Science.gov

Sample records for women undergoing neoadjuvant

  1. Survival outcome of women with stage IV uterine carcinosarcoma who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Koji; Johnson, Marian S; Im, Dwight D; Ross, Malcolm S; Bush, Stephen H; Yunokawa, Mayu; Blake, Erin A; Takano, Tadao; Klobocista, Merieme M; Hasegawa, Kosei; Ueda, Yutaka; Shida, Masako; Baba, Tsukasa; Satoh, Shinya; Yokoyama, Takuhei; Machida, Hiroko; Ikeda, Yuji; Adachi, Sosuke; Miyake, Takahito M; Iwasaki, Keita; Yanai, Shiori; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Nishimura, Masato; Nagano, Tadayoshi; Takekuma, Munetaka; Shahzad, Mian M K; Pejovic, Tanja; Omatsu, Kohei; Kelley, Joseph L; Ueland, Frederick R; Roman, Lynda D

    2018-03-01

    To examine survival of women with stage IV uterine carcinosarcoma (UCS) who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by hysterectomy. This is a nested case-control study within a retrospective cohort of 1192 UCS cases. Women who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by hysterectomy based-surgery for stage IV UCS (n = 26) were compared to those who had primary hysterectomy-based surgery without neoadjuvant chemotherapy for stage IV UCS (n = 120). Progression-free survival (PFS) and cause-specific survival (CSS) were examined. The most common regimen for neoadjuvant chemotherapy was carboplatin/paclitaxel (53.8%). Median number of neoadjuvant chemotherapy cycles was 4. PFS was similar between the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group and the primary surgery group (unadjusted-hazard ratio [HR] 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-1.89, P = 0.45). Similarly, CSS was comparable between the two groups (unadjusted-HR 1.13, 95%CI 0.68-1.90, P = 0.64). When the types of neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens were compared, women who received a carboplatin/paclitaxel regimen had better survival outcomes compared to those who received other regimens: PFS, unadjusted-HR 0.38, 95%CI 0.15-0.93, P = 0.027; and CSS, unadjusted-HR 0.21, 95%CI 0.07-0.61, P = 0.002. Our study found that there is no statistically significant difference in survival between women with stage IV UCS who are tolerated neoadjuvant chemotherapy and those who undergo primary surgery. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy modifies serum angiotensinase activities in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Carrera-González, María del Pilar; Mayas, María Dolores; Dueñas, Basilio; Martínez-Ferrol, Julia; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the putative changes in serum angiotensinase activities (aminopeptidase N, APN; aminopeptidase B, APB; aminopeptidase A, APA; aspartyl aminopeptidase, ASAP) involved in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in women with breast cancer treated or not with a neoadjuvant therapy of paclitaxel and anthracycline and in healthy women volunteers. We fluorometrically analysed serum APN, APB, APA and ASAP activities using their corresponding aminoacyl-β-naphthylamides as substrates in women with breast cancer treated with a neoadjuvant therapy of paclitaxel and anthracycline. When compared with healthy controls, women with breast cancer not treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, showed a decrease in angiotensinase activity, which support the putative increase of angiotensin II (Ang II) levels, indicating that the tumour process would favour the development of the disease. Also, an increase in APN and APB activities was observed, which support a role for angiotensin IV (Ang IV). In women treated with a neoadjuvant therapy, we described an increase in ASAP and APA activities, supporting the idea that this treatment increases Ang II catabolism. The resulting decrease in Ang II level could lead to an inhibition of the tumour growth. Present results show changes in serum angiotensinase activities in women with breast cancer and in women with breast cancer treated with a neoadjuvant therapy of paclitaxel and anthracycline. Therefore, considerable attention should be focused on the development of RAS blockade therapy as a new strategy for breast cancer treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy on Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yue-Yung; Weeks, Christine M.; In, Haejin; Dodgion, Christopher M.; Golshan, Mehra; Chun, Yoon S.; Hassett, Michael J.; Corso, Katherine A.; Gu, Xiangmei; Lipsitz, Stuart R.; Greenberg, Caprice C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND With advances in oncologic treatment, cosmesis after mastectomy has assumed a pivotal role in patient and provider decision making. Multiple studies have confirmed the safety of both chemotherapy before breast surgery and immediate reconstruction. Little has been written about the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on decisions about reconstruction. METHODS The authors identified 665 patients with stage I through III breast cancer who received chemotherapy and underwent mastectomy at Dana-Farber/Brigham & Women’s Cancer Center from 1997 to 2007. By using multivariate logistic regression, reconstruction rates were compared between patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (n = 180) and patients who underwent mastectomy before chemotherapy (n = 485). The rate of postoperative complications after mastectomy was determined for patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy compared with those who did not. RESULTS Reconstruction was performed immediately in 44% of patients who did not receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy but in only 23% of those who did. Twenty-one percent of neoadjuvant chemotherapy recipients and 14% of adjuvant-only chemotherapy recipients underwent delayed reconstruction. After controlling for age, receipt of radiotherapy, and disease stage, neoadjuvant recipients were less likely to undergo immediate reconstruction (odds ratio [OR], 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37, 0.87) but were no more likely to undergo delayed reconstruction (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.75, 2.20). Surgical complications occurred in 30% of neoadjuvant chemotherapy recipients and in 31% of adjuvant chemotherapy recipients. CONCLUSIONS The current results suggest that patients who receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy are less likely to undergo immediate reconstruction and are no more likely to undergo delayed reconstruction than patients who undergo surgery before they receive chemotherapy. PMID:21264833

  4. Pre-treatment anxiety is associated with persistent chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in women treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang-Min; Jung, Dooyoung; Hwang, Heesung; Son, Kyung-Lak; Kim, Tae-Yong; Im, Seock-Ah; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Hahm, Bong-Jin

    2018-05-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a frequent adverse reaction caused by chemotherapeutic agents, especially the taxanes. CIPN can persist from months to years after completion of chemotherapy, decreasing quality of life for cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to explore the incidence and risk factors of persistent CIPN among women with breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In this prospective study, we recruited women with breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy, including four cycles of docetaxel. Participants reported neuropathic symptoms of tingling/numbness at baseline, at the end of chemotherapy treatment, and at 8 months after completion of chemotherapy. Candidate factors associated with CIPN were assessed before chemotherapy. Among 111 participants, 50 (45.0%) experienced CIPN during chemotherapy, and 21 (18.9%) reported persistent CIPN after chemotherapy. Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that development of CIPN was significantly associated with pre-treatment numbness (odds ratio [OR], 4.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-7.40; p = .033), and persistent CIPN was significantly associated with pre-treatment numbness (OR, 3.60; 95% CI, 1.12-11.61; p = .032) and pre-treatment anxiety (OR, 5.02; 95% CI, 1.84-13.70; p = .002). Multivariate analysis indicated that pre-treatment anxiety remained significantly associated with persistent CIPN (OR, 4.01; 95% CI, 1.25-12.87; p = .020). Our results suggested that pre-treatment anxiety might be related to a patient's risk for persistent CIPN in women with breast cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Further research is required to investigate if interventions targeting pre-treatment anxiety could provide prevention and management for persistent CIPN. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Impact of Blood Transfusions on Survival of Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Patients Undergoing Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Plus Radical Surgery.

    PubMed

    Bogani, Giorgio; Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Signorelli, Mauro; Chiappa, Valentina; Lopez, Carlos; Indini, Alice; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2017-03-01

    Transfusions represent one of the main progresses of modern medicine. However, accumulating evidence supports that transfusions correlate with worse survival outcomes in patients affected by solid cancers. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of perioperative blood transfusion in locally advanced cervical cancer. Data of consecutive patients affected by locally advanced cervical cancer scheduled to undergo neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus radical surgery were retrospectively searched to test the impact of perioperative transfusions on survival outcomes. Five-year survival outcomes were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier and Cox models. The study included 275 patients. Overall, 170 (62%) patients had blood transfusion. Via univariate analysis, we observed that transfusion correlated with an increased risk of developing recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-4.40; P = 0.02). Other factors associated with 5-year disease-free survival were noncomplete clinical response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (HR, 2.99; 95% CI, 0.92-9.63; P = 0.06) and pathological (P = 0.03) response at neoadjuvant chemotherapy as well as parametrial (P = 0.004), vaginal (P < 0.001), and lymph node (P = 0.002) involvements. However, via multivariate analysis, only vaginal (HR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.20-7.85; P = 0.01) and lymph node involvements (HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.00-6.06; P = 0.05) correlate with worse disease-free survival. No association with worse outcomes was observed for patients undergoing blood transfusion (HR, 2.71; 95% CI, 0.91-8.03; P = 0.07). Looking at factors influencing overall survival, we observed that lymph node status (P = 0.01) and vaginal involvement (P = 0.06) were independently associated with survival. The role of blood transfusions in increasing the risk of developing recurrence in LAAC patients treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus radical surgery remains unclear; further prospective studies are warranted.

  6. Using Flow Characteristics in Three-Dimensional Power Doppler Ultrasound Imaging to Predict Complete Responses in Patients Undergoing Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shia, Wei-Chung; Huang, Yu-Len; Wu, Hwa-Koon; Chen, Dar-Ren

    2017-05-01

    Strategies are needed for the identification of a poor response to treatment and determination of appropriate chemotherapy strategies for patients in the early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. We hypothesize that power Doppler ultrasound imaging can provide useful information on predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The solid directional flow of vessels in breast tumors was used as a marker of pathologic complete responses (pCR) in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Thirty-one breast cancer patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and had tumors of 2 to 5 cm were recruited. Three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound with high-definition flow imaging technology was used to acquire the indices of tumor blood flow/volume, and the chemotherapy response prediction was established, followed by support vector machine classification. The accuracy of pCR prediction before the first chemotherapy treatment was 83.87% (area under the ROC curve [AUC] = 0.6957). After the second chemotherapy treatment, the accuracy of was 87.9% (AUC = 0.756). Trend analysis showed that good and poor responders exhibited different trends in vascular flow during chemotherapy. This preliminary study demonstrates the feasibility of using the vascular flow in breast tumors to predict chemotherapeutic efficacy. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  7. Dermatological toxicity in women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy treatment.

    PubMed

    Gozzo, Thais de Oliveira; Panobianco, Marislei Sanches; Clapis, Maria José; de Almeida, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of skin toxicity caused by drugs used in the protocol of neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy among women with breast cancer. Patient records of 72 women who were subject to this therapy between 2003 and 2006 were assessed. Of the 558 cycles of chemotherapy, 152 adverse events were registered. There were 37 registrations of dermatological toxicity, of those, 20 were extravasations that affected 17 women. Nine reports of hardened local injury, local fibrosis, pain, and hyperemia were registered during neoadjuvancy. In adjuvancy, among the 11 extravasations registered there were reports of hardened local injury, fibrosis and local pain. Lack of follow-up records for both periods was observed. Registration of the events and reports by the nursing team are essential to monitor the sites of venous puncture during the chemotherapy treatment, besides measuring and making a photographic record of the site.

  8. Exploring patient experiences of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kinta; Williamson, Susan; Briggs, Jean

    2016-02-01

    Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy is recommended for 'inoperable' locally advanced and inflammatory breast cancers. For operable breast cancers, trials indicate no survival differences between chemotherapy given pre or post-surgery. Communicating evidence based information to patients is complex and studies examining patient experiences of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy are lacking. This study aims to explore the experiences of women who received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. A qualitative approach using in-depth interviews with 20 women who had completed neo-adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Interview data were analysed using thematic analysis. The sample included a relatively young group of women, with caring responsibilities. Five main themes emerged: coping with the rapid transition from 'well' to 'ill', information needs and decision making, needing support and empathy, impact on family, and creating a new 'normal'. More support was needed towards the end of chemotherapy, when side effects were at their most toxic, and decisions about forthcoming surgery were being made. Some women were referred to psychological services, but usually when a crisis point had been reached. Information and support would have been beneficial at key time points. This information is vital in developing services and interventions to meet the complex needs of these patients and potentially prevent late referral to psychological services. Specialist oncology nurses are able to develop empathetic relationships with patients and have the experience, knowledge and skills to inform and support women experiencing neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Targeting key time points and maintaining relationship throughout neo-adjuvant chemotherapy would be highly beneficial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cost-effectiveness and clinical efficacy of biliary stents in patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma in a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Timothy B; Spangler, Chad C; Byanova, Katerina L; Ripple, Gregory H; Rockacy, Matthew J; Levenick, John M; Smith, Kerrington D; Colacchio, Thomas A; Barth, Richard J; Zaki, Bassem I; Tsapakos, Michael J; Gordon, Stuart R

    2016-09-01

    The optimal type of stent for the palliation of malignant biliary obstruction in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy with curative intent is unknown. We performed a prospective trial comparing 3 types of biliary stents-fully covered self-expandable metal (fcSEMS), uncovered self-expandable metal (uSEMS), and plastic-to determine which best optimized cost-effectiveness and important clinical outcomes. In this prospective randomized trial, consecutive patients with malignant biliary obstruction from newly diagnosed pancreatic adenocarcinoma who were to start neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy were randomized to receive fcSEMSs, uSEMSs, or plastic stents during the index ERCP. The primary outcomes were time to stent occlusion, attempted surgical resection, or death after the initiation of neoadjuvant therapy, and the secondary outcomes were total patient costs associated with the stent, including the index ERCP cost, downstream hospitalization cost due to stent occlusion, and the cost associated with procedural adverse event. Fifty-four patients were randomized and reached the primary end point: 16 in the fcSEMS group, 17 in the uSEMS group, and 21 in the plastic stent group. No baseline demographic or tumor characteristic differences were noted among the groups. The fcSEMSs had a longer time to stent occlusion compared with uSEMSs and plastic stents (220 vs 74 and 76 days, P < .01), although the groups had equivalent rates of stent occlusion, attempted surgical resection, and death. Although SEMS placement cost more during the index ERCP (uSEMS = $24,874 and fcSEMS = $22,729 vs plastic = $18,701; P < .01), they resulted in higher procedural AE costs per patient (uSEMS = $5522 and fcSEMS = $12,701 vs plastic = $0; P < .01). Conversely, plastic stents resulted in an $11,458 hospitalization cost per patient due to stent occlusion compared with $2301 for uSEMSs and $0 for fcSEMSs (P < .01). In a prospective trial

  10. Ovarian preservation in locally advanced cervical cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical surgery: our experience and analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Signorelli, Mauro; Bogani, Giorgio; Chiappa, Valentina; Ditto, Antonino; Scaffa, Cono; Martinelli, Fabio; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2018-03-30

    The aim of this study was to estimate the rate of ovarian metastases and recurrences among patients affected by locally advanced stage cancer patients (LACC), undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and radical surgery with conservation of ovaries. Retrospective evaluation of consecutive patients affected by LACC (stage IB2- IIB), treated by NACT followed by radical surgery at National Cancer Institute, Milan, Italy, between 1990-2015. Overall, 331 patients were included. Stage at presentation included stage IB2, IIA and IIB in 120 (36.3%), 63 (19%) and 148 (44.7%) patients, respectively. Main histotype was squamous cell carcinoma (n=265, 80.1%) followed by adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous (n=51, 15.4%), and more than half of patients had a grade 3 carcinoma . Overall, 102 (30.8%) women had at least one ovary preserved during surgery, while 229 (69.2%) had bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Comparing patients who had ovarian preservation with patients who had not, we observed that the two groups were comparable in terms of baseline characteristics. Survival outcomes were not influenced by ovarian preservation (disease-free (p=0.93) and overall (p=0.65) survivals). One (1%) woman had a localized ovarian recurrence. Our data suggest that ovarian preservation at the time of surgery is a safe option among women with LACC after NACT with no detrimental impact on oncologic outcome. Further prospective studies are warranted.

  11. Update on fertility preservation in young women undergoing breast cancer and ovarian cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Lambertini, Matteo; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S; Partridge, Ann H

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the article is to review the available options for fertility preservation in patients with breast and ovarian cancer, and the special issues faced by BRCA mutation carriers. Future fertility is an important consideration for many young patients with cancer. There are both experimental and standard available strategies for patients with breast and ovarian cancer to preserve fertility, and each has potential advantages and disadvantages. Embryo cryopreservation is widely available with a highly successful track record. Improvements in laboratory techniques have led to oocyte cryopreservation recently being recategorized as nonexperimental. Conservative gynecologic surgery is a standard consideration for patients with stage I ovarian cancer who desire future fertility. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation as well as ovarian suppression with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogs during chemotherapy are considered experimental methods at this time, although recent data suggest both safety and efficacy for the use of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogs in women receiving (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Special issues should be considered for women with BRCA mutations because of the need to undergo preventive surgery at young age. Multidisciplinary teams and well functioning relationships between the oncology and reproductive units are crucial to manage the fertility issues of young women with cancer.

  12. Do the conventional clinicopathologic parameters predict for response and survival in head and neck cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy?

    PubMed

    Fonseca, E; Cruz, J J; Dueñas, A; Gómez, A; Sánchez, P; Martín, G; Nieto, A; Soria, P; Muñoz, A; Gómez, J L; Pardal, J L

    1996-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for head and neck carcinoma is still an important treatment modality. The prognostic value of patient and tumor parameters has been extensively evaluated in several trials, yielding mixed results. We report the prognostic factors emerging from a group of patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. From April 1986 to June 1992, 149 consecutive patients received cisplatin-5-fluorouracil-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. After four courses of chemotherapy, patients underwent local-regional treatment with surgery, radiation or both. A variety of patient and tumor characteristics were evaluated as predictors for response to chemotherapy and survival. The complete response, partial response and no response rates to NAC were 52%, 33% and 15%, respectively. No parameters predicted response to chemotherapy. At a maximum follow-up of 87 months, overall survival was 39% and disease-free survival was 49%. Variables shown to be predictors of survival in univariate analyses were age, performance status, histology, site, T, N, stage, and response to chemotherapy. Using the Cox regression analysis, only complete response to induction chemotherapy (P = 0.0006), performance status (P = 0.03), stage (P = 0.01), age (P = 0.03) and primary tumor site (P = 0.04) emerged as independent prognostic factors for survival. Complete response to chemotherapy was confirmed as the strongest prognostic factor influencing survival. However, conventional clinicopathologic factors did not predict response, hence, potential prognostic biologic and molecular factors for response must be sought. At present, much effort must be made for the improvement of the complete response rate, which seems to be a requisite to prolong survival.

