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Sample records for witch hazel hamamelis

  1. Witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) fractions and the importance of gallate moieties--electron transfer capacities in their antitumoral properties.

    PubMed

    Lizárraga, Daneida; Touriño, Sonia; Reyes-Zurita, Fernando J; de Kok, Theo M; van Delft, Joost H; Maas, Lou M; Briedé, Jacco J; Centelles, Josep J; Torres, Josep L; Cascante, Marta

    2008-12-24

    Witch hazel (Hamamelis virginia) extracts are used in traditional medicine. They are particularly rich in gallate esters included in proanthocyanidins, hydrolyzable tannins (galloylated sugars), and methyl gallate. This study examines the response of human colon cancer cells to treatment with fractions obtained from a witch hazel polyphenolic extract. The results are compared with those obtained previously with homologous fractions from grape (less galloylated) and pine (nongalloylated). Witch hazel fractions were the most efficient in inhibiting cell proliferation in HT29 and HCT116 human colon cancer cell lines, which clearly shows that the more galloylated the fractions, the more effective they were at inhibiting proliferation of colon cancer cells. Witch hazel fractions were, in addition, more potent in arresting the cell cycle at the S phase and inducing apoptosis; they also induced a significant percentage of necrosis. Interestingly, the apoptosis and cell cycle arrest effects induced were proportional to their galloylation. Moreover, witch hazel fractions with a high degree of galloylation were also the most effective as scavengers of both hydroxyl and superoxide radicals and in protecting against DNA damage triggered by the hydroxyl radical system. These findings provide a better understanding of the structure-bioactivity relationships of polyphenolics, which should be of assistance in choosing an appropriate source and preparing a rational design for formulations of plant polyphenols in nutritional supplements.

  2. Hamamelitannin from witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) displays specific cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Tena, Susana; Fernández-Cachón, María L; Carreras, Anna; Mateos-Martín, M Luisa; Costoya, Noelia; Moyer, Mary P; Nuñez, María J; Torres, Josep L; Cascante, Marta

    2012-01-27

    Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel) bark is a rich source of condensed and hydrolyzable tannins reported to exert a protective action against colon cancer. The present study characterizes different witch hazel tannins as selective cytotoxic agents against colon cancer. To cover the structural diversity of the tannins that occur in H. virginiana bark, the hydrolyzable tannins, hamamelitannin and pentagalloylglucose, together with a proanthocyanidin-rich fraction (F800H4) were selected for the study. Treatment with these compounds reduced tumor viability and induced apoptosis, necrosis, and S-phase arrest in the cell cycle of HT29 cells, with hamamelitannin being the most efficient. Owing to polyphenol-mediated H(2)O(2) formation in the incubation media, the antiproliferative effect was determined in the presence and absence of catalase to rule out any such interference. The presence of catalase significantly changed the IC(50) only for F800H4. Furthermore, at concentrations that inhibit the growth of HT29 cells by 50%, hamamelitannin had no harmful effects on NCM460 normal colonocytes, whereas pentagalloylglucose inhibited both cancerous and normal cell growth. Using the TNPTM assay, we identified a highly reactive phenolic position in hamamelitannin, which may explain its efficacy at inhibiting colon cancer growth.

  3. Evolution and biogeographic diversification of the witch-hazel genus (Hamamelis L., Hamamelidaceae) in the Northern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lei; Yi, Ting-Shuang; Li, Rong; Li, De-Zhu; Wen, Jun

    2010-08-01

    The evolution of the eastern Asian and eastern North American disjunction of the witch-hazel genus Hamamelis L. (Hamamelidaceae) was examined through phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses. Phylogenetic relationships of all Hamamelis species were reconstructed using parsimony and Bayesian analyses of sequence data from six plastid (trnL-F, psaA-ycf3, rps16, matK, atpB-rbcL, and psbA-trnH) and two nuclear (ITS and ETS) DNA regions. The phylogeny was then used to infer the biogeographic origin and subsequent diversification using both event-based (DIVA) and maximum likelihood (LAGRANGE) methods incorporating fossil data. The times of divergence within Hamamelis were estimated with the Bayesian approach using the program BEAST. A very low level of molecular variation was detected in both the plastid and the nuclear DNA regions within Hamamelis. The combined analyses resulted in a phylogeny of the genus with higher resolution and support values. Hamamelis was supported to be monophyletic with H. mollis from eastern China diverged first in the genus. All North American species formed a clade and was sister to the eastern Asian H. japonica. Within the North American clade, H. mexicana was sister to H. vernalis, and the recently described species H. ovalis was found to be closely related to the widespread species H. virginiana. The stem age of Hamamelis was estimated to be at the Eocene (51.2 mya, with 95% HDP: 49.0-54.6 mya), and the crown age of the genus was dated to be at the late Miocene (9.7 mya, with 95% HDP: 3.6-18.1 mya, or 10.6 mya, with 95% HDP: 4.2-19.6 mya). The disjunction between the eastern Asian and the eastern North American species was dated to be 7.1 mya (95% HDP: 3.1-13.6 mya) or 7.7 mya (95% HDP: 3.4-13.6 mya). Biogeographic analyses incorporating fossils resulted in more equally possible solutions at the stem lineage of Hamamelis than those including extant species only. Eastern Asia is inferred to be the most-likely area for the origin of

  4. North American Virginian Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana): Based Scalp Care and Protection for Sensitive Scalp, Red Scalp, and Scalp Burn-Out.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2014-07-01

    A sensitive scalp is a frequent problem in daily clinical practice and often represents a major challenge for dermatologists. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a Northamerican Virginian Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana)-based shampoo and tonic (Erol(®) Energy) for treatment of the sensitive scalp. Retrospective observational study of male and female patients given Erol(®) Energy products in the period between August 2010 and December 2013 at the Center for Dermatology and Hair Diseases Professor Trüeb to treat irritable scalp conditions or as concomitant treatment to minoxidil therapy for androgenetic alocepia. Shampoo was applied successfully in 1,373 patients (1,233 women and 140 men). Patients reported improvement of subjective manifestations of irritation and rated tolerance of both products as good to excellent. During this period, 369 (26.9%) have received Erol(®) shampoo more than once. The choice of appropriate hair-care products represents an important aspect in the management of the sensitive scalp and related conditions. With the Erol(®) Energy hair-care products, the advantages of H. virginiana are available for successful treatment of the scalp, especially in the context of problems associated with red scalp, scalp burn-out, and the use of topical minoxidil for androgenetic alopecia.

  5. North American Virginian Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana): Based Scalp Care and Protection for Sensitive Scalp, Red Scalp, and Scalp Burn-Out

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2014-01-01

    Background: A sensitive scalp is a frequent problem in daily clinical practice and often represents a major challenge for dermatologists. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a Northamerican Virginian Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana)-based shampoo and tonic (Erol® Energy) for treatment of the sensitive scalp. Methods: Retrospective observational study of male and female patients given Erol® Energy products in the period between August 2010 and December 2013 at the Center for Dermatology and Hair Diseases Professor Trüeb to treat irritable scalp conditions or as concomitant treatment to minoxidil therapy for androgenetic alocepia. Results: Shampoo was applied successfully in 1,373 patients (1,233 women and 140 men). Patients reported improvement of subjective manifestations of irritation and rated tolerance of both products as good to excellent. During this period, 369 (26.9%) have received Erol® shampoo more than once. Conclusions: The choice of appropriate hair-care products represents an important aspect in the management of the sensitive scalp and related conditions. With the Erol® Energy hair-care products, the advantages of H. virginiana are available for successful treatment of the scalp, especially in the context of problems associated with red scalp, scalp burn-out, and the use of topical minoxidil for androgenetic alopecia. PMID:25210333

  6. Highly galloylated tannin fractions from witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) bark: electron transfer capacity, in vitro antioxidant activity, and effects on skin-related cells.

    PubMed

    Touriño, Sonia; Lizárraga, Daneida; Carreras, Anna; Lorenzo, Sonia; Ugartondo, Vanessa; Mitjans, Montserrat; Vinardell, María Pilar; Juliá, Luis; Cascante, Marta; Torres, Josep Lluís

    2008-03-01

    Witch hazel ( Hammamelis virginiana) bark is a rich source of both condensed and hydrolizable oligomeric tannins. From a polyphenolic extract soluble in both ethyl acetate and water, we have generated fractions rich in pyrogallol-containing polyphenols (proanthocyanidins, gallotannins, and gallates). The mixtures were highly active as free radical scavengers against ABTS, DPPH (hydrogen donation and electron transfer), and HNTTM (electron transfer). They were also able to reduce the newly introduced TNPTM radical, meaning that they included some highly reactive components. Witch hazel phenolics protected red blood cells from free radical-induced hemolysis and were mildly cytotoxic to 3T3 fibroblasts and HaCat keratinocytes. They also inhibited the proliferation of tumoral SK-Mel 28 melanoma cells at lower concentrations than grape and pine procyanidins. The high content in pyrogallol moieties may be behind the effect of witch hazel phenolics on skin cells. Because the most cytotoxic and antiproliferative mixtures were also the most efficient as electron transfer agents, we hypothesize that the final putative antioxidant effect of polyphenols may be in part attributed to the stimulation of defense systems by mild prooxidant challenges provided by reactive oxygen species generated through redox cycling.

  7. Geographic variation and evolution in the life cycle of the witch-hazel leaf gall aphid, Hormaphis hamamelidis.

    PubMed

    von Dohlen, C D; Gill, D E

    1989-02-01

    Two divergent life cycles associated with different elevations and latitudes have been documented for the witch-hazel leaf gall aphid, Hormaphis hamamelidis. At low elevation in northern Virginia, the aphid had seven distinct generations alternating between the primary host, witchhazel (Hamamelis virginiana), and a secondary host, river birch (Betula nigra). These findings confirm the original published life cycle description for the same locality. A second, abbreviated life cycle consisting of only three generations restricted to witch-hazel was discovered at high elevation (1000 m) in north central and northwestern Virginia. Aphids of both life cycles were sympatric at a middle elevation site. The life cycles and morphology suggest that the two forms are separate species. Although monoecious life cycles on primary hosts in aphids generally are thought to be ancestral to complex host-alternating ones, it is certainly possible that monoecious cycles are sometimes secondarily derived from complex cycles. By constructing a preliminary phylogeny of the described species in the tribe Hormaphidini, we propose that the abbreviated life cycle is derived from the complex one in the case of these witchhazel gall aphids. Our findings are discussed in the context of current theory regarding the evolutionary stability of complex life cycles.

  8. Peroxynitrite scavenging activity of herb extracts.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye Rhi; Choi, Jae Sue; Han, Yong Nam; Bae, Song Ja; Chung, Hae Young

    2002-06-01

    Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is a cytotoxicant with strong oxidizing properties toward various cellular constituents, including sulphydryls, lipids, amino acids and nucleotides and can cause cell death, lipid peroxidation, carcinogenesis and aging. The aim of this study was to characterize ONOO(-) scavenging constituents from herbs. Twenty-eight herbs were screened for their ONOO(-) scavenging activities with the use of a fluorometric method. The potency of scavenging activity following the addition of authentic ONOO(-) was in the following order: witch hazel bark > rosemary > jasmine tea > sage > slippery elm > black walnut leaf > Queen Anne's lace > Linden flower. The extracts exhibited dose-dependent ONOO(-) scavenging activities. We found that witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana L.) bark showed the strongest effect for scavenging ONOO(-) of the 28 herbs. Hamamelitannin, the major active component of witch hazel bark, was shown to have a strong ability to scavenge ONOO(-). It is suggested that hamamelitannin might be developed as an effective peroxynitrite scavenger for the prevention of ONOO(-) involved diseases. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Antioxidant and potential anti-inflammatory activity of extracts and formulations of white tea, rose, and witch hazel on primary human dermal fibroblast cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous reports have identified therapeutic roles for plants and their extracts and constituents. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacies of three plant extracts for their potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in primary human skin fibroblasts. Methods Aqueous extracts and formulations of white tea, witch hazel and rose were subjected to assays to measure anti-collagenase, anti-elastase, trolox equivalent and catalase activities. Skin fibroblast cells were employed to determine the effect of each extract/formulation on IL-8 release induced by the addition of hydrogen peroxide. Microscopic examination along with Neutral Red viability testing was employed to ascertain the effects of hydrogen peroxide directly on cell viability. Results Considerable anti-collagenase, anti-elastase, and antioxidant activities were measured for all extracts apart from the witch hazel distillate which showed no activity in the collagenase assay or in the trolox equivalence assay. All of the extracts and products tested elicited a significant decrease in the amount of IL-8 produced by fibroblast cells compared to the control (p < 0.05). None of the test samples exhibited catalase activity or had a significant effect on the spontaneous secretion of IL-8 in the control cells which was further corroborated with the microscopy results and the Neutral Red viability test. Conclusions These data show that the extracts and products tested have a protective effect on fibroblast cells against hydrogen peroxide induced damage. This approach provides a potential method to evaluate the claims made for plant extracts and the products in which these extracts are found. PMID:21995704

  10. Impact of thermal processing on the activity of gallotannins and condensed tannins from Hamamelis virginiana used as functional ingredients in seafood.

    PubMed

    González, María Jesús; Torres, Josep Lluís; Medina, Isabel

    2010-04-14

    Phenolic extracts from witch hazel, Hamamelis virginiana, are efficient antioxidants against fish lipid peroxidation. The impact of fish thermal processes on the hydrolyzable polyphenols from this source was studied. H. virginiana polyphenols included 80% of hydrolyzable tannins, characterized by a mixture of glucose gallates containing from 5 to 10 units of gallic acid, hamamelitannin, and 20% of proanthocyanidins. Structural modifications of the polyphenols during thermal processes were determined by HPLC-MS. Changes in their reducing and free radical scavenging capacities as a result of high temperatures were also determined. Thermal processes triggered a significant breakdown of hydrolyzable tannins with 6-10 galloyl units to give pentagalloyl glucose (PGG). The release of high concentrations of free gallic acid especially in long-term thermally processed samples leads to an increase of the antioxidant ability of heated H. virginiana extracts. Such an increase was evidenced by an increment in the reducing and radical scavenging capacities as well as an improvement in the antioxidant effectiveness for inhibiting lipid oxidation of processed fatty fish muscle.

  11. The Birth of Miriam Hazel

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Rachel Shapiro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT My birth story for Miriam Hazel starts well before her birth, with the birth of her sister, our first-born daughter Colbie Laia. When I gave birth to our first daughter 3 years prior, I was in a completely different place with my body and my mind. Birth was scary, recovery was rough, and my first year followed suit. During my pregnancy with Miriam Hazel, my obstetrician encouraged me to consider a natural birth. I talked to other women and although still frightened, I became more confident and had the birth I never knew I wanted. The birth of Miriam Hazel was incredible and the recovery was completely different. This is my story of Miriam Hazel’s birth. PMID:26834441

  12. Communication, Litigation, and Financial Auditing: Grady Hazel's Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Richard David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the substance of an interview with Grady R. Hazel, Executive Director of the Society of Louisiana Certified Public Accountants (CPAs). Hazel has been director of the Society of Louisiana CPAs since 1995. The 6,500-member organization is headquartered in Kenner, a suburb of New Orleans. A native of Baton Rouge, Hazel has been…

  13. Hamamelis virginiana ‘Sunglow’

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An upright, dense-blooming American witchhazel cultivar (Hamamelis virginiana L. ‘Sunglow’) was released by the U.S. National Arboretum. ‘Sunglow’ has grown 6.5 m high and 2.4 m wide in 12 years in McMinnville, TN. Yellow fall leaf color develops in mid-autumn. In late autumn, ‘Sunglow’ is covered...

  14. Anti-inflammatory effect of hamamelis lotion in a UVB erythema test.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Formella, B J; Bohnsack, K; Rippke, F; Benner, G; Rudolph, M; Tausch, I; Gassmueller, J

    1998-01-01

    Although Hamamelis virginiana has long been used in the traditional treatment of skin diseases, there are few controlled clinical studies defining the extent of its anti-inflammatory action. The anti-inflammatory efficacy of pH5 Eucerin aftersun lotion with 10% hamamelis distillate, the vehicle and a prior aftersun formulation were tested in 30 healthy volunteers using a modified UVB erythema test as model of inflammation. Four UVB doses ranging from 1 to 2 MED were evaluated in each subject. Test fields on the back were treated occlusively for 48 h following irradiation. Chromametry and visual scoring were used to determine the degree of erythema in the treated fields and an untreated, irradiated control field 7, 24 and 48 h after irradiation. Erythema suppression ranged from approximately 20% of 7 h to 27% at 48 h in the hamamelis fields. A suppression of 11-15% was recorded in the fields treated with the other lotions. Significant differences were noted between hamamelis and these lotions. These data provide evidence for an anti-inflammatory action of the aftersun lotion with 10% hamamelis and support the usefulness of the UVB erythema test with multiple UV doses for the testing of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents.

  15. Characterization of Chilean hazel nut sweet cookies.

    PubMed

    Villarroel, M; Biolley, E; Bravo, S; Carrasco, P; Ríos, P

    1993-05-01

    A series of studies were carried out to test the effect of the incorporation of Chilean hazel nut flour in sweet cookies at the levels of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. The proximate chemical analysis of the different flour mixtures showed a regular increase from 7.2 to 12.2%, 14.5% to 18.8% and 1% to 2.2%, respectively, decreasing at the same time with the percentages of water and carbohydrates. Chemical amino acid scores of leucine and threonine in wheat flour improved with the incorporation of Chilean hazel nut flour. The farinographic evaluation made to the different blends showed several changes occurred with the incorporation of Chilean hazel nut flour to wheat flour. These included increase in water absorption, decrease in dough developing time and weakening of the dough. Sensory characteristics such as appearance, texture, flavor and also acceptability improved with the incorporation of Chilean hazel nut flour into the cookie formulas.

  16. Discovery of a quorum-sensing inhibitor of drug-resistant staphylococcal infections by structure-based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Kiran, Madanahally D; Adikesavan, Nallini Vijayarangan; Cirioni, Oscar; Giacometti, Andrea; Silvestri, Carmela; Scalise, Giorgio; Ghiselli, Roberto; Saba, Vittorio; Orlando, Fiorenza; Shoham, Menachem; Balaban, Naomi

    2008-05-01

    Staphylococci are a major health threat because of increasing resistance to antibiotics. An alternative to antibiotic treatment is preventing virulence by inhibition of bacterial cell-to-cell communication using the quorum-sensing inhibitor RNAIII-inhibiting peptide (RIP). In this work, we identified 2',5-di-O-galloyl-d-hamamelose (hamamelitannin) as a nonpeptide analog of RIP by virtual screening of a RIP-based pharmacophore against a database of commercially available small-molecule compounds. Hamamelitannin is a natural product found in the bark of Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel), and it has no effect on staphylococcal growth in vitro; but like RIP, it does inhibit the quorum-sensing regulator RNAIII. In a rat graft model, hamamelitannin prevented device-associated infections in vivo, including infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. These findings suggest that hamamelitannin may be used as a suppressor to staphylococcal infections.

  17. [Polyphenol compounds from Hamamelis virginiana L].

    PubMed

    Kostálová, D; Misíková, E; Gáborová, G

    2001-01-01

    Two phenolic acids and two flavone aglycones were isolated from the aboveground part of Hamamelis virginiana L. and identified with the use of thin-layer chromatography, melting points, and spectroscopic methods as gallic acid, ethyl gallate, quercetin, and kaempferol.

  18. Which plant for which skin disease? Part 2: Dermatophytes, chronic venous insufficiency, photoprotection, actinic keratoses, vitiligo, hair loss, cosmetic indications.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Juliane; Wölfle, Ute; Korting, Hans Christian; Schempp, Christoph

    2010-11-01

    This paper continues our review of scientifically evaluated plant extracts in dermatology. After plants effective against dermatophytes, botanicals with anti-edema effects in chronic venous insufficiency are discussed. There is good evidence from randomized clinical studies that plant extracts from grape vine leaves (Vitis vinifera), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), sea pine (Pinus maritima) and butcher's broom (Ruscus aculeatus) can reduce edema in chronic venous insufficiency. Plant extracts from witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana), green tea (Camellia sinensis), the fern Polypodium leucotomos and others contain antioxidant polyphenolic compounds that may protect the skin from sunburn and photoaging when administered topically or systemically. Extracts from the garden spurge (Euphorbia peplus) and from birch bark (Betula alba) have been shown to be effective in the treatment of actinic keratoses in phase II studies. Some plant extracts have also been investigated in the treatment of vitiligo, various forms of hair loss and pigmentation disorders, and in aesthetic dermatology. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  19. Effects of prescribed burning on hazel in Minnesota

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Buckman

    1964-01-01

    Single or repeated spring prescribed fires and single summer fires easily kill aerial stems of hazel (Corylus spp.). Although vigorous and abundant resprouting follows spring fires, resprouting is less vigorous after summer fire. Repeated summer fires destroy the ability of hazel to resprout by (1) exposing and destroying underground stem systems and...

  20. Conversion of phenolic constituents in aqueous Hamamelis virginiana leaf extracts during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Duckstein, Sarina M; Lorenz, Peter; Stintzing, Florian C

    2012-01-01

    Hamamelis virginiana, known for its high level of tannins and other phenolics is widely used for treatment of dermatological disorders. Although reports on hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts from Hamamelis leaf and bark exist, knowledge on fermented leaf preparations and the underlying conversion processes are still scant. Aqueous Hamamelis leaf extracts were monitored during fermentation and maturation in order to obtain an insight into the bioconversion of tannins and other phenolics. Aliquots taken during the production period were investigated by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS as well as GC-MS after derivatisation into the corresponding trimethylsilyl compounds. In Hamamelis leaf extracts, the main constituents exhibited changes during the observational period of 6 months. By successive depside bond cleavage, the gallotannins were completely transformed into gallic acid after 1 month. Although not completely, kaempferol and quercetin glycosides were also converted during 6 months to yield their corresponding aglycones. Following C-ring fission, phloroglucinol was formed from the A-ring of both flavonols. The B-ring afforded 3-hydroxybenzoic acid from quercetin and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid as well as 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-ethanol from kaempferol. Interestingly, hydroxycinnamic acids remained almost stable in the same time range. The present study broadens the knowledge on conversion processes in aqueous fermented extracts containing tannins, flavonol glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acids. In particular, the analogy between the microbial metabolism of phenolics from fermented Hamamelis extracts, fermented sourdough by heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria or conversion of phenolics by the human microbial flora is indicated. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Alfalfa witches'-broom

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa witches'-broom was first reported in 1969 in Australia and later in South Africa, Canada, and Saudi Arabia. More recently, specific phytoplasmas associated with alfalfa witches'-broom have been identified from symptomatic plants in the United States (Wisconsin), Italy, Lithuania, Oman, Ira...

  2. Structure-activity relationships of polyphenols to prevent lipid oxidation in pelagic fish muscle.

    PubMed

    Pazos, Manuel; Iglesias, Jacobo; Maestre, Rodrigo; Medina, Isabel

    2010-10-27

    The influence of polymerization (number of monomers) and galloylation (content of esterified gallates) of oligomeric catechins (proanthocyanidins) on their effectiveness to prevent lipid oxidation in pelagic fish muscle was evaluated. Non-galloylated oligomers of catechin with diverse mean polymerization (1.9-3.4 monomeric units) were extracted from pine (Pinus pinaster) bark. Homologous fractions with galloylation ranging from 0.25 to <1 gallate group per molecule were obtained from grape (Vitis vinifera) and witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana). The results showed the convenience of proanthocyanidins with medium size (2-3 monomeric units) and low galloylation degree (0.15-0.25 gallate group/molecule) to inhibit lipid oxidation in pelagic fish muscle. These optimal structural characteristics of proanthocyanidins were similar to those lately reported in fish oil-in-water emulsions using phosphatidylcholine as emulsifier. This finding suggests that the antioxidant behavior of polyphenols in muscle-based foods can be mimicked in emulsions prepared with phospholipids as emulsifier agents. The present data give relevant information to achieve an optimum use of polyphenols in pelagic fish muscle.

  3. Many to flower, few to fruit: the reproductive biology of Hamamelis virginiana (Hamamelidaceae).

    PubMed

    Anderson, Gregory J; Hill, James D

    2002-01-01

    Hamamelis virginiana flowers from late September to late November. In 1977, we began studying the reproductive biology of this eastern North American arborescent shrub by examining floral phenology and rewards, pollen-ovule ratios, breeding system, pollination, pollinator and resource limitation, and seed dispersal. The homogamous, self-incompatible flowers emit a faint odor, bear nectar with sucrose ratios typical of bee- and fly-pollinated flowers, and produce abundant sticky pollen. Flowers were visited infrequently by insects representing six orders. Flies were the most common floral visitors, specifically members of the genus Bradysia, but small bees also carried high percentages of Hamamelis pollen. Despite high pollen/ovule ratios (11 445 grains/ovule), bees and flies are likely pollinators, as experiments indicate wind pollination is less likely. Pollen quantity and resource availability did not appear to limit reproductive output, but pollen quality did. Tests of >40 000 flowers showed natural fruit set to be <1%. The flowering time, breeding system, and clumped distribution of plants, likely due in part to limited seed dispersal, combine to yield this remarkably low fruit set. Because all other species of Hamamelis flower from late winter to early summer, it may be that H. virginiana evolved a fall flowering phenology to avoid competition for pollinators with the closely related H. vernalis.

  4. The combined effects of exogenous and endogenous variability on the spatial distribution of ant communities in a forested ecosystem (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Yitbarek, Senay; Vandermeer, John H; Allen, David

    2011-10-01

    Spatial patterns observed in ecosystems have traditionally been attributed to exogenous processes. Recently, ecologists have found that endogenous processes also have the potential to create spatial patterns. Yet, relatively few studies have attempted to examine the combined effects of exogenous and endogenous processes on the distribution of organisms across spatial and temporal scales. Here we aim to do this, by investigating whether spatial patterns of under-story tree species at a large spatial scale (18 ha) influences the spatial patterns of ground foraging ant species at a much smaller spatial scale (20 m by 20 m). At the regional scale, exogenous processes (under-story tree community) had a strong effect on the spatial patterns in the ground-foraging ant community. We found significantly more Camponotus noveboracensis, Formica subsericae, and Lasius alienus species in black cherry (Prunis serotine Ehrh.) habitats. In witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana L.) habitats, we similarly found significantly more Myrmica americana, Formica fusca, and Formica subsericae. At smaller spatial scales, we observed the emergence of mosaic ant patches changing rapidly in space and time. Our study reveals that spatial patterns are the result of both exogenous and endogenous forces, operating at distinct scales.

  5. Conversion of D-hamamelose into 2-carboxy-D-arabinitol and 2-carboxy-D-arabinitol 1-phosphate in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Andralojc, P J; Keys, A J; Martindale, W; Dawson, G W; Parry, M A

    1996-10-25

    [1-14C]Hamamelose (2-hydroxymethyl-D-ribose) was synthesized by reaction of ribulose 5-phosphate with potassium [14C]cyanide, catalytic hydrogenation of the resulting cyanohydrin, and dephosphorylation of the product. Its identity was established by a chromatographic comparison with hamamelose isolated from the bark of witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana L.). Following vacuum infiltration of the [1-14C]hamamelose into leaf discs from Phaseolus vulgaris L., 14C-labeled 2carboxy-D-arabinitol (CA) and 2-carboxy-D-arabinitol 1-phosphate (CA1P) were formed, in the dark. Conversion of hamamelose to both CA and CA1P in the leaf discs was inhibited by dithiothreitol and sodium fluoride, although at high concentrations of these inhibitors conversion into CA was still evident when conversion into CA1P was totally inhibited. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves converted hamamelose into CA without formation of CA1P. Leaves from P. vulgaris contained 68 nmol.g-1 fresh weight of hamamelose in the light and 35 nmol.g-1 fresh weight in the dark. A pathway for the biosynthesis of CA1P from Calvin cycle intermediates is proposed which includes the sequence: hamamelose --> CA --> CA1P.

  6. Novel Galloylhamameloses from Hamamelis virginiana1.

    PubMed

    Haberland, C; Kolodziej, H

    1994-10-01

    The range of natural galloylhamameloses is extended by the recognition of the highly unstable novel analogues, the 1- O-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-2',5-di- O-galloyl-alpha- D-hamamelofuranose and its 1- O-beta-anomer. The observed facile elimination of the C-1 acyl moiety is discussed and a mechanism proposed. These compounds are accompanied in the bark of HAMAMELIS VIRGINIANA by the "conventional" hamamelitannin, the related new 1,2',5-tri- O-galloyl-alpha- D-hamamelofuranose, and a tentatively characterized di- O-galloyl- D-hamamelopyranose, the first pyranose analogue, shown to be also present in commercially available hamamelitannin. The structures of these compounds were established from spectroscopic evidence of their acetate derivatives.

  7. Galloylated polyphenols efficiently reduce alpha-tocopherol radicals in a phospholipid model system composed of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles.

    PubMed

    Pazos, Manuel; Torres, Josep Lluís; Andersen, Mogens L; Skibsted, Leif H; Medina, Isabel

    2009-06-10

    The ability of several polyphenolic fractions from grape ( Vitis vinifera ) pomace, pine ( Pinus pinaster ) bark, and witch hazel ( Hammamelis virginiana ) bark to repair alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TOH) through reduction of the alpha-tocopheroxyl radical was investigated in a homogeneous hexane system and a phospholipid-like system based on SDS micelles. These natural polyphenols were compared with pure related phenolics (epicatechin, gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, and rutin) and ascorbic acid, which is a substance with a well-recognized capacity for regenerating alpha-TOH. alpha-Tocopheroxyl radicals were monitored and quantified by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy in the absence and presence of phenolics. Polyphenols from grape and pine bark were essentially catechin monomers and proanthocyanidins differing in the content of galloyl residues; those from pine bark had a negligible degree of galloylation. Polyphenolic fractions from witch hazel bark were composed of approximately 80% hydrolyzable tannins rich in galloyl moieties, together with a smaller amount of catechin monomers and proanthocyanidins. In the homogeneous hexane system, polyphenols from grape and pine bark exhibited similar activities, reducing the alpha-tocopheroxyl radicals by over 27-40%, whereas phenols from witch hazel were more highly effective, reducing 80% of alpha-TOH. In contrast, pine bark polyphenols were found to be significantly less active than the grape fractions in SDS micelles, reducing 30 and 70% of alpha-tocopheroxyl radicals, respectively. Polyphenolic fractions from witch hazel were also able to reduce the highest amount of alpha-TOH in SDS-micelles. The reducing capacity on alpha-tocopheroxyl radical of polyphenolic fractions was found to be pH-dependent and more effective at higher pH in the range of pH studied (5.8-7.8). These results stress the potential role of polyphenols, in particular those rich in galloyl groups, to maintain intact endogenous

  8. Child witch hunts in contemporary Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2011-09-01

    The persecution of children as witches has received widespread reportage in the international mass media. In recent years, hundreds of children have been killed, maimed and abandoned across Africa based on individual and village-level accusations of witchcraft. Despite the media focus, to date, very little systematic study has investigated the phenomenon. In this case study, the persecution of child witches in Ghana is studied to explore the nature and patterns of witch hunts against children in the West African nation. There are no reliable national data on child abuse related to witchcraft accusations in Ghana. For this study, 13 cases of child witch hunts appearing in the local media during 1994-2009 were analyzed. Case summaries were constructed for each incident to help identify the socio-demographic characteristics of assailants and victims, victim-offender relationships, the methods of attacks, the spatial characteristics, as well as the motivations for the attacks. Children branded as witches ranged in age from 1-month-old to 17-years-old, were primarily from poor backgrounds, and lived in rural areas of the country. Accusations of witchcraft and witch assaults were lodged by close family members often through the encouragement of, or in concert with Christian clergymen and fetish priests. Accused witches were physically brutalized, tortured, neglected, and in two cases, murdered. For school-aged children, imputations of witchcraft contributed to stigmatization in both the community and at school, resulting in dropping out. The most frequently expressed reason for persecution of the child was suspicion that the child had used witchcraft to cause the death or illness of family relations or someone in the community. Another reason was suspicion that the child was responsible for the business failure or financial difficulties of a perceived victim. The results of this research are consistent with findings in the witchcraft literature suggesting that seemingly

  9. Polymeric proanthocyanidins from the bark of Hamamelis virginiana.

    PubMed

    Dauer, A; Rimpler, H; Hensel, A

    2003-01-01

    Polymeric proanthocyanidins were isolated from the bark of Hamamelis virginiana L. in yields of about 5 %. Fractionation yielded fractions with similar structures but different molecular weights with DP between 17-29 (thiolysis) and 11-20 (GPC). Polymers were composed predominantly of epicatechin and epigallocatechin as chain extension units at ratio of about 1.3:1. Terminal chain units were catechin (approximately 95 %) and gallocatechin (approximately 5 %). All chain extension units were completely galloylated at position O-3, while chain terminating units were not galloylated. Predominant interflavan linkages were 4 --> 8-bonds.

  10. STATUS OF CACAO WITCHES' BROOM: biology, epidemiology, and management.

    PubMed

    Purdy, L H; Schmidt, R A

    1996-01-01

    Origins of Theobroma cacao and Crinipellis perniciosa occurred in the Amazon Basin region of South America, and their interaction, the witches' broom disease, was first described in the late 1700s. The 100 years of scientific investigations of witches' broom of cacao that began in the 1890s developed the present state of knowledge of the biology and epidemiology of witches' broom that are discussed. Recommended management to reduce the deleterious effects of witches' broom on cacao production include the use of phytosanitation (removal of diseased plant parts), applications of chemical fungicides, and the use of host resistance. At present, there is a paucity of resistant planting materials, and efforts to evaluate germplasm for resistance to witches' broom are described. Research topics to augment present knowledge about witches' broom of cacao are presented with the hope that disease management can be improved.

  11. American Indians, Witchcraft, and Witch-hunting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Explores North American Indian beliefs about witchcraft and witch-hunting. Focuses on the ideas and actions of the Iroquois about witchcraft. Addresses the changes in ideas of North American Indians living in the nineteenth century. Notes the transition from men and women perceived as witches to mostly females. (CMK)

  12. 11. LAUREL POOL, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM HAZEL WALK Photocopy of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. LAUREL POOL, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM HAZEL WALK Photocopy of photograph, 1930s National Park Service, National Capital Region files - Dumbarton Oaks Park, Thirty-second & R Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. 'Witch Head' Brews Baby Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    A witch appears to be screaming out into space in this new image from NASA's Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE. The infrared portrait shows the Witch Head nebula, named after its resemblance to the profile of a wicked witch. Astronomers say the billowy clouds of the nebula, where baby stars are brewing, are being lit up by massive stars. Dust in the cloud is being hit with starlight, causing it to glow with infrared light, which was picked up by WISE's detectors. The Witch Head nebula is estimated to be hundreds of light-years away in the Orion constellation, just off the famous hunter's knee. WISE was recently "awakened" to hunt for asteroids in a program called NEOWISE. The reactivation came after the spacecraft was put into hibernation in 2011, when it completed two full scans of the sky, as planned. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  14. 9. CLIFTON HILL, LOOKING NORTHEAST ACROSS STREAM FROM HAZEL WALK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. CLIFTON HILL, LOOKING NORTHEAST ACROSS STREAM FROM HAZEL WALK Photocopy of photograph, 1930s National Park Service, National Capital Region files - Dumbarton Oaks Park, Thirty-second & R Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. 10. CLIFTON HILL, LOOKING NORTHWEST ACROSS STREAM FROM HAZEL WALK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. CLIFTON HILL, LOOKING NORTHWEST ACROSS STREAM FROM HAZEL WALK Photocopy of photograph, 1930s National Park Service, National Capital Region files - Dumbarton Oaks Park, Thirty-second & R Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. Witchcraft beliefs and witch hunts: an interdisciplinary explanation.

    PubMed

    Koning, Niek

    2013-06-01

    This paper proposes an interdisciplinary explanation of the cross-cultural similarities and evolutionary patterns of witchcraft beliefs. It argues that human social dilemmas have led to the evolution of a fear system that is sensitive to signs of deceit and envy. This was adapted in the evolutionary environment of small foraging bands but became overstimulated by the consequences of the Agricultural Revolution, leading to witch paranoia. State formation, civilization, and economic development abated the fear of witches and replaced it in part with more collectivist forms of social paranoia. However, demographic-economic crises could rekindle fear of witches-resulting, for example, in the witch craze of early modern Europe. The Industrial Revolution broke the Malthusian shackles, but modern economic growth requires agricultural development as a starting point. In sub-Saharan Africa, witch paranoia has resurged because the conditions for agricultural development are lacking, leading to fighting for opportunities and an erosion of intergenerational reciprocity.

  17. High molecular compounds (polysaccharides and proanthocyanidins) from Hamamelis virginiana bark: influence on human skin keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation and influence on irritated skin.

    PubMed

    Deters, A; Dauer, A; Schnetz, E; Fartasch, M; Hensel, A

    2001-11-01

    Although extracts from Hamamelis bark have long been used in therapy of skin diseases and in cosmetic formulas there are only few pharmacological investigations verifying the activity of distinct Hamamelis bark constituents. Therefore two major classes of constituents, namely polymeric proanthocyanidins and polysaccharides were isolated from Hamamelis bark and tested concerning their influence on proliferation and differentiation of cultured human keratinocytes. While the polysaccharide fraction, consisting mainly of arabans and arabinogalactans, did not effect human keratinozytes, the proanthocyanidins strongly increased the proliferation of the cells, while the differentiation was not influenced significantly. Within a preliminary cumulative in vivo study on SLS-irritated skin, proanthocyanidins (ProcyanoPlus) were proven to reduce transepidermal water loss and erythema formation. Furthermore, a clinical scoring indicated that procyanidins can influence irritative processes significantly.

  18. History with Flowers: Soldiers Woundwort to Quaker Rouge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloutier, Anne

    1983-01-01

    Ways to relate wild plants to history are given. Plants discussed are Queen Anne's lace, trailing arbutus (mayflower), ginseng, Joe-Pye weed, witch hazel, common plantain, mullein, yarrow, teasel, pokeweed, blue vervain, and columbine. (MH)

  19. 'Witch Head' Brews Baby Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-30

    A witch appears to be screaming out into space in this new image from NASA's Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE. The infrared portrait shows the Witch Head nebula, named after its resemblance to the profile of a wicked witch. Astronomers say the billowy clouds of the nebula, where baby stars are brewing, are being lit up by massive stars. Dust in the cloud is being hit with starlight, causing it to glow with infrared light, which was picked up by WISE's detectors. The Witch Head nebula is estimated to be hundreds of light-years away in the Orion constellation, just off the famous hunter's knee. WISE was recently "awakened" to hunt for asteroids in a program called NEOWISE. The reactivation came after the spacecraft was put into hibernation in 2011, when it completed two full scans of the sky, as planned. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech NASA image use policy. ( http://www.nasa.gov/audience/formedia/features/MP_Photo_Guidelines.html ) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center ( http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/home/index.html ) enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter ( http://twitter.com/NASA_GoddardPix ) Like us on Facebook ( http://www.facebook.com/pages/Greenbelt-MD/NASA-Goddard/395013845897?ref=tsd ) Find us on Instagram ( http://instagram.com/nasagoddard?vm=grid )

  20. Dedication to Professor Hazel Prichard BSc, PhD, MBA (1954-2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Ian; Maier, Wolfgang; Barnes, Stephen J.

    2017-11-01

    The final section of this special issue of GCA on highly siderophile elements is dedicated to Professor Hazel Prichard (see Fig. 1) who sadly passed away in Cardiff on 1st January, 2017, after a brave battle with cancer.

  1. Later Leaders in Education: Hazel Flannery Gabbard--Specialist in International Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwood, Paul E.

    1993-01-01

    This biography of Hazel Flannery Gabbard discusses her organization of nursery school centers in Rochester, New York; her work as an education specialist in the U.S. Office of Education; her cooperation with national organizations; and her international education activities. (SM)

  2. Controlling Hazel, Aspen Suckers, and Mountain Maple with Picloram

    Treesearch

    Donald A. Perala

    1971-01-01

    Tests showed that picloram/2,4-D mixture was equal to or superior to 2,4-D alone or a 2,4,5-D/2,4,5-T mixture in controlling hazel, aspen suckers, and mountain maple for reforestation purposes. Survival of red pine planted 9 months after treatment was not influenced by residual soil effects of picloram. However, foliar application contributed to mortality of...

  3. Contribution of galloylation and polymerization to the antioxidant activity of polyphenols in fish lipid systems.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Jacobo; Pazos, Manuel; Lois, Salomé; Medina, Isabel

    2010-06-23

    Polyphenolic fractions extracted from pine (Pinus pinaster) bark, grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace, and witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) bark were selected for investigating the influence of the number of phenolic units, polymerization, and the content of esterified galloyl residues (galloylation) on their efficacy for inhibiting lipid oxidation in fish lipid enriched foodstuffs. Experiments carried out with nongalloylated pine bark fractions with different polymerization degrees demonstrated that the number of catechin residues per molecule modulates their reducing and chelating properties in solution. In real food systems such as bulk fish oil and fish oil-in-water emulsions, the efficacy against lipid oxidation was highly dependent on the physical location of the antioxidant at the oxidative sensitive sites. The lowest polymerized fractions were the most efficient in bulk fish oil samples, whereas proanthocyanidins with an intermediate polymerization degree showed the highest activity in fish oil-in-water emulsions. Galloylation did not influence the antioxidant effectiveness of proanthocyanidins in bulk fish oils. The presence of galloyl groups favored the antioxidant activity of the polyphenols in emulsions, although results indicated that a high degree of galloylation did not improve significantly the activity found with medium galloylated proanthocyanidins. The results obtained in this research provide useful information about the relationship between structure and antioxidant activity in order to design antioxidant additives with application in fish oil-enriched functional foods.

  4. Antiviral and antiphlogistic activities of Hamamelis virginiana bark.

    PubMed

    Erdelmeier, C A; Cinatl, J; Rabenau, H; Doerr, H W; Biber, A; Koch, E

    1996-06-01

    A crude hydroalcoholic extract from Hamamelis virginiana bark was subjected to ultrafiltration (UF) with a cut-off limit of 3 kDa to obtain a higher and a lower molecular weight fraction. Characterisation of the fractions was attempted with TLC, HPLC, acidic hydrolysis, and chromatography over Sephadex LH-20. The UF-concentrate was shown to consist mainly of oligomeric to polymeric proanthocyanidins (PA). This fraction was found to exhibit significant antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). In addition, the UV-concentrate displayed radical scavenging properties, inhibited alpha-glucosidase as well as human leukocyte elastase (HLE), and exhibited strong antiphlogistic effects in the croton oil ear edema test in the mouse. With the exception of the antioxidant potential and the inhibition of HLE-action the lower molecular fraction possessed weaker activities and contained mainly hamamelitannin, catechin, and further, unidentified constituents.

  5. Investigation on the phenolic constituents in Hamamelis virginiana leaves by HPLC-DAD and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Duckstein, Sarina M; Stintzing, Florian C

    2011-08-01

    Aqueous and acetone/water extracts from Hamamelis virginiana leaves were investigated to obtain a thorough insight into their phenolic composition. To secure compound integrity, a gentle extraction method including the exclusion of light was used. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses yielded a fingerprint including 27 phenolic constituents. Quantification of the key compounds on an equivalent basis by high-performance liquid chromatography diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) showed that gallotannins consisting of six to 11 galloyl units constitute the main fraction, whereas procyanidins and catechin represented only a minor part. Closer inspection revealed that both extracts possess virtually the same galloyl hexose distribution, and the octagalloyl hexose represents the major tannin constituent. Additionally, eight flavonol glycosides and their corresponding aglycones quercetin and kaempferol, as well as three chlorogenic acid isomers and other hydroxycinnamic acids, were identified. Moreover, stability studies on the aqueous extract (5 °C, dark; room temperature, dark; room temperature, light) revealed that the phenolic profile underwent changes when exposed to light. Especially the gallotannins proved to be considerably unstable which may result in phytochemically altered Hamamelis leaf extracts upon transport and storage.

  6. Jackson's "The Witch": A Satanic Gem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Robert L.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses the story, The Witch", and explains that the story is a devilish puzzle which defies rigid interpretation but openly invites complacent students to sift, sort, and contest tidbits of evidence. Suggests how this can be done. (Author/RB)

  7. Women Behaving Badly: Dahl's Witches Meet the Women of the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Anne-Marie

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the issue of misogyny in Roald Dahl's 1983 book and Nicolas Roeg's 1989 film, "The Witches." Looks at the general differences in the two texts--the most explicit difference is in the film's ending. Explores the significance of the witch in the book and to what extent Roeg's film uses the implied connection between evil and gender. (PA)

  8. Tannins from Hamamelis virginiana: identification of proanthocyanidins and hamamelitannin quantification in leaf, bark, and stem extracts.

    PubMed

    Vennat, B; Pourrat, H; Pouget, M P; Gross, D; Pourrat, A

    1988-10-01

    The tannins in leaf, bark, and stem extracts of HAMAMELIS VIRGINIANA were analyzed. Four proanthocyanidins were isolated by HPLC. One was a procyanidin polymer containing only one type of flavanol unit; the other three were polymers of procyanidin and prodelphinidin containing two types of flavanol units. A method of assay of hamamelitannin showed the bark extract to be 31 times richer in hamamelitannin than the leaf extract and 87 times richer than the stem extract.

  9. Oak leaf roller: contact toxicity of four insecticides applied to the larvae

    Treesearch

    Lula E. Greene; Marion Page

    1974-01-01

    A defoliator of oak and witch-hazel, the oak leaf roller (Archips semiferanus [Walker]) is found in large numbers in northeastern United States and in southwest Ontario, Canada. DDT was formerly used to control this insect. As a preliminary step in finding alternatives to DDT for field testing against the oak leaf roller, four insecticides were...

  10. 21 CFR 347.52 - Labeling of astringent drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... use only”. (ii) The labeling states “When using this product [bullet] avoid contact with eyes. If... affected area. Dry pencil after use.” (3) For products containing witch hazel identified in § 347.12(c... may be omitted. The second warning in § 347.52(c)(1) may state: “avoid contact with eyes”. The warning...

  11. A Visit from the Candy Witch: Factors Influencing Young Children's Belief in a Novel Fantastical Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolley, Jacqueline D.; Boerger, Elizabeth A.; Markman, Arthur B.

    2004-01-01

    Factors hypothesized to affect beliefs in fantastical beings were examined by introducing children to a novel fantastical entity, the Candy Witch. Results revealed that among older preschoolers, children who were visited by the Candy Witch exhibited stronger beliefs in the Candy Witch than did those who were not. Among children who were visited,…

  12. The squint Moon and the witch ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, M. V.

    2015-06-01

    A witch ball is a reflecting sphere of glass. Looking into the disk that it subtends, the whole sky can be seen at one glance. This feature can be exploited to see and photograph the squint Moon illusion, in which the direction normal to the illuminated face of the Moon—its ‘attitude vector’—does not appear to point towards the Sun. The images of the Sun and Moon in the disk, the geodesic connecting them, the Moon’s attitude, and the squint angle (distinct from the tilt), can be calculated and simulated, for all celestial configurations and viewing inclinations. The Moon direction antipodal to the Sun, corresponding to full Moon, is a singularity of the attitude vector field, with index +1. The main features of the witch ball images also occur in other ways of imaging the squint Moon.

  13. Child Witch Hunts in Contemporary Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The persecution of children as witches has received widespread reportage in the international mass media. In recent years, hundreds of children have been killed, maimed and abandoned across Africa based on individual and village-level accusations of witchcraft. Despite the media focus, to date, very little systematic study has…

  14. Homo Economicus and the Salem Witch Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mixon, Franklin G., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Provides background information on the Salem Witch Trials (Salem, Massachusetts) and the medical explanation of the young village girls' behavior in Salem called ergotism (bread poisoning). Presents an economic interpretation of those trials, stating that the ministers employed religious beliefs about witchcraft to maintain their churchs' monopoly…

  15. Insulin-like biological activity of culinary and medicinal plant aqueous extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Broadhurst, C L; Polansky, M M; Anderson, R A

    2000-03-01

    To evaluate the possible effects on insulin function, 49 herb, spice, and medicinal plant extracts were tested in the insulin-dependent utilization of glucose using a rat epididymal adipocyte assay. Cinnamon was the most bioactive product followed by witch hazel, green and black teas, allspice, bay leaves, nutmeg, cloves, mushrooms, and brewer's yeast. The glucose oxidation enhancing bioactivity was lost from cinnamon, tea, witch hazel, cloves, bay leaf and allspice by poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) treatment, indicating that the active phytochemicals are likely to be phenolic in nature. The activity of sage, mushrooms, and brewers's yeast was not removed by PVP. Some products such as Korean ginseng, flaxseed meal, and basil have been reported to be effective antidiabetic agents; however, they were only marginally active in our assay. Our technique measures direct stimulation of cellular glucose metabolism, so it may be that the active phytochemicals in these plants improve glucose metabolism via other mechanisms or that this in vitro screening is not a reliable predictor of hypoglycemic effects in vivo for some products. In summary, the positive effects of specific plant extracts on insulin activity suggest a possible role of these plants in improving glucose and insulin metabolism.

  16. Study on the composition of the volatile fraction of Hamamelis virginiana.

    PubMed

    Engel, R; Gutmann, M; Hartisch, C; Kolodziej, H; Nahrstedt, A

    1998-04-01

    The volatile fractions, obtained by water distillation from the leaves and bark of Hamamelis virginiana L. were analysed in detail by GC-MS. About 175 (leaves) and 168 (bark) compounds have been identified or at least partly characterized on the basis of a computerized database (SeKoMS). The dominating substances were represented by a homologous series of alkanes, alkenes, aliphatic alcohols, related aldehydes, ketones, and fatty acid esters. Importantly, significant differences in the terpenoid and phenylpropanoid patterns of the products obtained from the bark and leaves are apparent: whereas the product of bark distillation was found to typically contain phenylpropanoids and mainly sesquiterpenoids, that obtained from the leaves included some distinct monoterpenoids detected in comparably higher amounts. The chemical composition of the volatiles, when taken together with the absence of specific accumulation sites of lipophilics, emphasizes the definition "volatile fraction" rather than "essential oil".

  17. New England's Other Witch-hunt: The Hartford Witch-hunt of the 1660s and Changing Patterns in Witchcraft Prosecution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Walter W.

    2003-01-01

    Classifies witchcraft prosecution into three periods in New England during the seventeenth century. Focuses on the witch-hunt in Hartford, Connecticut, the trial of Katherine Harrison, and the period of skepticism toward witchcraft prosecution. Addresses the role of Governor John Winthrop, Jr. in this skepticism and the legal procedures in…

  18. Proanthocyanidins from the bark of Hamamelis virginiana exhibit antimutagenic properties against nitroaromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Dauer, A; Metzner, P; Schimmer, O

    1998-05-01

    The antimutagenic activity of Hamamelis virginiana bark was examined in the Ames assay. A commercial tincture and a methanolic extract showed dose-dependent inhibitory effects on mutagenicity induced by 2-nitrofluorene. Tannin-free samples did not display any inhibition. Bioassay-guided fractionation resulted in the isolation of two active fractions which were shown to contain oligomeric, proanthocyanidins. They were capable of inhibiting the mutagenicity of selected nitroaromatic compounds. The mechanism of antimutagenic action was also studied. The proanthocyanidins did not act as bioantimutagens, but rather as direct-acting desmutagens. The antimutagenic effect increased with an increasing degree of polymerisation in the proanthocyanidins. The most active fraction consisted of catechin and gallocatechin oligomers with an average polymerisation degree of 9.2.

  19. Beyond Historical Fiction: Speare's "The Witch of Blackbird Pond."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuente, Mary Helen

    1985-01-01

    Reviews "The Witch of Blackbird Pond" by E. Speare to show how the full narrative power of the novel derives from the author's successful integration of two separate narrative genres: historical fiction and the folktale. (EL)

  20. Botanicals With Dermatologic Properties Derived From First Nations Healing: Part 2-Plants and Algae.

    PubMed

    Colantonio, Sophia; Rivers, Jason K

    Plants and algae have played a central role in the treatment of skin conditions in both traditional First Nations healing and in modern dermatology. The objective of this study was to examine the evidence supporting the dermatological use of seaweed, witch hazel, bearberry, and mayapple. Four plants and algae used in traditional First Nations treatments of skin disease were selected based on expert recommendations. Several databases were searched to identify relevant citations without language restrictions. Seaweed has potential clinical use in the treatment of acne and wrinkles and may be incorporated into biofunctional textiles. Witch hazel is an effective and well-tolerated treatment of inflammation and diaper dermatitis. Bearberry leaves contain arbutin, a skin-lightening agent that is an alternative for the treatment of hyperpigmentation. Mayapple contains podophyllotoxin, a treatment for condyloma accuminata, molluscum contagiosum, and recalcitrant palmoplantar warts. Common plants and algae are replete with bioactive agents that may have beneficial effects on the skin. Further research will open the door to new and innovative products in the future. Limitations of this study include that the scope of our study is limited to 4 plants and algae, a small sample of the breadth of plants used by First Nations for dermatological treatments.

  1. La Noche de las Brujas Module. Nivel Primario. [The Night of the Witches Module. Primary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Delia

    La Noche de las Brujas (Halloween) is the topic of this primary level unit. The objectives are to enable the child to: (1) draw scenery, using his imagination, about witches, castles, and devils; (2) write compositions on witches, devils, and Halloween; (3) explain the story "La Noche de las Brujas"; (4) tell about any adventures or…

  2. Antioxidants in medicinal plant extracts. A research study of the antioxidant capacity of Crataegus, Hamamelis and Hydrastis.

    PubMed

    Periera da Silva, A; Rocha, R; Silva, C M; Mira, L; Duarte, M F; Florêncio, M H

    2000-12-01

    The antioxidant capacity of extracts of Crataegus oxyacantha, Hamamelis virginiana, Hydrastis canadensis, plants native to Europe and North America which have long been used in herbal medicine for the treatment of cardiac and circulatory functions, has been investigated. The total antioxidant potential conferred by all hydrogen donating antioxidants present in these extracts has been assessed by the ABTS assay and the relative order of antioxidant potential has been established. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been used for the chemical identification of the antioxidant volatile compounds present in the extracts. The GC-MS data were related to the results obtained using the ABTS assay.

  3. "We Have a Great Task Ahead of Us!": Child-Hate in Roald Dahl's "The Witches"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, James M.

    2014-01-01

    The depictions of cruel witches in Roald Dahl's novel "The Witches" echo the cruel, abusive measures taken by adults in the historical treatment of children. The concept of child-hatred, described by Lloyd Demause and other critics, is an effective lens through which to view the hyperbolized hatred of children described in "The…

  4. 206. Big Witch Road grade separation structure. This concrete box ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    206. Big Witch Road grade separation structure. This concrete box culvert, built in 1950, is unusual in that the culvert's concrete bottom extends beyond the structure to the ends of its perpendicular wing walls. Facing northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  5. [An outline medical history of Taiwan (I): the period of folklore medicine and witch doctor].

    PubMed

    Li, C

    1997-01-01

    The paper makes a correlated analysis on the origin of health folklore between Chinese in mainland and Taiwan island. After quoting literatures written by authors living in the Qing dynasty in Taiwan, this paper analyses health condition among aboriginals of Taiwan during the witchcraft age. Along with the increasing immigration from China mainland to Taiwan island, health of folklore and gods from China mainland were introduced into Taiwan, hence the period of witch doctor in Taiwan, featuring the correlation of both. Though modern medicine in Taiwan is so advanced, yet there are still witch doctors elsewhere.

  6. Dual inhibitory activities of tannins from Hamamelis virginiana and related polyphenols on 5-lipoxygenase and lyso-PAF: acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Hartisch, C; Kolodziej, H; von Bruchhausen, F

    1997-04-01

    In the present study, the effects of tannins obtained from various plant sources on the activity of 5-LOX and AT were examined. With IC50 values ranging from 1.0 to 18.7 muM, hamamelitannin and the galloylated proanthocyanidins isolated from Hamamelis virginiana L. were found to be most potent inhibitors of 5-LOX. Unlike the 5-LOX study, hamamelitannin proved to be ineffective in the AT assay. Potent candidates are represented by the group of B-type proanthocyanidins. Structure-activity relationships regarding the in vitro inhibitory potency of the polyphenols in the biological assays are discussed.

  7. Anti-inflammatory activity of Polygonum bistorta, Guaiacum officinale and Hamamelis virginiana in rats.

    PubMed

    Duwiejua, M; Zeitlin, I J; Waterman, P G; Gray, A I

    1994-04-01

    The aqueous ethanolic extracts of Polygonum bistorta L. Polygonaceae, Guaiacum officinale L. Zygophyllaceae and Hamamelis virginiana L. Hamamelidaceae were screened for anti-inflammatory activity. Administered (100 and 200 mg kg-1, p.o.) before the induction of carrageenan rat paw oedema, extracts of P. bistorta significantly suppressed both the maximal oedema response and the total oedema response (monitored as area under the time course curve). H. virginiana was inactive and G. officinale was only active at 200 mg kg-1. At 200 mg kg-1 administered before the induction of adjuvant arthritis, P. bistorta significantly inhibited both the acute and chronic phases of the adjuvant-induced rat paw swelling, while G. officinale and H. virginiana were only active against the chronic phase. Further studies on P. bistorta (100-800 mg kg-1) revealed a dose-dependent inhibition of the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema over the dose range 100-400 mg kg-1, the E50 value being approximately 158.5 mg kg-1. The extract (200 mg kg-1), administered after the onset of the inflammatory responses reversed the course of both the carrageenan- and adjuvant-induced rat paw swelling. The results confirm that the extracts of P. bistorta, G. officinale and H. virginiana contain anti-inflammatory substances.

  8. When people with dementia are perceived as witches. Consequences for patients and nurse education in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mkhonto, Flora; Hanssen, Ingrid

    2018-01-01

    To explore and describe the link between culture and dementia care with the focus on the influence of the belief in dementia as witchcraft and people with dementia as witches. In South Africa, especially in townships and rural areas, dementia is often perceived as connected to witchcraft rather than to disease. Persons labelled as witches-mostly older women-may be bullied, ostracised, beaten, stoned, burned, even killed. One strand of findings from a larger international study is presented with in-depth qualitative interviews of one close family member and seven nurses caring for patients with severe dementia in nursing homes in Tshwane in South Africa. A hermeneutic analytic approach was used. Two main themes are found, namely "Belief in witchcraft causing fear of persons with dementia" and "Need of knowledge and education." Fear of and violence towards people with dementia are based on the belief that they are witches. Some of the nurses had also held this belief until they started working with patients with dementia. There is a great need for education both among healthcare workers and the populace. The "witch" belief prevents seeking professional help. As nursing homes tend to be private and expensive, professional dementia care is virtually unattainable for the poor. Dementia needs a more prominent place in nursing curricula. Nurses as educators need to know the local culture and language to be accepted in the various communities. They need to visit families affected by dementia, give awareness talks in churches, schools and clinics and facilitate support groups for carers of people with dementia in the local language. Improved nurses' education in gerontology and geriatric care is needed. Trained specialist nurses may work as mediators and help eradicate the witchcraft beliefs connected to severe dementia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [Infinite metamorphosis: witches, spirits and apuntes in Havana].

    PubMed

    Cunha, Olívia Maria Gomes da

    2015-01-01

    This article offers an alternative reading of Hampa afro-cubana: los negros brujos, by the Cuban Fernando Ortiz y Fernandes, and discusses the need to make the different ideas expounded by the author more complex. For this reason, it disputes the interpretations of some commentators influenced by his work. The article suggests some clues with regard to what Ortiz y Fernandes understood as forces capable of acting and manifesting themselves in the "bodies" of persons affected by the activities of those accused of being involved with magical practices and objects. It examines the creation of witches - as described by Ortiz y Fernandes - as an epistemic phenomenon and discusses the arguments and the practices and knowledge required for this purpose.

  10. Food processing by animals: do beavers leach tree bark to improve palatability?

    PubMed

    Müller-Schwarze, D; Brashear, H; Kinnel, R; Hintz, K A; Lioubomirov, A; Skibo, C

    2001-05-01

    Beavers store and consume tree parts in the bodies of water where they live. We examined whether such soaking renders food more palatable by leaching out undesirable compounds. In experiment 1, saplings of red maple, Acer rubrum (RM), were first soaked in a pond for periods of 2, 18, and 36 days, then offered to free-ranging beavers. Soaking for two days rendered RM slightly more acceptable to beavers. To further examine the time window around two days, RM sticks were soaked in distilled water in the laboratory for 1, 2, 4, and 6 days before presenting them to beavers (experiment 2). In experiment 3, twigs of three species were placed on land. Beavers placed RM in the water for 1 to 3 days before consuming the twigs. In experiment 4, sticks were provided in the water at Cranberry Lake Biological Station (CLBS). Most quaking aspen (QA) was consumed during the first night, and most witch hazel, Hamamelis virginiana (WH), during the third night. At Allegany State Park (ASP), no such difference was found. Twigs were provided in the water in experiment 5. At ASP, WH was taken after three days in the water, and at CLBS little WH was consumed, and only during the third night. A meta-analysis of all experiments shows that relatively more WH is consumed after two days than any other species. Experiment 6 traced the time beavers left their own harvested branches in the water. Unlike other tree species, WH remained in the water for two to four days before being consumed. Experiment 7 measured the phenolics leached into water from RM twigs and small pieces of bark soaked for 10 and 8 days, respectively. Shredded bark lost 50-60% of leachable phenolics into the water, and twigs 70-80%. We conclude that beavers can use water to leach undesirable compounds from their food. Although this effect was not robust, our study is the first of its kind.

