas have advantages over conventional antennas in terms of space reuse and aesthetics. Because of their compactness and thin profile, these antennas can be mounted on video displays for efficient integration in communication systems such as palmtop computers, digital telephones, and flat-panel television displays. As an array of multiple elements, the antenna subsystem may save weight by reusing space (via vertical stacking) on photovoltaic arrays or on Earth-facing sensors. Also, the antenna could go unnoticed on automobile windshields or building windows, enabling satellite uplinks and downlinks or other emerging high-frequency communications.

  7. Writers Identification Based on Multiple Windows Features Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadhil, Murad Saadi; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Rehman, Amjad; Saba, Tanzila

    2016-03-01

    Now a days, writer identification is at high demand to identify the original writer of the script at high accuracy. The one of the main challenge in writer identification is how to extract the discriminative features of different authors' scripts to classify precisely. In this paper, the adaptive division method on the offline Latin script has been implemented using several variant window sizes. Fragments of binarized text a set of features are extracted and classified into clusters in the form of groups or classes. Finally, the proposed approach in this paper has been tested on various parameters in terms of text division and window sizes. It is observed that selection of the right window size yields a well positioned window division. The proposed approach is tested on IAM standard dataset (IAM, Institut für Informatik und angewandte Mathematik, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland) that is a constraint free script database. Finally, achieved results are compared with several techniques reported in the literature.

  8. Waveguide transition with vacuum window for multiband dynamic nuclear polarization systems

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rybalko, Oleksandr; Bowen, Sean; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2016-05-15

    A low loss waveguide transition section and oversized microwave vacuum window covering several frequency bands (94 GHz, 140 GHz, 188 GHz) is presented. The transition is compact and was optimized for multiband Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) systems in a full-wave simulator. The window is more broadband than commercially available windows, which are usually optimized for single band operation. It is demonstrated that high-density polyethylene with urethane adhesive can be used as a low loss microwave vacuum window in multiband DNP systems. The overall assembly performance and dimensions are found using full-wave simulations. The practical aspects of the window implementation inmore » the waveguide are discussed. To verify the design and simulation results, the window is tested experimentally at the three frequencies of interest.« less

  9. VO₂ thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-10-24

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner.

  10. Sealed symmetric multilayered microelectronic device package with integral windows

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    A sealed symmetric multilayered package with integral windows for housing one or more microelectronic devices. The devices can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The multilayered package can be formed of a low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the windows being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. The microelectronic devices can be flip-chip bonded and oriented so that the light-sensitive sides are optically accessible through the windows. The result is a compact, low-profile, sealed symmetric package, having integral windows that can be hermetically-sealed.

  11. Establishing a School Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Juanita; Stewart, G. Kent

    2002-01-01

    A school foundation is a nonprofit, tax-exempt organization that finances school projects not covered by the district budget. Legal requirements and accounting procedures; the board of trustees and fund manager; use of volunteers; capitalization and sources of capital (gifts, bequests, fundraising activities); marketing the foundation; examples of…

  12. Recognition of the Multi Specularity Objects using the Eigen-Window,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-02-29

    analysis to each eigen-window [21]. The basic idea is that, even if some of the windows are occluded, the remaining windows are still effective and can...K.Ikeuchi, “The Machanical Manipulation of Randomly Oriented Parts”, Scientific American, Vol.251, No.2, pp.100-111, 1984. [5] S.A.Hutchinson and A.C.Kak

  13. 24 CFR 3280.106 - Exit facilities; egress windows and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exit facilities; egress windows and... § 3280.106 Exit facilities; egress windows and devices. (a) Every room designed expressly for sleeping purposes, unless it has an exit door (see § 3280.105), shall have at least one outside window or approved...

  14. Transmission in near-infrared optical windows for deep brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lingyan; Sordillo, Laura A; Rodríguez-Contreras, Adrián; Alfano, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) radiation has been employed using one- and two-photon excitation of fluorescence imaging at wavelengths 650-950 nm (optical window I) for deep brain imaging; however, longer wavelengths in NIR have been overlooked due to a lack of suitable NIR-low band gap semiconductor imaging detectors and/or femtosecond laser sources. This research introduces three new optical windows in NIR and demonstrates their potential for deep brain tissue imaging. The transmittances are measured in rat brain tissue in the second (II, 1,100-1,350 nm), third (III, 1,600-1,870 nm), and fourth (IV, centered at 2,200 nm) NIR optical tissue windows. The relationship between transmission and tissue thickness is measured and compared with the theory. Due to a reduction in scattering and minimal absorption, window III is shown to be the best for deep brain imaging, and windows II and IV show similar but better potential for deep imaging than window I. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Preparing TESOL Students for the ESOL Classroom: A Cross-Cultural Project in Intercultural Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina-López-Portillo, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Intercultural communication classes for TESOL students give them a solid foundation for their work with their own ESOL students. This article presents the cross-cultural project that TESOL students have to complete in a required intercultural communication class at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County and the case study that was used to…

  16. Nonlocal Quantum Information Transfer Without Superluminal Signalling and Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walleczek, Jan; Grössing, Gerhard

    2016-09-01

    It is a frequent assumption that—via superluminal information transfers—superluminal signals capable of enabling communication are necessarily exchanged in any quantum theory that posits hidden superluminal influences. However, does the presence of hidden superluminal influences automatically imply superluminal signalling and communication? The non-signalling theorem mediates the apparent conflict between quantum mechanics and the theory of special relativity. However, as a `no-go' theorem there exist two opposing interpretations of the non-signalling constraint: foundational and operational. Concerning Bell's theorem, we argue that Bell employed both interpretations, and that he finally adopted the operational position which is associated often with ontological quantum theory, e.g., de Broglie-Bohm theory. This position we refer to as "effective non-signalling". By contrast, associated with orthodox quantum mechanics is the foundational position referred to here as "axiomatic non-signalling". In search of a decisive communication-theoretic criterion for differentiating between "axiomatic" and "effective" non-signalling, we employ the operational framework offered by Shannon's mathematical theory of communication, whereby we distinguish between Shannon signals and non-Shannon signals. We find that an effective non-signalling theorem represents two sub-theorems: (1) Non-transfer-control (NTC) theorem, and (2) Non-signification-control (NSC) theorem. Employing NTC and NSC theorems, we report that effective, instead of axiomatic, non-signalling is entirely sufficient for prohibiting nonlocal communication. Effective non-signalling prevents the instantaneous, i.e., superluminal, transfer of message-encoded information through the controlled use—by a sender-receiver pair —of informationally-correlated detection events, e.g., in EPR-type experiments. An effective non-signalling theorem allows for nonlocal quantum information transfer yet—at the same time

  17. An analysis of nanoscientists as public communicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudo, Anthony; Kahlor, Leeann; Abighannam, Niveen; Lazard, Allison; Liang, Ming-Ching

    2014-10-01

    The American public remains unfamiliar with nanotechnology despite more than a decade of investment and development. Nanoscientists have an opportunity to contribute to public conversations about their work, and its potential implications, through their engagement with lay audiences and media professionals. Indeed, the leaderships of many professional scientific organizations have placed a renewed focus on the public communication of science, particularly in the light of drastic changes in the information landscape and the increasing politicization of many technological and scientific issues. However, we have a limited understanding of nanoscientists' perceptions and behaviours regarding their participation in public communication. Here, we report survey results that provide an examination of the public communication behaviours of nanoscientists affiliated with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN), an integrated partnership of US research institutions designed to facilitate nanoscale research and development. Our results suggest that nanoscientists are relatively frequent public communicators who commonly associate their communication efforts with positive impacts on their professional success. We also identify a handful of characteristics that drive nanoscientists' intentions to communicate with the public about nanotechnology.

  18. A behaviorological thanatology: Foundations and implications

    PubMed Central

    Fraley, Lawrence E.