  13. Loss of skeletal muscle mass during neoadjuvant treatments correlates with worse prognosis in esophageal cancer: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, Tommi; Ilonen, Ilkka; Kauppi, Juha; Salo, Jarmo; Räsänen, Jari

    2018-02-12

    Nutritional deficits, cachexia, and sarcopenia are extremely common in esophageal cancer. The aim of this article was to assess the effect of loss of skeletal muscle mass during neoadjuvant treatment on the prognosis of esophageal cancer patients. Esophageal cancer patients (N = 115) undergoing neoadjuvant therapy and surgery between 2010 and 2014 were identified from our surgery database and retrospectively analyzed. Computed tomography imaging of the total cross-sectional muscle tissue measured at the third lumbar level defined the skeletal muscle index, which defined sarcopenia (SMI < 52.4 cm2/m2 for men and < 38.5 cm2/m2 for women). Images were collected before and after neoadjuvant treatments. Sarcopenia in preoperative imaging was prevalent in 92 patients (80%). Median overall survival was 900 days (interquartile range 334-1447) with no difference between sarcopenic (median = 900) and non-sarcopenic (median = 914) groups (p = 0.872). Complication rates did not differ (26.1% vs 32.6%, p = 0.725). A 2.98% decrease in skeletal muscle index during neoadjuvant treatment correlated with poor 2-year survival (log-rank p = 0.04). Loss of skeletal muscle tissue during neoadjuvant treatment correlates with worse overall survival.

  14. Fertility preservation with ovarian stimulation and time to treatment in women with stage II-III breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Chien, A Jo; Chambers, Julia; Mcauley, Fiona; Kaplan, Tessa; Letourneau, Joseph; Hwang, Jimmy; Kim, Mi-Ok; Melisko, Michelle E; Rugo, Hope S; Esserman, Laura J; Rosen, Mitchell P

    2017-08-01

    To determine whether fertility preservation with ovarian stimulation (OS) results in treatment delay in breast cancer (BC) patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy (NAT). This is a retrospective study of women screened for the prospective neoadjuvant ISPY2 trial at the University of California San Francisco. All patients were <43, had stage II-III BC, and received neoadjuvant therapy. Time to initiation of NAT was compared between women who underwent OS (STIM) and women who did not (control). Patient and tumor characteristics, as well as oncologic outcomes, were compared between STIM and control groups. 82 patients were included (34 STIM and 48 control). STIM patients were overall younger (mean = 35 vs. 36.9 years old, p = 0.06), and more likely to be childless (79.4 vs 31.2%, p < 0.0001) than controls. Mean time from diagnosis to initiation of NAT was 40 days, with no significant difference between STIM and control groups (mean 39.8 days vs 40.9 days, p = 0.75). Mean time from diagnosis to fertility consultation was 16.3 days. With median follow-up of 79 months, 16 (19.5%) patients have recurred or died from BC. Rates of pCR, recurrence, and death were similar in both groups. Six of 34 STIM patients have undergone embryo transfer, resulting in one patient with two live births. Fertility preservation with OS can be performed in the neoadjuvant setting without delay in initiation of systemic therapy and should be discussed with all early-stage BC patients of reproductive age.

  15. Prediction of Chemoresistance in Women Undergoing Neo-Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer: Volumetric Analysis of First-Order Textural Features Extracted from Multiparametric MRI.

    PubMed

    Panzeri, M M; Losio, C; Della Corte, A; Venturini, E; Ambrosi, A; Panizza, P; De Cobelli, F

    2018-01-01

    To assess correlations between volumetric first-order texture parameters on baseline MRI and pathological response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for locally advanced breast cancer (BC). 69 patients with locally advanced BC candidate to neoadjuvant chemotherapy underwent MRI within 4 weeks from the start of therapeutic regimen. T2, DWI, and DCE sequences were analyzed and maps were generated for Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC), T2 signal intensity, and the following dynamic parameters: k -trans, peak enhancement, area under curve (AUC), time to maximal enhancement (TME), wash-in rate, and washout rate. Volumetric analysis of these parameters was performed, yielding a histogram analysis including first-order texture kinetics (percentiles, maximum value, minimum value, range, standard deviation, mean, median, mode, skewness, and kurtosis). Finally, correlations between these values and response to NAC (evaluated on the surgical specimen according to RECIST 1.1 criteria) were assessed. Out of 69 tumors, 33 (47.8%) achieved complete pathological response, 26 (37.7%) partial response, and 10 (14.5%) no response. Higher levels of AUCmax ( p value = 0.0338), AUCrange ( p value = 0.0311), and TME 75 ( p value = 0.0452) and lower levels of washout 10 ( p value = 0.0417), washout 20 ( p value = 0.0138), washout 25 ( p value = 0.0114), and washout 30 ( p value = 0.05) were predictive of noncomplete response. Histogram-derived texture analysis of MRI images allows finding quantitative parameters predictive of nonresponse to NAC in women affected by locally advanced BC.

  16. Prediction of Chemoresistance in Women Undergoing Neo-Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer: Volumetric Analysis of First-Order Textural Features Extracted from Multiparametric MRI

    PubMed Central

    Losio, C.; Della Corte, A.; Venturini, E.; Ambrosi, A.; Panizza, P.; De Cobelli, F.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To assess correlations between volumetric first-order texture parameters on baseline MRI and pathological response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for locally advanced breast cancer (BC). Materials and Methods 69 patients with locally advanced BC candidate to neoadjuvant chemotherapy underwent MRI within 4 weeks from the start of therapeutic regimen. T2, DWI, and DCE sequences were analyzed and maps were generated for Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC), T2 signal intensity, and the following dynamic parameters: k-trans, peak enhancement, area under curve (AUC), time to maximal enhancement (TME), wash-in rate, and washout rate. Volumetric analysis of these parameters was performed, yielding a histogram analysis including first-order texture kinetics (percentiles, maximum value, minimum value, range, standard deviation, mean, median, mode, skewness, and kurtosis). Finally, correlations between these values and response to NAC (evaluated on the surgical specimen according to RECIST 1.1 criteria) were assessed. Results Out of 69 tumors, 33 (47.8%) achieved complete pathological response, 26 (37.7%) partial response, and 10 (14.5%) no response. Higher levels of AUCmax (p value = 0.0338), AUCrange (p value = 0.0311), and TME75 (p value = 0.0452) and lower levels of washout10 (p value = 0.0417), washout20 (p value = 0.0138), washout25 (p value = 0.0114), and washout30 (p value = 0.05) were predictive of noncomplete response. Conclusion Histogram-derived texture analysis of MRI images allows finding quantitative parameters predictive of nonresponse to NAC in women affected by locally advanced BC. PMID:29853811

  17. The efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant chemotherapy +/- letrozole in postmenopausal women with locally advanced breast cancer: a randomized phase III clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad; Ashouri, Yaghoub; Hoseini, Sare; Amadloo, Niloofar; Talei, Abdolrasoul; Tahmasebi, Sedigheh; Nasrolahi, Hamid; Mosalaei, Ahmad; Omidvari, Shapour; Ansari, Mansour; Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin

    2012-04-01

    This two-arm randomized clinical study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant concurrent chemotherapy and letrozole in postmenopausal women with locally advanced breast carcinoma. One hundred and one postmenopausal women aged 50-83 years with pathologically proven locally advanced (clinical stage T3, T4 and/or N2, N3) breast cancer were randomly assigned to receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone (control arm, n = 51) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy concurrent with letrozole 2.5 mg (study arm, n = 50). Chemotherapy consisted of a median 4 (range 3-5) cycles of intravenous 5-fluorouracil 600 mg/m(2), doxorubicin 60 mg/m(2), and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2), every three weeks. All patients subsequently underwent modified radical mastectomy approximately two weeks after the last cycle of chemotherapy. Pathologic complete response rates were 25.5% and 10.2% in the study and the control group, respectively (P = 0.049). Similarly, clinical complete response rates were 27.6% and 10.2% in the study and the control group, respectively (P = 0.037). In the subgroup analysis of hormone receptor-positive cases, the complete response rates were more prominent in study group compared with control group. Common treatment-related side effects such as nausea, vomiting, bone marrow suppression, and mucositis were similar in both groups, but hot flush was more prevalent in study group compared with control group (P = 0.023). The addition of letrozole concurrently with neoadjuvant chemotherapy provides a higher clinical and pathologic response rates with acceptable toxicity compared with chemotherapy alone in postmenopausal women with locally advanced sensitive breast cancer.

  18. Factors Influencing Decision-Making for or against Adjuvant and Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Postmenopausal Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer Patients in the EvAluate-TM Study

    PubMed Central

    Gaß, Paul; Fasching, Peter A.; Fehm, Tanja; de Waal, Johann; Rezai, Mahdi; Baier, Bernd; Baake, Gerold; Kolberg, Hans-Christian; Guggenberger, Martin; Warm, Mathias; Harbeck, Nadia; Wuerstlein, Rachel; Deuker, Jörg-Uwe; Dall, Peter; Richter, Barbara; Wachsmann, Grischa; Brucker, Cosima; Siebers, Jan W.; Fersis, Nikos; Kuhn, Thomas; Wolf, Christopher; Vollert, Hans-Walter; Breitbach, Georg-Peter; Janni, Wolfgang; Landthaler, Robert; Kohls, Andreas; Rezek, Daniela; Noesselt, Thomas; Fischer, Gunnar; Henschen, Stephan; Praetz, Thomas; Heyl, Volker; Kühn, Thorsten; Krauss, Thomas; Thomssen, Christoph; Hohn, Andre; Tesch, Hans; Mundhenke, Christoph; Hein, Alexander; Rauh, Claudia; Bayer, Christian M.; Jacob, Adib; Schmidt, Katja; Belleville, Erik; Hadji, Peyman; Brucker, Sara Y.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Kümmel, Sherko; Löhberg, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Decision-making for or against neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy in postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer does not follow any clear guidelines, and some patients may unnecessarily undergo chemotherapy and be exposed to the associated toxicity. The aim of this study was to identify the patient population for whom this issue may bear relevance. Methods Patients being treated with letrozole in the prospective multicenter noninterventional EvAluate-TM study were recruited. The percentage of patients receiving chemotherapy and factors associated with chemotherapy administration were identified. Results In all, 3,924 (37.4%) patients received chemotherapy before treatment with letrozole. Of these, 293 (20%) underwent neoadjuvant therapy. Younger age was predictive for both adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy. Overall, decisions in favor of administering chemotherapy are more likely to be made in patients with a higher body mass index (BMI), and neoadjuvant chemotherapy is administered at a higher rate in women with a lower BMI. Concomitant medication influenced the overall decision-making regarding chemotherapy, irrespective of whether it was given on a neoadjuvant or adjuvant basis. Conclusion There is an ongoing debate as to whether all of the many patients who receive chemotherapy actually benefit from it. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is frequently administered in this patient population, and this should encourage further research to resolve current clinical and research issues. PMID:27920623

  19. Factors Influencing Decision-Making for or against Adjuvant and Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Postmenopausal Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer Patients in the EvAluate-TM Study.

    PubMed

    Gaß, Paul; Fasching, Peter A; Fehm, Tanja; de Waal, Johann; Rezai, Mahdi; Baier, Bernd; Baake, Gerold; Kolberg, Hans-Christian; Guggenberger, Martin; Warm, Mathias; Harbeck, Nadia; Wuerstlein, Rachel; Deuker, Jörg-Uwe; Dall, Peter; Richter, Barbara; Wachsmann, Grischa; Brucker, Cosima; Siebers, Jan W; Fersis, Nikos; Kuhn, Thomas; Wolf, Christopher; Vollert, Hans-Walter; Breitbach, Georg-Peter; Janni, Wolfgang; Landthaler, Robert; Kohls, Andreas; Rezek, Daniela; Noesselt, Thomas; Fischer, Gunnar; Henschen, Stephan; Praetz, Thomas; Heyl, Volker; Kühn, Thorsten; Krauss, Thomas; Thomssen, Christoph; Hohn, Andre; Tesch, Hans; Mundhenke, Christoph; Hein, Alexander; Rauh, Claudia; Bayer, Christian M; Jacob, Adib; Schmidt, Katja; Belleville, Erik; Hadji, Peyman; Brucker, Sara Y; Beckmann, Matthias W; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Kümmel, Sherko; Löhberg, Christian R

    2016-10-01

    Decision-making for or against neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy in postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer does not follow any clear guidelines, and some patients may unnecessarily undergo chemotherapy and be exposed to the associated toxicity. The aim of this study was to identify the patient population for whom this issue may bear relevance. Patients being treated with letrozole in the prospective multicenter noninterventional EvAluate-TM study were recruited. The percentage of patients receiving chemotherapy and factors associated with chemotherapy administration were identified. In all, 3,924 (37.4%) patients received chemotherapy before treatment with letrozole. Of these, 293 (20%) underwent neoadjuvant therapy. Younger age was predictive for both adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy. Overall, decisions in favor of administering chemotherapy are more likely to be made in patients with a higher body mass index (BMI), and neoadjuvant chemotherapy is administered at a higher rate in women with a lower BMI. Concomitant medication influenced the overall decision-making regarding chemotherapy, irrespective of whether it was given on a neoadjuvant or adjuvant basis. There is an ongoing debate as to whether all of the many patients who receive chemotherapy actually benefit from it. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is frequently administered in this patient population, and this should encourage further research to resolve current clinical and research issues.

  20. Prevalence of Clostridium Difficile Infection in Patients After Radical Cystectomy and Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Katherine J; Fan, Yunhua; Sieger, Gretchen K; Weight, Christopher J; Konety, Badrinath R

    2017-10-27

    Clostridium Difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea. This study evaluates the prevalence and predictors of Clostridium Difficile infections in patients undergoing radical cystectomy with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Retrospective chart review was performed of all patients undergoing cystectomy and urinary diversion at a single institution from 2011-2017. Infection was documented in all cases with testing for Clostridium Difficile polymerase chain reaction toxin B. Patient and disease related factors were compared for those who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy vs. those who did not in order to identify potential risk factors associated with C. Difficile infections. Chi squared test and logistic regression analysis were used to determine statistical significance. Of 350 patients who underwent cystectomy, 41 (11.7%) developed Clostridium Difficile in the 30 day post-operative period. The prevalence of C. Difficile infection was higher amongst the patients undergoing cystectomy compared to the non-cystectomy admissions at our hospital (11.7 vs. 2.9%). Incidence was not significantly different among those who underwent cystectomy for bladder cancer versus those who underwent the procedure for other reasons. Median time to diagnosis was 6 days (range 3-28 days). The prevalence of C. Diff infections was not significantly different among those who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy vs. those who did not (11% vs. 10.4% p  = 0.72). A significant association between C. Difficile infection was not seen with proton pump inhibitor use ( p  = 0.48), patient BMI ( p  = 0.67), chemotherapeutic regimen ( p  = 0.94), individual surgeon ( p  = 0.54), type of urinary diversion (0.41), or peri-operative antibiotic redosing ( p  = 0.26). Clostridium Difficile infection has a higher prevalence in patients undergoing cystectomy. No significant association between prevalence and exposure to neoadjuvant chemotherapy was seen.

  1. Association between CHEK2 H371Y mutation and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yin; Xu, Ye; Ouyang, Tao; Li, Jinfeng; Wang, Tianfeng; Fan, Zhaoqing; Fan, Tie; Lin, Benyao; Xie, Yuntao

    2015-03-28

    Our previous study suggested that the recurrent CHEK2 H371Y mutation is a novel pathogenic mutation that confers an increased risk of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether breast cancer patients with CHEK2 H371Y mutation were more likely to respond to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We screened a cohort of 2334 Chinese women with operable primary breast cancer who received a neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen for CHEK2 H371Y germline mutations. Pathologic complete response (pCR) was defined as the absence of tumor cells in the breast after the completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Thirty-nine patients (1.7%) with CHEK2 H371Y germline mutation were identified in this cohort of 2334 patients. CHEK2 H371Y mutation carriers had a significantly higher pCR rate than non-carriers (33.3% versus 19.5%, P = 0.031) in the entire study population, and CHEK2 H371Y mutation-positive status remained an independent favorable predictor of pCR in a multivariate analysis (odds ratio [OR] = 3.01; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34- 6.78, P = 0.008). CHEK2 H371Y carriers had a slightly worse distant recurrence-free survival than non-carriers (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] =1.24, 95% CI: 0.59-2.63). CHEK2 H371Y mutation carriers are more likely to respond to neoadjuvant chemotherapy than are non-carriers.

  2. Neoadjuvant therapy in pancreatic cancer: an emerging strategy.

    PubMed

    Bittoni, Alessandro; Santoni, Matteo; Lanese, Andrea; Pellei, Chiara; Andrikou, Kalliopi; Stefano, Cascinu

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths among men and women, being responsible for 6% of all cancer-related deaths. Surgical resection offers the only chance of cure, but only 15 to 20 percent of cases are potentially resectable at presentation. In recent years, increasing evidences support the use of neoadjuvant strategies in pancreatic cancer in patients with resectable pancreatic cancer as well as in patients with borderline resectable or locally advanced PDAC in order to allow early treatment of micrometastatic disease, tumour regression, and reduced risk of peritoneal tumour implantation during surgery. Furthermore, neoadjuvant treatment allows evaluation of tumour response and increases patient's compliance. However, most evidences in this setting come from retrospective analysis or small case series and in many studies chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapies used were suboptimal. Currently, prospective randomized trials using the most active chemotherapy regimens available are trying to define the real benefit of neoadjuvant strategies compared to conventional adjuvant strategies. In this review, the authors examined available data on neoadjuvant treatment in patients with resectable pancreatic cancer as well as in patients with borderline resectable or locally advanced PDAC and the future directions in this peculiar setting.

  3. Caring for women undergoing cardiac ablation.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Beryl

    2008-09-01

    Radiofrequency cardiac ablation (RFCA) has become the treatment of choice for many cardiac arrhythmias that have not responded to medication. Complications of cardiac ablation include bleeding, thrombosis, pericardial tamponade, and stroke. Many complications are procedure specific, and several complications can be avoided with appropriate nursing care. Quality patient outcomes begin with competent nursing care. Therefore it is vital for a patient undergoing a percutaneous cardiac ablation procedure to receive supportive care and pre- and post-interventional patient education. This article discusses the nursing care of women undergoing RFCA.

  4. Treatment outcomes regarding the addition of targeted agents in the therapeutic portfolio for stage II-III rectal cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jin-Tung; Chen, Tzu-Chun; Huang, John; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien

    2017-11-24

    To evaluate the impact of targeted agents in stage II-III rectal cancer undergoing neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT). A retrospective study was performed in 124 consecutive patients with clinically T 3 N 0-2 M 0 -staged rectal cancer incorporating targeted agents in CCRT. Pathologic complete response was detected in 34.2% (n=26) of bevacizumab+FOLFOX-treated patients (n=76), which was significantly higher (p=0.019, post-hoc statistical power =35.87%) than that (n=10, 20.8%) of the cetuximab+FOLFOX-treated patients (n=48). Patients receiving cetuximab+FOLFOX therapy tended to develop severe liver toxicity (91.7%, n=44 versus 17.1%, n=13, p<0.0001), as evaluated by morphologic grading of hepatic steatosis and sinusoidal dilatation in laparoscopy. In the 57 patients with morphologically severe liver toxicity, 36 (63.2%) retained a normal liver function; for the remaining 21 patients with an abnormal liver function, the abnormality was self-limited in 19 patients, whereas 2 cetuximab-treated patients progressed to hepatic failure and mortality. A subset analysis within bevacizumab+FOLFOX-treated patients with either wild-type (n=36) or mutant (n=40) K-ras status indicated K-ras status did not significantly influence the treatment outcomes. The addition of bevacizumab instead of cetuximab to FOLFOX in the neoadjuvant settings for T 3 N 0-2 M 0 -staged rectal cancer could induce a promising rate of pathologic complete response and lesser hepatotoxicity.

