Choudhary, Bakhtiar; Shetty, A; Langade, Deepak G
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) has been traditionally used for various actions ranging from vitalizer, improve endurance and stamina, promote longevity, improve immunity, and male and female fertility. However, clinical studies are needed to prove the clinical efficacy of this herb, especially in cardiovascular endurance and physical performance. This prospective, double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy of Ashwagandha roots extract in enhancing cardiorespiratory endurance and improving the quality of life (QOL) in 50 healthy male/female athletic adults. Cardiorespiratory endurance was assessed by measuring the oxygen consumption at peak physical exertion (VO2 max) levels during a 20 m shuttle run test. The World Health Organization self-reported QOL questionnaire (physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environmental factors) was used to assess the QOL. Student's t-test was used to compare the differences in a mean and change from baseline VO2 max levels, whereas Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to assess changes in QOL scores from baseline in the two groups. There was a greater increase from baseline (P < 0.0001) in the mean VO2 max with KSM-66 Ashwagandha (n = 24) compared to placebo (n = 25) at 8 weeks (4.91 and 1.42, respectively) and at 12 weeks (5.67 and 1.86 respectively). The QOL scores for all subdomains significantly improved to a greater extent in the Ashwagandha group at 12 weeks compared to placebo (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that Ashwagandha root extract enhances the cardiorespiratory endurance and improves QOL in healthy athletic adults.
Kaushik, Mahesh K; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Urade, Yoshihiro
Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint which occurs due to difficulty in falling asleep or maintaining it. Most of currently available drugs for insomnia develop dependency and/or adverse effects. Hence natural therapies could be an alternative choice of treatment for insomnia. The root or whole plant extract of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) has been used to induce sleep in Indian system of traditional home medicine, Ayurveda. However, its active somnogenic components remain unidentified. We investigated the effect of various components of Ashwagandha leaf on sleep regulation by oral administration in mice. We found that the alcoholic extract that contained high amount of active withanolides was ineffective to induce sleep in mice. However, the water extract which contain triethylene glycol as a major component induced significant amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep with slight change in rapid eye movement sleep. Commercially available triethylene glycol also increased non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice in a dose-dependent (10-30 mg/mouse) manner. These results clearly demonstrated that triethylene glycol is an active sleep-inducing component of Ashwagandha leaves and could potentially be useful for insomnia therapy.
Sandhu, Jaspal Singh; Shah, Biren; Shenoy, Shweta; Chauhan, Suresh; Lavekar, G S; Padhi, M M
Several medicinal plants have been described to be beneficial for cardiac ailments in Ayurveda like Ashwagandha and Arjuna. Ashwagandha-categorised as Rasayanas, and described to promote health and longevity and Arjuna primarily for heart ailments. coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypercholesterolemia, anginal pain and can be considered as a useful drug for coronary artery disease, hypertension and ischemic cardiomyopathy. There are no scientific clinical studies showing effect of both these drugs on exercise performance after regular administration when given as supplements The present study was therefore designed and performed to assess the effects of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) and Terminalia arjuna (Arjuna) individually and as a combination on maximum velocity, average absolute and relative Power, balance, maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) and blood pressure in humans. Forty normal healthy. Subjects (either sex, mean age 20.6 ± 2.5yrs and mean Body Mass Index 21.9 ± 2.2) were recruited after written informed consent was obtained. Institutional Ethics Committee permission was also obtained. Thirty participants were assigned to experimental group of which 10 received standardized root extracts of Withania somnifera, 10 received standardized bark extract of Terminalia arjuna and the rest of the 10 received standardized root extract of Withania somnifera in addition to bark extract of Terminalia arjuna both. Both the drugs were given in the form of capsules (dosage 500mg/day for both the drugs). Ten participants received placebo (capsules filled with flour). All the subjects continued the regimen for 8 weeks. All variables were assessed before and after the course of drug administration Our study showed that Withania somnifera increased velocity, power and VO2 max whereas Terminalia arjuna increased VO2 max and lowered resting systolic blood pressure. When given in combination, the improvement was seen in all parameters except balance and diastolic
Choudhary, Dnyanraj; Bhattacharyya, Sauvik; Bose, Sekhar
Cognitive decline is often associated with the aging process. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal) has long been used in the traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine to enhance memory and improve cognition. This pilot study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal) in improving memory and cognitive functioning in adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 50 adults. Subjects were treated with either ashwagandha-root extract (300 mg twice daily) or placebo for eight weeks. After eight weeks of study, the ashwagandha treatment group demonstrated significant improvements compared with the placebo group in both immediate and general memory, as evidenced by Wechsler Memory Scale III subtest scores for logical memory I (p = 0.007), verbal paired associates I (p = 0.042), faces I (p = 0.020), family pictures I (p = 0.006), logical memory II (p = 0.006), verbal paired associates II (p = 0.031), faces II (p = 0.014), and family pictures II (p = 0.006). The treatment group also demonstrated significantly greater improvement in executive function, sustained attention, and information-processing speed as indicated by scores on the Eriksen Flanker task (p = 0.002), Wisconsin Card Sort test (p = 0.014), Trail-Making test part A (p = 0.006), and the Mackworth Clock test (p = 0.009). Ashwagandha may be effective in enhancing both immediate and general memory in people with MCI as well as improving executive function, attention, and information processing speed.
Dongre, Swati; Langade, Deepak; Bhattacharyya, Sauvik
Many women experience sexual dysfunction where there are orgasm disorders and sexual difficulties. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is a herb known to improve the body's physical and psychological condition. The purpose of the study was to determine the efficacy and safety of a high-concentration ashwagandha root extract (HCARE) supplementation for improving sexual function in healthy females. In this pilot study, 50 study subjects were randomized to either (i) HCARE-treated group or (ii) placebo- (starch-) treated group. The subjects consumed either HCARE or placebo capsules of 300mg twice daily for 8 weeks. Sexual function was assessed using two psychometric scales, the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) Questionnaire and the Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS), and by the number of total and successful sexual encounters. The analysis indicates that treatment with HCARE leads to significantly higher improvement, relative to placebo, in the FSFI Total score (p < 0.001), FSFI domain score for "arousal" (p < 0.001), "lubrication" (p < 0.001), "orgasm" (p = 0.004), and "satisfaction" (p < 0.001), and also FSDS score (p < 0.001) and the number of successful sexual encounters (p < 0.001) at the end of the treatment. This study demonstrated that oral administration of HCARE may improve sexual function in healthy women. The present study is registered in the Clinical Trial Registry, Government of India, with a number CTRI/2015/07/006045.
Background. Many women experience sexual dysfunction where there are orgasm disorders and sexual difficulties. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is a herb known to improve the body's physical and psychological condition. Objective. The purpose of the study was to determine the efficacy and safety of a high-concentration ashwagandha root extract (HCARE) supplementation for improving sexual function in healthy females. Methods. In this pilot study, 50 study subjects were randomized to either (i) HCARE-treated group or (ii) placebo- (starch-) treated group. The subjects consumed either HCARE or placebo capsules of 300mg twice daily for 8 weeks. Sexual function was assessed using two psychometric scales, the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) Questionnaire and the Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS), and by the number of total and successful sexual encounters. Results. The analysis indicates that treatment with HCARE leads to significantly higher improvement, relative to placebo, in the FSFI Total score (p < 0.001), FSFI domain score for “arousal” (p < 0.001), “lubrication” (p < 0.001), “orgasm” (p = 0.004), and “satisfaction” (p < 0.001), and also FSDS score (p < 0.001) and the number of successful sexual encounters (p < 0.001) at the end of the treatment. Conclusions. This study demonstrated that oral administration of HCARE may improve sexual function in healthy women. The present study is registered in the Clinical Trial Registry, Government of India, with a number CTRI/2015/07/006045. PMID:26504795
Background Withania somnifera is an important medicinal plant traditionally used in the treatment of many diseases. The present study was carried out to characterize the phenolic acids, flavonoids and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activities in methanolic extracts of W. somnifera fruits, roots and leaves (WSFEt, WSREt and WSLEt). Methods WSFEt, WSREt and WSLEt was prepared by using 80% aqueous methanol and total polyphenols, flavonoids as well as DPPH radical scavenging activities were determined by spectrophotometric methods and phenolic acid profiles were determined by HPLC methods. Results High concentrations of both phenolics and flavonoids were detected in all parts of the plant with the former ranging between 17.80 ± 5.80 and 32.58 ± 3.16 mg/g (dry weight) and the latter ranging between 15.49 ± 1.02 and 31.58 ± 5.07 mg/g. All of the three different plant parts showed strong DPPH radical scavenging activities (59.16 ± 1.20 to 91.84 ± 0.38%). Eight polyphenols (gallic, syringic, benzoic, p-coumaric and vanillic acids as well as catechin, kaempferol and naringenin) have been identified by HPLC in parts of the plant as well. Among all the polyphenols, catechin was detected in the highest concentration (13.01 ± 8.93 to 30.61 ± 11.41 mg/g). Conclusion The results indicating that W. somnifera is a plant with strong therapeutic properties thus further supporting its traditional claims. All major parts of W. somnifera such as the roots, fruits and leaves provide potential benefits for human health because of its high content of polyphenols and antioxidant activities with the leaves containing the highest amounts of polyphenols specially catechin with strong antioxidant properties. PMID:21854608
Pratte, Morgan A.; Nanavati, Kaushal B.; Young, Virginia
Abstract Objective: To assess existing reported human trials of Withania somnifera (WS; common name, ashwagandha) for the treatment of anxiety. Design: Systematic review of the literature, with searches conducted in PubMed, SCOPUS, CINAHL, and Google Scholar by a medical librarian. Additionally, the reference lists of studies identified in these databases were searched by a research assistant, and queries were conducted in the AYUSH Research Portal. Search terms included “ashwagandha,” “Withania somnifera,” and terms related to anxiety and stress. Inclusion criteria were human randomized controlled trials with a treatment arm that included WS as a remedy for anxiety or stress. The study team members applied inclusion criteria while screening the records by abstract review. Intervention: Treatment with any regimen of WS. Outcome measures: Number and results of studies identified in the review. Results: Sixty-two abstracts were screened; five human trials met inclusion criteria. Three studies compared several dosage levels of WS extract with placebos using versions of the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, with two demonstrating significant benefit of WS versus placebo, and the third demonstrating beneficial effects that approached but did not achieve significance (p=0.05). A fourth study compared naturopathic care with WS versus psychotherapy by using Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) scores as an outcome; BAI scores decreased by 56.5% in the WS group and decreased 30.5% for psychotherapy (p<0.0001). A fifth study measured changes in Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) scores in WS group versus placebo; there was a 44.0% reduction in PSS scores in the WS group and a 5.5% reduction in the placebo group (p<0.0001). All studies exhibited unclear or high risk of bias, and heterogenous design and reporting prevented the possibility of meta-analysis. Conclusions: All five studies concluded that WS intervention resulted in greater score improvements (significantly in most cases) than
Tavhare, Swagata D; Nishteswar, K; Shukla, Vinay J
Ayurvedic classics have advocated to collect the medicinal plants according to part used and seasons in order to get desired pharmacological action and therapeutic benefits. The logic behind this principle is being validated by recent researches. To analyze the influence of lunar cycles on growth of Ashwagandha in Shishira and Greeshma Ritu (winter and summer season). Fourteen small crops of Ashwagandha of average size 10 cm were collected on October 7, 2013, from institute campus and then replantation was done at Charaka Herbal Garden, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar in an area of 60 cm × 60 cm (l × b). No fertilizers or pesticides were used. The plants were watered daily and plants were uprooted as per lunar cycles for analysis. Eight samples were collected and observed during Shishira and Greeshma season on Pournima (full moon) and Amavasya (new moon) days. The measurements were taken thrice and average values were taken into consideration for study purpose. The variations in morphological characteristics such as length, breadth, weight, and number of roots and twigs were studied through statistical procedure of principle component analysis, which makes interpretation of all possible related variables. Root weight (RW), pith diameter (PD) and internodal distance (ID) were found to be increased on full moon days as compared to new moon days. The maximum RW was observed during Greeshma Aashadha Pournima. The study has shown a definite influence of lunar cycles on the growth of the plant parts assessed by RW, PD, and ID that have found to be increased on full moon days as compared to new moon days.
Deshpande, Abhijit; Irani, Nushafreen; Balakrishnan, Rathna
Nonrestorative sleep (NRS) is one of the cardinal symptoms of insomnia and can occur independent of other components of insomnia. Among the sleep disturbances, NRS has been little studied in the general population, even though this symptom plays an important role in several medical conditions associated with chronic inflammation such as heart disease, fibromyalgia, and chronic fatigue syndrome, as well as various sleep disorders. There is paucity in the literature about effective treatments for NRS. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) has been demonstrated to reduce anxiety and stress, allowing the body to settle down and prepare for sleep. This study will be a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled interventional study in NRS population.The NRS participants are identified using Restorative Sleep Questionnaire-weekly version (RSQ-W) questionnaire. Actigraphy and polysomnography are used for the objective assessment of sleep. The other assessments used are Hamilton Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS), World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) scales, and C-reactive protein. Routine blood and urine analyses will be conducted to assess the safety of treatment. Duration of study for each participant will be 50 days with "day one" for screening followed by randomization for the treatment. The duration for medicine/placebo intake shall be 42 days.Primary outcome will be to evaluate effect of daily supplement of ashwagandha extract compared with placebo in subjects with NRS at 6 weeks from baseline, as assessed by the total score of RSQ-W. CTRI/2017/02/007801.
Kurapati, Kesava Rao Venkata; Atluri, Venkata Subba Rao; Samikkannu, Thangavel; Nair, Madhavan P. N.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by progressive dysfunction of memory and higher cognitive functions with abnormal accumulation of extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles throughout cortical and limbic brain regions. At present no curative treatment is available, and research focuses on drugs for slowing disease progression or providing prophylaxis. Withania somnifera (WS) also known as ‘ashwagandha’ is used widely in Ayurvedic medicine as a nerve tonic and memory enhancer. However, there is a paucity of data on the potential neuroprotective effects of W.somnifera against β-Amyloid (1–42)-induced neuropathogenesis. In the present study, we have tested the neuroprotective effects of methanol:Chloroform (3:1) extract of ashwagandha against β-amyloid induced toxicity and HIV-1Ba-L (clade B) infection using a human neuronal SK-N-MC cell line. Our results showed that β-amyloid induced cytotoxic effects in SK-N-MC cells as shown by decreased cell growth when tested individually. Also, confocal microscopic analysis showed decreased spine density, loss of spines and decreased dendrite diameter, total dendrite and spine area in clade B infected SK-N-MC cells compared to uninfected cells. However, when ashwagandha was added to β-amyloid treated and HIV-1 infected samples, the toxic effects were neutralized. Further, the MTT cell viability assays and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) levels supported these observations indicating the neuroprotective effect of WS root extract against β-amyloid and HIV-1Ba-L (clade B) induced neuro-pathogenesis. PMID:24147038
Jahanbakhsh, Seyedeh Pardis; Manteghi, Ali Akhondpour; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Mahyari, Saman; Gholampour, Beheshteh; Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang; Sahebkar, Amirhossein
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder that is causally linked to dysregulation of the serotonergic system. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of Withania somnifera (W. somnifera) root extract as an adjunct therapy to standard OCD treatment. Thirty patients with a confirmed diagnosis of OCD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria participated in this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial and were randomly assigned to the treatment group (W. somnifera extract, 120mg/day; n=15) or the placebo group (n=15). All patients were under treatment with Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), and were instructed to take 4 capsules of the extract or placebo per day, preferably after meals, for a period of six weeks. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was used in order to assess the severity of OCD symptoms at baseline and at the end of the trial. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software and Y-BOCS values were presented as median and range (Min-Max). Comparison of the change in Y-BOCS score during the course of the trial revealed a significantly greater effect of W. somnifera (26 (14-40) [pre-treatment] versus 14 (4-40) [post-treatment]; change: -8 (-23 to 0)) versus placebo (18 (11-33) [pre-treatment] versus 16 (10-31) [post-treatment]; change: -2 (-4 to 0)) (P<0.001). The extract was safe and no adverse event was reported during the trial. W. somnifera extract may be beneficial as a safe and effective adjunct to SSRIs in the treatment of OCD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Singh, Pritika; Guleri, Rupam; Pati, Pratap Kumar
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal known as Ashwagandha is commonly used in traditional Indian medicine system. It possesses immense therapeutic value against a large number of ailments such as mental diseases, asthma, inflammation, arthritis, rheumatism, tuberculosis, and a variety of other diseases including cancer. The therapeutic potential of W. somnifera is due to the presence of secondary metabolites mainly, tropane alkaloids and withanolides (steroidal lactones). The growing realization of commercial value of the plant has initiated a new demand for in vitro propagation of elite chemotypes of Withania. Micropropagation which is an important tool for rapid multiplication requires optimization of number of factors such as nutrient medium, status of medium (solid and liquid), type of explant, and plant growth regulators. Similarly, an efficient and reproducible in vitro regeneration system which is a prerequisite for the development of genetic transformation protocol requires precise manipulation of various intrinsic and extrinsic factors.
Tropine Forming Tropinone Reductase Gene from Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha): Biochemical Characteristics of the Recombinant Enzyme and Novel Physiological Overtones of Tissue-Wide Gene Expression Patterns
Kushwaha, Amit Kumar; Sangwan, Neelam Singh; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Negi, Arvind Singh; Misra, Laxminarain; Sangwan, Rajender Singh
Withania somnifera is one of the most reputed medicinal plants of Indian systems of medicine synthesizing diverse types of secondary metabolites such as withanolides, alkaloids, withanamides etc. Present study comprises cloning and E. coli over-expression of a tropinone reductase gene (WsTR-I) from W. somnifera, and elucidation of biochemical characteristics and physiological role of tropinone reductase enzyme in tropane alkaloid biosynthesis in aerial tissues of the plant. The recombinant enzyme was demonstrated to catalyze NADPH-dependent tropinone to tropine conversion step in tropane metabolism, through TLC, GC and GC-MS-MS analyses of the reaction product. The functionally active homodimeric ∼60 kDa enzyme catalyzed the reaction in reversible manner at optimum pH 6.7. Catalytic kinetics of the enzyme favoured its forward reaction (tropine formation). Comparative 3-D models of landscape of the enzyme active site contours and tropinone binding site were also developed. Tissue-wide and ontogenic stage-wise assessment of WsTR-I transcript levels revealed constitutive expression of the gene with relatively lower abundance in berries and young leaves. The tissue profiles of WsTR-I expression matched those of tropine levels. The data suggest that, in W. somnifera, aerial tissues as well possess tropane alkaloid biosynthetic competence. In vivo feeding of U-[14C]-sucrose to orphan shoot (twigs) and [14C]-chasing revealed substantial radiolabel incorporation in tropinone and tropine, confirming the de novo synthesizing ability of the aerial tissues. This inherent independent ability heralds a conceptual novelty in the backdrop of classical view that these tissues acquire the alkaloids through transportation from roots rather than synthesis. The TR-I gene expression was found to be up-regulated on exposure to signal molecules (methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid) and on mechanical injury. The enzyme's catalytic and structural properties as well as gene expression
Tropine forming tropinone reductase gene from Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha): biochemical characteristics of the recombinant enzyme and novel physiological overtones of tissue-wide gene expression patterns.
Kushwaha, Amit Kumar; Sangwan, Neelam Singh; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Negi, Arvind Singh; Misra, Laxminarain; Sangwan, Rajender Singh
Withania somnifera is one of the most reputed medicinal plants of Indian systems of medicine synthesizing diverse types of secondary metabolites such as withanolides, alkaloids, withanamides etc. Present study comprises cloning and E. coli over-expression of a tropinone reductase gene (WsTR-I) from W. somnifera, and elucidation of biochemical characteristics and physiological role of tropinone reductase enzyme in tropane alkaloid biosynthesis in aerial tissues of the plant. The recombinant enzyme was demonstrated to catalyze NADPH-dependent tropinone to tropine conversion step in tropane metabolism, through TLC, GC and GC-MS-MS analyses of the reaction product. The functionally active homodimeric ~60 kDa enzyme catalyzed the reaction in reversible manner at optimum pH 6.7. Catalytic kinetics of the enzyme favoured its forward reaction (tropine formation). Comparative 3-D models of landscape of the enzyme active site contours and tropinone binding site were also developed. Tissue-wide and ontogenic stage-wise assessment of WsTR-I transcript levels revealed constitutive expression of the gene with relatively lower abundance in berries and young leaves. The tissue profiles of WsTR-I expression matched those of tropine levels. The data suggest that, in W. somnifera, aerial tissues as well possess tropane alkaloid biosynthetic competence. In vivo feeding of U-[(14)C]-sucrose to orphan shoot (twigs) and [(14)C]-chasing revealed substantial radiolabel incorporation in tropinone and tropine, confirming the de novo synthesizing ability of the aerial tissues. This inherent independent ability heralds a conceptual novelty in the backdrop of classical view that these tissues acquire the alkaloids through transportation from roots rather than synthesis. The TR-I gene expression was found to be up-regulated on exposure to signal molecules (methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid) and on mechanical injury. The enzyme's catalytic and structural properties as well as gene expression
Sharma, Ashutosh; Kumar Pati, Pratap
During April–June 2010, red two—spotted carmine spider mites Tetranychus urticae Koch (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae) were found on aerial apical parts of Ashwagandha Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanales: Solanaceae) plants in the Amritsar District of Punjab Province in the North Indian plains. The mites fed on the leaves, making them shiny white in color, which gradually dried off and were later shed. The pest was identified as T. urticae. To best of our knowledge, this is the first record of this pest infesting W. somnifera in India. PMID:22970740
Singh, Pritika; Guleri, Rupam; Singh, Varinder; Kaur, Gurpreet; Kataria, Hardeep; Singh, Baldev; Kaur, Gurcharan; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu; Pati, Pratap Kumar
Withania somnifera is one of the most valued plants and is extensively used in Indian, Unani, and African systems of traditional medicine. It possess a wide array of therapeutic properties including anti-arthritic, anti-aging, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, chemoprotective, cardioprotective, and recovery from neurodegenerative disorders. With the growing realization of benefits and associated challenges in the improvement of W. somnifera, studies on exploration of genetic and chemotypic variations, identification and characterization of important genes, and understanding the secondary metabolites production and their modulation has gained significant momentum. In recent years, several in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies have facilitated the validation of therapeutic potential of the phytochemicals derived from W. somnifera and have provided necessary impetus for gaining deeper insight into the mechanistic aspects involved in the mode of action of these important pharmaceutically active constituents. The present review highlights some of the current developments and future prospects of biotechnological intervention in this important medicinal plant.
Halder, Babli; Singh, Shruti; Thakur, Suman S.
In Ayurveda, Withania somnifera is commonly known as Ashwagandha, its roots are specifically used in medicinal and clinical applications. It possesses numerous therapeutic actions which include anti-inflammatory, sedative, hypnotic and narcotic. Extracts from this plant have been reported for its anticancer properties. In this study we evaluated for the first time, the cytotoxic effect of Withania root extract on human malignant melanoma A375 cells. The crude extract of Withania was tested for cytotoxicity against A375 cells by MTT assay. Cell morphology of treated A375 cells was visualized through phase contrast as well as fluorescence microscopy. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to check DNA fragmentation of the crude extract treated cells. Crude extract of Withania root has the potency to reduce viable cell count in dose as well as time dependent manner. Morphological change of the A375 cells was also observed in treated groups in comparison to untreated or vehicle treated control. Apoptotic body and nuclear blebbing were observed in DAPI stained treated cells under fluorescence microscope. A ladder of fragmented DNA was noticed in treated cells. Thus it might be said that the crude water extract of Withania somnifera has potent cytotoxic effect on human malignant melanoma A375 cells. PMID:26334881
Dar, Nawab John; Hamid, Abid; Ahmad, Muzamil
Withania somnifera, also called 'Indian ginseng', is an important medicinal plant of the Indian subcontinent. It is widely used, singly or in combination, with other herbs against many ailments in Indian Systems of Medicine since time immemorial. Withania somnifera contains a spectrum of diverse phytochemicals enabling it to have a broad range of biological implications. In preclinical studies, it has shown anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-stress, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, and anti-diabetic properties. Additionally, it has demonstrated the ability to reduce reactive oxygen species, modulate mitochondrial function, regulate apoptosis, and reduce inflammation and enhance endothelial function. In view of these pharmacologic properties, W. somnifera is a potential drug candidate to treat various clinical conditions, particularly related to the nervous system. In this review, we summarize the pharmacologic characteristics and discuss the mechanisms of action and potential therapeutic applications of the plant and its active constituents.
Dar, Parvaiz A; Singh, Laishram R; Kamal, Mohammad A; Dar, Tanveer A
Withania somnifera is an important medicinal herb that has been widely used for the treatment of different clinical conditions. The overall medicinal properties of Withania somnifera make it a viable therapeutic agent for addressing anxiety, cancer, microbial infection, immunomodulation, and neurodegenerative disorders. Biochemical constituents of Withania somnifera like withanolideA, withanolide D, withaferin A and withaniamides play an important role in its pharmacological properties. Proteins like Withania somnifera glycoprotein and withania lectin like-protein possess potent therapeutic properties like antimicrobial, anti-snake venom poison and antimicrobial. In this review, we have tried to present different pharmacological properties associated with different extract preparations, phytochemical constituents and protein component of Withania somnifera. Future insights in this direction have also been highlighted.
Pandey, Vibha; Ansari, Waquar Akhter; Misra, Pratibha; Atri, Neelam
Withania somnifera, commonly known as Ashwagandha an important medicinal plant largely used in Ayurvedic and indigenous medicine for over 3,000 years. Being a medicinal plant, dried powder, crude extract as well as purified metabolies of the plant has shown promising therapeutic properties. Withanolides are the principal metabolites, responsible for the medicinal properties of the plant. Availability and amount of particular withanolides differ with tissue type and chemotype and its importance leads to identification characterization of several genes/ enzymes related to withanolide biosynthetic pathway. The modulation in withanolides can be achieved by controlling the environmental conditions like, different tissue culture techniques, altered media compositions, use of elicitors, etc. Among all the in vitro techniques, hairy root culture proved its importance at industrial scale, which also gets benefits due to more accumulation (amount and number) of withanolides in roots tissues of W. somnifera. Use of media compostion and elicitors further enhances the amount of withanolides in hairy roots. Another important modern day technique used for accumulation of desired secondary metabolites is modulating the gene expression by altering environmental conditions (use of different media composition, elicitors, etc.) or through genetic enginnering. Knowing the significance of the gene and the key enzymatic step of the pathway, modulation in withanolide contents can be achieved upto required amount in therapeutic industry. To accomplish maximum productivity through genetic enginnering different means of Withania transformation methods have been developed to obtain maximum transformation efficiency. These standardized transformation procedues have been used to overexpress/silence desired gene in W. somnifera to understand the outcome and succeed with enhanced metabolic production for the ultimate benefit of human race. PMID:28848589
Background Withania somnifera, also known as ashwagandha, is an important herb in ayurvedic and indigenous medical systems. The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of an 80% aqueous methanolic extract of W. somnifera roots (WSREt), fruits (WSFEt) and leaves (WSLEt). Methods Several assays were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of this herb including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ferrous chelation and inhibition of β-carotene bleaching. Results The values for DPPH, FRAP, ferrous chelation and inhibition of β carotene bleaching for the three types of extracts ranged from 101.73-801.93 μg/ml, 2.26-3.29 mM Fe/kg, 0.22-0.65 mg/ml and 69.87-79.67%, respectively, indicating that W. somnifera, particularly the leaves, possesses significant antioxidant properties. The mean ascorbic acid content was 20.60-62.60 mg/100 g, and the mean anthocyanin content was 2.86-12.50 mg/100 g. Antibacterial activities were measured using the agar well diffusion method and five pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The leaf extracts displayed the highest activity against S. typhi (32.00 ± 0.75 mm zone of inhibition), whereas the lowest activity was against K. pneumoniae (19.00 ± 1.48 mm zone of inhibition). The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration value was 6.25 mg/ml, which was against S. typhi, followed by 12.5 mg/ml against E. coli. Conclusion In addition to its antioxidant properties, W. somnifera exhibited significant antibacterial activities against Gram-negative bacteria, particularly S. typhi. PMID:23039061
Sanchita; Singh, Swati; Sharma, Ashok
Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) is an affluent storehouse of large number of pharmacologically active secondary metabolites known as withanolides. These secondary metabolites are produced by withanolide biosynthetic pathway. Very less information is available on structural and functional aspects of enzymes involved in withanolides biosynthetic pathways of Withiana somnifera. We therefore performed a bioinformatics analysis to look at functional and structural properties of these important enzymes. The pathway enzymes taken for this study were 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase, 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductase, farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, squalene synthase, squalene epoxidase, and cycloartenol synthase. The prediction of secondary structure was performed for basic structural information. Three-dimensional structures for these enzymes were predicted. The physico-chemical properties such as pI, AI, GRAVY and instability index were also studied. The current information will provide a platform to know the structural attributes responsible for the function of these protein until experimental structures become available.
Patil, Dada; Gautam, Manish; Jadhav, Umesh; Mishra, Sanjay; Karupothula, Suresh; Gairola, Sunil; Jadhav, Suresh; Patwardhan, Bhushan
Stability testing at preformulation stages is a crucial part of drug development. We studied physicochemical stability and biological activity of Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) dried root aqueous extract during six months real-time and under accelerated storage conditions. The characteristic constituents of ashwagandha roots include withanolides such as withaferin A and withanolide A. We modified and validated the HPLC-DAD method for quantitative measurement of withanolides and fingerprint analysis. The results suggest a significant decline in withaferin A and withanolide A content under real and accelerated conditions. The HPLC fingerprint analysis showed significant changes in some peaks during real and accelerated storage (> 20 %). We also observed incidences of clump formation and moisture sensitivity (> 10 %) under real-time and accelerated storage conditions. These changes were concurrent with a significant decline in immunomodulatory activity (p < 0.01) during the third month of the accelerated storage. Thus, adequate control of temperature and humidity is important for WSE containing formulations. This study may help in proposing suitable guidance for storage conditions and shelf life of ashwagandha formulations. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.
Sharma, Rupali; Singh, Hukum; Kaushik, Monica; Nautiyal, Raman; Singh, Ombir
Winter cherry or Ashwagandha ( Withania somnifera ) is an important medicinal plant used in traditional and herbal medicine system. Yet, there is no information available on response of this plant to changing climatic conditions particularly elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. Therefore, we conducted an experiment to examine the effect of elevated CO 2 concentrations (ECs) on Withania somnifera . The variations in traits of physiological adaptation, net primary productivity, carbon partitioning, morphology, and biomass in response to elevated CO 2 concentrations (ambient, 600 and 800 µmol mol -1 ) during one growth cycle were investigated within the open top chamber (OTC) facility in the foothill of the Himalayas, Dehardun, India. ECs significantly increased photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, soil respiration, net primary productivity and the carbon content of plant tissues (leaf, stem, and root), and soil carbon. Furthermore, ECs significantly enhanced biomass production (root and shoot), although declined night leaf respiration. Overall, it was summarized that photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, leaf, and soil carbon and biomass increased under ECs rendering the physiological adaptation to the plant. Increased net primary productivity might facilitate mitigation effects by sequestering elevated levels of carbon dioxide. We advocate further studies to investigate the effects of ECs on the accumulation of secondary metabolites and health-promoting substances of this as well as other medicinal plants.
Ravindran, Rekha; Sharma, Nitika; Roy, Sujata; Thakur, Ashoke R; Ganesh, Subhadra; Kumar, Sriram; Devi, Jamuna; Rajkumar, Johanna
Withania somnifera commonly known as Ashwagandha in India is used in many herbal formulations to treat various cardiovascular diseases. The key metabolite of this plant, Withaferin A was analyzed for its molecular mechanism through docking studies on different targets of cardiovascular disease. Six receptor proteins associated with cardiovascular disease were selected and interaction studies were performed with Withaferin A using AutoDock Vina. CORINA was used to model the small molecules and HBAT to compute the hydrogen bonding. Among the six targets, β1- adrenergic receptors, HMG-CoA and Angiotensinogen-converting enzyme showed significant interaction with Withaferin A. Pharmacophore modeling was done using PharmaGist to understand the pharmacophoric potential of Withaferin A. Clustering of Withaferin A with different existing drug molecules for cardiovascular disease was performed with ChemMine based on structural similarity and physicochemical properties. The ability of natural active component, Withaferin A to interact with different receptors associated with cardiovascular disease was elucidated with various modeling techniques. These studies conclusively revealed Withaferin A as a potent lead compound against multiple targets associated with cardiovascular disease.
Nazemyieh, Hossein; Fazljou, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Nejatbakhsh, Fatemeh; Moini Jazani, Arezoo; Ahmadi AsrBadr, Yadollah
Introduction Withania somnifera (WS) also known as ashwagandha is a well-known medicinal plant used in traditional medicine in many countries for infertility treatment. The present study was aimed at systemically reviewing therapeutic effects of WS on the reproductive system. Methods This systematic review study was designed in 2016. Required data were obtained from PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge, Web of Science, and manual search of articles, grey literature, reference checking, and expert contact. Results WS was found to improve reproductive system function by many ways. WS extract decreased infertility among male subjects, due to the enhancement in semen quality which is proposed due to the enhanced enzymatic activity in seminal plasma and decreasing oxidative stress. Also, WS extract improved luteinizing hormone and follicular stimulating hormone balance leading to folliculogenesis and increased gonadal weight, although some animal studies had concluded that WS had reversible spermicidal and infertilizing effects in male subjects. Conclusion WS was found to enhance spermatogenesis and sperm related indices in male and sexual behaviors in female. But, according to some available evidences for spermicidal features, further studies should focus on the extract preparation method and also dosage used in their study protocols. PMID:29670898
Pandit, Santosh; Song, Kwang-Yeob; Jeon, Jae-Gyu
Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) is a plant of the Solanaceae family. It has been widely used as a remedy for a variety of ailments in India and Nepal. The plant has also been used as a controlling agent for dental diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the activity of the methanol extract of W. somnifera against the physiological ability of cariogenic biofilms and to identify the components of the extract. To determine the activity of the extract, assays for sucrose-dependent bacterial adherence, glycolytic acid production, acid tolerance, and extracellular polysaccharide formation were performed using Streptococcus mutans biofilms. The viability change of S. mutans biofilms cells was also determined. A phytochemical analysis of the extract was performed using TLC and LC/MS/MS. The extract showed inhibitory effects on sucrose-dependent bacterial adherence (≥ 100 μg/ml), glycolytic acid production (≥ 300 μg/ml), acid tolerance (≥ 300 μg/ml), and extracellular polysaccharide formation (≥ 300 μg/ml) of S. mutans biofilms. However, the extract did not alter the viability of S. mutans biofilms cells in all concentrations tested. Based on the phytochemical analysis, the activity of the extract may be related to the presence of alkaloids, anthrones, coumarines, anthraquinones, terpenoids, flavonoids, and steroid lactones (withanolide A, withaferin A, withanolide B, withanoside IV, and 12-deoxy withastramonolide). These data indicate that W. somnifera may be a potential agent for restraining the physiological ability of cariogenic biofilms.
Fatima, Nigar; Ahmad, Naseem; Anis, Mohammad
Plant tissue culture offers several techniques for rapid clonal propagation, germplasm conservation, regeneration of genetically manipulated superior clones, production of phyto-constituents, and ex vitro conservation of valuable phytodiversity. An improved and efficient micropropagation protocol for Withania somnifera (L.), a drug-producing medicinal plant, using juvenile explants (nodal explants) has been developed. Highest multiplication and subsequent elongation of shoots is observed on MS medium containing BA and NAA. The regenerated microshoots roots best on ½ MS medium containing NAA, established in earthen pots containing garden soil and are maintained in the greenhouse with 95 % survival rate. Genetic uniformity of micropropagated plants is confirmed by PCR-based DNA fingerprinting techniques, viz., RAPD and ISSR. No variation is observed in DNA fingerprinting patterns among the micropropagated plants, which are similar to that of the donor plant illustrating their genetic uniformity.
Palliyaguru, Dushani L.; Singh, Shivendra V.; Kensler, Thomas W.
The identification of bioactive molecules that have potential to interrupt carcinogenesis continues to garner research interest. In particular, molecules that have dietary origin are most attractive because of their safety, cost-effectiveness and feasibility of oral administration. Nutraceuticals have played an important role in the overall well-being of humans for many years, with or without rigorous evidence backing their health claims. Traditional medicine systems around the world have utilized plants for millennia that have medicinal properties, providing an opportunity for modern day researchers to assess their efficacies against ailments such as cancer. Withania somnifera (WS) is a plant that has been used in Ayurveda (an ancient form of medicine in Asia) and in the recent past, has been demonstrated to have anti-tumorigenic properties in experimental models. While scientific research performed on WS has exploded in the past decade, much regarding the mode of action and molecular targets involved remains unknown. In this review, we discuss the traditional uses of the plant, the experimental evidence supporting its chemopreventive potential as well as roadblocks that need to be overcome in order for WS to be evaluated as a chemopreventive agent in humans. PMID:26718910
Gupta, Muskan; Kaur, Gurcharan
Reactive gliosis, microgliosis, and subsequent secretion of various inflammatory mediators like cytokines, proteases, reactive oxygen, and nitrogen species are the suggested key players associated with systemic inflammation-driven neuroinflammation and cognitive impairments in various neurological disorders. Conventionally, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed to suppress inflammation but due to their adverse effects, their usage is not well accepted. Natural products are emerging better therapeutic agents due to their affordability and inherent pleiotropic biological activities. In Ayurveda, Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is well known for its immunomodulatory properties. The current study is an extension of our previous report on in vitro model system and was aimed to investigate anti-neuroinflammatory potential of water extract from the Ashwagandha leaves (ASH-WEX) against systemic LPS-induced neuroinflammation and associated behavioral impairments using in vivo rat model system. Oral feeding of ASH-WEX for 8 weeks significantly ameliorated the anxiety-like behavior as evident from Elevated plus maze test. Suppression of reactive gliosis, inflammatory cytokines production like TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and expression of nitro-oxidative stress enzymes like iNOS, COX2, NOX2 etc were observed in ASH-WEX-treated animals. NFκB, P38, and JNK MAPKs pathways analysis showed their involvement in inflammation suppression which was further confirmed by inhibitor studies. The current study provides first ever preclinical evidence and scientific validation that ASH-WEX exhibits the anti-neuroinflammatory potential against systemic LPS-induced neuroinflammation and ameliorates associated behavioral abnormalities. Aqueous extract from Ashwagandha leaves and its active phytochemicals may prove to be promising candidates to prevent neuroinflammation associated with various neuropathologies.
Yenisetti, Sarat C; Manjunath, M J; Muralidhara, C
Owing to the increasing aged population globally, disorders and diseases of the CNS are anticipated to increase and profoundly impact the health care. As these neurodegenerative diseases (NDD) are complex, multifactorial and do not have identified etiological factors, unfortunately, drugs developed for the purpose have not met with the expected success. Hence, there has been a constant demand for the development of natural therapeutic adjuvants which are safe and possess the potential to attenuate multiple pathways. Numerous herbal/natural products have been used as therapeutics in Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat NDD and other memory-related disorders. Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha, WS), popularly called as "Indian Ginseng" is one such plant which possesses a variety of beneficial neuropharmacological properties. In this review, we have attempted to review critically the existing literature and patents related to the neuroprotective efficacy of WS roots and the underlying mechanism/s. Standardized extracts of Withania somnifera (WS) have been demonstrated to possess multidimensional neuromodulatory effects both in vitro and animal models. The spectrum of effects evidenced comprises of attenuation of oxidative damage by enhancing the antioxidant defense system with concomitant enhancement of the expression of marker proteins responsible for growth, differentiation and communication of neural cells. Specific effects of WS are attributable to its potential to modulate neurotrophic factors, cytoskeletal elements, cell adhesion molecules and synaptic proteins. Generation of new data by employing systematic contemporary approaches such as bioinformatics, molecular docking studies, identification of specific gene targets and epigenetic regulation would provide the necessary impetus to validate fully the neurotherapeutic potential of the phytochemicals derived from WS. More importantly, well-designed clinical trials are required to exploit the neuromodulatory
Senthil, Kalaiselvi; Thirugnanasambantham, Pankajavalli; Oh, Taek Joo; Kim, So Hyun; Choi, Hyung Kyoon
Free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) of in vitro cultured and field grown Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) roots were investigated. Withanolides analysis and comprehensive metabolic profiling between 100% methanol extracts of in vitro and field grown root tissues was performed using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. Significantly higher levels of FRSA, TPC, and TFC were observed in in-vitro cultured roots compared with field grown samples. In addition, 30 day-cultured in vitro root samples (1MIR) exhibited a significantly higher FRSA (IC50 81.01 μg/mL), TPC (118.91 mg GAE/g), and TFC (32.68 mg CE/g) compared with those in 45 day-cultured samples (1.5MIR). Total of 29 metabolites were identified in in vitro cultured and field grown roots by GC-MS analysis. The metabolites included alcohols, organic acids, purine, pyrimidine, sugars, and putrescine. Vanillic acid was only observed in the in vitro cultured root samples, and higher level of the vanillic acid was observed in 1MIR when compared to 1.5MIR. Therefore, it is suggested that 1MIR might serve as an alternative to field grown roots for the development of medicinal and functional food products. PMID:25874568
Srivastava, Pooja; Tiwari, Neerja; Yadav, Akhilesh K; Kumar, Vijendra; Shanker, Karuna; Verma, Ram K; Gupta, Madan M; Gupta, Anil K; Khanuja, Suman P S
This paper describes a sensitive, selective, specific, robust, and validated densitometric high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the simultaneous determination of 3 key withanolides, namely, withaferin-A, 12-deoxywithastramonolide, and withanolide-A, in Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) plant samples. The separation was performed on aluminum-backed silica gel 60F254 HPTLC plates using dichloromethane-methanol-acetone-diethyl ether (15 + 1 + 1 + 1, v/v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The withanolides were quantified by densitometry in the reflection/absorption mode at 230 nm. Precise and accurate quantification could be performed in the linear working concentration range of 66-330 ng/band with good correlation (r2 = 0.997, 0.999, and 0.996, respectively). The method was validated for recovery, precision, accuracy, robustness, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and specificity according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. Specificity of quantification was confirmed using retention factor (Rf) values, UV-Vis spectral correlation, and electrospray ionization mass spectra of marker compounds in sample tracks.
Kumar, Ranjeet; Rai, Jaswant; Kajal, N C; Devi, Pushpa
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Linn.) a rejuvenative herb has long been used as an immunomodulator in Indian subcontinent. As immunity plays an important role in pathogenesis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB), so role of W. somnifera as an adjuvant has been studied on selected parameter. A randomized, double-blind placebo-control study was conducted in two groups of 60 newly diagnosed sputum smear positive pulmonary TB patients on Directly Observed Treatment - short course (DOTS) regime. W. somnifera root extract or placebo capsules were given as add-on therapy for duration of 12 weeks. Effects on sputum conversion, Hemoglobin (Hb), body weight, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), RBC counts, WBC counts, CD4 and CD8 counts, Serum Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamic-Pyruvic Transaminase (SGPT), serum uric acid and HRQL (Health Related Quality of Life) Index scores were studied. At the end of 8 weeks, sputum conversion was seen in 86.6% patients in study group and 76.6% in placebo group. At the end of 12 weeks a highly significant increase was seen in both CD4 and CD8 counts in study group. A raised SGOT and SGPT levels (>35IU/L) were observed in 16.6% and 33.3% patients in study group; 43.33% and 53.33% in the placebo group of patients. Elevated serum uric acid levels (>6mg/dl) were observed in 20% and 33.33% in study and placebo group respectively. Average gain in HRQL score was better in patients of study group. Use of W. somnifera as an adjuvant in conjunction with anti-TB drugs used as DOTS showed a favorable effect on symptoms and immunological parameters in patients with pulmonary TB. Copyright © 2017 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... specific ashwagandha root extract (KSM66, Ixoreal Biomed, Hyderabad, India) 300 mg twice daily after food for 60 ... Cap Strelaxin, M/s Pharmanza Herbal Pvt. Ltd., Gujarat, India) 400 mg three times daily for one month ...
Mir, Bilal Ahmad; Mir, Shabir Ahmad; Koul, Sushma
Withania ashwagandha, belonging to the family Solanaceae, is an important medicinal herb of India with restricted geographic distribution. It is a rich source of withaferin A (WA) and other bioactive withanolides. In the present study a rapid in vitro mass propagation protocol of W. ashwagandha was developed from nodal explants. Nodal explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators (PGRs). The highest number of regenerated shoots per ex-plant (33 ± 2.7) and highest WA (13.4 ± 1.15 mg/g of DW) production was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 1.0 μM Kinetin (Kn). In vitro raised shoots were further rooted on half-strength MS medium containing 2.0 μM Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and analyzed for WA production. The rooted plantlets when transferred to poly bags in the greenhouse showed 90 % survival frequency. Levels of WA were higher in the in vitro and ex vitro derived shoot and root tissues as compared to field grown mother plants. In an attempt to further maximize WA production, shoot cultures were further grown in liquid MS medium supplemented with 5.0 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 1.0 μM Kinetin (Kn). Root cultures were grown on half strength MS liquid medium fortified with 2.0 μM of IBA. WA production in the liquid cultures was significantly higher compared to the static composition of the same media. This protocol, first of its kind in this plant, can be successfully employed for conservation, proliferation and large-scale production of WA. The regenerated plants can also be used in traditional medicine as an alternative to naturally collected plants.
Turrini, Eleonora; Calcabrini, Cinzia; Sestili, Piero; Catanzaro, Elena; de Gianni, Elena; Diaz, Anna Rita; Hrelia, Patrizia; Tacchini, Massimo; Guerrini, Alessandra; Canonico, Barbara; Papa, Stefano; Valdrè, Giovanni; Fimognari, Carmela
Cancer chemotherapy is characterized by an elevated intrinsic toxicity and the development of drug resistance. Thus, there is a compelling need for new intervention strategies with an improved therapeutic profile. Immunogenic cell death (ICD) represents an innovative anticancer strategy where dying cancer cells release damage-associated molecular patterns promoting tumor-specific immune responses. The roots of Withania somnifera (W. somnifera) are used in the Indian traditional medicine for their anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, neuroprotective, and anticancer activities. The present study is designed to explore the antileukemic activity of the dimethyl sulfoxide extract obtained from the roots of W. somnifera (WE). We studied its cytostatic and cytotoxic activity, its ability to induce ICD, and its genotoxic potential on a human T-lymphoblastoid cell line by using different flow cytometric assays. Our results show that WE has a significant cytotoxic and cytostatic potential, and induces ICD. Its proapoptotic mechanism involves intracellular Ca2+ accumulation and the generation of reactive oxygen species. In our experimental conditions, the extract possesses a genotoxic potential. Since the use of Withania is suggested in different contexts including anti-infertility and osteoarthritis care, its genotoxicity should be carefully considered for an accurate assessment of its risk–benefit profile. PMID:27187469
Marslin, Gregory; Selvakesavan, Rajendran K; Franklin, Gregory; Sarmento, Bruno; Dias, Alberto CP
We report on the antimicrobial activity of a cream formulation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), biosynthesized using Withania somnifera extract. Aqueous extracts of leaves promoted efficient green synthesis of AgNPs compared to fruits and root extracts of W. somnifera. Biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized for their size and shape by physical-chemical techniques such as UV-visible spectroscopy, laser Doppler anemometry, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. After confirming the antimicrobial potential of AgNPs, they were incorporated into a cream. Cream formulations of AgNPs and AgNO3 were prepared and compared for their antimicrobial activity against human pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans) and a plant pathogen (Agrobacterium tumefaciens). Our results show that AgNP creams possess significantly higher antimicrobial activity against the tested organisms. PMID:26445537
Saykally, Jessica N; Hatic, Haris; Keeley, Kristen L; Jain, Subhash C; Ravindranath, Vijayalakshmi; Citron, Bruce A
Withania somnifera has been used in traditional medicine for a variety of neural disorders. Recently, chronic neurodegenerative conditions have been shown to benefit from treatment with this extract. To evaluate the action of this extract on traumatically injured neurons, the efficacy of W. somnifera root extract as a neuroprotective agent was examined in cultured model neurons exposed to an in vitro injury system designed to mimic mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). Neuronal health was evaluated by staining with annexin V (an early, apoptotic feature) and monitoring released lactate dehydrogenase activity (a terminal cell loss parameter). Potential mechanisms underlying the observed neuroprotection were examined. Additionally, morphological changes were monitored following injury and treatment. Although no differences were found in the expression of the antioxidant transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (Nrf2) or other Nrf2-related downstream components, significant changes were seen in apoptotic signaling. Treatment with the extract resulted in an increased length of neurites projecting from the neuronal cell body after injury. W. somnifera extract treatment also resulted in reduced cell death in the model neuron TBI system. The cell death factor Bax was involved (its expression was reduced 2-fold by the treatment) and injury-induced reduction in neurite lengths and numbers was reversed by the treatment. This all indicates that W. somnifera root extract was neuroprotective and could have therapeutic potential to target factors involved in secondary injury and long-term sequelae of mild TBI.
