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Sample records for women aged 15-49

  1. Knowledge, sources and use of family planning methods among women aged 15-49 years in Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alege, Stephen Galla; Matovu, Joseph KB; Ssensalire, Simon; Nabiwemba, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lack of knowledge of where to obtain correct family planning (FP) information and methods can be a critical barrier to eventual uptake of FP services. We assessed knowledge, sources and use of FP methods among women of reproductive age in rural Uganda. Methods This secondary analysis uses data from a larger cross-sectional study conducted to measure changes in perceptions towards long-term and reversible contraceptive use among 2,033 women of reproductive age (15-49years) resident in 34 districts of Uganda. Both users and non-users of FP methods were interviewed. Data were analyzed using STATA statistical software, version 12. Results Majority of the women were less than 30 years of age (64.3%). Nearly three-quarters were married (73.1%), 51.1% had primary education and more than half (57%) were engaged in employment. Knowledge of FP methods was universal (98.1%). Clinic providers (60.4%), friends (56.9%) and the media (51.3%) were the most trusted sources of contraceptive information. Government (27.6%) and private (21.1%) health facilities were the main sources of modern FP methods. Sixty two per cent of women reported current use of any FP method. Among non-users of FP, injectables (50.4%), implants (22.8%) and pills (20.2%) were the most preferred FP methods. Conclusion Our findings show that knowledge of FP methods is almost universal and that six in ten women use any FP method. Clinic providers, friends and the media are the most trusted sources of FP information. Government and private health facilities are the main sources of FP services. PMID:27583102

  2. Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Associated Factors among 15-49 Year Old Women in Dessie Town, Northeast Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality amongst female cancer worldwide, especially in developing countries, including Ethiopia. The level of women’s knowledge about cervical cancer is not well documented in Ethiopia. The current study sought to assess women’s knowledge about cervical cancer and associated factors. Methods A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted with a sample of 620 women aged 15–49 years residing in Dessie town, Northeast Ethiopia. Respondents were selected using a multistage sampling technique. The women were interviewed at home by trained data collectors using a structured questionnaire on cervical cancer knowledge. Knowledge about cervical cancer was measured using an eight item instrument. The maximum possible score was 8; those scoring 5 or more were categorized as having “sufficient” knowledge. Binary and multiple logistic regressions were employed to determine factors associated with knowledge about cervical cancer. Results A total of 51% of the participants had sufficient knowledge about cervical cancer. After adjusting for covariates, having sufficient knowledge about cervical cancer was positively associated with better educational level and income. Women with primary education (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 3.4; 95% CI: 2.2–5.1) and those who had secondary and above education (AOR: 8.7; 95% CI: 5.5–13.7) were more likely to have sufficient knowledge about cervical cancer compared to those who had no formal education. Furthermore, women earning an average household monthly income above 1500 Ethiopian birr (ETB) (~75 U.S. dollars) were more likely to have sufficient knowledge (AOR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3–3.9) than women with an average household monthly income less than 500 ETB (~25 U.S. dollars). Conclusion This study shows a suboptimal knowledge about cervical cancer regarding its risk factors, signs and symptoms, prevention and treatment among women in the study site. The

  3. Women and population aging.

    PubMed

    Kunugi, T

    1989-06-01

    In 1985, there were approximately 427 million persons aged 60 and over in the world, accounting for about 9% of the world's population. By 2020, the elderly population will comprise 13% of the world's population and 70% of these people will live in developing countries. Governments and international agencies should increase their efforts and activities to improve care for the elderly within the family unit. The socioeconomic implications of aging are greater for females because of their higher life expectancy. In the year 2000, 11% of the world's female population will be aged 60 and over. By 2025, there will be 604 million elderly women in the world, 70% of whom will be living in developing countries, and among them, 70% in rural areas. An important issue requiring both research and policy attention is the interdependence among women's economic, health, and social concerns, which increase with age. The author calls for more specific policies that aim to eliminate discrimination against disabled persons, the elderly, and particularly elderly women. The author urges governmental and nongovernmental organizations to implement these recommendations: 1) promote research studies and the collection and analysis of information on the socioeconomic, health, legal, and demographic situation of elderly women; 2) promote awareness of elderly women's contribution to society; 3) eliminate discriminatory treatment of elderly women; 4) develop health promotion programs and services to meet elderly women's long-term care needs; 5) promote wider appreciation of continued participation of elderly women in social and cultural activities; 6) promote the development of elderly women's organizations and self-help groups; 7) promote and assure the participation of elderly women in the process of development; and 8) develop literacy programs and training programs for elderly women.

  4. Health screening - women - over age 65

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...

  5. Health screening - women - ages 18 to 39

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - women - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - women - ages 18 to 39; Women's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  6. Health screening - women - ages 40 to 64

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - women - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - women - ages 40 to 64; Women's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  7. Reproductive ageing in women.

    PubMed

    Djahanbakhch, O; Ezzati, M; Zosmer, A

    2007-01-01

    The traditional view in respect to female reproduction is that the number of oocytes at birth is fixed and continuously declines towards the point when no more oocytes are available after menopause. In this review we briefly discuss the embryonic development of female germ cells and ovarian follicles. The ontogeny of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is then discussed, with a focus on pubertal transition and normal ovulatory menstrual cycles during female adult life. Biochemical markers of menopausal transition are briefly examined. We also examine the effects of age on female fertility, the contribution of chromosomal abnormalities of the oocyte to the observed decline in female fertility with age and the possible biological basis for the occurrence of such abnormalities. Finally, we consider the effects of maternal age on obstetric complications and perinatal outcome. New data that have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of mammalian oogenesis and follicular formation, and of the female reproductive ageing process, are also briefly considered.

  8. Midlife and Beyond: Issues for Aging Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saucier, Maggi G.

    2004-01-01

    The author discusses issues confronted by aging women, particularly those related to ageism and body image, emphasizing society's role in influencing women's perceptions of their bodies. Although body image issues cause anxiety throughout most women's lives, women entering middle age become more conscious of this concern. Problems related to a…

  9. Medicalization of women's third age.

    PubMed

    Kaufert, P A; Lock, M

    1997-06-01

    Medicalization usually refers to the process whereby the normal processes of pregnancy, childbirth, menstruation and menopause have been claimed and redefined by medicine. Rather than discussing medicalization and menopause in terms of the number of women taking hormones, or the percentage of physicians convinced they should prescribe them, this paper looks at the visual image of the menopausal woman as portrayed in the pharmaceutical literature and in the mass media. Unlike the depressed and sickly looking women shown in the pharmaceutical advertisements in the 1970s, this 1990s version of the menopausal woman is shown glowing with fitness, with well-maintained teeth, hair and skin, far too fit to break a hip, have a heart attack, or witness the slow destruction of their minds by Alzheimer's disease. This image is not to be confused with the reality of being a menopausal woman, yet the two are intimately intertwined, for the image determines how menopausal women see themselves and how they are seen in the wider society. The final section of the paper discusses how health is the new virtue for women as they age as each individual is held responsible for what happens to her body, particularly in terms of the decisions made at the time of menopause. PMID:9219103

  10. Rubella and measles seroprevalence among women of childbearing age, Argentina, 2002.

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, G. H.; Panero, M. S.; Urquiza, A.; Molina, M.; Prieto, S.; Del Carmen Perego, M.; Scagliotti, G.; Galimberti, D.; Carroli, G.; Wolff, C.; Bi, D.; Bellini, W.; Icenogle, J.; Reef, S.

    2005-01-01

    To assess rubella and measles susceptibility among women of childbearing age we conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study in four cities and one rural area in Argentina. A convenience sample of women aged 15-49 years seeking care in public health-care institutions was selected (n=2804). Serum specimens were tested for rubella and measles IgG antibody titres. The overall susceptibility to rubella and measles was 8.8 and 12.5% respectively. Seroprevalence differences were found for both rubella (P<0.001) and measles (P=0.002) across sites. Rubella seroprevalence was higher in women aged >or=40 years than in younger women (P=0.04). Measles seroprevalence tended to increase with age (P<0.001). Approximately 15% of women aged 15-29 years were not immune to measles. No risk factors were associated with rubella seronegativity; however, age (P<0.001) and having less than four pregnancies (P<0.001) were factors associated with measles seronegativity. Our findings support the introduction of supplemental immunization activities targeting adolescents and young adults to prevent congenital rubella syndrome and measles outbreaks over time. PMID:16181506

  11. Meaning of aging in women's lives.

    PubMed

    Covan, Eleanor Krassen

    2005-01-01

    As limited resources led me to combine teaching and research responsibilities, my students have been participating in an assignment that involves listening to aging women in order to discover how women explain the aging process. We have conducted 329 comprehensive interviews of women who were living in the decade of their sixties, seventies, eighties, or nineties. In this sample of predominantly southern women in the United States, meaning of age is explained in a process involving both looking back (reminiscence) and looking ahead (preminiscence) at one's life course with specific references to changes in one's body, family, home, and keeping the faith. PMID:16186092

  12. Survival analysis of timing of first marriage among women of reproductive age in Nigeria: regional differences.

    PubMed

    Adebowale, Stephen A; Fagbamigbe, Francis A; Okareh, Titus O; Lawal, Ganiyu O

    2012-12-01

    Early marriage is common among women in developing countries. Age at first marriage (AFM) has health implication on women and their under-five children. In Nigeria, few studies have explored AFM; the current study was designed to fill the gap. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, 2008 dataset on married women aged 15-49 (N = 24,986) was used. Chi-square, OLS regression and Cox proportional hazard models were used in the analysis. The mean AFM was 17.8 +/- 4.8 years and significant difference existed between the mean AFM of women in the North (16.0 +/- 3.6) and South (20.4 +/- 5.0) (p < 0.001). Region, education, religion, residence, nutritional status, age at first sexual intercourse and children ever born were significantly associated with timing of first marriage (p < 0.001). Majority of the women married between ages 15-19 years (43.1%), while very few married late (2.3%) and about 27.0% married too early (less than 15 years). Early marriage was more common in all the regions in the North than the South and the hazard was highest in the North West and North East. Women who reside in rural area (H.R = 1.15; C.I = 1.11-1.18) married early than their counterparts in the urban area. Age at first marriage was directly related to levels of education (p < 0.001). Muslim women married early (H.R = 1.34; C.I = 1.29-1.39) than Christians. Three models were generated from the data. Women married too early in Nigeria with Teenage marriage more common in the North than the South. Education has influence on AFM; therefore, women should have at least secondary education before marriage in Nigeria.

  13. Global aging: implications for women and women's health.

    PubMed

    Tabloski, Patricia A

    2004-01-01

    The world's older population has been growing for centuries; however, the pace of this growth is accelerating rapidly. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, by 2030, more than 60 countries will have 2 million or more older people. Population aging represents a "success story," with increasing numbers of people worldwide enjoying additional years of life. However, the sustained increase in numbers of older people (usually defined as persons over the age of 65) poses many challenges to policy makers and health care providers around the world. As the world population ages, we are just beginning to understand the social, economic, and political implications of the "age wave." The majority of older people are women, thus the implications of population changes for women and women's health are astounding. Nurses can take a national and world leadership role to adequately address the health care needs of increasing numbers of older women. PMID:15495709

  14. Religion, Ethnicity and Contraceptive Use among Reproductive age Women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Obasohan, Phillips Edomwonyi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Religion and Ethnicity are the two most important factors that shape the behavioral pattern especially health seeking behaviors of the people of Nigeria. This study seeks to examine the mediatory effects of the linkage between ethnicity and religion with selected socio-demographic variables on the current use of contraception (CUC) among women of reproductive age in Nigeria. Methods: Nationally representative sample of 39,948 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in the 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) was used. Chi-square was used to analyze the bivariate relationship between exposure variables and CUC. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds ratio with the 95% confidence interval. Results: The prevalence of CUC was generally low for women of reproductive age in Nigeria, highest among the Yoruba women and lowest among the Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri/Seriberi (HFKS) women; highest among other Christian women and lowest for Muslim women and highest for Yoruba/other religion and lowest for women of Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri/Seriberi/Islam. The odds ratios showed that disparity across ethno-religious boundaries is significant. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Globally, and especially in sub-Saharan African countries, maternal mortality resulting from the abortion of unintended pregnancies pose a major challenge in health delivery system. In Nigeria, a cultural and religious heterogeneous society, current use of contraceptives by women of reproductive age is found not to be a matter of independent effects of ethnicity, religiosity and other socio-demographic variables but also dependent on the effects of interactions between the ethnicity and religion. PMID:27621987

  15. Primary Care of Women Aging with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Womack, Julie A.; Brandt, Cynthia A.; Justice, Amy C.

    2016-01-01

    Women are living longer with HIV infection, but their life expectancy is shorter than for women in the general population. How best to manage the multiple comorbidities and polypharmacy that are common in HIV infected individuals has not been studied. This paper explores areas where the primary care of women with HIV may differ from that of aging women in the general population. We also discuss aspects of care that may not commonly be considered in those under the age of 65, specifically multimorbidity and polypharmacy. Incorporating a gerontologic approach in the care of these women may optimize outcomes until research provides more definitive answers as to how best to collaborate with women with HIV to provide them with optimal care. PMID:25782848

  16. Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages

    MedlinePlus

    ... 64 have a heart attack. About half of women who have a heart attack before age 65 die within 8 years. Heart ... have another within 6 years. About half of women who have a heart attack will be disabled with heart failure within 6 ...

  17. Neuroendocrine aspects of aging in women.

    PubMed

    Hall, J E; Gill, S

    2001-09-01

    In women, the loss of ovarian function at menopause is associated with marked changes in hypothalamic and pituitary function. In addition, the steady decline in serum levels of LH, FSH, and FAS with age following menopause provides clear evidence for age-related neuroendocrine changes independent of the changes occurring owing to loss of ovarian feedback on the hypothalamic and pituitary components of the reproductive axis. An increase in the overall amount of GnRH secreted occurs despite a 30% decrease in GnRH pulse frequency with aging. This observation implies that the amount of GnRH secreted with each secretory bolus is greater in older postmenopausal women when compared with younger postmenopausal women. Thus, there may be a prominent pituitary component to the age-related decline in gonadotropin secretion. Recent studies indicate that the response to estrogen negative feedback at the hypothalamic level is preserved with aging, whereas the response to estrogen positive feedback may decrease with reproductive aging; however, the response to estrogen positive feedback in women has not been investigated with respect to aging, per se. It will be important to determine whether these age-related changes in hypothalamic-pituitary function contribute to reproductive senescence in normal women, as has been suggested for similar changes in animal models.

  18. Work related injury among aging women.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Tracie; Legarde, Brittany; Kim, Sunhun; Walker, Janiece; Blozis, Shelley; Umberson, Debra

    2013-02-01

    This article reports the experiences of women aged 55 to 75 with mobility impairments who attributed aspects of their limitations to workplace injuries and provides insight into worker's compensation policies. The study sample includes Mexican American (MA) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) women aged 55 to 75 who participated in a 4-year ethnographic study of disablement. Ninety-two of the 122 participants in the study attributed aspects of their functional limitations to employment, and their experiences were analyzed using data from 354 meetings. Using Lipscomb and colleagues' conceptual model of work and health disparities, the women's experiences were grouped into three categories according to type of injury, assistance gained, and the consequences of a workplace injury; the results have broad implications for policies that influence aging outcomes. Workplace injuries causing permanent functional limitations compound the effects of age and gender on employment outcomes. Policies addressing health disparities should consider work related influences. PMID:23528432

  19. Substance Use in Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Herzberg, Jackie; Barrier, Breton; Sprague, Debra J; Vinson, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    Using anonymous exit questionnaires in a university OB/GYN clinic, of 165 pregnant women reporting on drinking prior to pregnancy, 26% screened positive for hazardous or harmful drinking. Among 153 non-pregnant women age 50 or younger, 39% screened positive. Of those, 85% had no plans to change their alcohol consumption, as most believed their drinking levels were not risky; 80% had a significant risk of becoming pregnant, but 85% believed pregnancy was unlikely. PMID:27443042

  20. Current tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure among women of reproductive age--14 countries, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Tobacco use and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in reproductive-aged women can cause adverse reproductive health outcomes, such as pregnancy complications, fetal growth restriction, preterm delivery, stillbirths, and infant death. Data on tobacco use and SHS exposure among reproductive-aged women in low- and middle-income countries are scarce. To examine current tobacco use and SHS exposure in women aged 15-49 years, data were analyzed from the 2008-2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) from 14 low- and middle-income countries: Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Vietnam. The results of this analysis indicated that, among reproductive-aged women, current tobacco smoking ranged from 0.4% in Egypt to 30.8% in Russia, current smokeless tobacco use was <1% in most countries, but common in Bangladesh (20.1%) and India (14.9%), and SHS exposure at home was common in all countries, ranging from 17.8% in Mexico to 72.3% in Vietnam. High tobacco smoking prevalence in some countries suggests that strategies promoting cessation should be a priority, whereas low prevalence in other countries suggests that strategies should focus on preventing smoking initiation. Promoting cessation and preventing initiation among both men and women would help to reduce the exposure of reproductive-aged women to SHS.

  1. Aging and reproductive potential in women.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, C.; Zimon, A. E.; Jones, E. E.

    1998-01-01

    Reproductive potential in women declines with age. Age-related changes in the ovary account for most of this loss of reproductive function. Oocytes, all of which are present at birth, decline in number and quality with age. The endocrine function of the ovary also declines with age, and the ovary becomes unable to sustain its normal function in the neuroendocrine axis. The neuroendocrine axis may be further affected by primary changes occurring in the hypothalamus and pituitary during aging, although this has not been established in humans. Aging also affects the function of the uterus as the endometrium loses its ability to support implantation and growth of an embryo. Diminished uterine function during aging may be due to changes in the uterine vasculature or to changes in the hormone-dependent development of the endometrium. Finally, aging increases a woman's risk of developing medical, gynecologic or obstetric conditions that may impair her fertility. Knowledge of these affects of aging on a woman's reproductive function is essential to advise and treat the growing number of women seeking pregnancy at advanced reproductive age. PMID:10527364

  2. Work Related Injury among Aging Women

    PubMed Central

    LeGarde, Brittany; Kim, SungHun; Walker, Janiece; Blozis, Shelley; Umberson, Debra

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the experiences of women age 55 to 75 with mobility impairments who attributed aspects of their limitations to workplace injuries and provides insight into worker’s compensation policies. The study sample includes Mexican American and non-Hispanic White women ages 55–75 who participated in a 4-year ethnographic study of disablement. Ninety-two of the 122 participants in the study attributed aspects of their functional limitations to employment, and their experiences were analyzed using data from 354 meetings. Using Lipscomb and colleagues’ conceptual model of work and health disparities, the women’s experiences were grouped into three categories according to type of injury, assistance gained, and the consequences of a workplace injury; the results have broad implications for policies that influence aging outcomes. Workplace injuries causing permanent functional limitations compound the effects of age and gender on employment outcomes. Policies addressing health disparities should consider work related influences. PMID:23528432

  3. Prevalence of Anemia among Tribal Women of Reproductive Age in Udupi Taluk, Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Ramachandra; Majeed, Jazeel Abdul; Chandrasekaran, Varalakshmi; Pattanshetty, Sanjay M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Anaemia is a major public health problem in India. Many studies have emphasized on prevalence of anaemia among general population. This study has focussed to address the prevalence of anaemia among the tribal population in Udupi taluk. Anaemia among women in the reproductive age group is one of the causes for maternal morbidity and mortality in India. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of anemia among tribal women (aged 15 to 49 years). Settings and Design: A Community based cross sectional study was conducted among tribal women aged 14-49 years in Udupi taluk, Udupi district, Karnataka. Methods and Material: A cross sectional study during July 2012 to August 2012 was conducted. A sample size of 170 was calculated taking into consideration a relative error of 15% and the prevalence of anemia in Karnataka as 51% (as per the NFHS-3). Statistical analysis used: Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to analyse the data using SPSS 15. Results: The study sample had a mean hemoglobin value of 11.3 g/dL with 95% CI of (11 – 11.6), with a standard deviation of 2g/dL. The study reveals that in the sample of tribal women in the age group of 15-49 years, the prevalence of anemia was 55.9%. Among the subjects, 6 (3.5%) were severely anemic, 33 (19.4%) were moderately anemic and 56 (32.9%) were mildly anemic. Conclusions: This study calls for an appropriate action and intervention in this tribal population to treat and prevent anaemia. PMID:26664839

  4. Women, aging, and alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Elizabeth E; Fischer-Elber, Kimberly; Al-Otaiba, Zayed

    2007-01-01

    The increase in prevalence rates of alcohol use disorders in younger versus older cohorts of female drinkers is many times higher than the corresponding increase in prevalence rates for male drinkers. Thus, the number and impact of older female drinkers is expected to increase over the next 20 years as the disparity between men's and women's drinking rates decrease. Due to differences in metabolism of alcohol, women of all ages compared to men are at higher risk for negative physical, medical, social, and psychological consequences associated with at-risk and higher levels of alcohol consumption. Aging women face new sets of antecedents related to challenges in the middle and older adult phases of life, such as menopause, retirement, "empty nest," limited mobility, and illness. As women age, they are subject to an even greater physiological susceptibility to alcohol's effect, as well as to a risk of synergistic effects of alcohol in combination with prescription drugs. On the other hand, there is mixed research indicating that older women may benefit from the buffering effect of low levels of alcohol on hormonal declines associated with menopause, perhaps serving as a protective factor against Coronary Heart Disease and osteoporosis. However, with heavier drinking, these benefits are either reversed or eclipsed. In addition, any alcohol consumption increases the risk for breast cancer in older women. The possible beneficial effects of alcohol must be weighed with the fact that the research does not typically establish causality, that low-risk drinking equates to one standard drink per day, that there is a risk of progression towards alcohol dependence, and that there are alternate methods to gain the same benefits without the associated risks. Older women also experience unique barriers to detection of and treatment for alcohol problems. Current treatment options specifically for older women are limited, though researchers are beginning to address differential

  5. Influence of pregnancy perceptions on patterns of seeking antenatal care among women in reproductive age of Masaka District, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Atekyereza, Peter R; Mubiru, Kenneth

    2014-10-01

    Maternal mortality remains a challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa including Uganda. Antenatal Care (ANC) is one of the recommended measures to improve maternal and child health. However, the influence of pregnancy definition and perception on patterns of seeking regular and timely antenatal care among women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) is not known. The objectives of this study were to: (i) understand the women's social definitions and perceptions on their pregnancy; (ii) understand the socio-cultural beliefs related to pregnancy among women of the reproductive age group; and, (iii) examine the influence of social definitions, perceptions and beliefs about pregnancy on women's antenatal care seeking behaviour patterns to inform the decentralised health care delivery system in Uganda. A total of 45 women, mothers and expectant women who were purposively selected from Kimanya sub county of Masaka district in Uganda participated in the study. Ten key informant interviews and four Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were also conducted. Key findings indicate that the women's socio-definitions and perceptions of pregnancy influence their seeking behaviour on antenatal health care. To the women with a positive orientation towards antenatal care, pregnancy provides joy, happiness, pride, promotes their social status and safe-guards their marriage. Pregnancy is rewarding with care, love, support and gifts. Women who shun antenatal care perceive pregnancy to be a source of misery, sadness, pain and suffering. It is an uncomfortable and regrettable experience. Women also hold socio-cultural beliefs on pregnancy, which are culturally constructed and rooted in taboos, rituals and practices of their communities. It is therefore important to sensitise women and those who attend to them when they are pregnant to understand these perceptions and definitions to motivate them to seek antenatal and postnatal care for better maternal and child health. PMID:26891521

  6. [Lycopene intake by different aged women groups].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Sitek, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate dietary intake of lycopene by the group of 100 women, from Central Poland, in different age <30 years, 30-50 years, >50 years (mean age 49 +/- 16 years) and main sources of lycopene. The study was carried out in the year 2006 (June-July) with the use of 4-day dietary food records. The lowest intake of lycopene was noted in the youngest group--4.17 mg/person/day, the highest intake in the oldest group--4.88 mg/person/day. The main sources of lycopene in food rations were tomato products (50.6%) and fresh tomatoes (43.5%). Tropical fruit delivered 5.2% of lycopene, other fruit and vegetable juices only 0.7%. Intakes of products, sources of lycopene, depended on age of women and were statistically significant in case of tomato, watermelon, pink grapefruit, and tomato products: ketchup, liquid tomato sauces, liquid tomato soups, tomato juice. PMID:20839464

  7. Progestin negatively affects hearing in aged women.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Patricia; Frisina, Susan T; Mapes, Frances; Tadros, Sherif F; Frisina, D Robert; Frisina, Robert D

    2006-09-19

    Female hormone influences on auditory system aging are not completely understood. Because of widespread clinical use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), it is critical to understand HRT effects on sensory systems. The present study retrospectively analyzed and compared hearing abilities among 124 postmenopausal women taking HRT, treated with estrogen and progestin (E+P; n = 32), estrogen alone (E; n = 30), and a third [non-hormone replacement therapy (NHRT; n = 62)] control group. Subjects were 60-86 years old and were matched for age and health status. All had relatively healthy medical histories and no significant noise exposure, middle-ear problems, or major surgeries. Hearing tests included pure-tone audiometry, tympanometry, distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), transient otoacoustic emissions, and the hearing-in-noise test (HINT). The HINT tests for speech perception in background noise, the major complaint of hearing-impaired persons. Pure-tone thresholds in both ears were elevated (poorer) for the E+P relative to the E and control groups. For DPOAEs, the E+P group presented with lower (worse) levels than the E and control groups, with significant differences for both ears. For the HINT results, the E+P group had poorer speech perception than the E and control groups across all background noise speaker locations and in quiet. These findings suggest that the presence of P as a component of HRT results in poorer hearing abilities in aged women taking HRT, affecting both the peripheral (ear) and central (brain) auditory systems, and it interferes with the perception of speech in background noise.

  8. Prevalence of genital warts in reproductive-aged Turkish women presenting at gynecology outpatient clinics for any reason.

    PubMed

    Kose, M F; Akin, L; Yuce, K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this multicenter descriptive study was to calculate the frequency of genital warts among Turkish women aged 15-49 years, who visited outpatient gynecology clinics for a variety of reasons. The study was conducted in February 2011 to collect data for a minimum of 154 patients at each center, and the total sample size reached 2,967 women (95.1% completion rate). Oral informed consents were obtained. A questionnaire including data on socio-demographic characteristics and reasons for admission was administered, and a pelvic examination was performed. The overall point prevalence was 35% (95% CI = 3.1%-4.0%), correcting for sampling design, with the highest rates observed in the 15 to 19-year-old group. The odds of having a genital wart was 1.82 times (95% CI = 0.99-3.33) higher among non-pregnant participants than in pregnant women (p = 0.051). The overall point prevalence of genital warts among reproductive-aged women attending gynecology outpatient clinics for any reason in Turkey was 35%. PMID:24283176

  9. Prevalence of genital warts in reproductive-aged Turkish women presenting at gynecology outpatient clinics for any reason.

    PubMed

    Kose, M F; Akin, L; Yuce, K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this multicenter descriptive study was to calculate the frequency of genital warts among Turkish women aged 15-49 years, who visited outpatient gynecology clinics for a variety of reasons. The study was conducted in February 2011 to collect data for a minimum of 154 patients at each center, and the total sample size reached 2,967 women (95.1% completion rate). Oral informed consents were obtained. A questionnaire including data on socio-demographic characteristics and reasons for admission was administered, and a pelvic examination was performed. The overall point prevalence was 35% (95% CI = 3.1%-4.0%), correcting for sampling design, with the highest rates observed in the 15 to 19-year-old group. The odds of having a genital wart was 1.82 times (95% CI = 0.99-3.33) higher among non-pregnant participants than in pregnant women (p = 0.051). The overall point prevalence of genital warts among reproductive-aged women attending gynecology outpatient clinics for any reason in Turkey was 35%.

  10. Women, Work and Age: A Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Working Women, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet provides statistics on various aspects of the special concern of midlife and older women in the labor force. It looks at the number of such women in the work force, marital status, displaced homemakers, and occupational categories represented by these women. Other areas of consideration are the cost-effectiveness of hiring older…

  11. Pregnancy Outcome of Multiparous Women Aged over 40 Years.

    PubMed

    Ates, Seda; Batmaz, Gonca; Sevket, Osman; Molla, Taner; Dane, Cem; Dane, Banu

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal age on prenatal and obstetric outcome in multiparaous women. Materials and Methods. A retrospective case control study was conducted, including women aged 40 years and over (study group, n = 97) who delivered at 20 week's gestation or beyond and women aged 20-29 years (control group, n = 97). Results. The mean age of women in the study group was 41.2 ± 1.7 years versus 25.4 ± 2.3 years in the control group. Advanced maternal age was associated with a significantly higher rate of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, fetal complication, and 5-minute Apgar scores <7 (P < 0.05). Caeserean section rate, incidence of placental abruption, preterm delivery, and neonatal intensive care unit admission were more common in the older group, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions. Advanced maternal age is related to maternal and neonatal complications.

  12. Intimate partner violence and current tobacco smoking in low- to middle-income countries: Individual participant meta-analysis of 231,892 women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Caleyachetty, Rishi; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Stephenson, Rob; Muennig, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Research on the health impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) has primarily focused on gynaecological and sexual health outcomes or psychiatric disorders. Much less is known about the association between IPV and tobacco smoking among women of reproductive age in low- to middle-income countries. This study examines the association between exposure to IPV and current tobacco smoking among women of reproductive age from low- to middle-income countries. We used data from Demographic and Health Surveys from 29 countries (231,892 women, aged 15-49) to examine the association between exposure to IPV and current tobacco smoking. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. There was a significant association between IPV and current tobacco smoking (pooled adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.38-1.79) after controlling for age, education, occupation, household wealth, religion and pregnancy status across countries. The association was moderately consistent across the 29 countries (I(2) = 55.3%, p < 0.0001). These findings suggest that exposure to IPV is associated with an increased likelihood of current tobacco smoking among women of reproductive age in low- to middle-income countries. Future research on the association between exposure to IPV and tobacco smoking in prospective cohort studies is warranted.

  13. Risk Factors for Urinary Incontinence among Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    DANFORTH, Kim N.; TOWNSEND, Mary K.; LIFFORD, Karen; CURHAN, Gary C.; RESNICK, Neil M.; GRODSTEIN, Francine

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Identify risk factors for urinary incontinence in middle-aged women. Study Design: Cross-sectional analysis of 83,355 Nurses' Health Study II participants. Since 1989, women have provided health information on mailed questionnaires; in 2001, at age 37-54 years, information on urinary incontinence was requested. We examined adjusted odds ratios of incontinence using logistic regression. Results: 43% of women reported incontinence. After adjustment, African-American (OR=0.49, 95% CI 0.40-0.60) and Asian-American women (OR=0.57, 95% CI 0.46-0.72) were at reduced odds of severe incontinence compared to Caucasians. Increased age, body mass index, and parity were all positively associated with incontinence, as were current smoking, type 2 diabetes, and hysterectomy. Women aged 50-54 years had 1.81 times the odds of severe incontinence compared to women <40 years (95% CI 1.66-1.97); women with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 had 3.10 times the odds of severe incontinence compared to BMI 22-24 kg/m2 (95% CI 2.91-3.30). Conclusions: Urinary incontinence is highly prevalent among these middle-aged women. Potential risk factors include age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, parity, smoking, diabetes, and hysterectomy. PMID:16458626

  14. Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery in Middle-Aged Women: Body Image, Aging Anxiety, and the Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…

  15. [Chronic cystitis in women of reproductive age].

    PubMed

    Moskovenko, N V

    2011-01-01

    The examination of 112 women suffering from chronic cystitis has detected frequent comorbidity of genital, gastrointestinal, locomotor and pelvic varicose diseases. Myofascial syndrome, hemodynamic disorders and venous congestion play a leading role in development of pain syndrome in women with comorbid diseases of the small pelvis organs. Clinicopsychological investigation of such women has revealed frequent vegetative and psychoemotional disorders with predominance of anxiodepressive conditions. Pain, dysuria and anxiodepressive disorders are among causes of imbalance of the autonomic nervous system which acvitaves regulatory systems and has an impact on quality of life. Women with chronic cystitis show significant deterioration of quality of life. Combined treatment including physical factors and therapeutic exercise reduced treatment duration, frequency of exacerbations, raised cost effectiveness.

  16. Formerly homeless, older women's experiences with health, housing, and aging.

    PubMed

    Waldbrook, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The perspectives of formerly homeless, older women are absent in the academic literature on aging and homelessness. In this study, a group of formerly homeless women, aged 45 years and older were surveyed (N = 15) and interviewed (n = 11) about their experiences with health, housing, and aging. The qualitative themes to be explored include the women's perceptions of their current health, coping with low incomes, dealing with addictions to alcohol and drugs, and the importance of supportive housing and other community services. The female participants' views on adapting to home, planning for their elderly years, and views on growing older are also explored.

  17. Women's age at first marriage and postmarital agency in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Crandall, AliceAnn; VanderEnde, Kristin; Cheong, Yuk Fai; Dodell, Sylvie; Yount, Kathryn M

    2016-05-01

    Early - or child - marriage (before age 18) may diminish women's ability to exercise agency, or their capacity to act upon their goals. Using a propensity score adjustment approach, we analyzed data from 2394 married women ages 35-49 years who participated in the 2006 Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS). We examined whether women's first marriage at age 18 or older was associated with their post-marital agency, measured in terms of their influence in family decisions, freedom of movement in public spaces, and unfavorable views about intimate partner violence against wives. In bivariate analyses, women's age at first marriage was positively associated with their decision-making and more equitable gender attitudes. However, once we controlled for selection into age-at-first-marriage groups, there were no significant differences between the two age-at-first-marriage groups in any dimension of women's agency. We examined the sensitivity of the non-significant age-at-first-marriage effects to possible violations of the strong ignorability assumption and the results did not alter our conclusions. The assumption that women's age at first marriage is a proxy for their post-marital agency, as defined here, warrants further study.

  18. A survey of China's birth control among women of child-bearing age.

    PubMed

    Qiu, S

    1983-12-01

    To further implement China's family planning policy of "prevention first, birth control first," a study of the current family planning situation was conducted. A survey of the birth control methods employed by women of childbearing age and by men was based on a nationwide randomized sampling of 1/1000. In the different age groups, ranging from 15-49 years old, IUD users accounted for over 50%, tubal sterilization 25%, and vasectomy 10%. The main IUD users were women in the 20-24 age group. Tubal sterilization was more prevalent among the women in the 35-39 age group. The use of oral contraceptives (OCs) was more common among younger women but accounted for less than 10% of the total. The survey was based on the replies to questionnaires from 172,788 married women of childbearing age; 120,022 of them practiced contraceptive methods for a birth control rate of 69.46%. The breakdown was as follows: IUD, 34.84%; tubal sterilization, 17.63%; vasectomy, 6.94%; OCs, 5.86%; condom users, 1.39%; and other methods (including chemical suppositories, rhythm, or safe period method and withdrawal before ejaculation), 2.78%. There was a higher percentage of OC users in urban areas, and a marked preference for IUDs in the rural communities. The rural birth control rate was 68.58%; the urban rate was 74.17%. The use of the IUD has priority in all the areas; its percentage approaches the national average level. The use of vasectomy as a birth control method varies considerably according to area as does the use of OCs, condom, and tubal sterilization. Rural minority groups prefer the IUD and OCs; tubal sterilization, the condom, and vasectomy are preferred by the Han nationality. The birth control rate differed according to the different occoupation groups: 77.85%, workers; 76.01%, farmers; 85.15%, cadres; 59.52%, housewives; and 66.67%, others. The birth control rate was higher among those who received a college education than the illiterates, but statistics did not show a

  19. [THE CONSTITUTIONAL ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF THE WOMEN OF MATURE AGE].

    PubMed

    Nikitiuk, D B; Nikolenko, V N; Klochkova, S V; Minnibayev, T Sh; Timoshenko, K T

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive anthropometric and bioelectrical study of 651 women of mature age (relative norm) aged 22 to 55 years living in the Moscow region, was conducted. The somatotyping was performed according to I.B. Galant-V.P. Chtetzov-B.A. Ni kitiuk scheme. The quantitative distribution of women according to their somatotypological characteristics was obtained, the anthropometric peculiarities and the specific features of body composition in women belonging to different somatotypes were determined. It was found that among the women of mature age studied, mesoplastic (26.9%) and stenoplastici (16.7%) somatotypes were dominant. The least frequently encountered were the representatives of asthenic (1.7%) and athletic (5.2%) somatic types. Women of different somatotypes vary significantly in height and weight and other anthropometric parameters. PMID:27141592

  20. Vaginal microbiome of reproductive-age women.

    PubMed

    Ravel, Jacques; Gajer, Pawel; Abdo, Zaid; Schneider, G Maria; Koenig, Sara S K; McCulle, Stacey L; Karlebach, Shara; Gorle, Reshma; Russell, Jennifer; Tacket, Carol O; Brotman, Rebecca M; Davis, Catherine C; Ault, Kevin; Peralta, Ligia; Forney, Larry J

    2011-03-15

    The means by which vaginal microbiomes help prevent urogenital diseases in women and maintain health are poorly understood. To gain insight into this, the vaginal bacterial communities of 396 asymptomatic North American women who represented four ethnic groups (white, black, Hispanic, and Asian) were sampled and the species composition characterized by pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA genes. The communities clustered into five groups: four were dominated by Lactobacillus iners, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, or L. jensenii, whereas the fifth had lower proportions of lactic acid bacteria and higher proportions of strictly anaerobic organisms, indicating that a potential key ecological function, the production of lactic acid, seems to be conserved in all communities. The proportions of each community group varied among the four ethnic groups, and these differences were statistically significant [χ(2)(10) = 36.8, P < 0.0001]. Moreover, the vaginal pH of women in different ethnic groups also differed and was higher in Hispanic (pH 5.0 ± 0.59) and black (pH 4.7 ± 1.04) women as compared with Asian (pH 4.4 ± 0.59) and white (pH 4.2 ± 0.3) women. Phylotypes with correlated relative abundances were found in all communities, and these patterns were associated with either high or low Nugent scores, which are used as a factor for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. The inherent differences within and between women in different ethnic groups strongly argues for a more refined definition of the kinds of bacterial communities normally found in healthy women and the need to appreciate differences between individuals so they can be taken into account in risk assessment and disease diagnosis.

  1. Wife killing: risk to women as a function of age.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, T K; Buss, D M; Peters, J

    2000-01-01

    Younger women, relative to older women, incur elevated risk of uxoricide-being murdered by their husbands. Some evolutionary theorists attribute this pattern to men's evolved sexual proprietariness, which inclines them to use violence to control women, especially those high in reproductive value. Other evolutionary theorists propose an evolved homicide module for wife killing. An alternative to both explanations is that young women experience elevated uxoricide risk as an incidental byproduct of marriage to younger men who commit the majority of acts of violence. We used a sample of 13,670 uxoricides to test these alternative explanations. Findings show that (a) reproductive-age women incur an elevated risk of uxoricide relative to older women; (b) younger men are overrepresented among uxoricide perpetrators; and (c) younger women, even when married to older men, still incur excess risk of uxoricide. Discussion examines competing explanations for uxoricide in light of these findings.

  2. Hepatitis B surface antigen prevalence among 12 393 rural women of childbearing age in Hainan Province, China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is highly endemic in China and it threats human health seriously. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence among women of childbearing age plays an important role in mother to child transmission of HBV, as 30% ~50% of chronic carriers can be attributed to maternal-infantile transmission. However, there are few studies which have reported on the prevalence of HBsAg among women of childbearing age in China. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HBsAg and its associated risk factors among rural women of childbearing age in Hainan, which is the highest hepatitis B virus endemic province in China. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based study, which included 12393 rural women aged 15 ~ 49 years, enrolled by a multistage stratified cluster sampling, was carried out in Hainan province, China, from November 2007 to December 2008. Blood samples were obtained from each study participant, and screened for HBsAg. Results The overall HBsAg prevalence of childbearing age women was 9.51%. Risk factors for HBsAg positivity among rural women were: lower education level (OR=1.206), lower family monthly income (OR=1.233), having an HBsAg-positive family member (OR=1.300), without an immunization history (OR=1.243), tattooing (OR=1.190), body piercing (OR=1.293), vaginoscopy history (OR=1.103) and history of induced abortion (OR=1.142). Conclusions There is a high HBsAg seroprevalence rate among rural women of childbearing age in Hainan province. Hence, it is necessary to take preventive measures to reduce the seroprevalence of HBsAg and to control its associated risk factors. PMID:23332007

  3. Middle-Aged and Older Women in Print Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenshead, Carol; Ingersoll, Berit

    1982-01-01

    Examined images of aging women depicted in periodical advertising over a 10-year period. Analyzed content for frequency, products involved, setting, value orientation, and change over time. Found older women in less than 1% of the advertisements, and no significant changes from 1967-1977. (Author/JAC)

  4. Why Some Women Look Young for Their Age

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, David A.; Rexbye, Helle; Griffiths, Christopher E. M.; Murray, Peter G.; Fereday, Amelia; Catt, Sharon D.; Tomlin, Cyrena C.; Strongitharm, Barbara H.; Perrett, Dave I.; Catt, Michael; Mayes, Andrew E.; Messenger, Andrew G.; Green, Martin R.; van der Ouderaa, Frans; Vaupel, James W.; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely unknown. We studied the facial appearance of 102 pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as 162 British females aged 45 to 75. Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles. There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked young or old for their age indicated that the structure of subcutaneous tissue was partly responsible. Heritability analyses of the appearance features revealed that perceived age, pigmented age spots, skin wrinkles and the appearance of sun-damage were influenced more or less equally by genetic and environmental factors. Hair graying, recession of hair from the forehead and lip height were influenced mainly by genetic factors whereas environmental factors influenced hair thinning. These findings indicate that women who look young for their age have large lips, avoid sun-exposure and possess genetic factors that protect against the development of gray hair and skin wrinkles. The findings also demonstrate that perceived age is a better biomarker of skin, hair and facial aging than chronological age. PMID:19956599

  5. Effects of Age on Maximal Work Capacity in Women Aged 18-48 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, G. Harley; And Others

    Fifty-six healthy nontrained women aged 18 to 48 were tested for maximal work capacity on a bicycle ergometer. The women were divided into three age groups. A continuous step-increment bicycle ergometer work test was administered with the workload starting at 150 kpm (kilometers per minute) and 50 pedal rpm (revolutions per minute). The workload…

  6. Vascular Aging in Women: is Estrogen the Fountain of Youth?

    PubMed

    Novella, Susana; Dantas, Ana Paula; Segarra, Gloria; Medina, Pascual; Hermenegildo, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Aging is associated with structural and functional changes in the vasculature, including endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and remodeling, impaired angiogenesis, and defective vascular repair, and with increased prevalence of atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular risk is similar for older men and women, but lower in women during their fertile years. This age- and sex-related difference points to estrogen as a protective factor because menopause is marked by the loss of endogenous estrogen production. Experimental and some clinical studies have attributed most of the protective effects of estrogen to its modulatory action on vascular endothelium. Estrogen promotes endothelial-derived NO production through increased expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and modulates prostacyclin and thromboxane A(2) release. The thromboxane A(2) pathway is key to regulating vascular tone in females. Despite all the experimental evidence, some clinical trials have reported no cardiovascular benefit from estrogen replacement therapy in older postmenopausal women. The "Timing Hypothesis," which states that estrogen-mediated vascular benefits occur only before the detrimental effects of aging are established in the vasculature, offers a possible explanation for these discrepancies. Nevertheless, a gap remains in current knowledge of cardiovascular aging mechanisms in women. This review comprises clinical and experimental data on the effects of aging, estrogens, and hormone replacement therapy on vascular function of females. We aim to clarify how menopause and aging contribute jointly to vascular aging and how estrogen modulates vascular response at different ages. PMID:22685434

  7. Vascular Aging in Women: is Estrogen the Fountain of Youth?

    PubMed Central

    Novella, Susana; Dantas, Ana Paula; Segarra, Gloria; Medina, Pascual; Hermenegildo, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Aging is associated with structural and functional changes in the vasculature, including endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and remodeling, impaired angiogenesis, and defective vascular repair, and with increased prevalence of atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular risk is similar for older men and women, but lower in women during their fertile years. This age- and sex-related difference points to estrogen as a protective factor because menopause is marked by the loss of endogenous estrogen production. Experimental and some clinical studies have attributed most of the protective effects of estrogen to its modulatory action on vascular endothelium. Estrogen promotes endothelial-derived NO production through increased expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and modulates prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 release. The thromboxane A2 pathway is key to regulating vascular tone in females. Despite all the experimental evidence, some clinical trials have reported no cardiovascular benefit from estrogen replacement therapy in older postmenopausal women. The “Timing Hypothesis,” which states that estrogen-mediated vascular benefits occur only before the detrimental effects of aging are established in the vasculature, offers a possible explanation for these discrepancies. Nevertheless, a gap remains in current knowledge of cardiovascular aging mechanisms in women. This review comprises clinical and experimental data on the effects of aging, estrogens, and hormone replacement therapy on vascular function of females. We aim to clarify how menopause and aging contribute jointly to vascular aging and how estrogen modulates vascular response at different ages. PMID:22685434

  8. Misconceptions and Miscommunication among Aging Women with Overactive Bladder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ariana L.; Nissim, Helen A.; Le, Thuy X.; Khan, Aqsa; Maliski, Sally L.; Litwin, Mark S.; Sarkisian, Catherine A.; Raz, Shlomo; Rodríguez, Larissa V.; Anger, Jennifer T.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives With the ultimate goal of improving the quality of care provided to aging women with overactive bladder, we sought to better understand aging women’s experience with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms and the care they receive. Methods Women seen in outpatient female urology clinics were identified by ICD-9 codes for OAB and recruited. Patients with painful bladder syndrome, mixed stress and urge incontinence, prolapse, or recent pelvic surgery were excluded. Patient focus groups were conducted by trained non-clinician moderators incorporating topics related to patients’ perceptions of OAB physiology, symptoms, diagnostic evaluation, treatments, and outcomes. Qualitative data analysis was performed using grounded theory methodology. Results Five focus groups totaling 33 women with OAB were conducted. Average patient age was 67 years (range 39–91). Older women with OAB lacked knowledge about the physiology of their disease and had poor understanding regarding the rationale for many diagnostic tests, including urodynamics and cystoscopy. The results of diagnostic studies often were not understood by older patients. Many women were dissatisfied with the care they had received. This lack of knowledge and understanding was more apparent among the elderly women in the group. Conclusions Findings demonstrated a poor understanding of the physiology of overactive bladder and the rationale for various diagnostic modalities and treatments. This was associated with dissatisfaction with care. There is a need for better communication with older women experiencing OAB symptoms about the physiology of the condition. PMID:20970839

  9. Changes in the body posture of women occurring with age

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A current topic in the field of geriatrics still needing a great deal of study is the changes in body posture occurring with age. Symptoms of these changes can be observed starting between the ages of 40–50 years with a slow progression that increases after 60 years of age. The aims of this study were to evaluate parameters characterizing the posture of women over the age of 60 years compared with a control group and to determine the dynamics of body posture changes in the following decades. Methods The study included 260 randomly selected women. The study group consisted of 130 women between the ages of 60–90 years (Older Women). The control group (Younger Women) consisted of 130 women between the ages of 20–25 years (posture stabilization period). The photogrammetric method was used to evaluate body posture using the phenomenon of the projection chamber. The study was conducted according to generally accepted principles. Results In the analysis of parameters characterizing individual slope curves, results were varied among different age groups. The lumbar spine slope did not show significant differences between different age groups (p = 0.6952), while statistically significant differences (p = 0.0000) were found in the thoracic-lumbar spine slope (p = 0.0033) and upper thoracic spine slope. Body angle was shown to increase with age (p = 0.0000). Thoracic kyphosis depth significantly deepened with age (p = 0.0002), however, the thoracic kyphosis angle decreased with age (p = 0.0000). An increase in asymmetries was noticed, provided by a significantly higher angle of the shoulder line (p = 0.0199) and the difference in height of the lower shoulder blade angle (p = 0.0007) measurements in the group of older women. Conclusions Changes in the parameters describing body posture throughout consecutive decades were observed. Therapy for women over the age of 60 years should involve strengthening of the erector spinae

  10. Vascular Aging across the Menopause Transition in Healthy Women

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Kerrie L.; Hildreth, Kerry L.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular aging, featuring endothelial dysfunction and large artery stiffening, is a major risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). In women, vascular aging appears to be accelerated during the menopause transition, particularly around the late perimenopausal period, presumably related to declines in ovarian function and estrogen levels. The mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction and large artery stiffening with the menopause transition are not completely understood. Oxidative stress and the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α contribute to endothelial dysfunction and large artery stiffening in estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women. Habitual endurance exercise attenuates the age-related increase in large artery stiffness in estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women and can reverse arterial stiffening to premenopausal levels in estrogen-replete postmenopausal women. In contrast, estrogen status appears to play a key permissive role in the adaptive response of the endothelium to habitual endurance exercise in that endothelial improvements are absent in estrogen-deficient women but present in estrogen-replete women. We review here the current state of knowledge on the biological defects underlying vascular aging across the menopause transition, with particular focus on potential mechanisms, the role of habitual exercise in preserving vascular health, and key areas for future research. PMID:25984561

  11. Body dissatisfaction among middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Catherine; Lengyel, Christina; Utioh, Alphonsus

    2012-01-01

    With the growing pervasiveness of mass media, individuals of all ages and both sexes are bombarded with images that glorify youthfulness, messages that tie self-worth to thinness, and products that promise youth and beauty forever. Aging women are vulnerable to these societal messages and experience strong pressures to maintain their youth and thinness. As the physiological changes that accompany normal aging move these women farther from the "ideal" image, body dissatisfaction may increase. These women are confronted with the impossible task of trying to defy the natural process of aging through a variety of means, including fashion, cosmetics, selective surgeries, and personal food choices. The resulting body image issues, weight preoccupation, and eating disturbances can lead to voluntary food restriction, depression, social withdrawal, lower self-esteem, and disordered eating, all of which can have a negative impact on quality of life and nutritional status. In this review we explore existing research on body dissatisfaction among middle-aged (30 to 60) and older (over 60) women, discuss the prevalence of body dissatisfaction, its predisposing risk factors, and the resulting eating and body maintenance behaviours, and examine implications for dietetic practice.

  12. Health of Indonesian women city-dwellers of perimenopausal age.

    PubMed

    Samil, R S; Wishnuwardhani, S D

    1994-10-01

    In the last few years more women of climacteric age, living in urban areas, have been seeking medical care. In 1989, on the invitation of 6 women's organizations in Jakarta and other cities, the Indonesian Menopause Society gave talks and held discussions in cooperation with the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine of the University of Indonesia/Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta. These occasions were used to accumulate data from women participants of 40 years of age and older. The age of the respondents ranged between 40-59 years. Most were 42 years old (13.9%). Ninety-four percent were still married. Twenty-five percent had three living children. Sixty-three percent of the respondents were high school graduates who worked full time (33%), part time, or were unemployed. The average menarche age was 13 and menopausal age 50-51. Menopausal complaints were rare, hence medical consultations were rare. Tranquilizers were prescribed for those who did seek medical help. This data constitutes the basis of the formulation of a strategy to solve menopause related problems in Indonesia, where female life expectancy, and the contribution of women to society, is on the increase.

  13. Body dissatisfaction among middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Catherine; Lengyel, Christina; Utioh, Alphonsus

    2012-01-01

    With the growing pervasiveness of mass media, individuals of all ages and both sexes are bombarded with images that glorify youthfulness, messages that tie self-worth to thinness, and products that promise youth and beauty forever. Aging women are vulnerable to these societal messages and experience strong pressures to maintain their youth and thinness. As the physiological changes that accompany normal aging move these women farther from the "ideal" image, body dissatisfaction may increase. These women are confronted with the impossible task of trying to defy the natural process of aging through a variety of means, including fashion, cosmetics, selective surgeries, and personal food choices. The resulting body image issues, weight preoccupation, and eating disturbances can lead to voluntary food restriction, depression, social withdrawal, lower self-esteem, and disordered eating, all of which can have a negative impact on quality of life and nutritional status. In this review we explore existing research on body dissatisfaction among middle-aged (30 to 60) and older (over 60) women, discuss the prevalence of body dissatisfaction, its predisposing risk factors, and the resulting eating and body maintenance behaviours, and examine implications for dietetic practice. PMID:22668843

  14. [Melatonin secretion in women of advanced reproductive age].

    PubMed

    Ermolenko, K S; Rapoport, S I; Solov'eva, A V

    2013-01-01

    The patient's age is a key factor determining success of in vitro fertilization. The ovarian reserve and oocyte quality are known to decrease with age. Much attention has been given recently to the role of epiphysis and its hormone, melatonin, in synchronization of daily and seasonal biorhythms in anti-stress protection and neuroregulation of reproductive processes. The aim of our work was to study melatonin levels in infertile women of reproductive age. We also measured sex hormones, anti-Mullerian hormone, FSH, and LH in blood and melatonin sulfate in urine at 8 points (RIA). Women of advanced reproductive age showed markedly reduced melatonin secretion due to functional disorders in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Results of the study suggest the necessity of prescription of exogenous melatonin to the patients included in assisted reproduction programs for the improvement of their efficacy.

  15. Wife abuse among women of childbearing age in Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Ellsberg, M C; Peña, R; Herrera, A; Liljestrand, J; Winkvist, A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study measured the prevalence, frequency, and severity of physical wife abuse and its risk factors in León, Nicaragua. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a representative sample of 488 women 15 to 49 years of age. RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence of spousal violence was 52% among ever-married women (n = 360). Spousal violence was significantly positively associated with poverty, parity, urban residence, and history of violence in the husband's family. No significant associations were found between spousal violence and women's age, education, marital dependency, or occupation. CONCLUSIONS: Wife abuse constitutes a major public health problem in Nicaragua, requiring urgent measures for prevention and treatment for victims. PMID:9949757

  16. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lori W.; Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Perry, Blake Allen; Bleeker, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors for osteoporosis among a sample of middle-aged women. Methods: Adipose tissue and bone mineral density levels at the left femur, lumbar spine, and total body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects (n=342) were surveyed regarding a variety of osteoporosis-related risk factors.…

  17. Age and HIV Risk and Protective Behaviors among African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corneille, Maya A.; Zyzniewski, Linda E.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2008-01-01

    Though HIV prevention efforts have focused on young adult women, women of all ages may engage in HIV risk behaviors and experience barriers to condom use. This article examines the effect of age on sexual risk and protective attitudes and behaviors among African American women. Unmarried heterosexual African American women between the ages of 18…

  18. Improvements in IVF in women of advanced age.

    PubMed

    Gleicher, Norbert; Kushnir, Vitaly A; Albertini, David F; Barad, David H

    2016-07-01

    Women above age 40 years in the US now represent the most rapidly growing age group having children. Patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) are rapidly aging in parallel. Especially where egg donations are legal, donation cycles, therefore, multiply more rapidly than autologous IVF cycles. The donor oocytes, however, are hardly ever a preferred patient choice. Since with use of own eggs, live birth rates decline with advancing age but remain stable (and higher) with donor eggs, older patients always face the difficult and very personal choice between poorer chances with own and better chances with donor oocytes. Physician contribution to this decision should in our opinion be restricted to accurate outcome information for both options. Achievable pregnancy and live birth rates in older women are, however, frequently underestimated, thereby mistakenly biasing fertility providers, private insurance companies and even regulatory government agencies. Restriction on access to IVF for older women is then often the consequence. In this review, we summarize the limited published data on best treatments of 'older' ovaries, while also addressing treatment approaches that should be avoided in older women. This focused review, therefore, to a degree is subjective. Research addressing aging ovaries in IVF has been disappointingly sparse, and has in our opinion too heavily concentrated on methods of embryo selection (ES), which, especially in older women, not only fail to improve IVF outcomes, but actually, negatively affect live birth chances. We conclude that, aside from breakthroughs in gamete creation, only pharmacological interventions into early (small growing follicle stages) follicle maturation will offer new potential to positively impact oocyte and embryo quality and, therefore, IVF outcomes. Research, therefore, should be accordingly redirected.

  19. Survey findings on in-migrant women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    This study describes the female population of childbearing age in 1998 in Haidian District, Beijing, China. Data were obtained from a family planning survey, in 1998, among a sample of 2300 women. In-migrants came from every province with the exception of Tibet, Qinghai, Guangxi, Ningxia, and Hainan. Most in-migrants came from neighboring Hebei and centrally located Anhui and Henan. 90% of in-migrants came from rural areas. Economic reasons were the primary motivation for migration. 40% of women were engaged in business, 48.5% had odd jobs, and 11.5% were professionals. 1319 were married. 31.8% were aged 20-24 years. 1543 women held temporary residence permits and 1351 had family planning certificates. Of 840 women who should have had a pregnancy check-up, only 194 actually did so. 83.9% of women had given birth at least once. 34.5% had 2 children; 2.4% had over 2 children. 1066 (80.8%) used contraception; 218 (19.2%) did not. Most of the floating population were not well educated. Four suggestions were made for managing the floating population. PMID:12321924

  20. Mammography in asymptomatic women aged 40-49 years

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Flávio Xavier; Katz, Leila; Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess findings of mammography of and interventions resulting from breast cancer screening in women aged 40-49 years with no increased risk (typical risk) of breast cancer. METHODS This cross-sectional study evaluated women aged 40-49 years who underwent mammography screening in a mastology reference center in Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, between January 2010 and October 2011. Women with breast-related complaints, positive findings in the physical examination, or high risk of breast cancer were excluded. RESULTS The 1,000 mammograms performed were classified into the following Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories BI-RADS 0, 232; BI-RADS 1, 294; BI-RADS 2, 294; BI-RADS 3, 16; BI-RADS 4A, 2; BI-RADS 5, 1. There was one case of grade II invasive ductal carcinoma and various interventions, including 469 ultrasound scans, 53 referrals to mastologists, 11 cytological examinations, and 8 biopsies. CONCLUSIONS Mammography screening in women aged 40-49 years with typical risk of breast cancer led to the performance of other interventions. However, it also resulted in increased costs without demonstrable efficacy in decreasing mortality. PMID:26039396

  1. Factors Associated with Abortion in Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ana Paula Vidal Dos; Coelho, Edméia de Almeida Cardoso; Gusmão, Maria Enoy Neves; Silva, Diorlene Oliveira da; Marques, Patrícia Figueiredo; Almeida, Mariza Silva

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To verify sociodemographic factors associated with the occurrence of abortion in women of reproductive age, in areas covered by the Family Health Strategy (FHS), a program from the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Methods A cross-sectional study using household surveys of 350 women aged 15 to 49. The report of abortion was a variable indicator, and sociodemographic aspects were covariables. Prevalence ratio (PR) and respective 95% confidence intervals were used to estimate the magnitude of the associations. Results There were associations among age, civil status, race/color, and religion; an increase in the prevalence of lower levels of education, age less than 20, and student status were protective factors. Conclusion The association between sociodemographic characteristics and the report of abortion is attributed to the fact that there is a lack at the FHS in the availability of fundamental healthcare services for young women; these findings call for action to guarantee the access to information about contraceptives and guidance to decrease the risk of unplanned pregnancies and abortions. PMID:27399921

  2. [PROBLEM OF ENDOMETRIUM HYPERPLASTIC PROCESSES IN REPRODUCTIVE AGE WOMEN].

    PubMed

    Bazyuta, L Z; Polyova, S P; Tsintar, S A

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the risk factors of endometrium hyperplastic processes (EHP) in reproduc- tive age women. It is shown that EHP occur in response to hormonal homeostasis violations of the target tissues. It is established that the biologically active substances, which are closely related to immune mechanisms of the reproductive system functioning take place in regulatory mechanisms of cell growth and differentiation of endometrium. PMID:27491143

  3. Facebook Use and Disordered Eating in College-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Morgan; Thornton, Laura; De Choudhury, Munmun; Teevan, Jaime; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Levinson, Cheri A.; Zerwas, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Disordered eating behavior—dieting, laxative use, fasting, binge eating—is common in college-aged women (11–20%). A documented increase in the number of young women experiencing psychopathology has been blamed on the rise of engagement with social media sites such as Facebook. We predicted that college-aged women’s Facebook intensity (e.g., the amount of time spent on Facebook, number of Facebook friends, and integration of Facebook into daily life), online physical appearance comparison (i.e., comparing one’s appearance to others’ on social media) and online “fat talk” (i.e., talking negatively about one’s body) would be positively associated with their disordered eating behavior. Methods In an online survey, 128 college-aged women (81.3% Caucasian, 6.7% Asian, 9.0% African-American, and 3.0% Other) completed items, which measured their disordered eating, Facebook intensity, online physical appearance comparison, online fat talk, body mass index, depression, anxiety, perfectionism, impulsivity, and self-efficacy. Results In regression analyses, Facebook intensity, online physical appearance comparison, and online fat talk were significantly and uniquely associated with disordered eating and explained a large percentage of the variance in disordered eating (60%) in conjunction with covariates. However, greater Facebook intensity was associated with decreased disordered eating behavior whereas both online physical appearance comparison and online fat talk were associated with greater disordered eating. Conclusions College-aged women who endorsed greater Facebook intensity were less likely to struggle with disordered eating when online physical appearance comparison was accounted for statistically. Facebook intensity may carry both risks and benefits for disordered eating. PMID:26206436

  4. Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Subjective Age in Women across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borzumato-Gainey, Christine; Kennedy, Alison; McCabe, Beth; Degges-White, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    A study of 320 women, ages 21 to 69, explored the relations among relationship status, subjective age, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Women in married or partnered relationships had higher levels of life satisfaction than did single women. Women in their 30s and 40s had significantly lower levels of life satisfaction than did other age…

  5. Menstrual Profile and Early Menopause in Women with Down Syndrome Aged 26-40 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejskjaer, Kirsten; Uldbjerg, Niels; Goldstein, Henri

    2006-01-01

    Background: It is known that women with Down syndrome can be fertile, but it is not known whether all women with Down syndrome are fertile or sub-fertile. The age at menopause for women with Down syndrome is lower compared to women without Down syndrome. Method: A cross-sectional study of 11 women was undertaken, in which the participating women…

  6. Women in American History: A Series. Book Two, Women in the Ages of Expansion and Reform 1820-1860.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Beverly

    The document, one in a series of four on women in American history, discusses women in the ages of expansion and reform (1820-1860). Designed to supplement U.S. history textbooks, the book is presented in six chapters. Chapter I describes the "true woman," an ideal cultivated by women writers, educators, and magazine editors. The four virtues were…

  7. Factors Influencing the Successful Aging of Iranian Old Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Javadi Pashaki, Nazila; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Jafaraghaee, Fateme; Mehrdad, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aging is an irreversible natural process characterized by a decline in both the physical and mental status of individuals. Because of multiple factors, this process and its consequences vary greatly between individuals. A successful aging (SA) is the target of current health policies and well-being of individuals. Knowing the factors that contribute to SA and its barriers would translate in measurements that increase the quality of life of elderly and reduce health costs. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore barriers and facilitators to Iranian elderly women’s SA. Patients and Methods: A purposive sample of 16 elderly women, aged 61 - 96 years, was recruited for this qualitative content analysis study. Study data were collected during 2012 -.2013 by conducting 16 face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews. We continued the data collection until reaching saturation. Study data were analyzed concurrently with data collection, by using the conventional qualitative content analysis approach. Results: Barriers and facilitators to Iranian elderly women’s SA fell into five main categories, including availability of support systems, state of health, personal capabilities, personality characteristics, and lifestyle. Conclusions: Availability of support systems, state of health, personal capabilities, personality characteristics, and lifestyle were the main interrelated factors affecting Iranian elderly women’s SA. Accordingly, providing elderly women with strong educational, emotional, financial, cultural, and social supports can help facilitate their SA. PMID:26421171

  8. Ageing in a foreign country: voices of Iranian women ageing in Canada.

    PubMed

    Shemirani, Farimah Shakeri; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2006-01-01

    Older Iranian women, who immigrated to Canada in later adulthood, experience unique issues as they age. In order to better understand this experience, in-depth, personal and semi-structured interviews were conducted with five immigrant/refugee Iranian women who immigrated to Canada in their later life. Analysis revealed that although each woman's story conveyed individual differences and idiosyncrasies, all the stories highlighted the critical interweaving of the aging experience and the immigration experience: neither experience could be understood in isolation of the other; each aspect gave meaning to the other experience. Two interrelated messages dominated the women's stories: first was the importance of each woman's immigration story for grounding her experience of the aging process in Canada. Second, each woman's personal story suggested that the immigration experiences were accorded priority for accounting for her experiences in Canada. Specifically, cultural identity (i.e., social class, education, religious affiliation and immigration status) offered a valuable cloak for overshadowing the force of the aging process and the aging process emerged as an elusive force that lurked in the background without ever being fully acknowledged or given power in their lives. The implications of these findings in relation to theory development on intersectionality and professional practice are discussed. PMID:16782661

  9. Calculating summary statistics for population chemical biomonitoring in women of childbearing age with adjustment for age-specific natality.