    1998-01-01

    Foundation principles supporting a behaviorological thanatology are reviewed, including concepts of life, person, death, value, right, ethic, and body/person distinctions. These natural science foundations are contrasted with traditional foundations, and their respective implications are speculatively explored. PMID:22478293

  19. Exclusive queueing model including the choice of service windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2018-01-01

    In a queueing system involving multiple service windows, choice behavior is a significant concern. This paper incorporates the choice of service windows into a queueing model with a floor represented by discrete cells. We contrived a logit-based choice algorithm for agents considering the numbers of agents and the distances to all service windows. Simulations were conducted with various parameters of agent choice preference for these two elements and for different floor configurations, including the floor length and the number of service windows. We investigated the model from the viewpoint of transit times and entrance block rates. The influences of the parameters on these factors were surveyed in detail and we determined that there are optimum floor lengths that minimize the transit times. In addition, we observed that the transit times were determined almost entirely by the entrance block rates. The results of the presented model are relevant to understanding queueing systems including the choice of service windows and can be employed to optimize facility design and floor management.

  20. A quantum light-emitting diode for the standard telecom window around 1,550 nm.

    PubMed

    Müller, T; Skiba-Szymanska, J; Krysa, A B; Huwer, J; Felle, M; Anderson, M; Stevenson, R M; Heffernan, J; Ritchie, D A; Shields, A J

    2018-02-28

    Single photons and entangled photon pairs are a key resource of many quantum secure communication and quantum computation protocols, and non-Poissonian sources emitting in the low-loss wavelength region around 1,550 nm are essential for the development of fibre-based quantum network infrastructure. However, reaching this wavelength window has been challenging for semiconductor-based quantum light sources. Here we show that quantum dot devices based on indium phosphide are capable of electrically injected single photon emission in this wavelength region. Using the biexciton cascade mechanism, they also produce entangled photons with a fidelity of 87 ± 4%, sufficient for the application of one-way error correction protocols. The material system further allows for entangled photon generation up to an operating temperature of 93 K. Our quantum photon source can be directly integrated with existing long distance quantum communication and cryptography systems, and provides a promising material platform for developing future quantum network hardware.

  1. Surgical anatomy of the round window-Implications for cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Luers, J C; Hüttenbrink, K B; Beutner, D

    2018-04-01

    The round window is an important portal for the application of active hearing aids and cochlear implants. The anatomical and topographical knowledge about the round window region is a prerequisite for successful insertion for a cochlear implant electrode. To sum up current knowledge about the round window anatomy and to give advice to the cochlear implant surgeon for optimal placement of an electrode. Systematic Medline search. Search term "round window[Title]" with no date restriction. Only publications in the English Language were included. All abstracts were screened for relevance, that is a focus on surgical anatomy of the round window. The search results were supplemented with hand searching of selected reviews and reference lists from included studies. Subjective assessment. There is substantial variability in size and shape of the round window. The round window is regarded as the most reliable surgical landmark to safely locate the scala tympani. Factors affecting the optimal trajectory line for atraumatic electrode insertion are anatomy of the round window, the anatomy of the intracochlear hook region and the variable orientation and size of the cochlea's basal turn. The very close relation to the sensitive inner ear structures necessitates a thorough anatomic knowledge and careful insertion technique, especially when implanting patients with residual hearing. In order to avoid electrode migration between the scalae and to achieve protect the modiolus and the basilar membrane, it is recommended to aim for an electrode insertion vector from postero-superior to antero-inferior. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Trust and Communication: Perspectives of Mothers of Children with Disabilities on the Role and Importance of Communication in Trusting Relationships with Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoner, Julia B.; Angell, Maureen E.

    2014-01-01

    Trust is imperative to effective relationships between teachers and parents of children with disabilities. Communication is the foundation on which trust is established and maintained. This study employed a qualitative research design to investigate the perspectives of 16 mothers of children with varying disabilities, of varying ages, and from…

  3. Fourth near-infrared optical window for assessment of bone and other tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordillo, Diana C.; Sordillo, Laura A.; Sordillo, Peter P.; Alfano, Robert R.

    2016-02-01

    Recently, additional near-infrared (NIR) optical windows beyond the conventional first therapeutic window have been utilized for deep tissue imaging through scattering media. Biomedical applications using a second optical window (1100 to 1300 nm) and a third (1600 to 1870 nm) are emerging. A fourth window (2100 to 2300 nm) has been largely ignored due to high water absorption and a lack of high sensitivity imaging detectors and ultrafast laser sources. In this study, optical properties of bone in this fourth NIR optical window, were investigated. Results were compared to those seen at the first, second and third windows, and are consistent with our previous work on malignant and benign breast and prostate tissues. Bone and malignant tissues showed highest uptake in the third and fourth windows. As collagen is a major chromophore with prominent spectral peaks between 2100 and 2300 nm, it may be that the fourth optical window is particularly useful for studying tissues with a higher collagen content, such as bone or malignant tumors.

  4. Imaging windows for long-term intravital imaging: General overview and technical insights.

    PubMed

    Alieva, Maria; Ritsma, Laila; Giedt, Randy J; Weissleder, Ralph; van Rheenen, Jacco

    2014-01-01

    Intravital microscopy is increasingly used to visualize and quantitate dynamic biological processes at the (sub)cellular level in live animals. By visualizing tissues through imaging windows, individual cells (e.g., cancer, host, or stem cells) can be tracked and studied over a time-span of days to months. Several imaging windows have been developed to access tissues including the brain, superficial fascia, mammary glands, liver, kidney, pancreas, and small intestine among others. Here, we review the development of imaging windows and compare the most commonly used long-term imaging windows for cancer biology: the cranial imaging window, the dorsal skin fold chamber, the mammary imaging window, and the abdominal imaging window. Moreover, we provide technical details, considerations, and trouble-shooting tips on the surgical procedures and microscopy setups for each imaging window and explain different strategies to assure imaging of the same area over multiple imaging sessions. This review aims to be a useful resource for establishing the long-term intravital imaging procedure.

  5. Dentist-patient communication in the multilingual dental setting.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, C; Slack-Smith, L; Davies, G

    2005-12-01

    Communication between dentists and patients can be exceptionally challenging when the patient and the dentist do not speak the same language, as is frequently the case in multicultural Australia. The aim of this study was to describe the issues involved in dealing with limited-English speaking patients in order to formulate recommendations on how to improve dental communication. A cross sectional study was performed using a postal survey to Australian Dental Association member dental practitioners in Western Australia. Responses were collated and data analysis was performed using SPSS 11.5 for Windows. Most respondents encounter language-related communication barriers weekly or monthly, and the most satisfactory method of communication is informal interpreters. Despite reporting satisfaction working with professional chairside interpreters or dental staff interpreters, most respondents did not use them. The most common alternative communication methods were diagrams and models. Endodontics and periodontics provided the greatest challenge in communication. Informed consent was reportedly compromised due to language barriers by 29 per cent of respondents. Recommendations to improve communication included access to interpretation services, dentist technique/attitude to communication and patient preparedness for English-speaking encounters. Many respondents do not utilize the preferential communication methods, creating a potential compromise to both informed consent and the patients' best interests. The use of professional interpreters is recommended, and discussion should be supplemented with means of non-verbal communication. Dentists require access to lists of multilingual dentists and greater awareness of interpretation services to improve multilingual dentist-patient communication.

  6. Access to Microsoft Windows 95 for Persons with Low Vision: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shragai, Y.

    1995-01-01

    This article examines Windows 95, pointing out differences and improvements from Windows 3.1 for persons with low vision. Windows 95 is seen as providing substantially greater accessibility than Windows 3.1, though the graphical user interface may still pose serious problems for some users with low vision. (DB)

  7. Extended horizon lifting for periodic gain adjustment in control systems, and for equalization of communication channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Periodic gain adjustment in plants of irreducible order, n, or for equalization of communications channels is effected in such a way that the plant (system) appears to be minimum phase by choosing a horizon time N is greater than n of liftings in periodic input and output windows rho sub u and rho sub y, respectively, where N is an integer chosen to define the extent (length) of each of the windows rho sub u and rho sub y, and n is the order of an irreducible input/output plant. The plant may be an electrical, mechanical, or chemical system, in which case output tracking (OT) is carried out for feedback control or a communication channel, in which case input tracking (IT) is performed. Conditions for OT are distinct from IT in terms of zero annihilation, namely H(sub s)H(sub s)(sup +) = I for OT and H(sub s)H(sub s)(sup +) = I of IT, where the OT conditions are intended for gain adjustments in the control system, and IT conditions are intended for equalization for communication channels.