Saykally, Jessica N.; Hatic, Haris; Keeley, Kristen L.; Jain, Subhash C.; Ravindranath, Vijayalakshmi
Withania somnifera has been used in traditional medicine for a variety of neural disorders. Recently, chronic neurodegenerative conditions have been shown to benefit from treatment with this extract. To evaluate the action of this extract on traumatically injured neurons, the efficacy of W. somnifera root extract as a neuroprotective agent was examined in cultured model neurons exposed to an in vitro injury system designed to mimic mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). Neuronal health was evaluated by staining with annexin V (an early, apoptotic feature) and monitoring released lactate dehydrogenase activity (a terminal cell loss parameter). Potential mechanisms underlying the observed neuroprotection were examined. Additionally, morphological changes were monitored following injury and treatment. Although no differences were found in the expression of the antioxidant transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (Nrf2) or other Nrf2-related downstream components, significant changes were seen in apoptotic signaling. Treatment with the extract resulted in an increased length of neurites projecting from the neuronal cell body after injury. W. somnifera extract treatment also resulted in reduced cell death in the model neuron TBI system. The cell death factor Bax was involved (its expression was reduced 2-fold by the treatment) and injury-induced reduction in neurite lengths and numbers was reversed by the treatment. This all indicates that W. somnifera root extract was neuroprotective and could have therapeutic potential to target factors involved in secondary injury and long-term sequelae of mild TBI. PMID:28933215
Gupta, Parul; Goel, Ridhi; Agarwal, Aditya Vikram; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Sangwan, Neelam Singh; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar
Withania somnifera is one of the most valuable medicinal plants synthesizing secondary metabolites known as withanolides. Despite pharmaceutical importance, limited information is available about the biosynthesis of withanolides. Chemo-profiling of leaf and root tissues of Withania suggest differences in the content and/or nature of withanolides in different chemotypes. To identify genes involved in chemotype and/or tissue-specific withanolide biosynthesis, we established transcriptomes of leaf and root tissues of distinct chemotypes. Genes encoding enzymes for intermediate steps of terpenoid backbone biosynthesis with their alternatively spliced forms and paralogous have been identified. Analysis suggests differential expression of large number genes among leaf and root tissues of different chemotypes. Study also identified differentially expressing transcripts encoding cytochrome P450s, glycosyltransferases, methyltransferases and transcription factors which might be involved in chemodiversity in Withania. Virus induced gene silencing of the sterol ∆7-reductase (WsDWF5) involved in the synthesis of 24-methylene cholesterol, withanolide backbone, suggests role of this enzyme in biosynthesis of withanolides. Information generated, in this study, provides a rich resource for functional analysis of withanolide-specific genes to elucidate chemotype- as well as tissue-specific withanolide biosynthesis. This genomic resource will also help in development of new tools for functional genomics and breeding in Withania. PMID:26688389
Shasmita; Rai, Manoj K; Naik, Soumendra K
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (family: Solanaceae), commonly known as "Indian Ginseng", is a medicinally and industrially important plant of the Indian subcontinent and other warmer parts of the world. The plant has multi-use medicinal potential and has been listed among 36 important cultivated medicinal plants of India that are in high demand for trade due to its pharmaceutical uses. The medicinal importance of this plant is mainly due to the presence of different types of steroidal lactones- withanolides in the roots and leaves. Owing to low seed viability and poor germination, the conventional propagation of W. somnifera falls short to cater its commercial demands particularly for secondary metabolite production. Therefore, there is a great need to develop different biotechnological approaches through tissue and organ culture for seasonal independent production of plants in large scale which will provide sufficient raw materials of uniform quality for pharmaceutical purposes. During past years, a number of in vitro plant regeneration protocols via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis and in vitro conservation through synthetic seed based encapsulation technology have been developed for W. somnifera. Several attempts have also been made to standardize the protocol of secondary metabolite production via tissue/organ cultures, cell suspension cultures, and Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformed hairy root cultures. Employment of plant tissue culture based techniques would provide means for rapid propagation and conservation of this plant species and also provide scope for enhanced production of different bioactive secondary metabolites. The present review provides a comprehensive report on research activities conducted in the area of tissue culture and secondary metabolite production in W. somnifera during the past years. It also discusses the unexplored areas which might be taken into consideration for future research so that the medicinal properties and
Raut, Rajesh Warluji; Mendhulkar, Vijay Damodhar; Kashid, Sahebrao Balaso
The metal nanoparticle synthesis is highly explored field of nanotechnology. The biological methods seem to be more effective; however, due to slow reduction rate and polydispersity of the resulting products, they are less preferred. In the present study, we report rapid and facile synthesis of silver nanoparticles at room temperature. The exposure of reaction mixtures containing silver nitrate and dried leaf powder of Withania somnifera Linn to direct sunlight resulted in reduction of metal ions within five minutes whereas, the dark exposure took almost 12h. Further studies using different light filters reveal the role of blue light in reduction of silver ions. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis, Infrared spectroscopy (IR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction studies (XRD), Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). The Antibacterial and antifungal studies showed significant activity as compared to their respective standards. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
KHAZAL, KAMEL F.; SAMUEL, TEMESGEN; HILL, DONALD L.; GRUBBS, CLINTON J.
The chemopreventive activity of an extract of Withania somnifera (WS) roots was examined in female Sprague-Dawley rats that received the mammary carcinogen methylnitrosourea (MNU). The dose of the extract, administered by gavage, was 150 mg/kg body weight daily for 155 days after injection of MNU. Rats in the treated group (N=15) had an average of 3.47 tumors, and rats in the control group (N=15) had 4.53, a reduction of 23%. The average weights of tumors were 4.98 g for rats in the treated group and 6.30 g for the controls, a difference of 21%. Labeling indices for Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) markers in cancers of the treated group were 42% and 38% lower, respectively, than those of the corresponding indices for the control group. These results indicate that the root extract significantly reduced the rate of cell division in the mammary tumors. PMID:23564793
Kumar, Praveen; Singh, Raghavendra; Nazmi, Arshed; Lakhanpal, Dinesh; Kataria, Hardeep; Kaur, Gurcharan
Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), also known as Indian Ginseng, is a well-known Indian medicinal plant due to its antioxidative, antistress, antigenotoxic, and immunomodulatory properties. The present study was designed to assess and establish the cytoprotective potential of Ashwagandha leaf aqueous extract against lead induced toxicity. Pretreatment of C6 cells with 0.1% Ashwagandha extract showed cytoprotection against 25 μM to 400 μM concentration of lead nitrate. Further pretreatment with Ashwagandha extract to lead nitrate exposed cells (200 μM) resulted in normalization of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression as well as heat shock protein (HSP70), mortalin, and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) expression. Further, the cytoprotective efficacy of Ashwagandha extract was studied in vivo. Administration of Ashwagandha extract provided significant protection to lead induced altered antioxidant defense that may significantly compromise normal cellular function. Ashwagandha also provided a significant protection to lipid peroxidation (LPx) levels, catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) but not reduced glutathione (GSH) contents in brain tissue as well as peripheral organs, liver and kidney, suggesting its ability to act as a free radical scavenger protecting cells against toxic insult. These results, thus, suggest that Ashwagandha water extract may have the potential therapeutic implication against lead poisoning.
Pandey, Vibha; Dhar, Yogeshwar Vikram; Gupta, Parul; Bag, Sumit K; Atri, Neelam; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Misra, Pratibha
Sterol glycosyltransferases (SGTs) are ubiquitous but one of the most diverse group of enzymes of glycosyltransferases family. Members of this family modulate physical and chemical properties of secondary plant products important for various physiological processes. The role of SGTs has been demonstrated in the biosynthesis of pharmaceutically important molecules of medicinal plants like Withania somnifera. Analysis suggested conserved behaviour and high similarity in active sites of WsSGTs with other plant GTs. Substrate specificity of WsSGTs were analysed through docking performance of WsSGTs with different substrates (sterols and withanolides). Best docking results of WsSGTL1 in the form of stable enzyme-substrate complex having lowest binding energies were obtained with brassicasterol, transandrosteron and WsSGTL4 with solasodine, stigmasterol and 24-methylene cholesterol. This study reveals topological characters and conserved nature of two SGTs from W. somnifera (WsSGTs) i.e. WsSGTL1 and WsSGTL4. However, besides being ubiquitous in nature and with broad substrate specificity, difference between WsSGTL1 and WsSGTL4 is briefly described by difference in stability (binding energy) of enzyme-substrate complexes through comparative docking.
Singh, B; Saxena, A K; Chandan, B K; Gupta, D K; Bhutani, K K; Anand, K K
The practitioners of the traditional Indian system of medicine regard Withania somnifera Dun. as the 'Indian ginseng'. A new withanolide-free aqueous fraction was isolated from the roots of this plant and was evaluated for putative antistress activity against a battery of tests such as hypoxia time, antifatigue effect, swimming performance time, swimming induced gastric ulceration and hypothermia, immobilization induced gastric ulceration, autoanalgesia and biochemical changes in the adrenal glands. This bioactive fraction exhibited significant antistress activity in a dose-related manner in all the parameters studied. The extract of Withania somnifera root (a commercial preparation available locally) was used to compare the results. A preliminary acute toxicity study in mice showed a good margin of safety. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kumar, Rajesh; Das, Amar Jyoti; Juwarkar, Asha A
Soil contaminated by hydrocarbons, cannot be used for agricultural intents due to their toxic effect to the plants. Surfactants producing by plant growth promotory rhizobacteria (PGPR) can effectively rig the problem of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination and growth promotion on such contaminated soils. In the present study three Pseudomonas strains isolated from contaminated soil identified by 16S rRNA analysis were ascertained for PGPR as well as biosurfactants property. Biosurfactants produced by the strains were further characterized and essayed for rhamnolipids. Inoculation of the strains in petrol hydrocarbon contaminated soil and its interaction with Withania somnifera in presence of petrol oil hydrocarbons depict that the strains helped in growth promotion of Withania somnifera in petrol oil contaminated soil while rhamnolipids helped in lowering the toxicity of petrol oil. The study was found to be beneficial as the growth and antioxidant activity of Withania sominfera was enhanced. Hence the present study signifies that rhamnolipids producing PGPR strains could be a better measure for reclamation of petrol contaminated sites for growing medicinal plants.
Pandey, Anjali; Bani, Sarang; Dutt, Prabhu; Kumar Satti, Naresh; Avtar Suri, Krishan; Nabi Qazi, Ghulam
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic disorder that slowly worsens and impairs the person's memory, learning, reasoning, judgment, communication and familiar tasks with loss of orientation. AD is characterized clinically by cognitive deficit and pathologically by the deposition of β amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, associated with degeneration of the cholinergic forebrain. Withanone (WS-2), a compound isolated from root extract of Withania somnifera at doses administered orally/day to wistar rats for duration of 21 days showed significant improvement in the cognitive skill by inhibiting amyloid β-42 and attenuated the elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, MCP-1, Nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation and both β- and γ- secretase enzymatic activity. Administration of WS-2 also significantly reversed the decline in acetyl choline and Glutathione (GSH) activity. None of the treatments that are available today alter the underlying causes of this terminal disease. Few preliminary clinical treatments have demonstrated that some plant medicines do ameliorate and improve memory and learning in patients with mild-to-moderate AD. WS-2 showed promise in AD treatment because of cognitive benefits and more importantly, mechanisms of action with respect to the fundamental pathophysiology of the disease, not limited to the inhibition of AChE, but also include the modification of Aβ processing, protection against oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Singhal, M.; Brinker, R.
Elderly populations and associated age-related diseases, including damaged peripheral and central neural systems, are increasing. Both systems are vital, and methods to sustain function are sought. The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether Withania somnifera (WS) and Ginkgo biloba (GB) extracts are conducive to planarian regeneration. After acclimation, brown planaria were cut across lateral nerve cord. Experimental groups were treated with 100μg WS or GB extract. Planarian length was measured and piece tested for negative phototaxis. In phototactic test, planaria were allowed 30 seconds to cross petri dish and stay under dark side. A positive response signified photoreceptor presence, indicating regeneration. Both GB and WS groups expressed more favorable cumulative regeneration rates than control group (97.31%, 71.44%, and 40.60% respectively). The null hypothesis (identical regeneration rates) was rejected (p-value ≈ 0.0375). Because phototactic data wasn't taken on days 4 and 5, there was no significant difference in average day of first phototactic response. Most WS and GB planaria first responded on day 6, suggesting that, had data been taken on days 4 and 5, both plant-treated groups would have exhibited even sooner responses than control. Future studies include quantifying regeneration via planarian locomotive velocity (pLMV) and other stereotypical responses.
Sood, Abhilasha; Mehrotra, Arpit; Dhawan, Devinder K; Sandhir, Rajat
Stroke is an increasingly prevalent clinical condition and second leading cause of death globally. The present study evaluated the therapeutic potential of Indian Ginseng, also known as Withania somnifera (WS), supplementation on middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) induced mitochondrial dysfunctions in experimental model of ischemic stroke. Stroke was induced in animals by occluding the middle cerebral artery, followed by reperfusion injury. Ischemia reperfusion injury resulted in increased oxidative stress indicated by increased reactive oxygen species and protein carbonyl levels; compromised antioxidant system; in terms of reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, along with reduction in GSH levels and the redox ratio, impaired mitochondrial functions and enhanced expression of apoptosis markers. Ischemia reperfusion injury induced mitochondrial dysfunctions in terms of (i) reduced activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes, (ii) reduced histochemical staining of complex-II and IV, (iii) reduced in-gel activity of mitochondrial complex-I to V, (iv) mitochondrial structural changes in terms of increased mitochondrial swelling, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and ultrastructural changes. Additionally, an increase in the activity of caspase-3 and caspase-9 was also observed, along with altered expression of apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bax in MCAO animals. MCAO animals also showed significant impairment in cognitive functions assessed using Y maze test. WS pre-supplementation, on the other hand ameliorated MCAO induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunctions, apoptosis and cognitive impairments. The results show protective effect of WS pre-supplementation in ischemic stroke and are suggestive of its potential application in stroke management.
Sudeep, H.V.; Gouthamchandra, K.; Venkatesh, B. J.; Prasad, K. Shyam
Background: Withania somnifera is an Indian medicinal herb known for the multipotential ability to cure various therapeutic ailments as described in the ayurvedic system of medicine. Objective: In the present study, we have evaluated the antiproliferative activity of a standardized W. somnifera root extract (Viwithan) against different human and murine cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxicity of Viwithan was determined using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium blue assay and crystal violet staining. The apoptotic changes in B16F1 cells following treatment with Viwithan were observed by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining and DNA fragmentation assay. The binding affinity of withanolides in Viwithan with antiapoptotic proteins B-cell lymphoma 2, B-cell lymphoma-extra large, and myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL-1) were studied using in silico approach. Results: The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of Viwithan against liver hepatocellular carcinoma, Henrietta Lacks cervical carcinoma cells, human colorectal carcinoma cell line, and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells were 1830, 968, 2715, and 633 μg/ml, respectively. Interestingly, Viwithan was highly effective against B16F1 cells with an IC50 value of 220 μg/ml after 24 h treatment. The morphological alterations of apoptotic cell death were clearly observed in the AO/EB-stained cells after treatment with Viwithan. Viwithan induced late apoptotic changes in treated B16F1 cells as evident by the ladder formation of fragmented DNA in a time-dependent manner. The findings of molecular docking showed that withanolides present in Viwithan have a more binding affinity with the antiapoptotic proteins, particularly MCL-1. Conclusion: We have reported for the first time that Viwithan with 5% withanolides has a potent cytotoxic effect, particularly against B16F1 murine melanoma cells among the different cancer cell lines tested. SUMMARY The present study reports for the first time that
Sudeep, H V; Gouthamchandra, K; Venkatesh, B J; Prasad, K Shyam
Withania somnifera is an Indian medicinal herb known for the multipotential ability to cure various therapeutic ailments as described in the ayurvedic system of medicine. In the present study, we have evaluated the antiproliferative activity of a standardized W. somnifera root extract (Viwithan) against different human and murine cancer cell lines. The cytotoxicity of Viwithan was determined using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium blue assay and crystal violet staining. The apoptotic changes in B16F1 cells following treatment with Viwithan were observed by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining and DNA fragmentation assay. The binding affinity of withanolides in Viwithan with antiapoptotic proteins B-cell lymphoma 2, B-cell lymphoma-extra large, and myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL-1) were studied using in silico approach. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of Viwithan against liver hepatocellular carcinoma, Henrietta Lacks cervical carcinoma cells, human colorectal carcinoma cell line, and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells were 1830, 968, 2715, and 633 μg/ml, respectively. Interestingly, Viwithan was highly effective against B16F1 cells with an IC50 value of 220 μg/ml after 24 h treatment. The morphological alterations of apoptotic cell death were clearly observed in the AO/EB-stained cells after treatment with Viwithan. Viwithan induced late apoptotic changes in treated B16F1 cells as evident by the ladder formation of fragmented DNA in a time-dependent manner. The findings of molecular docking showed that withanolides present in Viwithan have a more binding affinity with the antiapoptotic proteins, particularly MCL-1. We have reported for the first time that Viwithan with 5% withanolides has a potent cytotoxic effect, particularly against B16F1 murine melanoma cells among the different cancer cell lines tested. The present study reports for the first time that Viwithan, a standardized 5% Withania somnifera root extract, has potent
Chandra, Sangita; Chatterjee, Priyanka; Dey, Protapaditya; Bhattacharya, Sanjib
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is an important medicinal plant in Indian traditional system of medicine and traditionally has been used for several medicinal purposes in the Indian subcontinent. The present study was aimed at the evaluation of allelopathic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of ashwagandha against germination and radicle growth of Cicer arietinum and Triticum aestivum seeds. The extract at different concentrations was incubated in controlled conditions with the surface sterilized seeds of C. arietinum and T. aestivum and observed periodically for seed germination and radicle growth to assess the allelopathic behavior. The extract mainly at higher concentrations demonstrated promising allelopathic potential by significantly affecting seed germination and radicle elongation of both C. arietinum and T. aestivum in a concentration dependent manner. T. aestivum was found to be more sensitive than C. arietinum. The present study demonstrated remarkable allelopathic potential of ashwagandha against the test seeds. The effect was plausibly due to the alkaloid and withanolide contents of ashwagandha.
Sil, Bipradut; Mukherjee, Chiranjit; Jha, Sumita; Mitra, Adinpunya
Cotransformed hairy roots containing a gene that encodes a fungal elicitor protein, β-cryptogein, were established in Withania somnifera, a medicinal plant widely used in Indian systems of medicine. To find out whether β-cryptogein protein endogenously elicits the pathway of withasteroid biosynthesis, withaferin A and withanolide A contents along with transcript accumulation of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), and sterol glycosyltransferase (SGT) were analyzed in both cryptogein-cotransformed and normal hairy roots of W. somnifera. It was observed that the withaferin A and withanolide A contents were drastically higher in normal hairy roots than cryptogein-cotransformed ones. Similar trends were also observed on the levels of transcript accumulation. Subsequently, the enzyme activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), one of the key enzymes of phenylpropanoid pathway, was measured in both cryptogein-cotransformed and normal hairy roots of W. somnifera along with the levels of PAL transcript accumulation. Upliftment of PAL activity was observed in cryptogein-cotransformed hairy roots as compared to the normal ones, and the PAL expression also reflected a similar trend, i.e., enhanced expression in the cryptogein-cotransformed lines. Upliftment of wall-bound ferulic acid accumulation was also observed in the cryptogein-cotransformed lines, as compared to normal hairy root lines. Thus, the outcome of the above studies suggests a metabolic shift from withanolide accumulation to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in cryptogein-cotransformed hairy roots of W. somnifera.
Dhar, Niha; Rana, Satiander; Razdan, Sumeer; Bhat, Wajid Waheed; Hussain, Aashiq; Dhar, Rekha S.; Vaishnavi, Samantha; Hamid, Abid; Vishwakarma, Ram; Lattoo, Surrinder K.
Oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs) positioned at a key metabolic subdividing junction execute indispensable enzymatic cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene for varied triterpenoid biosynthesis. Such branch points present favorable gene targets for redirecting metabolic flux toward specific secondary metabolites. However, detailed information regarding the candidate OSCs covering different branches and their regulation is necessary for the desired genetic manipulation. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to characterize members of OSC superfamily from Withania somnifera (Ws), a medicinal plant of immense repute known to synthesize a large array of biologically active steroidal lactone triterpenoids called withanolides. Three full-length OSC cDNAs, β-amyrin synthase (WsOSC/BS), lupeol synthase (WsOSC/LS), and cycloartenol synthase (WsOSC/CS), having open reading frames of 2289, 2268, and 2277 bp, were isolated. Heterologous expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, LC-MS analyses, and kinetic studies confirmed their monofunctionality. The three WsOSCs were found to be spatially regulated at transcriptional level with WsOSC/CS being maximally expressed in leaf tissue. Promoter analysis of three WsOSCs genes resulted in identification of distinct cis-regulatory elements. Further, transcript profiling under methyl jasmonate, gibberellic acid, and yeast extract elicitations displayed differential transcriptional regulation of each of the OSCs. Changes were also observed in mRNA levels under elicitations and further substantiated with protein expression levels by Western blotting. Negative regulation by yeast extract resulted in significant increase in withanolide content. Empirical evidence suggests that repression of competitive branch OSCs like WsOSC/BS and WsOSC/LS possibly leads to diversion of substrate pool toward WsOSC/CS for increased withanolide production. PMID:24770414
Schliebs, R; Liebmann, A; Bhattacharya, S K; Kumar, A; Ghosal, S; Bigl, V
Although some promising results have been achieved by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, an effective therapeutic intervention in Alzheimer's disease still remains an important goal. Sitoindosides VII-X, and withaferin-A, isolated from aqueous methanol extract from the roots of cultivated varieties of Withania somnifera (known as Indian Ginseng), as well as Shilajit, a pale-brown to blackish brown exudation from steep rocks of the Himalaya mountain, are used in Indian medicine to attenuate cerebral functional deficits, including amnesia, in geriatric patients. The present investigation was conducted to assess whether the memory-enhancing effects of plant extracts from Withania somnifera and Shilajit are owing to neurochemical alterations of specific transmitter systems. Therefore, histochemistry to analyse acetylcholinesterase activity as well as receptor autoradiography to detect cholinergic, glutamatergic and GABAergic receptor subtypes were performed in brain slices from adult male Wistar rats, injected intraperitoneally daily with an equimolar mixture of sitoindosides VII-X and withaferin-A (prepared from Withania somnifera) or with Shilajit, at doses of 40 mg/kg of body weight for 7 days. Administration of Shilajit led to reduced acetylcholinesterase staining, restricted to the basal forebrain nuclei including medial septum and the vertical limb of the diagonal band. Systemic application of the defined extract from Withania somnifera, however, led to differential effects on AChE activity in basal forebrain nuclei: slightly enhanced AChE activity was found in the lateral septum and globus pallidus, whereas in the vertical diagonal band AChE activity was reduced following treatment with sitoindosides VII-X and withaferin-A. These changes were accompanied by enhanced M1-muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding in lateral and medial septum as well as in frontal cortices, whereas the M2-muscarinic receptor binding sites were increased in a number of cortical regions
Singh, Gaurav; Tiwari, Manish; Singh, Surendra Pratap; Singh, Surendra; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Misra, Pratibha
Sterol glycosyltransferases (SGTs) catalyse transfer of glycon moiety to sterols and their related compounds to produce diverse glyco-conjugates or steryl glycosides with different biological and pharmacological activities. Functional studies of SGTs from Withania somnifera indicated their role in abiotic stresses but details about role under biotic stress are still unknown. Here, we have elucidated the function of SGTs by silencing SGTL1, SGTL2 and SGTL4 in Withania somnifera. Down-regulation of SGTs by artificial miRNAs led to the enhanced accumulation of withanolide A, withaferin A, sitosterol, stigmasterol and decreased content of withanoside V in Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) lines. This was further correlated with increased expression of WsHMGR, WsDXR, WsFPPS, WsCYP710A1, WsSTE1 and WsDWF5 genes, involved in withanolide biosynthesis. These variations of withanolide concentrations in silenced lines resulted in pathogen susceptibility as compared to control plants. The infection of Alternaria alternata causes increased salicylic acid, callose deposition, superoxide dismutase and H2O2 in aMIR-VIGS lines. The expression of biotic stress related genes, namely, WsPR1, WsDFS, WsSPI and WsPR10 were also enhanced in aMIR-VIGS lines in time dependent manner. Taken together, our observations revealed that a positive feedback regulation of withanolide biosynthesis occurred by silencing of SGTLs which resulted in reduced biotic tolerance. PMID:27146059
Rana, Satiander; Lattoo, Surrinder K.; Dhar, Niha; Razdan, Sumeer; Bhat, Wajid Waheed; Dhar, Rekha S.; Vishwakarma, Ram
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, a highly reputed medicinal plant, synthesizes a large array of steroidal lactone triterpenoids called withanolides. Although its chemical profile and pharmacological activities have been studied extensively during the last two decades, limited attempts have been made to decipher the biosynthetic route and identification of key regulatory genes involved in withanolide biosynthesis. Cytochrome P450 reductase is the most imperative redox partner of multiple P450s involved in primary and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. We describe here the cloning and characterization of two paralogs of cytochrome P450 reductase from W. somnifera. The full length paralogs of WsCPR1 and WsCPR2 have open reading frames of 2058 and 2142 bp encoding 685 and 713 amino acid residues, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that grouping of dual CPRs was in accordance with class I and class II of eudicotyledon CPRs. The corresponding coding sequences were expressed in Escherichia coli as glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins, purified and characterized. Recombinant proteins of both the paralogs were purified with their intact membrane anchor regions and it is hitherto unreported for other CPRs which have been purified from microsomal fraction. Southern blot analysis suggested that two divergent isoforms of CPR exist independently in Withania genome. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that both genes were widely expressed in leaves, stalks, roots, flowers and berries with higher expression level of WsCPR2 in comparison to WsCPR1. Similar to CPRs of other plant species, WsCPR1 was un-inducible while WsCPR2 transcript level increased in a time-dependent manner after elicitor treatments. High performance liquid chromatography of withanolides extracted from elicitor-treated samples showed a significant increase in two of the key withanolides, withanolide A and withaferin A, possibly indicating the role of WsCPR2 in withanolide biosynthesis
Agarwal, Aditya Vikram; Singh, Deeksha; Dhar, Yogeshwar Vikram; Michael, Rahul; Gupta, Parul; Chandra, Deepak; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar
Withanolides are a collection of naturally occurring, pharmacologically active, secondary metabolites synthesized in the medicinally important plant, Withania somnifera. These bioactive molecules are C28-steroidal lactone triterpenoids and their synthesis is proposed to take place via the mevalonate (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathways through the sterol pathway using 24-methylene cholesterol as substrate flux. Although the phytochemical profiles as well as pharmaceutical activities of Withania extracts have been well studied, limited genomic information and difficult genetic transformation have been a major bottleneck towards understanding the participation of specific genes in withanolide biosynthesis. In this study, we used the Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-mediated virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) approach to study the participation of key genes from MVA, MEP and triterpenoid biosynthesis for their involvement in withanolide biosynthesis. TRV-infected W. somnifera plants displayed unique phenotypic characteristics and differential accumulation of total Chl as well as carotenoid content for each silenced gene suggesting a reduction in overall isoprenoid synthesis. Comprehensive expression analysis of putative genes of withanolide biosynthesis revealed transcriptional modulations conferring the presence of complex regulatory mechanisms leading to withanolide biosynthesis. In addition, silencing of genes exhibited modulated total and specific withanolide accumulation at different levels as compared with control plants. Comparative analysis also suggests a major role for the MVA pathway as compared with the MEP pathway in providing substrate flux for withanolide biosynthesis. These results demonstrate that transcriptional regulation of selected Withania genes of the triterpenoid biosynthetic pathway critically affects withanolide biosynthesis, providing new horizons to explore this process further, in planta.
Singh, V; Singh, B; Sharma, A; Kaur, K; Gupta, A P; Salar, R K; Hallan, V; Pati, P K
The present work investigates the implication of leaf spot disease on the antioxidant potential and commercial value of pharmaceutically important constituents of Withania somnifera, a high-valued medicinal plant. Leaf spot disease was induced in W. somnifera by inoculating Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keiss. pathogen. Total polyphenolic content and antioxidant potential showed a significant decrease during leaf spot disease. Evaluation of pharmaceutically active constituents withaferin A, withanone and withanolide A utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography showed a significant decrease in diseased samples as compared to healthy ones. Quantitative expression of major genes involved in withanolide biosynthesis also showed down-regulation in diseased samples. Alterations in the ultra-structure of chloroplasts were also analysed under transmission electron microscopy to get a better insight into the changes of withanolide biosynthesis in leaf during disease infestation. The present work suggests that when the pathogenic fungus invades the host plants, it evokes multiple responses, which could be studied at various levels. The knowledge gained from this work will provide appropriate rationale for controlling the bio-deterioration of the pharmaceutically active metabolites in W. somnifera and development of suitable strategies against leaf spot disease. This is the first study to investigate the effect of leaf spot disease on the human health-promoting constituents and withanolide biosynthesis in this high-valued medicinal plant. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Yang, Zhen; Garcia, Anapatricia; Xu, Songli; Powell, Doris R.; Vertino, Paula M.; Singh, Shivendra; Marcus, Adam I.
Though clinicians can predict which patients are at risk for developing metastases, traditional therapies often prove ineffective and metastatic disease is the primary cause of cancer patient death; therefore, there is a need to develop anti-metastatic therapies that can be administered over long durations to specifically inhibit the motility of cancer cells. Withania somnifera root extracts (WRE) have anti-proliferative activity and the active component, Withaferin A, inhibits the pro-metastatic protein, vimentin. Vimentin is an intermediate filament protein and is part of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) program to promote metastasis. Here, we determined whether WRE standardized to Withaferin A (sWRE) possesses anti-metastatic activity and whether it inhibits cancer motility via inhibition of vimentin and the EMT program. Several formulations of sWRE were created to enrich for Withaferin A and a stock solution of sWRE in EtOH could recover over 90% of the Withaferin A found in the original extract powder. This sWRE formulation inhibited breast cancer cell motility and invasion at concentrations less than 1µM while having negligible cytotoxicity at this dose. sWRE treatment disrupted vimentin morphology in cell lines, confirming its vimentin inhibitory activity. To determine if sWRE inhibited EMT, TGF-β was used to induce EMT in MCF10A human mammary epithelial cells. In this case, sWRE prevented EMT induction and inhibited 3-D spheroid invasion. These studies were taken into a human xenograft and mouse mammary carcinoma model. In both models, sWRE and Withaferin A showed dose-dependent inhibition of tumor growth and metastatic lung nodule formation with minimal systemic toxicity. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that low concentrations of sWRE inhibit cancer metastasis potentially through EMT inhibition. Moreover, these doses of sWRE have nearly no toxicity in normal mouse organs, suggesting the potential for clinical use of orally
Saha, Sanjib; Islam, Md Khirul; Shilpi, Jamil A; Hasan, Shihab
Angiogenesis, or new blood vessel formation from existing one, plays both beneficial and detrimental roles in living organisms in different aspects. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a signal protein, well established as key regulator of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. VEGF ensures oxygen supply to the tissues when blood supply is not adequate, or tissue environment is in hypoxic condition. Limited expression of VEGF is necessary, but if it is over expressed, then it can lead to serious disease like cancer. Cancers that have ability to express VEGF are more efficient to grow and metastasize because solid cancers cannot grow larger than a limited size without adequate blood and oxygen supply. Anti-VEGF drugs are already available in the market to control angiogenesis, but they are often associated with severe side-effects like fetal bleeding and proteinuria in the large number of patients. To avoid such side-effects, new insight is required to find potential compounds as anti-VEGF from natural sources. In the present investigation, molecular docking studies were carried out to find the potentiality of Withaferin A, a key metabolite of Withania somnifera, as an inhibitor of VEGF. Molecular Docking studies were performed in DockingServer and SwissDock. Bevacizumab, a commercial anti-VEGF drug, was used as reference to compare the activity of Withaferin A. X-ray crystallographic structure of VEGF, was retrieved from Protein Data Bank (PDB), and used as drug target protein. Structure of Withaferin A and Bevacizumab was obtained from PubChem and ZINC databases. Molecular visualization was performed using UCSF Chimera. Withaferin A showed favorable binding with VEGF with low binding energy in comparison to Bevacizumab. Molecular Docking studies also revealed potential protein-ligand interactions for both Withaferin A and Bevacizumab. Conclusively our results strongly suggest that Withaferin A is a potent anti-VEGF agent as ascertained by its potential
Ghosh Dasgupta, Modhumita; George, Blessan Santhosh; Bhatia, Anil; Sidhu, Om Prakash
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is a valued medicinal plant with pharmaceutical applications. The present study was undertaken to analyze the salicylic acid induced leaf transcriptome of W. somnifera. A total of 45.6 million reads were generated and the de novo assembly yielded 73,523 transcript contig with average transcript contig length of 1620 bp. A total of 71,062 transcripts were annotated and 53,424 of them were assigned GO terms. Mapping of transcript contigs to biological pathways revealed presence of 182 pathways. Seventeen genes representing 12 pathogenesis-related (PR) families were mined from the transcriptome data and their pattern of expression post 17 and 36 hours of salicylic acid treatment was documented. The analysis revealed significant up-regulation of all families of PR genes by 36 hours post treatment except WsPR10. The relative fold expression of transcripts ranged from 1 fold to 6,532 fold. The two families of peroxidases including the lignin-forming anionic peroxidase (WsL-PRX) and suberization-associated anionic peroxidase (WsS-PRX) recorded maximum expression of 377 fold and 6532 fold respectively, while the expression of WsPR10 was down-regulated by 14 fold. Additionally, the most stable reference gene for normalization of qRT-PCR data was also identified. The effect of SA on the accumulation of major secondary metabolites of W. somnifera including withanoside V, withaferin A and withanolide A was also analyzed and an increase in content of all the three metabolites were detected. This is the first report on expression patterns of PR genes during salicylic acid signaling in W. somnifera. PMID:24739900
Ali, Sharique A; Meitei, Keisham V
The present work was carried out to determine the effects of lyophilized root extracts of Withania somnifera along with pure withaferin-A, on the isolated skin melanophores of frog, Rana tigerina which are disguised type of smooth muscle cells and offer excellent in vitro opportunities for studying the effects of pharmacological and pharmaceutical agents. The lyophilized extract of W. somnifera and its active ingredient withaferin-A induced powerful dose-dependent physiologically significant melanin dispersal effects in the isolated skin melanophores of R. tigerina, which were completely blocked by atropine as well as hyoscine. The per se melanin dispersal effects of lyophilized extracts of W. somnifera and its active ingredient withaferin-A got highly potentiated by neostigmine. It appears that the melanin dispersal effects of the extracts of W. somnifera and withaferin-A is mediated by cholino-muscarinic like receptors having similar properties.
Mishra, Bhawana; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Asha; Jadaun, Jyoti Singh; Sangwan, Neelam S.
Withania somnifera Dunal, is one of the most commonly used medicinal plant in Ayurvedic and indigenous medicine traditionally owing to its therapeutic potential, because of major chemical constituents, withanolides. Withanolide biosynthesis requires the activities of several enzymes in vivo. Cycloartenol synthase (CAS) is an important enzyme in the withanolide biosynthetic pathway, catalyzing cyclization of 2, 3 oxidosqualene into cycloartenol. In the present study, we have cloned full-length WsCAS from Withania somnifera by homology-based PCR method. For gene function investigation, we constructed three RNAi gene-silencing constructs in backbone of RNAi vector pGSA and a full-length over-expression construct. These constructs were transformed in Agrobacterium strain GV3101 for plant transformation in W. somnifera. Molecular and metabolite analysis was performed in putative Withania transformants. The PCR and Southern blot results showed the genomic integration of these RNAi and overexpression construct(s) in Withania genome. The qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of WsCAS gene was considerably downregulated in stable transgenic silenced Withania lines compared with the non-transformed control and HPLC analysis showed that withanolide content was greatly reduced in silenced lines. Transgenic plants over expressing CAS gene displayed enhanced level of CAS transcript and withanolide content compared to non-transformed controls. This work is the first full proof report of functional validation of any metabolic pathway gene in W. somnifera at whole plant level as per our knowledge and it will be further useful to understand the regulatory role of different genes involved in the biosynthesis of withanolides. PMID:26919744
Pandit, S; Cai, J N; Song, K Y; Jeon, J G
The aim of this study was to identify components of the Withania somnifera that could show anti-virulence activity against Streptococcus mutans biofilms. The anti-acidogenic activity of fractions separated from W. somnifera was compared, and then the most active anti-acidogenic fraction was chemically characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The effect of the identified components on the acidogenicity, aciduricity and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) formation of S. mutans UA159 biofilms was evaluated. The change in accumulation and acidogenicity of S. mutans UA159 biofilms by periodic treatments (10 min per treatment) with the identified components was also investigated. Of the fractions, n-hexane fraction showed the strongest anti-acidogenic activity and was mainly composed of palmitic, linoleic and oleic acids. Of the identified components, linoleic and oleic acids strongly affected the acid production rate, F-ATPase activity and EPS formation of the biofilms. Periodic treatment with linoleic and oleic acids during biofilm formation also inhibited the biofilm accumulation and acid production rate of the biofilms without killing the biofilm bacteria. These results suggest that linoleic and oleic acids may be effective agents for restraining virulence of S. mutans biofilms. Linoleic and oleic acids may be promising agents for controlling virulence of cariogenic biofilms and subsequent dental caries formation. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Samadi Noshahr, Zahra; Ahmadvand, Hassan; Nakhaie, Alireza
Insulin resistance is a metabolic disorder which affects the diabetes mellitus pathophysiology and alters the cell excitability. This study has been designed to evaluate the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of chronic administration of Withania somnifera root (WSR) in fructose drinking water rats. An experiment was carried out on 48 Wistar-Albino male rats, weighting 200±30 g, which were divided into six groups (n=8): control group (C), control morphine (CM), W. somnifera group (WS) which received WSR (62.5 mg/g diet), W. somnifera naloxone group (WSN) which received WSR and naloxone, fructose (F) group which received fructose drinking water and FWS group which received fructose-enriched drinking water and WSR during the trial period. A biphasic pain response was induced after intraplantar injection of formalin (50 μL, 1%). Pain behavior was measured using Dubuisson methods. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software V. 18, using ANOVA and Tukey test. Results were expressed as mean±SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at p<0.05. The results showed that the insulin resistance index, blood sugar, insulin, IL-6, TNF-α, and acute and chronic pain score in the F group were significantly increased in comparison with the control group, but these parameters in the FWS group were significantly decreased compared with the F group (p<0.001). Our findings indicated that chronic oral administration of WSR has analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in fructose drinking water rats and causes improved insulin resistance index.
Singh, Anup Kumar; Kumar, Sarma Rajeev; Dwivedi, Varun; Rai, Avanish; Pal, Shaifali; Shasany, Ajit K; Nagegowda, Dinesh A
Withania somnifera produces pharmacologically important triterpenoid withanolides that are derived via phytosterol pathway; however, their biosynthesis and regulation remain to be elucidated. A jasmonate- and salicin-inducible WRKY transcription factor from W. somnifera (WsWRKY1) exhibiting correlation with withaferin A accumulation was functionally characterized employing virus-induced gene silencing and overexpression studies combined with transcript and metabolite analyses, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. WsWRKY1 silencing resulted in stunted plant growth, reduced transcripts of phytosterol pathway genes with corresponding reduction in phytosterols and withanolides in W. somnifera. Its overexpression elevated the biosynthesis of triterpenoids in W. somnifera (phytosterols and withanolides), as well as tobacco and tomato (phytosterols). Moreover, WsWRKY1 binds to W-box sequences in promoters of W. somnifera genes encoding squalene synthase and squalene epoxidase, indicating its direct regulation of triterpenoid pathway. Furthermore, while WsWRKY1 silencing in W. somnifera compromised the tolerance to bacterial growth, fungal infection, and insect feeding, its overexpression in tobacco led to improved biotic stress tolerance. Together these findings demonstrate that WsWRKY1 has a positive regulatory role on phytosterol and withanolides biosynthesis, and defense against biotic stress, highlighting its importance as a metabolic engineering tool for simultaneous improvement of triterpenoid biosynthesis and plant defense. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.
Singh, Varinder; Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu; Pati, Pratap Kumar
Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is now globally used for accurate analysis of transcripts levels in plants. For reliable quantification of transcripts, identification of the best reference genes is a prerequisite in qRT-PCR analysis. Recently, Withania somnifera has attracted lot of attention due to its immense therapeutic potential. At present, biotechnological intervention for the improvement of this plant is being seriously pursued. In this background, it is important to have comprehensive studies on finding suitable reference genes for this high valued medicinal plant. In the present study, 11 candidate genes were evaluated for their expression stability under biotic (fungal disease), abiotic (wounding, salt, drought, heat and cold) stresses, in different plant tissues and in response to various plant growth regulators (methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, abscisic acid). The data as analyzed by various software packages (geNorm, NormFinder, Bestkeeper and ΔCt method) suggested that cyclophilin (CYP) is a most stable gene under wounding, heat, methyl jasmonate, different tissues and all stress conditions. T-SAND was found to be a best reference gene for salt and salicylic acid (SA) treated samples, while 26S ribosomal RNA (26S), ubiquitin (UBQ) and beta-tubulin (TUB) were the most stably expressed genes under drought, biotic and cold treatment respectively. For abscisic acid (ABA) treated samples 18S-rRNA was found to stably expressed gene. Finally, the relative expression level of the three genes involved in the withanolide biosynthetic pathway was detected to validate the selection of reliable reference genes. The present work will significantly contribute to gene analysis studies in W. somnifera and facilitate in improving the quality of gene expression data in this plant as well as and other related plant species. PMID:25769035
Udayakumar, Rajangam; Kasthurirengan, Sampath; Mariashibu, Thankaraj Salammal; Rajesh, Manoharan; Anbazhagan, Vasudevan Ramesh; Kim, Sei Chang; Ganapathi, Andy; Choi, Chang Won
Withania somnifera is an important medicinal plant, which is used in traditional medicine to cure many diseases. Flavonoids were determined in the extracts of W. somnifera root (WSREt) and leaf (WSLEt). The amounts of total flavonoids found in WSREt and WSLEt were 530 and 520 mg/100 g dry weight (DW), respectively. Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of WSREt and WSLEt were also investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. WSREt and WSLEt and the standard drug glibenclamide were orally administered daily to diabetic rats for eight weeks. After the treatment period, urine sugar, blood glucose, haemoglobin (Hb), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C), liver glycogen, serum and tissues lipids, serum and tissues proteins, liver glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P) and serum enzymes like aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were determined. The levels of urine sugar, blood glucose, HbA1C, G6P, AST, ALT, ACP, ALP, serum lipids except high density lipoprotein-bound cholesterol (HDL-c) and tissues like liver, kidney and heart lipids were significantly (p < 0.05) increased, however Hb, total protein, albumin, albumin:globulin (A:G) ratio, tissues protein and glycogen were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Treatment of the diabetic rats with WSREt, WSLEt and glibenclamide restored the changes of the above parameters to their normal level after eight weeks of treatment, indicating that WSREt and WSLEt possess hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic activities in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) rats. PMID:19564954
Singh, Varinder; Singh, Baldev; Joshi, Robin; Jaju, Puneet
Withania somnifera is a high value medicinal plant which is used against large number of ailments. The medicinal properties of the plant attributes to a wide array of important secondary metabolites. The plant is predominantly infected with leaf spot pathogen Alternaria alternata, which leads to substantial biodeterioration of pharmaceutically important metabolites. To develop an effective strategy to combat this disease, proteomics based approach could be useful. Hence, in the present study, three different protein extraction methods tris-buffer based, phenol based and trichloroacetic acid-acetone (TCA-acetone) based method were comparatively evaluated for two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis of W. somnifera. TCA-acetone method was found to be most effective and was further used to identify differentially expressed proteins in response to fungal infection. Thirty-eight differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF MS/MS). The known proteins were categorized into eight different groups based on their function and maximum proteins belonged to energy and metabolism, cell structure, stress and defense and RNA/DNA categories. Differential expression of some key proteins were also crosschecked at transcriptomic level by using qRT-PCR and were found to be consistent with the 2-DE data. These outcomes enable us to evaluate modifications that take place at the proteomic level during a compatible host pathogen interaction. The comparative proteome analysis conducted in this paper revealed the involvement of many key proteins in the process of pathogenesis and further investigation of these identified proteins could assist in the discovery of new strategies for the development of pathogen resistance in the plant. PMID:28575108
Siriwardane, A S; Dharmadasa, R M; Samarasinghe, Kosala
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. (Family: Solanaceae) is a therapeutically important medicinal plant in traditional and Ayurveda systems of medicine in Sri Lanka. Witheferin A, is a potential anticancer compound found in W. somnifera. In the present study, attempts have been made to compare witheferin A content, in different parts of (root, stem, bark, leaf) two varieties of (LC1 and FR1) W. somnifera grown in same soil and climatic conditions. Ground sample (1g) of leaves, bark, stem and roots of two W. somnifera varieties were extracted with CHCl3 three times. Thin Layer Chromatographic analysis (TLC) of withaferin A in both plant extracts were performed on pre-coated Silica gel 60 GF254 plates in hexane: ethyl acetate: methanol (2: 14: 1) mobile phase. Densitometer scanning was performed at lambda(max) = 215 nm. HPLC of W. somnifera extracts was performed using Kromasil C18 reverse phase column. Both varieties of W. somnifera differed in withaferin A. After visualizing TLC plates with vanillin-sulphuric acid leaf and bark extracts of both varieties showed high intensity purple colour spots (R(f) 0.14) than in stem and roots. The highest amount of withaferin A (3812 ppm) was observed in leaves of variety LC1 while the lowest amount was observed in roots of variety FR1 (5 ppm). According to the results it could be concluded that content of Witheferin A was vary leaf > bark > stem > roots in both varieties. Therefore, there is a high potential of incorporation of leaves and bark of W. somnifera for the preparation of Ayurveda drug leading to anticancer activity instead of roots.