    PubMed

    Axelrad, Daniel A; Cohen, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of chemical exposures during pregnancy on children's health have been an increasing focus of environmental health research in recent years, leading to greater interest in biomonitoring of chemicals in women of childbearing age in the general population. Measurements of mercury in blood from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey are frequently reported for "women of childbearing age," defined to be of ages 16-49 years. The intent is to represent prenatal chemical exposure, but blood mercury levels increase with age. Furthermore, women of different ages have different probabilities of giving birth. We evaluated options to address potential bias in biomonitoring summary statistics for women of childbearing age by accounting for age-specific probabilities of giving birth. We calculated median and 95th percentile levels of mercury, PCBs, and cotinine using these approaches: option 1: women aged 16-49 years without natality adjustment; option 2: women aged 16-39 years without natality adjustment; option 3: women aged 16-49 years, adjusted for natality by age; option 4: women aged 16-49 years, adjusted for natality by age and race/ethnicity. Among the three chemicals examined, the choice of option has the greatest impact on estimated levels of serum PCBs, which are strongly associated with age. Serum cotinine levels among Black non-Hispanic women of childbearing age are understated when age-specific natality is not considered. For characterizing in utero exposures, adjustment using age-specific natality provides a substantial improvement in estimation of biomonitoring summary statistics. PMID:21035114

  10. What Characterises Women Vulnerable to Chronic Energy Deficiency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavi Kumar, K. S.; Ramachandran, Maithili; Viswanathan, Brinda

    2009-01-01

    Weight-for-squared height or body mass index (BMI) is often considered as an effective predictor of morbidity and mortality rates. This study uses BMI data from a sample of ever-married women in the age group of 15-49 years in the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh for the year 1998-1999, to analyse the determinants of chronic energy deficiency…

  11. Women's preferences for vaginal antimicrobial contraceptives. II. Preferred characteristics according to women's age and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Hardy, E; de Pádua, K S; Jiménez, A L; Zaneveld, L J

    1998-10-01

    A study was carried out to identify characteristics that women would want for an idealized vaginal contraceptive, and the possible association of these characteristics with age and socioeconomic status. The study was done in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 635 women were selected by age and socioeconomic status, using the "social network" technique. Almost half were adolescents (15-19 years old) and the rest were adults (20-45 years old). Half were of low socioeconomic status and the rest of medium-high status. The data were analyzed with SPSS-PC and EPI-INFO 6.0. Logistic regression and chi 2 were used for the analysis. Despite some differences found between age and socioeconomic status in regard to the characteristics desired for the idealized method, most of the participants expressed the same preferences. The results indicate that women would like the idealized method to be a cream, rather than a suppository, with no odor or flavor, to be colorless, to be placed in the vagina with an applicator well before coitus, and to offer protection against sexually transmitted diseases including AIDS. PMID:9866006

  12. Perceived age is associated with bone status in women aged 25-93 years.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, Allan; Christensen, Kaare; Schwarz, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Higher perceived age (PA) is reported to be associated with age-related diseases. Because osteoporosis is considered an age-related disease, we hypothesized that age perceived from photographs is associated with bone mineral density (BMD)/trabecular bone score (TBS) when controlled for chronological age. This is a cross-sectional study of 460 women aged 25-93 years. BMD/TBS was measured. Twenty physicians assessed age from facial and whole-body photographs. Residual PA (R(PACA)) was calculated from the regression of PA on chronological age. Participants were divided into "looking old" (LO) or "looking young" (LY). Linear mixed models and general linear models fitted with BMD/TBS as outcome and either R(PACA) or LO/LY as an independent variable, considering chronological age. Estimates of R(PACA) were all negative; i.e., an increase in R(PAC) is associated with lower BMD, consistent with the hypothesis (e.g., β -0.29%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55, 0.03). Statistical significance of the association of age-adjusted facial R(PACA) with BMD was found. Adjusted for body mass index (BMI), menopause, and hormone replacement therapy, higher R(PACA) from all photographic presentations were significantly associated with lower BMD based on statistical significance. BMD/TBS was in all analyses higher in the group LY compared with LO, when adjusted for age and BMI (e.g., β 4.37%; 95 CI 0.62, 8.26), but statistical significance was obtained only from the BMD analyses. A higher PA was significantly associated with a lower BMD/TBD, and the size of association in older women indicates that it might have value as part of the clinical assessment of osteoporotic risk.

  13. Perceived age is associated with bone status in women aged 25-93 years.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, Allan; Christensen, Kaare; Schwarz, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Higher perceived age (PA) is reported to be associated with age-related diseases. Because osteoporosis is considered an age-related disease, we hypothesized that age perceived from photographs is associated with bone mineral density (BMD)/trabecular bone score (TBS) when controlled for chronological age. This is a cross-sectional study of 460 women aged 25-93 years. BMD/TBS was measured. Twenty physicians assessed age from facial and whole-body photographs. Residual PA (R(PACA)) was calculated from the regression of PA on chronological age. Participants were divided into "looking old" (LO) or "looking young" (LY). Linear mixed models and general linear models fitted with BMD/TBS as outcome and either R(PACA) or LO/LY as an independent variable, considering chronological age. Estimates of R(PACA) were all negative; i.e., an increase in R(PAC) is associated with lower BMD, consistent with the hypothesis (e.g., β -0.29%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55, 0.03). Statistical significance of the association of age-adjusted facial R(PACA) with BMD was found. Adjusted for body mass index (BMI), menopause, and hormone replacement therapy, higher R(PACA) from all photographic presentations were significantly associated with lower BMD based on statistical significance. BMD/TBS was in all analyses higher in the group LY compared with LO, when adjusted for age and BMI (e.g., β 4.37%; 95 CI 0.62, 8.26), but statistical significance was obtained only from the BMD analyses. A higher PA was significantly associated with a lower BMD/TBD, and the size of association in older women indicates that it might have value as part of the clinical assessment of osteoporotic risk. PMID:26486892

  14. Stretch-shortening cycle muscle power in women and men aged 18-81 years: Influence of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Edwén, C E; Thorlund, J B; Magnusson, S P; Slinde, F; Svantesson, U; Hulthén, L; Aagaard, P

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jumps on an instrumented force plate. Maximal SSC leg extension power expressed per kg body mass (Ppeak) was greater in men than in women across the adult age span (P < 0.001); however, this gender difference was progressively reduced with increasing age, because men showed an ∼50% faster rate of decline in SSC power than women (P < 0.001). Velocity at peak power (VPpeak) was greater in men than in women (P < 0.001) but declined at a greater rate in men than in women (P = 0.002). Vertical ground reaction force at peak power (FPpeak) was higher in men than in women in younger adults only (P < 0.001) and the age-related decline was steeper in men than in women (P < 0.001). Men demonstrated a steeper rate of decline in Ppeak than women with progressive aging. This novel finding emerged as a result of greater age-related losses in men for both force and velocity. Consequently, maximal SSC power production was observed to converge between genders when approaching old age.

  15. Graves' Disease Pharmacotherapy in Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Prunty, Jeremy J; Heise, Crystal D; Chaffin, David G

    2016-01-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder in which inappropriate stimulation of the thyroid gland results in unregulated secretion of thyroid hormones resulting in hyperthyroidism. Graves' disease is the most common cause of autoimmune hyperthyroidism during pregnancy. Treatment options for Graves' disease include thioamide therapy, partial or total thyroidectomy, and radioactive iodine. In this article, we review guideline recommendations for Graves' disease treatment in women of reproductive age including the recent guideline from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Controversy regarding appropriate thioamide therapy before, during, and after pregnancy is reviewed. Surgical and radioactive iodine therapy considerations in this patient population are also reviewed. In patients who may find themselves pregnant during therapy or develop Graves' disease during their pregnancy, consideration should be given to the most appropriate treatment course for the mother and fetus. Thioamide therapy should be used with either propylthiouracil or methimazole at appropriate doses that target the upper range of normal to slightly hyperthyroid to avoid creating hypothyroidism in the fetus. Consideration should also be given to the adverse effects of thioamide, such as agranulocytosis and hepatotoxicity, with appropriate patient consultation regarding signs and symptoms. Individuals who wish to breastfeed their infants while taking thioamide should receive the lowest effective dose. Surgery should be reserved for extreme cases and limited to the second trimester, if possible. Radioactive iodine therapy may be used in nonpregnant individuals, with limited harm to future fertility. Radioactive iodine therapy should be withheld in pregnant women and those who are actively breastfeeding. Clinicians should keep abreast of developments in clinical trials and evidence-based recommendations regarding Graves' disease in reproductive-age women for any changes in evidence

  16. Social, Health, and Age Differences Associated with Depressive Disorders in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plach, Sandra K.; Napholz, Linda; Kelber, Sheryl T.

    2005-01-01

    Depression in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be related to social role experiences, physical health, and age. The purpose of this study was to examine the social and health factors contributing to depression in two age groups of women with RA. One-hundred and thirty-eight midlife and late-life women with a diagnosis of RA participated in…

  17. Medical and Obstetric Complications among Pregnant Women Aged 45 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Grotegut, Chad A.; Chisholm, Christian A.; Johnson, Lauren N. C.; Brown, Haywood L.; Heine, R. Phillips; James, Andra H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The number of women aged 45 and older who become pregnant is increasing. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of medical and obstetric complications among women aged 45 and older. Methods The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify pregnant woman during admission for delivery. Deliveries were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9-CM) codes. Using ICD-9-CM codes, pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications were identified in women at the time of delivery and were compared for women aged 45 years and older to women under age 35. Outcomes among women aged 35–44 were also compared to women under age 35 to determine if women in this group demonstrated intermediate risk between the older and younger groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications for both older groups relative to women under 35. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were also developed for outcomes at delivery among older women, while controlling for pre-existing medical conditions, multiple gestation, and insurance status, to determine the effect of age on the studied outcomes. Results Women aged 45 and older had higher adjusted odds for death, transfusion, myocardial infarction/ischemia, cardiac arrest, acute heart failure, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, acute renal failure, cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, fetal demise, fetal chromosomal anomaly, and placenta previa compared to women under 35. Conclusion Pregnant women aged 45 and older experience significantly more medical and obstetric complications and are more likely to die at the time of a delivery than women under age 35, though the absolute risks are low and these events are rare. Further research is needed to determine what associated factors among pregnant women aged 45 and older may

  18. Reconceptualizing successful aging among black women and the relevance of the strong black woman archetype.

    PubMed

    Baker, Tamara A; Buchanan, NiCole T; Mingo, Chivon A; Roker, Rosalyn; Brown, Candace S

    2015-02-01

    Although there are multiple pathways to successful aging, little is known of what it means to age successfully among black women. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that black women experience a number of social challenges (sexism and racism) that may present as barriers to aging successfully. Applying aspects of the Strong Black Women ideal, into theoretical concepts of successful aging, may be particularly relevant in understanding which factors impair or promote the ability of black women to age successfully. The Strong Black Women archetype is a culturally salient ideal prescribing that black women render a guise of self-reliance, selflessness, and psychological, emotional, and physical strength. Although this ideal has received considerable attention in the behavioral sciences, it has been largely absent within the gerontology field. Nevertheless, understanding the dynamics of this cultural ideal may enhance our knowledge while developing an appreciation of the black woman's ability to age successfully. Rather than summarize the social, physical, and mental health literature focusing on health outcomes of black women, this conceptual review examines the Strong Black Women archetype and its application to the lived experiences of black women and contributions to current theories of successful aging. Focusing on successful aging exclusively among black women enhances our understanding of this group by considering their identity as women of color while recognizing factors that dictate their ability to age successfully.

  19. Thyroid hormones according to gestational age in pregnant Spanish women

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Thyroid function changes during pregnancy and maternal thyroid dysfunction have been associated with adverse outcomes. Our aim was to evaluate thyroid hormones levels in pregnant women resident in Aragon, Spain. Findings Samples for 1198 pregnant women with no apparent thyroid disorders were analyzed, using paramagnetic microparticle and chemiluminescent detection technologies, in order to determine levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab), and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab). Of the women in our sample, 85.22% had normal values for TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab and 14.77% had results revealing the presence of autoimmune diseases of the thyroid. The thyroid hormone reference values obtained according to gestational age (in brackets) were as follows: for free T3, values were 3.38 ± 0.52 pg/mL (<11 weeks), 3.45 ± 0.54 pg/mL (11-20 weeks), 3.32 ± 0.43 pg/mL (21-30 weeks), 3.21 ± 0.53 pg/mL (31-36 weeks), and 3.23 ± 0.41 pg/mL (>36 weeks); for free T4, values were 1.10 ± 0.14 ng/dL (<10 weeks), 1.04 ± 0.14 ng/dL (11-20 weeks), 0.93 ± 0.12 ng/dL (21-30 weeks), 0.90 ± 0.13 ng/dL (31-36 weeks), and 0.80 ± 0.21 ng/dL (>36 weeks); and for TSH, values were (μIU/mL): 1.12 ± 0.69 (<10 weeks), 1.05 ± 0.67 (11-20 weeks), 1.19 ± 0.60 (21-30 weeks), 1.38 ± 0.76 (31-36 weeks), and 1.46 ± 0.72 (>36 weeks). Conclusion Pregnant women with normal antibody values according to gestational age had values for FT4 and TSH, but not for FT3, that differed to a statistically significant degree. The values we describe can be used as reference values for the Aragon region of Spain. PMID:19939287

  20. Aging gracefully: a comparative study of Japanese and Malaysian women aged 65-75.

    PubMed

    Kok, Jin Kuan; Yap, Yuet Ngor

    2014-12-01

    Longer lives and extended retirement have created a 'young old age' stage of life. How people spend their "young old age" has become increasingly important. This research aims to investigate the different ageing experiences of Japanese and Malaysian women and the activities they engaged in their "young old age". In-depth interviews were conducted to collect data and an adapted grounded theory approach was used for data analysis. Findings reveal many common characteristics for both groups of research participants. The emerging themes show that Japanese and Malaysian Chinese have different life missions evident in their daily activities, one passing on culture and the other passing on family values and life experience. They also differ in their choice of living arrangement (independent versus dependent/interdependent), attitudes to life (fighting versus accepting) and activities in which to engage (aesthetic pursuits versus family oriented activities). PMID:25456622

  1. Aging gracefully: a comparative study of Japanese and Malaysian women aged 65-75.

    PubMed

    Kok, Jin Kuan; Yap, Yuet Ngor

    2014-12-01

    Longer lives and extended retirement have created a 'young old age' stage of life. How people spend their "young old age" has become increasingly important. This research aims to investigate the different ageing experiences of Japanese and Malaysian women and the activities they engaged in their "young old age". In-depth interviews were conducted to collect data and an adapted grounded theory approach was used for data analysis. Findings reveal many common characteristics for both groups of research participants. The emerging themes show that Japanese and Malaysian Chinese have different life missions evident in their daily activities, one passing on culture and the other passing on family values and life experience. They also differ in their choice of living arrangement (independent versus dependent/interdependent), attitudes to life (fighting versus accepting) and activities in which to engage (aesthetic pursuits versus family oriented activities).

  2. International women's movement comes of age at FWCW.

    PubMed

    O'haire, H

    1996-02-01

    This article focuses on what the women's conference achieved for women. The Fourth World Conference on Women (FWCW) recognized an international women's movement. Governments agreed that women were entitled to full human rights, reproductive rights, and equality in all aspects of life. Women were to become full and equal partners in the development process. Women are likely to demand action based on the paper declarations. The success of the conference is attributed to a powerful network of women's groups. A striking feature was the heading of most national delegations by women. It was recognized that women were full but neglected partners in families and societies. Governments acknowledged that women suffered discrimination within the family and society. Wording was rejected that would have given women the guaranteed right to determine the size and spacing of their families and the information and services to do so. The activity among women's groups in working together to restore this view strengthened the bonds between women's groups and created worldwide awareness and support for women's organizations. Networks that were established at Rio de Janeiro made their presence and position on reproductive health felt at the preparatory meetings to the UN Population Conference in Cairo. It was argued that a target-driven approach had the effect of treating women as reproduction machines. Women's groups also expressed strong positions on how women were to be treated in the formation of population policy and programs. 1) It was insisted that governments and population groups must stop dictating fertility regimes to women. 2) The concept of family planning must include reproductive health. 3) Women should have the freedom to exercise choice in planning their families. 4) Women should also have equal access to education and employment. Women came thus to Beijing with a clear vision of what they wanted. At Beijing domestic violence was for the first time condemned. Beijing

  3. Personalizing pelvic floor reconstructive surgery in aging women.

    PubMed

    Mannella, Paolo; Giannini, Andrea; Russo, Eleonora; Naldini, Gabriele; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2015-09-01

    Pelvic floor dysfunction is a growingly frequent condition in aging individuals. Urinary or rectal incontinence, constipation, pelvic organ prolapse, pelvic pain or sexual dysfunction are common problems in this age range. Such conditions carry a severe impact on quality of life, but also limit individual independence in daily activities, favor social isolation and carry health risks. Diagnosis and treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction in aging women is tricky, since multiple interfering conditions affecting muscle tone and nerve function are common in these individuals. Diabetes mellitus, sarcopenia, use of drugs that affect cognition or impact bowel or urinary function are just a few examples. These conditions need to be thoroughly taken into account during pre-operative work up for their potential impact on the success of surgery and vice versa. Functional reconstruction aimed at treating symptoms rather than anatomic defects is key to success. The recent advancements in surgical treatment of urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse allow for more options to achieve the best surgery in each patient. PMID:26142653

  4. Micronutrient Intakes among Women of Reproductive Age in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phuong H.; Nguyen, Hieu; Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Copeland, Erika; Strizich, Garrett; Lowe, Alyssa; Pham, Hoa; Truong, Truong V.; Nguyen, Son; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Background Micronutrient deficiencies are a public health concern worldwide negatively affecting maternal and child health outcomes. The primary underlying causes of micronutrient deficiencies are insufficient intake and poor bioavailability of micronutrients. However, reliable data on micronutrient intakes are sparse. The objectives of this study were to identify the key local food sources providing the majority of micronutrients and assess the adequacy and determinants of micronutrient intakes. Methods The study used data from a survey of 4,983 rural women of reproductive age (WRA) participating in a preconception micronutrient supplementation trial in Vietnam. Micronutrient intakes were assessed using a validated 107-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between socioeconomic status and micronutrient intakes. Results Starchy staples were the main source of iron and zinc (37% and 54%, respectively) with only a small proportion from meat (10% and 18%, respectively). The primary source of folate and vitamin A were vegetables; vitamin B12 came from meat and eggs. The proportion of the population with intakes below the estimated average requirement was 25% for iron, 16% for zinc, 54% for folate, 64% for vitamin B12 and 27% for vitamin A. Socioeconomic status was the main determinant of micronutrient intakes. WRA in the highest quintile consumed 26% more iron, 19% more zinc, 36% more folate, 82% more vitamin B12 and 47% more vitamin A compared to those in the lowest quintile. Women in the upper quintiles of SES were more likely to obtain nutrients from more nutritious and higher bioavailable foods than those in the lowest quintile. Conclusions Underprivileged women were at increased risk for insufficient micronutrient intakes due to poor diet quality. Targeted efforts to promote the consumption of local nutrient rich foods along with educational programs and social

  5. Screening for breast cancer and mortality reduction among women 40-49 years of age.

    PubMed

    Kopans, D B

    1994-07-01

    The recent withdrawal of screening support for women ages 40-49 years is not scientifically supported. The subgroup analyses that have been used severely compromise the statistical power of the trials. None of the trials has the statistical power to be able to provide clear proof of benefit for screening women ages 40-49 years because none of the trials involved sufficient numbers of women in these age groups. Despite having not been designed to evaluate women ages 40-49 years as a separate group, five of the eight randomized, controlled trials have demonstrated mortality reductions for these women that range from 22% to 49%. In addition, data from other nonrandomized trials show that there is no difference in survival for women ages 40-49 years than for women ages 50-59 years. The detection rate for small, early cancers, using modern mammography, is similar for women in both decades. There is no scientific reason to believe that there is a sudden change in detection or cure at age 50 years, or even at menopause. The available data suggest that women ages 40-49 years can benefit from screening, just as can women ages 50-59 years.

  6. [Psychopathological profile of battered women according to age].

    PubMed

    Sarasua, Belén; Zubizarreta, Irene; Echeburúa, Enrique; Del Corral, Paz

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, differential psychopathological consequences in battered women according to age were analysed in a sample of 148 victims seeking psychological treatment in a Family Violence Centre. The younger victims exposed to intimate partner violence suffered more often from physical violence and were at higher risk for their lives than the older ones. The prevalence rate of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was higher (42%) in the younger victims than in the older ones (27%). Likewise, younger victims were affected by more depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem than the older ones. The severity of PTSD in the younger victims was related to the presence of forced sexual relationship but in the older ones, it was related to the perceived threat to their lives. Implications of this study for clinical practice and future research in this field are commented upon.

  7. Effects of Endurance Jogging on Cardiovascular System and Body Composition in Middle-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooshi, Ali

    This study investigated the effects of 30 minutes of endurance jogging on pulse rates at rest, during exercise, and at recovery and eight skinfold fat measures in middle-aged women. Subjects were 15 middle-aged women between 30 and 58 years of age who had not been engaged in any exercise program at least for 1 year. Eight sedentary subjects were…

  8. FRAILTY AND CONSTELLATIONS OF FACTORS IN AGING HIV-INFECTED AND UNINFECTED WOMEN - THE WOMEN'S INTERAGENCY HIV STUDY

    PubMed Central

    GUSTAFSON, D.R.; SHI, Q.; THURN, M.; HOLMAN, S.A.; MINKOFF, H.; COHEN, M.; PLANKEY, M.W.; HAVLIK, R.; SHARMA, A.; GANGE, S.; GANDHI, M.; MILAM, J.; HOOVER, D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Biological similarities are noted between aging and HIV infection. Middle-aged adults with HIV infection may present as elderly due to accelerated aging or having more severe aging phenotypes occurring at younger ages. Objectives We explored age-adjusted prevalence of frailty, a geriatric condition, among HIV+ and at risk HIV− women. Design Cross-sectional. Setting The Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Participants 2028 middle-aged (average age 39 years) female participants (1449 HIV+; 579 HIV−). Measurements The Fried Frailty Index (FFI), HIV status variables, and constellations of variables representing Demographic/health behaviors and Aging-related chronic diseases. Associations between the FFI and other variables were estimated, followed by stepwise regression models. Results Overall frailty prevalence was 15.2% (HIV+, 17%; HIV−, 10%). A multivariable model suggested that HIV infection with CD4 count<200; age>40 years; current or former smoking; income ≤$12,000; moderate vs low fibrinogen-4 (FIB-4) levels; and moderate vs high estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were positively associated with frailty. Low or moderate drinking was protective. Conclusions Frailty is a multidimensional aging phenotype observed in mid-life among women with HIV infection. Prevalence of frailty in this sample of HIV-infected women exceeds that for usual elderly populations. This highlights the need for geriatricians and gerontologists to interact with younger `at risk' populations, and assists in the formulation of best recommendations for frailty interventions to prevent early aging, excess morbidities and early death. PMID:26980368

  9. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women. PMID:27389818

  10. The Age of Beauty Calendar for Flood Relief: Photography, Solidarity, Fundraising, and Vibrant Older Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Carole

    2005-01-01

    "The Age of Beauty: Women for Flood Relief 2005-2006: Celebrating the Spirit of Peterborough," is a calendar that successfully raised funds for flood victims while contributing to the reinvention of images of "powerful rebellious old women" by offering dynamic images of older women's strengths, creativity and spirit. During a time of crisis in…

  11. The Relationship of Age and Marital Status to Women's Needs for Interdependence-Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Ruth Bernstein; Woog, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    Examined the prominence of intimacy concerns, i.e., connectedness and independent needs in a sample of women in the health professions, analyzing for age and marital status. Used the Life Priorities Q-Sort. Older and single women were found to be significantly more independent than younger and married women. (Author/KS)

  12. Effects of Three Bridging Exercises on Local and Global Muscles of Middle Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Ji Kyeng; Lim, Hee Sung; Shin, Sung Rae; Kim, Bo Hyun; Lee, Suk Min

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the muscle activity differences of three different lumbar stabilization exercises in a comparison of middle-aged and young women. [Subjects] Seventeen middle-aged women and fifteen young women were enrolled in this study. Patients with a history of any neurologic disorders, orthopedic disorders, or cardiopulmonary problems that would have affected their lumbar stabilization exercise performance were excluded. [Methods] All subjects performed 3 exercises while the surface electromographic activity was recorded of the rectus abdominis, internal oblique, multifidus, and iliocostalis lumbolum. The mean electromyographic amplitudes obtained during the exercise were normalized to the amplitude of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) to produce an inter-individually comparable muscle activity index. [Results] The highest muscle activity of middle-aged women was observed in the ring bridging exercise. The middle-aged women had higher levels of all muscle activaties than the young women, particularly in the multifidus muscle and iliocostalis lumborum. No significant difference in muscle activity ratio was observed between the local muscles and global muscles in the three different exercises, though the muscle activity ratio was the highest in the ring bridging exercise. The young women group showed a higher ratio of the internal oblique/rectus abdominus than the middle aged women in the bridging exercise. [Conclusion] The ring bridging exercise should be used for stabilizing the lumbar area because the young women showed a higher ratio than the middle aged women. PMID:24259869

  13. Ages at Initiation of Cigarette Smoking and Quit Attempts among Women: A Generation Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morabia, Alfredo; Costanza, Michael C.; Bernstein, Martine S.; Rielle, Jean-Charles

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether age at initiation of regular smoking and likelihood of quitting smoking through age 35 years would differ among younger and older women. Data from annual population-based surveys of residents of Geneva, Switzerland, indicated that young female smokers had a higher propensity to quit than older women. There were no differences…

  14. To Cut or Not to Cut: Cosmetic Surgery Usage and Women's Age-Related Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksen, Shelley J.

    2012-01-01

    Part of the developmental trajectory of middle and late life presumes the adjustment to physical aging, an adjustment that is complicated for women for whom the prioritization of beauty is central to their social value in Western societies. A 60-item written questionnaire was distributed to a volunteer community sample of 202 women ages 19-86.…

  15. Health Related Concerns and Psychological Well-Being of Middle-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruch, Grace K.

    A two-stage study of women aged 35-55 focused on issues, concerns, and gratification and their relationship to family status, work status, age, and sense of psychological well-being. The sample was composed of women who occupied jointly one of three family statuses (never married, married without children, married with children) and one of six…

  16. Changes in age at marriage of women in rural north India.

    PubMed

    Singh, M

    1992-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in age at marriage for women in a rural area of north India. Age at marriage rose from under 12 years before 1930 to about 19 years in 1988, mainly as a result of socioeconomic development and advances in education of women.

  17. Diabetes prevention: Reproductive age women affected by insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Rezai, Shadi; LoBue, Stephen; Henderson, Cassandra E

    2016-07-01

    In the United States, 29.1 million people are affected by diabetes, of which 95% have type 2 diabetes. There has been a fivefold increase in type 2 diabetes in the latter half of the 20th century, an increase strongly linked to the obesity epidemic in the United States. In addition, insulin resistance affects 86 million Americans, or more than one-third of the adult population, as manifested by impaired fasting glucose tolerance with random glucose values ranging from ⩾100 to <126 mg/dL. In all, 90% of those affected by impaired fasting glucose tolerance or pre-diabetes are unaware of their metabolic derangement. Although impaired fasting glucose tolerance increases one's risk of developing type 2 diabetes, once identified, application of lifestyle changes by affected individuals may avoid or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. For reproductive age women who are found to have impaired fasting glucose tolerance, lifestyle changes may be an effective tool to diminish the reproductive health consequences of insulin resistance related diseases. PMID:27638898

  18. Influence of skin ageing features on Chinese women's perception of facial age and attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Porcheron, A; Latreille, J; Jdid, R; Tschachler, E; Morizot, F

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Ageing leads to characteristic changes in the appearance of facial skin. Among these changes, we can distinguish the skin topographic cues (skin sagging and wrinkles), the dark spots and the dark circles around the eyes. Although skin changes are similar in Caucasian and Chinese faces, the age of occurrence and the severity of age-related features differ between the two populations. Little is known about how the ageing of skin influences the perception of female faces in Chinese women. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of the different age-related skin features to the perception of age and attractiveness in Chinese women. Methods Facial images of Caucasian women and Chinese women in their 60s were manipulated separately to reduce the following skin features: (i) skin sagging and wrinkles, (ii) dark spots and (iii) dark circles. Finally, all signs were reduced simultaneously (iv). Female Chinese participants were asked to estimate the age difference between the modified and original images and evaluate the attractiveness of modified and original faces. Results Chinese women perceived the Chinese faces as younger after the manipulation of dark spots than after the reduction in wrinkles/sagging, whereas they perceived the Caucasian faces as the youngest after the manipulation of wrinkles/sagging. Interestingly, Chinese women evaluated faces with reduced dark spots as being the most attractive whatever the origin of the face. The manipulation of dark circles contributed to making Caucasian and Chinese faces being perceived younger and more attractive than the original faces, although the effect was less pronounced than for the two other types of manipulation. Conclusion This is the first study to have examined the influence of various age-related skin features on the facial age and attractiveness perception of Chinese women. The results highlight different contributions of dark spots, sagging/wrinkles and dark circles to their perception

  19. Slimmer women's waist is associated with better erectile function in men independent of age.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart; Weiss, Petr

    2013-10-01

    Previous research has indicated that men generally rate slimmer women as more sexually attractive, consistent with the increased morbidity risks associated with even mild abdominal adiposity. To assess the association of women's waist size with a more tangible measure of perceived sexual attractiveness (as well as reward value for both sexes), we examined the association of women's age and waist circumference with an index of men's erectile function (IIEF-5 scores), frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI), and sexual satisfaction in a representative sample of Czechs (699 men and 715 women) aged 35-65 years. Multivariate analyses indicated that better erectile function scores were independently associated with younger age of self and partner and women's slimmer waist. PVI frequency was independently associated with women's younger age and women's slimmer waist. Sexual satisfaction was independently associated with men's younger age and slimmer waist for both sexes. Better erectile function, greater PVI frequency, and greater sexual satisfaction were associated with women's slimmer waist, independently of both sexes' ages. Possible reasons for the waist effects were discussed, including women's abdominal body fat decreasing their own desire through neurohormonal mechanisms and decreasing their partner's desire through evolutionarily-related decreased sexual attractiveness. PMID:23264164

  20. Women and substance abuse: gender, age, and cultural considerations.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Sally J; Andrade, Rosi A C; Ruiz, Bridget S

    2009-01-01

    Historically, data has shown that a smaller percentage of women use alcohol and illicit substances compared to men, and that frequency of use has been lower among women compared to use among men. Although this data on usage may be true, researchers also acknowledge that substance use among women has been a hidden issue, one not realistically acknowledged by society, especially prior to the mid-1960s. Along with this, more recent data indicates that rates of substance use among women are increasing. Factors contributing to this increase in substance abuse have begun to receive considerable attention, and recent research suggests that many issues exist that are unique to substance use among women. The purpose of this article is to discuss gender specific considerations in women's substance abuse by examining the history of substance use among women; analyzing gender-specific factors, including physiological factors, trauma-related factors, mental health issues, and cultural considerations that impact on women's substance use; articulating treatment approaches for working with substance abusing women and girls; and providing recommendations for further research in this area.

  1. Women, Aging, and HIV: Clinical Issues and Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Womack, Julie A.; Brandt, Cynthia A.; Justice, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    Women are living longer with HIV infection. How best to manage the multiple co-morbidities and polypharmacy that are a hallmark of HIV infected individuals has not been studied. We explore incorporating principles of gerontology, particularly multimorbidity and polypharmacy, to optimize the health of HIV infected women. Multimorbidity and polypharmacy are important issues for HIV infected women. Incorporating a gerontologic approach may optimize outcomes until research provides more definitive answers as to how best to collaborate with HIV infected women to provide them with optimal care. A case study is used to guide the discussion. PMID:24932161

  2. Sexual Behaviour of Men and Women within Age-Disparate Partnerships in South Africa: Implications for Young Women's HIV Risk

    PubMed Central

    Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Evans, Meredith; George, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Background Age-disparate partnerships are hypothesized to increase HIV-risk for young women. However, the evidence base remains mixed. Most studies have focused only on unprotected sex among women in the partnership. Consequently, little is known about other risky behaviours, such as transactional sex, alcohol use, and concurrency, as well as the behaviours of the men who partner with young women. We therefore examined differences in various sexual behaviours of both young women and their male partners by partnership age difference. Methods We used nationally representative data from South Africa (2012) on partnerships reported by 16–24 year old black African women (n = 818) and by black African men in partnerships with 16–24 year old women (n = 985). We compared sexual behaviours in age-disparate partnerships and age-similar partnerships, using multiple logistic regression to control for potential confounders and to assess rural/urban differences. Results Young women in age-disparate partnerships were more likely to report unprotected sex than young women in similar-aged partnerships (aOR:1.51; p = 0.014; 95%CI:1.09–2.11). Men in partnerships with young women were more likely to report unprotected sex (aOR:1.92; p<0.01; 95%CI:1.31–2.81), transactional sex (aOR:2.73; p<0.01; 95%CI:1.64–4.56), drinking alcohol before sex (aOR:1.60; p = 0.062; 95%CI:0.98–2.61), and concurrency (aOR:1.39; p = 0.097; 95%CI:0.94–2.07) when their partners were five or more years younger. The association between age-disparate partnerships and transactional sex (aOR:4.14; p<0.01; 95%CI: 2.03–8.46) and alcohol use (aOR:2.24; p<0.013; 95%CI:1.20–4.19) was only found in urban areas. Conclusions Results provide evidence that young women’s age-disparate partnerships involve greater sexual risk, particularly through the risky behaviours of their male partners, with the risk amplified for young women in urban areas. PMID:27526116

  3. Differences in skeletal and muscle mass with aging in black and white women.

    PubMed

    Aloia, J F; Vaswani, A; Feuerman, M; Mikhail, M; Ma, R

    2000-06-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies using delayed gamma neutron activation analysis and whole body counting suggested that the relationship of total body calcium (TBCa) to total body potassium (TBK) (muscle mass, body cell mass) remained constant with age. This led to the hypothesis that the muscle mass and skeletal mass compartments are integrated in their response to aging. It had also been hypothesized that loss of skeletal and muscle mass was similar between races. In the current study, delayed gamma neutron activation analysis and whole body counting were performed on 90 black and 143 white women 20-69 yr of age. Black women had higher TBCa and TBK values than white women, even when the data were adjusted for age, height, and weight. TBCa was correlated with height and TBK with weight. The estimated decline of skeletal mass (TBCa) from 20 to 70 yr was 18% in black women and 19% in white women. However, the lifetime decline of TBK was only 8% for black women, compared with 22% for white women. Black women may lose TBK more slowly than TBCa with aging, compared with white women. In particular, correlation of TBCa and age was similar for blacks and whites (r = -0.44 and r = -0.54, respectively). However, for TBK these correlations were r = -0.14 and r = -0.42. These data confirm a higher musculoskeletal mass in black women and suggest that the loss of muscle mass with age may be lower in black than in white women. These ethnic differences do not support the hypothesis of an integrated musculoskeletal system, so that these two components should be considered separately. A prospective study is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:10827019

  4. Ravishing or Ravaged: Women's Relationships with Women in the Context of Aging and Western Beauty Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselink, Carol A.; Cox, Deborah L.; McClure, Sarissa J.; De Jong, Mary L. G.

    2008-01-01

    We undertook this narrative analysis study to explore the complexities of women's relationships with other women within the sociocultural milieu of beautyism and ageism. Using an open-ended narrative framework, four focus groups of women living in different regions throughout the U.S. were conducted and analyzed to identify thematic categories…

  5. Women and stroke knowledge: influence of age, race, residence location, and marital status.

    PubMed

    Ennen, Kathleen A; Beamon, Emily R

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, stroke is the second leading cause of death and leading cause of disability. Women experience over half of all strokes, 60% of stroke-related deaths, and a death rate of 11% versus 8.4% for men. To understand the delay in stroke recognition and treatment, a convenience sample of 97 midlife women living in southeast North Carolina completed the Stroke Recognition Questionnaire. Rural women, younger women (<49 years old), and participants with incomes under $35,601 had higher stroke symptom and risk factor knowledge scores. Educational interventions should target women over the age of 50, and should distinguish between symptoms of stroke versus heart attack. PMID:22946594

  6. Women and stroke knowledge: influence of age, race, residence location, and marital status.

    PubMed

    Ennen, Kathleen A; Beamon, Emily R

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, stroke is the second leading cause of death and leading cause of disability. Women experience over half of all strokes, 60% of stroke-related deaths, and a death rate of 11% versus 8.4% for men. To understand the delay in stroke recognition and treatment, a convenience sample of 97 midlife women living in southeast North Carolina completed the Stroke Recognition Questionnaire. Rural women, younger women (<49 years old), and participants with incomes under $35,601 had higher stroke symptom and risk factor knowledge scores. Educational interventions should target women over the age of 50, and should distinguish between symptoms of stroke versus heart attack.

  7. Solar exposure(s) and facial clinical signs of aging in Chinese women: impacts upon age perception.

    PubMed

    Flament, Frederic; Bazin, Roland; Qiu, Huixia; Ye, Chengda; Laquieze, Sabine; Rubert, Virginie; Decroux, Aurelie; Simonpietri, Elisa; Piot, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    A new reference clinical atlas of facial signs dedicated to photoaging was applied to 301 Chinese women of various ages through standardized photographs. Such approach aimed at better describing the facial changes induced by both real/chronological age and sun exposure and their respective impact on two subcohorts of different behavior with regard to sun exposure. A total of 28 various facial signs were individually graded according to their severity by a panel of experts, and a perceived apparent age of each subject was assessed. Results showed that the severity of major signs significantly increased rather linearly with age, with a higher rate in sun-exposed subjects as compared with subjects who regularly avoid sun exposure. The severity of facial signs, all impacted by sun exposure, better correlated with perceived apparent age than real/chronological age. The protocol used in the present work, similar to that previously applied to two cohorts of French women, assigned a greater impact of sun exposure in the facial aging signs of Asian women - all clinical signs are influenced by extrinsic factors - as compared with Caucasian women of comparable ages, likely related to much more intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation. PMID:25709490

  8. Solar exposure(s) and facial clinical signs of aging in Chinese women: impacts upon age perception.

    PubMed

    Flament, Frederic; Bazin, Roland; Qiu, Huixia; Ye, Chengda; Laquieze, Sabine; Rubert, Virginie; Decroux, Aurelie; Simonpietri, Elisa; Piot, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    A new reference clinical atlas of facial signs dedicated to photoaging was applied to 301 Chinese women of various ages through standardized photographs. Such approach aimed at better describing the facial changes induced by both real/chronological age and sun exposure and their respective impact on two subcohorts of different behavior with regard to sun exposure. A total of 28 various facial signs were individually graded according to their severity by a panel of experts, and a perceived apparent age of each subject was assessed. Results showed that the severity of major signs significantly increased rather linearly with age, with a higher rate in sun-exposed subjects as compared with subjects who regularly avoid sun exposure. The severity of facial signs, all impacted by sun exposure, better correlated with perceived apparent age than real/chronological age. The protocol used in the present work, similar to that previously applied to two cohorts of French women, assigned a greater impact of sun exposure in the facial aging signs of Asian women - all clinical signs are influenced by extrinsic factors - as compared with Caucasian women of comparable ages, likely related to much more intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

  9. Opioid Prescriptions Among Women of Reproductive Age Enrolled in Medicaid - New York, 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Brian K; Shin, Yejee; Roohan, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to opioids during pregnancy can lead to adverse infant outcomes, including neonatal abstinence syndrome (1) and birth defects (2). Ascertaining opioid prescriptions for women who become pregnant or have no indication of contraceptive use is important to determine the number of women who are at potential risk for adverse fetal outcomes. The New York State (NYS) Department of Health (DOH) analyzed data for women aged 15-44 years (i.e., reproductive-aged women) enrolled in Medicaid to examine opioid drug prescriptions during 2008-2013. On the basis of Medicaid drug claims for any drug with an opioid ingredient, prescriptions were identified for the enrolled population of reproductive-aged women and for three subgroups: women whose diagnosis, procedure, and drug codes indicated contraceptive use or infertility; women who were not using contraceptives and not infertile; and women who had had a live birth during the reporting year. During 2008-2013, among all women of reproductive age, 20.0% received a prescription for a drug with an opioid component; the proportion was highest (27.3%) among women with an indication of contraceptive use or infertility, intermediate (17.3%) among women who had no indication of contraceptive use, and lowest (9.5%) among women who had had a live birth. Although New York's proportion of opioid prescriptions among female Medicaid recipients who had a live birth is lower than a recent U.S. estimate (3), these results suggest nearly one in 10 women in this group may have been exposed to opioids in the prenatal period. PMID:27124815

  10. Australian women and income security for old age: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rosenman, L S; Winocur, S

    1990-07-01

    Australian women constitute a majority of the aged population in Australia, and are more likely than men to be single in old age as well as dependent upon the means-tested Age Pension with no, or only limited, income supplementation from other sources such as occupational superannuation. Based upon research on a national sample of 1016 Australian women, aged across the adult life span, this paper reports age cohort patterns of work, family, and economic expectations for old age. While work and family patterns of Australian women are changing, the clear trend remains towards labour force withdrawal and part-time work for long periods while children are present in the home. The implications of these patterns for income security in old age are discussed. PMID:24390303

  11. Partner age-disparity and HIV incidence risk for older women in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Harling, Guy; Newell, Marie-Louise; Tanser, Frank; Bärnighausen, Till

    2014-01-01

    While sexual partner age disparity is frequently considered as a potential risk factor for HIV amongst young women in Africa, no research has addressed this question amongst older women. Our aim was thus to determine whether sex partner age disparity was associated with subsequent HIV acquisition in women aged over 30. Methods To achieve this aim we conducted a quantitative analysis of a population-based, open cohort of women in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (n=1,737) using Cox proportional hazards models. Results As partner age rose, HIV acquisition risk fell significantly: compared to a same-aged partner, a five-year older partner was associated with a one-third reduction (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.63, 95%CI: 0.52–0.76) and a ten-year older partner with a one-half reduction (HR: 0.48, 95%CI: 0.35–0.67). This result was neither confounded nor effect-modified by women’s age or socio-demographic factors. Conclusions These findings suggest that existing HIV risk-reduction campaigns warning young women about partnering with older men may be inappropriate for older women. HIV prevention strategies interventions specifically tailored to older women are needed. PMID:25670473

  12. Relative Age Effects in Women's Rugby Union from Developmental Leagues to World Cup Tournaments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemez, Srdjan; MacMahon, Clare; Weir, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Annual age cohort groupings promote relative age effects (RAEs), which often, inadvertently, create participation and attainment biases between relatively older and younger players within the same age cohort. In a globally evolving sport, women's rugby team selection practices may potentially bypass qualified players as a result of maturational…

  13. Financing care for aging women in the U.S.: international perspectives.

    PubMed

    Neuman, P H; Rice, D P; Hussey, P S

    2000-04-01

    The aging of the U.S. population presents challenges in financing care and meeting the health and long-term care needs of older Americans. Women, who constitute a majority of the older adult population and a disproportionate share of those with low incomes, chronic conditions and long-term care needs, have much at stake in the future direction of health programs for aging Americans. This paper examines the status of older women in 12 industrialized nations to assess how the U.S. compares to other countries in terms of its aging female population. We find that women across the 12 industrialized countries have a longer life expectancy than men at ages 65 and 80, underscoring the universality of aging as a "women's issue". With respect to age composition, the U.S. lags behind many industrialized nations in the share of its elderly female population; by 2030, the proportion of women aged 65 and older, and 80 and older, will be lower in the U.S. than in any of the industrialized nations compared in this paper. Against this backdrop, the paper examines the characteristics of older adult women in the U.S., considers the role of Medicare in meeting the needs of aging women, and identifies gaps in coverage, primarily prescription drug and long-term care, that disproportionately affect older women. The paper concludes by considering how other nations provide and finance prescription drug and long-term care services for older adults, suggesting useful models for the U.S. to consider as it struggles to meet the demands of its aging population. PMID:10902056

  14. Effect of submaximal repetitive exercise on knee coactivation in young and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Hodder, Joanne N; Plashkes, Tova E; Franklin, Regan A; Hickey, Heather K; Maly, Monica R

    2014-04-01

    Coactivation of the knee extensors and flexors increases knee joint contact forces, which may lead to degradation of the articular surfaces. This study investigated the effect of neuromuscular fatigue induced by submaximal, repetitive, dynamic contractions on coactivation of knee musculature in young and middle-aged women. Data from 10 young women (24.6±1.8 years) and 8 middle-aged women (55.4±4.2 years) were analyzed. Measures included peak knee extension and flexion torques and the average amplitude of surface electromyography of rectus femoris and biceps femoris. Coactivation ratios were calculated from these activations. To induce fatigue, participants completed up to ten sets of 50 concentric knee extension and flexion contractions at 60°/s. A two-factor analysis of variance was used to determine the effect of age and fatigue. The young group showed higher peak torque compared with the middle-aged group (P<.001). During flexion, biceps femoris activity increased after fatigue when both groups were considered together (P=.018). During extension, biceps femoris activity was higher in the middle-aged than young group (P=.043). Middle-aged women exhibited a trend for greater coactivation during knee extension compared with young women (P=.066). This coactivation likely contributed to extension torque decrements in middle-aged women.

  15. Web-Based Physical Activity Intervention for College-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornes, Lynne; Ransdell, Lynda B.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of a web-based physical activity intervention to two control conditions in terms of increasing walking behavior in college-aged women. Women (N=112) from a public university in the southwest were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. The 4-week intervention featured an experimental, repeated…

  16. Parental Loss and Eating-Related Cognitions and Behaviors in College-Age Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beam, Minna R.; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.; Mathews, Laura

    2004-01-01

    To examine the eating-related cognitions and behaviors of college-age women who had experienced parental death, parental divorce, or neither loss condition, we recruited 48 women from science and social science departments at a state university in the Southeast. All participants completed the Mizes Anorectic Cognitions Scale (MAC) and the Bulimia…

  17. Transformations and Self-Discovery: Mature-Age Women's Reflections on Returning to University Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, S.; Stone, C.

    2011-01-01

    Research has highlighted the challenges that women face as mature-age students in higher education. The challenges are particularly acute when a woman is the first in her family to go to university. Many women begin their journey as students with considerable self-doubt and lack of confidence. They may also face an ongoing struggle to find a way…

  18. Cervical cancer screening among women aged 18-30 years - United States, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Screening women for cervical cancer can save lives. However, among young women, cervical cancer is relatively rare, and too-frequent screening can lead to high costs and adverse events associated with overtreatment. Before 2012, cervical cancer screening guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), American Cancer Society (ACS), and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) differed on age to start and how often to get screened for cervical cancer. In 2012, however, all three organizations recommended that 1) screening by Papanicolau (Pap) test should not be used for women aged <21 years, regardless of initiation of sexual activity, and 2) a screening interval of 3 years should be maintained for women aged 21-30 years. ACS and ACOG explicitly recommend against yearly screening. To assess trends in Pap testing before the new guidelines were introduced, CDC analyzed 2000-2010 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for women aged 18-30 years. CDC found that, among women aged 18-21 years, the percentage reporting never having been screened increased from 26.3% in 2000 to 47.5% in 2010, and the proportion reporting having had a Pap test in the past 12 months decreased from 65.0% to 41.5%. Among those aged 22-30 years, the proportion reporting having had a Pap test within the preceding 12 months decreased from 78.1% to 67.0%. These findings showed that Pap testing practices for young women have been moving toward the latest guidelines. However, the data also showed a concerning trend: among women aged 22-30 years, who should be screened every 3 years, the proportion who reported never having had a Pap test increased from 6.6% to 9.0%. More effort is needed to promote acceptance of the latest evidence-based recommendations so that all women receive the maximal benefits of cervical cancer screening.

  19. Characteristics and Use of Home Health Care by Men and Women Aged 65 and Over

    MedlinePlus

    ... April 18, 2012 Characteristics and Use of Home Health Care by Men and Women Aged 65 and Over ... and Roberto Valverde, M.P.H., Division of Health Care Statistics Abstract Objective —This report presents national estimates ...

  20. Folate Intake and Markers of Folate Status in Women of Reproductive Age, Pregnant and Lactating Women: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Berti, Cristiana; Fekete, Katalin; Dullemeijer, Carla; Trovato, Monica; Souverein, Olga W.; Cavelaars, Adriënne; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie; Massari, Maddalena; Decsi, Tamás; van't Veer, Pieter; Cetin, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Background. Pregnant and breastfeeding women are at risk for folate deficiency. Folate supplementation has been shown to be associated with enhanced markers of folate status. However, dose-response analyses for adult women are still lacking. Objective. To assess the dose-response relationship between total folate intake (folic acid plus dietary folate) and markers of folate status (plasma/serum folate, red blood cell folate, and plasma homocysteine); to evaluate potential differences between women in childbearing age, pregnant and lactating women. Methods. Electronic literature searches were carried out on three databases until February 2010. The overall pooled regression coefficient (β) and SE(β) were calculated using meta-analysis on a double-log scale. Results. The majority of data was based on nonpregnant, nonlactating women in childbearingage. The pooled estimate of the relationship between folate intake and serum/plasma folate was 0.56 (95% CI = 0.40–0.72, P < 0.00001); that is, the doubling of folate intake increases the folate level in serum/plasma by 47%. For red blood cell folate, the pooled-effect estimate was 0.30 (95% CI = 0.22–0.38, P < 0.00001), that is, +23% for doubling intake. For plasma-homocysteine it was –0.10 (95% = –0.17 to –0.04, P = 0.001), that is, –7% for doubling the intake. Associations tended to be weaker in pregnant and lactating women. Conclusion. Significant relationships between folate intake and serum/plasma folate, red blood cell folate, and plasma homocysteine were quantified. This dose-response methodology may be applied for setting requirements for women in childbearing age, as well as for pregnant and lactating women. PMID:23024859

  1. Indian women of childbearing age do not metabolically conserve arginine as do American and Jamaican women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study in pregnant American women, we reported that arginine flux and nitric oxide synthesis increased in trimester 2. More recently, we reported that Indian women do not increase arginine flux during pregnancy as their American or Jamaican counterparts do. The purpose of this study was...

  2. A Narrative Study of the Experiences that Impact Educational Choices of Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Shireese Redmond

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…

  3. Prevalence of Food Addiction Among Low-Income Reproductive-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Laz, Tabassum H.; Pohlmeier, Ali M.; Rahman, Mahbubur; Cunningham, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Hyperpalatable foods (i.e., high in salt, sugar, or fat) have been shown to have addictive properties that may contribute to overeating. Prior studies conducted on food addiction behaviors are mostly based on white and middle-aged women. Data are not available, however, on reproductive-aged women from other races/ethnicities or low-income women. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of food addiction among multiethnic women of low socioeconomic status. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of health behaviors, including food addiction according to the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) between July 2010 and February 2011 among 18- to 40-year-old low-income women attending reproductive-health clinics (N = 1,067). Results: Overall, 2.8% of women surveyed met the diagnosis of food addiction. The prevalence of food addiction did not differ by age group, race/ethnicity, education, income, or body mass index categories, tobacco and alcohol use, or physical activity. However, it did differ by level of depression (p < 0.01). The YFAS symptom count score significantly differed by race/ethnicity (p < 0.01) with black women having higher scores than Hispanic women. Racial differences were also observed among some of the YFAS symptoms. Conclusion: These findings demonstrated a low prevalence of food addiction among low-income, reproductive-aged women. Racial differences were observed in the YFAS symptom count score, but not in the overall prevalence of food addition. Additionally, women with food addiction had higher levels of depression than women without food addiction. PMID:26284304

  4. The Middle Ages: Change in Women's Personalities and Social Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Nicola; Stewart, Abigail J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that the predominant focus of midlife personality development is generativity; other research has found that social roles influence both its onset and its expression. In this article, we examine women's midlife personality development and its relationship to career and family commitments. Results for a sample of 90 women…

  5. Dissimilarity of femur aging in men and women from a Nationwide Survey in Korea (KNHANES IV).

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Lim, Jung Soo; Kim, Kwang Joon; Choi, Han Seok; Rhee, Yumie; Oh, Han Jin; Choi, Hoon; Choi, Woong Hwan; Kim, Jung Gu; Lim, Sung-Kil

    2013-03-01

    In light of the differences in hip fracture rates between men and women of different ages, age-related changes in bone structure that lead to bone fragility might differ depending on both age and gender. To investigate age-related bone loss and geometric deterioration of the femur, hip scans of 1,504 men and 2,076 women aged 19-92 years acquired during the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were analyzed with a structural analysis program. Cross-sectional area and cortical thickness with bone mineral density in men started to decline from the third decade and continued to decline at a constant rate. However, in women, these parameters remained nearly constant until the fifth decade and then declined at a more rapid rate than that seen in men. Consequently, changes in the buckling ratio, earlier onset, and continuation of increase over the lifetime were observed in men. A relatively later onset with a greater acceleration with aging was observed in women. Taken together, there were obvious gender and age differences in structural trends with age. Bone aging, i.e., bone loss and geometric deterioration, actually begins at a young age, especially in men, and osteoporosis prevention strategies should target not only the elderly but also younger individuals.

  6. Factors associated with tobacco smoking practices among middle-aged and older women in Texas.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Colwell, Brian; Ahn, Sangnam; Ory, Marcia G

    2012-01-01

    This study examines middle-aged and older women's smoking practices and identifies factors associated with tobacco use and cessation in this population. Data of 593 women were analyzed from a seven-county random household sample in Texas. Sequential multinomial logistic regression compared associations with having never smoked, having quit smoking, and currently smoking. Compared to smokers, never smokers and past smokers were significantly more likely to be older, more educated, of better general health, and report past-year physician visits and fewer depressive symptoms. Mental health and smoking are interrelated, indicating the need for addressing depression in smoking-cessation efforts for aging women.

  7. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination among women of childbearing age-United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Alissa C; Lu, Peng-Jun; Williams, Walter W; Ding, Helen; Meyer, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of pertussis in the United States has increased since the 1990s. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of pregnant women provides passive protection to infants. Tdap vaccination is currently recommended for pregnant women during each pregnancy, but coverage among pregnant women and women of childbearing age has been suboptimal. Data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to determine national and state-specific Tdap vaccination coverage among women of childbearing age by self-reported pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Although this study could not assess coverage of Tdap vaccination received during pregnancy because questions on whether Tdap vaccination was received during pregnancy were not asked in BRFSS and NHIS, demographic and access-to-care factors associated with Tdap vaccination coverage in this population were assessed. Tdap vaccination coverage among all women 18-44 years old was 38.4% based on the BRFSS and 23.3% based on the NHIS. Overall, coverage did not differ by pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Coverage among all women 18-44 years old varied widely by state. Age, race and ethnicity, education, number of children in the household, and access-to-care characteristics were independently associated with Tdap vaccination in both surveys. We identified associations of demographic and access-to-care characteristics with Tdap vaccination that can guide strategies to improve vaccination rates in women during pregnancy. PMID:27372388

  8. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination among women of childbearing age-United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Alissa C; Lu, Peng-Jun; Williams, Walter W; Ding, Helen; Meyer, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of pertussis in the United States has increased since the 1990s. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of pregnant women provides passive protection to infants. Tdap vaccination is currently recommended for pregnant women during each pregnancy, but coverage among pregnant women and women of childbearing age has been suboptimal. Data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to determine national and state-specific Tdap vaccination coverage among women of childbearing age by self-reported pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Although this study could not assess coverage of Tdap vaccination received during pregnancy because questions on whether Tdap vaccination was received during pregnancy were not asked in BRFSS and NHIS, demographic and access-to-care factors associated with Tdap vaccination coverage in this population were assessed. Tdap vaccination coverage among all women 18-44 years old was 38.4% based on the BRFSS and 23.3% based on the NHIS. Overall, coverage did not differ by pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Coverage among all women 18-44 years old varied widely by state. Age, race and ethnicity, education, number of children in the household, and access-to-care characteristics were independently associated with Tdap vaccination in both surveys. We identified associations of demographic and access-to-care characteristics with Tdap vaccination that can guide strategies to improve vaccination rates in women during pregnancy.

  9. Baseline age and time to major fracture in younger postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Gourlay, Margaret L.; Overman, Robert A.; Fine, Jason P.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Crandall, Carolyn J.; Gass, Margery L.; Robbins, John; Johnson, Karen C.; LeBlanc, Erin S.; Womack, Catherine R.; Schousboe, John T.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of first hip or clinical vertebral fracture or major osteoporotic (hip, clinical vertebral, proximal humerus or wrist) fracture in postmenopausal women receiving their first bone mineral density (BMD) test before age 65. Methods We studied 4068 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 64 without hip or clinical vertebral fracture or antifracture treatment at baseline, participating in the Women's Health Initiative BMD cohort study. BMD tests were performed between October 1993 and April 2005, with fracture follow-up through 2012. The outcomes were the times for 1% of women to sustain a hip or clinical vertebral fracture, and for 3% to sustain a major osteoporotic fracture before initiating treatment, adjusting for clinical risk factors and accounting for competing risks. Women without and with osteoporosis on their first BMD test were analyzed separately. Results During a maximum 11.2 years of concurrent BMD and fracture follow-up, the adjusted estimated time for 1% of women to have a hip or clinical vertebral fracture was 12.8 years (95% CI, 8.0, 20.4) for aged 50 to 54 and 7.6 years (95% CI, 4.8 to 12.1) for aged 60 to 64 for those without baseline osteoporosis, and 3.0 years (95% CI, 1.3, 7.1) for all women aged 50 to 64 with baseline osteoporosis. Results were similar for major osteoporotic fracture. Conclusion Due to very low rates of major osteoporotic fracture, postmenopausal women age 50 and 64 without osteoporosis on a first BMD test are unlikely to benefit from frequent rescreening before age 65. PMID:25349960

  10. Anthropometrical data of middle-aged Japanese women for industrial design applications.

    PubMed

    Ashizawa, K; Okada, A; Kouchi, M; Horino, S; Kikuchi, Y

    1994-06-01

    Despite the growing importance of human interface design, and despite the growing number of working women, no considerations have been given to women's working spaces and tools. Their designs are based on men's anthropometrical data, and this does not assure safety and amenity of women's working environments. Moreover, few data on women's body measurements are available. The Research Institute of Human Engineering for Quality Life is carrying out an ergonomic anthropometrical study on a large number of Japanese people to create a database for industrial use. The fee for the use of these data is, however, making it very difficult to profit from their acquisition. Therefore, we conducted an anthropometrical study for industrial design use on middle-aged female subjects, who are in the most difficult age group to access. This report should be useful in designing working spaces and tools for women as laborers as well as users.

  11. Coronary calcification and osteoporosis in men and postmenopausal women are independent processes associated with aging.

    PubMed

    Sinnott, B; Syed, I; Sevrukov, A; Barengolts, E

    2006-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether low bone mass is directly associated with the severity of coronary atherosclerosis in men and postmenopausal women self-referred for evaluation of coronary atherosclerosis and osteoporosis. Low bone mass was evaluated by measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) using quantitative computerized tomography (QCT). Coronary atherosclerosis was evaluated by measurement of coronary calcium (CC) burden using electron beam computerized tomography (EBCT). Using a cross-sectional design, we tested the hypothesis that osteoporosis and coronary atherosclerosis are correlated, age-dependent processes. Study variables were BMD, CC scores, and other known risk factors for osteoporosis and atherosclerosis. Qualifying for the study were 313 postmenopausal women and 167 men. Men had higher baseline CC scores and higher body mass indexes compared to women. In females, those patients with coronary calcification were older and had significantly lower BMD compared to those without calcification. In males, those patients with coronary calcification were older. By univariate correlation analysis, the degree of coronary calcification was inversely associated with BMD in postmenopausal women (P < 0.0001) but not in men. However, after controlling for age, this association was absent for both men and postmenopausal women. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis in women and men separately, age was the only significant predictor of positive CC status and low BMD. Our study suggests that in postmenopausal women and in men, after controlling for age, osteoporosis and coronary atherosclerosis are independent processes. PMID:16604285

  12. Depression, socioeconomic status, age, and marital status in black women: a national study.

    PubMed

    Scarinci, Isabel C; Beech, Bettina M; Naumann, Wendy; Kovach, Kristen W; Pugh, Letha; Fapohunda, Bolaji

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between an array of socioeconomic status (SES) indicators and depression among Black women; determined which SES indicator was most strongly associated with depression; and examined whether the relationship between SES and depression was the same across age and marital status. A sample of 1,407 Black women recruited through the National Black Women's Health Project completed a survey on psychological well-being. Independent variables included income, education, median income within zip codes, marital status, and age. The dependent variable was depression as measured by the CES-D. The average CES-D score among participants was 12.67 (SD = 10.54), and 31.9% screened positive for depression. An inverse relationship was found between income and education and depression. The higher the yearly household income and education level the lower the scores on the CES-D. Income was the SES indicator most strongly associated with depression. Younger women had higher scores on the CES-D. Never-married women exhibited significantly higher levels of depression compared to women who were married or living together with an intimate partner. There were no significant interactions between SES indicators, age, and marital status. These findings suggest that income, education level, marital status, and age may be important demographic variables to consider when designing interventions to address depression among Black women.