  11. Local cooling for relieving pain from perineal trauma sustained during childbirth.

    PubMed

    East, C E; Begg, L; Henshall, N E; Marchant, P; Wallace, K

    2007-10-17

    Perineal trauma is common during childbirth and may be painful. Contemporary maternity practice includes offering women numerous forms of pain relief, including the local application of cooling treatments. To evaluate the effectiveness and side effects of localised cooling treatments compared with no treatment, other forms of cooling treatments and non-cooling treatments. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (January 2007), CINAHL (1982 to January 2007) and contacted experts in the field. Published and unpublished randomised and quasi-randomised trials (RCTs) that compared localised cooling treatment applied to the perineum with no treatment or other treatments applied to relieve pain related to perineal trauma sustained during childbirth. At least two independent authors performed data extraction for each study. Analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis where data allowed. We sought additional information from the authors of three trials. Seven published RCTs were included, comparing local cooling treatments (ice packs, cold gel pads or cold/iced baths) with no treatment, hamamelis water (witch hazel), pulsed electromagnetic energy (PET), hydrocortisone/pramoxine foam [Epifoam] or warm baths. The RCTs reported on a total of 859 women. Ice packs provided improved pain relief 24 to 72 hours after birth compared with no treatment (risk ratio (RR) 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41 to 0.91). Women preferred the utility of the gel pads compared with ice packs or no treatment, although no differences in pain relief were detected between the treatments. None of our comparisons of treatments resulted in differences detected in perineal oedema or bruising. Women reported more pain (RR 5.60, 95% CI 2.35 to 13.33) and used more additional analgesia (RR 4.00, 95% CI 1.44 to 11.13) following the application of ice packs compared with PET. There is only limited evidence to support the effectiveness of local cooling

  12. First high-statistics and high-resolution recoil-ion data from the WITCH retardation spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, P.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Porobić, T.; Wursten, E.; Ban, G.; Beck, M.; Couratin, C.; Fabian, X.; Fléchard, X.; Friedag, P.; Glück, F.; Herlert, A.; Knecht, A.; Kozlov, V. Y.; Liénard, E.; Soti, G.; Tandecki, M.; Traykov, E.; Van Gorp, S.; Weinheimer, Ch.; Zákoucký, D.; Severijns, N.

    2016-07-01

    The first high-statistics and high-resolution data set for the integrated recoil-ion energy spectrum following the β^+ decay of 35Ar has been collected with the WITCH retardation spectrometer located at CERN-ISOLDE. Over 25 million recoil-ion events were recorded on a large-area multichannel plate (MCP) detector with a time-stamp precision of 2ns and position resolution of 0.1mm due to the newly upgraded data acquisition based on the LPC Caen FASTER protocol. The number of recoil ions was measured for more than 15 different settings of the retardation potential, complemented by dedicated background and half-life measurements. Previously unidentified systematic effects, including an energy-dependent efficiency of the main MCP and a radiation-induced time-dependent background, have been identified and incorporated into the analysis. However, further understanding and treatment of the radiation-induced background requires additional dedicated measurements and remains the current limiting factor in extracting a beta-neutrino angular correlation coefficient for 35Ar decay using the WITCH spectrometer.

  13. Paraffin Granulomata, “Witch's Chin,” and Nasal Deformities

    PubMed Central

    Field, Lawrence Marshall

    2010-01-01

    A 57-year-old Filipino woman had paraffin materials placed in her nose, chin, and cheeks approximately 15 years prior to consultation. Progressive enlargement of the chin had occurred, simulating a witch's chin deformity, with a lesser degree of the distal nose and columellar area. Restoration of a relatively normal chin contour was accomplished by using tumescent bi-level anesthesia, mobilizing the protuberant tissues, hemi-ressecting the excess skin, and sculpting the subjacent tissue to an appropriate degree. The nose was then entered at the columellar junction with the upper lip, an open rhinotomy was accomplished, the supra-cartilaginous fibrous tissue was serially ressected to reform the profile, the cartilage was replaced to narrow the nasal configuration, and the nose structure was then replaced. Cosmetic improvement was significant. PMID:20725553

  14. Return of the Candy Witch: Individual Differences in Acceptance and Stability of Belief in a Novel Fantastical Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerger, Elizabeth A.; Tullos, Ansley; Woolley, Jacqueline D.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research indicates that preschoolers make sophisticated choices in accepting testimony as a source of knowledge. Nonetheless, many children accept fantastical beings as real based on misleading testimony. The present study probes factors associated with belief in a novel fantastical figure, the Candy Witch, that 3- to 7-year-olds heard…

  15. [Witches' ointments and love-potions: a contribution to the cultural history of nightshades].

    PubMed

    Muller, J

    1998-01-01

    The nightshades (solanaceae) were used as intoxicants since the ancient civilizations and are still in use today. Their alkaloids, atropine and scopolamine, were the major active substances of the ointments of witches, of medieval "anaesthetics", and of modern poisons for murder. In a medium dose-range the predominant symptoms are hallucinations and illusions. This explains the use of nightshades in fortune-telling and religious rituals. In higher doses the alkaloids produce coma and apnea. Scopolamine enjoyed a particular popularity as a poison for murder. In the 19th century the nightshade alkaloids were also in clinical use. This article focusses on the medical history of the psychosis due to intoxication with solanaceae.

  16. The divining rod: A history of water witching, with a bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Arthur Jackson

    1917-01-01

    The use of a forked twig, or so-called divining rod, in locating minerals, finding hidden treasure, or detecting criminals is a curious superstition that has been a subject of discussion since the middle of the sixteenth century and still has a strong hold on the popular mind, even in this country, as is shown by the large number of inquiries received each year by the United States Geological Survey as to its efficacy, especially for locating underground water, and the persistent demands that it be made a subject of investigation by the Survey. The bibliography shows that a truly astonishing number of books and pamphlets have been written on the subject. The purpose of the present brief paper is not to add another contribution to this enormous volume of uncanny literature but merely to furnish a reply to the numerous inquiries that are continually being received from all parts of the country. The outline of the history of the subject presented in the following pages will probably enable most honest inquirers to appreciate the practical uselessness of "water witching" and other applications of the divining rod, but those who wish to delve further into the mysteries of the subject are referred to the literature cited in the bibliography, in which they will find reports in painful detail of exhaustive investigations and pseudo-investigations of every phase of the subject and every imaginable explanation of the supposed phenomena.It is doubtful whether so much investigation and discussion have been bestowed on any other subject with such absolute lack of positive results. It is difficult to see how for practical purposes the entire matter could be more thoroughly discredited, and it should be obvious to everyone that further tests by the United States Geological Survey of this so-called "witching" for water, oil, or other minerals would be a misuse of public funds.A large number of more complicated devices for locating water or other minerals are closely related to the

  17. Justice at the margins: witches, poisoners, and social accountability in northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Allen, Tim; Reid, Kyla

    2015-01-01

    Recent responses to people alleged to be 'witches' or 'poisoners' among the Madi of northern Uganda are compared with those of the 1980s. The extreme violence of past incidents is set in the context of contemporary upheavals and, in effect, encouragement from Catholic and governmental attitudes and initiatives. Mob justice has subsequently become less common. From 2006, a democratic system for dealing with suspects was introduced, whereby those receiving the highest number of votes are expelled from the neighborhood or punished in other ways. These developments are assessed with reference to trends in supporting 'traditional' approaches to social accountability and social healing as alternatives to more conventional measures. Caution is required. Locally acceptable hybrid systems may emerge, but when things turn nasty, it is usually the weak and vulnerable that suffer.

  18. Witch Wildland Fire, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The October wildfires that plagued southern California were some of the worst on record. One of these, the Witch Wildland fire, burned 198,000 acres north of San Diego, destroying 1125 homes, commercial structures, and outbuildings. Over 3,000 firefighters finally contained the fire two weeks after it started on October 21. Now begins the huge task of planning and implementing mitigation measures to replant and reseed the burned areas. This ASTER image depicts the area after the fire, on November 6; vegetation is green, burned areas are dark red, and urban areas are blue. On the burn severity index image, calculated using infrared and visible bands, red areas are the most severely burned, followed by green and blue. This information can help the US Forest Service to plan post-fire activities.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  19. Hamamelitannin from Hamamelis virginiana inhibits the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-induced endothelial cell death in vitro.

    PubMed

    Habtemariam, Solomon

    2002-01-01

    The tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) inhibitory activity of hamamelitannin from Hamamelis virginiana was investigated by assessing the TNF-mediated EAhy926 endothelial cell death and adhesiveness to monocytes. Treatment of the cells by TNF (25 ng/ml) and actinomycin D (0.1ng/ml) resulted in significant DNA fragmentation (34+/-0.6, n=4) and cytotoxicity (97+/-4.5%, n=6) following treatment for 8 and 24h, respectively. One to 100 microM concentrations of hamamelitannin inhibited the TNF-mediated endothelial cell death and DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner. One hundred % protection against TNF-induced DNA fragmentation and cytotoxicity was obtained for hamamelitannin concentrations higher than 10 microM. The protective effect of hamamelitannin was comparable with that of a related compound epigallocatechin gallate while gallic acid was a weak protective agent (<40% protection). EAhy926 endothelial cells upregulated (by 4- to 7-fold) the surface expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and adhesiveness to monocytic U937 cells after treatment with TNF (0.5ng/ml) for 6 or 24h. Concentrations (1-100 microM) of hamamelitannin that inhibited the TNF-mediated cell death and DNA fragmentation, however, failed to inhibit the TNF-induced ICAM-1 expression and EAhy926 cell adhesiveness to U937 cells. Thus, hamamelitannin inhibits the TNF-mediated endothelial cell death without altering the TNF-induced upregulation of endothelial adhesiveness. The observed anti-TNF activity of hamamelitannin may explain the antihamorrhaegic use of H. virginiana in traditional medicine and its claimed use as a protective agent for UV radiation.

  20. Single nucleotide polymorphisms from Theobroma cacao expressed sequence tags associated with witches' broom disease in cacao.

    PubMed

    Lima, L S; Gramacho, K P; Carels, N; Novais, R; Gaiotto, F A; Lopes, U V; Gesteira, A S; Zaidan, H A; Cascardo, J C M; Pires, J L; Micheli, F

    2009-07-14

    In order to increase the efficiency of cacao tree resistance to witches' broom disease, which is caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa (Tricholomataceae), we looked for molecular markers that could help in the selection of resistant cacao genotypes. Among the different markers useful for developing marker-assisted selection, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) constitute the most common type of sequence difference between alleles and can be easily detected by in silico analysis from expressed sequence tag libraries. We report the first detection and analysis of SNPs from cacao-M. perniciosa interaction expressed sequence tags, using bioinformatics. Selection based on analysis of these SNPs should be useful for developing cacao varieties resistant to this devastating disease.

  1. Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel) Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum) reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%. PMID:15951847

  2. Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease.

    PubMed

    Rubini, Marciano R; Silva-Ribeiro, Rute T; Pomella, Alan W V; Maki, Cristina S; Araújo, Welington L; Dos Santos, Deise R; Azevedo, João L

    2005-01-01

    The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel) Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobromacacao L.) which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum) reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%.

  3. Rendering justice in witch trials: the case of the val de Lièpvre.

    PubMed

    Simon, Maryse

    2011-01-01

    The borderland of the val de Lièpvre, with lands in Alsace and in the Duchy of Lorraine, and divided by religion and language, offers a rich collection of sources for the history of witchcraft persecution. The territory sharply reveals what was undoubtedly characteristic of witchcraft trials more widely. The crime of witchcraft was considered abominable before the Christian community and God, and its prosecution justified abandoning many of the safeguards and constraints in legal procedure, whether restrictions on the use of torture, the reliance on dubious testimony or even denial of advocacy to the witches. The action of the judges was nonetheless, as they understood it, the rendering of true justice, by punishing the culprits with a harshness that would expiate their crimes before the community and preserve them from damnation in the face of God's judgment.

  4. Expression and Functional Analysis of WRKY Transcription Factors in Chinese Wild Hazel, Corylus heterophylla Fisch

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Li-Song; Ma, Qing-Hua; Chen, Xin; Zong, Jian-Wei; Wang, Gui-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Plant WRKY transcription factors are known to regulate various biotic and abiotic stress responses. In this study we identified a total of 30 putative WRKY unigenes in a transcriptome dataset of the Chinese wild Hazel, Corylus heterophylla, a species that is noted for its cold tolerance. Thirteen full-length of these ChWRKY genes were cloned and found to encode complete protein sequences, and they were divided into three groups, based on the number of WRKY domains and the pattern of zinc finger structures. Representatives of each of the groups, Unigene25835 (group I), Unigene37641 (group II) and Unigene20441 (group III), were transiently expressed as fusion proteins with yellow fluorescent fusion protein in Nicotiana benthamiana, where they were observed to accumulate in the nucleus, in accordance with their predicted roles as transcriptional activators. An analysis of the expression patterns of all 30 WRKY genes revealed differences in transcript abundance profiles following exposure to cold, drought and high salinity conditions. Among the stress-inducible genes, 23 were up-regulated by all three abiotic stresses and the WRKY genes collectively exhibited four different patterns of expression in flower buds during the overwintering period from November to April. The organ/tissue related expression analysis showed that 18 WRKY genes were highly expressed in stem but only 2 (Unigene9262 and Unigene43101) were greatest in male anthotaxies. The expression of Unigene37641, a member of the group II WRKY genes, was substantially up-regulated by cold, drought and salinity treatments, and its overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in better seedling growth, compared with wild type plants, under cold treatment conditions. The transgenic lines also had exhibited higher soluble protein content, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activiety and lower levels of malondialdehyde, which collectively suggets that Unigene37641 expression promotes cold tolerance. PMID

  5. Expression and Functional Analysis of WRKY Transcription Factors in Chinese Wild Hazel, Corylus heterophylla Fisch.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tian-Tian; Zhang, Jin; Liang, Li-Song; Ma, Qing-Hua; Chen, Xin; Zong, Jian-Wei; Wang, Gui-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Plant WRKY transcription factors are known to regulate various biotic and abiotic stress responses. In this study we identified a total of 30 putative WRKY unigenes in a transcriptome dataset of the Chinese wild Hazel, Corylus heterophylla, a species that is noted for its cold tolerance. Thirteen full-length of these ChWRKY genes were cloned and found to encode complete protein sequences, and they were divided into three groups, based on the number of WRKY domains and the pattern of zinc finger structures. Representatives of each of the groups, Unigene25835 (group I), Unigene37641 (group II) and Unigene20441 (group III), were transiently expressed as fusion proteins with yellow fluorescent fusion protein in Nicotiana benthamiana, where they were observed to accumulate in the nucleus, in accordance with their predicted roles as transcriptional activators. An analysis of the expression patterns of all 30 WRKY genes revealed differences in transcript abundance profiles following exposure to cold, drought and high salinity conditions. Among the stress-inducible genes, 23 were up-regulated by all three abiotic stresses and the WRKY genes collectively exhibited four different patterns of expression in flower buds during the overwintering period from November to April. The organ/tissue related expression analysis showed that 18 WRKY genes were highly expressed in stem but only 2 (Unigene9262 and Unigene43101) were greatest in male anthotaxies. The expression of Unigene37641, a member of the group II WRKY genes, was substantially up-regulated by cold, drought and salinity treatments, and its overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in better seedling growth, compared with wild type plants, under cold treatment conditions. The transgenic lines also had exhibited higher soluble protein content, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activiety and lower levels of malondialdehyde, which collectively suggets that Unigene37641 expression promotes cold tolerance.

  6. Anti-collagenase, anti-elastase and anti-oxidant activities of extracts from 21 plants

    PubMed Central

    Thring, Tamsyn SA; Hili, Pauline; Naughton, Declan P

    2009-01-01

    Background Owing to their roles in tissue remodelling in health and disease, several studies have reported investigations on plant extracts as inhibitors of proteinases and as anti-oxidants. Methods The anti-ageing and anti-oxidant properties of 23 plant extracts (from 21 plant species) were assessed as anti-elastase and anti-collagenase activities and in selected anti-oxidant assays along with phenolic content. Results Anti-elastase activities were observed for nine of the extracts with inhibitory activity in the following order: white tea (~89%), cleavers (~58%), burdock root (~51%), bladderwrack (~50%), anise and angelica (~32%). Anti-collagenase activities were exhibited by sixteen plants of which the highest activity was seen in white tea (~87%), green tea (~47%), rose tincture (~41%), and lavender (~31%). Nine plant extracts had activities against both elastase (E) and collagenase (C) and were ranked in the order of white tea (E:89%, C:87%) > bladderwrack (E:50%, C:25%) > cleavers (E:58%, C:7%) > rose tincture (E:22%, C:41%) > green tea (E:10%: C:47%) > rose aqueous (E: 24%, C:26%) > angelica (E:32%, C:17%) > anise (E:32%, C:6%) > pomegranate (E:15%, C:11%). Total phenolic content varied between 0.05 and 0.26 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mL with the exception of white tea (0.77 mg GAE/mL). For anti-oxidant assessment, the Trolox equivalent anti-oxidant capacity (TEAC) assay revealed activity for all extracts. White tea had the highest activity equivalent to ~21 μM Trolox for a 6.25 μg aliquot. In addition, seven extracts exhibited activities = 10 μM Trolox with witch hazel (6.25 μg = 13 μM Trolox) and rose aqueous (6.25 μg = 10 μM Trolox) showing very high activities at low concentrations. A high activity for white tea was also found in the superoxide dismutase (SOD) assay in which it exhibited ~88% inhibition of reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. High activities were also observed for green tea (86.41%), rose tincture (82.77%), witch hazel (82

  7. Tannins from Hamamelis virginiana bark extract: characterization and improvement of the antiviral efficacy against influenza A virus and human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Theisen, Linda L; Erdelmeier, Clemens A J; Spoden, Gilles A; Boukhallouk, Fatima; Sausy, Aurélie; Florin, Luise; Muller, Claude P

    2014-01-01

    Antiviral activity has been demonstrated for different tannin-rich plant extracts. Since tannins of different classes and molecular weights are often found together in plant extracts and may differ in their antiviral activity, we have compared the effect against influenza A virus (IAV) of Hamamelis virginiana L. bark extract, fractions enriched in tannins of different molecular weights and individual tannins of defined structures, including pseudotannins. We demonstrate antiviral activity of the bark extract against different IAV strains, including the recently emerged H7N9, and show for the first time that a tannin-rich extract inhibits human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 infection. As the best performing antiviral candidate, we identified a highly potent fraction against both IAV and HPV, enriched in high molecular weight condensed tannins by ultrafiltration, a simple, reproducible and easily upscalable method. This ultrafiltration concentrate and the bark extract inhibited early and, to a minor extent, later steps in the IAV life cycle and tannin-dependently inhibited HPV attachment. We observed interesting mechanistic differences between tannin structures: High molecular weight tannin containing extracts and tannic acid (1702 g/mol) inhibited both IAV receptor binding and neuraminidase activity. In contrast, low molecular weight compounds (<500 g/mol) such as gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate or hamamelitannin inhibited neuraminidase but not hemagglutination. Average molecular weight of the compounds seemed to positively correlate with receptor binding (but not neuraminidase) inhibition. In general, neuraminidase inhibition seemed to contribute little to the antiviral activity. Importantly, antiviral use of the ultrafiltration fraction enriched in high molecular weight condensed tannins and, to a lesser extent, the unfractionated bark extract was preferable over individual isolated compounds. These results are of interest for developing and improving plant

  8. Tannins from Hamamelis virginiana Bark Extract: Characterization and Improvement of the Antiviral Efficacy against Influenza A Virus and Human Papillomavirus

    PubMed Central

    Theisen, Linda L.; Erdelmeier, Clemens A. J.; Spoden, Gilles A.; Boukhallouk, Fatima; Sausy, Aurélie; Florin, Luise; Muller, Claude P.

    2014-01-01

    Antiviral activity has been demonstrated for different tannin-rich plant extracts. Since tannins of different classes and molecular weights are often found together in plant extracts and may differ in their antiviral activity, we have compared the effect against influenza A virus (IAV) of Hamamelis virginiana L. bark extract, fractions enriched in tannins of different molecular weights and individual tannins of defined structures, including pseudotannins. We demonstrate antiviral activity of the bark extract against different IAV strains, including the recently emerged H7N9, and show for the first time that a tannin-rich extract inhibits human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 infection. As the best performing antiviral candidate, we identified a highly potent fraction against both IAV and HPV, enriched in high molecular weight condensed tannins by ultrafiltration, a simple, reproducible and easily upscalable method. This ultrafiltration concentrate and the bark extract inhibited early and, to a minor extent, later steps in the IAV life cycle and tannin-dependently inhibited HPV attachment. We observed interesting mechanistic differences between tannin structures: High molecular weight tannin containing extracts and tannic acid (1702 g/mol) inhibited both IAV receptor binding and neuraminidase activity. In contrast, low molecular weight compounds (<500 g/mol) such as gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate or hamamelitannin inhibited neuraminidase but not hemagglutination. Average molecular weight of the compounds seemed to positively correlate with receptor binding (but not neuraminidase) inhibition. In general, neuraminidase inhibition seemed to contribute little to the antiviral activity. Importantly, antiviral use of the ultrafiltration fraction enriched in high molecular weight condensed tannins and, to a lesser extent, the unfractionated bark extract was preferable over individual isolated compounds. These results are of interest for developing and improving plant

  9. Identification of genes related to Paulownia witches' broom by AFLP and MSAP.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xibing; Fan, Guoqiang; Deng, Minjie; Zhao, Zhenli; Dong, Yanpeng

    2014-08-21

    DNA methylation is believed to play important roles in regulating gene expression in plant growth and development. Paulownia witches' broom (PaWB) infection has been reported to be related to gene expression changes in paulownia plantlets. To determine whether DNA methylation is associated with gene expression changes in response to phytoplasma, we investigated variations in genomic DNA sequence and methylation in PaWB plantlets treated with methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) techniques, respectively. The results indicated that PaWB seedings recovered a normal morphology after treatment with more than 15 mg·L(-1) MMS. PaWB infection did not cause changes of the paulownia DNA sequence at the AFLP level; However, DNA methylation levels and patterns were altered. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that three of the methylated genes were up-regulated and three were down-regulated in the MMS-treated PaWB plantlets that had regained healthy morphology. These six genes might be involved in transcriptional regulation, plant defense, signal transduction and energy. The possible roles of these genes in PaWB are discussed. The results showed that changes of DNA methylation altered gene expression levels, and that MSAP might help identify genes related to PaWB.

  10. Cacao Phylloplane: The First Battlefield against Moniliophthora perniciosa, Which Causes Witches' Broom Disease.

    PubMed

    Almeida, D S M; Gramacho, K P; Cardoso, T H S; Micheli, F; Alvim, F C; Pirovani, C P

    2017-07-01

    The phylloplane is the first contact surface between Theobroma cacao and the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, which causes witches' broom disease (WBD). We evaluated the index of short glandular trichomes (SGT) in the cacao phylloplane and the effect of irrigation on the disease index of cacao genotypes with or without resistance to WBD, and identified proteins present in the phylloplane. The resistant genotype CCN51 and susceptible Catongo presented a mean index of 1,600 and 700 SGT cm -2 , respectively. The disease index in plants under drip irrigation was reduced by approximately 30% compared with plants under sprinkler irrigation prior to inoculation. Leaf water wash (LWW) of the cacao inhibited the germination of spores by up to 98%. Proteins from the LWW of CCN51 were analyzed by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by tandem mass spectrometry. The gel showed 71 spots and identified a total of 42 proteins (28 from the plant and 14 from bacteria). Proteins related to defense and synthesis of defense metabolites and involved in nucleic acid metabolism were identified. The results support the hypothesis that the proteins and water-soluble compounds secreted to the cacao phylloplane participate in the defense against pathogens. They also suggest that SGT can contribute to the resistance of cacao.

  11. [Optimization of a cake formulation with functional characteristics using resistant starch, Sphagnum magellanicum moss and deffated hazel nut flour (Gevuina avellana, Mol)].

    PubMed

    Villarroel, Mario; Reyes, Carla; Hazbun, Julia; Karmelic, Julia

    2007-03-01

    Resistant starch (RS) Hi Maize 260, Sphagnum magellanicum Moss (SM) both natural resources rich in total dietary fiber, and defatted hazel nut flour (DHN) as protein resource were used in the development of a pastry product (queque) with functional characteristics. Taguchi methodology was utilized in the optimization process using the orthogonal array L934 with four control factors: RS, SM. DHN and Master Gluten 4000 (MG), 3 factor levels and 9 experimental trials. The best result of Sensory Quality (SQ) and signal to noise ratio (S/N) was obtained combining the minor levels of the independent variables. Main effect (average effects of factor) analysis and anova analysis showed that SM and DHN were the control factors with a significant influence (p<0.05) on the CS with a relative contribution of 83%. It is important to emphasize the total dietary fiber (8.7%) and protein (7.2%) values, the formers due to the presence of RS and SM. Shelf life study showed that the sensory characteristics flavour, appearance and texture were not affected when samples were stored at refrigerated temperatures but not at 20 degrees C, specifically flavour always kept a good preference during the whole period of time. Samples of optimized cakes showed very good results when they were submitted to hedonic test with 100% of favorable consumer's opinions.

  12. Transformation with green fluorescent protein of Trichoderma harzianum 1051, a strain with biocontrol activity against Crinipellis perniciosa, the agent of witches'-broom disease of cocoa.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Peter W.; Queiroz, Paulo R.; Valadares-Inglis, M. Cléria

    1999-04-01

    A plasmid vector for fungal expression of an enhanced, red-shifted variant of the Aequoria victoriae green fluorescent protein was constructed by fusion of the EGFP gene to the highly expressed Aspergillus nidulans gpd promoter and the A. nidulans trpC terminator. This construction was introduced by cotransformation, using benomyl selection, into Trichoderma harzianum strain 1051, a strain being evaluated for the biological control of witches'-broom disease of cocoa caused by Crinipellis perniciosa. Epifluorescence microscopy was used to monitor germination and attachment of stable transformant conidia on the surface of C. perniciosa hyphae.

  13. Survey of Leafhopper Species in Almond Orchards Infected with Almond Witches'-Broom Phytoplasma in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Hammad, Efat Abou-Fakhr; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Abou-Jawdah, Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    Leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) account for more than 80% of all “Auchenorrhynchous” vectors that transmit phytoplasmas. The leafhopper populations in two almond witches'-broom phytoplasma (AlmWB) infected sites: Tanboureet (south of Lebanon) and Bourj El Yahoudieh (north of Lebanon) were surveyed using yellow sticky traps. The survey revealed that the most abundant species was Asymmetrasca decedens, which represented 82.4% of all the leafhoppers sampled. Potential phytoplasma vectors in members of the subfamilies Aphrodinae, Deltocephalinae, and Megophthalminae were present in very low numbers including: Aphrodes makarovi, Cicadulina bipunctella, Euscelidius mundus, Fieberiella macchiae, Allygus theryi, Circulifer haematoceps, Neoaliturus transversalis, and Megophthalmus scabripennis. Allygus theryi (Horváth) (Deltocephalinae) was reported for the first time in Lebanon. Nested PCR analysis and sequencing showed that Asymmetrasca decedens, Empoasca decipiens, Fieberiella macchiae, Euscelidius mundus, Thamnottetix seclusis, Balclutha sp., Lylatina inexpectata, Allygus sp., and Annoplotettix danutae were nine potential carriers of AlmWB phytoplasma. Although the detection of phytoplasmas in an insect does not prove a definite vector relationship, the technique is useful in narrowing the search for potential vectors. The importance of this information for management of AlmWB is discussed. PMID:21864154

  14. Hazel's Law

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Vargas, Juan [D-CA-51

    2013-04-23

    House - 06/14/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Infectivity of Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae to larvae and adults of the hazelnut weevil, Curculio nucum: Differential virulence and entry routes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The hazel nut weevil, Curculio nucum, is a major pest of hazel nuts, particularly in Europe; hazel nut weevil is also closely related to other nut-attacking weevils such as pecan weevil (Curculio caryae). In this study, the basis for differential susceptibility of the hazelnut weevil (to entomopatho...

  16. Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-17

    and internally elected Dr. Hamam Said (alt. sp. Himman Said/ Hammam Sa’id /Hamam Sa’id/ Hammam Saaed) as the movement’s new general guide. Press reports...Jordanian tribal traditions look down on certain types of employment such as construction. In fact, the government estimates that there are...United States is helping Jordan to modernize its armed forces, which have been the traditional mainstay of the regime. The Jordanian military forces

  17. Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-09

    parliamentary elections, the Brotherhood reorganized in 2008 and internally elected Dr. Hamam Said (alt. sp. Himman Said/ Hammam Sa’id /Hamam Sa’id/ Hammam Saaed...culture of shame,” Jordanian tribal traditions look down on certain types of employment such as construction. In fact, the government estimates that...its armed forces, which have been the traditional mainstay of the regime. The Jordanian military forces, though well trained and disciplined, are

  18. Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-24

    Brotherhood reorganized in 2008 and internally elected Dr. Hamam Said (alt. sp. Himman Said/ Hammam Sa’id /Hamam Sa’id/ Hammam Saaed) as the movement’s new...tribal traditions look down on certain types of employment such as construction. In fact, the government estimates that there are approximately...Military Cooperation Military Sales The United States is helping Jordan to modernize its armed forces, which have been the traditional mainstay of the

  19. The patterns of Corylus and Alnus pollen seasons and pollination periods in two Polish cities located in different climatic regions.

    PubMed

    Puc, Małgorzata; Kasprzyk, Idalia

    2013-01-01

    This study compares phenological observations of Corylus (hazel) and Alnus (alder) flowering with airborne pollen counts of these taxa recorded using volumetric spore traps (2009-2011). The work was carried out in the Polish cities of Szczecin and Rzeszów that are located in different climatic regions. Correlations between pollen concentrations and meteorological data were investigated using Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The timings of hazel and alder pollination and the occurrence of airborne pollen varied greatly and were significantly influenced by meteorological conditions ( p  < 0.05). The flowering synchronization of hazel and alder pollination in Szczecin and Rzeszów varied over the study period. Hazel and alder trees flowered notably earlier in stands located in places that were exposed to sunlight (insolated) and sheltered from the wind. On the other hand, a delay in the timing of pollination was observed in quite sunny but very windy sites. In Rzeszów, maximum hazel pollen concentrations did not coincide with the period of full pollination (defined as between 25 % hazel and alder and 75 % of flowers open). Conversely, in Szczecin, the highest hazel pollen concentrations were recorded during phenophases of the full pollination period. The period when the highest alder pollen concentrations were recorded varied between sites, with Rzeszów recording the highest concentrations at the beginning of pollination and Szczecin recording alder pollen throughout the full pollination period. Substantial amounts of hazel and alder pollen grains were recorded in the air of Rzeszów (but not Szczecin) before the onset of the respective pollen seasons.

  20. Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-09

    elections, the Brotherhood reorganized in 2008 and internally elected Dr. Hamam Said (alt. sp. Himman Said/ Hammam Sa’id /Hamam Sa’id/ Hammam Saaed) as the...attached to menial labor jobs. Referred to as the “culture of shame,” Jordanian tribal traditions look down on certain types of employment such as...forces, which have been the traditional mainstay of the regime. The Jordanian military forces, though well trained and disciplined, are outnumbered and

  1. Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-14

    the 2007 parliamentary elections, the Brotherhood reorganized in 2008 and internally elected Dr. Hamam Said (alternate spellings: Himman Said/ Hammam ...Sa’id /Hamam Sa’id/ Hammam Saaed) as the movement’s new general guide. Press reports have described the leader as a “hawk,” stressing his Palestinian...the “culture of shame,” Jordanian tribal traditions look down on certain types of employment such as construction. In fact, the government estimates

  2. Apoplastic and intracellular plant sugars regulate developmental transitions in witches' broom disease of cacao.

    PubMed

    Barau, Joan; Grandis, Adriana; Carvalho, Vinicius Miessler de Andrade; Teixeira, Gleidson Silva; Zaparoli, Gustavo Henrique Alcalá; do Rio, Maria Carolina Scatolin; Rincones, Johana; Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2015-03-01

    Witches' broom disease (WBD) of cacao differs from other typical hemibiotrophic plant diseases by its unusually long biotrophic phase. Plant carbon sources have been proposed to regulate WBD developmental transitions; however, nothing is known about their availability at the plant-fungus interface, the apoplastic fluid of cacao. Data are provided supporting a role for the dynamics of soluble carbon in the apoplastic fluid in prompting the end of the biotrophic phase of infection. Carbon depletion and the consequent fungal sensing of starvation were identified as key signalling factors at the apoplast. MpNEP2, a fungal effector of host necrosis, was found to be up-regulated in an autophagic-like response to carbon starvation in vitro. In addition, the in vivo artificial manipulation of carbon availability in the apoplastic fluid considerably modulated both its expression and plant necrosis rate. Strikingly, infected cacao tissues accumulated intracellular hexoses, and showed stunted photosynthesis and the up-regulation of senescence markers immediately prior to the transition to the necrotrophic phase. These opposite findings of carbon depletion and accumulation in different host cell compartments are discussed within the frame of WBD development. A model is suggested to explain phase transition as a synergic outcome of fungal-related factors released upon sensing of extracellular carbon starvation, and an early senescence of infected tissues probably triggered by intracellular sugar accumulation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  3. In vitro cell cultures obtained from different explants of Corylus avellana produce Taxol and taxanes

    PubMed Central

    Bestoso, Federica; Ottaggio, Laura; Armirotti, Andrea; Balbi, Alessandro; Damonte, Gianluca; Degan, Paolo; Mazzei, Mauro; Cavalli, Francesca; Ledda, Bernardetta; Miele, Mariangela

    2006-01-01

    Background Taxol is an effective antineoplastic agent, originally extracted from the bark of Taxus brevifolia with a low yield. Many attempts have been made to produce Taxol by chemical synthesis, semi-synthesis and plant tissue cultures. However, to date, the availability of this compound is not sufficient to satisfy the commercial requirements. The aim of the present work was to produce suspension cell cultures from plants not belonging to Taxus genus and to verify whether they produced Taxol and taxanes. For this purpose different explants of hazel (Corylus avellana species) were used to optimize the protocol for inducing in vitro callus, an undifferentiated tissue from which suspension cell cultures were established. Results Calli were successfully induced from stems, leaves and seeds grown in various hormone concentrations and combinations. The most suitable callus to establish suspension cell cultures was obtained from seeds. Media recovered from suspension cell cultures contained taxanes, and showed antiproliferative activity on human tumour cells. Taxol, 10-deacetyltaxol and 10-deacetylbaccatin III were the main taxanes identified. The level of Taxol recovered from the media of hazel cultures was similar to that found in yew cultures. Moreover, the production of taxanes in hazel cell cultures increased when elicitors were used. Conclusion Here we show that hazel cell cultures produce Taxol and taxanes under controlled conditions. This result suggests that hazel possesses the enzymes for Taxol production, which until now was considered to be a pathway particular to Taxus genus. The main benefit of producing taxanes through hazel cell cultures is that hazel is widely available, grows at a much faster rate in vivo, and is easier to cultivate in vitro than yew. In addition, the production of callus directly from hazel seeds shortens the culture time and minimizes the probability of contamination. Therefore, hazel could become a commercial source of Taxol and

  4. Active-oxygen scavenging activity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Masaki, H; Sakaki, S; Atsumi, T; Sakurai, H

    1995-01-01

    To find antioxidative compounds present in plants, 65 types of plant extract were tested using the neotetrazolium method for evidence of superoxide anion-scavenging effects and 7 plant extracts were selected for further investigation. The activity of active-oxygen scavengers such as superoxide anion radicals, hydroxyl radicals, singlet oxygens and lipid peroxides in the 7 plant extracts (Aeseclus hippocastanum L., Hamamelis virginiana L. Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb., Quercus robur L., Rosemarinous officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L. and Sanguisorba officinalis L.) was examined in detail by both ESR spin-trapping and malondialdehyde generation. Furthermore, the active-oxygen scavenging activity of these plant extracts was evaluated using a murine dermal fibroblast culture system. Both Aeseclus hippocastanum L. and Hamamelis virginia L. were found to have strong active-oxygen scavenging activity of and protective activity against cell damage induced by active oxygen. Both Aeseclus hippocastanum L. and Hamamelis virginiana L. are proposed as potent plant extracts with potential application as anti-aging or anti-wrinkle material for the skin.

  5. The causal agents of witches' broom and frosty pod rot of cacao (chocolate, Theobroma cacao) form a new lineage of Marasmiaceae.

    PubMed

    Aime, M C; Phillips-Mora, W

    2005-01-01

    The two most devastating diseases of cacao (Theobroma cacao)--the source of chocolate--in tropical America are caused by the fungi Crinipellis perniciosa (witches' broom disease) and Moniliophthora roreri (frosty pod rot or moniliasis disease). Despite the agricultural, socio-economic and environmental impact of these fungi, most aspects of their life cycles are unknown, and the phylogenetic relationships of M. roreri have yet to be conclusively established. In this paper, extensive phylogenetic analyses of five nuclear gene regions (28S rDNA, 18S rDNA, ITS, RPB1, and EF1-alpha) confirm that C. perniciosa and M. roreri are sister taxa that belong in the Marasmiaceae (euagarics). Furthermore, these taxa form part of a separate and distinct lineage within the family. This lineage includes the biotrophic fungi Moniliophthora perniciosa comb. nov. and M. roreri, as well as one undescribed endophytic species. The sister genera to Moniliophthora are Marasmius, Crinipellis and Chaetocalathus, which consist mainly of saprotrophic litter fungi.

  6. Improved Anticancer Effect of Magnetite Nanocomposite Formulation of GALLIC Acid (Fe₃O₄-PEG-GA) Against Lung, Breast and Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Rosman, Raihana; Saifullah, Bullo; Maniam, Sandra; Dorniani, Dena; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2018-02-02

    Lung cancer, breast cancer and colorectal cancer are the most prevalent fatal types of cancers globally. Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) is a bioactive compound found in plants and foods, such as white tea, witch hazel and it has been reported to possess anticancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study we have redesigned our previously reported anticancer nanocomposite formulation with improved drug loading based on iron oxide magnetite nanoparticles coated with polyethylene glycol and loaded with anticancer drug gallic acid (Fe₃O₄-PEG-GA). The in vitro release profile and percentage drug loading were found to be better than our previously reported formulation. The anticancer activity of pure gallic acid (GA), empty carrier (Fe₃O₄-PEG) nanocarrier and of anticancer nanocomposite (Fe₃O₄-PEG-GA) were screened against human lung cancer cells (A549), human breast cancer cells (MCF-7), human colon cancer cells (HT-29) and normal fibroblast cells (3T3) after incubation of 24, 48 and 72 h using (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) MTT assay. The designed formulation (Fe₃O₄-PEG-GA) showed better anticancer activity than free gallic acid (GA). The results of the in vitro studies are highly encouraging to conduct the in vivo studies.

  7. The activity of TcCYS4 modified by variations in pH and temperature can affect symptoms of witches' broom disease of cocoa, caused by the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Ana Camila Oliveira; Souza, Cristiane Ferreira; Monzani, Paulo Sérgio; Garcia, Wanius; de Almeida, Alex Alan Furtado; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2015-01-01

    The phytocystatins regulate various physiological processes in plants, including responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, mainly because they act as inhibitors of cysteine proteases. In this study, we have analyzed four cystatins from Theobroma cacao L. previously identified in ESTs libraries of the interaction with the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa and named TcCYS1, TcCYS2, TcCYS3 and TcCYS4. The recombinant cystatins were purified and subjected to the heat treatment, at different temperatures, and their thermostabilities were monitored using their ability to inhibit papain protease. TcCYS1 was sensitive to temperatures above 50°C, while TcCYS2, TcCYS3, and TcCYS4 were thermostable. TcCYS4 presented a decrease of inhibitory activity when it was treated at temperatures between 60 and 70°C, with the greater decrease occurring at 65°C. Analyses by native gel electrophoresis and size-exclusion chromatography showed that TcCYS4 forms oligomers at temperatures between 60 and 70°C, condition where reduction of inhibitory activity was observed. TcCYS4 oligomers remain stable for up to 20 days after heat treatment and are undone after treatment at 80°C. TcCYS4 presented approximately 90% of inhibitory activity at pH values between 5 and 9. This protein treated at temperatures above 45°C and pH 5 presented reduced inhibitory activity against papain, suggesting that the pH 5 enhances the formation of TcCYS4 oligomers. A variation in the titratable acidity was observed in tissues of T. cacao during the symptoms of witches' broom disease. Our findings suggest that the oligomerization of TcCYS4, favored by variations in pH, is an endergonic process. We speculate that this process can be involved in the development of the symptoms of witches' broom disease in cocoa.

  8. Population genetic analysis reveals a low level of genetic diversity of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' causing witches' broom disease in lime.

    PubMed

    Al-Abadi, Shaikha Y; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M; Dickinson, Matthew; Al-Hammadi, Mohammed S; Al-Shariqi, Rashid; Al-Yahyai, Rashid A; Kazerooni, Elham A; Bertaccini, Assunta

    2016-01-01

    Witches' broom disease of lime (WBDL) is a serious phytoplasma disease of acid lime in Oman, the UAE and Iran. Despite efforts to study it, no systemic study attempted to characterize the relationship among the associated phytoplasma, ' Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia', from the three countries. This study utilized sequences of the 16S rRNA, imp and secA genes to characterize 57 strains collected from Oman (38), the UAE (9) and Iran (10). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that the 57 strains shared 98.5-100 % nucleotide similarity to each other and to strains of ' Ca . P. aurantifolia' available in GenBank. The level of genetic diversity was low based on the 16S rRNA (0-0.011), imp (0-0.002) and secA genes (0-0.015). The presence of low level of diversity among phytoplasma strains from Oman, the UAE and Iran can be explained by the movement of infected lime seedlings from one country to another through trading and exchange of infected plants. The study discusses implication of the findings on WBDL spread and management.

  9. Flood Control at Grafton, North Dakota, Park River.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    shrub species of the bur oak forest include snowberry, downy arrowhead, dwarf juniper, wild rose, beaked hazel, chokecherry , American hazel, red...canopy. Representative shrub species include chokecherry , gooseberry, Virginia creeper, and prickly ash. A light herbaceous cover exists and includes

  10. Differentiation and classification of phytoplasmas in the pigeon pea witches'-broom group (16SrIX): an update based on multiple gene sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, I-M; Bottner-Parker, K D; Zhao, Y; Bertaccini, A; Davis, R E

    2012-09-01

    The pigeon pea witches'-broom phytoplasma group (16SrIX) comprises diverse strains that cause numerous diseases in leguminous trees and herbaceous crops, vegetables, a fruit, a nut tree and a forest tree. At least 14 strains have been reported worldwide. Comparative phylogenetic analyses of the highly conserved 16S rRNA gene and the moderately conserved rplV (rpl22)-rpsC (rps3) and secY genes indicated that the 16SrIX group consists of at least six distinct genetic lineages. Some of these lineages cannot be readily differentiated based on analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences alone. The relative genetic distances among these closely related lineages were better assessed by including more variable genes [e.g. ribosomal protein (rp) and secY genes]. The present study demonstrated that virtual RFLP analyses using rp and secY gene sequences allowed unambiguous identification of such lineages. A coding system is proposed to designate each distinct rp and secY subgroup in the 16SrIX group.

  11. Biochemical changes during the development of witches' broom: the most important disease of cocoa in Brazil caused by Crinipellis perniciosa.

    PubMed

    Scarpari, L M; Meinhardt, L W; Mazzafera, P; Pomella, A W V; Schiavinato, M A; Cascardo, J C M; Pereira, G A G

    2005-03-01

    Witches' broom disease (WBD) is caused by the hemibiotrophic basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa, which is one of the most important diseases of cocoa in the western hemisphere. In this study, the contents of soluble sugars, amino acids, alkaloids, ethylene, phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, pigments, malondialdehyde (MDA), glycerol, and fatty acids were analysed in cocoa (Theobroma cacao) shoots during the infection and development of WBD. Alterations were observed in the content of soluble sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose), asparagine and alkaloids (caffeine and theobromine), ethylene, and tannins. Ethylene and tannins increased prior to symptom development and declined with the death of the infected tissues. Furthermore, MDA and glycerol concentrations were higher in infected tissue than in the controls, while fatty acid composition changed in the infected tissues. Chlorophylls a and b were lower throughout the development of the disease while carotenoids and xanthophylls dropped in the infected tissue by the time of symptom development. These results show co-ordinated biochemical alterations in the infected tissues, indicating major stress responses with the production of ethylene. Ethylene levels are hypothesized to play a key role in broom development. Some of the other biochemical alterations are directly associated with ethylene synthesis and may be important for the modification of its effect on the infected tissues.

  12. A genome survey of Moniliophthora perniciosa gives new insights into Witches' Broom Disease of cacao

    PubMed Central

    Mondego, Jorge MC; Carazzolle, Marcelo F; Costa, Gustavo GL; Formighieri, Eduardo F; Parizzi, Lucas P; Rincones, Johana; Cotomacci, Carolina; Carraro, Dirce M; Cunha, Anderson F; Carrer, Helaine; Vidal, Ramon O; Estrela, Raíssa C; García, Odalys; Thomazella, Daniela PT; de Oliveira, Bruno V; Pires, Acássia BL; Rio, Maria Carolina S; Araújo, Marcos Renato R; de Moraes, Marcos H; Castro, Luis AB; Gramacho, Karina P; Gonçalves, Marilda S; Neto, José P Moura; Neto, Aristóteles Góes; Barbosa, Luciana V; Guiltinan, Mark J; Bailey, Bryan A; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Cascardo, Julio CM; Pereira, Gonçalo AG

    2008-01-01

    Background The basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease (WBD) in cacao (Theobroma cacao). It is a hemibiotrophic pathogen that colonizes the apoplast of cacao's meristematic tissues as a biotrophic pathogen, switching to a saprotrophic lifestyle during later stages of infection. M. perniciosa, together with the related species M. roreri, are pathogens of aerial parts of the plant, an uncommon characteristic in the order Agaricales. A genome survey (1.9× coverage) of M. perniciosa was analyzed to evaluate the overall gene content of this phytopathogen. Results Genes encoding proteins involved in retrotransposition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) resistance, drug efflux transport and cell wall degradation were identified. The great number of genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (1.15% of gene models) indicates that M. perniciosa has a great potential for detoxification, production of toxins and hormones; which may confer a high adaptive ability to the fungus. We have also discovered new genes encoding putative secreted polypeptides rich in cysteine, as well as genes related to methylotrophy and plant hormone biosynthesis (gibberellin and auxin). Analysis of gene families indicated that M. perniciosa have similar amounts of carboxylesterases and repertoires of plant cell wall degrading enzymes as other hemibiotrophic fungi. In addition, an approach for normalization of gene family data using incomplete genome data was developed and applied in M. perniciosa genome survey. Conclusion This genome survey gives an overview of the M. perniciosa genome, and reveals that a significant portion is involved in stress adaptation and plant necrosis, two necessary characteristics for a hemibiotrophic fungus to fulfill its infection cycle. Our analysis provides new evidence revealing potential adaptive traits that may play major roles in the mechanisms of pathogenicity in the M. perniciosa/cacao pathosystem. PMID:19019209

  13. Patterns and drivers of Early Holocene vegetation dynamics in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The rapid warming of the Holocene induced the rearrangement of vegetation across Europe, including the widely synchronous and rapid expansion of hazel (Corylus avellana) at around 10.6 ka BP (Giesecke et al., 2011). The simultaneity of the hazel expansion across large parts of Europe suggests that a climate shift has triggered that expansion. However, it remains poorly understood, which climate parameter has been effective (Huntley, 1993) because hazel expanded simultaneously in areas that today clearly differ in climate. To better understand the causes we studied Early Holocene vegetation dynamics in NE Germany in high temporal and spatial resolution. Analysis combines pollen data from 60 sites, including high resolution data sets, with present-day site patterns of soil and relief using the extended downscaling approach. Using forward modeling of pollen deposition in each sample site the method seeks that vegetation composition on each site type that produces modeled pollen deposition most similar to empiric pollen deposition. The results (Theuerkauf et al., 2014) indicate that first populations of hazel established soon after the Holocene warming at 11.2 ka. These populations were still small and possibly restricted to warm loving slopes, indicating that low summer warmth was the limiting factor. The widespread expansion of hazel started only after 10.8 ka, possibly following a shift to greater summer warmth. Hazel primarily expanded on sites that are today covered by gleyic soils, from which it largely expelled tree birch. Hazel thus obviously could only expand on sites that received additional wetness from ground- and stagnant water. Giesecke T., Bennett K.D., Birks H.J.B., Bjune A.E., Bozilova E., Feurdean A., Finsinger W., Froyd C., Pokorný P., Rösch M., Seppä H., Tonkov S., Valsecchi V., & Wolters S. (2011) The pace of Holocene vegetation change - testing for synchronous developments. Quaternary Science Reviews, 30, 2805-2814. Huntley B. (1993) Rapid

  14. Proteomic analysis during of spore germination of Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease in cacao.

    PubMed

    Mares, Joise Hander; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Santos, Everton Cruz; da Silva Santiago, André; Santana, Juliano Oliveira; de Sousa, Aurizângela Oliveira; Alvim, Fátima Cerqueira; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2017-08-17

    Moniliophthora perniciosa is a phytopathogenic fungus responsible for witches' broom disease of cacao trees (Theobroma cacao L.). Understanding the molecular events during germination of the pathogen may enable the development of strategies for disease control in these economically important plants. In this study, we determined a comparative proteomic profile of M. perniciosa basidiospores during germination by two-dimensional SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. A total of 316 proteins were identified. Molecular changes during the development of the germinative tube were identified by a hierarchical clustering analysis based on the differential accumulation of proteins. Proteins associated with fungal filamentation, such as septin and kinesin, were detected only 4 h after germination (hag). A transcription factor related to biosynthesis of the secondary metabolite fumagillin, which can form hybrids with polyketides, was induced 2 hag, and polyketide synthase was observed 4 hag. The accumulation of ATP synthase, binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP), and catalase was validated by western blotting. In this study, we showed variations in protein expression during the early germination stages of fungus M. perniciosa. Proteins associated with fungal filamentation, and consequently with virulence, were detected in basidiospores 4 hag., for example, septin and kinesin. We discuss these results and propose a model of the germination of fungus M. perniciosa. This research can help elucidate the mechanisms underlying basic processes of host invasion and to develop strategies for control of the disease.

  15. Genes differentially expressed in Theobroma cacao associated with resistance to witches' broom disease caused by Crinipellis perniciosa.

    PubMed

    Leal, Gildemberg Amorim; Albuquerque, Paulo S B; Figueira, Antonio

    2007-05-01

    SUMMARY The basidiomycete Crinipellis perniciosa is the causal agent of witches' broom disease of Theobroma cacao (cocoa). Hypertrophic growth of infected buds ('brooms') is the most dramatic symptom, but the main economic losses derive from pod infection. To identify cocoa genes differentially expressed during the early stages of infection, two cDNA libraries were constructed using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) approach. Subtraction hybridization was conducted between cDNAs from infected shoot-tips of the susceptible genotype 'ICS 39' and the resistant 'CAB 214', in both directions. A total of 187 unique sequences were obtained, with 83 from the library enriched for the susceptible 'ICS 39' sequences, and 104 for the resistant 'CAB 214'. By homology search and ontology analyses, the identified sequences were mainly putatively categorized as belonging to 'signal transduction', 'response to biotic and abiotic stress', 'metabolism', 'RNA and DNA metabolism', 'protein metabolism' and 'cellular maintenance' classes. Quantitative reverse transcription amplification (RT-qPCR) of 23 transcripts identified as differentially expressed between genotypes revealed distinct kinetics of gene up-regulation at the asymptomatic stage of the disease. Expression induction in the susceptible 'ICS 39' in response to C. perniciosa was delayed and limited, while in 'CAB 214' there was a quicker and more intense reaction, with two peaks of gene induction at 48 and 120 h after inoculation, corresponding to morphological and biochemical changes previously described during colonization. Similar differences in gene induction were validated for another resistant genotype ('CAB 208') in an independent experiment. Validation of these genes corroborated similar hypothetical mechanisms of resistance described in other pathosystems.

  16. Characterization of a protease produced by a Trichoderma harzianum isolate which controls cocoa plant witches' broom disease

    PubMed Central

    De Marco, Janice L; Felix, Carlos Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Background Several Trichoderma strains have been reported to be effective in controlling plant diseases, and the action of fungal hydrolytic enzymes has been considered as the main mechanism involved in the antagonistic process. However, although Trichoderma strains were found to impair development of Crinipellis perniciosa, the causal agent of cocoa plant witches' broom disease, no fungal strain is available for effective control of this disease. We have then undertaken a program of construction of hydrolytic enzyme-overproducing Trichoderma strains aiming improvement of the fungal antagonistic capacity. The protease of an indian Trichoderma isolate showing antagonistic activity against C. perniciosa was purified to homogeneity and characterized for its kinetic properties and action on the phytopathogen cell wall. Results A protease produced by the Trichoderma harzianum isolate 1051 was purified to homogeneity by precipitation with ammonium sulfate followed by hydrophobic chromatography. The molecular mass of this protease as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was about 18.8 kDa. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence shares no homology with any other protease. The purified enzyme substantially affected the cell wall of the phytopathogen C. perniciosa. Western-blotting analysis showed that the enzyme was present in the culture supernatant 24 h after the Trichoderma started to grow in casein-containing liquid medium. Conclusions The capacity of the Trichoderma harzianum protease to hydrolyze the cell wall of C. perniciosa indicates that this enzyme may be actually involved in the antagonistic process between the two fungi. This fact strongly suggest that hydrolytic enzyme over-producing transgenic fungi may show superior biocontrol capacity. PMID:11835696

  17. Identification and characterization of a class III chitin synthase gene of Moniliophthora perniciosa, the fungus that causes witches' broom disease of cacao.

    PubMed

    Souza, Catiane S; Oliveira, Bruno M; Costa, Gustavo G L; Schriefer, Albert; Selbach-Schnadelbach, Alessandra; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula T; Pirovani, Carlos P; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Taranto, Alex G; Cascardo, Júlio Cézar de M; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles

    2009-08-01

    Chitin synthase (CHS) is a glucosyltransferase that converts UDP-N-acetylglucosamine into chitin, one of the main components of fungal cell wall. Class III chitin synthases act directly in the formation of the cell wall. They catalyze the conversion of the immediate precursor of chitin and are responsible for the majority of chitin synthesis in fungi. As such, they are highly specific molecular targets for drugs that can inhibit the growth and development of fungal pathogens. In this work, we have identified and characterized a chitin synthase gene of Moniliophthora perniciosa (Mopchs) by primer walking. The complete gene sequence is 3,443 bp, interrupted by 13 small introns, and comprises a cDNA with an ORF with 2,739 bp, whose terminal region was experimentally determined, encoding a protein with 913 aa that harbors all the motifs and domains typically found in class III chitin synthases. This is the first report on the characterization of a chitin synthase gene, its mature transcription product, and its putative protein in basidioma and secondary mycelium stages of M. perniciosa, a basidiomycotan fungus that causes witches' broom disease of cacao.

  18. Genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of catechin and tannins from the bark of Hamamelis virginiana L. in metabolically competent, human hepatoma cells (Hep G2) using single cell gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Dauer, Andreas; Hensel, Andreas; Lhoste, Evelyne; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2003-05-01

    The genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of catechin, hamamelitannin and two proanthocyanidin fractions prepared from the bark of Hamamelis virginiana L. were investigated in a human derived, metabolically competent hepatoma cell line (Hep G2) using single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) for the detection of DNA-damage. DNA-migration was calculated as Olive tail moment (OTM). Catechin and a low-molecular weight proanthocyandin fraction (W(M)) caused only slight increases of OTM up to concentrations of 166 microg/ml whereas hamamelitannin and the proanthocyandin fraction with higher molecular weight (W(A)) led to a two-fold enhancement of OTM at the same concentrations. These effects were dose-independent. Treatment of the cells with the test compounds in a dose-range of 2-166 microg/ml prior to the exposure to benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P, 10 microM, 2.5 microg/ml) led to a significant reduction of induced DNA damage which was dose-dependent for all test compounds, except for hamamelitannin. The inhibitory effects of proanthocyanidins were stronger than those of catechin and hamamelitannin; the lowest effective concentrations were about 2 microg/ml. In order to clarify the mechanisms of protection, possible effects of the test compounds on enzymes involved in toxification and detoxification of B(a)P were investigated. While B(a)P toxification by cytochrome P450 was not inhibited by the test compounds, detoxification by glutathion-S-transferase (GST) was induced by catechin and W(M). Combination experiments with the ultimate metabolite of B(a)P, (+/-)-anti-benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE; 5 microM, 1.5 microg/ml), revealed strong inhibitory effects, indicating that the observed protective effects were caused by scavenging of the ultimate mutagen by the test compounds. Exposure of Hep G2 cells to the test compounds after B(a)P treatment did not influence B(a)P induced DNA damage, demonstrating that repair mechanisms were not affected.

  19. Screening of polyphenolic plant extracts for anti-obesity properties in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Boqué, Noemi; Campión, Javier; de la Iglesia, Rocío; de la Garza, Ana L; Milagro, Fermín I; San Román, Belén; Bañuelos, Óscar; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2013-03-30

    Polyphenols have been reported to prevent chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. The objective of the study was to conduct a screening for potential anti-obesity polyphenolic plant extracts using a diet-induced animal model. Rats were fed a high-fat-sucrose (HFS) diet with or without supplementation of different polyphenolic plant extracts (almond, apple, cinnamon, orange blossom, hamamelis, lime blossom, grape vine, and birch) for 56-64 days. Body weight gain was lower in rats supplemented with apple, cinnamon, hamamelis and birch extracts as compared to HFS non-supplemented group. Moreover, apple and cinnamon extracts prevented the increase in fat mass promoted by the HFS diet. Insulin resistance, estimated by the homostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, was reduced in rats fed apple, cinnamon, hamamelis and birch extracts. Apple extract also prevented the HFS-induced hyperglycaemia and hyperleptinaemia. Only apple and cinnamon extracts were finally considered as potentially important anti-obesogenic extracts, due to their body fat-lowering effects, while the improvement of obesity-related metabolic complications by apple polyphenols highlights this extract as a promising functional food ingredient for the management of obesity and its metabolic complications. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Comparative Analysis of the Peanut Witches'-Broom Phytoplasma Genome Reveals Horizontal Transfer of Potential Mobile Units and Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Wen-Sui; Lin, Chan-Pin; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are a group of bacteria that are associated with hundreds of plant diseases. Due to their economical importance and the difficulties involved in the experimental study of these obligate pathogens, genome sequencing and comparative analysis have been utilized as powerful tools to understand phytoplasma biology. To date four complete phytoplasma genome sequences have been published. However, these four strains represent limited phylogenetic diversity. In this study, we report the shotgun sequencing and evolutionary analysis of a peanut witches'-broom (PnWB) phytoplasma genome. The availability of this genome provides the first representative of the 16SrII group and substantially improves the taxon sampling to investigate genome evolution. The draft genome assembly contains 13 chromosomal contigs with a total size of 562,473 bp, covering ∼90% of the chromosome. Additionally, a complete plasmid sequence is included. Comparisons among the five available phytoplasma genomes reveal the differentiations in gene content and metabolic capacity. Notably, phylogenetic inferences of the potential mobile units (PMUs) in these genomes indicate that horizontal transfer may have occurred between divergent phytoplasma lineages. Because many effectors are associated with PMUs, the horizontal transfer of these transposon-like elements can contribute to the adaptation and diversification of these pathogens. In summary, the findings from this study highlight the importance of improving taxon sampling when investigating genome evolution. Moreover, the currently available sequences are inadequate to fully characterize the pan-genome of phytoplasmas. Future genome sequencing efforts to expand phylogenetic diversity are essential in improving our understanding of phytoplasma evolution. PMID:23626855

  1. Species-Specific Effects of Woody Litter on Seedling Emergence and Growth of Herbaceous Plants

    PubMed Central

    Koorem, Kadri; Price, Jodi N.; Moora, Mari

    2011-01-01

    The effect of litter on seedling establishment can influence species richness in plant communities. The effect of litter depends on amount, and also on litter type, but relatively little is known about the species-specific effects of litter. We conducted a factorial greenhouse experiment to examine the effect of litter type, using two woody species that commonly co-occur in boreonemoral forest—evergreen spruce (Picea abies), deciduous hazel (Corylus avellana), and a mixture of the two species—and litter amount—shallow (4 mm), deep (12 mm) and leachate—on seedling emergence and biomass of three understorey species. The effect of litter amount on seedling emergence was highly dependent on litter type; while spruce needle litter had a significant negative effect that increased with depth, seedling emergence in the presence of hazel broadleaf litter did not differ from control pots containing no litter. Mixed litter of both species also had a negative effect on seedling emergence that was intermediate compared to the single-species treatments. Spruce litter had a marginally positive (shallow) or neutral effect (deep) on seedling biomass, while hazel and mixed litter treatments had significant positive effects on biomass that increased with depth. We found non-additive effects of litter mixtures on seedling biomass indicating that high quality hazel litter can reduce the negative effects of spruce. Hazel litter does not inhibit seedling emergence; it increases seedling growth, and creates better conditions for seedling growth in mixtures by reducing the suppressive effect of spruce litter, having a positive effect on understorey species richness. PMID:22028890

  2. Moisturizers for Acne

    PubMed Central

    Chularojanamontri, Leena; Tuchinda, Papapit; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai

    2014-01-01

    Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit that affects almost all teenagers. Different treatments offer different modes of action, but aim to target acne pathology. Topical therapies, such as benzoyl peroxide, retinoids, antibiotics with alcohol-based preparations, and salicylic acid, can cause skin irritation resulting in a lack of patient adherence. Some physicians recommend patients use moisturizers as adjunctive treatment of acne, especially when either topical benzoyl peroxide or a retinoid is prescribed. Furthermore, some evidence shows that moisturizers can contribute independently to improve signs and symptoms of acne. Moisturizers contain three main properties, which are occlusive, humectant, and emollient effects. Currently, many moisturizers claim to be suitable for acne treatment. This article aims to provide a review of the active ingredients and properties of those moisturizers. Fifty-two moisturizers for acne were included for analysis. Most of the products (92%) have anti-inflammatory properties apart from occlusive, humectant, and emollient effects. Anti-acne medications, including salicylic acid, benzoyl peroxide, and retinol, were found respectively in 35, 10, and 8 percent of the moisturizer products containing anti-inflammatory properties. More than half of the products contain dimethicone and/or glycerin for its moisturizer property. Aloe vera and witch hazel are botanical anti-inflammatories that were commonly found in this study. Scientific data regarding some ingredients are discussed to provide a guide for physicians in selecting moisturizers for acne patients. PMID:24847408

  3. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium' associated with almond witches'-broom disease: from draft genome to genetic diversity among strain populations.