Singh, Akanksha; Gupta, Rupali; Srivastava, Madhumita; Gupta, M M; Pandey, Rakesh
In the present investigation, metabolites of Streptomyces sp. MTN14 and Trichoderma harzianum ThU significantly enhanced biomass yield (3.58 and 3.48 fold respectively) in comparison to the control plants. The secondary metabolites treatments also showed significant augmentation (0.75-2.25 fold) in withanolide A, a plant secondary metabolite. Lignin deposition, total phenolic and flavonoid content in W. somnifera were maximally induced in treatment having T. harzianum metabolites. Also, Trichoderma and Streptomyces metabolites were found much better in invoking in planta contents and antioxidants compared with their live culture treatments. Therefore, identification of new molecular effectors from metabolites of efficient microbes may be used as biopesticide and biofertilizer for commercial production of W. somnifera globally.
Sharma, Veena; Sharma, Sadhana; Pracheta
The in vivo protective role of hydro-methanolic root extract of Withania somnifera (WS) was evaluated in alleviating lead nitrate (LN)-induced toxicity in male Swiss albino mice by measuring hematoserological profiles. The lead-treated (20 mg/kg body wt, p.o.) albino mice (25-30 g) concurrently received the root extract (200 and 500 mg/kg body wt, p.o.) once daily for the duration of six weeks. Animals exposed to LN showed significant (P < 0.001) decline in haemoglobin content, red blood cell count, white blood cell count, packed cell volume and insignificant decrease in mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin content, while mean corpuscular volume and platelet count were increased. A significant elevation (P < 0.001) in serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase and total cholesterol were also observed, when compared with control mice. Thus, the study demonstrated that the concurrent daily administration of root extract of WS protected the adverse effects of LN intoxication in mice.
Doma, Madhavi; Abhayankar, Gauri; Reddy, V D; Kavi Kishor, P B
Leaves of Withania somnifera contained more withaferin A and withanolide A than roots indicating that these compounds mainly accumulate in leaves. With an increase in age of the plant, withaferin A was enhanced with a corresponding decrease in withanolide A. Hairy root cultures were induced from leaf explants using Agrobacterium rhizogenes and the transgenic nature of hairy roots was confirmed by partial isolation and sequencing of rolB gene, which could not be amplified in untransformed plant parts. In hairy roots, withaferin A accumulated at 2, 3 and 4% but not at 6% sucrose, the highest amount being 1733 microg/g dry weight at 4% level. High and equal amounts of withaferin A and withanolide A accumulated (890 and 886 microg/g dry tissue respectively) only at 3% sucrose. Increasing concentrations of glucose enhanced withaferin A and it peaked at 5% level (3866 microg/g dry tissue). This amount is 2842 and 34% higher compared to untransformed roots and leaves (collected from 210-day-old plants) respectively. Withanolide A was detected at 5% glucose but not at other concentrations. While chitosan and nitric oxide increased withaferin A, jasmonic acid decreased it. Acetyl salicylic acid stimulated accumulation of both withaferin A and withanolide A at higher concentrations. Triadimefon, a fungicide, enhanced withaferin A by 1626 and 3061% (not detected earlier) compared to hairy and intact roots respectively.
Singh, Pritika; Guleri, Rupam; Angurala, Amrita; Kaur, Kuldeep; Kaur, Kulwinder; Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu
Withania somnifera is a highly valued medicinal plant in traditional home medicine and is known for a wide range of bioactivities. Its commercial cultivation is adversely affected by poor seed viability and germination. Infestation by various pests and pathogens, survival under unfavourable environmental conditions, narrow genetic base, and meager information regarding biosynthesis of secondary metabolites are some of the other existing challenges in the crop. Biotechnological interventions through organ, tissue, and cell culture provide promising options for addressing some of these issues. In vitro propagation facilitates conservation and sustainable utilization of the existing germplasms and broadening the genetic base. It would also provide means for efficient and rapid mass propagation of elite chemotypes and generating uniform plant material round the year for experimentation and industrial applications. The potential of in vitro cell/organ cultures for the production of therapeutically valuable compounds and their large-scale production in bioreactors has received significant attention in recent years. In vitro culture system further provides distinct advantage for studying various cellular and molecular processes leading to secondary metabolite accumulation and their regulation. Engineering plants through genetic transformation and development of hairy root culture system are powerful strategies for modulation of secondary metabolites. The present review highlights the developments and sketches current scenario in this field. PMID:28299323
Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Kapil Dev, Gnajothi; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Selvaraj, Natesan; Ganapathi, Andy; Manickavasagam, Markandan
In the present study, we have established a stable transformation protocol via Agrobacterium tumafacines for the pharmaceutically important Withania somnifera. Six day-old nodal explants were used for 3 day co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring the vector pCAMIBA2301. Among the different injury treatments, sonication, vacuum infiltration and their combination treatments tested, a vacuum infiltration for 10 min followed by sonication for 10 sec with A. tumefaciens led to a higher transient GUS expression (84% explants expressing GUS at regenerating sites). In order to improve gene integration, thiol compounds were added to co-cultivation medium. A combined treatment of L-Cys at 100 mg/l, STS at 125 mg/l, DTT at 75 mg/l resulted in a higher GUS expression (90%) in the nodal explants. After 3 days of co-cultivation, the explants were subjected to three selection cycles with increasing concentrations of kanamycin [100 to 115 mg/l]. The integration and expression of gusA gene in T0 and T1 transgenic plants were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Southern blott analysis. These transformed plants (T0 and T1) were fertile and morphologically normal. From the present investigation, we have achieved a higher transformation efficiency of (10%). Withanolides (withanolide A, withanolide B, withanone and withaferin A) contents of transformed plants (T0 and T1) were marginally higher than control plants. PMID:25927703
KHAZAL, KAMEL F.; HILL, DONALD L.; GRUBBS, CLINTON J.
The cancer-preventive activity of an extract of Withania somnifera (WS) roots was examined in female transgenic (MMTV/Neu) mice that received a diet containing the extract (750 mg/kg of diet) for 10 months. Mice in the treated group (N=35) had an average of 1.66 mammary carcinomas, and mice in the control group (N=33) had 2.48, a reduction of 33%. The average weights of the carcinomas were 2.36 g for mice in the treated group and 2.63 g for the controls, a difference of 10%. Labeling indices for Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen marker in mammary carcinomas of the treated group were 35% and 30% lower, respectively, than those of the corresponding control group. Expression of the chemokine was reduced by 50%. These results indicate that the root extract reduced the number of mammary carcinomas that developed and reduced the rate of cell division in the carcinomas. PMID:25368231
Zaka, Mehreen; Sehgal, Sheikh Arslan; Shafique, Shagufta; Abbasi, Bilal Haider
From last decade, there has been progressive improvement in computational drug designing. Several diseases are being cured from different plant extracts and products. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is the most shared disease among auto-inflammatory diseases. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α is associated with RA pathway and has adverse effects. Extensive literature review showed that plant species under study (Cannabis sativa, Prunella vulgaris and Withania somnifera) possess anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic and anti-rheumatic properties. 13 anti-inflammatory compounds were characterised and filtered out from medicinal plant species and analysed for RA by targeting TNF-α through in silico analyses. By using ligand based pharmacophore generation approach and virtual screening against natural products libraries we retrieved twenty unique molecules that displayed utmost binding affinity, least binding energies and effective drug properties. The docking analyses revealed that Ala-22, Glu-23, Ser-65, Gln-67, Tyr-141, Leu-142, Asp-143, Phe-144 and Ala-145 were critical interacting residues for receptor-ligand interactions. It is proposed that the RA patients should use reported compounds for the prescription of RA by targeting TNF-α. This report is opening new dimensions for designing innovative therapeutic targets to cure RA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula; Padmanabhan, Kaillathe; Nair, Muraleedharan G
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative disorder with symptoms of confusion, memory loss, and mood swings. The beta-amyloid peptide, with 39-42 amino acid residues (BAP), plays a significant role in the development of AD. Although there is no cure for AD, it can be managed with available drugs to some degree. Several studies have revealed that natural antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C and beta-carotene, may help in scavenging free radicals generated during the initiation and progression of this disease. Therefore, there has been considerable interest in plant phytochemicals with antioxidant property as potential agents to prevent the progression of AD. Our earlier investigations of the Withania somnifera fruit afforded lipid peroxidation inhibitory withanamides that are more potent than the commercial antioxidants. In this study, we have tested two major withanamides A (WA) and C (WC) for their ability to protect the PC-12 cells, rat neuronal cells, from beta-amyloid induced cell damage. The cell death caused by beta-amyloid was negated by withanamide treatment. Molecular modeling studies showed that withanamides A and C uniquely bind to the active motif of beta-amyloid (25-35) and suggest that withanamides have the ability to prevent the fibril formation. Further understanding of the mechanism of action and in vivo efficacy of these withanamides may facilitate its development as a prophylaxis. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kaul, Sunil C.; Ishida, Yoshiyuki; Tamura, Kazuya; Wada, Teruo; Iitsuka, Tomoko; Garg, Sukant; Kim, Mijung; Gao, Ran; Nakai, Shoichi; Okamoto, Youji; Terao, Keiji; Wadhwa, Renu
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is an Ayurvedic herb commonly used in world-renowned traditional Indian home medicine system. Roots of Ashwagandha have been traditionally known to possess a variety of therapeutic and health promoting potentials that have not been sufficiently supported by laboratory studies. Nevertheless, most, if not all, of the preventive and therapeutic potentials have been assigned to its bioactive components, steroidal alkaloids and lactones. In contrast to the traditional use of roots, we have been exploring bioactivities in leaves of Ashwagandha. Here, we report that the leaves possess higher content of active Withanolides, Withaferin-A (Wi-A) and Withanone (Wi-N), as compared to the roots. We also established, for the first time, hydroponic cultivation of Ashwagandha and investigated the effect of various cultivation conditions on the content of Wi-A and Wi-N by chemical analysis and bioassays. We report that the Withanone/Withaferin A-rich leaves could be obtained by manipulating light condition during hydroponic cultivation. Furthermore, we recruited cyclodextrins to prepare extracts with desired ratio of Wi-N and Wi-A. Hydroponically grown Ashwagandha and its extracts with high ratio of withanolides are valuable for cancer treatment. PMID:27936030
Kaul, Sunil C; Ishida, Yoshiyuki; Tamura, Kazuya; Wada, Teruo; Iitsuka, Tomoko; Garg, Sukant; Kim, Mijung; Gao, Ran; Nakai, Shoichi; Okamoto, Youji; Terao, Keiji; Wadhwa, Renu
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is an Ayurvedic herb commonly used in world-renowned traditional Indian home medicine system. Roots of Ashwagandha have been traditionally known to possess a variety of therapeutic and health promoting potentials that have not been sufficiently supported by laboratory studies. Nevertheless, most, if not all, of the preventive and therapeutic potentials have been assigned to its bioactive components, steroidal alkaloids and lactones. In contrast to the traditional use of roots, we have been exploring bioactivities in leaves of Ashwagandha. Here, we report that the leaves possess higher content of active Withanolides, Withaferin-A (Wi-A) and Withanone (Wi-N), as compared to the roots. We also established, for the first time, hydroponic cultivation of Ashwagandha and investigated the effect of various cultivation conditions on the content of Wi-A and Wi-N by chemical analysis and bioassays. We report that the Withanone/Withaferin A-rich leaves could be obtained by manipulating light condition during hydroponic cultivation. Furthermore, we recruited cyclodextrins to prepare extracts with desired ratio of Wi-N and Wi-A. Hydroponically grown Ashwagandha and its extracts with high ratio of withanolides are valuable for cancer treatment.
Singh, Ruchi; Gupta, Pankhuri; Khan, Furqan; Singh, Susheel Kumar; Sanchita; Mishra, Tripti; Kumar, Anil; Dhawan, Sunita Singh; Shirke, Pramod Arvind
In general medicinal plants grown under water limiting conditions show much higher concentrations of secondary metabolites in comparison to control plants. In the present study, Withania somnifera plants were subjected to water stress and data related to drought tolerance phenomenon was collected and a putative mechanistic concept considering growth responses, physiological behaviour, and metabolite content and gene expression aspects is presented. Drought induced metabolic and physiological responses as well as drastic decrease in CO 2 uptake due to stomatal limitations. As a result, the consumption of reduction equivalents (NADPH 2+ ) for CO 2 assimilation via the calvin cycle declines significantly resulting in the generation of a large oxidative stress and an oversupply of antioxidant enzymes. Drought also results in the shifting of metabolic processes towards biosynthetic activities that consume reduction equivalents. Thus, biosynthesis of reduced compounds (isoprenoids, phenols and alkaloids) is enhanced. The dynamics of various metabolites have been discussed in the light of gene expression analysis of control and drought treated leaves. Gene encoding enzymes of pathways leading to glucose, fructose and fructan production, conversion of triose phosphates to hexoses and hexose phosphorylation were up-regulated in the drought stressed leaves. The down-regulated Calvin cycle genes were co-ordinately regulated with the down-regulation of chloroplast triosephosphate/phosphate translocator, cytoplasmic fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase and fructose bisphosphatase. Expression of gene encoding Squalene Synthase (SQS) was highly upregulated under drought stress which is responsible for the diversion of carbon flux towards withanolides biosynthesis from isoprenoid pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tripathi, C D P; Gupta, R; Kushawaha, P K; Mandal, C; Misra Bhattacharya, S; Dube, A
The immunoprophylactic and therapeutic potentials of root extracts of Withania somnifera chemotypes (NMITLI-118, NMITLI-101) and pure withanolide-withaferin A was investigated against Leishmania donovani infection in hamsters. The naive animals, fed orally with immunostimulatory doses of chemotypes 101R, 118R (10 and 3 mg/kg) and withaferin A (9 and 3 mg/kg) for five consecutive days and challenged with Leishmania parasites on day 6, were euthanized on days 30 and 45 p.c. for the assessment of parasite clearance, real-time analysis of mRNAs of Th1/Th2 cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-12, TNF-α, iNOS/IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β), NO production, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lymphocyte transformation test and antibody responses. By day 45 p.c., there was a significant increase in the mRNA expression of iNOS, IFN-γ, IL-12 and TNF-α but decrease in IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β, an enhanced Leishmania-specific LTT response as well as ROS, NO and antileishmanial IgG2 levels in 101R-treated hamsters followed by 118R- and withaferin A-treated ones, respectively. When these chemotypes were given to L. donovani-infected hamsters at different doses, there was moderate therapeutic efficacy of chemotype 101R (~50%) at 30 mg/kg × 5 followed by the other two. The results established that the 101R is the most potential chemotype and can be evaluated for combination therapy along with available antileishmanials. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Devkar, Santosh T.; Kandhare, Amit D.; Sloley, Brian D.; Jagtap, Suresh D.; Lin, James; Tam, Yun K.; Katyare, Surendra S.; Bodhankar, Subhash L.; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar V.
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, shows several pharmacological properties which are attributed mainly to the withanolides present in the root. The efficacy of medicinally active withanolides constituents depends on the absorption and transportation through the intestinal epithelium. We examined these characteristics by employing the Sino-Veda Madin-Darby canine kidney cells culture system, which under in vitro condition shows the absorption characteristics similar to the human intestinal epithelium. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to assess the bioavailability of individual withanolides. Withanolides were diluted in Hank's buffered saline at a concentration of 2 μg/ml were tested for permeability studies carried out for 1 h duration. Permeability was measured in terms of efflux pump (Peff) in cm/s. Peff values of withanolide A (WN A), withanone (WNN), 1,2-deoxywithastramonolide (1,2 DWM), withanolide B (WN B), withanoside IV-V (WS IV-V), and withaferin A were 4.05 × 10−5, 2.06 × 10−5, 1.97 × 10−5, 1.80 × 10−5, 3.19 × 10−6, 3.03 × 10−6 and 3.30 × 10−7 respectively. In conclusion, the nonpolar and low molecular weight compounds (WN A, WNN, 1,2 DWM, and WN B) were highly permeable. As against this, the glycosylated and polar WS IV and WS V showed low permeability. Surprisingly and paradoxically, the highly biologically active withaferin A was completely impermeable, suggesting that further studies possibly using human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells may be needed to delineate the absorption characteristics of withanolides, especially withaferin A. PMID:26605156
Devkar, Santosh T; Kandhare, Amit D; Sloley, Brian D; Jagtap, Suresh D; Lin, James; Tam, Yun K; Katyare, Surendra S; Bodhankar, Subhash L; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar V
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, shows several pharmacological properties which are attributed mainly to the withanolides present in the root. The efficacy of medicinally active withanolides constituents depends on the absorption and transportation through the intestinal epithelium. We examined these characteristics by employing the Sino-Veda Madin-Darby canine kidney cells culture system, which under in vitro condition shows the absorption characteristics similar to the human intestinal epithelium. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to assess the bioavailability of individual withanolides. Withanolides were diluted in Hank's buffered saline at a concentration of 2 μg/ml were tested for permeability studies carried out for 1 h duration. Permeability was measured in terms of efflux pump (P eff) in cm/s. P eff values of withanolide A (WN A), withanone (WNN), 1,2-deoxywithastramonolide (1,2 DWM), withanolide B (WN B), withanoside IV-V (WS IV-V), and withaferin A were 4.05 × 10(-5), 2.06 × 10(-5), 1.97 × 10(-5), 1.80 × 10(-5), 3.19 × 10(-6), 3.03 × 10(-6) and 3.30 × 10(-7) respectively. In conclusion, the nonpolar and low molecular weight compounds (WN A, WNN, 1,2 DWM, and WN B) were highly permeable. As against this, the glycosylated and polar WS IV and WS V showed low permeability. Surprisingly and paradoxically, the highly biologically active withaferin A was completely impermeable, suggesting that further studies possibly using human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells may be needed to delineate the absorption characteristics of withanolides, especially withaferin A.
Nasimi Doost Azgomi, R; Nazemiyeh, H; Sadeghi Bazargani, H; Fazljou, S M B; Nejatbakhsh, F; Moini Jazani, A; Ahmadi AsrBadr, Y; Zomorrodi, A
In this triple-blind randomised clinical trial, we compared the effects of Withania somnifera and pentoxifylline on the sperm parameters in idiopathic male infertility. One hundred infertile male patients were randomly allocated into either W. somnifera or pentoxifylline groups. Patients in the herbal group received six capsules containing 5 g/daily of W. somnifera root, and subjects in the pentoxifylline group received six capsules containing 800 mg/daily of pentoxifylline and placebo for 90 days. Sperm parameters were analysed at the beginning and end of the study. W. somnifera increased mean sperm count (12.5%) and progressive motility (21.42%) and improved sperm morphology (25.56%) compared to the baseline (p = .04, p = .001 and p = .000 respectively). Moreover, pentoxifylline increased mean semen volume (16.46%), progressive motility (25.97%) and improved sperm morphology (13.28%) versus the baseline (p = .02, p = .003 and p = .01 respectively). Intergroup comparison showed no significant differences between the two groups regarding semen volume (p = .11), sperm count (p = .09), morphology (p = .12) and progressive motility (p = .77) after treatment. No major complication was reported in either of the two groups. W. somnifera, a traditional medicine remedy, improves sperms parameters in idiopathic male infertility without causing adverse effects. Therefore, this medication can be considered to be an alternative to pentoxifylline in this regard. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Murthy, Hosakatte N; Dijkstra, Camelia; Anthony, Paul; White, Daniel A; Davey, Mike R; Power, J Brian; Hahn, Eun J; Paek, Kee Y
Withania sominifera (Indian ginseng) was transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Explants from seedling roots, stems, hypocotyls, cotyledonary nodal segments, cotyledons and young leaves were inoculated with A. rhizogenes strain R1601. Hairy (transformed) roots were induced from cotyledons and leaf explants. The transgenic status of hairy roots was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction using nptII and rolB specific primers and, subsequently, by Southern analysis for the presence of nptII and rolB genes in the genomes of transformed roots. Four clones of hairy roots were established; these differed in their morphology. The doubling time of faster growing cultures was 8-14 d with a fivefold increase in biomass after 28 d compared with cultured, non-transformed seedling roots. MS-based liquid medium was superior for the growth of transformed roots compared with other culture media evaluated (SH, LS and N6), with MS-based medium supplemented with 40 g/L sucrose being optimal for biomass production. Cultured hairy roots synthesized withanolide A, a steroidal lactone of medicinal and therapeutic value. The concentration of withanolide A in transformed roots (157.4 microg/g dry weight) was 2.7-fold more than in non-transformed cultured roots (57.9 microg/g dry weight).
Background Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is marked with chronic inflammation of intestinal epithelium driven by oxidative stress. Traditional treatments with plant extracts gained renewed interest due to their ability to ameliorate the multi factorial conditions like inflammation. We investigated the beneficial effects of Withania somnifera in Trinitro Benzyl Sulfonic Acid (TNBS) induced experimental IBD through a rectally applicable formulation. Methods The study included (i) preparation of gel formulation from aqueous Withania somnifera root extract (WSRE), (ii) biochemical assays to determine its performance potential, (iii) testing of formulation efficacy in TNBS-induced IBD rat model, and (iv) histo-patholgical studies to assess its healing and muco-regenerative effect in IBD-induced rats. For this purpose, concentration dependant antioxidant activity of the extracts were evaluated using biochemical assays like (a) inhibition of lipid peroxidation, (b) NO scavenging, (c) H2O2 scavenging, and (d) ferric reducing power assay. Results The extract, at 500 μg/ml, the highest concentration tested, showed 95.6% inhibition of lipid peroxidation, 14.8% NO scavenging, 81.79% H2O2 scavenging and a reducing capacity of 0.80. The results were comparable with standard antioxidants, ascorbic acid and curcumin. WSRE treatment positively scored on histopathological parameters like necrosis, edema, neutrophil infiltration. The post treatment intestinal features showed restoration at par with the healthy intestine. In view of these results, gel formulation containing an aqueous extract of W. somnifera, prepared for rectal application was tested for its anti-inflammatory activity in TNBS-induced rat models for IBD. Commercially available anti-inflammatory drug Mesalamine was used as the standard in this assay. Conclusions Dose of the rectal gel applied at 1000 mg of WSRE per kg rat weight showed significant muco-restorative efficacy in the IBD-induced rats, validated by histo
Gupta, Parul; Goel, Ridhi; Pathak, Sumya; Srivastava, Apeksha; Singh, Surya Pratap; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar
Withania somnifera is one of the most valuable medicinal plants used in Ayurvedic and other indigenous medicine systems due to bioactive molecules known as withanolides. As genomic information regarding this plant is very limited, little information is available about biosynthesis of withanolides. To facilitate the basic understanding about the withanolide biosynthesis pathways, we performed transcriptome sequencing for Withania leaf (101L) and root (101R) which specifically synthesize withaferin A and withanolide A, respectively. Pyrosequencing yielded 8,34,068 and 7,21,755 reads which got assembled into 89,548 and 1,14,814 unique sequences from 101L and 101R, respectively. A total of 47,885 (101L) and 54,123 (101R) could be annotated using TAIR10, NR, tomato and potato databases. Gene Ontology and KEGG analyses provided a detailed view of all the enzymes involved in withanolide backbone synthesis. Our analysis identified members of cytochrome P450, glycosyltransferase and methyltransferase gene families with unique presence or differential expression in leaf and root and might be involved in synthesis of tissue-specific withanolides. We also detected simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in transcriptome data for use in future genetic studies. Comprehensive sequence resource developed for Withania, in this study, will help to elucidate biosynthetic pathway for tissue-specific synthesis of secondary plant products in non-model plant organisms as well as will be helpful in developing strategies for enhanced biosynthesis of withanolides through biotechnological approaches. PMID:23667511
Shah, P C; Trivedi, N A; Bhatt, J D; Hemavathi, K G
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antidepressant action of Withania somnifera (WS) as well as its interaction with the conventional antidepressant drugs and to delineate the possible mechanism of its antidepressant action using forced swimming model in mice. Effect of different doses of WS, fluoxetine and imipramine were studied on forced swimming test induced mean immobility time (MIT). Moreover effect of WS 100 mg/kg, i.p. was observed at different time intervals. Effect produced by combination of sub therapeutic doses of WS with imipramine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) as well as fluoxetine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) were also observed. Effect of WS (100 mg/kg, i.p.) as well as combination of WS (37.5 mg/kg, i.p.) with either imipramine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or fluoxetine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) were observed in mice pretreated with reserpine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) and clonidine (0.15 mg/kg, i.p.). Effects of prazosin (3 mg/kg, i.p.) or haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) pre-treatment were also observed on WS induced decrease in MIT. WS produced dose dependent decrease in MIT. Maximum effect in MIT was observed after 30 min of treatment with WS 100 mg/kg, i.p. Combination of WS (37.5 mg/kg, i.p.) with imipramine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or fluoxetine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) also produced significant decrease in the MIT. Clonidine and reserpine induced increase in MIT, was significantly reversed by treatment with WS (100 mg/kg, i.p.) as well as combination of WS (37.5 mg/kg, i.p.) with either imipramine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or fluoxetine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.). Pre-treatment with prazosin but not haloperidol, significantly antagonized the WS (100 mg/kg, i.p.) induced decrease in MIT. It is concluded that, WS produced significant decrease in MIT in mice which could be mediated partly through a adrenoceptor as well as alteration in the level of central biogenic amines.
Chandra, Sangita; Chatterjee, Priyanka; Dey, Protapaditya; Bhattacharya, Sanjib
Background: Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is an important medicinal plant in Indian traditional system of medicine and traditionally has been used for several medicinal purposes in the Indian subcontinent. Objective: The present study was aimed at the evaluation of allelopathic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of ashwagandha against germination and radicle growth of Cicer arietinum and Triticum aestivum seeds. Materials and Methods: The extract at different concentrations was incubated in controlled conditions with the surface sterilized seeds of C. arietinum and T. aestivum and observed periodically for seed germination and radicle growth to assess the allelopathic behavior. Results: The extract mainly at higher concentrations demonstrated promising allelopathic potential by significantly affecting seed germination and radicle elongation of both C. arietinum and T. aestivum in a concentration dependent manner. T. aestivum was found to be more sensitive than C. arietinum. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated remarkable allelopathic potential of ashwagandha against the test seeds. The effect was plausibly due to the alkaloid and withanolide contents of ashwagandha. PMID:22923955
Mishra, Aradhana; Singh, Satyendra Pratap; Mahfooz, Sahil; Singh, Surendra Pratap; Bhattacharya, Arpita; Mishra, Nishtha; Nautiyal, C S
Endophytes have been explored and found to perform an important role in plant health. However, their effects on the host physiological function and disease management remain elusive. The present study aimed to assess the potential effects of endophytes, singly as well as in combination, in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, on various physiological parameters and systemic defense mechanisms against Alternaria alternata Seeds primed with the endophytic bacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Pseudomonas fluorescens individually and in combination demonstrated an enhanced vigor index and germination rate. Interestingly, plants treated with the two-microbe combination showed the lowest plant mortality rate (28%) under A. alternata stress. Physiological profiling of treated plants showed improved photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, and stomatal conductance under pathogenic stress. Additionally, these endophytes not only augmented defense enzymes and antioxidant activity in treated plants but also enhanced the expression of salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-responsive genes in the stressed plants. Reductions in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) along with enhanced callose deposition in host plant leaves corroborated well with the above findings. Altogether, the study provides novel insights into the underlying mechanisms behind the tripartite interaction of endophyte- A. alternata - W. somnifera and underscores their ability to boost plant health under pathogen stress. IMPORTANCE W. somnifera is well known for producing several medicinally important secondary metabolites. These secondary metabolites are required by various pharmaceutical sectors to produce life-saving drugs. However, the cultivation of W. somnifera faces severe challenge from leaf spot disease caused by A. alternata To keep pace with the rising demand for this plant and considering its capacity for cultivation under field conditions, the present study was undertaken
Pal, Shaifali; Yadav, Akhilesh Kumar; Singh, Anup Kumar; Rastogi, Shubhra; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Verma, Rajesh Kumar; Nagegowda, Dinesh A; Pal, Anirban; Shasany, Ajit Kumar
The medicinal plant Withania somnifera is researched extensively to increase the quantity of withanolides and specifically withaferin A, which finds implications in many pharmacological activities. Due to insufficient knowledge on biosynthesis and unacceptability of transgenic approach, it is preferred to follow alternative physiological methods to increase the yield of withanolides. Prior use of elicitors like salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, fungal extracts, and even mechanical wounding have shown to increase the withanolide biosynthesis with limited success; however, the commercial viability and logistics of application are debatable. In this investigation, we tested the simple nitrogeneous fertilizers pertaining to the enhancement of withaferin A biosynthesis. Application of ammonium sulfate improved the sterol contents required for the withanolide biosynthesis and correlated to higher expression of pathway genes like FPPS, SMT1, SMT2, SMO1, SMO2, and ODM. Increased expression of a gene homologous to allene oxide cyclase, crucial in jasmonic acid biosynthetic pathway, suggested the involvement of jasmonate signaling. High levels of WRKY gene transcripts indicated transcriptional regulation of the pathway genes. Increase in transcript level could be correlated with a corresponding increase in the protein levels for WsSMT1 and WsWRKY1. The withaferin A increase was also demonstrated in the potted plants growing in the glasshouse and in the open field. These results implicated simple physiological management of nitrogen fertilizer signal to improve the yield of secondary metabolite through probable involvement of jasmonate signal and WRKY transcription factor for the first time, in W. somnifera besides improving the foliage.
Siddique, Amreen A; Joshi, Pallavi; Misra, Laxminarain; Sangwan, Neelam S; Darokar, Mahendra P
From the leaves of Withania somnifera L. Dunal, a new withasteroid named as 5,6-de-epoxy-5-en-7-one-17-hydroxy withaferin A (6) was isolated along with several known compounds, namely 16β-acetoxy-6α,7α-epoxy-5α-hydroxy-1-oxowitha-2,17(20),24-trienolide (1), withanone (2), 16-en-27-deoxy withaferin A (3), 27-deoxy withaferin A (4), withaferin A (5), withanolide D (7) and 27-hydroxy withanone (8). Its structure was determined using spectroscopic methods, namely IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, COSY, HMBC and HRMS. Among the known compounds, 16β-acetoxy-6α,7α-epoxy-5α-hydroxy-1-oxowitha-2,17(20),24-trienolide (1) was previously reported from the roots of W. somnifera. Now, it has been isolated from the leaves, as well. The cytotoxic activity of the new steroid was carried out using the MTT assay against a panel of cancer cell lines, namely MCF-7 (breast), WRL-68 (liver), PC-3 (prostate) and CACO-2 (colon). The results showed that the new compound possesses strong cytotoxic activity against liver and breast cancer with an IC50 of 1.0 μg/mL and a moderate activity against colon (IC50 3.4 μg/mL) and prostate (IC50 7.4 μg/mL) cancer cells.
Kushwaha, S; Soni, V K; Singh, P K; Bano, N; Kumar, A; Sangwan, R S; Misra-Bhattacharya, S
Withania somnifera is an ayurvedic Indian medicinal plant whose immunomodulatory activities have been widely used as a home remedy for several ailments. We recently observed immunostimulatory properties in the root extracts of chemotypes NMITLI-101, NMITLI-118, NMITLI-128 and pure withanolide, withaferin A. In the present study, we evaluated the potential immunoprophylactic efficacies of these extracts against an infective pathogen. Our results show that administration of aqueous ethanol extracts (10 mg/kg) and withaferin A (0·3 mg/kg), 7 days before and after challenge with human filarial parasite Brugia malayi, offers differential protection in Mastomys coucha with chemotype 101R offering best protection (53·57%) as compared to other chemotypes. Our findings also demonstrate that establishment of B. malayi larvae was adversely affected by pretreatment with withaferin A as evidenced by 63·6% reduction in adult worm establishment. Moreover, a large percentage of the established female worms (66·2%) also showed defective embryogenesis. While the filaria-specific immunological response induced by withaferin A and NMITLI-101 showed a mixed Th1/Th2 phenotype, 118R stimulated production of IFN-γ and 128R increased levels of IL-4. Taken together, our findings reveal potential immunoprophylactic properties of W. somnifera, and further studies are needed to ascertain the benefits of this plant against other pathogens as well. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Dhar, Niha; Razdan, Sumeer; Rana, Satiander; Bhat, Wajid W.; Vishwakarma, Ram; Lattoo, Surrinder K.
Withania somnifera, a multipurpose medicinal plant is a rich reservoir of pharmaceutically active triterpenoids that are steroidal lactones known as withanolides. Though the plant has been well-characterized in terms of phytochemical profiles as well as pharmaceutical activities, limited attempts have been made to decipher the biosynthetic route and identification of key regulatory genes involved in withanolide biosynthesis. This scenario limits biotechnological interventions for enhanced production of bioactive compounds. Nevertheless, recent emergent trends vis-à-vis, the exploration of genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomics, and in vitro studies have opened new vistas regarding pathway engineering of withanolide production. During recent years, various strategic pathway genes have been characterized with significant amount of regulatory studies which allude toward development of molecular circuitries for production of key intermediates or end products in heterologous hosts. Another pivotal aspect covering redirection of metabolic flux for channelizing the precursor pool toward enhanced withanolide production has also been attained by deciphering decisive branch point(s) as robust targets for pathway modulation. With these perspectives, the current review provides a detailed overview of various studies undertaken by the authors and collated literature related to molecular and in vitro approaches employed in W. somnifera for understanding various molecular network interactions in entirety. PMID:26640469
Das, Amar Jyoti; Kumar, Rajesh
Soil contaminated by Petroleum oil cannot be utilized for agricultural purposes due to hydrocarbon toxicity. Oil contaminated soil induces toxicity affecting germination, growth and productivity. Several technologies have been proposed for bioremediation of oil contaminated sites, but remediation through biosurfactant producing plant growth promontory rhizobacteria (PGPR) is considered to be most promising methods. In the present study the efficacy of seed priming on growth and pigment of Withania somnifera under petroleum toxicity is explored. Seeds of W. somnifera were primed with biosurfactant producing Pseudomonas sp. AJ15 with plant growth promoting traits having potentiality to utilized petroleum as carbon source. Results indicates that plant arose from priming seeds under various petroleum concentration expressed high values for all the parameters studied namely germination, shoot length, root length, fresh and dry weight and pigments (chlorophyll and carotenoid) as compared to non primed seed. Hence, the present study signifies that petroleum degrarding biosurfactant producing PGPR could be further used for management and detoxification of petroleum contaminated soils for growing economically important crops. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Kumar, Gaurav; Patnaik, Ranjana
N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) mediated excitotoxicity has been implicated in multi-neurodegenerative diseases. Due to lack of efficacy and adverse effects of NMDA receptor antagonists, search for herbal remedies that may act as therapeutic agents is an active area of research to combat these diseases. Withania somnifera (WS) is being used for centuries as a nerve tonic and Nootropic agents. The present study targets the in silico evaluation of the neuroprotective efficacy of W. somnifera phytochemicals by inhibition of NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity through allosteric inhibition of the GluN2B containing NMDARs. We predict Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) penetration, mutagenicity, drug-likeness and Human Intestinal Absorption properties of 25 WS phytochemicals. Further, molecular docking was performed to know whether these phytochemicals inhibit the GluN2B containing NMDARs or not. The results suggest that Anaferine, Beta-Sitosterol, Withaferin A, Withanolide A, Withanolide B and Withanolide D inhibit GluN2B containing NMDARs through allosteric mode similar to the well-known selective antagonist Ifenprodil. These phytochemicals have potential as an essentially useful oral drug to counter NMDARs mediated excitotoxicity and to treat multi-neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Singh, Anup Kumar; Dwivedi, Varun; Rai, Avanish; Pal, Shaifali; Reddy, Sajjalavarahalli Gangireddy Eswara; Rao, Dodaghatta Krishnarao Venkata; Shasany, Ajit Kumar; Nagegowda, Dinesh A
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is an important Indian medicinal plant that produces withanolides, which are triterpenoid steroidal lactones having diverse biological activities. To enable fast and efficient functional characterization of genes in this slow-growing and difficult-to-transform plant, a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was established by silencing phytoene desaturase (PDS) and squalene synthase (SQS). VIGS of the gene encoding SQS, which provides precursors for triterpenoids, resulted in significant reduction of squalene and withanolides, demonstrating its application in studying withanolides biosynthesis in W. somnifera leaves. A comprehensive analysis of gene expression and sterol pathway intermediates in WsSQS-vigs plants revealed transcriptional modulation with positive feedback regulation of mevalonate pathway genes, and negative feed-forward regulation of downstream sterol pathway genes including DWF1 (delta-24-sterol reductase) and CYP710A1 (C-22-sterol desaturase), resulting in significant reduction of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol. However, there was little effect of SQS silencing on cholesterol, indicating the contribution of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, but not of cholesterol, towards withanolides formation. Branch-point oxidosqualene synthases in WsSQS-vigs plants exhibited differential regulation with reduced CAS (cycloartenol synthase) and cycloartenol, and induced BAS (β-amyrin synthase) and β-amyrin. Moreover, SQS silencing also led to the down-regulation of brassinosteroid-6-oxidase-2 (BR6OX2), pathogenesis-related (PR) and nonexpressor of PR (NPR) genes, resulting in reduced tolerance to bacterial and fungal infection as well as to insect feeding. Taken together, SQS silencing negatively regulated sterol and defence-related genes leading to reduced phytosterols, withanolides and biotic stress tolerance, thus implicating the application of VIGS for functional analysis of genes related to withanolides
Mishra, Manoj K.; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Singh, Ruchi; Singh, Gaurav; Sharma, Lokendra K.; Pandey, Vibha; Kumari, Nishi; Misra, Pratibha
Background Sterol glycosyltrnasferases (SGT) are enzymes that glycosylate sterols which play important role in plant adaptation to stress and are medicinally important in plants like Withania somnifera. The present study aims to find the role of WsSGTL1 which is a sterol glycosyltransferase from W. somnifera, in plant’s adaptation to abiotic stress. Methodology The WsSGTL1 gene was transformed in Arabidopsis thaliana through Agrobacterium mediated transformation, using the binary vector pBI121, by floral dip method. The phenotypic and physiological parameters like germination, root length, shoot weight, relative electrolyte conductivity, MDA content, SOD levels, relative electrolyte leakage and chlorophyll measurements were compared between transgenic and wild type Arabidopsis plants under different abiotic stresses - salt, heat and cold. Biochemical analysis was done by HPLC-TLC and radiolabelled enzyme assay. The promoter of the WsSGTL1 gene was cloned by using Genome Walker kit (Clontech, USA) and the 3D structures were predicted by using Discovery Studio Ver. 2.5. Results The WsSGTL1 transgenic plants were confirmed to be single copy by Southern and homozygous by segregation analysis. As compared to WT, the transgenic plants showed better germination, salt tolerance, heat and cold tolerance. The level of the transgene WsSGTL1 was elevated in heat, cold and salt stress along with other marker genes such as HSP70, HSP90, RD29, SOS3 and LEA4-5. Biochemical analysis showed the formation of sterol glycosides and increase in enzyme activity. When the promoter of WsSGTL1 gene was cloned from W. somnifera and sequenced, it contained stress responsive elements. Bioinformatics analysis of the 3D structure of the WsSGTL1 protein showed functional similarity with sterol glycosyltransferase AtSGT of A. thaliana. Conclusions Transformation of WsSGTL1 gene in A. thaliana conferred abiotic stress tolerance. The promoter of the gene in W.somnifera was found to have stress
Gajbhiye, Narendra A; Makasana, Jayanti; Kumar, Satyanshu
A comprehensive experiment was conducted to study the accumulation pattern and determination of three important bioactive compounds namely withaferin-A (WA), 12-deoxywithastramonolide (WO) and withanolide-A (WD) and its determination by the liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) method in root, stem, fruits and leaves of Withania somnifera. A rapid and sensitive LC-ESI-MS-MS method was developed and validated for the determination of these three important bioactive compounds, having same molecular weight. The multiple reaction monitoring method was established by two transitions for each analyte and intense transition used for quantification. Separation of the three analytes was achieved within a run time of 5 min on an RP-18 column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% acetic acid in water in an isocratic condition. The developed method was validated as per the ICH guidelines. The developed method was found to be suitable for identification and quantification of WA, WO and WD in different plant parts such as roots, stems, fruits and leaves of W. somnifera. The accumulation of WA was highest in leaves samples (8.84 ± 0.37 mg/g) and it was 2.23, 5.85 and 27.26 times higher than its concentration in fruits, stems and roots, respectively. WO and WD contents were highest (0.44 ± 0.016 and 0.72 ± 0.016 mg/g, respectively) in root. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Mwitari, Peter G.; Ayeka, Peter A.; Ondicho, Joyce; Matu, Esther N.; Bii, Christine C.
Withania somnifera, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana and Plectrunthus barbatus are used traditionally in Kenya for treatment of microbial infections and cancer. Information on their use is available, but scientific data on their bioactivity, safety and mechanisms of action is still scanty. A study was conducted on the effect of organic extracts of these plants on both bacterial and fungal strains, and their mechanisms of action. Extracts were evaluated through the disc diffusion assay. Bacteria and yeast test strains were cultured on Mueller-Hinton agar and on Sabouraud dextrose agar for the filamentous fungi. A 0.5 McFarland standard suspension was prepared. Sterile paper discs 6 mm in diameter impregnated with 10 µl of the test extract (100 mg/ml) were aseptically placed onto the surface of the inoculated media. Chloramphenicol (30 µg) and fluconazole (25 µg) were used as standards. Discs impregnated with dissolution medium were used as controls. Activity of the extracts was expressed according to zone of inhibition diameter. MIC was determined at 0.78–100 mg/ml. Safety studies were carried using Cell Counting Kit 8 cell proliferation assay protocol. To evaluate extracts mechanisms of action, IEC-6 cells and RT-PCR technique was employed in vitro to evaluate Interleukin 7 cytokine. Investigated plants extracts have both bactericidal and fungicidal activity. W. ugandensis is cytotoxic at IC50<50 µg/ml with MIC values of less than 0.78 mg/ml. Prunus africana shuts down expression of IL 7 mRNA at 50 µg/ml. W. somnifera has the best antimicrobial (1.5625 mg/ml), immunopotentiation (2 times IL 7 mRNA expression) and safety level (IC50>200 µg/ml). Fractions from W. ugandensis and W. somnifera too demonstrated antimicrobial activity. Mechanisms of action can largely be attributed to cytotoxicity, Gene silencing and immunopotentiation. Use of medicinal plants in traditional medicine has been justified and possible mechanisms of action demonstrated. Studies to
Background Leishmaniasis is caused by several species of leishmania protozoan and is one of the major vector-born diseases after malaria and sleeping sickness. Toxicity of available drugs and drug resistance development by protozoa in recent years has made Leishmaniasis cure difficult and challenging. This urges the need to discover new antileishmanial-drug targets and antileishmanial-drug development. Results Tertiary structure of leishmanial protein kinase C was predicted and found stable with a RMSD of 5.8Å during MD simulations. Natural compound withaferin A inhibited the predicted protein at its active site with -28.47 kcal/mol binding free energy. Withanone was also found to inhibit LPKC with good binding affinity of -22.57 kcal/mol. Both withaferin A and withanone were found stable within the binding pocket of predicted protein when MD simulations of ligand-bound protein complexes were carried out to examine the consistency of interactions between the two. Conclusions Leishmanial protein kinase C (LPKC) has been identified as a potential target to develop drugs against Leishmaniasis. We modelled and refined the tertiary structure of LPKC using computational methods such as homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations. This structure of LPKC was used to reveal mode of inhibition of two previous experimentally reported natural compounds from Withania somnifera - withaferin A and withanone. PMID:23281834
Soman, Smijin; Korah, P K; Jayanarayanan, S; Mathew, Jobin; Paulose, C S
In the present study we investigate the effect of Withania somnifera (WS) root extract and Withanolide A (WA) in restoring spatial memory deficit by inhibiting oxidative stress induced alteration in glutamergic neurotransmission. We demonstrate significant cellular loss in hippocampus of epileptic rats, visualized through decreased TOPRO stained neurons. Impaired spatial memory was observed in epileptic rats after Radial arm maze test. Treatment with WS and WA has resulted in increased number of TOPRO stained neurons. Enhanced performance of epileptic rats treated with WS and WA was observed in Radial arm maze test. The antioxidant activity of WS and WA was studied using superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) assays in the hippocampus of experimental rats. The SOD activity and CAT activity decreased significantly in epileptic group, treatment with WS and WA significantly reversed the enzymatic activities to near control. Real time gene expression studies of SOD and GPx showed significant up-regulation in epileptic group compared to control. Treatment with WS and WA showed significant reversal to near control. Lipid peroxidation quantified using TBARS assay, significantly increased in epileptic rats. Treatment with WS and WA showed significant reversal to near control. NMDA receptor expression decreased in epileptic rats. The treatment with WS and WA resulted in physiological expression of NMDA receptors. This data suggests that oxidative stress effects membrane constitution resulting in decreased NMDA receptor density leading to impaired spatial memory. Treatment with WS and WA has ameliorated spatial memory deficits by enhancing antioxidant system and restoring altered NMDA receptor density.