  5. Outcomes of Hispanic women with lymph-node positive, HER2 positive breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and trastuzumab in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Sifuentes, Erika; Ruano, Santiago; Baez-Revueltas, Berenice; Lara-Medina, Fernando; Arce-Salinas, Claudia; Alvarado-Miranda, Alberto; Chavarri-Guerra, Yanin; Caro-Sanchez, Claudia; Castañeda-Soto, Noel; Bargallo-Rocha, Enrique; Mohar, Alejandro

    2015-06-01

    Evidence regarding the outcomes of Hispanic women with breast cancer is lacking. We analyzed women with HER2+ disease treated with trastuzumab-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in Mexico. 244 patients were included. Outcomes were compared between patients who achieved pathologic complete response (pCR) (n = 119), or less than pCR (n = 125). Patients with noninvasive (ypT0/is, ypN0) residual disease were also analyzed. 119 (48.8%) patients achieved pCR. pCR was the only factor associated with improved 3 year survival (98.1% vs 92.3%: P = 0.02). Survival was better in patients with ypT0/is, ypN0 response than in those with residual invasive disease (p < 0.01). 3 year survival was 98.1% for patients with pCR and 92.6% for patients with ypTis, ypN0 response (p = 0.64). Response rates to trastuzumab based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in Hispanics mimic that of other ethnic groups. This underlines the fact that access to treatment, rather than ethnicity, is the main prognostic factor in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Neoadjuvant Systemic Therapy Use for Younger Patients with Breast Cancer Treated in Different Types of Cancer Centers Across the United States.

    PubMed

    Mohiuddin, Jahan J; Deal, Allison M; Carey, Lisa A; Lund, Jennifer L; Baker, Brock R; Zagar, Timothy M; Jones, Ellen L; Marks, Lawrence B; Chen, Ronald C

    2016-11-01

    Multiple clinical trials have shown that neoadjuvant systemic therapy has a benefit in women who are borderline lumpectomy candidates and in those with locally advanced breast cancers by reducing the mastectomy rate and making inoperable tumors operable. The study aim was to examine the patterns of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and endocrine therapy use among younger women in the United States treated at different types of cancer centers. Data from the National Cancer Data Base for 118,086 women younger than 65 years with clinical stage IIA (T2N0 only) to IIIC breast cancer. Following the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guideline categorization, patients were grouped into those who were borderline lumpectomy candidates (clinical stage IIA [T2N0 only], IIB, or IIIA [T3N1 only]) or those with locally advanced disease (clinical stage IIIA [T0-3N2 only], IIIB, or IIIC). The main outcome was the proportion of women who received neoadjuvant systemic therapy. Use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy ranged from 17% (stage IIA) to 79% (stage IIIB). Across almost all stage and receptor subtypes, the use was lower in community vs academic centers. On multivariable analysis, use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy was decreased in community vs academic centers (borderline lumpectomy candidates: adjusted risk ratio = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.69-0.77; locally advanced disease: adjusted risk ratio = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.74-0.83). Use of guideline-concordant neoadjuvant chemotherapy is significantly higher among women treated at academic vs community centers in young and healthy women who do not commonly have contraindications to this treatment. Our study identified a potential disparity in cancer care by type of center where patients receive treatment. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Letrozole in the neoadjuvant setting: the P024 trial

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy trials have consistently reported lower response rates in hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer when compared with HR− cases. Preoperative endocrine therapy has therefore become a logical alternative and has gained considerable momentum from the finding that aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are more effective than tamoxifen for HR+ breast cancer in both the neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings. The most convincing neoadjuvant trial to demonstrate the superiority of an AI versus tamoxifen was the P024 study, a large multinational double-blind trial in postmenopausal women with HR+ breast cancer ineligible for breast-conserving surgery. The overall response rate (ORR) was 55% for letrozole and 36% for tamoxifen (P < 0.001). Significantly more letrozole-treated patients underwent breast-conserving surgery (45 vs. 35%, respectively; P = 0.022). In addition, ORR was significantly higher with letrozole than tamoxifen in the human epidermal growth factor receptor HER1/HER2+ subgroup (P = 0.0004). The clinical efficacy of letrozole in HER2+ breast cancer was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis and was found to be comparable to that of HER2− cases (ORR 71% in both subsets). Biomarker studies confirmed the superiority of letrozole in centrally assessed estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) tumors and found a strong relationship with the degree of ER positivity for both agents. Interestingly, letrozole was effective even in marginally ER+ tumors and, unlike tamoxifen, consistently reduced the expression from estrogen-regulated genes (progesterone receptor and trefoil factor 1). Furthermore, when analyzed by Ki67 immunohistochemistry, letrozole was significantly more effective than tamoxifen in reducing tumor proliferation (P = 0.0009). Thus, neoadjuvant letrozole is safe and superior to tamoxifen in the treatment of postmenopausal women with HR+ locally advanced breast cancer. PMID:17912634

  8. Long-term survival based on pathologic response to neoadjuvant therapy in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Tiesi, Gregory; Park, Wungki; Gunder, Meredith; Rubio, Gustavo; Berger, Michael; Ardalan, Bach; Livingstone, Alan; Franceschi, Dido

    2017-08-01

    Neoadjuvant treatment is standard for locally advanced esophageal cancer. However, whether the addition of radiation to neoadjuvant regimen improves survival remains unclear. The aim of this study was to compare survival in locally advanced esophageal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy versus chemoradiation. A prospectively maintained database of esophagectomies (1999-2012) was analyzed. We identified 297 patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer that underwent either neoadjuvant chemotherapy (n = 231) or chemoradiation (n = 66) followed by esophagectomy. Pretreatment and pathologic staging were compared to assess response. Overall survival was recorded. Most patients in the chemotherapy and chemoradiation groups had pretreatment stage III disease (66.7% versus 65.2%; P = 0.44). Median follow-up was 79.3 and 64.9 mo for chemotherapy and chemoradiation cohorts, respectively. Complete response rate was higher in chemoradiation than chemotherapy groups (30.3% versus 13.8%; P < 0.001). Overall survival was similar between complete responders in both groups (median not reached versus 121.1 mo; chemotherapy versus chemoradiation). However, partial responders in the chemotherapy cohort had improved median survival (147.2 mo) versus those in the chemoradiation cohort (83.7 mo, P < 0.03). Within the chemotherapy-only group, partial responders had improved survival compared with nonresponders (P = 0.041); however, there was no difference in survival between partial and complete responders (P = 0.36). In patients undergoing esophagectomy for locally advanced esophageal cancer, neoadjuvant chemotherapy was associated with an equivalent overall survival, when compared with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Adding neoadjuvant radiation may enhance complete response rates but does not appear to be associated with improved survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk factors for positive margins in conservative surgery for breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bouzón, Alberto; Acea, Benigno; García, Alejandra; Iglesias, Ángela; Mosquera, Joaquín; Santiago, Paz; Seoane, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Breast conservative surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy intends to remove any residual tumor with negative margins. The purpose of this study was to analyze the preoperative clinical-pathological factors influencing the margin status after conservative surgery in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A retrospective study of 91 breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (92 breast lesions) during the period 2006 to 2013. A Cox regression analysis to identify baseline tumor characteristics associated with positive margins after breast conservative surgery was performed. Of all cases, 71 tumors were initially treated with conservative surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Pathologic exam revealed positive margins in 16 of the 71 cases (22.5%). The incidence of positive margins was significantly higher in cancers with initial size >5cm (P=.021), in cancers with low tumor grade (P=.031), and in patients with hormone receptor-positive cancer (P=.006). After a median follow-up of 45.2 months, 7 patients of the 71 treated with conservative surgery had disease recurrence (9.8%). There was no significant difference in terms of disease-free survival according to the margin status (P=.596). A baseline tumor size >5cm, low tumor grade and hormone receptor-positive status increase the risk for surgical margin involvement in breast conservative surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. PRospective Imaging of CErvical cancer and neoadjuvant treatment (PRICE) study: role of ultrasound to predict partial response in locally advanced cervical cancer patients undergoing chemoradiation and radical surgery.

    PubMed

    Testa, A C; Ferrandina, G; Moro, F; Pasciuto, T; Moruzzi, M C; De Blasis, I; Mascilini, F; Foti, E; Autorino, R; Collarino, A; Gui, B; Zannoni, G F; Gambacorta, M A; Valentini, A L; Rufini, V; Scambia, G

    2018-05-01

    Chemoradiation-based neoadjuvant treatment followed by radical surgery is an alternative therapeutic strategy for locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC), but ultrasound variables used to predict partial response to neoadjuvant treatment are not well defined. Our goal was to analyze prospectively the potential role of transvaginal ultrasound in early prediction of partial pathological response, assessed in terms of residual disease at histology, in a large, single-institution series of LACC patients triaged to neoadjuvant treatment followed by radical surgery. Between October 2010 and June 2014, we screened 108 women with histologically documented LACC Stage IB2-IVA, of whom 88 were included in the final analysis. Tumor volume, three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler indices and contrast parameters were obtained before (baseline examination) and after 2 weeks of treatment. The pathological response was defined as complete (absence of any residual tumor after treatment) or partial (microscopic and/or macroscopic residual tumor at pathological examination). Complete-response and partial-response groups were compared and receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves were generated for ultrasound variables that were statistically significant on univariate analysis to evaluate their diagnostic ability to predict partial pathological response. There was a complete pathological response to neoadjuvant therapy in 40 (45.5%) patients and a partial response in 48 (54.5%). At baseline examination, tumor volume did not differ between the two groups. However, after 2 weeks of neoadjuvant treatment, the tumor volume was significantly greater in patients with partial response than it was in those with complete response (P = 0.019). Among the 3D vascular indices, the vascularization index (VI) was significantly lower in the partial-response compared with the complete-response group, both before and after 2 weeks of treatment (P = 0.037 and P = 0.024, respectively

  11. Neoadjuvant therapy in the treatment of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Teshome, Mediget; Hunt, Kelly K.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Neoadjuvant systemic therapy in the treatment of breast cancer was initially employed for patients with inoperable disease. Over the past several decades this treatment approach has proved beneficial in many other patients including those with early-stage, operable breast cancer. Several randomized prospective studies have shown comparable survival rates when compared with adjuvant systemic therapy. Additionally, neoadjuvant chemotherapy can decrease the tumor burden facilitating breast conservation in selected patients without significant increases in local recurrence. Response to therapy has proven to be a strong predictor of outcome, with patients achieving pathologic complete response (pCR) demonstrating improved survival compared with those achieving less than a pCR. Furthermore, molecular subtype analysis has shown improved response following neoadjuvant chemotherapy in certain tumor types providing patients with the most aggressive subtypes a chance at cure with targeted therapies. In particular, targeting the HER2-positive subtype with trastuzumab and other HER2-directed therapies has markedly improved the outcome in these patients. Conversely, the early recognition of poor responders is important in limiting the toxicity of ineffective therapy and altering management. Neoadjuvant endocrine therapy in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive tumors consistently decreases tumor size improving rates of breast conservation. Aromatase inhibitors have demonstrated superiority to tamoxifen with improved response and favorable toxicity profiles. Imaging modalities have shown promise in predicting patients with pCR, however they have not yet eliminated the need for surgical intervention. Less invasive surgical strategies such as breast conserving surgery and sentinel lymph node dissection have been shown to be safe following neoadjuvant chemotherapy in selected patients. A multidisciplinary approach with primary systemic therapy when indicated

  12. Controversies in breast cancer: adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Montemurro, Filippo; Redana, Stefania; Valabrega, Giorgio; Aglietta, Massimo

    2005-06-01

    Initial randomised studies of chemotherapy and endocrine therapy showed that systemic treatments had a substantial impact on the survival of women with early breast cancer. The original assumption was that the efficacy of these treatments was limited to those patients presenting with more adverse prognostic features. Subsequently, meta-analyses of randomised trials revealed that the benefits of chemotherapy and endocrine therapy are not mutually exclusive and extend to all the prognostic subgroups. However, the absolute benefit varies according to baseline characteristics such as tumour stage and other biological factors. Over the last 10 years, considerable progress has been made with the introduction of new drugs into the adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment of women with breast cancer. Taxanes and third-generation aromatase inhibitors are providing proof of additional benefits compared with standard reference treatments. In parallel, research on the biology of breast cancer is establishing novel prognostic and predictive factors, which may allow better treatment tailoring. Currently, however, women with early breast cancer and their doctors face the difficult task of making therapeutic decisions often based on early results from positive studies. In a disease where follow up is crucial to fully assess the benefit and long-term toxicities of an intervention, current knowledge leaves unanswered questions that generate debate and controversy. This review will summarise recent results from randomised trials of adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy in women with early breast cancer and focus on the current controversies.

  13. Sentinel node biopsy before neoadjuvant chemotherapy spares breast cancer patients axillary lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    van Rijk, Maartje C; Nieweg, Omgo E; Rutgers, Emiel J T; Oldenburg, Hester S A; Olmos, Renato Valdés; Hoefnagel, Cornelis A; Kroon, Bin B R

    2006-04-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients is a valuable method to determine the efficacy of chemotherapy and potentially downsize the primary tumor, which facilitates breast-conserving therapy. In 18 studies published about sentinel node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the sentinel node was identified in on average 89%, and the false-negative rate was on average 10%. Because of these mediocre results, no author dares to omit axillary clearance just yet. In our institute, sentinel lymph node biopsy is performed before neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate our experience with this approach. Sentinel node biopsy was performed before neoadjuvant chemotherapy in 25 T2N0 patients by using lymphoscintigraphy, a gamma ray detection probe, and patent blue dye. Axillary lymph node dissection was performed after chemotherapy if the sentinel node contained metastases. Ten patients had a tumor-positive axillary sentinel node, and one patient had an involved lateral intramammary node. Four patients had additional involved nodes in the completion lymph node dissection specimen. The other 14 patients (56%) had a tumor-negative sentinel node and did not undergo axillary lymph node dissection. No recurrences have been observed after a median follow-up of 18 months. Fourteen (56%) of the 25 patients were spared axillary lymph node dissection when the sentinel node was found to be disease free. Performing sentinel node biopsy before neoadjuvant chemotherapy seems successful and reliable in patients with T2N0 breast cancer.

  14. Evidence-based guideline recommendations on treatment strategies for localized Ewing's sarcoma of bone following neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Werier, Joel; Yao, Xiaomei; Caudrelier, Jean-Michel; di Primio, Gina; Ghert, Michelle; Gupta, Abha A; Kandel, Rita; Verma, Shailendra

    2016-06-01

    (1) To provide recommendations regarding the choice of surgery, radiation therapy (RT), or the combination of surgery plus RT in patients with localized Ewing's sarcoma of bone following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. (2) To determine the appropriate surgical planning imaging (pre-chemotherapy magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] or post-chemotherapy MRI) to identify optimal resection margins in patients with localized Ewing's sarcoma who undergo surgery following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library (1999 to February 2015), main guideline websites, and relevant annual meeting abstracts (2012 to January 2015) were searched. Internal and external reviews were conducted. 1. Recommendation (1) - In patients with localized Ewing's sarcoma of bone following neoadjuvant chemotherapy: (a) Surgery alone or RT alone are two reasonable treatment options; the combination of surgery plus RT is not recommended as an initial treatment option. (b) The local treatment for an individual patient should be decided by a multidisciplinary tumour board together with the patient after consideration of the following: (1) patient characteristics (e.g., age, tumour location, tumour size, response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and existing comorbidities), (2) the potential benefit weighed against the potential complications from surgery and/or toxicities associated with RT, and (3) patient preferences. 2. Recommendation (2) - In patients with localized Ewing's sarcoma who will undergo surgery: (a) Both pre-chemotherapy and post-chemotherapy MRI scans should be taken into consideration for surgical planning. In certain anatomic locations with good chemotherapy response, the post-chemotherapy MRI may be the appropriate imaging modality to plan surgical resection margins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy on Axillary Lymph Node Positivity and Numbers in Breast Cancer Cases.