  13. Thyroid function: comparison of women in late pregnancy with control women of reproductive age in regions of dietary iodine excess.

    PubMed

    Du, Quxiao; Zhu, Hong; Yao, Li

    2013-07-01

    Three hundred pregnant women and 300 women of reproductive age (controls) were selected from regions with a dietary iodine excess to evaluate thyroid and autoimmune thyroid functions. Fasting morning urine and venous blood samples were collected. Urinary iodine concentration, serum free tri-iodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), sensitive thyroid stimulating hormone (sTSH), serum thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) levels were determined. Iodine levels were excessive in 83.7% of pregnant women and 80.7% of the control women. The former showed lower rates of total thyroid disease and subclinical hypothyroidism than the latter (21.7% vs 29.7%, P < 0.05; 19.7% vs 27.3%, P < 0.05). The FT3 level, FT4 level, and TGAb positive rate of pregnant women were lower than that in the controls (P < 0.05). Thus, both excessive iodine intake and pregnancy can influence the thyroid and autoimmune thyroid functions of women.

  14. Fertility preservation in reproductive-age women facing gonadotoxic treatments

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J.; Ronn, R.; Tallon, N.; Holzer, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Advancements in the treatments for cancer and autoimmune and other hematologic conditions continue to improve survival and cure rates. Despite those changes, various gonadotoxic agents and other treatments can still compromise the future fertility of many women. Progress in medical and surgical reproductive technologies has helped to offset the reproductive consequences of the use of gonadotoxic therapies, and allows for future fertility and normal pregnancy. Methods A review of the literature was performed to outline the pathophysiology of gonadotoxicity from various treatments. The success of fertility preservation, fertility sparing, and cryopreservation options are reviewed. Barriers and facilitators to referral and oncofertility treatment in Canada are also outlined. Results According to the quality of the evidence, recommendations are made for fertility assessment, patient referral, cryopreservation, and other assisted reproductive technologies. Conclusions To ensure ongoing fertility in women undergoing gonadotoxic treatments, assisted reproductive technologies can be combined with a multidisciplinary approach to patient assessment and referral. PMID:26300680

  15. Mentoring college-age women: a relational approach.

    PubMed

    Liang, Belle; Tracy, Allison J; Taylor, Catherine A; Williams, Linda M

    2002-04-01

    Despite the popularity of mentoring programs, the relational dimension of mentoring has not been elucidated. Traditional conceptions of mentoring may exclude factors that are particularly important for women and girls, thus limiting the efficacy of mentoring programs for female adolescents. We suggest that the presence of relational qualities in the mentoring relationship (e.g., empathy, engagement, authenticity, and empowerment) strongly influences the success of mentoring in the lives of young women. In this study, we use a promising new measure of mentoring, the Relational Health Index - Mentor, to explore the impact of relational aspects of mentoring in female college students. We found that mentoring relationships high in relational qualities were associated with higher self-esteem and less loneliness

  16. Effect of Maternal Age at Childbirth on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    We, Ji-Sun; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kil, Kicheol

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The object of this study was to assess the obesity in postmenopausal women, according to age at childbirth. We analyzed the association between age at first childbirth, age at last childbirth, parity, and subject obesity status (general obesity; BMI >25 kg/m2, nongeneral obesity; BMI ≤25 kg/m2, abdominal obesity; waist circumference >85 cm, nonabdominal obesity; waist circumference ≤85 cm), using data from a nationwide population-based survey, the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data from a total of 4382 postmenopausal women were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with complex survey design sampling. And, the subjects were subdivided into groups according to obesity or not. Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, education, income level, number of pregnancies, oral contraceptive uses, breast feeding experience were adjusted as the confounders. The prevalence of general obesity among Korean postmenopausal women was 37.08%. Women with general obesity and abdominal obesity were significantly younger at first childbirth compared with women with nongeneral obesity and no abdominal obesity (23.89 ± 0.1 vs. 23.22 ± 0.1, P <0.001). Age at first childbirth was inversely associated with obesity, while age at last childbirth was not associated with obesity or abdominal obesity. Women with a higher number of pregnancies were also more likely to have obesity and abdominal obesity. Age at first childbirth remained significantly associated with obesity, after adjusting for confounding factors. Obesity in postmenopausal women is associated with first childbirth at a young age, and higher parity. Further research is needed to clarify the association between obesity and reproductive characteristics. PMID:27175656

  17. The age and symptomatology of natural menopause among United Arab Emirates women.

    PubMed

    Rizk, D E; Bener, A; Ezimokhai, M; Hassan, M Y; Micallef, R

    1998-06-17

    A population-based survey of 742 United Arab Emirates women aged 40 years and over who had attained natural menopause (amenorrhea of at least 6 months' duration) investigated age at onset and the prevalence of climacteric symptoms. Women from both urban and rural areas of Al-Ain City and Abu Dhabi, Dubai, and Sharjah Emirates were recruited through use of the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. The median age at menopause in this sample was 48 years (mean, 47.3 +or- 3.29 years; range, 40-59 years)--significantly lower than the 50.3 year mean recorded among Western women. Median age at menopause was significantly associated with that of the mother (p 0.001) and older sister (p 0.001), parity (p 0.0001), and a history of use of oral contraceptives for more than 1 year (p 0.001). 394 women (53%) reported at least one climacteric symptom. Most common were hot flushes, reported by 47% of women. 145 women (19.5%) were currently taking hormone replacement therapy. The relatively low age at menopause in this population could reflect additional social, economic, environmental, or genetic factors that were not explored in this study.

  18. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among Childbearing Age Women in India: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Jamie M.; Tang, Gong; Haggerty, Catherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) can lead to reproductive sequelae. Information on the general population of childbearing age women in India is sparse. We reviewed the literature on CT prevalence within the general population of reproductive aged women in order to improve the efforts of public health screening programs and interventions. Objective. To conduct a literature review to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among childbearing age women in India. Search Strategy. Ovid Medline and PubMed databases were searched for articles from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2014. Search terms included “Chlamydia trachomatis”, “CT”, “prevalence”, “India”, and “sexually transmitted infections”. Selection Criteria. Studies on prevalence data for CT among women of childbearing age (15–45) living in India were included. Data Collection and Analysis. Articles that met the inclusion criteria were extracted by two readers and discrepancies solved through discussion. Results. Reported prevalence of active CT infection among lower risk groups ranged from 0.1% to 1.1% and in higher risk group from 2.7% to 28.5%. Conclusion. CT prevalence among women in India is comparable to other countries. Screening programs to prevent adverse outcomes among Indian women of childbearing age and their offspring are warranted. PMID:27672303

  19. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among Childbearing Age Women in India: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Jamie M.; Tang, Gong; Haggerty, Catherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) can lead to reproductive sequelae. Information on the general population of childbearing age women in India is sparse. We reviewed the literature on CT prevalence within the general population of reproductive aged women in order to improve the efforts of public health screening programs and interventions. Objective. To conduct a literature review to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among childbearing age women in India. Search Strategy. Ovid Medline and PubMed databases were searched for articles from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2014. Search terms included “Chlamydia trachomatis”, “CT”, “prevalence”, “India”, and “sexually transmitted infections”. Selection Criteria. Studies on prevalence data for CT among women of childbearing age (15–45) living in India were included. Data Collection and Analysis. Articles that met the inclusion criteria were extracted by two readers and discrepancies solved through discussion. Results. Reported prevalence of active CT infection among lower risk groups ranged from 0.1% to 1.1% and in higher risk group from 2.7% to 28.5%. Conclusion. CT prevalence among women in India is comparable to other countries. Screening programs to prevent adverse outcomes among Indian women of childbearing age and their offspring are warranted.

  20. Cardiovascular responses to postural changes: differences with age for women and men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, M. A.; Tomaselli, C. M.; Hoffler, W. G.

    1994-01-01

    The cardiovascular responses to postural change, and how they are affected by aging, are inadequately described in women. Therefore, the authors examined the influence of age and sex on the responses of blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, and other variables to change in posture. Measurements were made after 10 minutes each in the supine, seated, and standing positions in 22 men and 25 women who ranged in age from 21 to 59 years. Several variables differed, both by sex and by age, when subjects were supine. On rising, subjects' diastolic and mean arterial pressures, heart rate, total peripheral resistance (TPR), and thoracic impedance increased; cardiac output, stroke volume, and mean stroke ejection rate decreased; and changes in all variables, except heart rate, were greater from supine to sitting than sitting to standing. The increase in heart rate was greater in the younger subjects, and increases in TPR and thoracic impedance were greater in the older subjects. Stroke volume decreased less, and TPR and thoracic impedance increased more, in the women than in the men. The increase in TPR was particularly pronounced in the older women. These studies show that the cardiovascular responses to standing differ, in some respects, between the sexes and with age. The authors suggest that the sex differences are, in part, related to greater decrease of thoracic blood volume with standing in women than in men, and that the age differences result, in part, from decreased responsiveness of the high-pressure baroreceptor system.

  1. State of Health and Quality of Life of Women at Advanced Age.

    PubMed

    Pinkas, Jarosław; Gujski, Mariusz; Humeniuk, Ewa; Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Bejga, Przemysław; Owoc, Alfred; Bojar, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Evaluation of the state of health, quality of life, and relationship between the level of the quality of life and health status in a group of women at advanced age (90 and more years) in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study was conducted in 2014 in an all-Polish sample of 870 women aged 90 and over. The research instruments were: the author's questionnaire, and standardized tests: Katz index of independence in Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS), The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) - BREF. The results of the study were statistically analyzed using significant t test for mean and regression analysis. RESULTS The majority of women at advanced age suffered from chronic pain (76%) and such major geriatric problems as hypoacusis (81%), visual disturbances (69%) and urinary incontinence (60%), the minority - fall and fainting (39%) as well as stool incontinence (17%), severe functional and cognitive impairment (24% and 10% respectively). Women at advanced age assessed positively for overall quality of life (mean 3.3 on 1-5 scale), social relationships (3.5) and environment (3.2), but negatively - general, physical and psychological health (2.7, 2.7 and 2.8 respectively). The presence of chronic pain and major geriatric problems: urinary and stool incontinences, falls and fainting, visual disturbances and hypoacusis significantly decreases overall quality of life, general, physical and psychological health, social relationships and environment of women at advanced age. Overall quality of life, general, physical and psychological health, social relationships and environment correlate to functional and cognitive impairments of women at advanced age. CONCLUSIONS Quality of life of women at advanced age decreased if chronic pain, major geriatric problems as well as functional and cognitive impairments occur. PMID:27580565

  2. Age at menopause, reproductive history and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate VTE risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized HT assignment among postmenopausal women. Methods Using pooled data from the Women’s Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women ages 50 to 79 years with no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazard models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. Results During the follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 nonprocedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected and there was any significant association of VTE with age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to nonprocedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (p<0.01). Compared to women aged 40 to 49 years at menopause, those with early menopause (age<40 years) or with late menopause (age>55 years) had a significant increased VTE risk (HR=1.8;95%CI:1.2–2.7 and HR=1.5;95%CI:1.0–2.4, respectively). Conclusion Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for nonprocedure-related VTE. PMID:23760439

  3. The Learning Projects of Rural Third Age Women: Enriching a Valuable Community Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lear, Glenna

    2011-01-01

    As a third age PhD candidate with a passion for learning, I wanted to explore the learning of other rural third age women who live on the Lower Eyre Peninsula (LEP) of South Australia. This reflects the methodological stance of heuristic inquiry, which requires the researcher to have a passionate interest in the phenomena under investigation, and…

  4. Presence and Image of Women in the Information Media Aimed at Adolescents Aged 10 to 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dansereau, Stephanie; Maranda, Jeanne

    An exploratory study identified the areas of information most commonly featured in the printed and electronic media designed specifically for adolescents aged 10-16 and also identified the presence and role of women in the information targeted to this age group. A content analysis was made of both French- and English-language television programs…

  5. The Correlates of Childhood Father Absence in College-aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hainline, Louise; Feig, Ellen

    1978-01-01

    Personality and attitudinal correlates of father absence early (before age 5) or late (between 5 and 11) in childhood were studied in a sample of college- aged women. Father absence was due to either death or divorce. Results showed few differences between father-absent subjects and father-present controls. (Author/JMB)

  6. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  7. Evidence for the emergence of leg sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone with age in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Moore, David J.; Barlow, Matthew A.; Gonzales, Joaquin U.; McGowan, Cheri L.; Pawelczyk, James A.; Proctor, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract While muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is elevated with advancing age, correlational evidence suggests that, in contrast to men, basal MSNA is not related to resting lower limb hemodynamics in women. However, limited data exists in women that have attempted to directly assess the degree of limb sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone, and whether it is altered with age. To address this issue, we measured changes in femoral artery vascular conductance (FVC) during an acute sympatho‐inhibitory stimulus (−60 mm Hg neck suction, NS) in groups of healthy younger (n = 8, 23 ± 1 years) and older (n = 7, 66 ± 1 years) women. The percent change in FVC in response to NS was significantly augmented in the older (P = 0.006 vs. young) women. Although NS caused no significant change (3 ± 3%, P = 0.33) in FVC in the young women, there was a robust increase in FVC (21 ± 5%, P = 0.003) in the old women. Collectively, these findings provide evidence that in women, leg sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone emerges with age. PMID:25626874

  8. Evidence for the emergence of leg sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone with age in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Moore, David J; Barlow, Matthew A; Gonzales, Joaquin U; McGowan, Cheri L; Pawelczyk, James A; Proctor, David N

    2015-01-01

    While muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is elevated with advancing age, correlational evidence suggests that, in contrast to men, basal MSNA is not related to resting lower limb hemodynamics in women. However, limited data exists in women that have attempted to directly assess the degree of limb sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone, and whether it is altered with age. To address this issue, we measured changes in femoral artery vascular conductance (FVC) during an acute sympatho-inhibitory stimulus (-60 mm Hg neck suction, NS) in groups of healthy younger (n = 8, 23 ± 1 years) and older (n = 7, 66 ± 1 years) women. The percent change in FVC in response to NS was significantly augmented in the older (P = 0.006 vs. young) women. Although NS caused no significant change (3 ± 3%, P = 0.33) in FVC in the young women, there was a robust increase in FVC (21 ± 5%, P = 0.003) in the old women. Collectively, these findings provide evidence that in women, leg sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone emerges with age. PMID:25626874

  9. Never-married childless women in Australia: health and social circumstances in older age.

    PubMed

    Cwikel, Julie; Gramotnev, Helen; Lee, Christina

    2006-04-01

    A growing proportion of women reach older age without having married or having children. Assumptions that these older women are lonely, impoverished, and high users of social and health services are based on little evidence. This paper uses data from the Older cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health to describe self-reported demographics, physical and emotional health, and use of services among 10,108 women aged 73-78, of whom 2.7% are never-married and childless. The most striking characteristic of this group is their high levels of education, which are associated with fewer reported financial difficulties and higher rates of private health insurance. There are few differences in self-reported physical or emotional health or use of health services between these and other groups of older women. Compared with older married women with children, they make higher use of formal services such as home maintenance and meal services, and are also more likely to provide volunteer services and belong to social groups. Overall, there is no evidence to suggest that these women are a "problem" group. Rather, it seems that their life experiences and opportunities prepare them for a successful and productive older age. PMID:16225976

  10. Age-Associated Perceptions of Physical Activity Facilitators and Barriers Among Women in Rural Southernmost Illinois

    PubMed Central

    Carnahan, Leslie R.; Peacock, Nadine R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Women living in rural areas in the United States experience disproportionately high rates of diseases such as obesity and heart disease and are less likely than women living in urban areas to meet daily physical activity (PA) recommendations. The purpose of our research was to understand age-specific perceptions of barriers and facilitators to rural women engaging in PA and to identify strategies to promote PA among these women. Methods As part of a community health assessment to learn about women’s health issues, 110 adult women participated in 14 focus groups. The women were divided into 4 age groups, and focus groups were held in various community settings. We used qualitative analysis methods to explore themes in the women’s narratives, including themes related to PA knowledge, PA behavior, and access to PA facilities. Results Participants described multiple and often conflicting individual, social, and environmental barriers and facilitators to PA. Several barriers and facilitators were shared across age groups (eg, competing priorities and inadequate knowledge about PA’s role in disease prevention and disease management). Other barriers (eg, illness and injury) and facilitators (eg, PA as a social opportunity) differed by age group. Conclusion Rural women in southernmost Illinois have often contradictory barriers and facilitators to PA, and those barriers and facilitators are different at different points in a woman’s life. Our findings suggest the need for multilevel, multisector approaches to promote PA. Additionally, this research supports the need for tailored PA promotion programs for rural women to address the barriers these women face across their lifespan. PMID:27685431

  11. Increased hematuria following hypergravic exposure in middle-aged women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldwater, D. J.; Ohara, D. B.; Sandler, H.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of simulated weightlessness on orthostatic tolerance were studied in 9 women (55 to 65 years old) who underwent acceleration and lower body negative pressure before and after 10 days of horizontal bed rest. The results of this study show the first known association of microscopic hematuria with hypergravic and orthostatic stress which suggests similarities to the 'stress hematuria syndrome' previously seen with heavy exercise (Boileau et al., 1980). In addition, the sporadic occurrence of this phenomenon indicates a multifactorial etiology in predisposed individuals. Bedrest or weightlessness simulation per se does not seem to significantly alter renal function, but may decrease microscopic hematuria with an orthostatic component.

  12. Age-related arterial telomere uncapping and senescence is greater in women compared with men.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ashley E; Morgan, R Garrett; Ives, Stephen J; Cawthon, Richard M; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Noyes, Dirk; Lesniewski, Lisa A; Richardson, Russell S; Donato, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Telomere uncapping increases with advancing age in human arteries and this telomere uncapping is associated with increased markers of senescence, independent of mean telomere length. However, whether there are sex specific differences in arterial telomere uncapping is unknown. We found that telomere uncapping (serine 139 phosphorylated histone γ-H2A.X in telomeres) in arteries was ~2.5 fold greater in post-menopausal women (n=17, 63±2 years) compared with pre-menopausal women (n=11, 30±2 years, p=0.02), while there was only a trend towards greater telomere uncapping in older men (n=26, 66±2 years) compared with young men (n=11, 31±2, p=0.11). Senescence markers, p53 bound to the p21 gene promoter and p21 gene expression, were 3-4 fold greater in post-menopausal compared with pre-menopausal women (p=0.01-0.02), but only 1.5-2 fold greater in older compared with young men (p=0.02-0.08). Blood glucose was related to telomere uncapping in women, while systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and serum creatinine were related to telomere uncapping in men. Mean arterial telomere length decreased similarly in women and men with age (p<0.01). Thus, the age-related increase in arterial telomere uncapping and senescence is greater in women than men, despite similar age-related reductions in mean telomere length in both sexes.

  13. Lifestyle, nutrient intake, iron status, and pregnancy outcome in pregnant women of advanced maternal age.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyun Sook

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how advanced maternal age influences lifestyle, nutrient intake, iron status, and pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women. The subjects of this study were 112 pregnant women who were receiving prenatal care at gynecologists located in Seoul. The subjects were divided into two groups according to their ages: those over age 35 were the advanced age group of pregnant women (AP) and those under age 35 were the young age group of pregnant women (YP). General factors, nutrient intakes, iron status, and pregnancy outcomes of the two groups were then compared. It was found that 72.5% of the YP group and 51.2% of the AP group had pre-pregnancy alcohol drinking experience; indicating that the YP group had more pre-pregnancy alcohol consumption than the AP group (P < 0.05). The only difference found in nutrient intake between the two groups was their niacin intakes which were 16.83 ± 8.20 mg/day and 13.76 ± 5.28 mg/day, respectively. When gestational age was shorter than 38.7 weeks, the average infant birth weight was 2.95 ± 0.08 kg, and when gestational age was longer than 40 weeks, it averaged at about 3.42 ± 0.08 kg. In other words, as gestational age increased, infant birth weight increased (P < 0.0001), and when maternal weight increased more than 15 kg, the infant birth weight increased significantly (P < 0.05). In conclusion, in order to secure healthy human resources, with respect to advanced aged women, it is necessary to intervene by promoting daily habits that consist of strategic increases in folate and calcium intake along with appropriate amounts of exercise.

  14. Serum lipid values and age in healthy women: a preliminary report on cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Williams, G Z

    1993-04-01

    In a 20-year prospective study of the influence of lifestyle and age on health parameters in men's and women's serum cholesterol, triglycerides and high density and low density lipoproteins were measured periodically to determine each person's longitudinal profile. The accumulated data for 1008 women of 20 to 70 years is averaged by five-year age brackets. Scatter plots and simple regression of these five-year group means for ages 20 to 45 years, reveals a gradual increase in serum cholesterol, increasing from 176 mg/dl to 196 with a slope of 0.61 mg/dl per year. Between ages 45 and 70, the slope increases substantially to 1.91 mg/dl per year, and the five-year group means rise from 196 at age 45 to 239 at age 70 in rather uniform increments. The data have been analyzed for the other lipids and the relationship to estrogen replacement, nutritional, and exercise habits.

  15. Knowledge on uterine prolapse among married women of reproductive age in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Binjwala; Devkota, Bhimsen; Khadka, Badri Bahadur; Choulagai, Bishnu; Pahari, Durga Prasad; Onta, Sharad; Petzold, Max; Krettek, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Background Uterine prolapse (UP), which affects about 10% of women of reproductive age in Nepal, is the most frequently reported cause of poor health in women of reproductive age and postmenopausal women. Currently, women’s awareness of UP is unknown, and attempts to unravel the UP problem are inadequate. This study aims to assess UP knowledge among married reproductive women, and determine the association between UP knowledge and socioeconomic characteristics. Methods Our cross-sectional descriptive study investigated 25 districts representing all five administrative regions, three ecological zones, and urban and rural settings. We used structured questionnaires to interview 4,693 married women aged 15–49 years. We assessed UP knowledge by asking women whether they had ever heard about UP, followed by specific questions about symptoms and preventive measures. Descriptive statistics characterized the study population regarding socioeconomic status, assessed how many participants had ever heard about UP, and determined UP knowledge level among participants who had heard about the condition. Simple regression analysis identified a possible association between socioeconomic characteristics, ever heard about UP, and level of UP knowledge. Results Mean age of participants was 30 years (SD [standard deviation] 7.4), 67.5% were educated, 48% belonged to the advantaged Brahmin and Chhetri groups, and 22.2% were Janajati from the hill and terai zones. Fifty-three percent had never heard about UP. Among women who had heard about UP, 37.5% had satisfactory knowledge. Any knowledge about UP was associated with both urban and rural settings, age group, and education level. However, satisfactory knowledge about UP was associated with administrative region, ecological zones, caste/ethnic group, and age group of women. Conclusion Fifty-three percent of participants had never heard about UP, and UP knowledge level was satisfactory in 37.% of those who had ever heard about UP

  16. Does the conservation of resources motivate middle-aged women to perform physical activity?

    PubMed

    Rotem, Mina; Epstein, Leon; Ehrenfeld, Mally

    2009-12-01

    This article aims to examine the factors that motivate middle-aged women to engage in leisure physical activity (LPA) and to explore the relationship between resources loss and gains and engaging in LPA. It is a cross-sectional study based on a self-reported questionnaire (n = 949), using variables of the conservation of resources theory and the theory of planned behavior. Results show that women who engage in physical activity experience lower resources loss than inactive women. The longer they engage in physical activity, the less they experience losses such as youth, attractiveness, optimism, health, and beauty. Conservation of resources, perceived behavioral control, attitudes, and normative beliefs predict 41% (p < .0001) of the variance in the engagement in leisure physical activity. Findings suggest that constructing effective strategies to promote LPA requires also addressing these factors, which are valued by middle-aged women.

  17. Childbearing, reproductive control, aging women, and health care: the projected ethical debates.

    PubMed

    Freda, M C

    1994-02-01

    Of the many social trends that will have an impact on the ethical debates surrounding women's health in the 21st century, three are discussed: the shifting demographics of age and race in the United States; the fundamental change in the health care system to a community-based, preventive model; and the equal voice of women in the government. Using these trends as a framework, this article hypothesizes the ethical debates that will occur in the 21st century concerning such issues as fetal viability, abortion, contraception, infertility, genetic engineering, aggressive versus nonaggressive treatment of aging women, scarce resources, menopause, organ transplants, sexism in biomedical research, fertility in postmenopausal women, birthing centers, fetal surgery, and fetal therapy.

  18. Helminth infection, fecundity, and age of first pregnancy in women.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Aaron D; Tamayo, Marilyne A; Beheim, Bret; Trumble, Benjamin C; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Hooper, Paul L; Martin, Melanie; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2015-11-20

    Infection with intestinal helminths results in immunological changes that influence co-infections, and might influence fecundity by inducing immunological states affecting conception and pregnancy. We investigated associations between intestinal helminths and fertility in women, using 9 years of longitudinal data from 986 Bolivian forager-horticulturalists, experiencing natural fertility and 70% helminth prevalence. We found that different species of helminth are associated with contrasting effects on fecundity. Infection with roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) is associated with earlier first births and shortened interbirth intervals, whereas infection with hookworm is associated with delayed first pregnancy and extended interbirth intervals. Thus, helminths may have important effects on human fertility that reflect physiological and immunological consequences of infection. PMID:26586763

  19. [Urocolpos: a cause of pseudo-incontinence in aged women].

    PubMed

    Arango Toro, O; Nohales Taurines, G; Carreras Collado, R; Bielsa Gali, O; Gelabert-Mas, A

    1996-01-01

    Presentation of our experience in three cases of urocolpos (acquired pudendal lip fusion), a series numerically equivalent to the total number of cases published until now. All patients in our series were older women and presented complete fusion of the small pudendal lips, with only a small pointed puncture in the lower part of the vulva. The main clinical signs and symptoms in our series were: urinary infection in 100%, false incontinence in 66% due to output of urine retained in the vagina, a symptom that has not been described earlier, and acute urine retention in 33%. All patients were successfully treated by means of surgical loosening of the fusioned lips and application of topical estrogens. An analysis is made of clinical and pathoanatomical features which differentiate this entity from the sclerotic and atrophic lichen. Finally, an etiopathogenic hypothesis is raised to explain the fusion acquired by the small pudendal lips in the urocolpos. PMID:8721004

  20. Exploring violence against women and adverse health outcomes in middle age to promote women's health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A history of intimate partner violence (IPV) is linked to cardiovascular disorders among women. Static autonomic nervous system (ANS) imbalance may result from chronic stress associated with exposure to IPV. Autonomic nervous system imbalance is associated with an excessive proinflammatory response ...

  1. Perinatal outcomes in women over 40 years of age compared to those of other gestations

    PubMed Central

    Canhaço, Evandro Eduardo; Bergamo, Angela Mendes; Lippi, Umberto Gazi; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To clarify if older pregnant women were more likely to have adverse perinatal outcomes when compared to women at an ideal age to have a child. Methods The groups were divided according to age groups: under 20 years, ≥20 to <40 years, and ≥40 years. Results During the period from January 1st, 2008, to December 31st, 2008, there were 76 births from patients younger than 20 years and 91 births from patients aged 40 years or over. To form a third group with intermediate age, the data of 92 patients aged 20 to 40 years were obtained, totaling 259 patients. Patients aged 40 or older had a statistically greater number of cesarean sections and less use of forceps or normal deliveries (p<0.001). The use of spinal anesthesia was statistically higher among those aged 40 years or more (p<0.001). The frequency of male newborns was statistically higher in older patients, a group with statistically fewer first pregnancies (p<0.001). The frequency of premature newborns was statistically higher in patients aged 40 years or more (p=0.004). Conclusion It is crucial to give priority to aged women, so that prenatal care will be appropriate, minimizing maternal complications and improving perinatal outcomes in this unique group. PMID:25993070

  2. At what age should screening mammography be recommended for Asian women?

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Junko; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Rashid, Omar M; Takabe, Kazuaki; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2015-07-01

    Although regular screening mammography has been suggested to be associated with improvements in the relative survival of breast cancer in recent years, the appropriate age to start screening mammography remains controversial. In November 2009, the United States Preventive Service Task Force published updated guidelines for breast cancer, which no longer support routine screening mammography for women aged 40-49 years, but instead, defer the choice of screening in that age group to the patient and physician. The age to begin screening differs between guidelines, including those from the Task Force, the American Cancer Society and the World Health Organization. It remains unclear how this discrepancy impacts patient survival, especially among certain subpopulations. Although the biological characteristics of breast cancer and peak age of incidence differ among different ethnic populations, there have been few reports that evaluate the starting age for screening mammography based on ethnicity. Here, we discuss the benefits and harm of screening mammography in the fifth decade, and re-evaluate the starting age for screening mammography taking ethnicity into account, focusing on the Asian population. Breast cancer incidence peaked in the fifth decade in Asian women, which has been thought to be due to a combination of biological and environmental factors. Previous reports suggest that Asian women in their 40s may receive more benefit and less harm from screening mammography than the age-matched non-Asian US population. Therefore, starting screening mammography at age 40 may be beneficial for women of Asian ethnicity in well-resourced countries, such as Japanese women who reside in Japan.

  3. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Júlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132

  4. State of Health and Quality of Life of Women at Advanced Age

    PubMed Central

    Pinkas, Jarosław; Gujski, Mariusz; Humeniuk, Ewa; Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Bejga, Przemysław; Owoc, Alfred; Bojar, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Background Evaluation of the state of health, quality of life, and the relationship between the level of the quality of life and health status in a group of women at an advanced age (90 years of age and older) in Poland. Material/Methods The study was conducted in 2014 in an all-Polish sample of 870 women aged 90 years and older. The research instruments were: the authors’ questionnaire and several standardized tests: Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living (Katz ADL), Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF. The results of the study were statistically analyzed using significant t-test for mean and regression analysis. Results The majority of women at an advanced age suffered from chronic pain (76%) and major geriatric problems such as hypoacusis (81%), visual disturbances (69%) and urinary incontinence (60%); the minority of women at an advanced age suffered from falls and fainting (39%), stool incontinence (17%), severe functional impairment (24%), and cognitive impairment (10%). On a scale of 1 to 5, women at an advanced age assessed positively for overall quality of life (mean 3.3), social relationships (3.5), and environment (3.2), but negatively for general health, physical health, and psychological health (2.7, 2.7, and 2.8, respectively). The presence of chronic pain and geriatric problems, including urinary and stool incontinences, falls and faint ing, visual disturbances and hypoacusis, significantly decreased overall quality of life; general health, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. Overall quality of life, general health, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment was correlated with functional and cognitive impairments. Conclusions Quality of life of women at an advanced age decreased if chronic pain, major geriatric problems, or functional or cognitive impairments occurred. PMID:27580565

  5. Difference in Leukocyte Composition between Women before and after Menopausal Age, and Distinct Sexual Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang; Yang, Peixuan; Ye, Shu; Tan, Xuerui

    2016-01-01

    There are sex differences in many inflammatory and immune diseases, and the differences tend to diminish after menopause. The underlying reasons are unclear, but sex hormone levels are likely to be an important factor. Blood leukocyte count and composition provide an indicator of the inflammatory and immune status of an individual. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of blood leukocyte data from 46,879 individuals (26,212 men and 20,667 women, aged 18 to 93 years) who underwent a routine health checkup. In women aged around 50 years, neutrophil percentage (NE%) dropped whilst lymphocyte percentage (LY%) rose. Accordingly, women before age 50 had significantly higher NE%, lower LY%, and higher neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) than women of 51–70 years of age (p = 1.35×10−82, p = 5.32×10−100, and p = 1.25×10−26, respectively). In age groups of <50 years, women had higher NE%, lower LY% and higher NLR than men (p = 1.82×10−206, p = 1.46×10−69, and p = 2.30×10−118, respectively), whereas in age groups of >51 years, it was the reverse (p = 1.92×10−15, p = 1.43×10−84, and p = 1.51×10−48, respectively). These results show that blood leukocyte composition differs between women before and after menopausal age, with distinct sexual dimorphism. PMID:27657912

  6. Genome-wide association study of age at menarche in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Demerath, Ellen W; Liu, Ching-Ti; Franceschini, Nora; Chen, Gary; Palmer, Julie R; Smith, Erin N; Chen, Christina T L; Ambrosone, Christine B; Arnold, Alice M; Bandera, Elisa V; Berenson, Gerald S; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Cappola, Anne R; Carlson, Christopher S; Chanock, Stephen J; Chen, Wei; Chen, Zhao; Deming, Sandra L; Elks, Cathy E; Evans, Michelle K; Gajdos, Zofia; Henderson, Brian E; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue; John, Esther M; Kerr, Kathleen F; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; Lu, Xiaoning; Millikan, Robert C; Musani, Solomon K; Nock, Nora L; North, Kari; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F; Rodriquez-Gil, Jorge L; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A; Schork, Nicholas J; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Woods, Nancy F; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zonderman, Alan; Heiss, Gerardo; Gwen Windham, B; Wellons, Melissa; Murray, Sarah S; Nalls, Michael; Pastinen, Tomi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Hirschhorn, Joel; Adrienne Cupples, L; Kooperberg, Charles; Murabito, Joanne M; Haiman, Christopher A

    2013-08-15

    African-American (AA) women have earlier menarche on average than women of European ancestry (EA), and earlier menarche is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes among other chronic diseases. Identification of common genetic variants associated with age at menarche has a potential value in pointing to the genetic pathways underlying chronic disease risk, yet comprehensive genome-wide studies of age at menarche are lacking for AA women. In this study, we tested the genome-wide association of self-reported age at menarche with common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a total of 18 089 AA women in 15 studies using an additive genetic linear regression model, adjusting for year of birth and population stratification, followed by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis (Stage 1). Top meta-analysis results were then tested in an independent sample of 2850 women (Stage 2). First, while no SNP passed the pre-specified P < 5 × 10(-8) threshold for significance in Stage 1, suggestive associations were found for variants near FLRT2 and PIK3R1, and conditional analysis identified two independent SNPs (rs339978 and rs980000) in or near RORA, strengthening the support for this suggestive locus identified in EA women. Secondly, an investigation of SNPs in 42 previously identified menarche loci in EA women demonstrated that 25 (60%) of them contained variants significantly associated with menarche in AA women. The findings provide the first evidence of cross-ethnic generalization of menarche loci identified to date, and suggest a number of novel biological links to menarche timing in AA women.

  7. Genome-wide association study of age at menarche in African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Demerath, Ellen W.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Franceschini, Nora; Chen, Gary; Palmer, Julie R.; Smith, Erin N.; Chen, Christina T.L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Arnold, Alice M.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Cappola, Anne R.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Wei; Chen, Zhao; Deming, Sandra L.; Elks, Cathy E.; Evans, Michelle K.; Gajdos, Zofia; Henderson, Brian E.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue; John, Esther M.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lu, Xiaoning; Millikan, Robert C.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nock, Nora L.; North, Kari; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F.; Rodriquez-Gil, Jorge L.; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Woods, Nancy F.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zonderman, Alan; Heiss, Gerardo; Gwen Windham, B.; Wellons, Melissa; Murray, Sarah S.; Nalls, Michael; Pastinen, Tomi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Hirschhorn, Joel; Adrienne Cupples, L.; Kooperberg, Charles; Murabito, Joanne M.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    African-American (AA) women have earlier menarche on average than women of European ancestry (EA), and earlier menarche is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes among other chronic diseases. Identification of common genetic variants associated with age at menarche has a potential value in pointing to the genetic pathways underlying chronic disease risk, yet comprehensive genome-wide studies of age at menarche are lacking for AA women. In this study, we tested the genome-wide association of self-reported age at menarche with common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a total of 18 089 AA women in 15 studies using an additive genetic linear regression model, adjusting for year of birth and population stratification, followed by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis (Stage 1). Top meta-analysis results were then tested in an independent sample of 2850 women (Stage 2). First, while no SNP passed the pre-specified P < 5 × 10−8 threshold for significance in Stage 1, suggestive associations were found for variants near FLRT2 and PIK3R1, and conditional analysis identified two independent SNPs (rs339978 and rs980000) in or near RORA, strengthening the support for this suggestive locus identified in EA women. Secondly, an investigation of SNPs in 42 previously identified menarche loci in EA women demonstrated that 25 (60%) of them contained variants significantly associated with menarche in AA women. The findings provide the first evidence of cross-ethnic generalization of menarche loci identified to date, and suggest a number of novel biological links to menarche timing in AA women. PMID:23599027

  8. Understanding the Effect of Obesity on Fertility Among Reproductive-Age Women.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Allison; Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern, and obesity among women of childbearing age can have a negative impact on fertility. The mechanism of action between obesity and infertility is complex and includes hormonal factors, alterations in ovulation, and changes in the menstrual cycle. Maternal obesity has also been linked to spontaneous abortion and poorer maternal and fetal health outcomes. Many interventions exist to help childbearing women achieve a lower body mass index. These include lifestyle modifications (diet/physical activity) and surgical and pharmacologic interventions. This article reviews the pathophysiology of the relationship between obesity and infertility and discusses evidence-based interventions for improving fertility among obese childbearing women. PMID:27520601

  9. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in women of child-bearing age in central Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii infections during pregnancy can result in abortion or congenital defects. Prevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in women of child-bearing age in Ethiopia are unknown. The current study was conducted with the objectives of estimating the seroprevalence and potential risk factors in acquiring T. gondii infection by women of child-bearing age in Central Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2011 to September 2011. Sera of 425 women were analyzed by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A questionnaire survey was administered for all study participants to gather information on risk factors. Results The study revealed that anti- T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected in 81.4% of the samples of which 78.4% were positive for only IgG and 3.06% positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence of IgM antibodies to T. gondii (4.0%, 95% CI: 2.14, 5.86) was suggestive of recent infections. Of the 213 pregnant women 9 (4.2 %) were IgM reactive. Out of 17 potential risk factors investigated, univariate logistic regression showed significant association of T. gondii infection with study area, age, pregnancy status, raw vegetable consumption, source of water, presence of cats at home, contact with cats, HIV status and precaution during cats’ feces cleaning (P ≤ 0.05). The final logistic regression model revealed that: the probability of acquiring T. gondii infection by women of Debre-Zeit was 4.46 times (95% CI of adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.67, 11.89; P =0.003) higher compared to women of Ambo, pregnant women were twice (95% CI aOR: 1.13, 3.59; P = 0.018) more likely to be seropositive than non-pregnant women and women who consume raw vegetable were at increased risk of infection (aOR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.78; P = 0.043) than women who didn’t consume. Conclusion The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in women of child-bearing age in Central Ethiopia is high. Study

  10. [Prevalence of deficiency and dietary intake of iron, zinc and copper in Chilean childbearing age women].

    PubMed

    Mujica-Coopman, María F; Borja, Angélica; Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate anemia, the biochemical status and dietary adequacy of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), in Chilean childbearing age women. We studied a convenience sample of 86 women aged 18 to 48 years from Santiago, Chile. We determined anemia and the micronutrient status through hemoglobin (Hb) mean corpuscular volume, transferrin saturation, zinc protoporphyrin, serum ferritin (SF), serum Zn and Cu. Dietary adequacy was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Of all women, 4.7% had Fe deficiency (ID) anemia, 21 % ID without anemia, 26 % depleted Fe stores and 48.3% normal Fe status. Obese women had higher SF (p<0.01) compared with those classified as having normal BMI. Also, showed higher Hb (p<0.05) concentrations compared with overweight and normal weight women. Partidipants showed 3.5 % and 2.3 % of Zn and Cu deficiency, respectively. Also, 95 %, 94 % and 99 % had adequate intake of Fe, Zn and Cu respectively, according to EAR cut points. There were no significant differences in micronutrients intake across different nutritional status. There was a low prevalence of anemia, Fe, Zn and Cu deficiency. A high percentage of women reached micronutrient adequacy. However, 47% of women had ID without anemia and Fe depleted stores.

  11. Impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women.

    PubMed

    Surekha, T; Himabindu, Y; Sriharibabu, M; Pandey, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for overweight and obesity in the society. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the reproductive age group women not only affects maternal health but also the health of the off spring. Infertility is a common problem in India affecting 13-19 million people at any given time. Even though it is not life threatening, infertility causes intense mental agony and trauma that can only be best described by infertile couples themselves. Infertility is more common in overweight and obese individuals compared to normal weight individuals. Decreasing ovarian reserve is an important factor for infertility in women. This study examined the impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women. The observations made in this study reveal that physical activity improves ovarian reserve markers in all reproductive age women but this improvement is more distinct and statistically significant in overweight and obese women compared to normal weight women. PMID:25509968

  12. Poor sleep in middle-aged women is not associated with menopause per se.

    PubMed

    Tao, M F; Sun, D M; Shao, H F; Li, C B; Teng, Y C

    2016-01-01

    Whether sleep problems of menopausal women are associated with vasomotor symptoms and/or changes in estrogen levels associated with menopause or age-related changes in sleep architecture is unclear. This study aimed to determine if poor sleep in middle-aged women is correlated with menopause. This study recruited women seeking care for the first time at the menopause outpatient department of our hospital. Inclusion criteria were an age ≥40 years, not taking any medications for menopausal symptoms, and no sleeping problems or depression. Patients were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), modified Kupperman Index (KI), and Menopause Rating Scale (MRS). A PSQI score of <7 indicated no sleep disorder and ≥7 indicated a sleep disorder. Blood specimens were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels. A total of 244 women were included in the study; 103 (42.2%) were identified as having a sleep disorder and 141 as not having one. In addition, 156 (64%) women were postmenopausal and 88 (36%) were not menopausal. Follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels were similar between the groups. Patients with a sleep disorder had a significantly higher total modified KI score and total MRS score (both, P<0.001) compared with those without a sleep disorder. Correlations of the PSQI total score with the KI and MRS were similar in menopausal and non-menopausal women. These results do not support that menopause per se specifically contributes to sleep problems.

  13. Diet, nutritional knowledge and health status of urban middle-aged Malaysian women.

    PubMed

    Pon, L W; Noor-Aini, M Y; Ong, F B; Adeeb, N; Seri, S S; Shamsuddin, K; Mohamed, A L; Hapizah, N; Mokhtar, A; Wan, H Wh

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess nutritional and health status as well as nutritional knowledge in urban middle-aged Malaysian women. The impact of menopause on diet and health indices was also studied. The study included 360 disease free women, non users of HRT,aged > or =45 years with an intact uterus recruited from November 1999 to October 2001. Personal characteristics, anthropometric measurements and blood sample were acquired followed by clinical examination. Nutrient intake and nutritional knowledge was determined by a quantitative FFQ and KAP. The findings showed that urban middle-aged women, aged 51.65+/-5.40 years had energy intakes (EI) 11% below RDA, consisting of 53% carbohydrates, 15% protein and a 32% fat which declined with age. The sample which comprised of 42.5% postmenopausal women had a satisfactory diet and healthy lifestyle practices. Premenopausal women consumed more dietary fat (6%) with other aspects of diet comparable to the postmenopausal women. Iron intake was deficient in premenopausal women, amounting to 56% RDA contributing to a 26% prevalence of anaemia. Overall, calcium intake reached 440 mg daily but dairy products were not the main source. The postmenopaused had a more artherogenic lipid profile with significantly higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, but more premenopausal women were overweight/obese (49% versus 35%). EI was the strongest predictor for BMI and waist circumference (WC), with WC itself an independent predictor of fasting blood sugar and TC with BMI strongly affecting glucose tolerance. High nutritional knowledge was seen in 39% whereas 20% had poor knowledge. Newspapers and magazines, followed by the subject's social circle, were the main sources of nutritional information. Nutritional knowledge was positively associated with education, household income, vitamin/ mineral supplementation and regular physical activity but inversely related to TC. In conclusion, middle-aged urban women had an adequate diet

  14. Use of supplements containing folic acid among women of childbearing age--United States, 2007.

    PubMed

    2008-01-11

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the brain (anencephaly) and spine (spina bifida) that affect approximately 3,000 pregnancies each year in the United States. In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service recommended that all women of childbearing age in the United States capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 microg of folic acid daily to reduce their risk for having a pregnancy affected by NTDs. To assess awareness, knowledge, and behavior related to folic acid among women of childbearing age (aged 18-45 years), CDC analyzed the results of a national survey conducted annually by the Gallup Organization during the period 2003-2007. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, among all women of childbearing age, those aged 18-24 years had the least awareness regarding folic acid consumption (61%), the least knowledge regarding when folic acid should be taken (6%), and the lowest reported daily use of supplements containing folic acid (30%). Because women in this age group account for nearly one third of all births in the United States, promotion of folic acid consumption should be targeted to this population.

  15. Use of supplements containing folic acid among women of childbearing age--United States, 2007.

    PubMed

    2008-01-11

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the brain (anencephaly) and spine (spina bifida) that affect approximately 3,000 pregnancies each year in the United States. In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service recommended that all women of childbearing age in the United States capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 microg of folic acid daily to reduce their risk for having a pregnancy affected by NTDs. To assess awareness, knowledge, and behavior related to folic acid among women of childbearing age (aged 18-45 years), CDC analyzed the results of a national survey conducted annually by the Gallup Organization during the period 2003-2007. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, among all women of childbearing age, those aged 18-24 years had the least awareness regarding folic acid consumption (61%), the least knowledge regarding when folic acid should be taken (6%), and the lowest reported daily use of supplements containing folic acid (30%). Because women in this age group account for nearly one third of all births in the United States, promotion of folic acid consumption should be targeted to this population. PMID:18185493

  16. Older women's fears of violence: the need for interventions that enable active ageing.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Karen; Buys, Laurie; Lovie-Kitchin, Jan; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Smith, Dianne; Heffernan, Maree

    2007-01-01

    Women's fear of violence can impact negatively on their active participation in life. An ageing survey conducted with 2,620 Australian respondents aged 50 to 90 years examined aspects of work, learning, social, spiritual and emotional status, health, vision, home, life events, demographics, and asked an open-ended question about what being actively engaged in life meant. Ordinal regression was carried out on two dependent variables: wanting and needing to learn to discourage violence. Analyses found that as women's age increased, those on lower incomes were more likely than others to say they needed to learn how to discourage violence against them. This paper investigates the variables associated with the findings-transport, finances, news media, home safety, and reduced social interactions. Results highlight the importance of understanding women's fear in the context of personal and social issues, and the need to provide learning opportunities to improve safety and social engagement.

  17. Women and retirement planning: towards the "feminization of poverty" in an aging Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lee, William Keng Mun

    2003-01-01

    Hong Kong's population is aging but retirement research is largely missing from the research agenda in Hong Kong. This study, based on a telephone survey of 1,078 respondents, examines middle-aged adult's retirement planning activities in Hong Kong. The findings show men are more likely to be involved in financial planning, while women are more likely to take part in some forms of health, living arrangement and psychological planning for retirement. Further, there are age, education and income differences in the various forms of retirement planning activities within genders. Women are living longer; because of their lack of financial retirement planning, they are prime candidates for poverty. The discussion concludes with policy implications related to assisting midlife individuals, in particular women, in planning for retirement.

  18. The young and the restless? Age as a moderator of the association between sexual desire and sexual distress in women.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Kyle Richard; Meston, Cindy M

    2012-01-01

    The authors aimed to assess the degree to which age moderates the association between sexual desire and sexual distress in women. The authors combined 4 independent data sets that yielded a total sample of 771 women (M age = 27.76, SD age = 9.64) who had completed the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women and the Female Sexual Function Index. Desire interacted with age quadratically in predicting personal and relational sexual distress such that desire was more strongly associated with distress for younger women as compared with middle-aged and older women. Age is an important moderator of the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Research and clinical implications are discussed.

  19. Factors associated with cervical cancer screening amongst women of reproductive age from Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Conde-Ferraez, Laura; Suarez Allen, Rosa Etelvina; Carrillo Martinez, Jorge Ramiro; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Losa, Maria Del Refugio

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the participation of women of reproductive age in a cancer screening program, and survey reasons for non-screening in a region from Mexico with high cervical cancer mortality. A total of 281 obstetric patients from a previous HPV study in a social security hospital during 2008-2009 were included. Reasons for not participating in the screening were directly asked. HPV positive patients were invited to participate in an informative workshop, and they filled in a knowledge questionnaire. The women ranged in age from 14-47 years; 123 (43.8%) had never participated in screening, of which 97 (78.9%) had their first sexual intercourse 2 to 10 years ago, resulting in 25% HPV positive. Screening history was strongly associated with 2 or more gestations (OR= 10.07, p=0.00) and older age (OR=6.69 p=0.00). When 197 women were contacted and interviewed, reasons referred for non-screening were ignorance, lack of interest or time, recent sexual onset, shame and fear. More than 50% of the workshop participants showed knowledge of HPV, while 38.9% and 25% knew about Pap smear and cervical cancer. A high percentage of women of reproductive age have never had a Pap smear. Promoting the screening program in medical facilities seems to be important in this population. New approaches to inform vulnerable individuals on the benefits of screening need to be implemented, especially for young women.

  20. Waist circumference and insulin resistance: a community based cross sectional study on reproductive aged Iranian women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the positive relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and central obesity is well known, the direct relationship between waist circumference and IR is not clear yet and there is no consensus regarding the cut off value for waist circumference as a surrogate index for central obesity. The present study was aimed to determine the optimal cut-off value of waist circumference (WC) for predicting IR in reproductive aged Iranian women. Methods Using the stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling method 1036 women were randomly selected from among reproductive aged women of different geographic regions of Iran. Following implementation of exclusion criteria, complete data for 907 women remained for analysis. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and its cut off value was defined as the 95th percentile of HOMA-IR value for 129 subjects, without any metabolic abnormality. The optimal cut-off of WC in relation to HOMA-IR was calculated based on the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis using the Youden index and the area under curve (AUC). Results The mean age of the total sample of 907 subjects was 34.4 ± 7.6 years (range, 18 - 45 years). After adjustment for age the odds ratios (OR) of elevated HOMA-IR were progressively higher with increasing levels of waist circumference; the age adjusted OR of IR for women with WC > 95 cm in comparison to those subjects with WC < 80 cm, was 9.5 (95% CI 5.6-16.1). The optimal cutoff value for WC predicting IR was 88.5 cm; with a sensitivity and specificity of 71% and 64%, respectively. Conclusions Waist circumference is directly related to insulin resistance and the optimal cut-off value for waist circumference reflecting insulin resistance is considered to be 88.5 cm for reproductive aged Iranian women. PMID:21831271

  1. Interactive effects of age and exercise on adiposity measures of41,582 physically active women

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Satariano William A.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in women whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 female runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Age affected the relationships between vigorous exercise and adiposity. The decline in BMI per km/wk run was linear in 18-25 year olds (-0.023+-0.002 kg/m2 perkm run) and became increasingly nonlinear (convex or upwardly concave) with age. The waist, hip and chest circumferences declined significantly with running distance across all age groups, but the declines were 52-58 percent greater in older than younger women (P<10-5). The relationships between body circumferences and running distance became increasingly convexity (upward concavity) in older women. Conversely, vigorous exercise diminished the apparent increase in adiposity with age. The rise in average BMI with age was greatest in women who ran less than 8 km/week (0.065+-0.005 kg/m2 per y), intermediate of women who ran 8-16km/wk (0.025+-0.004kg/m2 per y) or 16-32 km/wk (0.022+-0.003 kg/m2 pery), and least in those who averaged over 32 km/wk (0.017+-0.001 kg/m2 pery). Before age 45, waist circumference rose 0.055+-0.026 cm in for those who ran 0-8 km/wk, showed no significant change for those who ran 8-40km./wk, and declined -0.057+-0.012 and -0.069+-0.014 cm per year in those who ran 40 -56 and over 56 km/wk. The rise in hip and chest circumferences with age were significantly greater in women who ran under eight km/wk than longer distance runners for hip (0.231+-0.018 vs0.136+-0.004 cm/year) and chest circumferences (0.137+-0.013 vs0.053+-0.003 cm/year). These cross-sectional associations suggest that in women, age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting adiposity. The extent that these cross

  2. Mitochondrial common deletion mutation and extrinsic skin ageing in German and Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Natsumi; Vierkoetter, Andrea; Kraemer, Ursula; Sugiri, Dorothee; Matsui, Mary; Yamamoto, Ai; Krutmann, Jean; Morita, Akimichi

    2012-07-01

    The mitochondrial common deletion (CD) mutation is induced by oxidative stress. One main source of oxidative stress is the error-prone process of the respiratory chain located in the mitochondria. Another important source is the exposure to environmental factors, which further induces oxidative stress in the cells. For human skin, the primary damaging environmental factor is ultraviolet (UV) radiation, which is able to induce CD mutations and the characteristic extrinsic skin ageing signs. Traditionally, levels of UV exposure differ between German and Japanese populations, as tanned skin represents beauty and health in Western cultures, whereas photo-protected skin is considered ideal in Asia. We hypothesize that (i) this cultural-related UV exposure pattern might be reflected by CD concentrations in environmentally exposed skin and (ii) CD concentrations in environmentally exposed areas might be associated with the manifestation of extrinsic skin ageing. In this study, we determined the concentration of CD in skin from the neck (environmentally exposed area) and the buttock (environmentally protected area) of 22 German and 46 Japanese women between 30 and 70 years of age. We evaluated skin ageing signs by a validated clinical score, and exposure to environmental factors, such as UV exposure and smoking, was assessed using a questionnaire-based interview. Higher levels of CD were detected in neck skin than in buttock skin in both German and Japanese women. CD also increased with age in the neck skin. German women had higher CD concentrations in the neck skin than Japanese women. The CD concentrations in the buttock skin samples were similar in both populations. These findings suggest higher environmental UV exposure resulted in higher levels of CD in the skin of German women compared with Japanese women. However, only in Japanese women were the signs of extrinsic skin ageing associated with higher CD concentrations in the neck skin, in agreement with the hypothesis

  3. Accepting "total and complete responsibility": new age neo-feminist violence against women.

    PubMed

    Sethna, C

    1992-02-01

    Barry Konikov, a hypnotherapist, of Potentials Unlimited Inc., a Michigan-based company which produces approximately 160 Subliminal Persuasion/Self Hypnosis tapes, promises his listeners miracles. The tapes on premenstrual syndrome, abortion, and sexual abuse were analyzed. The self-hypnosis message by Konikov is dangerous for women, because his antifeminism, misogyny, and patriarchism are couched insidiously within New Age neofeminism. Under therapeutic guidance the woman listener can direct her own transformation to complete mental, physical, and spiritual well-being, and her new and improved self is so empowered as to accept total and complete responsibility to overcome the hurt about menstruation, abortion, or sexual abuse. Growth therapies such as Gestalt, guided fantasies, and bioenergetics undermine women with false promises of power. If women are so powerful, then it is their fault if they got raped, or battered, or if they have not received love, money, and inner peace. While seemingly empowering women to develop a strong sense of personal agency, Konikov ignores the patriarchal structures which intersect his women listeners' experience of menstrual discomfort, abortion, and sexual abuse. Konikov's New Age, neofeminist stance contains 4 stages of healing: responsibility, absolution, forgiveness, and resolution. Accepting responsibility for the wound next leads to absolution, and particularly absolution for men. As an example of absolution, Konikov's woman client-ex-plantation slave accepted her past-life relationship to her husband, absolved him of guild, and decided upon a divorce. The issue of absolution widens into forgiveness in the healing process, whereby Konikov wants women to hypnotize themselves therapy should be to help a woman see how her own power as an individual is inextricably bound to the collective power of women as a group. There is no doubt that the New Age neofeminist stance taken by Konikov on the tapes leaves women profoundly

  4. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Narbada; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Puri, Rupendra; Shrestha, Saraswoti; Shrestha, Sheela; Thapa, Pukar; Mehata, Suresh; Thapa, Pushpa; Banjara, Megha Raj; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite anumber of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age. Methods A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis. Results National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7–28.0), last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3–20.7) and last 30 days (current drinking) 11.8% (95% CI:9.8–14.1). There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages

  5. Correlates of age at first sexual intercourse in a national sample of young women.

    PubMed

    Bingham, C R; Miller, B C; Adams, G R

    1990-01-01

    A subsample of 814 sexually experienced adolescent females from the 1979 U.S. National Survey of Young Women was analyzed to assess the correlates of age at 1st sexual intercourse. Multiple regression procedures were used to examine sets of variables sequentially. In the hierarchical regression model, the control variables (respondent's age, race, religion, and age at menarche), along with 3 independent variables (household income, ideal age at 1st marriage, and ideal age for 1st birth), predicted age at 1st intercourse. The control variables accounted for a major portion of the variance in the model. Of the controls, chronological age and age at menarche were highly significant across all models tested. PMID:12343095

  6. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above.

    PubMed

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥ 30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30-65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected more ≥ CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥ CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results (positive test results without ≥ CIN3) varied between 3.3% with cytology and 14.9% with cobas. All HPV assays led to significantly more false-positive tests, whereas compared to HC2 cobas and CLART were associated with a significantly higher and APTIMA with a significantly lower proportion. Detection of CIN1 was particularly increased for the three DNA assays. With APTIMA combined with cytological triage, about 20% more women were referred for colposcopy than with cytology screening. With the three DNA assays, the increase was ≥ 50%. The number of women with repeated testing was twice as high with APTIMA and almost five times as high with cobas compared to cytology. To our knowledge, Horizon was the only study set in routine practice that compared more than two HPV assays in the same women while also ascertaining the histological status of women with normal cytology/HPV-positive test results. HPV-based screening of Danish women aged 30-65 detected more high-grade CIN but decreased the screening specificity, and increased the demand for additional testing. PMID:26789267

  7. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  8. Cortisol and GH secretory dynamics, and their interrelationships, in healthy aged women and men.

    PubMed

    Gusenoff, J A; Harman, S M; Veldhuis, J D; Jayme, J J; St Clair, C; Münzer, T; Christmas, C; O'Connor, K G; Stevens, T E; Bellantoni, M F; Pabst, K; Blackman, M R

    2001-04-01

    We studied 130 healthy aged women (n = 57) and men (n = 73), age 65-88 yr, with age-related reductions in insulin-like growth factor I and gonadal steroid levels to assess the interrelationships between cortisol and growth hormone (GH) secretion and whether these relationships differ by sex. Blood was sampled every 20 min from 8:00 PM to 8:00 AM; cortisol was measured by RIA and GH by immunoradiometric assay, followed by deconvolution analyses of hormone secretory parameters and assessment of approximate entropy (ApEn) and cross-ApEn. Cortisol mass/burst, cortisol production rate, and mean and integrated serum cortisol concentrations (P < 0.0005), and overnight basal GH secretion (P < 0.05), were elevated in women vs. men. Integrated cortisol concentrations were directly related to most measures of GH secretion in women (P < 0.01) and with mean and integrated GH concentrations in men (P < 0.05). Integrated GH concentrations were directly related to mean and integrated cortisol levels in women (P < 0.005) and men (P < 0.05), with no sex differences. There were no sex differences in cortisol or GH ApEn values; however, the cross-ApEn score was greater in women (P < 0.05), indicating reduced GH-cortisol pattern synchrony in aged women vs. men. There were no significant relationships of integrated cortisol secretion with GH ApEn, or vice versa, in either sex. Thus postmenopausal women appear to maintain elevated cortisol production in patterns that are relatively uncoupled from those of GH, whereas mean hormone outputs remain correlated.

  9. Life history of female preferences for male faces: a comparison of pubescent girls, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations. PMID:22388946

  10. Age-related decrements in bone mineral density in women over 65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiger, P.; Cummings, S. R.; Black, D. M.; Spencer, N. E.; Genant, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    Age-related changes in bone density contribute to the risk of fractures. To describe the relationship between age and bone mass in elderly women, we studied a large cohort of women over age 65 years who were recruited from population-based lists in four cities in the United States. Bone density in g/cm2 was measured by single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the distal and proximal radius, the calcaneus, the lumbar spine, and the proximal femur. Centralized data collection was used to control data quality and consistency. We found a strong inverse relationship between bone density and age for most sites. Decrements in bone density between women aged 65-69 years and women 85 years and older exceeded 16% in all regions except the spine, where the difference between the two age groups was 6%. Ward's triangle and the calcaneus exhibited the largest decrements, with 26 and 21%, respectively. The estimates of annual changes in bone mineral density by linear regression at sites other than the spine ranged from -0.82% at the femoral neck and trochanter to -1.30% at Ward's triangle. Correlations between the different regions ranged from r = 0.51 between the proximal radius and Ward's triangle to r = 0.66 between the distal radius and calcaneus. We conclude that the inverse relationship between age and bone mass measured by absorptiometry techniques in white women continues into the ninth decade of life. The relationship is strongest for bone density of Ward's triangle and the calcaneus and weakest for the spine.

  11. A systematic review of the nutritional status of women of a childbearing age with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    McColl, Helen; Dhillon, Manpreet; Howard, Louise M

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the nutritional status of pregnant women with severe mental illness. We therefore carried out a systematic review to investigate whether pregnant women and childbearing aged women with severe mental illness have significantly greater nutritional deficiencies compared with pregnant women and childbearing aged women with no mental illness. We carried out a search using MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO from January 1980 to January 2011 for studies on nutritional status of childbearing aged women with psychotic disorders. Identification of papers and quality rating of papers (using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale) was carried out by two reviewers independently. We identified and screened 4,130 potentially relevant studies from the electronic databases. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria (n = 587 women). There were no studies of pregnant women. There was some evidence of low serum folate and vitamin B(12) levels and elevated homocysteine levels in childbearing aged women with psychotic disorders. Further research into the nutritional status of childbearing aged women with severe mental illness is needed. Maternal nutrition has a profound impact on foetal outcome, is a modifiable risk factor and therefore needs prioritising in the care of all childbearing aged women with severe mental illness.