Kasar, Sainath S; Marathe, Kiran R; Bhide, Amey J; Herwade, Abhijeet P; Giri, Ashok P; Maheshwari, Vijay L; Pawar, Pankaj K
Identification and characterisation of plant defensive molecules enrich our resources to design crop protection strategies. In particular, plant-derived proteinaceous inhibitor(s) of insect digestive enzymes appear to be a safe, sustainable and attractive option. A glycoprotein having non-competitive α-amylase inhibitory activity with a molecular weight of 8.3 kDa was isolated and purified from seeds of Withania somnifera α-amylase inhibitor (WSAI). Its mass spectrometry analysis revealed 59% sequence coverage with Wrightide II-type α-amylase inhibitor from Wrightia religiosa. A dose-dependent inhibition of α-amylases from Aspergillus oryzae, Bacillus subtilis, Helicoverpa armigera and Tribolium castaneum was recorded. Interestingly, WSAI did not inhibit human salivary α-amylase significantly. When adults of T. castaneum were fed with WSAI (1.6 mg g -1 ), decrease in consumption, growth and efficiency of conversion of ingested food was evident, along with over fourfold increases in feeding deterrence index. A decline in larval residual α-amylase activity after feeding of WSAI resulted in a reduction in longevity of T. castaneum. The study reflects the significance of WSAI in affecting the overall growth and development of T. castaneum. Pre- and post-harvest pest resistive capability makes WSAI a potential candidate for insect pest management. Further, the effectiveness of this inhibitor could be explored either in formulations or through a transgenic approach. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Selvaraj, Natesan; Ganapathi, Andy; Manickavasagam, Markandan
The present study investigated the biosynthesis of major and minor withanolides of Withania somnifera in cell suspension culture using shake-flask culture and bioreactor by exploiting elicitation and precursor feeding strategies. Elicitors like cadmium chloride, aluminium chloride and chitosan, precursors such as cholesterol, mevalonic acid and squalene were examined. Maximum total withanolides detected [withanolide A (7606.75 mg), withanolide B (4826.05 mg), withaferin A (3732.81 mg), withanone (6538.65 mg), 12 deoxy withanstramonolide (3176.63 mg), withanoside IV (2623.21 mg) and withanoside V (2861.18 mg)] were achieved in the combined treatment of chitosan (100 mg/l) and squalene (6 mM) along with 1 mg/l picloram, 0.5 mg/l KN, 200 mg/l L-glutamine and 5% sucrose in culture at 4 h and 48 h exposure times respectively on 28th day of culture in bioreactor. We obtained higher concentrations of total withanolides in shake-flask culture (2.13-fold) as well as bioreactor (1.66-fold) when compared to control treatments. This optimized protocol can be utilized for commercial level production of withanolides from suspension culture using industrial bioreactors in a short culture period. PMID:25089711
Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Arunachalam, Chinnathambi; Selvaraj, Natesan; Sulaiman, Ali Alharbi; Lim, Yong Pyo; Ganapathi, Andy
The investigation of seaweeds, Gracilaria edulis and Sargassum wightii extracts was carried out for the estimation of growth characteristics and major withanolides production in hairy root culture of Withania somnifera. The extract of G. edulis (50%) in MS liquid basal medium enabled maximum production of dry biomass (5.46 g DW) and withanolides contents (withanolide A 5.23 mg/g DW; withaferin A 2.24 mg/g DW and withanone 4.83 mg/g DW) in hairy roots after 40 days of culture with 48 h contact time. The obtained withanolides contents were significantly higher (2.32-fold-2.66-fold) in hairy root culture when compared to the control. RT PCR analysis of important pathway genes such as SE, SS, HMGR and FPPS exhibited substantial higher expression upon the seaweed extracts treatment in hairy root culture. This experiment would paw a platform for withanolides production in hairy root culture with the influence of sea weed extracts for pharmaceutical companies in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Srivastava, Sudhakar; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Tripathi, Sandhya; Mishra, Bhawana; Narnoliya, L K; Misra, L N; Sangwan, Neelam S
Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) catalyse a wide variety of oxygenation/hydroxylation reactions that facilitate diverse metabolic functions in plants. Specific CYP families are essential for the biosynthesis of species-specialized metabolites. Therefore, we investigated the role of different CYPs related to secondary metabolism in Withania somnifera, a medicinally important plant of the Indian subcontinent. In this study, complete complementary DNAs (cDNAs) of four different CYP genes were isolated and christened as WSCYP93Id, WSCYP93Sm, WSCYP734B and WSCYP734R. These cDNAs encoded polypeptides comprising of 498, 496, 522 and 550 amino acid residues with their deduced molecular mass of 56.7, 56.9, 59.4 and 62.2 kDa, respectively. Phylogenetic study and molecular modelling analysis of the four cloned WSCYPs revealed their categorization into two CYP families (CYP83B1 and CYP734A1) belonging to CYP71 and CYP72 clans, respectively. BLASTp searches showed similarity of 75 and 56 %, respectively, between the two CYP members of CYP83B1 and CYP734A1 with major variances exhibited in their N-terminal regions. The two pairs of homologues exhibited differential expression profiles in the leaf tissues of selected chemotypes of W. somnifera as well as in response to treatments such as methyl jasmonate, wounding, light and auxin. Light and auxin regulated two pairs of WSCYP homologues in a developing seedling in an interesting differential manner. Their lesser resemblance and homology with other CYP sequences suggested these genes to be more specialized and distinct ones. The results on chemotype-specific expression patterns of the four genes strongly suggested their key/specialized involvement of the CYPs in the biosynthesis of chemotype-specific metabolites, though their further biochemical characterization would reveal the specificity in more detail. It is revealed that WSCYP93Id and WSCYP93Sm may be broadly involved in the oxygenation reactions in the plant and, thereby, control
Grover, Abhinav; Shandilya, Ashutosh; Punetha, Ankita; Bisaria, Virendra S; Sundar, Durai
Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB) is a transcription factor involved in the regulation of cell signaling responses and is a key regulator of cellular processes involved in the immune response, differentiation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. The constitutive activation of NF-κB contributes to multiple cellular outcomes and pathophysiological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, AIDS and cancer. Thus there lies a huge therapeutic potential beneath inhibition of NF-κB signalling pathway for reducing these chronic ailments. Withania somnifera, a reputed herb in ayurvedic medicine, comprises a large number of steroidal lactones known as withanolides which show plethora of pharmacological activities like anti- inflammatory, antitumor, antibacterial, antioxidant, anticonvulsive, and immunosuppressive. Though a few studies have been reported depicting the effect of WA (withaferin A) on suppression of NF-κB activation, the mechanism behind this is still eluding the researchers. The study conducted here is an attempt to explore NF-κB signalling pathway modulating capability of Withania somnifera's major constituent WA and to elucidate its possible mode of action using molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations studies. Formation of active IKK (IκB kinase) complex comprising NEMO (NF-κB Essential Modulator) and IKKβ subunits is one of the essential steps for NF-κB signalling pathway, non-assembly of which can lead to prevention of the above mentioned vulnerable disorders. As observed from our semi-flexible docking analysis, WA forms strong intermolecular interactions with the NEMO chains thus building steric as well as thermodynamic barriers to the incoming IKKβ subunits, which in turn pave way to naive complex formation capability of NEMO with IKKβ. Docking of WA into active NEMO/IKKβ complex using flexible docking in which key residues of the complex were kept flexible also suggest the disruption of the active
Chandrasekaran, Sambamurthy; Veronica, Jalaja; Sundar, Shyam; Maurya, Radheshyam
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) causes fatal life-threatening disease, if left untreated. The current drugs have various limitations; hence, natural products from medicinal plants are being focused in search of new drugs to treat leishmaniasis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antileishmanial and immunomodulatory activities of F5 and F6 alcoholic fractions from Withania somnifera leaves and purified withaferin-A in Leishmania donovani-infected peritoneal macrophages and BALB/c mice. We observed that F5 (15 µg/mL), F6 (10 µg/mL), and withaferin-A (1.5 µM) reduce amastigote count in peritoneal macrophages and induce reactive oxygen species and significant decrease in IL-10 mRNA expression compared to control upon treatment. Subsequently, in vivo study mice were treated with F5 (25 and 50 mg/kg b.wt.), F6 (25 and 50 mg/kg b.wt.) orally, and withaferin-A (2 mg/kg b.wt.) intraperitoneally for 10 consecutive days and a drastic reduction in parasite burden in both spleen and liver were observed. The treatment resulted in the reduction in IL-10, IL-4, and TGF-β mRNA expression and a significant increase in IFN-γ/IL-10 expression ratio in the treated group compared to control. The humoral response of these alcoholic fractions and withaferin-A shows increased IgG2a levels when compared with IgG1 in treated mice. Taken together, our result concludes that withanolides in alcoholic fractions demonstrate a potent antileishmanial and immunomodulatory activities in experimental VL. PMID:28553635
Catelani, Tiziano; Setzu, Maria Dolores; Solla, Paolo; Marrosu, Francesco; Sanna, Enrico; Kasture, Sanjay; Acquas, Elio
The common fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) is a simple animal species that contributed significantly to the development of neurobiology whose leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 mutants (LRRK2) loss-of-function in the WD40 domain represent a very interesting tool to look into physiopathology of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Accordingly, LRRK2 Dm have also the potential to contribute to reveal innovative therapeutic approaches to its treatment. Withania somnifera Dunal, a plant that grows spontaneously also in Mediterranean regions, is known in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory and protective properties against neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of its standardized root methanolic extract (Wse) on the LRRK2 loss-of-function Dm model of PD. To this end mutant and wild type (WT) flies were administered Wse, through diet, at different concentrations as larvae and adults (L+/A+) or as adults (L-/A+) only. LRRK2 mutants have a significantly reduced lifespan and compromised motor function and mitochondrial morphology compared to WT flies 1% Wse-enriched diet, administered to Dm LRRK2 as L-/A+and improved a) locomotor activity b) muscle electrophysiological response to stimuli and also c) protected against mitochondria degeneration. In contrast, the administration of Wse to Dm LRRK2 as L+/A+, no matter at which concentration, worsened lifespan and determined the appearance of increased endosomal activity in the thoracic ganglia. These results, while confirming that the LRRK2 loss-of-function in the WD40 domain represents a valid model of PD, reveal that under appropriate concentrations Wse can be usefully employed to counteract some deficits associated with the disease. However, a careful assessment of the risks, likely related to the impaired endosomal activity, is required. PMID:26727265
Machiah, Deepa K; Gowda, T Veerabasappa
A post-synaptic neurotoxic phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) has been purified from Indian cobra Naja naja venom. It was associated with a peptide in the venom. The association was disrupted using 8 M urea. It is denoted to be a basic protein by its behavior on both ion exchange chromatography and electrophoresis. It is toxic to mice, LD(50) 1.9 mg/kg body weight (ip). It is proved to be post-synaptic PLA(2) by chymographic experiment using frog nerve-muscle preparation. A glycoprotein, (WSG) was isolated from a folk medicinal plant Withania somnifera. The WSG inhibited the phospholipase A(2) activity of NN-XIa-PLA(2,) isolated from the cobra venom, completely at a mole-to-mole ratio of 1:2 (NN-XIa-PLA(2): WSG) but failed to neutralize the toxicity of the molecule. However, it reduced the toxicity as well as prolonged the death time of the experimental mice approximately 10 times when compared to venom alone. The WSG also inhibited several other PLA(2) isoforms from the venom to varying extent. The interaction of the WSG with the PLA(2) is confirmed by fluorescence quenching and gel-permeation chromatography. Chemical modification of the active histidine residue of PLA(2) using p-brophenacyl bromide resulted in the loss of both catalytic activity as well as neurotoxicity of the molecule. These findings suggest that the venom PLA(2) has multiple sites on it; perhaps some of them are overlapping. Application of the plant extract on snakebite wound confirms the medicinal value associated with the plant.
Quantitative determination of multi markers in five varieties of Withania somnifera using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer combined with multivariate analysis: Application to pharmaceutical dosage forms.
Chandra, Preeti; Kannujia, Rekha; Saxena, Ankita; Srivastava, Mukesh; Bahadur, Lal; Pal, Mahesh; Singh, Bhim Pratap; Kumar Ojha, Sanjeev; Kumar, Brijesh
An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of six major bioactive compounds in five varieties of Withania somnifera in various plant parts (leaf, stem and root). The analysis was accomplished on Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column with linear gradient elution of water/formic acid (0.1%) and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.3mLmin(-1). The proposed method was validated with acceptable linearity (r(2), 0.9989-0.9998), precision (RSD, 0.16-2.01%), stability (RSD, 1.04-1.62%) and recovery (RSD ≤2.45%), under optimum conditions. The method was also successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of six marker compounds in twenty-six marketed formulations. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were applied to discriminate these twenty-six batches based on characteristics of the bioactive compounds. The results indicated that this method is advance, rapid, sensitive and suitable to reveal the quality of Withania somnifera and also capable of performing quality evaluation of polyherbal formulations having similar markers/raw herbs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Complete Comparison Display (CCD) evaluation of ethanol extracts of Centella asiatica and Withania somnifera shows that they can non-synergistically ameliorate biochemical and behavioural damages in MPTP induced Parkinson's model of mice.
Bhatnagar, Maheep; Goel, Ishan; Roy, Tathagato; Shukla, Sunil Dutt; Khurana, Sukant
Parkinson's disease remains as one of the most common debilitating neurodegenerative disorders. With the hopes of finding agents that can cure or reduce the pace of progression of the disease, we studied two traditional medicinal plants: Centella asiatica and Withania somnifera that have been explored in some recent studies. In agreement with the previous work on ethanol extracts of these two plants in mice model, we saw an improvement in oxidative stress profile as well as behavioral performance in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced Parkinson-like symptoms in Balb/c mice. Given the known potential of both the herbal extracts in improving Parkinson-like symptoms, we expected the combination of the two to show better results than either of the two but surprisingly there was no additivity in either oxidative stress or behavioural recovery. In fact, in some assays, the combination performed worse than either of the two individual constituents. This effect of mixtures highlights the need of testing mixtures in supplements market using enthomedicine. The necessity of comparing multiple groups in this study to get most information from the experiments motivated us to design a ladder-like visualization to show comparison with different groups that we call complete comparison display (CCD). In summary, we show the potential of Centella asiatica and Withania somnifera to ameliorate Parkinson's disorder.
Complete Comparison Display (CCD) evaluation of ethanol extracts of Centella asiatica and Withania somnifera shows that they can non-synergistically ameliorate biochemical and behavioural damages in MPTP induced Parkinson's model of mice
Bhatnagar, Maheep; Goel, Ishan; Roy, Tathagato; Khurana, Sukant
Parkinson’s disease remains as one of the most common debilitating neurodegenerative disorders. With the hopes of finding agents that can cure or reduce the pace of progression of the disease, we studied two traditional medicinal plants: Centella asiatica and Withania somnifera that have been explored in some recent studies. In agreement with the previous work on ethanol extracts of these two plants in mice model, we saw an improvement in oxidative stress profile as well as behavioral performance in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced Parkinson-like symptoms in Balb/c mice. Given the known potential of both the herbal extracts in improving Parkinson-like symptoms, we expected the combination of the two to show better results than either of the two but surprisingly there was no additivity in either oxidative stress or behavioural recovery. In fact, in some assays, the combination performed worse than either of the two individual constituents. This effect of mixtures highlights the need of testing mixtures in supplements market using enthomedicine. The necessity of comparing multiple groups in this study to get most information from the experiments motivated us to design a ladder-like visualization to show comparison with different groups that we call complete comparison display (CCD). In summary, we show the potential of Centella asiatica and Withania somnifera to ameliorate Parkinson’s disorder. PMID:28510600
Kataria, Hardeep; Shah, Navjot; Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu; Kaur, Gurcharan
Root extracts of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) are commonly used as a remedy for a variety of ailments and a general tonic for overall health and longevity in the Indian traditional medicine system, Ayurveda. We undertook a study to investigate the anti-proliferative and differentiation-inducing activities in the water extract of Ashwagandha leaves (ASH-WEX) by examining in glioma cells. Preliminary detection for phytochemicals was performed by thin-layer chromatography. Cytotoxicity was determined using trypan blue and MTT assays. Expression level of an hsp70 family protein (mortalin), glial cell differentiation marker [glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)] and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting. Anti-migratory assay was also done using wound-scratch assay. Expression levels of mortalin, GFAP and NCAM showed changes, subsequent to the treatment with ASH-WEX. The data support the existence of anti-proliferative, differentiation-inducing and anti-migratory/anti-metastasis activities in ASH-WEX that could be used as potentially safe and complimentary therapy for glioma. PMID:20007262
Kaur, Amandeep; Singh, Baldev; Ohri, Puja; Wang, Jia; Wadhwa, Renu; Pati, Pratap Kumar; Kaur, Arvinder
Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) has recently been studied extensively for its health-supplementing and therapeutic activities against a variety of ailments. Several independent studies have experimentally demonstrated pharmaceutical potential of its active Withanolides, Withaferin A (Wi-A), Withanone (Wi-N) and Withanolide A (Wil-A). However, to promote its use in herbal industry, an environmentally sustainable cultivation and high yield are warranted. In modern agriculture strategies, there has been indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers to boost the crop-yield, however the practice largely ignored its adverse effect on the quality of soil and the environment. In view of these, we attempted to recruit Vermicompost (Vcom, 20–100%) as an organic fertilizer of choice during the sowing and growing phases of Ashwagandha plants. We report that (i) pre-soaking of seeds for 12 h in Vermicompost leachate (Vcom-L) and Vermicompost tea (Vcom-T) led to higher germination, (ii) binary combination of pre-soaking of seeds and cultivation in Vcom (up to 80%) resulted in further improvement both in germination and seedling growth, (iii) cultivated plants in the presence of Vcom+Vcom-L showed higher leaf and root mass, earlier onset of flowering and fruiting and (iv) leaves from the Vcom+Vcom-L cultivated plants showed higher level of active Withanolides, Withanone (Wi-N), Withanolide A (Wil-A) and Withaferin A (Wi-A) and showed anticancer activities in cell culture assays. Taken together, we report a simple and inexpensive method for improving the yield and pharmaceutical components of Ashwagandha leaves. PMID:29659590
Kaur, Amandeep; Singh, Baldev; Ohri, Puja; Wang, Jia; Wadhwa, Renu; Kaul, Sunil C; Pati, Pratap Kumar; Kaur, Arvinder
Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) has recently been studied extensively for its health-supplementing and therapeutic activities against a variety of ailments. Several independent studies have experimentally demonstrated pharmaceutical potential of its active Withanolides, Withaferin A (Wi-A), Withanone (Wi-N) and Withanolide A (Wil-A). However, to promote its use in herbal industry, an environmentally sustainable cultivation and high yield are warranted. In modern agriculture strategies, there has been indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers to boost the crop-yield, however the practice largely ignored its adverse effect on the quality of soil and the environment. In view of these, we attempted to recruit Vermicompost (Vcom, 20-100%) as an organic fertilizer of choice during the sowing and growing phases of Ashwagandha plants. We report that (i) pre-soaking of seeds for 12 h in Vermicompost leachate (Vcom-L) and Vermicompost tea (Vcom-T) led to higher germination, (ii) binary combination of pre-soaking of seeds and cultivation in Vcom (up to 80%) resulted in further improvement both in germination and seedling growth, (iii) cultivated plants in the presence of Vcom+Vcom-L showed higher leaf and root mass, earlier onset of flowering and fruiting and (iv) leaves from the Vcom+Vcom-L cultivated plants showed higher level of active Withanolides, Withanone (Wi-N), Withanolide A (Wil-A) and Withaferin A (Wi-A) and showed anticancer activities in cell culture assays. Taken together, we report a simple and inexpensive method for improving the yield and pharmaceutical components of Ashwagandha leaves.
Extraction Optimization for Phenolic- and Withanolide-Rich Fractions from Withania somnifera Roots: Identification and Quantification of Withaferin A, 12-Deoxywithastromonolide, and Withanolide A in Plant Materials and Marketed Formulations Using a Reversed-Phase HPLC-Photodiode Array Detection Method.
Kumar, Satyanshu; Singh, Raghuraj; Gajbhiye, Narendra; Dhanani, Tushar
Background : Both the roots and leaves of Withania somnifera are products of commerce. They contain active compounds of therapeutic value and mostly different withanolides. Several pharmacological activities of W. somnifera have links to one or more withanolides. The presence of phenolic compounds in extracts could play a vital role in the reduction of blood glucose levels in diabetic subjects. Objective : The present study was carried out for the selection of a solvent to prepare extracts rich in phenolics, withaferin A (WA), 12-deoxywithastromonolide (12WD), and withanolide A (WDA). A simple, rapid HPLC method was also developed for the identification and quantification of WA, 12WD, and WDA. Methods : The extraction efficiency of aqueous alcoholic solvents including hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol were compared for three selected withanolides and total phenolic content. The contents of WA, 12WD, and WDA and total phenolics were determined in the extracts. The quality of nine formulations containing W. sominfera were also compared in terms of the content of WA, 12WD, and WDA and total phenolics. Results : The maximum extract yield and the total withanolide and phenolic content were obtained from aqueous alcoholic compositions at 50:50 (v/v), 70:30 (v/v), and 100:0 (v/v), respectively. In the case of organic solvents, chloroform and ethyl acetate yielded the highest concentrations of phenolics and three withanolides, respectively. The total phenolic content in formulations was in the range of 1.84-3.13%, and total withanolide content showed wide variability. Conclusions : The outcome of the present investigation could be utilized for the selection of extraction solvents to prepare W. somnifera -enriched extracts and their quality monitoring by using the developed and validated HPLC-Photodiode array detection method. Highlights : A process for preparation of phenolics and withanolides (withaferin A, 12-deoxywithastramonolide and withanolide A
Interactive Effects of Growth Regulators, Carbon Sources, pH on Plant Regeneration and Assessment of Genetic Fidelity Using Single Primer Amplification Reaction (SPARS) Techniques in Withania somnifera L.
Fatima, Nigar; Ahmad, Naseem; Ahmad, Iqbal; Anis, Mohammad
An improved and methodical in vitro shoot morphogenic approach through axillary bud multiplication was established in a drug yielding plant, Withania somnifera L. Effects of plant growth regulators [6-benzyladenine (BA), kinetin (Kin), 2-isopentenyladenine (2iP), and thidiazuron (TDZ)] either singly or in combination with α-napthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium were tested. The highest regeneration frequency (90 %) with optimum number of shoots (32 ± 0.00)/explant were obtained on MS medium fortified with 2.5 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 0.5 μM NAA and 30 g/l sucrose at pH 5.8. Among the tried TDZ concentrations, 0.5 μM resulted in maximum number of shoots (20.4 ± 0.40)/explant after 4 weeks of exposure. The proliferating shoot cultures established by repeated subculturing of the mother explants on the hormone-free medium produced the highest shoot number (29.4 ± 0.40) with shoot length (6.80 ± 0.12 cm)/explant at fourth subculture passage, which a decline in shoot proliferation was recorded. Different concentrations of NAA were tested for ex vitro rooting of microshoots. The maximum percentage of rooting 100 % with maximum roots (18.3 ± 0.1) was achieved in soilrite when basal portion of the microshoots were treated with 200 μM (NAA) for 15 min per shoot. The plantlets went through hardening phase in a growth chamber, prior to ex vitro transfer. The PCR-based single primer amplification reaction (SPAR) methods which include random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and direct amplification of minisatellite DNA (DAMD) markers has been used for assessment of genetic stability of micropropagated plantlets. No variation was observed in DNA fingerprinting patterns among the micropropagated and the donor plants illustrating their genetic uniformity.
Priyandoko, Didik; Ishii, Tetsuro; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu
The present day lifestyle heavily depends on industrial chemicals in the form of agriculture, cosmetics, textiles and medical products. Since the toxicity of the industrial chemicals has been a concern to human health, the need for alternative non-toxic natural products or adjuvants that serve as antidotes are in high demand. We have investigated the effects of Ayurvedic herb Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) leaf extract on methoxyacetic acid (MAA) induced toxicity. MAA is a major metabolite of ester phthalates that are commonly used in industry as gelling, viscosity and stabilizer reagents. We report that the MAA cause premature senescence of normal human cells by mechanisms that involve ROS generation, DNA and mitochondrial damage. Withanone protects cells from MAA-induced toxicity by suppressing the ROS levels, DNA and mitochondrial damage, and induction of cell defense signaling pathways including Nrf2 and proteasomal degradation. These findings warrant further basic and clinical studies that may promote the use of withanone as a health adjuvant in a variety of consumer products where the toxicity has been a concern because of the use of ester phthalates.
Priyandoko, Didik; Ishii, Tetsuro; Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu
The present day lifestyle heavily depends on industrial chemicals in the form of agriculture, cosmetics, textiles and medical products. Since the toxicity of the industrial chemicals has been a concern to human health, the need for alternative non-toxic natural products or adjuvants that serve as antidotes are in high demand. We have investigated the effects of Ayurvedic herb Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) leaf extract on methoxyacetic acid (MAA) induced toxicity. MAA is a major metabolite of ester phthalates that are commonly used in industry as gelling, viscosity and stabilizer reagents. We report that the MAA cause premature senescence of normal human cells by mechanisms that involve ROS generation, DNA and mitochondrial damage. Withanone protects cells from MAA-induced toxicity by suppressing the ROS levels, DNA and mitochondrial damage, and induction of cell defense signaling pathways including Nrf2 and proteasomal degradation. These findings warrant further basic and clinical studies that may promote the use of withanone as a health adjuvant in a variety of consumer products where the toxicity has been a concern because of the use of ester phthalates. PMID:21573189
Bansal, Priya; Banerjee, Sugato
Background: Alcohol addiction is a social problem leading to both loss of health and economic prosperity among addicted individuals. Common properties of anti-addictive compounds include anti-anxiety, anticonvulsants, anti-depressant, and nootropic actions primarily through modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serotonergic systems. Objective: Here, we screen ashwagandha and shilajit known ethnopharmacologically as nervine tonic and adaptogenic herbs for possible anti-addictive potential. Materials and Methods: Effect of ashwagandha churna and shilajit was measured on ethanol withdrawal anxiety using elevated plus maze. Role of ashwagandha and shilajit on chronic ethanol consumption (21 days) was measured using two bottle choice protocol of voluntary drinking. We also measured the effect of the above herbs on corticohippocampal GABA, dopamine, and serotonin levels. Results: Both ashwagandha and shilajit were found to reduce alcohol withdrawal anxiety in a dose-dependent manner. These herbs alone or in combination also decreased ethanol intake and increased water intake significantly after 21 days of chronic administration. Chronic administration of ashwagandha was found to significantly increase GABA and serotonin levels whereas shilajit altered cortico-hippocampal dopamine in mice. Conclusion: These central nervous system active herbs alone or in combination reduced both alcohol dependence and withdrawal thus showing promising anti-addictive potential. SUMMARY Withinia Somnifera alone and in combination with Shilajeet prevented ethanol withdrawal and alcohol addiction Abbreviations used: GABA: Gama aminobutyric acid, CNS: Central Nervous System, CPP:Condition place preference, DA: Dopamine, 5-HT: 5-hydroxytryptamine, NMDA:N-methyl-D-aspartate PMID:27279696
Bansal, Priya; Banerjee, Sugato
Alcohol addiction is a social problem leading to both loss of health and economic prosperity among addicted individuals. Common properties of anti-addictive compounds include anti-anxiety, anticonvulsants, anti-depressant, and nootropic actions primarily through modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serotonergic systems. Here, we screen ashwagandha and shilajit known ethnopharmacologically as nervine tonic and adaptogenic herbs for possible anti-addictive potential. Effect of ashwagandha churna and shilajit was measured on ethanol withdrawal anxiety using elevated plus maze. Role of ashwagandha and shilajit on chronic ethanol consumption (21 days) was measured using two bottle choice protocol of voluntary drinking. We also measured the effect of the above herbs on corticohippocampal GABA, dopamine, and serotonin levels. Both ashwagandha and shilajit were found to reduce alcohol withdrawal anxiety in a dose-dependent manner. These herbs alone or in combination also decreased ethanol intake and increased water intake significantly after 21 days of chronic administration. Chronic administration of ashwagandha was found to significantly increase GABA and serotonin levels whereas shilajit altered cortico-hippocampal dopamine in mice. These central nervous system active herbs alone or in combination reduced both alcohol dependence and withdrawal thus showing promising anti-addictive potential. Withinia Somnifera alone and in combination with Shilajeet prevented ethanol withdrawal and alcohol addiction Abbreviations used: GABA: Gama aminobutyric acid, CNS: Central Nervous System, CPP:Condition place preference, DA: Dopamine, 5-HT: 5-hydroxytryptamine, NMDA:N-methyl-D-aspartate.
Saema, Syed; Rahman, Laiq ur; Niranjan, Abhishek; Ahmad, Iffat Zareen; Misra, Pratibha
Sterol glycosyltransferases (SGTs) belong to family 1 of glycosyltransferases (GTs) and are enzymes responsible for synthesis of sterol–glucosides (SGs) in many organisms. WsSGTL1 is a SGT of Withania somnifera that has been found associated with plasma membranes. However its biological function in W.somnifera is largely unknown. In the present study, we have demonstrated through RNAi silencing of WsSGTL1 gene that it performs glycosylation of withanolides and sterols resulting in glycowithanolides and glycosylated sterols respectively, and affects the growth and development of transgenic W.somnifera. For this, RNAi construct (pFGC1008-WsSGTL1) was made and genetic transformation was done by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. HPLC analysis depicts the reduction of withanoside V (the glycowithanolide of W.somnifera) and a large increase of withanolides (majorly withaferin A) content. Also, a significant decrease in level of glycosylated sterols has been observed. Hence, the obtained data provides an insight into the biological function of WsSGTL1 gene in W.somnifera. PMID:26357855
Negi, M S; Singh, A; Lakshmikumaran, M
Withania somnifera is an important medicinal plant, and its anticancerous properties have been attributed to various classes of withanolide compounds. The objective of the present study was to investigate the inter- and intraspecific genetic variation present in 35 individuals of W. somnifera and 5 individuals of W. coagulans using AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) marker technique. The information about genetic variation determined from AFLP data for 40 individuals was employed to estimate similarity matrix value based on Jaccard's coefficient. The similarity values were further used to construct a phenetic dendrogram revealing the genetic relationships. The dendrogram generated by UPGMA (unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages) distinguished W. somnifera from W. coagulans and formed two major clusters. These two main clusters shared a similarity coefficient of 0.3, correlating with the high level of polymorphism detected. The dendrogram further separated W. somnifera into three subclasses corresponding to Kashmiri and Nagori groups and an intermediate type. The AFLP profile of Kashmiri individuals was distinct from that of the Nagori group of plants. The intermediate genotype was distinct as it shared bands with both the Kashmiri and Nagori individuals, even though it was identified as a Kashmiri morphotype. Furthermore, the intermediate type shared a similarity coefficient of 0.8 with the Kashmiri individuals. The present work revealed low levels of variation within a population though high levels of polymorphism were detected between Nagori and Kashmiri populations. The ability of AFLP markers for efficient and rapid detection of genetic variations at the species as well as intraspecific level qualifies it as an efficient tool for estimating genetic similarity in plant species and effective management of genetic resources.
Wadhwa, Renu; Konar, Arpita; Kaul, Sunil C
Rapidly increasing aging population and environmental stressors are the two main global concerns of the modern society. These have brought in light rapidly increasing incidence of a variety of pathological conditions including brain tumors, neurodegenerative & neuropsychiatric disorders, and new challenges for their treatment. The overlapping symptoms, complex etiology and lack of full understanding of the brain structure and function to-date further complicate these tasks. On the other hand, several herbal reagents with a long history of their use have been asserted to possess neurodifferentiation, neuroregenerative and neuroprotective potentials, and hence been recommended as supplement to enhance and maintain brain health and function. Although they have been claimed to function by holistic approach resulting in maintaining body homeostasis and brain health, there are not enough laboratory studies in support to these and mechanism(s) of such beneficial activities remain largely undefined. One such herb is Ashwagandha, also called "Queen of Ayurveda" for its popular use in Indian traditional home medicine because of its extensive benefits including anticancer, anti-stress and remedial potential for aging and neurodegenerative pathologies. However, active principles and underlying mechanism(s) of action remain largely unknown. Here we provide a review on the effects of Ashwagandha extracts and active principles, and underlying molecular mechanism(s) for brain pathologies. We highlight our findings on the nootropic potential of Ashwagandha leaves. The effects of Ashwagandha leaf extracts are multidimensional ranging from differentiation of neuroblastoma and glioma cells, reversal of Alzheimer and Parkinson's pathologies, protection against environmental neurotoxins and enhancement of memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shah, Navjot; Singh, Rumani; Sarangi, Upasana; Saxena, Nishant; Chaudhary, Anupama; Kaur, Gurcharan; Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu
Background Ashwagandha, a traditional Indian herb, has been known for its variety of therapeutic activities. We earlier demonstrated anticancer activities in the alcoholic and water extracts of the leaves that were mediated by activation of tumor suppressor functions and oxidative stress in cancer cells. Low doses of these extracts were shown to possess neuroprotective activities in vitro and in vivo assays. Methodology/Principal Findings We used cultured glioblastoma and neuroblastoma cells to examine the effect of extracts (alcoholic and water) as well as their bioactive components for neuroprotective activities against oxidative stress. Various biochemical and imaging assays on the marker proteins of glial and neuronal cells were performed along with their survival profiles in control, stressed and recovered conditions. We found that the extracts and one of the purified components, withanone, when used at a low dose, protected the glial and neuronal cells from oxidative as well as glutamate insult, and induced their differentiation per se. Furthermore, the combinations of extracts and active component were highly potent endorsing the therapeutic merit of the combinational approach. Conclusion Ashwagandha leaf derived bioactive compounds have neuroprotective potential and may serve as supplement for brain health. PMID:25789768
Kumar, Gajendra; Srivastava, Amita; Sharma, Surinder Kumar; Rao, T Divakara; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar
In the traditional system of medicine in India Ashwagandha powder and Sidh Makardhwaj have been used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. However, safety and efficacy of this treatment have not been evaluated. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ayurvedic treatment (Ashwagandha powder and Sidh Makardhwaj) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. One hundred and twenty five patients with joint pain were screened at an Ayurvedic hospital in New Delhi, India. Eighty six patients satisfied inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Detailed medical history and physical examination were recorded. Patients took 5g of Ashwagandha powder twice a day for three weeks with lukewarm water or milk. Sidh Makardhwaj (100 mg) with honey was administered daily for the next four weeks. The follow up of patients was carried out every two weeks. The primary efficacy end point was based on American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20 response. Secondary end points were ACR50, ACR70 responses, change from baseline in disease activity score (DAS) 28 score and ACR parameters. Safety assessments were hepatic function [alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin and ß2 microglobulin], renal function (urea and creatinine and NGAL) tests and urine mercury level. The study was completed by 90.7 per cent (78/86) patients. Patients with moderate and high disease activity were 57.7 per cent (45/78) and 42.3 per cent (33/78), respectively. All patients were tested positive for rheumatoid factor and increased ESR level. Ashwagandha and Sidh Makardhwaj treatment decreased RA factor. A significant change in post-treatment scores of tender joint counts, swollen joint counts, physician global assessment score, patient global assessment score, pain assessment score, patient self assessed disability index score and ESR level were observed as compared to baseline scores. ACR20 response was
Kumar, Gajendra; Srivastava, Amita; Sharma, Surinder Kumar; Rao, T. Divakara; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar
Background & objectives: In the traditional system of medicine in India Ashwagandha powder and Sidh Makardhwaj have been used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. However, safety and efficacy of this treatment have not been evaluated. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ayurvedic treatment (Ashwagandha powder and Sidh Makardhwaj) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: One hundred and twenty five patients with joint pain were screened at an Ayurvedic hospital in New Delhi, India. Eighty six patients satisfied inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Detailed medical history and physical examination were recorded. Patients took 5g of Ashwagandha powder twice a day for three weeks with lukewarm water or milk. Sidh Makardhwaj (100 mg) with honey was administered daily for the next four weeks. The follow up of patients was carried out every two weeks. The primary efficacy end point was based on American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20 response. Secondary end points were ACR50, ACR70 responses, change from baseline in disease activity score (DAS) 28 score and ACR parameters. Safety assessments were hepatic function [alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin and ß2 microglobulin], renal function (urea and creatinine and NGAL) tests and urine mercury level. Results: The study was completed by 90.7 per cent (78/86) patients. Patients with moderate and high disease activity were 57.7 per cent (45/78) and 42.3 per cent (33/78), respectively. All patients were tested positive for rheumatoid factor and increased ESR level. Ashwagandha and Sidh Makardhwaj treatment decreased RA factor. A significant change in post-treatment scores of tender joint counts, swollen joint counts, physician global assessment score, patient global assessment score, pain assessment score, patient self assessed disability index score and ESR level were observed as
Mannangatti, Padmanabhan; Naidu, Kamalakkannan Narasimha
Ayurveda, an ancient system of medicine that is indigenous to India, is believed to be the world's oldest comprehensive health-care system and is now one of the most recognized and widely practiced disciplines of alternative medicine in the world. Medicinal herbs have been in use for treating diseases since ancient times in India. Ayurvedic therapies with medicinal herbs and herbomineral products generally provide relief without much adverse effects even after prolonged administration. Neurodegenerative disorders are a major cause of mortality and disability, and increasing life spans represent one of the key challenges of medical research. Ayurvedic medicine describes most neurodegenerative diseases and has defined a number of plants with therapeutic benefits for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases having antioxidant activities. In this chapter, the role of four important Ayurvedic medicinal plants, viz., Withania somnifera (ashwagandha), Bacopa monnieri (brahmi), Centella asiatica (gotu kola), and Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean), on neurodegenerative diseases are discussed.
Dhami, Jasdeep; Chang, Edwin; Gambhir, Sanjiv S
Within the Ayurvedic medical tradition of India, Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is a well-known herb. A large number of withanolides have been isolated from both its roots and its leaves and many have been assessed for their pharmacological activities. Amongst them, Withaferin A is one of its most bioactive phytoconstituents. Due to the lactonal steroid's potential to modulate multiple oncogenic pathways, Withaferin A has gained much attention as a possible anti-neoplastic agent. This review focuses on the use of Withaferin A alone, or in combination with other treatments, as a newer option for therapy against the most aggressive variant of brain tumors, Glioblastoma. We survey the various studies that delineate Withaferin A's anticancer mechanisms, its toxicity profiles, its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and its immuno-modulating properties.
Zahran, Eman; Abd El-Gawad, Eman A; Risha, Engy
In the present study, effect of dietary Withania sominefera (W. sominefera) root powder was evaluated to modulate immune and antioxidant response against Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila) infection in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). W. sominefera root powder supplemented diets at two concentrations 2.5% (W 2.5%) and 5% (W 5%); fed for 6 weeks prior to the A. hydrophila challenge and continued the same respective diets during the post challenge period (2 weeks). Results showed that fish fed W. sominefera at 5% enhanced immune response in both pre and post-challenge period. NBT level exhibited only significant increase (P < 0.05) in the pre-challenge period compared to control. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in liver and muscle revealed significant decrease in both Withania supplemented groups compared to the control in post challenge period. Antioxidant enzymes activities (catalase/CAT/, glutathione S-transferase/GST/, glutathione/GSH; and superoxide dismutase/SOD) were improved in liver and muscle in post challenge period. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) level in muscle and serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) showed a significant increase in both Withania supplemented groups compared to the control post challenge. Withania supplementation enhanced disease resistance against A. hydrophila and reduced mortalities (20%), especially at supplemented concentration of 5%. Our findings suggest that W. sominefera root powder may have protective and immunotherapeutic roles in Nile tilapia against A. hydrophila infection which may be useful in controlling important fish bacterial diseases. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ojha, Shreesh; Alkaabi, Juma; Amir, Naheed; Sheikh, Azimullah; Agil, Ahmad; Fahim, Mohamed Abdelmonem; Adem, Abdu
The present study was carried out to investigate the changes in oxidative and inflammatory status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat's kidneys and serum following treatment with Withania coagulans, a popular herb of ethnomedicinal significance. The key markers of oxidative stress and inflammation such as inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) and immunoregulatory cytokines (IL-4 and IFN-γ) were increased in kidneys along with significant hyperglycemia. However, treatment of four-month diabetic rats with Withania coagulans (10 mg/kg) for 3 weeks significantly attenuated hyperglycemia and reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in kidneys. In addition, Withania coagulans treatment restored the glutathione levels and inhibited lipid peroxidation along with marked reduction in kidney hypertrophy. The present study demonstrates that Withania coagulans corrects hyperglycemia and maintained antioxidant status and reduced the proinflammatory markers in kidneys, which may subsequently reduce the development and progression of renal injury in diabetes. The results of the present study are encouraging for its potential use to delay the onset and progression of diabetic renal complications. However, the translation of therapeutic efficacy in humans requires further studies. PMID:25295146
Singh, Rumani; Saxena, Nishant; Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu; Thakur, Mahendra K.
Background Scopolamine is a well-known cholinergic antagonist that causes amnesia in human and animal models. Scopolamine-induced amnesia in rodent models has been widely used to understand the molecular, biochemical, behavioral changes, and to delineate therapeutic targets of memory impairment. Although this has been linked to the decrease in central cholinergic neuronal activity following the blockade of muscarinic receptors, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanism(s) particularly the effect on neuroplasticity remains elusive. In the present study, we have investigated (i) the effects of scopolamine on the molecules involved in neuronal and glial plasticity both in vivo and in vitro and (ii) their recovery by alcoholic extract of Ashwagandha leaves (i-Extract). Methodology/Principal Findings As a drug model, scopolamine hydrobromide was administered intraperitoneally to mice and its effect on the brain function was determined by molecular analyses. The results showed that the scopolamine caused downregulation of the expression of BDNF and GFAP in dose and time dependent manner, and these effects were markedly attenuated in response to i-Extract treatment. Similar to our observations in animal model system, we found that the scopolamine induced cytotoxicity in IMR32 neuronal and C6 glioma cells. It was associated with downregulation of neuronal cell markers NF-H, MAP2, PSD-95, GAP-43 and glial cell marker GFAP and with upregulation of DNA damage- γH2AX and oxidative stress- ROS markers. Furthermore, these molecules showed recovery when cells were treated with i-Extract or its purified component, withanone. Conclusion Our study suggested that besides cholinergic blockade, scopolamine-induced memory loss may be associated with oxidative stress and Ashwagandha i-Extract, and withanone may serve as potential preventive and therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative disorders and hence warrant further molecular analyses. PMID:22096544
Salehi, Mahmoud; Aghamaali, Mahmoud Reza; Sajedi, Reza H; Asghari, S Mohsen; Jorjani, Eisa
Withania coagulans fruit has traditionally been used as milk coagulant. The present study reports the purification and characterization of an aspartic protease from W. coagulans fruit. The enzyme was purified via fractional ammonium sulfate precipitation and cation exchange chromatography. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed the presence of a monomeric protein with molecular weight of 31kDa. Proteolytic activity (PA) of the protease was evaluated using casein, and the milk-clotting activity (MCA) was analyzed by skim milk. The K m and V max values of the enzyme for casein were obtained to be 1.29mg/ml and 0.035μmol Tyr/min, respectively. Optimal temperature and pH were 65°C and 5.5, respectively. After incubation of enzyme at 65°C for 1h, 73% of PA was remained which demonstrated high thermal stability of the enzyme. Mass spectrometry analysis of the purified protease and enzyme assays in the presence of protease inhibitors indicated that aspartic protease was the only responsible enzyme in milk coagulation. Furthermore, by investigating the effect of salts on enzyme activity, it was observed that both NaCl and CaCl 2 reduced enzyme activity. These characteristics of the protease suggest that the enzyme may be suitable for producing low salt content cheeses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kushwaha, Amit K; Sangwan, Neelam S; Tripathi, Sandhya; Sangwan, Rajender S
Tropinone reductases (TRs) are small proteins belonging to the SDR (short chain dehydrogenase/reductase) family of enzymes. TR-I and TR-II catalyze the conversion of tropinone into tropane alcohols (tropine and pseudotropine, respectively). The steps are intermediary enroute to biosynthesis of tropane esters of medicinal importance, hyoscyamine/scopolamine, and calystegins, respectively. Biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids has been proposed to occur in roots. However, in the present report, a tropine forming tropinone reductase (TR-I) cDNA was isolated from the aerial tissue (leaf) of a medicinal plant, Withania coagulans. The ORF was deduced to encode a polypeptide of 29.34 kDa. The complete cDNA (WcTRI) was expressed in E. coli and the recombinant His-tagged protein was purified for functional characterization. The enzyme had a narrow pH range of substantial activity with maxima at 6.6. Relatively superior thermostability of the enzyme (30% retention of activity at 60 °C) was catalytic novelty in consonance with the desert area restricted habitat of the plant. The in vitro reaction kinetics predominantly favoured the forward reaction. The enzyme had wide substrate specificity but did not cover the substrates of other well-known plant SDR related to menthol metabolism. To our knowledge, this pertains to be the first report on any gene and enzyme of secondary metabolism from the commercially and medicinally important vegetable rennet species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Upadhyay, B. N.; Gupta, Vandana
The study was conducted with an objective of evaluating the role of Rishyagandha (Withania coagulans) powder in clinically diagnosed cases of Prameha. 53 Registered cases were divided into 3 groups; Group A (Rishyagandha fruits powder), Group B (Oral Hypoglycaemic Agent i.e. OHA), and Group C (Rishyagandha fruits powder and OHA both). Statistically significant improvement was observed in objective and subjective parameters in all 3 groups after completion of the course of treatment. Based on the results, it has been concluded that, Rishyagandha fruits powder is an effective therapeutic regimen in the management of uncomplicated cases of Prameha. PMID:22661845
Choi, Bu Young; Kim, Bong-Woo
Background: Withania somnifera (known as Ashwagandha) is a medicinal plant used in the ayurvedic medicines in India. Withaferin-A, a withanolide derived from the leaf extract of W. somnifera, has been reported to exhibit anti-tumor activity against various cancer cells, such as leukemia, breast cancer and colon cancer cells. Methods: We investigated the anti-cancer effects of withaferin-A on the proliferation and migration of human colorectal cancer (HCT116) cells. And we evaluated the effects of withaferin-A on the transcriptional activity of STAT3 and the growth of HCT116 cells in xenograft mouse tumor model. Results: In the present study, we found that withaferin-A inhibited the proliferation and migration of HCT116 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of HCT116 cells with withaferin-A attenuated interleukin-6-induced activation of STAT3, which has been implicated in the development and progression of colon cancer. To examine the effect of withaferin-A on HCT116 cells proliferation in vivo, we generated HCT116 cells xenograft tumors in Balb/c nude mice and treated the tumor bearing mice with or without withaferin-A intraperitoneally. Treatment with withaferin-A exhibited significant decrease in the volume and weight of tumors as compared to untreated controls. Conclusions: The present study suggests that withaferin-A holds the potential to be developed as a small molecule inhibitor of STAT3 for the treatment of HCT116. PMID:26473157
Choi, Bu Young; Kim, Bong-Woo
Withania somnifera (known as Ashwagandha) is a medicinal plant used in the ayurvedic medicines in India. Withaferin-A, a withanolide derived from the leaf extract of W. somnifera, has been reported to exhibit anti-tumor activity against various cancer cells, such as leukemia, breast cancer and colon cancer cells. We investigated the anti-cancer effects of withaferin-A on the proliferation and migration of human colorectal cancer (HCT116) cells. And we evaluated the effects of withaferin-A on the transcriptional activity of STAT3 and the growth of HCT116 cells in xenograft mouse tumor model. In the present study, we found that withaferin-A inhibited the proliferation and migration of HCT116 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of HCT116 cells with withaferin-A attenuated interleukin-6-induced activation of STAT3, which has been implicated in the development and progression of colon cancer. To examine the effect of withaferin-A on HCT116 cells proliferation in vivo, we generated HCT116 cells xenograft tumors in Balb/c nude mice and treated the tumor bearing mice with or without withaferin-A intraperitoneally. Treatment with withaferin-A exhibited significant decrease in the volume and weight of tumors as compared to untreated controls. The present study suggests that withaferin-A holds the potential to be developed as a small molecule inhibitor of STAT3 for the treatment of HCT116.
Dhirawani, Rajesh B; Marya, Jayant; Dhirawani, Vrinda; Kumar, Vijayendra
Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the diffusion ability of ions through dentinal tubules of different nonalcoholic calcium hydroxide-containing herbal pastes and compare it with the calcium hydroxide paste prepared with saline. Materials and methods A total of 36 single-rooted premolar teeth were used in this study. The tooth crowns were removed and the root canals were prepared. Depending on the vehicle to be used for preparing calcium hydroxide pastes, six groups were made: Group I: Ca(OH)2 saline paste (control group), group II: Ca(OH)2 papaya latex paste, group III: Ca(OH)2 coconut water paste, group IV: Ca(OH)2 Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) paste, group V: Ca(OH)2 Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) paste, and group VI: Ca(OH)2 garlic (Allium sativum) paste. After biomechanical preparation, calcium hydroxide herbal paste dressings were applied and sealed with resin-based cement. The teeth were placed in containers with deionized water, and the pH of the water was measured at regular intervals over 3, 24, 72, and 168 hours. Results We observed that all herbal pastes allowed the diffusion of ions, but pastes prepared with Ashwagandha and papaya latex showed more ion diffusion after 168 hours and marked increase in pH, depicting better support for calcium hydroxide action. Conclusion We conclude that Ashwagandha and papaya latex allow better diffusion of calcium hydroxide through den-tinal tubules, thus enhancing its action, and advise its use as a vehicle for placing intracanal medicament. How to cite this article Dausage P, Dhirawani RB, Marya J, Dhirawani V, Kumar V. A Comparative Study of Ion Diffusion from Calcium Hydroxide with Various Herbal Pastes through Dentin. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):41-44. PMID:28377654
Sarbishegi, Maryam; Khajavi, Ozra; Arab, Mohammad Reza
Background Phytotherapy is a popular treatment option in cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), with many different herbal products being used for the treatment of this condition. Withania coagulans (WC) is an herbal medicine that has shown anti-tumoral, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. Objectives This study examined the effect of Withania coagulans extract (WCE) on prostatic cell apoptosis and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in rats. Methods Forty Wistar rats were equally divided into five groups: control, sham, BPH, BPH + WCE, and BPH + CLX (celecoxib) as a positive control group. The induction of BPH was achieved via the subcutaneous injection of 3 mg/kg of testosterone propionate (TP) daily for 28 days. The animals received WCE, celecoxib, or distilled water by oral gavage accompanied by the TP injection. After four weeks, the prostate glands of the rats were weighed to measure the prostatic index (PI). The ventral lobes of the prostates were dissected and processed with paraffin blocks in order to study the number of mast cells. A TUNEL analysis was performed to evaluate the cell apoptosis, while the expression of COX-2 was examined using immunohistochemistry. Results BPH was obvious in the ventral lobe of the prostate, and the administration of WCE markedly decreased the PI and the number of mast cells (P < 0.001) in the BPH rats. Additionally, the WCE treatment induced prostatic cell apoptosis when compared to the BPH group. Furthermore, following the WCE treatment, the expression of COX-2 in the prostatic tissues was significantly decreased when compared to the BPH groups. Conclusions According to the results of this study, WCE was effective in the treatment of BPH in rats. It may therefore have beneficial effects in the treatment of patients with BPH. PMID:27878112
Ganguly, Bhaskar; Umapathi, Vijaypillai; Rastogi, Sunil Kumar
Infectious Bursal Disease is a severe viral disease of chicken responsible for serious economic losses to poultry farmers. The causative agent, Infectious Bursal Disease virus, is inhibited by nitric oxide. Root extract of the Indian ginseng, Withania somnifera , inhibits Infectious Bursal Disease virus in vitro. Also, Withania somnifera root extract is known to induce nitric oxide production in vitro. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine if the inhibitory activity of Withania somnifera against Infectious Bursal Disease virus was based on the production of nitric oxide. We show that besides other mechanisms, the inhibition of Infectious Bursal Disease virus by Withania somnifera involves the production of nitric oxide. Our results also highlight the paradoxical role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of Infectious Bursal Disease.