  8. The Community College Foundation Manual & Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James M., Comp.; Snyder, Tom, Comp.

    This collection of resources and information about community college foundations includes brief articles, selected data, materials from foundations, sample mission statements and articles of incorporation, sample forms and correspondence, relevant educational legislation, and other related materials from specific active foundations at two-year…

  9. 16 CFR 455.2 - Consumer sales-window form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer sales-window form. 455.2 Section 455.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES USED MOTOR VEHICLE TRADE REGULATION RULE § 455.2 Consumer sales—window form. (a) General duty. Before you offer a used vehicle for...

  10. Round window chamber and fustis: endoscopic anatomy and surgical implications.

    PubMed

    Marchioni, Daniele; Soloperto, Davide; Colleselli, Elena; Tatti, Maria Fatima; Patel, Nirmal; Jufas, Nicholas

    2016-11-01

    The round window region is of critical importance in the anatomy of the middle ear. The aim of this paper is to describe its anatomy from an endoscopic point of view, emphasizing structures that have important surgical implications, in particular the fustis and the subcochlear canaliculus. The fustis, a smooth bony structure that forms the floor of the round window region, is a constant and important structure. It seems to indicate the round window membrane and the correct position of scala tympani. A structure connecting the round window region to the petrous apex, named the subcochlear canaliculus, is also described. A retrospective review of video recordings of endoscopic dissection and surgical procedures, carried out between June 2014 and February 2015, was conducted across two Tertiary university referral centers. A total of 42 dissections were analyzed in the study. We observed the fustis in all the cases and we identify two different anatomical conformations. The subcochlear canaliculus was found in 81.0 %, with a pneumatization direct to the petrous apex in 47.7 %. Conformation and limits of the round window niche may influence the surgical view of the round window membrane. Endoscopic approaches allow a very detailed view, which enables a comprehensive exploration of the round window region. Accurate knowledge of the anatomical relationships of this region has important advantages during middle ear surgery.

  11. Use of reinforced soil foundation (RSF) to support shallow foundation : summary report, November 2008.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-05-01

    This research study investigates the potential benefits of using reinforced soil foundations to improve the bearing : capacity and reduce the settlement of shallow foundations on soils. To implement this objective, a total of 117 : tests, including 3...

  12. Establishing a conceptual framework for handoffs using communication theory.

    PubMed

    Mohorek, Matthew; Webb, Travis P

    2015-01-01

    A significant consequence of the 2003 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education duty hour restrictions has been the dramatic increase in patient care handoffs. Ineffective handoffs have been identified as the third most common cause of medical error. However, research into health care handoffs lacks a unifying foundational structure. We sought to identify a conceptual framework that could be used to critically analyze handoffs. A scholarly review focusing on communication theory as a possible conceptual framework for handoffs was conducted. A PubMed search of published handoff research was also performed, and the literature was analyzed and matched to the most relevant theory for health care handoff models. The Shannon-Weaver Linear Model of Communication was identified as the most appropriate conceptual framework for health care handoffs. The Linear Model describes communication as a linear process. A source encodes a message into a signal, the signal is sent through a channel, and the signal is decoded back into a message at the destination, all in the presence of internal and external noise. The Linear Model identifies 3 separate instances in handoff communication where error occurs: the transmitter (message encoding), channel, and receiver (signal decoding). The Linear Model of Communication is a suitable conceptual framework for handoff research and provides a structured approach for describing handoff variables. We propose the Linear Model should be used as a foundation for further research into interventions to improve health care handoffs. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Light transfer through windows with external condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Keyong; Li, Shaoling; Pilon, Laurent

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates systematically light transfer through windows supporting cap-shaped droplets on their external face. The presence of such droplets may have negative effects on the conversion efficiency of solar cells, distorts image quality of lenses, or hinders visibility through windows and windshields. Here, the directional-hemispherical transmittance was predicted by the Monte Carlo ray-tracing method. The droplets were monodisperse or polydisperse randomly distributed on the outside face of optically smooth windows. For nonabsorbing droplets, the diameter and size distribution did not have a significant effect on the window directional-hemispherical transmittance. The latter was nearly independent of contact angle for incident angle θi ≤ 30°. However, the directional-hemispherical transmittance decreased monotonously with increasing incident angle and droplet contact angle for contact angle θc ≤ 70° to reach a minimum at a contact angle θc,min beyond which it increased with increasing contact angle before reaching a plateau at large contact angles. This was attributed to total internal reflection at the back window/air and droplet/air interfaces. For absorbing droplets, the normal-hemispherical transmittance decreased significantly with increasing droplet contact angle, mean diameter, polydispersity, and projected surface area coverage due to strong absorption within the droplets. Moreover, the normal-hemispherical transmittance decreased with increasing contact angle for θc< 90° and remained constant and independent of the droplets' absorption index, mean diameter, and contact angle for θc ≥ 90°. Finally, Analytical expressions for the upper and lower bounds of the normal-hemispherical transmittance as a function of droplet contact angle, optical properties, and projected surface area coverage were derived.

  14. Use of reinforced soil foundation (RSF) to support shallow foundation : final report, November 2008.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-11-01

    This research study aims at investigating the potential benefits of using reinforced soil foundations to improve the bearing capacity and reduce the settlement of shallow foundations on soils. To implement this objective, a total of 117 tests, includ...

  15. Apparatus for insulating windows and the like

    DOEpatents

    Mitchell, R.A.

    1984-06-19

    Apparatus for insulating window openings through walls and the like includes a thermal shutter, a rail for mounting the shutter adjacent to the window opening and a coupling for connecting the shutter to the rail. The thermal shutter includes an insulated panel adhered to frame members which surround the periphery of the panel. The frame members include a hard portion for providing the frame and a soft portion for providing a seal with that portion of the wall adjacent to the periphery of the opening. The coupling means is preferably integral with the attachment rail. According to a preferred embodiment, the coupling means includes a continuous hinge of reduced thickness. The thermal shutter can be permanently attached, hinged, bi-folded, or sliding with respect to the window and wall. A distribution method is to market the apparatus in kit'' form. 11 figs.

  16. Apparatus for insulating windows and the like

    DOEpatents

    Mitchell, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for insulating window openings through walls and the like includes a thermal shutter, a rail for mounting the shutter adjacent to the window opening and a coupling for connecting the shutter to the rail. The thermal shutter includes an insulated panel adhered to frame members which surround the periphery of the panel. The frame members include a hard portion for providing the frame and a soft portion for providing a seal with that portion of the wall adjacent to the periphery of the opening. The coupling means is preferably integral with the attachment rail. According to a preferred embodiment, the coupling means includes a continuous hinge of reduced thickness. The thermal shutter can be permanently attached, hinged, bi-folded, or sliding with respect to the window and wall. A distribution method is to market the apparatus in "kit" form.

  17. Windows to Art Excitement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley; Crumpecker, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that aimed to bring more attention to an art program. Explains that the students created themed murals on the windows of the art classroom, such as a "Jungle,""Ocean,""Masterpiece Paintings," and "Rainforest Tree Frogs." Discusses how the murals were created. (CMK)

  18. Finite element analysis of gravel pile composite foundation under flexible foundation of Airport Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Min

    2018-02-01

    On the basis of consulting data, the bearing mechanism of gravel pile composite foundation is analyzed in this paper. The use of ANSYS software under flexible foundation according to the plum blossoms gravel pile additional stress between pile and soil additional stress distribution, load on pile top stress and pile bearing rate of modulus ratio between pile and soil on the pile top stress and rate of pile bearing capacity, pile-soil effect the stress ratio was calculated and analyzed, providing reasonable design reference for the design of gravel pile composite foundation.