  12. The complexities of female aging: Four women protagonists in Penelope Lively's novels.

    PubMed

    Oró-Piqueras, Maricel

    2016-01-01

    Penelope Lively is a well-known contemporary British author who has published a good number of novels and short stories since she started her literary career in her late thirties. In her novels, Lively looks at the lives of contemporary characters moulded by specific historical as well as cultural circumstances. Four of her novels, published from 1987 to 2004, present middle-aged and older women as their main protagonists. Through the voices and thoughts of these female characters, the reader is presented with a multiplicity of realities in which women find themselves after their mid-fifties within a contemporary context. Being a woman and entering into old age is a double-sided jeopardy which has increasingly been present in contemporary fiction. Scholars such as Simone de Beauvoir (1949) and Susan Sontag (1972) were among the first to point out a "double standard of aging" when they assured that women were punished when showing external signs of aging much sooner than men. In Lively's four novels, the aging protagonists present their own stories and, through them, as well as through the voices of those around them, the reader is invited to go beyond the aging appearance of the female protagonists while challenging the limiting conceptions attached to the old body and, by extension, to the social and cultural overtones associated with old age.

  13. The complexities of female aging: Four women protagonists in Penelope Lively's novels.

    PubMed

    Oró-Piqueras, Maricel

    2016-01-01

    Penelope Lively is a well-known contemporary British author who has published a good number of novels and short stories since she started her literary career in her late thirties. In her novels, Lively looks at the lives of contemporary characters moulded by specific historical as well as cultural circumstances. Four of her novels, published from 1987 to 2004, present middle-aged and older women as their main protagonists. Through the voices and thoughts of these female characters, the reader is presented with a multiplicity of realities in which women find themselves after their mid-fifties within a contemporary context. Being a woman and entering into old age is a double-sided jeopardy which has increasingly been present in contemporary fiction. Scholars such as Simone de Beauvoir (1949) and Susan Sontag (1972) were among the first to point out a "double standard of aging" when they assured that women were punished when showing external signs of aging much sooner than men. In Lively's four novels, the aging protagonists present their own stories and, through them, as well as through the voices of those around them, the reader is invited to go beyond the aging appearance of the female protagonists while challenging the limiting conceptions attached to the old body and, by extension, to the social and cultural overtones associated with old age. PMID:26880600

  14. Age at Menarche: 50-Year Socioeconomic Trends Among US-Born Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Mathew V.; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D.; Chen, Jarvis T.; Beckfield, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated 50-year US trends in age at menarche by socioeconomic position (SEP) and race/ethnicity because data are scant and contradictory. Methods. We analyzed data by income and education for US-born non-Hispanic Black and White women aged 25 to 74 years in the National Health Examination Survey (NHES) I (1959–1962), National Health Examination and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) I–III (1971–1994), and NHANES 1999–2008. Results. In NHES I, average age at menarche among White women in the 20th (lowest) versus 80th (highest) income percentiles was 0.26 years higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.09, 0.61), but by NHANES 2005–2008 it had reversed and was −0.33 years lower (95% CI = −0.54, −0.11); no socioeconomic gradients occurred among Black women. The proportion with onset at younger than 11 years increased only among women with low SEP, among Blacks and Whites (P for trend < .05), and high rates of change occurred solely among Black women (all SEP strata) and low-income White women who underwent menarche before 1960. Conclusions. Trends in US age at menarche vary by SEP and race/ethnicity in ways that pose challenges to several leading clinical, public health, and social explanations for early age at menarche and that underscore why analyses must jointly include data on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Future research is needed to explain these trends. PMID:25033121

  15. Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women and Women of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure - United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Oduyebo, Titilope; Petersen, Emily E; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Mead, Paul S; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Renquist, Christina M; Ellington, Sascha R; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J Erin; Powers, Ann M; Villanueva, Julie; Galang, Romeo R; Dieke, Ada; Muñoz, Jorge L; Honein, Margaret A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-02-12

    CDC has updated its interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women during a Zika virus outbreak (1). Updated guidelines include a new recommendation to offer serologic testing to asymptomatic pregnant women (women who do not report clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease) who have traveled to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Testing can be offered 2-12 weeks after pregnant women return from travel. This update also expands guidance to women who reside in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission, and includes recommendations for screening, testing, and management of pregnant women and recommendations for counseling women of reproductive age (15-44 years). Pregnant women who reside in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission have an ongoing risk for infection throughout their pregnancy. For pregnant women with clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease,* testing is recommended during the first week of illness. For asymptomatic pregnant women residing in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission, testing is recommended at the initiation of prenatal care with follow-up testing mid-second trimester. Local health officials should determine when to implement testing of asymptomatic pregnant women based on information about levels of Zika virus transmission and laboratory capacity. Health care providers should discuss reproductive life plans, including pregnancy intention and timing, with women of reproductive age in the context of the potential risks associated with Zika virus infection.

  16. Knowledge and use of folic acid in women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Fehr, Kelly R S; Fehr, Kelsey D H; Protudjer, Jennifer Lisa Penner

    2011-01-01

    Folic acid reduces the risk of neural tube defects. As approximately 50% of pregnancies are unintended, women of reproductive age should be aware of the importance of folic acid. We reviewed the existing literature on these women's knowledge of folic acid and neural tube defects. Databases searched were PubMed, CINAHL, and Health Reference Center Academic. We used terms such as "folic acid knowledge" and "folic acid awareness" to search articles published from 1998 to 2010. Awareness of the benefits of folic acid before conception and during pregnancy was low, although knowledge levels were associated with education and household income. Women who were already knowledgeable about folic acid cited health care professionals, magazines and newspapers, and radio and television as common sources of information. Effective knowledge translation is needed to ensure that women are informed about the benefits of folic acid during the reproductive years. This knowledge will allow them to make informed decisions about folic acid consumption. Health care professionals play an influential role in promoting folic acid knowledge among women of childbearing age. Lower levels of knowledge among women with lower levels of education and/or household income must be addressed.

  17. A Priori Attitudes Predict Amniocentesis Uptake in Women of Advanced Maternal Age: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Grinshpun-Cohen, Julia; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Rhee-Morris, Laila; Briscoe, Barbara; Pras, Elon; Towner, Dena

    2015-01-01

    Amniocentesis is an invasive procedure performed during pregnancy to determine, among other things, whether the fetus has Down syndrome. It is often preceded by screening, which gives a probabilistic risk assessment. Thus, ample information is conveyed to women with the goal to inform their decisions. This study examined the factors that predict amniocentesis uptake among pregnant women of advanced maternal age (older than 35 years old at the time of childbirth). Participants filled out a questionnaire regarding risk estimates, demographics, and attitudes on screening and pregnancy termination before their first genetic counseling appointment and were followed up to 24 weeks of gestation. Findings show that women's decisions are not always informed by screening results or having a medical indication. Psychological factors measured at the beginning of pregnancy: amniocentesis risk tolerance, pregnancy termination tolerance, and age risk perception affected amniocentesis uptake. Although most women thought that screening for Down syndrome risk would inform their decision, they later stated other reasons for screening, such as preparing for the possibility of a child with special needs. Findings suggest that women's decisions regarding amniocentesis are driven not only by medical factors, but also by a priori attitudes. The authors believe that these should be addressed in the dialogue on women's informed use of prenatal tests. PMID:26065331

  18. Parity and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Middle-aged and Older Chinese Women.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lijun; Wu, Jing; Xu, Guiqiang; Song, Lulu; Yang, Siyi; Yuan, Jing; Liang, Yuan; Wang, Youjie

    2015-11-26

    Pregnancy leads to physiological changes in lipid, glucose levels, and weight, which may increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in later life. The purpose of this study was to examine whether parity is associated with CHD in middle-aged and older Chinese women. A total of 20,207 women aged 37 to 94 years from Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort who completed the questionnaire, were medically examined and provided blood samples, were included in our analysis. CHD cases were determined by self-report of physician diagnosis through face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between parity and CHD. The rate of CHD was 15.8%. Parity had a positive association with CHD without adjustment of covariates. After controlling for the potential confounders, increasing risk of coronary heart disease was observed in women who had two (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.41-1.93), three (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.44-2.16), and four or more live births (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.33-2.20) compared with women with just one live birth. High parity was significantly associated with increasing risk of CHD in Chinese women. This suggests that multiparity may be a risk factor for CHD among Chinese women.

  19. Circadian typology, age, and the alternative five-factor personality model in an adult women sample.

    PubMed

    Muro, Anna; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Adan, Ana; Cladellas, Ramon

    2011-10-01

    Research on personality and circadian typology indicates evening-type women are more impulsive and novelty seeking, neither types are more anxious, and morning types tend to be more active, conscientious, and persistent. The purpose of this study is to examine the differences between circadian typologies in the light of the Zuckerman's Alternative Five-Factor Model (AFFM) of personality, which has a strong biological basis, in an adult sample of 412 women 18 to 55 yrs of age. The authors found morning-type women had significant higher scores than evening-type and neither-type women on Activity, and its subscales General Activity and Work Activity. In contrast, evening-type women scored significantly higher than morning-type women on Aggression-Hostility, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and its subscale Sensation Seeking. In all groups, results were independent of age. These findings are in accordance with those previously obtained in female student samples and add new data on the AFFM. The need of using personality models that are biologically based in the study of circadian rhythms is discussed.

  20. Health in middle-aged and elderly women: A conceptual framework for healthy menopause.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Loes; Daan, Nadine M P; van Dijk, Gabriella M; Gazibara, Tatjana; Muka, Taulant; Wen, Ke-Xin; Meun, Cindy; Zillikens, M Carola; Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine E; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Laan, Ellen; Rees, Margaret; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam

    2015-05-01

    Middle-aged and elderly women constitute a large and growing proportion of the population. The peri and postmenopausal period constitutes a challenging transition time for women's health, and menopausal health is a crucial aspect in healthy and successful aging. Currently, no framework for the concept of healthy menopause exists, despite its recognized importance. Therefore, we aimed to: (i) characterize healthy menopause; (ii) identify aspects that contribute to it; and (iii) explore potential approaches to measure it. We propose healthy menopause as a dynamic state, following the permanent loss of ovarian function, which is characterized by self-perceived satisfactory physical, psychological and social functioning, incorporating disease and disability, allowing the attainment of a woman's desired ability to adapt and capacity to self-manage. The concept of healthy menopause applies to all women from the moment they enter the menopausal transition, up until they reach early and late postmenopause and includes women with spontaneous, iatrogenic, and premature menopause. This conceptualization can be considered as a further step in the maintenance and improvement of health in menopausal women from different perspectives, foremost the woman's own perspective, followed by the clinical, public health, and societal perspectives, and can be seen as a further step in delineating lines for future research. Furthermore, it could facilitate the improvement of adequate preventive and treatment strategies, guide scientific efforts, and aid education and communication to health care practitioners and the general public, allowing women the achievement of their potential and the fulfillment of their fundamental role in society.

  1. Opioid prescription claims among women of reproductive age--United States, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Ailes, Elizabeth C; Dawson, April L; Lind, Jennifer N; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Frey, Meghan T; Broussard, Cheryl S; Honein, Margaret A

    2015-01-23

    Prescription opioid use in the United States has become widespread, and studies of opioid exposure in pregnancy suggest increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, including neonatal abstinence syndrome and birth defects (e.g., neural tube defects, gastroschisis, and congenital heart defects). The development of birth defects often results from exposures during the first few weeks of pregnancy, which is a critical period for organ formation. Given that many pregnancies are not recognized until well after the first few weeks and half of all U.S. pregnancies are unplanned, all women who might become pregnant are at risk. Therefore, it is important to assess opioid medication use among all women of reproductive age. CDC used Truven Health's MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters and Medicaid data to estimate the number of opioid prescriptions dispensed by outpatient pharmacies to women aged 15-44 years. During 2008-2012, opioid prescription claims were consistently higher among Medicaid-enrolled women when compared with privately insured women (39.4% compared with 27.7%, p<0.001). The most frequently prescribed opioids among women in both groups were hydrocodone, codeine, and oxycodone. Efforts are needed to promote interventions to reduce opioid prescriptions among this population when safer alternative treatments are available. PMID:25611168

  2. The experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health promotion is critical for community and family health. Health-promoting behaviours provide solutions for maintaining and promoting health. Although several studies have addressed the frequency and different types of health-promoting behaviours in women, little information is available about their experiences. This study aimed to explore the experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours. Methods In the present study, which was conducted in Tehran, Iran, 15 females, who were selected purposefully, participated in individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using conventional content analysis. Results Nine main categories were derived from the analysis, including establishing an appropriate eating pattern, establishing a balanced rest/activity pattern, spirituality, stress management, personal sensitivity and responsibility, establishing an appropriate pattern of social interactions, practicing safe and healthy recreations, feeling improvement in physical-functional health, and feeling improvement in emotional and psychological health. The first 7 categories represent the nature and types of real health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age, whereas the last 2 constitute feeling and understanding of the implementation of these behaviours. Conclusion The study findings show that the women experience improvement in physical-functional, emotional, and psychological health by implementing health-promoting behaviours. It is therefore necessary to introduce strategies in the context of the community culture for improving different aspects of health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age to maintain and improve their overall health. PMID:22846587

  3. Facilitators and Inhibitors of Health-promoting Behaviors: The Experience of Iranian Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Baheiraei, Azam; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is scant information on the facilitators and inhibitors of health-promoting behaviors among reproductive-aged Iranian women. This study aims to explore the experience of factors influencing health-promoting behaviors among Iranian women of reproductive age from a qualitative perspective. Methods: This study was performed in Tehran in 2011, over about 8 months. Qualitative methods, specifically in-depth interviews, were used to gather data on 15 women of reproductive age. Data continued to be collected until introduction of new information ceased. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by conventional content analysis. Results: The reported factors were categorized into four main groups and 12 subgroups: (1) personal barriers (lack of time, school or work duties, lack of preparation or motivation, physical disability); (2) socio-environmental barriers (family responsibilities, environmental pressures, high-costs and financial pressures); (3) personal facilitators (personal interest and motivation, experience of disease); and (4) socio-environmental facilitators (family and social support networks, encouraging and motivating environment, media, and public education). Conclusions: In these women's experience, factors influencing health-promoting behaviors were either facilitators or inhibitors; most were inhibitors. The findings of this study show that, in addition to personal factors, the pursuit of health-promoting behaviors is affected by socio-environmental factors. These results will be useful in designing interventions and plans for women's health promotion that focus on the improvement of their environment and the modification of social factors. PMID:24049620

  4. Age related histomorphometric changes in bone in normal British men and women.

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, M T; Hoyland, J A; Denton, J; Freemont, A J

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To define the iliac crest histomorphometry of static variables in 234 individuals aged 16-100 years (91 men, 143 women) and of dynamic variables in 84 individuals aged 19-94 years (33 men, 51 women) from the North West of England. METHODS--Iliac crest biopsy specimens were sectioned, undecalcified, and examined using image analysis. RESULTS--The decrease in the quantity of cortical and trabecular bone and the connectivity of trabecular bone was more pronounced in women than men. This was associated with a reduction in bone formation and increased bone resorption which was greater in women at both the tissue and cellular level. Some of these histomorphometric differences first became evident at the natural menopause, and therefore provide clues as to the cause of the high prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS--These results show an age and sex dependent variation both in static and dynamic parameters, which differ, in some respects, from other studies and confirm the need for large regional studies to provide a database of normal morphometric results for a specific population. PMID:8063935

  5. Natural history of obesity in 6,946 women between 50 and 59 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Hartz, A J; Rimm, A A

    1980-01-01

    A health survey of 6946 50-to-59 year-old women of TOPS, an organization for weight reduction, was used to study the natural history of obesity. Weight history was compared for four groups of women divided on the basis of their per cent above ideal body weight (IBW) in their 50s (less than 20%, 20-49%, 50-99% and 100+%). In each of the four groups, the majority of women were not obese by age 20. Sixteen per cent of the women who were 100+% overweight in their 50s were not obese at anytime during their first 30 years of life. Thirty-six per cent of the women who were 50-99% about IBW were not overweight at anytime prior to their 30th birthday. The history of obesity prior to age 30 was not associated with weight gain between the ages of 30 and 50. These data suggest: 1) than there is no critical time for the development of obesity, and 2) that previous weight history is not a dominant factor in determining subsequent weight gain. PMID:7361956

  6. The Concepts and Consequences of Early Ovarian Ageing: A Caveat to Women's Health

    PubMed Central

    Subrat, Panda; Santa, Singh A.; Vandana, Jha

    2013-01-01

    Apparent rise in the incidence of infertility in females and the trend shifting towards delayed child bearing brought up the concept of ovarian ageing. Women in their early thirties show poor ovarian reserve which is an entity named as early ovarian ageing. Early ovarian ageing is mostly genetically determined, but acquired modifiable factors like smoking, or ovarian surgery have some roles. Infertility and subfertility are the only clinical recognizable sequelae in the early ovarian ageing. The worrisome fact is that the outcome of assisted reproductive techniques is also not that much encouraging. Even if ovarian priming with DHEA has raised hope in the assisted reproductive techniques for these patients, but more randomized trials are needed to support this. Screening of these women with antimullerian hormone, antral follicle count and genetic analysis may be useful for recommendation at appropriate biological time regarding conception or fertility preservation. PMID:23926554

  7. Fertility and age at marriage of Turkish women in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Schoorl, J J

    1984-01-01

    Based on data from the Dutch population registers, the fertility of the Turkish immigrant population in the Netherlands was analyzed. It appears that even within a short period of 6 years (1976-82), a significantly substantial decline in age specific fertility occurred among Turkish women in the Netherlands. This decline can partly be attributed to a decrease in the proportion of married young women, probably as a consequence of the normalization of the population structure due to a decline in immigration, to restrictive conditions on family reunion, and possibly to the effects of modernization and assimilation. In part, it may also be due to a decrease in the fertility of married women. With the exception of the youngest women, immigrant fertility patterns still closely resemble the fertility patterns of the population in the country of origin where fertility has also been declining.

  8. Factors influencing sexual function of middle-aged married Korean women.

    PubMed

    Jee, YoungJu; Kim, YoungHae

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the status of women's sexual function and relevant factors given the fact that women's health is crucial to the national health, and in particular that women's sexual health has a significant impact on their overall health. [Subjects and Methods] This study surveyed 353 women living in South Korea's P and K metropolitan regions from July 2012 to August 10, 2013. The Female Sexual Functional Index (FSFI), the Sexual Attitude Scale (SAS), sexual knowledge and questionnaires were used. [Results] Two groups based on FSFI scores above and below a cutoff value of 25 were compared with each other, and significant differences were found in age, male friends, menstrual status, sex status, and frequency of sex, experience of forced sex, personal health, husband's health and sexual knowledge. Male friends, sex status, experience of forced sex, husband's healths and sexual knowledge explained women's sexual function. [Conclusion] The finding that women's sexual function is associated with multiple factors suggests an intervention program for improving women's sexual function should be developed to reflect the factors influencing the target groups' sexual function.

  9. Women healers of the middle ages: selected aspects of their history.

    PubMed Central

    Minkowski, W L

    1992-01-01

    The stellar role of women as healers during the Middle Ages has received some attention from medical historians but remains little known or appreciated. In the three centuries preceding the Renaissance, this role was heightened by two roughly parallel developments. The first was the evolution of European universities and their professional schools that, for the most part, systematically excluded women as students, thereby creating a legal male monopoly of the practice of medicine. Ineligible as healers, women waged a lengthy battle to maintain their right to care for the sick and injured. The 1322 case of Jacqueline Felicie, one of many healers charged with illegally practicing medicine, raises serious questions about the motives of male physicians in discrediting these women as incompetent and dangerous. The second development was the campaign--promoted by the church and supported by both clerical and civil authorities--to brand women healers as witches. Perhaps the church perceived these women, with their special, often esoteric, healing skills, as a threat to its supremacy in the lives of its parishioners. The result was the brutal persecution of unknown numbers of mostly peasant women. Images p290-a p291-a PMID:1739168

  10. Alcohol use and binge drinking among women of childbearing age - United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheryl H; Denny, Clark H; Cheal, Nancy E; Sniezek, Joseph E; Kanny, Dafna

    2015-09-25

    Excessive alcohol use is risk factor for a wide range of health and social problems including liver cirrhosis, certain cancers, depression, motor vehicle crashes, and violence. Alcohol use during pregnancy can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) and other adverse birth outcomes . Community studies estimate that as many as 2% to 5% of first grade students in the United States might have an FASD, which include physical, behavioral, or learning impairments. In 2005, the Surgeon General reissued an advisory urging women who are or might be pregnant to abstain from alcohol consumption to eliminate the risk for FASDs or other negative birth outcomes. To estimate current prevalences of any alcohol use and binge drinking (consuming four or more drinks on an occasion) among pregnant and nonpregnant women aged 18-44 years in the United States, CDC analyzed 2011-2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data. Among pregnant women, the prevalences of any alcohol use and binge drinking in the past 30 days were 10.2% and 3.1%, respectively. Among nonpregnant women, the prevalences of any alcohol use and binge drinking in the past 30 days were 53.6% and 18.2%, respectively. Among binge drinkers, pregnant women reported a significantly higher frequency of binge drinking than nonpregnant women (4.6 and 3.1 episodes, respectively); the largest amount consumed during binge drinking was also higher among pregnant women than nonpregnant women (7.5 versus 6.0 drinks), although this difference was not statistically significant. Implementation of evidence-based clinical and community-level strategies would be expected to reduce binge drinking among pregnant women and women of childbearing age, and any alcohol consumption among women who are or might be pregnant. Healthcare professionals can support these efforts by implementing alcohol screening and brief interventions in their primary care practices, and informing women that there is no known safe level of

  11. Predictors of stress and depressive mood in Portuguese middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Filipa; Maroco, João; Leitão, Mafalda; Leal, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates the predictors of psychological symptoms-stress and depressive mood-in a sample of middle-aged women. A community sample of 1,003 women filled in the questionnaires and instruments, which included the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales and the Life Events Survey; sociodemographic, health, and menopause-related and lifestyle information was also collected. Structural equation modeling was used to build the model that had stress and depressive mood as dependent variables. Health status (both physical and psychological), recent life events, income and menopausal phase were significantly associated with the frequency of stress and depressive symptoms. Additionally, educational level and parity were also significant predictors of depressive mood. This study emphasizes that psychological symptoms occurrence in midlife depends not only on personal variables (such as health and menopausal status) but also on contextual ones (including recent stressful events) that can be a strong influence on how middle-aged women feel.

  12. Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

  13. Predictors of stress and depressive mood in Portuguese middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Filipa; Maroco, João; Leitão, Mafalda; Leal, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates the predictors of psychological symptoms-stress and depressive mood-in a sample of middle-aged women. A community sample of 1,003 women filled in the questionnaires and instruments, which included the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales and the Life Events Survey; sociodemographic, health, and menopause-related and lifestyle information was also collected. Structural equation modeling was used to build the model that had stress and depressive mood as dependent variables. Health status (both physical and psychological), recent life events, income and menopausal phase were significantly associated with the frequency of stress and depressive symptoms. Additionally, educational level and parity were also significant predictors of depressive mood. This study emphasizes that psychological symptoms occurrence in midlife depends not only on personal variables (such as health and menopausal status) but also on contextual ones (including recent stressful events) that can be a strong influence on how middle-aged women feel. PMID:27351694

  14. Use of vitamins containing folic acid among women of childbearing age--United States, 2004.

    PubMed

    2004-09-17

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the spine (spina bifida) and brain (anencephaly), affecting approximately 3,000 pregnancies each year in the United States. Periconceptional consumption of the B vitamin folic acid reduces the occurrence of NTDs by 50%-70%. To prevent these defects, the U.S. Public Health Service (1992) and Institute of Medicine (1998) issued separate recommendations that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 micro g of folic acid daily, and the Food and Drug Administration mandated fortification of cereal grain products with folic acid to increase women's daily intake. Fortification of the U.S. food supply with folic acid has resulted in a 26% reduction in NTDs. However, even with fortification, not all women receive adequate levels of folic acid from their diets. Therefore, increasing the use of vitamins containing folic acid remains an important component of NTD prevention. To monitor the use of vitamins containing folic acid among women of childbearing age, the Gallup Organization has conducted a series of surveys for the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation since 1995. This report presents results from the 2004 survey, which indicated that although no substantial increase in the proportion of women who use vitamins containing folic acid daily occurred during 1995-2003, a substantial increase was observed in 2004, with 40% of women aged 18-45 years reporting daily consumption of a vitamin containing folic acid. This report also presents information about women's dieting behaviors. Regardless of dieting status, public health programs should stress the importance of women in their childbearing years consuming 400 micro g of folic acid daily through supplements, fortified foods, and a diet containing folate-rich foods.

  15. The effect of age and body mass index on plantar cutaneous sensation in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Yümin, Eylem Tütün; Şimşek, Tülay Tarsuslu; Sertel, Meral; Ankaralı, Handan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to examine the effects of age and body mass index on plantar cutaneous sensation in healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred and three healthy female volunteers over the age of 20 were included in the study. The statistical analyses were performed by considering the age and body mass index values of the individuals. The individuals were divided according to their ages and body mass index values. Foot pain was measured with a visual analogue scale and plantar cutaneous sensation using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments. [Results] Fifty-six (27.5%) of the participants had normal weights, 67 (33%) were overweight, and 80 (39%) were obese. Statistical analysis revealed that as age and body mass index values increased, plantar sensitivity decreased and the frequency and severity of pain increased. [Conclusion] It is possible that healthy women may experience a decrease in foot plantar sensation with increasing weight and age. If women do not have any health problems, proprioception and sensory training must be focused on in order to prevent balance and falling problems. PMID:27799700

  16. The effect of educational intervention on health promoting lifestyle: Focusing on middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Mahdipour, Nosaybeh; Shahnazi, Hossein; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle affects people's health and life length, however, no sufficient studies have been done on the effect of lifestyle on middle-ageing, as the transitional period from adulthood to old-ageing, this study has been conducted to study the effect of educational intervention on health promoting lifestyle of middle-aged women in Lenjan city of Isfahan Province, Iran. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 88 middle-aged women were selected through randomized sampling from two health centers in Lenjan, and then were categorized into experimental and control groups. To collect data, a researcher-made demographic and life style questionnaire was used. The educational intervention was performed in five sessions. Data were collected from both groups in two stages: Before the intervention and 3 months after the education. Data were analyzed with using SPSS-20 and P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed that educational program had a positive significant effect on increasing the mean scores in the intervention group, considering the physical activity, mental health, and interpersonal relationship, P < 0.001. However, regarding the nutrition, the mean increase was not significant (P = 0.113). Conclusion: According to the findings, it is evident that educational intervention is beneficial for various aspects of middle-aged women's lifestyle. Therefore, applying a healthy lifestyle seems essential for having a healthy aging period, and educational intervention can be effective. PMID:26430678

  17. Keeping up with the caravan of life: Successful aging strategies for Iranian women

    PubMed Central

    Javadi-Pashaki, Nazila; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Jafaraghaee, Fateme; Mehrdad, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background Because of improving life expectancy in the world in recent times, the focus has shifted to the issue of the quality and nature of life and how to assist successful aging (SA) rather than increasing physical survival and lifespan. SA is a multidimensional, relative, and context-dependent concept with different paths and outcomes. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore older women's strategies for SA in a specific context. Methods Following a grounded theory design approach, we conducted semi-structured individual interviews with 21 women between the ages of 28 and 96 years. We analyzed the data from interviews, written narratives, and field notes using the grounded theory approach. Results We identified four categories: prevention of threats, internal self-control against threats, coping with threats, and optimizing the passage of time according to opportunity. These described the strategies for SA when encountering with age-related changes. Utilizing these strategies, the women accompanied the caravan of life in the context of threats and opportunities. Conclusions The findings suggest that SA is a continuous process in confronting changes related to age. The identified strategies can help to promote SA by familiarizing older women with the threats and opportunities of life and training them in how to use these strategies. PMID:26610117

  18. Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Christina T.L.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K.; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Arnold, Alice M.; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nalls, Michael A.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G.; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S.; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M.; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Press, Michael F.; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F.; Taylor, Herman A.; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K.; Harris, Tamara B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H.; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W.; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M.; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA. PMID:24493794

  19. The menopausal age and climacteric complaints in Thai women in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Chompootweep, S; Tankeyoon, M; Yamarat, K; Poomsuwan, P; Dusitsin, N

    1993-07-01

    Age at menopause, associated factors and related clinical symptoms were recorded in a sample of Thai women living in the Bangkok area. Interviews by trained nurses were offered to a sample of 2375 women aged 45-59 years selected at random in 19 of the 54 Bangkok Metropolis Administration health centers. Full reports were obtained from 2354 women. Fifty-six percent of the study population were classified as postmenopausal, i.e. having no vaginal bleeding during the last 12 months, 12% were perimenopausal, i.e. having irregular vaginal bleeding during the last 12 months and 31% were premenopausal, i.e. having regular vaginal bleeding during the last 12 months. The average age at menopause was 49.5 +/- 3.6 years and was not related to body weight, height, age at menarche, level of education, smoking or use of oral contraceptives. However, high parity was significantly correlated to delayed menopause. Clinical symptoms of oestrogen deficiency were reported at a significantly higher rate in the perimenopause group, but the premenopause and postmenopause groups did not differ in their complaints about any symptom, including hot flushes. The most striking effect of menopause was a dramatic loss of sexual desire in 86.9% of postmenopausal women. However, the situation did not induce any specific complaint or any request for medical support.

  20. Women and HIV/AIDS Epidemic: The Issue of College Age Girls' Awareness in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momoh, Solomon O.; Moses, Ailemen I.; Ugiomoh, Maria M.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine women and HIV/AIDS epidemic: the issue of school age girls' awareness in Nigeria information was elicited from 1,222 randomly selected regular under-graduate female students from the 11 faculties of the university of Lagos, Nigeria, with the use of a standardized structured questionnaire. Results of the major…

  1. Smoking prevalence among women of reproductive age--United States, 2006.

    PubMed

    2008-08-01

    Cigarette smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States. Women of reproductive age (18-44 years) who smoke risk adverse pregnancy outcomes and adverse health consequences for themselves. They also are exposing their children to secondhand smoke and modeling behavior that will increase the likelihood that their children will become smokers. CDC analyzed state-specific prevalence of smoking and attempts to quit among women of reproductive age, using 2006 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The data indicated a six-fold difference between the state and territory with the highest and lowest prevalence (range: 5.8% [U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI)]-34.7% [Kentucky]). Among women of reproductive age, those aged 18-24 years were most likely to have attempted to quit (68.4%), but least likely to have quit smoking (26.3%). Successful prevention and cessation interventions for this group of women can protect their own and their children's health.

  2. A Test and Extension of Objectification Theory as It Predicts Disordered Eating: Does Women's Age Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustus-Horvath, Casey L.; Tylka, Tracy L.

    2009-01-01

    When predicting disordered eating, models incorporating several of objectification theory's (B. L. Fredrickson & T. A. Roberts, 1997) core constructs (i.e., sexual objectification, self-objectification, body shame, poor interoceptive awareness) have been empirically supported with women of traditional undergraduate age who are consistent in age…

  3. Social influences on smoking in middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Holahan, Charles J; North, Rebecca J; Holahan, Carole K; Hayes, Rashelle B; Powers, Daniel A; Ockene, Judith K

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of 2 types of social influence--general social support and living with a smoker--on smoking behavior among middle-aged and older women in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Participants were postmenopausal women who reported smoking at some time in their lives (N=37,027), who were an average age of 63.3 years at baseline. Analyses used multiple logistic regression and controlled for age, educational level, and ethnicity. In cross-sectional analyses, social support was associated with a lower likelihood and living with a smoker was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current smoker and, among smokers, of being a heavier smoker. Moreover, in prospective analyses among baseline smokers, social support predicted a higher likelihood and living with a smoker predicted a lower likelihood of smoking cessation 1-year later. Further, in prospective analyses among former smokers who were not smoking at baseline, social support predicted a lower likelihood and living with a smoker predicted a higher likelihood of smoking relapse 1-year later. Overall, the present results indicate that social influences are important correlates of smoking status, smoking level, smoking cessation, and smoking relapse among middle-aged and older women.

  4. Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Chen, Christina T L; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K; Andrews, Jeanette S; Arnold, Alice M; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E; Kerr, Kathleen F; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K; Musani, Solomon K; Nalls, Michael A; Raffel, Leslie J; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L; Goodarzi, Mark O; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L; Olshan, Andrew F; Press, Michael F; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F; Taylor, Herman A; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K; Harris, Tamara B; Henderson, Brian E; Kardia, Sharon L R; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G; Zonderman, Alan B; Cupples, L Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2014-06-15

    Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA.

  5. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking.

    PubMed

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco; Conde, Délio Marques; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; de Souza Santos Machado, Vanessa; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes

    2015-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06-3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking.

  6. High-Frequency, Moderate-Intensity Training in Sedentary Middle-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannessen, S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The effects of a five-day-a-week, moderate-intensity aerobic training program were studied in previously sedentary middle-aged women. After 10 weeks of graduated-length sessions of continuous exercise, the subjects showed a 20 percent improvement in maximal oxygen uptake but no change in body weight or composition. Results are discussed.…

  7. Utility of Microbiological Profile of Symptomatic Vaginal Discharge in Rural Women of Reproductive Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jaya; Gupta, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Symptomatic vaginal discharge is the most frequent symptom in women of reproductive age group. Owing to social stigma majority of affected women hesitate to seek medical consultation. Therefore the actual incidence of vaginal discharge is much more than what is reported. The aim of the study is to determine the microbiological profile of symptomatic vaginal discharge in rural area and its utility in the management of genital tract infection. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive type of observational study, conducted in sexually active women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) attending the OPD/IPD of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of National Institute of Medical Sciences, Shobhanagar, Jaipur (Rajasthan), over a period of 18 months from June 2012 to December 2013. Hundred sexually active non pregnant women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) were included in the study. After taking consent general physical examination along with pelvic examination was performed. Two high vaginal swabs and blood sample were collected for various tests. Hanging drop preparation was immediately made. This was followed by gram staining and culture. Chlamydia trachomatis IgM antibody was detected by ELISA method. Results: Out of 100 women with symptomatic vaginal discharge, specific diagnosis was obtained in 89% of cases whereas no specific aetiology was found in 11% cases. Mean age was 32.60 years. Fifty-three percent patient had Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis was found in 14% cases, 16% had Chlamydia trachomatis infection while Trichomonas vaginalis infection was detected in 6% cases. Homogenous discharge was most prevalent (52%), followed by mucopurulant discharge in 23% of women. Conclusion: Patient with symptomatic vaginal discharge need to be actively managed with appropriate antimicrobial agents. Judicious management may be helpful in prevention of HIV, HPV, CIN and post infection sequelae. PMID:25954668

  8. Age at marriage is rising for Asian women and men, according to new data.

    PubMed

    Greenspan, A

    1992-09-01

    The social transformations in Asia are described: delayed age at marriage and the proportions marrying. Policy implications are ascertained. The norm for female age at marriage has risen from 15 years to 17-18 years in south Asia, and from 18 years to 24 years and older in east Asia. Men's marriage age has also risen but not as much. Concurrent changes have occurred with fertility declines and small family sizes and lower population growth, with changing roles for women, and with emergent youth subcultures and increased prevalence of premarital sexual behavior. The number of singles is rising and expected to continue to rise. Examples are given of marriage age changes for Nepal and Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, South Korea, and regional totals. Southeast Asian countries experienced less dramatic changes, and changes primarily in the 20-24 year old group (from 30% to 74% of single women). Change for men has been less regular and with less magnitude. In Southeast Asia, the rise in marriage age for men has risen only 1-2 years compared with women. East Asia patterns vary by country, i.e., South Korean increases of 6 years, Taiwanese increases of 4 years, and 2 years in Japan. Single males have been common in South and Southeast Asia, while in East Asia married male teens 25 years are rare. Marriage timing for men is not as closely associated as for women with social and cultural change. Downturns for men follow momentous, temporary disruptions such as happen during wars and periods of migration, while women's patterns are more reflective of structural change. The trend for never marrying is on the increase, particularly for men in Japan (1.1% in the 1920s to 18% in the early 1980s for men 50 years). Women not ever marrying are increasing in Thailand, Bangladesh, and Hong Kong. Never marrying is common in urban or educated populations, i.e., Singapore, Thailand, and Philippines. The implications are a longer gap between successive generations and a shorter period of

  9. Examining the sexual function and related attitudes among aged women: A cross- sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Safieh; Rahmanian, Afifeh; Javadpour, Shohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sexual function and its subsequent satisfaction are among the most important aspects of women’s life. However, this instinct could be influenced by some factors such as diseases, drug using, aging, and hormonal and physiologic changes associated with menopause, and sexual behavior. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence rates of sexual dysfunction, and related attitudes among aged women in Jahrom, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 746 postmenopausal women aged between 50 and 89 years old who had referred to obstetric and gynecologic clinic in Jahrom, from April to October 2014. Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire was used order to assess the sexual function. The cases were classified into three categories according to the attitude scores: negative (17-32), medium (33-38), and positive (39-48). One-way ANOVA test was used to determine the relationship between FSFI and attitude scores. Results: The participants’ mean±SD age was 60.10±6.89 years and the total mean score of FSFI was 19.31±8.5. In addition, 81.5% of the women had sexual dysfunction (FSFI< 26.55) and only 147 women (18.5%) had normal sexual function (FSFI> 26.55). Almost 62.1% the women displayed a negative attitude towards sexuality and only 18.8% women had positive attitude. Feeling of dyspareunia (p= 0.02), lubrication (p< 0.0001), orgasm (p= 0.002) and satisfaction (p= 0.002) were significantly different between three categories of attitudes regarding sexuality, respectively Conclusion: Our data showed that sexual disorders were highly prevalent among postmenopausal women. The most affected problems were arousal, dyspareunia, and lubrication. More than half of the women had negative attitude towards sexual function consequently this could affect their sexual function. So, it seems screening of sexual dysfunction for finding the causes in women should be the main sexual health program. Also, it would be important

  10. Cytomegalovirus IgM Seroprevalence among Women of Reproductive Age in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengbin; Dollard, Sheila C; Amin, Minal M; Bialek, Stephanie R

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM indicates recent active CMV infection. CMV IgM seroprevalence is a useful marker for prevalence of transmission. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III 1988-1994, we present estimates of CMV IgM prevalence by race/ethnicity, provide a comparison of IgM seroprevalence among all women and among CMV IgG positive women, and explore factors possibly associated with IgM seroprevalence, including socioeconomic status and exposure to young children. There was no difference in IgM seroprevalence by race/ethnicity among all women (3.1%, 2.2%, and 1.6% for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black and Mexican American, respectively; P = 0.11). CMV IgM seroprevalence decreased significantly with increasing age in non-Hispanic black women (P<0.001 for trend) and marginally among Mexican American women (P = 0.07), while no apparent trend with age was seen in non-Hispanic white women (P = 0.99). Among 4001 IgG+ women, 118 were IgM+, resulting in 4.9% IgM seroprevalence. In IgG+ women, IgM seroprevalence varied significantly by age (5.3%, 7.3%, and 3.7% for women of 12-19, 20-29, and 30-49 years; P = 0.04) and race/ethnicity (6.1%, 2.7%, and 2.0% for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American; P<0.001). The factors reported associated with IgG seroprevalence were not associated with IgM seroprevalence. The patterns of CMV IgM seroprevalence by age, race/ethnicity, and IgG serostatus may help understanding the epidemiology of congenital CMV infection as a consequence of vertical transmission and are useful for identifying target populations for intervention to reduce CMV transmission.

  11. Women's strategic responses to violence in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Ellsberg, M; Winkvist, A; Pena, R; Stenlund, H

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To describe the responses of women in León, Nicaragua to partner abuse and identify contextual factors associated with the use of certain coping mechanisms and the likelihood of permanent separation.
DESIGN—Cross sectional population-based survey.
SETTING—León, Nicaragua.
PARTICIPANTS—188 women 15-49 years of age who had experienced physical partner abuse, out of 488 women interviewed.
MAIN RESULTS—66% of women defended themselves effectively from abuse either physically or verbally. Forty one per cent of women had left home temporarily because of violence and 20% had sought help outside the home. Women experiencing severe abuse were more likely to leave or seek help, whereas women with less severe abuse were more able to defend themselves effectively. Seventy per cent of women eventually left abusive relationships. Help seeking and temporary separations increased the likelihood of a permanent separation, whereas women who defended themselves and were able to stop the violence, at least temporarily, were more likely to remain in abusive relationships.
CONCLUSIONS—Women in Nicaragua use a variety of methods in order to overcome physical partner abuse. Temporary leaving and help seeking are critical steps in the process of leaving a violent relationship. However, many women indicated that they did not receive support for their situation. More interventions are needed to help women recognise and deal with violence, as well as strengthening the community support networks available to abused women.


Keywords: partner abuse; violence; women PMID:11449011

  12. Dynamics of lipoprotein level in blood plasma of pregnant women as a function of gestational age according to FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolik, E. V.; Korolenko, E. A.; Tretinnikov, O. N.; Kozlyakova, O. V.; Korolik, A. K.; Kirkovskiy, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    Results of an IR spectroscopic investigation of films of blood plasma taken from women of reproductive age, pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors, and Rh-immunized women were presented as a function of gestational age. It was found that the lipoprotein content in blood plasma of all groups of pregnant women increased during the early stages of pregnancy (17-23 weeks) irrespective of the Rh factor and attained its peak value by weeks 30-35. It was shown that the lipoprotein level in blood plasma as a function of gestational age was quantitatively the same for pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors. It was established for the first time that this dependence for Rh-immunized women featured a considerable increase of lipoprotein content at gestational age 30-32 weeks and declined acutely by week 36.

  13. Gender- and age-related differences in heart rate dynamics: are women more complex than men?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, S. M.; Goldberger, A. L.; Pincus, S. M.; Mietus, J.; Lipsitz, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study aimed to quantify the complex dynamics of beat-to-beat sinus rhythm heart rate fluctuations and to determine their differences as a function of gender and age. BACKGROUND. Recently, measures of heart rate variability and the nonlinear "complexity" of heart rate dynamics have been used as indicators of cardiovascular health. Because women have lower cardiovascular risk and greater longevity than men, we postulated that there are important gender-related differences in beat-to-beat heart rate dynamics. METHODS. We analyzed heart rate dynamics during 8-min segments of continuous electrocardiographic recording in healthy young (20 to 39 years old), middle-aged (40 to 64 years old) and elderly (65 to 90 years old) men (n = 40) and women (n = 27) while they performed spontaneous and metronomic (15 breaths/min) breathing. Relatively high (0.15 to 0.40 Hz) and low (0.01 to 0.15 Hz) frequency components of heart rate variability were computed using spectral analysis. The overall "complexity" of each heart rate time series was quantified by its approximate entropy, a measure of regularity derived from nonlinear dynamics ("chaos" theory). RESULTS. Mean heart rate did not differ between the age groups or genders. High frequency heart rate power and the high/low frequency power ratio decreased with age in both men and women (p < 0.05). The high/low frequency power ratio during spontaneous and metronomic breathing was greater in women than men (p < 0.05). Heart rate approximate entropy decreased with age and was higher in women than men (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS. High frequency heart rate spectral power (associated with parasympathetic activity) and the overall complexity of heart rate dynamics are higher in women than men. These complementary findings indicate the need to account for gender-as well as age-related differences in heart rate dynamics. Whether these gender differences are related to lower cardiovascular disease risk and greater longevity in

  14. Dental services utilization by women of childbearing age by socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Kaylor, Mary B; Polivka, Barbara J; Chaudry, Rosemary; Salsberry, Pamela; Wee, Alvin G

    2010-04-01

    For women of childbearing age, oral health not only affects their physical and psychological well-being but also that of their children. This study used the 2003-2004 Ohio Family Health Survey (N = 9,819) to examine dental need and utilization by women in Ohio. Predisposing, enabling, and need variables were examined as they effect dental health service utilization by women of childbearing age at different socioeconomic status (SES) levels. The proportion of women in the low SES group self reporting a dental need (18%) was 3 times that of the proportion of women in the higher SES group with a self reported need (6%). Results of bivariate analysis showed that having a dental visit in the past year varied significantly by SES, race, insurance status, provider density, and need. A racial disparity in dental service utilization was noted in the bivariate analysis of the middle SES group. While dental need and type of dental coverage varied by SES, both were significantly associated with utilization of dental services within all 3 SES categories in the logistic regressions. These results suggest that measures need to be implemented to meet the goal of increasing access and utilization of dental health services by low-income populations.

  15. Midlife women's generativity and authoritarianism: marriage, motherhood, and 10 years of aging.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Bill E; Duncan, Lauren E

    2007-09-01

    Generativity and authoritarianism assessed at age 52 were correlated with criterion variables assessed at age 62 in a sample of well-educated women (N = 81). Results indicated that generativity predicted positive personality characteristics, satisfaction with marriage and motherhood, and successful aging. By contrast, although authoritarianism is linked in the literature to endorsing traditional gender roles, authoritarianism was uncorrelated in the current study with happiness about marriage and was negatively related to perceptions of motherhood. Furthermore, authoritarianism was correlated with neuroticism later in life. These data suggest that midlife authoritarianism may be problematic as women transition from their 50s to their 60s. Midlife generativity, in contrast, seems to offer one path to life satisfaction.

  16. Midlife women's generativity and authoritarianism: marriage, motherhood, and 10 years of aging.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Bill E; Duncan, Lauren E

    2007-09-01

    Generativity and authoritarianism assessed at age 52 were correlated with criterion variables assessed at age 62 in a sample of well-educated women (N = 81). Results indicated that generativity predicted positive personality characteristics, satisfaction with marriage and motherhood, and successful aging. By contrast, although authoritarianism is linked in the literature to endorsing traditional gender roles, authoritarianism was uncorrelated in the current study with happiness about marriage and was negatively related to perceptions of motherhood. Furthermore, authoritarianism was correlated with neuroticism later in life. These data suggest that midlife authoritarianism may be problematic as women transition from their 50s to their 60s. Midlife generativity, in contrast, seems to offer one path to life satisfaction. PMID:17874943

  17. Middle-aged to elderly women have a higher asymptomatic infection rate with Mycobacterium avium complex, regardless of body habitus.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Tomoyasu; Fujita-Suzuki, Yukiko; Mori, Masaaki; Carpenter, Stephen M; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Uwamino, Yoshifumi; Tamizu, Eiko; Yano, Ikuya; Kawabe, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease is prevalent in middle-aged to elderly women with a thin body habitus. By comparing the rate of serologically diagnosed asymptomatic MAC infection and body mass index among 1033 healthy subjects, we find that middle-aged to elderly women became infected with MAC, regardless of their body habitus.

  18. Age-Specific Serum Anti-Mullerian Hormone and Follicle Stimulating Hormone Concentrations in Infertile Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Raeissi, Alireza; Torki, Alireza; Moradi, Ali; Mousavipoor, Seyed Mehdi; Pirani, Masoud Doosti

    2015-01-01

    Background Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is secreted by the granulosa cells of growing follicles during the primary to large antral follicle stages. Abnormal levels of AMH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) may indicate a woman’s diminished ability or inability to conceive. Our aim is to investigate the changes in serum AMH and FSH concentrations at different age groups and its correlation with ovarian reserves in infertile women. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed serum AMH and FSH levels from 197 infertile women and 176 healthy controls, whose mean ages were 19-47 years. Sample collection was performed by random sampling and analyzed with SPSS version 16 software. Results There were significantly lower mean serum AMH levels among infertile women compared to the control group. The mean AMH serum levels from different ages of infertile and control group (fertile women) decreased with increasing age. However, this reduction was greater in the infertile group. The mean FSH serum levels of infertile women were significantly higher than the control group. Mean serum FSH levels consistently increased with increasing age in infertile women; however mean luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were not consistent. Conclusion We have observed increased FSH levels and decreased AMH levels with increasing age in women from 19 to 47 years of age. Assessments of AMH and FSH levels in combination with female age can help in predicting ovarian reserve in infertile women. PMID:25918589

  19. A comparison between the lifestyles of men and women--parents of school age children.

    PubMed

    Fiala, J; Brázdová, Z

    2000-05-01

    Women live longer than men and experience lower overall and specific mortality resulting from various diseases, even when younger. The reasons for this have yet to be satisfactorily explained. However, biological differences on one hand and differing lifestyles on the other might be responsible. The purpose of the study was to examine to what extent the lifestyle of men and women differs within a relatively homogeneous population group. The lifestyles of 4,353 parents of school age children (58% women and 42% men) were examined using questionnaires. The results show considerable differences between the genders. Men had worse dietary habits--consuming significantly less vegetables, fruit and milk, but too much meat; they consumed more processed meat and fat-containing items within the food sub-categories; they preferred less low-fat milk products and consumed less wholemeal products. Men more often consumed alcohol, drank more of it and often crossed the limits hazardous for health. There were more smokers among the men, they smoked more cigarettes and the non-smokers more often indicated passive exposure to cigarette smoke. Overweight and obesity occurred more often among men. Relatively minor differences, rather to the benefit of men, occurred in the field of leisure-time physical sporting activities, where slightly more men pursued regular sporting activities but in significantly higher amounts than the women, whereas the men did less regular daily walking. Women, as opposed to men, displayed more interest in comprehensive primary preventive medical examinations. The results obtained suggest that women lived a generally more healthy lifestyle than men within the examined homogeneous group of parents of school age children, consisting mostly of pairs of partners. They support the assumption that the healthier lifestyle of women very significantly contributes to their lower mortality.

  20. Understanding women's attitudes towards wife beating in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed Central

    Hindin, Michelle J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the factors associated with attitudes towards wife beating among women in partnerships in Zimbabwe in order to assist public health practitioners in preventing intimate partner violence (IPV). METHODS: A nationally representative survey of 5907 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) was conducted in Zimbabwe. Women were asked about their attitudes towards wife beating in five situations. The survey included sociodemographic characteristics, partnership characteristics, and household decision-making. FINDINGS: Over half of all women in Zimbabwe (53%) believed that wife beating was justified in at least one of the five situations. Respondents were most likely to find wife beating justified if a wife argued with her spouse (36%), neglected her children (33%), or went out without telling her spouse (30%). Among women in partnerships (n=3077), younger age, living in rural areas, lower household wealth, schooling at a lower level than secondary, and lower occupational status were associated with women reporting that wife beating is justified. Women who reported that they make household decisions jointly with their partners were less likely to say that wife beating is justified. CONCLUSIONS: Zimbabwe has a long way to go in preventing IPV, particularly because the younger generation of women is significantly more likely to believe that wife beating is justified compared with older women. Given the current social and political climate in Zimbabwe, finding means to negotiate rather than settle conflict through violence is essential from the household level to the national level. PMID:12973642

  1. Risk factors for urinary incontinence in Taiwanese women aged 60 or over.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ching-Hung; Hsu, Chun-Sen; Su, Tsung-Hsien; Chang, Shao-Tung; Lee, Meng-Chih

    2007-11-01

    To determine risk factors of urinary incontinence (UI) in Taiwanese women aged 60 or over, face-to-face interviews with 1,517 women, selected by a multistage random method, were completed. The prevalence of UI in this age group was 29.8%. Factors and their prevalence associated with UI were age [odds ratio (OR)=1.04 per year], diabetes mellitus (39.8%, p = 0.002), hypertension (39.5%, p = 0.001), abdominal gynecological surgery (41.4%, p = 0.001), hysterectomy (42.4%, p = 0.003), history of drug allergy (41.3%, p = 0.001), smoking (45.5%, p = 0.010), hormone replacement therapy (41.5%, p = 0.026), and high body mass index (OR = 1.05 per unit). Alcohol consumption and marriage did not increase the risk of UI. UI is a common and costly problem in elderly women. It diminishes the quality of life of the affected women. Of the associated factors that are preventable, modifiable, or controllable, smoking, prior hysterectomy, and obesity may have the greatest impact on the prevalence of UI.

  2. Self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in older European American women: exploring age and feminism as moderators.

    PubMed

    Grippo, Karen P; Hill, Melanie S

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the influence of feminist attitudes on self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in middle age and older women. The participants were 138 European American heterosexual women ranging in age from 40 to 87 years old. Consistent with previous research, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring were positively correlated with body dissatisfaction and, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring remained stable across the lifespan. While age did not moderate the relationship between self-objectification and body dissatisfaction, age was found to moderate the relationship between habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction such that the relationship was smaller for older women than for middle-aged women. Interestingly, feminist attitudes were not significantly correlated with body dissatisfaction, self-objectification, or habitual body monitoring, and endorsement of feminist attitudes was not found to moderate the relationship between self-objectification or habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction. Potential implications for older women are discussed.

  3. Menopausal Status and Physical Performance in Middle Aged Women: A Cross-Sectional Community-Based Study in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Câmara, Saionara M. A.; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Pirkle, Catherine; Moreira, Mayle A.; Maciel, Álvaro C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between menopausal status and physical performance in middle-aged women from the Northeast region of Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional study of women between 40 to 65 years old living in Parnamirim. Women were recruited by advertisements in primary care neighborhood centers across the city. Physical performance was assessed by grip strength, gait speed and chair stands. Menopausal status was determined using the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop classification and women were classified in: premenopausal, perimenopausal or postmenopausal. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to model the effect of menopausal status on each physical performance measure, adjusting for covariates (age, family income, education, body mass index, parity and age at first birth). Results The premenopausal women were significantly stronger and performed better in chair stands than perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Gait speed did not vary significantly by menopausal status. In multivariate analyses, menopausal status remained statistically significant only for grip strength. In fully adjusted analyses, premenopausal women had grip strength mean of 2.226 Kgf (95% CI: 0.361 – 4.091) higher than the postmenopausal group. Conclusions This study provides further evidence for the associations between menopause and physical performance in middle-aged women, since grip strength is weaker in peri and postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal, even adjusted for age and other covariates. PMID:25822526

  4. Blood Cadmium Levels in Women of Childbearing Age Vary by Race/Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Mijal, Renée S.; Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-01-01

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long -lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half -life of the metal, reproductive age-exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20–44 who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n =1734–3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06–2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96–4.47) times those of non -Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non -Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences. PMID:20400068

  5. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mijal, Renee S. Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  6. Problem of mortality in women of reproductive age in rural area of Haryana.

    PubMed

    Lal, S; Satpathy, S; Khanna, P; Vashisht, B M; Punia, M S; Kumar, S

    1995-01-01

    To learn the extent of mortality among women of reproductive age, data was analyzed on causes of death, as reported by anganwadi workers and heads of households, for all maternal deaths in 1992 in Haryana, India. The community was comprised of 300,907 persons and 58,961 women (19.6%) of reproductive age. 9894 live births were recorded, which is higher than the national average. 219 women died in 1992 from maternal and nonmaternal causes (3.7 per 1000 women). In the study blocks (Rohtak, Chiri, and Kathure) the range of mortality was from 3.4 to 4.1 per 1000. 78.5% (172 deaths) were considered nonmaternal deaths. Mortality was 20.9% among mothers 15-20 years old, 25.6% among mothers 20-25 years old, and 18.6% among mothers 25-30 years old. 65.1% of women died at home. 58.1% sought medical care prior to death. 1.2% of deaths were certified. 36.7% of deaths were to literate women, and the remaining 63.3% were illiterate. Causes of nonmaternal death included accidents, respiratory disorders, poisoning, and digestive disorders. Slightly over 20% of accidental deaths were due to burns and suicide. 21.46% (47 deaths) were maternal deaths (475 per 100,000 live births). Maternal mortality ranged from 46 to 488 in the 3 blocks. Rohtak had the highest maternal mortality. Maternal mortality was highest among women 30-44 years old (996 per 100,000), followed by women 15-20 years old (575 per 100,000). 21.3% died during labor and delivery, and 68% died during the postpartum period. 57.4% died at home, and 25.5% died at the Medical College Hospital. 61.7% used prenatal services. 36.2% did not seek medical care prior to their death. 55.3% of deliveries were by trained birth attendants. 25.5% died with their first births. 51.0% of women with a birth interval under 3 years died. Maternal mortality was distributed by cause as follows: postpartum hemorrhage (17.0%), puerperal sepsis (17.0%), anemia (12.8%), preeclampsia and eclampsia (14.9%), obstructed labor (6.4%), hemorrhage

  7. Environmental and Genetic Factors Influence Age at Menarche in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Jessica; Saxena, Richa; Welt, Corrine K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We hypothesized that BMI and DNA variants would predict age at menarche in PCOS. Subjects: Subjects with PCOS defined by the NIH criteria (n=522) and controls with regular menstrual cycles and no hyperandrogenism (n=472); aged 18 to 45 years were studied. Methods Age at menarche was compared between PCOS cases and controls, and examined as a function of multiple parameters. Results There was a strong inverse relationship between BMI and age at menarche in PCOS (r=−0.32; p=5×10−11). The chromosome 6 rs7759938-T variant was associated with earlier age at menarche in women with PCOS (12.60±0.09 vs. 13.41±0.23 years; genotype TT vs. CC; p=0.006). Age at menarche was predicted by PCOS status (β=0.512; p<0.001), reported weight group at 10 to 14 years (β= −0.432; p<0.001), current BMI (β= −0.0202; p=0.01) and genotype (β=0.169; p=0.02). Conclusions Age at menarche in women with PCOS is influenced by BMI and genetic variants near LIN28B. Trial Registration NCT00166569 PMID:22876539

  8. Correlates of 15-Year Maintenance of Physical Activity in Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Imke; Dugan, Sheila A.; Karavolos, Kelly; Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Powell, Lynda H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To gain a better understanding of the correlates of sustained physical activity in midlife women, we used longitudinal epidemiologic data to investigate links between sustained physical activity and constructs advocated by three basic behavioral and social science theories: 1) self-determination; 2) social cognitive; and 3) social networks. Methods A random sample of 90 mid-life women, stratified by level of physical activity over 15 years, was selected from the Chicago cohort of the longitudinal Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Using data on self-reported physical activity collected over 15 years, women were categorized into consistently active, spoardically active, and sedentary. New data were collected on theory-relevant constructs, i.e. autonomous motivation (assessed by the Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (TSRQ)) and self-efficacy (assessed by the Self-Efficacy and Exercise Habits Survey). Every SWAN woman identified a close female friend who also completed the physical activity questionnaire. Results SWAN women with higher autonomous motivation (p=0.002) and higher self-efficacy (p<0.001) were more likely to be consistently physically active in analyses adjusted for age, race, and socioeconomic status. Sixty one percent of SWAN women with a history of consistent physical activity had a friend who is currently highly active, versus 34% and 23% for sporadically active and sedentary women, respectively (test for trend p=0.008). Conclusions In midlife women, constructs advocated by basic behavioral and social science theories were consistent with long-term patterns of physical activity behavior. Special focus should be given to these basic theories in the design of interventions to promote sustained physical activity in midlife women. PMID:23813123

  9. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married Women in Uganda and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Courtney; Stephenson, Rob

    2015-03-01

    Short birth spacing continues to be a problem in Uganda and Zimbabwe, resulting in negative infant, child, and maternal health outcomes. This study investigates community-level influences on birth spacing outcomes among women aged 15-49 in Uganda and Zimbabwe, using Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2011 (Uganda) and 2010-2011 (Zimbabwe). Women living in communities with higher mean maternal age, mean age at marriage, and mean parity were significantly more likely to have longer birth spacing. Women living in communities with higher levels of contraceptive use and low levels of unmet contraceptive need were more likely to have short birth spacing. The significance of community-level demographic and fertility norms, gender norms, economic prosperity, and family planning behaviors demonstrate the broad influence of community variables on birth spacing outcomes. This analysis highlights the importance of moving beyond individual and household-level interventions in order to harness the power of contextual influences on birth spacing.

  10. Sexual protective strategies and condom use in middle-age African American women: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tanyka K.

    2015-01-01

    The heterosexual transmission of HIV has affected middle-age African American women at alarming rates; yet there is a paucity of research and interventions focused on this population. This study used a qualitative approach to understand middle-age urban African American women’s experiences with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors and to identify the sexual protective strategies they employed to reduce their risk for HIV infection. Ten African American women, ages 45 to 56, were recruited from low-income neighborhoods in New York City. Data were collected using in-depth interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Investigator triangulation and member checking were used to ensure rigor. Five salient themes emerged that highlighted the individual, gender/relationship power factors, and the sociocultural elements that influenced sexual protection or risk-taking behavior. Findings provide new insight into the complexities of HIV sexual risk behavior and can guide future HIV prevention interventions for middle-age, African American, urban women. PMID:26194973

  11. Risk of Ionizing Radiation in Women of Childbearing Age undergoing Radiofrequency Ablation

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Gustavo Glotz; Gomes, Daniel Garcia; Gensas, Caroline Saltz; Simão, Mariana Fernandez; Rios, Matheus N.; Pires, Leonardo Martins; Kruse, Marcelo Lapa; Leiria, Tiago Luiz Luz

    2013-01-01

    Background The International Commission of Radiology recommends a pregnancy screening test to all female patients of childbearing age who will undergo a radiological study. Radiation is known to be teratogenic and its effect is cumulative. The teratogenic potential starts at doses close to those used during these procedures. The prevalence of positive pregnancy tests in patients undergoing electrophysiological studies and/or catheter ablation in our midst is unknown. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of positive pregnancy tests in female patients referred for electrophysiological study and/or radiofrequency ablation. Methods Cross-sectional study analyzing 2,966 patients undergoing electrophysiological study and/or catheter ablation, from June 1997 to February 2013, in the Institute of Cardiology of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 1490 procedures were performed in women, of whom 769 were of childbearing age. All patients were screened with a pregnancy test on the day before the procedure. Results Three patients tested positive, and were therefore unable to undergo the procedure. The prevalence observed was 3.9 cases per 1,000 women of childbearing age. Conclusion Because of their safety and low cost, pregnancy screening tests are indicated for all women of childbearing age undergoing radiological studies, since the degree of ionizing radiation needed for these procedures is very close to the threshold for teratogenicity, especially in the first trimester, when the signs of pregnancy are not evident. PMID:24061686

  12. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Risk Perceptions for Chronic Diseases in Younger and Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jada G.; Lobel, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Perceptions of disease risk play an important role in motivating people to adopt healthy behaviors. However, little is known about psychosocial factors that influence women’s perceived risk for developing disease. The present study investigated the extent to which individual traits, social influences, objective risk factors, and demographic characteristics were associated with women’s risk perceptions for cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, and lung cancer. Using structural equation modeling, we examined hypothesized associations among 452 younger (ages 18-25 years) and 167 middle-aged (ages 40-64 years) women. A greater number and variety of factors were associated with middle-aged women’s risk perceptions compared to younger women. For both groups, some objective risk factors were associated with risk perceptions; yet, associations also existed between multiple psychosocial variables (optimism, health locus of control, social exposure to disease, perceived stigma) and risk perceptions. Results suggested that women may base their risk estimates on factors beyond those considered important by healthcare providers. PMID:26110993

  13. Lifestyle and osteoporosis in middle-aged and elderly women: Chiba bone survey.

    PubMed

    Tatsuno, Ichiro; Terano, Takashi; Nakamura, Mitsugu; Suzuki, Kiminori; Kubota, Kazuko; Yamaguchi, Jyunichi; Yoshida, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Sawako; Tanaka, Tomaki; Shozu, Makio

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis causes an enormous health and economic impact in Japan. We investigated the relation between lifestyle and bone fracture in middle-aged and elderly women. This was a population-based, multicenter, cross-sectional survey for postmenopausal osteoporosis in Chiba City, Japan (Chiba bone survey). This survey included 64,809 Japanese women aged > 40 years. All participants underwent anthropometric measurements including bone mineral density (BMD) and completed a structured, nurse-assisted, self-administered questionnaire also including patient lifestyle. Bone fracture during the recent 5 years was observed in 5.3%, and the fracture group had significantly higher age, BMI, and prevalence of delivery, family histories of kyphosis and hip fracture, diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, kidney disease, exercise, fall, and osteoporosis, and had significantly lower BMD and proportion of menstruating participants. Logistic regression analysis revealed that bone fracture was closely associated with not only low bone mass but also age, fall, family histories of kyphosis and hip fracture, DM, kidney disease, menopause, and lifestyle factors of dieting, exercise, and alcohol. Women's health care focusing on lifestyle-related fracture risks such as dieting, exercise, and alcohol appears necessary to prevent bone fracture in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  14. [Changes in the status of women].