Ajit, Deepa; Simonyi, Agnes; Li, Runting; Chen, Zihong; Hannink, Mark; Fritsche, Kevin L.; Mossine, Valeri V.; Smith, Robert E.; Dobbs, Thomas K.; Luo, Rensheng; Folk, William R.; Gu, Zezong; Lubahn, Dennis B.; Weisman, Gary A.; Sun, Grace Y.
The increase in oxidative stress and inflammatory responses associated with neurodegenerative diseases has drawn considerable attention towards understanding the transcriptional signaling pathways involving NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) and Nrf2 (Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-like 2). Our recent studies with immortalized murine microglial cells (BV-2) demonstrated effects of botanical polyphenols to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and enhance Nrf2-mediated antioxidant responses (Sun et al., 2015). In this study, an immortalized rat astrocyte (DI TNC1) cell line expressing a luciferase reporter driven by the NF-κB or the Nrf2/Antioxidant Response Element (ARE) promoter was used to assess regulation of these two pathways by phytochemiscals such as quercetin, rutin, cyanidin, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, as well as botanical extracts from Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), Sutherlandia frutescens (Sutherlandia) and Euterpe oleracea (Açaí). Quercetin effectively inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB reporter activity and stimulated Nrf2/ARE reporter activity in DI TNC1 astrocytes. Cyanidin and the glycosides showed similar effects but only at much higher concentrations. All three botanical extracts effectively inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB reporter activity. These extracts were capable of enhancing ARE activity by themselves and further enhanced ARE activity in the presence of LPS. Quercetin and botanical extracts induced Nrf2 and HO-1 protein expression. Interestingly, Ashwagandha extract was more active in inducing Nrf2 and HO-1 expression in DI TNC1 astrocytes as compared to Sutherlandia and Açaí extracts. In summary, this study demonstrated NF-kB and Nrf2/ARE promotor activities in DI TNC1 astrocytes, and further showed differences in ability for specific botanical polyphenols and extracts to down-regulate LPS-induced NF-kB and up-regulate the NRF2/ARE activities in these cells. PMID:27166148
Farooqui, Akhlaq A; Farooqui, Tahira; Madan, Anil; Ong, Jolin Hwee-Jing; Ong, Wei-Yi
Ayurvedic medicine is a personalized system of traditional medicine native to India and the Indian subcontinent. It is based on a holistic view of treatment which promotes and supports equilibrium in different aspects of human life: the body, mind, and soul. Popular Ayurvedic medicinal plants and formulations that are used to slow down brain aging and enhance memory include Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) , Turmeric (Curcuma longa) , Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) , Shankhpushpi ( Convolvulus pluricaulis, Evolvulus alsinoides , and other species), gotu kola (Centella asiatica) , and guggulu ( Commiphora mukul and related species) and a formulation known as Brāhmī Gh ṛ ita, containing Brahmi, Vacā (Acorus calamus) , Ku ṣṭ ha (Saussurea lappa) , Shankhpushpi, and Purāṇa Gh ṛ ita (old clarified butter/old ghee). The rationale for the utilization of Ayurvedic medicinal plants has depended mostly on traditional usage, with little scientific data on signal transduction processes, efficacy, and safety. However, in recent years, pharmacological and toxicological studies have begun to be published and receive attention from scientists for verification of their claimed pharmacological and therapeutic effects. The purpose of this review is to outline the molecular mechanisms, signal transduction processes, and sites of action of some Ayurvedic medicinal plants. It is hoped that this description can be further explored with modern scientific methods, to reveal new therapeutic leads and jump-start more studies on the use of Ayurvedic medicine for prevention and treatment of dementia.
Yu, Yue; Katiyar, Shashank P; Sundar, Durai; Kaul, Zeenia; Miyako, Eijiro; Zhang, Zhenya; Kaul, Sunil C; Reddel, Roger R; Wadhwa, Renu
Maintenance of telomere length is the most consistent attribute of cancer cells. Tightly connected to their capacity to overcome replicative mortality, it is achieved either by activation of telomerase or an Alternative mechanism of Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT). Disruption of either of these mechanisms has been shown to induce DNA damage signalling leading to senescence or apoptosis. Telomerase inhibitors are considered as potential anticancer drugs but are ineffective for ALT cancers (~15% of all cancers). Withaferin-A (Wi-A), a major constituent of the medicinal plant, Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), has been shown to exert anti-tumour activity. However, its effect on either telomerase or ALT mechanisms has not been investigated. Here, by using isogenic cancer cells with/without telomerase, we found that Wi-A caused stronger cytotoxicity to ALT cells. It was associated with inhibition of ALT-associated promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies, an established marker of ALT. Comparative analyses of telomerase positive and ALT cells revealed that Wi-A caused stronger telomere dysfunction and upregulation of DNA damage response in ALT cells. Molecular computational and experimental analyses revealed that Wi-A led to Myc-Mad mediated transcriptional suppression of NBS-1, an MRN complex protein that is an essential component of the ALT mechanism. The results suggest that Wi-A could be a new candidate drug for ALT cancers.
Das, Tania; Roy, Kumar Singha; Chakrabarti, Tulika; Mukhopadhyay, Sibabrata; Roychoudhury, Susanta
Withania somnifera L. Dunal (Ashwagandha) is used over centuries in the ayurvedic medicines in India. Withaferin A, a withanolide, is the major compound present in leaf extract of the plant which shows anticancer activity against leukemia, breast cancer and colorectal cancer. It arrests the ovarian cancer cells in the G2/M phase in dose dependent manner. In the current study we show the effect of Withaferin A on cell cycle regulation of colorectal cancer cell lines HCT116 and SW480 and its effect on cell fate. Treatment of these cells with this compound leads to apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. It causes the G2/M arrest in both the cell lines. We show that Withaferin A (WA) causes mitotic delay by blocking Spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) function. Apoptosis induced by Withaferin A is associated with proteasomal degradation of Mad2 and Cdc20, an important constituent of the Spindle Checkpoint Complex. Further overexpression of Mad2 partially rescues the deleterious effect of WA by restoring proper anaphase initiation and keeping more number of cells viable. We hypothesize that Withaferin A kills cancer cells by delaying the mitotic exit followed by inducing chromosome instability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yu, Yue; Katiyar, Shashank P; Sundar, Durai; Kaul, Zeenia; Miyako, Eijiro; Zhang, Zhenya; Kaul, Sunil C; Reddel, Roger R; Wadhwa, Renu
Maintenance of telomere length is the most consistent attribute of cancer cells. Tightly connected to their capacity to overcome replicative mortality, it is achieved either by activation of telomerase or an Alternative mechanism of Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT). Disruption of either of these mechanisms has been shown to induce DNA damage signalling leading to senescence or apoptosis. Telomerase inhibitors are considered as potential anticancer drugs but are ineffective for ALT cancers (~15% of all cancers). Withaferin-A (Wi-A), a major constituent of the medicinal plant, Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), has been shown to exert anti-tumour activity. However, its effect on either telomerase or ALT mechanisms has not been investigated. Here, by using isogenic cancer cells with/without telomerase, we found that Wi-A caused stronger cytotoxicity to ALT cells. It was associated with inhibition of ALT-associated promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies, an established marker of ALT. Comparative analyses of telomerase positive and ALT cells revealed that Wi-A caused stronger telomere dysfunction and upregulation of DNA damage response in ALT cells. Molecular computational and experimental analyses revealed that Wi-A led to Myc-Mad mediated transcriptional suppression of NBS-1, an MRN complex protein that is an essential component of the ALT mechanism. The results suggest that Wi-A could be a new candidate drug for ALT cancers. PMID:28425984
McKenna, MK; Gachuki, BW; Alhakeem, SS; Oben, KN; Rangnekar, VM; Gupta, RC; Bondada, S
Withaferin A (WA), a withanolide from the plant, Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) used in Ayurvedic medicine, has been found to be valuable in the treatment of several medical ailments. WA has been found to have anticancer activity against various solid tumors, but its effects on hematological malignancies have not been studied in detail. WA strongly inhibited the survival of several human and murine B cell lymphoma cell lines. Additionally, in vivo studies with syngeneic-graft lymphoma cells suggest that WA inhibits the growth of tumor but does not affect other proliferative tissues. We demonstrate that WA inhibits the efficiency of NF-κB nuclear translocation in diffuse large B cell lymphomas and found that WA treatment resulted in a significant decrease in protein levels involved in B cell receptor signaling and cell cycle regulation. WA inhibited the activity of heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 as reflected by a sharp increase in Hsp70 expression levels. Hence, we propose that the anti-cancer effects of WA in lymphomas are likely due to its ability to inhibit Hsp90 function and subsequent reduction of critical kinases and cell cycle regulators that are clients of Hsp90. PMID:26020511
McKenna, M K; Gachuki, B W; Alhakeem, S S; Oben, K N; Rangnekar, V M; Gupta, R C; Bondada, S
Withaferin A (WA), a withanolide from the plant, Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) used in Ayurvedic medicine, has been found to be valuable in the treatment of several medical ailments. WA has been found to have anticancer activity against various solid tumors, but its effects on hematological malignancies have not been studied in detail. WA strongly inhibited the survival of several human and murine B cell lymphoma cell lines. Additionally, in vivo studies with syngeneic-graft lymphoma cells suggest that WA inhibits the growth of tumor but does not affect other proliferative tissues. We demonstrate that WA inhibits the efficiency of NF-κB nuclear translocation in diffuse large B cell lymphomas and found that WA treatment resulted in a significant decrease in protein levels involved in B cell receptor signaling and cell cycle regulation. WA inhibited the activity of heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 as reflected by a sharp increase in Hsp70 expression levels. Hence, we propose that the anti-cancer effects of WA in lymphomas are likely due to its ability to inhibit Hsp90 function and subsequent reduction of critical kinases and cell cycle regulators that are clients of Hsp90.
Farooqui, Akhlaq A.; Farooqui, Tahira; Madan, Anil; Ong, Jolin Hwee-Jing
Ayurvedic medicine is a personalized system of traditional medicine native to India and the Indian subcontinent. It is based on a holistic view of treatment which promotes and supports equilibrium in different aspects of human life: the body, mind, and soul. Popular Ayurvedic medicinal plants and formulations that are used to slow down brain aging and enhance memory include Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), Shankhpushpi (Convolvulus pluricaulis, Evolvulus alsinoides, and other species), gotu kola (Centella asiatica), and guggulu (Commiphora mukul and related species) and a formulation known as Brāhmī Ghṛita, containing Brahmi, Vacā (Acorus calamus), Kuṣṭha (Saussurea lappa), Shankhpushpi, and Purāṇa Ghṛita (old clarified butter/old ghee). The rationale for the utilization of Ayurvedic medicinal plants has depended mostly on traditional usage, with little scientific data on signal transduction processes, efficacy, and safety. However, in recent years, pharmacological and toxicological studies have begun to be published and receive attention from scientists for verification of their claimed pharmacological and therapeutic effects. The purpose of this review is to outline the molecular mechanisms, signal transduction processes, and sites of action of some Ayurvedic medicinal plants. It is hoped that this description can be further explored with modern scientific methods, to reveal new therapeutic leads and jump-start more studies on the use of Ayurvedic medicine for prevention and treatment of dementia. PMID:29861767
Shah, JS; Goyal, RK
Objective: To investigate the neuropsychopharmacological effect of a polyherbal formulation (PHF) on the learning and memory processes in rats. Materials and Methods: PHF contains Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), Nardostachys jatamansi (Jatamansi), Rauwolfia serpentina (Sarpagandha), Evolvulus alsinoides (Shankhpushpi), Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari), Emblica officinalis (Amalki), Mucuna pruriens (Kauch bij extract), Hyoscyamus niger (Khurasani Ajmo), Mineral resin (Shilajit), Pearl (Mukta Shukhti Pishti), and coral calcium (Praval pishti). Its effect (500 mg / kg, p.o.) on the learning and memory processes was tested. The activity of PHF on memory acquisition and retention was studied using passive avoidance learning and elevated plus maze model (EPM) in rats. Results: The animals treated with PHF showed a significant decrease in transfer latency as compared to the control group in EPM. PHF also produced significant improvement in passive avoidance acquisition and memory retrieval, as compared to the controls and reduced the latency to reach the shock free zone (SFZ) after 24 hours. Conclusion: The PHF produces significant improvement in passive avoidance acquisition and memory retrieval in rats, which needs further investigation. PMID:21731356
Shah, Js; Goyal, Rk
To investigate the neuropsychopharmacological effect of a polyherbal formulation (PHF) on the learning and memory processes in rats. PHF contains Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), Nardostachys jatamansi (Jatamansi), Rauwolfia serpentina (Sarpagandha), Evolvulus alsinoides (Shankhpushpi), Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari), Emblica officinalis (Amalki), Mucuna pruriens (Kauch bij extract), Hyoscyamus niger (Khurasani Ajmo), Mineral resin (Shilajit), Pearl (Mukta Shukhti Pishti), and coral calcium (Praval pishti). Its effect (500 mg / kg, p.o.) on the learning and memory processes was tested. The activity of PHF on memory acquisition and retention was studied using passive avoidance learning and elevated plus maze model (EPM) in rats. The animals treated with PHF showed a significant decrease in transfer latency as compared to the control group in EPM. PHF also produced significant improvement in passive avoidance acquisition and memory retrieval, as compared to the controls and reduced the latency to reach the shock free zone (SFZ) after 24 hours. The PHF produces significant improvement in passive avoidance acquisition and memory retrieval in rats, which needs further investigation.
This paper provides a 10-year update of the 2007 systematic review of herbal medicines studied in a broad range of psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, seasonal affective, bipolar, psychotic, phobic, somatoform, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders. Ovid Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library were searched for herbal medicines with both pharmacological and clinical evidence of psychotropic activity. This updated review now covers clinical trial evidence for 24 herbal medicines in 11 psychiatric disorders. High-quality evidence was found to exist for the use of Piper methysticum (Kava), Passiflora spp. (passionflower) and Galphimia glauca (galphimia) for anxiety disorders; and Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) and Crocus sativus (saffron) for major depressive disorder. Other encouraging herbal medicines with preliminary evidence include Curcuma longa (turmeric) in depression, Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) in affective disorders, and Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo) as an adjunctive treatment in Schizophrenia. Although depression and anxiety are commonly researched, many other mental disorders still require further prospective investigation. Although the previous review suggested increasing the adjunctive study of select herbal medicines with pharmaceuticals, this was still only found to sparingly occur in research designs. Aside from this, future focus should involve the incorporation of more biomarker analysis, in particular pharmacogenomics, to determine genetic factors moderating response to herbal medicines. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Narayan, Malathi; Seeley, Kent W; Jinwal, Umesh K
Withaferin A (WA) is a major bioactive compound isolated from the medicinal plant Withania somnifera Dunal, also known as "Ashwagandha". A number of published reports suggest various uses for WA including its function as an anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic drug molecule. The effects of WA at the molecular level in a cellular environment are not well understood. Knowledge of the molecular mechanism of action of WA could enhance its therapeutic value and may reveal novel pathways it may modulate. In order to identify and characterize proteins affected by treatment with WA, we used SILAC- based proteomics analysis on a mouse microglial cell line (N9), which replicates phenotypic characteristics of primary microglial cells. Using stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and mass spectrometry (MS), a total of 2300 unique protein groups were identified from three biological replicates, with significant expression changes in 32 non-redundant proteins. The top biological functions associated with these differentially expressed proteins include cell death and survival, free radical scavenging, and carbohydrate metabolism. Specifically, several heat shock proteins (Hsps) were found to be upregulated, which suggests that the chaperonic machinery might be regulated by WA. Furthermore, our study revealed several novel protein molecules that were not previously reported to be affected by WA. Among them, annexin A1, a key anti-inflammatory molecule in microglial cells was found to be downregulated. Hsc70, Hsp90α and Hsp105 were found to be upregulated. We also found sequestosome1/p62 (p62) to be upregulated. We performed Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) and found a number of pathways that were affected by WA treatment. SILAC-based proteomics analysis of a microglial cell model revealed several novel proteins whose expression is regulated by WA and probable pathways regulated by WA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Manjunath, Kavyashree; Uthayakumar, M.; Kanaujia, Shankar P.; Kaul, Sunil C.; Sekar, Kanagaraj; Wadhwa, Renu
Background and Purpose Withanolides are naturally occurring chemical compounds. They are secondary metabolites produced via oxidation of steroids and structurally consist of a steroid-backbone bound to a lactone or its derivatives. They are known to protect plants against herbivores and have medicinal value including anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, adaptogenic and anti-oxidant effects. Withaferin A (Wi-A) and Withanone (Wi-N) are two structurally similar withanolides isolated from Withania somnifera, also known as Ashwagandha in Indian Ayurvedic medicine. Ashwagandha alcoholic leaf extract (i-Extract), rich in Wi-N, was shown to kill cancer cells selectively. Furthermore, the two closely related purified phytochemicals, Wi-A and Wi-N, showed differential activity in normal and cancer human cells in vitro and in vivo. We had earlier identified several genes involved in cytotoxicity of i-Extract in human cancer cells by loss-of-function assays using either siRNA or randomized ribozyme library. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we have employed bioinformatics tools on four genes, i.e., mortalin, p53, p21 and Nrf2, identified by loss-of-function screenings. We examined the docking efficacy of Wi-N and Wi-A to each of the four targets and found that the two closely related phytochemicals have differential binding properties to the selected cellular targets that can potentially instigate differential molecular effects. We validated these findings by undertaking parallel experiments on specific gene responses to either Wi-N or Wi-A in human normal and cancer cells. We demonstrate that Wi-A that binds strongly to the selected targets acts as a strong cytotoxic agent both for normal and cancer cells. Wi-N, on the other hand, has a weak binding to the targets; it showed milder cytotoxicity towards cancer cells and was safe for normal cells. The present molecular docking analyses and experimental evidence revealed important insights to the use of Wi-A and
Prashanth, D; Padmaja, R; Samiulla, D S
Ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum, Mangifera indica, Boerhaavia diffusa, Embelia ribes, Phyllanthus maderaspatensis, and Withania somnifera, were tested for their effect on alpha-amylase activity (in vitro). P. granatum and M. indica were found to exhibit interesting alpha-amylase inhibitory activity.
Al-Fatimi, M; Friedrich, U; Jenett-Siems, K
Twenty-five extracts obtained from 14 plant species used in the traditional medicine in Yemen have been screened for cytotoxic activity against human ECV-304 cells. Extracts of Dracaena cinnabari, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Euclea divinorum, Euphorbia cactus, Pulicaria crispa, and Withania somnifera displayed a remarkable activity.
Tavhare, Swagata Dilip; Nishteswar, Karra; Shukla, Vinay J
Suśruta, Caraka and other ācāryas advocate the collection of medicinal plants keeping in view the part used, season, soil in which the herb grows and the desired pharmacological actions or therapeutic benefits. The logic behind such recommendations is being validated by modern scientific research. To assess the effect of seasonal variations on the phytoconstituents of Aśvagandhā (Withania somnifera L. Dunal) w.s.r. to lunar cycles. The plant specimens were collected from Jamnagar identified pharmacognostically and cultivated under a defined habitat in a herbal garden of IPGT and RA on 7 Oct 2013. The root samples were collected on every paurṇimā (full moon) and amāvāsyā (new moon) days in śiśira and grīṣṃa ṛtu (as per classics) of the year 2013-14. The physicochemical parameters such as pH, ash values, extractive value, total alkaloid content, total flavonoids content (UV spectrometer with AlCl3 reagent), total phenolic content (Singleton and Rossi method), total carbohydrate content (UV spectroscopy with glucose as standard), UV-VIS-NIR and HPTLC were determined. The results of the analytical studies clearly validate the logic of the recommendations of Suśruta and Cakrapāṇi. According to these recommendations, uṣṇa vīrya drugs must be collected during āgneya ṛtu i.e. grīṣṃa ṛtu. In present study, total phenolic, flavonide and carbohydrate content were found more in pournima samples. GAP samples showed maximum differentiation from rest of the samples with regards to TCA, TCW, TFW, MEx, WEX, pH etc. parameters. The Grīṣṃa Jyeṣṭha Paurṇimā (GJP) and Āṣāḍha Paurṇimā (GAP) samples were found to be superior than amāvāsyā samples w.r.t. functional groups and withanoloid content respectively on HPTLC. The observations of experimental studies validate the concept of seasonal as well as lunar collection of herb Ashwagandha to yield a drug of superior quality of active principles.
Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Li, Nan; Bauer, David; Mendonca, Patricia; Taka, Equar; Darb, Mohammed; Thomas, Leeshawn; Williams, Henry; Soliman, Karam F A
, MCP-1, IL-6, GCSF, RANTES and NO2-. Data validation studies establish hydrocortisone and dexamethasone as suppressing multiple pro-inflammatory processes, where L-NIL suppressed NO2-, but had no effect on iNOS expression or IL-6. The screening results demonstrate relative few valid hits with anti-inflammatory effects at < 250μg/ml for the following: Bay Leaf (Laurus nobilis), Elecampagne Root (Inula helenium), Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare),Yerba (Eriodictyon californicum) and Centipeda (Centipeda minima), Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), Turmeric Root (Curcuma Longa), Osha Root (Ligusticum porteri), Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) and constituents: cardamonin, apigenin, quercetin, biochanin A, eupatorin, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and butein. Natural products lethal against [E. coli 0157:H7] where the LC 50 < 100 μg/ml included bioactive silver hydrosol-Argentyn 23, green tea (its constituents EGCG > Polyphenon 60 > (-)-Gallocatechin > Epicatechin > (+)-Catechin), Grapeseed Extract (Vitis vinifera), Chinese Gallnut (its constituents gallic acid > caffeic acid) and gallic acid containing plants such as Babul Chall Bark (Acacia Arabica), Arjun (Terminalia Arjuna) and Bayberry Root Bark (Morella Cerifera). These findings emphasize and validate the previous work of others and identify the most effective CAM anti-inflammatory, antibacterial compounds using these models. Future work will be required to evaluate potential combination strategies for long-term use to prevent chronic inflammation and possibly lower the risk of sepsis in immunocompromised at risk populations.
Ovarian cancer (OVCA) is a fatal malignancy of women with highest case to death ratio among gynecological cancers. OVCA differs from other malignancies that it mainly disseminates locally in the peritoneal and abdominal cavity. Thus, factors in tumor microenvironment play critical roles in tumor progression as well as prevention of OVCA metastasis. Innate immune cells are
Oh, Jung Hwa; Lee, Tae-Jin; Kim, Sang Hyun; Choi, Yung Hyun; Lee, Sang Han; Lee, Jin Man; Kim, Young-Ho; Park, Jong-Wook; Kwon, Taeg Kyu
Withaferin A, a major chemical constituent of Withania somnifera, has been reported for its tumor cell growth inhibitory activity, antitumor effects, and impairing metastasis and angiogenesis. The mechanism by which withaferin A initiates apoptosis remains poorly understood. In the present report, we investigated the effect of withaferin A on the apoptotic pathway in U937 human promonocytic cells. We show that withaferin A induces apoptosis in association with the activation of caspase-3. JNK and Akt signal pathways play crucial roles in withaferin A-induced apoptosis in U937 cells. Furthermore, we have shown that overexpression of Bcl-2 and active Akt (myr-Akt) in U937 cells inhibited the induction of apoptosis, activation of caspase-3, and PLC-gamma1 cleavage by withaferin A. Taken together, our results indicated that the JNK and Akt pathways and inhibition of NF-kappaB activity were key regulators of apoptosis in response to withaferin A in human leukemia U937 cells.
Woo, Seon Min; Min, Kyoung-jin; Kim, Shin; Park, Jong-Wook; Kim, Dong Eun; Kim, Sang Hyun; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kwon, Taeg Kyu
Withaferin A, a withanolide derived from the medicinal plant Withania somnifera, has been reported to exhibit anti-tumorigenic activity against various cancer cells. In this study, we show that withaferin A inhibits the constitutive and recombinant human growth-arrest-specific protein 6 (rhGas6)-induced phosphorylation of Axl and STAT3. In addition, withaferin A also induces the down-regulation of Axl protein expression in a lysosome-dependent manner and inhibits rhGas6-induced wound healing and cell migration. Furthermore, the overexpression of Axl attenuates withaferin A-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the data from the present study indicate that the withaferin A-mediated down-regulation of the Gas6/Axl signaling pathway mediates the inhibition of cell migration and the induction of apoptosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Aneja, Kamal Rai; Kaur, Manpreet
In the present investigation, comparison of antimicrobial activities of different spices, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, and Mentha arvensis, and medicinal herbs, such as Withania somnifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia arjuna, and Centella asiatica, was evaluated. Different extraction solvents (acetone, methanol, ethanol, and water) were used and extracts were examined against Bacillus cereus, Serratia sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium citrinum isolated from juices. Extracts from the medicinal herb and spices have significant activity. B. cereus was the most sensitive and R. mucilaginosa was the most resistant among the microorganisms tested. Ethanolic and methanolic extract of C. asiatica displayed maximum diameter of inhibition zone against bacteria and yeast and percentage mycelial inhibition against moulds. This study confirmed the potential of selected extracts of spices as effective natural food preservative in juices. PMID:26880927
Palliyaguru, Dushani L; Chartoumpekis, Dionysios V; Wakabayashi, Nobunao; Skoko, John J; Yagishita, Yoko; Singh, Shivendra V; Kensler, Thomas W
Small molecules of plant origin offer presumptively safe opportunities to prevent carcinogenesis, mutagenesis and other forms of toxicity in humans. However, the mechanisms of action of such plant-based agents remain largely unknown. In recent years the stress responsive transcription factor Nrf2 has been validated as a target for disease chemoprevention. Withania somnifera (WS) is a herb used in Ayurveda (an ancient form of medicine in South Asia). In the recent past, withanolides isolated from WS, such as Withaferin A (WA) have been demonstrated to be preventive and therapeutic against multiple diseases in experimental models. The goals of this study are to evaluate withanolides such as WA as well as Withania somnifera root extract as inducers of Nrf2 signaling, to probe the underlying signaling mechanism of WA and to determine whether prevention of acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatic toxicity in mice by WA occurs in an Nrf2-dependent manner. We observed that WA profoundly protects wild-type mice but not Nrf2-disrupted mice against APAP hepatotoxicity. WA is a potent inducer of Nrf2-dependent cytoprotective enzyme expression both in vivo and in vitro. Unexpectedly, WA induces Nrf2 signaling at least in part, in a Keap1-independent, Pten/Pi3k/Akt-dependent manner in comparison to prototypical Nrf2 inducers, sulforaphane and CDDO-Im. The identification of WA as an Nrf2 inducer that can signal through a non-canonical, Keap1-independent pathway provides an opportunity to evaluate the role of other regulatory partners of Nrf2 in the dietary and pharmacological induction of Nrf2-mediated cytoprotection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Umair, Muhammad; Altaf, Muhammad; Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood
Present paper offers considerable information on traditional uses of medicinal plants by the inhabitants of Hafizabad district, Punjab-Pakistan. This is the first quantitative ethnobotanical study from the area comprising popularity level of medicinal plant species intendedby using relative popularity level (RPL) and rank order priority (ROP) indices.Ethnobotanical data were collected by interviewing 166 local informants and 35 traditional health practioners (THPs) from different localities of Hafizabad district. Demographic features of informants; life form, part used, methods of preparation, modes of application and ethnomedicinal uses were documented. Ethnobotanical data were analyzed using quantitative tools, i.e. Relative frequency citation (RFC), use value (UV), informant consensus factor (ICF) fidelity level (FL), RPL and ROP indices. A total of 85 species belonging to 71 genera and 34 families were documented along with ethnomedicinal uses. Solanum surattense, Withania somnifera, Cyperus rotundus, Solanum nigrum and Melia azedarach were the most utilized medicinal plant species with highest used value. The reported ailments were classified into 11 disease categories based on ICF values and highest number of plant species was reported to treat dermatological and gastrointestinal disorders. Withania somnifera and Ranunculus sceleratus with maximum FL (100%), were used against gastrointestinal and urinary disorders, respectively. The RPL and ROP values were calculated to recognize the folk medicinal plant wealth; six out of 32 plant species (19%) were found popular, based on citation by more than half of the maximum number of informant viz. 26. Consequently, the ROP value for these species was more than 75. The comparative assessment with reported literature revealed 15% resemblance and 6% variation to previous data;however79% uses of the reported species were recorded for the first time. The diversity of medicinal plant species and associated traditional
Devkar, Santosh T; Kandhare, Amit D; Zanwar, Anand A; Jagtap, Suresh D; Katyare, Surendra S; Bodhankar, Subhash L; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar V
Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) is common in humans and is often associated with hepatic damage. Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae) shows multiple pharmacological activities including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. To evaluate the possible mechanism of hepatoprotective activity of withanolide-rich fraction (WRF) isolated from a methanolic extract of Withania somnifera roots. Hepatotoxicity was induced by oral administration of APAP (750 mg/kg, p.o.) for 14 d. The control group received the vehicle. APAP-treated animals were given either silymarin (25 mg/kg) or graded doses of WRF (50, 100 and 200mg/kg) 2 h prior to APAP administration. Animals were killed on 15th day and blood and liver tissue samples were collected for the further analysis. In WRF-treated group, there was significant and dose-dependent (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001) decrease in serum bilirubin, ALP, AST and ALT levels with significant and dose-dependent (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001) increase in hepatic SOD, GSH and total antioxidant capacity. The level of MDA and NO decreased significantly (p < 0.01) by WRF treatment. Up-regulated mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-II and iNOS was significantly down-regulated (p < 0.001) by WRF. Histological alternations induced by APAP in liver were restored to near normality by WRF pretreatment. WRF may exert its hepatoprotective action by alleviating inflammatory and oxido-nitrosative stress via inhibition of TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-II and iNOS.
Umair, Muhammad; Altaf, Muhammad
Present paper offers considerable information on traditional uses of medicinal plants by the inhabitants of Hafizabad district, Punjab-Pakistan. This is the first quantitative ethnobotanical study from the area comprising popularity level of medicinal plant species intendedby using relative popularity level (RPL) and rank order priority (ROP) indices.Ethnobotanical data were collected by interviewing 166 local informants and 35 traditional health practioners (THPs) from different localities of Hafizabad district. Demographic features of informants; life form, part used, methods of preparation, modes of application and ethnomedicinal uses were documented. Ethnobotanical data were analyzed using quantitative tools, i.e. Relative frequency citation (RFC), use value (UV), informant consensus factor (ICF) fidelity level (FL), RPL and ROP indices. A total of 85 species belonging to 71 genera and 34 families were documented along with ethnomedicinal uses. Solanum surattense, Withania somnifera, Cyperus rotundus, Solanum nigrum and Melia azedarach were the most utilized medicinal plant species with highest used value. The reported ailments were classified into 11 disease categories based on ICF values and highest number of plant species was reported to treat dermatological and gastrointestinal disorders. Withania somnifera and Ranunculus sceleratus with maximum FL (100%), were used against gastrointestinal and urinary disorders, respectively. The RPL and ROP values were calculated to recognize the folk medicinal plant wealth; six out of 32 plant species (19%) were found popular, based on citation by more than half of the maximum number of informant viz. 26. Consequently, the ROP value for these species was more than 75. The comparative assessment with reported literature revealed 15% resemblance and 6% variation to previous data;however79% uses of the reported species were recorded for the first time. The diversity of medicinal plant species and associated traditional
Krishnamurthy, Y L; Shashikala, J
The inhibitory effect of cowdung fumes, Captan, leaf powder of Withania somnifera, Hyptis suaveolens, Eucalyptus citriodora, peel powder of Citrus sinensis, Citrus medica and Punica granatum, neem cake and pongamia cake and spore suspension of Trichoderma harzianum and Aspergillus niger on aflatoxin B(1) production by toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus isolated from soybean seeds was investigated. Soybean seed was treated with different natural products and fungicide captan and was inoculated with toxigenic strain of A. flavus and incubated for different periods. The results showed that all the treatments were effective in controlling aflatoxin B(1) production. Captan, neem cake, spore suspension of T. harzianum, A. niger and combination of both reduced the level of aflatoxin B(1) to a great extent. Leaf powder of W. somnifera, H. suaveolens, peel powder of C. sinensis, C. medica and pongamia cake also controlled the aflatoxin B(1) production. All the natural product treatments applied were significantly effective in inhibiting aflatoxin B(1) production on soybean seeds by A. flavus. These natural plant products may successfully replace chemical fungicides and provide an alternative method to protect soybean and other agricultural commodities from aflatoxin B(1) production by A. flavus.
Chaudhuri, Kuntal; Das, Sudripta; Bandyopadhyay, Moumita; Zalar, Andreja; Kollmann, Albert; Jha, Sumita; Tepfer, David
Plant secondary metabolites, including pharmaceuticals, flavorings and aromas, are often produced in response to stress. We used chemical inducers of the pathogen defense response (jasmonic acid, salicylate, killed fungi, oligosaccharides and the fungal elicitor protein, cryptogein) to increase metabolite and biomass production in transformed root cultures of the medicinal plant, Withania somnifera, and the weed, Convolvulus sepium. In an effort to genetically mimic the observed effects of cryptogein, we employed Agrobacterium rhizogenes to insert a synthetic gene encoding cryptogein into the roots of C. sepium, W. somnifera and Tylophora tanakae. This genetic transformation was associated with stimulation in both secondary metabolite production and growth in the first two species, and in growth in the third. In whole plants of Convolvulus arvensis and Arabidopsis thaliana, transformation with the cryptogein gene led, respectively, to increases in the calystegines and certain flavonoids. A similar transgenic mimicry of pathogen attack was previously employed to stimulate resistance to the pathogen and abiotic stress. In the present study of biochemical phenotype, we show that transgenic mimicry is correlated with increased secondary metabolite production in transformed root cultures and whole plants. We propose that natural transformation with genes encoding the production of microbial elicitors could influence interactions between plants and other organisms.
Chirumamilla, Chandra Sekhar; Pérez-Novo, Claudina; Van Ostade, Xaveer; Vanden Berghe, Wim
Despite the worldwide research efforts to combat cancer, it remains a leading cause of death. Although various specific kinase inhibitors already have been approved for clinical cancer treatment, occurrence of intrinsic or acquired resistance and intermittent response over longer periods limits long-term success of single kinase-targeted therapies. In this respect, there is a renewed interest in polypharmaceutical natural compounds, which simultaneously target various hyperactivated kinases involved in tumour-inflammation, angiogenesis, cell survival, proliferation, metastasis and angiogenesis. The dietary medicinal phytochemical withaferin A (WA), isolated from Withaferin somnifera (popular Indian name Ashwagandha), holds promise as a novel anti-cancer agent, which targets multiple cell survival kinase pathways, including IκB kinase/NF-κB, PI3 kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase amongst others. In this review, we propose a novel mechanism of WA-dependent kinase inhibition via electrophilic covalent targeting of cysteine residues in conserved kinase activation domains (kinase cysteinome), which could underlie its pleiotropic therapeutic effects in cancer signalling.
Upadhyay, Gayaprasad; Khoshla, Sarvesh; Kosuru, Ramoji; Singh, Sanjay
Objective: The current study was designed to explore anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antistress actions of Cinnamomum tamala (CT) leaves (aqueous extract) in rats. Materials and Methods: Behavioral procedures of anxiety, depression, and stress were assessed in rats. CT (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) was given once a daily for 7 days via oral route and the efficacy was matched by those elicited by lorazepam (1 mg/kg, p.o.), imipramine (10 mg/kg, p.o.), and Withania somnifera (100 mg/kg, p.o.) for anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antistress studies, respectively. Standard drugs were given 1 time, 30 min preceding the behavioral trials. Results: One-way analysis of variance followed by Newman–Keuls multiple comparison test was employed to analyze the results. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant as compared to control. CT at 400 mg/kg produced an antianxiety effect equivalent to lorazepam, in the elevated plus maze, open field, and social interaction tests among selected doses of the CT. CT at 400 mg/kg also induced an antidepressant activity similar to imipramine, in the behavioral despair, learned helplessness test, and tail suspension among selected doses of the CT. Moreover, CT at 400 mg/kg produced a significant antistress effect comparable to W. somnifera in water immersion-restraint stress by decreasing ulcer index, adrenal gland weight, and by normalizing the plasma levels of corticosterone, glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels when related to stress control. Conclusion: The study shows that among the different CT doses, CT at 400 mg/kg possesses significant anxiolytic, antidepressant, and anti-stress effects and has therapeutic beneficial for the management of psychological ailments. PMID:27721543
Baitharu, Iswar; Jain, Vishal; Deep, Satya Narayan; Shroff, Sabita; Sahu, Jayanta Kumar; Naik, Pradeep Kumar; Ilavazhagan, Govindasamy
Withania somnifera root extract has been used traditionally in ayurvedic system of medicine as a memory enhancer. Present study explores the ameliorative effect of withanolide A, a major component of withania root extract and its molecular mechanism against hypoxia induced memory impairment. Withanolide A was administered to male Sprague Dawley rats before a period of 21 days pre-exposure and during 07 days of exposure to a simulated altitude of 25,000 ft. Glutathione level and glutathione dependent free radicals scavenging enzyme system, ATP, NADPH level, γ-glutamylcysteinyl ligase (GCLC) activity and oxidative stress markers were assessed in the hippocampus. Expression of apoptotic marker caspase 3 in hippocampus was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Transcriptional alteration and expression of GCLC and Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)–related factor 2 (Nrf2) were investigated by real time PCR and immunoblotting respectively. Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) level and impaired reduced gluatathione dependent free radical scavenging system in hippocampus resulting in elevated oxidative stress. Supplementation of withanolide A during hypoxic exposure increased GSH level, augmented GSH dependent free radicals scavenging system and decreased the number of caspase and hoescht positive cells in hippocampus. While withanolide A reversed hypoxia mediated neurodegeneration, administration of buthionine sulfoximine along with withanolide A blunted its neuroprotective effects. Exogenous administration of corticosterone suppressed Nrf2 and GCLC expression whereas inhibition of corticosterone synthesis upregulated Nrf2 as well as GCLC. Thus present study infers that withanolide A reduces neurodegeneration by restoring hypoxia induced glutathione depletion in hippocampus. Further, Withanolide A increases glutathione biosynthesis in neuronal cells by upregulating GCLC level through Nrf2 pathway in a corticosterone dependenet manner
Baitharu, Iswar; Jain, Vishal; Deep, Satya Narayan; Shroff, Sabita; Sahu, Jayanta Kumar; Naik, Pradeep Kumar; Ilavazhagan, Govindasamy
Withania somnifera root extract has been used traditionally in ayurvedic system of medicine as a memory enhancer. Present study explores the ameliorative effect of withanolide A, a major component of withania root extract and its molecular mechanism against hypoxia induced memory impairment. Withanolide A was administered to male Sprague Dawley rats before a period of 21 days pre-exposure and during 07 days of exposure to a simulated altitude of 25,000 ft. Glutathione level and glutathione dependent free radicals scavenging enzyme system, ATP, NADPH level, γ-glutamylcysteinyl ligase (GCLC) activity and oxidative stress markers were assessed in the hippocampus. Expression of apoptotic marker caspase 3 in hippocampus was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Transcriptional alteration and expression of GCLC and Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were investigated by real time PCR and immunoblotting respectively. Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) level and impaired reduced gluatathione dependent free radical scavenging system in hippocampus resulting in elevated oxidative stress. Supplementation of withanolide A during hypoxic exposure increased GSH level, augmented GSH dependent free radicals scavenging system and decreased the number of caspase and hoescht positive cells in hippocampus. While withanolide A reversed hypoxia mediated neurodegeneration, administration of buthionine sulfoximine along with withanolide A blunted its neuroprotective effects. Exogenous administration of corticosterone suppressed Nrf2 and GCLC expression whereas inhibition of corticosterone synthesis upregulated Nrf2 as well as GCLC. Thus present study infers that withanolide A reduces neurodegeneration by restoring hypoxia induced glutathione depletion in hippocampus. Further, Withanolide A increases glutathione biosynthesis in neuronal cells by upregulating GCLC level through Nrf2 pathway in a corticosterone dependenet manner.
Ashour, Osama M; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Abdallah, Hossam M; Nagy, Ayman A; Mohamadin, Ahmed M; Abdel-Sattar, Essam A
Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline antibiotic widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of several tumours. However, its cardiac toxicity limits its use at maximum therapeutic doses. Most studies implicated increased oxidative stress as the major determinant of DOX cardiotoxicity. The local Saudi flora is very rich in a variety of plants of quite known folkloric or traditional medicinal uses. Tribulus macropterus Boiss., Olea europaea L. subsp. africana (Mill.) P. S. Green, Tamarix aphylla (L.) H. Karst., Cynomorium coccineum L., Cordia myxa L., Calligonum comosum L' Hér, and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal are Saudi plants known to have antioxidant activities. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential protective effects of methanolic extracts of these seven Saudi plants against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Two plants showed promising cardioprotective potential in the order Calligonum comosum > Cordia myxa. The two plant extracts showed potent in vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. They significantly protected against DOX-induced alterations in cardiac oxidative stress markers (GSH and MDA) and cardiac serum markers (CK-MB and LDH activities). Additionally, histopathological examination indicated a protection against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. In conclusion, C. comosum and C. myxa exerted protective activity against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, which is, at least partly, due to their antioxidant effect.
Liu, Xi; Chen, Lei; Liang, Tao; Tian, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Tao
Withaferin A (WA) is a bioactive lactone, isolated from natural sources, mainly found in Withania somnifera, and was known to be highly effective against a variety of tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Accumulating experimental evidence suggests the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in WA-mediated cytotoxicity against cancer cells. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of WA in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and also the role of ROC in WA-mediated cytotoxicity. In the present study we investigated the cytotoxic potential of WA against NSCLC cell line A549 and also highlighted the mechanism of cytotoxicity of this compound. Non-carcinoma WI-38 and PBMC cell lines were used as controls. WA treatment resulted in a dose-dependent cytotoxicity in A549 cells, while the non-carcinoma cells WI-38 and PBMC were unaffected. Further experimental approaches revealed that ROS plays a major role in WAinduced apoptosis in NSCLC cells. WA induces oxidative damage to NSCLC cells with minimum toxicity to normal cells.
Kim, Green; Kim, Tae-Hyoun; Hwang, Eun-Ha; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Hong, Jung Joo; Park, Jong-Hwan
Human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) is one of the most common types of malignant tumor and the third-leading cause of tumor-associated mortality worldwide. Withaferin A (WA), a steroidal lactone derived from Withania somnifera , exhibits antitumor activity in a variety of cancer models. However, to the best of our knowledge, the direct effect of WA on AGS cells has not previously been determined. The present study investigated the effects of WA on the proliferation and metastatic activity of AGS cells. WA exerted a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect on AGS cells. The effect was associated with cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and the expression of apoptotic proteins. Additionally, WA treatment resulted in a decrease in the migration and invasion ability of the AGS cells, as demonstrated using a wound healing assay and a Boyden chamber assay. These results indicate that WA directly inhibits the proliferation and metastatic activity of gastric cancer cells, and suggest that WA may be developed as a drug for the treatment of gastric cancer.
Um, Hee Jung; Min, Kyoung-Jin; Kim, Dong Eun; Kwon, Taeg Kyu
Withaferin A, the active component of Withania somnifera, causes cytotoxicity in a variety of tumor cell lines. In this study, we show that withaferin A inhibits constitutive and IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 (on Tyr705), but not IFN-γ-induced STAT1 phosphorylation. Withaferin A-induced down-regulation of STAT3 activation is associated with a reduction in Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2) activity. Withaferin A also down-regulates the expression of STAT3 regulated genes such as Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, cyclin D1 and survivin. The apoptotic effect of withaferin A in Caki human renal cancer cells was investigated. Withaferin A induced dose-dependent apoptotic cell death in Caki cells, as measured by FACS analysis and PARP cleavage. Furthermore, overexpression of STAT3 attenuated withaferin A-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the present study provides strong evidence that down-regulation of the STAT3 signaling pathway mediates withaferin A-induced apoptosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cui, Zheng-Guo; Piao, Jin-Lan; Rehman, Mati U R; Ogawa, Ryohei; Li, Peng; Zhao, Qing-Li; Kondo, Takashi; Inadera, Hidekuni
Hyperthermia is a good therapeutic tool for non-invasive cancer therapy; however, its cytotoxic effects are not sufficient. In the present study, withaferin A (WA), a steroidal lactone derived from the plant Withania somnifera Dunal, has been investigated for its possible enhancing effects on hyperthermia-induced apoptosis. In HeLa cells, treatment with 0.5 or 1.0μM WA at 44°C for 30min induced significant apoptosis accompanied by decreased intracellular GSH/GSSG ratio and caspase-3 activation, while heat or WA alone did not induce such changes. The upregulation in apoptosis was significantly inhibited by glutathione monoethyl ester, a cell permeable glutathione precursor. Mitochondrial transmembrane potentials were dramatically decreased by the combined treatment, with increases in pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-family proteins tBid and Noxa, and downregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. Combined treatment with hyperthermia and WA induced significant increases in JNK phosphorylation (p-JNK), and decreases in the phosphorylation of ERK (p-ERK) compared with either treatment alone. These results suggest that WA enhances hyperthermia-induced apoptosis via a mitochondria-caspase-dependent pathway; its underlying mechanism involves elevated intracellular oxidative stress, mitochondria dysfunction, and JNK activation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vadloori, Bharadwaja; Sharath, A K; Prabhu, N Prakash; Maurya, Radheshyam
Present in silico study was carried out to explore the mode of inhibition of Leishmania donovani dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (Ld DHFR-TS) enzyme by Withaferin-A, a withanolide isolated from Withania somnifera. Withaferin-A (WA) is known for its profound multifaceted properties, but its antileishmanial activity is not well understood. The parasite's DHFR-TS enzyme is diverse from its mammalian host and could be a potential drug target in parasites. A 3D model of Ld DHFR-TS enzyme was built and verified using Ramachandran plot and SAVES tools. The protein was docked with WA-the ligand, methotrexate (MTX)-competitive inhibitor of DHFR, and dihydrofolic acid (DHFA)-substrate for DHFR-TS. Molecular docking studies reveal that WA competes for active sites of both Hu DHFR and TS enzymes whereas it binds to a site other than active site in Ld DHFR-TS. Moreover, Lys 173 residue of DHFR-TS forms a H-bond with WA and has higher binding affinity to Ld DHFR-TS than Hu DHFR and Hu TS. The MD simulations confirmed the H-bonding interactions were stable. The binding energies of WA with Ld DHFR-TS were calculated using MM-PBSA. Homology modelling, molecular docking and MD simulations of Ld DHFR-TS revealed that WA could be a potential anti-leishmanial drug.