  19. Specification and misspecification of theoretical foundations and logic models for health communication campaigns.

    PubMed

    Slater, Michael D

    2006-01-01

    While increasingly widespread use of behavior change theory is an advance for communication campaigns and their evaluation, such theories provide a necessary but not sufficient condition for theory-based communication interventions. Such interventions and their evaluations need to incorporate theoretical thinking about plausible mechanisms of message effect on health-related attitudes and behavior. Otherwise, strategic errors in message design and dissemination, and misspecified campaign logic models, insensitive to campaign effects, are likely to result. Implications of the elaboration likelihood model, attitude accessibility, attitude to the ad theory, exemplification, and framing are explored, and implications for campaign strategy and evaluation designs are briefly discussed. Initial propositions are advanced regarding a theory of campaign affect generalization derived from attitude to ad theory, and regarding a theory of reframing targeted health behaviors in those difficult contexts in which intended audiences are resistant to the advocated behavior or message.

  20. HRCT Correlation with Round Window Identification during Cochlear Implantation in Children.

    PubMed

    Pendem, Sai Kiran; Rangasami, Rajeswaran; Arunachalam, Ravi Kumar; Mohanarangam, Venkata Sai Pulivadulu; Natarajan, Paarthipan

    2014-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of High Resolution Computer Tomography (HRCT) temporal bone measurements in predicting the actual visualization of round window niche as viewed through posterior tympanotomy (i.e. facial recess). This is a prospective study of 37 cochlear implant candidates, aged between 1and 6 years, who were referred for HRCT temporal bone during the period December 2013 to July 2014. Cochlear implantation was done in 37 children (25 in the right ear and 12 in the left ear). The distance between the short process of incus and the round window niche and the distance between the oval window and the round window niche were measured preoperatively on sub-millimeter (0.7 mm) HRCT images. We classified the visibility of round window niche based on the surgical view (i.e. through posterior tympanotomy) during surgery into three types: 1) Type 1- fully visible, 2) Type 2- partially visible, and 3) Type 3- difficult to visualize. The preoperative HRCT measurements were used to predict the type of visualization of round window niche before surgery and correlated with the findings during surgery. The mean and standard deviation for the distance between the short process of incus and the round window niche and for the distance between the oval window and the round window niche for Types 1, 2, and 3 were 8.5 ± 0.2 mm and 3.2 ± 0.2 mm, 8.0 ± 0.4 mm and 3.8 ± 0.2 mm, 7.5 ± 0.2 mm and 4.4 ± 0.2 mm respectively, and showed statistically significant difference (P < 0.01) between them. The preoperative HRCT measurements had a sensitivity and specificity of 92.3% and 96.2%, respectively, in determining the actual visualization of round window niche. This study shows preoperative HRCT temporal bone measurements are useful in predicting the actual visualization of round window niche as viewed through posterior tympanotomy.

  1. Evaluation of the Impact of Slab Foundation Heat Transfer on Heating and Cooling in Florida

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Parker, D.; Kono, J.; Vieira, R.

    During the last three decades of energy-efficiency research, there has been limited study of heat transfer to slab-on-grade foundations in cooling-dominated climates. Most experimental research has focused on the impact of slab-on-grade foundations and insulation schemes on heat losses in heating-dominated climates. This is surprising because the floor area in single-family homes is generally equal to wall area, window area, or attic area, all of which have been extensively evaluated for heat-transfer properties. Moreover, slab foundations are the most common foundation type in cooling-dominated climates. Slab-on-grade construction is very popular in southern states, accounting for 77% of new home floorsmore » according to 2014 U.S. Census data. There is a widespread perception that tile flooring, as opposed to carpet, provides a cooler home interior in warm climates. Empirical research is needed because building energy simulation software programs running DOE-2 and EnergyPlus engines often rely on simplified models to evaluate the influence of flooring on interior temperature, even though in some cases more detailed models exist. The U.S. Department of Energy Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC) performed experiments in the Florida Solar Energy Center’s Flexible Residential Test Facility intended to assess for the first time (1) how slab-on-grade construction influences interior cooling in a cooling-dominated climate and (2) how the difference in a carpeted versus uncarpeted building might influence heating and cooling energy use. Two nominally identical side-by-side residential buildings were evaluated during the course of 1 year, from 2014 to 2015: the east building with a pad and carpet floor and the west building with a bare slab floor. A detailed grid shows temperature measurements taken on the slab surface at various locations as well as at depths of 1.0 ft, 2 ft, 5.0 ft, 10.0 ft, and 20.0 ft below the surface

  2. Monitoring Communication with Patients: Analyzing Judgments of Satisfaction (JOS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner-Menghin, Michaela; de Bruin, Anique; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Medical students struggle to put into practice communication skills learned in medical school. In order to improve our instructional designs, better insight into the cause of this lack of transfer is foundational. We therefore explored students' cognitions by soliciting self-evaluations of their history-taking skills, coined "judgments of…

  3. Advances in low-cost long-wave infrared polymer windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weimer, Wayne A.; Klocek, Paul

    1999-07-01

    Recent improvements in engineered polymeric material compositions and advances in processing methodologies developed and patented at Raytheon Systems Company have produced long wave IR windows at exceptionally low costs. These UV stabilized, high strength windows incorporating subwavelength structured antireflection surfaces are enabling IR imaging systems to penetrate commercial markets and will reduce the cost of systems delivered to the military. The optical and mechanical properties of these windows will be discussed in detail with reference to the short and long-term impact on military IR imaging systems.

  4. Lobster eye as a collector for water window microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pina, L.; Maršíková, V.; Inneman, A.; Nawaz, M. F.; Jančárek, A.; Havlíková, R.

    2017-08-01

    Imaging in EUV, SXR and XR spectral bands of radiation is of increasing interest. Material science, biology and hot plasma are examples of relevant fast developing areas. Applications include spectroscopy, astrophysics, Soft X-ray Ray metrology, Water Window microscopy, radiography and tomography. Especially Water Window imaging has still not fully recognized potential in biology and medicine microscopy applications. Theoretical study and design of Lobster Eye (LE) optics as a collector for water window (WW) microscopy and comparison with a similar size ellipsoidal mirror condensor are presented.

  5. Design and Verification of Critical Pressurised Windows for Manned Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamoure, Richard; Busto, Lara; Novo, Francisco; Sinnema, Gerben; Leal, Mendes M.

    2014-06-01

    The Window Design for Manned Spaceflight (WDMS) project was tasked with establishing the state-of-art and explore possible improvements to the current structural integrity verification and fracture control methodologies for manned spacecraft windows.A critical review of the state-of-art in spacecraft window design, materials and verification practice was conducted. Shortcomings of the methodology in terms of analysis, inspection and testing were identified. Schemes for improving verification practices and reducing conservatism whilst maintaining the required safety levels were then proposed.An experimental materials characterisation programme was defined and carried out with the support of the 'Glass and Façade Technology Research Group', at the University of Cambridge. Results of the sample testing campaign were analysed, post-processed and subsequently applied to the design of a breadboard window demonstrator.Two Fused Silica glass window panes were procured and subjected to dedicated analyses, inspection and testing comprising both qualification and acceptance programmes specifically tailored to the objectives of the activity.Finally, main outcomes have been compiled into a Structural Verification Guide for Pressurised Windows in manned spacecraft, incorporating best practices and lessons learned throughout this project.

  6. Bird-Window Collisions: A Critical Animal Welfare and Conservation Issue.

    PubMed

    Klem, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Sheet glass and plastic in the form of clear and reflective windows are universally lethal to birds. Reasonable interpretation of available scientific evidence describes windows as a principal human-associated avian mortality factor that is an indiscriminant killer of common species as well as species of conservation concern. A conservative toll estimates 1 billion or more annual fatalities in the United States alone. The injury and death from birds striking windows are foreseeable and preventable, but the most promising legal measures and commercial products are not being applied or made available to protect defenseless victims. Avian window casualties are important for birds and people, and they have nonhuman animal welfare, biodiversity, sustainability, legal, and ethical and moral value justifying responsible human action. Preventing this unintended and unwanted lethal hazard for free-flying birds should be an obligation. Short-term solutions include retrofitting existing panes with a variety of proven measures that among others include applying various materials to cover the outside surface of windows. Long-term solutions include current and proposed bird-safe sheet glass and plastic for remodeling and new construction that have patterns that transform windows into barriers that birds see and avoid.