    PubMed

    De Barbieri, T

    1989-01-01

    Information from a diversity of sources indicates that the roles and status of women underwent changes of unsuspected magnitude in the 1980s. Trends observed in different social realms at different time periods appear to have converged, leading to redefinition of the activities and life courses of large sectors of the Mexican female population. The life expectancy of Mexican women is 71 years, the average age at marriage is 21 years, and the average family size is 3.8 children. Women migrate to other areas of Mexico and other countries. Their illiteracy rate declined by 9.5% between 1970 and 1980 to 20.1% over age 15, or 7.8% for women aged 15-19. In 1986, an estimated 15.3% of women aged 15-49 were illiterate, 26.9% had incomplete primary, 19.7% had complete primary, and 38.1% had secondary or higher. Educational statistics demonstrate strong and increasing female enrollments. The trend to greater female employment continued in the 1980s, with married women and mothers moving into the work force in great numbers. Increased job opportunities and declining family incomes were among factors encouraging female employment. Women continued to perform most of the domestic work, however. Reduced social spending and subsidies for basic goods led to a return to households of responsibilities and expenditures previously covered by the government. Women appear to have massively penetrated traditional male spheres of society, raising questions about the reactions of males and the completion of functions previously assumed by women.

  15. Cultural and socio-economic factors on changes in aging among Iranian women.

    PubMed

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the cultural and socio-economic factors that influence changes in aging among Iranian women. This qualitative study was part of a more extensive study designed according to grounded theory method. A purposeful, snowball and theoretical sampling technique was used. Data collection instruments were interviews and field notes. Duration of interviews differed and ranged from 38 to 110 minutes. Data collection process, coding and analysis were performed simultaneously. Collected data were analyzed using the recommended method by Corbin and Straus (1998 and 2008). The factors were formed from 6 subcategories: cultural and socio-economic status in the past, urban/rural life, companionship status, beliefs and attitudes, higher responsibilities of women and women's financial capability. This study explained the various aspects of cultural and socio-economic changes in the elderly participants based on their real experiences. PMID:24762357

  16. Osteoporosis knowledge, calcium intake, and weight-bearing physical activity in three age groups of women.

    PubMed

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women and compare knowledge to calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity (WBPA). In this cross-sectional study, knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA were assessed using probe interviews, a food frequency and an activity questionnaire, respectively. Seventy-five white women were separated into three groups: young (25-35 years), middle aged (36-46 years) and postmenopausal (50+ years). Concept maps were used to assess knowledge (concepts, integration and misconceptions). Calcium intakes from diet, supplements and fortified orange juice were estimated as were minutes of daily WBPA. Analysis of covariance was used to compare knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA by age group. Covariates included education, family history, physical problems making exercise difficult, and lactose intolerance. Chi square analysis was used to determine differences in these covariates across age groups. Correlations and regression analysis were used to determine relationships between knowledge and behaviors. Knowledge scores averaged 32-44 points (183 possible). Average calcium intake in all groups exceeded the Dietary Reference Intake's recommended Adequate Intake but 20-24% consumed less than 60% of the AI. Housework, walking at work, and standing at home and work accounted for 90% of WBPA. Knowledge about osteoporosis was limited and not associated with age, WBPA or calcium intake. Calcium intake and WBPA were not associated with age. Practitioners need to provide explicit information on osteoporosis and risk reducing behaviors to women of all ages. PMID:12238730

  17. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above

    PubMed Central

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30–65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected more ≥CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results (positive test results without ≥CIN3) varied between 3.3% with cytology and 14.9% with cobas. All HPV assays led to significantly more false-positive tests, whereas compared to HC2 cobas and CLART were associated with a significantly higher and APTIMA with a significantly lower proportion. Detection of CIN1 was particularly increased for the three DNA assays. With APTIMA combined with cytological triage, about 20% more women were referred for colposcopy than with cytology screening. With the three DNA assays, the increase was ≥50%. The number of women with repeated testing was twice as high with APTIMA and almost five times as high with cobas compared to cytology. To our knowledge, Horizon was the only study set in routine practice that compared more than two HPV assays in the same women while also ascertaining the histological status of women with normal cytology/HPV-positive test results. HPV-based screening of Danish women aged 30–65 detected more high-grade CIN but decreased the screening specificity, and increased the demand for additional testing. PMID:26789267

  18. Relationship between insomnia and headache in community-based middle-aged Hong Kong Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Wing-Fai; Chung, Ka-Fai; Wong, Chun-Yue

    2010-06-01

    Limited studies have investigated the prevalence of insomnia symptoms among individuals with different headache diagnoses and the association between insomnia and headache in subjects with comorbid anxiety and depression. A total of 310 community-dwelling Hong Kong Chinese women aged 40-60 years completed a self-administered questionnaire on headache, sleep difficulties, mood disturbances, and functional impairment. About 31% of the sample complained of recurrent headache unrelated to influenza and the common cold in the past 12 months. The percentages of women diagnosed to have migraine, tension-type headache (TTH), and headache unspecified were 8.4, 15.5 and 7.1%, respectively. The most frequent insomnia complaint was "problem waking up too early" (29.4%), followed by "difficulty staying asleep" (28.0%) and "difficulty falling asleep" (24.4%). Women with headaches were significantly more likely to report insomnia symptoms than those without headaches. There were no significant differences among women with migraine, TTH, and headache unspecified in the prevalence of insomnia symptoms. Logistic regression analysis showed that women with insomnia disorder as defined by an insomnia severity index total score >or=8 had 2.2-fold increased risk of reporting recurrent headache, 3.2-fold increased risk of migraine, and 2.3-fold increased risk of TTH, after adjusting for anxiety and depression. Individual insomnia symptoms were not independent predictors. The association between insomnia and headache was stronger in subjects with more frequent headaches. Our findings suggest that insomnia and the associated distress, but not insomnia symptoms alone, is an independent risk factor for recurrent headache in middle-aged women with mixed anxiety, depression and sleep disturbances. PMID:20186559

  19. Weighing the Benefits and Burdens of Mammography Screening Among Women Age 80 Years or Older

    PubMed Central

    Schonberg, Mara A.; Silliman, Rebecca A.; Marcantonio, Edward R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To examine outcomes of mammography screening among women ≥ 80 years to inform decision making. Patients and Methods We conducted a cohort study of 2,011 women without a history of breast cancer who were age ≥ 80 years between 1994 and 2004 and who received care at one academic primary care clinic or two community health centers in Boston, MA. Medical record data were abstracted on all screening and diagnostic mammograms, breast ultrasounds and biopsies performed, all breast cancers diagnosed through December 31, 2006, and on sociodemographics. Date and cause of death were confirmed using the National Death Index. Results The majority of patients (78.6%) were non-Hispanic white and 51.4% (n = 1,034) had been screened with mammography since age 80 years. Among women who were screened, eight were diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ, 16 with early stage disease (1.5%), two with late stage disease, and one died as a result of breast cancer. Many (110; 11%) experienced a false-positive screening mammogram that led to 19 benign breast biopsies, eight refused work-up, and three experienced a false-negative screening mammogram; 97 were screened within 2 years of their death from other causes. There were no significant differences in the rate, stage, recurrence rate, or deaths due to breast cancer between women who were screened and those who were not screened. Conclusion The majority of women ≥ 80 years are screened with mammography yet few benefit. Meanwhile, 12.5% experience a burden from screening. The data from this study can be used to inform elderly women's decision making and potentially lead to more rational use of screening. PMID:19255318

  20. Women achieve peak freestyle swim speed at earlier ages than men

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background The age of peak swim performance has been investigated for freestyle swimmers for distances ranging from 50 m to 1500 m among swimmers aged 19 to 99 years. However, studies have yet to investigate the 10 to 19 year-old age group. The aims of the present study were (1) to investigate the age range of peak freestyle swim speed, and (2) to find differences in age range and peak freestyle swim speed between male and female freestyle swimmers from 50 m to 1500 m at a national level. Methods The changes in age range and peak freestyle swim speed among Swiss elite freestyle swimmers aged 0–9 years and 70–79 years who were ranked on the Swiss high score list between 2006 and 2010 were analyzed using linear regression analyses and analysis of variance. Results Men were fastest at ages 22–23 years for 100 m and 200 m; at ages 24–25 years for 400 m and 800 m; and at 26–27 years for 50 m and 1500 m. Women achieved peak freestyle swim speed at ages 20–21 years for all distances with the exception of 800 m. In the 800 m, women were fastest at ages 26–27 years. The difference in peak freestyle swim speed decreased with increasing swim distance from 50 m to 800 m (ie, 13.1% ± 1.3% in 50 m; 13.2% ± 0.9% in 100 m; 10.8% ± 0.9% in 200 m; 7.9% ± 1.3% in 400 m; and 4.2% ± 2.0% in 800 m). For 1500 m, however, the gender difference increased to 6.4% ± 2.3%. Conclusion These findings suggest that peak freestyle swim speed is achieved at lower age ranges in women when compared to men at 50 m to 1500 m, but not at 800 m. The gender difference in peak freestyle swim speed decreased with increasing swim distance from 50 m to 800 m, but not for 1500 m. These data should be confirmed with swimmers at an international level. PMID:24198602

  1. Family Planning Practice Among Rural Reproductive-Age Married Women in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Jirapongsuwan, Ann; Latt, Kyaw Thu; Siri, Sukhontha; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai

    2016-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate family planning (FP) practices and associated factors among reproductive-age married women. Data were collected by interviewing the 300 married women living in a rural area of Myanmar. The questionnaire had reliability coefficients ranging from .8 to .9. Results indicated that 73.3% of women performed FP, and contraceptive injection was the most common method. Significant associations were found with age 21 to 35 years (adjusted odds ratio [adj OR] = 3.748, 95% CI = 2.179-6.445), adequacy of income (adj OR = 2.520, 95% CI = 1.477-4.290), good attitude toward FP (adj OR = 0.386, 95% CI = 0.228-0.656), good support from health care providers (adj OR = 0.129, 95% CI = 0.054-0.313), good support from family (adj OR = 0.304, 95% CI = 0.163-0.565), good support from friends (adj OR = 0.344, 95% CI = 0.193-0.613), and FP practice. It is recommended that designing FP programs with peers and family involvement could increase the practice of FP among rural Myanmar women. PMID:27122625

  2. Prevalence of Anemia and Correlated Factors in the Reproductive Age Women in Rural Areas of Tabas

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghian, Majid; Lesanpezeshki, Mohammad; Ahmadnezhad, Elham

    2013-01-01

    Objective To find out the prevalence and relationship of anemia in reproductive age women in rural area of Tabas, center of Iran. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional problem, affecting about 41.8% of pregnant and 30.2% of non-pregnant women worldwide. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on the random sample of 382 reproductive age women in rural areas of Tabas in March 2010. Independent sample t-test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression were applied for the data analysis. Results The obtained data revealed a total response rate of 13.8% for prevalence of anemia, while 14.5% and 5.9% belonged to non-pregnant and pregnant participants, respectively. Low socioeconomic status (odds ratio 3.35) and high parity index (odds ratio 2.31) were associated with higher prevalence of anemia. Conclusion Although this study was conducted in a rural area of Tabas, where their average incomes were lower than average income of major cities in Iran, the prevalence of anemia was lower than the rate reported in previous studies carried out in other locations of Iran, even in high risk (pregnant women) groups. PMID:24971116

  3. Association of Renal Function and Menopausal Status with Bone Mineral Density in Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Yueh-Hsuan; Chen, Jen-Hau; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Lee, Yue-Yuan; Tsao, Chwen-Keng; Chen, Yen-Ching

    2015-01-01

    The association between mild renal dysfunction and bone mineral density (BMD) has not been fully explored. It is also unclear how menopausal status and the use of Chinese herb affect this association. This is a cross-sectional study that included a total of 1,419 women aged 40 to 55 years old who were recruited from the MJ Health Management Institution in Taiwan between 2009 and 2010. Spinal BMD was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Renal function was assessed using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and creatinine clearance rate (CCr). The multivariable logistic regression and general linear models were employed to assess the association between renal function and BMD. Stratification analyses were performed by menopausal status and use of Chinese herbs. Low CCr levels were significantly associated with low BMD [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15–1.90]. This association was observed in premenopausal women (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.07–1.92) and in women not taking Chinese herbs (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.14–1.94). CCr is a better predictor for low BMD in middle-aged women. Menopausal status and the use of Chinese herbs also affected this association. PMID:26459876

  4. [Anemia in women of reproductive age. The results of a national probability survey].

    PubMed

    Martínez, H; González-Cossío, T; Flores, M; Rivera-Dommarco, J; Lezana, M A; Sepúlveda-Amor, J

    1995-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most prevalent forms of malnutrition which is clinically known as anemia. Functional consequences of anemia include impairment of cardiovascular performance, limitation in productivity, higher incidence of low birth weight and premature delivery, and increased maternal mortality. This paper presents a descriptive analysis of anemia in women of reproductive age in Mexico. Data were collected by the Ministry of Health through a National Nutrition Survey in 1988, which draw a representative sample from four regions: North, Center, South and Federal District. Anemia was more prevalent in pregnant (18.17%) than in non-pregnant women (15.38%). Those women living in predominantly indigenous communities had higher prevalence of anemia (24.02%) than non-indigenous women (14.67%). Anemia was more prevalent in urban areas (15.54%) than in rural (13.56%). Mean +/- standard deviation values for hemoglobin were lower in pregnant women (12.5 +/- 1.6 g/dL) than in non-pregnant ones (13.7 +/- 1.6 g/dL). Consistently, the Northern and Southern regions were worse off than the Center and the Federal District. These data indicate that anemia is a public health problem in Mexico. The functional consequences of this deficiency justify interventions to treat and prevent it.

  5. [Anemia in women of reproductive age. The results of a national probability survey].

    PubMed

    Martínez, H; González-Cossío, T; Flores, M; Rivera-Dommarco, J; Lezana, M A; Sepúlveda-Amor, J

    1995-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most prevalent forms of malnutrition which is clinically known as anemia. Functional consequences of anemia include impairment of cardiovascular performance, limitation in productivity, higher incidence of low birth weight and premature delivery, and increased maternal mortality. This paper presents a descriptive analysis of anemia in women of reproductive age in Mexico. Data were collected by the Ministry of Health through a National Nutrition Survey in 1988, which draw a representative sample from four regions: North, Center, South and Federal District. Anemia was more prevalent in pregnant (18.17%) than in non-pregnant women (15.38%). Those women living in predominantly indigenous communities had higher prevalence of anemia (24.02%) than non-indigenous women (14.67%). Anemia was more prevalent in urban areas (15.54%) than in rural (13.56%). Mean +/- standard deviation values for hemoglobin were lower in pregnant women (12.5 +/- 1.6 g/dL) than in non-pregnant ones (13.7 +/- 1.6 g/dL). Consistently, the Northern and Southern regions were worse off than the Center and the Federal District. These data indicate that anemia is a public health problem in Mexico. The functional consequences of this deficiency justify interventions to treat and prevent it. PMID:7618111

  6. Tools for Improving Clinical Preventive Services Receipt Among Women with Disabilities of Childbearing Ages and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Taft, Kate E.; Sloan, Michelle L.; Stevens, Alissa C.; Krahn, Gloria L.

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to improve clinical preventive services (CPS) receipt among women with disabilities are poorly understood and not widely disseminated. The reported results represent a 2-year, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs partnership to develop a central resource for existing tools that are of potential use to maternal and child health practitioners who work with women with disabilities. Steps included contacting experts in the fields of disability and women’s health, searching the Internet to locate examples of existing tools that may facilitate CPS receipt, convening key stakeholders from state and community-based programs to determine their potential use of the tools, and developing an online Toolbox. Nine examples of existing tools were located. The tools focused on facilitating use of the CPS guidelines, monitoring CPS receipt among women with disabilities, improving the accessibility of communities and local transportation, and training clinicians and women with disabilities. Stakeholders affirmed the relevance of these tools to their work and encouraged developing a Toolbox. The Toolbox, launched in May 2013, provides information and links to existing tools and accepts feedback and proposals for additional tools. This Toolbox offers central access to existing tools. Maternal and child health stakeholders and other service providers can better locate, adopt and implement existing tools to facilitate CPS receipt among adolescent girls with disabilities who are transitioning into adult care as well as women with disabilities of child-bearing ages and beyond. PMID:25359095

  7. The relationship between self-report and biomarkers of stress in low-income, reproductive age women

    PubMed Central

    Borders, Ann E.B; Grobman, William A.; Amsden, Laura B.; McDade, Thomas W.; Sharp, Lisa K.; Holl, Jane L.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if there is an association between self-reported and biologic measures of stress in low-income, reproductive age women. STUDY DESIGN Between 1999 and 2005, randomly selected reproductive age women from the 1998 welfare rolls in Chicago were interviewed yearly to assess psychosocial, socioeconomic, and health characteristics. The association of two stress sensitive biomarkers (Epstein-Barr virus antibody titer (EBV) and C-reactive protein (CRP) level) with self-reported stress was assessed. RESULTS Of the 206 women interviewed, 205 (99%) agreed to provide a blood sample. There was no difference in mean EBV or CRP levels based on age, race, parity, employment, marital status, or education. Women who reported a higher degree of perceived stress or reported experiences of discrimination had significantly higher levels of EBV (p < .05). CONCLUSION Measures of self-reported psychosocial stress are associated with elevated levels EBV antibody in a low-income population of reproductive age women. PMID:20870203

  8. Current contraceptive status among women aged 15-44: United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Kimberly; Daugherty, Jill; Jones, Jo

    2014-12-01

    Nearly all women use contraception at some point in their lifetimes, although at any given time they may not be using contraception for reasons such as seeking pregnancy, being pregnant, or not being sexually active. Using data from the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) on contraceptive use in the month of the interview, this report provides a snapshot of current contraceptive status among women aged 15-44 in the United States. In addition to describing use of any method by age, Hispanic origin and race, and educational attainment, patterns of use are described for the four most commonly used contraceptive methods: the oral contraceptive pill, female sterilization, the male condom, and long-acting reversible contraceptives, which include contraceptive implants and intrauterine devices.

  9. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment.

  10. Ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination in women aged 40 years or more.

    PubMed

    Wiser, Amir; Shalom-Paz, Einat; Reinblatt, Shauna Leigh; Son, Weon-Young; Das, Mausumi; Tulandi, Togas; Holzer, Hananel

    2012-02-01

    Fertility decreases with advancing age. This study retrospectively reviewed the results of ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination (IUI) in women 40 years old with diminished ovarian reserve or unexplained infertility who underwent treatment with ovarian stimulation/IUI with clomiphene citrate or gonadotrophin and compared them with the results of IVF and in-vitro maturation (IVM) treatments. The main outcome measures were pregnancy and live-birth rates. The profiles of the patients in ovarian stimulation, IVM and IVF groups were comparable. There were no clinical pregnancies in the clomiphene citrate and IVM groups. The clinical-pregnancy rates in the gonadotrophin and IVF groups were 2.6% and 16.9% and the live-birth rates were 2.6% and 13.7%, respectively. Compared with ovarian stimulation, IVF is most effective for women aged 40 years or more. Attempting success with ovarian stimulation or IVM will delay conception unnecessarily. PMID:22197126

  11. Use of folic acid-containing supplements among women of childbearing age--United States, 1997.

    PubMed

    1998-02-27

    Each year in the United States, approximately 4000 pregnancies result in spina bifida or anencephaly. Babies born with spina bifida usually survive, often with serious disability, but anencephaly is invariably fatal. The B vitamin folic acid can reduce the occurrence of spina bifida and anencephaly by at least 50% when taken daily before conception and during early pregnancy. In 1992, the Public Health Service (PHS) recommended that all women of childbearing age who are capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 microg of folic acid daily. This report summarizes findings from a survey conducted during January and February 1997 and indicates that only one third of women of childbearing age consume a supplement containing the recommended amount of folic acid daily.

  12. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment. PMID:27390396

  13. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment. PMID:27390396

  14. [The psychic state of women suffering infertility in the old reproductive age].

    PubMed

    Kolesnikov, D B; Ermolenko, K S; Solov'eva, A V

    2013-01-01

    A total 60 infertile women aged 36-42 years treated by ART were examined to evaluate their psychic condition using CES-D and Spielberg-Khanin scales, SF-36 questionnaire. 15 (25%) patients were found (CES-D) to have mild depressive disorder; it was more pronounced in one woman. More than half of the patients exhibited enhanced anxiety, with 32 (53.3%) and 19 (31.6%) having generalized and strong anxiety respectively. Estimation of the quality of life revealed difficulties in maintaining social contacts up to complete isolation, low self-assessment of psychic health and prospects for recovery. It is concluded that comprehensive diagnostics and combined treatment are needed to manage infertile women of old reproductive age with the use of both traditional and psychocorrective methods.

  15. Prevalence of prescription medication use among non-pregnant women of childbearing age and pregnant women in the United States: NHANES, 1999-2006.

    PubMed

    Tinker, Sarah C; Broussard, Cheryl S; Frey, Meghan T; Gilboa, Suzanne M

    2015-05-01

    Many prescription medications have limited information regarding safety for use during pregnancy. In order to inform research on safer medication use during pregnancy, we examined prescription medication use among women in the United States. We analyzed data from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to estimate the prevalence of prescription medication use in the past 30 days among pregnant women and non-pregnant women of childbearing age (15-44 years) and to ascertain the most commonly reported prescription medications by women in these groups. We assessed how the most commonly reported medications differed among groups defined by selected demographic characteristics, including age, race/ethnicity, and markers of socioeconomic status. Prescription medication use in the past 30 days was reported by 22 % of pregnant women and 47 % of non-pregnant women of childbearing age. The most commonly reported prescription medications by NHANES participants differed somewhat by pregnancy status; allergy and anti-infective medications were more common among pregnant women, while oral contraceptives were more common among non-pregnant women. Use of prescription medication for asthma and thyroid disorders was reported by both groups. Although prescription medication use in the previous 30 days was less common among pregnant women than non-pregnant women, its use was reported among almost 1 in 4 pregnant women. Many of the most common medications reported were for the treatment of chronic medical conditions. Given the potential impact of medications on the developing fetus, our data underscore the importance of understanding the safety of these medications during pregnancy.

  16. From 'the thing to do' to 'defying the ravages of age': older women reflect on the use of lipstick.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Laura Hurd; Bundon, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Using data from in-depth interviews with 36 women, aged 71 to 93, this manuscript examines older women's use of lipstick. The most ubiquitously used cosmetic by the women we interviewed, lipstick was a taken-for-granted practice in the women's performance of gender. In the women's youth, the performance of gender through lipstick usage was related to rebellion and peer acceptance. In contrast, the use of lipstick in later life was related to the maintenance of an attractive and respectable appearance. We discuss our findings in light of interpretative feminist theorizing concerning beauty work, doing gender, and the presentation of self.

  17. From 'the thing to do' to 'defying the ravages of age': older women reflect on the use of lipstick.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Laura Hurd; Bundon, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Using data from in-depth interviews with 36 women, aged 71 to 93, this manuscript examines older women's use of lipstick. The most ubiquitously used cosmetic by the women we interviewed, lipstick was a taken-for-granted practice in the women's performance of gender. In the women's youth, the performance of gender through lipstick usage was related to rebellion and peer acceptance. In contrast, the use of lipstick in later life was related to the maintenance of an attractive and respectable appearance. We discuss our findings in light of interpretative feminist theorizing concerning beauty work, doing gender, and the presentation of self. PMID:20183145

  18. Nutrition and depression: implications for improving mental health among childbearing-aged women.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Lisa M; Wisner, Katherine L

    2005-11-01

    Adequate nutrition is needed for countless aspects of brain functioning. Poor diet quality, ubiquitous in the United States, may be a modifiable risk factor for depression. The objective was to review and synthesize the current knowledge of the role of nutrition in depression, and address implications for childbearing-aged women. Poor omega-3 fatty acid status increases the risk of depression. Fish oil and folic acid supplements each have been used to treat depression successfully. Folate deficiency reduces the response to antidepressants. Deficiencies of folate, vitamin B12, iron, zinc, and selenium tend to be more common among depressed than nondepressed persons. Dietary antioxidants have not been studied rigorously in relation to depression. Childbearing-aged women are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of poor nutrition on mood because pregnancy and lactation are major nutritional stressors to the body. The depletion of nutrient reserves throughout pregnancy and a lack of recovery postpartum may increase a woman's risk of depression. Prospective research studies are needed to clarify the role of nutrition in the pathophysiology of depression among childbearing-aged women. Greater attention to nutritional factors in mental health is warranted given that nutrition interventions can be inexpensive, safe, easy to administer, and generally acceptable to patients. PMID:16040007

  19. Inequities in Workplace Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Nonsmoking Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Luckhaupt, Sara E.; Lawson, Christina C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We characterized workplace secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking women of reproductive age as a proxy for workplace secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy. Methods. We included nonsmoking women aged 18 to 44 years employed during the past 12 months who participated in the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. We estimated the prevalence of workplace secondhand smoke exposure and its associations with sociodemographic and workplace characteristics. Results. Nine percent of women reported workplace secondhand smoke exposure. Prevalence decreased with increasing age, education, and earnings. Workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with chemical exposure (prevalence odds ratio [POR] = 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3, 4.7); being threatened, bullied, or harassed (POR = 3.2; 95% CI = 2.1, 5.1); vapors, gas, dust, or fume exposure (POR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.3, 4.4); and worrying about unemployment (POR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.8, 5.2), among other things. Conclusions. Comprehensive smoke-free laws covering all workers could eliminate inequities in workplace secondhand smoke exposure, including during pregnancy. PMID:25905837

  20. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age.

    PubMed

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Linek, Pawel; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-06-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = -0.581), Psychological Domain (r = -0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = -0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = -0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  1. Total bone calcium in normal women: effect of age and menopause status

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, J.C.; Goldgar, D.; Moy, A.

    1987-12-01

    Bone density in different regions of the skeleton was measured in 392 normal women aged 20-80 years by dual photon absorpiometry. In premenopausal women, aged 25-50 years, multiple regression analysis of regional bone density on age, height, and weight showed a small significant decrease in total bone density (less than 0.01) but no significant change in other regions of the skeleton. In postmenopausal women there were highly significant decreases in all regions of the skeleton (p less than 0.001), and bone density in these areas decreased as a logarithmic function of years since menopause. Based on multiple regression analyses, the decrease in spine density and total bone calcium was 2.5-3.0 times greater in the 25 years after menopause than the 25 years before menopause. The largest change, however, occurred in the first five years after menopause. During this time the estimated annual change in spine density and total bone calcium was about 10 times greater than that in the premenopausal period. These results demonstrate the important effect of the menopause in determining bone mass in later life.

  2. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    PubMed Central

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581), Psychological Domain (r = –0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  3. Alteration of functional state of peripheral blood erythrocytes in women of different age groups at dislipidemia conditions.

    PubMed

    Ratiani, L; Intskirveli, N; Ormotsadze, G; Sanikidze, T

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was identification of statistically reliable correlations and the cause-effect relationships between viability of red blood cells and dislipidema parametres and/or metabolic disorders, induced by age related alterations of estrogen content, in women of different ages (reproductive, menopausal) On the basis of the analysis of research results we can conclude that in the different age groups of women with atherosclerosis-induced cardiovascular diseases revealed estrogen-related dependence between Tg-s and HDL content, functional status of phereperial blood erytrotcites and severity of dislipidemia. The aterogenic index Tg/HD proved to be sensitive marker of dislipidemia in reproductive aging women, but does't reflect disorders of lipid metabolism in postmenosal women. It was proved the existence of reliable corelation between red blood cells dysfunction indicator, spherulation quality, and atherogenic index Tg/HDL highlights; however, the correlation coefficient is 2 times higher in the reproductive age as in menopause. Spherulation quality of red blood cells at low HDL content showd fast growth rate in reproductive-aged women, and was unsensetive to HDL content in postmenopasal women. It was concluded that age-related lack of estrogens in postmenopausal women indirectly contributes to decrease protection of red blood cells against oxidative damage, reduces their deformabelity and disturbances the rheological properties. So, Spherulation quality of red blood cells may be used as a diagnostic marker of severity of atherosclerosis.

  4. Vitamin D deficiency in reproductive age Mongolian women: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Holick, Michael F; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Frazier, Lindsay A; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Ninjin, Boldbaatar; Janes, Craig; Hoover, Robert N; Troisi, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D production is critical not only for rickets prevention but for its role in several chronic diseases of adulthood. Maternal vitamin D status also has consequences for the developing fetus. This study assessed the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]<20ng/ml) and insufficiency [25(OH)D=20-29ng/ml] in spring, among reproductive age Mongolian women. Blood was drawn in March and April, 2009 from 420 Mongolian women, 18-44 years of age. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured, anthropometric measurements were performed and information was collected by interview on lifestyle, dietary and reproductive factors. Logarithm-transformed 25(OH)D levels were compared across risk factor categories by analysis of variance. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the independent associations of factors with vitamin D status. Cutaneous vitamin D3 synthesis was assessed between December and July using a standard 7-dehydrocholesterol ampoule model. The vast majority of women 415 (98.8%) had serum 25(OH)D<20ng/ml (50nmol/l) with an additional 4 women (<1%) in the insufficient range (20-29ng/ml); only one women (0.2%) had sufficient levels (>30ng/ml or 75nmol/l). 25(OH)D concentrations were positively and independently associated with educational status and use of vitamin D supplements, but not with other demographic, lifestyle, reproductive, or anthropometric factors. 25(OH)D levels were not associated with dietary factors in this population, as there is little access to foods containing vitamin D in Mongolia. No production of previtamin D3 was observed until March and was maximally effective in April and was sustained through July. These data suggest that the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in spring among reproductive age women in Mongolia is high. Given the lack of naturally vitamin D-rich food in the diet and limited use of vitamin D supplements, food fortification and/or supplementation with vitamin D should be considered

  5. Cardiac autonomic changes in middle-aged women: identification based on principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Trevizani, Gabriela A; Nasario-Junior, Olivassé; Benchimol-Barbosa, Paulo R; Silva, Lilian P; Nadal, Jurandir

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the application of the principal component analysis (PCA) technique on power spectral density function (PSD) of consecutive normal RR intervals (iRR) aiming at assessing its ability to discriminate healthy women according to age groups: young group (20-25 year-old) and middle-aged group (40-60 year-old). Thirty healthy and non-smoking female volunteers were investigated (13 young [mean ± SD (median): 22·8 ± 0·9 years (23·0)] and 17 Middle-aged [51·7 ± 5·3 years (50·0)]). The iRR sequence was collected during ten minutes, breathing spontaneously, in supine position and in the morning, using a heart rate monitor. After selecting an iRR segment (5 min) with the smallest variance, an auto regressive model was used to estimate the PSD. Five principal component coefficients, extracted from PSD signals, were retained for analysis according to the Mahalanobis distance classifier. A threshold established by logistic regression allowed the separation of the groups with 100% specificity, 83·2% sensitivity and 93·3% total accuracy. The PCA appropriately classified two groups of women in relation to age (young and Middle-aged) based on PSD analysis of consecutive normal RR intervals.

  6. Determinants of maximal instantaneous muscle power in women aged 50-75 years.

    PubMed

    De Vito, G; Bernardi, M; Forte, R; Pulejo, C; Macaluso, A; Figura, F

    1998-06-01

    The present study aimed at analysing the age-related decline in maximal muscle power (W) in 52 sedentary healthy women aged between 50 and 75 years to determine whether force or velocity is the major determinant. Maximal muscle power was estimated from two types of vertical jumps, squatting (SJ) and countermovement (CmJ), performed on a force platform. It was obtained by measuring the vertical force (F(opt)) applied to the body centre of gravity and calculating the corresponding vertical velocity (v(opt)). An age-related decline in absolute W was statistically significant in all the conditions examined and in both peak W and average power (W) values. The decrease in v(opt) was also statistically significant. Also F(opt) declined but this reduction was not statistically significant with the exception of the average value in CmJ. Not surprisingly the highest W were obtained in CmJ, and the difference in power production between the two types of jump showed an age-related decrement only in W. The main finding of the study was the demonstration that v(opt) was the critical determinant of the age-related decline in W in healthy elderly women.

  7. Aging and the Skeletal Muscle Angiogenic Response to Exercise in Women.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Timothy P; Kraus, Raymond M; Carrithers, John A; Garry, Joseph P; Hickner, Robert C

    2015-10-01

    Whether aging lowers skeletal muscle basal capillarization and angiogenesis remains controversial. To investigate the effects of aging on skeletal muscle capillarization, eight young (YW) and eight aged (AW) women completed 8 weeks of exercise training. The response and relationships of muscle capillarization, interstitial vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and microvascular blood flow to aerobic exercise training were investigated. Vastus lateralis biopsies were obtained before and after exercise training for the measurement of capillarization. Muscle interstitial VEGF protein and microvascular blood flow were measured at rest and during submaximal exercise at PRE, 1-WK, and 8-WKS by microdialysis. Exercise training increased (20%-25%) capillary contacts of type I, IIA, and IIB fibers in YW and AW. Interstitial VEGF protein was higher in AW than YW at rest and was higher in YW than AW during exercise independent of training status. Differences in muscle capillarization were not explained by secreted VEGF nor were differences in VEGF explained by microvascular blood flow. These results confirm that aging (57-76 years age range) does not impair the muscle angiogenic response to exercise training, although sex differences may exist in similarly trained women and men.

  8. Influence of age on clock gene expression in peripheral blood cells of healthy women.

    PubMed

    Ando, Hitoshi; Ushijima, Kentarou; Kumazaki, Masafumi; Takamura, Toshinari; Yokota, Noritsugu; Saito, Tetsuo; Irie, Shin; Kaneko, Shuichi; Fujimura, Akio

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a close relationship between circadian clock function and the development of obesity and various age-related diseases. In this study, we investigated whether messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of clock genes are associated with age, body mass index, blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, or shift work. Peripheral blood cells were obtained from 70 healthy women, including 25 shift workers, at approximately 9:00 AM. Transcript levels of clock genes (CLOCK, BMAL1, PER1, and PER3) were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated that BMAL1 mRNA levels were correlated only with age (beta = -.50, p < .001). In contrast, PER3 levels were correlated with fasting plasma glucose (beta = -.29, p < .05) and shift work (beta = .31, p < .05). These results suggest that increased age, glucose intolerance, and irregular hours independently affect the intracellular clock in humans.

  9. Socio-economic correlates of contraceptive knowledge among women in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Salleh, N M; Peng, T N; Arshat, H

    1986-12-01

    Knowledge about contraception was examined in relation to selected socioeconomic variables. A total of 2567 currently married women aged 15-49 years residing in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya were interviewed. The majority of the women knew of at least 1 contraceptive method. An index termed Contraceptive Knowledge Score (CKS) was used to measure the level of knowledge about contraception. The CKS achieved differed significantly by age, area of residence and ethnic group. The other socioeconomic variables significantly associated with CKS are schooling, occupation, income, childhood residence and age at marriage. These relationships persisted even after adjusting for differences in age, ethnicity and area of residence. Overall the CKS attained have a wide range and there is no significant difference of the mean CKS attained, between users and non-users of contraceptives.

  10. Urinary symptoms and incontinence in women: relationships between occurrence, age, and perceived impact.

    PubMed Central

    Swithinbank, L V; Donovan, J L; du Heaume, J C; Rogers, C A; James, M C; Yang, Q; Abrams, P

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of urinary symptoms that impact on quality-of-life will be important in determining resource allocation in primary care groups. AIM: To determine the prevalence of urinary symptoms and their perceived impact in a community population of women. METHOD: A postal survey using a validated self-completed questionnaire among all women aged over 18 years and registered with one general practice in a major British city. The prevalence rates and perceived impact of a wide range of urinary symptoms and their relationship with age was determined. Data were analysed using the chi-squared test and the chi-squared test for trend. Spearman's rank correlation was used to assess the relationship between symptom severity and perceived impact. RESULTS: The number of completed questionnaires returned was 2075, giving an 80% response rate. Of these, the number of women who reported some degree of incontinence in the previous month was 1414 (69%), although only 578 (30%) indicated that it had social or hygienic impact. Other lower urinary tract symptoms reported included nocturia (19%), poor stream (19%), urgency (61%), and dysuria (23%). The most troublesome symptoms were incontinence for no obvious reason, nocturnal incontinence, and nocturia, with 73%, 69%, and 63% of sufferers, respectively, finding these symptoms troublesome. CONCLUSIONS: Incontinence and other urinary symptoms are more common than previously thought. These symptoms are not always perceived as bothersome or as having a social or hygienic impact, and therefore many women who report urinary leakage do not require treatment. Nocturnal symptoms in women are commoner than might have been supposed and are extremely troublesome to sufferers. PMID:10818656

  11. High-definition optical coherence tomography intrinsic skin ageing assessment in women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Boone, M A L M; Suppa, M; Marneffe, A; Miyamoto, M; Jemec, G B E; Del Marmol, V

    2015-10-01

    Several non-invasive two-dimensional techniques with different lateral resolution and measurable depth range have proved to be useful in assessing and quantifying morphological changes in skin ageing. Among these, only in vivo microscopy techniques permit histometric measurements in vivo. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related (IAR) morphological changes of epidermis, dermo-epidermal junction (DEJ), papillary dermis (PD), papillary-reticular dermis junction and reticular dermis (RD) have been performed by high-definition optical coherence tomography in real time 3-D. HD-OCT images were taken at the internal site of the right upper arm. Qualitative HD-OCT IAR descriptors were reported at skin surface, at epidermal layer, DEJ, PD and upper RD. Quantitative evaluation of age-related compaction and backscattered intensity or brightness of different skin layers was performed by using the plugin plot z-axis profile of ImageJ(®) software permitting intensity assessment of HD-OCT (DICOM) images (3-D images). Analysis was in blind from all clinical information. Sixty, fair-skinned (Fitzpatrick types I-III) healthy females were analysed retrospectively in this study. The subjects belonged to three age groups: twenty in group I aged 20-39, twenty in group II aged 40-59 and twenty in group III aged 60-79. Only intrinsic ageing in women has been studied. Significant age-related qualitative and quantitative differences could be noticed. IAR changes in dermal matrix fibers morphology/organisation and in microvasculature were observed. The brightness and compaction of the different skin layers increased significantly with intrinsic skin ageing. The depth of visibility of fibers in RD increased significantly in the older age group. In conclusion, HD-OCT allows 3-D in vivo and real time qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related morphological skin changes at high resolution from skin surface to a depth

  12. Old, down and out? Appearance, body work and positive ageing among elderly South Korean women.

    PubMed

    Elfving-Hwang, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    This article offers an as yet unexplored dimension of our current understanding of the ageing body in the context of contemporary South Korea. Drawing on interviews with twenty elderly women living in the greater Seoul metropolitan area, this article explores the role of appearance, body work, and the presentation of self in the women's everyday lived experiences. Existing research on the ageing female body in South Korea has primarily focused on the so-called noin munjae ('the elderly issue') discourse, within which the ageing body is framed as passive, undesirable, or out-of-control. Contrary to this, the elderly women's own narratives of everyday beauty practices suggest that the act of sustaining well-ordered appearance in later life allows for the enforcing of positive selves in the context of personal beauty and body work. Maintaining a positive appearance was shown to play an important part of their everyday lives, and functioned as a ritual of not only presenting an appearance that signified control over the ageing body, but to continue to enjoy it. The carefully calculated engagement with various non-surgical and surgical beauty practices also emerged as an embodied practice of mediating intersubjective social encounters through which self-esteem was engendered by evidencing the self's efforts to show respect to others. The findings of this study challenge dominant discourses in the west which present body work on the ageing female body as primarily self-indulgent, or driven by anxiety about the body's inability to fit within existing youthful beauty ideals. PMID:27531448

  13. Menopausal Age and Chronic Diseases in Elderly Women: A Cross-Sectional Study in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yingli; Yu, Yaqin; Wang, Shibin; Kanu, Joseph Sam; You, Yueyue; Liu, Yingyu; Zhang, Yangyu; Liu, Yawen; Li, Bo; Tao, Yuchun; Kou, Changgui

    2016-01-01

    Many factors affect menopausal age, and early or late onset of menopause may be associated with many chronic health problems. However, limited data are available regarding this phenomenon in the Northeast China population. For this study, 2011 elderly women were selected as a sample from participants in a cross-sectional survey performed using stratified, clustered multistage, and random sampling methods. Early menopause was more prevalent in subjects born from 1943 to 1947 (OR = 1.708, 95% CI = 1.205, 2.420) and 1933 to 1937 (OR = 2.445, 95% CI: 1.525, 3.921) and in physical laborers (OR = 1.413, 95% CI = 1.021, 1.957). Women with less than nine years of education (OR = 0.515, 95% CI: 0.327, 0.812) and who were current smokers (OR = 0.577, 95% CI: 0.347, 0.959) were less likely to have late menopause. BMIs between 25 and 30 (OR = 1.565, 95% CI: 1.152, 2.125) and greater than 30 (OR = 2.440, 95% CI: 1.482, 4.016) were associated with later menopausal age. Late menopause was positively associated with diabetes (OR = 1.611, 95% CI: 1.142, 2.274) but protective against chronic gastroenteritis/peptic ulcers (OR = 0.533, 95% CI: 0.333, 0.855). Results showed that (1) Being born in an earlier year, having a lower education, and engaging in physical labor were associated with an earlier menopausal age, while a higher BMI was associated with a later menopausal age; and that (2) menopausal age was associated with diabetes and gastroenteritis in elderly women living in Northeast China. PMID:27669270

  14. Factors that characterize bone health with aging in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Shota; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Nakamura, Yukio; Mukaiyama, Keijiro; Hirabayashi, Hiroki; Kamimura, Mikio; Nonaka, Kiichi; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    The exponential increase in the incidence of fragility fractures in older people is attributed to attenuation of both bone strength and neuromuscular function. Decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) does not entirely explain this increase. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of age on various parameters related to bone health with aging, and to identify combinations of factors that collectively express the bone metabolic state in healthy postmenopausal women. Height, weight, and grip strength were measured in 135 healthy postmenopausal volunteer women. Hip BMD, biomechanical indices derived from quantitative computed tomography (QCT), cross-sectional areas of muscle and fat of the proximal thigh, and various biochemical markers of bone metabolism were measured. A smaller group of factors explanatory for bone health was identified using factor analysis and each was newly named. As a result, the factors bone mass, bone turnover, bone structure, and muscle strength had the greatest explanatory power for assessing the bone health of healthy postmenopausal women. Whereas dual X-ray absorptiometry parameters only loaded on the factor bone mass, QCT parameters loaded on both the factors bone mass and bone structure. Most bone turnover markers loaded on the factor bone turnover, but deoxypyridinoline loaded on both bone turnover and muscle strength. Age was negatively correlated with bone mass (r = -0.49, p < 0.001) and muscle strength (r = -0.67, p < 0.001). We conclude that aging is associated as much with muscle weakening as with low BMD. More attention should be paid to the effects of muscle weakening during aging in assessments of bone health. PMID:25113438

  15. Menopausal Age and Chronic Diseases in Elderly Women: A Cross-Sectional Study in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yingli; Yu, Yaqin; Wang, Shibin; Kanu, Joseph Sam; You, Yueyue; Liu, Yingyu; Zhang, Yangyu; Liu, Yawen; Li, Bo; Tao, Yuchun; Kou, Changgui

    2016-01-01

    Many factors affect menopausal age, and early or late onset of menopause may be associated with many chronic health problems. However, limited data are available regarding this phenomenon in the Northeast China population. For this study, 2011 elderly women were selected as a sample from participants in a cross-sectional survey performed using stratified, clustered multistage, and random sampling methods. Early menopause was more prevalent in subjects born from 1943 to 1947 (OR = 1.708, 95% CI = 1.205, 2.420) and 1933 to 1937 (OR = 2.445, 95% CI: 1.525, 3.921) and in physical laborers (OR = 1.413, 95% CI = 1.021, 1.957). Women with less than nine years of education (OR = 0.515, 95% CI: 0.327, 0.812) and who were current smokers (OR = 0.577, 95% CI: 0.347, 0.959) were less likely to have late menopause. BMIs between 25 and 30 (OR = 1.565, 95% CI: 1.152, 2.125) and greater than 30 (OR = 2.440, 95% CI: 1.482, 4.016) were associated with later menopausal age. Late menopause was positively associated with diabetes (OR = 1.611, 95% CI: 1.142, 2.274) but protective against chronic gastroenteritis/peptic ulcers (OR = 0.533, 95% CI: 0.333, 0.855). Results showed that (1) Being born in an earlier year, having a lower education, and engaging in physical labor were associated with an earlier menopausal age, while a higher BMI was associated with a later menopausal age; and that (2) menopausal age was associated with diabetes and gastroenteritis in elderly women living in Northeast China. PMID:27669270

  16. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors in Child Bearing Age Women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    AlQuaiz, AlJohara M.; Gad Mohamed, Ashry; Khoja, Tawfik A. M.; AlSharif, Abdullah; Shaikh, Shaffi Ahamed; Al Mane, Hamad; Aldiris, Abdallah; Hammad, Durdana

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for anemia in child bearing age women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Design. Cross-sectional survey was conducted using two-stage cluster sampling. 25 clusters (primary health care centers (PHCC)) were identified from all over Riyadh, and 45–50 households were randomly selected from each cluster. Eligible women were invited to PHCC for questionnaire filling, anthropometric measurements, and complete blood count. Blood hemoglobin was measured with Coulter Cellular Analysis System using light scatter method. Setting. PHCC. Subjects. 969 (68%) women out of 1429 women were included in the analysis. Results. Mean hemoglobin was 12.35 (±1.80) g/dL, 95% CI 12.24–12.46 with interquartile range of 1.9. Anemia (Hb <12 g/dL) was present in 40% (390) women. Mean (±SD) for MCH, MCV, MCHC, and RDW was 79.21 (±12.17) fL, 26.37 (±6.21) pg, 32.36 (±4.91) g/dL, and 14.84 (±4.65)%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that having family history of iron deficiency anemia (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.78–4.76) and infrequent intake of meat (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.15–2.05) were associated with increased risk of anemia, whereas increasing body mass index (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92–0.97) was associated with reduced risk of anemia. Conclusion. Women should be educated about proper diet and reproductive issues in order to reduce the prevalence of anemia in Saudi Arabia. PMID:24205435

  17. Prevalence of anemia and associated factors in child bearing age women in riyadh, saudi arabia.

    PubMed

    Alquaiz, Aljohara M; Gad Mohamed, Ashry; Khoja, Tawfik A M; Alsharif, Abdullah; Shaikh, Shaffi Ahamed; Al Mane, Hamad; Aldiris, Abdallah; Kazi, Ambreen; Hammad, Durdana

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for anemia in child bearing age women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Design. Cross-sectional survey was conducted using two-stage cluster sampling. 25 clusters (primary health care centers (PHCC)) were identified from all over Riyadh, and 45-50 households were randomly selected from each cluster. Eligible women were invited to PHCC for questionnaire filling, anthropometric measurements, and complete blood count. Blood hemoglobin was measured with Coulter Cellular Analysis System using light scatter method. Setting. PHCC. Subjects. 969 (68%) women out of 1429 women were included in the analysis. Results. Mean hemoglobin was 12.35 (±1.80) g/dL, 95% CI 12.24-12.46 with interquartile range of 1.9. Anemia (Hb <12 g/dL) was present in 40% (390) women. Mean (±SD) for MCH, MCV, MCHC, and RDW was 79.21 (±12.17) fL, 26.37 (±6.21) pg, 32.36 (±4.91) g/dL, and 14.84 (±4.65)%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that having family history of iron deficiency anemia (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.78-4.76) and infrequent intake of meat (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.15-2.05) were associated with increased risk of anemia, whereas increasing body mass index (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.97) was associated with reduced risk of anemia. Conclusion. Women should be educated about proper diet and reproductive issues in order to reduce the prevalence of anemia in Saudi Arabia. PMID:24205435

  18. [Factors associated with nutritional supplement consumption in Mexican women aged 12 to 49 years].

    PubMed

    Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Camacho-Cisneros, Martha; García-Guerra, Armando; Monterrubio-Flores, Eric; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Villalpando Hernández, Salvador

    2008-06-01

    The objectives of this analysis are to identify the types of nutritional supplements (NS) commonly used and explore the associations between NS consumption and socio-demographic characteristics, nutritional status, measured as BMI, and anemia in a nationally representative sample Mexican women aged 12 to 49 years (n = 15,936) who participated in the Mexican National Nutrition Survey in 1999. Data on NS consumption and the other characteristics of interest were collected. We calculated the probability (P) of supplement consumption using logistic regression. For the statistical analysis characteristics at the individual and household level were included in the statistical models, and adjusted for the study design. Interaction effects were also explored. Multiple mixed vitamin and mineral supplements were the most commonly consumed (36.7%) followed by vitamins only (34.3%). Married women were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely (P = 0.16; p < 0.001) to consume NS compared to unmarried women, as were those with more access to public and private health care (P = 0.18; p = 0.010), with higher education level (P = 0.20; p = 0.004) and living in the South region (P = 0.20; p = 0.003). Anemia modified the association between supplement consumption and socioeconomic status (SES) (p = 0.016), non anemic women having greater probabilities of NS consumption. These results suggest that NS use among Mexican women is associated with better living conditions. On the other hand, we also found that women living in the South region, the poorest region of the country, had higher probability of NS consumption compared to the North region. This could be related to participation in food assistance programs; however we were unable to explore this potential explanation. This information will be used to further study trends, risks and health benefits in this population of the use of nutritional supplements.

  19. [Prevalence of nutritional anemia in women of reproductive age. Costa Rica. National nutrition survey, 1996].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, S; Blanco, A; Cunningham, L; Ascencio, M; Chávez, M; Muñoz, L

    2001-03-01

    In 1996, The Ministry of Health and Inciensa conducted the latest National Nutrition Survey, to provide support and guidance to the national policies, plans and programs in the field of food and nutrition. The present paper reports the results for the prevalence of anemia estimated in a total of 884 women of reproductive age, in three areas: metropolitan area, other urban areas and rural areas. Anemia was determined through measurements of hemoglobin, plasma ferritin and plasma folates. In addition, hemoglobin patterns were determined by electrophoresis. The cutt-off points used were those recommended by the WHO. Anemia was present in 18.6% of the women. Severe to moderate deficiency of iron (< 12 ng/dl) and of folates (< 6 ng/dl) were found in 43.2 and 24.7% of women respectively, with statistically significant differences by area of residence. The magnitude of the problem for anemia can be classified as mild, for iron deficiency as severe, and for folate deficiency as moderate. In conclusion, Anemia represents a public health problem for Costa Rica that has remained constant throughout the last decade. In women of reproductive age, iron deficiency is the main cause of Anemia, followed by folates deficiency, and in a small percentage hemoglobinopathies. Intestinal parasites are not longer a mayor cause of Anemia. Prevalence of Anemia is influenced by place of residence, but not by age. In summary, despite the favorable health conditions present in Costa Rica, the prevalence of Anemia and of iron deficiency are similar to those of the Latin-American region. To improve this situation, public health interventions are necessary.

  20. Structural patterns of the proximal femur in relation to age and hip fracture risk in women.

    PubMed

    Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Harnish, Roy; Saeed, Isra; Streeper, Timothy; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Amin, Shreyasee; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Therneau, Terry M; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Melton, L Joseph; Keyak, Joyce H; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Khosla, Sundeep; Harris, Tamara B; Lang, Thomas F

    2013-11-01

    Fractures of the proximal femur are the most devastating outcome of osteoporosis. It is generally understood that age-related changes in hip structure confer increased risk, but there have been few explicit comparisons of such changes in healthy subjects to those with hip fracture. In this study, we used quantitative computed tomography and tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to identify three-dimensional internal structural patterns of the proximal femur associated with age and with incident hip fracture. A population-based cohort of 349 women representing a broad age range (21-97years) was included in this study, along with a cohort of 222 older women (mean age 79±7years) with (n=74) and without (n=148) incident hip fracture. Images were spatially normalized to a standardized space, and age- and fracture-specific morphometric features were identified based on statistical maps of shape features described as local changes of bone volume. Morphometric features were visualized as maps of local contractions and expansions, and significance was displayed as Student's t-test statistical maps. Significant age-related changes included local expansions of regions low in volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and local contractions of regions high in vBMD. Some significant fracture-related features resembled an accentuated aging process, including local expansion of the superior aspect of the trabecular bone compartment in the femoral neck, with contraction of the adjoining cortical bone. However, other features were observed only in the comparison of hip fracture subjects with age-matched controls including focal contractions of the cortical bone at the superior aspect of the femoral neck, the lateral cortical bone just inferior to the greater trochanter, and the anterior intertrochanteric region. Results of this study support the idea that the spatial distribution of morphometric features is relevant to age-related changes in bone and independent to fracture risk. In women

  1. Body Mass Index and Adult Weight Gain Among Reproductive Age Women with Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Michelle; Ainalem, Abinnet; Qiu, Chunfang; Peterlin, B. Lee; Aurora, Sheena K.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cross-sectional relationship between migraine and pre-gravid obesity; and to assess the risk of adult weight gain among women with history of a pediatric diagnosis of migraine. Background Obesity, comorbid with pain disorders including migraine, shares common pathophysiological characteristics including systemic inflammation, and derangements in adipose-tissue derived cytokines. Despite biochemical and epidemiological commonalities, obesity-migraine associations have been inconsistently observed. Methods A cohort of 3,733 women was interviewed during early pregnancy. We ascertained participants’ self-reported history of physician-diagnosed migraine and collected self-reported information about pre-gravid weight, adult height and net weight change from age 18 to the 3-monthsperiodpriorto pregnancy. Using pre-gravid body mass index, we categorized participants as follows: lean (<18.5 kg/m2); normal (18.5–24.9 kg/m2); overweight (25–29.9 kg/m2), obese (30–34.9 kg/m2), severely obese (35–39.9 kg/m2), and morbidly obese (≥ 40 kg/m2). Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results After adjusting for confounders, relative to normal weight women, obese women had a 1.48-fold increased odds of migraine(OR=1.48; 95%CI 1.12–1.96). Severely obese (OR=2.07; 95%CI 1.27–3.39) and morbidly obese (OR=2.75; 95%CI 1.60–4.70) had the highest odds of migraines. Women with a history of diagnosed pediatric migraine had a 1.67-fold higher odds of gaining ≥10.0 kg above their weight at age 18, as compared with non-migraineurs (OR=1.67; 95%CI 1.13–2.47). Conclusion These data support earlier observations of migraine-obesity association among women, and extend the literature to include evidence of adult weight gain among women with a history of pediatric migraine. PMID:21269300

  2. Independent beneficial effects of aged garlic extract intake with regular exercise on cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dae Yun; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Baek, Yeong Ho; Kwak, Yi Sub; Ko, Tae Hee; Kim, Nari; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Ko, Kyoung Soo; Park, Byung Joo; Han, Jin

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effects of a 12 weeks aged garlic extract (AGE) regimen with regular exercise on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in postmenopausal women. A total of 30 postmenopausal women (54.4 ± 5.4 years) were randomly divided into the following four groups: Placebo (Placebo; n = 6), AGE intake (AGEI; n = 8), exercise and placebo (Ex + Placebo; n = 8), exercise and AGE (Ex + AGE; n = 8) groups. The AGE group consume 80 mg per day, and exercise groups performed moderate exercise (aerobic and resistance) three times per week. After 12 weeks of treatment, body composition, lipid profile, and CVD risk factors were analyzed. Body weight was significantly decreased in AGEI, Ex + Placebo, and Ex + AGE groups compared to baseline. Body fat % was significantly decreased in the AGEI and Ex + Placebo groups. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly decreased in the AGEI, Ex + Placebo, and Ex + AGE groups. Fat-free mass was significantly decreased in the AGEI group. Total cholesterol (TC) was significantly lower in the Ex + Placebo compared to the Placebo group. AGE supplementation or exercise effectively reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Triglyceride (TG) was significantly increased in the AGEI group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly decreased in the AGEI, Ex + Placebo, and Ex + AGE compared to the placebo group. AGE supplementation reduced homocysteine levels regardless of whether the women also exercised. The present results suggest that AGE supplementation reduces cardiovascular risk factors independently of exercise in postmenopausal women. PMID:22808347

  3. Association Between Age at Menarche and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Early menarche is strongly associated with adulthood obesity; however, the relationship between age at menarche and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Korean women remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the association between early menarche and risk factors for developing CVD during adulthood using a nationwide population database. In total, 12,336 women (weighted n = 17,483,406; weighted age, 45.7 years) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2013 were included in this study. Participants were scored using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for metabolic syndrome. Risk of CVD was estimated using the 10-year Framingham Coronary Heart Disease Risk Point Scale (10-year FRS). Early menarche (≤11 years) was reported in 5.2% (weighted n = 917,493) of subjects. The weighted prevalences of metabolic syndrome and ≥20% 10-year FRS were 23.6% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 22.7–24.6] and 7.7% (7.1–8.3), respectively. Women with early menarche reported a significantly higher body mass index and waist circumference, along with a higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome than those with later menarche (≥13 years). Furthermore, the prevalence of women with a ≥10% or ≥20% 10-year FRS was higher in those with early menarche than in other groups after adjusting for age, smoking, education level, and menstruation. Logistic regression analyses controlling for these and other confounding factors revealed odds ratios of 2.29 (95% CI = 1.25–4.19) and 1.78 (0.96–3.30) for ≥10% and ≥20% 10-year FRS in women with early menarche, respectively, compared with those in the latest menarche group (≥17 years). Taken together, this nationwide study revealed that women with early menarche are at increased risks of metabolic syndrome and CVD. Early menarche may therefore represent an important marker for early preventive

  4. [Comparative characteristics of antioxidant status in women with diabetes type 2 of different age groups].

    PubMed

    Ishonina, O G; Mikashinovich, Z I; Olempieva, E V; Kovalenko, T D

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metabolic processes in women with diabetes mellitus type 2 of different age groups. It is established that hyperglycemia in aged women is characterized by the development of pronounced oxidative stress, which is the result of changes in the primary structure of protein molecules due to non enzymatic glycosylation of amino acid residues in the active sites. It is known that observed depletion of reduced glutathione pool is associated with high risk of genotoxicity, because it correlates with activation of mitochondrial, chromatin dysfunction and fragmentation of the DNA. In addition, hydroperoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acids formation leads to necrosis and apoptosis. It can be assumed that the diabetes mellitus type 2 triggers processes of apoptosis, which leads to the activation of aging programs and increase the mortality of patients. Obviously, the change in the concentration of thiol antioxidants, as well as the change in concentration of LPO molecular products may be one of the criteria for evaluation of aging and the efficiency of the treatment of patients.

  5. The Prevalence of Using Iodine-Containing Supplements Is Low among Reproductive-Age Women, NHANES 1999–200612

    PubMed Central

    Gahche, Jaime J.; Bailey, Regan L.; Mirel, Lisa B.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2013-01-01

    During pregnancy, the iodine requirement rises to meet demands for neurological development and fetal growth. If these requirements are not met, irreversible pathological cognitive and behavioral changes to the fetus may ensue. This study estimated the prevalence of iodine-containing dietary supplement (DS) use and intakes of iodine from DSs among pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15–39 y) who were interviewed and examined in NHANES 1999–2006 (n = 6404). Although 77.5% of pregnant women reported taking one or more DSs in the past 30 d, only 22.3% consumed an iodine-containing supplement. Most pregnant women reported using one DS and reported taking this product daily. The vast majority of iodine-containing DSs reported by pregnant women claimed an iodine content of 150 μg iodine/serving on the label. Pregnant women using at least one DS containing iodine had a mean daily iodine intake of 122 μg/d from supplements; the median value was 144 μg/d. Median urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) were similar for pregnant and nonpregnant women in the population aged 15–39 y. The median UIC was 148 μg/L for pregnant women and 133 μg/L for nonpregnant women. The WHO has established a cutoff for insufficient iodine intake at <150 μg/L for pregnant women and <100 mg/L for those who are not pregnant. This suggests that as a population, we may not be meeting adequate intakes of iodine for pregnant women. More research is needed on the iodine intakes of pregnant women and women of reproductive age on their total iodine intake from all sources, not just DSs. PMID:23616501

  6. In the Margins: The Impact of Sexualised Images on the Mental Health of Ageing Women.

    PubMed

    Hine, Rochelle

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes key findings of a study exploring how a cohort of 16 rural Australian women aged over 60 years think, feel and respond to the prevalence of sexualised imagery in the media. The qualitative research framework was informed by Feminist Standpoint Theory. Participants in three focus groups responded to semi-structured questions and prompts, interspersed with viewing examples of sexualised images. Five strong thematic categories emerged: concern for the harmful impacts of sexualised images on the vulnerable, the media's portrayal of sexual content with a focus on physical appearance and youth, descriptions of the impact of viewing sexualised images, moderators of the impact of sexualised images on well-being, and marginalisation of women in the media. Findings from this research indicate that sexualised images in the media do have an impact on older women's self image and mental health in numerous ways and in a range of situations. Emotional impacts included sadness, anger, concern, envy, desensitisation, marginalisation, and discomfort that their appearance was being judged by others. A strong sense of self apart from appearance, feeling valued by family and community, ignoring or overlooking media content, and being aware that media images are not real and attainable helped buffer the link between sexualised images and well-being. Another important finding is that the impact is variable: women may experience different responses to similar sexualised content depending on a range of social, health and lifestyle factors affecting them at any given time.