Vanden Berghe, Wim; Sabbe, Linde; Kaileh, Mary; Haegeman, Guy; Heyninck, Karen
Herbal medicine which involves the use of plants for their medicinal value, dates as far back as the origin of mankind and demonstrates an array of applications including cardiovascular protection and anti-cancer activities, via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and metabolic activities. Even today the popularity of medicinal herbs is still growing like in traditional medicines such as the Indian medicine, Ayurveda. One of the Ayurvedic medicinal plants is Withania somnifera Dunal, of which the important constituents are the withanolides. Among them, Withaferin A is one of the most bioactive compounds, exerting anti-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic but also anti-invasive and anti-angiogenic effects. In the context of modern pharmacology, a better insight in the underlying mechanism of the broad range of bioactivities exerted by Withaferin A is compulsory. Therefore, a lot of effort was made to explore the intracellular effects of Withaferin A and to characterize its target proteins. This review provides a decisive insight on the molecular basis of the health-promoting potential of Withaferin A. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Heyninck, Karen; Sabbe, Linde; Chirumamilla, Chandra Sekhar; Szarc Vel Szic, Katarzyna; Vander Veken, Pieter; Lemmens, Kristien J A; Lahtela-Kakkonen, Maija; Naulaerts, Stefan; Op de Beeck, Ken; Laukens, Kris; Van Camp, Guy; Weseler, Antje R; Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R M M; Haegeman, Guy; Vanden Berghe, Wim
Withaferin A (WA), a natural phytochemical derived from the plant Withania somnifera, is a well-studied bioactive compound exerting a broad spectrum of health promoting effects. To gain better insight in the potential therapeutic capacity of WA, we evaluated the transcriptional effects of WA on primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and an endothelial cell line (EA.hy926). RNA microarray analysis of WA treated HUVEC cells demonstrated increased expression of the antioxidant gene heme oxygenase (HO-1). Transcriptional regulation of this gene is strongly dependent on the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which senses chemical changes in the cell and coordinates transcriptional responses to maintain chemical homeostasis via expression of antioxidant genes and cytoprotective Phase II detoxifying enzymes. Under normal conditions, Nrf2 is kept in the cytoplasm by Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), an adaptor protein controlling the half-life of Nrf2 via constant proteasomal degradation. In this study we demonstrate that WA time- and concentration-dependently induces HO-1 expression in endothelial cells via upregulation and increased nuclear translocation of Nrf2. According to the crucial negative regulatory role of Keap1 in Nrf2 expression levels, a direct interaction of WA with Keap1 could be demonstrated. In vitro and in silico evaluations suggest that specific cysteine residues in Keap1 might be involved in the interaction with WA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Green; Kim, Tae-Hyoun; Hwang, Eun-Ha; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Hong, Jung Joo; Park, Jong-Hwan
Human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) is one of the most common types of malignant tumor and the third-leading cause of tumor-associated mortality worldwide. Withaferin A (WA), a steroidal lactone derived from Withania somnifera, exhibits antitumor activity in a variety of cancer models. However, to the best of our knowledge, the direct effect of WA on AGS cells has not previously been determined. The present study investigated the effects of WA on the proliferation and metastatic activity of AGS cells. WA exerted a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect on AGS cells. The effect was associated with cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and the expression of apoptotic proteins. Additionally, WA treatment resulted in a decrease in the migration and invasion ability of the AGS cells, as demonstrated using a wound healing assay and a Boyden chamber assay. These results indicate that WA directly inhibits the proliferation and metastatic activity of gastric cancer cells, and suggest that WA may be developed as a drug for the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:28693185
Ku, Sae-Kwang; Bae, Jong-Sup
Withaferin A (WFA), an active compound from Withania somnifera, is widely researched for its anti-inflammatory, cardioactive and central nervous system effects. However, antiplatelet, anticoagulant, and profibrinolytic properties of WFA have not been studied. In this study, the anticoagulant activities of WFA were measured by monitoring activated partial thromboplastin-time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), fibrin polymerization, platelet aggregation, thrombus formation, and the activities of cell-based thrombin and activated factor X (FXa). The effects of WFA on the expressions of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) were also tested in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data showed that WFA inhibited thrombin-catalyzed fibrin polymerization and platelet aggregation, FeCl3-induced thrombus formation, prolonged aPTT and PT significantly and inhibited the activities and production of thrombin and FXa. WFA prolonged in vivo and ex vivo bleeding time and inhibited TNF-α induced PAI-1 production. Furthermore, PAI-1/t-PA ratio was significantly decreased by WFA. Collectively, these results indicate that WFA possesses antithrombotic activities and suggest that the current study could provide bases for the development of new anticoagulant agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Agrawal, Poonam; Vegda, Rashmi; Laddha, Kirti
A simple, rapid, precise and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for simultaneous estimation of withaferin A and Z-guggulsterone in a polyherbal formulation containing Withania somnifera and Commiphora wightii. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Purosphere RP-18 column (particle size 5 µm) with a mobile phase consisting of Solvent A (acetonitrile) and Solvent B (water) with the following gradients: 0-7 min, 50% A in B; 7-9 min, 50-80% A in B; 9-20 min, 80% A in B at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and detection at 235 nm. The marker compounds were well separated on the chromatogram within 20 min. The results obtained indicate accuracy and reliability of the developed simultaneous HPLC method for the quantification of withaferin A and Z-guggulsterone. The proposed method was found to be reproducible, specific, precise and accurate for simultaneous estimation of these marker compounds in a combined dosage form. The HPLC method was appropriate and the two markers are well resolved, enabling efficient quantitative analysis of withaferin A and Z-guggulsterone. The method can be successively used for quantitative analysis of these two marker constituents in combination of marketed polyherbal formulation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Li, Wenjuan; Zhang, Chunjing; Du, Hongyan; Huang, Vincent; Sun, Brandi; Harris, John P; Richardson, Quitin; Shen, Xinggui; Jin, Rong; Li, Guohong; Kevil, Christopher G; Gu, Xin; Shi, Runhua; Zhao, Yunfeng
Withaferin A (WA), a natural product derived from Withania somnifera, has been used in traditional oriental medicines to treat neurological disorders. Recent studies have demonstrated that this compound may have a potential for cancer treatment and a clinical trial has been launched to test WA in treating melanoma. Herein, WA's chemopreventive potential was tested in a chemically-induced skin carcinogenesis mouse model. Pathological examinations revealed that WA significantly suppressed skin tumor formation. Morphological observations of the skin tissues suggest that WA suppressed cell proliferation rather than inducing apoptosis during skin carcinogenesis. Antibody Micro array analysis demonstrated that WA blocked carcinogen-induced up-regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), which was further confirmed in a skin cell transformation model. Overexpression of ACC1 promoted whereas knockdown of ACC1 suppressed anchorage-independent growth and oncogene activation of transformable skin cells. Further studies demonstrated that WA inhibited tumor promotor-induced ACC1 gene transcription by suppressing the activation of activator protein 1. In melanoma cells, WA was also able to suppress the expression levels of ACC1. Finally, results using human skin cancer tissues confirmed the up-regulation of ACC1 in tumors than adjacent normal tissues. In summary, our results suggest that withaferin A may have a potential in chemoprevention and ACC1 may serve as a critical target of WA. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Reddy, S V G; Reddy, K Thammi; Kumari, V Valli; Basha, Syed Hussain
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is emerging as an important new therapeutic drug target for the treatment of cancer characterized by pathological immune suppression. IDO catalyzes the rate-limiting step of tryptophan degradation along the kynurenine pathway. Reduction in local tryptophan concentration and the production of immunomodulatory tryptophan metabolites contribute to the immunosuppressive effects of IDO. Presence of IDO on dentritic cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes leading to the activation of T cells toward forming immunosuppressive microenvironment for the survival of tumor cells has confirmed the importance of IDO as a promising novel anticancer immunotherapy drug target. On the other hand, Withaferin A (WA) - active constituent of Withania Somnifera ayurvedic herb has shown to be having a wide range of targeted anticancer properties. In the present study conducted here is an attempt to explore the potential of WA in attenuating IDO for immunotherapeutic tumor arresting activity and to elucidate the underlying mode of action in a computational approach. Our docking and molecular dynamic simulation results predict high binding affinity of the ligand to the receptor with up to -11.51 kcal/mol of energy and 3.63 nM of IC50 value. Further, de novo molecular dynamic simulations predicted stable ligand interactions with critically important residues SER167; ARG231; LYS377, and heme moiety involved in IDO's activity. Conclusively, our results strongly suggest WA as a valuable small ligand molecule with strong binding affinity toward IDO.
Chandrasekaran, Sambamurthy; Veronica, Jalaja; Gundampati, Ravi Kumar; Sundar, Shyam; Maurya, Radheshyam
Withaferin A is an abundant withanolide present in Withania somnifera leaves and to some extent in roots. It has been known for its profound anti-cancer properties, but its role in counteracting the Leishmania donovani infection has to be explored. Pteridine reductase 1 (PTR1) is involved in pteridine salvage and an important enzyme for the parasite growth, which could be targeted for the development of an efficient antileishmanial drug. We employed molecular docking studies to identify the binding mode of withaferin A with PTR1 in silico. We further cloned, expressed, and purified PTR1 of L. donovani and performed the enzyme kinetics using the Michaelis-Menten equation and enzyme inhibition studies with withaferin A by plotting the Lineweaver-Burk graph, which followed an uncompetitive mode of inhibition. We also showed the inhibition of the enzyme in the crude lysate of treated parasites. Thus, our study contributes towards understanding the mode of action of withaferin A against L. donovani parasite.
Choi, Min Jung; Park, Eun Jung; Min, Kyoung Jin; Park, Jong-Wook; Kwon, Taeg Kyu
The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in cellular stress that initiates a specialized response designated as the unfolded protein response. ER stress has been implicated in a variety of common diseases, such as diabetes, ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Withaferin A, a major chemical constituent of Withania somnifera, has been reported to inhibit tumor cell growth. We show that withaferin A induced a dose-dependent apoptotic cell death in several types of human cancer cells, as measured by FACS analysis and PARP cleavage. Treatment of Caki cells with withaferin A induced a number of signature ER stress markers, including phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF-2 α), ER stress-specific XBP1 splicing, and up-regulation of glucose-regulated protein (GRP)-78. In addition, withaferin A caused up-regulation of CAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP), suggesting the induction of ER stress. Pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) significantly inhibited withaferin A-mediated ER stress proteins and cell death, suggesting that reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate withaferin A-induced ER stress. Furthermore, CHOP siRNA or inhibition of caspase-4 activity attenuated withaferin A-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the present study provides strong evidence supporting an important role of the ER stress response in mediating withaferin A-induced apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ku, Sae-Kwang; Han, Min-Su; Bae, Jong-Sup
Withaferin A (WFA), an active compound from Withania somnifera, has been widely researched for its anti-inflammatory and cardioactive properties and effects on the central nervous system. The endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) plays important roles in blood coagulation and inflammation. EPCR activity is markedly changed by ectodomain cleavage and release as the soluble EPCR. EPCR is shed from the cell surface, mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE). In this study, we investigated the effects of WFA on the EPCR shedding in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in mice and the associated signaling pathways. WFA was found to induce inhibition of phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced EPCR shedding and WFA suppressed the expression and activity of TACE. In addition, treatment with WFA resulted in reduced PMA-stimulated phosphorylation of p38, extracellular regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). These results demonstrate a therapeutic potentiality of WFA as an anti-sEPCR shedding reagent against PMA and CLP-mediated EPCR shedding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Piao, Liang; Canguo, Zhao; Wenjie, Lu; Xiaoli, Cheng; Wenli, Shi; Li, Lu
Macrophages, as a major cellular component in tumor microenvironment, play an important role in tumor progression. However, their roles in modulation of cytotoxic chemotherapy are still not fully understood. Here, we investigated the influence of Lipoplysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated macrophage products (LSMP) on Withaferin A (WA), a natural compound that derived from the medicinal plant Withania somnifera, as an antitumor agent in human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and prostate cancer cells PC-3. Our results revealed that LSMP may enhance WA-induced apoptosis in both cell lines, the underlying mechanisms of which are closely associated with activation of caspase-8, -9 and -3, cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), as well as specifically inhibiting the translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and inhibitor of apoptosis protein (cIAP1/2). These findings demonstrate that macrophages in tumor microenvironment can modulate tumor responses to chemotoxic agents, providing an effective strategy that targets macrophages to enhance the antitumor efficacy of cytotoxic chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Li, Xu; Zhu, Feng; Jiang, Jianxin; Sun, Chengyi; Wang, Xin; Shen, Ming; Tian, Rui; Shi, Chengjian; Xu, Meng; Peng, Feng; Guo, Xingjun; Wang, Min; Qin, Renyi
Application of oxaliplatin for the treatment of pancreatic cancer (PC) is restricted owing to its toxic side effects and drug resistance. We investigated how withaferin A (WA), a bioactive component isolated from the medicinal plant Withania somnifera, acts synergistically with oxaliplatin on human PC in vitro and in vivo. We found that WA enhanced oxaliplatin-induced growth suppression and apoptosis in PC cells dramatically through a mechanism involving mitochondrial dysfunction and inactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Combination treatment resulted in significant accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Pretreatment of cells with the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine completely blocked the apoptosis induced by combination treatment, and recovered expression of AKT inactivation, which revealed the important role of ROS in apoptosis and AKT regulation. In vivo, combination therapy showed the strongest anti-tumor effects compared with single agents, without obvious additional toxicity. These results support the notion that combination treatment with oxaliplatin and WA could facilitate development of an effective strategy for PC treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Park, Jong Won; Min, Kyoung-Jin; Kim, Dong Eun; Kwon, Taeg Kyu
Withaferin A is a steroidal lactone purified from the Indian medicinal plant, Withania somnifera. Withaferin A has been shown to inhibit the proliferation, metastasis, invasion and angiogenesis of cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated whether withaferin A induces apoptosis in the human head and neck cancer cells, AMC-HN4. Withaferin A markedly increased the sub-G1 cell population and the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), which are markers of apoptosis. Pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk (z-VAD), markedly inhibited the withaferin A-induced apoptosis. However, the withaferin A-induced increase in the expression of COX-2 was not affected by treatment with z-VAD. Furthermore, withaferin A upregulated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. The COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398, reduced the withaferin A-induced production of prostaglandin E2. However, treatment with NS-398 did not affect the sub-G1 population and the cleavage of PARP. In addition, the withaferin A-induced apoptosis was independent of reactive oxygen species production. Thiol donors [N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and dithiothreitol (DTT)] reversed withaferin A-induced apoptosis. Therefore, our data suggest that withaferin A induces apoptosis through the mechanism of thiol oxidation in head and neck carcinoma cells.
Khan, Imran; AbdElsalam, Naser M; Fouad, Hassan; Tariq, Akash; Ullah, Riaz; Adnan, Muhammad
The present study was aimed at documenting the detailed ethnomedicinal knowledge of an unexplored area of Pakistan. Semistructured interviews were taken with 55 informants randomly chosen regarding detailed ethnomedicinal and sociocultural information. The study exposed 67 medicinal plant species used to prepare 110 recipes and the major modes of herbal formulation were decoction and powdering (20% each). The disease categories with the highest Fic values were gastrointestinal and dermatological (0.87 each). The study determined 3 plant species, i.e., Acacia modesta Wall., Caralluma tuberculata R.Br., and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal with a FL of 100%. DMR results showed that Olea ferruginea (Sol.) Steud. ranked first, Morus alba L. ranked second, and Melia azedarach L. ranked third. Among the 55 informants, the male concentration was high (61%) and most of them were over 40 years old while a leading quantity of respondents (45%) was uneducated. There is a dire need to take necessary steps for the conservation of important medicinal plants by inhibiting overgrazing and providing alternate fuel resources. Young generations should be educated regarding the importance of ethnomedicinal knowledge and plants with high Fic and FL values should be further checked chemically and pharmacologically for future exploration of modern medicine.
Zhang, Huaping; Cao, Cong-Mei; Gallagher, Robert J.; Timmermann, Barbara N.
To date, our work on Solanaceous species (Datura wrightii, Jaborosa caulescens, Physalis hispida, P. longifolia, Vassobia breviflora, and Withania somnifera) has resulted in the isolation of 65 withanolides, 31 of which were new, as well as the semi-synthesis of a further 30 withanolides. Structure identification and MTS assay-based antiproliferative evaluation of these 95 compounds revealed that a Δ2-1-oxo functionality in ring A; in conjunction with either a 5β,6β-epoxy or 5α-chloro-6β-hydroxy moiety in ring B; are the minimum structural requirements for withanolides to produce potent cytotoxic activity. Such structural-activity relationship analysis (SARA) also revealed that oxygenation (the –OH or –OR groups) at C-4, 7, 11, and 12; as well as C-14 to C-28; did not contribute toward the observed antiproliferative activity. Herein we present a complete overview of our work as it relates to the withanolides reported from 1965 to 2013. PMID:24871278
Scartezzini, P; Speroni, E
A lot of medicinal plants, traditionally used for thousands of years, are present in a group of herbal preparations of the Indian traditional health care system (Ayurveda) named Rasayana proposed for their interesting antioxidant activities. Among the medicinal plants used in ayurvedic Rasayana for their therapeutic action, some of these have been throughly investigated. In the present paper seven plants (Emblica officinalis L., Curcuma longa L., Mangifera indica L., Momordica charantia L., Santalum album L., Swertia chirata Buch-Ham, Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal) are viewed for their historical, etymological, morphological, phytochemical and pharmacological aspects. The plants described contain antioxidant principles, that can explain and justify their use in traditional medicine in the past as well as the present. In order to identify the plants with antioxidant activity in Ayurveda, a formulation of some rasayanas with well defined antioxidant properties has been examinated. For this purpose, we have considered Sharma's work on the preparation MAK4, MAK5, MA631, MA 471, MA Raja's Cup, MA Student Rasayana, MA Ladies Rasayana.
Noor, Mehwish Jamil; Sultana, Shazia; Fatima, Sonia; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Sarfraz, Maliha; Balkhyour, Masour A; Safi, Sher Zaman; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel
Mitigating industrial air pollution is a big challenge, in such scenario screening of plants as a bio monitor is extremely significant. It requires proper selection and screening of sensitive and tolerant plant species which are bio indicator and sink for air pollution. The present study was designed to evaluate the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Anticipated Performance Index (API) of the common flora. Fifteen common plant species from among trees, herb and shrubs i.e. Chenopodium album (Chenopodiaceae), Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae), Amaranthus viridis (Amaranthaceae), Lantana camara (Verbenaceaea), Ziziphus nummulari (Rhamnaceae), Silibum merianum (Asteraceae), Cannabis sativa (Cannabinaceae), Calatropis procera (Asclepediaceae), Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), Melia azadirachta (Meliaceae), Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), Eucalyptus globules (Myrtaceae), Broussonetia papyrifera (Moraceae), Withania somnifera (Solanaceae) and Sapium sabiferum (Euphorbiaceae) were selected growing frequently in vicinity of Marble industries in Potwar region. APTI and API of selected plant species were analyzed by determining important biochemical parameter i.e. total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, relative water content and pH etc. Furthermore the selected vegetation was studied for physiological, economic, morphological and biological characteristics. The soil of studied sites was analyzed. It was found that most the selected plant species are sensitive to air pollution. However B. papyrifera, E. globulus and R. communis shows the highest API and therefore recommended for plantation in marble dust pollution stress area.
Almehdar, Hussein; Abdallah, Hossam M; Osman, Abdel-Moneim M; Abdel-Sattar, Essam A
Many natural products from plants have been identified to exert anticancer activity. It might be expected to be a challenge to look at the Saudi plants in order to discover new sources for new molecules which may have anticancer activity. The methanolic extracts of forty species of plants traditionally used in Saudi Arabia for the treatment of a variety of diseases were tested in vitro for their potential anticancer activity on different human cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic activity of the methanolic extracts of the tested plants were determined using three human cancer cell lines, namely, breast cancer (MCF7), hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2), and cervix cancer (HELA) cells. In addition, human normal melanocyte (HFB4) was used as normal nonmalignant cells. Sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay was used to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the different extracts. The growth inhibition of 50% (IC(50)) for each extract was calculated from the optical density of treated and untreated cells. Doxorubicin, a broad-spectrum anticancer drug, was used as the positive control. Nine plant extracts were chosen for further fractionation based on their activity and availability. Interesting cytotoxic activity was observed for Hypoestes forskaolii, Withania somnifera, Solanum glabratum, Adenium obesum, Pistacia vera oleoresin, Caralluma quadrangula, Eulophia petersii, Phragmanthera austroarabica, and Asparagus officinalis. Other extracts showed poor activity.
Imokawa, Genji; Ishida, Koichi
Few anti-pigmenting agents have been designed and developed according to their known hyperpigmentation mechanisms and corresponding intracellular signaling cascades. Most anti-pigmenting agents developed so far are mechanistically involved in the interruption of constitutional melanogenic mechanisms by which skin color is maintained at a normal and unstimulated level. Thus, owing to the difficulty of confining topical application to a specific hyperpigmented skin area, potent anti-pigmenting agents capable of attenuating the natural unstimulated pigmentation process have the risk of leading to hypopigmentation. Since intracellular signaling pathways within melanocytes do not function substantially in maintaining normal skin color and are activated only by environmental stimuli such as UV radiation, specifically down-regulating the activation of melanogenesis to the constitutive level would be an appropriate strategy to develop new potent anti-pigmenting agents with a low risk of hypopigmentation. In this article, we review the hyperpigmentation mechanisms and intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the stimulation of melanogenesis. We also discuss a screening and evaluation system to select candidates for new anti-melanogenic substances by focusing on inhibitors of endothelin-1 or stem cell factor-triggered intracellular signaling cascades. From this viewpoint, we show that extracts of the herbs Withania somnifera and Melia toosendan and the natural chemicals Withaferin A and Astaxanthin are new candidates for potent anti-pigmenting substances that avoid the risk of hypopigmentation. PMID:24823877
Jansen, R. L. M.; Brogan, B.; Whitworth, A. J.; Okello, E. J.
Current conventional treatments for Parkinson’s disease (PD) are aimed at symptom management, as there is currently no known cure or treatment that can slow down its progression. Ayurveda, the ancient medical system of India, uses a combination of herbs to combat the disease. Herbs commonly used for this purpose are Zandopa (containing Mucuna pruriens), Withania somnifera, Centella asiatica, Sida cordifolia and Bacopa monnieri. In this study, these herbs were tested for their potential ability to improve climbing ability of a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) PD model based on loss of function of phosphatase and tensin-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1). Fruit flies were cultured on food containing individual herbs or herbal formulations, a combination of all five herbs, levodopa (positive control) or no treatment (negative control). Tests were performed in both PINK1 mutant flies and healthy wild-type (WT) flies. A significant improvement in climbing ability was observed in flies treated with B. monnieri compared with untreated PINK1 mutant flies. However, a significant decrease in climbing ability was observed in WT flies for the same herb. Centella asiatica also significantly decreased climbing ability in WT flies. No significant effects were observed with any of the other herbs in either PINK1 or WT flies compared with untreated flies. PMID:25091506
De Rose, Francescaelena; Marotta, Roberto; Talani, Giuseppe; Catelani, Tiziano; Solari, Paolo; Poddighe, Simone; Borghero, Giuseppe; Marrosu, Francesco; Sanna, Enrico; Kasture, Sanjay; Acquas, Elio; Liscia, Anna
The present study was aimed at characterizing the effects of Withania somnifera (Wse) and Mucuna pruriens (Mpe) on a Drosophila melanogaster model for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). In particular, the effects of Wse and Mpe were assessed following feeding the flies selectively overexpressing the wild human copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase (hSOD1-gain-of-function) in Drosophila motoneurons. Although ALS-hSOD1 mutants showed no impairment in life span, with respect to GAL4 controls, the results revealed impairment of climbing behaviour, muscle electrophysiological parameters (latency and amplitude of ePSPs) as well as thoracic ganglia mitochondrial functions. Interestingly, Wse treatment significantly increased lifespan of hSDO1 while Mpe had not effect. Conversely, both Wse and Mpe significantly rescued climbing impairment, and also latency and amplitude of ePSPs as well as failure responses to high frequency DLM stimulation. Finally, mitochondrial alterations were any more present in Wse- but not in Mpe-treated hSOD1 mutants. Hence, given the role of inflammation in the development of ALS, the high translational impact of the model, the known anti-inflammatory properties of these extracts, and the viability of their clinical use, these results suggest that the application of Wse and Mpe might represent a valuable pharmacological strategy to counteract the progression of ALS and related symptoms. PMID:28102336
Sheikh, Zeeshan A; Siddiqui, Zafar A; Naveed, Safila; Usmanghani, Khan
Vivabon syrup is a balanced composition of dietary ingredients of phytopharmaceutical nature for maintaining the physique, vigor, vitality and balanced growth of children. The herbal ingredients of pediatric syrup are rich in bioflavonoid, proteins, vitamins, glycosides and trace elements. Vivabon is formulated with herbal drugs such as Phoenix sylvestris, Emblica officinalis, Withania somnifera, Centella asiatica, Amomum subulatum, Zingiber officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Centaurea behen and Piper longum Catechins are flavan-3-ols that are found widely in the medicinal herbs and are utilized for anti-inflammatory, cardio protective, hepato-protective, neural protection and other biological activities. In general, the dietary intake of flavonoids has been regarded traditionally as beneficial for body growth. Standardization of Vivabon syrup dosage form using HPLC/DAD has been developed for quantitative estimation of Catechin as a chemical marker. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Validation studies demonstrated that the developed HPLC method is quite distinct, reproducible as well as quick and fast. The relatively high recovery and low comparable standard deviation confirm the suitability of the developed method for the determination of Catechin in syrup. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Sangiovanni, Enrico; Brivio, Paola
The involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in different central nervous system (CNS) diseases suggests that this neurotrophin may represent an interesting and reliable therapeutic target. Accordingly, the search for new compounds, also from natural sources, able to modulate BDNF has been increasingly explored. The present review considers the literature on the effects of botanicals on BDNF. Botanicals considered were Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell, Coffea arabica L., Crocus sativus L., Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim., Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea), Ginkgo biloba L., Hypericum perforatum L., Olea europaea L. (olive oil), Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, Rhodiola rosea L., Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, Vitis vinifera L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, and Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton. The effect of the active principles responsible for the efficacy of the extracts is reviewed and discussed as well. The high number of articles published (more than one hundred manuscripts for 14 botanicals) supports the growing interest in the use of natural products as BDNF modulators. The studies reported strengthen the hypothesis that botanicals may be considered useful modulators of BDNF in CNS diseases, without high side effects. Further clinical studies are mandatory to confirm botanicals as preventive agents or as useful adjuvant to the pharmacological treatment. PMID:29464125
Mohan, L; Rao, U S C; Gopalakrishna, H N; Nair, V
The present study investigates the anxiolytic activity of NR-ANX-C, a standardized polyherbal formulation containing the extracts of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Camellia sinensis, Triphala, and Shilajit in ethanol withdrawal- (EW-) induced anxiety behavior in rats. Ethanol dependence in rats was produced by substitution of drinking water with 7.5% v/v alcohol for 10 days. Then, ethanol withdrawal was induced by replacing alcohol with drinking water, 12 hours prior to experimentation. After confirming induction of withdrawal symptoms in the alcohol deprived animals, the anxiolytic activity of the test compound in graded doses (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) was compared to the standard drug alprazolam (0.08 mg/kg) in the elevated plus maze and bright and dark arena paradigms. In our study, single and repeated dose administration of NR-ANX-C reduced EW-induced anxiety in a dose-dependent manner. Even though the anxiolytic activity was not significant at lower doses, NR-ANX-C at the highest dose tested (40 mg/kg) produced significant anxiolytic activity that was comparable to the standard drug alprazolam. Based on our findings we believe that NR-ANX-C has the potential to be used as an alternative to benzodiazepines in the treatment of EW-induced anxiety.
Bhattacharya, S K; Satyan, K S; Chakrabarti, A
Diabetes mellitus was induced in male CF strain rats by streptozotocin (STZ) and hyperglycaemia and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of pancreatic islet cells was assessed on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. STZ induced significant hyperglycaemia and a concomitant decrease in islet cell SOD activity. Transina (TR), an Ayurvedic herbal formulation comprising of Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Eclipta alba, Ocimum sanctum, Picrorrhiza kurroa and shilajit, had little per se effect on blood sugar concentrations and islet SOD activity in euglycaemic rats, in the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. administered once daily for 28 days. However, these doses of TR induced a dose- related decrease in STZ hyperglycaemia and attenuation of STZ induced decrease in islet SOD activity. The results indicate that the earlier reported anti-hyperglycaemic effect of TR may be due to pancreatic islet free radical scavenging activity, the hyperglycaemic activity of STZ being the consequence of decrease in islet SOD activity leading to the accumulation of degenerative oxidative free radicals in islet beta-cells.
Mohan, L.; Rao, U. S. C.; Gopalakrishna, H. N.; Nair, V.
The present study investigates the anxiolytic activity of NR-ANX-C, a standardized polyherbal formulation containing the extracts of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Camellia sinensis, Triphala, and Shilajit in ethanol withdrawal- (EW-) induced anxiety behavior in rats. Ethanol dependence in rats was produced by substitution of drinking water with 7.5% v/v alcohol for 10 days. Then, ethanol withdrawal was induced by replacing alcohol with drinking water, 12 hours prior to experimentation. After confirming induction of withdrawal symptoms in the alcohol deprived animals, the anxiolytic activity of the test compound in graded doses (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) was compared to the standard drug alprazolam (0.08 mg/kg) in the elevated plus maze and bright and dark arena paradigms. In our study, single and repeated dose administration of NR-ANX-C reduced EW-induced anxiety in a dose-dependent manner. Even though the anxiolytic activity was not significant at lower doses, NR-ANX-C at the highest dose tested (40 mg/kg) produced significant anxiolytic activity that was comparable to the standard drug alprazolam. Based on our findings we believe that NR-ANX-C has the potential to be used as an alternative to benzodiazepines in the treatment of EW-induced anxiety. PMID:20953426
Singh, Shefali; Pal, Shaifali; Shanker, Karuna; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Dwivedi, Upendra Nath; Shasany, Ajit Kumar
Withanolides biosynthesis in the plant Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is hypothesized to be diverged from sterol pathway at the level of 24-methylene cholesterol. The conversion and translocation of intermediates for sterols and withanolides are yet to be characterized in this plant. To understand the influence of mevalonate (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathways on sterols and withanolides biosynthesis in planta, we overexpressed the WsHMGR2 and WsDXR2 in tobacco, analyzed the effect of transient suppression through RNAi, inhibited MVA and MEP pathways and fed the leaf tissue with different sterols. Overexpression of WsHMGR2 increased cycloartenol, sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol compared to WsDXR2 transgene lines. Increase in cholesterol was, however, marginally higher in WsDXR2 transgenic lines. This was further validated through transient suppression analysis, and pathway inhibition where cholesterol reduction was found higher due to WsDXR2 suppression and all other sterols were affected predominantly by WsHMGR2 suppression in leaf. The transcript abundance and enzyme analysis data also correlate with sterol accumulation. Cholesterol feeding did not increase the withanolide content compared to cycloartenol, sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol. Hence, a preferential translocation of carbon from MVA and MEP pathways was found differentiating the sterols types. Overall results suggested that MVA pathway was predominant in contributing intermediates for withanolides synthesis mainly through the campesterol/stigmasterol route in planta. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.
Tahvilzadeh, M; Hajimahmoodi, M; Toliyat, T; Karimi, M; Rahimi, R
Infertility is defined as inability of a sexually active couple to conceive after 1 year of regular intercourse without contraception. Male factors account for 20%-50% of cases of infertility. The aim of this study was to review medicinal plants that proposed to improve sperm abnormalities in traditional Persian medicine. For this purpose, PubMed, Scopus, GoogleScholar and Cochrane library were explored for medicinal plants used in traditional Persian medicine for sperm abnormalities to obtain studies giving any evidence for their efficacy and pharmacological mechanisms related to male infertility. Data were collected for the years 1966 to March 2015. For some of them, including Chlorophytum borivilianum, Crocus sativus, Nigella sativa, Sesamum indicum, Tribulus terrestris, Mucuna pruriens and Withania somnifera, more reliable evidence was found. The mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of medicinal plants in sperm abnormalities are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-oedematous and venotonic activity as well as containing precursors for sperm production and increasing blood testosterone level. Various phytochemical categories including saponins, phytosterols, carotenoids, oxygenated volatile compounds, phenolic compounds and alkaloids seem to be responsible for these beneficial effects. Further studies are recommended for obtaining more conclusive results about the efficacy and safety of the mentioned medicinal plants. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Ali, Arslan; Choudhary, M. Iqbal; Atta-ur-Rahman
Natural products continue to serve as an important source of novel drugs since the beginning of human history. High-throughput techniques, such as MALDI-MS, can be techniques of choice for the rapid screening of natural products in plant materials. We present here a fast and reproducible matrix-free approach for the direct detection of UV active metabolites in plant materials without any prior sample preparation. The plant material is mechanically ground to a fine powder and then sieved through different mesh sizes. The collected plant material is dispersed using 1 μL solvent on a target plate is directly exposed to Nd:YAG 335 nm laser. The strategy was optimized for the analysis of plant metabolites after study of the different factors affecting the reproducibility and effectiveness of the analysis, including particle sizes effects, types of solvents used to disperse the sample, and the part of the plant analyzed. Moreover, several plant species, known for different classes of metabolites, were screened to establish the generality of the approach. The developed approach was validated by the characterization of withaferin A and nicotine in the leaves of Withania somnifera and Nicotiana tabacum, respectively, through comparison of its MS/MS data with the standard compound. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques were used for the tissue imaging purposes. This approach can be used to directly probe small molecules in plant materials as well as in herbal and pharmaceutical formulations for fingerprinting development.
Arif, I A; Bakir, M A; Khan, H A; Al Farhan, A H; Al Homaidan, A A; Bahkali, A H; Al Sadoon, M; Shobrak, M
The use of highly discriminatory methods for the identification and characterization of genotypes is essential for plant protection and appropriate use. We utilized the RAPD method for the genetic fingerprinting of 11 plant species of desert origin (seven with known medicinal value). Andrachne telephioides, Zilla spinosa, Caylusea hexagyna, Achillea fragrantissima, Lycium shawii, Moricandia sinaica, Rumex vesicarius, Bassia eriophora, Zygophyllum propinquum subsp migahidii, Withania somnifera, and Sonchus oleraceus were collected from various areas of Saudi Arabia. The five primers used were able to amplify the DNA from all the plant species. The amplified products of the RAPD profiles ranged from 307 to 1772 bp. A total of 164 bands were observed for 11 plant species, using five primers. The number of well-defined and major bands for a single plant species for a single primer ranged from 1 to 10. The highest pair-wise similarities (0.32) were observed between A. fragrantissima and L. shawii, when five primers were combined. The lowest similarities (0) were observed between A. telephioides and Z. spinosa; Z. spinosa and B. eriophora; B. eriophora and Z. propinquum. In conclusion, the RAPD method successfully discriminates among all the plant species, therefore providing an easy and rapid tool for identification, conservation and sustainable use of these plants.
Lu, Lin; Liu, Yanli; Zhu, Weili; Shi, Jie; Liu, Yu; Ling, Walter; Kosten, Thomas R
To evaluate clinical trials and neurochemical mechanisms of the action of traditional herbal remedies and acupuncture for treating drug addiction. We used computerized literature searches in English and Chinese and examined texts written before these computerized databases existed. We used search terms of treatment and neurobiology of herbal medicines, and acupuncture for drug abuse and dependence. Acupuncture showed evidence for clinical efficacy and relevant neurobiological mechanisms in opiate withdrawal, but it showed poor efficacy for alcohol and nicotine withdrawal or relapse prevention, and no large studies supported its efficacy for cocaine in well-designed clinical trials. Clinical trials were rare for herbal remedies. Radix Puerariae showed the most promising efficacy for alcoholism by acting through daidzin, which inhibits mitocochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and leads to disulfiram-like alcohol reactions. Peyote also has some evidence for alcoholism treatment among Native Americans. Ginseng and Kava lack efficacy data in addictions, and Kava can be hepatotoxic. Thunbergia laurifolia can protect against alcoholic liver toxicity. Withania somnifera and Salvia miltiorrhiza have no efficacy data, but can reduce morphine tolerance and alcohol intake, respectively, in animal models. Traditional herbal treatments can compliment pharmacotherapies for drug withdrawal and possibly relapse prevention with less expense and perhaps fewer side effects with notable exceptions. Both acupuncture and herbal treatments need testing as adjuncts to reduce doses and durations of standard pharmacotherapies.
Rajeshwari, Puttaswamy; Raveesha, KoteshwarAnandrao
Background: The present study explores the fungal contamination of important herbal drug raw materials (HDRM), which are widely used in the preparation of many herbal drugs. Understanding of the microbial contamination status of HDRM is one of the important steps to ensure the safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. Materials and Methods: Eighteen samples of six herbal drug raw materials (HDRM) viz., Acorus calamus Linn., Cassia angustifolia Vahl., Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban, Myristica fragrans Houtt., Tinospora cardifolia (Wild) Miers and Withania somnifera (Linn.) Dunal, were screened for fungal contamination, by employing serial dilution method. All the isolates of Aspergillus flavus were screened for their ability to produce aflatoxin B1 (AB1) and highly contaminated samples were subjected to AB1 estimation by using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), spectrophotometric method and occurrence of Aflatoxin B1 was confirmed by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis (LCMS). Results: A total of 302 isolates of 42 fungal species belonging to 17 genera were found in association with test the samples. More than 61% of A. flavus isolates tested positive for production of AB1 and highest yield recorded was 5008.20 ppb from the isolates of T. cordifolia. Amongthesix highly contaminated samples three samples tested positive for AB1. Highest AB1 was recorded from T. cordifolia (104.19 μg/kg), followed by A. calamus (13.73 μg/kg) and M. fragrans (12.02 μg/kg). Conclusion: Assessment of fungal and mycotoxin contamination should be a part of the quality check while selecting HDRM for manufacture of herbal products. Safe processing and storage practices are necessary. PMID:28487902
LV, TING-ZHUO; WANG, GUANG-SHUN
Withaferin A (WA) is a well-known steroidal lactone of the medicinally important plant, Withania somnifera. This secondary metabolite has been noted for its anticancer effects against a number of human cancer cell lines. However, there are a limited number of studies investigating the growth inhibitory potential of WA against human osteosarcoma cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Thus, in the present study, the antiproliferative activities of WA, along with the underlying mechanisms of action, were investigated using flow cytometry for cell cycle distribution and western blot analysis for the assessment of various checkpoint proteins. In addition, the antiproliferative activity was evaluated using a sulforhodamine B assay, where MG-63 and U2OS human osteosarcoma cell lines were treated with different concentrations of WA. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of the checkpoint proteins in the WA-treated MG-63 and U2OS cells were examined. The results obtained corresponded with the western blot analysis results. Furthermore, WA was shown to significantly inhibit the proliferation of the two types of treated cell lines (MG-63 and U2OS). Flow cytometric analysis revealed that WA induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, which was associated with the inhibition of cyclin B1, cyclin A, Cdk2 and p-Cdc2 (Tyr15) expression and an increase in the levels of p-Chk1 (Ser345) and p-Chk2 (Thr68). In conclusion, the present study found that the antiproliferative potential of WA was associated with the induction of cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, which was a result of the attenuation of the expression levels of G2/M checkpoint proteins. PMID:26170956
Shah, Jigna Samir; Goyal, R. K.
Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the trends and rationale of use of memory and vitality-enhancing medicines (MVEM) in the Gujarat region. Materials and Methods: A prospective pharmacoepidemiological study involving pharmacists of Gujarat region was carried out in the year 2005. Pharmacists (n = 351) working in general and Ayurvedic medical stores were selected from 12 districts of Gujarat region. The pharmacists were explained about the objective of the study and were given a pretested, validated questionnaire. Outcome Measures: The questionnaire included the questions regarding herbal MVEM used most commonly, percentage sale of herbal MVEM – sold with or without prescriptions – age group of patients and professional groups who used these drugs most commonly. Results: The number of individuals using MVEM was highest in the age group of 11–20 years (17.54%), followed by the 21–40 years group (17.12%), supporting the results that the professional group of students (17.29%) and the persons of business or service class (15.29%) are the highest users of these medicines. Evaluation of various constituents in the marketed polyherbal MVEM revealed that Brahmi (Bacopa monniera), Shankhpushpi (Evolvulus alsinoides), Ashwangandha (Withania somnifera), Jatamansi (Nardostychos jatamansi), Vacha (Acorus calamus) and Amla (Phyllanthus emblica) were the common ingredients in the polyherbal preparations. Conclusions: This study highlights commonly used Ayurvedic medicines that can be explored for safely enhancing memory and vitality performance. Hence, detailed and scientifically designed research on these drugs would help to identify safe and effective drugs for enhancing the same. PMID:21170204
Shinde, Pravin; Vidyasagar, Nikhil; Dhulap, Sivakami; Dhulap, Abhijeet; Hirwani, Raj
Alzheimer's disease is an age related disorder and is defined to be progressive, irreversible neurodegenerative disease. The potential targets which are associated with the Alzheimer's disease are cholinesterases, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, Beta secretase 1, Pregnane X receptor (PXR) and P-glycoprotein (Pgp). P-glycoprotein is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, which is an important integral of the blood-brain, blood-cerebrospinal fluid and the blood-testis barrier. Reports from the literature provide evidences that the up-regulation of the efflux pump is liable for a decrease in β -amyloid intracellular accumulation and is an important hallmark in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, targeting β-amyloid clearance by stimulating Pgp could be a useful strategy to prevent Alzheimer's advancement. Currently available drugs provide limited effectiveness and do not assure to cure Alzheimer's disease completely. On the other hand, the current research is now directed towards the development of synthetic or natural based therapeutics which can delay the onset or progression of Alzheimer's disease. Since ancient time medicinal plants such as Withania somnifera, Bacopa monieri, Nerium indicum have been used to prevent neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Till today around 125 Indian medicinal plants have been screened on the basis of ethnopharmacology for their activity against neurological disorders. In this paper, we report bioactives from natural sources which show binding affinity towards the Pgp receptor using ligand based pharmacophore development, virtual screening, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies for the bioactives possessing acceptable ADME properties. These bioactives can thus be useful to treat Alzheimer's disease.
Muregi, Francis W; Ishih, Akira; Miyase, Toshio; Suzuki, Tohru; Kino, Hideto; Amano, Teruaki; Mkoji, Gerald M; Terada, Mamoru
Methanolic extracts from 15 medicinal plants representing 11 families, used traditionally for malaria treatment in Kenya were screened for their in vivo antimalarial activity in mice against a chloroquine (CQ)-tolerant Plasmodium berghei NK65, either alone or in combination with CQ. The plant parts used ranged from leaves (L), stem bark (SB), root bark (RB), seeds (S) and whole plant (W). When used alone, extracts from seven plants, Clerodendrum myricoides (RB), Ficus sur (L/SB/RB), Maytenus acuminata (L/RB), Rhamnus prinoides (L/RB), Rhamnus staddo (RB), Toddalia asiatica (RB) and Vernonia lasiopus (RB) had statistically significant parasitaemia suppressions of 31.7-59.3%. In combination with CQ, methanolic extracts of Albizia gummifera (SB), Ficus sur (RB), Rhamnus prinoides and Rhamnus staddo (L/RB), Caesalpinia volkensii (L), Maytenus senegalensis (L/RB), Withania somnifera (RB), Ekebergia capensis (L/SB), Toddalia asiatica (L/RB) and Vernonia lasiopus (L/SB/RB) gave statistically significant and improved suppressions which ranged from 45.5 to 85.1%. The fact that these activities were up to five-fold higher than that of extract alone may suggest synergistic interactions. Remarkable parasitaemia suppression by the extracts, either alone or in combination with CQ mostly resulted into longer mouse survival relative to the controls, in some cases by a further 2 weeks. Plants, which showed significant antimalarial activity including Vernonia lasiopus, Toddalia asiatica, Ficus sur, Rhamnus prinoides and Rhamnus staddo warrant further evaluation in the search for novel antimalarial agents against drug-resistant malaria.
Jadhav, Pranita P.; Ambavade, Shirishkumar D.; Shelke, Tushar
Background. The leaves of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, hydroethanol extract of leaves of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn (LEPO) were evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced mice. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic (adaptogenic) activity in mice and in vitro antioxidant potential to correlate with its adaptogenic and antistress activity. LEPO (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o) was evaluated against forced swimming endurance stress test, anoxia stress tolerance and immobilization stress and chronic cold resistant stress tests, and biomarkers (serum glucose, Corticosterone, WBC, RBC, and DLC count) to assess the antistress activity in mice. Withania somnifera (WS) (100 mg/kg p.o) was selected as reference standard. The parameters like anoxia stress tolerance time were recorded in anoxia stress and estimation of biochemical marker levels and determination of organs weight were carried out in immobilization stress models. Results. Concomitant treatment with LEPO 200 mg/kg significantly increased in anoxia stress tolerance time. Dose dependent significant reduction in serum glucose, corticosterone, and WBC, RBC, and DLC was observed in immobilisation stress model as compared to stressed group. LEOP 200 mg/kg and WS 100 mg/kg significantly reversed/inhibited the stress induced changes in these parameters. The results from the present study indicate that these values also express that dose dependent significant adaptogenic activity in stressed animals. Conclusion. The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic) and nootropic activities of lyophilized hydroethanol extract of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn and substantiate the traditional claims for the usage of Pandanus in stress induced disorders. PMID:27379263
Pohling, Christoph; Natarajan, Arutselvan; Witney, Timothy H.; Kaur, Jasdeep; Xu, Lingyun; Gowrishankar, Gayatri; D’Souza, Aloma L; Murty, Surya; Schick, Sophie; Chen, Liyin; Wu, Nicholas; Khaw, Phoo; Mischel, Paul; Abbasi, Taher; Usmani, Shahabuddin; Mallick, Parag
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive, malignant cancer Johnson and O’Neill (J Neurooncol 107: 359–364, 2012). An extract from the winter cherry plant (Withania somnifera), AshwaMAX, is concentrated (4.3 %) for Withaferin A; a steroidal lactone that inhibits cancer cells Vanden Berghe et al. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 23: 1985–1996, 2014). We hypothesized that AshwaMAX could treat GBM and that bioluminescence imaging (BLI) could track oral therapy in orthotopic murine models of glioblastoma. Human parietal-cortical glioblastoma cells (GBM2, GBM39) were isolated from primary tumors while U87-MG was obtained commercially. GBM2 was transduced with lentiviral vectors that express Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)/firefly luciferase fusion proteins. Mutational, expression and proliferative status of GBMs were studied. Intracranial xenografts of glioblastomas were grown in the right frontal regions of female, nude mice (n = 3–5 per experiment). Tumor growth was followed through BLI. Neurosphere cultures (U87-MG, GBM2 and GBM39) were inhibited by AshwaMAX at IC50 of 1.4, 0.19 and 0.22 μM equivalent respectively and by Withaferin A with IC50 of 0.31, 0.28 and 0.25 μM respectively. Oral gavage, every other day, of AshwaMAX (40 mg/kg per day) significantly reduced bioluminescence signal (n = 3 mice, p < 0.02, four parameter non-linear regression analysis) in preclinical models. After 30 days of treatment, bioluminescent signal increased suggesting onset of resistance. BLI signal for control, vehicle-treated mice increased and then plateaued. Bioluminescent imaging revealed diffuse growth of GBM2 xenografts. With AshwaMAX, GBM neurospheres collapsed at nanomolar concentrations. Oral treatment studies on murine models confirmed that AshwaMAX is effective against orthotopic GBM. AshwaMAX is thus a promising candidate for future clinical translation in patients with GBM. PMID:26650066
Li, A-X; Sun, M; Li, X
Withaferin-A (WF-A) is a well-known dietary compound isolated from Withania somnifera. It has marked pharmacological potential and has been shown to exhibit antiproliferative activity against several types of cancerous cells. Currently, the main focus of anti-cancer therapeutic development is to identify apoptosis-inducing drug-like molecules. Osteosarcoma is a rare type of bone cancer affecting humans. The objective of the present study was therefore to evaluate the antitumor potential of WF-A against several osteosarcoma cell lines. MTT assay was used to evaluate WF-A against osteosarcoma cell lines and to calculate the IC50. DAPI staining was used to confirm the apoptosis-inducing potential of WF-A. Mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, and Western blotting were used to confirm the basis of apoptosis. The results of the present study revealed that WF-A exhibited strong antiproliferative activity against all the cells lines, with IC50 ranging from 0.32 to 7.6 µM. The lowest IC50 (0.32 µM) was observed against U2OS cell line and, therefore, it was selected for further analysis. DAPI staining indicated that WF-A exhibited antiproliferative activity via induction of apoptosis. Moreover, WF-A induced a ROS-mediated reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential in a dose-dependent manner and activation of caspase-3 in osteosarcoma cells. We suggest that WF-A may prove a potent therapeutic agent for inducing apoptosis in osteosarcoma cell lines via generation of ROS and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential.