    PubMed

    Quaglino, Fabio; Kube, Michael; Jawhari, Maan; Abou-Jawdah, Yusuf; Siewert, Christin; Choueiri, Elia; Sobh, Hana; Casati, Paola; Tedeschi, Rosemarie; Lova, Marina Molino; Alma, Alberto; Bianco, Piero Attilio

    2015-07-30

    Almond witches'-broom (AlmWB), a devastating disease of almond, peach and nectarine in Lebanon, is associated with 'Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium'. In the present study, we generated a draft genome sequence of 'Ca. P. phoenicium' strain SA213, representative of phytoplasma strain populations from different host plants, and determined the genetic diversity among phytoplasma strain populations by phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, groEL, tufB and inmp gene sequences. Sequence-based typing and phylogenetic analysis of the gene inmp, coding an integral membrane protein, distinguished AlmWB-associated phytoplasma strains originating from diverse host plants, whereas their 16S rRNA, tufB and groEL genes shared 100 % sequence identity. Moreover, dN/dS analysis indicated positive selection acting on inmp gene. Additionally, the analysis of 'Ca. P. phoenicium' draft genome revealed the presence of integral membrane proteins and effector-like proteins and potential candidates for interaction with hosts. One of the integral membrane proteins was predicted as BI-1, an inhibitor of apoptosis-promoting Bax factor. Bioinformatics analyses revealed the presence of putative BI-1 in draft and complete genomes of other 'Ca. Phytoplasma' species. The genetic diversity within 'Ca. P. phoenicium' strain populations in Lebanon suggested that AlmWB disease could be associated with phytoplasma strains derived from the adaptation of an original strain to diverse hosts. Moreover, the identification of a putative inhibitor of apoptosis-promoting Bax factor (BI-1) in 'Ca. P. phoenicium' draft genome and within genomes of other 'Ca. Phytoplasma' species suggested its potential role as a phytoplasma fitness-increasing factor by modification of the host-defense response.

  4. [Witchcraft medicine and folklore in Wushierbingfang ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases')].

    PubMed

    Jia, Hai-yan

    2010-03-01

    One important characteristic of early stage of TCM is the intermixture of witches medicine and folklore. A few witch prescriptions in Wushierbingfang ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases') indicated the residual traces of the mixture of witch and medicine in the medical literatures. The witch prescriptions recorded in Wushierbingfang ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases') could be divided into supplication, Yu-step, exorcism, Nuo ritual and peach wood charms etc. Witchcraft developed into folklore and the application of witchcraft sometimes manifested as the form of folklore, which were also reflected in the records of ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases').

  5. Officers and Council, 1998-1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-10-01

    The 1998-1999 Council of the British Astronomical Association photographed on the steps of Burlington House, London, on 1999 May 26. Front row, left to right: Bob Marriott, Hazel McGee, Martin Mobberley, Nick James, Jonathan Shanklin, Ron Johnson; centre: Richard Miles, Gordon Taylor, Jacqueline Mitton, David Tucker, John Mason, Pat Barber, David Reid, Peter Hudson; back: Laurence Anslow, Guy Hurst, Lionel Mayling, Nick Hewitt, Owen Brazell, Tony Kinder, Mark Armstrong, Maurice Gavin. Photo by Hazel McGee and Linda Newton.

  6. Children's drawings of an anxiety-eliciting topic: effects on the size of the drawing.

    PubMed

    Fox, T J; Thomas, G V

    1990-02-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether or not children's drawings of a potentially threatening topic (a Hallowe'en witch) were made significantly smaller than drawings of a non-threatening topic (a woman). The first study confirmed an earlier claim by Craddick (1963) that drawings of a witch were made significantly smaller on the day before Hallowe'en compared to drawings made one week before or after, but we found that drawings of a non-threatening topic (a woman) changed in size in exactly the same way. Furthermore, we found no evidence that children became significantly more frightened of witches as Hallowe'en approached. In the second study, questionnaire responses were used to allocate children into two groups, those who were scared of witches and those who were not. Scared children drew both smaller witches and larger women than did non-scared children, with the result that relative heights of witches compared to women differed significantly between the two groups. However, only the difference in the height of the drawings of a woman was statistically significant. The implications of these results for the clinical assessment of children through their drawings are discussed.

  7. Women as easy scapegoats: witchcraft accusations and women as targets in tea plantations of India.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Soma

    2012-10-01

    This article revisits a much-debated question: Why are women popular targets during witch hunts? By using in-depth interviews this article provides an answer. Women are easy targets or scapegoats for two reasons. First, it is widely believed in the community that was studied that witches do, in fact, exist, and the images of witches are always female. Second, tribal women hold lower positions than men in all social, political, and ritual matters, and this contributes to their vulnerability during the hunt for scapegoats. This article also highlights the roles that rumors play during manipulation of witchcraft accusations to gather support for witch hunts.

  8. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Witch Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Witch Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  9. Firewood, food and human niche construction: the potential role of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in actively structuring Scotland's woodlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Rosie R.; Church, Mike J.; Rowley-Conwy, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades the potential role of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in actively constructing their own niches, through the management of wild plants, has frequently been discussed. It is probable that Mesolithic hunter-gatherers systematically exploited specific woodland resources for food and fuel and influenced the 'natural' abundance or distribution of particular species within Mesolithic environments. Though there has been considerable discussion of the pollen evidence for potential small-scale human-woodland manipulation in Mesolithic Scotland, the archaeobotanical evidence for anthropogenic firewood and food selection has not been discussed in this context. This paper assesses the evidence for the active role of Mesolithic hunter-gatherer communities in systematically exploiting and managing woodlands for food and fuel in Scotland. While taphonomic factors may have impacted on the frequency of specific species in archaeobotanical assemblages, it is suggested that hunter-gatherers in Mesolithic Scotland were systematically using woodland plants, and in particular hazel and oak, for food and fuel. It is argued that the pollen evidence for woodland management is equivocal, but hints at the role of hunter-gatherers in shaping the structure of their environments, through the maintenance or creation of woodland clearings for settlement or as part of vegetation management strategies. It is proposed that Mesolithic hunter-gatherers may have actively contributed to niche construction and that the systematic use of hazel and oak as a fuel may reflect the deliberate pruning of hazel trees to increase nut-yields and the inadvertent - or perhaps deliberate - coppicing of hazel and oak during greenwood collection.

  10. NASA Satellite Scares Up An Eerie Image of Haunted Lakes and Ghost Ships

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-29

    NASA Terra satellite presents this false color view of portions of Wisconsin and Michigan, including Devil Lake, Druid Lake, Ghost Lake, Spider Lake, and Witches Lake in Wisconsin; and Bat Lake, Corpse Pond and Witch Lake in Michigan.

  11. Genetic Interrelatedness among Clover Proliferation Mycoplasmalike Organisms (MLOs) and Other MLOs Investigated by Nucleic Acid Hybridization and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ing-Ming; Davis, Robert E.; Hiruki, Chuji

    1991-01-01

    DNA was isolated from clover proliferation (CP) mycoplasmalike organism (MLO)-diseased periwinkle plants (Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don.) and cloned into pSP6 plasmid vectors. CP MLO-specific recombinant DNA clones were biotin labeled and used as probes in dot hybridization and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses to study the genetic interrelatedness among CP MLO and other MLOs, including potato witches'-broom (PWB) MLO. Results from dot hybridization analyses indicated that both a Maryland strain of aster yellows and a California strain of aster yellows are distantly related to CP MLO. Elm yellows, paulownia witches'-broom, peanut witches'-broom, loofah witches'-broom, and sweet potato witches'-broom may be very distantly related, if at all, to CP MLO. A new Jersey strain of aster yellows MLO, tomato big bud MLO, clover phyllody MLO, beet leafhopper-transmitted virescence MLO, and ash yellows MLO are related to CP MLO, but PWB MLO is the most closely related. Similarity coefficients derived from restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses revealed that PWB and CP MLOs are closely related strains and thus provided direct evidence of their relatedness in contrast to reliance solely on biological characterization. Images PMID:16348604

  12. Identification of a second family of genes in Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease in cacao, encoding necrosis-inducing proteins similar to cerato-platanins.

    PubMed

    Zaparoli, Gustavo; Cabrera, Odalys García; Medrano, Francisco Javier; Tiburcio, Ricardo; Lacerda, Gustavo; Pereira, Gonçalo Guimarães

    2009-01-01

    The hemibiotrophic basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of witches' broom disease in cacao. This is a dimorphic species, with monokaryotic hyphae during the biotrophic phase, which is converted to dikaryotic mycelia during the saprophytic phase. The infection in pod is characterized by the formation of hypertrophic and hyperplasic tissues in the biotrophic phase, which is followed by necrosis and complete degradation of the organ. We found at least five sequences in the fungal genome encoding putative proteins similar to cerato-platanin (CP)-like proteins, a novel class of proteins initially found in the phytopathogen Ceratocystis fimbriata. One M. perniciosa CP gene (MpCP1) was expressed in vitro and proved to have necrosis-inducing ability in tobacco and cacao leaves. The protein is present in solution as dimers and is able to recover necrosis activity after heat treatment. Transcription analysis ex planta showed that MpCP1 is more expressed in biotrophic-like mycelia than saprotrophic mycelia. The necrosis profile presented is different from that caused by M. perniciosa necrosis and ethylene-inducing proteins (MpNEPs), another family of elicitors expressed by M. perniciosa. Remarkably, a mixture of MpCP1 with MpNEP2 led to a synergistic necrosis effect very similar to that found in naturally infected plants. This is the first report of a basidiomycete presenting both NEP1-like proteins (NLPs) and CPs in its genome.

  13. Identification of candidate genes involved in Witches' broom disease resistance in a segregating mapping population of Theobroma cacao L. in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Royaert, Stefan; Jansen, Johannes; da Silva, Daniela Viana; de Jesus Branco, Samuel Martins; Livingstone, Donald S; Mustiga, Guiliana; Marelli, Jean-Philippe; Araújo, Ioná Santos; Corrêa, Ronan Xavier; Motamayor, Juan Carlos

    2016-02-11

    Witches' broom disease (WBD) caused by the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is responsible for considerable economic losses for cacao producers. One of the ways to combat WBD is to plant resistant cultivars. Resistance may be governed by a few genetic factors, mainly found in wild germplasm. We developed a dense genetic linkage map with a length of 852.8 cM that contains 3,526 SNPs and is based on the MP01 mapping population, which counts 459 trees from a cross between the resistant 'TSH 1188' and the tolerant 'CCN 51' at the Mars Center for Cocoa Science in Barro Preto, Bahia, Brazil. Seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) that are associated with WBD were identified on five different chromosomes using a multi-trait QTL analysis for outbreeders. Phasing of the haplotypes at the major QTL region on chromosome IX on a diversity panel of genotypes clearly indicates that the major resistance locus comes from a well-known source of WBD resistance, the clone 'SCAVINA 6'. Various potential candidate genes identified within all QTL may be involved in different steps leading to disease resistance. Preliminary expression data indicate that at least three of these candidate genes may play a role during the first 12 h after infection, with clear differences between 'CCN 51' and 'TSH 1188'. We combined the information from a large mapping population with very distinct parents that segregate for WBD, a dense set of mapped markers, rigorous phenotyping capabilities and the availability of a sequenced genome to identify several genomic regions that are involved in WBD resistance. We also identified a novel source of resistance that most likely comes from the 'CCN 51' parent. Thanks to the large population size of the MP01 population, we were able to pick up QTL and markers with relatively small effects that can contribute to the creation and selection of more tolerant/resistant plant material.

  14. Evaluation of the Biotoxicity of Tree Wood Ashes in Zebrafish Embryos.

    PubMed

    Consigli, Veronica; Guarienti, Michela; Bilo, Fabjola; Benassi, Laura; Depero, Laura E; Bontempi, Elza; Presta, Marco

    2016-10-01

    Ashes derived from biomass combustion and used as soil fertilizers can generate negative environmental and human health risks, related to leaching of heavy metals and other putative toxic elements. Tree wood ash composition may vary depending on geographical location and surrounding industrial processes. In this study, we evaluated the biotoxicity of lixiviated tree wood ash samples from trees of the Ash (Fraxinus), Cherry (Pronus), Hazel (Corylus), and Black locust (Robinia) genus collected in an industrialized region in Northern Italy. Elemental chemical analysis of the samples was performed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique and their biotoxicity was assessed in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Ashes from Ash, Cherry, and Hazel trees, but not Black locust trees, had a high concentration of heavy metals and other putative toxic elements. Accordingly, a dose-dependent increase in mortality rate and morphological and teratogenic defects was observed in zebrafish embryos treated with lixiviated Ash, Cherry, and Hazel tree wood samples, whereas the toxicity of Black locust tree wood ashes was negligible. In conclusion, lixiviated wood ashes from different plants show a different content of toxic elements that correlate with their biotoxic effects on zebrafish embryos. Tree wood ashes derived from biomass combustion may represent a potential risk for the environment and human health.

  15. A phytoplasma closely related to the pigeon pea witches'-broom phytoplasma (16Sr IX) is associated with citrus huanglongbing symptoms in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, D C; Wulff, N A; Martins, E C; Kitajima, E W; Bassanezi, R; Ayres, A J; Eveillard, S; Saillard, C; Bové, J M

    2008-09-01

    In February 2007, sweet orange trees with characteristic symptoms of huanglongbing (HLB) were encountered in a region of São Paulo state (SPs) hitherto free of HLB. These trees tested negative for the three liberibacter species associated with HLB. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product from symptomatic fruit columella DNA amplifications with universal primers fD1/rP1 was cloned and sequenced. The corresponding agent was found to have highest 16S rDNA sequence identity (99%) with the pigeon pea witches'-broom phytoplasma of group 16Sr IX. Sequences of PCR products obtained with phytoplasma 16S rDNA primer pairs fU5/rU3, fU5/P7 confirm these results. With two primers D7f2/D7r2 designed based on the 16S rDNA sequence of the cloned DNA fragment, positive amplifications were obtained from more than one hundred samples including symptomatic fruits and blotchy mottle leaves. Samples positive for phytoplasmas were negative for liberibacters, except for four samples, which were positive for both the phytoplasma and 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. The phytoplasma was detected by electron microscopy in the sieve tubes of midribs from symptomatic leaves. These results show that a phytoplasma of group IX is associated with citrus HLB symptoms in northern, central, and southern SPs. This phytoplasma has very probably been transmitted to citrus from an external source of inoculum, but the putative insect vector is not yet known.

  16. Salem Witch Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that focuses on the Salem (Massachusetts) witchcraft trials. Explains that the first section of the lesson has students learn about the trials as described in the court records. The second section asks students to interpret various images of the trials. (CMK)

  17. Witchcraft in Transkei Region of South African: case report.

    PubMed

    Meel, B L

    2009-03-01

    Witchcraft and witch-hunt have been practiced widely almost all over the world. It is known as magic in Europe, maleficium (wrong-doing) in Latin America, and superpower in Asia. In Africa those accused of being witches often face execution. A range of accusations are leveled against witches such as causing impotence, turning milk sour, causing disease and death.Three cases are presented here to highlight the issues related to witch craft in Transkei area. The information was given by the next of kin at the time of autopsy. All were elderly women over 50 years of age. The first was related to tuberculosis of the brother of the perpetrator the second, death of the culprit's relative and third the death of culprits brother in Johannesburg. The first and third victims were brutally chopped by axe and in the second it was a firearm injury. The case history, the type of wounds, and medico-legal aspects of death are discussed in these reports. There law related to witchcraft and their implementations to prevent such deaths are discussed.

  18. Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease of cacao: what's new from this old foe?

    PubMed

    Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Rincones, Johana; Bailey, Bryan A; Aime, M Catherine; Griffith, Gareth W; Zhang, Dapeng; Pereira, Gonçalo A G

    2008-09-01

    Moniliophthora perniciosa (=Crinipellis perniciosa) causes one of the three main fungal diseases of Theobroma cacao (cacao), the source of chocolate. This pathogen causes Witches' broom disease (WBD) and has brought about severe economic losses in all of the cacao-growing regions to which it has spread with yield reductions that range from 50 to 90%. Cacao production in South America reflects the severity of this pathogen, as the yields in most of the infected regions have not returned to pre-outbreak levels, even with the introduction of resistant varieties. In this review we give a brief historical account and summarize the current state of knowledge focusing on developments in the areas of systematics, fungal physiology, biochemistry, genomics and gene expression in an attempt to highlight this disease. Moniliophthora perniciosa is a hemibiotrophic fungus with two distinct growth phases. The ability to culture a biotrophic-like phase in vitro along with new findings derived from the nearly complete genome and expression studies clearly show that these different fungal growth phases function under distinct metabolic parameters. These new findings have greatly improved our understanding of this fungal/host interaction and we may be at the crossroads of understanding how hemibiotrophic fungal plant pathogens cause disease in other crops. The first WDB symptoms appear to have been described in the diaries of Alexandre Rodrigues Ferreira (described as lagartão; meaning big lizard) from his observations of cacao trees in 1785 and 1787 in Amazonia, which is consistent with the generally accepted idea that M. perniciosa, like its main host T. cacao, evolved in this region. The disease subsequently arrived in Surinam in 1895. WBD moved rapidly, spreading to Guyana in 1906, Ecuador in 1918, Trinidad in 1928, Colombia in 1929 and Grenada in 1948. In each case, cacao production was catastrophically affected with yield reductions of 50-90%. After the arrival of M

  19. The evolution of witchcraft and the meaning of healing in colonial Andean society.

    PubMed

    Silverblatt, I

    1983-12-01

    This paper explores the ways in which traditional beliefs of Andean peoples regarding health and sickness were transformed by the process of Spanish colonization. It also examines how the colonial context devolved new meanings and powers on native curers. The analysis of these transformations in Andean systems of meanings and role structures relating to healing depends on an examination of the European witchcraze of the 16th-17th centuries. The Spanish conquest of the Inca empire in the mid-1500's coincided with the European witch hunts; it is argued that the latter formed the cultural lens through which the Spanish evaluated native religion--the matrix through which Andean concepts of disease and health were expressed--as well as native curers. Andean religion was condemned as heresy and curers were condemned as witches. Traditional Andean cosmology was antithetical to 16th century European beliefs in the struggle between god and the devil, between loyal Christians and the Satan's followers. Consequently, European concepts of disease and health based on the power of witches, Satan's adherents, to cause harm and cure were alien to pre-Columbian Andean thought. Ironically European concepts of Satan and the supposed powers of witches began to graft themselves onto the world view of Andean peoples. The ensuing dialectic of ideas as well as the creation of new healers/witches forged during the imposition of colonial rule form the crux of this analysis.

  20. Military Innovation in the New Normal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-13

    fundamentally flawed. Having Soldiers with regional affiliation, cultural appreciation, and language proficiency makes sense . The concept simply fails in...36 Recognizing the urgency of this training deficiency, both First and Second Marine Divisions published their respective...Witch Hunt,” http://www.huffingtonpost.com/ sen -barbara- boxer/the-gops-benghazi-witch-h_b_5315857.html (accessed 28 Jan 2015). Military Innovation in

  1. Windthrow a hazard in Virginia pine strip cuttings

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Fenton

    1955-01-01

    The eye of Hurricane Hazel passed to the west of the Beltsville Experimental Forest in Maryland on the afternoon of October 15, 1954. Sustained wind velocities of 66 mph (from the SE), with maximum gusts of 98 mph, were recorded nearby.

  2. Remediation System Evaluation, Boomsnub/Airco Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Boomsnub/Airco Superfund Site is located in Hazel Dell, Clark County, Washington north ofVancouver, Washington and consists of the 0.75-acre Boomsnub property, the 11-acre BOC Gasesproperty, and a co-mingled ground water plume of chromium and...

  3. Witches, History, and Microcomputers: A Computer-Assisted Course on the Salem Witch Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latner, Richard B.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the addition of a microcomputer component to a Tulane University (Louisiana) undergraduate history course on the Salem witchcraft trials. Discusses the use of a statistical package and a data set to analyze and display data and the enhancement of the active learning approach by introducing students to quantitative methods of historical…

  4. Tinnitus retraining therapy.

    PubMed

    Jastreboff, P J

    2007-01-01

    Tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) is a specific clinical method based on the neurophysiological model of tinnitus described by Jastreboff (Jastreboff, P.J. (1990). Neurosci. Res., 8: 221-254). The method is aimed at habituation of reactions evoked by tinnitus, and subsequently habituation of the tinnitus perception. Several other methods have been suggested for habituation of tinnitus, but in TRT two components that strictly follow the principles of the neurophysiological model of tinnitus are implemented and necessary: (1) counseling, aimed at reclassification of tinnitus to a category of a neutral signals and (2) sound therapy, aimed at weakening tinnitus-related neuronal activity as suggested by Jastreboff and Hazell (Jastreboff, P.J. and Hazell, J.W.P. (2004). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge). This chapter outlines the theoretical basis of TRT as well as comments on the clinical outcome of the use of TRT for different kinds of tinnitus.

  5. 75 FR 65642 - Notice of Listing of Members of the National Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ...'s Senior Executive Service (SES) members: Kevin Fenton (Co-Chair), Lynn Austin (Co-Chair), Ed Hunter, Rima Khabbaz, Crayton Lankford, Carolyn Black, Christine Branche, Anne Haddix, Barbara Harris, Jim Seligman, Walter Harris, Hazel Dean, Bill Porter. For further information about the CDC Performance Review...

  6. High-performance liquid chromatographic characterization of some medical plant extracts used in cosmetic formulas.

    PubMed

    Schulz, H; Albroscheit, G

    1988-06-17

    Rapid and reliable methods are presented for the characterization of biologically active and/or characteristic constituents in aqueous extracts of Hamamelis virginiana, Matricaria chamomilla, Achillea millefolium, Thymus vulgaris, Althaea officinalis and Cinchonia spp. Prior to high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation a clean-up step was performed using a solid-phase extraction system. The purified extracts were analysed by HPLC coupled with a diode-array detector and a fluorescence detector. In some instances, previously unreported components of the aqueous plant extracts were found.

  7. Historical Architectural Survey of Delaware Water Gap National Recreational Area 1975. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    Owner: Hazel V. Irvine (presently Blue Delft Antiques) Estimated Date: Circa 1900 Historic Name: None (Summer home for Owners of Dingman House Hotel ... Construction : 1-1/2-story, frame Foundation, stone piers Wood siding on gable ends Novelty siding on sides Roof, asphalt shingles . 2 Riverstone

  8. Empowered Learning in Secondary Schools: Promoting Positive Youth Development through a Multi­Tiered System of Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazel, Cynthia E.

    2016-01-01

    Positive youth development is a strengths-based, positive psychology approach to fostering adolescents' educational engagement and achievement. It focuses not just on students' academic development but also on their vocational, social, and emotional development. The positive youth development philosophy is at the heart of Cynthia Hazel's unique…

  9. The effects of short- and long-term air pollutants on plant phenology and leaf characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jochner, Susanne; Markevych, Iana; Beck, Isabelle; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Heinrich, Joachim; Menzel, Annette

    2015-11-01

    Pollution adversely affects vegetation; however, its impact on phenology and leaf morphology is not satisfactorily understood yet. We analyzed associations between pollutants and phenological data of birch, hazel and horse chestnut in Munich (2010) along with the suitability of leaf morphological parameters of birch for monitoring air pollution using two datasets: cumulated atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and ozone derived from passive sampling (short-term exposure) and pollutant information derived from Land Use Regression models (long-term exposure). Partial correlations and stepwise regressions revealed that increased ozone (birch, horse chestnut), NO2, NOx and PM levels (hazel) were significantly related to delays in phenology. Correlations were especially high when rural sites were excluded suggesting a better estimation of long-term within-city pollution. In situ measurements of foliar characteristics of birch were not suitable for bio-monitoring pollution. Inconsistencies between long- and short-term exposure effects suggest some caution when interpreting short-term data collected within field studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of gluten-free breads, with varying functional supplements, on the biochemical parameters and antioxidant status of rat serum.

    PubMed

    Świeca, Michał; Reguła, Julita; Suliburska, Joanna; Złotek, Urszula; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines the effects of gluten-free bread enriched with functional ingredients (milk powder, poppy, sunflower and pumpkin seeds, egg yolk, carum, hazel nuts and amaranth) on the morphological and biochemical parameters and antioxidant status of rats serum. Rats were provided test diets--gluten-free breads and water ad libitum. After 14 days, the animals were weighed and killed. A hazel nut-amaranth bread diet significantly increased the level of thrombocytes when compared to control bread. A mixed bread diet significantly decreased cholesterol levels in rats. All fortified breads decreased triglyceride levels and alanine transaminase activity and caused an increase in antiradical activity of the serum. In rats fed with poppy-milk bread, milk-seed bread and mixed bread, a marked decrease in superoxide dismutase activity was found. Enriched breads reduced the levels of triglyceride and improved the antiradical properties of serum, although the physiological relevance of this needs to be confirmed by human studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spitzer Observations Of IC 2118

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    2118, also known as the Witch Head Nebula , is a wispy, roughly cometary, ∼5 degree long reflection nebula , and is thought to be a site of triggered...of the YSOs seen in the infrared are Class II objects, and they are all in the “head” of the nebula , within the most massive molecular cloud of the...et al. 2001, 2004), the Witch Head Nebula , is ∼5 degrees long; its “wind-blown” appearance is similar in the optical and infrared—see Figure 1 for

  12. 78 FR 69134 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration: AMPAC Fine Chemicals, LLC.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ...; Notice of Registration: AMPAC Fine Chemicals, LLC. By Notice dated July 23, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on July 31, 2013, 78 FR 46372, AMPAC Fine Chemicals, LLC., Highway 50 and Hazel Avenue... AMPAC Fine Chemicals, LLC., to manufacture the listed basic classes of controlled substances is...

  13. The influence of altitude and urbanisation on trends and mean dates in phenology (1980-2009).

    PubMed

    Jochner, Susanne C; Sparks, Tim H; Estrella, Nicole; Menzel, Annette

    2012-03-01

    Long-term studies on urban phenology using network data are commonly limited by the small number of observation sites within city centres. Moreover, cities are often located on major rivers and consequently at lower altitudes than their rural surroundings. For these reasons, it is important (1) to go beyond a plain urban-rural comparison by taking the degree of urbanisation into account, and (2) to evaluate urbanisation and altitudinal effects simultaneously. Temporal phenological trends (1980-2009) for nine phenological spring events centred on the German cities of Frankfurt, Cologne and Munich were analysed. Trends of phenological onset dates were negative (i.e. earlier onset in phenology) for 96% of the 808 time series and significantly negative for 56% of the total number. Mean trends for the nine phenological events ranged between -0.23 days year(-1) for beech and -0.50 days year(-1) for hazel. The dependence of these trends and of mean dates on altitude and on the degree of urbanisation was explored. For mean dates, we demonstrated an earlier phenological onset at lower altitude and with a higher degree of urbanisation: altitude effects were highly significant and ranged between 1.34 days (100 m)(-1) (beech) and 4.27 days (100 m)(-1) (hazel). Coefficients for the log-transformed urban index were statistically significant for five events and varied greatly between events (coefficients from -1.74 for spruce to -5.08 for hazel). For trends in phenology, altitude was only significant for Norway maple, and no urban effects were significant. Hence, trends in phenology did not change significantly with higher altitudes or urbanised areas.

  14. Accidental sodium hypochlorite-induced skin injury during endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Serper, Ahmet; Ozbek, Murat; Calt, Semra

    2004-03-01

    A case of accidental skin injury caused by leakage of sodium hypochlorite solution from the rubber dam during root canal preparation is reported. After placement of a rubber dam and initiation of root canal treatment, the patient complained of a burning sensation with sodium hypochlorite irrigation. The complaints were ignored by the practitioner, and a skin rash developed on and around the patient's chin, followed by scab formation. The patient required medical treatment with topical Hamamelis virginiana extract for 2 weeks, with full recovery.

  15. 77 FR 55505 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; AMPAC Fine Chemicals LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ...; Notice of Registration; AMPAC Fine Chemicals LLC By Notice dated May 11, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on May 21, 2012, 77 FR 30026, AMPAC Fine Chemicals LLC., Highway 50 and Hazel Avenue.... 823(a) and determined that the registration of AMPAC Fine Chemicals LLC., to manufacture the listed...

  16. Adult Learning and the New Austerity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adults Learning, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The spending review brought a promise to protect adult and community learning as well as swingeing cuts to further and higher education and local government. In this article, some of the key players--Lynne Sedgmore, Christopher Brooks, Graham Hoyle, Maggie Galliers, Louise Hazel, Richard Bolsin, Maggi Dawson, Ruth Bond, Stuart Etherington, Brendan…

  17. Salem Witch Trials. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maupin, Lara

    Based on Arthur Miller' play "The Crucible," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that in 17th-century New England, people were persecuted for allegedly practicing witchcraft; students of this period have looked into the allegations and offer alternatives to witchcraft to explain the people's behavior; and…

  18. Witches in the Atlantic World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslaw, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that focuses on witchcraft in the Atlantic world. Describes each of the four sections of the lesson that encompasses learning about terms and religious views on witchcraft to the history of witchcraft in New England, in the United States, and the Salem (Massachusetts) witchcraft trials. (CMK)

  19. [Witch hunt and hypotheses loss].

    PubMed

    Köhler, Dieter

    2015-12-01

    At this time randomized controlled studies (RCT) in clinical trials usually have high quality. But this quality is only true for the included patients (intrinsic validity). It is common to generalize the results to more or less similar patients. This inductive method is prohibited in epistemology what is known for 250 years (D Hume, K R Popper). Therefore the external validity for the data of RCT is low. To solve this problem additional clinical and pathophysiological based data are necessary to generalize the results. Unfortunately RCT show less quality in their premises. This is partly due to the influence of the pharmaceutical industry. A loss of universality of the hypothesis for RCT decreases basically the extrinsic validity. The articles describe this problem with examples. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Aged women, witchcraft, and social relations among the Igbo in South-Eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Atata, Scholastica Ngozi

    2018-02-13

    Belief in the existence of witchcraft has remained a social phenomenon in Igbo society, especially with aged women who are often labeled witches. This study is exploratory and explains the implication of labeling an aged woman a witch and social relations in Igbo society in South-Eastern Nigeria. Twenty interviews were conducted with aged women who are victims of the witchcraft label and their relatives using qualitative methods of data collection, key informant interviews, and in-depth interviews. Data collected were analyzed using ethnographic content analysis. Findings reveal different social views attached to witchcraft and how it relates to aged women.

  1. Space-charge effects in Penning ion traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porobić, T.; Beck, M.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Couratin, C.; Finlay, P.; Knecht, A.; Fabian, X.; Friedag, P.; Fléchard, X.; Liénard, E.; Ban, G.; Zákoucký, D.; Soti, G.; Van Gorp, S.; Weinheimer, Ch.; Wursten, E.; Severijns, N.

    2015-06-01

    The influence of space-charge on ion cyclotron resonances and magnetron eigenfrequency in a gas-filled Penning ion trap has been investigated. Off-line measurements with K39+ using the cooling trap of the WITCH retardation spectrometer-based setup at ISOLDE/CERN were performed. Experimental ion cyclotron resonances were compared with ab initio Coulomb simulations and found to be in agreement. As an important systematic effect of the WITCH experiment, the magnetron eigenfrequency of the ion cloud was studied under increasing space-charge conditions. Finally, the helium buffer gas pressure in the Penning trap was determined by comparing experimental cooling rates with simulations.

  2. Refining age estimates for three historic ground rupturing earthquakes in the Santa Cruz Mountains: 14C Wiggle-matching and Non-Native Pollen as age indicators (or not!)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streig, A. R.; Weldon, R. J.; Dawson, T. E.; Guilderson, T.; Gavin, D. G.; Reidy, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Hazel Dell site provides the first definitive paleoseismic evidence of two pre-1906 19th century events on the Santa Cruz Mountains section based on the presence of anthropogenic artifacts. Hundreds of pieces of cut redwood chips were found in a stratigraphic horizon just below the ante-penultimate (E3) earthquake surface, suggesting that redwood trees at the site were cut down right before earthquake E3. We correlate our paleoseismic findings with the historic record and the onset of redwood logging in the area by determining the felling date of a buried redwood tree stump at the site and the age of the woodchips. We wiggle match 14 radiocarbon dates sampled from annual growth rings taken from the stump and the known interval between growth rings, with the intercepts of the INTCAL04 terrestrial 14C calibration curve. Pending 13C measurements, we find that the youngest ring we have identified in the tree is A.D. 1800. We also wiggle match 2 radiocarbon dates from inner and outer growth rings from two wood chips (with bark); their ages are consistent with the tree and the youngest woodchip ring is dated to 1813 A.D. There are no known ethnographic or historical accounts of pre-contact native people felling large trees in the way that European colonists did. The first record of European land use was for pasture in 1803. The property became a Spanish land grant in 1827, soon after which a whip-saw lumber mill is documented to have begun operation in the upper Corralitos area. We combine these paleoseismic results with historical earthquake accounts for the area and conclude that the San Andreas fault ruptured in 1838, 1890 and 1906. The Hazel Dell results are in contrast with findings from earlier paleoseismic studies in the Santa Cruz Mountains. The Grizzly Flat site, 6 km to the north, found evidence of 1906 and one 17th century earthquake. Two historic earthquakes were observed at the Mill Canyon site 8 km to the south and at the Arano Flat site 9.5 km south of

  3. 78 FR 5500 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Ampac Fine Chemicals, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ...; Notice of Registration; Ampac Fine Chemicals, LLC By Notice dated September 20, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on October 2, 2012, 77 FR 60145, AMPAC Fine Chemicals, LLC, Highway 50 and Hazel... considered the factors in 21 U.S.C. 823(a), and determined that the registration of AMPAC Fine Chemicals, LLC...

  4. For Internet Knowledge, Should You Ask Ol' Blue Eyes or the Brown-Eyed Girl?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger; Kolpakova, Yulia; Klinkhamer, Sooz

    2004-01-01

    The digital divide is generally thought to arise from socio-economic disparities. However, there is more to it. Eye colour is a factor. In this study, the 16 multiple-choice item Internet Quiz was administered to 3,208 respondents in the Lower Mainland (Vancouver) of British Columbia, Canada. Blue and hazel-eyed people knew significantly more…

  5. Defense.gov Special Report: African American History Month 2015

    Science.gov Websites

    seven servicemen from World War II whose candidacies were marred by official racism. Only one of the the first black woman, Hazel Winifred Johnson. One of the officers initially promoted under Alexander pilot Fred V. Cherry was shot down over North Vietnam in October 1965, and became the 43rd American

  6. Further Reflections on Little Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Danielle S.

    2007-01-01

    The famous photo of Hazel Bryan jeering at Elizabeth Eckford as a mob helped drive Elizabeth from Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, on September 4, 1957, compels meditation on the nature of democratic politics. This scene is commemorative of the Little Rock events where school segregation was rampant. The author believes that the photo…

  7. Dr. Wernher Von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center director Wernher Von Braun and his family were honored with a series of events prior to his relocation to Washington, D.C. where he was assigned duties at NASA headquarters as deputy associate administrator for planning. Here he is shown with General Richard Drury and Hazel Toftoy, widow of General H.N. Toftoy.

  8. Acidity of tree bark as a bioindicator of forest pollution in southern Poland

    Treesearch

    Dr. K. Grodzinska

    1976-01-01

    PH values and buffering capacity were determined for bark samples of 5 deciduous trees (oak, alder, hornbeam, ash, linden), one shrub (hazel) and one coniferous tree (Scots pine) in the Cracow Industrial Region (Southern Poland) and for comparison in the Bialowieza Forest (North-Eastern Poland). The correlation was found between acidification of tree bark and air...

  9. NREL Wins Martin Luther King Award

    Science.gov Websites

    ., June 6, 1996 -- The fourth World Renewable Energy Congress, the only international conference focusing energy uses around the world. U.S. Secretary of Energy Hazel R. O'Leary will kick off the event June 17 . Conference General Chairman Ali Sayigh, director general of the World Renewable Energy Network (WREN), said

  10. Courtside: Foul Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2004-01-01

    In early 1999, the boys' varsity basketball coach for the Hazel Park School District, which is in a suburb of Detroit, Michigan, unexpectedly announced his intention to retire at the end of the year. The only two applicants for his position were John Barnett and Geraldine Fuhr. After the interview process, the superintendent announced that Barnett…

  11. Impact of atmospheric CO2 levels on continental silicate weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, E.; GoddéRis, Y.; Labat, D.; Roelandt, C.; Oliva, P.; Guerrero, B.

    2010-07-01

    Anthropogenic sources are widely accepted as the dominant cause for the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Here we use the B-WITCH model to quantify the impact of increased CO2 concentrations on CO2 consumption by weathering of continental surfaces. B-WITCH couples a dynamic biogeochemistry model (LPJ) and a process-based numerical model of continental weathering (WITCH). It allows simultaneous calculations of the different components of continental weathering fluxes, terrestrial vegetation dynamics, and carbon and water fluxes. The CO2 consumption rates are estimated at four different atmospheric CO2 concentrations, from 280 up to 1120 ppmv, for 22 sites characterized by silicate lithologies (basalt, granite, or sandstones). The sensitivity to atmospheric CO2 variations is explored, while temperature and rainfall are held constant. First, we show that under 355 ppmv of atmospheric CO2, B-WITCH is able to reproduce the global pattern of weathering rates as a function of annual runoff, mean annual temperature, or latitude for silicate lithologies. When atmospheric CO2 increases, evapotranspiration generally decreases due to progressive stomatal closure, and the soil CO2 pressure increases due to enhanced biospheric productivity. As a result, vertical drainage and soil acidity increase, promoting CO2 consumption by mineral weathering. We calculate an increase of about 3% of the CO2 consumption through silicate weathering (mol ha-1 yr-1) for 100 ppmv rise in CO2. Importantly, the sensitivity of the weathering system to the CO2 rise is not uniform and heavily depends on the climatic, lithologic, pedologic, and biospheric settings.

  12. Evidence for the efficacy and safety of topical herbal drugs in dermatology: Part I: Anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Hörmann, H P; Korting, H C

    1994-09-01

    Topical herbal drugs have for centuries been used for treating skin ailments. Although they are currently widely accepted by patients, their scientific esteem among dermatologists in particular is limited. A variety of herbal drugs for topical application deserves consideration regarding their widespread use or their still ill-defined potential with respect to their benefit/risk ratio. Clinically, camomile (Chamomilla recutita) and hamamelis preparations look particularly well documented. While the final proof of efficacy in common dermatoses such as atopic dermatitis is still lacking, there is fairly ample evidence for their activity against cutaneous inflammation in man, as may be deduced from experiments with normal volunteers. With Hamamelis virginiana this looks paricularly promising, as unwanted effects related to the drug are virtually absent. With camomile preparations the degree of safety seems to depend largely on the plant used. Some herbal drugs clearly need further analysis until their value can be determined. This includes the frequently-used aloe preparations. This is the more remarkable as huge numbers of in vitro studies are available. Arnica is fairly unique in so far as the lack of proof of efficacy strongly contrasts to its sensitization potential. So far, in particular dermatitis and related disorders can be considered potential indications for topical herbal antiinflammatory drugs. Studies in psoriasis vulgaris should also be performed addressing long-term application. In this context such fairly ill-defined drugs as Mahonia deserve attention. Copyright © 1994 Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart · Jena · New York. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  13. [Medical practice, magic and religion - conjunction and development before and after Reformation].

    PubMed

    Thorvardardottir, Olina Kjerulf

    2017-12-01

    The conjunction between medical practice, religion and magic becomes rather visible when one peers into old scripts and ancient literature. Before the foundation and diffusion of universities of the continent, the european convents and cloisters were the centers of medical knowl-edge and -practice for centuries. Alongside the scholarly development of medical science, driven from the roots of the eldest scholarly medicial practice, the practice of folk-medicin flourished and thrived all over Europe, not least the herbal-medicine which is the original form and foundation for modern pharmacy. This article deals with the conjunction of religion, magic and medical practice in ancient Icelandic sources such as the Old-Norse literature, medical-scripts from the 12th - 15th century Iceland, and not least the Icelandic magical-scripts (galdrakver) of the 17th century. The last mentioned documents were used as evidence in several witch-trials that led convicted witches to suffer executions at the stake once the wave of European witch-persecutions had rushed ashore in 17th century Iceland. These sources indicate a decline of medical knowledge and science in the 16th and 17th century Iceland, the medical practice being rather undeveloped at the time - in Iceland as in other parts of Europe - there-fore a rather unclear margin between "the learned and the laymen". While common people and folk-healers were convicted as witches to suffer at the stake for possession of magical scripts and healing-books, some scholars of the state of Danmark were practicing healing-methods that deserve to be compared to the activities of the former ones. That comparison raises an inevitable question of where to draw the line between the learned medical man and the magician of 17th century Iceland, that is between Magic and Science.

  14. Flight and abduction in witchcraft and UFO lore.

    PubMed

    Musgrave, J B; Houran, J

    2000-04-01

    The lore surrounding the mythical Witches' Sabbat and contemporary reports of UFO abductions share three main characteristics: the use of masks, the appearance of "Men in Black," and references to flight and abduction. We review these three commonalities with particular focus on the aspect of flight and abduction. We argue that narratives of the Witches' Sabbat and UFO abductions share the same basic structure, common symbolism, and serve the same psychological needs of providing a coherent explanation for anomalous (ambiguous) experiences while simultaneously giving the experient a sense of freedom, release, and escape from the self. This pattern of similarities suggests the possibility that UFO abductions are a modern version of tales of flight to the Sabbat.

  15. 50 (Fifty) Years of Research on Man in Flight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    h td ~il lcild FlightI IR’c’urch1)71.AI . .. 0 . . . . . . Advanced Flight Research 1970&1984 0 bo a I .41~ CII1(f’(l k/i h t Iu’raru/i l~)7(~-15’.~I I...Hazel, Mrs Branch Secretary BBD BIODYNAMIC EFFECTS BRANCH Bekele, Tamara, Ms Jonopulos, Michael, 9Sgt Kazarian. Leon, Dr Branch Chief Natvig

  16. Domestic Agricultural Subsidies’ Impacts on National Security Objectives Relative to the SOUTHCOM AOR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-12

    x6x75745r2140160 (accessed November 17, 2008). Haggblade, Steven, Peter B. R. Hazell, and Thomas Reardon. Transforming the Rural Nonfarm Economy...Commander‘s Posture Statement to Congress, recognize the role of economic development and liberalized trade in promoting global and regional security...National Security Strategy down to the SOUTHCOM Commander‘s Posture Statement to Congress, recognize the role of economic development and liberalized trade

  17. SciTech Connect

    Sabel, C.S.; Bell, G.A.; Wildish, G.M. comps.

    A bibliography is presented consisting of 175 references to books, journal articles, reports, and patent literature concerning the Harwell reactors: BEPO, DIDO, DIMPLE, GLEEP, HAZEL, LIDO, NEPTUNE, PLUTO, Z EPHYR, ZETR-I, ZETR-II, and ZEUS. The main characteristics of the reactors are tabulated for: startup date, peak neutron flux, maximum heat output moderator, coolant, fuel, and purpose. An author complex is included. (B.O.G.)

  18. Internet Witch-Hunt: Digitizing Salem Village.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, William R.; Ray, Benjamin

    2000-01-01

    Presents an interview with Benjamin Ray, a professor of religious studies at the University of Virginia (Charlottesville), focusing on Ray's work with the Salem Witchcraft Project. Addresses how Ray became interested in the topic and the use of the Internet within the discipline of history. (CMK)

  19. 77 FR 51521 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ..., Georges Bank yellowtail flounder, witch flounder, plaice, and Georges Bank/Gulf of Maine white hake... meeting is physically accessible to people with disabilities. Requests for sign language interpretation or...

  20. Red River of the North Reconnaissance Report: Park River Subbasin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    some paper birch. Common shrub species include snowberry, beaked hazel, chokecherry , high-bush cranberry, and Juneberry. Herbaceous plants consisted...developed shrub layer, which was represented by species such as chokecherry , gooseberry, and prickly ash. The light herbaceous cover was comprised of...fairly ~diverse and varies between 12 and 15 meters. The shrub s tratum is very dense with chokecherry . The herbaceous layer is relatively sparse. ’ii! 3

  1. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Pembilier Lake and Dam, Pembina River Basin, North Dakota.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    more open sites there is a great va- riety of shrubs and herbaceous growth such as hazel, chokecherry , wild plum, dogwood, wild rose, and highbush...some peachleaf willow grow on the river- banks. The poorly developed shrub layer is dominated by chokecherry , red osier dogwood, and wolfberry...and chokecherry . The poorly developed herb stratum is made up of wild sarsaparilla, wild ginger, poison ivy, sedges, etc. 2.066 Upland Oak Savanna

  2. Binding of Helocobacter pyori to Human Gastric Mucose: Identification and Characterization of a Lewis b Bingind Protein.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-06-01

    putative virulence factors of H. pylori have been identified to date. These factors include a urease , flagella, a mucinase, a cytotoxin, and two adhesins...The urease is believed to aid in bacterial survival of the harsh gastric environment by generating ammonia from urea to neutralize the low pH (Segal...A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor, New York. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Hazell, S., A. Lee. 1986. Campylobacter pyloridis urease

  3. Science and Shakespeare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mah, Steven; Chinnery, Charlene

    2003-01-01

    Describes an assignment in which the preservice teacher must find a connection between science and Shakespeare. Connects the science of the witches in Shakespeare's "Macbeth" to the holistic approach of education. (SG)

  4. 78 FR 44014 - Safety Zones; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    .... LAWRENCE II, UNICORN, and the WINDY. The Ninth District Commander has determined that the War of 1812..., PEACEMAKER, PLAYFAIR, PRIDE OF BALTIMORE II, RED WITCH, SORLANDET, ST. LAWRENCE II, UNICORN, and the WINDY...

  5. What's Up with Warts?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things That Help Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes ... warts . They're the kind that witches in movies and fairytale books have on their chins or ...

  6. Halloween Safety: Costumes, Candy, and Colored Contact Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Updates Halloween Safety: Costumes, Candy, and Colored Contact Lenses Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... or witch, poor costume choices—including decorative (colored) contact lenses and flammable costumes—and face paint allergies ...

  7. Determining the Equation of State (EoS) Parameters for Ballistic Gelatin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    standard deviation. The specific heat measured at room temperature reported in (Winter 1975) is approximately 1.13 cal/g/°C (= 4.73 J /g/K). Fig. 4...Piatt 2010) Table 3 Specific heat capacity, average heat capacity, and standard deviation Temperature (°C) Cp [ J /(g·K)] Cp Cp Cp Average Cp...density amorphous ice and their implications on pressure induced amorphization. J Chem Physics. 2005;122:124710. Appleby-Thomas GJ, Hazell PJ

  8. Effect of the Environment and Environmental Uncertainty on Ship Routes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    models consisting of basic differential equations simulating the fluid dynamic process and physics of the environment. Based on Newton’s second law of...Charles and Hazel Hall, for their unconditional love and support. They were there for me during this entire process , as they have been throughout...A simple transit across the Atlantic Ocean can easily become a rough voyage if the ship encounters high winds, which in turn will cause a high sea

  9. Bassett Creek Watershed, Hennepin County, Minnesota. Feasibility Report for Flood Control. Main Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    and storage yard owned by the Burlington Northern Railroad. The latter tract is covered predominantly by invader plant species , with only a few trees ...vegetation. Beautification Measures - The planting of flood-tolerant species of trees and shrubs to restore this area is recommended. See plate G-4i for...PLANT SPECIES TO BE INCLUDED IN THIS AREA INCLUDE: TREES GREEN ASH HACKBERRY RED DOGWOOD VIBURNUM RED MAPLES WILLOW STAGHORN SUMAC HAZEL NUT RIVER

  10. Cultural Resources Reconnaissance Study of the Black Warrior-Tombigbee System Corridor, Alabama. Volume 1. Archaeology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    hazel alder (Alnus serrulata), and lead plant (Amerpha fruticasa) often gain dominance on low stream banks. A great variety of woody vines groww in...Early Archaic ecosystems for the Midwest may be highly signifi- cant. From 8000 to about 5000 B.P. in southwest Alabama mobile groups apparently...n-48) of the Gulf Formational or Early Woodland sites within the BWT project area. Middle to Late Woodi -nd Site Locations The summary locational

  11. Biological decomposition efficiency in different woodland soils.

    PubMed

    Herlitzius, H

    1983-03-01

    The decomposition (meaning disappearance) of different leaf types and artificial leaves made from cellulose hydrate foil was studied in three forests - an alluvial forest (Ulmetum), a beech forest on limestone soil (Melico-Fagetum), and a spruce forest in soil overlying limestone bedrock.Fine, medium, and coarse mesh litter bags of special design were used to investigate the roles of abiotic factors, microorganisms, and meso- and macrofauna in effecting decomposition in the three habitats. Additionally, the experimental design was carefully arranged so as to provide information about the effects on decomposition processes of the duration of exposure and the date or moment of exposure. 1. Exposure of litter samples oor 12 months showed: a) Litter enclosed in fine mesh bags decomposed to some 40-44% of the initial amount placed in each of the three forests. Most of this decomposition can be attributed to abiotic factors and microoganisms. b) Litter placed in medium mesh litter bags reduced by ca. 60% in alluvial forest, ca. 50% in beech forest and ca. 44% in spruce forest. c) Litter enclosed in coarse mesh litter bags was reduced by 71% of the initial weights exposed in alluvial and beech forests; in the spruce forest decomposition was no greater than observed with fine and medium mesh litter bags. Clearly, in spruce forest the macrofauna has little or no part to play in effecting decomposition. 2. Sequential month by month exposure of hazel leaves and cellulose hydrate foil in coarse mesh litter bags in all three forests showed that one month of exposure led to only slight material losses, they did occur smallest between March and May, and largest between June and October/November. 3. Coarse mesh litter bags containing either hazel or artificial leaves of cellulose hydrate foil were exposed to natural decomposition processes in December 1977 and subsampled monthly over a period of one year, this series constituted the From-sequence of experiments. Each of the From

  12. How to Talk to the Supernatural in Shakespeare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonglin, Yang

    1991-01-01

    Examines Shakespeare's use of thou forms to individual ghosts, witches, and spirits. The proposition is advanced that there is a role-governed rule in the use of this pronoun to individual supernatural beings. (31 references) (GLR)

  13. Witchcraft or mycotoxin? The Salem witch trials.

    PubMed

    Woolf, A

    2000-01-01

    The Salem witchcraft trials of 1692 have been studied by many historians looking for the complex social, political, and psychological determinants behind the community-wide hysteria that led to a travesty of justice and the deaths of 20 innocent Puritans. Recently, ergot poisoning has been put forth by some as a previously unsuspected cause of the bizarre behaviors of the young adolescent girls who accused the townsfolk of witchcraft. In this essay the circumstances behind the ergot poisoning theory for this historical event are described. When the evidence is weighed carefully both pro and con, it seems unlikely that ergotism explains much of what went on in colonial Salem.

  14. Get-in-the-Zone (GITZ) Transition Display Format for Changing Camera Views in Multi-UAV Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    the multi-UAV operator will witch between dynamic and static missions, each potentially involving very different scenario environments and task...another. Inspired by cinematography techniques to help audiences maintain spatial understanding of a scene across discrete film cuts, use of a

  15. Genome sequencing and analysis of the paclitaxel-producing endophytic fungus Penicillium aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Paclitaxel (Taxol™) is an important anticancer drug with a unique mode of action. The biosynthesis of paclitaxel had been considered restricted to the Taxus species until it was discovered in Taxomyces andreanae, an endophytic fungus of T. brevifolia. Subsequently, paclitaxel was found in hazel (Corylus avellana L.) and in several other endophytic fungi. The distribution of paclitaxel in plants and endophytic fungi and the reported sequence homology of key genes in paclitaxel biosynthesis between plant and fungi species raises the question about whether the origin of this pathway in these two physically associated groups could have been facilitated by horizontal gene transfer. Results The ability of the endophytic fungus of hazel Penicillium aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431 to independently synthesize paclitaxel was established by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance. The genome of Penicillium aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431 was sequenced and gene candidates that may be involved in paclitaxel biosynthesis were identified by comparison with the 13 known paclitaxel biosynthetic genes in Taxus. We found that paclitaxel biosynthetic gene candidates in P. aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431 have evolved independently and that horizontal gene transfer between this endophytic fungus and its plant host is unlikely. Conclusions Our findings shed new light on how paclitaxel-producing endophytic fungi synthesize paclitaxel, and will facilitate metabolic engineering for the industrial production of paclitaxel from fungi. PMID:24460898

  16. Teaching Tomorrow's Classics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tighe, Mary Ann; Avinger, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Describes young adult novels that may prove to be classics of the genre. Discusses "The "Chocolate War" by Robert Cormier, "The Outsiders" by S. E. Hinton, "The Witch of Blackbird Pond" by Elizabeth George Speare, and "On Fortune's Wheel" by Cynthia Voight. (HB)

  17. The Mitochondrial Genome of Moniliophthora roreri, the frosty pod rot pathogen of cacao

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Moniliophthora roreri and Moniliophthora perniciosa are closely related basidiomycetes that cause two important diseases in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.): frosty pod rot and the witches' broom disease, respectively. A comparison of the complete mitochondrial genomes of these pathogens shows a high degr...

  18. Analysis of zone of vulnurability and impact of forest fires in forest ecosystems in north algeria by susing remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegrar, Ahmed

    2010-05-01

    The Forest in steppe present ecological diversity, and seen climatic unfavourable conditions in zone and impact of forest fires; we notes deterioration of physical environment particularly, deterioration of natural forest. This deterioration of forests provokes an unbalance of environment witch provokes a process of deterioration advanced in the ultimate stadium is desertification. By elsewhere, where climatic conditions are favourable, the fire is an ecological and acted agent like integral part of evolution of the ecosystems, the specific regeneration of plants are influenced greatly by the regime of fire (season of fire, intensity, interval), witch leads to the recuperation of the vegetation of meadow- fire. In this survey we used the pictures ALSAT-1 for detection of zones with risk of forest fire and their impact on the naturals forests in region named TLEMCEN in the north west of Algeria. A thematic detailed analysis of forests well attended ecosystems some processing on the picture ALSAT-1, we allowed to identify and classifying the forests in there opinion components flowers. We identified ampleness of fire on this zone also. Some parameters as the slope, the proximity to the road and the forests formations were studied in the goal of determining the zones to risk of forest fire. A crossing of diaper of information in a GIS according to a very determined logic allowed classifying the zones in degree of risk of fire in semi arid zone witch forest zone not encouraging the regeneration but permitting the installation of cash of steppe which encourages the desertification.

  19. 77 FR 47373 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ..., Southern New England/Mid-Atlantic yellowtail flounder, Georges Bank yellowtail flounder, witch flounder, plaice and Georges Bank/Gulf of Maine white hake. The committee may not develop all the recommendations... accessible to people with disabilities. Requests for sign language interpretation or other auxiliary aids...

  20. Baba Yaga and the Mushrooms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nineteenth and early twentieth century artists portray the Russian witch Baba Yaga with mushrooms, especially with Amanita muscaria, the fly agaric. Fairy tales about Baba Yaga, as well as other Slavic folktales, repeatedly contain passing reference to mushrooms, but mushrooms are not integral to st...

  1. Walkingstick

    Treesearch

    Louis F. Wilson

    1964-01-01

    The walkingstick, Diapheromera femorata (Say), is a defoliator of deciduous trees in North America. Because of its shape, this insect is also commonly called the stickbug, specter, stick insect, prairie alligator, devil's horse, witch's horse, devil's darning needle, thick- thighed walkingstick, or northern walkingstick, depending on locality.

  2. A unique virulence factor for proliferation and dwarfism in plants identified from a phytopathogenic bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Hoshi, Ayaka; Oshima, Kenro; Kakizawa, Shigeyuki; Ishii, Yoshiko; Ozeki, Johji; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Komatsu, Ken; Kagiwada, Satoshi; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Namba, Shigetou

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important themes in agricultural science is the identification of virulence factors involved in plant disease. Here, we show that a single virulence factor, tengu-su inducer (TENGU), induces witches' broom and dwarfism and is a small secreted protein of the plant-pathogenic bacterium, phytoplasma. When tengu was expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, these plants showed symptoms of witches' broom and dwarfism, which are typical of phytoplasma infection. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines expressing tengu exhibited similar symptoms, confirming the effects of tengu expression on plants. Although the localization of phytoplasma was restricted to the phloem, TENGU protein was detected in apical buds by immunohistochemical analysis, suggesting that TENGU was transported from the phloem to other cells. Microarray analyses showed that auxin-responsive genes were significantly down-regulated in the tengu-transgenic plants compared with GUS-transgenic control plants. These results suggest that TENGU inhibits auxin-related pathways, thereby affecting plant development. PMID:19329488

  3. Imagery: Thinking with the Mind's Eye.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Margaret E.

    Teachers teach literature to help students expand and develop their image-making powers, "to imagine, conceive, fancy, picture," to think. To get students involved in literature, especially poetry, Robert Frost's poem, "The Witch of Coos," is particularly useful because it is so immediately accessible. In order to help engage…

  4. 75 FR 19895 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... +1529 Eastern Band of Cherokee Hanging Dog Creek. Indians, Unincorporated Areas of Cherokee County. Approximately 0.8 mile +1633 upstream of the confluence with Hanging Dog Creek. Big Witch Creek At the.... Indians. Approximately 1,050 feet +1904 upstream of Goose Creek Road. Hanging Dog Creek At the confluence...

  5. Understanding "Romeo and Juliet": A Thematic Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koveleski, Erin

    This curriculum unit for Grade 9 combines the classic Shakespeare play "Romeo and Juliet" with three young adult novels: "The Outsiders" (S.E. Hinton), "Summer of My German Soldier" (Bette Greene), and "The Witch of Blackbird Pond" (Elizabeth George Speare). To complete the unit, all students will be…

  6. 77 FR 19231 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... ABC recommendations for redfish, Georges Bank haddock, Gulf of Maine/ Georges Bank windowpane flounder... 2013 and 2014 ABC recommendations for Georges Bank cod, Gulf of Maine haddock, Cape Cod/ Gulf of Maine yellowtail flounder, American plaice, witch flounder and Georges Bank/Gulf of Maine white hake. c. Other...

  7. Improving Agricultural Extension Services through University Outreach Initiatives: A Case of Farmers in Model Villages in Ogun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oloruntoba, Abayomi; Adegbite, Dorcas A.