  7. DNA methylation age of blood predicts future onset of lung cancer in the women's health initiative.

    PubMed

    Levine, Morgan E; Hosgood, H Dean; Chen, Brian; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles; Horvath, Steve

    2015-09-01

    Lung cancer is considered an age-associated disease, whose progression is in part due to accumulation of genomic instability as well as age-related decline in system integrity and function. Thus even among individuals exposed to high levels of genotoxic carcinogens, such as those found in cigarette smoke, lung cancer susceptibility may vary as a function of individual differences in the rate of biological aging. We recently developed a highly accurate candidate biomarker of aging based on DNA methylation (DNAm) levels, which may prove useful in assessing risk of aging-related diseases, such as lung cancer. Using data on 2,029 females from the Women's Health Initiative, we examined whether baseline measures of "intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration" (IEAA) predicted subsequent lung cancer incidence. We observed 43 lung cancer cases over the nearly twenty years of follow-up. Results showed that standardized measures of IEAA were significantly associated with lung cancer incidence (HR: 1.50, P=3.4x10-3). Furthermore, stratified Cox proportional hazard models suggested that the association may be even stronger among older individuals (70 years or above) or those who are current smokers. Overall, our results suggest that IEAA may be a useful biomarker for evaluating lung cancer susceptibility from a biological aging perspective. PMID:26411804

  8. The effect of age on pressure flow parameters in women with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    PubMed

    Basu, M; Postlethwaite, C; Cheema, K; Duckett, J

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in voiding with age in women with different urodynamic diagnoses. Correlation was used to analyse the association between age and voiding parameters (maximum flow rate, voided volume, flow rate centile and maximum detrusor pressure - PdetMax) in 896 datasets. Multivariate analysis was used to analyse the data further by age group and diagnosis - urodynamic stress incontinence (USI); detrusor overactivity (DO); mixed USI and DO; no urodynamic abnormality. Results showed that diagnosis accounts for a significant amount of variation in all four of the dependent variables Age group shows a significant effect on voiding volume but does not show significant effects on any other variable studied. There is no significant interaction term in any of the analyses, meaning that age and diagnosis do not appear to function together, e.g. age does not relate to flow rate centile, maximum flow rate or PdetQMax. It was concluded that the data suggest that there is no significant change in voiding function related to age. In the elderly, the main alteration in voiding is due to a higher prevalence of DO. PMID:24219733

  9. Association between history of abortion and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baihui; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Yu; Lu, Jieli; Xu, Min; Chen, Yuhong; Bi, Yufang; Ning, Guang

    2013-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies have suggested that abortion may cause long term health consequences such as cardiovascular disease. Until recently, studies focusing on the association between history of abortion and metabolic diseases were limited. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the association between history of abortion and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women. A cross-sectional survey was performed in 6302 women (age ≥ 40 years) in Shanghai. Standardized questionnaire was used to obtain the information about reproductive histories. Overall, we observed a positive association between history of induced abortion and the prevalence of MetS, independent of potential confounding factors. A multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to those without a history of induced abortion, women with a history of induced abortion remained at 1.25 times more likely to have MetS (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.06-1.47, P < 0.05), and the association was number-dependent. However, no significant association between history of spontaneous abortion and the prevalence of MetS was observed. Compared to those without a history of spontaneous abortion, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio associated with a history of spontaneous abortion for MetS was 0.88 (95% CI = 0.65-1.19, P > 0.05).

  10. Interest in a Twitter-delivered weight loss program among women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Appelhans, Bradley M; Simas, Tiffany A Moore; Xiao, Rui S; Whited, Matthew C; Busch, Andrew M; Evans, Martinus M; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2016-06-01

    Weight management through the childbearing years is important, yet few women have access to efficacious weight loss programs. Online social network-delivered programs may increase reach and thus impact. The aim of this study was to gauge interest in a Twitter-based weight loss intervention among women of childbearing age and the feasibility of recruitment via Twitter. We recruited English-speaking women aged 18-45 years (N = 63) from Twitter to complete an anonymous online survey including open-ended questions about program advantages and concerns. Forty percent of participants were obese and 83 % were trying to lose weight. Eighty-one percent were interested in a Twitter-delivered weight loss program. Interest was high in all subgroups (62-100 %). Participants (59 %) cited program advantages, including convenience, support/accountability, and privacy. Concerns (59 %) included questions about privacy, support/accountability, engagement, efficacy, and technology barriers. Research is needed to develop and evaluate social media-delivered interventions, and to develop methods for recruiting participants directly from Twitter. PMID:27356998

  11. Diabetes type 2, hypertension and cognitive dysfunction in middle age women.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Marina; Prokopenko, Semen; Pronina, Elena; Mozheyko, Elena

    2010-12-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension are two widely spread diseases among the adults that are known to be risk factors for vascular disease. They are highly related such that comorbidity is common. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the comorbid effects of type 2 diabetes and hypertension on cognitive decline. One hundred and thirteen patients with type 2 diabetes (women, age 56±7.4 years, diabetes duration 8±6.7 years, hypertension duration 13.4±7.7 years) were assessed for cognitive impairment (CI) in comparison with 27 diabetes patients without hypertension (women, age 53±7.45 years, diabetes duration 4.4±5.6 years), all non-demented at baseline. Patients were screened for cognitive dysfunction with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), a clock-drawing test (CDT) and Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB). We assessed history of DM and hypertension by interview. 87% of women with diabetes and hypertension and 70% of normotensive diabetic patients had cognitive impairment (p=0.0282), of mild and subtle degree. The frequency of alterations in the FAB was higher in subjects with diabetes and hypertension (48%) compared to normotensive diabetic patients (26%) p=0.0402. Our results show that people with diabetes type 2 and hypertension demonstrate greater cognitive changes as compared to normotensive diabetic patients.

  12. Gender Differences in the Association Between Morbidity and Mortality Among Middle-Aged Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Guéguen, Alice; Ferrie, Jane; Shipley, Martin; Martikainen, Pekka; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Goldberg, Marcel; Marmot, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined gender differences in mortality, morbidity, and the association between the 2. Methods. We used health data from 2 studies of middle-aged men and women: the British Whitehall II cohort of employees from 20 civil service departments in London and the 1989 French GAZEL (this acronym refers to the French gas and electric companies) of employees of France's national gas and electricity company. Participants were aged 35 to 55 years when assessed for morbidity and followed up for mortality over 17 years. Results. Male mortality was higher than female mortality in Whitehall II (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.28, 1.91) and the GAZEL cohort (HR = 1.99; CI = 1.66, 2.40). Female excess morbidity was observed for some measures in the Whitehall II data and for 1 measure in the GAZEL data. Only self-reported sickness absence in the Whitehall II data was more strongly associated with mortality among men (P = .01). Conclusions. Mortality was lower among women than among men, but morbidity was not consistently higher. The lack of gender differences in the association between morbidity and mortality suggests that this is not a likely explanation for the gender paradox, which refers to higher morbidity but lower mortality among women than among men. PMID:18235071

  13. Use of dietary supplements containing folic acid among women of childbearing age--United States, 2005.

    PubMed

    2005-09-30

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the spine (spina bifida) and brain (anencephaly), affecting approximately 3,000 pregnancies each year in the United States. Daily periconceptional consumption of 400 mug of folic acid, as recommended by the Public Health Service (PHS) since 1992, reduces the occurrence of NTDs by 50%-70%. The Food and Drug Administration ordered mandatory fortification with folic acid of U.S. cereal grain products, beginning in 1998. However, despite a 26% reduction in NTDs, not all women of childbearing age receive adequate levels of folic acid from their diets. Therefore, increasing the number of women who take dietary supplements containing 400 mug of folic acid daily remains an important component of NTD prevention. This report summarizes results from the 2005 March of Dimes Gallup survey, which determined a decrease in the proportion of childbearing-aged women who reported taking folic acid in dietary supplements daily, from 40% in 2004 to 33% in 2005, returning to a level consistent with that reported during 1995-2003. These results emphasize the need for innovative programs to increase folic acid consumption to further reduce NTDs.

  14. Interest in a Twitter-delivered weight loss program among women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Appelhans, Bradley M; Simas, Tiffany A Moore; Xiao, Rui S; Whited, Matthew C; Busch, Andrew M; Evans, Martinus M; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2016-06-01

    Weight management through the childbearing years is important, yet few women have access to efficacious weight loss programs. Online social network-delivered programs may increase reach and thus impact. The aim of this study was to gauge interest in a Twitter-based weight loss intervention among women of childbearing age and the feasibility of recruitment via Twitter. We recruited English-speaking women aged 18-45 years (N = 63) from Twitter to complete an anonymous online survey including open-ended questions about program advantages and concerns. Forty percent of participants were obese and 83 % were trying to lose weight. Eighty-one percent were interested in a Twitter-delivered weight loss program. Interest was high in all subgroups (62-100 %). Participants (59 %) cited program advantages, including convenience, support/accountability, and privacy. Concerns (59 %) included questions about privacy, support/accountability, engagement, efficacy, and technology barriers. Research is needed to develop and evaluate social media-delivered interventions, and to develop methods for recruiting participants directly from Twitter.

  15. Monitoring mercury exposure in reproductive aged women inhabiting the Tapajós river basin, Amazon.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Corvelo, Tereza Cristina; Oliveira, Érika Abdon Fiquene; de Parijós, Amanda Magno; de Oliveira, Claudia Simone Baltazar; do Socorro Pompeu de Loiola, Rosane; de Araújo, Amélia A; da Costa, Carlos Araújo; de Lima Silveira, Luiz Carlos; da Conceição Nascimento Pinheiro, Maria

    2014-07-01

    Among Amazonian communities, exposure to methylmercury is associated mainly with fish consumption that may affect fetal development in pregnant women. Therefore a temporal assessment was performed to assess the exposure of reproductive aged women to mercury who reside in the riparian communities of São Luís do Tapajós and Barreiras located in the Tapajós basin of the Brazilian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. The total mercury concentration in the 519 hair samples was assessed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Data analysis showed that the average total mercury concentration decreased from 1.066 to 0.743 μg/g in those years. In 1999 the proportion of volunteers with mercury levels ≥ 10 μg/g was approximately 68 %. In general, exposure to mercury decreased among women of reproductive age, but the potential risks to reproduction and human health is still an issue as 22 % of the woman continued showing high mercury levels (≥ 10 μg/g) in 2012.

  16. Cognitive Performance in Women Aged 50 Years and Older With and Without Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Persons with fibromyalgia (FM) report having cognitive dysfunction. Neuropsychological performance was compared across a variety of domains in 43 women with FM (M age = 63 years) and in 44 women without FM (M age = 65 years). Method. Measures included explicit memory (Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease [CERAD] immediate/delayed recall, delayed recognition), aspects of executive function including interference/inhibition (Stroop Color/Word test), working memory (Digit Span Forward/Backward), set-shifting/complex sequencing (Trails B), monitoring (verbal fluency: naming animals), processing speed (Trails A, Digit Symbol Substitution Coding), and problem solving (Everyday Problems Test). Results. Women with FM performed more poorly than controls on executive function (Stroop Color/Word) and one processing speed measure (Digit Symbol Substitution Coding). Discussion. Results partly support altered cognitive function in FM. Mixed findings across cognitive domains among individuals with or without FM is consistent with the literature and suggest that factors beyond those typically controlled for (e.g., heterogeneity in FM) may be influencing findings. Future research is warranted. PMID:23275498

  17. The life experience and status of Chinese rural women from observation of three age groups.

    PubMed

    Dai, K

    1991-03-01

    Interview data gathered during 2 surveys in Anhui and Shejiang Provinces in 1986 and 1987 are used to depict changes in the social status and life situation of rural women in China in 3 age groups, 18-36, 37-55, and 56 and over. For the younger women, marriage increasingly is a result of discussion with parents, not arrangement, but 3rd-party introductions are increasing. They are active in household and township enterprises and aspire to more education and economic independence. The middle-aged group experienced war and revolution and now work nonstop under the responsibility system of household production, aspiring to university education for sons and enterprise work for daughters. The older women, while supported by their sons, live a frugal existence. In general, preference for sons is still prevalent and deep-seated. At the same time, the bride price and costs of marriage are increasing and of widespread concern. Rural socioeconomic growth is required before Confucian traditions are overcome. PMID:12179888

  18. Bone density parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in middle aged women.

    PubMed Central

    Khaw, K. T.; Sneyd, M. J.; Compston, J.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the relation between bone density and indices of calcium metabolism including parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in middle aged women. DESIGN--A cross sectional study. SETTING AND SUBJECTS--138 women volunteers aged 45-65 with no known osteoporosis and unselected for disease status recruited for a dietary assessment study from the community using general practice registers. Volunteer rate was 20%. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Bone mineral density measured with dual energy x ray absorptiometry. RESULTS--Bone density at the lumbar spine and neck and trochanteric regions of the femur was inversely related to serum intact parathyroid hormone concentrations and positively related to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. These associations were independent of possible confounding factors, including age, body mass index, cigarette smoking habit, menopausal status, and use of diuretics and postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy. These associations were apparent throughout the whole distribution of bone density and 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone concentrations within the normal range, suggesting a physiological relation. CONCLUSIONS--The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations influence bone density in middle aged women. Findings from this study together with other work suggest that the role of vitamin D in osteoporosis should not be neglected. The associations with parathyroid hormone also indicate plausible biological mechanisms. The roughly 5-10% difference in bone density between top and bottom tertiles of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, though not large in magnitude, may have considerable public health implications in terms of prevention of osteoporosis and its sequelae, fractures. PMID:1392857

  19. Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in African-American and Caucasian College-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Andrea K.; Ford, M. Allison; Jones, Tamekia L.; Nahar, Vinayak K.; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding risk factors and prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) among African-American and Caucasian college-aged women are limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if selected predictors of BMD in African-American and Caucasian college-aged women differ by race. Methods: A total of 101 local African-American (n=50) and Caucasian (n=51) females, ages 18 to 30 years, were in this study. All data were collected in the Bone Density and Body Composition Laboratory. BMD was measured using DXA technology. Race, family history of osteoporosis, BMI, current physical activity, osteoporosis knowledge, length of time on oral contraceptives, age at menarche and calcium intake were included in the multiple regression analyses with spinal and femoral BMD as dependent variables. Results: Overall, 38.6% had low spinal BMD and 7.9% had low femoral BMD. BMI (β=0.073, R2 = .148, P = .001, 95% CI [0.030, 0.116]) and current physical activity (β=0.071, R2 = .148, P = .017, 95% CI [0.013, 0.129]) were the only variables that were statistically significant in predicting spinal BMD. BMI (β=0.056, R2 = .13, P = .010, 95% CI [0.014, 0.098]) and current physical activ-ity (β=0.078, R2 = .13, P = .007, 95% CI [0.022, 0.134]) were also the only varia-bles that were statistically significant in predicting femoral BMD. Race was not a significant predictor of spinal or femoral BMD. Conclusion: It is imperative for both African-American and Caucasian women to engage in osteoporosis-preventive behaviors. PMID:26000242

  20. USING A COMMERCIAL TELEPHONE DIRECTORY TO IDENTIFY A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using a commercial telephone directory to identify a population-based sample of women of reproductive age
    *DT Lobdell, GM Buck, JM Weiner, P Mendola (United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)

    In the United States, sampling women o...

  1. Normative Scores and Factor Structure of the Profile of Mood States for Women Seeking Prenatal Diagnosis for Advanced Maternal Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunis, Sandra L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A sample of pregnant women (N=705) was given the monopolar version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in prenatal counseling for advanced maternal age to develop normative data and to determine the factor structure of the POMS for this group of women in the first trimester of pregnancy. (SLD)

  2. Impact of a Community-Based Prevention Marketing Intervention to Promote Physical Activity among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Granner, Michelle L.; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E.; Bryant, Carol A.; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

    2010-01-01

    A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral…

  3. Orange juice improved lipid profile and blood lactate of overweight middle-aged women subjected to aerobic training

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the influence of regular consumption of orange juice associated with aerobic exercise on the lipid profile of middle aged women, previously sedentary. Twenty-six women, 30 to 55 years old, volunteered to consume orange juice daily for 3 months and participate in an aerobic train...

  4. "Mommy Wants to Learn the Computer": How Middle-Aged and Elderly Women in Taiwan Learn ICT through Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Cecilia I. C.; Tang, Wen-hui; Kuo, Feng-Yang

    2012-01-01

    The group of middle-aged and elderly women represents the lowest usage rate of information and communication technology (ICT) in Taiwan. This article reports how a social intervention program, the Taiwan Women Up (TWU) program, has helped such group to successfully learn ICT skills with the support of members of nonprofit organizations. The study…

  5. ALTERATION OF OXIDATIVE METABOLISM AND IMMUNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF UVA RADIATION IN WOMEN OF DIFFERENT AGES.

    PubMed

    Berianidze, K; Katsitadze, A; Sanikidze, T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of study was to investigate the alteration of oxidative and immunological metabolism in blood of reproductive and menopausal age women after UVA irradiation. Women of two groups (1 - menopausal, 2 - reproductive age) were exposed to radiation with wave length 320-400 nm for 5-10 minutes per session in the solarium for the period of 3 months (6 days per month).. Parameters of oxidative metabolism - activity of red blood cells (RBC), antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxiddismutase (SOD) were studied by spectrophotometric method; reactive oxygen (O2-) and lipid (LOO/) free radicals content in whole blood were studied by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) methods with use of specific spin-traps - 5,5-Dimethyl-1-Pyrroline-N-Oxide (DMPO) and α-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) (SIGMA). Parameters of immunological metabolism - IFN-α, IL-2, IL-10 cytokines content in blood were studied by immunoenzymatic assay ELISA. The study protocol has been approved by the Ethical Committee of the Tbilisi State Medical University. After the course of UVA irradiation in menopausal women CAT activity increased by 20%, SOD - by 24%, and EPR signal of spin trapped lipoperoxide radicals was detected. No alterations in blood redox-balance were detected in women of reproductive age. Values of blood immunological parameters in menopausal women were not changed under the influence of UV radiation; in women of reproductive age IL-10 content increase by 93% (within a normal value range) was revealed. Research results have shown that UVA rays cause a particularly significant influence on the oxidative metabolism in the women of menopausal age. Increase of IL-10 blood levels in women of reproductive age (considering its imunosupressing activity) represents an additional risk of cancerogenesis. Based on the study results, we recommend avoiding UV (including UVA) radiation procedures to women of both reproductive and menopausal ages. PMID:26870984

  6. Gender, aging, poverty and health: Survival strategies of older men and women in Nairobi slums

    PubMed Central

    Mudege, Netsayi N.; Ezeh, Alex C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on data from focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews carried out in two slum areas, Korogocho and Viwandani in Nairobi, Kenya. It discusses how the division between domestic sphere and public sphere impacts on survival during, and adaptation to old age. Although this paper adopts some of the tenets of the life course approach, it posits that women's participation in the domestic sphere may sometimes give them a ‘gender advantage’ over men in terms of health and adaptation to old age. The paper also discusses the impact of gender roles on the cultivation of social networks and how these networks in turn impact on health and social adjustment as people grow older. It investigates how older people are adjusting and coping with the new challenges they face as a result of high morbidity and mortality among adults in the reproductive age groups. PMID:19907648

  7. High-resolution computed tomographic appearance of the intrasellar contents in women of childbearing age

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, J.D.; Russell, K.B.; Basile, B.A.; O'Donnell, P.C.; Popky, G.L.

    1983-04-01

    Our experience with high-resolution computed tomography has indicated that the accepted norms for appearance and size of the pituitary gland may not be entirely valid for women of childbearing age. Fifty women with normal menstrual histories and who were not taking oral contraceptives were studied. The study consisted of overlapping 1.5-mm sections through the pituitary fossa in the coronal position only, using a bolus of contrast material followed by a continuous drip during the study. The results indicate that the top of the normal range of gland height is well over the accepted 7 mm and that focal defects within the gland are common. Other variables such as gland shape, width, and overall density were also evaluated.

  8. Cultural and Socio-Economic Factors on Changes in Aging among Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the cultural and socio-economic factors that influence changes in aging among Iranian women. This qualitative study was part of a more extensive study designed according to grounded theory method. A purposeful, snowball and theoretical sampling technique was used. Data collection instruments were interviews and field notes. Duration of interviews differed and ranged from 38 to 110 minutes. Data collection process, coding and analysis were performed simultaneously. Collected data were analyzed using the recommended method by Corbin and Straus (1998 and 2008). The factors were formed from 6 subcategories: cultural and socio-economic status in the past, urban/rural life, companionship status, beliefs and attitudes, higher responsibilities of women and women’s financial capability. This study explained the various aspects of cultural and socio-economic changes in the elderly participants based on their real experiences. PMID:24762357

  9. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Feng; Xiong Donghai; Wang Wei; Shen Hui; Xiao Peng; Yang Fang; Recker, Robert R.; Deng Hongwen . E-mail: dengh@umkc.edu

    2006-10-06

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values = 0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value = 0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women.

  10. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Xiong, Dong-Hai; Wang, Wei; Shen, Hui; Xiao, Peng; Yang, Fang; Recker, Robert R; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2006-10-01

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values=0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value=0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women. PMID:16919600

  11. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Xiong, Dong-Hai; Wang, Wei; Shen, Hui; Xiao, Peng; Yang, Fang; Recker, Robert R.; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values = 0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value = 0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women. PMID:16919600

  12. Hereditary angioedema: special consideration in children, women of childbearing age, and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kuhlen, James L; Banerji, Aleena

    2015-01-01

    This review on hereditary angioedema (HAE) focused on special topics regarding HAE in children, women of childbearing age, and the elderly. HAE is a rare autosomal dominant bradykinin-mediated disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of subcutaneous or submucosal swelling that usually affects the face, upper airway, extremities, gastrointestinal tract, or genitalia. These recurrent attacks cause significant morbidity and can be life threatening, especially when the swelling affects the airway. Our objective was to summarize the published data available on the disease epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, on demand and prophylactic therapy, and focus on management considerations for these special patient populations. Unique aspects of HAE in women with regard to contraception, hormone replacement therapy, pregnancy, lactation, and menopause were also reviewed.

  13. Clinical Implications for Muscle Strength Differences in Women of Different Age and Racial Groups: The WIN Study

    PubMed Central

    Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Ferro, Emerenciana; Morrow, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Reduction in muscle strength is strongly associated with functional decline in women, and women with lower quadriceps strength adjusted for body weight are more likely to develop knee osteoarthritis. Objective To compare body weight--adjusted strength among women of different age/racial groups. Study Design Cross-sectional study of muscle strength in 918 women aged 20--83 (M ± SD = 52 ± 13). Methods An orthopedic examination was conducted including measurement of handgrip and lower extremity strength (hip abductors/external rotators, knee flexors/extensors). Data were grouped into young (20--39 years, n = 139), middle (40--54 years, n = 300), and older (55+ years, n = 424) ages for white (n = 699) and African American (AA) (n = 164) women. Means and standard deviations for strength adjusted for body weight were calculated for each age and racial group and compared using 2-way multivariate analysis of variance and post hoc tests. Results No significant age-by-race interaction (P = .092) but significant main effects for age and race (P < .001). Pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences in knee extensor and flexor strength between all age groups. For grip and hip external rotator strength, significant differences were found between the middle and older groups. Differences in hip abductor strength were found between the young and middle-aged groups. AA women had lower strength than white women in all muscle groups (P < .05) except hip external rotators. Conclusions Strength decreased with age in all muscle groups but magnitude of decrease varied by muscle. Strengthening programs should target different muscles, depending on a woman's age and race. PMID:21666779

  14. Dietary and blood folate status of Malaysian women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Khor, Geok Lin; Duraisamy, G; Loh, Su Peng; Green, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    The protective role of folic acid taken during the periconceptual period in reducing the occurrence of neural tube defects (NTD) has been well documented by epidemiological evidence, randomized controlled trials and intervention studies. Much of the evidence is derived from western populations while similar data on Asian subjects is relatively nascent. Baseline data on folate status of Malaysian women is lacking, while NTD prevalence is estimated as 10 per 10,000 births. This study was conducted with the objective of determining the dietary and blood folate status of Malaysian women of childbearing age. A total of 399 women comprising 140 Malay, 131 Chinese and 128 Indian subjects were recruited from universities and worksites in the suburbs of Kuala Lumpur. Inclusion criteria were that the subjects were not pregnant or breastfeeding, not taking folic acid supplements, not habitual drinkers or smokers. Based on a 24-hour recall, the median intake level for folate was 66 microg (15.7-207.8 microg), which amounts to 16.5% of the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes level. The median (5-95th percentiles) values for plasma and red cell folate (RBC) concentrations were 11 (4-33) nmol/L and 633 (303-1209) nmol/L respectively. Overall, nearly 15.1% showed plasma folate deficiency (< 6.8 nmol/L), with Indian subjects having the highest prevalence (21.5%). Overall prevalence of RBC folate deficiency (<363 nmol/L) was 9.3%, and an almost similar level prevailed for each ethnic group. Only 15.2% had RBC concentration exceeding 906 nmol/L, which is associated with a very low risk of NTD. The result of this study point to the need for intervention strategies to improve the blood folate status of women of childbearing age, so that they have adequate protection against the occurrence of NTD at birth. PMID:16837426

  15. Age-associated differences in sensori-motor function and balance in community dwelling women.

    PubMed

    Lord, S R; Ward, J A

    1994-11-01

    Tests of visual, vestibular, sensori-motor and balance function were administered to 550 women, aged between 20 and 99 years at a Balance and Gait Laboratory. All of the sensory, motor and balance system measures showed significant age-associated differences. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the measures of lower limb sensation were the consistent sensori-motor factors contributing to balance under normal conditions (standing on a firm surface with eyes open or closed). Under more challenging conditions (standing on foam with eyes open) vision, strength and reaction time played significant roles, whilst when standing on foam with eyes closed, vestibular function also made a significant contribution. Analysis of percentage increases in sway under conditions where visual and peripheral sensation systems were removed or diminished, compared with sway under optimal conditions, indicated that up until age 65 there was an increased reliance on vision for balance control. Beyond this age, the contribution made by vision declined, so that in the oldest age-groups reduced vision was less able to supplement peripheral input, resulting in increased sway areas. Peripheral sensation however was the most important sensory system in the maintenance of static postural stability at all ages. PMID:9231937

  16. The influence of age at menarche on the fertility of Chinese women.

    PubMed

    McKibben, Sherry L; Poston, Dudley L

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of age at menarche on children ever born (CEB). We use data from the 1997 Sample Survey of Population and Reproductive Health conducted by the China Population Information and Research Center and the State Family Planning Commission. Poisson regression models are estimated for 10,919 ever married Chinese Han women. The influence of a woman's age at menarche on her CEB is examined while controlling for the social effects of rural/urban residency, education, her number of fecund years, whether her first birth occurred before or after the initiation of China's one child policy, and her age at first marriage. The results support our hypothesized positive association between age at menarche and CEB. That is, the later a woman's age at menarche, the greater her number of children ever born. Holding the other five independent variables constant, we show that for every additional month in age at menarche, a Chinese Han woman's mean number of children ever born increases by 0.5 percent. Some of the implications of these results are explored.

  17. Breast cancer screening outcomes in women ages 40-49: clinical experience with service screening using modern mammography.

    PubMed

    Sickles, E A

    1997-01-01

    The several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of breast cancer screening among women of ages 40 to 49 now collectively show a statistically significant reduction in breast cancer mortality. However, there have been numerous recent advances in mammography, such that it now is demonstrably better than when the RCTs were conducted. The use of surrogate measures of screening efficacy (tumor size, lymph node status, cancer stage), readily derived from modern service screening programs, demonstrates how the improved mammography of the 1990s should produce a greater degree of mortality reduction among women ages 40-49 than that already demonstrated in the RCTs. Indeed, these surrogate measures of mortality reduction are as favorable for women of ages 40-49 and 65+ as they are for women of ages 50-64, strongly suggesting that, since modern service screening is accepted as effectively reducing mortality among women of ages 50-64, it should also effectively reduce mortality among women in the 40-49 and 65+ age groups.

  18. Association between food insecurity and anemia among women of reproductive age

    PubMed Central

    Ghose, Bishwajit; Tang, Shangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food insecurity and hidden hunger (micronutrient deficiency) affect about two billion people globally. Household food insecurity (HFI) has been shown to be associated with one or multiple micronutrient (MMN) deficiencies among women and children. Chronic food insecurity leads to various deficiency disorders, among which anemia stands out as the most prevalent one. As a high malnutrition prevalent country, Bangladesh has one of the highest rates of anemia among all Asian countries. In this study, we wanted to investigate for any association exists between HFI and anemia among women of reproductive age in Bangladesh. Methodology: Information about demographics, socioeconomic and anemia status on 5,666 married women ageing between 13 and 40 years were collected from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS 2011). Food security was measured by the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). Capillary hemoglobin concentration (Hb) measured by HemoCue® was used as the biomarker of anemia. Data were analysed using cross-tabulation, chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression methods. Results: Anemia prevalence was 41.7%. Logistic regression showed statistically significant association with anemia and type of residency (p = 0.459; OR = 0.953, 95%CI = 0.840–1.082), wealth status (Poorest: p < 0.001; OR = 1.369, 95%CI = 1.176–1.594; and average: p = 0.030; 95%CI = 1.017–1.398), educational attainment (p < 0.001; OR = 1.276, 95%CI = 1.132–1.439) and household food insecurity (p < 0.001; 95%CI = 1.348–1.830). Women who reported food insecurity were about 1.6 times more likely to suffer from anemia compared to their food secure counterparts. Conclusion: HFI is a significant predictor of anemia among women of reproductive age in Bangladesh. Programs targeting HFI could prove beneficial for anemia reduction strategies. Gender aspects of food and nutrition insecurity should be taken into

  19. Clinical Usefulness of Shoulder Stability Exercises for Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seok-Hwa; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the clinical usefulness of shoulder stability exercises and the effect of stability exercise on the shoulder pain of middle-aged women. [Subjects] Twenty-two middle-aged female subjects were randomly divided into two groups: a shoulder stability exercise group (Experimental group, n=11) and a control group (n=11). [Methods] Subjects in the experimental group performed a shoulder stability exercise, which was designed to correct abnormal location of the scapula, for 40 minutes per day, three times per week, over a period of four weeks. Range of motion, muscle strength, and grasping power were measured to determine the effect of the shoulder stability exercise. The measured parameters were evaluated before and after four weeks of exercise. [Results] Following intervention, range of motion, muscle strength, and grasping power showed greater improvements in the experimental group than in the control group. [Conclusion] The results of this study show that shoulder stability exercise can improve the shoulder function of middle-aged women, and prevent damage to the shoulder joint. We consider this exercise would be useful in clinical rehabilitation. PMID:24259767

  20. Perceived exercise barriers and their associations with regular exercise across three age groups of rural women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing-Juin; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Lee, Bih-O; Chen, Ching-Huey

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to explore the differences in perceived exercise barriers across three age groups of Taiwanese rural women (30-50, 51-70, and >70 years old) and to examine the associations between perceived exercise barriers and regular exercise behavior. A total of 227 women completed the Self-Reported Exercise Behavior and the Perceived Exercise Barrier Scale. Women older than 70 reported higher physical and psychological barriers and lower administrative barriers than did the younger group. Women who did not exercise regularly tended to have a higher perception of exercise barriers.

  1. Hwa-Byung among middle-aged Korean women: family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunha; Hogge, Ingrid; Ji, Peter; Shim, Young R; Lothspeich, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    We surveyed 395 Korean middle-aged women and examined how their perceptions of family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem were associated with Hwa-Byung (HB; Korean anger syndrome). Our regression analyses revealed that participants who reported worse family relationship problems experienced more HB symptoms. Having profeminist, egalitarian attitudes toward women's gender roles was also associated with more HB symptoms. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with HB. Based on the results, we suggest that what is crucial to understanding HB is not how women evaluate themselves, but rather the level of stress caused by family relationship problems and their perception of women's roles.

  2. Whole Body Vibration Training is Osteogenic at the Spine in College-Age Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Ligouri, Gianna C.; Shoepe, Todd C.; Almstedt, Hawley C.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass which is currently challenging the American health care system. Maximizing peak bone mass early in life is a cost-effective method for preventing osteoporosis. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a novel exercise method with the potential to increase bone mass, therefore optimizing peak bone and decreasing the risk for osteoporotic fracture. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate changes in bone mineral density at the hip, spine, and whole body in college-age men and women who underwent a WBV training protocol. Active men (n=6) and women (n=4), ages 18–22 participated in the WBV training; while an additional 14 volunteers (1 male, 13 female) served as controls. All participants completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires to assess health history, physical activity, dietary intake, and menstrual history. The WBV training program, using a Vibraflex 550, incorporated squats, stiff-leg dead lifts, stationary lunges, push-up holds, bent-over rows, and jumps performed on the platform, and occurred 3 times a week, for 12 weeks. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic Explorer, Waltham, MA, USA) was used to assess bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2). A two-tailed, t-test identified significantly different changes in BMD between the WBV and control groups at the lateral spine (average change of 0.022 vs. −0.015 g/cm2). The WBV group experienced a 2.7% and 1.0% increase in BMD in the lateral spine and posterior-anterior spine while the control group decreased 1.9% and 0.9%, respectively. Results indicate that 12 weeks of WBV training was osteogenic at the spine in college-age men and women. PMID:23487489

  3. Age-related decrease in physical activity and functional fitness among elderly men and women

    PubMed Central

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Trajković, Nebojša; Sporiš, Goran; Kostić, Radmila; James, Nic

    2013-01-01

    Aim To determine differences in physical activity level and functional fitness between young elderly (60–69 years) and old elderly (70–80 years) people with the hypothesis that an age-related decline would be found. Methods A total of 1288 participants’ level of physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: 594 were male (mean ± standard deviation: body height 175.62 ± 9.78 cm; body weight 82.26 ± 31.33 kg) and 694 female (mean ± standard deviation: body height 165.17 ± 23.12 cm; body weight 69.74 ± 12.44 kg). Functional fitness was also estimated using the Senior Fitness Test: back scratch, chair sit and reach, 8-foot up and go, chair stand up for 30 seconds, arm curl, and 2-minute step test. Results Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found for all Senior Fitness tests between young elderly (60–69 years) and old elderly (70–80) men. Similar results were found for the women, except no significant differences were found for the chair sit and reach and the 2-minute step test. From the viewpoint of energy consumption estimated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, moderate physical activity is dominant. In addition, with aging, among men and women older than 60 years, the value of the Metabolic Equivalent of Task in total physical activity significantly reduces (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study found that the reduction in physical activity level and functional fitness was equal for both men and women and was due to the aging process. These differences between young and old elderly people were due to the reduction of muscle strength in both upper and lower limbs and changes in body-fat percentage, flexibility, agility, and endurance. PMID:23723694

  4. Assessment of age and risk factors on bone density and bone turnover in healthy premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hansen, M A

    1994-05-01

    The influence of age and risk factors on bone density and bone turnover was evaluated in 249 healthy premenopausal women. Risk factors were assessed by standardized questionnaires and included reproductive history and lifestyle factors (intake of calcium and vitamin D supplements, consumption of caffeine, smoking habits and physical activity). Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were obtained in the distal forearm, the lumbar spine and the proximal femur. Bone turnover were assessed by plasma bone Gla proteins (pBGP) and fasting urinary hydroxyproline corrected for creatinine (fUHPr/Cr). Peak bone density seems to be achieved before the age of 30 years, whereafter we found no appreciable bone loss at any skeletal site. Accordingly, the levels of pBGP and fUHPr/Cr were increased before the age of 30, whereafter the values stabilized at a lower level. A dairy calcium intake above 660 mg/day significantly increased BMD in the spine and proximal femur by 3%-5%. Physical activity alone had no influence on BMD, but in combination with calcium intake an additive effect was observed. Women who had an active lifestyle (corresponding to at least 1 h of daily walking) and a dairy calcium intake above 660 mg/day had a 3%-7% increase in BMD compared with more sedentary women with a calcium intake below this limit. Vitamin D supplements, caffeine, smoking and reproductive history did not consistently influence BMD or bone turnover. Only pBGP was selectively reduced by smoking and current use of oral contraceptives, respectively. We conclude that there is no appreciable change in BMD before the menopause once skeletal maturity has been reached.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. [Age of menarche and menstruation characteristics of Puerto Rican women athletes].

    PubMed

    Rivera, M A; Matos, R M; Volquez, B

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine and describe the chronological age, age at menarche (AM), age at initiation of training (AIT), years dedicated to training (YDT), selected menstrual characteristics, use of oral contraceptives, family size (FZ), birth order (BO), martial status, and number of children relative to sport of Puerto Rican women athletes. Fifty five (55) women athletes (track and field n = 6, basketball n = 7, gymnastics n = 5, synchronized swimming n = 9, swimming n = 5, softball n = 14, tennis n = 4 [field tennis n = 2, table tennis n = 2], and volleyball n = 5) members of the Puerto Rico Olympic Committee delegation to the XV Central American and Caribbean Games were interview. The M +/- sd of the variables were as follows: age = 21.0 +/- 5.3 years, AIT = 11.4 +/- 4.3 years, YDT = 9.6 +/- 4.4 years, AM = 13.2 +/- 1.6 years, BO = 2.7 +/- 1.3, y FZ = 3.7 +/- 1.9. Five percent of the sample (gymnasts = 2, swimmers = 1) had not attained menarche at the time of the study. The prevalence for menstrual irregularity and dysmenorrhea was 44.2 and 40.4%, respectively. With respect to the degree of certainty in the recall of age of menarche: 61.5% were very certain, 25% certain, and 13.5% uncertain. The prevalence of the use of oral contraceptives was 7.3%. In conclusion, the results are within the range of those reported for olympic athletes.

  6. Pregnancy Desire, Partner Serodiscordance, and Partner HIV Disclosure among Reproductive Age HIV-Infected Women in an Urban Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Corinne M.; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Rana, Aadia I.

    2016-01-01

    Women comprise 25% of the US HIV epidemic, with many women of reproductive age. There is a need for providers to address the reproductive needs and desires of women with HIV given that effective antiretroviral therapy has transformed HIV into a chronic disease. This cross-sectional study shows high rates of partner serodiscordance (61%) and moderate HIV disclosure to partners (61%). Patients surveyed reported practitioners discuss condoms (94%) and contraception (71%) more often than pregnancy desire (38%). In our sample, 44% of the surveyed women intended future pregnancy, whereas women who did not intend future pregnancy cited HIV/health and serodiscordance as the most common reasons (56% and 35%, resp.). There was no difference in the knowledge of mother-to-child transmission risk between women who intended or did not intend future pregnancy (p = 0.71). These results underline the need for provider training in reproductive counseling to promote risk reduction and education. PMID:27313441

  7. Biomechanical alterations of gait termination in middle-aged and elderly women.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sangwoo; Yi, Jaehoon; Song, Changho

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the biomechanical changes and patterns of the lower extremities after gait termination in middle-aged and elderly women. [Subjects] The study population comprised an elderly group and middle-aged group. [Methods] To collect kinematic and kinetic data related to gait termination, six infrared cameras and one force platform were used, and variables were calculated by using Visual 3D. [Results] During the termination phase, the elderly group generated less braking force than the middle-aged group. During initiation of the termination phase and after the center of gravity completely stopped moving, there was a difference between the two groups in the hip joint angle. During the termination phase, the maximum angular velocity and extension moment of the ankle joint and those of the knee joint were higher in the elderly group than in the middle-aged group. [Conclusion] In contrast to the middle-aged group that showed a rapid increase and then decrease of the initial extension moment during gait termination, the maximum extension moment that was created during the early stage of the termination phase in the elderly group continued until the center of gravity completely stopped.

  8. Biomechanical alterations of gait termination in middle-aged and elderly women.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sangwoo; Yi, Jaehoon; Song, Changho

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the biomechanical changes and patterns of the lower extremities after gait termination in middle-aged and elderly women. [Subjects] The study population comprised an elderly group and middle-aged group. [Methods] To collect kinematic and kinetic data related to gait termination, six infrared cameras and one force platform were used, and variables were calculated by using Visual 3D. [Results] During the termination phase, the elderly group generated less braking force than the middle-aged group. During initiation of the termination phase and after the center of gravity completely stopped moving, there was a difference between the two groups in the hip joint angle. During the termination phase, the maximum angular velocity and extension moment of the ankle joint and those of the knee joint were higher in the elderly group than in the middle-aged group. [Conclusion] In contrast to the middle-aged group that showed a rapid increase and then decrease of the initial extension moment during gait termination, the maximum extension moment that was created during the early stage of the termination phase in the elderly group continued until the center of gravity completely stopped. PMID:27134373

  9. Effect of Maternal Age at Childbirth on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Korea.

    PubMed

    We, Ji-Sun; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kil, Kicheol

    2016-05-01

    The object of this study was to assess the obesity in postmenopausal women, according to age at childbirth.We analyzed the association between age at first childbirth, age at last childbirth, parity, and subject obesity status (general obesity; BMI >25 kg/m, nongeneral obesity; BMI ≤25 kg/m, abdominal obesity; waist circumference >85 cm, nonabdominal obesity; waist circumference ≤85 cm), using data from a nationwide population-based survey, the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data from a total of 4382 postmenopausal women were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with complex survey design sampling. And, the subjects were subdivided into groups according to obesity or not. Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, education, income level, number of pregnancies, oral contraceptive uses, breast feeding experience were adjusted as the confounders.The prevalence of general obesity among Korean postmenopausal women was 37.08%. Women with general obesity and abdominal obesity were significantly younger at first childbirth compared with women with nongeneral obesity and no abdominal obesity (23.89 ± 0.1 vs. 23.22 ± 0.1, P <0.001). Age at first childbirth was inversely associated with obesity, while age at last childbirth was not associated with obesity or abdominal obesity. Women with a higher number of pregnancies were also more likely to have obesity and abdominal obesity. Age at first childbirth remained significantly associated with obesity, after adjusting for confounding factors.Obesity in postmenopausal women is associated with first childbirth at a young age, and higher parity. Further research is needed to clarify the association between obesity and reproductive characteristics. PMID:27175656

  10. Approach to the management of rare clinical presentations of macroprolactinomas in reproductive-aged women

    PubMed Central

    De Ycaza, Ana Espinosa; Chang, Alice Y.; Jensen, Jani R.; Khan, Zaraq; Erickson, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe 2 cases of macroprolactinomas with atypical presentation in women desiring pregnancy that illustrate important considerations in the management approach for macroprolactinomas in reproductive-aged women. Patient(s) Case 1 was a 26-year-old woman referred to our institution for possible tumor resection after pituitary apoplexy during her first pregnancy. Instead, she underwent treatment with cabergoline for a year with goals of normalization of prolactin and decrease in tumor size to <1 cm before trying to conceive. Case 2 was an 18-year-old woman with a macroprolactinoma intolerant to dopamine agonists. She underwent stereotactic radiosurgery, with marked reduction in tumor size and normalization of prolactin levels. She conceived and delivered a healthy infant 3 years after radiosurgery. Conclusion Management of macroprolactinomas in women desiring pregnancy requires careful consideration of alternatives to surgery which could impair pituitary function and fertility and awareness of treatment goals that can minimize the risks for pituitary apoplexy and vision loss during pregnancy. It is important to increase awareness of these options prior to initiation of treatment and conception.

  11. Approach to the management of rare clinical presentations of macroprolactinomas in reproductive-aged women

    PubMed Central

    De Ycaza, Ana Espinosa; Chang, Alice Y.; Jensen, Jani R.; Khan, Zaraq; Erickson, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe 2 cases of macroprolactinomas with atypical presentation in women desiring pregnancy that illustrate important considerations in the management approach for macroprolactinomas in reproductive-aged women. Patient(s) Case 1 was a 26-year-old woman referred to our institution for possible tumor resection after pituitary apoplexy during her first pregnancy. Instead, she underwent treatment with cabergoline for a year with goals of normalization of prolactin and decrease in tumor size to <1 cm before trying to conceive. Case 2 was an 18-year-old woman with a macroprolactinoma intolerant to dopamine agonists. She underwent stereotactic radiosurgery, with marked reduction in tumor size and normalization of prolactin levels. She conceived and delivered a healthy infant 3 years after radiosurgery. Conclusion Management of macroprolactinomas in women desiring pregnancy requires careful consideration of alternatives to surgery which could impair pituitary function and fertility and awareness of treatment goals that can minimize the risks for pituitary apoplexy and vision loss during pregnancy. It is important to increase awareness of these options prior to initiation of treatment and conception. PMID:27668187

  12. Partner age differences and concurrency in South Africa: Implications for HIV-infection risk among young women.

    PubMed

    Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Kenyon, Chris; Lurie, Mark N

    2014-12-01

    Partner-age difference is an HIV-risk factor among young women in Africa, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We used nationally representative data among black South Africans (men: 3,530; women: 3,946) to examine the proportion of women in partnerships involving male partner concurrency by age of female partners and by age-disparate (≥5 years) partnerships. Of all partners reported by men, 35 % of young (16-24) women were in partnerships involving male partner concurrency of 4 weeks or longer during the past 12 months. Young women in age-disparate partnerships were more likely to be in partnerships with men who had other concurrent partners (9 %; OR 1.88 p < 0.01) and more likely to be connected to an older sexual network. Our results suggest that the relationship between male concurrency and age-disparate relationships may increase HIV risk for young women by connecting them to larger and older sexual networks. PMID:25047687

  13. Utilization of postnatal care among Nepalese women.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Subas; Doku, David

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated risk factors associated with the type of birth attendants and timing of postnatal care among a nationally representative sample of Nepalese women. The 2006 Nepalese Demographic and Health Survey on women age 15-49 years old who had delivered within 3 years prior to the survey (N = 4,136) was used. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to study the association between socio-demographic variables and type of birth attendants and timing of postnatal care. Only 23 % deliveries were assisted by skilled attendants. A majority of Nepalese women did not have postnatal check-ups. Education (OR = 1.46, 95 % CI = 1.11-1.92), wealth (OR = 2.57, 95 % CI = 1.59-4.15) and sufficiency of advice during pregnancy (OR = 3.09, 95 % CI = 2.16-4.41), were all independently associated with having postnatal check-ups. Similarly, maternal age, education, parity, wealth, sufficiency of advice and place of delivery were associated with having delivery assisted by a skilled attendant. The utilization of postnatal services is still very low in Nepal. Public health interventions are needed to increase the utilization of postnatal care as well as delivery assisted by skilled attendants. Such interventions should target poor women, the less educated and those in rural areas in Nepal.

  14. Anthropometric and health-related fitness characteristics in middle-aged obese women.

    PubMed

    Jürimäe, T; Jürimäe, J

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the possible relationships between anthropometrical and health-related fitness parameters in obese middle-aged women. Twenty one obese (BMI > 27 kg/m2) and 12 control (BMI < 27 kg/m2) middle-aged females (35-45 yrs) participated in this investigation. Three series of anthropometrical measurements on the right side of the body were taken according to the O-scale physique assessment system. The Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotyping method was used and the ratio of waist to hip circumferences was calculated. The body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance method (Bodystat-500, UK). The following health-related fitness tests used were: dynamic sit-up, hand grip, sit-and-reach, single leg balance and plate tapping. Physical working capacity (PWC) was measured using single ergometer test. Obese women possessed significantly higher (p < 0.05) values for skinfold, girth and breadth measurements. While the differences in somatotype indices were not statistically significant (p > 0.05) between obese and control groups, the transformation of somatotype characteristics to the effect sizes (ESs) revealed that these differences were large (ectomorphy: ES = 1.73; endomorphy: ES = 1.64; mesomorphy: ES = 1.71). Relative aerobic fitness (VO2max/kg, calculated from PWC) and dynamic sit-up were higher (p < 0.05) in control subjects, while obese women presented significantly higher values for hand grip strength. The thicker skinfold thicknesses increased the absolute value of PWC in obese group (r = 0.39-0.57; p < 0.05). In contrast, the thinner skinfold thicknesses in suprailiac and mid-thigh significantly increased the absolute value of PWC in control women. There were only a few significant correlations between girth and breadth measures, and health-related fitness parameters. In addition, somatotype characteristics seldom influenced the results of health-related fitness tests. Stepwise multiple regression

  15. A relative age effect in men's but not women's professional baseball: 1943-1954.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael M; Pandya, Kalyani

    2011-08-01

    Birthdates of professional female and male baseball players active from 1943 to 1954 (the beginning and final years for professional female leagues) were matched for year of birth and league years and then compared by birth quarters, with a cutoff date beginning August 1. A relative age effect was noted for males, as there was a significantly different distribution of players across birth quarter, but there was no such effect for female professionals. Since players were matched for birth year and league play, the difference was unlikely to be due to seasonality differences in birth. Instead, the absence of a "relative age" effect for female players can be attributed to the absence of organized adolescent baseball for girls prior to the establishment of professional baseball leagues for women. PMID:22049668

  16. [Fertility preservation in women of the childbearing age: Indications and strategies].

    PubMed

    Bénard, J; Calvo, J; Comtet, M; Benoit, A; Sifer, C; Grynberg, M

    2016-05-01

    Advances on cryopreservation techniques now allow considering oocyte, embryo or ovarian tissue freezing for female fertility preservation. Originally developed for patients suffering from cancer, fertility preservation has rapidly invaded others medical fields, and represents now the standard of care for all young patient diagnosed with a disease that could impair fertility or having to receive possibly gonadotoxic treatment. As a result, autoimmune diseases, some genetic pathologies or iterative pelvic surgeries, at risk of premature ovarian failure, have become common indications of fertility preservation. In addition, the social egg freezing aiming at preventing the age-related fertility decline is still debated in France, although authorized in numerous countries. This review will discuss the different strategies of fertility preservation in young girls and women of reproductive age, regarding different medical or non-medical indications.

  17. A relative age effect in men's but not women's professional baseball: 1943-1954.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael M; Pandya, Kalyani

    2011-08-01

    Birthdates of professional female and male baseball players active from 1943 to 1954 (the beginning and final years for professional female leagues) were matched for year of birth and league years and then compared by birth quarters, with a cutoff date beginning August 1. A relative age effect was noted for males, as there was a significantly different distribution of players across birth quarter, but there was no such effect for female professionals. Since players were matched for birth year and league play, the difference was unlikely to be due to seasonality differences in birth. Instead, the absence of a "relative age" effect for female players can be attributed to the absence of organized adolescent baseball for girls prior to the establishment of professional baseball leagues for women.

  18. Postprandial peptide YY is lower in young college-aged women with high dietary cognitive restraint.

    PubMed

    Scheid, J L; Birch, L L; Williams, N I; Rolls, B J; De Souza, M J

    2013-08-15

    Acylated ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY3-36) are involved in appetite-regulation and energy homeostasis. These gastrointestinal hormones provide peripheral signals to the central nervous system to regulate appetite and short term food intake, and interact with leptin and insulin to regulate energy balance. Dietary restraint is an eating behavior phenotype that manifests as a conscious cognitive control of food intake in order to achieve or sustain a desired body weight. The purpose of the current study was to determine if college-aged women (18 to 25 years) with different eating behavior phenotypes, i.e., high vs normal dietary restraint, differ with respect to circulating concentrations of gastrointestinal hormones during and following a test meal. We hypothesized that women with high dietary cognitive restraint [High CR (score ≥ 13, n=13)] would have elevated active ghrelin and PYY3-36 concentrations after a test meal compared to women with normal dietary cognitive restraint [Normal CR (score < 13, n=30)]. Gastrointestinal hormones were assessed before (-15 and 0 min) and after (10, 15, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min) the consumption of a mixed composition meal (5.0 kcal per kg/body weight). In contrast to our hypothesis, mean PYY3-36 concentrations (p=0.042), peak PYY3-36 concentrations (p=0.047), and PYY3-36 area under the curve (p=0.035) were lower in the High CR group compared to the Normal CR group after controlling for body mass index. No group differences were observed with respect to acylated ghrelin before or after the meal. In conclusion, PYY3-36 concentrations were suppressed in the women with High CR compared to the women with Normal CR. While the current study is cross-sectional and cause/effect of high dietary restraint and suppressed PYY3-36 concentrations cannot be determined, we speculate that these women with high cognitive restraint may be prone to weight gain or weight re-gain related to the suppressed circulating PYY after a meal. Further

  19. Effect of daily supplementation with iron and zinc on iron status of childbearing age women.

    PubMed

    Mujica-Coopman, María F; Borja, Angélica; Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of daily supplementation with 30 mg of iron (Fe) plus 30 mg of zinc (Zn) for 3 months on Fe status of women of childbearing age. This was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eighty-one women (18-45 years) were randomly assigned to receive either a daily single dose of 30 mg of Fe (group 1; n = 28) and 30 mg of Fe plus 30 mg of Zn (group 2; n = 26) or placebo (n = 27) for 3 months. Hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume, serum Fe, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, erythrocyte Zn protoporphyrin, serum ferritin (SF), serum transferrin receptor (TfR), total body Fe, serum Zn, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. At baseline, 3.7, 28.4, and 3.7 % of women had iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), Fe deficiency without anemia, and depleted Fe stores, respectively. No significant differences on Fe status were found between groups before supplementation. After supplementation, group 2 showed a significant increase of Hb and total body Fe and a significant decrease of TfR compared with placebo (p < 0.05). Moreover, serum Zn increased significantly in group 2 compared with group 1 (p < 0.01) and placebo (p < 0.01). In conclusion, daily supplementation with 30 mg of Fe plus 30 mg of Zn for 3 months improved significantly the Fe and Zn status of women, compared with those who received placebo. The positive effect of Fe supplementation on Fe status is enhanced by combined Zn supplementation.

  20. Intelligence and Disability Pension in Swedish Men and Women Followed from Childhood to Late Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Lundin, Andreas; Sörberg Wallin, Alma; Falkstedt, Daniel; Allebeck, Peter; Hemmingsson, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between intelligence and disability pension due to mental, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and substance-use disorders among men and women, and to assess the role of childhood social factors and adulthood work characteristics. Methods Two random samples of men and women born 1948 and 1953 (n = 10 563 and 9 434), and tested for general intelligence at age 13, were followed in registers for disability pension until 2009. Physical and psychological strains in adulthood were assessed using job exposure matrices. Associations were examined using Cox proportional hazard regression models, with increases in rates reported as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) per decrease in stanine intelligence. Results In both men and women increased risks were found for disability pension due to all causes, musculoskeletal disorder, mental disorder other than substance use, and cardiovascular disease as intelligence decreased. Increased risk was also found for substance use disorder in men. In multivariate models, HRs were attenuated after controlling for pre-school plans in adolescence, and low job control and high physical strain in adulthood. In the fully adjusted model, increased HRs remained for all causes (male HR 1.11, 95%CI 1.07–1.15, female HR 1.06, 95%CI 1.02–1.09) and musculoskeletal disorder (male HR 1.16, 95%CI 1.09–1.24, female HR 1.08, 95%CI 1.03–1.14) during 1986 to 2009. Conclusion Relatively low childhood intelligence is associated with increased risk of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorder in both men and women, even after adjustment for risk factors for disability pension measured over the life course. PMID:26062026

  1. Habitual aerobic exercise increases plasma pentraxin 3 levels in middle-aged and elderly women.

    PubMed

    Miyaki, Asako; Maeda, Seiji; Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Tanabe, Yoko; Ajisaka, Ryuichi

    2012-10-01

    Chronic inflammation that occurs with aging is one of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Regular exercise may prevent cardiovascular morbidity by decreasing chronic systematic inflammation. Additionally, excess inflammation can be reduced by the anti-inflammatory protein pentraxin 3 (PTX3). Thus, both habitual exercise and PTX3 have an anti-inflammatory effect. However, it is unclear whether regular exercise leads to increased plasma PTX3 concentration. In the present study, we investigated the effects of regular aerobic exercise on plasma PTX3 concentration in middle-aged and elderly women. Twenty-two postmenopausal women (60 ± 6 years) were randomly divided evenly into 2 groups (i.e., exercise intervention and control). Subjects in the exercise group completed 2 months of regular aerobic exercise training (walking and cycling, 30-45 min, 3-5 days·week⁻¹). Before and after the intervention, we evaluated plasma PTX3 concentration, peak oxygen uptake, blood chemistry, and arterial distensibility (carotid arterial compliance and β-stiffness) in all participants. There were no significant differences in baseline parameters between the 2 groups. Plasma PTX3 concentration was significantly increased in the exercise group after the intervention (p < 0.05). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, peak oxygen uptake, and arterial compliance were also significantly increased (p < 0.05), while β-stiffness was markedly decreased (p < 0.01) after the intervention. On the other hand, there was no change in the parameters tested in the control group. This study demonstrates that regular aerobic exercise increases plasma PTX3 concentration with improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, peak oxygen uptake, and arterial distensibility in postmenopausal women.

  2. Low Prevalence of Iron and Vitamin A Deficiency among Cambodian Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Wieringa, Frank T; Sophonneary, Prak; Whitney, Sophie; Mao, Bunsoth; Berger, Jacques; Conkle, Joel; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A; Laillou, Arnaud

    2016-04-01

    Nearly half of women of reproductive age (WRA) in Cambodia are anemic. To guide interventions, national data on nutritional causes of anemia, including iron deficiency and vitamin A deficiency, are needed. In 2012, a national household survey in WRA on antibodies to routine vaccine-preventable disease immunity was performed. We used serum samples from this survey to estimate the prevalence of iron and vitamin A deficiency in 2112 Cambodian WRA, aged 15 to 39 years. Iron deficiency was classified as low or marginal iron stores (ferritin concentrations corrected for inflammation <15 μg/L and <50 μg/L respectively; Fer), iron deficient erythropoiesis (soluble transferrin receptor concentrations >8.3 mg/L; sTfR), or low total body iron (TBI) derived from Fer and sTfR concentrations (<0 mg/kg). Vitamin A status was classified using retinol binding protein (RBP) concentrations corrected for inflammation as deficient (<0.70 μmol/L) or marginal (<1.05 μmol/L. Overall, the prevalence of low iron stores, low TBI and iron deficient erythropoiesis was 8.1%, 5.0% and 9.3% respectively. Almost 40% of the women had marginal iron stores. Iron status was better in women living in urban areas compared to rural areas (p < 0.05 for TBI and sTfR). The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was <1%. These findings suggest that the contribution of iron and vitamin A deficiency to the high prevalence of anemia in Cambodian WRA may be limited. The etiology of anemia in Cambodia needs to be elucidated further to guide current policies on anemia.

  3. Folate/Folic Acid Knowledge, Intake, and Self-Efficacy of College-Aged Women: Impact of Text Messaging and Availability of a Folic Acid-Containing Supplement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampersaud, Gail C.; Sokolow, Andrew; Gruspe, Abigail; Colee, James C.; Kauwell, Gail P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of educational text messages (TMs) on folate/folic acid knowledge and consumption among college-aged women, and to evaluate the impact of providing folic acid supplements on folate/folic acid intake among college-aged women. Participants: A total of 162 women (18-24 years) recruited from a university. Methods: The…

  4. Nutritional Transition in Children under Five Years and Women of Reproductive Age: A 15-Years Trend Analysis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Poterico, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Materials and Methods Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15–49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children <5y. We employed the WHO BMI-age standardized curves for teenagers between 15–19y. In women >19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Results We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001), wasting (p<0.001), and stunting (p<0.001) in children under 5y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001), however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (∼12%). Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001); with higher reduction in urban (↓43%) than in rural children (↓24%). BMI in women aged 15–19 years increased (p<0.001) across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19y. Conclusion Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions—undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia—considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies

  5. Experience of an incontinence clinic for older women: no apparent age limit for potential physical and psychological benefits.

    PubMed

    Tannenbaum, C; Bachand, G; Dubeau, C E; Kuchel, G A

    2001-10-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common but undertreated condition in older women. Although a variety of noninvasive interventions is available, older women may be hesitant to seek care for UI because of misconceptions about normal aging and treatment futility. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of a UI clinic specifically tailored to the needs of older women to promote a sense of empowerment and to enhance satisfaction with treatment and outcome. We describe a case series of 52 women between the ages of 65 and 98 who were evaluated at the Geriatric Incontinence Clinic at the McGill University Health Centre over a 1-year period. A standardized telephone questionnaire was administered by a nurse consultant 6 months after each subject's final visit to assess patient satisfaction and current incontinence status. Forty-five women (86%) were available for telephone follow-up and completed the questionnaire. Mean age was 80 years, with urge incontinence in 45%, mixed incontinence (stress and urge) in 33%, impaired bladder emptying with urge symptoms in 10%, and other diagnoses in 12%. Overall, a mean reduction of 1.4 incontinent episodes per day was reported. At follow-up, 30% of the subjects reported being cured of their incontinence, 30% had improved, 20% were the same, and 20% were worse. Over 85% of all women reported satisfaction with their new incontinence status. Women of all ages, independent of the type of UI, type of treatment, and cognitive status, were able to achieve reductions in incontinence symptoms. All patients who had worsened were noncompliant with treatment recommendations at follow-up. Older women can derive significant benefit from a UI assessment. Neither advanced age nor category of incontinence precludes improvements or enhanced satisfaction with treatment. Efforts to improve targeting and compliance may improve outcomes. PMID:11703887

  6. Understanding Women's Breast Screening Behaviour: A Study Carried out in South East London, with Women Aged 50-64 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barter-Godfrey, Sarah; Taket, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To understand low uptake of breast cancer screening through exploring the personal reasoning underlying women's attendance or non-attendance, and identifying differences between those who attend and those who decline. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Community and home environments of women eligible for breast screening aged…

  7. Site-specific thigh muscle loss as an independent phenomenon for age-related muscle loss in middle-aged and older men and women.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Patterson, Kaitlyn M; Stover, Caitlin D; Geddam, David A R; Tribby, Aaron C; Lajza, David G; Young, Kaelin C

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-determined appendicular lean mass (aLM) and ultrasound-measured thigh muscle thickness (MTH) ratio and between aLM or thigh MTH ratio and zigzag walking performance. Eighty-one middle-aged and older adults (41 men and 40 women) aged 50 to 74 years volunteered for the study. Approximately two thirds of the subjects (34 men and 17 women) carried out regular sports activity (at least >2 times a week) including running and cycling exercise. MTH was measured using B-mode ultrasound at two sites on the anterior (A50) and posterior (P50) aspects of the mid-thigh. A50:P50 MTH ratio was calculated to evaluate site-specific thigh muscle loss. aLM and percent body fat were also determined using a DXA. Men had lower body fat and higher aLM than women. Anterior and posterior thigh MTH as well as A50:P50 MTH ratio was higher in men than in women. Zigzag walking time was faster in men than in women. Anterior and posterior thigh MTH was positively (p < 0.001) correlated to aLM and aLM index in men and women. However, A50:P50 MTH ratio was not significantly correlated with aLM and aLM index in both sexes. There was no significant correlation between aLM index and zigzag walking time in men and women. A50:P50 MTH ratio was inversely (p < 0.05) correlated to zigzag walking time in both men and women. Our results suggest that thigh MTH ratio is independent of age-related muscle mass loss detected by aLM.