Protection against cerebral infarction by Withaferin A involves inhibition of neuronal apoptosis, activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and reduced intimal hyperplasia via inhibition of VSMC migration and matrix metalloproteinases.
Zhang, Qi-Zhi; Guo, Yu-Dong; Li, Hao-Mei; Wang, Rui-Zheng; Guo, Shou-Gang; Du, Yi-Feng
Stroke is a major public health concern with high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cerebral ischemia and infarction are commonly associated with stroke. Currently used medications, though effective, are also associated with adverse effects. Development of effective neuroprotective agents with fewer side effects would be of clinical value. We evaluated the effects of Withaferin A (WA), a steroidal lactone derived from the plant Withania somnifera, on experimentally induced cerebral infarction. The ability of WA to inhibit neuroapoptosis and modulate vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and PI3K/Akt signaling was assessed. Separate groups of Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to cerebral occlusion and reperfused for 24h. WA treatment (25, 50 or 100mg/kg bodyweight) significantly reduced the infarct area in a carotid ligation model; WA reduced intimal hyperplasia and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cell counts. Western blotting analysis revealed significantly suppressed PI3K/Akt signaling following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. WA supplementation was found to downregulate apoptotic pathway proteins. WA suppressed PTEN and enhanced p-Akt and GSK-3β levels and elevated mTORc1, cyclinD1 and NF-κB p65 expression, suggesting activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. In vitro studies with PDGF-stimulated A7r5 cells revealed that WA exposure severely downregulated matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9 and inhibited migration of A7r5 cells. Additionally, WA reduced the proliferation of A7r5 cells significantly. WA exerted neuroprotective effects by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway, modulating the expression of MMPs, and inhibiting the migration of VSMCs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Hahm, Eun-Ryeong; Lee, Joomin; Singh, Shivendra V
Withaferin A (WA), a bioactive constituent of Ayurvedic medicine plant Withania somnifera, is a potent apoptosis inducer in cancer cells but the mechanism of cell death induction is not fully characterized. The present study was undertaken to determine the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), including c-jun NH2 -terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38 MAPK, and anti-apoptotic protein myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) in regulation of WA-induced apoptosis using human breast cancer cells. Exposure of MCF-7 (estrogen responsive) and SUM159 (triple negative) human breast cancer cells to WA resulted in increased phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK, but these effects were relatively more pronounced in the former cell line than in SUM159. Overexpression of manganese-superoxide dismutase conferred partial protection against WA-mediated hyperphosphorylation of ERK, but not JNK or p38 MAPK. Cell death resulting from WA treatment in MCF-7 cells was significantly augmented by pharmacological inhibition of ERK and p38 MAPK. Interestingly, the WA-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells was partially but significantly blocked in the presence of a JNK-specific inhibitor. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK or JNK had no effect on WA-induced apoptosis in SUM159 cells. The WA-treated cells exhibited induction of long and short forms of Mcl-1. RNA interference of Mcl-1 alone triggered apoptosis. Furthermore, the WA-induced cell death in MCF-7 cells was modestly but significantly augmented by knockdown of the Mcl-1 protein. These observations indicate that: MAPK have cell line-specific role in cell death by WA, and Mcl-1 induction confers modest protection against WA-induced apoptosis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ghosh, Kamalini; De, Soumasree; Mukherjee, Srimoyee; Das, Sayantani; Ghosh, Amar Nath; Sengupta, Sumita Bandyopadhyay
The autophagy-lysosome pathway and the ubiquitin-proteasome systems are the two major routes for eukaryotic intracellular protein clearance. Cancerous cells often display elevated protein synthesis and byproduct disposal, thus, inhibition of the protein degradation pathways became an emerging approach for cancer therapy. The present study revealed that withaferin-A (WA), the biologically active withanolide derived from Withania somnifera, initially induced formation of autophagosomes in human breast cancer cell-lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. WA treatment elevated the levels of autophagic substrate p62/SQSTM1 (p62) and both LC3-II and LC3-I (microtubule-associated protein 2 light chain 3) and simultaneously reduced the upstream autophagy markers like beclin-1 and ATG5-ATG12 complex, which indicate accumulation of autophagosomes in the cells. WA induced disruption of microtubular network through inhibition of tubulin polymerization and its hyper-acetylation, thus prevent the formation of autolysosome (by merging of autophagosomes with lysosomes) and its recycling process, leading to incomplete autophagy. Further, WA caused ER (Endoplasmic Reticulum) stress, which is evident from the activation of ER-related caspase-4 and increased levels of ER stress marker proteins. Thus, these findings altogether indicate that WA mediated inhibition of proteasomal degradation system and perturbation of autophagy, i.e. suppression of both the intracellular degradation systems caused accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, which in turn led to unfolded protein response and ER stress mediated proteotoxicity in human breast cancer cell-lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chang, Edwin; Pohling, Christoph; Natarajan, Arutselvan; Witney, Timothy H; Kaur, Jasdeep; Xu, Lingyun; Gowrishankar, Gayatri; D'Souza, Aloma L; Murty, Surya; Schick, Sophie; Chen, Liyin; Wu, Nicholas; Khaw, Phoo; Mischel, Paul; Abbasi, Taher; Usmani, Shahabuddin; Mallick, Parag; Gambhir, Sanjiv S
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive, malignant cancer Johnson and O'Neill (J Neurooncol 107: 359-364, 2012). An extract from the winter cherry plant (Withania somnifera ), AshwaMAX, is concentrated (4.3 %) for Withaferin A; a steroidal lactone that inhibits cancer cells Vanden Berghe et al. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 23: 1985-1996, 2014). We hypothesized that AshwaMAX could treat GBM and that bioluminescence imaging (BLI) could track oral therapy in orthotopic murine models of glioblastoma. Human parietal-cortical glioblastoma cells (GBM2, GBM39) were isolated from primary tumors while U87-MG was obtained commercially. GBM2 was transduced with lentiviral vectors that express Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)/firefly luciferase fusion proteins. Mutational, expression and proliferative status of GBMs were studied. Intracranial xenografts of glioblastomas were grown in the right frontal regions of female, nude mice (n = 3-5 per experiment). Tumor growth was followed through BLI. Neurosphere cultures (U87-MG, GBM2 and GBM39) were inhibited by AshwaMAX at IC50 of 1.4, 0.19 and 0.22 µM equivalent respectively and by Withaferin A with IC50 of 0.31, 0.28 and 0.25 µM respectively. Oral gavage, every other day, of AshwaMAX (40 mg/kg per day) significantly reduced bioluminescence signal (n = 3 mice, p < 0.02, four parameter non-linear regression analysis) in preclinical models. After 30 days of treatment, bioluminescent signal increased suggesting onset of resistance. BLI signal for control, vehicle-treated mice increased and then plateaued. Bioluminescent imaging revealed diffuse growth of GBM2 xenografts. With AshwaMAX, GBM neurospheres collapsed at nanomolar concentrations. Oral treatment studies on murine models confirmed that AshwaMAX is effective against orthotopic GBM. AshwaMAX is thus a promising candidate for future clinical translation in patients with GBM.
Lee, Wonhwa; Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University; Kim, Tae Hoon
Withaferin A (WFA), an active compound from Withania somnifera, is widely researched for its anti-inflammatory, cardioactive and central nervous system effects. In this study, we first investigated the possible barrier protective effects of WFA against pro-inflammatory responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in mice induced by high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) and the associated signaling pathways. The barrier protective activities of WFA were determined by measuring permeability, leukocytes adhesion and migration, and activation of pro-inflammatory proteins in HMGB1-activated HUVECs. We found that WFA inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced HMGB1 release and HMGB1-mediated barrier disruption, expression of cellmore » adhesion molecules (CAMs) and adhesion/transendothelial migration of leukocytes to human endothelial cells. WFA also suppressed acetic acid-induced hyperpermeability and carboxymethylcellulose-induced leukocytes migration in vivo. Further studies revealed that WFA suppressed the production of interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by HMGB1. Collectively, these results suggest that WFA protects vascular barrier integrity by inhibiting hyperpermeability, expression of CAMs, adhesion and migration of leukocytes, thereby endorsing its usefulness as a therapy for vascular inflammatory diseases. -- Highlights: ► Withaferin A inhibited LPS induced HMGB1 release. ► Withaferin A reduced HMGB1-mediated hyperpermeability. ► Withaferin A inhibited HMGB1-mediated adhesion and migration of leukocytes. ► Withaferin A inhibited HMGB1-mediated activation of NF-κB, IL-6 and TNF-α.« less
Yu, Seon-Mi; Kim, Song-Ja
Withaferin A (WFA) is a major chemical constituent of Withania somnifera, also known as Indian ginseng. Many recent reports have provided evidence of its anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant, and immune modulatory activities. Although the compound appears to have a large number of effects, its defined mechanisms of action have not yet been determined. We investigated the effects of WFA on loss of type collagen expression and inflammation in rabbit articular chondrocytes. WFA increased the production of reactive oxygen species, suggesting the induction of oxidative stress, in a dose-dependent manner. Also, we confirmed that WFA causes loss of type collagen expression and inflammation as determined by a decrease of type II collagen expression and an increase of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression via western blot analysis in a dose- and time- dependent manner. WFA also reduced the synthesis of sulfated proteoglycan via Alcian blue staining and caused the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) via assay kit in dose- and time-dependent manners. Treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, inhibited WFA-induced loss of type II collagen expression and increase in COX-2 expression, accompanied by inhibition of reactive oxygen species production. WFA increased phosphorylation of both Akt and p38. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt, p38, and JNK with LY294002 (LY), SB203580 (SB), or SP600125 (SP) in WFA-treated cells rescued the expression of type II collagen and suppressed the expression of COX-2. These results demonstrate that WFA induces loss of type collagen expression and inflammation via PI3K/Akt, p38, and JNK by generating reactive oxygen species in rabbit articular chondrocytes. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.
Lee, Joomin; Hahm, Eun-Ryeong; Marcus, Adam I; Singh, Shivendra V
We have shown previously that withaferin A (WA), a bioactive component of the medicinal plant Withania somnifera, inhibits growth of cultured and xenografted human breast cancer cells and prevents breast cancer development and pulmonary metastasis incidence in a transgenic mouse model. The present study was undertaken to determine if the anticancer effect of WA involved inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Experimental EMT induced by exposure of MCF-10A cells to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β) was partially reversed by treatment with WA but not by its structural analogs withanone or withanolide A. Combined TNF-α and TGF-β treatments conferred partial protection against MCF-10A cell migration inhibition by WA. Inhibition of TNF-α and TGF-β-induced MCF-10A cell migration by WA exposure was modestly attenuated by knockdown of E-cadherin protein. MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells exposed to WA exhibited sustained (MCF-7) or transient (MDA-MB-231) induction of E-cadherin protein. On the other hand, the level of vimentin protein was increased markedly after 24 h treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with WA. WA-induced apoptosis was not affected by vimentin protein knockdown in MDA-MB-231 cells. Protein level of vimentin was significantly lower in the MDA-MB-231 xenografts as well as in MMTV-neu tumors from WA-treated mice compared with controls. The major conclusions of the present study are that (a) WA treatment inhibits experimental EMT in MCF-10A cells, and (b) mammary cancer growth inhibition by WA administration is associated with suppression of vimentin protein expression in vivo. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lv, Ting-Zhuo; Wang, Guang-Shun
Withaferin A (WA) is a well-known steroidal lactone of the medicinally important plant, Withania somnifera . This secondary metabolite has been noted for its anticancer effects against a number of human cancer cell lines. However, there are a limited number of studies investigating the growth inhibitory potential of WA against human osteosarcoma cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Thus, in the present study, the antiproliferative activities of WA, along with the underlying mechanisms of action, were investigated using flow cytometry for cell cycle distribution and western blot analysis for the assessment of various checkpoint proteins. In addition, the antiproliferative activity was evaluated using a sulforhodamine B assay, where MG-63 and U2OS human osteosarcoma cell lines were treated with different concentrations of WA. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of the checkpoint proteins in the WA-treated MG-63 and U2OS cells were examined. The results obtained corresponded with the western blot analysis results. Furthermore, WA was shown to significantly inhibit the proliferation of the two types of treated cell lines (MG-63 and U2OS). Flow cytometric analysis revealed that WA induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, which was associated with the inhibition of cyclin B1, cyclin A, Cdk2 and p-Cdc2 (Tyr15) expression and an increase in the levels of p-Chk1 (Ser345) and p-Chk2 (Thr68). In conclusion, the present study found that the antiproliferative potential of WA was associated with the induction of cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, which was a result of the attenuation of the expression levels of G2/M checkpoint proteins.
Kim, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jun-Young; Kang, Min-Jung; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Choi, Jin-A; Oh, Sang-Muk; Lee, Kyung-Bok; Park, Jong-Hwan
Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. There is evidence that IL-1β is associated with the development of gastric cancer. Therefore, downregulation of H. pylori-mediated IL-1β production may be a way to prevent gastric cancer. Withaferin A (WA), a withanolide purified from Withania somnifera, is known to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. In the present study, we explored the inhibitory activity of WA on H. pylori-induced production of IL-1β in murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and the underlying cellular mechanism. Co-treatment with WA decreased IL-1β production by H. pylori in BMDCs in a dose-dependent manner. H. pylori-induced gene expression of IL-1β and NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3) were also suppressed by WA treatment. Moreover, IκB-α phosphorylation by H. pylori infection was suppressed by WA in BMDCs. Western blot analysis revealed that H. pylori induced cleavage of caspase-1 and IL-1β, as well as increased procaspase-1 and pro IL-1β protein levels, and that both were suppressed by co-treatment with WA. Finally, we determined whether WA can directly inhibit ac tivation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. NLRP3 activators induced IL-1β secretion in LPS-primed macrophages, which was inhibited by WA in a dose-dependent manner, whereas IL-6 production was not affected by WA. Moreover, cleavage of IL-1β and caspase-1 by NLRP3 activators was also dose-dependently inhibited by WA. These findings suggest that WA can inhibit IL-1β production by H. pylori in dendritic cells and can be used as a new preventive and therapeutic agent for gastric cancer.
Jilani, Kashif; Lupescu, Adrian; Zbidah, Mohanad; Shaik, Nazneen; Lang, Florian
Withaferin A, a triterpenoid component from Withania somnifera, counteracts malignancy, an effect attributed to stimulation of apoptosis. Withaferin A is partially effective through induction of oxidative stress, altered gene expression and mitochondrial depolarization. Erythrocytes lack mitochondria and nuclei but may enter apoptosis-like eryptosis, a suicidal cell death characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface. Triggers of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca(2+)-activity [Ca(2+)](i) following activation of oxidant-sensitive Ca(2+)-permeable cation channels, ceramide formation and/or ATP-depletion. The present study explored, whether withaferin A triggers eryptosis. To this end, [Ca(2+)](i) was estimated from Fluo3-fluorescence, cell volume from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine exposure from annexin-V-binding, hemolysis from hemoglobin release, oxidative stress from DCFDA-fluorescence and ceramide abundance utilizing antibodies. A 48 h exposure to withaferin A significantly decreased forward scatter (at ≥ 10 μM withaferin concentration) and increased [Ca(2+)](i) (≥ 5 μM), ROS-formation (≥ 10 μM) ceramide-formation ( ≥ 10 μM) as well as annexin-V-binding ( ≥ 5 μM). Withaferin A treatment was followed by slight but significant increase of hemolysis. Extracellular Ca(2+) removal, amiloride, and the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine significantly blunted withaferin A-triggered annexin-V-binding. The present observations reveal that withaferin A triggers suicidal erythrocyte death despite the absence of gene expression and key elements of apoptosis such as mitochondria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Antony, Marie L; Lee, Joomin; Hahm, Eun-Ryeong; Kim, Su-Hyeong; Marcus, Adam I; Kumari, Vandana; Ji, Xinhua; Yang, Zhen; Vowell, Courtney L; Wipf, Peter; Uechi, Guy T; Yates, Nathan A; Romero, Guillermo; Sarkar, Saumendra N; Singh, Shivendra V
Withaferin A (WA), a C5,C6-epoxy steroidal lactone derived from a medicinal plant (Withania somnifera), inhibits growth of human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and prevents mammary cancer development in a transgenic mouse model. However, the mechanisms underlying the anticancer effect of WA are not fully understood. Herein, we report that tubulin is a novel target of WA-mediated growth arrest in human breast cancer cells. The G2 and mitotic arrest resulting from WA exposure in MCF-7, SUM159, and SK-BR-3 cells was associated with a marked decrease in protein levels of β-tubulin. These effects were not observed with the naturally occurring C6,C7-epoxy analogs of WA (withanone and withanolide A). A non-tumorigenic normal mammary epithelial cell line (MCF-10A) was markedly more resistant to mitotic arrest by WA compared with breast cancer cells. Vehicle-treated control cells exhibited a normal bipolar spindle with chromosomes aligned along the metaphase plate. In contrast, WA treatment led to a severe disruption of normal spindle morphology. NMR analyses revealed that the A-ring enone in WA, but not in withanone or withanolide A, was highly reactive with cysteamine and rapidly succumbed to irreversible nucleophilic addition. Mass spectrometry demonstrated direct covalent binding of WA to Cys(303) of β-tubulin in MCF-7 cells. Molecular docking indicated that the WA-binding pocket is located on the surface of β-tubulin and characterized by a hydrophobic floor, a hydrophobic wall, and a charge-balanced hydrophilic entrance. These results provide novel insights into the mechanism of growth arrest by WA in breast cancer cells.
Hahm, Eun-Ryeong; Lee, Joomin; Huang, Yi; Singh, Shivendra V.
We have shown previously that withaferin A (WA), a promising anticancer constituent of Ayurvedic medicine plant Withania somnifera, inhibits growth of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in culture and MDA-MB-231 xenografts in vivo by causing apoptosis. However, the mechanism of WA-induced apoptosis is not fully understood. The present study was designed to systematically determine the role of tumor suppressor p53 and estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) in proapoptotic response to WA using MCF-7, T47D, and ER-α overexpressing MDA-MB-231 cells as a model. WA treatment resulted in induction as well as increased Ser15 phosphorylation of p53 in MCF-7 cells, but RNA interference of this tumor suppressor gene conferred modest protection at best against WA-induced apoptosis. WA-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in MCF-7 cells were significantly attenuated in the presence of 17β-estradiol (E2). Exposure of MCF-7 cells to WA resulted in a marked decrease in protein levels of ER-α (but not ER-β) and ER-α regulated gene product pS2, and this effect was markedly attenuated in the presence of E2. WA-mediated down-regulation of ER-α protein expression correlated with a decrease in its nuclear level, suppression of its mRNA level, and inhibition of E2-dependent activation of ERE2e1b-luciferase reporter gene. Ectopic expression of ER-α in the MDA-MB-231 cell line conferred partial but statistically significant protection against WA-mediated apoptosis, but not G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. Collectively, these results indicate that WA functions as an anti-estrogen, and the proapoptotic effect of this promising natural product is partially attenuated by p53 knockdown and E2-ER-α. PMID:21432907
Thakur, Ajit Kumar; Soni, Upendra Kumar; Rai, Geeta; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas
This study was designed to experimentally verify the possibility that Andrographis paniculata could be another medicinal herb potentially useful for prevention of diverse spectrums of pathologies commonly associated with chronic unavoidable environmental stress, and whether andrographolide could as well be its quantitatively major bioactive secondary metabolite. Preventive effects of 21 daily oral 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses of a therapeutically used extract of the plant (AP) and 30 and 60 mg/kg/day of pure andrographolide were compared in rats subjected to 1-h daily unavoidable foot-shocks. A pharmaceutically well-standardized Withania somnifera (WS) root extract was used as a reference herbal anti-stress agent in all experiments. Effects of the treatments on stress-induced alterations in body weight, gastric ulcer, adrenal and spleen weights, and depressive state and sexual behavior in male rats were quantified. Other parameters quantified were plasma cortisol levels, and expressions of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-1β in blood and brain. All observed stress-induced pathological changes were less pronounced or completely prevented by both AP and pure andrographolide. Even the lowest tested doses of AP (50 mg/kg/day) or of andrographolide (30 mg/kg/day) suppressed almost maximally the blood IL-1β and IL-10 as well as brain TNF-α and IL-10 expressions induced by chronic stress. Qualitatively, the observed activity profiles of both of them were similar to those of WS dose tested. These results reveal that both AP and andrographolide are pharmacologically polyvalent anti-stress agents, and that biological processes regulating corticosterone and cytokine homeostasis are involved in their modes of actions.
Masevhe, Ndivhaleni A; McGaw, Lyndy J; Eloff, Jacobus N
This paper presents results of an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used for the management of candidiasis and related fungal infections in the Venda area, South Africa. Ethnobotanical data about the uses of plants were gathered from eleven rural traditional healers using semi-structured interviews. A total of 45 species belonging to 24 different families were identified, of which the dominant family was the Fabaceae with 13 species (28.9%) followed by the Asteraceae and Solanaceae with 3 species each (6.7 %). A total of 28 of these plant species (62.2%) have been shown to have anticandidal activity and 14 species (31%) have been recorded for antifungal uses in the literature. Amongst the 45 species recorded, 51% were trees, 33% were shrubs, and 16% were herbs. The most widely used plant species were Acacia caffra, Clerodendrum glabrum, Croton gratissimus, Elaeodendron transvaalense, Faurea saligna, Hippocratea longipetiolata, Osyris lanceolata, Richardia brasiliensis, Schkuhria pinnata, Schotia brachypetala, Spilanthes acmella, Strychnos potatorum, Vangueria infausta subsp. infausta and Withania somnifera. The plant parts mostly used in the therapeutic preparations were roots (27.7%), bark (23.2%), and a combination of roots, bark (18.7%) and leaves (14.3%). Decoctions (44.4%), infusions (20%), macerations (17.7%), burning (11.4%) and paste (6.5%) were used. Most of the herbal remedies were administered orally. The main factors threatening the conservation status of these plants are unsustainable methods of harvesting, logging for firewood, building materials and crafts. The Venda area is rich in plant diversity and local indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants can play an important role as a model for low cost primary health care. Further studies are in progress to validate the indigenous plants recorded as traditional remedies in this area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Singh, Sarvesh Kumar; Rajoria, Kshipra
Spinocerebellar ataxia -2 is a progressive, degenerative genetic disease caused by an expanded (CAG) trinucleotide repetition on the chromosome 12 resulting in production of an abnormal protein called ataxin-2. There is no known effective management or cure in biomedicine for this genetic disease. In the present study a case of SCA2 that was treated with Ayurvedic intervention is reported. Ayurvedic treatments in this case were directed towards alleviating symptoms and to reduce severe disability due to progressive nature of disease. A 42 year old male patient was diagnosed for Vāta vyādhi (group of various neurological disorders) and was- treated with Śālisastika pinda svedana (sudation with bolus of medicated cooked rice) for 30 days-, Śirobasti (sudation of head with the help of a cap on head) with Aśvagandhā taila for 45 days and Balādi ksīra basti (enema with medicated milk) with Aśvagandhā taila anuvāsana (enema with oil) for 30 days in Karma basti krama (30 days regime of purification and oleation enema) along with a combination of Ayurvedic oral drugs which consisted of Brahadvātacintāmanirasa - 125 mg, Vasantāmaltī rasa- 125 mg, Daśamūla kvātha- 40 ml, Aśvagandhā cūrṇa (powder of Withania somnifera DUNAL)- 3g, Amrtā cūrṇa (powder of Tinospora cordifolia Willd.)- 500 mg, Muktāśukti pisti - 500 mg, Yogarāja Guggulu - 500 mg twice a day for 2 months. Patient's condition was assessed on the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA). Before treatment, mean SARA score was 35. This reduced to 15 after treatment. Good relief in dysarthria, fasciculation, heaviness in eye, blurred vision, axial tremor; constipation and quality of life were observed in this case.
Singh, Sarvesh Kumar; Rajoria, Kshipra
Spinocerebellar ataxia -2 is a progressive, degenerative genetic disease caused by an expanded (CAG) trinucleotide repetition on the chromosome 12 resulting in production of an abnormal protein called ataxin-2. There is no known effective management or cure in biomedicine for this genetic disease. In the present study a case of SCA2 that was treated with Ayurvedic intervention is reported. Ayurvedic treatments in this case were directed towards alleviating symptoms and to reduce severe disability due to progressive nature of disease. A 42 year old male patient was diagnosed for Vāta vyādhi (group of various neurological disorders) and was- treated with Śālisastika pinda svedana (sudation with bolus of medicated cooked rice) for 30 days-, Śirobasti (sudation of head with the help of a cap on head) with Aśvagandhā taila for 45 days and Balādi ksīra basti (enema with medicated milk) with Aśvagandhā taila anuvāsana (enema with oil) for 30 days in Karma basti krama (30 days regime of purification and oleation enema) along with a combination of Ayurvedic oral drugs which consisted of Brahadvātacintāmanirasa – 125 mg, Vasantāmaltī rasa- 125 mg, Daśamūla kvātha- 40 ml, Aśvagandhā cūrṇa (powder of Withania somnifera DUNAL)- 3g, Amrtā cūrṇa (powder of Tinospora cordifolia Willd.)- 500 mg, Muktāśukti pisti – 500 mg, Yogarāja Guggulu – 500 mg twice a day for 2 months. Patient's condition was assessed on the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA). Before treatment, mean SARA score was 35. This reduced to 15 after treatment. Good relief in dysarthria, fasciculation, heaviness in eye, blurred vision, axial tremor; constipation and quality of life were observed in this case. PMID:27143801
Garg, Sukant; Muangman, Thanchanok; Huifu, He; Ling, Li; Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu
Stress is a state that triggers change in normal physiology and recognized by human body and brain as an unfavorable event causing concern, worry or anxiety. It may vary from physical, metabolic, physiological or emotional often culminating into wide range of ailments that may range from common cold, decline in functional efficacy of body systems or even cancer. Skin is the largest tissue of the body and makes the first interface with the environment. Skin color and characteristics are highly influenced by environment stress. A variety of natural compounds have been used for anti-stress and disease preventive potentials in worldwide traditional home medicine systems. They have recently attracted attention in research laboratories to dissect their mode of action to promote safe and economic drug development. We have earlier identified anti-stress and anti-aging activities in Withania somnifera, Helicteres angustifolia and honeybee propolis using human cultured normal and cancer cells. In the present study, we explored the effect of tamarind seed extracts prepared in water or 95% ethanol. In cell-based assays, we found that the extracts were safe to use in viable cells (in the range of 0.01-1.0%, for at least 4 weeks). Consistently, molecular studies revealed no effect on the expression/activity of cancer promoting proteins. We recruited oxidative stress models, such as, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ultraviolet radiation (UV) and diacylglycerol 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG). Investigation on anti-stress potential of the extracts revealed that they do not offer remarkable protection against stress caused by either H2O2 or UV, however, significantly compromised OAG-induced melanogenesis. The preliminary data warrant further investigations on the active components and mechanism of action to develop useful natural compounds/extracts for manipulation of melanogenesis that plays important role in response of cells to UV and its consequences including DNA damage
Halkai, Kiran Rahul; Mudda, Jayashree A.; Shivanna, Vasundhara; Rathod, Vandana; Halkai, Rahul S.
Background: Even after rapid progress in contemporary dental practice, we encounter the failures due to endodontic, periodontal, or combined lesions. Complex anatomy of tooth and resistant microbes demands the development of new treatment strategies. Aim: The aim of this study is to biosynthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using fungi and determine the antibacterial efficacy against Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacillus pumilus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: Fungi isolated from healthy leaves of Withania somnifera were used to biosynthesize AgNPs. The biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by different methods, and antibacterial efficacy was evaluated by agar well diffusion method measuring the zone of inhibition. Test microorganisms were divided as Group 1: B. pumilus 27142 (American Type Culture Collection [ATCC]), Group 2: E. faecalis 29212 (ATCC), and Group 3: P. gingivalis 33277 (ATCC). Agents used for antibacterial efficacy were grouped as: AgNPs: A (20 μl), B (40 μl), C (60 μl), D (80 μl), E (100 μl), F (0.2% chlorhexidine [CHX]), G (2% CHX), H (Ampicillin), and I (sterile distilled water). Results: Characterization studies showed the color change from colorless to reddish brown color; ultraviolet spectrum showed peak at 420 nm, transmission electron microscope revealed the particles spherical in shape and 10–20 nm size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of functional groups. Data collected for antibacterial efficacy were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's multiple shows no significant difference among three groups (P < 0.0001). AgNPs were as effective as CHX and positive control ampicillin. No zones were seen for I (distilled water). Conclusion: Biosynthesized AgNPs showed efficient antibacterial efficacy. Therefore, it creates a new horizon in the management of endodontic, periodontal, and combined lesions. PMID:29430090
Singh, Harpal; Kaur, Taranjeet; Manchanda, Shaffi; Kaur, Gurcharan
Intermittent fasting-dietary restriction (IF-DR) is an increasingly popular intervention to promote healthy aging and delay age associated decline in brain functions. Also, the use of herbal interventions is gaining attention due to their non-pharmacological approach to treat several abnormalities and promote general health with least side effects. The present study was aimed to investigate the synergistic effects of IF-DR regimen with herbal supplementation on anxiety-like behavior and neuroinflammation in middle aged female rats. We used dried leaf powder of Withania somnifera and dried stem powder of Tinospora cordifolia for our study. The rats were divided into three groups: (1) Control group fed ad libitum (AL); (2) rats deprived of food for full day and fed ad libitum on every alternate day (IF-DR); and (3) IF-DR and herbal extract (DRH) group in which rats were fed ad libitum with herbal extract supplemented diet, every alternate day. Post regimen, the rats were tested for anxiety-like behavior and further used for study of key inflammatory molecules (NFκB, Iba1, TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6) and glial marker (GFAP) in hippocampus and piriform cortex regions of brain. The study was further extended to explore the effect of DRH regimen on stress response protein (HSP70) and calcium dependent regulators of synaptic plasticity (CaMKIIα, Calcineurin). Our data demonstrated that DRH regimen reduced anxiety-like behavior in middle age female rats and associated neuroinflammation by ameliorating key inflammatory cytokines and modulated stress response. The present data may provide scientific validation for anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory potential of herbal intervention combined with short term IF-DR regimen.
Brown, Amy C
The purpose of this review was to create an online research summary table of heart toxicity case reports related to dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs). Documented PubMed case reports of DS appearing to contribute to heart-related problems were used to create a "Toxic Table" that summarized the research (1966 to April, 2016, and cross-referencing). Keywords included "herb," "dietary supplement," and cardiac terms. Case reports were excluded if they were herb combinations (some exceptions), Chinese herb mixtures, teas of mixed herb contents, mushrooms, poisonous plants, self-harm (e.g. suicide), excess dose (except vitamins/minerals), drugs or illegal drugs, drug-herbal interactions, and confounders of drugs or diseases. The spectrum of heart toxicities included hypertension, hypotension, hypokalemia, bradycardia, tachycardia, arrhythmia, ventricular fibrillation, heart attack, cardiac arrest, heart failure, and death. Heart related problems were associated with approximately seven herbs: Four traditional Chinese medicine herbs - Don quai (Angelica sinensis), Jin bu huan (Lycopodium serratum), Thundergod vine or lei gong teng (Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F), and Ting kung teng (Erycibe henryi prain); one an Ayruvedic herb - Aswagandha, (Withania somnifera); and two North American herbs - blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides), and Yohimbe (Pausinystalia johimbe). Aconitum and Ephedra species are no longer sold in the United States. The DS included, but are not limited to five DS - bitter orange, caffeine, certain energy drinks, nitric oxide products, and a calming product. Six additional DS are no longer sold. Licorice was the food related to heart problems. The online "Toxic Table" forewarns clinicians, consumers and the DS industry by listing DS with case reports related to heart toxicity. It may also contribute to Phase IV post marketing surveillance to diminish adverse events that Government officials use to regulate DS.
Abu-Darwish, Mohammad S.; Efferth, Thomas
Background: Cancer is one of the major problems affecting public health worldwide. As other cultures, the populations of the Near East rely on medicinal herbs and their preparations to fight cancer. Methods: We compiled data derived from historical ethnopharmacological information as well as in vitro and in vivo results and clinical findings extracted from different literature databases including (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar) during the past two decades. Results: In this survey, we analyzed the huge amount of data available on anticancer ethnopharmacological sources used in the Near East. Medicinal herbs are the most dominant ethnopharmacological formula used among cancer’s patients in the Near East. The data obtained highlight for the first time the most commonly used medicinal plants in the Near East area for cancer treatment illustrating their importance as natural anticancer agents. The literature survey reveals that various Arum species, various Artemisia species, Calotropis procera, Citrullus colocynthis, Nigella sativa, Pulicaria crispa, various Urtica species, Withania somnifera, and others belong to the most frequently used plants among cancer patients in the Near East countries. Molecular modes of action that have been investigated for plant extracts and isolated compounds from Near East include cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction with participation of major player in these processes such as p53 and p21, Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome c release, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, activation of caspases, etc. Conclusion: The ethnopharmacology of the Near East was influenced by Arabic and Islamic medicine and might be promising for developing new natural and safe anticancer agents. Further research is required to elucidate their cellular and molecular mechanisms and to estimate their clinical activity. PMID:29445343
Nair, Vinod; Arjuman, Albina; Dorababu, P; Gopalakrishna, H N; Chakradhar Rao, U; Mohan, Lalit
Use of typical antipsychotics like haloperidol in treatment of schizophrenia is associated with a high incidence of extrapyramidal side effects. In rodents, administration of haloperidol leads to the development of a behavioural state called catalepsy, in which the animal is not able to correct an externally imposed posture. In the present study we evaluated the anticataleptic efficacy of NR-ANX-C, a polyherbal formulation containing bioactives of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Camellia sinensis, triphala and shilajit in haloperidol induced catalepsy in mice. Five groups (n = 6) of male albino mice were used in the study. Catalepsy was induced by ip administration of haloperidol (1mg/kg). The degree of catalepsy (cataleptic score) was measured as the time the animal maintained an imposed posture. We compared the anticataleptic efficacy of NR-ANX-C (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg) with scopolamine (1 mg/kg). The superoxide dismutase (SOD) level in brain tissue was also estimated to correlate the levels of oxidative stress and degree of catalepsy in the animal. Significant (P<0.01) reduction in the cataleptic scores was observed in all NR-ANX-C treated groups and maximum reduction was observed in the NR-ANX-C (25 mg/kg) treated group. Significant (P<0.05) reduction in SOD activity was observed in NR-ANX-C (25 and 50 mg/kg) treated groups and maximum reduction was observed in NR-ANX-C (25mg/kg) treated group. In our study, maximum reduction in cataleptic score was observed in NR-ANX-C (25 mg/kg) treated group. The maximum reduction in SOD activity was also observed in the same group. These findings suggest a possible involvement of the antioxidant potential of NRANX- C in alleviating haloperidol induced catalepsy.
Nishikawa, Yukihiro; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Fukushima, Kohshiro; Mukai, Satomi; Ohno, Shouichi; Ozaki, Yuki; Yabuta, Norikazu; Nojima, Hiroshi
Withaferin A (WA), a major bioactive component of the Indian herb Withania somnifera, induces cell death (apoptosis/necrosis) in multiple types of tumor cells, but the molecular mechanism underlying this cytotoxicity remains elusive. We report here that 2 μM WA induced cell death selectively in androgen-insensitive PC-3 and DU-145 prostate adenocarcinoma cells, whereas its toxicity was less severe in androgen-sensitive LNCaP prostate adenocarcinoma cells and normal human fibroblasts (TIG-1 and KD). WA also killed PC-3 cells in spheroid-forming medium. DNA microarray analysis revealed that WA significantly increased mRNA levels of c-Fos and 11 heat-shock proteins (HSPs) in PC-3 and DU-145, but not in LNCaP and TIG-1. Western analysis revealed increased expression of c-Fos and reduced expression of the anti-apoptotic protein c-FLIP(L). Expression of HSPs such as HSPA6 and Hsp70 was conspicuously elevated; however, because siRNA-mediated depletion of HSF-1, an HSP-inducing transcription factor, reduced PC-3 cell viability, it is likely that these heat-shock genes were involved in protecting against cell death. Moreover, WA induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PC-3 and DU-145, but not in normal fibroblasts. Immunocytochemistry and immuno-electron microscopy revealed that WA disrupted the vimentin cytoskeleton, possibly inducing the ROS generation, c-Fos expression and c-FLIP(L) suppression. These observations suggest that multiple events followed by disruption of the vimentin cytoskeleton play pivotal roles in WA-mediated cell death. PMID:26230090
Aziz, Muhammad Abdul; Khan, Amir Hasan; Adnan, Muhammad; Ullah, Habib
The pastoral lifestyle of Indigenous communities of Bajaur Agency is bringing them close to natural remedies for treating their domestic animals. Several studies have been conducted across the globe describing the importance of traditional knowledge in veterinary care. Therefore, this study was planned with the aim to record knowledge on ethnoveterinary practices from the remote areas and share sit with other communities through published literature. Data was gathered from community members through semi-structured interviews and analyzed through informant consensus factor (Fic) to evaluate the consent of current ethnoveterinary practices among the local people. In total, 73 medicinal plants were recorded under the ethnoveterinary practices. Most widely used medicinal plants with maximum use reports (URs) were Visnaga daucoides Gaertn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Solanum virginianum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, Glycyrrhiza glabra L., and Curcuma longa L. New medicinal values were found with confidential level of citations for species including Heracleum candicans and Glycerhiza glabra. Family Apiaceae was the utmost family with high number (7 species) of medicinal plants. Maximum number of medicinal plants (32) was used for gastric problems. High Fic was recorded for dermatological (0.97) followed by reproductive (0.93) and gastrointestinal disorders (0.92). The main route of remedies administration was oral. Current study revealed that the study area has sufficient knowledge on ethnoveterinary medicinal plants. This knowledge is in the custody of nomadic grazers, herders, and aged community members. Plants with new medicinal uses need to be validated phytochemically and pharmacologically for the development of new alternative drugs for veterinary purposes.
Cheryan, Vino T.; Wu, Wenjuan; Cui, Cindy Qiuzhi; Polin, Lisa A.; Pass, Harvey I.; Dou, Q. Ping; Rishi, Arun K.; Wali, Anil
The medicinal plant Withania somnifera has been used for over centuries in Indian Ayurvedic Medicine to treat a wide spectrum of disorders. Withaferin A (WA), a bioactive compound that is isolated from this plant, has anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-cancer properties. Here we investigated malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) suppressive effects of WA and the molecular mechanisms involved. WA inhibited growth of the murine as well as patient-derived MPM cells in part by decreasing the chymotryptic activity of the proteasome that resulted in increased levels of ubiquitinated proteins and pro-apoptotic proteasome target proteins (p21, Bax, IκBα). WA suppression of MPM growth also involved elevated apoptosis as evidenced by activation of pro-apoptotic p38 stress activated protein kinase (SAPK) and caspase-3, elevated levels of pro-apoptotic Bax protein and cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP). Our studies including gene-array based analyses further revealed that WA suppressed a number of cell growth and metastasis-promoting genes including c-myc. WA treatments also stimulated expression of the cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein (CARP)-1/CCAR1, a novel transducer of cell growth signaling. Knock-down of CARP-1, on the other hand, interfered with MPM growth inhibitory effects of WA. Intra-peritoneal administration of 5 mg/kg WA daily inhibited growth of murine MPM cell-derived tumors in vivo in part by inhibiting proteasome activity and stimulating apoptosis. Together our in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that WA suppresses MPM growth by targeting multiple pathways that include blockage of proteasome activity and stimulation of apoptosis, and thus holds promise as an anti-MPM agent. PMID:22912669
Shakya, Anshul; Soni, Upendra Kumar; Rai, Geeta; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas
Results of the very first experiments conducted to evaluate therapeutic potentials of a fumarate containing Fumaria indica extract and of fairly low daily oral doses of monomethyl fumarate for prevention of chronic unavoidable foot-shock stress-induced gastric ulcers, and possible involvement of diverse neuro-hormonal and oxidative process in their stress response desensitizing effects are reported and discussed in this article. Preventive effects of 21 daily oral 60, 120, and 240 mg/kg doses of a standardized 50 % methanolic F. indica extract (MFI) and 1.25, 2.50, and 5.00 mg/kg/day of pure monomethyl fumarate (MMF) were compared in rats subjected to one hour daily unavoidable foot-shocks. A pharmaceutically well-standardized Withania somnifera (WS) root extract was used as a reference herbal anti-stress agent in all experiments. Effects of the treatments on stress-induced alterations in body weight, adrenal and spleen weights, gastric ulcer and ulcer index, weight of glandular stomach, protective mucosal glycoprotein content, cellular proliferation, oxidative stress on stomach fundus, and brain tissues of male rats were quantified. Other parameters quantified were plasma corticosterone levels, brain monoamine levels, and expressions of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-1β in blood and brain of stressed and treated rats. Most but not every observed stress-induced anomalies were suppressed or completely prevented by both MFI and pure MMF treatments in dose-dependent manner. Qualitatively, the observed activity profiles of both of them were similar to those of WS dose tested. These results reveal that both MFI and MMF are potent gastro-protective agents against chronic unavoidable stress-induced ulcers and strongly suggest that they act as regulators or modulators of monoamine, corticosterone, and cytokine homeostasis.