    2006-01-01

    University outreach is an educational and research-based information source enabling farmers to make decisions that improve the quality of their lives. This paper explores how collaborative efforts between the university and farmers have directly impacted in albeit Striga ("noxious witch weed") ravaged maize farms in rainforest farming…

  8. Phylogeny of mycoplasmalike organisms (phytoplasmas): a basis for their classification.

    PubMed Central

    Gundersen, D E; Lee, I M; Rehner, S A; Davis, R E; Kingsbury, D T

    1994-01-01

    A global phylogenetic analysis using parsimony of 16S rRNA gene sequences from 46 mollicutes, 19 mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) (new trivial name, phytoplasmas), and several related bacteria placed the MLOs definitively among the members of the class Mollicutes and revealed that MLOs form a large discrete monophyletic clade, paraphyletic to the Acholeplasma species, within the Anaeroplasma clade. Within the MLO clade resolved in the global mollicutes phylogeny and a comprehensive MLO phylogeny derived by parsimony analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences from 30 diverse MLOs representative of nearly all known distinct MLO groups, five major phylogenetic groups with a total of 11 distinct subclades (monophyletic groups or taxa) could be recognized. These MLO subclades (roman numerals) and designated type strains were as follows: i, Maryland aster yellows AY1; ii, apple proliferation AP-A; iii, peanut witches'-broom PnWB; iv, Canada peach X CX; v, rice yellow dwarf RYD; vi, pigeon pea witches'-broom PPWB; vii, palm lethal yellowing LY; viii, ash yellows AshY; ix, clover proliferation CP; x, elm yellows EY; and xi, loofah witches'-broom LfWB. The designations of subclades and their phylogenetic positions within the MLO clade were supported by a congruent phylogeny derived by parsimony analyses of ribosomal protein L22 gene sequences from most representative MLOs. On the basis of the phylogenies inferred in the present study, we propose that MLOs should be represented taxonomically at the minimal level of genus and that each phylogenetically distinct MLO subclade identified should represent at least a distinct species under this new genus. Images PMID:8071198

  9. Preliminary studies towards utilization of various plant extracts as antisolar agents.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M F; Santos, E P; Bizarri, C H; Mattos, H A; Padilha, M R; Duarte, H M

    1996-06-01

    Synopsis The aim of this work was to evaluate several plant extracts with regard to ultraviolet absorption spectra in view of a possible application as antisolar agents. Liquid and dry extracts of Hamamelis virginiana, Matricaria recutita, Aesculus hippocastanum, Rhamnus purshiana and Cinnamomum zeylanicum were prepared by repercolation, maceration and microwave oven extraction. UVB absorption spectra (290-320nm) were obtained and the solar protection factors (SPF) of these preparations were determined by a spectrophotometric method. The results showed that after incorporation to a 2% solution of the synthetic sunscreen octylmethoxycinnamate, the extracts showed an intensification in SPF values, suggesting that this can be an interesting method to intensify SPF. In addition, these extracts can contribute their emollient and moistening properties to the product. These are important characteristics for protecting skin against exposure to the sun.

  10. Confess or Deny? What's a "Witch" To Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on what happened during witchcraft trials when people accused of witchcraft either denied the accusations or confessed. Explains that women were brought to trial more often because women were seen as more susceptible to evil influences. Addresses the role of theology. (CMK)

  11. "How Could They Believe That?": Explaining to Students Why Accusation of Witchcraft Made Good Sense in Seventeenth-Century New England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godbeer, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Explains that students must understand that, due to the beliefs of the time in New England, accusing people of witchcraft during the seventeenth century was plausible. Provides background information on societal beliefs centered upon witchcraft and the supernatural, as well as the process of accusing people of being witches. (CMK)

  12. "Come You Spirits": Shakespeare, Mythology and Process Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelman, Dave; Rafe, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Many of Shakespeare's plays involve mythological symbolism that is fundamental to the complex web of meanings inherent in the work. Mythology is a complex symbolic metalanguage, the meaning of which has evolved over time, adapting to its socio-cultural context. In Shakespeare's "Macbeth" the witches are strongly associated with Lady…

  13. The City Fantastic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Nannette Wargo

    2008-01-01

    Since ancient times, the supernatural has captivated storytellers and their audiences. Some of the earliest surviving literary forms--myths and folktales--feature such preternatural beings as gods, ghosts, fairies, witches, or vampires living among humans. Today, this fascination exists in the current boom in urban fantasy, a genre defined by John…

  14. Teaching Art with Art: Grotesque Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a type of visual art called grotesque art and includes four different examples of grotesque art: (1) the painting "Head of Medusa" by Peter Paul Rubens; (2) Rangda, the widow witch from Bali (Indonesia); (3) totem poles; and (4) grotesque sculptures from the Cathedral of Notre Dame (Paris, France). (CMK)

  15. 75 FR 53871 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Modification of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ...; Modification of the Common Pool Day-at-Sea Accounting and Possession Prohibition for Witch Flounder AGENCY... fishing under common pool regulations for the 2010 fishing year (FY) when fishing in the Inshore Gulf of... exceed the subcomponent of the annual catch limit (ACL) allocated to the common pool during FY 2010 (May...

  16. Transmitters of Culture in the Stream of Stories: Two "East-West" Storytellers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withington, Aileen

    1996-01-01

    Examines the work of two "East-West" storytellers, six-year-old Navdeep (born in Britain into a Punjabi Sikh heritage family) and Salman Rushdie. Looks at Navdeep's "The Witch and the Gang" for its narrative competencies. Uses Rushdie's "Haroun and the Sea of Stories" as a means of contextualizing Navdeep's story. (TB)

  17. The Specter of Salem in American Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Gretchen A.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the impact of the Salem (Massachusetts) witchcraft trials on U.S. society over the centuries, particularly in relation to the trials as a metaphor for persecution and witch-hunting. Explores different events in history, such as the anti-communism evident in the 1950's and abolitionism during the U.S. Civil War. (CMK)

  18. Witchcraft Branding and the Abuse of African Children in the UK: Causes, Effects and Professional Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedam, Prospera

    2014-01-01

    The branding of children as "witches", capable of harming others is a widespread practice in some countries in Africa and across the world. There is evidence of this within specific communities and faith groups; however, the extent to which this phenomenon occurs in England is unclear as is the response by childcare professionals,…

  19. 50 CFR 648.83 - Multispecies minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vessels are subject to the following minimum fish sizes, determined by total length (TL): Minimum Fish Sizes (TL) for Commercial Vessels Species Size(inches) Cod 22 (55.9 cm) Haddock 18 (45.7 cm) Pollock 19 (48.3 cm) Witch flounder (gray sole) 14 (35.6 cm) Yellowtail flounder 13 (33.0 cm) American plaice...

  20. 50 CFR 648.83 - Multispecies minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... vessels are subject to the following minimum fish sizes, determined by total length (TL): Minimum Fish Sizes (TL) for Commercial Vessels Species Size(inches) Cod 19 (48.3 cm) Haddock 16 (40.6 cm) Pollock 19 (48.3 cm) Witch flounder (gray sole) 13 (33 cm) Yellowtail flounder 12 (30.5 cm) American plaice (dab...

  1. 50 CFR 648.83 - Multispecies minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vessels are subject to the following minimum fish sizes, determined by total length (TL): Minimum Fish Sizes (TL) for Commercial Vessels Species Size(inches) Cod 19 (48.3 cm) Haddock 16 (40.6 cm) Pollock 19 (48.3 cm) Witch flounder (gray sole) 13 (33 cm) Yellowtail flounder 12 (30.5 cm) American plaice (dab...

  2. 50 CFR 648.83 - Multispecies minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... vessels are subject to the following minimum fish sizes, determined by total length (TL): Minimum Fish Sizes (TL) for Commercial Vessels Species Size(inches) Cod 22 (55.9 cm) Haddock 18 (45.7 cm) Pollock 19 (48.3 cm) Witch flounder (gray sole) 14 (35.6 cm) Yellowtail flounder 13 (33.0 cm) American plaice...

  3. The Fantastic Tale for Children: Its Literary and Educational Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingberg, Goete

    1967-01-01

    The fantastic tale is a genre of children's literature in which magic and reality are found side by side in a superficially plausible story with a definite historical setting. Motifs characteristic of the tale are living toys, strange children, modern witches, space and time displacements, "doors" to the wonderland, the mythical world itself, and…

  4. Integrated test plan for directional boring

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, B.W.

    This integrated test plan describes the field testing of the DITCH WITCH Directional Boring System. DITCH WITCH is a registered trademark of The Charles Machine Works, Inc., Perry, Oklahoma. The test is being conducted as a coordinated effort between Charles Machine Works (CMW), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). Funding for the WHC portion of the project is through the Volatile Organic Compound-Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID). The purpose of the test is to evaluate the performance of the directional boring system for possible future use on environmental restoration projects at Hanford and other Department ofmore » Energy (DOE) sites. The test will be conducted near the 200 Areas Fire Station located between the 200 East and 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The directional boring system will be used to drill and complete (with fiberglass casing) two horizontal boreholes. A third borehole will be drilled to test sampling equipment but will not be completed with casing.« less

  5. Simulated environmental criticalities affect transglutaminase of Malus and Corylus pollens having different allergenic potential.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Rosa Anna; Di Sandro, Alessia; Paris, Roberta; Pagliarani, Giulia; Tartarini, Stefano; Ricci, Giampaolo; Serafini-Fracassini, Donatella; Verderio, Elisabetta; Del Duca, Stefano

    2012-02-01

    Increases in temperature and air pollution influence pollen allergenicity, which is responsible for the dramatic raise in respiratory allergies. To clarify possible underlying mechanisms, an anemophilous pollen (hazel, Corylus avellana), known to be allergenic, and an entomophilous one (apple, Malus domestica), the allergenicity of which was not known, were analysed. The presence also in apple pollen of known fruit allergens and their immunorecognition by serum of an allergic patient were preliminary ascertained, resulting also apple pollen potentially allergenic. Pollens were subjected to simulated stressful conditions, provided by changes in temperature, humidity, and copper and acid rain pollution. In the two pollens exposed to environmental criticalities, viability and germination were negatively affected and different transglutaminase (TGase) gel bands were differently immunodetected with the polyclonal antibody AtPng1p. The enzyme activity increased under stressful treatments and, along with its products, was found to be released outside the pollen with externalisation of TGase being predominant in C. avellana, whose grain presents a different cell wall composition with respect to that of M. domestica. A recombinant plant TGase (AtPng1p) stimulated the secreted phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) activity, that in vivo is present in human mucosa and is involved in inflammation. Similarly, stressed pollen, hazel pollen being the most efficient, stimulated to very different extent sPLA(2) activity and putrescine conjugation to sPLA(2). We propose that externalised pollen TGase could be one of the mediators of pollen allergenicity, especially under environmental stress induced by climate changes.

  6. Production of Isoprene by Leaf Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Jones, C. Allan; Rasmussen, Reinhold A.

    1975-01-01

    Isoprene production by Hamamelis virginiana L. and Quercus borealis Michx. leaves was studied. When ambient CO2 concentrations were maintained with bicarbonate buffers, the rate of isoprene production at 125 microliters per liter of CO2 was approximately four times that at 250 microliters per liter of CO2. Isoprene production was drastically inhibited by 97% O2. Dichlorodimethylphenylurea (0.1 mm), NaHSO3 (10 mm), and α-hydroxy-2-pyridinemethanesulfonic acid (10 mm) inhibited isoprene production but increased the compensation point of the tissue. Isonicotinic acid hydrazide neither inhibited isoprene emission nor increased the compensation point of the tissue significantly. Inhibition of isoprene production does not seem to correlate with stomatal resistance. Isoprene was labeled by intermediates of the glycolate pathway, and similarities are noted between the biosynthesis of isoprene and that of β-carotene. PMID:16659231

  7. Production of isoprene by leaf tissue.

    PubMed

    Jones, C A; Rasmussen, R A

    1975-06-01

    Isoprene production by Hamamelis virginiana L. and Quercus borealis Michx. leaves was studied. When ambient CO(2) concentrations were maintained with bicarbonate buffers, the rate of isoprene production at 125 microliters per liter of CO(2) was approximately four times that at 250 microliters per liter of CO(2). Isoprene production was drastically inhibited by 97% O(2). Dichlorodimethylphenylurea (0.1 mm), NaHSO(3) (10 mm), and alpha-hydroxy-2-pyridinemethanesulfonic acid (10 mm) inhibited isoprene production but increased the compensation point of the tissue. Isonicotinic acid hydrazide neither inhibited isoprene emission nor increased the compensation point of the tissue significantly. Inhibition of isoprene production does not seem to correlate with stomatal resistance. Isoprene was labeled by intermediates of the glycolate pathway, and similarities are noted between the biosynthesis of isoprene and that of beta-carotene.

  8. Chapter 5. Damage, effects, and importance of dwarf mistletoes

    Treesearch

    B. W. Geils; F. G. Hawksworth

    2002-01-01

    All dwarf mistletoes are parasites that extract water, nutrients, and carbohydrates from the infected host; they are also pathogens that alter host physiology and morphology (Gill and Hawksworth 1961, Hawksworth and Wiens 1996). Disease or direct effects are reductions in diameter and height increment, survival, reproduction, and quality; witches’ brooms are formed in...

  9. Understanding Harry Potter: Parallels to the Deaf World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czubek, Todd A.; Greenwald, Janey

    2005-01-01

    Every so often there are stories that take the world by storm and make such an impact that they become part of our everyday world. These stories, characters, and themes become established elements of cultural literacy. This is exactly what has happened with J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series. Harry and his cohort of wizards, witches, and their…

  10. Using Junior Novels to Develop Language and Thought: Five Integrative Teaching Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Constance, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    This monograph consists of teaching guides for five junior novels: "Tales of a Fourth Grade Nothing"; "Mrs. Frisby and the Rats of NIMH"; "Across Five Aprils"; "The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe"; and "Harriet the Spy." Each unit is intended (1) to enhance the creative process; (2) to foster cognitive development at the concrete operational…

  11. Pagan Biology at the Halloween Hop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Send your pupils into the autumn term half-term holiday with a task that requires them to explore more about the biology associated with Halloween. This article offers a fun approach, with a pub quiz format based on bats, skeletons, pumpkins and witches, that is suitable for lessons following the end-of-topic test, for STEM clubs or for PTA…

  12. Must All Counselors Be Culturally Competent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassama, Sorie

    2014-01-01

    That the number of people from a variety of background is on the increase in all countries in the world is a fact that must be accepted, and not be ignored. This is especially true about western societies where people from diverse backgrounds seek refuge for a plethora of reasons. Some of these may be fleeing from war, political witch hunts, or…

  13. "Solid All the Way Through": Margaret Mahy's Ordinary Witches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Alison

    2004-01-01

    In "The Haunting," "The Changeover," and "The Tricksters," Margaret Mahy fuses supernatural iconography of witchcraft and magic with images of ordinary and domestic adolescence. This article argues that Mahy's "fantastic realism" illuminates aspects of female teenage experience through a blend of myth, fairy tale, folklore and history, as well as…

  14. Witches, Ghosts, and Other Apparitions (Rainbow Teachers, Rainbow Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, MaryCarmen; Duff, Ogle Burks

    1996-01-01

    Describes a number of ghost stories from American cultures, all of which, despite their different origins, seek to stimulate horror, escapism, and fantastic pleasure. Suggests that the stories may be used to improve reading and writing and incorporate "rainbow" themes in the classroom. (TB)

  15. Estimating the attributable fraction for melanoma: a meta-analysis of pigmentary characteristics and freckling.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Catherine M; Carroll, Heidi J; Whiteman, David C

    2010-11-15

    Epidemiologic research has demonstrated convincingly that certain pigmentary characteristics are associated with increased relative risks of melanoma; however there has been no comprehensive review to rank these characteristics in order of their importance on a population level. We conducted a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis to quantify the contribution of pigmentary characteristics to melanoma, estimated by the population-attributable fraction (PAF). Eligible studies were those that permitted quantitative assessment of the association between histologically confirmed melanoma and hair colour, eye colour, skin phototype and presence of freckling; we identified 66 such studies using citation databases, followed by manual review of retrieved references. We calculated summary relative risks using weighted averages of the log RR, taking into account random effects, and used these to estimate the PAF. The pooled RRs for pigmentary characteristics were: 2.64 for red/red-blond, 2.0 for blond and 1.46 for light brown hair colour (vs. dark); 1.57 for blue/blue-grey and 1.51 for green/grey/hazel eye colour (vs. dark); 2.27, 1.99 and 1.35 for skin phototypes I, II and III respectively (vs. IV); and 1.99 for presence of freckling. The highest PAFs were observed for skin phototypes 1/II (0.27), presence of freckling (0.23), and blond hair colour (0.23). For eye colour, the PAF for blue/blue-grey eye colour was higher than for green/grey/hazel eye colour (0.18 vs. 0.13). The PAF of melanoma associated with red hair colour was 0.10. These estimates of melanoma burden attributable to pigmentary characteristics provide a basis for designing prevention strategies for melanoma.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of bark extracts of Syzygium jambos (L.) alston (Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Djipa, C D; Delmée, M; Quetin-Leclercq, J

    2000-07-01

    Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston (Myrtaceae) is a widespread medicinal plant traditionally used in sub-Saharan Africa to treat infectious diseases. Acetone and aqueous extracts from the bark of S. jambos were tested for antimicrobial activity in vitro by the agar dilution method in petri dishes. Both extracts showed some activity against the tested micro-organisms. They proved to be particularly effective on Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica and coagulase negative staphylococci among which Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus cohnii and Staphylococcus warneri. These properties seem to be related to the high tannin content of S. jambos extracts (77 and 83% for the aqueous and acetone extracts, respectively, determined according to the European Pharmacopoeia method) which were generally more active than Hamamelis virginiana, Krameria triandra, Alchemilla vulgaris and Rubus fruticosus extracts containing 48, 44, 46 and 28% tannins, respectively. Furthermore, elimination of tannins totally suppressed these antimicrobial activities.

  17. Role of Legislature in the Democratization Process in Malawi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Witchcraft Act, which makes it a crime for one to claim practicing witchcraft or call another person a witch.134 Tembo’s majority coalition refused to...133 Live Parliamentary Debates broadcasts on the state controlled MBC. 134 Section 4 of the Witchcraft Act: Section 6 of the Witchcraft Act... witchcraft itself so that those people teaching witchcraft to children could be brought to justice. “Mulanje supports amendment of witchcraft act

  18. 27 CFR 9.191 - Ramona Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....25 miles to the 652-meter (2,140-foot) peak of Starvation Mountain, T13S, R1W (Borrego Valley map... approximately 4.4 miles to the 999-meter (3,278-foot) peak of Witch Creek Mountain, T13S, R2E, east of Ballena... miles to the 822-meter (2,697-foot) peak of Iron Mountain, T14S, R1W (El Cajon map); and (7) Proceed...

  19. 27 CFR 9.191 - Ramona Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....25 miles to the 652-meter (2,140-foot) peak of Starvation Mountain, T13S, R1W (Borrego Valley map... approximately 4.4 miles to the 999-meter (3,278-foot) peak of Witch Creek Mountain, T13S, R2E, east of Ballena... miles to the 822-meter (2,697-foot) peak of Iron Mountain, T14S, R1W (El Cajon map); and (7) Proceed...

  20. 27 CFR 9.191 - Ramona Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....25 miles to the 652-meter (2,140-foot) peak of Starvation Mountain, T13S, R1W (Borrego Valley map... approximately 4.4 miles to the 999-meter (3,278-foot) peak of Witch Creek Mountain, T13S, R2E, east of Ballena... miles to the 822-meter (2,697-foot) peak of Iron Mountain, T14S, R1W (El Cajon map); and (7) Proceed...

  1. Laccase-assisted formation of bioactive chitosan/gelatin hydrogel stabilized with plant polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Rocasalbas, Guillem; Francesko, Antonio; Touriño, Sonia; Fernández-Francos, Xavier; Guebitz, Georg M; Tzanov, Tzanko

    2013-02-15

    Laccase-assisted simultaneous cross-linking and functionalization of chitosan/gelatin blends with phenolic compounds from Hamamelis virginiana was investigated for the development of bioactive hydrogel dressings. The potential of these hydrogels for chronic wound treatment was evaluated in vitro, assessing their antibacterial and inhibitory effect on myeloperoxidase and collagenase. Rheological studies revealed that the mechanical properties of the hydrogels were a function of the enzymatic reaction time. Stable hydrogels and resistant to lysozyme degradation were achieved after 2 h laccase reaction. The inhibitory capacity of the hydrogel for myeloperoxidase and collagenase was 32% and 79% respectively after 24 h incubation. Collagenase activity was additionally suppressed by adsorption (20%) of the enzyme onto the hydrogel. Therefore, the bioactive properties of the hydrogels were due to the effect of both released phenolic compounds and the permanently functionalized platform itself. The hydrogels showed antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hormaphis hamamelidis fundatrices benefit by manipulating phenolic metabolism of their host.

    PubMed

    Rehill, Brian J; Schultz, Jack C

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the pattern and potential adaptive value of phenolic concentrations in galls induced by the aphid Hormaphis hamamelidis on leaves of Hamamelis virginiana. By the time that founding females began reproduction, galls had higher concentrations of condensed tannins and lower concentrations of hydrolyzable tannins than leaves. Galled and ungalled leaf laminas never differed significantly in any phenolic measure. Condensed tannin concentrations also were positively related to the number of offspring per gall when gall dry weight, another important correlate of fecundity, was accounted for. This could indicate the prior sink strength of the gall. Polyphenols may act as a repository for excess carbon drawn to the gall by increased sink strength, or be an indication of the fundatrix' ability to manipulate host physiology. This study is the first to demonstrate a tangible, quantitative association between phenolic accumulation in galls and gall-former reproductive performance, and illustrates that condensed tannins may play roles other than plant defense.

  3. [Study of antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds from some species of Georgian flora].

    PubMed

    Alaniia, M; Shalashvili, K; Sagareishvili, T; Kavtaradze, N; Sutiashvili, M

    2013-09-01

    The antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from different parts of Georgian flora species Hamamelis virginiana L., Astragalus caucasicus Pall., Astragalus microcephalus Willd., Vitis vinifera L., Rhododendron ponticum L., Rhododendron Ungernii Trautv., Ginkgo biloba L., Salvia officinalis L., Querqus iberica Stev., Maclura aurantiaca Nutt., Cotinus coggygria Ledeb., Fraxinus ornus L., Urtica dioica L., Rhododendron caucasicum Pall., Pueraria hirsuta Matsum., Geranium pusillum L., Astragalus Tanae Sosn., Pinus silvestris L. has been studied. Comparison with ethylentetraacetate and α-tocopherole revealed high efficacy of all extracts studied. 45 individual phenolic compounds were isolated and described by chemical examination of biologically active objects. Common sage (Salvia officinalis) extract turned out as the most active (200 %). The chemical study revealed the dominant content of condensed tannins and low molecular phenolic compounds, which may be attributed to the high antioxidant activity. Biologically active antiatherosclerotic food additive "Salbin" was developed on the basis of Common sage - Salvia officinalis L. phenolic compounds.

  4. Plant responses to elevated atmospheric CO/sub 2/ with emphasis on belowground processes

    SciTech Connect

    Norby, R.J.; Luxmoore, R.J.; O'Neill, E.G.

    1984-12-01

    Consideration of the interrelationships between carbon, water, and nutrient pathways in soil-plant systems has led to the hypothesis that stimulation of root and rhizosphere processes by elevated levels of CO/sub 2/ will increase nutrient availability and lead to an increase in plant growth. Several experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of CO/sub 2/ concentration on carbon allocation, root exudation, nitrogen utilization, and microbial responses, as well as overall plant growth and nutrient utilization. Increases in the growth of yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) seedlings in response to elevated CO/sub 2/ were demonstrated even when the plants were under apparent nutrientmore » limitation in a forest soil. The proportion of photosynthetically fixed carbon that was allocated to the roots of yellow-poplar and hazel alder (Alnus serrulata (Ait.) Willd.) seedlings was greater at 700 ppM CO/sub 2/ than at ambient CO/sub 2/. Exudation of carbon from yellow-poplar roots also tended to be higher in elevated CO/sub 2/. Responses of rhizosphere microbial populations to elevated CO/sub 2/ were inconsistent, but there was a trend toward relatively fewer ammonium oxidizers, nitrite oxidizers, and phosphate solubilizers in the rhizosphere population of yellow-poplar seedlings grown in 700 ppM CO/sub 2/ compared to that of seedlings grown in ambient CO/sub 2/. Other observed trends included increased nodulation and nitrogenase activity and decreased nitrate reductase activity in hazel alder seedlings in elevated CO/sub 2/. Net uptake of some essential plant nutrients, aluminum, and other trace metals by Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.) increased with increasing CO/sub 2/ concentration. There was less leaching of some nutrients from soil-plant systems with Virginia pine and yellow-poplar seedlings but increased leaching of zinc. 123 references, 16 figures, 17 tables.« less

  5. Phytoplasma effector SAP54 induces indeterminate leaf-like flower development in Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Allyson M; Sugio, Akiko; Makarova, Olga V; Findlay, Kim C; Grieve, Victoria M; Tóth, Réka; Nicolaisen, Mogens; Hogenhout, Saskia A

    2011-10-01

    Phytoplasmas are insect-transmitted bacterial plant pathogens that cause considerable damage to a diverse range of agricultural crops globally. Symptoms induced in infected plants suggest that these phytopathogens may modulate developmental processes within the plant host. We report herein that Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches' Broom (AY-WB) readily infects the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotype Columbia, inducing symptoms that are characteristic of phytoplasma infection, such as the production of green leaf-like flowers (virescence and phyllody) and increased formation of stems and branches (witches' broom). We found that the majority of genes encoding secreted AY-WB proteins (SAPs), which are candidate effector proteins, are expressed in Arabidopsis and the AY-WB insect vector Macrosteles quadrilineatus (Hemiptera; Cicadellidae). To identify which of these effector proteins induce symptoms of phyllody and virescence, we individually expressed the effector genes in Arabidopsis. From this screen, we have identified a novel AY-WB effector protein, SAP54, that alters floral development, resulting in the production of leaf-like flowers that are similar to those produced by plants infected with this phytoplasma. This study offers novel insight into the effector profile of an insect-transmitted plant pathogen and reports to our knowledge the first example of a microbial pathogen effector protein that targets flower development in a host.

  6. Transcriptomic Analysis of Paulownia Infected by Paulownia Witches'-Broom Phytoplasma

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shui-Fang; Lin, Cai-Li; Tian, Guo-Zhong; Xu, Xia; Zhao, Wen-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are plant pathogenic bacteria that have no cell wall and are responsible for major crop losses throughout the world. Phytoplasma-infected plants show a variety of symptoms and the mechanisms they use to physiologically alter the host plants are of considerable interest, but poorly understood. In this study we undertook a detailed analysis of Paulownia infected by Paulownia witches’-broom (PaWB) Phytoplasma using high-throughput mRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and digital gene expression (DGE). RNA-Seq analysis identified 74,831 unigenes, which were subsequently used as reference sequences for DGE analysis of diseased and healthy Paulownia in field grown and tissue cultured plants. Our study revealed that dramatic changes occurred in the gene expression profile of Paulownia after PaWB Phytoplasma infection. Genes encoding key enzymes in cytokinin biosynthesis, such as isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase and isopentenyltransferase, were significantly induced in the infected Paulownia. Genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis and degradation were largely up-regulated and genes related to photosynthesis were down-regulated after PaWB Phytoplasma infection. Our systematic analysis provides comprehensive transcriptomic data about plants infected by Phytoplasma. This information will help further our understanding of the detailed interaction mechanisms between plants and Phytoplasma. PMID:24130859

  7. Hidden histories and ancient mysteries of witches, plants and fungi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Convergent findings from archaeobotany, molecular genetics, paleoclimatology and comparative linguistics mandate revisions to agricultural history. Recent research has demonstated that stripe rust (agent: Puccinia striiformis) and scald (species in Rhynchosporium) moved into western and northern Eu...

  8. The Integration of Women into Combat Arms Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-05

    brother- sister bonds rather than sexual ones. Experience has shown that actual integration diminishes prejudice and fosters group cohesiveness more...greater likelihood of being raped . In the 1992 Report to the President “The commission heard testimony from the DoD representatives and POWs who...called us Night Witches because we never let them get any sleep ’, she says.”50 In addition to Soviet women, Allied women demonstrated that they were

  9. Proceedings of the Workshop on Future Directions in Computer Architecture and Software, Held in Charleston, South Carolina on 5-7 May 1986,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-30

    as write traffic begins to interfere with access sor, and a moderate performance bus, it is to each cache. (3) Directory methods (see, e.g. possible...less reliable because of the greater possibility of interference . Ease of programming is important. Mapping a complicated algorithm flow graph to a... interference . These features enable the use of fine granularity and recon- figurabilitv. Each intersection in a crossba, witch. Fig. 2a. ha, a switch

  10. Helicopter Aircrew Training Using Fused Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    PROCESS Blue screening involving human filming usually employs a blue or green backdrop, since skin contains little blue or green hue. These backdrops...Helicopter Aircrew Training Using Fused Reality 27 - 10 RTO-MP-HFM-136 a. b. c. d. e. f. Figure 13: Frames Showing Physical Object ( witch ... filming . However, when a user’s hands disrupt the light from a helmet-mounted light source, the shadows cast onto the distant background are diffuse and

  11. Revised nomenclature, definitions, and correlations for the Cretaceous formations in USGS-Clubhouse Crossroads #1, Dorchester County, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gohn, Gregory S.

    1992-01-01

    The stratigraphy of the Cretaceous section in a continuously cored stratigraphic test hole, USGS-Clubhouse Crossroads #1, is reviewed and amended herein. Located in southern Dorchester County, S.C., the Clubhouse Crossroads #1 core is one of the principal stratigraphic reference sections in the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain. Traditional and revised systems of stratigraphic nomenclature for the outcropping Cretaceous formations of the Carolinas are reviewed for their applicability in defining subsurface Cretaceous formations at Clubhouse Crossroads. The revised nomenclature, exemplified by the formations proposed by J. P. Owens in 1989 and by N. F. Sohl and Owens in 1991, is preferred for this purpose over the traditional nomenclature established by D.J.P. Swift and S.D. Heron, Jr., in 1969. The revised nomenclature is selected because of its greater emphasis on the historical succession of entire sedimentary systems (timeparallel formations), in contrast to the emphasis placed on the physical continuity of individual facies through time (time-transgressive formations) in the traditional nomenclature. Physical relationships between the two types of formations are discerned by using K.E. Caster's 1934 facies model, in which the time-transgressive units of the traditional model are his magnafacies and the time-parallel units of the revised model are sets of his laterally contiguous parvafacies. In 1977, G.S. Gohn and others and J.E. Hazel and others provisionally delineated Cretaceous formations in the Clubhouse Crossroads #1 core by using Swift and Heron's traditional units. The publication of additional lithologic and paleontologic data since 1977 for Cretaceous units in the core and for Cretaceous units throughout the Carolinas provides a basis for reviewing and amending the original definitions of the Cretaceous formations at Clubhouse Crossroads. Ages assigned to the Cretaceous units at Clubhouse Crossroads by Hazel and others are also reviewed. The boundaries

  12. Test Case RCM-3 Using CPS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    influence We observe an important variation of the flame length with the ratio gas / liquid injected (Figure 6 and Figure 7). The flame length increases with...fraction, the flame length increases (Figure 7). This is due to the increase of the oxygen injection speed to obtain the correct amount of oxygen...influence of C, with have made calculation with an arbitrary value for a witch is 10-6 N / m. The flame length decrease with the surface tension

  13. The Road from Foolishness to Fraud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, R. L.

    2000-12-01

    Ancient beliefs in demons and magic still sweep across the modern landscape, but they are now dressed in the language and symbols of science. This is pseudoscience. At least in the beginning, its practitioners may believe it to be science, just as witches and faith healers may truly believe they can call forth supernatural powers. What may begin as honest error, however, has a way of evolving through almost imperceptible steps from self-delusion to fraud.

  14. The Road From Foolishness to Fraud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bob

    2000-03-01

    Ancient beliefs in demons and magic still sweep across the modern landscape, but they are now dressed in the language and symbols of science. This is pseudoscience. At least in the beginning, its practitioners may believe it to be science, just as witches and faith healers may truly believe they can call forth supernatural powers. What may begin as honest error, however, has a way of evolving through almost imperceptible steps from self-delusion to fraud.

  15. NLTE modeling of a small active region filament observed with the VTT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, P.; Balthasar, H.; Kuckein, C.; Koza, J.; Gömöry, P.; Rybák, J.; Heinzel, P.; Kučera, A.

    2016-11-01

    An active region mini-discretionary-filament was observed with the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) in Tenerife simultaneously in the He I infrared triplet using the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter 1 (TIP 1), in Hα with the TESOS Fabry-Pérot interferometer, and in Ca II 8542 Å with the VTT spectrograph. The spectropolarimetric data were inverted using the HAZEL code and Hα profiles were modelled by solving a NLTE radiative transfer in a simple isobaric and isothermal 2D slab irradiated both from its bottom and sides from the solar surface. It was found that the mini-discretionary-filament is composed of horizontal fluxtubes, along which the cool plasma of T˜10 000 K can flow with very large, even supersonic, velocities.

  16. [Et d'allhora in poi, mai si sentì più bene: a historical survey to find nursing origins in post-tridentine whitchcraft lawsuits in County of Bormio (1596-1630)].

    PubMed

    Arcadi, Paola; Manzoni, Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of witch-hunting in the post-tridentine period is a crucial moment for the history of nursing care. Modern historiography tells that women accused of witchcraft were custodian of female knowledge, both in domestic and small communities. To investigate the witchcraft phenomenon in specific context of Bormio country- side, in order to identify proper nursing acts in gestures of women accused of witchcraft or sorcery. Process for witchcraft - sorcery against 7 women in Bormio, between 1590 and 1631, were reviewed through a historical research methodology: sources retrieval, description and documentary analysis characterization, interpretation. In nearly all legal proceedings analyzed an indictment due to a healthcare expertise was found in terms of touch, feed, nearness, word. By multiple daily acts of women, intention to help and to express solidarity was clear, in a scenario of disease and suffering, solidarity is shown by acts of care. As a result of this study, we can resume that the period of the witches, so hard for women , was an age of repression for history of nursing itself. Mankind lifestyle, assistance, aid are ontological and anthropological foundations of nursing. Therefore, a past research of the traces of those foundations could mean rebuilding the own sense of nursing act: we tried to get an approach to that sense also "listening to" the gestures of women in Bormio.

  17. Solanaceae III: henbane, hags and Hawley Harvey Crippen.

    PubMed

    Lee, M R

    2006-12-01

    Hyoscyamus, the henbane, is one of the drugs of the ancients. Initially used both as a poison and narcotic, it was widely adopted by witches, wizards and soothsayers as a component of their hallucinatory and flying ointments. It was also used by notorious poisoners such as Madame Voisin in France. Eventually, in the nineteenth century its active principle was isolated by Ladenburg and called l-hyoscine. It proved to be a tropane alkaloid very similar to atropine. These two alkaloids proved to be very important in the study of the parasympathetic component of the autonomic nervous system, and together with physostigmine, allowed the major neurotransmitter acetylcholine to be isolated and its mechanisms of action to be characterised. The Crippen murder case in 1910 gave hyoscine further fame, indeed, notoriety. The unassuming homeopathic doctor murdered his wife with the alkaloid and then decamped for Canada with his mistress Ethel Le Neve. The case became a worldwide sensation for several reasons: the arrest of the fugitive couple by wireless telegraphy (Marconigram) and the extensive chemical and histological evidence presented by Willcox and Spilsbury. Some authorities claim that this was the beginning of the science of forensic medicine in Britain. Hyoscine is now hardly ever used in modern therapeutics but its history from antiquity to the witches and on to Dr Crippen is both bizarre and fascinating.

  18. [The historical materials of stomatology in the oracle bone inscriptions of the Yin-Shang Dynasties].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojun; Zhu, Lang

    2015-07-01

    Some oracle bone inscriptions of the Yin-Shang Dynasties were related to the stomatology, including special terms of diseases of the mouth, tongue and teeth which were classified, and proper nouns of some special diseases. Moreover, witch doctors' exploration for the causes of oral diseases, the observation on different stages of oral diseases, and the records of oral disease treatment were also involved. All of these reflected the sprouting stage of stomatology in the Yin-Shang Dynasties in ancient China.

  19. Defense AT&L (Volume 36, Number 1, January-February 2007)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    tives. Here’s how four people might describe the movie The Wizard of Oz: 1. The young child will tell the story, listing the sequence of events (not...necessarily in the right order). 2. The emotional child will explain that the movie was very scary with witches and wizards and flying mon- keys. 3. The...adolescent will explain the special effects in the movie . 4. The intellectual will identify the themes of the movie . • Different people on your team

  20. Effectiveness of Oral Antiseptics on Tooth Biofilm: A Study in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mouchrek Junior, José Carlos Elias; Nunes, Lívia Helena de Araújo Castro; Arruda, Cleidiane Silveira; Rizzi, Claudia de Castro; Mouchrek, Adriana Quinzeiro E Silva; Tavarez, Rudys Rodolfo De Jesus; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Maia Filho, Etevaldo Matos

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of five different mouthwashes through measurement of the plaque index. Fifty subjects took part in this blind study, randomized into blocks of five groups according to the active ingredient of the mouthwash: CHX group (0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate), essential oils (EO) group, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) group, Tri group (triclosan) and Hamamelis virginiana (HV) group. All subjects were evaluated for a reduction in the bacterial plaque index at 7, 14 and 21 days. There was a significant reduction in the mean plaque index during the period of evaluation (p < 0.01), and the reduction during the period of evaluation was different between mouthwashes (p < 0.01). The reduction in the plaque index at the end of 21 days was, in decreasing order, CHX > EO > CPC > Tri > HV. The reduction in the plaque index during the period of evaluation was different between the types of mouth-wash. The mouthwash containing the active ingredient chlorhexidine was the most effective, followed by the essential oil, cetylpyridinium chloride, triclosan and H. virginiana.

  1. Analysis of the polyphenols content in medicinal plants based on the reduction of Cu(II)/bicinchoninic complexes.

    PubMed

    Marino, Daniele Cestari; Sabino, Larissa Zuppardo Lacerda; Armando, José; Ruggiero, Andrea De Andrade; Moya, Horacio Dorigan

    2009-12-09

    A spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of the polyphenols content in aqueous extracts of plants. The method is based on the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) by polyphenols, in the presence of bicinchoninic acid in a buffered medium (ammonium acetate, pH 7.0) with the formation of Cu(I)/BCA complexes. A calibration curve of absorbance (at 558 nm) vs tannic acid concentration is linear (r = 0.995; n = 7) with tannic acid from 0.1 to 0.7 micromol L(-1). The limit of detection and relative standard deviation were 40 nmol L(-1) (99% confidence level) and 3.8% (0.4 micromol L(-1) tannic acid, n = 7), respectively. For the aqueous extracts of Hamamelis virginiana L., Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reissek, Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam, Annona muricata L., Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.) O. Berg., Caesearia sylvestris Sw., Schinus terebinthifolia (Raddi), and Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville, the total polyphenol contents, expressed as tannic acid, were 3.5, 1.3, 2.0, 3.1, 15.4, 3.1, 9.1, and 6.9%, respectively.

  2. The 'sparing phenomenon' of purpuric rash over tattooed skin.

    PubMed

    Pinal-Fernandez, Iago; Solans-Laqué, Roser

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous complications associated with decorative tattooing are well known. However, the inhibition of a purpuric reaction by a tattoo is a fact that, as far as the authors know, has not been described before, fitting the definition of a 'sparing phenomenon', the absence of manifesting a particular skin disease in an area previously affected by another condition. From the clinical observation of purpuric lesions apparently inhibited by a tattoo in a 26-year-old patient, we performed an exact binomial test on the observed and expected proportion of purpuric lesions inside (0%, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0-2.6%) and outside (100%, 95% CI 97.4-100%) the tattooed skin, demonstrating a nonrandom distribution respecting the tattooed area (p < 0.001) and identifying the composition of the ink used in the tattoo (color pigment, glycerine, Hamamelis virginiana extract, water and alcohol). Moreover, we reviewed the cases of sparing phenomenon described in the literature. In conclusion this is the first report of a sparing phenomenon of purpuric lesions over tattooed skin. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts against periodontopathic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Iauk, L; Lo Bue, A M; Milazzo, I; Rapisarda, A; Blandino, G

    2003-06-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Althaea officinalis L. roots, Arnica montana L. flowers, Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hamamelis virginiana L. leaves, Illicium verum Hook. fruits and Melissa officinalis L. leaves, against anaerobic and facultative aerobic periodontal bacteria: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Fusobacterium nucleatum, Capnocytophaga gingivalis, Veilonella parvula, Eikenella corrodens, Peptostreptococcus micros and Actinomyces odontolyticus. The methanol extracts of H. virginiana and A. montana and, to a lesser extent, A. officinalis were shown to possess an inhibiting activity (MIC < or = 2048 mg/L) against many of the species tested. In comparison, M. officinalis and C. officinalis extracts had a lower inhibiting activity (MIC > or = 2048 mg/L) against all the tested species with the exception of Prevotella sp. Illicium verum methanol extract was not very active though it had a particular good activity against E. corrodens. The results suggest the use of the alcohol extracts of H. virginiana, A. montana and A. officinalis for topical medications in periodontal prophylactics. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Making Learning Drive Assessment: Joan of Arc--Saint, Witch or Warrior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrenn, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Andrew Wrenn describes his work with Barry Williams and the teachers of the history department at Ailwyn School (11-14 comprehensive), Ramsey in Cambridgeshire. Devoting equal attention to the "what" and the "how" of history assessment, he shows how this group of teachers developed a fresh approach to assessment out of the…

  5. Women, Leadership, and Power Revisiting the Wicked Witch of the West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Sharon D.; Prettyman, Sandra Spickard

    2008-01-01

    By examining the cultural images present in the popular musical "Wicked", cultural norms and biases toward women in leadership and women's leadership practices are explored. The discussion rests on conceptions of male and female leadership "styles", how power is obtained and utilised within organisational settings and how resistance and…

  6. Einstein*s witches* sabbath in Brussels: The legend and the facts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Franklin J.

    2015-09-01

    This paper is about the first Solvay Council on Physics, its surprising origin and its far reaching consequences. In spite of the various accounts that have been given by several authors - they include historians of science, but also outstanding scientists, such as Leon Rosenfeld, Niels Bohr and Eduardo Amaldi - it appears that only limited attention was paid so far to the more singular aspects of this legendary meeting, and to the peculiar circumstances which led to its convening. This fact may be due to the restricted availability of relevant documents, many of which are located in different archives. It also reflects the rather abstract character of Ernest Solvay*s Institute of Physics - an Institute without a permanent staff, governed by geographically separated bodies: a scientific committee with a chairman in Haarlem, a secretary in Copenhagen and an administrative committee in Brussels. One of the purposes of the paper is to fill this gap by revisiting the course of events which led to Solvay*s invitation of June 1911. Another aim is to present a brief, yet balanced, account of the deliberations which took place in October-November 1911, by pointing at some elements that may be regarded as highlights of the Council, and by focusing on the contrasting aspects of its main results: the contrast between the Council*s disappointing conclusions on the one hand, and its positive consequences on the other hand. Special attention in this context is given to the unexpected concern about the validity of Planck*s law, expressed by Emil Warburg, and to the apparent contradictions in Einstein*s private reactions to the outcome of the Brussels meeting. The paper also aims at restoring the truth about some facts regarding the Solvay reports and their discussion, by revealing the discrepancies between the official account - the Gauthier-Villars volume "La théorie du rayonnement et les quanta", published in 1912, and the actual proceedings of the conference, based on notes taken during the meeting by Maurice de Broglie. A significant point is the removal from the official volume of an important remark made by Planck about the status of the "heat theorem" during the discussion of Nernst*s report. A last section of the paper is devoted to one of the durable consequences of the Council: Solvay*s decision to create the International Institutes of Physics. This section serves as an introduction to Frits Berends* paper: "Lorentz, the Solvay Councils and the Physics Institute".

  7. Doctors and Witches, Conscience and Violence: Abortion Provision on American Television.

    PubMed

    Sisson, Gretchen; Kimport, Katrina

    2016-12-01

    Popular entertainment may reflect and produce-as well as potentially contest-stigma regarding abortion provision. Knowledge of how providers are portrayed on-screen is needed to improve understanding of how depictions may contribute to the stigmatization of real providers. All abortion provision plotlines on American television from 2005 to 2014 were identified through Internet searches. Plotlines were assessed in their entirety and coded for genre, abortion provision space, provider characteristics, method and efficacy of provision, and occurrence of violence. Inductive content analysis was used to identify themes in how these features were depicted. Fifty-two plotlines involving abortion provision were identified on 40 television shows; a large majority of plotlines appeared in dramas, particularly in the subgenre of medical dramas. Medical spaces were depicted as normal and safe for abortion provision, and nonmedical spaces were often portrayed as remote and unsafe. Legal abortion care using medical methods was depicted as effective and safe, and legal providers were presented as compassionate, while providers operating outside of medical and legal authority were depicted as ineffective, dangerous and uncaring. Fictional providers were largely motivated by the belief that abortion provision is a necessary and moral service. Plotlines linked abortion provision to violence. The differing ways in which legal and illegal abortion are portrayed reveal potential consequences regarding real-world abortion provision, and suggest that representations situated in medical contexts may work to legitimate and destigmatize such provision. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  8. Archaeobotanical evidence for climate as a driver of ecological community change across the anthropocene boundary.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Christopher J; Yahr, Rebecca; Belinchón, Rocío; Coppins, Brian J

    2014-07-01

    The biodiversity response to climate change is a major focus in conservation research and policy. Predictive models that are used to project the impact of climate change scenarios - such as bioclimatic envelope models - are widely applied and have come under severe scrutiny. Criticisms of such models have focussed on at least two problems. First, there is an assumption that climate is the primary driver of observed species distributions ('climatic equilibrium'), when other biogeographical controls are often reliably established. Second, a species' sensitivity to macroclimate may become less relevant when impacts are down-scaled to a local level, incorporating a modifying effect of species interactions structuring communities. This article examines the role of different drivers (climate, pollution and landscape habitat structure) in explaining spatial community variation for a widely applied bioindicator group: lichen epiphytes. To provide an analysis free of 'legacy effects' (e.g. formerly higher pollution loads), the study focused on hazel stems as a relatively short-lived and recently colonized substratum. For communities during the present day, climate is shown to interact with stem size/age as the most likely explanation of community composition, thus coupling a macroclimatic and community-scale effect. The position of present-day communities was projected into ordination space for eight sites in England and compared to the position of historical epiphyte communities from the same sites, reconstructed using preserved hazel wattles dating mainly to the 16th Century. This comparison of community structure for the late- to post-Mediaeval period, with the post-Industrial period, demonstrated a consistent shift among independent sites towards warmer and drier conditions, concurrent with the end of the Little Ice Age. Long-term temporal sensitivity of epiphyte communities to climate variation thus complements spatial community patterns. If more widely applied

  9. Influence of catchment vegetation on mercury accumulation in lake sediments from a long-term perspective.

    PubMed

    Rydberg, Johan; Rösch, Manfred; Heinz, Emanuel; Biester, Harald

    2015-12-15

    Organic matter (OM) cycling has a large impact on the cycling of mercury (Hg) in the environment. Hence, it is important to have a thorough understanding on how changes in, e.g., catchment vegetation - through its effect on OM cycling - affect the behavior of Hg. To test whether shifts in vegetation had an effect on Hg-transport to lakes we investigated a sediment record from Herrenwieser See (Southern Germany). This lake has a well-defined Holocene vegetation history: at ~8700years BP Corylus avellana (hazel) was replaced by Quercus robur (oak), which was replaced by Abies alba (fir) and Fagus sylvatica (beech) ~5700years BP). We were particularly interested in testing if coniferous vegetation leads to a larger export of Hg to aquatic systems than deciduous vegetation. When hazel was replaced by oak, reduced soil erosion and increased transport of DOM-bound mercury from the catchment resulted in increases in both Hg-concentrations and accumulation rates (61ngg(-1) and 5.5ngcm(-2)yr.(-)(1) to 118ngg(-1) and 8.5ngcm(-2)yr.(-)(1)). However, even if Hg-concentrations increased also in association with the introduction of fir and beech (173ngg(-1)), as a result of higher Hg:C, there was no increase in Hg-accumulation rates (7.6ngcm(-2)yr.(-)(1)), because of a decreased input of OM. At around 2500years BP Hg-accumulation rates and Hg-concentration indicated an additional input of Hg to the sediment (316ngg(-1) and 10.3ngcm(-2)yr.(-)(1)), which might be due to increased human activities in the area, e.g., forest burning or mining. Our results contrast those of several paired-catchment studies that suggest a higher release of Hg from coniferous than deciduous forest, and there is a need for studies with a long-term perspective to increase our understanding of the effects of slow and gradual processes on mercury cycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Faraday Accelerator With Radio-Frequency Assisted Discharge (FARAD): A New Electrodeless Concept for Plasma Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    which acts as a transformer with mutual inductance M. The value of M is a function of the current sheet position c. A i witch Bl ft...at an angle where the " film plane" of the camera is parallel to the plane FINAL REPORT FOR FA9550-06-1-0149: FARAD 45 Figure 3.3: Idealized...surface from time-integrated photographs obtained with a camera whose film plane is not parallel to the cone’s axis of symmetry. Due to these

  11. Chesapeake Bay plankton and fish abundance enhanced by Hurricane Isabel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, M. R.; Boicourt, W. C.; Kimmel, D. G.; Miller, W. D.; Adolf, J. E.; Bichy, J.; Harding, L. W., Jr.; Houde, E. D.; Jung, S.; Zhang, X.

    Hurricane Isabel made landfall east of Cape Lookout, North Carolina, as a Category 2 (Safford-Simpson scale) hurricane on 18 September 2003. The storm's center tracked to the northwest, passing west of Chesapeake Bay (Figure 1) in the early morning of 19 September. Hurricane Isabel brought the highest storm surge and winds to the region since the Chesapeake-Potomac hurricane of 1933 and Hurricane Hazel in 1954 (http://www.erh. noaa.gov/er/akq/wx_events/hur/isabel_2003. htm). Storm surge was variable in the region, reaching a high of 2.7 m on the western side of the bay where the heaviest rainfall occurred. The highest sustained wind in the bay region reached 30.8 m s-1 at Gloucester Point,Virginia, with gusts to 40.7 m s-1.

  12. Molecular characterization of phytoplasma associated with four important ornamental plant species in India and identification of natural potential spread sources.

    PubMed

    Gopala; Rao, G P

    2018-02-01

    Phytoplasma suspected symptoms of phyllody, witches' broom, leaf yellowing, stunting and little leaf were observed in Chrysanthemum morifolium, Bougainvillea glabra, Jasminum sambac and Callistephus chinensis during survey of flower nurseries and experimental ornamental fields at Delhi, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka from 2014 to 2016. Pleomorphic bodies typical to phytoplasma structures were observed in the phloem sieve elements of ultrathin sections of all the four symptomatic ornamental plants (stem tissue) in transmission electron microscope. Amplification of 1.8 and 1.2 kb phytoplasma DNA products was observed in all the four test plants in PCR assays using universal primer pairs P1/P7 followed by nested primer pair R16F2n/R16R2, respectively. Pairwise sequence comparison, phylogeny and virtual RFLP analysis of 16S rDNA sequences confirmed the association of two phytoplasma subgroups (16SrI-B and 16SrII-D) in four ornamental plant species. ' Ca. P. aurantifolia ' subgroup D (16SrII-D) was found associated with chrysanthemum phyllody and leaf yellowing at Delhi and Tamil Nadu, bougainvillea little leaf and yellowing at Delhi and Chinese aster phyllody at Bengaluru, Karnataka. However, jasmine little leaf and yellowing at Bengaluru, Karnataka and chrysanthemum stunting at Pune were found to be associated with ' Ca . P. asteris ' subgroup B-related strains (16SrI-B). The identification of 16SrII-D subgroup phytoplasma infecting bougainvillea and 16SrI-B subgroup infecting jasmine are the new reports to the world. Besides weed species, Cannabis sativa showing witches' broom in jasmine fields at Bengaluru and Parthenium hysterophorus showing witches' broom symptoms in chrysanthemum fields at Delhi were identified to be caused by phytoplasma strains classified under subgroups 16SrI-B and 16SrII-D, respectively, by PCR assays and 16Sr DNA sequence comparison analysis. Among the three major leafhopper species identified, only Hishimonas phycitis was identified

  13. Queerer than queer: reflections of a Kike dyke.

    PubMed

    Goldflam, A

    1999-01-01

    In this article the author, a Jewish lesbian academic, reflects on the positive and negative aspects of her dual identity and explores her feelings of exclusion from "in groups" in a range of settings. Annie Goldflam carries a legacy of fear from stories of medieval "witch" burnings and drownings and the twentieth century Jewish Holocaust, which she reflects on to compare the nature of anti-semitism and lesbophobia, considering the options of hiding from racist and homophobic forms of oppression or confronting them. She has chosen to confront, be "out" and politically active.

  14. Becoming a Woman through Wicca: Witches and Wiccans in Contemporary Teen Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Christine

    2008-01-01

    The article examines Cate Tiernan's "Wicca" series. This series and the "Circle of Three" books by Isobel Bird explore the experiences of teenage girls who embrace the pagan religion, Wicca. The texts reflect the growing interest in spirituality expressed by many young people and extend the literary representation of witchcraft. Tiernan produces…

  15. Justice at the Margins: Witches, Poisoners, and Social Accountability in Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Tim; Reid, Kyla

    2015-01-01

    Recent responses to people alleged to be ‘witches’ or ‘poisoners’ among the Madi of northern Uganda are compared with those of the 1980s. The extreme violence of past incidents is set in the context of contemporary upheavals and, in effect, encouragement from Catholic and governmental attitudes and initiatives. Mob justice has subsequently become less common. From 2006, a democratic system for dealing with suspects was introduced, whereby those receiving the highest number of votes are expelled from the neighborhood or punished in other ways. These developments are assessed with reference to trends in supporting ‘traditional’ approaches to social accountability and social healing as alternatives to more conventional measures. Caution is required. Locally acceptable hybrid systems may emerge, but when things turn nasty, it is usually the weak and vulnerable that suffer. PMID:25358097

  16. Allergenic Ingredients in Facial Wet Wipes.

    PubMed

    Aschenbeck, Kelly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    Allergic contact dermatitis commonly occurs on the face. Facial cleansing wipes may be an underrecognized source of allergens. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of potentially allergenic ingredients in facial wet wipes. Ingredient lists from name brand and generic facial wipes from 4 large retailers were analyzed. In the 178 facial wipes examined, a total of 485 ingredients were identified (average, 16.7 ingredients per wipe). Excluding botanicals, the top 15 potentially allergenic ingredients were glycerin (64.0%), fragrance (63.5%), phenoxyethanol (53.9%), citric acid (51.1%), disodium EDTA (44.4%), sorbic acid derivatives (39.3%), tocopherol derivatives (38.8%), polyethylene glycol derivatives (32.6%), glyceryl stearate (31.5%), sodium citrate (29.8%), glucosides (27.5%), cetearyl alcohol (25.8%), propylene glycol (25.3%), sodium benzoate (24.2%), and ceteareth-20 (23.6%)/parabens (23.6%). Of note, methylisothiazolinone (2.2%) and methylchloroisothiazolinone (1.1%) were uncommon. The top potential allergens of botanical origin included Aloe barbadensis (41.0%), chamomile extracts (27.0%), tea extracts (21.3%), Cucumis sativus (20.2%), and Hamamelis virginiana (10.7%). Many potential allergens are present in facial wet wipes, including fragrances, preservatives, botanicals, glucosides, and propylene glycol.

  17. [Antiinflammatory potential of seven plant extracts in the ultraviolet erythema test. A randomized, placebo-controlled study].

    PubMed

    Beikert, F C; Schönfeld, B S; Frank, U; Augustin, M

    2013-01-01

    Phytotherapeutics are widely used in medicine. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the antiinflammatory potential of seven medical plant extracts using the ultraviolet- (UV)-erythema test. Randomized, placebo-controlled study on 40 healthy subjects. Test areas on the upper back were irradiated with the 1.5 fold UV-B minimal erythema dose (MED). Formulations of Aloe vera, Chamomilla recutita, Hamamelis virginiana, Melissa officinalis, Mentha arvensis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Coriandrum sativum as well as 1% hydrocortisone acetate and 0.1% betamethasone valerate as positive controls and unguentum leniens as vehicle control were applied under occlusion on the irradiated areas and on non-irradiated area on the contralateral side. Photometric assessment of the erythema was performed before the application of the substances (t0), at 24 h (t1) and at 48 h (t2). Aloe vera, Chamomilla recutita, Melissa officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia and Coriandrum sativum showed an antiinflammatory effect compared to UV-control and unguentum leniens. However, the results were only statistically significant for Aloe vera. All tested plant extracts were well tolerated. Aloe vera possesses an antiinflammatory effect on UV-induced erythemas.

  18. In-Depth Transcriptome Sequencing of Mexican Lime Trees Infected with Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia.

    PubMed

    Mardi, Mohsen; Karimi Farsad, Laleh; Gharechahi, Javad; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2015-01-01

    Witches' broom disease of acid lime greatly affects the production of Mexican lime in Iran. It is caused by a phytoplasma (Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia). However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie phytoplasma pathogenicity and the mode of interactions with host plants are largely unknown. Here, high-throughput transcriptome sequencing was conducted to explore gene expression signatures associated with phytoplasma infection in Mexican lime trees. We assembled 78,185 unique transcript sequences (unigenes) with an average length of 530 nt. Of these, 41,805 (53.4%) were annotated against the NCBI non-redundant (nr) protein database using a BLASTx search (e-value ≤ 1e-5). When the abundances of unigenes in healthy and infected plants were compared, 2,805 transcripts showed significant differences (false discovery rate ≤ 0.001 and log2 ratio ≥ 1.5). These differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were significantly enriched in 43 KEGG metabolic and regulatory pathways. The up-regulated DEGs were mainly categorized into pathways with possible implication in plant-pathogen interaction, including cell wall biogenesis and degradation, sucrose metabolism, secondary metabolism, hormone biosynthesis and signalling, amino acid and lipid metabolism, while down-regulated DEGs were predominantly enriched in ubiquitin proteolysis and oxidative phosphorylation pathways. Our analysis provides novel insight into the molecular pathways that are deregulated during the host-pathogen interaction in Mexican lime trees infected by phytoplasma. The findings can be valuable for unravelling the molecular mechanisms of plant-phytoplasma interactions and can pave the way for engineering lime trees with resistance to witches' broom disease.

  19. Chromosome sizes of phytoplasmas composing major phylogenetic groups and subgroups.

    PubMed

    Marcone, C; Neimark, H; Ragozzino, A; Lauer, U; Seemüller, E

    1999-09-01

    ABSTRACT Chromosome sizes of 71 phytoplasmas belonging to 12 major phylogenetic groups including several of the aster yellows subgroups were estimated from electrophoretic mobilities of full-length chromosomes in pulsed-field gels. Considerable variation in genome size, from 660 to 1,130 kilobases (kb), was observed among aster yellows phytoplasmas. Chromosome size heterogeneity was also observed in the stolbur phytoplasma group (range 860 to 1,350 kb); in this group, isolate STOLF contains the largest chromosome found in a phytoplasma to date. A wide range of chromosome sizes, from 670 to 1,075 kb, was also identified in the X-disease group. The other phytoplasmas examined, which included members of the apple proliferation, Italian alfalfa witches' broom, faba bean phyllody, pigeon pea witches' broom, sugarcane white leaf, Bermuda grass white leaf, ash yellows, clover proliferation, and elm yellows groups, all have chromosomes smaller than 1 megabase, and the size ranges within each of these groups is narrower than in the aster yellows, stolbur, and X-disease groups. The smallest chromosome, approximately 530 kb, was found in two Bermuda grass white leaf phytoplasma isolates. This not only is the smallest mollicute chromosome found to date, but also is the smallest chromosome known for any cell. More than one large DNA band was observed in several phytoplasma preparations. Possible explanations for the occurrence of more than one band may be infection of the host plant by different phytoplasmas, the presence of more than one chromosome in the same organism, or the presence of large extrachromosomal DNA elements.

  20. Association mapping of seed and disease resistance traits in Theobroma cacao L.

    PubMed

    Motilal, Lambert A; Zhang, Dapeng; Mischke, Sue; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Boccara, Michel; Fouet, Olivier; Lanaud, Claire; Umaharan, Pathmanathan

    2016-12-01

    Microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism markers that could be used in marker assisted breeding of cacao were identified for number of filled seeds, black pod resistance and witches' broom disease resistance. An association mapping approach was employed to identify markers for seed number and resistance to black pod and witches' broom disease (WBD) in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). Ninety-five microsatellites (SSRs) and 775 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed on 483 unique trees in the International Cocoa Genebank Trinidad (ICGT). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) and association mapping studies were conducted to identify markers to tag the phenotypic traits. Decay of LD occurred over an average 9.3 cM for chromosomes 1-9 and 2.5 cM for chromosome 10. Marker/trait associations were generally identified based on general linear models (GLMs) that incorporated principal components from molecular information on relatedness factor. Seven markers (mTcCIR 8, 66, 126, 212; TcSNP368, 697, 1370) on chromosomes 1 and 9 were identified for number of filled seeds (NSEED). A single marker was found for black pod resistance (mTcCIR280) on chromosome 3, whereas six markers on chromosomes 4, 5, 6, 8, and 10 were detected for WBD (mTcCIR91, 183; TcSNP375, 720, 1230 and 1374). It is expected that this association mapping study in cacao would contribute to the knowledge of the genetic determinism of cocoa traits and that the markers identified herein would prove useful in marker assisted breeding of cacao.