  8. Quantifying the risks and benefits of efavirenz use in HIV-infected women of childbearing age in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, HE; Rydzak, CE; Cotich, KL; Wang, B; Sax, PE; Losina, E; Freedberg, KA; Goldie, SJ; Lu, Z; Walensky, RP

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We quantified the benefits (life expectancy gains) and harms (efavirenz-related teratogenicity) associated with using efavirenz in HIV-infected women of childbearing age in the United States. Methods We used data from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study in an HIV disease simulation model to estimate life expectancy in women who receive an efavirenz-based initial antiretroviral regimen compared with those who delay efavirenz use and receive a boosted protease inhibitor-based initial regimen. To estimate excess risk of teratogenic events with and without efavirenz exposure per 100,000 women, we incorporated literature-based rates of pregnancy, live births, and teratogenic events into a decision analytic model. We assumed a teratogenicity risk of 2.90 events/100 live births in women exposed to efavirenz during pregnancy and 2.68/100 live births in unexposed women. Results Survival for HIV-infected women who received an efavirenz-based initial antiretroviral therapy regimen was 0.89 years greater than for women receiving non-efavirenz-based initial therapy (28.91 vs. 28.02 years). The rate of teratogenic events was 77.26/100,000 exposed women, compared with 72.46/100,000 unexposed women. Survival estimates were sensitive to variations in treatment efficacy and AIDS-related mortality. Estimates of excess teratogenic events were most sensitive to pregnancy rates and number of teratogenic events/100 live births in efavirenz-exposed women. Conclusions Use of non-efavirenz-based initial antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected women of childbearing age may reduce life expectancy gains from antiretroviral treatment, but may also prevent teratogenic events. Decision-making regarding efavirenz use presents a tradeoff between these two risks; this study can inform discussions between patients and health care providers. PMID:20561082

  9. Factors associated with induced abortion among women in Hohoe, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Mote, Charity V; Otupiri, Easmon; Hindin, Michelle J

    2010-12-01

    In Hohoe, Ghana, induced abortion is the second highest cause of hospital admissions. We aimed to describe factors influencing induced abortion among 408 randomly selected women aged 15-49 years. 21% of the women had had an abortion; of those, 36% said they did not want to disrupt their education or employment; 66% of the abortions were performed by doctors. Bivariate logistic regression showed that compared with women with secondary education, women with basic education (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.18-0.54) and uneducated women (OR = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.07-0.70) were significantly less likely to have had an abortion. Women who were married (OR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.10-3.04), peri-urban residents (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 0.95-3.94), and women with formal employment (OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 0.86-5.45) were more likely to have had an abortion. Stakeholders should improve access to effective contraception to lower the chance of needing an abortion and target education programmes at those with unmet need for contraception.

  10. Preconception Health of Reproductive Aged Women of the Mississippi River Delta

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Sherry; Johnson, Dick; McAnally, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Optimal preconception health (PCH) may improve maternal and infant outcomes, priority issues in Mississippi (MS). Our study objective was to compare the PCH of women in the MS Delta to other regions. We analyzed Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 2005, 2007, and 2009, and limited analyses to 171,612 non-pregnant black and white women 18–44 years of age. Region was defined as 14 MS Delta counties (MS Delta), remainder of MS (MS non-Delta), Delta states (LA, AR, TN), and non-Delta US states. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) to assess associations between region and 16 indicators of optimal PCH, controlling for demographic characteristics. Healthy PCH factors such as consuming ≥5 fruits and vegetables daily and normal body mass index (18.5 kg/m2 to <25 kg/m2), respectively, were more prevalent in the MS non-Delta (aPR = 1.3; 95 % CI: 1.0,1.7 and aPR = 1.2; 95 % CI: 1.0,1.4), non-MS Delta (aPR = 1.5; 95 % CI: 1.2,2.0 and aPR = 1.3; 95 % CI: 1.1,1.5) and non-Delta states (aPR = 1.7; 95 % CI: 1.3,2.2 and aPR = 1.4; 95 % CI: 1.2,1.6) compared to the MS Delta. Physical activity levels were higher among non-Delta US states compared to the MS Delta (aPR = 1.3; 95 % CI: 1.1,1.4). Household income and race confounded the associations between region and PCH. Reproductive aged women in the MS Delta had poorer PCH, particularly for physical activity and nutrition, than women in other regions. MS Delta service providers and public health practitioners should consider implementing or enhancing lifestyle, nutrition, and physical activity interventions, with a special focus on reducing income-based and racial disparities. PMID:23099798

  11. Lifestyle and Socioeconomic Determinants of Multimorbidity Patterns among Mid-Aged Women: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Caroline A.; Dobson, Annette J.; Tooth, Leigh R.; Mishra, Gita D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about patterns of associative multimorbidity and their aetiology. We aimed to identify patterns of associative multimorbidity among mid-aged women and the lifestyle and socioeconomic factors associated with their development. Methods Participants were from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. We included 4896 women born 1946–51, without multimorbidity in 1998. We identified multimorbidity patterns at survey 6 (2010) using factor analysis, and related these patterns to baseline lifestyle and socioeconomic factors using logistic regression. We dichotomised factor scores and determined odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between characteristics and odds of a high versus low factor score. Results We identified five multimorbidity patterns: psychosomatic; musculoskeletal; cardiometabolic; cancer; and respiratory. Overweight and obesity were respectively associated with increased odds of having a high score for the musculoskeletal (adjusted ORs 1.45 [95% CI 1.23, 1.70] and 2.14 [95% CI 1.75, 2.60]) and cardiometabolic (adjusted ORs 1.53 [95% CI 1.31, 1.79] and 2.46 [95% CI 2.02, 2.98]) patterns. Physical inactivity was associated with increased odds of a high score for the psychosomatic, musculoskeletal and cancer patterns (adjusted ORs 1.41 [95% CI 1.13, 1.76]; 1.39 [95% CI 1.11, 1.74]; and 1.35 [95% CI 1.08, 1.69]). Smoking was associated with increased odds of a high score for the respiratory pattern. Education and ability to manage on income were associated with increased odds of a high score for the psychosomatic pattern (adjusted ORs 1.34 [95% CI 1.03, 1.75] and 1.73 [95% CI 1.37, 1.28], respectively) and musculoskeletal pattern (adjusted ORs 1.43 [95% CI 1.10, 1.87] and 1.38 [1.09, 1.75], respectively). Conclusions Distinct multimorbidity patterns can be identified among mid-aged women. Social inequality, physical activity and BMI are risk factors common to multiple patterns and are

  12. Anemia among Muslim Bedouin and Jewish women of childbearing age in Southern Israel.

    PubMed

    Treister-Goltzman, Yulia; Peleg, Roni; Biderman, Aya

    2015-11-01

    There are inequalities in health indicators among different ethnic groups living in the same region and receiving the same medical services. Anemia is a global problem. Although the prevalence of anemia is not high in Israel, differences among ethnic groups have not been studied. Our objective was to assess anemia among Bedouin and Jewish women of childbearing age in southern Israel. A retrospective observational study was conducted based on data from computerized medical records. Seven thousand eight hundred seventy-one women in the study clinics underwent complete blood counts and had blood hemoglobin levels of 11 g/dl or below. The Jewish patients were older (31.7 vs. 29.7 years, P < 0.001), practiced birth control more (24.2 vs. 9.9 %, P < 0.001), and adhered to it more (81.1 vs. 61.9 %, P < 0.001). Bedouin women had more children (3.7 vs. 1.9, P < 0.001), and more Bedouin women were pregnant during the study period (49.3 vs. 35.0 %, P < 0.001). The most prevalent types of anemia were iron deficiency and anemia of chronic disease. Two types of anemia were proportionally higher among Jewish women, anemia of chronic disease (18.1 vs. 9.7 %, P < 0.001) and folic acid deficiency (3.3 vs. 2.2 %, P > 0.001). The adherence rates for treatment were very low. Three factors associated with severe anemia (hemoglobin below 8 g/dl) were being Bedouin (odds ratio (OR) = 1.295, P < 0.001), use of birth control (OR = 0.419, P < 0.001), and pregnancy (OR = 0.447, P < 0.001). Being a Bedouin woman is a risk factor for severe anemia, and adherence to treatment for anemia is very low in both groups. These findings should be addressed in a national program to reduce health inequalities.

  13. The 40-Something randomized controlled trial to prevent weight gain in mid-age women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity prevention is a major public health priority. Despite the health risks associated with weight gain, there has been a distinct lack of research into effective interventions to prevent, rather than treat, obesity particularly at high risk life stages such as menopause in women. This paper describes the rationale for and design of a 2-year randomized controlled trial (RCT) (the 40-Something Study) aimed at testing the feasibility and efficacy of a relatively low intensity intervention designed to achieve weight control in non-obese women about to enter the menopause transition. Methods and design The study is a parallel-group RCT consisting of 12 months of intervention (Phase 1) and 12 months of monitoring (Phase 2). Non-obese pre-menopausal healthy females 44–50 years of age were screened, stratified according to Body Mass Index (BMI) category (18.5-24.9 and 25–29.9 kg/m2) and randomly assigned to one of two groups: motivational interviewing (MI) intervention (n = 28), or a self-directed intervention (SDI) (control) (n = 26). The MI intervention consisted of five consultations with health professionals (four with a Dietitian and one with an Exercise Physiologist) who applied components of MI counselling to consultations with the women over a 12 month period. The SDI was developed as a control and these participants received print materials only. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, three, 12, 18 and 24 months and included weight (primary outcome), waist circumference, body composition, blood pressure, plasma markers of metabolic syndrome risk, dietary intake, physical activity and quality of life. Analysis of covariance will be used to investigate outcomes according to intervention type and duration (comparing baseline, 12 and 24 months). Discussion The 40-Something study is the first RCT aimed at preventing menopausal weight gain in Australian women. Importantly, this paper describes the methods used to evaluate whether

  14. Impact of a community-based prevention marketing intervention to promote physical activity among middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Patricia A; Burroughs, Ericka L; Granner, Michelle L; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E; Bryant, Carol A; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

    2010-06-01

    A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral intervention and were exposed to a media campaign. They were compared to cross-sectional survey samples at pre- (n = 245) and postprogram (n = 820) from the media exposed county and a no-intervention county (n = 234 pre, n = 822 post). Women in the behavioral intervention had statistically significant positive changes on physical activity minutes, walking, park and trail use, knowledge of mapped routes and exercise partner, and negative change on exercise self-efficacy. Media exposed women had statistically significant pre- to postprogram differences on knowledge of mapped routes. No-intervention women had significant pre- to postprogram differences on physical activity minutes, walking, and knowledge of mapped routes. PMID:19875639

  15. Impact of a community-based prevention marketing intervention to promote physical activity among middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Patricia A; Burroughs, Ericka L; Granner, Michelle L; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E; Bryant, Carol A; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

    2010-06-01

    A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral intervention and were exposed to a media campaign. They were compared to cross-sectional survey samples at pre- (n = 245) and postprogram (n = 820) from the media exposed county and a no-intervention county (n = 234 pre, n = 822 post). Women in the behavioral intervention had statistically significant positive changes on physical activity minutes, walking, park and trail use, knowledge of mapped routes and exercise partner, and negative change on exercise self-efficacy. Media exposed women had statistically significant pre- to postprogram differences on knowledge of mapped routes. No-intervention women had significant pre- to postprogram differences on physical activity minutes, walking, and knowledge of mapped routes.

  16. Breast cancer risk in women who fulfill high-risk criteria: at what age should surveillance start?

    PubMed

    Brandt, Andreas; Lorenzo Bermejo, Justo; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2010-05-01

    Family history is a strong predictor of hereditary breast cancer, particularly when it includes cases of early onset or bilateral breast cancers and multiple cases of breast or ovarian cancers. This article provides relative risks and cumulative risks of breast cancer in women whose family history indicates high risk. Specifically, the aim was to determine how many years earlier the high-risk women reach the cumulative risk of women without family history at the age at which screening in average-risk women is initiated. The women of the nation-wide Swedish Family-Cancer Database were classified according to clinical criteria based on family history suggesting high risk for hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome. The relative risks of breast cancer were calculated as hazard ratio using Cox regression. Cumulative risks of breast cancer were estimated with a stratified Cox model based on Tsiatis' method. The hazard ratios of breast cancer for the considered criteria ranged from 1.50 to 5.99. The cumulative risks ranged from 1 to 10% by age 50 years. The age to reach the same cumulative risk as women lacking a family history at the age of 50 years ranged between 32.0 and 40.8 years. Relative and cumulative risks of women at high risk of breast cancer associated with different clinical criteria were diverse, which may be helpful in considering when current clinical criteria are revised. According to the present results, current recommendations of starting clinical interventions 10 years earlier in high-risk women, based on expert opinions, appear justified at least for the largest high-risk groups. PMID:19641988

  17. Objectivity, Reliability, and Validity of the Bent-Knee Push-Up for College-Age Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Heather M.; Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2004-01-01

    The revised push-up test has been found to have good validity but it produces many zero scores for women. Maybe there should be an alternative to the revised push-up test for college-age women. The purpose of this study was to determine the objectivity, reliability, and validity for the bent-knee push-up test (executed on hands and knees) for…

  18. Women's intentions to use fertility preservation to prevent age-related fertility decline.

    PubMed

    Ter Keurst, Anne; Boivin, Jacky; Gameiro, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    The optimal age to cryopreserve oocytes for later use is before 36 years. Current users are on average 38 years old. In this cross-sectional study an online survey was constructed about the factors associated with the intentions of childless women aged 28-35 years to use fertility preservation (FP). Questions were derived from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (attitudes and subjective norms regarding FP and perceived behaviour control to do FP) and the Health Belief Model (perceived susceptibility of infertility, perceived severity of childlessness, barriers and benefits of FP and cue to use FP). Also addressed were parenthood goals, fertility knowledge and intentions to use FP within 2 years. The data were analysed using structural equation modelling. The Health Belief Model showed a good fit to the data (χ(2) [14, n = 257] = 13.63, P = 0.477; CFI = 1.000: RMSEA = 00, 90% CI [0.00-0.06]). Higher intentions to use FP were associated with feeling susceptible to infertility, considering FP useful to achieve parenthood, perceiving the implications of infertility as severe, expecting to have children at a later age and having fewer ethical concerns. This suggests an increase of fertility awareness is necessary for the optimal use of FP. PMID:26611498

  19. Early-life conditions and age at first pregnancy in British women.

    PubMed

    Nettle, Daniel; Coall, David A; Dickins, Thomas E

    2011-06-01

    There is growing evidence that the reproductive schedules of female mammals can be affected by conditions experienced during early development, with low parental investment leading to accelerated life-history strategies in the offspring. In humans, the relationships between early-life conditions and timing of puberty are well studied, but much less attention has been paid to reproductive behaviour. Here, we investigate associations between early-life conditions and age at first pregnancy (AFP) in a large, longitudinally studied cohort of British women (n = 4553). Low birthweight for gestational age, short duration of breastfeeding, separation from mother in childhood, frequent family residential moves and lack of paternal involvement are all independently associated with earlier first pregnancy. Apart from that of birthweight, the effects are robust to adjustment for family socioeconomic position (SEP) and the cohort member's mother's age at her birth. The association between childhood SEP and AFP is partially mediated by early-life conditions, and the association between early-life conditions and AFP is partially mediated by emotional and behavioural problems in childhood. The overall relationship between early-life adversities and AFP appears to be approximately additive.

  20. Lycopene intake by Canadian women is variable, similar among different ages, but greater than that reported for women in other countries.

    PubMed

    Mackinnon, E S; Rao, A V; Rao, L G

    2009-08-01

    Lycopene is an antioxidant associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases common in women such as osteoporosis and cancer; however, no official recommendation for lycopene consumption exists, and intake data from Canadian women are limited. This study was designed to generate information about average lycopene intake in Canadian women of different ages. A cross-sectional study was conducted at St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. One hundred one women, between the ages of 25 and 70 years, who were not on any medications, were recruited to record their diet for 7 days. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the types of lycopene-containing foods consumed, associations between intake of lycopene and macro/micronutrients, and whether participant characteristics, such as body mass index, could predict lycopene intake. Average lycopene intake was 6.14 +/- 5.35 mg/day, which is higher than reported in other countries. Intake was similar among age groups but was highly variable. Raw tomatoes were the most frequently consumed source of lycopene, while participants with the highest lycopene intake consumed more cooked/processed tomato products than those with lower intake (P < .005). Participants 25-49 years old consumed more dried/powdered tomatoes (P < .05), pizza (P < .002), and ketchup (P < .10) than 50-70 year olds. Lycopene intake could not be predicted by any participant characteristics. In older participants, lycopene intake was positively correlated with intake of calcium, niacin, and vitamins A, D, and K (P < or = .05). These findings are significant to women's health and may contribute to the establishment of nutritional and health recommendations regarding consumption of lycopene by Canadian women to prevent chronic diseases. PMID:19735184

  1. Characterization of the vaginal micro- and mycobiome in asymptomatic reproductive-age Estonian women.

    PubMed

    Drell, Tiina; Lillsaar, Triin; Tummeleht, Lea; Simm, Jaak; Aaspõllu, Anu; Väin, Edda; Saarma, Ivo; Salumets, Andres; Donders, Gilbert G G; Metsis, Madis

    2013-01-01

    The application of high-throughput sequencing methods has raised doubt in the concept of the uniform healthy vaginal microbiota consisting predominantly of lactobacilli by revealing the existence of more variable bacterial community composition. As this needs to be analyzed more extensively and there is little straightforward data regarding the vaginal mycobiome of asymptomatic women we aimed to define bacterial and fungal communities in vaginal samples from 494 asymptomatic, reproductive-age Estonian women. The composition of the vaginal microbiota was determined by amplifying bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) regions and subsequently sequencing them using 454 Life Sciences pyrosequencing. We delineated five major bacterial community groups with distinctive diversity and species composition. Lactobacilli were among the most abundant bacteria in all groups, but also members of genus Gardnerella had high relative abundance in some of the groups. Microbial diversity increased with higher vaginal pH values, and was also higher when a malodorous discharge was present, indicating that some of the women who consider themselves healthy may potentially have asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV). Our study is the first of its kind to analyze the mycobiome that colonizes the healthy vaginal environment using barcoded pyrosequencing technology. We observed 196 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), including 16 OTUs of Candida spp., which is more diverse than previously recognized. However, assessing true fungal diversity was complicated because of the problems regarding the possible air-borne contamination and bioinformatics used for identification of fungal taxons as significant proportion of fungal sequences were assigned to unspecified OTUs.

  2. Characterization of the Vaginal Micro- and Mycobiome in Asymptomatic Reproductive-Age Estonian Women

    PubMed Central

    Drell, Tiina; Lillsaar, Triin; Tummeleht, Lea; Simm, Jaak; Aaspõllu, Anu; Väin, Edda; Saarma, Ivo; Salumets, Andres; Donders, Gilbert G. G.; Metsis, Madis

    2013-01-01

    The application of high-throughput sequencing methods has raised doubt in the concept of the uniform healthy vaginal microbiota consisting predominantly of lactobacilli by revealing the existence of more variable bacterial community composition. As this needs to be analyzed more extensively and there is little straightforward data regarding the vaginal mycobiome of asymptomatic women we aimed to define bacterial and fungal communities in vaginal samples from 494 asymptomatic, reproductive-age Estonian women. The composition of the vaginal microbiota was determined by amplifying bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) regions and subsequently sequencing them using 454 Life Sciences pyrosequencing. We delineated five major bacterial community groups with distinctive diversity and species composition. Lactobacilli were among the most abundant bacteria in all groups, but also members of genus Gardnerella had high relative abundance in some of the groups. Microbial diversity increased with higher vaginal pH values, and was also higher when a malodorous discharge was present, indicating that some of the women who consider themselves healthy may potentially have asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV). Our study is the first of its kind to analyze the mycobiome that colonizes the healthy vaginal environment using barcoded pyrosequencing technology. We observed 196 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), including 16 OTUs of Candida spp., which is more diverse than previously recognized. However, assessing true fungal diversity was complicated because of the problems regarding the possible air-borne contamination and bioinformatics used for identification of fungal taxons as significant proportion of fungal sequences were assigned to unspecified OTUs. PMID:23372716

  3. Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS among women of reproductive age in the slums of Delhi and Hyderabad, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Jayati; Wadhwa, Vandana; Kalipeni, Ezekiel

    2009-02-01

    This report explores how vulnerability to HIV/AIDS applies to women in the reproductive age range living in the slum areas of Delhi and Hyderabad. The paper is based on a qualitative study of AIDS awareness levels conducted during the summer of 2006. It offers insightful narratives from a sample of 32 women, providing an in depth view of their vulnerability to HIV/AIDS due to their precarious socioeconomic conditions and low AIDS awareness. The women cited lack of education, low empowerment in expressing and accessing information related to sexual matters, and poverty as key factors to vulnerability.

  4. Observer age and the social transmission of attractiveness in humans: Younger women are more influenced by the choices of popular others than older women.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Caldwell, Christine A; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2015-08-01

    Being paired with an attractive partner increases perceptual judgements of attractiveness in humans. We tested experimentally for prestige bias, whereby individuals follow the choices of prestigious others. Women rated the attractiveness of photographs of target males which were paired with either popular or less popular model female partners. We found that pairing a photo of a man with a woman presented as his partner positively influenced the attractiveness of the man when the woman was presented as more popular (Experiment 1). Further, this effect was stronger in younger participants compared to older participants (Experiment 1). Reversing the target and model such that women were asked to rate women paired with popular and less popular men revealed no effect of model popularity and this effect was unrelated to participant age (Experiment 2). An additional experiment confirmed that participant age and not stimulus age primarily influenced the tendency to follow others' preferences in Experiment 1 (Experiment 3). We also confirmed that our manipulations of popularity lead to variation in rated prestige (Experiment 4). These results suggest a sophisticated model-based bias in social learning whereby individuals are most influenced by the choices of those who have high popularity/prestige. Furthermore, older individuals moderate their use of such social information and so this form of social learning appears strongest in younger women. PMID:25314951

  5. Survey of Attitudes toward Uterus Transplantation among Japanese Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kisu, Iori; Banno, Kouji; Soeda, Etsuko; Kurihara, Yuki; Okushima, Miho; Yamaguchi, Ami; Nakagawa, Eriko; Umene, Kiyoko; Aoki, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Objective Uterus transplantation (UTx) is a potential option for women with uterine factor infertility to have a child, but there has been no large-scale survey of the views on UTx in women of reproductive age in Japan. The present study was aimed to clarify the views of Japanese women of reproductive age on UTx for uterine factor infertility. Methods A questionnaire on UTx was conducted by an Internet research company in December 2014 as a cross-sectional study in 3,892 randomly chosen women aged 25 to 39 years old. Responses were analyzed from 3,098 subjects (mean age 32.1±4.2 years old), after exclusion of inappropriate respondents in screening. Results Of the respondents, 62.1%, 34.7% and 18.1% favored adoption, UTx and gestational surrogacy, respectively. In contrast, 7.0%, 21.9% and 63.3% opposed adoption, UTx and gestational surrogacy, respectively. In choices of candidates for UTx based on highest priority, deceased persons (33.8%) and mothers (19.0%) were favored as donors, and women with congenital absence of the uterus (54.4%) and hysterectomy due to a malignant uterine tumor (20.0%) as recipients. Regarding societal acceptance of UTx, the answer rates were 15.7% for "UTx should be permitted", 77.6% for "UTx should be permitted with discussion", and 6.7% for "UTx should not be permitted, even with discussion". Regarding personal opinions on UTx, 44.2% were in favor, 47.5% had no opinion, and 8.3% were against. Conclusion Our results suggest that many Japanese women of reproductive age feel that UTx is socially and individually acceptable, but that concerns requiring further discussion remain among these women. There was also a tendency for UTx to be viewed more favorably than gestational surrogacy. PMID:27203855

  6. Fish consumption among women anglers of childbearing age in the Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Nancy A; Bruce Lauber, T; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Knuth, Barbara A

    2016-10-01

    Fish consumption advisories are issued by the federal government for women of childbearing age (WCBA). These advisories make recommendations about the amount and types of fish that should be consumed to provide the greatest health benefits to women and their children while avoiding risks from chemical contaminants. We used diary methods to study fish consumption patterns of 1395 WCBA in the Great Lakes coastal region who purchased fishing licenses, a group which has significant opportunity to eat larger quantities of fish. Very few members of this group reported exceeding the federal recommendations for total fish consumption (between 3% and 5% depending on assumptions about portion sizes), consumption of canned "white" tuna (0%), or consumption of "do not eat" species (4%). They did report eating more fish on average than recent national study estimates, but they did not report consuming as much fish as is recommended to obtain the greatest health benefits of fish consumption. Only 10-12% of study participants reported eating within the recommended range of 8-12oz. of fish per week, with 84-87% eating less than the recommended amount. Additional efforts are likely needed to encourage WCBA to eat more low-risk fish, even among this group of higher-than-average fish consumers.

  7. Fish consumption among women anglers of childbearing age in the Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Nancy A; Bruce Lauber, T; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Knuth, Barbara A

    2016-10-01

    Fish consumption advisories are issued by the federal government for women of childbearing age (WCBA). These advisories make recommendations about the amount and types of fish that should be consumed to provide the greatest health benefits to women and their children while avoiding risks from chemical contaminants. We used diary methods to study fish consumption patterns of 1395 WCBA in the Great Lakes coastal region who purchased fishing licenses, a group which has significant opportunity to eat larger quantities of fish. Very few members of this group reported exceeding the federal recommendations for total fish consumption (between 3% and 5% depending on assumptions about portion sizes), consumption of canned "white" tuna (0%), or consumption of "do not eat" species (4%). They did report eating more fish on average than recent national study estimates, but they did not report consuming as much fish as is recommended to obtain the greatest health benefits of fish consumption. Only 10-12% of study participants reported eating within the recommended range of 8-12oz. of fish per week, with 84-87% eating less than the recommended amount. Additional efforts are likely needed to encourage WCBA to eat more low-risk fish, even among this group of higher-than-average fish consumers. PMID:27309721

  8. [STATE-OF-THE-ART OF REALIZATION OF THE FERTILITY POTENTIAL IN THE WOMEN OF LATE REPRODUCTIVE AGE].

    PubMed

    Ermolenko, K S; Radzinsky, V E; Rapoport, S I

    2016-01-01

    Biological potential of childbearing in the women of late reproductive age is limited by natural impairment and loss offertility. Despite a considerable progress in clinical application of new diagnostic and reproductive technologies, the problem of infertility remains a most serious challenge. Women's age is one of the main factors responsible for the outcome of in vitro fertilization. The low effectiveness of in vitro fertilization programs is attributed to discoordination in the hypothalamic-pituitary system, depletion of ovarian resources, and deterioration of quality of reproductive material. Bearing in mind the role of melatonin in synchronizing circadian and seasonal biorhythms and regulating physiological and pathological processes, it is natural to suggest its role in the enhancement of efficiency of in vitro fertilization programs for women of late reproductive age. PMID:27172715

  9. [STATE-OF-THE-ART OF REALIZATION OF THE FERTILITY POTENTIAL IN THE WOMEN OF LATE REPRODUCTIVE AGE].

    PubMed

    Ermolenko, K S; Radzinsky, V E; Rapoport, S I

    2016-01-01

    Biological potential of childbearing in the women of late reproductive age is limited by natural impairment and loss offertility. Despite a considerable progress in clinical application of new diagnostic and reproductive technologies, the problem of infertility remains a most serious challenge. Women's age is one of the main factors responsible for the outcome of in vitro fertilization. The low effectiveness of in vitro fertilization programs is attributed to discoordination in the hypothalamic-pituitary system, depletion of ovarian resources, and deterioration of quality of reproductive material. Bearing in mind the role of melatonin in synchronizing circadian and seasonal biorhythms and regulating physiological and pathological processes, it is natural to suggest its role in the enhancement of efficiency of in vitro fertilization programs for women of late reproductive age.

  10. Tax reform, population ageing and the changing labour supply behaviour of married women.

    PubMed

    Apps, P

    1991-01-01

    "The burden of financing retirement incomes in an ageing population is predicted to rise sharply in future decades. This paper investigates the effects of reforms to the Australian tax-benefit system involving a greater reliance on proportional taxation for raising revenue and a more targeted welfare system for cutting government expenditure, in order to reduce expected budget deficits. Estimates of changes in net incomes and hours of work suggest that reforms of this kind shift the tax burden to lower and middle income households with a second earner and that they can have counter-productive labour supply effects. The study explores the impact of projected increases in female work force participation and illustrates the importance of shifts in the labour supply of married women in predicting the fiscal effects of demographic change." PMID:12316986

  11. [Efficacy of general magnetotherapy in conservative therapy of uterine myoma in women of reproductive age].

    PubMed

    Kulishova, T V; Tabashnikova, N A; Akker, L V

    2005-01-01

    Sixty women of the reproductive age with uterine myoma were divided into two groups. Thirty patients of the study group received combined therapy plus general magnetotherapy (GMT). Patients of the control group received only combined treatment. Ultrasound investigation registered a reduction in the size of myoma nodes by 16.7% in the study group, while in the controls myoma size did not change (p < 0.05). 1-year follow-up data for the study group demonstrated no cases of the myoma growth while 16.6% of the controls showed growth of myoma nodes, in 6.6% of them supravaginal myoma amputation was made for rapidly growing myoma. PMID:15759473

  12. [Death certificates of women in childbearing age: search for maternal deaths].

    PubMed

    Gil, Mariana Marcos; Gomes-Sponholz, Flavia Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, there is a lack of complete records on death certificates, and its reliability is questioned, especially for causes attributed to pregnancy and childbirth. We investigated, based on death certificates of women in reproductive age, any fields for identifying maternal deaths. Documentary research, conducted in hospital records. We analyzed in death certificates, maternal and no maternal deaths, inconclusive deaths and hidden deaths. To analyze the underlying causes of death we used ICD 10th Revision. Of the 301 death certificates reviewed, 60% had the fields 43/44 completed, and 40% had these fields blank and/or ignored. We found 58.5% of no maternal deaths, 2% of maternal deaths and 39.5% inconclusive. The analysis of inconclusive deaths allowed us to classify 4.3% as hidden deaths. To overcome the incompletitudes of civil registries, it is necessary that all health professionals be committed to the reliability of the information, so the priority target could be reached.

  13. Experiences and Status of Chinese Rural Women: Differences among Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slimmer, Virginia M.; Kejing, Dai

    In Old China, working women had no rights in such matters as politics, economy, culture, society, and family life. Women were governed by the Chinese feudal society tradition. When "new" China was founded in 1949, working women made up the 7.5 percent of the total work force. By 1983, the number of working women had increased to 36.5 percent. In…

  14. Media Exposure, Body Dissatisfaction, and Disordered Eating in Middle-Aged Women: A Test of the Sociocultural Model of Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of our study was to examine the influence of media exposure on body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in middle-aged women. A sample of 101 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of media exposure, thin-ideal internalization, social comparison, appearance investment, aging anxiety, body…

  15. Recruitment strategies for an acupuncture randomized clinical trial of reproductive age women

    PubMed Central

    Pastore, Lisa M.; Dalal, Parchayi

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objectives To assess the most effective recruitment strategies for an acupuncture clinical trial of reproductive age women. Design The underlying study is an acupuncture randomized clinical trial for an ovulatory disorder that affects approximately 6.5% of reproductive age women (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome). Study participation involved 2 months of intervention and 3 months of follow-up with US$170 compensation. Success of each recruitment method used during the first 37 study months was analyzed. Setting Clinical trial in the Dept. of OB/GYN at the University of Virginia, US. The original geographic residency target was an 80 mile radius around a college town in Virginia (population 155,000), and was expanded to the state capital (population 850,000) in recruitment year 2. Main outcome measures Number of study inquiries (phone calls or emails) over time and by recruitment source. Results In the first 37 months of recruitment (Jan 2006 – Jan 2009), there were 800 study inquiries (582 by phone, 218 by email), of which 749 were screened via telephone questionnaire. The most successful recruitment methods were flyers (28% of inquiries and 26 % of participants) and direct mailing to targeted zip codes (26% and 27%, respectively). The direct mailing cost US$110/inquiry, while the flyers cost less than US$300 in total. Study inquiries were least likely in May and November. Almost all prospective participants (94%) were acupuncture-naïve. Conclusions Posters/flyers and direct mailings proved to be the most successful recruitment methods for this CAM study. Active recruitment with multiple methods was needed for continual enrollment. PMID:19632551

  16. Reduced neural specificity in middle-aged HIV+ women in the absence of behavioral deficits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenglong; Wang, Cuiwei; Leclair, Matthew; Young, Mary; Jiang, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    In the post combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era, the prevalence of mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in individuals with HIV-infection remains high. There is a pressing need to find biomarkers that can aid clinical assessment of HAND, especially in those with mild or no neurocognitive symptoms. Here we hypothesized that a reduction in neural specificity, or the specificity of neuronal tuning, could serve as a potential biomarker of asymptomatic HAND. To directly test this hypothesis, we applied two advanced fMRI techniques to examine the difference in neural specificity between middle-aged HIV+ women and age-matched negative controls, with a focus on the fusiform face area (FFA), a critical region in face processing. Face discrimination performance was assessed outside of the scanner. While the behavioral performance of face discrimination was comparable between the two groups, a reduced neural specificity in the FFA of HIV-positive women was revealed by a novel fMRI analysis technique, local regional heterogeneity analysis, or Hcorr , as well as an established technique, fMRI-rapid adaptation. In contrast, conventional fMRI techniques were insensitive to these early changes. These results suggest that, prior to the onset of detectable behavioral deficits, significant neuronal dysfunctions are already present in HIV+ individuals, and these early neuronal dysfunctions can be detected and assessed via neural specificity, which, in combining with the novel Hcorr technique, has a strong potential to serve as a biomarker of asymptomatic HAND and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26288750

  17. Why do women stop reproducing before menopause? A life-history approach to age at last birth.

    PubMed

    Towner, Mary C; Nenko, Ilona; Walton, Savannah E

    2016-04-19

    Evolutionary biologists have long considered menopause to be a fundamental puzzle in understanding human fertility behaviour, as post-menopausal women are no longer physiologically capable of direct reproduction. Menopause typically occurs between 45 and 55 years of age, but across cultures and history, women often stop reproducing many years before menopause. Unlike age at first reproduction or even birth spacing, a woman nearing the end of her reproductive cycle is able to reflect upon the offspring she already has--their numbers and phenotypic qualities, including sexes. This paper reviews demographic data on age at last birth both across and within societies, and also presents a case study of age at last birth in rural Bangladeshi women. In this Bangladeshi sample, age at last birth preceded age at menopause by an average of 11 years, with marked variation around that mean, even during a period of high fertility. Moreover, age at last birth was not strongly related to age at menopause. Our literature review and case study provide evidence that stopping behaviour needs to be more closely examined as an important part of human reproductive strategies and life-history theory. Menopause may be a final marker of permanent reproductive cessation, but it is only one piece of the evolutionary puzzle. PMID:27022074

  18. Parental age at birth and risk of breast cancer in daughters: a prospective study among US women.

    PubMed

    Colditz, G A; Willett, W C; Stampfer, M J; Hennekens, C H; Rosner, B; Speizer, F E

    1991-01-01

    We examined the relation between parental age at birth and risk of breast cancer among daughters in a population of 118,309 US women who were 30 to 55 years of age in 1976 and without prior diagnosis of cancer. During 1,140,239 person-years of follow-up, we documented 1,799 incident cases of breast cancer in this population. After adjusting for established breast cancer risk factors, we observed only a weak and nonsignificant trend in risk of breast cancer with increasing maternal age at birth and no relation for paternal age. After adjusting for other risk factors, the chi trend was 1.10, P = 0.27 for increasing maternal age at birth. Daughters born to mothers 30 to 34 years of age had an age-adjusted relative risk of breast cancer of 1.11 (95% confidence interval: 0.89, 1.37) compared to daughters born to mothers less than 20 years of age. The weak positive trend in risk with increasing maternal age was present among both pre- and postmenopausal women. These findings suggest that there is little or no association between maternal age and risk of breast cancer, and that paternal age is not related to risk of breast cancer.

  19. Walking or Dancing: Patterns of Physical Activity by Cross-Sectional Age Among U.S. Women

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jessie X.; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Wen, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify age differences in physical activity (PA) participation for women. Methods Data from 3,952 women 25+ from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used to analyze participation patterns for 17 PA types. Results The top five leisure PAs by participation rate for all ages were walking (42%), dancing (20%), treadmill (15%), biking (11%), and yoga (10%). Participation in running, dancing, treadmill, and team sports declined around ages 35 to 44, and participation in household PA, walking, weightlifting, and hiking declined around ages 55 to 64. At age 75+ further substantial decline in most activities occurred. Nativity status was the most important moderator for age-related PA decline. Conclusions Total PA declines with age but significant decline does not occur until ages 55 to 64. Major decline in leisure PA participation starts earlier at ages 35 to 44. While age-related declining patterns differ for different activities, the top five most popular leisure activities are similar for all age groups. PMID:23867628

  20. Urinary Paraben Concentrations and Ovarian Aging among Women from a Fertility Center

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kristen W.; Souter, Irene; Dimitriadis, Irene; Ehrlich, Shelley; Williams, Paige L.; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Parabens are preservatives commonly used in personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and foods. There is documented widespread human exposure to parabens, and some experimental data suggest that they act as estrogenic endocrine disruptors. As far as we are aware, no epidemiologic studies have assessed female reproductive health effects in relation to paraben exposure. Objective: We examined the association of urinary paraben concentrations with markers of ovarian reserve in a prospective cohort study of women seeking fertility treatment at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Methods: Measures of ovarian reserve were day-3 follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), antral follicle count (AFC), and ovarian volume. Paraben concentrations [methylparaben (MP), propylparaben (PP), and butylparaben (BP)] were measured in spot urine samples collected prior to the assessment of outcome measures. We used linear and Poisson regression models to estimate associations of urinary paraben concentrations (in tertiles) with ovarian reserve measures. Results: Of the women enrolled in 2004–2010, 192 had at least one ovarian reserve outcome measured (mean age ± SD, 36.1 ± 4.5 years; range, 21.0–46.7 years). MP and PP were detected in > 99% of urine samples and BP in > 75%. We found a suggestive trend of lower AFC with increasing urinary PP tertiles [mean percent change (95% CI) for tertiles 2 and 3 compared with tertile 1, respectively, were –5.0% (–23.7, 18.4) and –16.3% (–30.8, 1.3); trend p-value (ptrend) = 0.07] as well as higher day-3 FSH with higher urinary PP tertiles [mean change (95% CI) for tertiles 2 and 3 compared with tertile 1 were 1.16 IU/L (–0.26, 2.57) and 1.02 IU/L (–0.40, 2.43); ptrend = 0.16]. We found no consistent evidence of associations between urinary MP or BP and day-3 FSH or AFC, or between urinary MP, PP, or BP and ovarian volume. Conclusions: PP may be associated with diminished ovarian reserve. However, our

  1. Costs of medicines and health care: a concern for Australian women across the ages

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence from Australia and other countries suggests that some individuals struggle to meet the costs of their health care, including medicines, despite the presence of Government subsidies for low-income earners. The aim of our study was to elucidate women’s experiences with the day to day expenses that relate to medicines and their health care. Methods The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH) conducts regular surveys of women in three age cohorts (born 1973–78, 1946–51, and 1921–26). Our data were obtained from free text comments included in surveys 1 to 5 for each cohort. All comments were scanned for mentions of attitudes, beliefs and behaviours around the costs of medicines and health care. Relevant comments were coded by category and themes identified. Results Over 150,000 responses were received to the surveys, and 42,305 (27%) of these responses included free-text comments; 379 were relevant to medicines and health care costs (from 319 individuals). Three broad themes were identified: costs of medicines (33% of relevant comments), doctor visits (49%), and complementary medicines (13%). Age-specific issues with medicine costs included contraceptive medicines (1973–78 cohort), hormone replacement therapy (1946–51 cohort) and osteoporosis medications (1921–26 cohort). Concerns about doctor visits mostly related to reduced (or no) access to bulk-billed medical services, where there are no out-of-pocket costs to the patient, and costs of specialist services. Some women in the 1973–78 and 1946–51 cohorts reported ‘too much income’ to qualify for government health benefits, but not enough to pay for visits to the doctor. In some cases, care and medicines were avoided because of the costs. Personal feelings of embarrassment over financial positions and judgments about bulk-billing practices (‘good ones don’t bulk-bill’) were barriers to service use, as were travel expenses for rural women. Conclusions For

  2. Genetic polymorphisms in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor–signaling pathway and sleep disturbances in middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Ziv-Gal, Ayelet; Flaws, Jodi A.; Mahoney, Megan M.; Miller, Susan R.; Zacur, Howard A.; Gallicchio, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Objective We aimed to determine if selected genetic polymorphisms in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)–signaling pathway and circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) are associated with insomnia and early awakening in middle-aged women. Methods Women aged 45 to 54 years (n=639) were recruited into a middle-aged health study and agreed to complete questionnaires and donate blood samples. Questionnaires were used to assess sleep outcomes. Blood samples were processed for genotyping the selected polymorphisms: AHR (rs2066853), AHR repressor (AHRR) (rs2292596), aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (ARNT) (rs2228099), and circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) (rs1801260). Data were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Results Women heterozygous for the AHRR alleles (GC) had decreased odds of insomnia compared to women homozygous for the AHRR_C allele (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49–0.96). Women with at least one of the AHRR_G or CLOCK_C alleles had significantly decreased odds of insomnia compared to women homozygous for the AHRR_C and CLOCK_T alleles (aOR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.43–0.96). Additionally, women homozygous for the AHRR_G and CLOCK_C alleles had significantly decreased odds of insomnia compared to women homozygous for the AHRR_C and CLOCK_T alleles (aOR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35–0.89). None of the selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or combinations of SNPs were significantly associated with early awakening. Conclusions Selected genetic polymorphisms in the AHR-signaling pathway (i.e., AHRR) and CLOCK may play a role in decreasing the risk for experiencing insomnia during the menopausal transition. PMID:23768840

  3. Survival analysis of time to uptake of modern contraceptives among sexually active women of reproductive age in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adebowale, Ayo Stephen; Morhason-Bello, ImranOludare

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the timing of modern contraceptive uptake among married and never-married women in Nigeria. Design A retrospective cross-sectional study. Data and method We used nationally representative 2013 Demographic and Health Survey data in Nigeria. Modern contraceptive uptake time was measured as the period between first sexual intercourse and first use of a modern contraceptive. Non-users of modern contraceptives were censored on the date of the survey. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were used to determine the rate of uptake. A Cox proportional-hazards model was used to determine variables influencing the uptake at 5% significance level. Participants A total of 33 223 sexually active women of reproductive age. Outcome measure Time of uptake of a modern contraceptive after first sexual intercourse. Results The median modern contraceptive uptake time was 4 years in never-married and 14 years among ever-married women. Significant differences in modern contraceptive uptake existed in respondents’ age, location, education and wealth status. Never-married women were about three times more likely to use a modern contraceptive than ever-married women (aHR=3.24 (95% CI 2.82 to 3.65)). Women with higher education were six times more likely to use a modern contraceptive than those without education (aHR=6.18 (95% CI 5.15 to 7.42)). Conclusions The rate of modern contraceptive uptake is low, and timing of contraceptive uptake during or after first sexual intercourse differed according to marital status. Age and number of children ever born influenced modern contraceptive uptake among the never-married women, but religion and place of residence were associated with the probability of modern contraceptive uptake among ever-married women. PMID:26671948

  4. Treatment outcomes for substance use disorder among women of reproductive age in Massachusetts: A population-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Judith; Derrington, Taletha M.; Belanoff, Candice; Cabral, Howard J.; Babakhanlou-Chase, Hermik; Diop, Hafsatou; Evans, Stephen R.; Jacobs, Hilary; Kotelchuck, Milton

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Longitudinal patterns of treatment utilization and relapse among women of reproductive age with substance use disorder (SUD) are not well known. In this statewide report spanning seven years we describe SUD prevalence, SUD treatment utilization, and differences in subsequent emergency department (ED) use and post-treatment relapse rates by type of treatment: none, ‘acute only’ (detoxification/stabilization), or ‘ongoing’ services. Methods We linked a statewide dataset of hospital discharge, observation stay and ED records with SUD treatment admission records from hospitals and freestanding facilities, and birth/fetal death certificates, in Massachusetts, 2002–2008. We aggregated episodes into individual woman records, identified evidence of SUD and treatment, and tested post-treatment outcomes. Results Nearly 150,000 (8.5%) of 1.7 million Massachusetts women aged 15–49 were identified as SUD-positive. Nearly half of SUD-positive women (71,533 or 48.3%) had evidence of hospital or facility-based SUD treatment; among these, 12% received acute care/detoxification only while 88% obtained ‘ongoing’ treatment. Treatment varied by substance type; women with dual diagnosis and those with opiate use were least likely to receive ‘ongoing’ treatment. Treated women were older and less likely to have a psychiatric history or chronic illness. Women who received ‘acute only’ services were more likely to relapse (12.4% vs. 9.6%) and had a 10% higher rate of ED visits post-treatment than women receiving ‘ongoing’ treatment. Conclusions Many Massachusetts women of reproductive age need but do not receive adequate SUD treatment. ‘Ongoing’ services beyond detoxification/stabilization may reduce the likelihood of post-treatment relapse and/or reliance on the ED for subsequent medical care. PMID:25496707

  5. Urinary iodine concentrations indicate iodine deficiency in pregnant Thai women but iodine sufficiency in their school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Wyss, Laura; Tong, Bennan; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2009-06-01

    The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women. But iodine requirements sharply increase during pregnancy. In this study, our aim was to measure UI in pairs of pregnant women and their school-aged children from the same family, who were sharing meals, to directly assess whether a household food basket that supplies adequate iodine to school-aged children also meets the needs of pregnant women. UI was measured in spot urine samples from pairs (n = 302) of healthy pregnant mothers and their school-aged children in metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand. A dietary questionnaire was completed. The UI [median (range)] in the pregnant women {108 (11-558) microg/L [0.85 (0.086-4.41) micromol/L]} were lower than those of their school-aged children {200 (25-835) microg/L [1.58 (0.20-6.52) micromol/L]} (P < 0.001), indicating optimal iodine status in the children but mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency in their pregnant mothers. The estimated iodine intakes in the 2 groups were in the range of 130-170 microg/d. There was a modest positive correlation between UI in the pairs (r = 0.253; P < 0.01). A higher frequency of seafood meals was a significant predictor of UI in both groups, but household use of iodized salt was not. These data suggest the median UI in school-aged children should not be used as a surrogate for monitoring iodine status in pregnancy in central Thailand; pregnant women should be directly monitored.

  6. Relationship of ethnicity, age, education, and reading level to speed and executive function among HIV+ and HIV- women: the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) Neurocognitive Substudy.

    PubMed

    Manly, Jennifer J; Smith, Clifford; Crystal, Howard A; Richardson, Jean; Golub, Elizabeth T; Greenblatt, Ruth; Robison, Esther; Martin, Eileen M; Young, Mary

    2011-10-01

    Use of neuropsychological tests to identify HIV-associated neurocognitive dysfunction must involve normative standards that are well suited to the population of interest. Norms should be based on a population of HIV-uninfected individuals as closely matched to the HIV-infected group as possible and must include examination of the potential effects of demographic factors on test performance. This is the first study to determine the normal range of scores on measures of psychomotor speed and executive function among a large group of ethnically and educationally diverse HIV-uninfected, high-risk women, as well as their HIV-infected counterparts. Participants (n = 1,653) were administered the Trail Making Test Parts A and B (Trails A and Trails B), the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and the Wide Range Achievement Test-3 (WRAT-3). Among HIV-uninfected women, race/ethnicity accounted for almost 5% of the variance in cognitive test performance. The proportions ofvariance in cognitive test performance accounted for by age (13.8%), years of school (4.1%), and WRAT-3 score (11.5%) were each significant, but did not completely account for the effect of race (3%). HIV-infected women obtained lower scores than HIV-uninfected women on time to complete Trails A and B, SDMT total correct, and SDMT incidental recall score, but after adjustment for age, years of education, racial/ethnic classification, and reading level, only the difference on SDMT total correct remained significant. Results highlight the need to adjust for demographic variables when diagnosing cognitive impairment in HIV-infected women. Advantages of demographically adjusted regression equations developed using data from HIV-uninfected women are discussed.

  7. Age of Partner at First Adolescent Intercourse and Adult Sexual Risk Behavior Among Women

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Adolescent females who have early sexual experiences with older male partners report high rates of sexual risk behavior during adolescence, but little is known about whether these early sexual experiences are associated with adult sexual risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether having first consensual sex with an older partner was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Methods Participants were 292 women (66% African American, mean age = 26 years) attending a public sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic who reported having voluntary vaginal sex before age 18. Participants completed a computerized survey assessing child/adolescent sexual experiences and current adult sexual risk behavior. Results Participants were, on average, 14.6 years at first vaginal intercourse; their partners were, on average, 17.5 years. After controlling for covariates, a greater partner age difference at first intercourse was associated with more episodes of unprotected sex with a steady partner and a greater proportion of episodes of unprotected sex with a steady partner in the past 3 months. Conclusions Having an older first sex partner during adolescence was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Early sexual experiences may be important life events that influence subsequent sexual behavior. Sexual health interventions need to target female adolescents before they initiate sexual intercourse to reduce risk for STDs and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. PMID:21128817

  8. Women, medicine and life in the Middle Ages (500-1500 AD).

    PubMed

    Sabatini, S

    1994-01-01

    The status of women in the Middle Ages was ambiguous, because although they had great responsibility and expertise in practical affairs they were viewed as chattel and inferior to men. They were skilled in cookery, often of highly spiced dishes using a variety of ingredients and flavorings, and they were taught the use of medicinal herbs. They were often skilled in simple first aid, though they were not allowed to practise outside the home. An important exception of this was Hildegarde von Bingen, whose Physica brought her great renown. In it she became the first woman to discuss plants in relation to their medicinal properties. For most people in the Middle Ages, treatment revolved around herbs and diet, together with faith and holy relics and the use of (forbidden) pagan incantation and ritual. Astrology was often a necessary adjunct to treatment. In Salerno, however, medicine had been practised from classical times, and medical training could last for 7 years or more. One of the greatest medieval medical texts is the Tacuinum Sanitatis, which describes in detail the 6 essentials for the preservation of man's health. Several vegetables and herbs are mentioned in connection with the kidneys, the picking and preparation of which are imbued with magic. PMID:7847475

  9. Acute right lower abdominal pain in women of reproductive age: Clinical clues

    PubMed Central

    Hatipoglu, Sinan; Hatipoglu, Filiz; Abdullayev, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study possible gynecological organ pathologies in the differential diagnosis of acute right lower abdominal pain in patients of reproductive age. METHODS: Following Clinical Trials Ethical Committee approval, the retrospective data consisting of physical examination and laboratory findings in 290 patients with sudden onset right lower abdominal pain who used the emergency surgery service between April 2009 and September 2013, and underwent surgery and general anesthesia with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis were collated. RESULTS: Total data on 290 patients were obtained. Two hundred and twenty-four (77.2%) patients had acute appendicitis, whereas 29 (10%) had perforated appendicitis and 37 (12.8%) had gynecological organ pathologies. Of the latter, 21 (7.2%) had ovarian cyst rupture, 12 (4.2%) had corpus hemorrhagicum cyst rupture and 4 (1.4%) had adnexal torsion. Defense, Rovsing’s sign, increased body temperature and increased leukocyte count were found to be statistically significant in the differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis and gynecological organ pathologies. CONCLUSION: Gynecological pathologies in women of reproductive age are misleading in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. PMID:24744594

  10. Effects of rhythmic exercise performed to music on the rheological properties of blood in women over 60 years of age.

    PubMed

    Marchewka, Anna; Filar-Mierzwa, Katarzyna; Dąbrowski, Zbigniew; Teległó, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of motor rehabilitation, in the form of rhythmic exercise to music, on the rheological characteristics of blood in older women. The study included 30 women (65-80 years of age), and the control group was comprised of 10 women of corresponding age. Women from the experimental group were subjected to a five-month rehabilitation program, in the form of rhythmic exercise performed to music (three 30-minute sessions per week); women from the control group were not involved in any regular physical activity. Blood samples from all the women were examined for hematological, rheological, and biochemical parameters prior to the study and five months thereafter. The rehabilitation program was reflected by a significant improvement of erythrocyte count and hematocrit. Furthermore, an improvement of erythrocyte deformability was observed by lower shear stress levels, while no significant changes were noted by the higher shear stress values. The rehabilitation resulted in a marked decrease of the aggregation amplitude while no significant changes were observed in aggregation index and total aggregation half-time. Additionally, the training regimen was reflected by a significant increase in the plasma viscosity, while no significant changes in fibrinogen levels were noted.

  11. Estimates of nondisclosure of cigarette smoking among pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Patricia M; Homa, David; England, Lucinda J; Burley, Kim; Tong, Van T; Dube, Shanta R; Bernert, John T

    2011-02-01

    Although clinic-based studies have used biochemical validation to estimate the percentage of pregnant women who deny smoking but are actually smokers, a population-based estimate of nondisclosure of smoking status in US pregnant women has not been calculated. The authors analyzed data from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and estimated the percentage of 994 pregnant and 3,203 nonpregnant women 20-44 years of age who did not report smoking but had serum cotinine levels that exceeded the defined cut point for active smoking (nondisclosure). Active smoking was defined as self-reporting smoking or having a serum cotinine concentration that exceeded the cut point for active smoking. Overall, 13.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.8, 17.1) of pregnant women and 29.7% (95% CI: 27.3, 32.1) of nonpregnant women were active smokers. Nondisclosure was higher among pregnant active smokers (22.9%, 95% CI: 11.8, 34.6) than among nonpregnant smokers (9.2%, 95% CI: 7.1, 11.2). Among pregnant active smokers, nondisclosure was associated with younger age (20-24 years). Among nonpregnant active smokers, nondisclosure was associated with Mexican-American and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity. Studies and surveillance systems that rely on self-reported smoking status are subject to underestimation of smoking prevalence, especially among pregnant women, and underreporting may vary by demographic characteristics.

  12. Awareness and intake of folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects among Lebanese women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Nasr Hage, Claudine; Jalloul, Maya; Sabbah, Mohamad; Adib, Salim M

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, international recommendations have promoted folic acid supplementation during the periconception period as an effective way of preventing neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the adoption of this recommendation remains insufficient. To assess the awareness and actual intake of folic acid among married Lebanese women aged 18-45 years, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 600 women selected from all five administrative districts in Lebanon, using a multistage cluster sampling procedure. An anonymous questionnaire was completed which covered measures of knowledge and use of folate supplements, as well as demographic, socioeconomic and obstetrical factors. Sixty percent of surveyed women (60%; n = 360) had heard about folic acid. Doctors were the most frequent source of information (61.1%) but only 24.7% of women have been told of the correct period during which folic acid supplementation was useful. Overall, only 6.2% had taken folic acid tablets during the adequate period. Younger age, higher education level and stability/sufficiency of income appeared to be significant predictors of awareness among Lebanese women. Actual folic acid intake was significantly associated with younger age, higher number of pregnancies, planning the last pregnancy and having had that last one after 1990. In Lebanon, the level of folic acid awareness and adequate intake remain relatively low. Several approaches should be used to promote folic acid intake including awareness campaigns, and routine counseling by primary health care physicians on folic acid during preconception visits.

  13. Awareness and intake of folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects among Lebanese women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Nasr Hage, Claudine; Jalloul, Maya; Sabbah, Mohamad; Adib, Salim M

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, international recommendations have promoted folic acid supplementation during the periconception period as an effective way of preventing neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the adoption of this recommendation remains insufficient. To assess the awareness and actual intake of folic acid among married Lebanese women aged 18-45 years, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 600 women selected from all five administrative districts in Lebanon, using a multistage cluster sampling procedure. An anonymous questionnaire was completed which covered measures of knowledge and use of folate supplements, as well as demographic, socioeconomic and obstetrical factors. Sixty percent of surveyed women (60%; n = 360) had heard about folic acid. Doctors were the most frequent source of information (61.1%) but only 24.7% of women have been told of the correct period during which folic acid supplementation was useful. Overall, only 6.2% had taken folic acid tablets during the adequate period. Younger age, higher education level and stability/sufficiency of income appeared to be significant predictors of awareness among Lebanese women. Actual folic acid intake was significantly associated with younger age, higher number of pregnancies, planning the last pregnancy and having had that last one after 1990. In Lebanon, the level of folic acid awareness and adequate intake remain relatively low. Several approaches should be used to promote folic acid intake including awareness campaigns, and routine counseling by primary health care physicians on folic acid during preconception visits. PMID:21210201

  14. Tetanus Immunity among Women Aged 15 to 39 Years in Cambodia: a National Population-Based Serosurvey, 2012.

    PubMed

    Scobie, Heather M; Mao, Bunsoth; Buth, Sokhal; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A; Sørensen, Charlotte; Kannarath, Chheng; Jenks, M Harley; Moss, Delynn M; Priest, Jeffrey W; Soeung, Sann Chan; Deming, Michael S; Lammie, Patrick J; Gregory, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    To monitor progress toward maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination (MNTE) in Cambodia, we conducted a nationwide serosurvey of tetanus immunity in 2012. Multistage cluster sampling was used to select 2,154 women aged 15 to 39 years. Tetanus toxoid antibodies in serum samples were measured by gold-standard double-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAE) and a novel multiplex bead assay (MBA). Antibody concentrations of ≥0.01 IU/ml by DAE or the equivalent for MBA were considered seroprotective. Estimated tetanus seroprotection was 88% (95% confidence interval [CI], 86 to 89%); 64% (95% CI, 61 to 67%) of women had antibody levels of ≥1.0 IU/ml. Seroprotection was significantly lower (P < 0.001) among women aged 15 to 19 years (63%) and 20 to 24 years (87%) than among those aged ≥25 years (96%), among nulliparous women than among parous women (71 versus 97%), and among those living in the western region than among those living in other regions (82 versus 89%). The MBA showed high sensitivity (99% [95% CI, 98 to 99%]) and specificity (92% [95% CI, 88 to 95%]) compared with DAE. Findings were compatible with MNTE in Cambodia (≥80% protection). Tetanus immunity gaps should be addressed through strengthened routine immunization and targeted vaccination campaigns. Incorporating tetanus testing in national serosurveys using MBAs, which can measure immunity to multiple pathogens simultaneously, may be beneficial for monitoring MNTE. PMID:27053629

  15. Reliability of reported breastfeeding duration among reproductive-aged women from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Cupul-Uicab, Lea A.; Gladen, Beth C.; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2010-01-01

    Breastfed children have lower risk of infectious diseases, post-neonatal mortality and chronic diseases later in life. Because epidemiologic studies usually rely on reported history of previous breastfeeding, data on the accuracy and precision of recalled histories allow improved interpretation of the epidemiologic findings. We evaluated the reliability of two reported breastfeeding durations in 567 reproductive-aged women from Mexico using information obtained from nearly identical sets of questions applied at different times after weaning. We compared differences between reports, and examined the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for any and for exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the determinants of poor recall (difference between reports of >20%). The reliability of duration of any breastfeeding was high (ICC 0.94). Overall, differences between reports of duration were usually <1 month, and for 385/567, the difference was ≤0.5 months. Predictors of poorer recall were having ≥4 children, and time between reports of >2 months. The only predictor of better recall was greater age of the baby at weaning. The reliability of EBF duration was lower (ICC 0.49). In this population with a relatively long duration of breastfeeding, reliability of any breast-feeding duration was high. Age, education and previous breastfeeding were not important predictors of recall, in contrast to findings in earlier studies. Consistent with previous reports, however, parity and length of recall were associated with poorer recall of duration of any breastfeeding. Future studies that use reported breastfeeding duration may want to consider the effect of these variables on recall. PMID:19292747

  16. Reliability of reported breastfeeding duration among reproductive-aged women from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cupul-Uicab, Lea A; Gladen, Beth C; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2009-04-01

    Breastfed children have lower risk of infectious diseases, post-neonatal mortality and chronic diseases later in life. Because epidemiologic studies usually rely on reported history of previous breastfeeding, data on the accuracy and precision of recalled histories allow improved interpretation of the epidemiologic findings. We evaluated the reliability of two reported breastfeeding durations in 567 reproductive-aged women from Mexico using information obtained from nearly identical sets of questions applied at different times after weaning. We compared differences between reports, and examined the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for any and for exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the determinants of poor recall (difference between reports of >20%). The reliability of duration of any breastfeeding was high (ICC 0.94). Overall, differences between reports of duration were usually <1 month, and for 385/567, the difference was < or =0.5 months. Predictors of poorer recall were having > or =4 children, and time between reports of >2 months. The only predictor of better recall was greater age of the baby at weaning. The reliability of EBF duration was lower (ICC 0.49). In this population with a relatively long duration of breastfeeding, reliability of any breastfeeding duration was high. Age, education and previous breastfeeding were not important predictors of recall, in contrast to findings in earlier studies. Consistent with previous reports, however, parity and length of recall were associated with poorer recall of duration of any breastfeeding. Future studies that use reported breastfeeding duration may want to consider the effect of these variables on recall.

  17. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  18. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Karakochuk, Crystal D.; Michaux, Kristina D.; Chai, Tze L.; Chan, Benny B.; Whitfield, Kyly C.; Barr, Susan I.; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18–45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100–199 and 150–249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  19. Nutritional Intake and Status of Cobalamin and Folate among Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age in Bhaktapur, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Chandyo, Ram K; Ulak, Manjeswori; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Schneede, Jørn; Ueland, Per M; Strand, Tor A

    2016-06-22

    Cobalamin and folate are especially important for women of childbearing age due to their ubiquitous role in fetal growth and development. Population-based data on cobalamin and folate status are lacking from Nepal, where diets are mostly vegetarian. The objectives of the study were to investigate cobalamin and folate intake and status, and to explore associations with socio-demographics, anthropometrics, anemia, and dietary habits. Following a random selection of geographical clusters, we collected blood samples from 500 non-pregnant women and 24-h dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires from a subsample of 379 women. Twenty percent of the women did not consume any food containing cobalamin during the days recalled, and in 72% nutritional cobalamin intake was <1 μg/day. Eighty-four percent of the women had cobalamin intake lower than the estimated average requirement (EAR) (<2 μg/day). In contrast, only 12% of the women had a folate intake less than 100 μg per day, whereas 62% had intake between 100 and 320 μg. Low plasma cobalamin (<150 pmol/L) was found in 42% of the women, most of whom (88%) also had elevated levels of methylmalonic acid. Our results indicated a high prevalence of nutritional cobalamin deficiency, while folate deficiency was uncommon.