    PubMed

    Uyan, Mikail; Koca, Bulent; Yuruker, Savas; Ozen, Necati

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the numbers of axillary lymph nodes (ALN) taken out by dissection between patients with breast cancer operated on after having neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) treatment and otherswithout having neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and to investigate factors affecting lymph node positivity. A total of 49 patients operated due to advanced breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 144 patients with a similar stage of the cancer having primary surgical treatment without chemotherapy at the general surgery clinic of Ondokuz Mayis University Medicine Faculty between the dates 01.01.2006 and 31.10.2012 were included in the study. The total number of lymph nodes taken out by axillary dissection (ALND) was categorized as the number of positive lymph nodes and divided into <10 and ≥10. The variables to be compared were analysed using the program SPSS 15.0 with P<0.05 accepted as significant. Median number of dissected lymph nodes from the patient group having neoadjuvant chemotherapy was 16 (16-33) while it was 20 (5-55) without chemotherapy. The respective median numbers of positive lymph nodes were 5 ( 0-19) and 10 (0-51). In 8 out of 49 neoadjuvant chemotherapy patients (16.3%), the number of dissected lymph nodes was below 10, and it was below 10 in 17 out of 144 primary surgery patients. Differences in numbers of dissected total and positive lymph nodes between two groups were significant, but this was not the case for numbers of <10 lymph nodes. The number of dissected lymph nodes from the patients with breast cancer having neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be less than without chemotherapy. This may not always be attributed to an inadequate axillary dissection. More research to evaluate the numbers of positive lymph nodes are required in order to increase the reliability of staging in the patients with breast cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  16. Radiotherapy in cT3 prostatic carcinoma: retrospective comparison between neoadjuvant and adjuvant hormonotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cellini, Numa; Luzi, Stefano; Morganti, Alessio Giuseppe; Valentini, Vincenzo; Mantini, Giovanna; Racioppi, Marco; Smaniotto, Daniela; Leone, Mariavittoria; Mattiucci, Gian Carlo; Digesù, Cinzia; Giustacchini, Mario; Destito, Antonio; Alcini, Eugenio

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively compare the clinical outcomes achieved in 2 groups of patients with cT3 prostatic carcinoma undergoing neoadjuvant hormonotherapy and neoadjuvant hormonotherapy plus adjuvant hormonotherapy with external beam radiotherapy. One hundred patients with cT3N0M0 prostatic carcinoma underwent radiotherapy to pelvic lymph nodes (45 Gy, 1.8 Gy/fraction) with a booster dose (65-70 Gy) to the prostatic cavity. Forty-four patients received neoadjuvant hormonotherapy (goserelin, starting 2 months before radiotherapy and continuing until the end of irradiation); 56 patients received neoadjuvant hormonotherapy plus adjuvant goserelin until disease progression, if present. Patients undergoing adjuvant hormonotherapy as compared to those who received exclusive neoadjuvant therapy showed a higher reduction in PSA level below 1.0 ng/ml (p = 0.0211), a lower incidence of biochemical failures (p = 0.0170), a lower incidence of hematogenous metastases (p = 0.0320) and a trend suggestive of a better disease-free survival (p = 0.0660). At univariate analysis (logrank), Gleason score did not show a significant correlation with any of the end points analyzed. To the contrary, patients with tumor <15 mm showed a better local control (p = 0.0347) and biochemical failure-free survival (p = 0.0102). Furthermore, a trend between initial PSA level and incidence of hematogenous metastases was observed (p = 0.0519). Patients with a posttreatment PSA level <1.0 ng/ml had a lower incidence of metastases (p = 0.0237) and a better survival (p = 0.0178); patients with complete clinical response showed a lower incidence of biochemical failures (p = 0.0469). Radiotherapy doses >70 Gy showed a trend with biochemical failure-free survival (p = 0.0554). At multivariate analysis, a correlation between Gleason score and incidence of metastases (p = 0.0232), and between tumor diameter and local control (p = 0.0178) and biochemical failure-free survival (p = 0

  17. Breast Cancer after Augmentation: Oncologic and Reconstructive Considerations among Women Undergoing Mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eugenia H; Shammas, Ronnie L; Phillips, Brett T; Greenup, Rachel A; Hwang, E Shelley; Hollenbeck, Scott T

    2017-06-01

    Breast augmentation with subglandular versus subpectoral implants may differentially impact the early detection of breast cancer and treatment recommendations. The authors assessed the impact of prior augmentation on the diagnosis and management of breast cancer in women undergoing mastectomy. Breast cancer diagnosis and management were retrospectively analyzed in all women with prior augmentation undergoing therapeutic mastectomy at the authors' institution from 1993 to 2014. Comparison was made to all women with no prior augmentation undergoing mastectomy in 2010. Subanalyses were performed according to prior implant placement. A total of 260 women with (n = 89) and without (n = 171) prior augmentation underwent mastectomy for 95 and 179 breast cancers, respectively. Prior implant placement was subglandular (n = 27) or subpectoral (n = 63) (For five breasts, the placement was unknown). Breast cancer stage at diagnosis (p = 0.19) and detection method (p = 0.48) did not differ for women with and without prior augmentation. Compared to subpectoral augmentation, subglandular augmentation was associated with the diagnosis of invasive breast cancer rather than ductal carcinoma in situ (p = 0.01) and detection by self-palpation rather than screening mammography (p = 0.03). Immediate two-stage implant reconstruction was the preferred reconstructive method in women with augmentation (p < 0.01). Breast cancer stage at diagnosis was similar for women with and without prior augmentation. Among women with augmentation, however, subglandular implants were associated with more advanced breast tumors commonly detected on palpation rather than mammography. Increased vigilance in breast cancer screening is recommended among women with subglandular augmentation. Therapeutic, III.

  18. Intraindividual variability in reaction time before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in women diagnosed with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yao, Christie; Rich, Jill B; Tirona, Kattleya; Bernstein, Lori J

    2017-12-01

    Women treated with chemotherapy for breast cancer experience subtle cognitive deficits. Research has focused on mean performance level, yet recent work suggests that within-person variability in reaction time performance may underlie cognitive symptoms. We examined intraindividual variability (IIV) in women diagnosed with breast cancer and treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Patients (n = 28) were assessed at baseline before chemotherapy (T1), approximately 1 month after chemotherapy but prior to surgery (T2), and after surgery about 9 months post chemotherapy (T3). Healthy women of similar age and education (n = 20) were assessed at comparable time intervals. Using a standardized regression-based approach, we examined changes in mean performance level and IIV (eg, intraindividual standard deviation) on a Stroop task and self-report measures of cognitive function from T1 to T2 and T1 to T3. At T1, women with breast cancer were more variable than controls as task complexity increased. Change scores from T1 to T2 were similar between groups on all Stroop performance measures. From T1 to T3, controls improved more than women with breast cancer. IIV was more sensitive than mean reaction time in capturing group differences. Additional analyses showed increased cognitive symptoms reported by women with breast cancer from T1 to T3. Specifically, change in language symptoms was positively correlated with change in variability. Women with breast cancer declined in attention and inhibitory control relative to pretreatment performance. Future studies should include measures of variability, because they are an important sensitive indicator of change in cognitive function. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Validation of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer women N1-N2 with complete axillary response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Multicentre study in Tarragona.

    PubMed

    Carrera, D; de la Flor, M; Galera, J; Amillano, K; Gomez, M; Izquierdo, V; Aguilar, E; López, S; Martínez, M; Martínez, S; Serra, J M; Pérez, M; Martin, L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate sentinel lymph node biopsy as a diagnostic test for assessing the presence of residual metastatic axillary lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, replacing the need for a lymphadenectomy in negative selective lymph node biopsy patients. A multicentre, diagnostic validation study was conducted in the province of Tarragona, on women with T1-T3, N1-N2 breast cancer, who presented with a complete axillary response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Study procedures consisted of performing an selective lymph node biopsy followed by lymphadenectomy. A total of 53 women were included in the study. Surgical detection rate was 90.5% (no sentinel node found in 5 patients). Histopathological analysis of the lymphadenectomy showed complete disease regression of axillary nodes in 35.4% (17/48) of the patients, and residual axillary node involvement in 64.6% (31/48) of them. In lymphadenectomy positive patients, 28 had a positive selective lymph node biopsy (true positive), while 3 had a negative selective lymph node biopsy (false negative). Of the 28 true selective lymph node biopsy positives, the sentinel node was the only positive node in 10 cases. All lymphadenectomy negative cases were selective lymph node biopsy negative. These data yield a sensitivity of 93.5%, a false negative rate of 9.7%, and a global test efficiency of 93.7%. Selective lymph node biopsy after chemotherapy in patients with a complete axillary response provides valid and reliable information regarding axillary status after neoadjuvant treatment, and might prevent lymphadenectomy in cases with negative selective lymph node biopsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  20. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer with variant histology.

    PubMed

    Vetterlein, Malte W; Wankowicz, Stephanie A M; Seisen, Thomas; Lander, Richard; Löppenberg, Björn; Chun, Felix K-H; Menon, Mani; Sun, Maxine; Barletta, Justine A; Choueiri, Toni K; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Preston, Mark A

    2017-11-15

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in pure urothelial bladder cancer provides a significant survival benefit. However, to the authors' knowledge, it is unknown whether this benefit persists in histological variants. The objective of the current study was to assess the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the probability of non-organ-confined disease and overall survival after radical cystectomy (RC) in patients with histological variants. Querying the National Cancer Data Base, the authors identified 2018 patients with histological variants who were undergoing RC for bladder cancer between 2003 and 2012. Variants were categorized as micropapillary or sarcomatoid differentiation, squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors, and other histology. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of non-organ-confined disease at the time of RC for each histological variant, stratified by the receipt of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Cox regression models were used to examine the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on overall mortality in each variant subgroup. Patients with neuroendocrine tumors (odds ratio [OR], 0.16; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.08-0.32 [P<.001]), micropapillary differentiation (OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.10-0.95 [P=.041]), sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma (OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.17-0.94 [P=.035]), and adenocarcinoma (OR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.06-0.91 [P=.035]) were less likely to harbor non-organ-confined disease at the time of RC when treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. An overall survival benefit for neoadjuvant chemotherapy was only found in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.33-0.74 [P=.001]). Patients with neuroendocrine tumors benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy, as evidenced by better overall survival and lower rates of non-organ-confined disease at the time of RC. For tumors with micropapillary differentiation, sarcomatoid differentiation, or adenocarcinoma, neoadjuvant chemotherapy decreased the frequency of non

  1. Subharmonic Imaging and Pressure Estimation for Monitoring Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    ultrasound contrast agents to improve the monitoring of breast cancer treatment response to neoadjuvant therapies in women diagnosed with LABC by imaging...estimation (SHAPE). Software for analyzing RF data from a Logiq 9 ultrasound scanner (GE Healthcare, Milwauke, WI) to produce 3D SHAPE pressure...responders; albeit not statistically significant (p > 0.19). 14. SUBJECT TERMS Breast Cancer, Ultrasound Imaging, Ultrasound Contrast Agent, Pressure

  2. Cell-free DNA and telomere length among women undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment.

    PubMed

    Czamanski-Cohen, J; Sarid, O; Cwikel, J; Douvdevani, A; Levitas, E; Lunenfeld, E; Har-Vardi, I

    2015-11-01

    The current research is aimed at finding potential non-invasive bio-markers that will help us learn more about the mechanisms at play in failed assisted reproduction treatment. This exploratory pilot study examined the relationship between cell-free DNA (CFD) in plasma and telomere length in lymphocytes among women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and compared telomere length and CFD levels to a healthy control group. Blood of 20 women undergoing IVF was collected at three time points during the IVF cycle. We assessed the relationship between CFD and telomere length as well as controlling for morning cortisol levels. We also collected blood of 10 healthy controls at two time points (luteal and follicular phases of the menstrual cycle) and compared mean telomere length, CFD, and cortisol levels between the IVF patients and healthy controls. The results revealed an inverse relationship between CFD levels and telomere lengths at several time points that remained significant even after controlling for cortisol levels. Women undergoing IVF had statistically significant higher levels of CFD and shorter telomeres compared to healthy controls. The relationship between telomere length and CFD should be further explored in larger studies in order to uncover potential mechanisms that cause both shortened telomere length and elevated CFD in women undergoing IVF.

  3. Bulky mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical surgery: report of the first case.

    PubMed

    Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Bogani, Giorgio; Gasparri, Maria L; Donato, Violante Di; Paolini, Biagio; Carcangiu, Maria L; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2016-11-11

    Malignant mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix is a rare occurrence with few cases described in the literature. Although surgery seems to be effective in the treatment of early-stage tumor, no cases describing outcomes of locally advanced stage are available. We report the first case of a patient with International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecologists stage IIB mesonephric adenocarcinoma undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical surgery. Despite the inherent limitation of a single description of a case, our experience supports the utilization of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with malignant mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Further prospective multi-institutional studies are needed.

  4. Determinants of short and long term outcomes in patients undergoing immediate breast reconstruction following neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wengler, Craig A; Valente, Stephanie A; Al-Hilli, Zahraa; Woody, Neil M; Muntean, Julia H; Abraham, Jame; Tendulkar, Rahul D; Djohan, Risal; O'Rourke, Colin; Crowe, Joseph P; Grobmyer, Stephen R

    2017-12-01

    We evaluated oncologic outcomes and complications of skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) and nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) with immediate reconstruction (IR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with early-stage and locally advanced breast cancer (BC). BC patients from 2000 to 2014 treated with NAC followed by SSM/NSM and IR were reviewed. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, NAC response, complications, and recurrence were analyzed. Two hundred sixty-nine patients with 280 BCs were treated with NAC followed by SSM (94%) or NSM (6%) with IR. Median age was 47 (26-72) years with a median follow-up of 45 months. Pathologic complete response (pCR) was noted in 49 (17.5%) cases. Overall 30-day complication rate was 13.2%. Variables associated with complications included BMI (P < 0.0001), tobacco use (P = 0.015), and adjuvant radiation (P = 0.025). Local-regional recurrence was 3.2% and metastatic recurrence was 13.2%. Variables predicting recurrence risk were pre-NAC tumor size (P < 0.001), residual tumor size (P = 0.002), Grade III (P = 0.002), HER-2 negative (P = 0.025), pre-NAC nodal disease (P = 0.05), and lack of pCR (P = 0.045). Following NAC, risk factors for complications in patients undergoing SSM/NSM with IR are high BMI, smoking, and adjuvant XRT. SSM/NSM following NAC is associated with excellent local control. These data support expanding the indications for NSM/SSM to include patients receiving NAC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Factors Related to Intention to Undergo Female Sterilization Among Married Women in Rural Kathmandu, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Pitikultang, Supachai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sterilization is most widely used fertility regulation method in Nepal. However, prevalence of uptake of female sterilization in central hilly region is less than the national average. The objective of the study was to explore the number and factors related to intention of married women to undergo female sterilization in rural Kathmandu which lies within central hilly region. Materials and Methods: This is a community based cross-sectional survey research conducted in rural area of Kathmandu valley. Two hundred and forty currently married women with at least one child of any age were interviewed using a structured pre-tested questionnaire. Results: More than four-fifth of the respondents intended to undergo sterilization. Almost two-third of them wanted to limit their family size by taking this option. More than one-third of women not-intending to undergo sterilization feared weakness after sterilization. Age of the respondents, duration of marriage, and number of living children were significantly associated with intention to undergo sterilization. 15-24 years age group were six times more likely to have the intention for sterilization (OR 6.79, CI 2.28-20.19) compared to age 35 years and above group. Mothers with less than 3 living children are about three times more likely to have the intention to undergo sterilization (OR 2.87, CI 1.3-6.33) compared to women with more than 2 living children. Women married for 6 to 10 years were three times more likely to have the intention (OR 3.0, CI 1.09-8.27). However, gender of the living children was not associated with intention to undergo sterilization. Conclusion: There were significant numbers of women intending to undergo sterilization. Age of the mother, number of living children and the duration of marriage were found to be significantly influencing the intention to undergo sterilization. However, as intention refers to future plan, the respondents’ intention may change over time. The national family

  6. Anxiety in women with breast cancer undergoing treatment: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chi Ching; Devi, M Kamala; Ang, Emily

    2011-09-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and anxiety is a psychological morbidity that is inevitable. Many researchers have investigated the prevalence and detrimental effects of anxiety in breast cancer treatment, but little is known about differences in anxiety level among women receiving different breast cancer treatments. A systematic review of all available literature was needed to attain better understanding of anxiety in patients undergoing treatment for breast cancer. This review aimed to determine the best available evidence on the level of anxiety among women with breast cancer who were undergoing cancer treatment(s), and the factor(s) contributing to anxiety in various treatment modalities. The search sought to gather data from published and unpublished studies conducted between 1990 and 2010. An initial search on CINAHL and Medline was done to identify relevant search terms. A search strategy was then developed, using MeSH headings and key words. The following databases were searched: CINAHL, PubMed, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Review, Scopus, Wiley InterScience and PsycARTICLES. All papers are quantitative papers (randomised controlled trials and descriptive studies) that examined anxiety level in women with breast cancer of stage 0 to stage IIIA, over and equal to 21 and below 65 years of age, who were undergoing/had undergone treatment restricted to chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or surgery, and these quantitative papers have made correlations between women's anxiety levels and contributing factors. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were the two tools most frequently used by these papers to quantify the anxiety level. Two reviewers independently assessed the eligibility of the papers for inclusion. Eighteen papers were selected based on relevance, and assessed for methodological quality using MAStARI. Ten research papers that met our methodological standard were

  7. The effect of obesity on pathological complete response and survival in breast cancer patients receiving uncapped doses of neoadjuvant anthracycline-taxane-based chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Farr, Alex; Stolz, Myriam; Baumann, Lukas; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Oppolzer, Elisabeth; Pfeiler, Georg; Seifert, Michael; Singer, Christian F

    2017-06-01

    The effect of obesity in breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the obesity-related effect on pathological complete response (pCR) and survival in women receiving full uncapped doses of NAC. We retrospectively analyzed the data of all consecutive women who underwent anthracycline-taxane-based NAC for primary breast cancer between 2005 and 2015 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna. Following the WHO criteria, women with a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m 2 at baseline were considered obese, whereas those with a BMI <30 kg/m 2 were considered non-obese. Those with dose reductions or dose capping were not eligible for study inclusion. Cox regression and logistic regression were performed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze disease-free, progression-free, and overall survival. The pCR served as the main outcome measure. Among 120 women who received neoadjuvant epirubicin plus cyclophosphamide and docetaxel, 28 (23.3%) were obese and 92 (76.7%) were non-obese. In the multivariate logistic regression model that adjusted for potentially confounding variables, obesity had an independent positive predictive effect on pCR (OR 4.29, 95% CI, 1.42-13.91; p = 0.011), which was significant in the postmenopausal subgroup (OR 4.72, 95% CI, 1.47-15.84; p = 0.01). When comparing non-obese with obese women, we found that obese women experienced longer progression-free survival (HR 0.10, 95% CI, 8.448 × 10 -4 -0.81; p = 0.025). Obese women receiving full uncapped doses of anthracycline-taxane-based NAC have increased pCR and favorable progression-free survival. This could result from increased dose intensity with increased efficacy and toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between serum polyunsaturated fatty acids and pregnancy in women undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Jungheim, Emily S; Frolova, Antonina I; Jiang, Hui; Riley, Joan K

    2013-08-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their metabolism may be important in normal reproductive function and fertility. Associations between physiologic PUFAs and pregnancy have not been established in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between serum levels of PUFAs and embryo implantation in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). This was a prospective cohort study conducted between 2010 and 2012. The study was conducted at the Washington University Reproductive Medicine Center. Participants were 200 women undergoing IVF and participating in an ongoing specimen tissue bank. Fasting serum PUFAs were measured with liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. PUFAs measured included linoleic acid (LA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. Relationships between serum levels of measured PUFAs and embryo implantation in women undergoing IVF were analyzed. In unadjusted analyses, none of the PUFAs alone were associated with a chance of pregnancy; however, women with increased LA:ALA ratios had a higher chance of pregnancy compared with women with lower LA:ALA ratios (relative risk, 1.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.13). This relationship held after multivariable logistic regression adjusting for age, antral follicle count, body mass index, history of previous pregnancy, and history of endometriosis (odds ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-5.7). Embryo implantation rates were also weakly associated with LA:ALA ratios (r = 0.21, P = .003). Our work shows that increased ω-6 to ω-3 PUFA ratios in women undergoing IVF are associated with increased implantation and pregnancy rates. Prospective trials are needed to determine whether manipulation of PUFA ratios through diet or pharmacologic intervention may benefit women planning to conceive.