  1. Santa Ana Forecasting and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolinski, T.; Eichhorn, D.; D'Agostino, B. J.; Vanderburg, S.; Means, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    Southern California experiences wildfires every year, but under certain circumstances these fires grow into extremely large and destructive fires, such as the Cedar Fire of 2003 and the Witch Fire of 2007. The Cedar Fire burned over 1100 km2 , destroyed more than 2200 homes and killed 15 people; the Witch fire burned more than 800 km2, destroyed more than 1000 homes and killed 2 people. Fires can quickly become too large and dangerous to fight if they are accompanied by a very strong "Santa Ana" condition, which is a foehn-like wind that may bring strong winds and very low humidities. However there is an entire range of specific weather conditions that fall into the broad category of Santa Anas, from cold and blustery to hot with very little wind. All types are characterized by clear skies and low humidity. Since the potential for destructive fire is dependent on the characteristics of Santa Anas, as well as the level of fuel moisture, there exists a need for further classification, such as is done with tropical cyclones and after-the-fact with tornadoes. We use surface data and fuel moisture combined with reanalysis to diagnose those conditions that result in Santa Anas with the greatest potential for destructive fires. We use this data to produce a new classification system for Santa Anas. This classification system should be useful for informing the relevant agencies for mitigation and response planning. In the future this same classification may be made available to the general public.

  2. Research into witchcraft in psychoanalysis and history.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Alf

    2011-01-01

    Witchcraft and witch-hunting have been a topic for numerous historical and psychoanalytical research projects. But until now, most of these projects have remained rather isolated from one from the other, each in their own context. In this article I shall attempt to set up a dialogue between psychoanalysis and history by way of the example of research into witchcraft. However, I make no claim to covering the different psychoanalytical and historical approaches in full. As a historical 'layman', my interest lies in picking out some of the approaches that seem to me particularly well suited to contribute to reciprocal enhancement.

  3. [The religious aspects of maternal mortality at the time of the Aztecs. Cihuateteo: dead women at first birth].

    PubMed

    Tovar-Rodríguez, José María

    2013-09-01

    Women who die during pregnancy or childbirth, the Aztec goddess regarded with the same value that was given to the warriors who died on the battlefield, accompanied the sun during its journey through the land, but were also feared and regarded as witches who could fly and cause damage and disease to children, could occupy bodies and produce paralysis, at the funeral the relatives of the Cihuateteo should take care of the woman's body because there was a possibility that parts of soldiers stealing him to gain courage in battle. The governing Cihuateteo magical occupations of women.

  4. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    PubMed

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  5. Modeling the Oldest Old: Personas to Design Technology-Based Solutions for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, Blaine; Zaslavksy, Oleg; Wilamowska, Katarzyna M.; Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire J

    2011-01-01

    There is a recognized need to develop information technology for the delivery of care services to older adults. However, little attention has been paid to the design of information technology for the oldest old demographic. We made novel use of data from observations, focus groups and cluster analysis of oldest old participant characteristics from a pilot study in a community setting to iteratively construct personas for the design of information technology for the oldest old. The resulting two personas, “Hazel” and “Rose”, capture different abilities of members of the oldest old demographic group. In addition, we provide a list of eleven design recommendations to guide the design of technology that supports the abilities of people like Hazel and Rose. The resulting personas, design recommendations and persona construction method can be useful tools for informaticians and designers of new systems for the oldest old. PMID:22195177

  6. Sand pulses and sand patches on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grams, Paul E.; Buscombe, Daniel; Topping, David; Mueller, Erich R.

    2017-01-01

    Alluvial sandbars occur in lateral recirculation zones (eddies) along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park (Schmidt, 1990). Resource managers periodically release controlled floods from the upstream Glen Canyon Dam to rebuild these bars (Grams et al., 2015), which erode during fluctuating dam releases, and by hillslope runoff and wind deflation (Hazel et al., 2010). Because the dam blocks upstream sediment, episodic floods from tributaries provide the only supply to replace eroded sand; and much of this sand originates from a single tributary (Topping et al., 2000). Here, we present new evidence for the downstream translation of the sand component of these sediment inputs as discontinuous sand pulses. Improved understanding of the behaviour of these sand pulses may be used to adjust the timing, magnitude, and duration of controlled floods to maximize potential for deposition on sandbars in different segments of the 450 km-long Grand Canyon.

  7. Identification of aster yellows phytoplasma in garlic and green onion by PCR-based methods.

    PubMed

    Khadhair, A H; Evans, I R; Choban, B

    2002-01-01

    In the summer of 1999, typical yellows-type symptoms were observed on garlic and green onion plants in a number of gardens and plots around Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. DNA was extracted from leaf tissues of evidently healthy and infected plants. DNA amplifications were conducted on these samples, using two primer pairs, R16F2n/R2 and R16(1)F1/R1, derived from phytoplasma rDNA sequences. DNA samples of aster yellows (AY), lime witches'-broom (LWB) and potato witches'-broom (PWB) phytoplasmas served as controls and were used to determine group relatedness. In a direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, DNA amplification with universal primer pair R16F2n/R2 gave the expected amplified products of 1.2 kb. Dilution (1/40) of each of the latter products were used as template and nested with specific primer pair R16(1)F1/R1. An expected PCR product of 1.1 kb was obtained from each phytoplasma-infected garlic and green onion samples, LWB and AY phytoplasmas but not from PWB phytoplasma. An aliquot from each amplification product (1.2 kb) with universal primers was subjected to PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to identify phytoplasma isolates, using four restriction endonucleases (AluI, KpnI, MseI and RsaI). DNA amplification with specific primer pair R16(1)F1/R1 and RFLP analysis indicated the presence of AY phytoplasma in the infected garlic and green onion samples. These results suggest that AY phytoplasma in garlic and green onion samples belong to the subgroup 16Sr1-A.

  8. Broomsticks Flying in Circles: Playing with Narrative in Eleanor Estes's "The Witch Family"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gargano, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The author contends that reading some narratives of make-believe can become for many children the ultimate form of fantasy play, providing them with a sense of control absent in their real world. She employs terms from French structuralist critic Gérard Genette, from Austrian child psychologist Bruno Bettelheim, and from English pediatrician D. W.…

  9. Communists in the Press: A Senate Witch-Hunt of the 1950s Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ralph H.; Altman, Michael

    1978-01-01

    Concludes that the 1955-1956 Senate Subcommittee investigation into allegations of Communist infiltration of the newspaper industry proved largely ineffectual, that the subcommittee hearings had no legislative purpose and created nonjudicial punishment for noncriminal persons, and that publishers were slow to recognize the threat to constitutional…

  10. 1.9 μm square-wave passively Q-witched mode-locked fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wanzhuo; Wang, Tianshu; Su, Qingchao; Wang, Furen; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Chengbo; Jiang, Huilin

    2018-05-14

    We propose and demonstrate the operation of Q-switched mode-locked square-wave pulses in a thulium-holmium co-doped fiber laser. By using a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror, continuous square-wave dissipative soliton resonance pulse is obtained with 4.4 MHz repetition rate. With the increasing pump power, square-wave pulse duration can be broadened from 1.7 ns to 3.2 ns. On such basis Q-switched mode-locked operation is achieved by properly setting the pump power and the polarization controllers. The internal mode-locked pulses in Q-switched envelope still keep square-wave type. The Q-switched repetition rate can be varied from 41.6 kHz to 74 kHz by increasing pump power. The corresponding average single-pulse energy increases from 2.67 nJ to 5.2 nJ. The average peak power is also improved from 0.6 W to 1.1 W when continuous square-wave operation is changed into Q-switched mode-locked operation. It indicates that Q-switched mode-locked operation is an effective method to increase the square-wave pulse energy and peak power.

  11. Stars, demons and the body in fifteenth-century England.

    PubMed

    Ralley, Robert

    2010-06-01

    In 1441, Eleanor Cobham, duchess of Gloucester, was arrested, together with three associates: Margery Jourdemayne, the 'Witch of Eye', Roger Bolingbroke, Oxford cleric and astrologer, and Thomas Southwell, MB, canon of St. Stephen's, Westminster. They were accused of plotting to kill King Henry VI by necromancy, but contemporary chronicles differed on the precise nature of their crime: had they summoned demons or cast an astrological chart? This paper explores the relationship between astrology and demonic magic, focusing on feelings, rites and apparatus, and perceptions that the more the practitioner's body was implicated in the divinatory procedure, the more likely it was to be illicit.

  12. Preliminary analytical results for ash and burned soils from the October 2007 southern California wildfires

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Martin, Deborah A.; Hoefen, Todd; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Hageman, Philip; Eckberg, Alison; Meeker, Gregory P.; Adams, Monique; Anthony, Michael; Lamothe, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected ash and burned soils from about 28 sites in southern California wildfire areas (Harris, Witch, Ammo, Santiago, Canyon and Grass Valley) from Nov. 2 through 9, 2007 (table 1). USGS researchers are applying a wide variety of analytical methods to these samples, with the goal of helping identify characteristics of the ash and soils from wildland and suburban burned areas that may be of concern for their potential to adversely affect water quality, human health, endangered species, and debris-flow or flooding hazards. These studies are part of the Southern California Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project, and preliminary findings are presented here.

  13. Possibilities of post-mortem diagnostics, including immunodiagnostics, in cases of sudden death due to anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions.

    PubMed

    Kobek, M; Jankowski, Z; Chowaniec, C; Chowaniec, M; Jabłoński, C; Skowronek, R

    Postmortem diagnostics of anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reaction as the cause of death in cases of sudden deaths without witnesses, as well as those in which circumstances of sudden disease and then death are known, seems to be very difficult. This is caused by the lack of characteristic macro- or microscopic changes to internal organs resulting from a short, or even very short time, that elapses from the action of the etiological factor till death. In the above mentioned cases it is often impossible to establish univocally the cause of death, despite considering information on the cause of disease and its clinical symptoms. On the basis of 2 cases of sudden deaths resulted from the intake of hazel nuts, and the administration of contrast agent before radiological examination, the authors discuss the usefulness of postmortem determinations of tryptase and IgE in blood for diagnostics of deaths resulting from anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reaction, respectively.

  14. [An assessment of tinnitus retraining therapy].

    PubMed

    von Wedel, H; von Wedel, U C

    2000-12-01

    Based on the neurophysiological model of tinnitus developed by Jastreboff and Hazell [39] there have been some important developments in understanding and therapy of tinnitus over the last decade. The clinical applications of this model are known as "tinnitus retraining therapy", which has the objective of reducing both the distress associated with tinnitus and the tinnitus perception itself. As a form of systematic, repeated and skilled counselling over a long period of up to 2 years supported by sound therapy (hearing aid or noise generator) the evidence for their high degree of effectiveness is overwhelming. On the basis of a "German concept" of tinnitus retraining therapy developed and proposed by the ADANO (Arbeitsgemeinschaft deutschsprachiger Audiologen und Neurootologen) the current status of this treatment will be briefly reviewed including some actual studies of Goebel et al. [14] that confirm the world wide critical comments on the recent developments in the management of tinnitus especially with regard to tinnitus retraining therapy [79].

  15. ‘Fire hardening’ spear wood does slightly harden it, but makes it much weaker and more brittle

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Tak Lok

    2016-01-01

    It is usually assumed that ‘fire hardening’ the tips of spears, as practised by hunter–gatherers and early Homo spp., makes them harder and better suited for hunting. This suggestion was tested by subjecting coppiced poles of hazel to a fire-hardening process and comparing their mechanical properties to those of naturally seasoned poles. A Shore D hardness test showed that fire treatment slightly increased the hardness of the wood, but flexural and impact tests showed that it reduced the strength and work of fracture by 30% and 36%, respectively. These results suggest that though potentially slightly sharper and more durable, fire-hardened tips would actually be more likely to break off when used, as may have been the case with the earliest known wooden tool, the Clacton spear. Fire might first have been used to help sharpen the tips of spears, and fire-hardening would have been a mostly negative side effect, not its primary purpose. PMID:27194289

  16. Evaluation of Radical Scavenging Activity of Sempervivum tectorum and Corylus avellana Extracts with Different Phenolic Composition.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Ágnes; Riethmüller, Eszter; Béni, Szabolcs; Kéry, Ágnes

    2016-04-01

    Semnpervivum tectorum L. and Corylus avellana L. are traditional herbal remedies exhibiting antioxidant activity and representing diverse phenolic composition. The aim of this study was to reveal the contribution of certain compounds to total radical scavenging activity by studying S. tectorum and C. avellana extracts prepared with solvents of different selectivity for diverse classes of phenolics. Antioxidant activity of S. tectorum and C. avellana samples was determined in the ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging assays, and phenolic composition was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Correlations between antioxidant activity and phenolic content of houseleek extracts have been revealed. Significant differences regarding antioxidant activity have been shown between S. tectorum 80% (v/v) methanol extract and its fractions. Additionally, synergism among the constituents present together in the whole extract was assumed. Significantly higher radical scavenging activity of hazel extracts has been attributed to the differences in phenolic composition compared with houseleek extracts.

  17. Coaching communication issues with elite female athletes: two Norwegian case studies.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, E; Tomten, S E; Hanstad, D V; Roberts, G C

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the careers of two successful female elite athletes who later stagnated, and to identify possible factors that might have led to their demotivation. Individual interviews and a focus group interview were conducted. Using a multidisciplinary approach, the stories of April and Hazel raised several issues related to coaching, coach education, and the development of female athletes. Their individual profiles revealed that their perception of the lack of long-term development was caused by coach miscommunication, having to cope with sudden fame, and injuries provoked by overtraining. The coach-athlete relationship was discussed with a focus on the inexperience of some coaches, the number of coaches the athletes had to deal with, sociolinguistic issues, and the differing criteria of success communicated. Finally, the importance of their national governing bodies to focus on knowledge transfer, the supervision of coaches, and the infrastructure to monitor athletes were discussed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Cosmetics and herbal remedies with Compositae plant extracts - are they tolerated by Compositae-allergic patients?

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Evy; Chistensen, Lars P; Andersen, Klaus E

    2008-01-01

    Compositae-sensitive patients are routinely warned against topical use of Compositae-containing cosmetics and herbal remedies. However, the risk of elicitation of dermatitis in presensitized persons is unknown. The main aim of this study was to assess the significance of direct plant allergen contact via Compositae-derived cosmetics and herbal remedies in Compositae-allergic patients with special reference to arnica (Arnica montana) and German chamomile (Chamomilla recutita). 8 of 12 chamomile-sensitive patients tested positive to chamomile-containing preparations, including tea, creams, ointments, and oil. 5 of 6 arnica-sensitive persons tested positive to arnica-based products. When the group was patch tested with cosmetic and/or herbal product ingredients, plant allergens elicited positive reactions most frequently, but fragrances, emulsifiers, and preservatives tested positive as well. Plant allergens were mainly derived from Compositae, but avocado oil, and Hamamelis virginiana tincture were unexpectedly detected as sensitizers too. Chemical analyses indicated that the Compositae allergens were both sesquiterpene lactones and other naturally occurring compounds. In conclusion, Compositae-allergic persons should be warned against topical use of Compositae-containing products, not only because of the plant allergens, but also because of allergenic cream constituents that may cause reactions in the group of patients who have multiple contact allergies beside the Compositae allergy.

  19. Cross-linked collagen sponges loaded with plant polyphenols with inhibitory activity towards chronic wound enzymes.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Francesko; Guillem, Rocasalbas; Sonia, Touriño; Clara, Mattu; Piergiorgio, Gentile; Valeria, Chiono; Gianluca, Ciardelli; Tzanov, Tzanko

    2011-10-01

    Collagen sponges loaded with polyphenols from Hamamelis virginiana were investigated as active materials for chronic wound dressings, evaluating in vitro the inhibition of two major enzymes that impair the wound healing process - myeloperoxidase (MPO) and collagenase. Prior to polyphenols loading, collagen was cross-linked with genipin to improve its biostability. The effect of genipin cross-linking and polyphenol concentration in the development of mechanically and enzymatically stable sponges was studied. The tensile strength of the cross-linked collagen increased with the increase of the cross-linking degree, coupled to decrease in the elongation and the swelling capacity of the sponges. The stability of the sponges to collagenase digestion reached maximum when 1 mM genipin was used. However, the biostability decreased more than 10-fold after loading the sponges with polyphenols (0.5 mg/mL), nevertheless, this effect was partially overcome using higher concentration of polyphenols (1 and 2 mg/mL) to inhibit collagenase. Moreover, the polyphenols released from the sponges were sufficient for complete inhibition of MPO activity. No considerable cytotoxicity of the genipin cross-linked collagen loaded with polyphenols was observed evaluating the NIH 3T3 fibroblasts viability. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. TcCYPR04, a Cacao Papain-Like Cysteine-Protease Detected in Senescent and Necrotic Tissues Interacts with a Cystatin TcCYS4.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Thyago Hermylly Santana; Freitas, Ana Camila Oliveira; Andrade, Bruno Silva; Sousa, Aurizangela Oliveira de; Santiago, André da Silva; Koop, Daniela Martins; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Alvim, Fátima Cerqueira; Micheli, Fabienne; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2015-01-01

    The interaction amongst papain-like cysteine-proteases (PLCP) and their substrates and inhibitors, such as cystatins, can be perceived as part of the molecular battlefield in plant-pathogen interaction. In cacao, four cystatins were identified and characterized by our group. We identified 448 proteases in cacao genome, whereof 134 were cysteine-proteases. We expressed in Escherichia coli a PLCP from cacao, named TcCYSPR04. Immunoblottings with anti-TcCYSPR04 exhibited protein increases during leaf development. Additional isoforms of TcCYSPR04 appeared in senescent leaves and cacao tissues infected by Moniliophthora perniciosa during the transition from the biotrophic to the saprophytic phase. TcCYSPR04 was induced in the apoplastic fluid of Catongo and TSH1188 cacao genotypes, susceptible and resistant to M. perniciosa, respectively, but greater intensity and additional isoforms were observed in TSH1188. The fungal protein MpNEP induced PLCP isoform expression in tobacco leaves, according to the cross reaction with anti-TcCYSPR04. Several protein isoforms were detected at 72 hours after treatment with MpNEP. We captured an active PLCP from cacao tissues, using a recombinant cacao cystatin immobilized in CNBr-Sepharose. Mass spectrometry showed that this protein corresponds to TcCYSPR04. A homology modeling was obtained for both proteins. In order to become active, TcCYSPR04 needs to lose its inhibitory domain. Molecular docking showed the physical-chemical complementarities of the interaction between the cacao enzyme and its inhibitor. We propose that TcCYSPR04 and its interactions with cacao cystatins are involved in the senescence and necrosis events related to witches' broom symptoms. This molecular interaction may be the target for future interventions to control witches' broom disease.

  1. Inferring Fish Escape Behaviour in Trawls Based on Catch Comparison Data: Model Development and Evaluation Based on Data from Skagerrak, Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Karlsen, Junita Diana

    2014-01-01

    During the fishing process, fish react to a trawl with a series of behaviours that often are species and size specific. Thus, a thorough understanding of fish behaviour in relation to fishing gear and a scientific understanding of the ability of different gear designs to utilize or stimulate various behavioural patterns during the catching process are essential for developing more efficient, selective, and environmentally friendly trawls. Although many behavioural studies using optical and acoustic observation systems have been conducted, harsh observation conditions on the fishing grounds often hamper the ability to directly observe fish behaviour in relation to fishing gear. As an alternative to optical and acoustic methods, we developed and applied a new mathematical model to catch data to extract detailed and quantitative information about species- and size-dependent escape behaviour in towed fishing gear such as trawls. We used catch comparison data collected with a twin trawl setup; the only difference between the two trawls was that a 12 m long upper section was replaced with 800 mm diamond meshes in one of them. We investigated the length-based escape behaviour of cod (Gadus morhua), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), saithe (Pollachius virens), witch flounder (Glyptocephalus cynoglossus), and lemon sole (Microstomus kitt) and quantified the extent to which behavioural responses set limits for the large mesh panel’s selective efficiency. Around 85% of saithe, 80% of haddock, 44% of witch flounder, 55% of lemon sole, and 55% of cod (below 68 cm) contacted the large mesh panel and escaped. We also demonstrated the need to account for potential selectivity in the trawl body, as it can bias the assessment of length-based escape behaviour. Our indirect assessment of fish behaviour was in agreement with the direct observations made for the same species in a similar section of the trawl body reported in the literature. PMID:24586403

  2. Witchcraft, genealogy, Foucault.

    PubMed

    Russell, S

    2001-03-01

    This paper is a genealogical reflection on both the historiography of European witchcraft and the dynamics of witchcraft trials. I argue that traditional scholarly assumptions about the 'unsophisticated' nature of early modern European mentalities result in inadequate representations of accused witches and of the social contexts and processes of the trials. Genealogy, by contrast, problematizes fundamental notions such as reason, order, power and progress in ways that not only provide a different range of effective tools for the analysis of belief in witchcraft, but also underline its crucial significance for social theory. In the final section, an analysis of a typical trial is undertaken employing key genealogical insights into confession, torture, truth, governmentality, power, pleasure and pain.

  3. Fathering the unthinkable: Masculinity, scientists and the nuclear arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Eslea, B.

    The author argues about the claim that nuclear weapons are necessary in order to defend Western civilization against the aggressive intentions of the Soviet Union. He believes that while the Soviet Union is extremely unpleasant to its own citizens, the United States is by far the more aggressive internationally. In studying the many cruel persecutions of people by people, the author also came to feed that economic causes are not sufficient to explain their intensity and brutality. His study of the relation between witch-hunting and the rise of science led him to think that such non-economic factors as gender identitymore » and sexual attitudes are also very relevant.« less

  4. Adaptive heat pump and battery storage demand side energy management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobieczky, Florian; Lettner, Christian; Natschläger, Thomas; Traxler, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    An adaptive linear model predictive control strategy is introduced for the problem of demand side energy management, involving a photovoltaic device, a battery, and a heat pump. Moreover, the heating influence of solar radiation via the glass house effect is considered. Global sunlight radiation intensity and the outside temperature are updated by weather forecast data. The identification is carried out after adapting to a time frame witch sufficiently homogeneous weather. In this way, in spite of the linearity an increase in precision and cost reduction of up to 46% is achieved. It is validated for an open and closed loop version of the MPC problem using real data of the ambient temperature and the global radiation.

  5. Exact solution for an optimal impermeable parachute problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupu, Mircea; Scheiber, Ernest

    2002-10-01

    In the paper there are solved direct and inverse boundary problems and analytical solutions are obtained for optimization problems in the case of some nonlinear integral operators. It is modeled the plane potential flow of an inviscid, incompressible and nonlimited fluid jet, witch encounters a symmetrical, curvilinear obstacle--the deflector of maximal drag. There are derived integral singular equations, for direct and inverse problems and the movement in the auxiliary canonical half-plane is obtained. Next, the optimization problem is solved in an analytical manner. The design of the optimal airfoil is performed and finally, numerical computations concerning the drag coefficient and other geometrical and aerodynamical parameters are carried out. This model corresponds to the Helmholtz impermeable parachute problem.

  6. Vampires and Witches Go to School: Contemporary Young Adult Fiction, Gender, and the Gothic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michelle J.; Moruzi, Kristine

    2018-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, the Gothic has experienced a cultural resurgence in literature, film, and television for young adult audiences. Young adult readers, poised between childhood and adulthood, have proven especially receptive to the Gothic's themes of liminality, monstrosity, transgression, romance, and sexuality (James, 2009, p. 116). As…

  7. Protective activity of hamamelitannin on cell damage of murine skin fibroblasts induced by UVB irradiation.

    PubMed

    Masaki, H; Atsumi, T; Sakurai, H

    1995-07-01

    The protective activities of hamamelitannin (2',5-di-O-galloyl-hamamelose) in Hamamelis virginiana L. and its related compound, gallic acid, on damaged murine skin fibroblasts induced by UVB irradiation were investigated. In order to exclude the UV absorbing effect of the compounds, the protection study was performed such that the fibroblasts were pretreated with hamamelitannin or gallic acid for 24 h before UVB irradiation. At 200 microM concentration, hamamelitannin gave the higher survival of 72.6 +/- 0.4% in comparison with that of gallic acid (35.5 +/- 1.0%), while UVB absorbers such as 2-ethylhexyl p-methoxycinnamate and hexylbenzoate did not show such protection. The scavenging activities of hamamelitannin and gallic acid against active oxygens such as superoxide anion radicals, hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygens were evaluated using electron spin resonance (ESR-spin trapping method). Hamamelitannin and gallic acid showed potent scavenging activities against all active oxygens tested. Furthermore, the association of hamamelitannin to fibroblasts was examined by comparing it with that of gallic acid, and the following results were obtained: (1) hamamelitannin reduces the reaction rate of liposome entrapped-nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) with external superoxide anions, and (2) several glycosides associate with fibroblasts. From these results, it was concluded that hamamelitannin protects murine fibroblasts against external active oxygens by associating with the cell surface through its sugar moiety.

  8. Origins of magic: review of genetic and epigenetic effects.

    PubMed

    Ramagopalan, Sreeram V; Knight, Marian; Ebers, George C; Knight, Julian C

    2007-12-22

    To assess the evidence for a genetic basis to magic. Literature review. Harry Potter novels of J K Rowling. Muggles, witches, wizards, and squibs. Limited. Family and twin studies, magical ability, and specific magical skills. Magic shows strong evidence of heritability, with familial aggregation and concordance in twins. Evidence suggests magical ability to be a quantitative trait. Specific magical skills, notably being able to speak to snakes, predict the future, and change hair colour, all seem heritable. A multilocus model with a dominant gene for magic might exist, controlled epistatically by one or more loci, possibly recessive in nature. Magical enhancers regulating gene expressionmay be involved, combined with mutations at specific genes implicated in speech and hair colour such as FOXP2 and MCR1.

  9. Battling demons with medical authority: werewolves, physicians and rationalization.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Nadine

    2013-09-01

    Werewolves and physicians experienced their closest contact in the context of early modern witch and werewolf trials. For medical critics of the trials, melancholic diseases served as reference points for medical explanations of both individual cases and werewolf beliefs in general. This paper attempts to construct a conceptual history of werewolf beliefs and their respective medical responses. After differentiating the relevant terms, pre-modern werewolf concepts and medical lycanthropy are introduced. The early modern controversy between medical and demonological explanations forms the main part of this study. The history of werewolves and their medical explanations is then traced through to present times. An important point of discussion is to what extent the physicians' engagements with werewolves can be characterized as rationalization.

  10. DNA and RNA polymerase activity in a Moniliophthora perniciosa mitochondrial plasmid and self-defense against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Andrade, B S; Villela-Dias, C; Gomes, D S; Micheli, F; Góes-Neto, A

    2013-06-13

    Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel) Aime and Phillips-Mora is a hemibiotrophic basidiomycete (Agaricales, Tricholomataceae) that causes witches' broom disease in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). This pathogen carries a stable integrated invertron-type linear plasmid in its mitochondrial genome that encodes viral-like DNA and RNA polymerases related to fungal senescence and longevity. After culturing the fungus and obtaining its various stages of development in triplicate, we carried out total RNA extraction and subsequent complementary DNA synthesis. To analyze DNA and RNA polymerase expression levels, we performed real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for various fungal phases of development. Our results showed that DNA and RNA polymerase gene expression in the primordium phase of M. perniciosa is related to a potential defense mechanism against T. cacao oxidative attack.

  11. Battling demons with medical authority: werewolves, physicians and rationalization

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Werewolves and physicians experienced their closest contact in the context of early modern witch and werewolf trials. For medical critics of the trials, melancholic diseases served as reference points for medical explanations of both individual cases and werewolf beliefs in general. This paper attempts to construct a conceptual history of werewolf beliefs and their respective medical responses. After differentiating the relevant terms, pre-modern werewolf concepts and medical lycanthropy are introduced. The early modern controversy between medical and demonological explanations forms the main part of this study. The history of werewolves and their medical explanations is then traced through to present times. An important point of discussion is to what extent the physicians’ engagements with werewolves can be characterized as rationalization. PMID:24573449

  12. The genome biology of phytoplasma: modulators of plants and insects.

    PubMed

    Sugio, Akiko; Hogenhout, Saskia A

    2012-06-01

    Phytoplasmas are bacterial pathogens of plants that are transmitted by insects. These bacteria uniquely multiply intracellularly in both plants (Plantae) and insects (Animalia). Similarly to bacterial endosymbionts, phytoplasmas have reduced genomes with limited metabolic capabilities. Nonetheless, the chromosomes of many phytoplasmas are rich in repeated DNA consisting of mobile elements. Phytoplasmas produce an arsenal of effectors most of which are encoded on these mobile elements and on plasmids. These effectors target conserved plant transcription factors resulting in witches' broom and leafy flower symptoms and suppression of plant defense to insect vectors that transmit the phytoplasmas. Future studies of these fascinating microbes will generate a wealth of new knowledge about forces that shape genomes and microbial interactions with multicellular hosts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Medea's Nuptial Gifts: Myth and Biomedical Reality.

    PubMed

    Diamandopoulos, Athanasios

    2016-12-01

    In all art forms, Medea is mainly represented as the tragic witch from Colchis (contemporary Georgia), who slaughtered her sons and killed her erotic rival Glauke and her father, King Creon of Corinth, by offering an elaborate poisonous nuptial garment. Euripides described the victims' symptoms as a sudden extreme inflammation, leading anyone coming into contact with the garment to death. In other version, the inflammation is described as pure fire. The symptoms resemble what current medical knowledge describes as an immune contact sensitivity reaction. The passages with medical interest from the opera based on this tragedy are presented in the original musical form as well as some similar film and theater scenes. Magnified images of harmful insect's Medea's nuptial gifts are shown and their action is discussed.

  14. Determination of the transmission coefficients for quantum structures using FDTD method.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yangyang; Wang, Xiaoying; Sui, Wenquan

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a simple method to incorporate quantum effect in traditional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulators. Witch could make it possible to co-simulate systems include quantum structures and traditional components. In this paper, tunneling transmission coefficient is calculated by solving time-domain Schrödinger equation with a developed FDTD technique, called FDTD-S method. To validate the feasibility of the method, a simple resonant tunneling diode (RTD) structure model has been simulated using the proposed method. The good agreement between the numerical and analytical results proves its accuracy. The effectness and accuracy of this approach makes it a potential method for analysis and design of hybrid systems includes quantum structures and traditional components.

  15. Bedrock geology and mineral resources of the Knoxville 1°x2° quadrangle, Tennessee, North Carolina, and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Gilpin R.; Lesure, Frank G.; Marlowe, J.I.; Foley, Nora K.; Clark, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    Vermiculite produced from a large deposit near Tigerville, S.C., in the Inner Piedmont. Deposit worked out and mine backfilled. Smaller deposits associated with ultramafic rocks in the east flank of the Blue Ridge are now uneconomic and have not been worked in the past 20 years. C. Metals: Copper in three deposits, the Fontana and Hazel Creek mines in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the Central Blue Ridge, and the Cullowhee mine in the east flank of the Blue Ridge. D. Organic fuels:  The rocks of the quadrangle contain no coal and probably lie outside the maximum range in thermal maturity permitting the survival of oil. The rocks in the Valley and Ridge and for a short distance eastward below the west flank of the Blue Ridge probably lie within a zone of thermal maturity permitting the survival of natural gas. Consequently the western part of the quadrangle is an area of high risk for hydrocarbon exploration. No exploration drilling has been done in this belt. 

  16. Integration of GIS, Geostatistics, and 3-D Technology to Assess the Spatial Distribution of Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, M.; Tsegaye, T.; Tadesse, W.; Coleman, T. L.; Fahsi, A.

    1998-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of near surface soil moisture is of fundamental importance to many physical, biological, biogeochemical, and hydrological processes. However, knowledge of these space-time dynamics and the processes which control them remains unclear. The integration of geographic information systems (GIS) and geostatistics together promise a simple mechanism to evaluate and display the spatial and temporal distribution of this vital hydrologic and physical variable. Therefore, this research demonstrates the use of geostatistics and GIS to predict and display soil moisture distribution under vegetated and non-vegetated plots. The research was conducted at the Winfred Thomas Agricultural Experiment Station (WTAES), Hazel Green, Alabama. Soil moisture measurement were done on a 10 by 10 m grid from tall fescue grass (GR), alfalfa (AA), bare rough (BR), and bare smooth (BS) plots. Results indicated that variance associated with soil moisture was higher for vegetated plots than non-vegetated plots. The presence of vegetation in general contributed to the spatial variability of soil moisture. Integration of geostatistics and GIS can improve the productivity of farm lands and the precision of farming.

  17. SciTech Connect

    Suárez, D. Orozco; Ramos, A. Asensio; Bueno, J. Trujillo, E-mail: dorozco@iac.es

    Proving the magnetic configuration of solar spicules has hitherto been difficult due to the lack of spatial resolution and image stability during off-limb ground-based observations. We report spectropolarimetric observations of spicules taken in the He i 1083 nm spectral region with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter II at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope of the Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain). The data provide the variation with geometrical height of the Stokes I, Q, U, and V profiles, whose encoded information allows the determination of the magnetic field vector by means of the HAZEL inversion code. The inferred results showmore » that the average magnetic field strength at the base of solar spicules is about 80 gauss, and then it decreases rapidly with height to about 30 gauss at a height of 3000 km above the visible solar surface. Moreover, the magnetic field vector is close to vertical at the base of the chromosphere and has mid-inclinations (about 50°) above 2 Mm height.« less

  18. Polish Adult Reading Test (PART) - construction of Polish test for estimating the level of premorbid intelligence in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Hanna; Stecka, Mariola

    2017-08-29

    In view of unavailability in Poland of the standardized methods to measure PIQ, the aim of the work was to develop a Polish test to assess the premorbid level of intelligence - PART(Polish AdultReading Test) and to measureits psychometric properties, such as validity, reliability as well as standardization in the group of schizophrenia patients. The principles of PART construction were based on the idea of popular worldwide National Adult Reading Test by Hazel Nelson. The research comprised a group of 122 subjects (65 schizophrenia patients and 57 healthy people), aged 18-60 years, matched for age and gender. PART appears to be a method with high internal consistency and reliability measured by test-retest, inter-rater reliability, and the method with acceptable diagnostic and prognostic validity. The standardized procedures of PART have been investigated and described. Considering the psychometric values of PART and a short time of its performance, the test may be a useful diagnostic instrument in the assessment of premorbid level of intelligence in a group of schizophrenic patients.

  19. [TRT and psychotherapy in the treatment of tinnitus].

    PubMed

    Schaaf, H; Gieler, U

    2010-10-01

    Basic requirements and results of tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) as well as other habituation therapies with psychotherapeutic approaches in the treatment of tinnitus are examined closely in this literature review. In German-speaking countries experts generally aim for involvement of psychotherapists beyond the classic TRT developed by Jastreboff and Hazell. On the basis of a validated diagnostic test such as the Tinnitus Questionnaire according to Hiller and Goebel (1998), such a therapy regime is more effective than the "classic" procedure. Under different treatment approaches, cognitive behavioural therapy elements have been proven to be effective-even as a component of the TRT-as well as integrated variants in psychodynamic therapies. We have to give consideration to the fact that in all studies about the selection and inclusion criteria selective test conditions were established which suggest that in each case diverse patient groups were studied. In the overall picture it becomes apparent that depending on the severity of the tinnitus and accompanying hearing problems a dysfunction-oriented and staged approach makes sense.

  20. Impact of identifying factors which trigger bothersome tinnitus on the treatment outcome in tinnitus retraining therapy.

    PubMed

    Molini, Egisto; Faralli, Mario; Calzolaro, Lucia; Ricci, Giampietro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to ascertain any differences in the effectiveness of rehabilitation therapy in relation to the presence or absence of a known negative reinforcement responsible for the tinnitus-related pathology. Between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2008, we recruited 294 subjects suffering from incapacitating tinnitus and/or hyperacusis. The patients underwent tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) according to the methods described by Jastreboff and Hazell [Tinnitus Retraining Therapy: Implementing the Neurophysiological Model. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp 121-133]. We clinically assessed the presence or absence of known phenomena of associative learning, regarding the presence of adverse events temporally correlated with tinnitus and the treatment outcome. The separate analysis of the 2 subgroups shows a statistically significant difference in the improvement rate between the group with a known triggering factor and the group without a triggering factor, with a preponderance of the former with a 91% improvement rate versus approximately 56% for the latter. In our study, the inability to identify factors triggering bothersome tinnitus negatively affected the treatment outcome in TRT. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. A Protective Factors Model for Alcohol Abuse and Suicide Prevention among Alaska Native Youth

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V.; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen at al., 2006; Mohatt, Hazel et al., 2004; Mohatt, Rasmus et al., 2004). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse. PMID:24952249

  2. Social Work Practice with Pagans, Witches, and Wiccans: Guidelines for Practice with Children and Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yardley, Meg

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces social workers to the beliefs and practices associated with Paganism, Witchcraft, and Wicca and describes how social workers can help to create a welcoming environment for children and youths belonging to these religious minority groups. Drawing on social science research, social work literature, and a case example, the…

  3. Making Sense of Education Change at Thistle College: The Existence of Witchcraft, Witches and Shamans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a complex and charged change program and its management at a Scottish higher education institution. Discusses the difficulties of the educational change process in higher education, the complexities surrounding notions of organizational cultures and communities of practice, and issues of power and management including the new…

  4. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, Escondido Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  5. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, Ramona Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  6. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, Poway Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  7. Cyclones, bi-cycles, and psychoanalysis: the witch-of-us? complex and The Wizard of Oz.

    PubMed

    Stern, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    Works of applied psychoanalysis normally use psychoanalytic theory to reveal the secret meanings of works of art. An attempt is made to reverse the directionality of such analyses and see whether a work of art, The Wizard of Oz, has something to teach psychoanalysis about adolescent female psychosexual development. The author argues that the popularity and importance of the film is an effect of its symbolic representation of a girl's entry into menarche, and the meaning of this milestone for herself and for her mother. He addresses ideas about feminine castration fears (or what more recently have been called fears of genital injury), issues about menopause, and fantasies--both surprising and violent--around the meanings of menarche for both mother and daughter.

  8. Blurring Boundaries: Drama as a Critical Multimodal Literacy for Examining 17th-Century Witch Hunts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeter, Sara; Wager, Amanda C.

    2017-01-01

    This article illustrates how critical multimodal literacy practices engage secondary students to further explore differences and similarities between past and present instances of discrimination within a process drama, where students and teachers explore a topic through unscripted role-play. Data from a classroom-based ethnography are drawn on to…

  9. Comparative Analysis of Expressed Genes from Cacao Meristems Infected by Moniliophthora perniciosa

    PubMed Central

    Gesteira, Abelmon S.; Micheli, Fabienne; Carels, Nicolas; Da Silva, Aline C.; Gramacho, Karina P.; Schuster, Ivan; Macêdo, Joci N.; Pereira, Gonçalo A. G.; Cascardo, Júlio C. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Witches' broom disease is caused by the hemibiotrophic basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa, and is one of the most important diseases of cacao in the western hemisphere. Because very little is known about the global process of such disease development, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were used to identify genes expressed during the Theobroma cacao–Moniliophthora perniciosa interaction. Methods Two cDNA libraries corresponding to the resistant (RT) and susceptible (SP) cacao–M. perniciosa interactions were constructed from total RNA, using the DB SMART Creator cDNA library kit (Clontech). Clones were randomly selected, sequenced from the 5′ end and analysed using bioinformatics tools including in silico analysis of the differential gene expression. Key Results A total of 6884 ESTs were generated from the RT and SP cDNA libraries. These ESTs were composed of 2585 singlets and 341 contigs for a total of 2926 non-redundant sequences. The redundancy of the libraries was low and their specificity high when compared with the few other cacao libraries already published. Sequence analysis allowed the assignment of a putative functional category for 54 % of sequences, whereas approx. 22 % of sequences corresponded to unknown function and approx. 24 % of sequences did not show any significant similarity with other proteins present in the database. Despite the similar overall distribution of the sequences in functional categories between the two libraries, qualitative differences were observed. Genes involved during the defence response to pathogen infection or in programmed cell death were identified, such as pathogenesis related-proteins, trypsin inhibitor or oxalate oxidase, and some of them showed an in silico differential expression between the resistant and the susceptible interactions. Conclusions As far as is known this is the first EST resource from the cacao–M. perniciosa interaction and it is believed that it will provide a significant

  10. Primitive African Medical Lore and Witchcraft *

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Ethel E.

    1965-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive study of the methods, practices, equipment, and paraphernalia of African witch doctors in carrying out primitive medical practices. The chief tribes studied are the Azandes of the Sudan, the Manos of Liberia, the Congo tribes, the Bundas of Angola, and the Zulus and other Bantu tribes of South Africa. Primitive beliefs and customs are discussed only insofar as they have a direct bearing on medical practices. The medical practices considered deal mainly with the application of general remedies for ailments and diseases, but certain specialized fields such as obstetrics, surgery, treatment for fractures, and dentistry are also included. Primitive medicaments are presented with reference to their application for various illnesses. An alphabetical list of these medicaments is given at the end of the article. PMID:14223742

  11. Genetic variation assessment of acid lime accessions collected from south of Iran using SSR and ISSR molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Ata Allah; Abkenar, Asad Asadi; Sharafi, Ali; Masaeli, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Iran has a long history of acid lime cultivation and propagation. In this study, genetic variation in 28 acid lime accessions from five regions of south of Iran, and their relatedness with other 19 citrus cultivars were analyzed using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) and Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. Nine primers for SSR and nine ISSR primers were used for allele scoring. In total, 49 SSR and 131 ISSR polymorphic alleles were detected. Cluster analysis of SSR and ISSR data showed that most of the acid lime accessions (19 genotypes) have hybrid origin and genetically distance with nucellar of Mexican lime (9 genotypes). As nucellar of Mexican lime are susceptible to phytoplasma, these acid lime genotypes can be used to evaluate their tolerance against biotic constricts like lime "witches' broom disease".

  12. Development of Onboard Computer Complex for Russian Segment of ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branets, V.; Brand, G.; Vlasov, R.; Graf, I.; Clubb, J.; Mikrin, E.; Samitov, R.

    1998-01-01

    Report present a description of the Onboard Computer Complex (CC) that was developed during the period of 1994-1998 for the Russian Segment of ISS. The system was developed in co-operation with NASA and ESA. ESA developed a new computation system under the RSC Energia Technical Assignment, called DMS-R. The CC also includes elements developed by Russian experts and organizations. A general architecture of the computer system and the characteristics of primary elements of this system are described. The system was integrated at RSC Energia with the participation of American and European specialists. The report contains information on software simulators, verification and de-bugging facilities witch were been developed for both stand-alone and integrated tests and verification. This CC serves as the basis for the Russian Segment Onboard Control Complex on ISS.

  13. Solanaceae IV: Atropa belladonna, deadly nightshade.

    PubMed

    Lee, M R

    2007-03-01

    The Deadly Nightshade, Atropa belladonna, is a plant surrounded by myth, fear and awe. In antiquity, the Greeks and the Romans knew that it contained a deadly poison. In medieval times, it was widely used by witches, sorcerors and professional poisoners. Linnaeus later codified its remarkable properties as the genus Atropa, the Fate that slits the thin spun life and the species belladonna because of its power to dilate the pupils. In the 1830s, the pure alkaloid I-atropine was isolated from the plant. This proved to be a significant tool in the study of the autonomic nervous system leading to the identification of acetylcholine as an important neurotransmitter in mammals. When pure atropine became available, it caused a large number of deaths, whether by accident, suicide or homicide.

  14. Methods for the Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the Fires of 2007, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the approach used to assess potential debris-flow hazards from basins burned by the Buckweed, Santiago, Canyon, Poomacha, Ranch, Harris, Witch, Rice, Ammo, Slide, Grass Valley and Cajon Fires of 2007 in southern California. The assessments will be presented as a series of maps showing a relative ranking of the predicted volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to a 3-hour duration rainstorm with a 10-year return period. Potential volumes of debris flows are calculated using a multiple-regression model that describes debris-flow volume at a basin outlet as a function of measures of basin gradient, burn extent, and storm rainfall. This assessment provides critical information for issuing basin-specific warnings, locating and designing mitigation measures, and planning of evacuation timing and routes.

  15. Molecular analysis on the utilization of oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber as reinforcement for acrylonitrile butadiene styrene biocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermawan, B.; Nikmatin, S.; Alatas, H.; Sudaryanto; Sukaryo, S. G.

    2017-05-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) was one of the solid waste produced by the palm oil factory and were totally plentiful in biomass. OPEFB fiber used as reinforcement of polymer matrix acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). The use of FTIR is to see that there is no changes in the molecules of the constituent biocomposite ABS and OPEFB. The reactivity of butadiene and styrene through the double bond- π conjugated system, contributed to the bond reaction with the maleic acid as compatibilizer witch is grafted to the system. It is concluded that the posible grafting reaction occurs by the addition of the MAH to the double bond of the butadiene and styrene. The hydroxyl group of cellulose can interact with this maleic acid to form a bond through the carboxyl group.

  16. [Two main mistakes in classificatory and clinical function of DSM-IV, in the case of differential diagnosis between Asperger and autistic disorder].

    PubMed

    Areta, Joaquín E

    2009-01-01

    Symptomatic description of what the DSM-IV understands for Asperger's and Autistic Disorder was analyzed. As a result of this revision there was found that a great amount of diagnostic criteria overlap, and lead to the impossibility to make a clear differential diagnosis. The classifying function is, thus, criticized. The clinical function of this diagnostic distinction is analyzed through a clinical case. It is shown it's lack of utility when a therapeutic method should be implemented in a case of Autistic Disorder. It is concluded that the statistical value of the results obtained by using this classificatory instrument should be examined due to this lack of distinction. Also, according to the therapeutic approach witch the author makes reference, it is shown that the diagnostic of any both disorders does not modify the general intervention strategy.

  17. Unexpected infant death due to hypoplastic left heart syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hayashizaki, Yoshie; Usui, Kiyotaka; Moriya, Takuya; Hashiyada, Masaki; Usui, Akihito; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Kawasumi, Yusuke; Saito, Haruo; Funayama, Masato

    2011-11-01

    A female infant was found unresponsive at home. The mother alleged that she delivered the baby at home 13 days prior to the death. The mother did not have any prenatal examinations during the pregnancy and the infant was not examined by a doctor until death. The autopsy revealed that the cause of death was hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) and the infant's chest showed bilateral breast enlargement. Forensic pathologists may encounter very rare pathological findings with unexpected infant deaths. Some, like HLHS, are serious congenital heart defects related to the cause of death, and others are unique phenomena unrelated to the cause of death such as breast swelling and discharge called "witch's milk." In this case, we observed both findings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hemorrhoids and varicose veins: a review of treatment options.

    PubMed

    MacKay, D

    2001-04-01

    Hemorrhoids and varicose veins are common conditions seen by general practitioners. Both conditions have several treatment modalities for the physician to choose from. Varicose veins are treated with mechanical compression stockings. There are several over-the-counter topical agents available for hemorrhoids. Conservative therapies for both conditions include diet, lifestyle changes, and hydrotherapy which require a high degree of patient compliance to be effective. When conservative hemorrhoid therapy is ineffective, many physicians may choose other non-surgical modalities: injection sclerotherapy, cryotherapy, manual dilation of the anus, infrared photocoagulation, bipolar diathermy, direct current electrocoagulation, or rubber band ligation. Injection sclerotherapy is the non-surgical treatment for primary varicose veins. Non-surgical modalities require physicians to be specially trained, own specialized equipment, and assume associated risks. If a non-surgical approach fails, the patient is often referred to a surgeon. The costly and uncomfortable nature of treatment options often lead a patient to postpone evaluation until aggressive intervention is necessary. Oral dietary supplementation is an attractive addition to the traditional treatment of hemorrhoids and varicose veins. The loss of vascular integrity is associated with the pathogenesis of both hemorrhoids and varicose veins. Several botanical extracts have been shown to improve microcirculation, capillary flow, and vascular tone, and to strengthen the connective tissue of the perivascular amorphous substrate. Oral supplementation with Aesculus hippocastanum, Ruscus aculeatus, Centella asiatica, Hamamelis virginiana, and bioflavonoids may prevent time-consuming, painful, and expensive complications of varicose veins and hemorrhoids.

  19. Protective activity of hamamelitannin on cell damage induced by superoxide anion radicals in murine dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Masaki, H; Atsumi, T; Sakurai, H

    1995-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated that hamamelitannin (2',5-di-O-galloyl hamamelose) in Hamamelis virginiana L. exhibits potent superoxide-anion scavenging activity. We then examined the physiological and pharmacological activities of hamamelitannin as well as its functional homologues, gallic acid and syringic acid. The following results were obtained: (1) Hamamelitannin has a higher protective activity against cell damages induced by superoxide anions than gallic acid which is the functional moiety of hamamelitannin. The protective activity of hamamelitannin on murine fibroblast-damage induced by superoxide anions was found at a minimum concentration of 50 microM, while the corresponding figure for gallic acid was 100 microM. (2) Pre-treatment of fibroblasts with hamamelitannin enhances cell survival. (3) The superoxide-anion scavenging activity of the compound in terms of its IC50 value (50% inhibition concentration of superoxide anion radicals generated) was evaluated by ESR spin-trapping. Both hamamelitannin (IC50 = 1.31 +/- 0.06 microM) and gallic acid (IC50 = 1.01 +/- 0.03 microM) exhibited high superoxide-anion scavenging activity followed by syringic acid (IC50 = 13.90 +/- 2.38 microM). (4) When hamamelitannin was treated with superoxide anions generated by a KO2-crown ether system, HPLC analysis showed the disappearance of hamamelitannin and the concomitant formation of hamamelitannin-derived radicals (g = 2.005, delta H1 = 2.16 G, delta H2 = 4.69 G) was detected by ESR spectrometry.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Bedrock geology and mineral resources of the Knoxville 1° x 2° quadrangle, Tennessee, North Carolina, and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Gilpin R.; Lesure, Frank G.; Marlowe, J. I.; Foley, Nora K.; Clark, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    Vermiculite produced from a large deposit near Tigerville, S.C-, in the Inner Piedmont. Deposit worked out and mine backfilled. Smaller deposits associated with ultramafic rocks in the east flank of the Blue Ridge are now uneconomic and have not been worked in the past 20 years. C. Metals: Copper in three deposits, the Fontana and Hazel Creek mines in the Great Smoky Mountains Abstract Figure 1. Location of the Knoxville 1ºx2º quadrangle, with state and county boundaries National Park in the Central Blue Ridge, and the Cullowhee mine in the east flank of the Blue Ridge. D. Organic fuels: The rocks of the quadrangle contain no coal and probably lie outside the maximum range in thermal maturity permitting the survival of oil. The rocks in the Valley and Ridge and for a short distance eastward below the west flank of the Blue Ridge probably lie within a zone of thermal maturity permitting the survival of natural gas. Consequently the western part of the quadrangle is an area of high risk for hydrocarbon exploration. No exploration drilling has been done in this belt.

  1. Influence of aeroallergens on the incidence of conjunctivitis in Zagreb and Zagreb County.

    PubMed

    Peternel, Renata; Toth, Ivan; Hercog, Predrag; Vojniković, Bozo; Cop, Rasa; Bradić-Hammoud, Mirna

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the temporal and spatial variations of pollen spectra in the City of Zagreb and Zagreb County according to frequency of inhalation allergy and rhino-conjunctivitis in the adult population by setting allergen/patient relationship. The study was carried out at three inland sites in Croatia during four years (2003-2006). A number of 2,192 patients have been tested for allergy skin prick tests over the same period. The majority of patients allergic to pollen allergens were sensitized to allergens from the plant pollen which belong to the botanical family of grass 46.91%, ambrosia 42.07%, birch 25.66%, hazel 15.19% (with symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis (42.5%), conjunctivitis (28.3%) and rhinitis (23.9%). Increased symptoms in patients allergic to pollen allergens in the entire study period coincided with the presence of pollen in the air. Patients sensitized to dust mites have symptoms throughout the year with a slightly increased number of cases in April and June. In patients sensitized to fungi and mold spores and animal hairs, the number of cases with worsening of symptoms is equal during the same year.

  2. Technical note: An approach to derive breeding goals from the preferences of decision makers.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, L

    2016-11-01

    This paper deals with the use of the Choquet integral to identify breeding objectives and construct an aggregate genotype. The Choquet integral can be interpreted as an extension of the aggregate genotype based on profit equations, substituting the vector of economic weights by a monotone function, called capacity, which allows the aggregation of traits based, for instance, on the preferences of decision makers. It allows the aggregation of traits with or without economic value, taking into account not only the importance of the breeding value of each trait but also the interaction among them. Two examples have been worked out for pig and dairy cattle breeding scenarios to illustrate its application. It is shown that the expression of stakeholders' or decision makers' preferences, as a single ranking of animals or groups of animals, could be sufficient to extract information to derive breeding objectives. It is also shown that coalitions among traits can be identified to evaluate whether a linear additive function, equivalent of the Hazel aggregate genotype where economic values are replaced by Shapley values, could be adequate to define the net merit of breeding animals.

  3. The dynamics of the Corylus, Alnus, and Betula pollen seasons in the context of climate change (SW Poland).

    PubMed

    Malkiewicz, Małgorzata; Drzeniecka-Osiadacz, Anetta; Krynicka, Justyna

    2016-12-15

    The changes in the main features of early spring tree or shrub pollen seasons are important due to the significant impact on the occurrence of pollen-related allergy symptoms. This study shows the results of pollen monitoring for a period of eleven years (2003-2013) using a Burkard volumetric spore trap. The main characteristics of the hazel, alder, and birch pollination season were studied in Wrocław (SW Poland). The statistical analyses do not show a significant trend of annual total pollen count or shift in timing of the pollen season in the period of analysis. The research confirms a great impact (at the statistically significant level of 0.05) of the heat resources on pollination season (the value of the correlation coefficient ranges from -0.63 up to -0.87). Meteorological variables (e.g. sum of temperature for selected period) were compiled to 5-year running means to examine trends. Changes in the pollination period features due to climate change including both timing and intensity of pollen productivity, would have important consequences for allergy sufferers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. La Serra d'Almos (Tarragona): an example of phenological data rescue and preservation in Catalonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busto, Montserrat; Cunillera, Jordi; de Yzaguirre, Xavi; Borrell, Josep

    2016-04-01

    The interruption of important phenological series and the progressive disappearance of phenological observations in Catalonia led the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC) to design and impulse a new phenological network promoted by the Climate Change Unit of this Met Service. The "Fenocat" network was born in March 2013, and currently has around fifty observers distributed throughout Catalonia that observe plants, birds and butterflies. We are providing data from different plant phenophases to PEP725 database. Besides this new phenological network (Fenocat), one of the aims of SMC is to rescue and preserve historical data from different observation points in Catalonia. We show in this poster the example of rescue and preservation of phenological data from la Serra d'Almos (in Tivissa, near Tarragona, Catalonia, NE Iberian Peninsula), an observation series that began in 1973. After digitalization process and quality control tasks, we show preliminary results of this phenological series, and we compare them with those of similar European series. We show the evolution trends for different observed species, such as almond tree (Prunus dulcis), hazel (Corylus avellana), plum (Prunus domestica), olive tree (Olea europea), apple tree (Malus domestica) or vineyard (Vitis vinifera).

  5. The skin prick test – European standards

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature. The recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific allergen extracts, positive and negative controls, interpretation of the tests after 15 – 20 minutes of application, with a positive result defined as a wheal ≥3 mm diameter. A standard prick test panel for Europe for inhalants is proposed and includes hazel (Corylus avellana), alder (Alnus incana), birch (Betula alba), plane (Platanus vulgaris), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens), grass mix (Poa pratensis, Dactilis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Helictotrichon pretense), Olive (Olea europaea), mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), Alternaria alternata (tenuis), Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Parietaria, cat, dog, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach (Blatella germanica). Standardization of the skin test procedures and standard panels for different geographic locations are encouraged worldwide to permit better comparisons for diagnostic, clinical and research purposes. PMID:23369181

  6. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, Warners Ranch Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  7. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, San Pasqual Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  8. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, Santa Ysabel Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  9. Towards The Identification Of Candidate Genes Involved In Witches' Broom Disease Resistance In Theobroma cacao L.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Theobroma cacao, the source of cocoa beans for chocolate, is an important tropical agriculture commodity that is affected by a number of fungal pathogens and insect pests, as well as concerns about yield and quality. We are trying to find molecular genetic markers that are linked to disease resista...

  10. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, Valley Center Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  11. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, Tule Springs Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  12. Contribution de la gravimétrie à l'étude de la structure du bassin de Tadla (Maroc) : Implications hydrogéologiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najine, Abdessamad; Jaffal, Mohammed; Khammari, Kamal El; Aïfa, Tahar; Khattach, Driss; Himi, Mahjoub; Casas, Albert; Badrane, Said; Aqil, Hicham

    2006-08-01

    This study is based on the analysis and the interpretation of the gravity data of the Tadla basin. Its purpose is to increase the knowledge of this basin structure. A residual anomaly map was first calculated from the Bouguer anomaly data witch are strongly affected by a regional gradient. The computed map provides information on the ground density variation but it does not bring enough of new elements. Data filtering allows us to emphasize the structures affecting the basin. We chose the horizontal gradient coupled to the upward continuation techniques that permit to highlight news structures and to give information on their dip. The elaborated structural map of the study area constitutes a useful document for rationalizing the future groundwater exploration in the Tadla basin. To cite this article: A. Najine et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  13. [Socio-entomologic survey in human trypanosomiasis focus of Yamba (Peoples Republic of Congo)].

    PubMed

    Gouteux, J P; Malonga, J R

    1985-01-01

    A study carried out at villagers level in a focus infected by human trypanosomiasis (Yamba, Bouenza region, Congo, Mikengue ethnic group) revealed that modern medicin is recognized by them as the sole possibility to treat the sleeping sickness. The witch doctor, if he cannot transmit the sickness, is perfectly able to aggravate it. He is considered as the responsible for any fatal issue. Tsetse flies are charged of transmitting the sickness as well as other biting insects (black flies, ceratopogonidae). The elders give an historical role to pigs in spreading the sickness. Villagers seem very determined to assume themselves fighting against the tsetse fly by trapping, but impregnation of traps by an insecticide got some problems (technical know-how, equipment) which have been solved by a new model of trap designed by the ORSTOM Center in Brazzaville.

  14. Kimmeridgian Shales Total Petroleum System of the North Sea Graben Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.

    2005-01-01

    place continuously since Mesozoic time. As a result, oil and gas are present in a wide variety of settings within Province 4025. Assessment units for the World Energy Project were defined geographically in order to capture regional differ-ences in exploration history, geography, and geological evolution. Three geographic areas were assessed. The Viking Graben, in the northern part of the province, includes both United Kingdom and Norwegian territorial areas. The Moray Firth/Witch Ground in the west-central part of the province is entirely in United Kingdom. waters. The Central Graben in the southern part of the province includes territorial areas of Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, and the United Kingdom. The North Sea Graben is estimated to contain between 4.3 and 25.6 billion barrels (BBO) of undiscovered, conventionally recoverable oil. Of that total, the Viking Graben is believed to contain 2.2 to 14.8 BBO of undiscov-ered oil, the Moray Firth/Witch Ground may contain between 0.3 and 1.9 BBO, and the Central Graben was estimated to contain undiscovered oil resources of 1.7 to 8.8 BBO. Prov-ince 4025 was also estimated to hold between 11.8 and 75 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered natural gas. Of this total, 6.8 to 44.5 TCF is thought to exist in the Viking Graben, 0.6 to 3.4 TCF is estimated to be in the Moray Firth/Witch Ground, and 4.5 to 27.1 TCF of undiscovered gas is estimated to be in the Central Graben.

  15. Understanding Harry Potter: parallels to the deaf world.

    PubMed

    Czubek, Todd A; Greenwald, Janey

    2005-01-01

    Every so often there are stories that take the world by storm and make such an impact that they become part of our everyday world. These stories, characters, and themes become established elements of cultural literacy. This is exactly what has happened with J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series. Harry and his cohort of wizards, witches, and their adventures have become an indispensable part of popular literature and popular culture. We have developed an innovative way to ensure that Deaf children, their families, and anyone studying literature (Deaf or general) gain a deeper understanding of this phenomenon. In fact, we go further by demonstrating how using a Deaf Lens provides the greatest insight into the fascinating world of Harry Potter. Utilizing a Deaf Studies Template and a Deaf Lens, we capitalize on the experiences of Deaf people everywhere while celebrating the valuable role American Sign Language has in academic programming.

  16. A multi-layered mechanistic modelling approach to understand how effector genes extend beyond phytoplasma to modulate plant hosts, insect vectors and the environment.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, Melissa; Kliot, Adi; Marée, Athanasius Fm; Hogenhout, Saskia A

    2018-03-13

    Members of the Candidatus genus Phytoplasma are small bacterial pathogens that hijack their plant hosts via the secretion of virulence proteins (effectors) leading to a fascinating array of plant phenotypes, such as witch's brooms (stem proliferations) and phyllody (retrograde development of flowers into vegetative tissues). Phytoplasma depend on insect vectors for transmission, and interestingly, these insect vectors were found to be (in)directly attracted to plants with these phenotypes. Therefore, phytoplasma effectors appear to reprogram plant development and defence to lure insect vectors, similarly to social engineering malware, which employs tricks to lure people to infected computers and webpages. A multi-layered mechanistic modelling approach will enable a better understanding of how phytoplasma effector-mediated modulations of plant host development and insect vector behaviour contribute to phytoplasma spread, and ultimately to predict the long reach of phytoplasma effector genes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Frames of mental illness in the Yoruba genre of Nigerian movies: implications for orthodox mental health care.