  7. Foundations and the Advancement of Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Libby V.

    2017-01-01

    The author examined the websites of two large foundations, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Lumina Foundation. Each has developed projects and networks, coupled with substantive grants, to improve postsecondary education. These and other foundations have deep and ongoing commitments, not just philosophical but resource-based, to…

  8. Estimating interevent time distributions from finite observation periods in communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivelä, Mikko; Porter, Mason A.

    2015-11-01

    A diverse variety of processes—including recurrent disease episodes, neuron firing, and communication patterns among humans—can be described using interevent time (IET) distributions. Many such processes are ongoing, although event sequences are only available during a finite observation window. Because the observation time window is more likely to begin or end during long IETs than during short ones, the analysis of such data is susceptible to a bias induced by the finite observation period. In this paper, we illustrate how this length bias is born and how it can be corrected without assuming any particular shape for the IET distribution. To do this, we model event sequences using stationary renewal processes, and we formulate simple heuristics for determining the severity of the bias. To illustrate our results, we focus on the example of empirical communication networks, which are temporal networks that are constructed from communication events. The IET distributions of such systems guide efforts to build models of human behavior, and the variance of IETs is very important for estimating the spreading rate of information in networks of temporal interactions. We analyze several well-known data sets from the literature, and we find that the resulting bias can lead to systematic underestimates of the variance in the IET distributions and that correcting for the bias can lead to qualitatively different results for the tails of the IET distributions.

  9. Pavia, September, 1961: a window on muscles and nerves

    PubMed Central

    Mazzarello, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Summary In September 1961, the First International Congress of Electromyography (EMG) was held at the University of Pavia. This event proved to be a sort of foundation stone for the further development of EMG as an organized field. Many of the most distinguished clinical neurophysiologists attended this congress and took an active part in it, delivering important lectures and scientific communications on the various aspects of EMG, including electroneurography. They included: Henri Gastaut, Fritz Buchthal, Jean Edouard Desmedt, Eric Kugelberg, Roger W. Gilliatt, John A. Simpson, Albrecht Struppler, Irena Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz, and Howard Edward Lambert. The congress was organized by Paolo Pinelli, at the time a young and brilliant clinical neurophysiologist who had learned the EMG procedure in Copenhagen under the guidance of Fritz Buchthal. Various scientific and social aspects of this important congress are outlined in this paper. PMID:22687169

  10. Social Science Boot Camp: Development and Assessment of a Foundational Course on Academic Literacy in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Judy; Long, Jennifer; Morris, David

    2018-01-01

    We developed a course, as part of our institution's core program, which provides students with a foundation in academic literacy in the social sciences: how to find, read, critically assess, and communicate about social science research. It is not a research methods course; rather, it is intended to introduce students to the social sciences and be…

  11. DIAGNOSIS AND APPRAISAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS. PRENTICE-HALL FOUNDATIONS OF SPEECH PATHOLOGY SERIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DARLEY, FREDERIC L.

    THIS TEXT GIVES THE STUDENT AN OUTLINE OF THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC METHODOLOGY WHICH UNDERLIE EVALUATIVE WORK IN SPEECH DISORDERS. RATIONALE AND ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES ARE GIVEN FOR EXAMINATION OF THE BASIC COMMUNICATION PROCESSES OF SYMBOLIZATION, RESPIRATION, PHONATION, ARTICULATION-RESONANCE, PROSODY, ASSOCIATED SENSORY AND PERCEPTUAL…

  12. Fully automatic time-window selection using machine learning for global adjoint tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Hill, J.; Lei, W.; Lefebvre, M. P.; Bozdag, E.; Komatitsch, D.; Tromp, J.

    2017-12-01

    Selecting time windows from seismograms such that the synthetic measurements (from simulations) and measured observations are sufficiently close is indispensable in a global adjoint tomography framework. The increasing amount of seismic data collected everyday around the world demands "intelligent" algorithms for seismic window selection. While the traditional FLEXWIN algorithm can be "automatic" to some extent, it still requires both human input and human knowledge or experience, and thus is not deemed to be fully automatic. The goal of intelligent window selection is to automatically select windows based on a learnt engine that is built upon a huge number of existing windows generated through the adjoint tomography project. We have formulated the automatic window selection problem as a classification problem. All possible misfit calculation windows are classified as either usable or unusable. Given a large number of windows with a known selection mode (select or not select), we train a neural network to predict the selection mode of an arbitrary input window. Currently, the five features we extract from the windows are its cross-correlation value, cross-correlation time lag, amplitude ratio between observed and synthetic data, window length, and minimum STA/LTA value. More features can be included in the future. We use these features to characterize each window for training a multilayer perceptron neural network (MPNN). Training the MPNN is equivalent to solve a non-linear optimization problem. We use backward propagation to derive the gradient of the loss function with respect to the weighting matrices and bias vectors and use the mini-batch stochastic gradient method to iteratively optimize the MPNN. Numerical tests show that with a careful selection of the training data and a sufficient amount of training data, we are able to train a robust neural network that is capable of detecting the waveforms in an arbitrary earthquake data with negligible detection error

  13. Assessing Thermal Comfort Due to a Ventilated Double Window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos, Jorge S.; Corvacho, Helena

    2017-10-01

    Building design and its components are the result of a complex process, which should provide pleasant conditions to its inhabitants. Therefore, indoor acceptable comfort is influenced by the architectural design. ISO and ASHRAE standards define thermal comfort as the condition of mind that expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment. The energy demand for heating, beside the building’s physical properties, also depend on human behaviour, like opening or closing windows. Generally, windows are the weakest façade element concerning to thermal performance. A lower thermal resistance allows higher thermal conduction through it. When a window is very hot or cold, and the occupant is very close to it, it may result in thermal discomfort. The functionality of a ventilated double window introduces new physical considerations to a traditional window. In consequence, it is necessary to study the local effect on human comfort in function of the boundary conditions. Wind, solar availability, air temperature and therefore heating and indoor air quality conditions will affect the relationship between this passive system and the indoor environment. In the present paper, the influence of thermal performance and ventilation on human comfort resulting from the construction and geometry solutions is shown, helping to choose the best solution. The presented approach shows that in order to save energy it is possible to reduce the air changes of a room to the minimum, without compromising air quality, enhancing simultaneously local thermal performance and comfort. The results of the study on the effect of two parallel windows with a ventilated channel in the same fenestration on comfort conditions for several different room dimensions, are also presented. As the room dimensions’ rate changes so does the window to floor rate; therefore, under the same climatic conditions and same construction solution, different results are obtained.

  14. Minimal Window Duration for Accurate HRV Recording in Athletes.

    PubMed

    Bourdillon, Nicolas; Schmitt, Laurent; Yazdani, Sasan; Vesin, Jean-Marc; Millet, Grégoire P

    2017-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is non-invasive and commonly used for monitoring responses to training loads, fitness, or overreaching in athletes. Yet, the recording duration for a series of RR-intervals varies from 1 to 15 min in the literature. The aim of the present work was to assess the minimum record duration to obtain reliable HRV results. RR-intervals from 159 orthostatic tests (7 min supine, SU, followed by 6 min standing, ST) were analyzed. Reference windows were 4 min in SU (min 3-7) and 4 min in ST (min 9-13). Those windows were subsequently divided and the analyses were repeated on eight different fractioned windows: the first min (0-1), the second min (1-2), the third min (2-3), the fourth min (3-4), the first 2 min (0-2), the last 2 min (2-4), the first 3 min (0-3), and the last 3 min (1-4). Correlation and Bland & Altman statistical analyses were systematically performed. The analysis window could be shortened to 0-2 instead of 0-4 for RMSSD only, whereas the 4-min window was necessary for LF and total power. Since there is a need for 1 min of baseline to obtain a steady signal prior the analysis window, we conclude that studies relying on RMSSD may shorten the windows to 3 min (= 1+2) in SU or seated position only and to 6 min (= 1+2 min SU plus 1+2 min ST) if there is an orthostatic test. Studies relying on time- and frequency-domain parameters need a minimum of 5 min (= 1+4) min SU or seated position only but require 10 min (= 1+4 min SU plus 1+4 min ST) for the orthostatic test.