  9. Influences on decision-making for young women undergoing bilateral prophylactic mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Glassey, Rachael; O'Connor, Moira; Ives, Angela; Saunders, Christobel; Hardcastle, Sarah J

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the influences on decision-making of younger women (<35) undergoing or considering bilateral prophylactic mastectomy (BPM). Qualitative interviews guided by interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) were conducted with forty-six women who had a strong family history of breast cancer (BC) who had either undergone (n=26) or were considering (n=20) BPM. Participants were recruited from Australia and New Zealand (NZ) via hospitals, a genetics clinic, a research cohort, a registry and online. Four themes underpinning the influences on decision-making were identified: fear and anxiety, children, personal experiences with BC, health professional's influence. The decision to undergo BPM for younger women (<35) was multifaceted, however, it appeared that fear and anxiety were the main influence. Younger women appear more anxious than previous research with older women. There appears to be few differences between those with confirmed BRCA1/2 mutations and those with no known mutation and this is clinically significant. These findings have important practice implications, particularly improving communication of risk statistics, especially to those with no known mutation. Health professionals need to take into account the way younger women perceive information given to them when discussing risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Outcomes of Spontaneous Labor in Women Undergoing Trial of Labor after Cesarean as Compared with Nulliparous Women: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lassey, Sarah C; Robinson, Julian N; Kaimal, Anjali J; Little, Sarah E

    2018-01-24

     The objective of this study was to compare spontaneous labor outcomes in women undergoing trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) and nulliparas to better counsel women.  A 4-year retrospective cohort. We included women at term in spontaneous labor with vertex singletons and no more than one prior cesarean delivery. In planned secondary analysis, we focused on a subset of women with a prior cesarean and a predicted likelihood of a successful vaginal delivery of 70% or more based on the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units-vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) calculator.  Our cohort included 606 TOLACS and 606 nulliparas. Women undergoing TOLAC were more likely to undergo cesarean delivery (25.7 vs. 14.7%; p  < 0.001). Severe maternal hemorrhage (1.5 vs. 0.2%; p  = 0.02) and uterine rupture (1.9 vs. 0.0%; p  < 0.01) were more likely in the TOLAC group. For the subset of women with a predicted likelihood of VBAC of 70% or more, there were no differences in cesarean delivery (16.7 vs. 14.7%; p  = 0.51), maternal, or immediate neonatal complications.  Women undergoing TOLAC were more likely to have a cesarean delivery, hemorrhage, or uterine rupture. Those with more than 70% predicted likelihood of VBAC were no more likely to experience these outcomes. These findings help contextualize the risks of TOLAC for women considering this option. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. [Neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal cancer - indication and efficacy].

    PubMed

    Kato, Ken; Hamaguchi, Tetsuya; Yamada, Yasuhide; Shirao, Kuniaki; Shimada, Yasuhiro

    2007-10-01

    Some approaches such as adjuvant chemotherapy, neoadjuvant chemotherapy and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy have been tried to improve the efficacy of treatment for resectable esophageal cancer patients. The usefullness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, has remained a matter of controversy. However, there is a report from JCOG9907 in Japan that two courses of neoadjuvant 5-FU/CDDP improved the survival of esophageal squamous cell cancer patients. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy has not had a consistent evaluation because of the varying results of each trial. But from the results of meta-analysis and CALGB9781, the neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy called "trimodality therapy" has been a standard treatment in the United States. We should evaluate whether there would be similar effectiveness in Japan, where the histology and operative approach are different. Some approaches such as DNA microarray and proteomics, which can predict the treatment effect, are being tried.

  12. Attitudes about abortion of women who undergo prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kolker, A; Burke, B M; Phillips, J U

    1991-01-01

    Data on 120 women who had experienced either amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and were attending clinics serving women in the Washington, D.C. area or in the San Diego, California area were analyzed to examine their attitudes toward abortion. In-depth, open-ended interviews were also conducted with 24 currently or recently pregnant women who had also undergone a prenatal diagnostic procedure. All the women wanted the pregnancy in question, and all were more wealthy and better educated than the average woman in the US. Yet women who underwent CVS were better educated (completed college, 89.1% vs. 57.2%) and were more affluent (mean household income, $56,000 vs. $46,000) than those who underwent amniocentesis. Women who had CVS encountered difficulties with obtaining access to CVS and, if it were not for their own initiative, they would have not been able to undergo CVS. This emphasized that, due to more economic, educational, or informational resources, they had greater access to prenatal care. It also verified earlier studies identifying a correlation between adoption of innovations and individual resources. 39.5% of CVS users had earlier elected to terminate a previous pregnancy compared with 22.4% of amniocentesis users. Most respondents supported women's freedom of choice to abort a pregnancy for reasons of endangerment to a mother's health (100% for general population, 98.1% for self), rape or incest (98.2% vs. 97.2%), fetal abnormality (99.1% vs. 100%), low income (86.7% vs. 61.2%), and desire to have no more children (81.3%-88.5% vs. 52.5%-74.5%). Yet few women (19.2% vs. 5.3%) approved of abortion based on sex of the fetus. Even though the respondents were committed to abortion rights, they tended to find it personally hard, if not impossible, to terminate a pregnancy now. They spent considerable emotional and financial resources toward the wanted pregnancy, but, by choosing to undergo prenatal diagnosis, were willing to face the possibility

  13. Genetic polymorphisms in 5-Fluorouracil-related enzymes predict pathologic response after neoadjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Bailey; Carter, Jane V; Eichenberger, Maurice R; Netz, Uri; Galandiuk, Susan

    2016-11-01

    Many patients with rectal cancer undergo preoperative neoadjuvant chemoradiation, with approximately 70% exhibiting pathologic downstaging in response to treatment. Currently, there is no accurate test to predict patients who are likely to be complete responders to therapy. 5-Fluorouracil is used regularly in the neoadjuvant treatment of rectal cancer. Genetic polymorphisms affect the activity of thymidylate synthase, an enzyme involved in 5-Fluorouracil metabolism, which may account for observed differences in response to neoadjuvant treatment between patients. Detection of genetic polymorphisms might identify patients who are likely to have a complete response to neoadjuvant therapy and perhaps allow them to avoid operation. DNA was isolated from whole blood taken from patients with newly diagnosed rectal cancer who received neoadjuvant therapy (n = 50). Response to therapy was calculated with a tumor regression score based on histology from the time of operation. Polymerase chain reaction was performed targeting the promoter region of thymidylate synthase. Polymerase chain reaction products were separated using electrophoresis to determine whether patients were homozygous for a double-tandem repeat (2R), a triple-tandem repeat (3R), or were heterozygous (2R/3R). A single nucleotide polymorphism, 3G or 3C, also may be present in the second repeat unit of the triple-tandem repeat allele. Restriction fragment length polymorphism assays were performed in patients with at least one 3R allele using HaeIII. Patients with at least 1 thymidylate synthase 3G allele were more likely to have a complete or partial pathologic response to 5-Fluorouracil neoadjuvant therapy (odds ratio 10.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-81.6; P = .01) than those without at least one 3G allele. Identification of rectal cancer patients with specific genetic polymorphisms in enzymes involved in 5-Fluorouracil metabolism seems to predict the likelihood of complete or partial pathologic response

  14. Psychological reactions in women undergoing fetal magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Leithner, Katharina; Pörnbacher, Susanne; Assem-Hilger, Eva; Krampl, Elisabeth; Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth; Prayer, Daniela

    2008-02-01

    To investigate women's psychological reactions when undergoing fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to estimate whether certain groups, based on clinical and sociodemographic variables, differ in their subjective experiences with fetal MRI and in their anxiety levels related to the scanning procedure. This study is a prospective cohort investigation of 62 women before and immediately after fetal MRI. Anxiety levels and subjective experiences were measured by questionnaires. Groups based on clinical and sociodemographic variables were compared with regard to anxiety levels and to the scores on the Prescan and Postscan Imaging Distress Questionnaire. Anxiety scores before fetal MRI were 8.8 points higher than those of the female, nonclinical, norm population (P<.001). The severity of the referral diagnosis showed a linearly increasing effect on anxiety level before MRI (weighted linear term: F1,59=5.325, P=.025). Magnetic resonance imaging was experienced as unpleasant by 33.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 21.2-46.6%) and as hardly bearable by 4.8% (95% CI 0-17.5%) of the women. Physical restraint (49.9%, 95% CI 37.4-62.4%), noise level (53.2%, 95% CI 40.7-65.7%), anxiety for the infant (53.2%, 95% CI 40.7-65.7%), and the duration of the examination (51.6%, 95% CI 39.1-64.1%) were major distressing factors. Women who undergo fetal magnetic resonance imaging experience considerable distress, especially those with poor fetal prognoses. Ongoing technical developments, such as a reduction of noise, shortening the duration of the MRI, and a more comfortable position in open MRI machines, may have the potential to improve the subjective experiences of women during fetal MRI. III.

  15. A registry-based randomized trial comparing radial and femoral approaches in women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: the SAFE-PCI for Women (Study of Access Site for Enhancement of PCI for Women) trial.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sunil V; Hess, Connie N; Barham, Britt; Aberle, Laura H; Anstrom, Kevin J; Patel, Tejan B; Jorgensen, Jesse P; Mazzaferri, Ernest L; Jolly, Sanjit S; Jacobs, Alice; Newby, L Kristin; Gibson, C Michael; Kong, David F; Mehran, Roxana; Waksman, Ron; Gilchrist, Ian C; McCourt, Brian J; Messenger, John C; Peterson, Eric D; Harrington, Robert A; Krucoff, Mitchell W

    2014-08-01

    This study sought to determine the effect of radial access on outcomes in women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using a registry-based randomized trial. Women are at increased risk of bleeding and vascular complications after PCI. The role of radial access in women is unclear. Women undergoing cardiac catheterization or PCI were randomized to radial or femoral arterial access. Data from the CathPCI Registry and trial-specific data were merged into a final study database. The primary efficacy endpoint was Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding or vascular complications requiring intervention. The primary feasibility endpoint was access site crossover. The primary analysis cohort was the subgroup undergoing PCI; sensitivity analyses were conducted in the total randomized population. The trial was stopped early for a lower than expected event rate. A total of 1,787 women (691 undergoing PCI) were randomized at 60 sites. There was no significant difference in the primary efficacy endpoint between radial or femoral access among women undergoing PCI (radial 1.2% vs. 2.9% femoral, odds ratio [OR]: 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.12 to 1.27); among women undergoing cardiac catheterization or PCI, radial access significantly reduced bleeding and vascular complications (0.6% vs. 1.7%; OR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.90). Access site crossover was significantly higher among women assigned to radial access (PCI cohort: 6.1% vs. 1.7%; OR: 3.65; 95% CI: 1.45 to 9.17); total randomized cohort: (6.7% vs. 1.9%; OR: 3.70; 95% CI: 2.14 to 6.40). More women preferred radial access. In this pragmatic trial, which was terminated early, the radial approach did not significantly reduce bleeding or vascular complications in women undergoing PCI. Access site crossover occurred more often in women assigned to radial access. (SAFE-PCI for Women; NCT01406236). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc

  16. Influence of Music on Preoperative Anxiety and Physiologic Parameters in Women Undergoing Gynecologic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Labrague, Leodoro J; McEnroe-Petitte, Denise M

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of music on anxiety levels and physiologic parameters in women undergoing gynecologic surgery. This study employed a pre- and posttest experimental design with nonrandom assignment. Ninety-seven women undergoing gynecologic surgery were included in the study, where 49 were allocated to the control group (nonmusic group) and 48 were assigned to the experimental group (music group). Preoperative anxiety was measured using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) while noninvasive instruments were used in measuring the patients' physiologic parameters (blood pressure [BP], pulse [P], and respiration [R]) at two time periods. Women allocated in the experimental group had lower STAI scores (t = 17.41, p < .05), systolic (t = 6.45, p < .05) and diastolic (t = 2.80, p < .006) BP, and P rate (PR; t = 7.32, p < .05) than in the control group. This study provides empirical evidence to support the use of music during the preoperative period in reducing anxiety and unpleasant symptoms in women undergoing gynecologic surgery. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. The Differential Contribution of the Innate Immune System to a Good Pathological Response in the Breast and Axillary Lymph Nodes Induced by Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Women with Large and Locally Advanced Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Chandan; Eremin, Jennifer M.; Cowley, Gerard; Ilyas, Mohammad; Satthaporn, Sukchai; Eremin, Oleg

    2017-01-01

    The tumour microenvironment consists of malignant cells, stroma, and immune cells. The role of adaptive immunity in inducing a pathological complete response (pCR) in breast cancer with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is well studied. The contribution of innate immunity, however, is poorly documented. Breast tumours and axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) from 33 women with large and locally advanced breast cancers (LLABCs) undergoing NAC were immunohistochemically assessed for tumour-infiltrating macrophages (TIMs: M1 and M2), neutrophils (TINs), and dendritic cells (TIDCs) using labelled antibodies and semiquantitative methods. Patients' blood neutrophils (n = 108), DCs (mDC1 and pDC), and their costimulatory molecules (n = 30) were also studied. Pathological results were classified as pCR, good (GPR) or poor (PRR). In breast and metastatic ALNs, high levels of CD163+ TIMs were significantly associated with a pCR. In blood, high levels of neutrophils were significantly associated with pCR in metastatic ALNs, whilst the % of mDC1 and pDC and expression of HLA-DR, mDC1 CD40, and CD83 were significantly reduced. NAC significantly reduced tumour DCs but increased blood DCs. PPRs to NAC had significantly reduced HLA-DR, CD40, and CD86 expression. Our study demonstrated novel findings documenting the differential but important contributions of innate immunity to pCRs in patients with LLABCs undergoing NAC. PMID:28913366

  18. The need for counselling of women who undergo hysterectomy: a feminist perspective.

    PubMed

    Le Cornu, J

    1999-06-01

    Many women have hysterectomies in Australia each year, yet the consequences of hysterectomy in women's lives are not well understood. Approximately 36,015 hysterectomies are performed annually in Australia (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 1998). Recent nursing literature suggests that information regarding hysterectomy is inadequately discussed with the patient, and for whatever reason the patient has made the 'choice' to undergo hysterectomy, it appears little information or counselling is available to many women in this position. Many women view the uterus as their 'function' and with its removal, they may perceive that their femininity is challenged. Nursing literature is gathering momentum, and proposing a greater commitment from nurses to counsel in the gynaecological area (McQueen 1997). Nurses working in all specialities need to develop an awareness of how illness can impact upon the sexuality or sexual health of their client group, and be able to facilitate the provision of appropriate support (Palmer 1998). This paper will explore the symbolic themes of hysterectomy identified in Wood & Giddings' (1991) research, and will consider the reasons why women who undergo hysterectomy are not receiving sufficient information, counselling and follow-up.

  19. Quality of life among women with sexual dysfunction undergoing hemodialysis: a cross-sectional observational study.

    PubMed

    Santos, Paulo Roberto; Capote, José Roberto Frota Gomes; Cavalcanti, Juliana Uchoa; Vieira, Cyntia Brito; Rocha, Ana Rochelle Mesquita; Apolônio, Natália Alves Mineiro; de Oliveira, Elaine Barbosa

    2012-08-31

    Sexual function among women undergoing hemodialysis (HD) is under-studied and there is no consensus about the effect of sexual dysfunction (SD) on their quality of life (QoL). We aimed to determine the prevalence of SD and to compare QoL between women undergoing maintenance HD with and without SD. We included female end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing HD during June 2011 in the only renal unit in the north of Ceará state, northeastern Brazil. The criteria for inclusion were age between 18 and 55, at least three months on dialysis and being sexually active. Women using antidepressant medication were excluded. We used the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), which evaluates six domains of sexual function, including desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain. The patients were classified as presenting SD if the total FSFI score was less than 26. For QoL evaluation, we used the validated Brazilian version of SF-36. This is a widely used 36-item questionnaire covering eight dimensions of QoL. Demographic data, time on dialysis, underlying etiology of ESRD, and laboratory measures were assessed in unit records. Of a total of 58 women, 46 (79.3%) presented SD. There were lower scores related to physical functioning (48.2 vs. 71.2; p = 0.007), bodily pain (45 vs. 67.5; p = 0.010), vitality (52.1 vs. 69.1; p = 0.026) and social functioning (57.2 vs. 76.1; p = 0.034) among women with SD compared to women without SD. Physical functioning and role-physical presented positive linear correlation with FSFI scores, respectively, r = 0.322 (p = 0.013) and r = 0.345 (p = 0.007). The prevalence of SD among women on HD is very high, reaching nearly 80%. Women on HD with SD had worse QoL, especially physical aspects of QoL, when compared to women without SD. Therefore, approaches aiming to improve QoL among women undergoing HD should be considered.

  20. Neoadjuvant radiotherapeutic strategies in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Roeder, Falk

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the current status of neoadjuvant radiation approaches in the treatment of pancreatic cancer, including a description of modern radiation techniques, and an overview on the literature regarding neoadjuvant radio- or radiochemotherapeutic strategies both for resectable and irresectable pancreatic cancer. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation for locally-advanced, primarily non- or borderline resectable pancreas cancer results in secondary resectability in a substantial proportion of patients with consecutively markedly improved overall prognosis and should be considered as possible alternative in pretreatment multidisciplinary evaluations. In resectable pancreatic cancer, outstanding results in terms of response, local control and overall survival have been observed with neoadjuvant radio- or radiochemotherapy in several phase I/II trials, which justify further evaluation of this strategy. Further investigation of neoadjuvant chemoradiation strategies should be performed preferentially in randomized trials in order to improve comparability of the current results with other treatment modalities. This should include the evaluation of optimal sequencing with newer and more potent systemic induction therapy approaches. Advances in patient selection based on new molecular markers might be of crucial interest in this context. Finally modern external beam radiation techniques (intensity-modulated radiation therapy, image-guided radiation therapy and stereotactic body radiation therapy), new radiation qualities (protons, heavy ions) or combinations with alternative boosting techniques widen the therapeutic window and contribute to the reduction of toxicity. PMID:26909133

  1. Race is associated with completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Knisely, Anne T; Michaels, Alex D; Mehaffey, J Hunter; Hassinger, Taryn E; Krebs, Elizabeth D; Brenin, David R; Schroen, Anneke T; Showalter, Shayna L

    2018-05-03

    Completion of prescribed neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer is paramount to patients obtaining full benefit from the treatment; however, factors affecting neoadjuvant chemotherapy completion are not known. We hypothesized that race is a predictor of completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer. All patients with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy 2009-2016 at a single institution were stratified by completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and by race. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify patient and tumor characteristics that affected the rate of neoadjuvant chemotherapy completion. A total of 92 (74%) of 124 patients completed their prescribed neoadjuvant chemotherapy. On univariate analysis, white patients were more likely to complete neoadjuvant chemotherapy than non-white patients (76% vs 50%, P = .006). Non-white patients were more likely to have government insurance and larger prechemotherapy tumors (both, P < .05), but these factors were not associated with rates of neoadjuvant chemotherapy completion. After controlling for age, insurance status, tumor size, and estrogen receptor status, whites remained associated with completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (OR 3.65, P = .014). At our institution, white patients with breast cancer were more likely than non-white patients to complete neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Further investigation into the underlying factors impacting this disparity is needed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Perioperative music and its effects on anxiety, hemodynamics, and pain in women undergoing mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Binns-Turner, Pamela G; Wilson, Lynda Law; Pryor, Erica R; Boyd, Gwendolyn L; Prickett, Carol A

    2011-08-01

    There is increasing interest in evaluating the use of nonpharmacologic interventions such as music to minimize potential adverse effects of anxiety-reducing medications. This study used a quasi-experimental design to evaluate the effects of a perioperative music intervention (provided continuously throughout the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative periods) on changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate, anxiety, and pain in women with a diagnosis of breast cancer undergoing mastectomy. A total of 30 women were assigned randomly to a control group or to the music intervention group. Findings indicated that women in the intervention group had a greater decrease in MAP and anxiety with less pain from the preoperative period to the time of discharge from the recovery room compared with women in the control group. Music is a noninvasive and low-cost intervention that can be easily implemented in the perioperative setting, and these findings suggest that perioperative music can reduce MAP, anxiety, and pain among women undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer.