Moteetee, A; Seleteng Kose, L
Reproductive healthcare has been highlighted as a major challenge in Lesotho mainly due to the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections. As a result other reproductive ailments have not received much attention, particularly because healthcare facilities are already limited and many of them are inaccessible. For these reasons, medicinal plants play a major role in primary healthcare system in the country, in addition the plants are easily accessible, more affordable, and their use forms part of the cultural heritage. However, documentation of medicinal plants used for reproductive ailments is scattered, more importantly the biological and pharmacological properties, as well as toxicity of many of these plants are not yet known. To document the plants used by both male and female Basotho (residing in Lesotho) for the treatment of reproductive ailments, to explore their recorded biological and pharmacological effects as well as their toxicity, and to establish if these plants are used for similar purposes in other southern African cultures. The results stem from published findings of recent interviews of traditional medicinal practitioners in the Maseru District of Lesotho, first author's own experiences and observations from the Qacha's Nek District as well as comprehensive literature survey including numerous books and unpublished data. Electronic databases such as Google, Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect were also used to search for the chemical compounds, pharmacological activity, and toxicity of the plants. A total of 87 plant species are reported to be used for the treatment of several reproductive problems such as infertility, complications associated with pregnancy (twelve plants are used to treat conditions such as colic, heartburn, nausea, and constipation), cleansing and/ or toning of the uterus (with a purpose either to induce pregnancy or to get rid of the placenta, for example Withania somnifera and Zantedeschia
Maitra, Rangan; Porter, Melissa A; Huang, Shan; Gilmour, Brian P
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common autosomal genetic disorders in humans. This disease is caused by mutations within a single gene, coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The phenotypic hallmark of CF is chronic lung infection and associated inflammation from opportunistic microbes such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus. This eventually leads to deterioration of lung function and death in most CF patients. Unfortunately, there is no approved therapy for correcting the genetic defect causal to the disease. Hence, controlling inflammation and infection in CF patients are critical to disease management. Accordingly, anti-inflammatory agents and antibiotics are used to manage chronic inflammation and infection in CF patients. However, most of the anti-inflammatory agents in CF have severe limitations due to adverse side effects, and resistance to antibiotics is becoming an even more prominent problem. Thus, new agents that can be used to control chronic inflammation in CF are needed in the absence of a cure for the disease. Activation of the transcription factor NFkappaB through Toll-like receptors (TLR) following bacterial infection is principally involved in regulating lung inflammation in CF. NFkappaB regulates the transcription of several genes that are involved in inflammation, anti-apoptosis and anti-microbial activity, and hyper-activation of this transcription factor leads to a potent inflammatory response. Thus, NFkappaB is a potential anti-inflammatory drug target in CF. Screening of several compounds from natural sources in an in vitro model of CF-related inflammation wherein NFkappaB is activated by filtrates of a clinically isolated strain of PA (PAF) led us to Withaferin A (WFA), a steroidal lactone from the plant Withania Somnifera L. Dunal. Our data demonstrate that WFA blocks PAF-induced activation of NFkappaB as determined using reporter assays, IL
Chopra, Arvind; Saluja, Manjit; Tillu, Girish; Venugopalan, Anuradha; Narsimulu, Gumdal; Sarmukaddam, Sanjeev; Patwardhan, Bhushan
Background: Results of an exploratory trial suggested activity trends of Zingiber officinale-Tinopsora cordifolia (platform combination)-based formulations in the treatment of Osteoarthritis (OA) Knees. These formulations were “platform combination+Withania somnifera+Tribulus terrestris” (formulation B) and “platform combination+Emblica officinale” (formulation C). This paper reports safety of these formulations when used in higher doses (1.5–2 times) along with Sallaki Guggul and Bhallataka Parpati (a Semecarpus anacardium preparation). Materials and Methods: Ninety-two patients with symptomatic OA knees were enrolled in a 6 weeks investigator blind, randomized parallel efficacy 4-arm multicenter drug trial. The 4 arms were (I) formulation B, 2 t.i.d.; (II) formulation B, 2 q.i.d.; (III) platform combination+Sallaki Guggul; (IV) Bhallataka Parpati+formulation C. A detailed enquiry was carried out for adverse events (AE) and drug toxicity as per a priori check list and volunteered information. Laboratory evaluation included detailed hematology and metabolic parameters. Patients were examined at baseline, first and fourth weeks, and on completion. Standard statistical program (SPSS version 12.5) was used for analysis. Results: None of the patients reported serious AE or withdrew due to any drug-related toxicity. Mild gut–related (mostly epigastric burning) AE was reported. A mild increase in liver enzymes [serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)] without any other hepatic abnormality was reported in 2 patients (group IV). Other laboratory parameters remained normal. The mean improvement in active pain visual analog scale (1.4, CI 0.5–2.22), WOMAC (functional activity questionnaire) pain score (1.37, CI 0.22–2.5), and urinary C-TAX (cartilage collagen breakdown product) assay was maximum (NS) in group IV. Lower dose group I showed numerically superior improvement compared with higher dose group II
Bhattacharya, S K; Bhattacharya, A; Chakrabarti, A
Siotone (ST) is a herbal formulation comprising of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Asparagus racemosus, Tribulus terristris and shilajit, all of which are classified in Ayurveda as rasayanas which are reputed to promote physical and mental health, improve defence mechanisms of the body and enhance longevity. These attributes are similar to the modern concept of adaptogenic agents, which are, known to afford protection of the human physiological system against diverse stressors. The present study was undertaken to investigate the adaptogenic activity of ST against chronic unpredictable, but mild, footshock stress induced perturbations in behaviour (depression), glucose metabolism, suppressed male sexual behaviour, immunosuppression and cognitive dysfunction in CF strain albino rats. Gastric ulceration, adrenal gland and spleen weights, ascorbic acid and corticosterone concentrations of adrenal cortex, and plasma corticosterone levels, were used as the stress indices. Panax ginseng (PG) was used as the standard adaptogenic agent for comparison. Additionally, rat brain levels of tribulin, an endogenous endocoid postulated to be involved in stress, were also assessed in terms of endogenous monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and MAOB inhibitory activity. Chronic unpredictable footshock induced marked gastric ulceration, significant increase in adrenal gland weight and plasma corticosterone levels, with concomitant decreases in spleen weight, and concentrations of adrenal gland ascorbic acid and corticosterone. These effects were attenuated by ST (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and PG (100 mg/kg, p.o.), administered once daily over a period of 14 days, the period of stress induction. Chronic stress also induced glucose intolerance, suppressed male sexual behaviour, induced behavioural depression (Porsolt's swim despair test and learned helplessness test) and cognitive dysfunction (attenuated retention of learning in active and passive avoidance tests), and immunosuppression
Chopra, Arvind; Saluja, Manjit; Tillu, Girish; Venugopalan, Anuradha; Narsimulu, Gumdal; Sarmukaddam, Sanjeev; Patwardhan, Bhushan
Results of an exploratory trial suggested activity trends of Zingiber officinale-Tinopsora cordifolia (platform combination)-based formulations in the treatment of Osteoarthritis (OA) Knees. These formulations were "platform combination+Withania somnifera+Tribulus terrestris" (formulation B) and "platform combination+Emblica officinale" (formulation C). This paper reports safety of these formulations when used in higher doses (1.5-2 times) along with Sallaki Guggul and Bhallataka Parpati (a Semecarpus anacardium preparation). Ninety-two patients with symptomatic OA knees were enrolled in a 6 weeks investigator blind, randomized parallel efficacy 4-arm multicenter drug trial. The 4 arms were (I) formulation B, 2 t.i.d.; (II) formulation B, 2 q.i.d.; (III) platform combination+Sallaki Guggul; (IV) Bhallataka Parpati+formulation C. A detailed enquiry was carried out for adverse events (AE) and drug toxicity as per a priori check list and volunteered information. Laboratory evaluation included detailed hematology and metabolic parameters. Patients were examined at baseline, first and fourth weeks, and on completion. Standard statistical program (SPSS version 12.5) was used for analysis. None of the patients reported serious AE or withdrew due to any drug-related toxicity. Mild gut-related (mostly epigastric burning) AE was reported. A mild increase in liver enzymes [serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)] without any other hepatic abnormality was reported in 2 patients (group IV). Other laboratory parameters remained normal. The mean improvement in active pain visual analog scale (1.4, CI 0.5-2.22), WOMAC (functional activity questionnaire) pain score (1.37, CI 0.22-2.5), and urinary C-TAX (cartilage collagen breakdown product) assay was maximum (NS) in group IV. Lower dose group I showed numerically superior improvement compared with higher dose group II. The results suggested that despite higher doses, standardized
Gambhir, Lokesh; Checker, Rahul; Sharma, Deepak
Withaferin A (WA), a steroidal lactone isolated from ayurvedic medicinal plant Withania somnifera, was shown to inhibit tumor growth by inducing oxidative stress and suppressing NF-κB pathway. However, its effect on T-cell mediated adaptive immune responses and the underlying mechanism has not been investigated. Since both T-cell responses and NF-κB pathway are known to be redox sensitive, the present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of WA on adaptive immune responses in vitro and in vivo. WA inhibited mitogen induced T-cell and B-cell proliferation in vitro without inducing any cell death. It inhibited upregulation of T-cell (CD25, CD69, CD71more » and CD54) and B-cell (CD80, CD86 and MHC-II) activation markers and secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines. WA induced oxidative stress by increasing the basal ROS levels and the immunosuppressive effects of WA were abrogated only by thiol anti-oxidants. The redox modulatory effects of WA in T-cells were attributed to its ability to directly interact with free thiols. WA inhibited NF-κB nuclear translocation in lymphocytes and prevented the direct binding of nuclear NF-κB to its consensus sequence. MALDI-TOF analysis using a synthetic NF-κB-p50 peptide containing Cys-62 residue suggested that WA can modify the cysteine residue of NF-κB. The pharmacokinetic studies for WA were also carried out and in vivo efficacy of WA was studied using mouse model of Graft-versus-host disease. In conclusion, WA is a potent inhibitor of T-cell responses and acts via a novel thiol dependent mechanism and inhibition of NF-κB pathway. - Highlights:: • Withaferin A (WA) inhibited T-cell and B-cell mediated immune responses. • WA increased basal ROS levels in lymphocytes. • WA directly interacted with GSH as studied using spectrophotometry and HPLC. • WA inhibited NF-κB nuclear translocation and binding of nuclear NF-κB to DNA. • WA inhibited induction of the graft-versus-host disease in mice.« less
Asea, Alexzander; Kaur, Punit; Panossian, Alexander; Wikman, Karl Georg
We have previously demonstrated that ADAPT-232, a fixed combination of adaptogenic substances derived from Eleutherococcus senticosus root extract, Schisandra chinensis berry extract, Rhodiola rosea root extract stimulated the expression and release of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and molecular chaperone Hsp72 from isolated human neurolgia cells. Both of these mediators of stress response are known to play an important role in regulation of neuroendocrine system and immune response. We further demonstrated that ADAPT-232 induced release of Hsp70 is mediated by NPY, suggesting an existence of NPY-mediated pathway of activation of Hsp72 release into the blood circulation system. The objective of this study was to determine whether this pathway is common for adaptogens and whether NPY and/or Hsp72 can be considered as necessary specific biomarkers for adaptogenic activity. The release of NPY and Hsp72 from neuroglia cells in response to treatment with various plant extracts (n=23) including selected validated adaptogens, partly validated adaptogens, claimed but negligibly validated adaptogens and some other plant extracts affecting neuroendocrine and immune systems but never considered as adaptogens was measured using high throughput ELISA techniques. We demonstrated that adaptogens, e.g. R. rosea, S. chinensis and E. senticosus stimulate both NPY and Hsp70 release from neuroblastoma cells, while tonics and stimulants have no significant effect on NPY in this in vitro test. In the groups of partly validated adaptogens the effect of Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera was not statistically significant both on NPY and Hsp70 release, while the activating effect of Bryonia alba and Rhaponticum cartamoides was significant only on Hsp70. In contrast, all tested non-adaptogens, such as antiinflammatoty plant extracts Matricaria recutita, Pelargonium sidoides, Hedera helix and Vitis vinifera significantly inhibit Hsp70 release and have no influence on NPY release from neuroblastoma
Dom, Martin; Offner, Fritz; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Van Ostade, Xaveer
Withaferin A (WA), a natural steroid lactone from the plant Withania somnifera, is often studied because of its antitumor properties. Although many in vitro and in vivo studies have been performed, the identification of Withaferin A protein targets and its mechanism of antitumor action remain incomplete. We used quantitative chemoproteomics and differential protein expression analysis to characterize the WA antitumor effects on a multiple myeloma cell model. Identified relevant targets were further validated by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and Western blot and indicate that WA targets protein networks that are specific for monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and other closely related disorders, such as multiple myeloma (MM) and Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM). By blocking the PSMB10 proteasome subunit, downregulation of ANXA4, potential association with HDAC6 and upregulation of HMOX1, WA puts a massive blockage on both proteotoxic and oxidative stress responses pathways, leaving cancer cells defenseless against WA induced stresses. These results indicate that WA mediated apoptosis is preceded by simultaneous targeting of cellular stress response pathways like proteasome degradation, autophagy and unfolded protein stress response and thus suggests that WA can be used as an effective treatment for MGUS and other closely related disorders. Multifunctional antitumor compounds are of great potential since they reduce the risk of multidrug resistance in chemotherapy. Unfortunately, characterization of all protein targets of a multifunctional compound is lacking. Therefore, we optimized an SILAC quantitative chemoproteomics workflow to identify the potential protein targets of Withaferin A (WA), a natural multifunctional compound with promising antitumor properties. To further understand the antitumor mechanisms of WA, we performed a differential protein expression analysis and combined the altered expression data with chemoproteome WA target data
Van Wyk, B-E
indicum (2534), Strophanthus gratus (2514), Coffea arabica (2431), Citrullus lanatus (2215), Momordica charantia (2047), Withania somnifera (1767), Trigonella foenum-graecum (1687), Acacia senegal (1373), Centella asiatica (1355), Griffonia simplicifolia (1010), Hibiscus sabdariffa (987), Tamarindus indica (973) and Catha edulis (947). The top species in terms of recent research interest (% of publications in last decade) were: Hoodia gordonii (95%), Cyclopia genistoides (93%), Sceletium tortuosum (90%), Agathosma betulina (89%), Pelargonium sidoides (86%), Boswellia papyrifera (85%), Lessertia (Sutherlandia) frutescens (84%), Boswellia sacra (83%), Mondia whitei (81%), Hibiscus sabdariffa (80%), Hypoxis hemerocallidea (80%) and Tylosema esculentum (80%). Both lists reflect the recent interest in functional foods and dietary supplements. Despite a marked recent increase in the number of publications on indigenous medicinal plants and dietary supplements, Africa lags behind Europe and Asia in terms of the number of products that have been commercialised and the percentage of the flora that is utilized for international trade. There is a tremendous potential for developing new crops and new products but much work remains to be done to generate more focussed and relevant pre-clinical data and convincing proof of concept through clinical studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peachey, L E; Pinchbeck, G L; Matthews, J B; Burden, F A; Mulugeta, G; Scantlebury, C E; Hodgkinson, J E
Cyathostomins are the most important gastrointestinal nematode infecting equids. Their effective control is currently under threat due to widespread resistance to the broad spectrum anthelmintics licenced for use in equids. In response to similar resistance issues in other helminths, there has been increasing interest in alternative control strategies, such as bioactive plant compounds derived from traditional ethnoveterinary treatments. This study used an evidence-based approach to evaluate the potential use of plant extracts from the UK and Ethiopia to treat cyathostomins. Plants were shortlisted based on findings from a literature review and additionally, in Ethiopia, the results of a participatory rural appraisal (PRA) in the Oromia region of the country. Systematic selection criteria were applied to both groups to identify five Ethiopian and four UK plants for in vitro screening. These included Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile, Cucumis prophetarum L., Rumex abyssinicus Jacq., Vernonia amygdalina Delile. and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal from Ethiopia and Allium sativum L. (garlic), Artemisia absinthium L., Chenopodium album L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (ginger) from the UK. Plant material was collected, dried and milled prior to hydro-alcoholic extraction. Crude extracts were dissolved in distilled water (dH2O) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), serially diluted and screened for anthelmintic activity in the larval migration inhibition test (LMIT) and the egg hatch test (EHT). Repeated measures ANOVA was used to identify extracts that had a significant effect on larval migration and/or egg hatch, compared to non-treated controls. The median effective concentration (EC-50) for each extract was calculated using PROBIT analysis. Of the Ethiopian extracts A. nilotica, R. abyssinicus and C. prophetarum showed significant anthelmintic activity. Their lowest EC-50 values were 0.18 (confidence interval (CI): 0.1-0.3), 1.1 (CI 0.2-2.2) and 1.1 (CI 0.9-1.4)mg
Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Bauer, David; Mendonca, Patricia; Taka, Equar; Soliman, Karam F A
Chronic and acute central nervous system (CNS) inflammation are contributors toward neurological injury associated with head trauma, stroke, infection, Parkinsons or Alzheimers disease. CNS inflammatory illnesses can also contribute toward risk of developing glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). With growing public interest in complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs), we conduct a high throughput (HTP) screening of >1400 natural herbs, plants and over the counter (OTC) products for anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon gamma (IFNγ) activated C6 glioma cells. Validation studies were performed showing a pro-inflammatory profile of [LPS 3 µg/ml/ IFNγ 3 ng/ml] consistent with greater release [>8.5 fold] of MCP-1, NO2-, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemo-attractants (CINC) 1, CINC 2a and CINC3. The data show no changes to the following, IL-13, TNF-a, fracktaline, leptin, LIX, GM-CSF, ICAM1, L-Selectin, activin A, agrin, IL-1α, MIP-3a, B72/CD86, NGF, IL-1b, MMP-8, IL-1 R6, PDGF-AA, IL-2, IL-4, prolactin R, RAGE, IL-6, Thymus Chemokine-1, CNTF,IL-10 or TIMP-1. A HTP screening was conducted, where we employ an in vitro efficacy index (iEI) defined as the ratio of toxicity (LC 50 )/anti-inflammatory potency (IC 50 ). The iEI was precautionary to ensure biological effects were occurring in fully viable cells (ratio > 3.8) independent of toxicity. Using NO2- as a guideline molecule, the data show that 1.77% (25 of 1410 tested) had anti-inflammatory effects with iEI ratios >3.8 and IC 50 s <250µg/ml. These include reference drugs (hydrocortisone, dexamethasone N6-(1-iminoethyl)-l-lysine and NSAIDS: diclofenac, tolfenamic acid), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (apicidin) and the following natural products; Ashwaganda (Withania somnifera), Elecampagne Root (Inula helenium), Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), Green Tea (Camellia sinensis), Turmeric Root (Curcuma longa) Ganthoda (Valeriana wallichii), Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare), Maddar Root (Rubia
Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Sahin, Nurhan; Akdemir, Fatih; Yilmaz, Ismet
Mucuna pruriens, Ashwagandha, and Tribulus terrestris are known as the enhancers for sexual health, functional activities, vitality, and longevity. These herbs had been widely used in the Ayurveda medicine as aphrodisiacs through the ages, and their efficacy was also verified separately in our previous publication. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of Mucuna, Ashwagandha, and Tribulus complexes on sexual function in rats. Twenty-eight male rats allocated to four groups as follows: (i) negative control (C); (ii) positive control or sildenafil citrate treated group (5 mg/kg) (S); (iii) MAT1 (combination of 10 mg Mucuna (M) + 10 mg Ashwagandha (A) + 10 mg Tribulus (T)/kg BW); (iv) MAT 2 (20 mg Mucuna + 20 mg Ashwagandha + 20 mg Tribulus/kg BW). There was no significant difference found between the MAT1 and MAT2 groups while they showed significantly increased testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels when compared to the negative control. Significant increases in Nrf2/HO1 levels and decreases in NF-κB were detected in MAT groups similar to the decrease in serum and testis malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as compared to both controls. The sperm motility, count, and rate also significantly improved in both MAT groups, while ALT, AST, creatinine, ALP, and urea levels did not change in any of the groups. Oral consumption of MATs combination in male rats resulted in inhibition of NF-κB and MDA and also increased sex hormones with Nrf2-mediated HO-1 induction. MAT combinations may improve sexual functions by increasing levels of sexual hormones and regulation of NF-κB and Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathways. PMID:29853975
Khan, Muhammad Ramzan; Hu, Jinyong; He, Chaoying
Plant hormones direct many processes of floral and post-floral morphogenesis in Angiosperms. However, their role in shaping floral morphological novelties, such as inflated calyx syndrome (ICS) exhibited by a few genera of the Solanaceae, remains unknown. In Withania and Physalis, sepals resume growth after pollination and encapsulate the mature fruit to form a balloon-like structure, i.e. ICS. The epidermal cells of calyx show enlargement and lobation post-fertilization. Application of hormones to depistillated flower buds of Withania revealed that cytokinins and gibberellins mimic fertilization signals. The ICS development is a synchronous step with fruit development; both processes are under the control of more or less the same set of hormones, including cytokinins and gibberellic acids. Interestingly, inhibition of ethylene in the system is sufficient to yield inflated calyx in Withania. In contrast, Tubocapsicum, a closely related species and an evolutionary natural loss mutant of ICS - showed no response to applied hormones, and ethylene led to inflation of the receptacle indirectly. In addition to hormones, the expression of an MPF2-like MADS-box transcription factor in sepals is essential for ICS formation. Nevertheless, the interactions between MPF2-like genes and hormones are barely detectable at the transcript level. Our data provide insight into the role of hormones in generating floral morphological diversity during evolution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Mahanta, Vyasadeva; Dudhamal, Tukaram S; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar
Tennis elbow is a painful condition and causes restricted movement of forearm which requires treatment for long period. Till date only symptomatic treatments are available like use of anti-inflammatory analgesic drugs, steroids injection, physiotherapy, exercise etc. But none of these provide satisfactory result. Long term use of anti-inflammatory, analgesic drugs and steroids injection is also not free from the adverse effects. Usually, 'wait-and-see policy' of treatment guideline is recommended in most of medical texts. According to Ayurveda, snayugata vata can be correlated with the condition of tennis elbow. Sushruta has advised Agnikarma for disorders of snayu (ligaments and tendons), asthi (bone), siddhi (joints) etc. Hence, in this study a case of tennis elbow (snayugata vata) was treated by Agnikarma, along with administration of powder of Ashwagandha and Navajivana Rasa orally, for a period of 03 weeks. This combination therapy provided considerable relief in pain and movement of the elbow joint.
Khan, Muhammad Ramzan; Hu, Jinyong; Ali, Ghulam Muhammad
Expression divergence is thought to be a hallmark of functional diversification between homologs post duplication. Modification in regulatory elements has been invoked to explain expression divergence after duplication for several MADS-box genes, however, verification of reciprocal loss of cis-regulatory elements is lacking in plants. Here, we report that the evolution of MPF2-like genes has entailed degenerative mutations in a core promoter CArG-box and an auxin response factor (ARF) binding element in the large 1st intron in the coding region. Previously, MPF2-like genes were duplicated into MPF2-like-A and -B through genome duplication in Withania and Tubocapsicum (Withaninae). The calyx of Withania grows exorbitantly after pollination unlike Tubocapsicum, where it degenerates. Besides inflated calyx syndrome formation, MPF2-like transcription factors are implicated in functions both during the vegetative and reproductive development as well as in phase transition. MPF2-like-A of Withania (WSA206) is strongly expressed in sepals, while MPF2-like-B (WSB206) is not. Interestingly, their combined expression patterns seem to replicate the pattern of their closely related hypothetical progenitors from Vassobia and Physalis. Using phylogenetic shadowing, site-directed mutagenesis and motif swapping, we could show that the loss of a conserved CArG-box in MPF2-like-B of Withania is responsible for impeding its expression in sepals. Conversely, loss of an ARE in MPF2-like-A relaxed the constraint on expression in sepals. Thus, the ARE is an active suppressor of MPF2-like gene expression in sepals, which in contrast is activated via the CArG-box. The observed expression divergence in MPF2-like genes due to reciprocal loss of cis-regulatory elements has added to genetic and phenotypic variations in the Withaninae and enhanced the potential of natural selection for the adaptive evolution of ICS. Moreover, these results provide insight into the interplay of floral
Mussarat, Sakina; Amber, Rahila; Tariq, Akash; Adnan, Muhammad; AbdElsalam, Naser M.; Bibi, Roqaia
The present study was aimed to document detailed ethnopharmacological knowledge of medicinal plants against livestock infections of an unexplored remote region of Pakistan. Semistructured questionnaires were used for data collection. Total 43 plants belonging to 26 families were found to be used in ethnoveterinary practices. Seeds (29%) were found to be the most frequent plant part used followed by leaves (22%). Ethnoveterinary recipes were mostly prepared in the form of decoction and powdering. Informant consensus factor (Fic) results revealed high consensus for gastrointestinal (0.81), mastitis (0.82), and dermatological infections (0.80). Curcuma longa ranked first with highest fidelity level (FL) value (66%) followed by Trachyspermum ammi that ranked second (58%). Preference ranking (PR) results showed that Zingiber officinale, Punica granatum, Triticum aestivum, Gossypium hirsutum, and Withania coagulans were the most preferred species for the treatment of diarrhea. Direct matrix ranking (DMR) results showed that Morus alba, Melia azedarach, Withania coagulans, Cassia fistula, Azadirachta indica, and Tamarix aphylla were the multipurpose species of the region. We invite the attention of pharmacologists and chemists for further exploration of plants having high Fic, FL, and PR values in the present study. Conservation strategies should be adopted for the protection of multipurpose plant species. PMID:25544941
Bucci, L R
Herbs have been used throughout history to enhance physical performance, but scientific scrutiny with controlled clinical trials has only recently been used to study such effects. The following herbs are currently used to enhance physical performance regardless of scientific evidence of effect: Chinese, Korean, and American ginsengs; Siberian ginseng, mahuang or Chinese ephedra; ashwagandha; rhodiola; yohimbe; CORDYCEPS: fungus, shilajit or mummio; smilax; wild oats; Muira puama; suma (ecdysterone); Tribulus terrestris; saw palmetto berries; beta-sitosterol and other related sterols; and wild yams (diosgenin). Controlled studies of Asian ginsengs found improvements in exercise performance when most of the following conditions were true: use of standardized root extracts, study duration (>8 wk, daily dose >1 g dried root or equivalent, large number of subjects, and older subjects. Improvements in muscular strength, maximal oxygen uptake, work capacity, fuel homeostasis, serum lactate, heart rate, visual and auditory reaction times, alertness, and psychomotor skills have also been repeatedly documented. Siberian ginseng has shown mixed results. Mahuang, ephedrine, and related alkaloids have not benefited physical performance except when combined with caffeine. Other herbs remain virtually untested. Future research on ergogenic effects of herbs should consider identity and amount of substance or presumed active ingredients administered, dose response, duration of test period, proper experimental controls, measurement of psychological and physiologic parameters (including antioxidant actions), and measurements of performance pertinent to intended uses.
Sriranjini, S J; Pal, Pramod Kumar; Devidas, K V; Ganpathy, Selva
The treatment options for improving the balance in degenerative cerebellar ataxias are very few. Ayurvedic texts have described diverse treatment regimens for this disease. To determine the change in balance indices, if any, by dynamic posturography (Biodex Balance System, USA) in progressive cerebellar ataxia following Ayurvedic treatment. We performed a preliminary open labelled study on ten patients diagnosed with progressive cerebellar ataxia. The patients were treated over a period of one month. Treatment consisted of Shirobasti (therapeutic retention of medicament over the scalp) in male patients and Shirodhara (pouring of a steady stream of medicament on the forehead) in female patients with Dhanvantaram tailam (medicated oil) for 45 minutes daily, followed by Abhyanga (methodical massage) with Dhanvantaram tailam and Bhashpa sweda (steam bath), for 14 days. In addition, the treatment also consisted Abhyantara aushadha (oral medicines) of Maharasnadi kashayam 15ml thrice daily, Dhanvantaram capsules 101 two capsules thrice daily, and Ashwagandha tablet 500 mg one tablet thrice daily, for one month. The patients were assessed on the Biodex balance system before and after the treatment. Results were analyzed using paired samples 't' test. All patients tolerated the treatment well without any adverse events and reported subjective improvement in walking. There was a statistically significant improvement in the overall and anteroposterior balance indices of dynamic stability. Over the short period of the present study, Ayurvedic therapy was found to be safe and, showed improvement in the balance in patients with progressive degenerative cerebellar ataxia. Further randomized placebo-control double-blind studies are needed to validate the results.
Fulzele, Ashwini; Hudda, Nazmul
Purpose: Mental health is the level of psychological well being and encompasses the abilities to develop emotionally, psychologically, intellectually, socially and spiritually. There is no health without mental health. Most common mental disorder is depression, anxiety & drug addiction. Major depressive disorder is a mental disorder characterised by an all encompassing low mood accompanied by low self esteem and loss of interest in normally enjoyable activities. Standard treatment for depression includes antidepressant medication which have unpleasant side effect and psychotherapy which is time consuming and expensive. Objective of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of a herbal preparation and shirodhara therapy for the treatment of major depressive disorder and to compare its effectiveness with a standard drug. Method: It was Open Randomised Controlled clinical Study. Study population was selected from OPD & IPD of Kaychikitsa department at NIA and OPD of Psychiatry, SMS Medical College & Hospital, Jaipur. Out of 42 screened patients, 30 patients fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria for diagnosis of depression were enrolled for the study and randomly divided into two groups. Group A was given standard drug fluoxetine 20mg orally BD for 42 days. Group B was given herbal preparation orally for 42 days with shirodhara by medicated plain Ashwagandha oil for 14 days. Observations were made on baseline day, 14thday, and 28thday and 42nd day of study. Result: Both the groups showed significant improvement, with no unpleasant side effect in Group B. Conclusion: Selected Herbal preparation and Shirodhara therapy can be used in mild & moderate condition of major depression with free of side effect.
Mahima; Rahal, Anu; Deb, Rajib; Latheef, Shyma K; Abdul Samad, Hari; Tiwari, Ruchi; Verma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Dhama, K
Herbs/Botanical plants are considered as God's gift to human beings in the form of natural medicines, like the one well known "Sanjeevani booti" described in Hindu Mythology. The traditional and ethno-veterinary practices have been in use for centuries, transferring the knowledge from generation to generation and they are accessible, easy to prepare and administer, with little or no cost at all. Even though the modern developments in therapeutic field brought about a rapid decline in traditional medicine, the plant-based remedies are still having a crucial role as potential source of therapeutic aids in health systems all over the world for both humans and animals. Among the 21,000 medicinal plants listed by the World Health Organization (WHO), 2500 species are native to India, which stands first in the production of medicinal herbs. This innumerable treasure of medicinal herbs brings India the distinction of 'the botanical garden of the world'. Nowadays immune-based therapies are gaining more importance than monovalent approaches which are having limited benefits. Apart from the actions like treating diseases, control of ecto- and endo-parasites, fertility enhancement, bone setting and poor mothering management, an array of herbal medicines have been reported which are having immunomodulatory effects like modulation of cytokine secretion, histamine release, immunoglobulin secretion, class switching, cellular co-receptor expression, lymphocyte expression, phagocytosis and so on. The present article describes in brief few of these important ones viz., ashwagandha, amla, tulsi, arjuna, aloe vera, garlic, turmeric, ginger, shatavari, neem, guduchi, kiwifruit, tut, kamala, palashlata, kokilaksha etc. being used for human and animal health benefits.
Hussain, Wahid; Badshah, Lal; Ullah, Manzoor; Ali, Maroof; Ali, Asghar; Hussain, Farrukh
The residents of remote areas mostly depend on folk knowledge of medicinal plants to cure different ailments. The present study was carried out to document and analyze traditional use regarding the medicinal plants among communities residing in Koh-e-Safaid Range northern Pakistani-Afghan border. A purposive sampling method was used for the selection of informants, and information regarding the ethnomedicinal use of plants was collected through semi-structured interviews. The collected data was analyzed through quantitative indices viz. relative frequency citation, use value, and family use value. The conservation status of medicinal plants was enumerated with the help of International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List Categories and Criteria (2001). Plant samples were deposited at the Herbarium of Botany Department, University of Peshawar for future reference. One hundred eight informants including 72 male and 36 female were interviewed. The informants provided information about 92 plants species used in the treatment of 53 ailments. The informant reported maximum number of species used for the treatment of diabetes (16 species), followed by carminatives (12 species), laxatives (11 species), antiseptics (11 species), for cough (10 species), to treat hepatitis (9 species), for curing diarrhea (7 species), and to cure ulcers (7 species), etc. Decoction (37 species, i.e., 40%) was the common method of recipe preparation. Most familiar medicinal plants were Withania coagulans, Caralluma tuberculata, and Artemisia absinthium with relative frequency (0.96), (0.90), and (0.86), respectively. The relative importance of Withania coagulans was highest (1.63) followed by Artemisia absinthium (1.34), Caralluma tuberculata (1.20), Cassia fistula (1.10), Thymus linearis (1.06), etc. This study allows identification of novel uses of plants. Abies pindrow, Artemisia scoparia, Nannorrhops ritchiana, Salvia reflexa, and Vincetoxicum cardiostephanum have not been reported
Dragos, Dorin; Gilca, Marilena; Gaman, Laura; Vlad, Adelina; Iosif, Liviu; Stoian, Irina; Lupescu, Olivera
Chronic joint inflammatory disorders such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis have in common an upsurge of inflammation, and oxidative stress, resulting in progressive histological alterations and disabling symptoms. Currently used conventional medication (ranging from pain-killers to biological agents) is potent, but frequently associated with serious, even life-threatening side effects. Used for millennia in traditional herbalism, medicinal plants are a promising alternative, with lower rate of adverse events and efficiency frequently comparable with that of conventional drugs. Nevertheless, their mechanism of action is in many cases elusive and/or uncertain. Even though many of them have been proven effective in studies done in vitro or on animal models, there is a scarcity of human clinical evidence. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available scientific information on the following joint-friendly medicinal plants, which have been tested in human studies: Arnica montana, Boswellia spp., Curcuma spp., Equisetum arvense, Harpagophytum procumbens, Salix spp., Sesamum indicum, Symphytum officinalis, Zingiber officinalis, Panax notoginseng, and Whitania somnifera. PMID:28275210
Sandeep, Palakkil Mavilavalappil; Bovee, Toine F H; Sreejith, Krishnan
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a major hyperandrogenic disorder. Many drugs prescribed specifically to treat PCOS have side effects; however, previous studies suggest that natural therapeutics including botanicals may be less invasive and equally effective for the management of PCOS. In the present study, plants were screened for antiandrogenic activity using the RIKILT yeast Androgen bioAssay (RAA). Selected positive plants were subsequently tested for their efficacy against PCOS induced by estradiol valerate (EV) in rat models. RAA revealed the antiandrogenic property of Nardostachys jatamansi DC (NJ), Tribulus terrestris L. (TT), and Embelia tsjeriam-cottam DC (EJ), whereas Whithania somnifera Dunal (WS), Symplocos racemosa Roxb. (SR), and Helicteres isora L. (HI) exhibited androgenic properties. EJ also exhibited mild androgenic activity and therefore was excluded from further study. EV administration reduced the weight gain and disrupted cyclicity in all rats. NJ and TT extract treatment normalized estrous cyclicity and steroidal hormonal levels and regularized ovarian follicular growth. The in vitro antiandrogenic activity of plant extracts and their positive effects on different parameters of PCOS were proved in vivo.
Singh, M; Srivastava, P K; Verma, P C; Kharwar, R N; Singh, N; Tripathi, R D
Soil arsenic (As) contamination of food-chains and public health can be mitigated through fungal bioremediation. To enumerate culturable soil fungi, soils were collected from the As-contaminated paddy fields (3-35 mg kg(-1) ) of the middle Indo-Gangetic Plains. Total 54 fungal strains were obtained and identified at their molecular level. All strains were tested for As tolerance (from 100 to 10,000 mg l(-1) arsenate). Fifteen fungal strains, tolerant to 10,000 mg l(-1) arsenate, were studied for As removal in-vivo for 21 days by cultivating them individually in potato dextrose broth enriched with 10 mg l(-1) As. The bioaccumulation of As in fungal biomass ranged from 0·023 to 0·259 g kg(-1). The biovolatilized As ranged from 0·23 to 6·4 mg kg(-1). Higher As bioaccumulation and biovolatilization observed in the seven fungal strains, Aspergillus oryzae FNBR_L35; Fusarium sp. FNBR_B7, FNBR_LK5 and FNBR_B3; Aspergillus nidulans FNBR_LK1; Rhizomucor variabilis sp. FNBR_B9; and Emericella sp. FNBR_BA5. These fungal strains were also tested and found suitable for significant plant growth promotion in the calendula, withania and oat plants in a greenhouse based pot experiment. These fungal strains can be used for As remediation in As-contaminated agricultural soils. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Pérez-Méndez, Néstor; Rodríguez, Airam; Nogales, Manuel
The loss of largest-bodied individuals within species of frugivorous animals is one of the major consequences of defaunation. The gradual disappearance of large-bodied frugivores is expected to entail a parallel deterioration in seed dispersal functionality if the remaining smaller-sized individuals are not so effective as seed dispersers. While the multiple impacts of the extinction of large bodied species have been relatively well studied, the impact of intraspecific downsizing (i.e. the extinction of large individuals within species) on seed dispersal has rarely been evaluated. Here we experimentally assessed the impact of body-size reduction in the frugivorous lizard Gallotia galloti (Lacertidae), an endemic species of the Canary Islands, on the seed germination patterns of two fleshy-fruited plant species (Rubia fruticosa and Withania aristata). Seed germination curves and the proportions of germinated seeds were compared for both plant species after being defecated by large-sized individuals and small-sized individuals. The data show that seeds of W. aristata defecated by larger-sized lizards germinated faster and in a higher percentage than those defecated by small-sized lizards, while no differences were found for R. fruticosa seeds. Our results suggest that disappearance of the largest individuals of frugivorous species may impair recruitment of some plant species by worsening seed germination. They also warn us of a potential cryptic loss of seed dispersal functionality on defaunated ecosystems, even when frugivorous species remain abundant.
Tariq, Akash; Mussarat, Sakina; Adnan, Muhammad; Abd_Allah, E. F.; Hashem, Abeer; Alqarawi, Abdulaziz Abdullah
Aim of the present study was to document ethnomedicinal plants used against gastrointestinal complaints in five selected remote regions of Pakistan and to select potential medicinal plants for further in vitro and in vivo investigation. Data on ethnomedicinal plants and ethnographic profile of respondents was documented using semistructured questionnaires. The present study revealed utilization of 52 medicinal plants for the treatment of different gastrointestinal infections in studied regions. Apiaceae was the most dominant family reported to be used for the treatment of these infections (4 plants). Among all the plant parts fruit (24%), whole plants and leaves (23% each) were the most preferred plant parts used by the healers. Dosage of recipe was found to be related with the age of the patient. Highest degree of informant consensus was reported for vomiting, nausea (0.92 each), abdominal pain (0.9), and diarrhea (0.89). Withania coagulans scored highest FL value (86%) followed by Mentha longifolia and Melia azadirachta ranked second with FL value (75% each). Young generation was found to possess little traditional knowledge about utilizing plant recipes against these infections. Plants with high Fic and FL values should be subjected for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation for scientific validation. PMID:26114117
Hameed, Ishfaq; Hussain, Farrukh
The proximate analysis revealed the presence of ash, moisture, protein, fiber, fats and carbohydrate. ANOVA showed that ash and moisture contents was non significant between the plant parts and phenological stages. Crude protein was non significant between the plant parts and phenological stages except for Datura innoxia parts but not for its phenolgical stages, while crude fats were non significant between the plant parts and phenological stages except for Solanum nigrum and Solanum surattense parts but not for their phenolgical stages. Crude fiber was non significant between the plant parts and phenological stages except for Datura innoxia parts but not for its phenolgical stages. And carbohydrates was non significant between the plant parts and phenological stages except for the phenolgical stages of Solanum surattense and Withania coagulans. The mineral analysis showed the presence of Cr, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ca, K, Mg and Na in the roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits of the plants in three different phenological stages. Only the micro-minerals were present in traces while the macro-minerals were present high quantities as compared to the micro-minerals.
Patil, Dada; Gautam, Manish; Gairola, Sunil; Jadhav, Suresh; Patwardhan, Bhushan
Many botanical immunomodulators are used as adjuvants along with cancer chemotherapy. However, information on the impact of concurrent administration of such botanicals on pharmacokinetics of chemotherapy agents is inadequate. This study investigates inhibitory activities of 3 popular botanical adjuvants: ASPARAGUS RACEMOSU: (root aqueous extract; ARE), WITHANIA SOMNIFER: (root aqueous extract; WSE), and TINOSPORA CORDIFOLI: (stem aqueous extract, TCE) on human CYP3A4 isoenzyme, responsible for metabolism of several chemotherapy agents. . Testosterone 6-β hydroxylation was monitored using high-performance liquid chromatography as an indicator of CYP3A4 catalytic activities. Ketoconazole (positive control) and extracts were studied at their in vivo-relevant concentrations. TCE showed mild inhibition while no significant inhibitory activities were observed in WSE and ARE. TCE was further fractionated to obtain polar and nonpolar fractions. The nonpolar fraction showed significant CYP3A4 inhibition with IC50 13.06 ± 1.38 µg/mL. Major constituents of nonpolar fraction were identified using HPLC-DAD-MS profiling as berberine, jatrorrhizine, and palmatine, which showed IC50 values as 6.25 ± 0.30, 15.18 ± 1.59, and 15.53 ± 1.89 µg/mL, respectively. Our findings suggest that constituents of TCE extract especially protoberberine alkaloids have the potential to interact with cancer chemotherapy agents that are metabolized by CYP3A4 in vivo.
In Jodhpur, large number of people suffering with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes). They are using medicinal plants along with modern medicine for the management of diabetes. The aim of this work is to document the anti-diabetic plants and determine the most relevant anti-diabetic plant species using the Disease Consensus Index. Ethnomedicinal survey was conducted for selection of anti-diabetic plant. Structured questionnaire was developed for calculation of Disease Consensus Index and administered to fifty Type 2 diabetic patients for recording their response. Twenty-one species of anti-diabetic plants were recorded, Momordica charantia (score: 0.71), Azadirachta indica (score: 0.64), Trigonella foenum-graecum (score: 0.63), Capparis decidua (score: 0.60), Withania coagulans (score: 0.54), Gymnema sylvestre (score: 0.52) and Syzygium cumini (score: 0.51) were the most significant anti-diabetic plants of the area of study, having DCI more than 0.5. Use of anti-diabetic plants is prevalent diabetic patients of the area. C. decidua, W. coagulans and G. sylvestre are recommend the further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation due to high DCI score and relatively unexplored status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chandra, K K; Kumar, Neeraj; Chand, Gireesh
Five medicinal plants viz. Abelmoschatus moschatus Linn., Clitoria tematea L., Plumbagozeylanica L., Psorolea corylifolia L. and Withania sominifera L. were grown in a polypot experiment in five soils representing coal mine soil, coppermine soil, fly ash, skeletal soil and forest soil with and without mycorrhizal inoculations in a completely randomized block design. Dry matter yield and mycorrhizal root colonization of plants varied both in uninoculated and inoculated conditions. The forest soil rendered highest dry matter due to higher yield of A. moschatus, P. zeylanica and P corylifolia while fly ash showed lowest dry matter without any inoculants. P. cematea were best in coalmine soil and W. sominifera in copper mine soil without mycorrhizal inoculation. The mycorrhiza was found to enhance the dry matter yield. This contributed minimum 0.19% to maximum up to 422.0% in different soils as compared to uninoculated plants. The mycorrhizal dependency was noticed maximum in plants grown in fly ash followed by coal mine soil, copper mine soil, skeletal soil and forest soil. The mycorrhizal response was increased maximum in W. sominifera due to survival in fly ash after inoculation followed by P corylifolia and P cematea. Percent root colonization in inoculated plant was increased minimum of 1.10 fold to maximum of 12.0 folds in comparison to un-inoculated plants . The native mycorrhiza fungi were also observed to colonize 4.0 to 32.0% roots in plants understudy. This study suggests that mycorrhizal inoculation increased the dry matter yield of medicinal plants in all soils under study. It also helps in survival of W. sominifera in fly ash.
Zhang, Hui-Liang; Zhang, Hong
Withaferin-A (WF-A) is a well-known dietary compound isolated from Withania sominifera . It has tremendous pharmacological potential and has been shown to exhibit antiproliferative activity against several types of cancerous cells. Currently, the main focus of anti-cancer therapeutic development is to identify apoptosis inducing drug-like molecules. Osteosarcoma is a rare type of osteocancer, affecting human. The present study therefore focused on the evaluation of antitumor potential of WF-A against several osteosarcoma cell lines. MTT assay was used to evaluate WF-A against osteosarcoma cell lines and to calculate the IC 50 . DAPI staining was used to confirm the apoptosis inducing potential of WF-A. Mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, and Western blotting were used to confirm the basis of apoptosis. The results revealed that that WF-A exhibited strong antiproliferative activity against all the cells lines, with IC 50 ranging from 0.32 to 7.6 μM. The lowest IC 50 (0.32 μM) was observed against U2OS cell line and therefore it was selected for further analysis. DAPI staining indicated that WF-A exhibited antiproliferative activity via induction of apoptosis. Moreover, WF-A induced ROS-mediated reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential ΔΨm) in a dose-dependent manner and activation of caspase-3 in osteosarcoma cells. We propose that WF-A may prove a potent therapeutic agent for inducing apoptosis in osteosarcoma cell lines via generation of ROS and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. WF-A exhibits strong anticancer activity against osteosarcoma cell linesAntiproliferative activity of WF-A is via induction of apoptosisWF-A induced ROS-mediated reduction in mitochondrial membrane potentialWF-A induced expression of caspase-3 in osteosarcoma cells. Abbreviations used: WA: Withaferin A; ROS: Reactive oxygen species; OS: Osteosarcoma; MMP: Mitochondrial membrane potential.
Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A
Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. Thus, our aim was to provide a comprehensive narrative review of plant-based medicines that have clinical and/or preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity. We present the article in two parts. In part one, we reviewed herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In this current article (part two), we review herbal medicines for which there have been both preclinical and clinical investigations of anxiolytic activity. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) for English language papers using the search terms 'anxiety' OR 'anxiety disorder' OR 'generalized anxiety disorder' OR 'social phobia' OR 'post-traumatic stress disorder' OR 'panic disorder' OR 'agoraphobia' OR 'obsessive compulsive disorder' in combination with the search terms 'Herb*' OR 'Medicinal Plants' OR 'Botanical Medicine' OR 'Chinese herb*', in addition to individual herbal medicines. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, of which 53 plants were included in the review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed here in part two), with the other 32 having solely preclinical evidence (reviewed in part one). Support for efficacy was found for chronic use (i.e. greater than one day) of the following herbs in treating a range of anxiety disorders in human clinical trials: Piper methysticum, Matricaria recutita, Ginkgo biloba, Scutellaria lateriflora, Silybum marianum, Passiflora incarnata, Withania somniferum, Galphimia glauca, Centella asiatica, Rhodiola rosea, Echinacea spp., Melissa officinalis and Echium
Reddy, Sukka Santosh
Withanolides possess diverse biological and pharmacological activity but their immunomodulatory function is less realized. Hence, coagulin-L, a withanolide isolated from Withania coagulans Dunal has been studied for such an effect in human and murine cells, and mice model. Coagulin-L (1, 3, 10 μM) exhibited immunomodulatory effect by suppressing TLR4 induced immune mediators such as cytokines (GMCSF, IFNα, IFNγ, IL-1α, IL-1Rα, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-2R, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12 (p40/p70), IL-13, IL-15, IL-17), chemokines (IL-8/CXCL8, MIG/CXCL9, IP-10/CXCL10, KC, MCP-1/CCL2, MIP-1α/CCL3, MIP-1β/CCL4, RANTES/CCL5, eotaxin/CCL11), growth factors (FGF-basic, VEGF), nitric oxide and intracellular superoxide. Mechanistically, coagulin-L abrogated LPS induced total and mitochondrialmore » ROS generation, NOX2, NOX4 mRNA expression, IRAK and MAPK (p38, JNK, ERK) activation. Coagulin-L also attenuated IκBα degradation, which prevented NFκB downstream iNOS expression and pro-inflammatory cytokine release. Furthermore, coagulin-L (10, 25, 50 mg/kg, p.o.), undermined the LPS (10 mg/kg, i.p.) induced endotoxemia response in mice as evinced from diminished cytokine release, nitric oxide, aortic p38 MAPK activation and endothelial tissue impairment besides suppressing NOX2 and NOX4 expression in liver and aorta. Moreover, coagulin-L also alleviated the ROS mediated oxidative damage which was assessed through protein carbonyl, lipid hydroperoxide, 8-isoprostane and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine quantification. To extend, coagulin-L also suppressed carrageenan-induced paw edema and thioglycollate-induced peritonitis in mice. Therefore, coagulin-L can be of therapeutic importance in pathological conditions induced by oxidative damage. - Highlights: • Coagulin-L demonstrates immunomodulatory effects in vivo and in vitro by modulating ROS. • Coagulin-L modulates TH1/TH2/TH17 immunokines. • Coagulin-L exerts immunomodulatory effect by regulating TLR4-IRAK- ROS
Shah, Amin; Rahim, Sarvat
To best of our knowledge this is the first quantitative ethno-medicinal study with the aim of documenting the indigenous knowledge and practices of using plants for malarial therapy in Soon Valley, Khushab, Pakistan. In this Valley, malaria is among the major public health problems but, until now, the population still mostly relies on herbal medicine for treatment. Ethno-medicinal data were documented from 63 informants by using semi-structured questionnaires and interviewing the informants about their knowledge of plants regarding malaria and related symptoms. Documented data were evaluated using the quantitative ethno-botanical indices of frequency citation (FC), relative frequency of citation (RFC), percentage of respondents having knowledge (PRK) and Jaccard index (JI). A total of 70 plant species belonging to 62 genera and 34 families were recorded as anti-malarial in the study area. Solanaceae was found to be the most cited family with 7 species, followed by Fabaceae, Rutaceae and Lamiaceae with 5 species each. Ocimum americanum and Solanum incanum were the species with the highest relative frequency of citation (RFC =0.25 each) and percentage of respondents having knowledge (PRK =25.4% each), followed by Grewia tenax (RFC =0.23, PRK =23.8%), which indicates that these plants are the best species with anti-malarial properties. The most highly cited life form was found to be herbs (56%). The dominant plant part used in preparations were leaves (49%). The main mode of utilization was decoction (47%) followed by infusion (29%). In comparison, maximum similarity index is found in our study with JI (16.83) followed by (13.13). Similarity percentage of plants uses ranges from 0.81 to 16.83 while dissimilarity percentage varies from 0% to 17.65%. To the best of our knowledge seven plant species, viz. Withania coagulans, Fagonia cretica, Carthamus oxyacantha, Ehretia obtusifolia, Helianthus annuus, Olea ferruginea and Vitex trifolia, are reported from this region for
González Sampériz, Penélope
diversity and nuclei of population expansion during climatic ameliorations of the Pleistocene. The floristic composition, location and structure of glacial tree populations and communities may have been a primary control on these developments and on the origin and composition of Holocene scenarios. Refugial populations would have been a source, but not the only one, for the early Lateglacial oak expansions for example. From Middle to Late Holocene, inertial, resilient, and rapid responses of vegetation to climatic change are described, any time with regional and local differences. The role of fire, pastoralism, agriculture and other anthropogenic disturbances such as mining during the Copper, Bronze, Iberic, and Roman times must be also considered as an important factor of the current vegetation distribution. In fact, the Iberian Peninsula constitutes a territory where climatic, geological, biogeographical and historical conditions have converged to produce environmental heterogeneity, large biological diversity and ecosystem richness. A note of singularity: in comparison with other Mediterranean peninsulas, Iberia was, doubtless, particularly suitable for the survival and permanence of sclerophyllous elements of any kind (including Ibero-Maghrebian scrubs such as Maytenus, Periploca, Ziziphus,Withania, Lycium, and Calicotome), currently, during the Holocene, and even during glacial stages of the Pleistocene. However, no macro-remains of these taxa have been documented until Late Holocene chronologies, but the survival of other thermophilous species, such as Olea, reveals the existence of glacial refugia in the southernmost areas of Iberia. Over all, and dealing with plant species, the Iberian Peninsula is a land of survival.