  15. Minimal Window Duration for Accurate HRV Recording in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bourdillon, Nicolas; Schmitt, Laurent; Yazdani, Sasan; Vesin, Jean-Marc; Millet, Grégoire P.

    2017-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is non-invasive and commonly used for monitoring responses to training loads, fitness, or overreaching in athletes. Yet, the recording duration for a series of RR-intervals varies from 1 to 15 min in the literature. The aim of the present work was to assess the minimum record duration to obtain reliable HRV results. RR-intervals from 159 orthostatic tests (7 min supine, SU, followed by 6 min standing, ST) were analyzed. Reference windows were 4 min in SU (min 3–7) and 4 min in ST (min 9–13). Those windows were subsequently divided and the analyses were repeated on eight different fractioned windows: the first min (0–1), the second min (1–2), the third min (2–3), the fourth min (3–4), the first 2 min (0–2), the last 2 min (2–4), the first 3 min (0–3), and the last 3 min (1–4). Correlation and Bland & Altman statistical analyses were systematically performed. The analysis window could be shortened to 0–2 instead of 0–4 for RMSSD only, whereas the 4-min window was necessary for LF and total power. Since there is a need for 1 min of baseline to obtain a steady signal prior the analysis window, we conclude that studies relying on RMSSD may shorten the windows to 3 min (= 1+2) in SU or seated position only and to 6 min (= 1+2 min SU plus 1+2 min ST) if there is an orthostatic test. Studies relying on time- and frequency-domain parameters need a minimum of 5 min (= 1+4) min SU or seated position only but require 10 min (= 1+4 min SU plus 1+4 min ST) for the orthostatic test. PMID:28848382

  16. New machining method of high precision infrared window part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haicheng; Su, Ying; Xu, Zengqi; Guo, Rui; Li, Wenting; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Xuanmin

    2016-10-01

    Most of the spherical shell of the photoelectric multifunctional instrument was designed as multi optical channel mode to adapt to the different band of the sensor, there were mainly TV, laser and infrared channels. Without affecting the optical diameter, wind resistance and pneumatic performance of the optical system, the overall layout of the spherical shell was optimized to save space and reduce weight. Most of the shape of the optical windows were special-shaped, each optical window directly participated in the high resolution imaging of the corresponding sensor system, and the optical axis parallelism of each sensor needed to meet the accuracy requirement of 0.05mrad.Therefore precision machining of optical window parts quality will directly affect the photoelectric system's pointing accuracy and interchangeability. Processing and testing of the TV and laser window had been very mature, while because of the special nature of the material, transparent and high refractive rate, infrared window parts had the problems of imaging quality and the control of the minimum focal length and second level parallel in the processing. Based on years of practical experience, this paper was focused on how to control the shape and parallel difference precision of infrared window parts in the processing. Single pass rate was increased from 40% to more than 95%, the processing efficiency was significantly enhanced, an effective solution to the bottleneck problem in the actual processing, which effectively solve the bottlenecks in research and production.

  17. The Communication Patterns of Chinese Students with Their Lecturers in an Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ai, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Chinese students are now the largest group of international students in the Australian higher education sector. The patterns of Chinese communication and education affect the ways that Chinese students engage with their lecturers and manage their learning relationships. A case study of these patterns provides a small window through which to…

  18. 49 CFR 230.77 - Foundation brake gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foundation brake gear. 230.77 Section 230.77... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.77 Foundation brake gear. (a) Maintenance. Foundation brake gear...) Distance above the rails. No part of the foundation brake gear of the steam locomotive or tender shall be...

  19. 16 CFR 455.2 - Consumer sales-window form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consumer sales-window form. 455.2 Section... REGULATION RULE § 455.2 Consumer sales—window form. (a) General duty. Before you offer a used vehicle for sale to a consumer, you must prepare, fill in as applicable and display on that vehicle a “Buyers Guide...

  20. Measure Guideline. Wood Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  1. Fused silica windows for solar receiver applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, Johannes; Uhlig, Ralf; Söhn, Matthias; Schenk, Christian; Helsch, Gundula; Bornhöft, Hansjörg

    2016-05-01

    A comprehensive study of optical and mechanical properties of quartz glass (fused silica) with regard to application in high temperature solar receivers is presented. The dependence of rupture strength on different surface conditions as well as high temperature is analyzed, focussing particularly on damage by devitrification and sandblasting. The influence of typical types of contamination in combination with thermal cycling on the optical properties of fused silica is determined. Cleaning methods are compared regarding effectiveness on contamination-induced degradation for samples with and without antireflective coating. The FEM-aided design of different types of receiver windows and their support structure is presented. A large-scale production process has been developed for producing fused silica dome shaped windows (pressurized window) up to a diameter of 816 mm. Prototypes were successfully pressure-tested in a test bench and certified according to the European Pressure Vessel Directive.

  2. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Top Deadly Mistakes Made by Teen Drivers -- AAA AAA: Road debris causes avoidable crashes, deaths Save the ... and 500 deaths! Foundation News Stay Tuned New AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety website coming Fall 2017 ...

  3. Target community foundations to fund family planning.

    PubMed

    1994-04-01

    Practical advice was given on how to secure funding for privately sponsored US family planning programs in local communities. The first step is in identifying community foundations that are directly involved in social service delivery in the local area. For example, Norplant kits were made available to low-income women through a grant from the Baltimore-based Abell Foundation. Another example is that local funds were used to produce a Norplant video, which was needed for outreach programs and for explaining the pros and cons of Norplant use. The short video was designed for multiple audiences, even though it was locally produced and funded in Baltimore. Sometimes the health department can create a consortium of providers for applying for a group grant. The Foundation Center in New York provides information on foundations, including state-by-state analysis of foundations and family planning funded projects. The Foundation Directory and Grants Index publishes by subject a list of foundations funding such areas. These publications are available in network or local libraries. Background information needs to be obtained on the guidelines required for applying for a specific foundation's grant; guidelines may vary widely between foundations and have strict or loose restrictions on form and substance. An important initial step is writing a very brief synthesis of your proposal (2 pages), if there is no prior knowledge of the receptivity of the foundation to the proposed program. If the project is within the scope of the foundation, a larger formal proposal is the next step. Foundations want to see well through out projects, budgeted carefully, with evaluation components. Examples of successful projects conducted elsewhere are good testimonials to the potential success of the proposed venture. Cultural acceptance in the community, pilot projects replicable in other areas, and target populations are important considerations to be included in the proposal.

  4. The Internet and science communication: blurring the boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Warden, R

    2010-01-01

    Scientific research is heavily dependent on communication and collaboration. Research does not exist in a bubble; scientific work must be communicated in order to add it to the body of knowledge within a scientific community, so that its members may ‘stand on the shoulders of giants’ and benefit from all that has come before. The effectiveness of scientific communication is crucial to the pace of scientific progress: in all its forms it enables ideas to be formulated, results to be compared, and replications and improvements to be made. The sharing of science is a foundational aspect of the scientific method. This paper, part of the policy research within the FP7 EUROCANCERCOMS project, discusses how the Internet has changed communication by cancer researchers and how it has the potential to change it still more in the future. It will detail two broad types of communication: formal and informal, and how these are changing with the use of new web tools and technologies. PMID:22276045

  5. Optical performance of segmented aperture windows for solar tower receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Reiner

    2017-06-01

    Segmented quartz windows are a concept to build larger windows for receivers that require a closed aperture. Reflection losses are a significant loss factor for such solar receivers. Without any additional measures, the reflection loss can reach about 12%. One important measure to improve transmission is the application of anti-reflective coatings, which is beneficial in any case. Another option is modifying the window geometry, especially the edge surfaces of the glass segments. A certain fraction of the reflection losses are caused by a light-guide effect in the glass body, for rays entering through the front surface. Changing the cut surfaces in a way reducing the light-guide effect can significantly improve transmission of a segmented window. Several possible configurations are evaluated and discussed. The results of ray-tracing simulations verify the improvement. The final selection of the window configuration depends on the optical properties and on mechanical strength, manufacturing and cost considerations. This has to be evaluated for any specific receiver design.