  3. Factors influencing behavioral intention to undergo Papanicolaou testing in early adulthood: Comparison of Japanese and Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Shin-Jeong; Kaneko, Noriyo

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we identified the factors influencing behavioral intention to undergo Papanicolaou testing among Japanese and Korean women in early adulthood. Their behavioral intentions were compared in this cross-sectional descriptive study. In total, 887 women (Japanese = 498, Korean = 389) aged 20-39 years participated in this study. Using a self-report questionnaire, knowledge, attitudes, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention were surveyed. There were significant differences between Japanese and Korean women's scores on all main variables. For Japanese women, all the variables moderately correlated with behavioral intention. In comparison, for Korean women, all independent variables, except for knowledge, moderately correlated with behavioral intention. Through a multiple regression analysis, age, undergoing Papanicolaou testing, attitudes, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were identified as significant predictors of behavioral intention among Japanese women. Among Korean women, job status, undergoing a Papanicolaou test, attitudes, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were demonstrated as significant predictors of behavioral intention. Health professionals should consider these factors to encourage Papanicolaou testing in women in early adulthood. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. The significance of peripartum fever in women undergoing vaginal deliveries.

    PubMed

    Bensal, Adi; Weintraub, Adi Y; Levy, Amalia; Holcberg, Gershon; Sheiner, Eyal

    2008-10-01

    We investigated whether patients undergoing vaginal delivery who developed peripartum fever (PPF) had increased rates of other gestational complications. A retrospective study was undertaken comparing pregnancy complications of patients who developed PPF with those who did not. A multivariable logistic regression model was constructed to control for confounders. To avoid ascertainment bias, the year of birth was included in the model. Women who underwent cesarean delivery and those with multiple pregnancies were excluded from the study. During the study period, there were 169,738 singleton vaginal deliveries, and 0.4% of the women suffered from PPF. Hypertensive disorders, induction of labor, dystocia of labor in the second stage, suspected fetal distress, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, postpartum hemorrhage, manual lysis of a retained placenta, and revision of the uterine cavity and cervix were found to be independently associated with PPF by multivariable analysis. Year of birth was found to be a risk factor for fever. Apgar scores lower than 7 at 1 but not 5 minutes were significantly higher in the PPF group. Perinatal mortality rates were significantly higher among women with PPF (6.7% versus 1.3%, odds ratio [OR] = 5.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.9 to 7.3; P < 0.001). Using another multivariable analysis, with perinatal mortality as the outcome variable, PPF was found as an independent risk factor for perinatal mortality (OR = 2.9; 95% CI 1.9 to 4.6; P < 0.001). PPF in women undergoing vaginal deliveries is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and specifically is an independent risk factor for perinatal mortality.

  5. Neoadjuvant Anti-Angiogenesis Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    O’Laughlin, R, Landini, C, Shalhav, AL, Stadler, WM, Zagaja , GP, Desai, A, Holroyd, K, Sokoloff, MH. Neoadjuvant combination anti- angiogenesis and androgen...CB, Zagaja , GP, Shalhav, AL. Neoadjuvant combination androgen ablation and anti-angiogenesis therapy in men with high grade and locally-advanced

  6. Deformable image registration as a tool to improve survival prediction after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: results from the ACRIN 6657/I-SPY-1 trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahani, Nariman; Cohen, Eric; Hsieh, Meng-Kang; Weinstein, Susan P.; Pantalone, Lauren; Davatzikos, Christos; Kontos, Despina

    2018-02-01

    We examined the ability of DCE-MRI longitudinal features to give early prediction of recurrence-free survival (RFS) in women undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer, in a retrospective analysis of 106 women from the ISPY 1 cohort. These features were based on the voxel-wise changes seen in registered images taken before treatment and after the first round of chemotherapy. We computed the transformation field using a robust deformable image registration technique to match breast images from these two visits. Using the deformation field, parametric response maps (PRM) — a voxel-based feature analysis of longitudinal changes in images between visits — was computed for maps of four kinetic features (signal enhancement ratio, peak enhancement, and wash-in/wash-out slopes). A two-level discrete wavelet transform was applied to these PRMs to extract heterogeneity information about tumor change between visits. To estimate survival, a Cox proportional hazard model was applied with the C statistic as the measure of success in predicting RFS. The best PRM feature (as determined by C statistic in univariable analysis) was determined for each of the four kinetic features. The baseline model, incorporating functional tumor volume, age, race, and hormone response status, had a C statistic of 0.70 in predicting RFS. The model augmented with the four PRM features had a C statistic of 0.76. Thus, our results suggest that adding information on the texture of voxel-level changes in tumor kinetic response between registered images of first and second visits could improve early RFS prediction in breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  7. Problem-solving strategies of women undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kathleen D; Erickson, Kelly S; Hegel, Mark T

    2012-02-01

    Many women undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer experience side effects that make it difficult to perform daily occupations. To summarize the types of challenges, goals, and adaptive strategies identified by women with stage 1-3 breast cancer participating in a pilot study of Problem-solving Treatment-Occupational Therapy (PST-OT). Content analysis of 80 PST-OT sessions. Women addressed 11 types of challenging activities, with exercise and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) being the most common. Most women set a goal to adapt a current activity, but also set goals to find a new activity, plan the steps of a current activity, or gather information about a possible activity change in the future. The adaptive strategies generated by the women were grouped into five types. Most often they found ways to add a new step to an activity, but they also brainstormed about when, how, where, and with whom they could do activities. The women were usually trying to adapt familiar activities but also were looking for ways to include new, healthy occupations into their routines.

  8. Evaluation of Quality of Life Following Placement of Self-Expanding Plastic Stents as a Bridge to Surgery in Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Therapy for Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Robert M.; Brown, Russell E.; Ellis, Susan F.; Williams, Sharon; Scoggins, C.R.; Abbas, Abbas E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether self-expanding plastic stent (SEPS) placement significantly improves quality of life and maintains optimal nutrition while allowing full-dose neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) in patients with esophageal cancer. Patients and Methods. A prospective, dual-institution, single-arm, phase II (http://ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00727376) evaluation of esophageal cancer patients undergoing NAT prior to resection. All patients had a self-expanding polymer stent placed prior to NAT. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-OG25, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–Anorexia, and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–General surveys were administered prior to stenting, within 1 week post-stent placement, and at the completion of neoadjuvant therapy. Results. Fifty-two patients were enrolled; 3 (5.8%) had stent migrations requiring replacement. There were no instances of esophageal erosion or perforation. All patients received some form of neoadjuvant therapy. Thirty-six (69%) received chemoradiation; 34 (93%) of these patients received the planned dose of chemotherapy, and 27 (75%) received the full planned dose of radiotherapy. There were 16 (31%) patients receiving chemotherapy alone; 12 (74%) of patients in the chemotherapy-alone group completed the planned dose of therapy. Conclusion. Placement of SEPS appears to provide significant improvement in quality of life related to dysphagia and eating restriction in patients with esophageal cancer undergoing neoadjuvant therapy. Consideration of SEPS instead of percutaneous feeding tube should be initiated as a first line in dysphagia palliation and NAT nutritional support. PMID:24567281

  9. Iyengar-Yoga Compared to Exercise as a Therapeutic Intervention during (Neo)adjuvant Therapy in Women with Stage I-III Breast Cancer: Health-Related Quality of Life, Mindfulness, Spirituality, Life Satisfaction, and Cancer-Related Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Lötzke, Désirée; Wiedemann, Florian; Rodrigues Recchia, Daniela; Ostermann, Thomas; Sattler, Daniel; Ettl, Johannes; Kiechle, Marion; Büssing, Arndt

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to test the effects of yoga on health-related quality of life, life satisfaction, cancer-related fatigue, mindfulness, and spirituality compared to conventional therapeutic exercises during (neo)adjuvant cytotoxic and endocrine therapy in women with breast cancer. In a randomized controlled trial 92 women with breast cancer undergoing oncological treatment were randomly enrolled for a yoga intervention (YI) (n = 45) or for a physical exercise intervention (PEI) (n = 47). Measurements were obtained before (t 0) and after the intervention (t 1) as well as 3 months after finishing intervention (t 2) using standardized questionnaires. Life satisfaction and fatigue improved under PEI (p < 0.05) but not under YI (t 0 to t 2). Regarding quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30) a direct effect (t 0 to t 1; p < 0.001) of YI was found on role and emotional functioning, while under PEI only emotional functioning improved. Significant improvements (p < 0.001) were observed at both t 1 and t 2 also for symptom scales in both groups: dyspnea, appetite loss, constipation, and diarrhea. There was no significant difference between therapies for none of the analyzed variables neither for t 1 nor for t 2. During chemotherapy, yoga was not seen as more helpful than conventional therapeutic exercises. This does not argue against its use in the recovery phase.

  10. Iyengar-Yoga Compared to Exercise as a Therapeutic Intervention during (Neo)adjuvant Therapy in Women with Stage I–III Breast Cancer: Health-Related Quality of Life, Mindfulness, Spirituality, Life Satisfaction, and Cancer-Related Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Lötzke, Désirée; Wiedemann, Florian; Rodrigues Recchia, Daniela; Ostermann, Thomas; Sattler, Daniel; Ettl, Johannes; Kiechle, Marion; Büssing, Arndt

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to test the effects of yoga on health-related quality of life, life satisfaction, cancer-related fatigue, mindfulness, and spirituality compared to conventional therapeutic exercises during (neo)adjuvant cytotoxic and endocrine therapy in women with breast cancer. In a randomized controlled trial 92 women with breast cancer undergoing oncological treatment were randomly enrolled for a yoga intervention (YI) (n = 45) or for a physical exercise intervention (PEI) (n = 47). Measurements were obtained before (t 0) and after the intervention (t 1) as well as 3 months after finishing intervention (t 2) using standardized questionnaires. Life satisfaction and fatigue improved under PEI (p < 0.05) but not under YI (t 0 to t 2). Regarding quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30) a direct effect (t 0 to t 1; p < 0.001) of YI was found on role and emotional functioning, while under PEI only emotional functioning improved. Significant improvements (p < 0.001) were observed at both t 1 and t 2 also for symptom scales in both groups: dyspnea, appetite loss, constipation, and diarrhea. There was no significant difference between therapies for none of the analyzed variables neither for t 1 nor for t 2. During chemotherapy, yoga was not seen as more helpful than conventional therapeutic exercises. This does not argue against its use in the recovery phase. PMID:27019663

  11. The impact of atosiban on pregnancy outcomes in women undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qian-Yi; Rong, Min-Hua; Lan, Ai-Hua; Lin, Xiao-Miao; Lin, Xing-Gu; He, Rong-Quan; Chen, Gang; Li, Mu-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Background Atosiban is administered to women undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) to improve pregnancy outcomes. However, the results of this treatment were controversial. We conducted this meta-analysis to investigate whether atosiban improves pregnancy outcomes in the women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Methods Databases of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, China BioMedicine, and Google Scholar were systematically searched. Meta-analyses were performed to investigate whether atosiban improves pregnancy outcomes in the women undergoing IVF. Results Our results showed that atosiban was associated with higher implantation (OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.17–2.27; P = 0.004) and clinical pregnancy (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.31–2.57; P < 0.001) rates. However, atosiban showed no significant association with the miscarriage, live birth, multiple pregnancy or ectopic pregnancy rates. When a further subgroup analysis was performed in the women undergoing repeated implantation failure (RIF), implantation (OR = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.45–2.57; P < 0.001), clinical pregnancy (OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.70–3.64; P <0.001) and the live birth (OR = 2.89, 95% CI: 1.78–4.67; P < 0.001) rates were significantly higher in the case group. Nevertheless, no significant difference was detected in the miscarriage and multiple pregnancy rates between the case and control groups. Conclusion Atosiban may be more appropriate for women undergoing RIF and play only a limited role in improving pregnancy outcomes in the general population of women undergoing IVF. These conclusions should be verified in large and well-designed studies. PMID:28422984

  12. Embryo yield after in vitro fertilization in women undergoing embryo banking for fertility preservation before chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Audra D; Missmer, Stacey A; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate embryo yield after IVF in patients undergoing embryo banking before chemotherapy. A retrospective cohort study. Hospital-based academic medical center. Thirty-eight women diagnosed with cancer or autoimmune disease presenting for IVF cycles, with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), for embryo cryopreservation before any therapy were compared with 921 presumably fertile women undergoing IVF for male factor infertility from January 2001 through October 2007. Standard IVF or ICSI protocol, embryo freezing, and ET. The number of 2 pronuclear (2PN) embryos created and suitable for cryopreservation or transfer. No statistically significant differences were observed between preservation and male factor groups for number of embryos, number of oocytes, or amount of gonadotropin needed to stimulate follicular development. Peak serum E(2) levels were significantly lower for women with disease-seeking fertility preservation. Women facing chemotherapy as treatment for cancer or systemic autoimmune disease infrequently undergo fertility preservation. If offered this potentially fertility-preserving option, these data suggest equivalent embryo yield compared with women with infertile male partners. Our data report no significant complications in subsequent births in those who sought fertility preservation, which is informative and encouraging for these women and their providers. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Knowledge and expectations of women undergoing cancer genetic risk assessment: a qualitative analysis of free-text questionnaire comments.

    PubMed

    Phelps, C; Wood, F; Bennett, P; Brain, K; Gray, J

    2007-08-01

    Individuals undergoing cancer genetic risk assessment have been found to have a poor understanding of the process, which may affect how well they cope with learning their risk. This paper reports free-text data from questionnaires completed by women undergoing a randomised controlled trial of a psychological intervention. Of the 268 women undergoing genetic assessment for familial breast/ovarian cancer risk who were invited to take part in the trial, 157 women returned research questionnaires. Of these, 97 women provided free-text comments upon referral to a cancer genetics clinic, 62 provided comments whilst waiting for risk information (average, moderate or high), and 36 women provided comments following notification of risk. This paper reports a thematic analysis of the free-text data. Themes reflected individuals' poor knowledge and uncertainty about genetic risk assessment. How well individuals responded to learning their risk depended upon whether expectations had been met. Regardless of risk, individuals undergoing cancer genetic risk assessment are likely to benefit from increased information about its process and timescales, and access to increased psychological support. Free-text comments can provide valuable data about individuals' expectations and knowledge of genetics services.

  14. Identification of residual breast carcinoma following neoadjuvant chemotherapy: diffusion-weighted imaging--comparison with contrast-enhanced MR imaging and pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Woodhams, Reiko; Kakita, Satoko; Hata, Hirofumi; Iwabuchi, Keiichi; Kuranami, Masaru; Gautam, Shiva; Hatabu, Hiroto; Kan, Shinichi; Mountford, Carolyn

    2010-02-01

    To compare the capability of diffusion-weighted (DW) and contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to provide diagnostic information on residual breast cancers following neoadjuvant chemotherapy and to assess apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of the carcinoma prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy to determine if the method could help predict response to chemotherapy. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. Three hundred ninety-eight patients underwent MR imaging of the breast, including DW MR (b values, 0 and 1500 sec/mm(2)) and contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Of these, the contralateral breast in 73 women was used as a control. Seventy-two patients with 73 lesions with malignant disease were treated by using neoadjuvant chemotherapy and were examined for residual disease following therapy. Three were excluded because of prolonged intervals between final MR imaging and surgery. Thus, 69 patients (70 lesions) with DW and contrast-enhanced MR imaging results were compared with postoperative histopathologic findings. The ADCs of the carcinoma prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy were calculated for each patient, and those with complete response and residual disease were compared. The accuracy for depicting residual tumor was 96% for DW MR imaging, compared with an accuracy of 89% for contrast-enhanced MR imaging (P = .06). There was no significant difference in prechemotherapy ADCs between pathologic complete response cases and those with residual disease. DW MR imaging had at least as good of accuracy as did contrast-enhanced MR imaging for monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The ADCs prior to chemotherapy did not predict response to chemotherapy. The use of DW imaging to visualize residual breast cancer without the need for contrast medium could be advantageous in women with impaired renal function. (c) RSNA, 2010

  15. Experiences of Spanish women undergoing hysterosalpingography as part of the infertility process: a phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sola, Cayetano; Martínez-Caba, María Isabel; Hernández-Padilla, José Manuel; Carmona-Samper, Esther; Granero-Molina, José

    2016-02-01

    To describe and understand the experiences and perceptions of women who undergo hysterosalpingography as part of the infertility process. Nurses and midwives should conduct research into the emotional aspects of caring for patients undergoing infertility treatment. The hysterosalpingography is considered to be the most feared test in the infertility process and the one about which very little is known. A phenomenological qualitative study. Ten Spanish women who had undergone hysterosalpingography participated in this study. In-depth interviews were carried out between October 2012-May 2013. Data analysis was performed with the help of atlas.ti software to identify emerging themes. The experience of the participants who underwent hysterosalpingography during the infertility process is represented by the following three themes: (1) becoming a mother to feel complete as a person and as a woman, with the subthemes 'maternity as a life objective' and 'maternity in terms of gender identity'; (2) infertility--an intimate experience which provokes negative feelings, with the subthemes 'negative feelings regarding own infertility' and 'infertility as an experience that is little shared with others'; (3) Undergoing hysterosalpingography, with the subthemes 'feelings regarding hysterosalpingography', 'treatment by medical providers' and 'areas for improvement regarding the service given by the providers'. For women who undergo hysterosalpingography, maternity may be seen as a life objective that could identify them as women. Results suggest that although infertility is experienced with negative feelings such as anxiety, frustration and sadness, hysterosalpingography seems to be related with both hope and fear when facing the test. Knowing the experiences of these women could help nurses, midwives and physicians to provide better patient-centred care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. [Axillary pathologic response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer with axillary involvement].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ballvé, A; Serrano-Palacio, A; García-Sáenz, J A; Ortega Candil, A; Salsidua-Arroyo, O; Román-Santamaría, J M; Pelayo Alarcón, A; Fuentes Ferrer, M E; Carreras-Delgado, J L

    2015-01-01

    To compare axillary involvement (N+) at initial staging in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) with axillary lymphadenectomy histologic results after neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment (NeoChemo). Retrospective study between November 2011 and September 2013 of LABC cases treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on docetaxel (associated with trastuzumab in HER2 positive cases and carboplatin/adriamycin in HER2 negative cases). Those clinically or radiologically suspected cases of axillary involvement were histologically confirmed. When there was no suspicion of axillary involvement, sentinel lymph node radioguided biopsy (SLNRB) was performed using intradermal injection of (99m)Tc-nanocolloid albumin prior to neoadjuvant treatment. Axillary lymphadenectomy after NeoChemo was undertaken in all cases with positive axilla. Final pathologic response was classified as complete (pCR) when there was no evidence of tumoral disease and as non-pathologic complete response (no pCR) in the opposite case. A total of 346 patients treated with docetaxel were reviewed, identifying 105 LABC. Axillary involvement at initial staging was detected in 70 (67%) before starting NeoChemo. From these 70, 73% (n=51) were N+ (fine needle biopsy and/or biopsy) and the remaining 19 (27%) were occult N+ detected by SLNRB. Axillary lymphadenectomy detected pCR in 56% (39/70), increasing up to 84% pCR when initial N+ status was reached using SNLB. On the other hand, when N+ was detected using fine needle biopsy/lymph biopsy, pCR was only 45%. More than 50% of women affected by locally advanced breast cancer with tumoral axillary involvement at initial diagnosis present free metastatic axilla after therapeutic neoadjuvant chemotherapy effect. This increases up to almost 90% in case of occult metastatic axilla detected with sentinel node biopsy prior starting neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  17. [Anxiety in women undergoing surgical treatment of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Geraybeyli, G Ch; Mamedzade, G F; Gasimov, N V; Guliyeva, T S; Munir, K

    To assess anxiety level and factors contributing to its development in patients undergoing surgical treatment for breast cancer. The subjects of the study were 72 women, aged 20-80 years, with the diagnosis of primary breast cancer. The Basic Psycho-Oncological Documentation Scale (PO-BADO), the European Organization for Research, and the Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire and its Breast Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-C30; BR-23), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were used. The anxiety score showed negative correlation with EORTC QLQ-C30 'physical functioning', 'cognitive functioning', 'emotional functioning', 'global health status/quality of life' subscales (p≤0,002). Anxiety is a highly prevalent in women with breast cancer and has a marked negative impact, in particular on younger patients.