    PubMed

    Atilola, Olayinka; Olayiwola, Funmilayo

    2013-06-01

    This study examines the modes of framing mental illness in the Yoruba genre of Nigerian movies. All Yoruba films on display in a convenient sample of movie rental shops in Ibadan (Nigeria) were sampled for content. Of the 103 films studied, 27 (26.2%) contained scenes depicting mental illness. Psychotic symptoms were the most commonly depicted, while effective treatments were mostly depicted as taking place in unorthodox settings. The most commonly depicted aetiology of mental illness was sorcery and enchantment by witches and wizards, as well as other supernatural forces. Scenes of mental illness are common in Nigerian movies and these depictions-though reflecting the popular explanatory models of Yoruba-speaking Nigerians about mental illness- may impede utilization of mental health care services and ongoing efforts to reduce psychiatry stigma in this region. Efforts to reduce stigma and improve service utilization should engage the film industry.

  18. Science and the Detective: Selected Reading in Forensic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, Brian H.

    1996-12-01

    Who killed Napoleon? Were the witches of Salem high on LSD? What do maggots on a body tell us about the time of death? In his unique, engaging style, Brian Kaye tells the story of some spectacular cases in which forensic evidence played a key role. You'll also read about the fascinating ways in which scientific evidence can be used to establish guilt or innocence in today's courtroom. The use of voice analysis, methods for developing fingerprints and for uncovering art forgeries, and the examination of bullet wounds are just a few topics considered. In a special section on fraud, the author takes you into the world of counterfeit money. There's no solving crime without science. Written for everyone interested in whodunnits, this book explains the basis of the analytical techniques available for studying evidence in offenses ranging from doping in sports to first-degree murder.

  19. Albertus, "Magnus" or Magus? Magic, natural philosophy, and religious reform in the late middle ages.

    PubMed

    Collins, David J

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the fifteenth-century attempt by the Dominican order, especially in Cologne, to win canonization for the thirteenth-century natural philosopher Albert the Great. It shows how Albert's thought on natural philosophy and magic was understood and variously applied, how the Dominicans at Cologne composed his vitae, and how the order's Observant movement participated in these developments. It situates the canonization attempt at the intersection of two significant trends in which the order was a leading participant: first, the late medieval efforts to reform Christian society beginning with the religious life of monks and mendicants; second, the increasing concerns about the practice of learned and demonic mafic that laid groundwork for the witch-hunting of the early modern period. This article aims to shed light on intersections of science and religion -- their apprehension and negotiation -- at a decisive moment in European history for both fields of human endeavor.

  20. Characteristic of Adaptability - one of basic categories of the social aspect of sustainable housing construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orłowski, Z.; Radziejowska, A.; Orłowski, M.

    2017-10-01

    In the article the authors consider one of the basic aspects of sustainable construction regarding the social utility of a building. According to standard PN-EN 16309+A1:2014-12 during evaluating the social aspect should be assessed six categories: accessibility, adaptability, comfort and health, neighborhood, maintenance, safety and security. The authors present the evaluation criteria witch should be taken into account in the assessment of the second of them. Adaptability has been divided into three categories: The buidling’s ability to accomodate the change of user requirements, The buidling’s ability to accomodate technical changes, The buidling’s ability to accomodate the change of use. Each subcategory has been further elaborated by the criteria for which authors present proposal for the scale of assessments. The authors present a part of a work to construct a method for assessing the social characteristics of the residential buildings.

  1. Response to stem bending in forest shrubs: stem or shoot reorientation and shoot release.

    PubMed

    Wilson, B F

    1997-10-01

    Shrubs in the forest understory may be bent by their own weight or by overstory debris. To maintain height growth they must respond to bending by vertical growth of new shoots, reorientation of older axes, or by releasing preventitious buds to form epicormic shoots. I tested for these responses in Ilex verticillata L., Cornus amomum Mill., Gaylussacia baccata (Wang.) K. Koch, Viburnum cassinoides L., Hamamelis virginiana L., and Kalmia latifolia L. For each species, I removed potentially supporting vegetation adjacent to 20 stems, left 10 stems untreated to test for bending by self weight, and bent the remaining 10 stems to 45 degrees to simulate effects of fallen debris. Stem angles and curvatures were measured from before leaf out until just before leaf fall to detect either sagging from self weight or upward bending from tension wood action. Control stems initially leaned out of vertical and five of six species sagged further into a cantilever form. Several control stems failed and bent to the ground. Stems of H. virginiana, I. verticillata, and C. amomum formed tension wood, but only the first two species bent upward. Viburnum cassinoides, G. baccata, and K. latifolia formed no tension wood and sagged further down after being bent. Epicormic shoots formed with varying frequencies in all species except K. latifolia. Epicormic shoots were the major response in C. amomum, V. cassinoides, and G. baccata. New terminal shoots on bent stems recovered toward vertical in I. verticillata and K. latifolia. Negative gravitropic response of shoots was the only recovery mechanism for K. latifolia.

  2. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, El Cajon Mountain Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  3. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, San Vicente Reservoir Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  4. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, Rancho Santa Fe Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  5. Effects of mass transfer and hydrogen pressure on the fixed-bed pyrolysis of sunflower bagasse

    SciTech Connect

    Putun, E.; Kockar, O.M.; Gercel, F.

    1994-12-31

    There are a number of waste and biomass sources being considered as potential sources of fuels and chemical feedstocks. The economics for biomass pyrolysis are generally considered to be most favourable for (1) plants which grow abundantly and require little cultivation in and lands and (2) wastes available in relatively large quantities from agricultural plants, for example, sunflower and hazel nuts. For the former, one such group of plants is Euphorbiaceae which are characterised by their ability to produce a milky latex, an emulsion of about 30% w/w terpenoids in water. One species in the family, Euphorbia Rigida from Southwesternmore » Anatolia, Turkey is cultivated in close proximity to the sunflower growing regions and their oil extraction plants. The Turkish sunflower oil industry generates 800,000 tons of extraction residue (bagasse) per annum. Thus, both sunflower wastes and latex-producing plants are being considered as feedstocks for a future thermochemical demonstration unit in Turkey. Pyrolysis at relatively high hydrogen pressures (hydropyrolysis) has not been widely investigated for biomass. A potential advantage of hydropyrolysis is the ability to upgrade tar vapours over hydroprocessing catalysts. Fixed-bed pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis experiments have been conducted on sunflower bagasse to assess the effects of mass transfer and hydrogen pressure on oil yield and quality.« less

  6. Uveal melanoma in relation to ultraviolet light exposure and host factors.

    PubMed

    Holly, E A; Aston, D A; Char, D H; Kristiansen, J J; Ahn, D K

    1990-09-15

    We conducted a case-control interview study among 1277 subjects (407 patients, 870 controls selected by using random digit dial) in 11 western United States to determine whether uveal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma shared common risk factors. After adjustment for other factors, the risk of uveal melanoma was increased for those with green, gray, or hazel eyes [relative risk (RR) = 2.5, P less than 0.001] or blue eyes (RR = 2.2, P less than 0.001) when compared to brown. A tendency to sunburn after 0.5 h midday summer sun exposure increased risk for uveal melanoma (burn with tanning RR = 1.5, P = 0.02; burn with little tanning RR = 1.8, P less than 0.001; burn with no tanning RR = 1.7, P = 0.002); as did exposure to UV or black lights (RR = 3.7, P = 0.003); and welding burn, sunburn of the eye, or snow blindness (RR = 7.2, P less than 0.001). An association with uveal melanoma was also noted with an increasing number of large nevi (P = 0.04 for trend), although the individual risk estimates were not remarkable. These data suggest that host factors and exposure to UV light are risk factors for uveal melanoma.

  7. Fusion Science Education Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, C. A.; DIII-D Education Group

    1996-11-01

    This presentation will focus on education outreach activities at General Atomics that have been expanded to include the general population on science education with a focus on fusion energy. Outreach materials are distributed upon request both nationally and internationally. These materials include a notebook containing copies of DIII--D tour panels, fusion poster, new fusion energy video, new fusion energy brochure, and the electromagnetic spectrum curriculum. The 1996 Fusion Forum (held in the House Caucus Room) included a student/ teacher lunch with Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary and a private visit to the Forum exhibits. The continuing partnership with Kearny High School includes lectures, job shadowing, internship, equipment donations and an award-winning electric car-racing program. Development of distribution by CD of the existing interactive fusion energy kiosk and a virtual reality tour of the DIII--D facility are underway. The DIII--D fusion education WWW site includes e-mail addresses to ``Ask the Wizard,'' and/or receive GA's outreach materials. Steve Rodecker, a local science teacher, aided by DIII--D fusion staff, won his second Tapestry Award; he also was named the ``1995 National Science Teacher of the Year'' and will be present to share his experiences with the DIII--D educational outreach program.

  8. Concentrations of elements in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish from the 2011 Missouri Department of Conservation general contaminant monitoring program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish. Fillet samples of yellow bullhead (Ameiurus natalis), golden redhorse (Moxostoma erythrurum), longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were collected from six sites as part of the Missouri Department of Conservation’s Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Fish dorsal muscle plugs were collected from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) at eight of the sites, and crayfish from two sites. Following preparation and analysis of the samples, highlights of the data were as follows: cadmium and lead residues were most elevated in crayfish tissue samples from the Big River at Cherokee Landing, with 1 to 8 micrograms per gram dry weight and 22 to 45 micrograms per gram dry weight, respectively. Some dorsal muscle plugs from largemouth bass collected from Clearwater Lake, Lake St. Louis, Noblett Lake, Hazel Creek Lake, and Harrison County Lake contained mercury residues (1.7 to 4.7 micrograms per gram dry weight) that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality Criterion of 1.5 micrograms per gram dry weight of fish tissue (equivalent to 0.30 micrograms per gram wet weight).

  9. Some statistical properties of an index of multiple traits.

    PubMed

    Nordskog, A W

    1978-03-01

    Hazel (1943) defined a selection index that maximizes the correlation, RIH, between the index, I=ΣbiXi and its aggregate genetic value, H=Σaigi, where the bi's are the derived coefficients of the observed traits, Xi, the ai's are their relative economic values and the gi's are their respective breeding values. This is called an optimum index. The expected value of the index is not H but rather K=Σbigi. The ratio of RHI/RKI is always less than or equal to 1.0. With selection on I, the ratio of the change in K to the change in H is the true heritability of the indez, that is, h I (2) =Δ(K)/ΔH. This is not the same as R IH (2) , which serves only as the predictor of the change in H with selection on I. If the index, I, itself is considered as a unit trait, studies can then be made of correlated response in I when selection is based only on a single trait in the index. I is then called a performance index. This approach provides for additional insight into the question of the failure of selection to make gains in total performance over many generations.

  10. The cerebellum mediates conflict resolution.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Tom A; Oriet, Chris; Meiran, Nachshon; Alexander, Michael P; Cusimano, Michael; Stuss, Donald T

    2007-12-01

    Regions within the frontal and parietal cortex have been implicated as important neural correlates for cognitive control during conflict resolution. Despite the extensive reciprocal connectivity between the cerebellum and these putatively critical cortical areas, a role for the cerebellum in conflict resolution has never been identified. We used a task-switching paradigm that separates processes related to task-set switching and the management of response conflict independent of motor processing. Eleven patients with chronic, focal lesions to the cerebellum and 11 healthy controls were compared. Patients were slower and less accurate in conditions involving conflict resolution. In the absence of response conflict, however, tasks-witching abilities were not impaired in our patients. The cerebellum may play an important role in coordinating with other areas of cortex to modulate active response states. These results are the first demonstration of impaired conflict resolution following cerebellar lesions in the presence of an intact prefrontal cortex.

  11. Fuzzy Neural Classifiers for Multi-Wavelength Interdigital Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xenides, D.; Vlachos, D. S.; Simos, T. E.

    2007-12-01

    The use of multi-wavelength interdigital sensors for non-destructive testing is based on the capability of the measuring system to classify the measured impendence according to some physical properties of the material under test. By varying the measuring frequency and the wavelength of the sensor (and thus the penetration depth of the electric field inside the material under test) we can produce images that correspond to various configurations of dielectric materials under different geometries. The implementation of a fuzzy neural network witch inputs these images for both quantitative and qualitative sensing is demonstrated. The architecture of the system is presented with some references to the general theory of fuzzy sets and fuzzy calculus. Experimental results are presented in the case of a set of 8 well characterized dielectric layers. Finally the effect of network parameters to the functionality of the system is discussed, especially in the case of functions evaluating the fuzzy AND and OR operations.

  12. Analysis of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway cloning, molecular characterization and phylogeny of lanosterol 14 α-demethylase (ERG11) gene of Moniliophthora perniciosa.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Ceita, Geruza; Vilas-Boas, Laurival Antônio; Castilho, Marcelo Santos; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho; Selbach-Schnadelbach, Alessandra; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Ramos, Pablo Ivan Pereira; Barbosa, Luciana Veiga; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles

    2014-10-01

    The phytopathogenic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel) Aime & Philips-Mora, causal agent of witches' broom disease of cocoa, causes countless damage to cocoa production in Brazil. Molecular studies have attempted to identify genes that play important roles in fungal survival and virulence. In this study, sequences deposited in the M. perniciosa Genome Sequencing Project database were analyzed to identify potential biological targets. For the first time, the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in M. perniciosa was studied and the lanosterol 14α-demethylase gene (ERG11) that encodes the main enzyme of this pathway and is a target for fungicides was cloned, characterized molecularly and its phylogeny analyzed. ERG11 genomic DNA and cDNA were characterized and sequence analysis of the ERG11 protein identified highly conserved domains typical of this enzyme, such as SRS1, SRS4, EXXR and the heme-binding region (HBR). Comparison of the protein sequences and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the M. perniciosa enzyme was most closely related to that of Coprinopsis cinerea.

  13. [Management of chicken pox purpura fulminans: a pediatric case report].

    PubMed

    Domergue, S; Rodiere, M; Bigorre, M; Guye, E; Captier, G

    2006-06-01

    The authors report a case of a 4 years old girl who had presented a chicken-pox purpura fulminans. Lesions appeared 5 days after chicken-pox start and were quickly evoluted in cutaneous and sub-cutaneous necrosis on external side of thighs and behind side of right calf. A medical management was done with fresh plasma, blood, antithrombine 3, and fibrin. Specifics treatments were done: heparin and activated C protein. Surgical treatment was realised 5 weeks later. It consisted of clean necrosis areas and put a thin skin graft witch was took on the scalp. The evolution was fast good. The follow-up is 3 years without big esthetic and functional consequences. Some cases of this pathology were described in literature with serious lesions. The management should be multidisciplinary. Surgical treatment should be realised when lesions are stabilized. Scalp is a donor site for skin graft very interesting because of big quantity of skin and not esthetic consequence.

  14. Contested Waterlines: The Wave-Line Theory and Shipbuilding in the Nineteenth Century.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro, Larrie D; Pollara, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Ship hydrodynamics in the nineteenth century was dominated by John Scott Russell's wave-line theory. Russell, a prominent British shipbuilder and scientist, argued that wavemaking was the primary source of resistance for ships, and that by designing ships according to trigonometric curves and proportions (the wave line) this resistance could effectively be eliminated. From the 1840s to the 1880s, shipbuilders such as John Willis Griffiths, Donald McKay and George Steers designed their clipper ships (like Sea Witch and Flying Cloud) and yachts (America) with wave-line hulls, while authors like Jules Verne referenced Russell's theory. The wave line slowly faded after William Froude developed his laws of ship resistance. The article examines how Russell's theory became accepted by technical experts and the wider public to become the most widely known ship hydrodynamic theory of the 1800s-a reminder of how a persuasive idea can take hold of an entire profession, and even the public, for a long time.

  15. Genomic analyses and expression evaluation of thaumatin-like gene family in the cacao fungal pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa.

    PubMed

    Franco, Sulamita de Freitas; Baroni, Renata Moro; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Reis, Osvaldo; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Mondego, Jorge Maurício Costa

    2015-10-30

    Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) are found in diverse eukaryotes. Plant TLPs, known as Pathogenicity Related Protein (PR-5), are considered fungal inhibitors. However, genes encoding TLPs are frequently found in fungal genomes. In this work, we have identified that Moniliophthora perniciosa, a basidiomycete pathogen that causes the Witches' Broom Disease (WBD) of cacao, presents thirteen putative TLPs from which four are expressed during WBD progression. One of them is similar to small TLPs, which are present in phytopathogenic basidiomycete, such as wheat stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis. Fungi genomes annotation and phylogenetic data revealed a larger number of TLPs in basidiomycetes when comparing with ascomycetes, suggesting that these proteins could be involved in specific traits of mushroom-forming species. Based on the present data, we discuss the contribution of TLPs in the combat against fungal competitors and hypothesize a role of these proteins in M. perniciosa pathogenicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. γ-rays irradiation effects on dielectric properties of Ti/Au/GaAsN Schottky diodes with 1.2%N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teffahi, A.; Hamri, D.; Djeghlouf, A.; Abboun Abid, M.; Saidane, A.; Al Saqri, N.; Felix, J. F.; Henini, M.

    2018-06-01

    Dielectric properties of As grown and irradiated Ti /Au/GaAsN Schottky diodes with 1.2%N are investigated using capacitance/conductance-voltage measurements in 90-290 K temperature range and 50-2000 kHz frequency range. Extracted parameters are interface state density, series resistance, dielectric constant, dielectric loss, tangent loss and ac conductivity. It is shown that exposure to γ-rays irradiation leads to reduction in effective trap density believed to result from radiation-induced traps annulations. An increase in series resistance is attributed to a net doping reduction. Dielectric constant (ε') shows usual step-like transitions with corresponding relaxation peaks in dielectric loss. These peaks shift towards lower temperature as frequency decrease. Temperature dependant ac conductivity followed an Arrhenius relation with activation energy of 153 meV in the 200-290 K temperature range witch correspond to As vacancy. The results indicate that γ-rays irradiation improves the dielectric and electrical properties of the diode due to the defect annealing effect.

  17. Witches, Cauldrons, and "Wicca" in the Public School Curriculum: Is Government Establishing a Religion? The Courts Think Not.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMitchell, Todd A.

    1994-01-01

    Within a First Amendment context, this article reviews three recent cases regarding public school curricula and allegations concerning establishment of occult religious practices in elementary school classrooms. In each case, a curricular challenge withstood constitutional scrutiny. There was no conspiracy to bend children's minds to satanism or…

  18. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch and Poomacha Fire Perimeters, Rodriguez Mountain Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  19. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch and Poomacha Fire Perimeters, Mesa Grande Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  20. Expressions of ecological identity across the life span of eight environmental exemplars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seydel, Jennifer

    While there is a substantial body of literature looking at various aspects of ecological identity and factors that influence it, there has been less work done on how an individual's ecological identity changes with time. Much of that work is limited to short segments of the life span (e.g. the impact of wilderness experiences). This dissertation attempts to address this perceived gap by investigating how the ecological identity of eight environmental exemplars changed during the course of his or her life. What has emerged from this qualitative grounded theory investigation of the lives and works of Charles Darwin, John Muir, Aldo Leopold, Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Hazel Wolf, Rachel Carson, James Lovelock and E.O. Wilson are five sequential expressions of ecological identity. These 'stages' serve as a framework to explain ecological identity as a developmental process, both fluid and continuous, rather than at) end product. The development of an ecological identity is traced, through the development of five cognitive foundations and their alignment with five emotional foundations that reflect a progression from a sensory interaction and a kinship bond with nature into a deep understanding of the interconnectedness of all aspects of the planet. The findings reveal the evolution of an ecological identity and suggest the importance of looking beyond content knowledge in the nurturing of ecological attitudes, values, and lifestyles.

  1. Genetic examination of the putative skull of Jan Kochanowski reveals its female sex

    PubMed Central

    Kupiec, Tomasz; Branicki, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of genetic examination of the putative skull of Jan Kochanowski (1530-1584), a great Polish renaissance poet. The skull was retrieved in 1791 by historian Tadeusz Czacki from the Kochanowski family tomb and became the property of the Czartoryskis Museum in Krakow. An anthropological study in 1926 questioned its male origin, which raised doubts about its authenticity. Our report presents genetic evidence that resolves this dispute. From the sole tooth we obtained a sufficient amount of DNA to perform the analysis of nuclear markers. The analysis of the sex-informative part of intron 1 in amelogenin, genotyped using AmpFiSTR® NGM PCR Amplification Kit and Powerplex® ESI17 Kit human identification systems, revealed the female origin of the tooth. The female origin was further confirmed by the analysis of a portion of amelogenin intron 2, a microsatellite marker located on the X chromosome, as well as by a lack of signal from Y chromosomal microsatellite markers and the sex-determining region Y marker. Data obtained for two hypervariable regions, HVI and HVII, in mitochondrial DNA showed that mtDNA haplotype was relatively frequent among contemporary Europeans. The analysis of a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms relevant for prediction of the iris color indicated an 87% probability that the woman had hazel or brown eye color. PMID:21674838

  2. Neurophysiological model of tinnitus: dependence of the minimal masking level on treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Jastreboff, P J; Hazell, J W; Graham, R L

    1994-11-01

    Validity of the neurophysiological model of tinnitus (Jastreboff, 1990), outlined in this paper, was tested on data from multicenter trial of tinnitus masking (Hazell et al., 1985). Minimal masking level, intensity match of tinnitus, and the threshold of hearing have been evaluated on a total of 382 patients before and after 6 months of treatment with maskers, hearing aids, or combination devices. The data has been divided into categories depending on treatment outcome and type of approach used. Results of analysis revealed that: i) the psychoacoustical description of tinnitus does not possess a predictive value for the outcome of the treatment; ii) minimal masking level changed significantly depending on the treatment outcome, decreasing on average by 5.3 dB in patients reporting improvement, and increasing by 4.9 dB in those whose tinnitus remained the same or worsened; iii) 73.9% of patients reporting improvement had their minimal masking level decreased as compared with 50.5% for patients not showing improvement, which is at the level of random change; iv) the type of device used has no significant impact on the treatment outcome and minimal masking level change; v) intensity match and threshold of hearing did not exhibit any significant changes which can be related to treatment outcome. These results are fully consistent with the neurophysiological interpretation of mechanisms involved in the phenomenon of tinnitus and its alleviation.

  3. [Attention diversion in tinnitus therapy. Comparison of the effects of different treatment methods].

    PubMed

    Eysel-Gosepath, K; Gerhards, F; Schicketanz, K-H; Teichmann, K; Benthien, M

    2004-05-01

    Diversion or distraction of auditory attention is a core principle of tinnitus retraining therapy as introduced by P. Jastreboff and J. Hazell. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a different form of attention diversion in tinnitus therapy. In a prospective and randomized study, 40 patients suffering from chronic tinnitus were assigned to two different groups, A or B. All patients received appropriate counselling and were instructed in relaxation training. Patients in group A learned to distract attention away from the tinnitus by using sound or music. White noise generators or hearing aids were applied in this group. Patients in group B were instructed to direct their attention away from the tinnitus using imagination that was facilitated by the use of light and warmth stimuli as distracters. Different standardized questionnaires were used for an evaluation of therapy effectiveness. In both groups, patients were significantly less annoyed and disabled by their tinnitus immediately after therapy and after 6 months. Tinnitus annoyance still proved to be reduced 1 year after the end of the therapy. There were no significant differences in the effects of each treatment. Attention diversion is an important method for decreasing tinnitus-related distress. Patients should be instructed to use not only auditory but also visual and thermal sensations in order to distract attention away from their tinnitus.

  4. Iris melanocyte numbers in Asian, African American, and Caucasian irides.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Daniel M; Green, W Richard; Zimbric, Michele L; Lo, Cecilia; Gangnon, Ronald E; Hope, Kirsten L; Gleiser, Joel

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: The anatomical basis for iris color has long been a controversial issue in ophthalmology. Recent studies demonstrated that in Caucasians, blue-eyed, gray-eyed, and hazel-eyed individuals have comparable numbers of iris melanocytes. The present investigation was carried out to compare melanocyte numbers in the irides of Asian, African American, and Caucasian brown-eyed individuals. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded sections from 71 brown-colored irides were incubated with rabbit anti-cow antibody against S100a, linked with an FITC conjugate antibody, and counterstained with Evans blue. Cells were counted under a fluorescence microscope and scored as melanocytes or other cells. Cell number, density, and iris area were calculated for each specimen. RESULTS: Caucasian and African American irides had comparable mean total melanocyte numbers. Asian irides had fewer total melanocytes than African American (P = .042) and Caucasian (P = .001) irides and smaller total number of cells (ie, melanocytes plus other cells) than African American (P = .054) or Caucasian (P = .009) irides. CONCLUSIONS: There is a statistically significant smaller mean total melanocyte number and mean total cellularity in Asian irides as compared to Caucasian and African American irides. This difference appears to be due to the combination of smaller iris area and lower melanocyte density in the Asian irides. The possibility exists that this may be a factor in ethnic variations in certain ocular diseases. PMID:14971580

  5. Genetic examination of the putative skull of Jan Kochanowski reveals its female sex.

    PubMed

    Kupiec, Tomasz; Branicki, Wojciech

    2011-06-01

    We report the results of genetic examination of the putative skull of Jan Kochanowski (1530-1584), a great Polish renaissance poet. The skull was retrieved in 1791 by historian Tadeusz Czacki from the Kochanowski family tomb and became the property of the Czartoryskis Museum in Krakow. An anthropological study in 1926 questioned its male origin, which raised doubts about its authenticity. Our report presents genetic evidence that resolves this dispute. From the sole tooth we obtained a sufficient amount of DNA to perform the analysis of nuclear markers. The analysis of the sex-informative part of intron 1 in amelogenin, genotyped using AmpFiSTR® NGM PCR Amplification Kit and Powerplex® ESI17 Kit human identification systems, revealed the female origin of the tooth. The female origin was further confirmed by the analysis of a portion of amelogenin intron 2, a microsatellite marker located on the X chromosome, as well as by a lack of signal from Y chromosomal microsatellite markers and the sex-determining region Y marker. Data obtained for two hypervariable regions, HVI and HVII, in mitochondrial DNA showed that mtDNA haplotype was relatively frequent among contemporary Europeans. The analysis of a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms relevant for prediction of the iris color indicated an 87% probability that the woman had hazel or brown eye color.

  6. The comparison of solid phase microextraction-GC and static headspace-GC for determination of solvent residues in vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Ligor, Magdalena; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2008-02-01

    The objective of these investigations has been the determination of volatile organic compounds including residue solvents present in vegetable oil samples. Some olive oil, rape oil, sunflower oil, soy-bean oil, pumpkin oil, grape oil, rice oil as well as hazel-nut oil samples were analysed. Among residue solvents the following compounds have been mentioned: acetone, n-hexane, benzene, and toluene. Some experiments for the solid phase microextraction (SPME)-GC-flame ionisation detection (FID) were performed to examine extraction conditions such as fiber exposure time, temperature of extraction, and temperature of desorption. Various SPME fibers such as polydimethylsiloxane, Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane and polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene coatings were used for the isolation of tested compounds from vegetable oil samples. After optimisation of SPME, real vegetable oil samples were examined using SPME-GC/MS. Based on preliminary experiments the qualitative and quantitative analyses for the determination of acetone, n-hexane, benzene and toluene were performed by SPME-GC-FID and static head-space (SHS)-GC-FID methods. The regression coefficients for calibration curves for the examined compounds were R(2) > or = 0.992. This shows that the used method is linear in the examined concentration range (0.005-0.119 mg/kg for SPME-GC-FID and 0.003-0.728 mg/kg for SHS-GC-FID). Chemical properties of analysed vegetable oils have been characterised by chemometric procedure (cluster analysis).

  7. Leaps in the Dark - The making of scientific reputations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, John

    2004-12-01

    In Leaps in the Dark , John Waller presents another collection of revelations from the world of science. He considers experiments in which the scientists' awareness was not perhaps as keen as they might have claimed in retrospect; he investigates the jealousy and opposition that scientific ideas can provoke; he celebrates the scientists who were wrong, but for very good reasons; and he demonstrates how national interest can affect scientists and their theories. The result is an entertaining and highly readable re-examination of scientific discoveries and reputations from the Renaissance to the twentieth century. The tales in Leaps in the Dark range across a wide historical field, from a seventeenth-century witch-finder, Joseph Glanvill, to Sir Robert Watson-Watt, the self-proclaimed 'Father of radar'. Each story underscores the rich, fascinating complexity of scientific discovery. Writing in a clear and engaging style, and skilfully weaving history in with the science, John Waller brings these scientists to life, illustrating how their work and their discoveries influenced their careers and the wider world around them.

  8. [Chronical care of schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Lustygier, V

    2010-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental disease leading to many deficits that needs a broad range of therapeutic interventions. The recent data raises the importance of the cognitive revalidation even though other interventions are also necessary in the treatment. The asylums of the former century have experienced a slow and continuous process of patient's deinstitutionalization. The global knowledge of the disorder having progressed, new multidisciplinary and multidimensional models of managing are now proposed. The psychiatric rehabilitation is one of those models having as goal the global taking charge of the disease, from the managing of the symptoms to the return to a life with good quality. The great specificity of this rehabilitation work is that it's multidisciplinary and involves a strong collaboration between the medical and the psychosocial intervening party's around a common therapeutic project. This model brings up the notion of recovery witch is, not the cure but, the experience that a patient acquires as he accepts the situation and as he recovers the feeling of being able to get going again.

  9. Identification of a novel subgroup 16SrII-U phytoplasma associated with papaya little leaf disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Jiang, Lei; Che, Haiyan; Cao, Xueren; Luo, Daquan

    2016-09-01

    Papaya is an important fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions. Papaya little leaf (PLL) disease was observed in China. The phytoplasma 16S rRNA gene was detected from symptomatic papaya trees via PCR using phytoplasma universal primers P1/P7 followed by R16F2n/R16R2. No amplification products were obtained from templates of asymptomatic papaya trees. These results indicated a direct association between phytoplasma infection and PLL disease. Comparative and phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the papaya-infecting phytoplasmas under study belonged to the peanut witches' broom phytoplasma group (16SrII). Genotyping through use of computer-simulated RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA genes and coefficients of RFLP pattern similarities (0.97) reveal that the PLL phytoplasma was placed in a new subgroup. In this article, we describe the molecular characterization of a new phytoplasma associated with PLL disease and propose that the PLL phytoplasma be considered as a novel subgroup, 16SrII-U.

  10. Genes acquired by horizontal transfer are potentially involved in the evolution of phytopathogenicity in Moniliophthora perniciosa and Moniliophthora roreri, two of the major pathogens of cacao.

    PubMed

    Tiburcio, Ricardo Augusto; Costa, Gustavo Gilson Lacerda; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Mondego, Jorge Maurício Costa; Schuster, Stephen C; Carlson, John E; Guiltinan, Mark J; Bailey, Bryan A; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2010-01-01

    Moniliophthora perniciosa and Moniliophthora roreri are phytopathogenic basidiomycete species that infect cacao causing two important diseases in this crop: "Witches' Broom" and "Frosty Pod Rot", respectively. The ability of species from this genus (Moniliophthora) to cause disease is exceptional in the family Marasmiaceae. Species in closely related genera including, Marasmius, Crinipellis, and Chaetocalathus, are mainly saprotrophs and are not known to cause disease. In this study, the possibility that this phytopathogenic lifestyle has been acquired by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) was investigated. A stringent genome comparison pipeline was used to identify potential genes that have been obtained by Moniliophthora through HGT. This search led to the identification of three genes: a metallo-dependent hydrolase (MDH), a mannitol phosphate dehydrogenase (MPDH), and a family of necrosis-inducing proteins (NEPs). Phylogenetic analysis of these genes suggests that Moniliophthora acquired NEPs from oomycetes, MDH from actinobacteria and MPDH from firmicutes. Based on the known gene functions and on previous studies of M. perniciosa infection and development, a correlation between gene acquisition and the evolution of the phytopathogenic genus Moniliophthora can be postulated.

  11. Nuclear and mitochondrial rDNA variability in Crinipellis perniciosa from different geographic origins and hosts.

    PubMed

    de Arruda, Maricília C C; Ferreira, Marisa A S V; Miller, Robert N G; Resende, Mário Lúcio V; Felipe, Maria Sueli S

    2003-01-01

    Genetic variability in Crinipellis perniciosa, the causal organism of witches' broom disease in Theobroma cacao, was determined in strains originating from T. cacao and other susceptible host species Heteropterys acutifolia and Solanum lycocarpum in Brazil, in order to clarify host specificity and geographical variability. RFLP analysis of the ribosomal DNA ITS regions (rDNA ITS), and the mitochondrial DNA small subunit ribosomal DNA gene (mtDNA SSU rDNA) did not reveal any genetic variability in 120 tested strains, possibly serving only as species level markers. Genetic variability was observed in the ribosomal DNA IGS spacer region, in terms of IGS size, RFLPs and sequence data. Phylogenetic analyses (using CLUSTAL W, PHYLIP and TREEVIEW) indicated considerable differences between C. perniciosa strains from T. cacao and those from H. acutifolia (85-86%) and S. lycocarpum (95-96%). Sequence differences also indicated that C. perniciosa from T. cacao in Bahia is less variable (98%) when compared to the pathogen on T. cacao in Amazonas (97-98%), perhaps reflecting a recent introduction to T. cacao in Bahia.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA and RNA polymerases from a Moniliophthora perniciosa mitochondrial plasmid reveals probable lateral gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Andrade, B S; Góes-Neto, A

    2015-10-30

    The filamentous fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is a hemibiotrophic basidiomycete that causes witches' broom disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). Many fungal mitochondrial plasmids are DNA and RNA polymerase-encoding invertrons with terminal inverted repeats and 5'-linked proteins. The aim of this study was to carry out comparative and phylogenetic analyses of DNA and RNA polymerases for all known linear mitochondrial plasmids in fungi. We performed these analyses at both gene and protein levels and assessed differences between fungal and viral polymerases in order to test the lateral gene transfer (LGT) hypothesis. We analyzed all mitochondrial plasmids of the invertron type within the fungal clade, including five from Ascomycota, seven from Basidiomycota, and one from Chytridiomycota. All phylogenetic analyses generated similar tree topologies regardless of the methods and datasets used. It is likely that DNA and RNA polymerase genes were inserted into the mitochondrial genomes of the 13 fungal species examined in our study as a result of different LGT events. These findings are important for a better understanding of the evolutionary relationships between fungal mitochondrial plasmids.

  13. Development of a marker assisted selection program for cacao.

    PubMed

    Schnell, R J; Kuhn, D N; Brown, J S; Olano, C T; Phillips-Mora, W; Amores, F M; Motamayor, J C

    2007-12-01

    ABSTRACT Production of cacao in tropical America has been severely affected by fungal pathogens causing diseases known as witches' broom (WB, caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa), frosty pod (FP, caused by M. roreri) and black pod (BP, caused by Phytophthora spp.). BP is pan-tropical and causes losses in all producing areas. WB is found in South America and parts of the Caribbean, while FP is found in Central America and parts of South America. Together, these diseases were responsible for over 700 million US dollars in losses in 2001 (4). Commercial cacao production in West Africa and South Asia are not yet affected by WB and FP, but cacao grown in these regions is susceptible to both. With the goal of providing new disease resistant cultivars the USDA-ARS and Mars, Inc. have developed a marker assisted selection (MAS) program. Quantitative trait loci have been identified for resistance to WB, FP, and BP. The potential usefulness of these markers in identifying resistant individuals has been confirmed in an experimental F(1) family in Ecuador.

  14. Horizontal transfer of potential mobile units in phytoplasmas.

    PubMed

    Ku, Chuan; Lo, Wen-Sui; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2013-09-01

    Phytoplasmas are uncultivated phytopathogenic bacteria that cause diseases in a wide range of economically important plants. Through secretion of effector proteins, they are able to manipulate their plant hosts to facilitate their multiplication and dispersal by insect vectors. The genome sequences of several phytoplasmas have been characterized to date and a group of putative composite transposons called potential mobile units (PMUs) are found in these highly reduced genomes. Recently, our team reported the genome sequence and comparative analysis of a peanut witches' broom (PnWB) phytoplasma, the first representative of the phytoplasma 16SrII group. Comparisons between the species phylogeny and the phylogenies of the PMU genes revealed that the PnWB PMU is likely to have been transferred from the 16SrI group. This indicates that PMUs are not only the DNA unit for transposition within a genome, but also for horizontal transfer among divergent phytoplasma lineages. Given the association of PMUs with effector genes, the mobility of PMUs across genomes has important implications for phytoplasma ecology and evolution.

  15. Mobile units of DNA in phytoplasma genomes.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Matt

    2010-09-01

    Phytoplasmas are obligate symbionts of plants and insects that are responsible for significant yield losses in diverse crops. Genome sequencing has revealed that many phytoplasma genomes appear to contain repeated genes organized in units of approximately 20 kb. These 'potential mobile units' (PMUs) resemble composite replicative transposons. PMUs contain several genes for recombination and some also contain putative 'virulence genes'. Genome alignments suggest that PMUs are involved in phytoplasma genome instability and recombination. In this edition of Molecular Microbiology, Hogenhout and colleagues report that one PMU from the aster yellows phytoplasma strain Witches' Broom (AY-WB) can exist as both a linear PMU within the chromosome and as an extrachromosomal circular form. The copy number of the circular form is much higher in the insect vector compared with the plant, and expression levels of genes present on the PMU are also higher in the insect. These observations suggest not only that this PMU could be a mobile element, but that it could also be involved in a phase-variation mechanism that allows the phytoplasma to adapt to its different hosts.

  16. Genetic diversity of polysporic isolates of Moniliophthora perniciosa (Tricholomataceae).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, L F R; Duarte, K M R; Gomes, L H; Carvalho, R S; Leal Junior, G A; Aguiar, M M; Armas, R D; Tavares, F C A

    2012-08-16

    The causal agent of witches' broom disease, Moniliophthora perniciosa is a hemibiotrophic and endemic fungus of the Amazon basin and the most important cocoa disease in Brazil. The purpose of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of polysporic isolates of M. perniciosa to evaluate the adaptation of the pathogen from different Brazilian regions and its association with different hosts. Polysporic isolates obtained previously in potato dextrose agar cultures of M. perniciosa from different Brazilian states and different hosts (Theobroma cacao, Solanum cernuum, S. paniculatum, S. lycocarpum, Solanum sp, and others) were analyzed by somatic compatibility grouping where the mycelium interactions were distinguished after 4-8 weeks of confrontation between the different isolates of M. perniciosa based on the precipitation line in the transition zone and by protein electrophoresis through SDS-PAGE. The diversity of polysporic isolates of M. perniciosa was grouped according to geographic proximity and respective hosts. The great genetic diversity of M. perniciosa strains from different Brazilian states and hosts favored adaptation in unusual environments and dissemination at long distances generating new biotypes.

  17. [Update on attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder treatment].

    PubMed

    Loro-López, M; Quintero, J; García-Campos, N; Jiménez-Gómez, B; Pando, F; Varela-Casal, P; Campos, J A; Correas-Lauffer, J

    Attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common and investigated childhood neuropsychiatric disorder witch has an important repercussion in patient's every day life. AIM. To make an update on psychopharmacological and psychological treatment for ADHD and to asses his efficacy as a single drug treatment as well as a combined treatment. As a chronic disorder ADHD needs a carefully designed and complete treatment plan. That takes into account psychoeducation and the most recent medical evidences as well as preferences and worries of their families and patients. Psychostimulants are the most studied drugs and the gold-standard in the ADHD treatment with responses as high as 65 to 85%. Atomoxetine is another alternative for treating this patients with Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency approval seal. The treatment plan for these patients must be chosen, not only by their treating doctor but should include patients and patient's family preferences and should be suited to each patient. Comorbidities are an important issue in the ADHD treatment planning, mainly in non responders' patients.

  18. Feminist Aliens, Black Vampires, and Gay Witches: Creating a Critical Polis Using SF Television in the College Composition Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyestone, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    The ability to "critically" consume entertainment media is a necessary skill for an educated and functional society--a polis; however, contemporary college students are experienced consumers of pop culture but not necessarily critical ones. Since categories of identity (race, class, gender, sexual orientation, dis/ability, culture) are…

  19. Concealing a shiny facial skin appearance by an Aerogel-based formula. In vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Cassin, G; Diridollou, S; Flament, F; Adam, A S; Pierre, P; Colomb, L; Morancais, J L; Qiu, H

    2018-02-01

    To explore, in vitro and in vivo, the potential interest of an Aerogel-based formula, in concealing a naturally shiny facial skin. In vitro, various formulae and ingredients were applied as a thin film onto contrast plates and studied through measuring the shine induced following pump spraying of a mixture of oleic acid and mineral water as a sebum/sweat mix model. In such a test, an Aerogel ingredient led to very positive results. In vivo, two different formulae with various concentrations of Aerogel were randomly tested on half side of the face vs. bare side of Chinese women, under some provocative environmental conditions, known to enhance facial shine. These conditions comprised a normal activity under a hot and highly humid summer time followed - or not - by a hamam session. Both studies included comparative evaluations using a half-face procedure (treated/untreated or vehicle). In the first case, evaluations were quantitatively carried out, whereas the second one was based on a quantitative self-evaluations from standardized full-face photographs RESULTS: In vitro, the tested Aerogel, incorporated at 1% or 2% concentration in a common O/W cosmetic emulsion, shows an immediate light scattering effect, thereby masking shine. Such effect appears of much higher amplitude than that of two other tested particulate ingredients (Talc and Perlite). A noticeable remanence of anti-shine effect was confirmed in vivo in extreme conditions. The latter was self-perceived by all participants in the second study. This result is likely related to the super hydrophobic behaviour of the Aerogel. As cosmetic ingredient, this new Aerogel appears as a highly promising ingredient for concealing the facial skin shine, a source of complaint from many consumers living in hot and humid regions. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  20. Improvement of a popcorn population using selection indexes from a fourth cycle of recurrent selection program carried out in two different environments.

    PubMed

    Amaral Júnior, A T; Freitas Júnior, S P; Rangel, R M; Pena, G F; Ribeiro, R M; Morais, R C; Schuelter, A R

    2010-03-02

    We estimated genetic gains for popcorn varieties using selection indexes in a fourth cycle of intrapopulation recurrent selection developed in the campus of the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense. Two hundred full-sib families were obtained from the popcorn population UNB-2U of the third recurrent selection cycle. The progenies were evaluated in a randomized block design with two replications at sites in two different environments: the Colégio Estadual Agrícola Antônio Sarlo, in Campos dos Goytacazes, and the Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (PESAGRO-RIO), in Itaocara, both in the State of Rio de Janeiro. There were significant differences between families within sets in all traits, indicating genetic variability that could be exploited in future cycles. Thirty full-sib families were selected to continue the program. The selection indexes used to predict the gains were those of Mulamba and Mock, Smith and Hazel. The best results were obtained with the Mulamba and Mock index, which allowed the prediction of negative gains for the traits number of diseased ears and ears attacked by pests, number of broken plants and lodging, as well as ears with poor husk cover. It also provided higher gains for popping expansion and grain yield than with the other indexes, giving values of 10.55 and 8.50%, respectively, based on tentatively assigned random weights.

  1. Immunoelectron microscopic characterization of nucleolus-associated domains during hibernation.

    PubMed

    Malatesta, Manuela; Zancanaro, Carlo; Biggiogera, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The nucleolus represents a highly dynamic nuclear compartment involved in multiple functions and able to promptly respond to variations of metabolic needs. In the hibernator dormouse, which drastically modifies its metabolic activity during the seasonal cycle, the nucleolus undergoes structural and molecular changes during the torpor bouts; in particular, it shows many nucleoplasmic invaginations containing weakly contrasted areas of unknown nature. To analyze the molecular composition of these nucleolus-associated domains (NADs) and to understand their functional significance, the fine nucleolar composition has been investigated by means of ultrastructural immunocytochemistry in different tissues of euthermic, hibernating, and arousing hazel dormice (Muscardinus avellanarius): in particular, the intranucleolar location of several protein factors involved in the transcription and processing of either pre-rRNA or pre-mRNA has been considered. NADs proved to form during hibernation and disappear upon arousal and were found to contain m₃-G-capped snRNAs, snRNPs, hnRNPs, and the survival motor neuron protein; they were, on the contrary, devoid of the nucleolar factors tested (polymerase I, fibrillarin, nucleolin, and the ribosomal phosphoproteins P₀, P₁, and P₂). We hypothesize that NADs may represent a transient storage site for those molecules involved in the pre-mRNA splicing, which usually transit through the nucleolus; upon arousal, this would facilitate the resumption of RNA maturation by promoting the rapid reactivation of the molecular trafficking from the nucleolus. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Designing Forest Adaptation Experiments through Manager-Scientist Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, L. M.; Swanston, C.; Janowiak, M.

    2014-12-01

    Three common forest adaptation options discussed in the context of an uncertain future climate are: creating resistance, promoting resilience, and enabling forests to respond to change. Though there is consensus on the broad management goals addressed by each of these options, translating these concepts into management plans specific for individual forest types that vary in structure, composition, and function remains a challenge. We will describe a decision-making framework that we employed within a manager-scientist partnership to develop a suite of adaptation treatments for two contrasting forest types as part of a long-term forest management experiment. The first, in northern Minnesota, is a red pine-dominated forest with components of white pine, aspen, paper birch, and northern red oak, with a hazel understory. The second, in southwest Colorado, is a warm-dry mixed conifer forest dominated by ponderosa pine, white fir, and Douglas-fir, with scattered aspen and an understory of Gambel oak. The current conditions at both sites are characterized by overstocking with moderate-to-high fuel loading, vulnerability to numerous forest health threats, and are generally uncharacteristic of historic structure and composition. The desired future condition articulated by managers for each site included elements of historic structure and natural range of variability, but were greatly tempered by known vulnerabilities and projected changes to climate and disturbance patterns. The resultant range of treatments we developed are distinct for each forest type, and address a wide range of management objectives.

  3. [A case of anaphylaxis due to rose-flavored soft-serve ice cream with pollen food allergy syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kitabayashi, Taeru; Sato, Sayuri; Adachi, Mitsuru

    2013-05-01

    We experienced a 10-year-old boy who had anaphylaxis after eating rose-flavored soft-serve ice cream. The patient felt a sense of discomfort in his throat when eating apple, peach, loquat, Japanese pear, and kiwi fruit. Therefore, we measured specific IgE antibodies to allergen components by ImmunoCAP ISAC. Consequently, the patient gave positive results for all PR-10 proteins from birch, alder, hazel, apple, peach, peanut, hazelnut, and soybean, so we diagnosed him with Pollen Food Allergy Syndrome (PFAS) induced by cross reactivity with pollens of birch family and fruits of rose family. When we conducted the skin prick test as is for red rose syrup because of the belief that anaphylaxis was caused by the rose ingredient contained in rose-flavored soft-serve ice cream, the patient gave a strong positive result. However, the results were negative for rose essence and Food Red No. 2 contained. Subsequently, it was found that red rose syrup contained apple juice. Therefore, we conducted the prick-prick test for apple, and the patient was confirmed to be strongly positive to apple. We thus identified apple as the cause of anaphylaxis. Since there is no legal obligation of labeling specific raw materials when directly selling manufactured and processed food products to general consumers, it is possible for general consumers to mistakenly take them in without knowing the containment of allergic substances. It is believed that the labeling method should be improved in the future.

  4. A village possessed by "witches": a mixed-methods case-control study of possession and common mental disorders in rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Ram P; Gurung, Dristy; Neupane, Deepa; Shah, Santosh K; Kienzler, Hanna; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2014-12-01

    In Nepal, spirit possession is a common phenomenon occurring both in individuals and in groups. To identify the cultural contexts and psychosocial correlates of spirit possession, we conducted a mixed-method study in a village in central Nepal experiencing a cluster of spirit possession events. The study was carried out in three stages: (1) a pilot study consisting of informal interviews with possessed individuals, observations of the possession spells, and video recording of possession events; (2) a case-control study comparing the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders in women who had and had not experienced possession; and (3) a follow-up study with focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with possessed and non-possessed men and women, and key informants. Quantitative results indicated that possessed women reported higher rates of traumatic events and higher levels of symptoms of mental disorder compared to non-possessed women (Anxiety 68 vs. 18 %, Depression 41 vs. 19 %, and PTSD 27 vs. 0 %). However, qualitative interviews with possessed individuals, family members, and traditional healers indicated that they did not associate possession states with mental illness. Spirit possession was viewed as an affliction that provided a unique mode of communication between humans and spirits. As such, it functioned as an idiom of distress that allowed individuals to express suffering related to mental illness, socio-political violence, traumatic events, and the oppression of women. The study results clearly indicate that spirit possession is a multi-dimensional phenomenon that cannot be mapped onto any single psychiatric or psychological diagnostic category or construct. Clinical and public health efforts to address spirit possession must take the socio-cultural context and systemic dynamics into account to avoid creating iatrogenic illness, undermining coping strategies, and exacerbating underlying social problems.

  5. Lifelong Learners in the Literature: Adventurers, Artists, Dreamers, Old Wise Men, Technologists, Unemployed, Little Witches, and Yuppies; A Bibliographical Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giere, Ursula

    1994-01-01

    Discusses several models for lifelong learning, including permanent education, lifelong education, recurrent education, learning society, and deschooling society. Describes practices of lifelong education throughout the world. Includes a selected bibliography providing a chronological overview of works representing the lifelong education discourse…

  6. 'They're not witches. …' Young children and their parents' perceptions and experiences of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Bone, C; O'Reilly, M; Karim, K; Vostanis, P

    2015-05-01

    Recent initiatives have emphasized the ongoing need to include children in healthcare research, which is relevant to the development of both paediatric and mental healthcare services. Our aim was to contribute children and their parents' perceptions and experiences of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS), with the objective of providing guidance for those wishing to improve inclusivity and empowerment. We performed a thematic analysis of interview data taken from 11 children (9 boys, 2 girls, aged 8-12) and their parents (12 mothers, 2 fathers), who had recently been referred to CAMHS for mental health and educational problems. Three core themes emerged from the data. Fear of the unknown refers to emotional apprehension due to uncertainty of what happens in CAMHS. However children also provided useful reassurances for future service users. Therapeutic engagement refers to the importance of being listened to and building up good relationships with professionals. Finally making services acceptable was discussed in terms of issues of accessibility, session tolerances and suggestions for the development of child-centred services. Children were able to provide potentially useful opinions of CAMHS. In a time of limited resources it is imperative that the voices of children and their parents are acknowledged in order to improve accessibility and experiences within CAMHS. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Use of flux and morphologic sediment budgets for sandbar monitoring on the Colorado River in Marble Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grams, Paul E.; Buscombe, Daniel D.; Topping, David J.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Kaplinski, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude and pfattern of streamflow and sediment supply of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon (Figure 1) has been affected by the existence and operations of Glen Canyon Dam since filling of Lake Powell Reservoir began in March 1963. In the subsequent 30 years, fine sediment was scoured from the downstream channel (Topping et al., 2000; Grams et al., 2007), resulting in a decline in the number and size of sandbars in the eastern half of Grand Canyon National Park (Wright et al., 2005; Schmidt et al., 2004). The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) administered by the U.S. Department of Interior oversees efforts to manage the Colorado River ecosystem downstream from Glen Canyon Dam. One of the goals of the GCDAMP is to maintain and increase the number and size of sandbars in this context of a limited sand supply. Management actions to benefit sandbars have included curtailment of daily streamflow fluctuations, which occur for hydropower generation, and implementation of controlled floods, also called high-flow experiments.Studies of controlled floods, defined as intentional releases that exceed the maximum discharge capacity of the Glen Canyon Dam powerplant, implemented between 1996 and 2008, have demonstrated that these events cause increases in sandbar size throughout Marble and Grand Canyons (Hazel et al., 2010; Schmidt and Grams, 2011; Mueller et al., 2014), although the magnitude of response is spatially variable (Hazel et al., 1999; 2010). Controlled floods may build some sandbars at the expense of erosion of sand from other, upstream, sandbars (Schmidt, 1999). To increase the frequency and effectiveness of sandbar building, the U.S. Department of Interior adopted a “high-flow experimental protocol” to implement controlled floods regularly under conditions of enriched sand supply (U.S. Department of Interior, 2012). Because the supply of sand available to build sandbars has been substantially reduced by Glen Canyon Dam (Topping et al

  8. Hydroacoustic signatures of Colorado Riverbed sediments in Marble and Grand Canyons using multibeam sonar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buscombe, Daniel D.; Grams, Paul E.; Kaplinski, Matthew; Tusso, Robert B.; Rubin, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Grand Canyon National Park have been studied for several decades (e.g. Howard and Dolan, 1981; Rubin et al., 2002). Particular focus has been given to sandbars in large eddies downstream of tributary debris fans (Schmidt, 1990) because they are considered valuable resources by stakeholders and managers. Due to the severe limitations in sand supply imposed by Glen Canyon Dam (Howard and Dolan, 1981; Topping et al., 2000; Hazel et al., 2006), understanding the effectiveness of sandbar management practices, such as controlled floods (Rubin et al. 2002; Topping et al., 2006; Hazel et al., 2010), and the long-term fate of sand in Grand Canyon over decadal timescales, requires construction of accurate sand budgets, which involves detailed monitoring of influx, efflux and changes in sand storage (Topping et al., 2000; Topping et al., 2010; Grams et al., 2013) and assessments of uncertainties in sand-budget calculations (Grams et al., 2013). In order to estimate the sand budget, it is necessary to estimate what component of observed morphological changes is sand and what component is coarser. Grams et al. (2013) classified sand and coarse substrates using topographic roughness derived from digital elevation models, but the classification skill was estimated to be only 60-70%. In addition, sand bedforms had to be delineated manually, and validation was based on grain-size observations with positional uncertainties up to tens of meters. Because the morphology of the Colorado riverbed in Grand Canyon is mapped - to a large extent - using MBES (Kaplinski et al., 2009), the primary motivation for the present study is to examine how uncertainties in sand budgets can be constrained by producing maps of surface sediment types using the completely automated methods of Buscombe et al (2014b, 2014c) based on statistical analysis of MBES acoustic backscatter.

  9. A new test statistic for climate models that includes field and spatial dependencies using Gaussian Markov random fields

    DOE PAGES

    Nosedal-Sanchez, Alvaro; Jackson, Charles S.; Huerta, Gabriel

    2016-07-20

    A new test statistic for climate model evaluation has been developed that potentially mitigates some of the limitations that exist for observing and representing field and space dependencies of climate phenomena. Traditionally such dependencies have been ignored when climate models have been evaluated against observational data, which makes it difficult to assess whether any given model is simulating observed climate for the right reasons. The new statistic uses Gaussian Markov random fields for estimating field and space dependencies within a first-order grid point neighborhood structure. We illustrate the ability of Gaussian Markov random fields to represent empirical estimates of fieldmore » and space covariances using "witch hat" graphs. We further use the new statistic to evaluate the tropical response of a climate model (CAM3.1) to changes in two parameters important to its representation of cloud and precipitation physics. Overall, the inclusion of dependency information did not alter significantly the recognition of those regions of parameter space that best approximated observations. However, there were some qualitative differences in the shape of the response surface that suggest how such a measure could affect estimates of model uncertainty.« less

  10. [Prognosis value of the pp65 antigenemia and semi-quantitative PCR in the detection of the CMV reactivation in bone marrow grafted patients].

    PubMed

    Ksouri, H; Lakhal, A; Ben Amor, R; Torjman, L; Achour, W; Ben Othmen, T; Ladeb, S; Abdelkefi, A; Slim, A; Abdeladhim, A; Ben Hassen, A

    2006-07-01

    In this article a Cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia and semiquantitative PCR retrospective evaluation of 26 bone marrow allo-grafted patients for different haematological disease is reported. Eighteen patients had a CMV reactivation despite a prophylactic treatment, seven of those patients had both positive antigenemia pp65 and positive semi-quantitative CMV PCR. During CMV reactivation, 3 patients developed a CMV disease despite a pre-emptive therapy. The follow up of the antigenemia was performed since D21 until D100 post transplantation, the antigenemia positivity occurred at D53 and was preceded about 7 days by CMV PCR positivity The CMV disease wasn't associated with a high viral load. All patients that had CMV reactivation had a positive CMV serology before the graft, whereas only 37.5% of the patients who did not reactivate had a positive CMV serology. Respectively half patients who reactivated and only 12.5% of those who didn't had a Graft versus host disease (GVHD), witch preceded the reactivation about 21 days in six of the formers. Clinical and biological signs presented by our patients in this cases report, seems to be associated more with the GVHD than with CMV reactivation.

  11. Nonradioactive Screening Method for Isolation of Disease-Specific Probes To Diagnose Plant Diseases Caused by Mycoplasmalike Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ing-Ming; Davis, Robert E.; DeWitt, Natalie D.

    1990-01-01

    DNA fragments of tomato big bud (BB) mycoplasmalike organism (MLO) in diseased periwinkle plants (Catharanthus roseus L.) were cloned to pSP6 plasmid vectors and amplified in Escherichia coli JM83. A nonradioactive method was developed and used to screen for MLO-specific recombinants. Cloned DNA probes were prepared by nick translation of the MLO recombinant plasmids by using biotinylated nucleotides. The probes all hybridized with nucleic acid from BB MLO-infected, but not healthy, plants. Results from dot hybridization analyses indicated that several MLOs, e.g., those of Italian tomato big bud, periwinkle little leaf, and clover phyllody, are closely related to BB MLO. The Maryland strain of aster yellows and maize bushy stunt MLOs are also related to BB MLO. Among the remaining MLOs used in this study, Vinca virescence and elm yellows MLOs may be very distantly related, if at all, to BB MLO. Potato witches' broom, clover proliferation, ash yellows, western X, and Canada X MLOs are distantly related to BB MLO. Southern hybridization analyses revealed that BB MLO contains extrachromosomal DNA that shares sequence homologies with extrachromosomal DNAs from aster yellows and periwinkle little leaf MLOs. Images PMID:16348195

  12. [Possessed! Some historical, psychiatric and curent moments of demonic possession].

    PubMed

    Høyersten, J G

    1996-12-10

    Being possessed by demons or evil spirits is one of the oldest ways of explaining bodily and mental disorders. The article briefly mentions some contributions from other disciplines, but considers in particular psychiatry's and medicine's approach throughout history. During the middle ages of Europe possession (and witchcraft) was considered just one out of several causes of mental illness. Astrological theories prevailed, in addition to the humoral theories of medicine. In addition distinctions were made between eccentricity, madness and religious visions and revelations. A large number of the alleged witches and possessed persons who were burned probably had visible mental disturbances. Today's psychiatry does not refer symptoms of possession to any specific category, but usually classifies this as some kind of psychotic disturbance of thought. Exorcism of evil spirits by Jesus Christ is described often in the Gospels. Possession was the only "available" concept for a bundle of neuro-psychiatric disorders: dissociative states, psychoses and epilepsy. To day, the terminology and "diagnostic" principles have been taken over by fundamentalistic groups, who practise exorcism on persons with (probably) minor mental problems and symptoms. The author criticises this activity.

  13. Superstitions of George Bartisch.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Donald L

    2005-01-01

    George Bartisch was a 16th century German ophthalmologist who published the first ophthalmology textbook in the vernacular for laymen and non-university-trained practitioners. His treatments and understanding of diseases rested firmly on Greek tradition, but he also was very involved in the superstitions of the day. This essay looks at the man and his mores. Bartisch believed that much of the suffering of patients had to do with sins they had committed, and that the devil was the active force in the world inflicting this punishment. Often, he believed, witches would carry out the devil's hexes, in the form of either hot or cold witchcraft. Bartisch also felt that astrology played a major role in the outcome of surgery. Because of that he practiced only during certain astrological signs, and in the proper waxing and waning phases of the moon. He also linked many common problems to sins. For example, presbyopia was presented as due to excessive use of alcohol. Glasses were to be avoided because he felt they destroyed vision in themselves. Despite these superstitions and misconceptions, Bartisch was an honorable professional and his books give insight into the making of a good ophthalmologist.

  14. Determination of fungal diseases, site and stand characteristics in mixed stands in Ilgaz-Yenice forest district, Cankiri, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Oner, Nuri; Dogan, Hasan Huseyin; Ozturk, Celaleddin; Gurer, Meral

    2009-07-01

    Fungal diseases, site and stand characteristics were investigated in Yenice forest sub-district headquarters belonging to Ilgaz forest enterprise. Diseases and wood decaying fungi on fallen and cut tree stumps were determined on scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), crimean pine (P. nigra subsp. nigra varcaramanica), and uludag fir (Abies nordmanniana subsp. bommulleriana). Altitude (m), exposure, slope (%), relief, rate of mixture (%) and anthropogenic effects were noted for 56 sample plots which have various stand compositions. Age, breast height diameter (cm), top height (m), crown and bole quality regeneration quality and development of representative tree species were also recorded into vegetation forms. Yellow witches' broom (Melampsorella caryophyllacearum), which caused drying of uludag fir trees, was determined. Besides, 53 macrofungi species belonging to 3 divisions, 10 orders, 25 families and 36 genera were determined. Some of them cause white and brown decay on living and core wood. The most common parasitic and saprobe fungi are Galerina Ganoderma, Gloeophyllum, Gymnopilus, Hypholoma, Lentinus, Phellinus, Pleurotus, Polyporus and Stereum species in the research area. Trichaptum abietinum is also typical wood decay fungi for living or cut fir trees and it is very common in the research area.