  6. Window Design Strategies to Conserve Energy. NBS Building Science Series 104.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. Robert; Crenshaw, Richard W.

    A multitude of design strategies are available to achieve energy-efficient windows. Opportunities for improving window performance fall into six groups: site, exterior appendages, frame, glazing, interior accessories, and building interior. Design strategies within these groups can improve one or more of the six energy functions of windows: solar…

  7. Edinburgh and its role in the foundation of Sydney Medical School.

    PubMed

    Walker-Smith, J

    2006-12-01

    In 1882, Thomas Anderson Stuart (1856-1920) was appointed as Foundation Professor of Physiology and Anatomy at the University of Sydney. At the time he was Assistant-Professor of Physiology in the University of Edinburgh. He initiated the building of the Sydney Medical School in Scottish Tudor Gothic style. He attracted notable figures to Sydney Medical School, such as Dr Robert Scot Skirving. The original medical school (now the Anderson Stuart Building) continues today as the pre-clinical medical school of the University of Sydney. Its stained glass windows and many busts of distinguished figures in the history of medicine are a constant reminder of the history of medicine. The building with its gothic architecture and echoes of northern Britain has given generations of Sydney medical students a powerful message, that they were part of an ancient and noble profession. The recruitment of Edinburgh academics to Sydney ended with Professor CG Lambie who retired in 1956. The 1950s were a watershed between the Edinburgh heritage and the Australian future.

  8. Optimal Window and Lattice in Gabor Transform. Application to Audio Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lachambre, Helene; Ricaud, Benjamin; Stempfel, Guillaume; Torrésani, Bruno; Wiesmeyr, Christoph; Onchis-Moaca, Darian

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the use of optimal lattice and optimal window in Discrete Gabor Transform computation. In the case of a generalized Gaussian window, extending earlier contributions, we introduce an additional local window adaptation technique for non-stationary signals. We illustrate our approach and the earlier one by addressing three time-frequency analysis problems to show the improvements achieved by the use of optimal lattice and window: close frequencies distinction, frequency estimation and SNR estimation. The results are presented, when possible, with real world audio signals.

  9. Hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Ostenak, C.A.; Mackay, H.A.

    1985-07-18

    A hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication are disclosed. The composite window comprises a window having first and second sides. The first side is oriented towards an environment containing hydrofluoric acid. An adhesive is applied to the first side. A layer of transparent hydrofluoric acid-resistant material, such as Mylar, is applied to the adhesive and completely covers the first side. The adhesive is then cured.

  10. Demonstration Program for Low-Cost, High-Energy-Saving Dynamic Windows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Design The scope of this project was to demonstrate the impact of dynamic windows via energy savings and HVAC peak-load reduction; to validate the...temperature and glare. While the installed dynamic window system does not directly control the HVAC or lighting of the facility, those systems are designed ...optimize energy efficiency and HVAC load management. The conversion to inoperable windows caused an unforeseen reluctance to accept the design and

  11. Hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Ostenak, Carl A.; Mackay, Harold A.

    1987-01-01

    A hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication are disclosed. The composite window comprises a window having first and second sides. The first side is oriented towards an environment containing hydrofluoric acid. An adhesive is applied to the first side. A layer of transparent hydrofluoric acid-resistant material, such as Mylar, is applied to the adhesive and completely covers the first side. The adhesive is then cured.

  12. Laser-induced damage and fracture in fused silica vacuum windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John H.; Hurst, Patricia A.; Heggins, Dwight D.; Steele, William A.; Bumpas, Stanley E.

    1997-05-01

    Laser induced damage, that initiates catastrophic fracture, has been observed in large, fused silica lenses that also serve as vacuum barriers in high-fluence positions on the Nova and Beamlet lasers. In nearly all cases damage occurs on the vacuum side of the lens. The damage can lead to catastrophic crack growth if the flaw size exceeds the critical flaw size for SiO2. If the elastic stored energy in the lens in high enough, the lens will fracture into many pieces resulting in an implosion. The consequences of such an implosion can be severe, particularly for large vacuum systems. Three parameters control the degree of fracture in the vacuum barrier window: (1) the elastic stored energy, (2) the ratio of the window thickness to flaw depth and (3) secondary crack propagation. Fracture experiments have ben carried our on 15-cm diameter fused silica windows that contain surface flaws caused by laser damage. The results of these experiments, combined with data from window failures on Beamlet and Nova have been sued to develop design criteria for a 'fail-safe' lens. Specifically the window must be made thick enough such that the peak tensile stress is less than 500 psi and the corresponding ratio of the thickness to critical flaw size is less than 6. Under these conditions a properly mounted window, upon failure, will break into only tow pieces and will not implode. One caveat to these design criteria is that the air leak through the window before secondary crack growth occurs. Finite element stress calculations of a window before and immediately following fracture into two pieces show that the elastic stored energy is redistributed if the fragments 'lock' in place and thereby bridge the opening. In such cases, the peak stresses at the flaw site can increase leading to further crack growth.

  13. Microwave window breakdown experiments and simulations on the UM/L-3 relativistic magnetron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, B. W.; Mardahl, P. J.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Haworth, M. D.; French, D. M.; Lau, Y. Y.; Franzi, M.

    2009-09-01

    Experiments have been performed on the UM/L-3 (6-vane, L-band) relativistic magnetron to test a new microwave window configuration designed to limit vacuum side breakdown. In the baseline case, acrylic microwave windows were mounted between three of the waveguide coupling cavities in the anode block vacuum housing and the output waveguides. Each of the six 3 cm deep coupling cavities is separated from its corresponding anode cavity by a 1.75 cm wide aperture. In the baseline case, vacuum side window breakdown was observed to initiate at single waveguide output powers close to 20 MW. In the new window configuration, three Air Force Research Laboratory-designed, vacuum-rated directional coupler waveguide segments were mounted between the coupling cavities and the microwave windows. The inclusion of the vacuum side power couplers moved the microwave windows an additional 30 cm away from the anode apertures. Additionally, the Lucite microwave windows were replaced with polycarbonate windows and the microwave window mounts were redesigned to better maintain waveguide continuity in the region around the microwave windows. No vacuum side window breakdown was observed in the new window configuration at single waveguide output powers of 120+MW (a factor of 3 increase in measured microwave pulse duration and factor of 3 increase in measured peak power over the baseline case). Simulations were performed to investigate likely causes for the window breakdown in the original configuration. Results from these simulations have shown that in the original configuration, at typical operating voltage and magnetic field ranges, electrons emitted from the anode block microwave apertures strike the windows with a mean kinetic energy of 33 keV with a standard deviation of 14 keV. Calculations performed using electron impact angle and energy data predict a first generation secondary electron yield of 65% of the primary electron population. The effects of the primary aperture electron

  14. Miniature Optical Communications Transceiver (MOCT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conklin, John W.; Hunter, Roger C.; Baker, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This project will advance the technology readiness of the Miniature Optical Communications Transceiver (MOCT) from TRL 3 to TRL 4. MOCT consists of a novel software-defined pulse modulator (SDPM),integrated laser system, and avalanche photodetection system, and is designed for optical communications between small spacecraft, including CubeSats, using a pulse position modulation (PPM) scheme. PPM encodes data in the timing of optical pulses with respect to a set of timing windows known as slots. The MOCT design focuses on power-efficiency making it particularly interesting for small satellites. We have demonstrated in the laboratory that this technology can generate shorter than 1 nanosecond-wide 1550 nanometer (nm) optical pulses with better than 50 picosecond (ps) timing accuracy. The timing resolution of this system is roughly a factor of four better than previously flown systems, meaning that it can transmit more bits of data with each optical pulse. Because this technology can both generate and time stamp the arrival of short optical pulses with 50 ps precision, it simultaneously provides power efficient communications and relative ranging between small spacecraft at the centimeter (cm) level.