  18. Opportunistic salpingectomy in women undergoing hysterectomy: Results from the HYSTUB randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Van Lieshout, L A M; Pijlman, B; Vos, M C; de Groot, M J M; Houterman, S; Coppus, S F P J; Harmsen, M G; Vandenput, I; Piek, J M J

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate whether opportunistic salpingectomy in premenopausal women undergoing hysterectomy for benign indications is both hormonally and surgically safe, compared with hysterectomy without salpingectomy. In this multicentre randomised controlled trial, women were randomised to undergo either hysterectomy with opportunistic bilateral salpingectomy (intervention group) or standard hysterectomy with preservation of the Fallopian tubes (control group). The primary outcome was the difference in serum anti-Müllerian hormone concentration (ΔAMH), measured pre-surgery and 6 months post-surgery. Secondary outcomes were surgical outcomes and duration of hospital stay. The sample size was powered at 50 participants per group (n=100) to compare ΔAMH after hysterectomy with salpingectomy to ΔAMH after standard hysterectomy. Between March 2013 and December 2016, 104 women, aged 30-55 years, were randomly allocated to hysterectomy with opportunistic bilateral salpingectomy (n=52) or standard hysterectomy (n=52). The baseline characteristics did not differ between the two groups. The median ΔAMH was -0.14pmol/L (IQR -1.47-0.95) in the intervention group and 0.00pmol/L (IQR -1.05-0.80) in the control group (p=0.49). The addition of salpingectomy did not impair surgical results and it did not affect duration of hospital stay. Addition of opportunistic bilateral salpingectomy during hysterectomy did not result in a larger effect on ovarian reserve when compared with hysterectomy alone, neither did it affect surgical outcomes. Therefore, opportunistic salpingectomy seems to be a safe procedure in premenopausal women undergoing hysterectomy for benign gynaecological conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Neoadjuvant treatments for locally advanced, resectable esophageal cancer: A network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kelvin K W; Saluja, Ronak; Delos Santos, Keemo; Lien, Kelly; Shah, Keya; Cramarossa, Gemma; Zhu, Xiaofu; Wong, Rebecca K S

    2018-02-14

    The relative survival benefits and postoperative mortality among the different types of neoadjuvant treatments (such as chemotherapy only, radiotherapy only or chemoradiotherapy) for esophageal cancer patients are not well established. To evaluate the relative efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant therapies in resectable esophageal cancer, a Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for publications up to May 2016. ASCO and ASTRO annual meeting abstracts were also searched up to the 2015 conferences. Randomized controlled trials that compared at least two of the following treatments for resectable esophageal cancer were included: surgery alone, surgery preceded by neoadjuvant chemotherapy, neoadjuvant radiotherapy or neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. The primary outcome assessed from the trials was overall survival. Thirty-one randomized controlled trials involving 5496 patients were included in the quantitative analysis. The network meta-analysis showed that neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy improved overall survival when compared to all other treatments including surgery alone (HR 0.75, 95% CR 0.67-0.85), neoadjuvant chemotherapy (HR 0.83. 95% CR 0.70-0.96) and neoadjuvant radiotherapy (HR 0.82, 95% CR 0.67-0.99). However, the risk of postoperative mortality increased when comparing neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy to either surgery alone (RR 1.46, 95% CR 1.00-2.14) or to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (RR 1.58, 95% CR 1.00-2.49). In conclusion, neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy improves overall survival but may also increase the risk of postoperative mortality in patients locally advanced resectable esophageal carcinoma. © 2018 UICC.

  20. [Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Using S-1 for Pancreatic Cancer - Mid-Term Results].

    PubMed

    Homma, Yuki; Honda, Goro; Sakamoto, Katsunori; Kurata, Masanao; Honjo, Masahiko; Hirata, Yoshihiro; Shinya, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    Although surgical resection is the only curative strategy for pancreatic cancer, the prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer remains poor. Recently, neoadjuvant treatment has been frequently employed as a promising treatment. Here, the mid-term results of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy(NACRT)using S-1, which has been performed in our hospital since 2008, are reported. Seventy-nine patients with resectable or borderline resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, who had been intended to undergo NACRT treatment using S-1, were enrolled. The NACRT comprised radiotherapy( 1.8 Gy×28 days)and full-dose twice-daily oral S-1 given on the same days as the radiotherapy. The results of the NACRT and pancreatectomy and the patients' prognoses were evaluated. Fifty-five patients(69.6%)underwent pancreatectomy, with no case of mortality. The curative resection rate was 94.5%. Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy was administered in 46 patients(83.6%). The 3-year survival rates of all 79 patients and 55 pancreatectomy patients were 40.1% and 50.4%, respectively. NACRT using S-1 was found to be feasible, and good mid-term outcomes were obtained. However, analysis of the long-term outcomes and comparisons with other novel anti-cancer drugs are still required.

  1. Prognostic significance of the prognostic nutritional index in esophageal cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, M; Migita, K; Matsumoto, S; Wakatsuki, K; Ito, M; Nakade, H; Kunishige, T; Kitano, M; Kanehiro, H

    2017-08-01

    Nutritional status is one of the most important issues faced by cancer patients. Several studies have shown that a low preoperative nutritional status is associated with a worse prognosis in patients with various types of cancer, including esophageal cancer (EC). Recently, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and/or radiotherapy have been accepted as the standard treatment for resectable advanced EC. However, NAC has the potential to deteriorate the nutritional status of a patient. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of the nutritional status for EC patients who underwent NAC. We retrospectively reviewed 66 squamous cell EC patients who underwent NAC consisting of docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil followed by subtotal esophagectomy at Nara Medical University Hospital between January 2009 and August 2015. To assess the patients' nutritional status, the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) before commencing NAC and prior to the operation was calculated as 10 × serum albumin (g/dl) + 0.005 × total lymphocyte count in the peripheral blood (per mm3). The cutoff value of the PNI was set at 45. A multivariable analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS). The mean pre-NAC and preoperative PNI were 50.2 ± 5.7 and 48.1 ± 4.7, respectively (P = 0.005). The PNI decreased following NAC in 44 (66.7%) patients. Before initiating NAC, 9 (13.6%) patients had a low PNI, and 12 (18.2%) patients had a low PNI prior to the operation. The pre-NAC PNI and preoperative PNI were significantly associated with the OS (P = 0.013 and P = 0.004, respectively) and RFS (P = 0.036 and P = 0.005, respectively) rates. The multivariable analysis identified the preoperative PNI as an independent prognostic factor for poor OS and RFS, although the pre-NAC PNI was not an independent predictor. Our results suggest that the preoperative PNI is a useful marker for predicting the long-term outcomes of EC patients

  2. Contemporary outcomes in women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Al-Fiadh, Ali H; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Farouque, Omar; Yan, Bryan P; Duffy, Stephen J; Charter, Kerrie; Tongyoo, Surat; New, Gishel; Yip, Thomas; Brennan, Angela; Proimos, George; Reid, Christopher M; Ajani, Andrew E; Clark, David J

    2011-09-01

    Uncertainty remains as to whether females benefit as much as males from percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the setting of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We compared 802 women with 2151 men presenting with ACS, undergoing PCI from April 2004 to October 2006 from the Melbourne Interventional Group registry. Clinical characteristics, in-hospital, 30-day and 1-year outcomes were compared. Women were older (69.6 ± 11.6 vs. 62.17 ± 12.3 years, p<0.001), and had more diabetes (27.1% vs. 19.6%, p<0.001) and hypertension (70.3% vs. 53.9%, p<0.001) than men. Women were less likely to present with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (30.5% vs. 37.9%, p<0.001). Bleeding (3.6% vs. 0.8%, p<0.001) was higher among women. Thirty-day mortality (4.7 vs. 2.4%, p<0.001) and MACE (10.1 vs. 6.4%, p<0.001) were higher in women. Gender was an independent predictor of overall MACE at 30 days (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.04-2.02, p=0.03) but not death. At 12 months, there were no significant differences in mortality (6.4% vs. 4.8%, p=0.09), myocardial infarction (5.5% vs. 5.0%, p=0.64), target vessel revascularization (7.9% vs. 7.0%, p=0.42) and MACE (16.3% vs. 14%, p=0.13) between women and men. There is an early hazard amongst women undergoing PCI for ACS, but not at 12 months. These data suggest that gender should not affect the decision to offer PCI but further gender specific studies are warranted. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of a mobile application of Breast Cancer e-Support program for women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiemin; Ebert, Lyn; Xue, Zhimin; Shen, Qu; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi

    2017-01-01

    Women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy experience a variety of physical and psychosocial symptoms, which have negative effect on women's quality of life and psychological well-being. Although M-health technologies provides innovative and easily accessible option to provide psychosocial support, mobile phone based interventions remain limited for these women in China. To develop a new mobile application to offer information as well as social and emotional support to women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy to promote their self-efficacy and social support, thus improving symptom management strategies. Basing on previous theoretical framework which incorporated Bandura's self-efficacy theory and the social exchange theory, a new mobile application, called Breast Cancer e-Support Program (BCS) was designed, with the content and functionality being validated by the expert panel and women with breast cancer. BCS App program has four modules: 1) Learning forum; 2) Discussion forum; 3) Ask-the-Expert forum; and 4) Personal Stories forum. BCS program can be applied on both android mobile phones and iPhones to reach more women. This is the first of its kind developed in China for women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. A randomized controlled trial is undertaking to test the effectiveness of BCS program.

  4. Experiences, feelings and thoughts of women undergoing second trimester medical termination of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Inga-Maj; Christensson, Kyllike; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore women's expectations and experiences of undergoing second trimester abortion. This is a cross-sectional study using a screening questionnaire and semi-structured interviews for data collection. Thirty-one women filled out the questionnaire and 23 of them were later interviewed. The questionnaires were analyzed by descriptive statistics. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Indications for the abortion were fetal malformation or unintended pregnancy. The women expressed similar feelings and these were irrespective for the reason for having an abortion. Both physical and mental pain was experienced during the abortion process and described by the women. Taking the mifepristone-pill was experienced as especially emotionally difficult for many participants. Professional support from the staff together with support from the partner, a friend or relative helped in transforming the worries related to something unknown to feelings of coping with a new and hard experience. Prior to the abortion most women stated that they did not want to view the fetus but women who chose to view the fetus described this as a way of confronting the reality and an opportunity to say farewell to the pregnancy/fetus. The analysis of the interview transcripts revealed five themes mirroring the women's experiences, thoughts and feelings related to the abortion. The decision to undergo second trimester abortion sometimes exposes women to strong and conflicting emotions which are irrespective for the reason for having an abortion. Despite this women do not regret their decision to terminate the pregnancy. This analysis shows that their rational thinking outweighs their emotionally difficult feelings. It is important for the attending staff to be responsive to the needs of each individual woman whatever the indication is for the abortion.

  5. Experiences, Feelings and Thoughts of Women Undergoing Second Trimester Medical Termination of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Inga-Maj; Christensson, Kyllike; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Main Objective The objective of this study was to explore women's expectations and experiences of undergoing second trimester abortion. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using a screening questionnaire and semi-structured interviews for data collection. Thirty-one women filled out the questionnaire and 23 of them were later interviewed. The questionnaires were analyzed by descriptive statistics. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Most Important Findings Indications for the abortion were fetal malformation or unintended pregnancy. The women expressed similar feelings and these were irrespective for the reason for having an abortion. Both physical and mental pain was experienced during the abortion process and described by the women. Taking the mifepristone-pill was experienced as especially emotionally difficult for many participants. Professional support from the staff together with support from the partner, a friend or relative helped in transforming the worries related to something unknown to feelings of coping with a new and hard experience. Prior to the abortion most women stated that they did not want to view the fetus but women who chose to view the fetus described this as a way of confronting the reality and an opportunity to say farewell to the pregnancy/fetus. The analysis of the interview transcripts revealed five themes mirroring the women's experiences, thoughts and feelings related to the abortion. Conclusions The decision to undergo second trimester abortion sometimes exposes women to strong and conflicting emotions which are irrespective for the reason for having an abortion. Despite this women do not regret their decision to terminate the pregnancy. This analysis shows that their rational thinking outweighs their emotionally difficult feelings. It is important for the attending staff to be responsive to the needs of each individual woman whatever the indication is for the abortion

  6. Comparing exercise responses to aerobic plus resistance training between postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy and healthy women.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Thais R S de; Winters-Stone, Kerri M; Viezel, Juliana; Rossi, Fabricio E; Aro, Bruna L; Trindade, Ana Carolina A C; Codogno, Jamile S; Freitas Junior, Ismael F

    2018-04-12

    The aim of this study was to explore whether postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy differ from healthy postmenopausal women in their response to the same aerobic + resistance training. The participants were separated into two groups: postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy for an average of 20 months (18 women) and healthy postmenopausal women (24 women). We assessed aerobic capacity (predicted maximum oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) and maximum running velocity test (Vmax)) through a walking test, upper and lower body muscle strength using an estimated one-repetition maximum test, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and at three, six, and nine months, respectively. The exercise program was performed three times/week over nine months and consisted of 40 min of machine-based strength training (seated cable row, bench press, leg extension, leg press, and leg curl, as well as bridge, abdominal, and standard plank exercises) followed by 30 min of treadmill walking. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures was used to compare the groups over time. Postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy and healthy postmenopausal women presented similar improvements in estimated lower body strength, predicted VO 2max and V max , and body fat mass. For maximal upper body strength, there was a significant group x time interaction after six months of training (p = 0.01). The healthy postmenopausal women presented a significant increase in upper body strength after six months, while postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy demonstrated an improvement only at nine months of training. The breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy presented increased lean mass while healthy postmenopausal women maintained values over time (Breast cancer: 33.7 ± 3.9(Pre) vs. 34.1

  7. The modified glasgow prognostic score is an independent prognostic indicator in neoadjuvantly treated adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction

    PubMed Central

    Jomrich, Gerd; Hollenstein, Marlene; John, Maximilian; Baierl, Andreas; Paireder, Matthias; Kristo, Ivan; Ilhan-Mutlu, Aysegül; Asari, Reza; Preusser, Matthias; Schoppmann, Sebastian F.

    2018-01-01

    The modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS) combines the indicators of decreased plasma albumin and elevated CRP. In a number of malignancies, elevated mGPS is associated with poor survival. Aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic role of mGPS in patients with neoadjuvantly treated adenocarcinomas of the esophagogastric junction 256 patients from a prospective database undergoing surgical resection after neoadjuvant treatment between 2003 and 2014 were evaluated. mGPS was scored as 0, 1, or 2 based on CRP (>1.0 mg/dl) and albumin (<35 g/L) from blood samples taken prior (preNT-mGPS) and after (postNT-mGPS) neoadjuvant therapy. Scores were correlated with clinicopathological patients’ characteristics. From 155 Patients, sufficient data was available. Median follow-up was 63.8 months (33.3–89.5 months). In univariate analysis, Cox proportional hazard model shows significant shorter patients OS (p = 0.04) and DFS (p = 0.02) for increased postNT-mGPS, preNT-hypoalbuminemia (OS: p = 0.003; DFS: p = 0.002) and post-NT-CRP (OS: p = 0.03; DFS: p = 0.04). Elevated postNT-mGPS and preNT-hypoalbuminemia remained significant prognostic factors in multivariate analysis for OS (p = 0.02; p = 0.005,) and DFS (p = 0.02, p = 0.004) with tumor differentiation and tumor staging as significant covariates. PostNT-mGPS and preNT-hypoalbuminemia are independent prognostic indicators in patients with neoadjuvantly treated adenocarcinomas of the esophagogastric junction and significantly associated with diminished OS and DFS. PMID:29467943

  8. Neoadjuvant imatinib for borderline resectable GIST.

    PubMed

    Koontz, M Zach; Visser, Brendan M; Kunz, Pamela L

    2012-12-01

    A 36-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with black stools and syncope. Her hemoglobin was 7.0 and her red blood cells were microcytic. Upper endoscopy did not identify a clear source of bleeding, but a bulge in the third portion of the duodenum was noted. A CT scan showed a large extraintestinal mass, and follow-up esophagogastroduodenoscopy/endoscopic ultrasound with biopsy revealed a spindle cell neoplasm, consistent with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Because of the size of the lesion and association with the superior mesenteric vein and common bile duct, she was referred to medical oncology for consideration of neoadjuvant imatinib. Neoadjuvant tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy for GISTs is emerging as a viable treatment strategy for borderline resectable tumors, although the dose, duration, and optimal imaging modalities have not been clearly established. Recent pathologic and radiographic data have provided insight into the mechanism and kinetics of this approach. This case report presents a patient for whom surgery was facilitated using neoadjuvant imatinib.