  15. Women healers of the middle ages: selected aspects of their history.

    PubMed Central

    Minkowski, W L

    1992-01-01

    The stellar role of women as healers during the Middle Ages has received some attention from medical historians but remains little known or appreciated. In the three centuries preceding the Renaissance, this role was heightened by two roughly parallel developments. The first was the evolution of European universities and their professional schools that, for the most part, systematically excluded women as students, thereby creating a legal male monopoly of the practice of medicine. Ineligible as healers, women waged a lengthy battle to maintain their right to care for the sick and injured. The 1322 case of Jacqueline Felicie, one of many healers charged with illegally practicing medicine, raises serious questions about the motives of male physicians in discrediting these women as incompetent and dangerous. The second development was the campaign--promoted by the church and supported by both clerical and civil authorities--to brand women healers as witches. Perhaps the church perceived these women, with their special, often esoteric, healing skills, as a threat to its supremacy in the lives of its parishioners. The result was the brutal persecution of unknown numbers of mostly peasant women. Images p290-a p291-a PMID:1739168

  16. From catastrophic acceleration to deceleration of liquid plugs in prewetted capillary tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magniez, Juan; Baudoin, Michael; Zoueshtiagh, Farzam; Lemac/Lics Team

    2016-11-01

    Liquid/gas flows in capillaries are involved in a multitude of systems including flow in porous media, petroleum extraction, imbibition of paper or flows in pulmonary airways in pathological conditions. Liquid plugs, witch compose the biphasic flows, can have a dramatic impact on patients with pulmonary obstructive diseases, since they considerably alter the circulation of air in the airways and thus can lead to severe breathing difficulties. Here, the dynamics of liquid plugs in prewetted capillary tube is investigated experimentally and theoretically, with a particular emphasis on the role of the prewetting films and of the driving condition (constant flow rate, constant pressure). For both driving conditions, the plugs can either experience a continuous increase or decrease of their size. While this phenomenon is regular in the case of imposed flow rate, a constant pressure head can lead to a catastrophic acceleration of the plug and eventually its rupture or a dramatic increase of the plug size. A theoretical model is proposed to explain the transition between theses two regimes. These results give a new insight on the critical pressure required for airways obstruction and reopening. IEMN, International Laboratory LEMAC/LICS, UMR CNRS 8520, University of Lille.

  17. Mars Phoenix Scout Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) Database: Thermal Database Development and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, B.; Archer, D.; Niles, P. B.; Stein, T. C.; Hamara, D.; Boynton, W. V.; Ming, D. W.

    2017-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Scout Lander mission in 2008 examined the history of water, searched for organics, and evaluated the potential for past/present microbial habitability in a martian arctic ice-rich soil [1]. The Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument measured the isotopic composition of atmospheric CO2 and detected volatile bearing mineralogy (perchlorate, carbonate, hydrated mineral phases) in the martian soil [2-7]. The TEGA data are archived at the Planetary Data System (PDS) Geosciences Node but are reported in forms that require further processing to be of use to the non-TEGA expert. The soil and blank TEGA thermal data are reported as duty cycle and must be converted to differential power (mW) to allow for enthalpy calculations of exothermic/endothermic transitions. The exothermic/endothermic temperatures are also used to determine what phases (inorganic/organic) are present in the sample. The objectives of this work are to: 1) Describe how interpretable thermal data can be created from TEGA data sets on the PDS and 2) Provide additional thermal data interpretation of two Phoenix soils (Baby Bear, Wicked Witch) and include interpretations from three unreported soils (Rosy Red 1, 2, and Burning Coals).

  18. [Systemic approach in therapy and counselling with adolescents].

    PubMed

    Eggemann-Dann, Hans-Werner; Fryszer, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    To work with adolescents and their contexts usually means to face certain problems: Parents or teacher want the adolescent to do a counselling or a therapy, the adolescent is not motivated or does not have much of an idea what this means. The problem often causes conflicts between the adolescent and the persons of his context. Typical conflict communication develops that blocks good solution-finding and constructive developments and usually is re-enacted in the therapeutic or counselling session. The systemic methods presented are useful to block dysfunctional conflict communications. In a conflict-ridden situation, the members of the family usually try to form coalitions with the professional or at least try to find out witch party the counsellor might join. To avoid traps like these and enhance productive change there are a number of very useful methods developed or adapted by the authors. The use of these special methods in the communication with the adolescent or the adolescent and his system is discussed in the article. The Authors also describe which attitudes are useful in the role of a counsellor or a therapist.

  19. Phytoplasma PMU1 exists as linear chromosomal and circular extrachromosomal elements and has enhanced expression in insect vectors compared with plant hosts.

    PubMed

    Toruño, Tania Y; Musić, Martina Seruga; Simi, Silvia; Nicolaisen, Mogens; Hogenhout, Saskia A

    2010-09-01

    Phytoplasmas replicate intracellularly in plants and insects and are dependent on both hosts for dissemination in nature. Phytoplasmas have small genomes lacking genes for major metabolic pathways. Nevertheless, their genomes harbour multicopy gene clusters that were named potential mobile units (PMUs). PMU1 is the largest most complete repeat among the PMUs in the genome of Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches' Broom (AY-WB). PMU1 is c. 20 kb in size and contains 21 genes encoding DNA replication and predicted membrane-targeted proteins. Here we show that AY-WB has a chromosomal linear PMU1 (L-PMU1) and an extrachromosomal circular PMU1 (C-PMU1). The C-PMU1 copy number was consistently higher by in average approximately fivefold in insects compared with plants and PMU1 gene expression levels were also considerably higher in insects indicating that C-PMU1 synthesis and expression are regulated. We found that the majority of AY-WB virulence genes lie on chromosomal PMU regions that have similar gene content and organization as PMU1 providing evidence that PMUs contribute to phytoplasma host adaptation and have integrated into the AY-WB chromosome. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Comparisons of Physicians' and Nurses' Attitudes towards Computers.

    PubMed

    Brumini, Gordana; Ković, Ivor; Zombori, Dejvid; Lulić, Ileana; Bilic-Zulle, Lidija; Petrovecki, Mladen

    2005-01-01

    Before starting the implementation of integrated hospital information systems, the physicians' and nurses' attitudes towards computers were measured by means of a questionnaire. The study was conducted in Dubrava University Hospital, Zagreb in Croatia. Out of 194 respondents, 141 were nurses and 53 physicians, randomly selected. They surveyed by an anonymous questionnaire consisting of 8 closed questions about demographic data, computer science education and computer usage, and 30 statements on attitudes towards computers. The statements were adapted to a Likert type scale. Differences in attitudes towards computers between groups were compared using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney test for post-hoc analysis. The total score presented attitudes toward computers. Physicians' total score was 130 (97-144), while nurses' total score was 123 (88-141). It points that the average answer to all statements was between "agree" and "strongly agree", and these high total scores indicated their positive attitudes. Age, computer science education and computer usage were important factors witch enhances the total score. Younger physicians and nurses with computer science education and with previous computer experience had more positive attitudes towards computers than others. Our results are important for planning and implementation of integrated hospital information systems in Croatia.

  1. The effect of the solution flow rate on the properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited by ultrasonic spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attaf, A.; Benkhetta, Y.; Saidi, H.; Bouhdjar, A.; Bendjedidi, H.; Nouadji, M.; Lehraki, N.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we used a system based on ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. By witch, we have deposited thin films of zinc oxide (ZnO) with the variation of solution flow rate from 50 ml / h to 150 ml / h, and set other parameters such as the concentration of the solution, the deposition time, substrate temperature and the nozzel -substrate distance. In order to study the influence of the solution flow rate on the properties of the films produced, we have several characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction to determine the films structure, the scanning electron microscopy SEM for the morphology of the surfaces, EDS spectroscopy for the chemical composition, UV-Visible-Nir spectroscopy for determination the optical proprieties of thin films.The experimental results show that: the films have hexagonal structure at the type (wurtzite), the average size of grains varies from 20.11 to 32.45 nm, the transmittance of the films equals 80% in visible rang and the band gap is varied between 3.274 and 3.282 eV, when the solution flow rate increases from 50 to 150 ml/h.

  2. A new test statistic for climate models that includes field and spatial dependencies using Gaussian Markov random fields

    SciTech Connect

    Nosedal-Sanchez, Alvaro; Jackson, Charles S.; Huerta, Gabriel

    A new test statistic for climate model evaluation has been developed that potentially mitigates some of the limitations that exist for observing and representing field and space dependencies of climate phenomena. Traditionally such dependencies have been ignored when climate models have been evaluated against observational data, which makes it difficult to assess whether any given model is simulating observed climate for the right reasons. The new statistic uses Gaussian Markov random fields for estimating field and space dependencies within a first-order grid point neighborhood structure. We illustrate the ability of Gaussian Markov random fields to represent empirical estimates of fieldmore » and space covariances using "witch hat" graphs. We further use the new statistic to evaluate the tropical response of a climate model (CAM3.1) to changes in two parameters important to its representation of cloud and precipitation physics. Overall, the inclusion of dependency information did not alter significantly the recognition of those regions of parameter space that best approximated observations. However, there were some qualitative differences in the shape of the response surface that suggest how such a measure could affect estimates of model uncertainty.« less

  3. Science or propaganda?an examination of rind, tromovitch and bauserman (1998).

    PubMed

    Dallam, S J

    2000-01-01

    An article, “A Meta-analytic Examination of Assumed Properties of Child Sexual Abuse Using College Samples,” published in the July 1998 edition of the Psychological Bulletin resulted in an unprecedented amount of media attention and became the first scientific article to be formally denounced by the United States House of Representatives. The study's authors analyzed the findings of 59 earlier studies on child sexual abuse (CSA) and concluded that mental health researchers have greatly overstated CSA's harmful potential. They recommended that a willing encounter with positive reactions would no longer be considered to be sexual abuse; instead, it would simply be labeled adult-child sex. The study's conclusions and recommendations spawned a debate in both the popular and scholarly press. A number of commentators suggested that the study is pedophile propaganda masquerading as science. Others claimed that the authors are victims of a moralistic witch-hunt and that scientific freedom is being threatened. After a careful examination of the evidence, it is concluded that Rind et al. can best be described as an advocacy article that inappropriately uses science in an attempt to legitimize its findings.

  4. Genome-wide identification and characterization of cacao WRKY transcription factors and analysis of their expression in response to witches' broom disease

    PubMed Central

    Silva Monteiro de Almeida, Dayanne; Oliveira Jordão do Amaral, Daniel; Del-Bem, Luiz-Eduardo; Bronze dos Santos, Emily; Santana Silva, Raner José; Peres Gramacho, Karina; Vincentz, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation, led by transcription factors (TFs) such as those of the WRKY family, is a mechanism used by the organism to enhance or repress gene expression in response to stimuli. Here, we report on the genome-wide analysis of the Theobroma cacao WRKY TF family and also investigate the expression of WRKY genes in cacao infected by the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa. In the cacao genome, 61 non-redundant WRKY sequences were found and classified in three groups (I to III) according to the WRKY and zinc-finger motif types. The 61 putative WRKY sequences were distributed on the 10 cacao chromosomes and 24 of them came from duplication events. The sequences were phylogenetically organized according to the general WRKY groups. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that subgroups IIa and IIb are sister groups and share a common ancestor, as well as subgroups IId and IIe. The most divergent groups according to the plant origin were IIc and III. According to the phylogenetic analysis, 7 TcWRKY genes were selected and analyzed by RT-qPCR in susceptible and resistant cacao plants infected (or not) with M. perniciosa. Some TcWRKY genes presented interesting responses to M. perniciosa such as Tc01_p014750/Tc06_p013130/AtWRKY28, Tc09_p001530/Tc06_p004420/AtWRKY40, Tc04_p016130/AtWRKY54 and Tc10_p016570/ AtWRKY70. Our results can help to select appropriate candidate genes for further characterization in cacao or in other Theobroma species. PMID:29084273

  5. Genome-wide identification and characterization of cacao WRKY transcription factors and analysis of their expression in response to witches' broom disease.

    PubMed

    Silva Monteiro de Almeida, Dayanne; Oliveira Jordão do Amaral, Daniel; Del-Bem, Luiz-Eduardo; Bronze Dos Santos, Emily; Santana Silva, Raner José; Peres Gramacho, Karina; Vincentz, Michel; Micheli, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation, led by transcription factors (TFs) such as those of the WRKY family, is a mechanism used by the organism to enhance or repress gene expression in response to stimuli. Here, we report on the genome-wide analysis of the Theobroma cacao WRKY TF family and also investigate the expression of WRKY genes in cacao infected by the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa. In the cacao genome, 61 non-redundant WRKY sequences were found and classified in three groups (I to III) according to the WRKY and zinc-finger motif types. The 61 putative WRKY sequences were distributed on the 10 cacao chromosomes and 24 of them came from duplication events. The sequences were phylogenetically organized according to the general WRKY groups. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that subgroups IIa and IIb are sister groups and share a common ancestor, as well as subgroups IId and IIe. The most divergent groups according to the plant origin were IIc and III. According to the phylogenetic analysis, 7 TcWRKY genes were selected and analyzed by RT-qPCR in susceptible and resistant cacao plants infected (or not) with M. perniciosa. Some TcWRKY genes presented interesting responses to M. perniciosa such as Tc01_p014750/Tc06_p013130/AtWRKY28, Tc09_p001530/Tc06_p004420/AtWRKY40, Tc04_p016130/AtWRKY54 and Tc10_p016570/ AtWRKY70. Our results can help to select appropriate candidate genes for further characterization in cacao or in other Theobroma species.

  6. Water-quality data from storm runoff after the 2007 fires, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendez, Gregory O.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected water-quality samples during the first two storms after the Witch and Harris Fires (October 2007) in southern California. The sampling locations represent an urban area (two residential sites in Rancho Bernardo that were affected by the Witch Fire; a drainage ditch and a storm drain) and a rural area (Cotton-wood Creek, which was downstream of a mobile home park destroyed by the Harris Fire). Fires produce ash and solid residues that contain soluble chemicals that can contaminant runoff. The contaminants, whether sorbed to soil and ash or dissolved, can seriously affect the quality of water supplies and sensitive ecosystems. Stormflow water samples were analyzed for field parameters, optical properties, and for a variety of constituents, including nutrients, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), suspended sediment, and metals. pH values for storm runoff from the urban areas (7.6 to 8.5) were less than pH values for ash and burned soil from previous studies (12.5 to 13). pH values for storm runoff from the rural area (about 7.7) also were less than pH values for ash and burned soil collected from the rural area (8.6 to 11.8), but were similar to pH values for wildland burned soil from previous studies. Turbidity values were much lower for the urban area than for the rural area. Nitrate concentrations in stormflow samples from all sites were less than a quarter of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (2006) maximum allowable contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L) (as nitrogen). Phosphorus concentrations were half as much in filtered samples and two orders of magnitude smaller in unfiltered samples at the urban sites than at the rural site. DOC concentrations in stormflow samples were one order of magnitude lower at the urban sites than at the rural site. Ultraviolet (UV) absorbance at 254 nanometers (UV254) in samples ranged from 0.145 to 0.782 per centimeter (cm-1). UV-absorbance data at the urban sites indicate that

  7. Genetic parameters and selection of soybean lines based on selection indexes.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, F G; Hamawaki, O T; Nogueira, A P O; Hamawaki, R L; Jorge, G L; Hamawaki, C L; Machado, B Q V; Santana, A J O

    2017-09-21

    Defining selection criteria is important to obtain promising genotypes in a breeding program. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for agronomic traits and to perform soybean line selection using selection indices. The experiment was conducted at an experimental area located at Capim Branco farm, belonging to the Federal University of Uberlândia. A total of 37 soybean genotypes were evaluated in randomized complete block design with three replicates, in which twelve agronomic traits were evaluated. Analysis of variance, the Scott-Knott test at the 1 and 5% level of probability, and selection index analyses were performed. There was genetic variability for all agronomic traits, with medium to high levels of genotype determination coefficient. Twelve lines with a total cycle up to 110 days were observed and grouped with the cultivars MSOY 6101 and UFUS 7910. Three lines, UFUS FG 03, UFUS FG 20, and UFUS FG 31, were highlighted regarding grain yield with higher values than the national average of 3072 kg/ha. The direct selection enabled the highest trait individual gains. The Williams (1962) index and the Smith (1936) and Hazel (1943) index presented the highest selection gain for the grain yield character. The genotype-ideotype distance index and the index of the sum of ranks of Mulamba and Mock (1978) presented higher values of total selection gain. The lines UFUS FG 12, UFUS FG 14, UFUS FG 18, UFUS FG 25, and UFUS FG 31 were distinguished as superior genotypes by direct selection methods and selection indexes.

  8. Difficulties in separating hurricane induced effects from natural benthic succession: Hurricane Isabel, a case study from Eastern Virginia, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, C.; Richardson, C. A.; Luckenbach, M.; Seed, R.

    2009-11-01

    Hurricane Isabel reached the Eastern seaboard of North America on 18 September 2003 causing estimated damage >3 billion US dollars and the death of ˜50 people. Isabel is considered to be one of the most significant tropical cyclones to affect Virginia, since the Chesapeake Potomac Hurricane of 1933 and Hurricane Hazel in 1954. A study of the temporal changes in the benthic fauna pre- and post-hurricane was conducted on an intertidal sandflat within the dynamic barrier island system near Wachapreague, Eastern Virginia. Replicate sediment cores were collected 3 weeks before Isabel made landfall and further samples were collected on 5 occasions over the following 20 months. An immediate effect of Isabel was a doubling in the number of species, a significant increase in invertebrate species diversity ( H') and a rise in opportunistic species and deposit feeders, but a non-significant increase in the total number of organisms. Changes in infauna occurred such that by the end of the study there were significantly increased numbers of species, faunal abundances and community diversity measures, as compared with pre-hurricane samples, suggesting a potentially positive medium-term effect of this hurricane perturbation. The most notable direct effects of the hurricane were on the relative abundances of feeding guilds with a reduction in interface feeders from 87% pre-hurricane to 64% post-hurricane, and an increase in surface deposit feeders from 7% pre-hurricane to 20% post-hurricane. The study highlights potential problems in interpreting post-perturbation data when insufficient pre-perturbation data exist.

  9. Can we detect a nonlinear response to temperature in European plant phenology?

    PubMed

    Jochner, Susanne; Sparks, Tim H; Laube, Julia; Menzel, Annette

    2016-10-01

    Over a large temperature range, the statistical association between spring phenology and temperature is often regarded and treated as a linear function. There are suggestions that a sigmoidal relationship with definite upper and lower limits to leaf unfolding and flowering onset dates might be more realistic. We utilised European plant phenological records provided by the European phenology database PEP725 and gridded monthly mean temperature data for 1951-2012 calculated from the ENSEMBLES data set E-OBS (version 7.0). We analysed 568,456 observations of ten spring flowering or leafing phenophases derived from 3657 stations in 22 European countries in order to detect possible nonlinear responses to temperature. Linear response rates averaged for all stations ranged between -7.7 (flowering of hazel) and -2.7 days °C -1 (leaf unfolding of beech and oak). A lower sensitivity at the cooler end of the temperature range was detected for most phenophases. However, a similar lower sensitivity at the warmer end was not that evident. For only ∼14 % of the station time series (where a comparison between linear and nonlinear model was possible), nonlinear models described the relationship significantly better than linear models. Although in most cases simple linear models might be still sufficient to predict future changes, this linear relationship between phenology and temperature might not be appropriate when incorporating phenological data of very cold (and possibly very warm) environments. For these cases, extrapolations on the basis of linear models would introduce uncertainty in expected ecosystem changes.

  10. Can we detect a nonlinear response to temperature in European plant phenology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochner, Susanne; Sparks, Tim H.; Laube, Julia; Menzel, Annette

    2016-10-01

    Over a large temperature range, the statistical association between spring phenology and temperature is often regarded and treated as a linear function. There are suggestions that a sigmoidal relationship with definite upper and lower limits to leaf unfolding and flowering onset dates might be more realistic. We utilised European plant phenological records provided by the European phenology database PEP725 and gridded monthly mean temperature data for 1951-2012 calculated from the ENSEMBLES data set E-OBS (version 7.0). We analysed 568,456 observations of ten spring flowering or leafing phenophases derived from 3657 stations in 22 European countries in order to detect possible nonlinear responses to temperature. Linear response rates averaged for all stations ranged between -7.7 (flowering of hazel) and -2.7 days °C-1 (leaf unfolding of beech and oak). A lower sensitivity at the cooler end of the temperature range was detected for most phenophases. However, a similar lower sensitivity at the warmer end was not that evident. For only ˜14 % of the station time series (where a comparison between linear and nonlinear model was possible), nonlinear models described the relationship significantly better than linear models. Although in most cases simple linear models might be still sufficient to predict future changes, this linear relationship between phenology and temperature might not be appropriate when incorporating phenological data of very cold (and possibly very warm) environments. For these cases, extrapolations on the basis of linear models would introduce uncertainty in expected ecosystem changes.

  11. Effect of honeybee broods (queen-bee different lineage) moving on disease development at various beehive types and allergy reaction cause in humans.

    PubMed

    Tucak, Zvonimir; Periskić, Marin

    2005-06-01

    The change of the location of the beehives on the diverse honeyfull pastures is the usual apiarists activity in the Republic of Croatia. The main reasons are the climatic and vegetation diversity, and richness of the floral composition, with numerous bee forage plants. Our study aimed to detect consequences of honeybee broods (Queen-bee of different lineage) moving, from one habitat to another at various type of beehives. The Alberti-Znidersic (AZ), Langstroth-Root (LR) and Dadant-Blatt (DB) beehive types, constructed of (lime-tree), have been used. After the bee forage on the Oilseed Rape in the beginning of April, the honeybee brood has been veterinary inspected (based on the Law of animal health protection in the Republic of Croatia) for varrosis, nosemosis and American foulbrood diseases. The same procedure was done after bee forage (False acacia) at the end of May. All of the honeybees belong to the European race Apis mellifera carnica. The results of the study pointed out that different beehive types and the Queen-bee lineage (natural and selected) affect development of disease inside the honeybee brood, during the relocation and change from one dominant bee forage plants to another. Certain allergy reactions occurring in people can be caused by the pollen of some honefull plants such as birch, grasses, ragweed, goldenrod and hazel. Such cases are also included in our investigations. Beekeepers and nature lovers sensitive to pollen allergens of some honeyfull plants should, in some calendar period, avoid ecological milieu with such plants.

  12. Meteorite Magazine: Promoting Science, Discovery, And Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; Lebofsky, N. R.; Sears, H.; Sears, D.

    2006-09-01

    In late 2005, Larry and Nancy Lebofsky and Derek and Hazel Sears took over the editing and publishing of Meteorite magazine. We saw a great educational potential for the magazine. With a circulation over 600, the magazine reaches a broad readership: meteorite scientists, hunters, collectors, and enthusiasts. Unlike the professional journal of the Meteoritical Society, Meteoritics and Planetary Sciences, the articles in Meteorite range from scientific articles, reports from meteorite shows, and how to preserve meteorites to stories about searching for meteorites around the world. Meteorites are of interest to people. Asteroids, meteoroids, meteors, and meteorites are in many states' science standards. Yet, how many museums have meteorite collections with staff who know little about them? How many amateur astronomers, when seeing meteors or meteor showers, can explain how asteroids, comets, meteors, and meteorites are related and what they tell us about the formation of our Solar System? How many meteorite collectors are knowledgeable about how these objects are related to each other? How do we reach the broader community? Unlike the hundreds of amateur and school astronomy clubs, there are no meteorite clubs. While one can point out the wonders of the night sky and what can be seen through a telescope at star parties, there is no such thing as school meteorite hunting parties. The meteorite and planetary sciences communities working together can bring the excitement of meteorites and the science behind these fascinating objects to teachers, students, and museum and planetarium staff. We will present ideas for accomplishing this.

  13. Salinity-driven decadal changes in phytoplankton community in the NW Arabian Gulf of Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Said, Turki; Al-Ghunaim, Aws; Subba Rao, D V; Al-Yamani, Faiza; Al-Rifaie, Kholood; Al-Baz, Ali

    2017-06-01

    Evaluation of hydrological data obtained between 2000 and 2013 from a time series station in Kuwait Bay (station K6) and an offshore southern location (station 18) off Kuwait showed drastic increase in salinity by 6 units. We tested the hypothesis that increased salinity impacted phytoplankton community characteristics in these semiarid waters. The Arabian Gulf receives seasonal freshwater discharge in the north via Shatt Al-Arab estuary with a peak during March-July. A north to south gradient in the proportion of the freshwater exists between station A in the vicinity of Shatt Al-Arab estuary and station 18 in the southern offshore area. At station A, the proportion of freshwater was the highest (25.6-42.5%) in 1997 but decreased to 0.8-4.6% by 2012-2013. The prevailing hyperhaline conditions off Kuwait are attributed to decrease in the river flow. Phytoplankton data showed a decrease in the number of constituent taxa in the last one decade from 353 to 159 in the Kuwait Bay and from 164 to 156 in the offshore area. A shift in their biomass was caused by a decrease in diatom species from 243 to 92 in the coastal waters and from 108 to 83 in the offshore areas with a concomitant increase of smaller algae. Mutivariate agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis, non-metric multi-dimensional scaling, and one-way analysis of similarity analyses on phytoplankton data at different taxonomic levels confirmed significant changes in their community organization on a decadal scale. These evidences support our hypothesis that the salinity-related environmental changes have resulted in a coincidental decrease in species diversity and significant changes in phytoplankton community between the years 2000-2002 and 2012-2013, off Kuwait. This in turn would affect the pelagic trophodynamics as evident from a drastic decrease in the catch landings of Tenulosa ilisha (Suboor), Carangoides sp. (Hamam), Otolithes ruber (Nowaiby), Parastromateus niger (Halwaya), and Epinephelus

  14. [Evidence-based cosmetics: concepts and applications in photoaging of the skin and xerosis].

    PubMed

    Pavicic, Tatjana; Steckmeier, Stephanie; Kerscher, Martina; Korting, Hans Christian

    2009-01-01

    As well as for topically used dermatological agents, studies performed according to the rules of evidence-based medicine (EBM) are also needed for cosmetics. Although the concept of evidence-based cosmetics has been only partly developed so far, there are some agents and preparations available that can be considered as evidence-based. In this paper we present data from several studies that claim to have examined and demonstrated the efficacy of cosmetic preparations for the management of solar damage and aging skin as well as lentigo and melanosis according to EBM criteria. Certainly, further controlled studies are needed to cover the main application areas of dermocosmetics. Retinol and antioxidant agents such as vitamin C and coenzymes that positively act via several mechanisms on collagen biosynthesis can be considered evidence-based substances for the management of aging skin. According to the same criteria, the preventive effect of regularly applied dermocosmetic sun screens on the development of actinic keratosis could also be shown. Dermocosmetic sun screens should offer adequate protection against UV-B and UV-A light by combining compatible organic and/or non-organic UV-filters and at the same time be well tolerated. Furthermore, they may contain some additional agents such as antioxidants, DNA repair enzymes, dexpanthenol, glycerin or hamamelis distillate. In the treatment of melanosis, a substantial bleaching effect corresponding to that of 0.1% topical tretinoin can be achieved with 10% all-trans-retinol gel. Preparations containing urea, ammonium lactate or glycerol in different concentrations are considered the best characterized and most effective substances for the care of dry skin. However, the lack of controlled studies confirming the efficacy of dermocosmetic products as well as the superiority of the preparation incorporating the active agent over the corresponding base is a problem yet to be solved. Undoubtedly, the efficacy and the

  15. Screening North American plant extracts in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei for discovery of new antitrypanosomal drug leads.

    PubMed

    Jain, Surendra; Jacob, Melissa; Walker, Larry; Tekwani, Babu

    2016-05-18

    Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a protozoan parasitic disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei. The disease is endemic in regions of sub-Saharan Africa, covering 36 countries and more than 60 million people at the risk. Only few drugs are available for the treatment of HAT. Current drugs suffer from severe toxicities and require intramuscular or intravenous administrations. The situation is further aggravated due to the emergence of drug resistance. There is an urgent need of new drugs that are effective orally against both stages of HAT. Natural products offer an unmatched source for bioactive molecules with new chemotypes. The extracts prepared from 522 plants collected from various parts of the North America were screened in vitro against blood stage trypamastigote forms of T. brucei. Active extracts were further screened at concentrations ranging from 10 to 0.4 μg/mL. Active extracts were also investigated for toxicity in Differentiated THP1 cells at 10 μg/mL concentration. The results were computed for dose-response analysis and determination of IC50/IC90 values. A significant number (150) of extracts showed >90 % inhibition of growth of trypomastigote blood forms of T. brucei in primary screening at 20 μg/mL concentration. The active extracts were further investigated for dose-response inhibition of T. brucei growth. The antitrypansomal activity of 125 plant extracts was confirmed with IC50 < 10 μg/mL. None of these active extracts showed toxicity against differentiated THP1 cells. Eight plants extracts namely, Alnus rubra, Hoita macrostachya, Sabal minor, Syzygium aqueum, Hamamelis virginiana, Coccoloba pubescens, Rhus integrifolia and Nuphar luteum were identified as highly potent antitrypanosomal extracts with IC50 values <1 μg/mL. Limited phytochemical and pharmacological reports are available for the lead plant extracts with potent antitrypanosomal activity. Follow up evaluation of these plant extracts is likely to yield new

  16. The Seed Plant Flora of the Mount Jinggangshan Region, Southeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Liao, Wenbo; Chen, Chunquan; Fan, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    The Mount Jinggangshan region is located between Jiangxi and Hunan provinces in southeastern China in the central section of the Luoxiao Mountains. A detailed investigation of Mount Jinggangshan region shows that the seed plant flora comprises 2,958 species in 1,003 genera and 210 families (Engler’s system adjusted according to Zhengyi Wu’s concept). Among them, 23 species of gymnospermae belong to 17 genera and 9 families, and 2,935 species of angiosperms are in 986 genera and 201 families. Moreover, they can also be sorted into woody plants (350 genera and 1,295 species) and herbaceous plants (653 genera and 1,663 species). The dominant families are mainly Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Theaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Magnoliaceae, Ericaceae, Styracaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Aceraceae, Rosaceae, Corylaceae, Daphniphyllaceae, Symplocaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Pinaceae, Taxodiaceae, Cupressaceae and Taxaceae. Ancient and relic taxa include Ginkgo biloba, Fokienia hodginsii , Amentotaxus argotaenia , Disanthus cercidifolia subsp. longipes , Hamamelis mollis , Manglietia fordiana , Magnolia officinalis , Tsoongiodendron odorum , Fortunearia sinensis , Cyclocarya paliurus , Eucommia ulmoides , Sargentodoxa cuneata , Bretschneidera sinensis , Camptotheca acuminata , Tapiscia sinensis , etc. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region includes 79 cosmopolitan genera and 924 non-cosmopolitan genera, which are 7.88% and 92.12% of all genera. The latter includes 452 tropical genera (48.92%) and 472 temperate genera (51.08%). The temperate elements include 44 genera endemic to China, accounting for 4.76% of all genera. Among 1,003 genera, 465 have only a single species and 401 are oligotypic genera (with 2-5 species). These genera account for 86.34% of all genera. The floristic analysis indicates that the flora of Mount Jinggangshan region is closely related to the flora of Mount Wuyishan region in southeastern China. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region also contains many elements

  17. Children enacting idioms of witchcraft and spirit possession as a response to trauma: therapeutically beneficial, and for whom?

    PubMed

    Reis, Ria

    2013-10-01

    This article examines children's enactment of spirit possession idioms and witchcraft in Africa including the meanings such idioms provide and the local healing resources they mobilize. Idioms of haunting spirits in Northern Uganda and witch-children elsewhere in Africa can be interpreted as manifestations of social crises and mass traumatic stress. On the other hand, such idioms also allow children to articulate, reflect upon, and communicate the complex feelings resulting from their precarious positions within families and communities under duress. With the help of Dow's transactional model of symbolic healing, this article explores obstacles to the effectivity of the rich variety of symbolic healing available for haunting spirits in Uganda and points to the generational gap between children and their families and communities. Elsewhere, witchcraft idioms may act as a healing resource at the group level, but at the expense of the accused child. The idioms of evil spirits and witchcraft speak of these children's navigation of the moral universe of their postconflict communities. Given that children's appraisal of their experiences through these notions may also exacerbate their anxiety, interdisciplinary research examining the microprocesses that lead to children being haunted or accused, including emotional and physiological levels effects, is urgently needed.

  18. Impact of a Microbial Cocktail Used as a Starter Culture on Cocoa Fermentation and Chocolate Flavor.

    PubMed

    Magalhães da Veiga Moreira, Igor; de Figueiredo Vilela, Leonardo; da Cruz Pedroso Miguel, Maria Gabriela; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson; Freitas Schwan, Rosane

    2017-05-09

    Chocolate production suffered a vast impact with the emergence of the "witches' broom" disease in cocoa plants. To recover cocoa production, many disease-resistant hybrid plants have been developed. However, some different cocoa hybrids produce cocoa beans that generate chocolate with variable quality. Fermentation of cocoa beans is a microbiological process that can be applied for the production of chocolate flavor precursors, leading to overcoming the problem of variable chocolate quality. The aim of this work was to use a cocktail of microorganisms as a starter culture on the fermentation of the ripe cocoa pods from PH15 cocoa hybrid, and evaluate its influence on the microbial communities present on the fermentative process on the compounds involved during the fermentation, and to perform the chocolate sensorial characterization. According to the results obtained, different volatile compounds were identified in fermented beans and in the chocolate produced. Bitterness was the dominant taste found in non-inoculated chocolate, while chocolate made with inoculated beans showed bitter, sweet, and cocoa tastes. 2,3-Butanediol and 2,3-dimethylpyrazine were considered as volatile compounds making the difference on the flavor of both chocolates. Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA CCMA 0200, Lactobacillus plantarum CCMA 0238, and Acetobacter pasteurianus CCMA 0241 are proposed as starter cultures for cocoa fermentation.

  19. Measurement and Modeling of Personal Exposure to the Electric and Magnetic Fields in the Vicinity of High Voltage Power Lines.

    PubMed

    Tourab, Wafa; Babouri, Abdesselam

    2016-06-01

    This work presents an experimental and modeling study of the electromagnetic environment in the vicinity of a high voltage substation located in eastern Algeria (Annaba city) specified with a very high population density. The effects of electromagnetic fields emanating from the coupled multi-lines high voltage power systems (MLHV) on the health of the workers and people living in proximity of substations has been analyzed. Experimental Measurements for the Multi-lines power system proposed have been conducted in the free space under the high voltage lines. Field's intensities were measured using a referenced and calibrated electromagnetic field meter PMM8053B for the levels 0 m, 1 m, 1.5 m and 1.8 m witch present the sensitive's parts as organs and major functions (head, heart, pelvis and feet) of the human body. The measurement results were validated by numerical simulation using the finite element method and these results are compared with the limit values of the international standards. We project to set own national standards for exposure to electromagnetic fields, in order to achieve a regional database that will be at the disposal of partners concerned to ensure safety of people and mainly workers inside high voltage electrical substations.

  20. Invasive mutualisms between a plant pathogen and insect vectors in the Middle East and Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Renan Batista; Silva, Fábio Nascimento; Al-Mahmmoli, Issa Hashil; Al-Sadi, Abdullah Mohammed; Carvalho, Claudine Márcia; Elliot, Simon L.

    2016-01-01

    Complex multi-trophic interactions in vectorborne diseases limit our understanding and ability to predict outbreaks. Arthropod-vectored pathogens are especially problematic, with the potential for novel interspecific interactions during invasions. Variations and novelties in plant–arthropod–pathogen triumvirates present significant threats to global food security. We examined aspects of a phytoplasma pathogen of citrus across two continents. ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia’ causes Witches' Broom Disease of Lime (WBDL) and has devastated citrus production in the Middle East. A variant of this phytoplasma currently displays asymptomatic or ‘silent’ infections in Brazil. We first studied vector capacity and fitness impacts of the pathogen on its vectors. The potential for co-occurring weed species to act as pathogen reservoirs was analysed and key transmission periods in the year were also studied. We demonstrate that two invasive hemipteran insects—Diaphorina citri and Hishimonus phycitis—can vector the phytoplasma. Feeding on phytoplasma-infected hosts greatly increased reproduction of its invasive vector D. citri both in Oman and Brazil; suggesting that increased fitness of invasive insect vectors thereby further increases the pathogen's capacity to spread. Based on our findings, this is a robust system for studying the effects of invasions on vectorborne diseases and highlights concerns about its spread to warmer, drier regions of Brazil. PMID:28083099

  1. Chemical variation in Piper aduncum and biological properties of its dillapiole-rich essential oil.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Roseli R P; Souto, Raimundo N P; Bastos, Cleber N; da Silva, Milton H L; Maia, José G S

    2009-09-01

    The essential oils of the specimens of Piper aduncum that occur in deforested areas of Brazilian Amazon, North Brazil, are rich in dillapiole (35-90%), a derivative of phenylpropene, to which are attributed biological properties. On the other hand, the oils of the specimens with occurrence in the Atlantic Forest, and Northeastern and Southeastern Brazil, do not contain dillapiole, but only terpene compounds such as (E)-nerolidol and linalool. One specimen existing in the Amazon was hydrodistilled. The obtained oil was fractioned on a silica chromatographic column, resulting in fractions rich in dillapiole (95.0-98.9%) utilized for analyses by GC and GC/MS, structural characterization by NMR, confirmation of their biological properties, and to obtain the isomer isodillapiole. Dillapiole showed a fungicide action against the fungus Clinipellis perniciosa (witches' broom) by inhibition of its basidiospores, in concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 ppm. The larvicide and insecticide actions of dillapiole were tested against the larvae and the adult insects of Anopheles marajoara and Aedes aegypti (malaria and dengue mosquitoes), resulting in mortality of the larvae (48 h, 100%) at a concentration of 100 ppm, and mortality of the insects (30 min, 100%) at a concentration of 600 ppm. The isomeric isodillapiole showed no significant activity in the same biological tests.

  2. Cultural Explanations of Sleep Paralysis in Italy: The Pandafeche Attack and Associated Supernatural Beliefs.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Romanelli, Andrea; Hinton, Devon E

    2015-12-01

    The current study examines cultural explanations regarding sleep paralysis (SP) in Italy. The study explores (1) whether the phenomenology of SP generates culturally specific interpretations and causal explanations and (2) what are the beliefs and local traditions associated with such cultural explanations. The participants were Italian nationals from the general population (n = 68) recruited in the region of Abruzzo, Italy. All participants had experienced at least one lifetime episode of SP. The sleep paralysis experiences and phenomenology questionnaire were orally administered to participants. We found a multilayered cultural interpretation of SP, namely the Pandafeche attack, associated with various supernatural beliefs. Thirty-eight percent of participants believed that this supernatural being, the Pandafeche-often referred to as an evil witch, sometimes as a ghost-like spirit or a terrifying humanoid cat-might have caused their SP. Twenty-four percent of all participants sensed the Pandafeche was present during their SP. Strategies to prevent Pandafeche attack included sleeping in supine position, placing a broom by the bedroom door, or putting a pile of sand by the bed. Case studies are presented to illustrate the study findings. The Pandafeche attack thus constitutes a culturally specific, supernatural interpretation of the phenomenology of SP in the Abruzzo region of Italy.

  3. Impact of photoluminescence temperature and growth parameter on the exciton localized in BxGa1-xAs/GaAs epilayers grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidouri, Tarek; Saidi, Faouzi; Maaref, Hassen; Rodriguez, Philippe; Auvray, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    In this work, BxGa1-xAs/GaAs epilayers with three different boron compositions were elaborated by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on GaAs (001) substrate. Structural study using High resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) have been used to estimate the boron fraction. The luminescence keys were carried out as functions of temperature in the range 10-300 K, by the techniques of photoluminescence (PL). The low PL temperature has shown an abnormal emission appeared at low energy side witch attributed to the recombination through the deep levels. In all samples, the PL peak energy and the full width at half maximum (FWHM), present an anomalous behavior as a result of the competition process between localized and delocalized carriers. We propose the Localized-state Ensemble model to explain the unusual photoluminescence behaviors. Electrical carriers generation, thermal escape, recapture, radiative and non-radiative lifetime are taken into account. The temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements were found to be in reasonable agreement with the model of localized states. We controlled the evolution of such parameters versus composition by varying the V/III ratio to have a quantitative and qualitative understanding of the recombination mechanisms. At high temperature, the model can be approximated to the band-tail-state emission.

  4. Unintentional recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries following thyroidectomy: Is it the surgeon who pays the bill?

    PubMed

    Gambardella, C; Polistena, A; Sanguinetti, A; Patrone, R; Napolitano, S; Esposito, D; Testa, D; Marotta, V; Faggiano, A; Calò, P G; Avenia, N; Conzo, G

    2017-05-01

    Thyroidectomy is one of the most common intervention in general surgery and, after the turn of the century, its rate has sharply increased, along with a worldwide increased incidence of differentiated thyroid cancers. Therefore, injuries of the recurrent laryngeal nerve have become one of the most frequent cause of surgical malpractice claims, mostly following surgery for benign pathology. Even if the incidence of definitive paralysis is generally lower than 3%, during the last 20 years in Italy, the number of claims for damages has sharply raised. As a consequence, a lot of defensive medicine has been caused by this issue, and a witch-hunt has been accordingly triggered, so determining mostly a painful and lasting frustration for the surgeons, who sometimes are compelled to pay a lot of money for increasing insurance premiums and lawyers fees. Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury should be considered as a potentially catastrophic predictable but not preventable event, rather than the result of a surgical mistake. Purposes of the Authors are analyzing incidence, conditions of risk, and mechanisms of recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries, underlining notes of surgical technique and defining medical practice recommendations useful to reduce the risk of malpractice lawsuits and judgments against surgeons. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional diversification of cerato-platanins in Moniliophthora perniciosa as seen by differential expression and protein function specialization.

    PubMed

    de O Barsottini, Mario R; de Oliveira, Juliana F; Adamoski, Douglas; Teixeira, Paulo J P L; do Prado, Paula F V; Tiezzi, Henrique O; Sforça, Mauricio L; Cassago, Alexandre; Portugal, Rodrigo V; de Oliveira, Paulo S L; de M Zeri, Ana C; Dias, Sandra M G; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Ambrosio, Andre L B

    2013-11-01

    Cerato-platanins (CP) are small, cysteine-rich fungal-secreted proteins involved in the various stages of the host-fungus interaction process, acting as phytotoxins, elicitors, and allergens. We identified 12 CP genes (MpCP1 to MpCP12) in the genome of Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease in cacao, and showed that they present distinct expression profiles throughout fungal development and infection. We determined the X-ray crystal structures of MpCP1, MpCP2, MpCP3, and MpCP5, representative of different branches of a phylogenetic tree and expressed at different stages of the disease. Structure-based biochemistry, in combination with nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry, allowed us to define specialized capabilities regarding self-assembling and the direct binding to chitin and N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) tetramers, a fungal cell wall building block, and to map a previously unknown binding region in MpCP5. Moreover, fibers of MpCP2 were shown to act as expansin and facilitate basidiospore germination whereas soluble MpCP5 blocked NAG6-induced defense response. The correlation between these roles, the fungus life cycle, and its tug-of-war interaction with cacao plants is discussed.

  6. Neem (Azadirachta indica a. Juss) components: candidates for the control of Crinipellis perniciosa and Phytophthora ssp.

    PubMed

    de Rezende Ramos, Alessandra; Lüdke Falcão, Loeni; Salviano Barbosa, Guilherme; Helena Marcellino, Lucilia; Silvano Gander, Eugen

    2007-01-01

    Witches' broom and pod rot are the two most devastating diseases of cocoa in South America and Africa, respectively. Their control by means of phytosanitation and chemical fungicides is labor-intensive, costly and, in many cases, environmentally undesirable. Therefore efforts are made in order to identify alternative, environmentally safe and cost-efficient methods for the control of these pathogens. Promising candidates are components of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica), that have been used for centuries in Asia as insecticides, fungicides, anticonceptionals in popular medicine. Here we report about tests on the effect of various concentrations of extracts from neem leaves on growth of mycelia of Crinipellis and Phytophthora and on germination of spores of Crinipellis. We show a 35% growth reduction of mycelia of Phytophthora on neem leaf extract media, whereas growth of mycelia of Crinipellis was not affected, even at the highest concentration of neem leaf extracts used (35%). However, the most dramatic effect of neem leaf extracts is observed on Crinipellis spore germination, here the extracts (20-35%) reduced germination almost completely. Based on these results, we believe that the neem tree might be a source for the production, on small and medium scale, of an effective and cheap formulation for the control of Crinipellis and Phytophthora.

  7. Cape fearless.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the Ilita Labantu (IL) group in South Africa, that is working to reduce child abuse and violence against women. The group started in 1989, with the aim of reducing child rape and sexual assaults in five townships in Cape Town. Child rape is perpetuated by myths sustained by witch doctors and indigenous medicine that promote child rape as a cure-all for symptoms ranging from poverty to AIDS. IL has four satellite groups that educate rape and abuse victims and potential victims. It is assumed that girls are potential victims because of their early unawareness that gender is tied to some patterns of behavior. IL trained mass media groups to educate the general public. IL distributes public information materials on how to identify domestic violence and abuse and how to identify potential rapists within households. Materials are distributed to individuals in community programs and in training programs. Child survivors make presentations in playgroups in a nonthreatening way. IL interacts with courts of law, police stations, hospitals, and schools. The group refers 25-35 cases per day. The group is working on setting up private rooms in police stations where rape victims can make confidential complaints without public attention. IL also works to promote the use of alternative strategies for solving family conflicts.

  8. The Faustian "Gretchen": overlooked aspects of a famous male fantasy.

    PubMed

    Oergel, Maike

    2011-01-01

    This essay takes issue, on the one hand, with the traditional interpretation of Goethe's Margarete as representing the Natural, the Naïve, and the selflessly loving feminine as well as, on the other hand, the feminist interpretation of Margarete as a male fantasy figure who props up the masculine self-perception of the male as a dominant and titanic "striver." Both interpretative tendencies overlook the close analogy with which Margarete's aspirations and behaviour mirror Faust's own regarding a shared readiness to rebel, break all the rules, and dare the ultimate, which gives Margarete her own independent agenda, makes her an individual in her own right. In this light the three key paradigms of femininity – Madonna, whore/witch, and nature – which shape the presentation of this character are investigated, as well as the relation of the "Gretchentragödie" to notions of the classical, the role of sexual fulfilment in Margarete's decision-making, and the significance of this character's two names. The essay concludes that, excepting the area of intellectualised self-consciousness, Margarete must be regarded as a striving individual who engages in autonomous activity, which much previous criticism has made the domain of the self-determined modern male subject.

  9. Influence of growth time on crystalline structure, morphologic and optical properties of In2O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attaf, A.; Bouhdjar, A.; Saidi, H.; Benkhetta, Y.; Bendjedidi, H.; Nouadji, M.; Lehraki, N.

    2015-03-01

    Indium oxide (In2O3) thin films are successfully deposited on glass substrate at different deposition timings by ultrasonic spray technique using Indium chloride (InCl3) material source witch is prepared with dissolvent Ethanol (C2H5-OH), the physical properties of these films are characterized by XRD, MEB,UV-visible. XRD analysis revealed that the films are polycrystalline in nature having centered cubic crystal structure and symmetry space group I213 with a preferred grain orientation along to (222) plane when the deposition time changes from 4 to 10 min but after t = 10 min, especially when t = 13 min we found that the majority of grains preferred the plane (400). The maximum value of grain size D = 61,51 nm is attained for In2O3 films grown at t =10 min. the average transmittance is about 72%, The optical gap energy is found to decrease from 3.8 to 3.66 eV with growth time Increased from 4 to 10 min but after t = 10 min the value of Eg will increase to 3.72 eV. A systematic study on the influence of growth time on the properties of In2O3 thin films deposited by ultrasonic spray at 400 °C has been reported.

  10. Expression of an oxalate decarboxylase impairs the necrotic effect induced by Nep1-like protein (NLP) of Moniliophthora perniciosa in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Leonardo F; Dias, Cristiano V; Cidade, Luciana C; Mendes, Juliano S; Pirovani, Carlos P; Alvim, Fátima C; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Aragão, Francisco J L; Cascardo, Júlio C M; Costa, Marcio G C

    2011-07-01

    Oxalic acid (OA) and Nep1-like proteins (NLP) are recognized as elicitors of programmed cell death (PCD) in plants, which is crucial for the pathogenic success of necrotrophic plant pathogens and involves reactive oxygen species (ROS). To determine the importance of oxalate as a source of ROS for OA- and NLP-induced cell death, a full-length cDNA coding for an oxalate decarboxylase (FvOXDC) from the basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes, which converts OA into CO(2) and formate, was overexpressed in tobacco plants. The transgenic plants contained less OA and more formic acid compared with the control plants and showed enhanced resistance to cell death induced by exogenous OA and MpNEP2, an NLP of the hemibiotrophic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa. This resistance was correlated with the inhibition of ROS formation in the transgenic plants inoculated with OA, MpNEP2, or a combination of both PCD elicitors. Taken together, these results have established a pivotal function for oxalate as a source of ROS required for the PCD-inducing activity of OA and NLP. The results also indicate that FvOXDC represents a potentially novel source of resistance against OA- and NLP-producing pathogens such as M. perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.).

  11. Evaluation the effect of energetic particles in solar flares on satellite's life time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, Z.; Davoudifar, P.

    2016-09-01

    As the satellites have a multiple role in the humans' life, their damages and therefore logical failures of their segment causes problems and lots of expenses. So evaluating different types of failures in their segments has a crustal role. Solar particles are one of the most important reasons of segment damages (hard and soft) during a solar event or in usual times. During a solar event these particle may cause extensive damages which are even permanent (hard errors). To avoid these effects and design shielding mediums, we need to know SEP (solar energetic particles) flux and MTTF (mean time between two failures) of segments. In the present work, we calculated SEP flux witch collide the satellite in common times, in different altitudes. OMERE software was used to determine the coordinates and specifications of a satellite which in simulations has been launched to space. Then we considered a common electronic computer part and calculated MTTF for it. In the same way the SEP fluxes were calculated during different solar flares of different solar cycles and MTFFs were evaluated during occurring of solar flares. Thus a relation between solar flare energy and life time of the satellite electronic part (hours) was obtained.

  12. Modeling and real time simulation of an HVDC inverter feeding a weak AC system based on commutation failure study.

    PubMed

    Mankour, Mohamed; Khiat, Mounir; Ghomri, Leila; Chaker, Abdelkader; Bessalah, Mourad

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents modeling and study of 12-pulse HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) based on real time simulation where the HVDC inverter is connected to a weak AC system. In goal to study the dynamic performance of the HVDC link, two serious kind of disturbance are applied at HVDC converters where the first one is the single phase to ground AC fault and the second one is the DC link to ground fault. The study is based on two different mode of analysis, which the first is to test the performance of the DC control and the second is focalized to study the effect of the protection function on the system behavior. This real time simulation considers the strength of the AC system to witch is connected and his relativity with the capacity of the DC link. The results obtained are validated by means of RT-lab platform using digital Real time simulator Hypersim (OP-5600), the results carried out show the effect of the DC control and the influence of the protection function to reduce the probability of commutation failures and also for helping inverter to take out from commutation failure even while the DC control fails to eliminate them. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of filter designs on hydraulic properties and well efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Woo

    2014-09-01

    To analyze the effect of filter pack arrangement on the hydraulic properties and the well efficiency of a well design, a step drawdown was conducted in a sand-filled tank model. Prior to the test, a single filter pack (SFP), granule only, and two dual filter packs (DFPs), type A (granule-pebble) and type B (pebble-granule), were designed to surround the well screen. The hydraulic properties and well efficiencies related to the filter packs were evaluated using the Hazen's, Eden-Hazel's, Jacob's, and Labadie-Helweg's methods. The results showed that the hydraulic properties and well efficiency of the DFPs were higher than those of a SFP, and the clogging effect and wellhead loss related to the aquifer material were the lowest owing to the grain size and the arrangement of the filter pack. The hydraulic conductivity of the DFPs types A and B was about 1.41 and 6.43 times that of a SFP, respectively. In addition, the well efficiency of the DFPs types A and B was about 1.38 and 1.60 times that of the SFP, respectively. In this study, hydraulic property and well efficiency changes were observed according to the variety of the filter pack used. The results differed from the predictions of previous studies on the grain-size ratio. Proper pack-aquifer ratios and filter pack arrangements are primary factors in the construction of efficient water wells, as is the grain ratio, intrinsic permeability (k), and hydraulic conductivity (K) between the grains of the filter packs and the grains of the aquifer. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  14. TIME EVOLUTION OF PLASMA PARAMETERS DURING THE RISE OF A SOLAR PROMINENCE INSTABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Orozco Suárez, D.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Trujillo Bueno, J.

    We present high-spatial resolution spectropolarimetric observations of a quiescent hedgerow prominence taken in the He I 1083.0 nm triplet. The observation consisted of a time series in sit-and-stare mode of ∼36 minutes duration. The spectrograph's slit crossed the prominence body and we recorded the time evolution of individual vertical threads. Eventually, we observed the development of a dark Rayleigh-Taylor plume that propagated upward with a velocity, projected onto the plane of the sky, of 17 km s{sup –1}. Interestingly, the plume apex collided with the prominence threads pushing them aside. We inferred Doppler shifts, Doppler widths, and magnetic field strength variations bymore » interpreting the He I Stokes profiles with the HAZEL code. The Doppler shifts show that clusters of threads move coherently while individual threads have oscillatory patterns. Regarding the plume we found strong redshifts (∼9-12 km s{sup –1}) and large Doppler widths (∼10 km s{sup –1}) at the plume apex when it passed through the prominence body and before it disintegrated. We associate the redshifts with perspective effects while the Doppler widths are more likely due to an increase in the local temperature. No local variations of the magnetic field strength associated with the passage of the plume were found; this leads us to conclude that the plumes are no more magnetized than the surroundings. Finally, we found that some of the threads' oscillations are locally damped, what allowed us to apply prominence seismology techniques to infer additional prominence physical parameters.« less

  15. Observations of Ellerman bomb emission features in He I D3 and He I 10 830 Å

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libbrecht, Tine; Joshi, Jayant; Rodríguez, Jaime de la Cruz; Leenaarts, Jorrit; Ramos, Andrés Asensio

    2017-02-01

    Context. Ellerman bombs (EBs) are short-lived emission features, characterised by extended wing emission in hydrogen Balmer lines. Until now, no distinct signature of EBs has been found in the He I 10 830 Å line, and conclusive observations of EBs in He I D3 have never been reported. Aims: We aim to study the signature of EBs in neutral helium triplet lines. Methods: The observations consisted of ten consecutive SST/TRIPPEL raster scans close to the limb, featuring the Hβ, He I D3 and He I 10 830 Å spectral regions. We also obtained raster scans with IRIS and made use of the SDO/AIA 1700 Å channel. We used Hazel to invert the neutral helium triplet lines. Results: Three EBs in our data show distinct emission signatures in neutral helium triplet lines, most prominently visible in the He I D3 line. The helium lines have two components: a broad and blueshifted emission component associated with the EB, and a narrower absorption component formed in the overlying chromosphere. One of the EBs in our data shows evidence of strong velocity gradients in its emission component. The emission component of the other two EBs could be fitted using a constant slab. Our analysis hints towards thermal Doppler motions having a large contribution to the broadening for helium and IRIS lines. We conclude that the EBs must have high temperatures to exhibit emission signals in neutral helium triplet lines. An order of magnitude estimate places our observed EBs in the range of T 2 × 104-105 K. Movies associated to Figs. 3-5 are available at http://www.aanda.org

  16. [The contribution of food and airborne allergens in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Dynowska, Dorota; Kolarzyk, Emilia; Schlegel-Zawadzka, Małgorzata; Dynowski, Wojciech

    2002-01-01

    Food hypersensitivity and airborne allergens may play a role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the kind of food and airborne allergens which may most often induce and intensify AD lesions and also to assess the variability and the kind of allergens leading to AD. The subjects of this study were 610 persons, aged 3 months-70 years. The clinical status of the patients was estimated by an atopic dermatitis symptom score scale (SCORAD). The laboratory examinations differentiated inflammatory processes from allergic reactions. The skin prick tests (SPT), serum total IgE and specific IgE-antibody levels to chosen food products and standard airborne allergens with the immuno-enzymes method ELISA-DPC were performed. The elevated values of the total IgE were proved in 46.1% children from group 0-15 years and in 31.4% of adolescents and adult persons (above 15 year of age). On the basis of positive SPT and positive specific IgE values it was shown, that most frequent food allergens were: egg protein (13.0%), cow milk (9.5%), egg yolk (8.4%), wheat (3.6%) and chocolate (1.8%). The most often airborne allergens connected with AD were: grass (11.6%), moulds (10.2%), house dust mites (9.3%), pollen like hazel (8.0%) and weeds (6.7%), animal allergens coming from cats (7.2%) and dogs (6.1%). The food hypersensitivity was particularly manifested in children. It may be the predictor of potential future development of allergic disease as well as the indicator of the allergic march.

  17. Design of a decision tool for hydromorphological restoration of water bodies in Walloon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambot, Francis; de Le Court, Bernard; Petit, François; Hallot, Eric; Peeters, Alexandre; Descy, Jean-Pierre; Verniers, Gisèle; Latli, Adrien

    2010-05-01

    The pilot project WALPHY (LIFE + Environment LIFE07 ENV/B/000038, UE-funded) develops a structured approach aiming at improving hydromorphological quality of the upstream Meuse basin in order to achieve the "good ecological status" required by the Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60). It began in January 2009 for a period of 5 years. River's biological recovery needs the recovery of river's structure and physical dynamics. Returning to "good ecological status" inevitably involves physical restoration of affected rivers. Physical component of aquatic environment acts as a limiting factor for their functioning. Three types of modification are key obstacles for river good ecological status: (i) fluxes alteration (discharge, sedimentation…), (ii) forms alteration (uniform facies…) and (iii) biotopes access alteration (lateral connections breaks, modification of the continuity upstream/downstream…). Therefore hydromorphology is needed to implement the WFD. To respond to this legal necessity, we develop a unique, useful and suitable methodology in Walloon Region to determine and schedule river physical quality restoration works. This methodology has been applied on 3 "risk water bodies". The works are based on two axes : longitudinal continuity and transversal continuity. The two first selected water bodies (Bocq river, eastern tributary of the Meuse) seem to be convenient for the restoration works which concern the longitudinal continuity due to the presence of dams and other obstacles usually between 1 and 3 m high. These works consist in dam management (weir removal or fish passage) taking into account hydromorphological (bedload transport) and biological (invertebrate or fish species free movement) impacts. The third water bodies (Eau Blanche river, western tributary of the Meuse) presents straightened rivers with artificial banks, witch consequently own bad connections between the stream and its floodplain. This water bodies should therefore be appropriated

  18. The Role of Eolian Sediment in the Preservation of Archeologic Sites Along the Colorado River Corridor in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Rubin, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Since the closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, the natural hydrologic and sedimentary systems along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon reach have changed substantially (see, for example, Andrews, 1986; Johnson and Carothers, 1987; Webb and others, 1999b; Rubin and others, 2002; Topping and others, 2003; Wright and others, 2005; Hazel and others, 2006b). The dam has reduced the fluvial sediment supply at the upstream boundary of Grand Canyon National Park by about 95 percent. Regulation of river discharge by dam operations has important implications for the storage and redistribution of sediment in the Colorado River corridor. In the absence of floods, sediment is not deposited at elevations that regularly received sediment before dam closure. Riparian vegetation has colonized areas at lower elevations than in predam time when annual floods removed young vegetation (Turner and Karpiscak, 1980). Together, these factors have caused a systemwide decrease in the size and number of subaerially exposed fluvial sand deposits since the 1960s, punctuated by episodic aggradation during the exceptional high-flow intervals in 1983-84, 1996, and 2004 and by sediment input from occasional tributary floods (Beus and others, 1985; Schmidt and Graf, 1987; Kearsley and others, 1994; Hazel and others, 1999; Schmidt and others, 2004; Wright and others, 2005). When the Bureau of Reclamation sponsored the creation of the Glen Canyon Environmental Studies (GCES) research initiative in 1982, research objectives included physical and biologic resources, whereas the effects of dam operations on cultural resources were not addressed (Fairley and others, 1994; Fairley, 2003). In the early 1980s, it was widely believed that because few archeologic sites were preserved within the river's annual-flood zone, cultural features would not be greatly affected by dam operations. Recent studies, however, indicate that alterations in the flow and sediment load of the Colorado River by Glen Canyon Dam

  19. Biometric template revocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Craig M.

    2004-08-01

    Biometric are a powerful technology for identifying humans both locally and at a distance. In order to perform identification or verification biometric systems capture an image of some biometric of a user or subject. The image is then converted mathematical to representation of the person call a template. Since we know that every human in the world is different each human will have different biometric images (different fingerprints, or faces, etc.). This is what makes biometrics useful for identification. However unlike a credit card number or a password to can be given to a person and later revoked if it is compromised and biometric is with the person for life. The problem then is to develop biometric templates witch can be easily revoked and reissued which are also unique to the user and can be easily used for identification and verification. In this paper we develop and present a method to generate a set of templates which are fully unique to the individual and also revocable. By using bases set compression algorithms in an n-dimensional orthogonal space we can represent a give biometric image in an infinite number of equally valued and unique ways. The verification and biometric matching system would be presented with a given template and revocation code. The code will then representing where in the sequence of n-dimensional vectors to start the recognition.