  15. Understanding communicative actions: a repetitive TMS study.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Volman, Inge; Verhagen, Lennart; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van Elswijk, Gijs; Bloem, Bas; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

    2014-02-01

    Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared symbols, a fundamental property of human communication. Previous work indicates that the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is involved when people understand the intended meaning of novel communicative actions. Here, we set out to test whether normal functioning of this cerebral structure is required for understanding novel communicative actions using inhibitory low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). A factorial experimental design contrasted two tightly matched stimulation sites (right pSTS vs left MT+, i.e., a contiguous homotopic task-relevant region) and tasks (a communicative task vs a visual tracking task that used the same sequences of stimuli). Overall task performance was not affected by rTMS, whereas changes in task performance over time were disrupted according to TMS site and task combinations. Namely, rTMS over pSTS led to a diminished ability to improve action understanding on the basis of recent communicative history, while rTMS over MT+ perturbed improvement in visual tracking over trials. These findings qualify the contributions of the right pSTS to human communicative abilities, showing that this region might be necessary for incorporating previous knowledge, accumulated during interactions with a communicative partner, to constrain the inferential process that leads to action understanding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Active two-phase cooling of an IR window for a hypersonic interceptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burzlaff, B. H.; Chivian, Jay S.; Cotten, W. D.; Hemphill, R. B.; Huhlein, Michael A.

    1993-06-01

    A novel actively cooled window for an IR sensor on a hypersonic interceptor is envisioned which achieves an IR window with high transmittance, low emittance, and low image distortion under high aerodynamic heat flux. The cooling concept employs two-phase convective boiling of liquid ammonia. Coolant is confined to narrow, parallel channels within the window to minimize obscuration of the aperture. The high latent heat of vaporization of ammonia minimizes coolant mass-flow requirements. Low boiling temperatures at projected operating pressures promote high thermal conductivity and low emissivity in the window. The concept was tested with thermal measurements on sub-mm width coolant channels in Si. High values for heat transfer coefficient and critical heat flux were obtained. Thermal gradients within the window can be controlled by the coolant channel configuration. Design options are investigated by predicting the effect of aerodynamic heat flux on the image produced by an IR sensor with a cooled window. Ammonia-cooled IR windows will function in the anticipated aerothermal environment.

  17. The foundation of self-esteem.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Joseph A.

    2003-01-01

    Self-esteem is a simplistic term for varied and complex mental states pertaining to how one views oneself. It takes but little research in the voluminous literature to see the vagueness and inconsistencies in its various definitions. Even more problematic is the uncertainty concerning its foundational components. The importance of having a solid definition and specific ideas about the foundational components of self-esteem is that both pave the way to recognizing its causes; to predicting effects from those causes; and to organizing the trouble-shooting process for locating those philosophical flaws or psychological scars which lead to low self-esteem. The purpose of this paper is to offer a common ground for thinking about self-esteem at its most basic level. In order to distinguish the "basic level" from the rest of the components of self-esteem, let us liken it to a skyscraper building. Here, the focus is on the building's "underground foundation" and the base upon which that foundation rests. The base is a definition that allows for the assessment of the foundation. The underground foundation itself consists of the mental building blocks called self-meaning, self-identity, self-image, and self-concepts. To help illustrate their interactions, a few of the "masks" and "faces" of self-esteem will be mentioned. What is not being addressed is the "above ground structure"--those theories and manifestations dealt with by most mental health specialists. PMID:12793795

  18. The foundation of self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Joseph A

    2003-05-01

    Self-esteem is a simplistic term for varied and complex mental states pertaining to how one views oneself. It takes but little research in the voluminous literature to see the vagueness and inconsistencies in its various definitions. Even more problematic is the uncertainty concerning its foundational components. The importance of having a solid definition and specific ideas about the foundational components of self-esteem is that both pave the way to recognizing its causes; to predicting effects from those causes; and to organizing the trouble-shooting process for locating those philosophical flaws or psychological scars which lead to low self-esteem. The purpose of this paper is to offer a common ground for thinking about self-esteem at its most basic level. In order to distinguish the "basic level" from the rest of the components of self-esteem, let us liken it to a skyscraper building. Here, the focus is on the building's "underground foundation" and the base upon which that foundation rests. The base is a definition that allows for the assessment of the foundation. The underground foundation itself consists of the mental building blocks called self-meaning, self-identity, self-image, and self-concepts. To help illustrate their interactions, a few of the "masks" and "faces" of self-esteem will be mentioned. What is not being addressed is the "above ground structure"--those theories and manifestations dealt with by most mental health specialists.

  19. Design and implementation of laser target simulator in hardware-in-the-loop simulation system based on LabWindows/CVI and RTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Qiujie; Wang, Qianqian; Li, Xiaoyang; Shan, Bin; Cui, Xuntai; Li, Chenyu; Peng, Zhong

    2016-11-01

    In order to satisfy the requirements of the real-time and generality, a laser target simulator in semi-physical simulation system based on RTX+LabWindows/CVI platform is proposed in this paper. Compared with the upper-lower computers simulation platform architecture used in the most of the real-time system now, this system has better maintainability and portability. This system runs on the Windows platform, using Windows RTX real-time extension subsystem to ensure the real-time performance of the system combining with the reflective memory network to complete some real-time tasks such as calculating the simulation model, transmitting the simulation data, and keeping real-time communication. The real-time tasks of simulation system run under the RTSS process. At the same time, we use the LabWindows/CVI to compile a graphical interface, and complete some non-real-time tasks in the process of simulation such as man-machine interaction, display and storage of the simulation data, which run under the Win32 process. Through the design of RTX shared memory and task scheduling algorithm, the data interaction between the real-time tasks process of RTSS and non-real-time tasks process of Win32 is completed. The experimental results show that this system has the strongly real-time performance, highly stability, and highly simulation accuracy. At the same time, it also has the good performance of human-computer interaction.

  20. Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the Lab Homes: Winter Experiment

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Parker, Graham B.; Widder, Sarah H.; Bauman, Nathan N.

    2012-06-01

    This field evaluation of highly insulating windows was undertaken in a matched pair of 'Lab Homes' located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus during the 2012 winter heating season. Improving the insulation and solar heat gain characteristics of a home's windows has the potential to significantly improve the home's building envelope and overall thermal performance by reducing heat loss (in the winter), and cooling loss and solar heat gain (in the summer) through the windows. A high quality installation and/or window retrofit will also minimize or reduce air leakage through the window cavity and thus also contribute tomore » reduced heat loss in the winter and cooling loss in the summer. These improvements all contribute to decreasing overall annual home energy use. Occupant comfort (non-quantifiable) can also be increased by minimizing or eliminating the cold 'draft' (temperature) many residents experience at or near window surfaces that are at a noticeably lower temperature than the room air temperature. Lastly, although not measured in this experiment, highly insulating windows (triple-pane in this experiment) also have the potential to significantly reduce the noise transmittance through windows compared to standard double-pane windows. The metered data taken in the Lab Homes and data analysis presented here represent 70 days of data taken during the 2012 heating season. As such, the savings from highly insulating windows in the experimental home (Lab Home B) compared to the standard double-pane clear glass windows in the baseline home (Lab Home A) are only a portion of the energy savings expected from a year-long experiment that would include a cooling season. The cooling season experiment will take place in the homes in the summer of 2012, and results of that experiment will be reported in a subsequent report available to all stakeholders.« less