  20. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-03

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization.

  1. Nutritional Intake and Status of Cobalamin and Folate among Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age in Bhaktapur, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Chandyo, Ram K.; Ulak, Manjeswori; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Schneede, Jørn; Ueland, Per M.; Strand, Tor A.

    2016-01-01

    Cobalamin and folate are especially important for women of childbearing age due to their ubiquitous role in fetal growth and development. Population-based data on cobalamin and folate status are lacking from Nepal, where diets are mostly vegetarian. The objectives of the study were to investigate cobalamin and folate intake and status, and to explore associations with socio-demographics, anthropometrics, anemia, and dietary habits. Following a random selection of geographical clusters, we collected blood samples from 500 non-pregnant women and 24-h dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires from a subsample of 379 women. Twenty percent of the women did not consume any food containing cobalamin during the days recalled, and in 72% nutritional cobalamin intake was <1 μg/day. Eighty-four percent of the women had cobalamin intake lower than the estimated average requirement (EAR) (<2 μg/day). In contrast, only 12% of the women had a folate intake less than 100 μg per day, whereas 62% had intake between 100 and 320 μg. Low plasma cobalamin (<150 pmol/L) was found in 42% of the women, most of whom (88%) also had elevated levels of methylmalonic acid. Our results indicated a high prevalence of nutritional cobalamin deficiency, while folate deficiency was uncommon. PMID:27338469

  2. Nutritional Intake and Status of Cobalamin and Folate among Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age in Bhaktapur, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Chandyo, Ram K; Ulak, Manjeswori; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Schneede, Jørn; Ueland, Per M; Strand, Tor A

    2016-01-01

    Cobalamin and folate are especially important for women of childbearing age due to their ubiquitous role in fetal growth and development. Population-based data on cobalamin and folate status are lacking from Nepal, where diets are mostly vegetarian. The objectives of the study were to investigate cobalamin and folate intake and status, and to explore associations with socio-demographics, anthropometrics, anemia, and dietary habits. Following a random selection of geographical clusters, we collected blood samples from 500 non-pregnant women and 24-h dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires from a subsample of 379 women. Twenty percent of the women did not consume any food containing cobalamin during the days recalled, and in 72% nutritional cobalamin intake was <1 μg/day. Eighty-four percent of the women had cobalamin intake lower than the estimated average requirement (EAR) (<2 μg/day). In contrast, only 12% of the women had a folate intake less than 100 μg per day, whereas 62% had intake between 100 and 320 μg. Low plasma cobalamin (<150 pmol/L) was found in 42% of the women, most of whom (88%) also had elevated levels of methylmalonic acid. Our results indicated a high prevalence of nutritional cobalamin deficiency, while folate deficiency was uncommon. PMID:27338469

  3. Candies in hell: women's experiences of violence in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Ellsberg, M; Peña, R; Herrera, A; Liljestrand, J; Winkvist, A

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of domestic violence against women in León, Nicaragua. A survey was carried out among a representative sample of 488 women between the ages of 15-49. The physical aggression sub-scale of the Conflict Tactics Scale was used to identify women suffering abuse. In-depth interviews with formerly battered women were performed and narratives from these interviews were analysed and compared with the survey data. Among ever-married women 52% reported having experienced physical partner abuse at some point in their lives. Median duration of abuse was 5 years. A considerable overlap was found between physical, emotional and sexual violence, with 21% of ever-married women reporting all three kinds of abuse. Thirty-one percent of abused women suffered physical violence during pregnancy. The latency period between the initiation of marriage or cohabitation and violence was short, with over 50% of the battered women reporting that the first act of violence act took place within the first 2 years of marriage. Significant, positive associations were found between partner abuse and problems among children, including physical abuse. Both the survey data and the narrative analysis pointed to extreme jealousy and control as constant features of the abusive relationship. Further, the data indicate that battered women frequently experience feelings of shame, isolation and entrapment which, together with a lack of family and community support, often contribute to women's difficulty in recognizing and disengaging from a violent relationship. These findings are consistent with theoretical conceptualisations of domestic violence developed in other countries, suggesting that, to a large degree, women's experiences of violence transcend specific cultural contexts.

  4. Ageing influence in the evolution of strength and muscle mass in women with fibromyalgia: the al-Ándalus project.

    PubMed

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Aparicio, Virginia A; Santos E Campos, María Aparecida; García-Pinillos, Felipe; Herrador-Colmenero, Manuel; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2015-07-01

    Fibromyalgia is associated with physical disabilities in daily activities. Moreover, patients with fibromyalgia present similar levels of functional capacity and physical condition than elderly people. The aim of this study was to analyse the evolution of strength and muscle mass in women with fibromyalgia along ageing. A total sample of 492 fibromyalgia patients and 279 healthy control women were included in the study. Participants in each group were further divided into four age subgroups: subgroup 1: 30-39 years old, subgroup 2: 40-49 years old, subgroup 3: 50-59 years old and subgroup 4: 60-69 years old. Standardized field-based fitness tests were used to assess muscle strength (30-s chair stand, handgrip strength and arm curl tests). Fibromyalgia patients did not show impairment on muscle mass along ageing, without values of skeletal muscle mass index below 6.76 kg/m(2) in any group. However, in all variables of muscle strength, the fibromyalgia group showed less strength than the healthy group (p < 0.05) for all age groups. As expected, handgrip strength test showed differences along ageing only in the fibromyalgia group (p < 0.001). Age was inversely associated with skeletal muscle mass (r = -0.155, p < 0.01) and handgrip strength (r = -0.230, p < 0.001) in the FM group. Women with fibromyalgia showed a reduction in muscle strength along ageing process, with significantly lower scores than healthy women for each age group, representing a risk of dynapenia.

  5. Bioidentical hormones, menopausal women, and the lure of the "natural" in U.S. anti-aging medicine.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Jennifer R; Flatt, Michael A; Settersten, Richard A

    2015-05-01

    In 2002, the Women's Health Initiative, a large-scale study of the safety of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for women conducted in the United States, released results suggesting that use of postmenopausal HRT increased women's risks of stroke and breast cancer. In the years that followed, as rates of HRT prescription fell, another hormonal therapy rose in its wake: bioidentical hormone replacement therapy (BHRT). Anti-aging clinicians, the primary prescribers of BHRT, tout it as a safe and effective alternative to treat menopausal symptoms and, moreover, as a preventative therapy for age-related diseases and ailments. Through in-depth interviews with 31 U.S.-based anti-aging clinicians and 25 female anti-aging patients, we analyze attitudes towards BHRT. We illustrate how these attitudes reveal broader contemporary values, discourses, and discomforts with menopause, aging, and biomedicine. The attraction to and promise of BHRT is rooted in the idea that it is a "natural" therapy. BHRT is given both biomedical and embodied legitimacy by clinicians and patients because of its purported ability to become part of the body's "natural" processes. The normative assumption that "natural" is inherently "good" not only places BHRT beyond reproach, but transforms its use into a health benefit. The clinical approach of anti-aging providers also plays a role by validating patients' embodied experiences and offering a "holistic" solution to their symptoms, which anti-aging patients see as a striking contrast to their experiences with conventional biomedical health care. The perceived virtues of BHRT shed light on the rhetoric of anti-aging medicine and a deeply complicated relationship between conventional biomedicine, hormonal technologies, and women's bodies.

  6. Polysomnographic evaluation of sleep quality and quantitative variables in women as a function of mood, reproductive status, and age.

    PubMed

    Orff, Henry J; Meliska, Charles J; Lopez, Ana; Martinez, Fernando; Sorenson, Diane; Parry, Barbara L

    2012-12-01

    This archival cross-sectional investigation examined the impact of mood, reproductive status (RS), and age on polysomnographic (PSG) measures in women. PSG was performed on 73 normal controls (NC) and 64 depressed patients (DP), in the course of studies in menstruating, pregnant, postpartum, and peri- and postmenopausal women. A two-factor, between-subjects multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to test the main effects of reproductive status (RS: menstrual vs pregnant vs postpartum vs menopausal) and diagnosis (NC vs DP), and their interaction, on PSG measures. To further refine the analyses, a two-factor, between subjects MANOVA was used to test the main effects of age (19 to 27 vs 28 to 36 vs 37 to 45 vs 46+ years) and diagnosis on the PSG data. Analyses revealed that in DP women, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep percentage was significantly elevated relative to NC across both RS and age. Significant differences in sleep efficiency, Stage 1%, and REM density were associated with RS; differences in total sleep time, Stage 2 percentage, and Stage 4 percentage were associated with differences in age. Both RS and age were related to differences in sleep latency, Stage 3 percentage, and Delta percentage. Finally, wake after sleep onset time, REM percentage, and REM latency did not vary with respect to RS or age. Overall, this investigation examined three major variables (mood, RS, and age) that are known to impact sleep in women. Of the variables, age appeared to have the greatest impact on PSG sleep measures, reflecting changes occurring across the lifespan.

  7. Alcohol Use and Binge Drinking Among Women of Childbearing Age: United States, 2011-2013

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Community Preventive Services Task Force. TABLE 1. Estimated percentages* and adjusted prevalence ratios of nonpregnant women ... years) was selected as the referent. TABLE 2. Estimated percentages* and adjusted prevalence ratios of pregnant women ...

  8. Demographic Factors Associated with Insecticide Treated Net use Among Nigerian Women and Children

    PubMed Central

    Auta, Asa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Malaria constitutes a major health problem, with children and pregnant women being the most vulnerable to its morbidity and mortality. Aim: To determine the demographic factors associated with the use of insecticide-treated nets among children and pregnant women in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was based on data drawn from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2008 on the use of insecticide-treated nets among women and children. The survey was conducted in 34070 households and a total of 10,724 women aged 15-49 years participated in the survey. Data were entered into Minitab version 15 and the chi-square test for independence was performed to show association between variables. Results: The results revealed that 49.8% of children and 44% of pregnant women present in households that owe insecticide-treated nets slept under them on the night before the survey. Sleeping under an insecticide-treated nets among children was associated with (P<0.05) the age of a child, geopolitical zone, and wealth quintile while the use of insecticide-treated nets among pregnant women was associated with the education level and wealth quintile of households. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that some demographic factors are associated with the use of ITNs among children and pregnant women in Nigeria. PMID:22393547

  9. Normative data in women aged 85 and older: verbal fluency, digit span, and the CVLT-II short form.

    PubMed

    Fine, Eric M; Kramer, Joel H; Lui, Li-Yung; Yaffe, Kristine; Study Of Osteoporotic Fractures Sof Research Group

    2012-01-01

    Individuals aged 85 years and above (i.e., the oldest old) represent the fastest growing segment of the US population and are at increased risk of developing dementia. This represents an important challenge for the clinical neuropsychologist, as the extant normative data on neuropsychological measures remain relatively limited for this age group. Therefore the aim of the present study was to characterize the performance effects of age and education in a large, well-characterized sample of women between the ages of 85 and 95 years on the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) Short Form (Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 2000), verbal fluency tasks, and the WAIS-III Digit Span Test (Wechsler, 1997 ). In order to minimize the likelihood that women with an incipient neurodegenerative process were included in the final normative sample, we applied regression-based change scores to identify and exclude women who evidenced a statistically significant decline on a global cognitive screening measure over a 20-year interval. The results of our analysis indicate varying influence of age and education on these measures and we provide tables with descriptive statistics stratified by both age and education. Findings from the present normative study are discussed within the context of "robust" longitudinal normative data.

  10. Normative data in women aged 85 and older: verbal fluency, digit span, and the CVLT-II short form.

    PubMed

    Fine, Eric M; Kramer, Joel H; Lui, Li-Yung; Yaffe, Kristine; Study Of Osteoporotic Fractures Sof Research Group

    2012-01-01

    Individuals aged 85 years and above (i.e., the oldest old) represent the fastest growing segment of the US population and are at increased risk of developing dementia. This represents an important challenge for the clinical neuropsychologist, as the extant normative data on neuropsychological measures remain relatively limited for this age group. Therefore the aim of the present study was to characterize the performance effects of age and education in a large, well-characterized sample of women between the ages of 85 and 95 years on the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) Short Form (Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 2000), verbal fluency tasks, and the WAIS-III Digit Span Test (Wechsler, 1997 ). In order to minimize the likelihood that women with an incipient neurodegenerative process were included in the final normative sample, we applied regression-based change scores to identify and exclude women who evidenced a statistically significant decline on a global cognitive screening measure over a 20-year interval. The results of our analysis indicate varying influence of age and education on these measures and we provide tables with descriptive statistics stratified by both age and education. Findings from the present normative study are discussed within the context of "robust" longitudinal normative data. PMID:22224509

  11. Elder Care, Multiple Role Involvement, and Well-Being Among Middle-Aged Men and Women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kikuzawa, Saeko

    2015-12-01

    Japan's population is aging at an unprecedented rate. Combined with the tradition of family responsibility for elder care, this rapid population aging has resulted in middle-aged Japanese people being much more likely today than in past decades to face the responsibility of caring for their elderly parents alongside their other major roles. Using nationally representative Japanese data, this study assessed the individual and combined implications of caregiving and other role involvements for the well-being of middle-aged men and women. Some evidence was found for deleterious psychological consequences of the caregiver role. However, in contrast to expectations, the interaction between the roles of caregiver and worker was positively associated with well-being among both men and women. The results suggest the importance of middle-aged adults being able to keep working when they have to care for their aging parents. Another important finding was significant gender differences in the psychological consequences of holding multiple family- and work-related roles and in combining these with the caregiver role. Further analysis showed that the spousal role was also negatively associated with depressive symptoms and positively associated with satisfaction for men but not for women. Gender differences in the findings appear to reflect the significant gender asymmetry in role experiences in Japan. PMID:26467034

  12. Informalisation of women's work: consequence for fertility and child schooling in urban Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kazi, S; Sathar, Z A

    1993-01-01

    The preliminary analysis of data from the 1990-91 Pakistan Household Survey (PIHS) for urban areas yields a profile of working urban women by educational level, sector of the economy, and child's educational activities. Between 1971 and 1988 labor force participation rates (LFPR) for women ranged between 3% and 5%. The hiring of women in temporary positions allows for lower costs, less benefits, and freedom from restrictive legislation. The PIHS data on 4711 households and 2513 urban, ever married women aged 15-49 years indicates a LFPR for women of 17%. Under 20% work in the formal sector. Most work in their homes as unpaid family workers or home-based income earning producers. Many official statistics exclude these women. Informal sector workers in the PIHS data, such as low status domestic workers, receive average wages of 609 rupees monthly compared to home-based workers wages of 240 rupees. Formal sector female workers have completed an average of 11.4 years of schooling, while informal workers have received only 6.5 years. 77% of informal workers have had no formal education compared to 62% of at home mothers and 28% of formal sector workers. Many employed women are single household heads or with an unemployed spouse. Formal sector working women marry 3.4 years later than informal sector women and 2.6 years later than nonworking women. Nonworking women have the lowest contraceptive use followed by informal sector women. Most women regardless of work status desire four children, but achieved fertility was lower among professional and white collar workers. Informal sector women had higher fertility than nonworking women. Preliminary multivariate analyses supported this pattern of work status related fertility. The chances of children attending school was higher among formal sector workers. Girls with nonworking mothers had better chances of gaining an education.

  13. Does Mother Know Best? An Actor-Partner Model of College-Age Women's Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, Janice L.; Kam, Jennifer A.; Katz, Mira L.; Roberto, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the associations of perceived threat, perceived efficacy, and parent-child communication with the extent to which college-age women received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Daughters and their mothers completed a survey about the HPV vaccine (N = 182 dyads). The results showed that mothers' perceived self-efficacy to…

  14. Age, Psychological Maturity, and the Transition to Motherhood among English-Speaking Australian Women in a Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camberis, Anna-Lisa; McMahon, Catherine A.; Gibson, Frances L.; Boivin, Jacky

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the trend toward delayed parenthood, this study examines whether older maternal age is associated with greater psychological maturity and whether greater psychological maturity provides any adaptive benefit during the transition to motherhood. A sample of 240 predominantly English-speaking Australian women in a metropolitan area…

  15. Summary of the Findings from a Study About Cigarette Smoking Among Teen-Age Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Inc., New York, NY.

    This paper presents the major results of a study for the American Cancer Society on cigarette smoking among teen-age girls and young women, and findings relevant to the prevention and quitting of smoking. The four major trends found in this study are: (1) a dramatic increase in cigarette smoking among females; (2) an intellectual awareness of the…

  16. An Educational Intervention for Reducing the Intake of Dietary Fats and Cholesterol among Middle-Aged and Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    Middle aged and older women (n=14) attended a seminar on reducing saturated fat and cholesterol intake. Their 4-month follow-up reflections showed they adopted an average of 14.5 of 34 dietary practices. Those with higher adoption scores tended to be older and had less education and lower income. (SK)

  17. Are Men Aging as Oaks and Women as Reeds? A Behavioral Hypothesis to Explain the Gender Paradox of French Centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Balard, Frédéric; Beluche, Isabelle; Romieu, Isabelle; Willcox, Donald Craig; Robine, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, several studies involving French centenarians have shown a gender paradox in old age. Even if women are more numerous in old age and live longer than men, men are in better physical and cognitive health, are higher functioning, and have superior vision. If better health should lead to a longer life, why are men not living longer than women? This paper proposes a hypothesis based on the differences in the generational habitus between men and women who were born at the beginning of the 20th century. The concept of generational habitus combines the generation theory of Mannheim with the habitus concept of Bourdieu based on the observation that there exists a way of being, thinking, and doing for each generation. We hypothesized that this habitus still influences many gender-linked behaviours in old age. Men, as “oaks,” seem able to delay the afflictions of old age until a breaking point, while women, as “reeds,” seem able to survive despite an accumulation of health deficits. PMID:22175018

  18. USE OF COMMERCIAL TELEPHONE DIRECTORY FOR OBTAINING A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using Commercial Telephone Directories to Obtain a Population-Based Sample for Mail Survey of Women of Reproductive Age

    Danelle T. Lobdella, Germaine M. Buckb, John M. Weinerc, Pauline Mendolaa

    aUnited States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and ...

  19. The Impact of a "Promotora" on Increasing Routine Chronic Disease Prevention among Women Aged 40 and Older at the U.S.-Mexico Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Jennifer B.; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Papenfuss, Mary; Fernandez, Maria Lourdes; Meister, Joel; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2004-01-01

    A randomized controlled intervention tested the effectiveness of a community health worker (CHW) program in increasing compliance with annual preventive exams among uninsured Hispanic women living in a rural U.S.-Mexico border area. During 1999-2000, household surveys were administered to women aged 40 and older. Uninsured women not receiving…

  20. Susceptibility to cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19 and age-dependent differences in levels of rubella antibodies among pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Barlinn, Regine; Vainio, Kirsti; Samdal, Helvi Holm; Nordbø, Svein Arne; Nøkleby, Hanne; Dudman, Susanne G

    2014-05-01

    Infections caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV), parvovirus B19 (B19), and rubella can lead to serious complications in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility to CMV, B19, and rubella antibodies in pregnant women in Norway. Consecutive sera samples were collected from pregnant women in two different regions in Norway. Sera were collected from age groups; ≤19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years old. Of the 2,000 pregnant women tested, anti-CMV IgG was positive in 62.8% anti-parvovirus B19 IgG in 59.7% and anti-rubella IgG in 94.4%. CMV IgG susceptibility has decreased in pregnant women less than 30 years of age, from 60% in a study conducted in 1973-1974 to 37.2% in present study. There was a significant difference in CMV IgG seropositivity rate between the two regions (58.6% and 67.1%). Serum levels of rubella IgG was lowest in age group 25-29 years with a positivity rate of 91.0%. Women born before vaccination with two doses of MMR started, had both a higher positivity rate and significantly higher levels of rubella antibody titre, 96.1% and 82.2 IU/ml compared to those born after 92.9% and 41.7 IU/ml. Significantly lower anti-rubella IgG titre found in the youngest age groups highlights the need for continued antenatal screening. A considerable increase in anti-CMV-IgG seropositivity rate was observed and might be associated with higher rate of breastfeeding and a higher percentage attending day-care centres.

  1. Factors influencing adherence to regular exercise in middle-aged women: a qualitative study to inform clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background About half of women decrease their regular exercise during middle age. Concurrently, they experience a reduction in basal metabolic rate and loss of lean muscle as they transition to menopause. The combined effects place these women at increased risk for body weight gain and associated co-morbidities. Further research is required to better assess their barriers to regular exercise and to develop more applied knowledge aimed to improve the applicability of clinical interventions aimed at this population. The main aim of this study was to identify enablers and barriers influencing adherence to regular exercise in middle-aged women who exercise. Methods An interpretive description qualitative study was conducted using individual interviews. The two key questions were focused on planning to engage in physical activity and succeeding or planning to engage in physical activity and not succeeding. Inductive content analysis was used. Results Fifty-three women interviewed were aged 40–62 years and experiencing mild to moderate menopausal symptoms. Six broad themes influencing adhering to regular exercise were: routine, intrinsic motivation, biophysical issues, psychosocial commitments, environmental factors, and resources. Common sub-themes were identified as enabling factors: daily structure that incorporated physical activity (broad theme routine), anticipated positive feelings associated with physical activity (intrinsic), and accountability to others (psychosocial). Other common sub-themes identified as barriers were disruptions in daily structure (routine), competing demands (routine) and self-sacrifice (psychosocial). Conclusions The most common barrier middle-aged women describe as interfering with adhering to regular exercise was attributable to the demands of this life stage at home and with others. Lack of time and menopausal symptoms were not identified as the common barriers. To support women to adhere to regular exercise, healthcare professionals

  2. Marital Age Disparity Among Orphaned Young Women and Their Husbands: A Mixed Methods Study in Rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Iritani, Bonita J; Luseno, Winnie; Hartman, Shane; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Hallfors, Denise Dion

    2016-10-01

    Our study reports the results from a mixed method study comparing age-similar (AS) marriages of orphaned young women to age disparate (AD) marriages, defined as spousal age difference of 5 or more years. Research in Zimbabwe and sub-Saharan Africa suggests that AD sexual relationships between older men and young women increase the risk for HIV but few studies have examined this association among married couples or explored why young women marry much older men. In this study, a total of 35 orphaned young women aged 17-26 years in rural Zimbabwe participated in semi-structured interviews during 2012-2013. Twenty-four were in AD marriages and 11 AS. All had participated in a 5-year HIV prevention trial, during which they had married and dropped out of school. We examined two research questions: were AD wives more likely than AS to cite economic considerations as a reason to marry, and were AD marriages associated with different health and economic outcomes compared to AS? Our results showed that the reasons the women married were essentially the same among the two groups; economic considerations for marriage were uncommon. Nevertheless, AD wives generally fared somewhat better than AS wives on economic and well-being measures. HIV prevalence was similar; however, the AD group accounted for all five cases of herpes simplex virus-2. Findings suggest the complexity of sexual and reproductive health in rural Africa, where AD marriages are common and accepted. The challenge for primary prevention is to develop strategies to mitigate the risk of sexually transmitted infections, as well as the potential abuse of young women, within the appropriate cultural context. PMID:27614653

  3. A Comparison of the Weights and Ages of Women and Men on Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perdue, Lauren; Silverstein, Brett

    Eating disorders are more common among women than men, perhaps because of the present cultural emphasis on thinness for women. Television is one potential communicator of this thin standard of attractiveness. To assess how men and women are presented on television, 139 male characters and 82 female characters from 33 popular television shows were…

  4. Influences of Natural Menopause on Psychological Characteristics and Symptoms of Middle-Aged Healthy Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Karen A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated psychological and symptom consequences of natural menopause in longitudinal study of 541 initially premenopausal healthy women. Findings 3 years later from 101 menopausal women and control group of 101 premenopausal women revealed that natural menopause led to few changes in psychological characteristics, with only decline in…

  5. Age and Sleep Disturbances Among American Men And Women: Data From the U.S. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Grandner, Michael A.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Patel, Nirav P.; Jackson, Nicholas J.; Gehrman, Philip R.; Pien, Grace; Perlis, Michael L.; Xie, Dawei; Sha, Daohang; Weaver, Terri; Gooneratne, Nalaka S.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective: Explore the prevalence of sleep-related complaints across age groups, examining effects of sex, general health, and depressed mood. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Setting: Epidemiologic. Participants: Complete-case analysis included 155,877 participants who responded to questions related to Self-Reported Sleep Disturbance (SLEEPDIST) and Self-Reported Tiredness/Lack of Energy (TIREDNESS). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Outcomes were self-reported complaints in response to survey questions assessing SLEEPDIST and TIREDNESS, dichotomized as reporting a complaint < 6 versus ≥ 6 nights or days, respectively, in a 2-wk period. Predictors were age, general health, and depressed mood. All analyses were adjusted for race/ethnicity, income, education, and time since last medical checkup. Across all age groups, women reported more SLEEPDIST and TIREDNESS. Poor general health, mild depressed mood, and moderate/severe depressed mood were associated with SLEEPDIST and TIREDNESS. Both SLEEPDIST and TIREDNESS generally declined across the life span, with fewest endorsements in respondents older than 80 yr. For SLEEPDIST, odds ratios (ORs, reference = 80+) declined from age 18-54 yr, rose slightly, and then declined again after age 59 yr in men. The pattern was similar for women, except a more marked rise was noted from age 40-59 yr. The pattern was similar for TIREDNESS. Conclusions: Advancing age was not associated with increased Self-Reported Sleep Disturbance or Self-Reported Tiredness/Lack of Energy. These results suggest that the often-reported increase in sleep problems with age is a nonlinear phenomenon, mediated by factors other than physiologic aging. Citation: Grandner MA; Martin JL; Patel NP; Jackson NJ; Gehrman PR; Pien G; Perlis ML; Xie D; Sha D; Weaver T; Gooneratne NS. Age and sleep disturbances among American men and women: data from the U.S. behavioral

  6. Hormonal and metabolic response in middle-aged women to moderate physical effort during aerobics.

    PubMed

    Charmas, Małgorzata; Opaszowski, Benedykt H; Charmas, Robert; Rózańska, Dorota; Jówko, Ewa; Sadowski, Jerzy; Dorofeyeva, Lena

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the metabolic and hormone response in middle-aged women to acute physical aerobic exercise accompanied by music, the so-called "aerobics." The experiment (single 60-minute aerobics session) included 11 women aged between 30 and 50. The following variables were determined in blood samples collected from the participants four times (in fasting state [I], before exercise [II], after exercise [III], and after 12 hours of rest [IV]): concentration of lactic acid, glucose, free fatty acids, leptin, insulin, growth hormone, testosterone, and cortisol. Furthermore, the measurements included body mass before and after the exercise, and body temperature was taken in the auditory canal and on the forehead. The heart rate was registered during the exercise on a continuous basis. In all cases, the heart rate did not reach its maximum level, and on average, it amounted to approximately 70% of the maximum pulse rate. Therefore, this effort can be considered as submaximal. In all cases, we observed loss of body mass (from 0.2 to 0.7 kg) (p > 0.02) increase in the temperature measured on forehead. Significantly, accompanied by nonsignificant increase in the temperature measured on the tympanic membrane was registered. Single loading gives rise to change in hormone and metabolic profiles. Furthermore, a decrease in blood concentration of glucose before and after aerobics (p > 0.001) could be observed, and if the determination taken at measurement IV of glucose in blood is taken into consideration, then the value taken in measurement I is significantly the highest in relation to other measurements. Concentration of free fatty acids were increased (p > 0.002) after exercise and remained on the same level until the following day. The levels of insulin were significantly decreased, but growth hormone levels were increased. The exercise had no impact on testosterone concentration, whereas average blood concentration of leptin in the successive

  7. The prevalence and determinants of Chinese medicine use by Australian women: analysis of a cohort of 10,287 women aged 56-61 years.

    PubMed

    Sibbritt, David; Adams, Jon; Murthy, Vijayendra

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the factors associated with Chinese medicine use amongst a sample of 10,287 Australian women aged 56-61 years. Data was obtained from a cross-sectional postal questionnaire conducted in 2007, this being the fifth survey of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. This representative sample of 10,287 women was randomly selected from the Health Insurance Commission (Medicare) database. The outcome measure was the use of Chinese medicine in the previous 12 months. The predictive factors included demographics, health status measures and health service utilization measures. Statistical analyses included univariate chi-square and ANOVA tests and backward stepwise multiple logistic regression modelling. The use of Chinese medicine amongst women aged 56-61 years appears to be strongly influenced by their country of birth, consultation with a range of CAM practitioners, and the use of some self-prescribed CAM. Interestingly, severe tiredness was the only symptom or diagnosis that predicted Chinese medicine use. Given the substantial prevalence of Chinese medicine use and the finding that the use of Chinese medicine is heavily integrated alongside the use of many other CAM and conventional treatments, it is imperative for the safety of patients that health professionals (across complementary and conventional healthcare) fully recognise the possible Chinese medicine use amongst their practice populations. In order to help inform relevant practice and policy development it is also important that future research further examining women's decision-making, motivations and evaluations regarding Chinese medicine use considers such issues within the context of broader CAM and conventional health care utilization. PMID:23548119

  8. The prevalence and determinants of Chinese medicine use by Australian women: analysis of a cohort of 10,287 women aged 56-61 years.

    PubMed

    Sibbritt, David; Adams, Jon; Murthy, Vijayendra

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the factors associated with Chinese medicine use amongst a sample of 10,287 Australian women aged 56-61 years. Data was obtained from a cross-sectional postal questionnaire conducted in 2007, this being the fifth survey of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. This representative sample of 10,287 women was randomly selected from the Health Insurance Commission (Medicare) database. The outcome measure was the use of Chinese medicine in the previous 12 months. The predictive factors included demographics, health status measures and health service utilization measures. Statistical analyses included univariate chi-square and ANOVA tests and backward stepwise multiple logistic regression modelling. The use of Chinese medicine amongst women aged 56-61 years appears to be strongly influenced by their country of birth, consultation with a range of CAM practitioners, and the use of some self-prescribed CAM. Interestingly, severe tiredness was the only symptom or diagnosis that predicted Chinese medicine use. Given the substantial prevalence of Chinese medicine use and the finding that the use of Chinese medicine is heavily integrated alongside the use of many other CAM and conventional treatments, it is imperative for the safety of patients that health professionals (across complementary and conventional healthcare) fully recognise the possible Chinese medicine use amongst their practice populations. In order to help inform relevant practice and policy development it is also important that future research further examining women's decision-making, motivations and evaluations regarding Chinese medicine use considers such issues within the context of broader CAM and conventional health care utilization.

  9. The assessment of combined first trimester screening in women of advanced maternal age in an Asian cohort

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sarah Weiling; Barrett, Angela Natalie; Gole, Leena; Tan, Wei Ching; Biswas, Arijit; Tan, Hak Koon; Choolani, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION First trimester screening (FTS) is a validated screening tool that has been shown to achieve detection rates of 84%–90% for trisomies 21, 18 and 13. However, its effectiveness for different maternal ages has not been assessed. The present study aimed to assess the performance of FTS in an Asian population, and to compare its effectiveness in older (≥ 35 years) and younger (< 35 years) women. The potential use of noninvasive prenatal test (NIPT) as a contingent screening test is also examined. METHODS Data on cases of FTS performed on singleton pregnancies over a six-year period was collated from two Singapore maternal centres, National University Hospital and Singapore General Hospital. Cases that had a 1:250 risk of trisomy were considered to be screen-positive. Pregnancy outcomes were obtained from birth records or karyotype test results. RESULTS From 10,289 FTS cases, we obtained a sensitivity of 87.8%, a specificity of 97.6%, a false positive rate of 2.4% and a false negative rate of 0.06% for the detection of aneuploidy. The overall detection rate for trisomy 21 was 86.5%–85.7% for older women and 87.5% for younger women. The mean number of invasive tests required per case of trisomy 21 was 9.3 in younger women, 8.6 in older women and 13.5 in women with intermediate risk (1:250–1,000). CONCLUSION While the performance of FTS was similar in younger and older women, more invasive procedures were required to diagnose trisomy 21 in women with intermediate risk. It may be advantageous to offer contingent NIPT to this group of women to reduce the risk of iatrogenic fetal loss. PMID:25640099

  10. Body mass index of married Bangladeshi women: trends and association with socio-demographic factors.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M G; Bharati, P; Aik, Saw; Lestrel, Pete E; Abeer, Almasri; Kamarul, T

    2012-07-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is a good indicator of nutritional status in a population. In underdeveloped countries like Bangladesh, this indicator provides a method that can assist intervention to help eradicate many preventable diseases. This study aimed to report on changes in the BMI of married Bangladeshi women who were born in the past three decades and its association with socio-demographic factors. Data for 10,115 married and currently non-pregnant Bangladeshi women were extracted from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). The age range of the sample was 15-49 years. The mean BMI was 20.85 ± 3.66 kg/m(2), and a decreasing tendency in BMI was found among birth year cohorts from 1972 to 1992. It was found that the proportion of underweight females has been increasing in those born during the last 20 years of the study period (1972 to 1992). Body mass index increased with increasing age, education level of the woman and her husband, wealth index, age at first marriage and age at first delivery, and decreased with increasing number of ever-born children. Lower BMI was especially pronounced among women who were living in rural areas, non-Muslims, employed women, women not living with their husbands (separated) or those who had delivered at home or non-Caesarean delivery. PMID:22340969

  11. Taking it one day at a time: African American women aging with HIV and co-morbidities.

    PubMed

    Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Dillaway, Heather; Hamilton, Pilar; Young, Mary; Goparaju, Lakshmi

    2014-07-01

    Self-managing HIV/AIDS presents challenges for anyone infected. These challenges may be further complicated for older HIV-infected African American women who acquired the disease at younger ages and now have co-morbidities. Little is known regarding how women's age identity, social responsibilities, co-morbidities, and romantic relationship status influence their HIV self-management. Five focus groups were conducted in Washington DC, with HIV-positive African American women aged 52-65. Topics included HIV and co-morbidity self-management, social support needs, medication adherence, and future plans for old age. A constant comparison approach was applied during data analysis. Co-morbidities, including diabetes and hypertension, were perceived to be more difficult to self-manage than HIV. This difficulty was not attributed to aging but to daily struggles such as lack of income and/or health insurance, an inflexible work schedule, and loneliness. Social responsibilities, including caring for family, positively impacted participants' ability to self-manage HIV by serving as motivation to stay healthy in order to continue to help family members. In contrast, inflexible work schedules negatively impacted women's ability to sustain medication adherence. Overall, this study demonstrates that HIV and co-morbidity self-management are inextricably linked. We can no longer afford to view engagement in HIV care as a single-disease issue and hope to attain optimal health and well-being in our HIV-affected populations. Optimal HIV self-management must be framed within a larger context that simultaneously addresses HIV and co-morbidities, while considering how social and cultural factors uniquely intersect to influence older African American women's self-management strategies.

  12. Association of Age at Menarche With Increasing Number of Fibroids in a Cohort of Women Who Underwent Standardized Ultrasound Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Velez Edwards, Digna R.; Baird, Donna D.; Hartmann, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    Age at menarche has been associated with several reproductive conditions, and frequencies differ by race. Racial disparities also impact fibroid risk. We comprehensively examined the relationship between age at menarche, fibroid characteristics, and race. Women were enrolled in Right From the Start (2001–2010), a multistate study that systematically screened for fibroids during very early pregnancy. Endovaginal ultrasounds were conducted, and fibroid presence, number, type, volume, and diameter were recorded according to standardized definitions. Generalized estimating equations adjusted for correlations within study site were used to estimate associations between age at menarche and fibroid status and to test for interactions with race. Of 5,023 participants, 11% had a fibroid. Seven percent underwent menarche before 11 years of age and 11% at 15 years or later. We did not observe interactions between age at menarche and race. A 1-year increase in age at menarche was inversely associated with fibroids (adjusted risk ratio = 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.82, 0.91). Early age at menarche had a similar positive association in individual analyses with fibroid size, type, and location but was stronger for multiple fibroids (adjusted risk ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.68, 0.83). Our findings confirm other reports of an association between age at menarche and fibroid development (regardless of characteristics), demonstrate no effect modification by race, and suggest a stronger association for women with multiple fibroids, possibly reflecting a stronger association for early-onset disease. PMID:23817917

  13. Association of age at menarche with increasing number of fibroids in a cohort of women who underwent standardized ultrasound assessment.

    PubMed

    Velez Edwards, Digna R; Baird, Donna D; Hartmann, Katherine E

    2013-08-01

    Age at menarche has been associated with several reproductive conditions, and frequencies differ by race. Racial disparities also impact fibroid risk. We comprehensively examined the relationship between age at menarche, fibroid characteristics, and race. Women were enrolled in Right From the Start (2001-2010), a multistate study that systematically screened for fibroids during very early pregnancy. Endovaginal ultrasounds were conducted, and fibroid presence, number, type, volume, and diameter were recorded according to standardized definitions. Generalized estimating equations adjusted for correlations within study site were used to estimate associations between age at menarche and fibroid status and to test for interactions with race. Of 5,023 participants, 11% had a fibroid. Seven percent underwent menarche before 11 years of age and 11% at 15 years or later. We did not observe interactions between age at menarche and race. A 1-year increase in age at menarche was inversely associated with fibroids (adjusted risk ratio = 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.82, 0.91). Early age at menarche had a similar positive association in individual analyses with fibroid size, type, and location but was stronger for multiple fibroids (adjusted risk ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.68, 0.83). Our findings confirm other reports of an association between age at menarche and fibroid development (regardless of characteristics), demonstrate no effect modification by race, and suggest a stronger association for women with multiple fibroids, possibly reflecting a stronger association for early-onset disease. PMID:23817917

  14. Marital happiness and sleep disturbances in a multi-ethnic sample of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Troxel, Wendy M; Buysse, Daniel J; Hall, Martica; Matthews, Karen A

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that divorced individuals, particularly women, have higher rates of sleep disturbances as compared to married individuals. Among the married, however, little is known about the association between relationship quality and sleep. The present study examined the association between marital happiness and self-reported sleep disturbances in a sample of midlife women drawn from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multi-site, multi-ethnic, community-based study (N = 2,148). Marital happiness was measured using a single item from the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and sleep disturbance was assessed using 4 items from the Women's Health Initiative Insomnia Rating Scale (WHIIRS). After controlling for relevant covariates, maritally happy women reported fewer sleep disturbances, with the association evident among Caucasian women and to a lesser extent among African American women.

  15. Marital happiness and sleep disturbances in a multi-ethnic sample of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Troxel, Wendy M; Buysse, Daniel J; Hall, Martica; Matthews, Karen A

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that divorced individuals, particularly women, have higher rates of sleep disturbances as compared to married individuals. Among the married, however, little is known about the association between relationship quality and sleep. The present study examined the association between marital happiness and self-reported sleep disturbances in a sample of midlife women drawn from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multi-site, multi-ethnic, community-based study (N = 2,148). Marital happiness was measured using a single item from the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and sleep disturbance was assessed using 4 items from the Women's Health Initiative Insomnia Rating Scale (WHIIRS). After controlling for relevant covariates, maritally happy women reported fewer sleep disturbances, with the association evident among Caucasian women and to a lesser extent among African American women. PMID:19116797

  16. Internal motivations and barriers effective on the healthy lifestyle of middle-aged women: A qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Enjezab, Behnaz; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Taleghani, Fariba; Aflatoonian, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Background: A healthy lifestyle is one of the basic health-promotion strategies. Several factors are involved in shaping health-promotion behaviors. The internal barriers are the opinion and feelings that surround the individual and are the reasons that complicate the change of behavior. The aim of this study was to identify internal motivations and barriers effective on the healthy lifestyle in middle-aged Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative study based on content analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews with 21 middle-aged women in the city of Yazd, who were selected using purposeful sampling approach. The interviews continued until data saturation was reached; and the interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed exactly. The transcripts were analyzed. Results: Five main themes emerged from the analysis of the interviews: Women’s knowledge of health-promoting behaviors, importance of health and healthy behavior of women, affliction or fear of affliction to chronic disease and its consequences, responsibilities of women in the family and society, and skills of life management in women. Conclusion: The findings suggest that empowering individual participants in health promotion is the most important factor determining their health. Thus, designing appropriate programs for education and empowerment of people is essential to promoting health. Health policy makers, with knowledge of these factors, can design comprehensive, socialization programs to promote women’s health. PMID:23853654

  17. Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

  18. Physical activity and risk of small-for-gestational-age birth among predominantly Puerto Rican women.

    PubMed

    Gollenberg, Audra L; Pekow, Penelope; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R; Freedson, Patty S; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    To estimate the association between multiple domains of physical activity and risk of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth. We utilized data from 1,040 participants in the Latina Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Study, a prospective cohort of predominantly Puerto Rican prenatal care patients in Massachusetts. Physical activity was assessed by bilingual interviewers using a modified version of the Kaiser physical activity survey in early (mean = 15 weeks) and mid pregnancy (mean = 28 weeks). Physical activity (i.e., sports/exercise, household, occupational, and active living) in pre, early and mid pregnancy was categorized in quartiles. SGA was classified as <10th percentile of birth weight for gestational age. Pre- and early-pregnancy physical activity were not associated with SGA. In multivariable analyses, women with high total activity in mid-pregnancy had a decreased risk of SGA [risk ratio (RR) = 0.42; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21-0.82; p(trend) = 0.003] as compared to those with low total activity. Findings were similar for high household activity (RR = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.34-1.40; p(trend) = 0.26), active living (RR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.35-1.13; p(trend) = 0.04), and occupational activity (RR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.47-1.34; p(trend) = 0.26). High levels of sports/exercise were associated with an increased SGA risk without a significant dose-response association (RR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.04-4.39; p(trend) = 0.33). Results extend prior studies of physical activity and SGA to the Hispanic population.

  19. Overseas sun exposure, nevus counts, and premature skin aging in young English women: a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Higgins, Craig D; Abramsky, Tanya; Swanwick, Maureen A; Frazer, Jacqueline; Whitaker, Linda M; Blanshard, Margaret E; Bradshaw, John; Apps, John M; Bishop, D Timothy; Newton-Bishop, Julia A; Swerdlow, Anthony J

    2009-01-01

    A large number of melanocytic nevi is the strongest known risk factor for melanoma in whites, but its relationship to sun exposure overseas among young white women living in temperate climates is unclear. A total of 754 white English women aged 18-46 years were recruited into a cross-sectional study in 1997-2000 to investigate the effect of ultraviolet exposures on numbers of nevi and atypical nevi, and on skin aging as measured by microtopography. Having ever holidayed in hotter countries was associated with a greater age- and phenotype-adjusted mean number of whole-body nevi (percent increase=74; 95% confidence interval: 24, 144; P=0.001), particularly for holidays taken at ages 18-29 years and for counts of the trunk and lower limbs. Having ever lived overseas was not associated with nevus counts, but was inversely associated with number of atypical nevi (P=0.02). Skin aging was not associated with residence or holidays abroad. The association of holidays overseas with an increased nevus count in young white women, which was stronger in the anatomical sites intermittently exposed to sunlight, supports the hypothesis that intermittent sun exposure is of relevance in the etiology of nevi and, hence, melanoma. The findings are of public health relevance given the growing popularity of foreign holidays.

  20. The effect of age on the competitive C- and N-oxidative pathways of methaqualone in women.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K; Oram, M; Burnett, D

    1984-01-01

    The urinary excretion of the N-oxide and the glucuronides of five C-monohydroxy metabolizes of methaqualone has been studied in a group of young women aged 24-34 years and in a group of elderly women aged 85-87 years. The rate of appearance of the metabolites in the urine was slower in the elderly group but the relative importance of the six metabolites was the same in the two groups. There were differences in some metabolite ratios between the two groups, but only one difference approached statistical significance. The metabolite excretion in a 80 year old woman who had received methaqualone daily for over ten years was consistent with that of the elderly group. The results indicate that the ageing process per se and chronic weak hepatic enzyme induction in the elderly are not accompanied by changes in the relative importance of competitive metabolic pathways.

  1. Femininity, Masculinity, and Body Image Issues among College-Age Women: An In-Depth and Written Interview Study of the Mind-Body Dichotomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavy, Patricia; Gnong, Andrea; Ross, Lauren Sardi

    2009-01-01

    In this article we investigate college-age women's body image issues in the context of dominant femininity and its polarization of the mind and body. We use original data collected through seven in-depth interviews and 32 qualitative written interviews with college-age women and men. We coded the data thematically applying feminist approaches to…

  2. Factors influencing sexual function of middle-aged married Korean women

    PubMed Central

    Jee, YoungJu; Kim, YoungHae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the status of women’s sexual function and relevant factors given the fact that women’s health is crucial to the national health, and in particular that women’s sexual health has a significant impact on their overall health. [Subjects and Methods] This study surveyed 353 women living in South Korea’s P and K metropolitan regions from July 2012 to August 10, 2013. The Female Sexual Functional Index (FSFI), the Sexual Attitude Scale (SAS), sexual knowledge and questionnaires were used. [Results] Two groups based on FSFI scores above and below a cutoff value of 25 were compared with each other, and significant differences were found in age, male friends, menstrual status, sex status, and frequency of sex, experience of forced sex, personal health, husband’s health and sexual knowledge. Male friends, sex status, experience of forced sex, husband’s healths and sexual knowledge explained women’s sexual function. [Conclusion] The finding that women’s sexual function is associated with multiple factors suggests an intervention program for improving women’s sexual function should be developed to reflect the factors influencing the target groups’ sexual function. PMID:25931738

  3. Emerging Manifestations of Cesarean Scar Defect in Reproductive-aged Women.

    PubMed

    Tulandi, Togas; Cohen, Aviad

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cesarean scar defects and its clinical manifestations in reproductive-aged women. We performed a systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement using keywords of "cesarean scar defect, uterine scar defect, uterine diverticulum niche, isthmocele, pouch, or sacculation" and their combination. Thirty-two trials met the inclusion criteria. Cesarean scar defects are commonly found on ultrasound examination (24%-88%). Their presence could be asymptomatic or related to postmenstrual spotting, postmenstrual bleeding, or infertility. The prevalence of this condition is related to the number of cesarean deliveries. Hysteroscopic repair of a cesarean scar defect or isthmoplasty is associated with an improvement in uterine bleeding in 59% to 100% of cases and a pregnancy rate of 77.8% to 100%. An improvement in uterine bleeding after vaginal repair occurred in 89% to 93.5% of cases. Laparoscopic repair led to uterine bleeding improvement in 86% of cases and a pregnancy rate of 86%. The association between cesarean scar defect and infertility, pelvic pain, and dysmenorrhea require more studies. Treatment of uterine scar defects should be performed after eliminating other causes of postmenstrual bleeding or infertility. Hysteroscopic isthmoplasty appears to be the most popular treatment. However, in the absence of randomized trials, the efficacy of different surgical approaches remains to be seen. Until we have concrete evidence, the treatment should be reserved for selective cases. PMID:27393285

  4. [Death certificates of women in childbearing age: search for maternal deaths].

    PubMed

    Gil, Mariana Marcos; Gomes-Sponholz, Flavia Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, there is a lack of complete records on death certificates, and its reliability is questioned, especially for causes attributed to pregnancy and childbirth. We investigated, based on death certificates of women in reproductive age, any fields for identifying maternal deaths. Documentary research, conducted in hospital records. We analyzed in death certificates, maternal and no maternal deaths, inconclusive deaths and hidden deaths. To analyze the underlying causes of death we used ICD 10th Revision. Of the 301 death certificates reviewed, 60% had the fields 43/44 completed, and 40% had these fields blank and/or ignored. We found 58.5% of no maternal deaths, 2% of maternal deaths and 39.5% inconclusive. The analysis of inconclusive deaths allowed us to classify 4.3% as hidden deaths. To overcome the incompletitudes of civil registries, it is necessary that all health professionals be committed to the reliability of the information, so the priority target could be reached. PMID:23887780

  5. Impact of Age and Comorbidity on Cervical and Breast Cancer Literacy of African Americans, Latina, and Arab Women.

    PubMed

    Talley, Costellia H; Williams, Karen Patricia

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the relationship between age, comorbidity, and breast and cervical cancer literacy in a sample of African American, Latina, and Arab women (N = 371) from Detroit, Michigan. The Age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (ACC) was used characterize the impact of age and comorbidity on breast and cervical cancer literacy. The relationship between ACC and breast and cervical cancer screening, and group differences, were assessed. There was a statistically significant difference between breast cancer literacy scores. ACC had a greater impact on breast cancer literacy for African Americans.

  6. Affective responses to increasing levels of exercise intensity in normal-weight, overweight, and obese middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Ekkekakis, Panteleimon; Lind, Erik; Vazou, Spiridoula

    2010-01-01

    At least 60 min of daily physical activity (PA) are recommended for weight control, a target achieved by only 3% of obese (OB) women. The purposes of this study were to examine (i) the affective responses of normal-weight (NW), overweight (OW), and OB middle-aged sedentary women to exercise of increasing intensity and (ii) the relationship of affective responses to self-efficacy and social physique anxiety. The women participated in a graded treadmill protocol to volitional exhaustion while providing ratings of pleasure-displeasure and perceived activation each minute. The Activation Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD ACL) was also completed before and after exercise. The affective responses of NW and OW women did not differ. However OB women gave lower pleasure ratings during the incremental protocol and reported lower Energy scores immediately after the protocol. Social physique anxiety, but not self-efficacy, was inversely related to pleasure and energy. The lower levels of pleasure and energy experienced by OB than nonobese women could account in part for their dramatically low levels of PA participation. Modifying the cognitive antecedents of social physique anxiety might be a useful intervention strategy.

  7. Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of intensive Hatha Yoga training in middle-aged and older women from northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Muñoz-Daw, María DJ; Torres-Durán, Patricia V; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hatha Yoga (HY) can be an alternative to improve physical activity in middle-aged and older women. However, conventional HY (CHY) exercising may not result in enough training stimulus to improve cardiovascular fitness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intensive HY intervention (IHY) on cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and older women from Northern Mexico. Materials and Methods: In this prospective quasiexperimental design, four middle-aged and nine older CHY practicing females (yoginis) were enrolled into an 11-week IHY program consisting of 5 sessions/week for 90 min (55 sessions). The program adherence, asana performance, and work intensity were assessed along the intervention. Anthropometric [body mass index (BMI), % body fat and Σ skin folds], cardiovascular fitness [maximal expired air volume (VEmax), maximal O2 consumption (VO2max), maximal heart rate (HRmax), systolic (BPs) and diastolic blood pressure (BPd)], biochemical [glucose, triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and dietary parameters were evaluated before and after IHY. Results: Daily caloric intake (~1,916 kcal/day), program adherence (~85%), and exercising skills (asana performance) were similar in both middle-aged and older women. The IHY program did not modify any anthropometric measurements. However, it increased VO2max and VEmax and HDL-C while TAG and LDL-C remained stable in both middle-aged and older groups (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The proposed IHY program improves different cardiovascular risk factors (namely VO2max and HDL-C) in middle-aged and older women. PMID:20842264

  8. Application of the hypothesis of Developmental Origin of Health and Diseases (DOHaD) in epidemiological studies of women at reproductive age and pregnant women in Poland.

    PubMed

    Wojtyła, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological population studies indicate that the nutrition of women at reproductive age and during pregnancy exerts an eff ect not only on the term of delivery, development of the foetus and birth weight, but also on the susceptibility of off spring to civilization diseases in adulthood, according to the hypothesis of Developmental Origin of Heath and Diseases (DOHaD). The author analyses the results of epidemiological studies conducted in 2011 in a randomly selected representative population of 6,000 Polish adolescents aged 14-24 (of the total of adolescents, a population of females was selected for analysis), and the results of foetal period health monitoring of mother and child (PRAMS) which has been conducted in Poland since 2009 in the population of mothers and their newborn babies staying after delivery in all hospitals in Poland. Analysis of these two population studies indicates that a high percentage of Polish women at reproductive age are dieting. At the same time, confirmation of the fact of becoming pregnant occurs between weeks 5-8 after conception. This shows that until that time, the foetuses of women on the Apple weight loss diet develop conditions of nutritional deficits which, according to the DOHaD hypothesis, may result in epigenetic changes which increase the susceptibility of off spring in adulthood to civilization diseases: cardiovascular disorders, type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome. This hypothesis is confirmed by the high percentages of newborns in Poland born with low birth weight or prematurely born, as well as the fact that the percentage of anemia in pregnant Polish women is twice as high as in other developed countries. Simultaneously, a large number of babies are born with excessive birth weight (macrosomia). The author considers that in the countries of East-Central Europe the phenomenon observed is characteristic at present of the developing countries of the Third World, called the 'double burden of malnutrition'. This

  9. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged men and women in Gothenburg, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Welin, Lennart; Adlerberth, Annika; Caidahl, Kenneth; Eriksson, Henry; Hansson, Per-Olof; Johansson, Saga; Rosengren, Annika; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Welin, Catharina; Wilhelmsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Background Random samples of 50-year-old men living in Gothenburg have been examined every 10th year since 1963 with a focus on cardiovascular risk factors. The aims of the study were to acquire up-to-date information about risk factors in the fifth cohort of 50-year-old men and women, to re-examine those who were 50 years of age in 1993, and to analyse the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) using different definitions. Methods A random sample of men and women born in 1953 were examined in 2003–2004 for cardiovascular risk factors. Men born in 1943 and that participated in the examination in 1993 were also invited. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results The participation rate among men and women born in 1953 was 60 and 67% respectively. Among men born in 1943, the participation rate was 87%. The prevalence of obesity was from 15 to 17% (body mass index, BMI ≥ 30) in the three samples. The prevalence of known diabetes was 4% among the 50-year-old men and 6% among the 60-year-old men, and 2% among the women. Increased fasting plasma glucose varied substantially from 4 to 33% depending on cut-off level and gender. Mean cholesterol was 5.4 to 5.5 mmol/l. Smoking was more common among women aged 50 (26%) than among men aged 50 (22%) and 60 years (15%). The prevalence of the MetSyn varied with the definition used: from 10 to 15.8% among the women, from 16.1 to 26% among 50-year-old men, and from 19.9 to 35% among the 60-year-old men. Only 5% of the men and women had no risk factors. Conclusion This study provides up-to-date information about the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the MetSyn in middle-aged Swedish men and women. Different definitions of the MetSyn create confusion regarding which definition to use. PMID:19063738

  10. Aging in the Shadow of Violence: A Phenomenological Conceptual Framework for Understanding Elderly Women Who Experienced Lifelong IPV.

    PubMed

    Band-Winterstein, Tova

    2015-01-01

    This article suggests a heuristic framework for understanding elderly women's "lived experience" of lifelong intimate partner violence (IPV). This framework is based on the phenomenological qualitative studies of 31 women, aged 60-83, using a semistructured interview guide. From the results, a matrix emerged built on two axes. The first axis consists of three phenomenological dimensions: suffering, a "ticking clock," and life wisdom. The second axis consists of four themes that emerged from the content analysis: loneliness, regret, being in a state of waiting, and being a living monument to perpetual victimhood. The practical implications of these phenomenological findings are then discussed.

  11. Predictors of mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies among women of childbearing age in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While unintended pregnancies pose a serious threat to the health and well-being of families globally, characteristics of Tanzanian women who conceive unintentionally are rarely documented. This analysis identifies factors associated with unintended pregnancies—both mistimed and unwanted—in three rural districts of Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 2,183 random households was conducted in three Tanzanian districts of Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga in 2011 to assess women’s health behavior and service utilization patterns. These households produced 3,127 women age 15+ years from which 2,199 gravid women aged 15–49 were selected for the current analysis. Unintended pregnancies were identified as either mistimed (wanted later) or unwanted (not wanted at all). Correlates of mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies were identified through Chi-squared tests to assess associations and multinomial logistic regression for multivariate analysis. Results Mean age of the participants was 32.1 years. While 54.1% of the participants reported that their most recent pregnancy was intended, 32.5% indicated their most recent pregnancy as mistimed and 13.4% as unwanted. Multivariate analysis revealed that young age (<20 years), and single marital status were significant predictors of both mistimed and unwanted pregnancies. Lack of inter-partner communication about family planning increased the risk of mistimed pregnancy significantly, and multi-gravidity was shown to significantly increase the risk of unwanted pregnancy. Conclusions About one half of women in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania conceive unintentionally. Women, especially the most vulnerable should be empowered to avoid pregnancy at their own will and discretion. PMID:25102924

  12. Serum Retinol Concentrations, Race, and Socioeconomic Status in of Women of Childbearing Age in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Abresch, Chad; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A is an essential nutrient during pregnancy and throughout the lifecycle due to its role in the development of critical organ systems. Because maternal tissue is progressively depleted of vitamin A to supply fetal demands, women who become pregnant while possessing marginal vitamin A reserves are at increased risk of vitamin A inadequacy as pregnancy progresses. Few studies have assessed the relationship between socioeconomic factors and retinol status in women of childbearing age. Methods: We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to assess the relationship between serum retinol concentrations and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Women 14–45 years of age (n = 3170) from NHANES cycles 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 were included. Serum retinol concentrations were divided into categories according to World Health Organization criteria. All statistical procedures accounted for the weighted data and complex design of the NHANES sample. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The poverty score and race were significantly associated with vitamin A status after adjustment for confounders. Odds of retinol concentrations of <1.05 µmol/L were 1.85 times higher for those of lower socioeconomic status when compared to those of higher status (95% CI: 1.12–3.03, p = 0.02), and 3.1 times higher for non-Hispanic blacks when compared to non-Hispanic whites (95% CI: 1.50–6.41, p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of retinol activity equivalents were significantly lower in groups with higher poverty scores (p = 0.004). Conclusion There appear to be disparities in serum vitamin A levels in women of childbearing age related to income and race in the United States. PMID:27548213

  13. Incidence and Mortality Trends in German Women with Breast Cancer Using Age, Period and Cohort 1999 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Berkemeyer, Shoma; Lemke, Dorothea; Hense, Hans Werner

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal analysis investigates period (P), often as years. Additional scales of time are age (A) and birth cohort (C) Aim of our study was to use ecological APC analysis for women breast cancer incidence and mortality in Germany. Nation-wide new cases and deaths were obtained from Robert Koch Institute and female population from federal statistics, 1999–2008. Data was stratified into ten 5-years age-groups starting 20–24 years, ten birth cohorts starting 1939–43, and two calendar periods 1999–2003 and 2004–2008. Annual incidence and mortality were calculated: cases to 100,000 women per year. Data was analyzed using glm and apc packages of R. Breast cancer incidence and mortality increased with age. Secular rise in breast cancer incidence and decline in mortality was observed for period1999-2008. Breast cancer incidence and mortality declined with cohorts; cohorts 1950s showed highest incidence and mortality. Age-cohort best explained incidence and mortality followed by age-period-cohort with overall declining trends. Declining age-cohort mortality could be probable. Declining age-cohort incidence would require future biological explanations or rendered statistical artefact. Cohorts 1949–1958 could be unique in having highest incidence and mortality in recent time or future period associations could emerge relatively stronger to cohort to provide additional explanation of temporal change over cohorts. PMID:26933878

  14. Passive leg movement-induced vasodilation in women: the impact of age.

    PubMed

    Groot, H Jonathan; Rossman, Matthew J; Trinity, Joel D; Layec, Gwenael; Ives, Stephen J; Richardson, Russell S

    2015-09-01

    Passive leg movement (PLM), an assessment of predominantly nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation, is decreased with age and cannot be augmented by posture-induced increases in femoral perfusion pressure in older men. However, this novel method of assessing vascular function has yet to be used to evaluate alterations in nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation with age in females. PLM was performed in 10 young (20 ± 1 yr) and 10 old (73 ± 2 yr) women in both the supine and upright-seated postures, whereas central and peripheral hemodynamic measurements were acquired second by second using noninvasive techniques (finger photoplethysmography and Doppler ultrasound, respectively). The heart rate response to PLM was attenuated in the old compared with the young in both the supine (young, 10 ± 1; and old, 5 ± 1 beats/min; P < 0.05) and upright-seated posture (young, 10 ± 2; and old, 5 ± 1 beats/min; P < 0.05), leading to a blunted cardiac output response in the old in the upright-seated posture (young, 1.0 ± 0.2; and old, 0.3 ± 0.1 l/min; P < 0.05). The PLM-induced peak change in leg vascular conductance was lower in the old compared with the young in both postures (young supine, 5.7 ± 0.5; old supine, 2.6 ± 0.3; young upright, 9.2 ± 0.7; and old upright, 2.2 ± 0.4 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1); P < 0.05) and was significantly augmented by the upright-seated posture in the young only, revealing a vasodilatory reserve capacity in the young (3.5 ± 0.6 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1), P < 0.05) that was absent in the old (-0.5 ± 0.3 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1), P = 0.18). These data support previous literature demonstrating attenuated PLM-induced vasodilation with age and extend these findings to include the female population, thus bolstering the utility of PLM as a novel assessment of vascular function across the life span in humans.

  15. Determinants of Institutional Delivery among Childbearing Age Women in Western Ethiopia, 2013: Unmatched Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa; Genemo, Gebi Agero

    2014-01-01

    Background Place of delivery is a crucial factor which affects the health and wellbeing of the mother and newborn. Institutional delivery helps the women to access skilled assistance, drugs, equipment, and referral transport. Even though 34% of pregnant women received at least one antenatal care from a skilled provider in Ethiopia by 2013, institutional delivery was 10%. The main objective of the study was to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia. Methods Retrospective unmatched case control study design was used to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia from September to October 2013. A total of 320 respondents from six districts of East Wollega zone, West Ethiopia were included. Data were collected using pretested and structured questionnaires. Data were entered and cleaned by Epi-info then exported and analyzed using SPSS software. Statistical significance was determined through a 95% confidence level. Results Education [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) (95% Confidence Interval (CI)) = 2.754(1.510–8.911)], family size [AOR (95% CI) = .454(.209–.984)], residence [AOR (95% CI) = 3.822 (1.766–8.272)] were important predictors of place of delivery. Four or more antenatal care [(ANC) (AOR (95% CI) = 2.914(1.105–7.682)], birth order [(AOR (95% CI) = .136(.054–.344), age at last delivery [(AOR (95% CI) = 9.995(2.101–47.556)], birth preparedness [AOR (95% CI) = 6.957(2.422–19.987)], duration of labour [AOR (95% CI) = 3.541(1.732–7.239)] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. Moreover service related factors such as distance from health institutions [AOR (95% CI) = .665(.173–.954)], respondents’ awareness of skill of health care professionals [AOR (95% CI) = 2.454 (1.663–6.255)], mode of transportations [AOR (95% CI) = .258(.122–.549)] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. Conclusions and Recommendations Policy