  20. Proteus rebound: reconsidering the "torture of nature".

    PubMed

    Pesic, Peter

    2008-06-01

    Though Carolyn Merchant has agreed that Francis Bacon did not advocate the "torture of nature," she still maintains that "the very essence of the experimental method arose out of human torture transferred onto nature." Her arguments do not address serious problems of logic, context, and contrary evidence. Her particular insistence on the influence of the torture of witches ignores Bacon's skepticism about witchcraft as superstitious or imaginary. Nor do the writings of his successors sustain her claim that they carried forward his supposed program to abuse nature. We should be wary of metaphorical generalizations that ignore the context of the metaphor, the larger intent of the writers, and the fundamental limitations of such metaphors as descriptions of science. There are no scientific methods which alone lead to knowledge! We have to tackle things experimentally, now angry with them and now kind, and be successively just, passionate, and cold with them. One person addresses things as a policeman, a second as a father confessor, a third as an inquisitive wanderer. Something can be wrung from them now with sympathy, now with force; reverence for their secrets will take one person forwards, indiscretion and roguishness in revealing their secrets will do the same for another. We investigators are, like all conquerors, discoverers, seafarers, adventurers, of an audacious morality and must reconcile ourselves to being considered on the whole evil.

  1. William Harvey, Aristotle and astrology.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    In this paper I argue that William Harvey believed in a form of astrology. It has long been known that Harvey employed a macrocosm-microcosm analogy and used alchemical terminology in describing how the two types of blood change into one another. This paper then seeks to examine a further aspect of Harvey in relation to the magical tradition. There is an important corollary to this line of thought, however. This is that while Harvey does have a belief in astrology, it is strongly related to Aristotle's views in this area and is quite restricted and attenuated relative to some contemporary beliefs in astrology. This suggests a more general thesis. While Harvey was amenable to ideas which we associate with the natural magic tradition, those ideas had a very broad range of formulation and there was a limit to how far he would accept them. This limit was largely determined by Harvey's adherence to Aristotle's natural philosophy and his Christian beliefs. I argue that this is also the case in relation to Harvey's use of the macrocosm-microcosm analogy and of alchemical terminology, and, as far as we can rely on the evidence, this informs his attitudes towards witches as well. Understanding Harvey's influences and motives here is important in placing him properly in the context of early seventeenth-century thought.

  2. High-resolution transcript profiling of the atypical biotrophic interaction between Theobroma cacao and the fungal pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Thomazella, Daniela Paula de Toledo; Reis, Osvaldo; do Prado, Paula Favoretti Vital; do Rio, Maria Carolina Scatolin; Fiorin, Gabriel Lorencini; José, Juliana; Costa, Gustavo Gilson Lacerda; Negri, Victor Augusti; Mondego, Jorge Maurício Costa; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2014-11-01

    Witches' broom disease (WBD), caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, is one of the most devastating diseases of Theobroma cacao, the chocolate tree. In contrast to other hemibiotrophic interactions, the WBD biotrophic stage lasts for months and is responsible for the most distinctive symptoms of the disease, which comprise drastic morphological changes in the infected shoots. Here, we used the dual RNA-seq approach to simultaneously assess the transcriptomes of cacao and M. perniciosa during their peculiar biotrophic interaction. Infection with M. perniciosa triggers massive metabolic reprogramming in the diseased tissues. Although apparently vigorous, the infected shoots are energetically expensive structures characterized by the induction of ineffective defense responses and by a clear carbon deprivation signature. Remarkably, the infection culminates in the establishment of a senescence process in the host, which signals the end of the WBD biotrophic stage. We analyzed the pathogen's transcriptome in unprecedented detail and thereby characterized the fungal nutritional and infection strategies during WBD and identified putative virulence effectors. Interestingly, M. perniciosa biotrophic mycelia develop as long-term parasites that orchestrate changes in plant metabolism to increase the availability of soluble nutrients before plant death. Collectively, our results provide unique insight into an intriguing tropical disease and advance our understanding of the development of (hemi)biotrophic plant-pathogen interactions. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  3. The mitochondrial genome of the phytopathogenic basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa is 109 kb in size and contains a stable integrated plasmid.

    PubMed

    Formighieri, Eduardo F; Tiburcio, Ricardo A; Armas, Eduardo D; Medrano, Francisco J; Shimo, Hugo; Carels, Nicolas; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles; Cotomacci, Carolina; Carazzolle, Marcelo F; Sardinha-Pinto, Naiara; Thomazella, Daniela P T; Rincones, Johana; Digiampietri, Luciano; Carraro, Dirce M; Azeredo-Espin, Ana M; Reis, Sérgio F; Deckmann, Ana C; Gramacho, Karina; Gonçalves, Marilda S; Moura Neto, José P; Barbosa, Luciana V; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Cascardo, Júlio C M; Pereira, Gonçalo A G

    2008-10-01

    We present here the sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the basidiomycete phytopathogenic hemibiotrophic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, causal agent of the Witches' Broom Disease in Theobroma cacao. The DNA is a circular molecule of 109,103 base pairs, with 31.9% GC, and is the largest sequenced so far. This size is due essentially to the presence of numerous non-conserved hypothetical ORFs. It contains the 14 genes coding for proteins involved in the oxidative phosphorylation, the two rRNA genes, one ORF coding for a ribosomal protein (rps3), and a set of 26 tRNA genes that recognize codons for all amino acids. Seven homing endonucleases are located inside introns. Except atp8, all conserved known genes are in the same orientation. Phylogenetic analysis based on the cox genes agrees with the commonly accepted fungal taxonomy. An uncommon feature of this mitochondrial genome is the presence of a region that contains a set of four, relatively small, nested, inverted repeats enclosing two genes coding for polymerases with an invertron-type structure and three conserved hypothetical genes interpreted as the stable integration of a mitochondrial linear plasmid. The integration of this plasmid seems to be a recent evolutionary event that could have implications in fungal biology. This sequence is available under GenBank accession number AY376688.

  4. The mensuration of delayed luminescence on ginseng

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Fenghua; Bai, Hua; Tang, Guoqing

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, the delayed luminescence of ginseng produced from two different areas was determined with the self built bioluminescence detecting system. And the attenuation curve of bioluminescence of the experimental samples were studied, before and after the samples extracted by 58% alcohol. We primarily gave out the parameters describing emitting characteristic. Using the method of optic induced bioluminescence, we also determined the weak luminescence emitting from the ginseng tuber, and find the intensity and decay time having obvious difference from skin and core, with these data we can distinguish the producing area and feature of the ginseng. In the experiment, the light-induce luminescence of the sample was menstruated, which has been infused by water and 58% alcohol; the difference between two kinds of samples which were infused and not infused has been delivered. In order to investigate the effect of excitation-light spectrum component to delayed luminescence of ginseng, a light filter witch allow a wavelength scope of 225nm~420nm pass through was installed between the light source and sample, keeping other work condition unchanged, the bioluminescence was also determined. For investigating the effect of extracting to emitting, the absorption spectrum of above samples ware studied, and the time-sequence of absorption spectrum was obtained. Based on the data obtained from our experiment, we analyzed the radiation mechanism of ginseng slice and tuber.

  5. Cacao diseases: a global perspective from an industry point of view.

    PubMed

    Hebbar, Prakash K

    2007-12-01

    ABSTRACT Diseases of cacao, Theobroma cacao, account for losses of more than 30% of the potential crop. These losses have caused a steady decline in production and a reduction in bean quality in almost all the cacao-producing areas in the world, especially in small-holder farms in Latin America and West Africa. The most significant diseases are witches' broom, caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa, which occurs mainly in South America; frosty pod rot, caused by M. roreri, which occurs mainly in Central and northern South America; and black pod disease, caused by several species of Phytophthora, which are distributed throughout the tropics. In view of the threat that these diseases pose to the sustainability of the cacao crop, Mars Inc. and their industry partners have funded collaborative research involving cacao research institutes and governmental and nongovernmental agencies. The objective of this global initiative is to develop short- to medium-term, low-cost, environmentally friendly disease-management strategies until disease tolerant varieties are widely available. These include good farming practices, biological control and the rational or minimal use of chemicals that could be used for integrated pest management (IPM). Farmer field schools are used to get these technologies to growers. This paper describes some of the key collaborative partners and projects that are underway in South America and West Africa.

  6. [The importance of testosterone in the treatment of metabolic syndrome in men].

    PubMed

    Kempisty-Zdebik, Ewa; Zdebik, Aleksander

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency syndrome is being seen in increasing percentage of men with middle and old age. Besides the typical deterioration of sexual function there is predisposition to metabolic syndrome and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The similarity of the effects of testosterone substitution and the dietary treatment led the authors to a retrospective analysis of patient data treated for testosterone deficiency syndrome. Data on 341 patients aged over 45 years with metabolic syndrome and diabetes, meeting criteria for the diagnosis of testosterone deficiency syndrome were divided into 5 groups: T--testosterone substitution without additional diet, T-Low-Carb--testosterone and low carbohydrate diet, T-Fat-Low--testosterone and low fat diet, Carb-Low--only low carbohydrate diet, Fat-Low--only low fat diet. We analyzed change in body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HbAlc, HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels within 6 months from the start of observation. The best results of all investigated parameters were obtained in patients treated with testosterone and low-carbohydrate diet and in the group treated with testosterone and low-fat diet. Slightly worse results in the group received the same diets and the worst in the group treated only with testosterone. The improvement obtained in the total testosterone therapy and diet was much greater than the simple sum of the effects of both methods witch suggests the existence of synergies.

  7. Preferential Feeding and Occupation of Sunlit Leaves Favors Defense Response and Development in the Flea Beetle, Altica brevicollis coryletorum – A Pest of Corylus avellana

    PubMed Central

    Łukowski, Adrian; Giertych, Marian J.; Zadworny, Marcin; Mucha, Joanna; Karolewski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The monophagous beetle, Altica brevicollis coryletorum, is a major leaf pest of Corylus avellana (common hazel). In contrast to majority of the other studied species of shrubs, sunlit leaves are grazed to a much greater extent than shaded leaves. Since the observation of a link between leaf irradiance level and A. brevicollis feeding is unique, we hypothesized that feeding preference of this beetle species is related to the speed needed to escape threats i.e. faster jumping. We also hypothesized that sunlit leaves are more nutritious and easier to consume than the leaves of shaded shrubs. Results indicated that beetle mass was greater in beetles occupying sunlit leaves, which is consistent with our second hypothesis. The study also confirmed under laboratory conditions, that larvae, pupae and beetles that were fed full-light (100% of full light) leaves were significantly heavier than those fed with shaded leaves (15% of full light). In the high irradiance conditions (higher temperature) duration of larval development is also reduced. Further results indicated that neither the concentration of soluble phenols, leaf toughness, or the number of trichomes could explain the insect’s preference for sunlit leaves. Notably, measurements of jump length of beetles of this species, both in the field and under laboratory conditions, indicated that the defense pattern related to jumping was associated with light conditions. The jump length of beetles in the sun was significantly higher than in the shade. Additionally, in laboratory tests, beetle defense (jumping) was more strongly affected by temperature (15, 25, or 35°C for 24h) than by leaf type. The effect of sunlit, higher nutrient leaves (greater level of non-structural carbohydrates) on defense (jumping) appears to be indirect, having a positive effect on insect mass in all developmental stages. PMID:25927706

  8. Lack of tumour pigmentation in conjunctival melanoma is associated with light iris colour and worse prognosis.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Niels J; Marinkovic, Marina; Luyten, Gregorius P M; Shields, Carol L; Jager, Martine J

    2018-05-18

    To investigate whether differences in iris colour, skin colour and tumour pigmentation are related to clinical outcome in conjunctival melanoma. Data of 70 patients with conjunctival melanoma from the Leiden University Medical Center (Leiden, The Netherlands) and 374 patients from the Wills Eye Hospital (Philadephia, USA) were reviewed. The relation between iris colour, skin colour and tumour pigmentation versus clinical parameters and outcome was investigated using univariate and multivariate regression analyses. A light iris colour (blue, grey, green) was present in 261 (59%) patients and a dark colour (hazel, brown) in 183 (41%). A low tumour pigmentation was detected in 130 (40%) and a high pigmentation in 197 (60%) patients. Low tumour pigmentation was associated with light iris colour (p=0.021) but not related to skin colour (p=0.92). In univariate analysis, neither iris nor skin colour was related to clinical outcome, while a low tumour pigmentation was related to metastasis formation (HR 2.37, p=0.004) and death (HR 2.42, p=0.020). In multivariate analysis, low tumour pigmentation was related to the development of recurrences (HR 1.63, p=0.043), metastasis formation (HR 2.48, p=0.004) and death (HR 2.60, p=0.014). Lightly pigmented tumours occurred especially in individuals with lightly coloured irises. While iris colour or skin colour was not significantly related to clinical outcome, a low tumour pigmentation was related to a worse outcome in patients with conjunctival melanoma. The amount and type of melanin in conjunctival melanocytes may be involved in the pathogenesis and behaviour of selected conjunctival melanoma. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. [Threshold pollen count necessary to evoke allergic symptoms].

    PubMed

    Rapiejko, Piotr; Stanlaewicz, Wanda; Szczygielski, Kornel; Jurkiewicz, Dariusz

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between clinical picture of allergic disease and the level of pollen count the patients are exposed to. We analyzed the severity of allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis and bronchial asthma in a group of 640 subjects from Warsaw area with hypersensitivity to hazel, alder, grass, mugwort, plantain, nettle, Alternaria and Cladosporium allergens. Aerobiological measurements, patients' symptoms score cards and the results of physical examination were analyzed. First symptoms in patients allergic to grass were visible during exposure to the concentration of 20 pollen grains in 1 m3 of air (25% subjects sensitised to grass pollen). Symptoms were noted in all the subjects sensitized to grass pollen at a concentration of approximately 50 grains/m3 of air. During exposure to the concentration of 65 pollen grains per m3 the symptoms were strengthened. Several hours' exposure to grass pollen concentration exceeding 120 grains/m3 cause dyspnoea in some patients. Similar intensive symptoms occurred after exposure to alder, birch and mugwort pollen. Patients with positive skin prick tests to plantain and nettle pollen allergens experienced symptoms of low intensity or even none symptoms during pollination period. Subjects with hypersensitivity to Alternaria allergens experienced symptoms during exposure to the concentration of approximately 80 spores in 1 m3 of air, while patients sensitised to Cladosporium allergens, during exposure to the concentration of over 2800 spores in 1 m3 of air. The dominant symptom occurring in patients sensitized to fungal allergens was loss of nasal patency, and dyspnoea as well as recurring cough at higher concentrations. Clinical symptoms of allergic disease were connected to the concentration and the kind of aeroallergen the subjects were exposed to.

  10. Comparative measurements of transpiration and canopy conductance in two mixed deciduous woodlands differing in structure and species composition.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Mathias; Rosier, Paul T W; Morecroft, Michael D; Gowing, David J

    2008-06-01

    Transpiration of two heterogeneous broad-leaved woodlands in southern England was monitored by the sap flux technique throughout the 2006 growing season. Grimsbury Wood, which had a leaf area index (LAI) of 3.9, was dominated by oak (Quercus robur L.) and birch (Betula pubescens L.) and had a continuous hazel (Corylus avellana L.) understory. Wytham Woods, which had an LAI of 3.6, was dominated by ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and had only a sparse understory. Annual canopy transpiration was 367 mm for Grimsbury Wood and 397 mm for Wytham Woods. These values were similar to those for beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) plantations in the same region, and differ from one another by less than the typical margin of uncertainty of the sap flux technique. Canopy conductance (g(c)), calculated for both woodlands by inverting the Penman-Monteith equation, was related to incoming solar radiation (R(G)) and the vapor pressure deficit (D). The response of g(c) to R(G) was similar for both forests. Both reference conductance (g(cref)), defined as g(c) at D=1 kPa, and stomatal sensitivity (-m), defined as the slope of the logarithmic response curve of g(c) to D, increased during the growing season at Wytham Woods but not at Grimsbury Wood. The -m/g(cref) ratio was significantly lower at Wytham Woods than at Grimsbury Wood and was insufficient to keep the difference between leaf and soil water potentials constant, according to a simple hydraulic model. This meant that annual water consumption of the two woodlands was similar despite different regulatory mechanisms and associated short-term variations in canopy transpiration. The -m/g(cref) ratio depended on the range of D under which the measurements were made. This was shown to be particularly important for studies conducted under low and narrow ranges of D.

  11. Preboreal climate oscillations in Europe: Wiggle-match dating and synthesis of Dutch high-resolution multi-proxy records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Johanna A. A.; van Geel, Bas; van der Plicht, Johannes; Bohncke, Sjoerd J. P.

    2007-08-01

    In order to compare environmental and inferred climatic change during the Preboreal in The Netherlands, five terrestrial records were analysed. Detailed multi-proxy analyses including microfossils (e.g., pollen, spores, algae, and fungal spores), macroremains (e.g., seeds, fruits, wood, mosses, etc.), and loss on ignition measurements were carried out with high temporal resolution. To link the five Preboreal records, accurate chronologies were produced by AMS 14C wiggle-match dating. The Dutch records show that following the Lateglacial/Holocene climate warming, birch woodlands expanded between 11,530 and 11,500 cal BP during the Friesland Phase of the Preboreal. After the Friesland Phase, two distinct climatic shifts could be inferred: (1) around 11,430-11,350 cal BP the expansion of birch forests was interrupted by a dry continental phase with open grassland vegetation, the Rammelbeek Phase. This phase was coeval with the coldest part of the Preboreal oscillation (PBO) as observed in the δ 18O record of the Greenland ice-core records and has been attributed to a large meltwater flux that resulted in a temporary decrease of the thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic. (2) At the start of the Late Preboreal, between 11,270 and 11,210 cal BP, a sudden shift to a more humid climate occurred and birch forests expanded again. A simultaneous increase in the cosmogenic nuclides 14C and 10Be suggests that these changes in climate and vegetation were forced by a sudden decline in solar activity. Expansion of pine occurred during the later part of the Late Preboreal. At the onset of the Boreal, between 10,770 and 10,700 cal BP, dense woodlands with hazel, oak, elm and pine started to develop in The Netherlands.

  12. Clinical trial shows lasting function of a new moisturizing cream against vaginal dryness.

    PubMed

    Henneicke-von Zepelin, Hans-Heinrich; Williams, Ragna; Havemeister, Wiebke; Wigger-Alberti, Walter; Nolte, Klaus-Ulrich

    2017-05-01

    Vaginal dryness and associated symptoms may occur in women of any age and are a frequent burden after menopause. The North American Menopause Society recommends long-acting non-hormonal vaginal creams as first-line therapy. A new type of such creams was developed (Remifemin® FeuchtCreme in Austria and Germany). This hormone-free cream contains hamamelis virginiana distillate and well-established vaginal cream ingredients. We explored its physical function and tolerability in an open interventional clinical trial. 20 postmenopausal women (54 to 76 years, median 60) treated their vaginal dryness using this cream once daily for 7 days and reported about their symptoms before, 4 to 8 h after first and 14 to 22 h after last application. A physician assessed tolerability and local physical function. All patients completed the study. Local physical function significantly improved from dryness at baseline (mean 4.0 ± SD 1.8) to a normal moisture level, on average (6.3 ± 2.1 after first, 6.7 ± 2.1 after last application, p = 0.0001). Subjective assessment of a feeling vaginal dryness showed a significant improvement at both times (p = 0.0001). Onset and duration of feeling moisturized were reported to be 0 to 2 min and 11.3 ± 6.9 h after application. All women reported vaginal dryness at baseline. 55 and 80% of patients reported no dryness after first application and at the end of the investigation. The cream was seen at the application site for up to 21 h. Tolerability assessments did not reveal any relevant change over time. There were four adverse events in 4 patients, all not serious and of mild intensity: urinary urgency (2), diarrhoea (1) and mild spotting after first application (1). The latter was caused by the dry surface of the applicator and was avoided by moisturizing the surface of the applicator at subsequent applications. In conclusion, these study results indicate a well-tolerated and long-acting function of this new

  13. Celiac disease in children from Madeira island and its prevalence in first degree relatives.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Joana Raquel Henriques; Cabral, António Jorge; Ferreira, Elena; Capelinha, Filipa; Spínola, Hélder; Gonçalves, Rute

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that celiac disease is an immune-mediated systemic disorder highly prevalent among relatives of celiac patients. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of celiac disease in a group of first degree relatives of celiac children, and to access the frequency of human leukocyte antigen HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 in celiac disease patients and their affected relatives. A survey was conducted of 39 children with celiac disease with follow-up in the Pediatric outpatient's clinic of Dr. Nélio Mendonça Hospital, in Madeira Island, Portugal. Were invited 110 first degree relatives to undergo serological screen for celiac disease with IgA antibody to human recombinant tissue transglutaminase (IgA-TGG) quantification. In all seropositive relatives, small intestinal biopsy and HLA typing was recommended. HLA- typing was performed in 38 celiac patients, 28/74% DQ2 positive, 1/2% DQ8 positive and 9/24% incomplete DQ2. Positive IgA-TGG was found in five out of the 95 relatives, and CD was diagnosed in three of them. Three relatives had the presence of HLA-DQ2, two were DQ2 incomplete (DQB1*02). The prevalence of celiac disease among first degree celiac patients´ relatives was 3.1%, 4.5 times higher than the general Portuguese population (0,7%) witch reinforces the need of extensive diagnostic screening in this specific group. HLA-DQ2 typing may be a tool in the diagnostic approach.

  14. Search for a Scalar Component in the Weak Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakoucky, Dalibor; Baczyk, Pavel; Ban, Gilles; Beck, Marcus; Breitenfeldt, Martin; Couratin, Claire; Fabian, Xavier; Finlay, Paul; Flechard, Xavier; Friedag, Peter; Glück, Ferenc; Herlert, Alexander; Knecht, Andreas; Kozlov, Valentin; Lienard, Etienne; Porobic, Tomica; Soti, Gergelj; Tandecki, Michael; Vangorp, Simon; Weinheimer, Christian; Wursten, Elise; Severijns, Nathal

    Weak interactions are described by the Standard Model which uses the basic assumption of a pure "V(ector)-A(xial vector)" character for the interaction. However, after more than half a century of model development and experimental testing of its fundamental ingredients, experimental limits for possible admixtures of scalar and/or tensor interactions are still as high as 7%. The WITCH project (Weak Interaction Trap for CHarged particles) at the isotope separator ISOLDE at CERN is trying to probe the structure of the weak interaction in specific low energy β-decays in order to look for possible scalar or tensor components or at least significantly improve the current experimental limits. This worldwide unique experimental setup consisting of a combination of two Penning ion traps and a retardation spectrometer allows to catch, trap and cool the radioactive nuclei provided by the ISOLDE separator, form a cooled and scattering-free radioactive source of β-decaying nuclei and let these nuclei decay at rest. The precise measurement of the shape of the energy spectrum of the recoiling nuclei, the shape of which is very sensitive to the character of the weak interaction, enables searching for a possible admixture of a scalar/tensor component in the dominant vector/axial vector mode. First online measurements with the isotope 35Ar were performed in 2011 and 2012. The current status of the experiment, the data analysis and results as well as extensive simulations will be presented and discussed.

  15. The small phytoplasma virulence effector SAP11 contains distinct domains required for nuclear targeting and CIN-TCP binding and destabilization.

    PubMed

    Sugio, Akiko; MacLean, Allyson M; Hogenhout, Saskia A

    2014-05-01

    Phytoplasmas are insect-transmitted bacterial phytopathogens that secrete virulence effectors and induce changes in the architecture and defense response of their plant hosts. We previously demonstrated that the small (± 10 kDa) virulence effector SAP11 of Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches' Broom (AY-WB) binds and destabilizes Arabidopsis CIN (CINCINNATA) TCP (TEOSINTE-BRANCHED, CYCLOIDEA, PROLIFERATION FACTOR 1 AND 2) transcription factors, resulting in dramatic changes in leaf morphogenesis and increased susceptibility to phytoplasma insect vectors. SAP11 contains a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) that targets this effector to plant cell nuclei. To further understand how SAP11 functions, we assessed the involvement of SAP11 regions in TCP binding and destabilization using a series of mutants. SAP11 mutants lacking the entire N-terminal domain, including the NLS, interacted with TCPs but did not destabilize them. SAP11 mutants lacking the C-terminal domain were impaired in both binding and destabilization of TCPs. These SAP11 mutants did not alter leaf morphogenesis. A SAP11 mutant that did not accumulate in plant nuclei (SAP11ΔNLS-NES) was able to bind and destabilize TCP transcription factors, but instigated weaker changes in leaf morphogenesis than wild-type SAP11. Overall the results suggest that phytoplasma effector SAP11 has a modular organization in which at least three domains are required for efficient CIN-TCP destabilization in plants. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Differences in Health and Illness Beliefs in Zimbabwean Men and Women with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mufunda, Esther; Albin, Björn; Hjelm, Katarina

    2012-01-01

    This study explored beliefs about health and illness that might affect self-care and health-seeking behaviours in Zimbabwean men and women with diabetes. Gender differences were indicated in a previous study but their extent has not been studied. The present study used a qualitative descriptive design with semi-structured interviews to gain a deeper understanding of the phenomena. The sample consisted of 21 participants, 11 females aged 19-61 years (Median 44 years) and 10 males aged 22-65 years (Median 52 years). Qualitative content analysis was used. Health was described as freedom from diseases and enjoying well-being. Both males and females displayed limited knowledge about diabetes and dissimilarities in health-seeking behaviours. Women, in contrast to men, were more active in self-care and used various measures besides drugs as they related to a higher extent the cause of diabetes to supernatural factors like gods and witches. They sought information from self-help groups and help from outside the professional health sector like healers in the folk sector. Prolonged economic disruption also had negative effects towards maintenance of healthy life-styles as both men and women struggled to get money for food and drugs. Thus, the study highlighted that knowledge about diabetes and its management are important for self-care. There is therefore need to develop acceptable and affordable gender- sensitive diabetes care programmes that enhance patient participation, empowerment and promotion of health. PMID:22977655

  17. Genome analysis of the foxtail millet pathogen Sclerospora graminicola reveals the complex effector repertoire of graminicolous downy mildews.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michie; Hiraka, Yukie; Abe, Akira; Yaegashi, Hiroki; Natsume, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Hideko; Takagi, Hiroki; Saitoh, Hiromasa; Win, Joe; Kamoun, Sophien; Terauchi, Ryohei

    2017-11-22

    Downy mildew, caused by the oomycete pathogen Sclerospora graminicola, is an economically important disease of Gramineae crops including foxtail millet (Setaria italica). Plants infected with S. graminicola are generally stunted and often undergo a transformation of flower organs into leaves (phyllody or witches' broom), resulting in serious yield loss. To establish the molecular basis of downy mildew disease in foxtail millet, we carried out whole-genome sequencing and an RNA-seq analysis of S. graminicola. Sequence reads were generated from S. graminicola using an Illumina sequencing platform and assembled de novo into a draft genome sequence comprising approximately 360 Mbp. Of this sequence, 73% comprised repetitive elements, and a total of 16,736 genes were predicted from the RNA-seq data. The predicted genes included those encoding effector-like proteins with high sequence similarity to those previously identified in other oomycete pathogens. Genes encoding jacalin-like lectin-domain-containing secreted proteins were enriched in S. graminicola compared to other oomycetes. Of a total of 1220 genes encoding putative secreted proteins, 91 significantly changed their expression levels during the infection of plant tissues compared to the sporangia and zoospore stages of the S. graminicola lifecycle. We established the draft genome sequence of a downy mildew pathogen that infects Gramineae plants. Based on this sequence and our transcriptome analysis, we generated a catalog of in planta-induced candidate effector genes, providing a solid foundation from which to identify the effectors causing phyllody.

  18. Impact of Climate Change and Anthropogenic Activities in the Dynamics of Land Cover in Mediterranean Steppe West Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si Tayeb, Tayeb

    2016-08-01

    The last thirty years, there is a real dynamic change of land cover with intensive degradation of the natural vegetation especially in arid zone. Indeed, the adverse effects of drought periods from the year 1970 combined with population growth and economic conditions experienced by the country in the 1980s have greatly upset the delicate balance of the natural environment. These adverse effects may result in partial or total disappearance of some natural ecosystems.The objective of this work is to study the distribution of plant formations that constitute the ecosystem typical of west Algeria and their dynamics in time and space, as well as to develop a method to monitor the degradation process and a system capable of effectively protecting areas classified for their plant and animal species.The Landsat satellite images were used to map the vegetation of the study area at a scale of 1:200,000. A comparison was then made between the map obtained from satellite images (Landsat 8) of 2014 and (Landsat 5) of 1987.The results show the following main trends in the distribution patterns of steppe species, a strong decrease of land occupied by steppe of Stipatenacissima and steppe of Artimesiaherba-alba, witch replaced by three taxa Thymelaeamicrophylla, Salsolavermiculata and Peganumharmala. Steppe of Artemisia herbaalba has been transformed by steppe of. taxa Thymelaeamicrophylla, Salsolavermiculata and Lygeumspartum. Woody species such as Quercus ilex and Juniperusphoenicea are characterized by a large regression.

  19. [The horror story--a contribution of horror literature to psychoanalysis].

    PubMed

    Pohl, H

    1985-01-01

    Using the example of the vampire motif origin and psychic function of the ghost-story in context of the pertaining historical situation are presented. A comparison to the development and function of night-mares is drawn.--The vampire motif in Europe originally developed at the end of the Middle Ages. As with the collective madness of witch persecution it was a superstition which was in fact supported by the church of this time. The belief in vampires was used for splitting of, projection and acting-out of taboo aggressive, oral and sexual drives. Although the era of Englightment quenched this superstition, the motif started to crop up in sublimated form: the vampire became a favourite motif in serious as in trivial literature of the 19th century. At first it can be seen as symbolic expression of rejected anxiety and guilt feelings of the bourgoisie after having thrown the absolutistic institution from power. In the course of the century the motif developed increasingly to an enciphered representation of sexuality perverted due to repression and rejection.--Our current social and literary life has now changed--also under the influence of Freuds work. The hypothesis is presented that meanwhile science fiction literature has become the successor of the ghost story, since it allows the preconscious presentation of contemporary anxiety and conflict and their rejection. Since fictions therefore can be viewed as a serious collective nightmare of the second half of the 20th century.

  20. Novel receptor-like kinases in cacao contain PR-1 extracellular domains.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Costa, Gustavo Gilson Lacerda; Fiorin, Gabriel Lorencini; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Mondego, Jorge Maurício Costa

    2013-08-01

    Members of the pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR-1) family are well-known markers of plant defence responses, forming part of the arsenal of the secreted proteins produced on pathogen recognition. Here, we report the identification of two cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) PR-1s that are fused to transmembrane regions and serine/threonine kinase domains, in a manner characteristic of receptor-like kinases (RLKs). These proteins (TcPR-1f and TcPR-1g) were named PR-1 receptor kinases (PR-1RKs). Phylogenetic analysis of RLKs and PR-1 proteins from cacao indicated that PR-1RKs originated from a fusion between sequences encoding PR-1 and the kinase domain of a LecRLK (Lectin Receptor-Like Kinase). Retrotransposition marks surround TcPR-1f, suggesting that retrotransposition was involved in the origin of PR-1RKs. Genes with a similar domain architecture to cacao PR-1RKs were found in rice (Oryza sativa), barrel medic (Medicago truncatula) and a nonphototrophic bacterium (Herpetosiphon aurantiacus). However, their kinase domains differed from those found in LecRLKs, indicating the occurrence of convergent evolution. TcPR-1g expression was up-regulated in the biotrophic stage of witches' broom disease, suggesting a role for PR-1RKs during cacao defence responses. We hypothesize that PR-1RKs transduce a defence signal by interacting with a PR-1 ligand. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  1. Embitterment in War Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Sabic, Dzevad; Sabic, Adela; Batic-Mujanovic, Olivera

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze frequency of embitterment in war veterans with Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It was analyzed 174 subjects (from Health Center Zivinice/ Mental Health Center) through a survey conducted in the period from March 2015 to June 2016, of witch 87 war veterans with PTSD and control subjects 87 war veterans without PTSD. The primary outcome measure was the Post-Traumatic Embitterment Disorder Self-Rating Scale (PTED Scale) who contains 19 items designed to assess features of embitterment reactions to negative life events. Secondary efficacy measures included the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale - V (CAPS), the PTSD CheckList (PCL), the Combat Exposure Scale (CES), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale ( WHOQOL-Bref). All subjects were male. The average age of patients in the group war veterans with PTSD was 52·78 ± 5·99. In the control group average age was 51·42 ± 5·98. Statistical data were analyzed in SPSS statistical program. Comparing the results, t tests revealed significant difference between group veterans with PTSD and control group (t=-21·216, p<0·0001). War veterans group with PTSD (X= 51·41 SD= 8·91), war veterans without PTSD (X=14·39, SD=13·61). Embitterment is frequent in war veterans with PTSD.

  2. Possible Calcite and Magnesium Perchlorate Interaction in the Mars Phoenix Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, K. M.; Sutter, B.; Ming, D. W.; Boynton, W. V.; Quinn, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Lander's TEGA instrument detected a calcium carbonate phase decomposing at high temperatures (approx.700 C) from the Wicked Witch soil sample [1]. TEGA also detected a lower temperature CO2 release between 400 C and 680 C [1]. Possible explanations given for this lower temperature CO2 release include thermal decomposition of Mg or Fe carbonates, a zeolitictype desorption reaction, or combustion of organic compounds in the soil [2]. The detection of 0.6 wt % soluble perchlorate by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) on Phoenix [3] has implications for the possibility of organic molecules in the soil. Ming et al. [4] demonstrated that perchlorates could have oxidized organic compounds to CO2 in TEGA, preventing detection of their characteristic mass fragments. Here, we propose that a perchlorate salt and calcium carbonate present in martian soil reacted to produce the 400 C - 680 C TEGA CO2 release. The parent salts of the perchlorate on Mars are unknown, but geochemical models using WCL data support the possible dominance of Mg-perchlorate salts [5]. Mg(ClO4)2 6H2O is the stable phase at ambient martian conditions [6], and breaks down at lower temperatures than carbonates giving off Cl2 and HCl gas [7,8]. Devlin and Herley [7] report two exotherms at 410-478 C and 473-533 C which correspond to the decomposition of Mg(ClO4)2.

  3. Neural correlates of deception in social contexts in normally developing children

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Susumu; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Thyreau, Benjamin; Tanaka, Mari; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    Deception is related to the ability to inhibit prepotent responses and to engage in mental tasks such as anticipating responses and inferring what another person knows, especially in social contexts. However, the neural correlates of deception processing, which requires mentalizing, remain unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the neural correlates of deception, including mentalization, in social contexts in normally developing children. Healthy right-handed children (aged 8–9 years) were scanned while performing interactive games involving deception. The games varied along two dimensions: the type of reply (deception and truth) and the type of context (social and less social). Participants were instructed to deceive a witch and to tell the truth to a girl. Under the social-context conditions, participants were asked to consider what they inferred about protagonists' preferences from their facial expressions when responding to questions. Under the less-social-context conditions, participants did not need to consider others' preferences. We found a significantly greater response in the right precuneus under the social-context than under less-social-context conditions. Additionally, we found marginally greater activation in the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL) under the deception than under the truth condition. These results suggest that deception in a social context requires not only inhibition of prepotent responses but also engagement in mentalizing processes. This study provides the first evidence of the neural correlates of the mentalizing processes involved in deception in normally developing children. PMID:23730281

  4. Hepatoprotective effect of Taraxacum officinale leaf extract on sodium dichromate-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Brahmi, Dalel; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2016-03-01

    Taraxacum officinale (L.) Weber, commonly known as Dandelion, has been widely used as a folkloric medicine for the treatment of liver and kidney disorders and some women diseases such as breast and uterus cancers. The main objective of the present study was to assess the efficiency of T. officinale leaf extract (TOE) in treating sodium dichromate hazards; it is a major environmental pollutant known for its wide toxic manifestations witch induced liver injury. TOE at a dose of 500 mg/kg b.w was orally administered once per day for 30 days consecutively, followed by 10 mg/kg b.w sodium dichromate was injected (intraperitoneal) for 10 days. Our results using Wistar rats showed that sodium dichromate significantly increased serum biochemical parameters. In the liver, it was found to induce an oxidative stress, evidenced from increase in lipid peroxidation and changes in antioxidative activities. In addition, histopathological observation revealed that sodium dichromate causes acute liver damage, necrosis of hepatocytes, as well as DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, animals that were pretreated with TOE, prior to sodium dichromate administration, showed a significant hepatoprotection, revealed by a significant reduction of sodium dichromate-induced oxidative damage for all tested markers. These finding powerfully supports that TOE was effective in the protection against sodium dichromate-induced hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity and, therefore, suggest a potential therapeutic use of this plant as an alternative medicine for patients with acute liver diseases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Embitterment in War Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sabic, Dzevad; Sabic, Adela; Batic-Mujanovic, Olivera

    2018-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to analyze frequency of embitterment in war veterans with Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Patients and Methods It was analyzed 174 subjects (from Health Center Zivinice/ Mental Health Center) through a survey conducted in the period from March 2015 to June 2016, of witch 87 war veterans with PTSD and control subjects 87 war veterans without PTSD. The primary outcome measure was the Post-Traumatic Embitterment Disorder Self-Rating Scale (PTED Scale) who contains 19 items designed to assess features of embitterment reactions to negative life events. Secondary efficacy measures included the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale - V (CAPS), the PTSD CheckList (PCL), the Combat Exposure Scale (CES), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale (WHOQOL-Bref). All subjects were male. The average age of patients in the group war veterans with PTSD was 52·78 ± 5·99. In the control group average age was 51·42 ± 5·98. Statistical data were analyzed in SPSS statistical program. Results Comparing the results, t tests revealed significant difference between group veterans with PTSD and control group (t=–21·216, p<0·0001). War veterans group with PTSD (X= 51·41 SD= 8·91), war veterans without PTSD (X=14·39, SD=13·61). Conclusion Embitterment is frequent in war veterans with PTSD. PMID:29736102

  6. REFLECT: Logiciel de restitution des reflectances au sol pour l'amelioration de la qualite de l'information extraite des images satellitales a haute resolution spatiale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouroubi, Mohamed Yacine

    Multi-spectral satellite imagery, especially at high spatial resolution (finer than 30 m on the ground), represents an invaluable source of information for decision making in various domains in connection with natural resources management, environment preservation or urban planning and management. The mapping scales may range from local (finer resolution than 5 m) to regional (resolution coarser than 5m). The images are characterized by objects reflectance in the electromagnetic spectrum witch represents the key information in many applications. However, satellite sensor measurements are also affected by parasite input due to illumination and observation conditions, to the atmosphere, to topography and to sensor properties. Two questions have oriented this research. What is the best approach to retrieve surface reflectance with the measured values while taking into account these parasite factors? Is this retrieval a sine qua non condition for reliable image information extraction for the diverse domains of application for the images (mapping, environmental monitoring, landscape change detection, resources inventory, etc.)? The goals we have delineated for this research are as follow: (1) Develop software to retrieve ground reflectance while taking into account the aspects mentioned earlier. This software had to be modular enough to allow improvement and adaptation to diverse remote sensing application problems; and (2) Apply this software in various context (urban, agricultural, forest) and analyse results to evaluate the accuracy gain of extracted information from remote sensing imagery transformed in ground reflectance images to demonstrate the necessity of operating in this way, whatever the type of application. During this research, we have developed a tool to retrieve ground reflectance (the new version of the REFLECT software). This software is based on the formulas (and routines) of the 6S code (Second Simulation of Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum

  7. The buzz on buzz.

    PubMed

    Dye, R

    2000-01-01

    Word-of-mouth promotion has become an increasingly potent force, capable of catapulting products from obscurity into runaway commercial successes. Harry Potter, collapsible scooters, the Chrysler PT Cruiser, and The Blair Witch Project are all recent examples of the considerable power of buzz. Yet many top executives and marketing managers are misinformed about the phenomenon and remain enslaved to some common myths. In her article, author Renée Dye explores the truth behind these myths. Myth 1: Only outrageous or edgy products are buzz-worthy. That's simply not true. The most unlikely products, like prescription drugs, can generate tremendous buzz. Myth 2: Buzz just happens. Not so, says Dye. Buzz is increasingly the result of shrewd marketing tactics in which companies seed a vanguard group, ration supplies, use celebrity endorsements, leverage the power of lists, and initiate grassroots marketing. Myth 3: The best buzz-starters are your best customers. Often, a counterculture has a greater ability to start buzz. Myth 4: To profit from buzz, you must act first and fast. In fact, copycat companies can reap substantial profits if they know when and when not to jump in. Myth 5: The media and advertising are needed to create buzz. When used either too early or too much, the media and advertising can squelch buzz before it ignites. As globalization and brand proliferation continue, writes Dye, buzz may come to dominate the shaping of markets. Indeed, companies that are unable to control buzz may soon find the phenomenon controlling them.

  8. Forest fires impact in semi arid lands in Algeria, analysis and followed of desertification by using remote sensing and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegrar, Ahmed

    The Forest in steppe present ecological diversity, and seen climatic unfavourable conditions in zone and impact of forest fires; we notes deterioration of physical environment particularly, deterioration of natural forest. This deterioration of forests provokes an unbalance of environment witch provokes a process of deterioration advanced in the ultimate stadium is desertification. By elsewhere, where climatic conditions are favourable, the fire is an ecological and acted agent like integral part of evolution of the ecosystems, the specific regeneration of plants are influenced greatly by the regime of fire (season of fire, intensity, interval), who leads to the recuperation of the vegetation of meadow- fire. In this survey we used the pictures ALSAT-1 for detection of zones with risk of forest fire and their impact on the naturals forests in region of Tlemcen. A thematic detailed analysis of forests well attended ecosystems some processing on the picture ALSAT-1, we allowed to identify and classifying the forests in there opinion components flowers. we identified ampleness of fire on this zone also. Some parameters as the slope, the proximity to the road and the forests formations were studied in the goal of determining the zones to risk of forest fire. A crossing of diaper of information in a SIG according to a very determined logic allowed to classify the zones in degree of risk of fire in a middle arid in a forest zone not encouraging the regeneration on the other hand permitting the installation of cash of steppe which encourages the desertification.

  9. Analysis of the Space Propulsion System Problem Using RAVEN

    SciTech Connect

    diego mandelli; curtis smith; cristian rabiti

    This paper presents the solution of the space propulsion problem using a PRA code currently under development at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). RAVEN (Reactor Analysis and Virtual control ENviroment) is a multi-purpose Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) software framework that allows dispatching different functionalities. It is designed to derive and actuate the control logic required to simulate the plant control system and operator actions (guided procedures) and to perform both Monte- Carlo sampling of random distributed events and Event Tree based analysis. In order to facilitate the input/output handling, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and a post-processing data-mining module are available.more » RAVEN allows also to interface with several numerical codes such as RELAP5 and RELAP-7 and ad-hoc system simulators. For the space propulsion system problem, an ad-hoc simulator has been developed and written in python language and then interfaced to RAVEN. Such simulator fully models both deterministic (e.g., system dynamics and interactions between system components) and stochastic behaviors (i.e., failures of components/systems such as distribution lines and thrusters). Stochastic analysis is performed using random sampling based methodologies (i.e., Monte-Carlo). Such analysis is accomplished to determine both the reliability of the space propulsion system and to propagate the uncertainties associated to a specific set of parameters. As also indicated in the scope of the benchmark problem, the results generated by the stochastic analysis are used to generate risk-informed insights such as conditions under witch different strategy can be followed.« less

  10. Limitations of captive breeding in endangered species recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Derrickson, S.R.; Beissenger, S.R.; Wiley, J.W.; Smith, T.B.; Toone, W.D.; Miller, B.

    1996-01-01

    The use of captive breeding in species recovery has grown enormously in recent years, but without a concurrent growth in appreciation of its limitations. Problems with (1) establishing self-sufficient captive populations, (2) poor success in reintroductions, (3.) high costs, (4) domestication, (5) preemption of other recovery techniques, (6) disease outbreaks, and (7) maintaining administrative continuity have all been significant. The technique has often been invoked prematurely and should not normally be employed before a careful field evaluation of costs and benefits of all conservation alternatives has been accomplished and a determination made that captive breeding is essential for species survival. Merely demonstrating that a species population is declining or bas fallen below what may be a minimum viable size does not constitute enough analysis to justify captive breeding as a recovery measure. Captive breeding should be reviewed as a last resort in species recovery and not a prophylactic or long-term solution because of the inexorable genetic and phenotypic changes that occur in captive environments. Captive breeding can play a crucial role in recovery of some species for witch effective alternatives are unavailable in the short term. However, it should not displace habitat and ecosystem protection nor should it be invoked in the absence of comprehensive efforts to maintain or restore populations in wild habitats. Zoological institutions with captive breeding programs should operate under carefully defined conditions of disease prevention and genetic/behavioral management. More important, these institutions should help preserve biodiversity through their capacities for public education, professional training, research, and support of in situ conservation efforts.

  11. Thomas Addis, MD (1881-1949): Scottish-American clinical laboratory researcher, social activist and pioneer of renal medicine.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Frank E

    2011-01-01

    Addis was born and educated in Edinburgh, from the University of which he graduated MB in 1905, and MD in 1908, in which year he also gained membership of Edinburgh's Royal College of Physicians. After researching disordered haemostasis associated with various clinical conditions, he spent over a year in Germany: in Berlin with Dr. E.L. Salkowski learning urinalysis and at Heidelberg under Ludolph von Krehl studying haemophilics. Back in Edinburgh he concluded that the ultimate cause of haemophilia was an 'anatomical defect in the molecule of prothrombin'. He was the first to monitor the effects on plasma clotting times of transfusion of anticoagulated blood into a haemophilic. In 1911 he was recruited by Ray Lyman Wilbur, the first dean of the Stanford University School of Medicine, to investigate metabolic disorders including jaundice, diabetes and ultimately chronic renal disease. In 1917 he described the 'urea ratio'--the mathematical and conceptual forerunner of clearance formulae--and over the next 30 years developed a combined clinical and laboratory service for patients with inexorably failing kidneys. He devised an effective, rational and individually based dietary treatment--some patients such as Linus Pauling, who presented in 1941 with marked nephrosis, responded completely. Addis' Calvinist upbringing gave him a strong sense of 'mission' which during the American Depression developed into support for poverty-stricken workers in America, and against the fascists in Spain. He died before the full development of the 'McCarthy Witch Hunts' of the 1950s, although many associates, including Robert Oppenheimer, were interrogated.

  12. Plants traditionally used to make brooms in several European countries

    PubMed Central

    Nedelcheva, Anely M; Dogan, Yunus; Guarrera, Paolo Maria

    2007-01-01

    Background The research was carried out within the course of two years (2005–2006) in four countries from southern, southeast and eastern parts of Europe: Bulgaria, Italy, Macedonia and Romania. The data are collected mainly from Bulgaria and Italy and are compared with those from Macedonia and Romania. Methods The information was gathered largely from literature as well as field collected data and interviewed informants. A brief questionnaire, referring to the vernacular name, plant description, providing specimens from the plants and brooms, details on their use has been prepared and applied. Results The total number of species as brooms in the study areas is about 108. The list includes two fungi taxa which caused the so-called "Witches' brooms". A high species diversity of 106 taxa of vascular plants, belonging to 37 families and 74 genera, is established in the research area. The investigation includes data about scientific name, family, vernacular name, life form, status (wild or cultivated), used parts and place of use. The relations between the plant characteristics and broom specific shape and working qualities, details of the traditionally broom planting and making, the broom as a part of folklore, traditions and religious rituals are discussed. Conclusion Collected data show how ecological, geographical features and different cultures are related with the variety of plants traditionally used as brooms as well as details for their uses. The data about the variety of plants traditionally used to make brooms and the ways in which they are used according to the specific characteristics of the areas are important for ethnobotanical knowledge. PMID:17475017

  13. The pornographic anatomy book? The curious tale of the Anatomical Basis of Medical Practice.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Edward C

    2009-02-01

    Studying the history of medical education helps teach us that medicine is a social activity that occurs in the context of social mores and customs. In 1971, a major new anatomy textbook aimed at first-year medical students was published. The Anatomical Basis of Medical Practice, written by Professors R. Frederick Becker, James S. W. Wilson, and John A. Gehweiler, emphasized surface anatomy, embryology, and radiographic anatomy. At multiple places in the text, the authors used sexually suggestive and "cheeky" comments about women. A small fraction of the illustrations were stylized, posed female nude photographs purchased from California photographer Peter Gowland. These photographs, of a type typically seen in Playboy centerfolds or "pin-up girl" calendars, produced a firestorm of controversy. The book was criticized in the press and in reviews in scholarly journals, and a boycott was organized by the Association of Women in Science. The publisher received negative feedback from consumers, and the book was withdrawn from the market. The book is now a minor collector's item. Professors Becker and Wilson vigorously responded. They laid blame for the debacle on the publisher and also claimed they were the victims of a witch hunt by feminists. The Anatomical Basis of Medical Practice appeared as the women's movement became part of the American popular consciousness. It was also an era in which the public began to grapple with how to define pornography. Professor Becker and his coauthors thought that they were writing a witty, engaging, and funny book. Their detractors thought the book denigrated women.

  14. The Nigerian home video boom: should Nigerian psychiatrists be worried? Lessons from content review and views of community dwellers.

    PubMed

    Atilola, Olayinka; Olayiwola, Funmilayo

    2012-09-01

    Media depiction of sufferers of mental illness is a widely viewed source of stigmatization and studies have found stigmatizing depictions of mental illness in Nigerian films. With the recent boom in the Nigerian home video industry, there is a need to know how often Nigerians are exposed to films that contain scenes depicting mental illness and how much premium they place on such portrayals as reflecting reality. To assess the popularity of Nigerian home videos among Nigerian community dwellers and the frequency of their exposure to scenes depicting mental illness. A semi-structured questionnaire was designed to obtain socio-demographic data and to find out how often respondents see scenes depicting 'madness' in home videos, as well as their views about the accuracy of such depictions from the orthodox psychiatry point of view. Current home videos available in video rental shops were selected for viewing and content review. All 676 respondents had seen a Nigerian home video in the preceding 30 days: 528 (78%) reported scenes depicting 'mad persons'; 472 (70%) reported that the scenes they saw agreed with their own initial understanding of the cause and treatment of 'madness'. About 20% of the films depicted mental illness. The most commonly depicted cause was sorcery and enchantment by witches and wizards, while the most commonly depicted treatment was magical and spiritual healing by diviners and religious priests. Nigerian home video is a popular electronic media in Nigeria and scenes depicting mental illness are not uncommon. The industry could be harnessed for promoting mental health literacy.

  15. Expression of the Theobroma cacao Bax-inhibitor-1 gene in tomato reduces infection by the hemibiotrophic pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa.

    PubMed

    Scotton, Danielle Camargo; Azevedo, Mariana Da Silva; Sestari, Ivan; Da Silva, Jamille Santos; Souza, Lucas Anjos; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira; Leal, Gildemberg Amorim; Figueira, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) plays a key role in plant responses to pathogens, determining the success of infection depending on the pathogen lifestyle and on which participant of the interaction triggers cell death. The hemibiotrophic basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of witches' broom disease of Theobroma cacao L. (cacao), a serious constraint for production in South America and the Caribbean. It has been hypothesized that M. perniciosa pathogenesis involves PCD, initially as a plant defence mechanism, which is diverted by the fungus to induce necrosis during the dikaryotic phase of the mycelia. Here, we evaluated whether the expression of a cacao anti-apoptotic gene would affect the incidence and severity of M. perniciosa infection using the 'Micro-Tom' (MT) tomato as a model. The cacao Bax-inhibitor-1 (TcBI-1) gene, encoding a putative basal attenuator of PCD, was constitutively expressed in MT to evaluate function. Transformants expressing TcBI-1, when treated with tunicamycin, an inducer of endoplasmic reticulum stress, showed a decrease in cell peroxidation. When the same transformants were inoculated with the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sclerotium rolfsii and Botrytis cinerea, a significant reduction in infection severity was observed, confirming TcBI-1 function. After inoculation with M. perniciosa, TcBI-1 transformant lines showed a significant reduction in disease incidence compared with MT. The overexpression of TcBI-1 appears to affect the ability of germinating spores to penetrate susceptible tissues, restoring part of the non-host resistance in MT against the S-biotype of M. perniciosa. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  16. Recombinant β-1,3-1,4-glucanase from Theobroma cacao impairs Moniliophthora perniciosa mycelial growth.

    PubMed

    Britto, Dahyana Santos; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho; Andrade, Bruno Silva; Dos Santos, Tassiara Pereira; Pungartnik, Cristina; Cascardo, Júlio Cezar M; Micheli, Fabienne; Gesteira, Abelmon S

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we identified a gene from Theobroma cacao L. genome and cDNA libraries, named TcGlu2, that encodes a β-1,3-1,4-glucanase. The TcGlu2 ORF was 720 bp in length and encoded a polypeptide of 239 amino acids with a molecular mass of 25.58 kDa. TcGlu2 contains a conserved domain characteristic of β-1,3-1,4-glucanases and presented high protein identity with β-1,3-1,4-glucanases from other plant species. Molecular modeling of TcGlu2 showed an active site of 13 amino acids typical of glucanase with β-1,3 and 1,4 action mode. The recombinant cDNA TcGlu2 obtained by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and whose sequence was confirmed by mass spectrometry, has a molecular mass of about 22 kDa (with His-Tag) and showed antifungal activity against the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, causal agent of the witches' broom disease in cacao. The integrity of the hyphae membranes of M. perniciosa, incubated with protein TcGlu2, was analyzed with propidium iodide. After 1 h of incubation, a strong fluorescence emitted by the hyphae indicating the hydrolysis of the membrane by TcGlu2, was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first study of a cacao β-1,3-1,4-glucanase expression in heterologous system and the first analysis showing the antifungal activity of a β-1,3-1,4-glucanase, in particular against M. perniciosa.

  17. Aqueous and organic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. inhibit the mycelia growth of fungi.

    PubMed

    Haouala, R; Hawala, S; El-Ayeb, A; Khanfir, R; Boughanmi, N

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous extracts from various plant parts of fenugreek (3%) (aerial parts: leaves and stems (LS), roots (R), ground seeds (GS) and not ground seeds (NGS)) and petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanolic fractions of the aerial parts were assayed to determine their antifungal potential against Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium graminearum, Alternaria sp., Pythium aphanidermatum, and Rhizoctinia solani. All fenugreek plant parts showed antifungal potential and the magnitude of their inhibitory effects was species and plant parts dependent. R extract was shown less toxic (30.38%), whereas NGS extract expressed the strongest inhibition, with an average of 71.44%, followed by GS (58.56%) and LS (57.1%). Screening indicated that P. aphanidermatum was the most resistant species, with an average inhibition of 34.5%. F. graminearum, Alternaria sp. and R. solani were the most sensitive species, and were similarly inhibited (63.5%). The stability test indicated that the aqueous extracts of all plant parts lost approximately 50% of their relative activity after one month of storage at 4 degrees C, whilst they lost 60%-90% of their activity when stored at ambient temperature for one month. The antifungal activity resided mainly in the methanol fraction and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of methanol fraction witch caused total inhibition of R. solani and Alternaria sp. was 60 microg/ml. Results of current study suggested that the constituents of Trigonella foenum-graecum have potential against harmful pathogenic fungi. Therefore, fenugreek could be an important source of biologically active compounds useful for developing better new antifungal drugs.

  18. [Non-palpable breast cancer malignant on needle core biopsy and no malignancy in surgical excision: how to manage?].

    PubMed

    Cheurfa, N; Giard, S

    2015-01-01

    Despite the standard management of non-palpable breast cancer (needle core biopsy diagnostic, accurate preoperative localization), there are differences in some cases between the malignant histo-pathological finding in diagnostic biopsy results and negative histo-pathological finding after surgical excision. The aim of this study is to evaluate this incidence and classifying them under three category: failure of surgical excision after preoperative identification; removal of the tumor was already completed by percutaneous biopsy; percutaneous biopsy true false positive. We conducted a study based on prospective database, all patients included in this study had partial mastectomy for ductal carcinoma in-situ or invasive cancer which was diagnosed by needle core biopsy and normal/benign after surgery. Regarding the partial mastectomy, 1863 was performed in the last three years in our center. Thirty-seven patients (2%) correspond our study criteria. After discussion of cases in our multidisciplinary reunion, 6 patients (16%) were considered as failure of surgical excision, 26 patients (70%) as true removal of the whole lesion in the core, and 5 patients (13%) as true false-positive cores. This is the first study witch investigate all factors that influence the results of negative final histo-pathological finding of surgical excision of the tumor after malignant diagnostic needle core biopsy. This rare situation need a multidisciplinary meeting to analyse all the steps of management and to determine causes of those false results and try to find adequate management to solve this problem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. PEP725: real time monitoring of phenological events in Austria, Germany, Sweden and Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungersboeck, Markus; Bolmgren, Kjell; Huebner, Thomas; Kaspar, Frank; Langvall, Ola; Paul, Anita; Pietragalla, Barbara; Scheifinger, Helfried; Koch, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    The main objective of PEP725 (Pan European Phenological database; http://www.pep725.eu/) is to promote and facilitate phenological research by delivering a pan European phenological database with an open, unrestricted data access for science, research and education. The first datasets in PEP725 date back to 1868; however, there are only a few observations available until 1950. From 1951 onwards, the phenological networks all over Europe developed rapidly. So far more than 11 923 489 of observations of 121 different plants are now available in the PEP725 database. Approximately 40 % of all data are flowering records, 10 % are fruit ripeness observations and also 10 % are leaf unfolding observations. The PEP725 database is updated annually. But since recently Deutscher Wetterdienst and MeteoSwiss offer their observers to upload their observations via web in real time mode, ZAMG introduced this web-based feature already in 2007 (phenowatch.at) and the observers of SWE-NPN (the Swedish National Phenology Network) can submit their observations through the web application naturenskalender.se since the start in 2008. Since spring 2016 one you can find a real time animated monitoring tool showing how the "green wave" in spring is moving from 46° northern latitude up to the Arctic Circle and the "brown wave" in autumn in the opposite direction. In 2015 the "green wave" speeds up from app. 4.4 days/degree latitude for hazel flowering to 2.9 days/ degree latitude for willow flowering and 2.25 days/degree latitude for birch leaf unfolding. There are other European countries as for instance Italy, The Netherlands, UK that have been doing visualizations of ground phenology in real time for some years, but these efforts always end at the national borders. PEP725 is funded by ZAMG, the Austrian ministry of science, research and economy and EUMETNET, the network of European meteorological services. So far 21 European meteorological services and 7 partners from different

  20. A method to derive vegetation distribution maps for pollen dispersion models using birch as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauling, A.; Rotach, M. W.; Gehrig, R.; Clot, B.

    2012-09-01

    Detailed knowledge of the spatial distribution of sources is a crucial prerequisite for the application of pollen dispersion models such as, for example, COSMO-ART (COnsortium for Small-scale MOdeling - Aerosols and Reactive Trace gases). However, this input is not available for the allergy-relevant species such as hazel, alder, birch, grass or ragweed. Hence, plant distribution datasets need to be derived from suitable sources. We present an approach to produce such a dataset from existing sources using birch as an example. The basic idea is to construct a birch dataset using a region with good data coverage for calibration and then to extrapolate this relationship to a larger area by using land use classes. We use the Swiss forest inventory (1 km resolution) in combination with a 74-category land use dataset that covers the non-forested areas of Switzerland as well (resolution 100 m). Then we assign birch density categories of 0%, 0.1%, 0.5% and 2.5% to each of the 74 land use categories. The combination of this derived dataset with the birch distribution from the forest inventory yields a fairly accurate birch distribution encompassing entire Switzerland. The land use categories of the Global Land Cover 2000 (GLC2000; Global Land Cover 2000 database, 2003, European Commission, Joint Research Centre; resolution 1 km) are then calibrated with the Swiss dataset in order to derive a Europe-wide birch distribution dataset and aggregated onto the 7 km COSMO-ART grid. This procedure thus assumes that a certain GLC2000 land use category has the same birch density wherever it may occur in Europe. In order to reduce the strict application of this crucial assumption, the birch density distribution as obtained from the previous steps is weighted using the mean Seasonal Pollen Index (SPI; yearly sums of daily pollen concentrations). For future improvement, region-specific birch densities for the GLC2000 categories could be integrated into the mapping procedure.