  9. Imaging Analysis of Hepatoblastoma Resectability Across Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Andrew J.; Ayers, Gregory D.; Hilmes, Melissa A.; Mukherjee, Kaushik; Wilson, Kevin J.; Allen, Wade M.; Fernandez-Pineda, Israel; Shinall, Myrick C.; Zhao, Zhiguo; Furman, Wayne L.; McCarville, Mary Beth; Davidoff, Andrew M.; Lovvorn, Harold N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Hepatoblastomas often require neoadjuvant chemotherapy to facilitate partial hepatectomy, which necessitates freedom of tumor borders from the confluence of hepatic veins (COHV), portal vein bifurcation (PVB), and retrohepatic inferior vena cava (IVC). This study aimed to clarify the effect of incremental neoadjuvant cycles on the AHEP0731 protocol criteria of hepatoblastoma resectability. Methods Hepatoblastoma responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed among patients (n=23) treated at two children’s hospitals between 1996 and 2010. Using digital imaging data, ellipsoid and point-based models were created to measure tumor volume regression and respective distances from tumor borders nearest to the COHV, PVB, and IVC. Results Hepatoblastoma volumes regressed with incremental neoadjuvant chemotherapy cycles (p<0.001). Although tumor borders regressed away from the COHV (p=0.008), on average only 1.1mm was gained. No change from tumor borders to the PVB was detected (p=0.102). Distances from tumor borders to the IVC remained stable at one hospital (p=0.612), but increased only 0.15mm every 10 days of therapy at the other (p=0.002). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy induced slightly more tumors to meet the threshold vascular margin of 1cm (baseline to completion): COHV, 11 (47.8%) to 17 (73.9%; p=0.058); PVB, 11 (47.8%) to 15 (65.2%; p=0.157); IVC, 4 (17.4%) to 10 (43.5%; p=0.034). No differences were detected in demographic or disease-specific characteristics between patients who did or did not achieve this 1cm margin after conclusion of chemotherapy. Conclusion Hepatoblastoma volumes regress significantly with increasing neoadjuvant chemotherapy cycles. However, tumors often remain anchored to the major hepatic vasculature, showing marginal improvement in resectability criteria. PMID:23845613

  10. Axillary Ultrasound After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Its Impact on Sentinel Lymph Node Surgery: Results From the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1071 Trial (Alliance)

    PubMed Central

    Boughey, Judy C.; Ballman, Karla V.; Hunt, Kelly K.; McCall, Linda M.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Ahrendt, Gretchen M.; Wilke, Lee G.; Le-Petross, Huong T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1071 trial reported a 12.6% false-negative rate (FNR) for sentinel lymph node (SLN) surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in cN1 disease. Patients were not selected for surgery based on response, but a secondary end point was to determine whether axillary ultrasound (AUS) after NAC after fine-needle aspiration cytology can identify abnormal nodes and guide patient selection for SLN surgery. Patients and Methods Patients with T0-4, N1-2, M0 breast cancer underwent AUS after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. AUS images were centrally reviewed and classified as normal or suspicious lymph nodes. AUS findings were tested for association with pathologic nodal status and SLN FNR. The impact of AUS results to select patients for SLN surgery to reduce the FNR was assessed. Results Postchemotherapy AUS images were reviewed for 611 patients. One hundred thirty (71.8%) of 181 AUS-suspicious patients were node positive at surgery compared with 243 (56.5%) of 430 AUS-normal patients (P < .001). Patients with AUS-suspicious nodes had a greater number of positive nodes and greater metastasis size (P < .001). The SLN FNR was not different based on AUS results; however, using a strategy where only patients with normal AUS undergo SLN surgery would potentially reduce the FNR in Z1071 patients with ≥ two SLNs removed from 12.6% to 9.8% when preoperative AUS results are considered as part of SLN surgery. Conclusion AUS is recommended after chemotherapy to guide axillary surgery. An FNR of 9.8% with the combination of AUS and SLN surgery would be acceptable for the adoption of SLN surgery for women with node-positive breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:25646192

  11. Axillary Ultrasound After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Its Impact on Sentinel Lymph Node Surgery: Results From the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1071 Trial (Alliance).

    PubMed

    Boughey, Judy C; Ballman, Karla V; Hunt, Kelly K; McCall, Linda M; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A; Ahrendt, Gretchen M; Wilke, Lee G; Le-Petross, Huong T

    2015-10-20

    The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1071 trial reported a 12.6% false-negative rate (FNR) for sentinel lymph node (SLN) surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in cN1 disease. Patients were not selected for surgery based on response, but a secondary end point was to determine whether axillary ultrasound (AUS) after NAC after fine-needle aspiration cytology can identify abnormal nodes and guide patient selection for SLN surgery. Patients with T0-4, N1-2, M0 breast cancer underwent AUS after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. AUS images were centrally reviewed and classified as normal or suspicious lymph nodes. AUS findings were tested for association with pathologic nodal status and SLN FNR. The impact of AUS results to select patients for SLN surgery to reduce the FNR was assessed. Postchemotherapy AUS images were reviewed for 611 patients. One hundred thirty (71.8%) of 181 AUS-suspicious patients were node positive at surgery compared with 243 (56.5%) of 430 AUS-normal patients (P < .001). Patients with AUS-suspicious nodes had a greater number of positive nodes and greater metastasis size (P < .001). The SLN FNR was not different based on AUS results; however, using a strategy where only patients with normal AUS undergo SLN surgery would potentially reduce the FNR in Z1071 patients with ≥ two SLNs removed from 12.6% to 9.8% when preoperative AUS results are considered as part of SLN surgery. AUS is recommended after chemotherapy to guide axillary surgery. An FNR of 9.8% with the combination of AUS and SLN surgery would be acceptable for the adoption of SLN surgery for women with node-positive breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  12. Soy food intake and treatment outcomes of women undergoing assisted reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    Vanegas, Jose C; Afeiche, Myriam C; Gaskins, Audrey J; Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Williams, Paige L; Wright, Diane L; Toth, Thomas L; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2015-03-01

    To study the relation of dietary phytoestrogens intake and clinical outcomes of women undergoing infertility treatment with the use of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Prospective cohort study. Fertility center. A total of 315 women who collectively underwent 520 ART cycles from 2007 to 2013. None. Implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live birth rates per initiated cycle. Soy isoflavones intake was positively related to live birth rates in ART. Compared with women who did not consume soy isoflavones, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios of live birth (95% confidence interval) for women in increasing categories of soy isoflavones intake were 1.32 (0.76-2.27) for women consuming 0.54-2.63 mg/d, 1.87 (1.12-3.14) for women consuming 2.64-7.55 mg/d, and 1.77 (1.03-3.03) for women consuming 7.56-27.89 mg/d. Dietary soy intake was positively related to the probability of having a live birth during infertility treatment with ART. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Robot-Assisted Mckeown Esophagectomy is Feasible After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation. Our Initial Experience.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ashish; Shah, Swati H; Selvakumar, Veda Padma Priya; Garg, Shubha; Kumar, Kapil

    2018-02-01

    Neoadjuvant chemoradiation has become the standard of care for esophageal cancer, especially for middle third esophageal lesions and those with squamous histology. Although more and more thoracic surgeons and surgical oncologists have now shifted to video-assisted and robot-assisted thoracoscopic esophagectomy; there is still limited experience for the use of minimal-assisted approaches in patients undergoing surgery after neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Most surgeons have concerns of feasibility, safety, and oncological outcomes as well as issues related to difficult learning curve in adopting robotic esophagectomy in patients after chemoradiation. We present our initial experience of Robot-Assisted Mckeown Esophagectomy in 27 patients after neoadjuvant chemoradiation, from May 2013 to October 2014. All patients underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiation to a dose of 50.4 Gy/25Fr with concurrent weekly cisplatin, followed by reassessment with clinical examination and repeat FDG PET/CT 6 weeks after completion of chemoradiation. Patients with progressive disease underwent palliative chemotherapy while patients with either partial or significant response to chemoradiation underwent Robot-Assisted Mckeown Esophagectomy with esophageal replacement by gastric conduit and esophagogastric anastomosis in the left neck. Out of 27 patients, 92.5 % patients had stage cT3/T4 tumours and node-positive disease in 48.1 % on imaging. Most patients were middle thoracic esophageal cancers (23/27), with squamous histology in all except for one. All patients received neoadjuvant chemoradiation and subsequently underwent Robot Assisted Mckeown Esophagectomy. The average time for robot docking, thoracic mobilization and total surgical procedure was 13.2, 108.4 and 342.7 min, respectively. The procedure was well tolerated by all patients with only one case of peri-operative mortality. Average ICU stay was 6.35 days (range 3-9 days). R0 resection rate of 96.3 % and average lymph node yield

  14. Disordered eating attitudes and exercise in women undergoing fertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Rodino, Iolanda S; Byrne, Susan; Sanders, Katherine A

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has found a higher lifetime prevalence of eating disorders in women undergoing fertility treatment. This study aimed to gauge the prevalence of eating disorders in women attending a fertility clinic and to compare current disordered eating attitudes and exercise amongst different infertility categories. Three hundred and eighty-five women were grouped according to infertility diagnosis: male factor, unexplained infertility, ovulatory disorders, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and heterogeneous causations. Participants anonymously completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and a Demographics questionnaire. The lifetime history of self-reported eating disorders for women in the sample was similar to Australian community rates. Profile analysis revealed on the EDE-Q that women with ovulatory disorders were not significantly different from women with PCOS; however, they were significantly different to women with other infertility diagnoses (all P < 0.05), suggesting increased vulnerability to disordered eating. There were no between-group differences in exercise quantity (IPAQ, P = 0.625) although women with ovulatory disorders and PCOS had a significantly higher risk of engaging in compulsive, 'driven' exercise (OR = 6.98, CI = 1.39, 34.90, P = 0.018) as a means to control weight or shape. Contrary to previous research, our findings do not confirm a greater lifetime prevalence rate of eating disorders in women attending an infertility clinic. This study does highlight the importance of screening women with forms of an ovulatory disorder for features of disordered eating attitudes and driven exercise behaviours. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. Neoadjuvant Therapy for Esophageal Adenocarcinoma in the Community Setting—Practice and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Abdo, Joe; Bertellotti, Carrie A.; Cornell, David L.; Agrawal, Devendra K.; Mittal, Sumeet K.

    2017-01-01

    There has been an alarming rise in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma which continues to have poor survival rates primarily due to lack of effective chemotherapy and presentation at advanced stages. Over a dozen chemotherapeutic agents are FDA approved for esophageal cancer (EC), and a two or three-drug combination is typically prescribed as first-line therapy for the majority of EC patients, administered either pre or post-operatively with esophageal resection. We have noticed significant variability in adjuvant and neoadjuvant regimens used in the community setting. The aim of this study was to review the various drug regimens used in the neoadjuvant setting for EC patients with adenocarcinoma undergoing resection at a single tertiary referral center in the Midwest. A total of 123 patients (stage II–III) underwent esophageal resection after neoadjuvant treatment at the center. Overall, 18 distinct drug regimens were used in 123 patients including two patients who received targeted therapy. Median survival post-surgery for this group was 11.2 months with no single regimen offering a survival advantage. These results reveal an unclear algorithm of how accepted regimens are prescribed in the community setting as well as a dire need for agents that are more effective. Additionally, it was noted that although proteomic markers have been found to predict drug response to 92% of the FDA-approved drugs in EC (12 of 13), according to pathology reports, molecular diagnostic testing was not used to direct treatment in this cohort. We therefore propose potential strategies to improve clinical outcomes including the use of a robust molecular oncology diagnostic panel and discuss the potential role for targeted chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy in the management of EC patients. PMID:28770168

  16. Risk profile and HIV testing outcomes of women undergoing community-based testing in San Diego 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Graves, Susannah K; Little, Susan J; Hoenigl, Martin

    2017-02-06

    Women comprised 19% of new HIV diagnoses in the United States in 2014, with significant racial and ethnic disparities in infection rates. This cross-sectional analysis of women enrolled in a cohort study compares demographics, risk behaviour, and sexually transmitted infections (STI) in those undergoing HIV testing in San Diego County. Data from the most recent screening visit of women undergoing voluntary HIV screening April 2008 -July 2014 was used. HIV diagnosis, risk behaviour and self-reported STIs were compared among women aged ≤24, 25-49, and ≥50, as well as between HIV-infected and uninfected women and between Hispanic and non-Hispanic women. Among the 2535 women included, Hispanic women were less likely than other women to report unprotected vaginal intercourse (p = 0.026) or stimulant drug use (p = 0.026), and more likely to report one or fewer partners (p < 0.0001), but also more likely to report sex with an HIV-infected individual (p = 0.027). New HIV infection was significantly more prevalent among Hispanic women (1.6% vs. 0.2%; p < 0.001). Hispanic women were more likely than other women to be diagnosed with HIV despite significantly lower rates of risk behaviour. Culturally specific risk reduction interventions for Hispanic women should focus on awareness of partner risk and appropriate testing.

  17. Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation and Loss of Bone Mineral Density in Women Undergoing Breast Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Mridul; Schwartz, Gary G.

    2013-01-01

    An unintended consequence of breast cancer therapies is an increased risk of osteoporosis due to accelerated bone loss. We conducted a systematic review of calcium and/or vitamin D (Ca±D) supplementation trials for maintaining bone mineral density (BMD) in women with breast cancer using the “before-after” data from the Ca±D supplemented comparison group of trials evaluating the effect of drugs such as bisphosphonates on BMD. Whether Ca±D supplements increase BMD in women undergoing breast cancer therapy has never been tested against an unsupplemented control group. However, results from 16 trials indicate that the Ca±D doses tested (500-1500 mg calcium; 200-1000 IU vitamin D) were inadequate to prevent BMD loss in these women. Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of mortality in women with breast cancer. Because calcium supplements may increase cardiovascular disease risk, future trials should evaluate the safety and efficacy of Ca±D supplementation in women undergoing breast cancer therapy. PMID:23932583

  18. Family-Related Opinions and Stressful Situations Associated with Psychological Distress in Women Undergoing Infertility Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Takaki, Jiro; Hibino, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6). The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p < 0.05) and independently high: those with more frequent miscarriage/stillbirth/abortions, those with repeated miscarriages as the cause of infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that “women should devote themselves to their household duties” those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that “married life without children is favorable” and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment. PMID:25184788

  19. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Jiro; Hibino, Yuri

    2014-09-02

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6). The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p < 0.05) and independently high: those with more frequent miscarriage/stillbirth/abortions, those with repeated miscarriages as the cause of infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that "women should devote themselves to their household duties" those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that "married life without children is favorable" and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment.

  20. Incorporating spirituality in psychosocial group intervention for women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a prospective randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Celia H Y; Chan, Cecilia L W; Ng, Ernest H Y; Ho, P C; Chan, Timothy H Y; Lee, G L; Hui, W H C

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a group intervention, the Integrative Body-Mind-Spirit (I-BMS) intervention, which aims at improving the psychosocial and spiritual well-being of Chinese women undergoing their first IVF treatment cycle. The I-BMS intervention facilitates the search of meaning of life in the context of family and childbearing, as well as the letting go of high IVF expectations. A randomized controlled study of 339 women undergoing first IVF treatment cycle in a local Hong Kong hospital was conducted (intervention: n= 172; no-intervention control: n= 167). Assessments of anxiety, perceived importance of childbearing, and spiritual well-being were made at randomization (T(0) ), on the day starting ovarian stimulations (T(1)), and on the day undertaking embryo transfer (T(2)). Comparing T(0) and T(2), interaction analyses showed women who had received the intervention reported lower levels of physical distress, anxiety, and disorientation. They reported being more tranquil and satisfied with their marriage, and saw childbearing as less important compared to women in the control group. These findings suggest that I-BMS intervention was successful at improving the psychosocial and spiritual well-being of women undergoing their first IVF treatment cycle. This study highlights the importance of providing integrative fertility treatment that incorporates psychosocial and spiritual dimensions. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Vitamin D deficiency and pregnancy rates in women undergoing single embryo, blastocyst stage, transfer (SET) for IVF/ICSI.

    PubMed

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Anckaert, Ellen; Guzman, Luis; Schiettecatte, Johan; Van Landuyt, Lisbet; Camus, Michel; Smitz, Johan; Tournaye, Herman

    2014-09-01

    What is the influence of vitamin D deficiency on pregnancy rates among women undergoing IVF/ICSI and Day 5 (blastocyst stage) single embryo transfer (SET)? Vitamin D deficiency results in significantly lower pregnancy rates in women undergoing single blastocyst transfer. Preliminary experiments have identified the presence of vitamin D receptors in the female reproductive system. However, results regarding the effect of vitamin D deficiency on clinical outcomes are conflicting. None of the previous studies adopted a SET strategy. Serum vitamin D concentration was measured retrospectively in patients who underwent SET on Day 5. Overall 368 consecutive infertile women treated within a period of 15 months were included in the study. All patients underwent ovarian stimulation for IVF/ICSI and Day 5 SET. Serum samples were obtained 7 days prior to embryo transfer and stored frozen at -20°C. Samples were collectively analyzed for their 25-OH vitamin D content. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as serum 25-OH vitamin D levels <20 ng/ml in accordance with the Institute of Medicine and the Endocrine Society clinical practice guidelines. Clinical pregnancy rates were significantly lower in women with vitamin D deficiency compared with those with higher vitamin D values (41 versus 54%, P = 0.015).Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify whether vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with clinical pregnancy rates after controlling for 16 potential confounding factors. According to our results vitamin D deficiency was independently associated with lower clinical pregnancy rates, odds ratios [ORs (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61 (0.39-0.95)] for vitamin D deficiency (deficient versus non-deficient women), P = 0.030. Finally, even when restricting our analysis to women undergoing elective SET (274 patients), vitamin D deficiency was again independently associated with pregnancy rates [OR (95% CI) 0.56 (0.33-0.93), P = 0.024]. Our results refer only to

  2. Phase II randomized clinical trial evaluating neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens with weekly paclitaxel or eribulin followed by doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide in women with locally advanced HER2-negative breast cancer: NSABP Foundation Study FB-9.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Jame; Robidoux, André; Tan, Antoinette R; Limentani, Steven; Sturtz, Keren; Shalaby, Ibrahim; Alcorn, Hope; Buyse, Marc E; Wolmark, Norman; Jacobs, Samuel A

    2015-07-01

    Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) is a good setting in which to monitor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, to downsize the tumor (which facilitates breast-conserving surgery), and to test newer agents in untreated patients. Eribulin (E) has shown activity in patients who have undergone previous taxane, anthracycline, and capecitabine treatment. We aimed to evaluate the neoadjuvant use of E followed by doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC) in patients with HER2-negative LABC, using as a control a randomized group of women who received weekly paclitaxel (WP). Fifty women with LABC were accrued January-August 2013. Patients were randomized (1:2) to receive either WP (N = 19) for 12 treatments or E (N = 31) every 3 weeks for 4 cycles followed by AC every 3 weeks for 4 cycles before surgery. 17/19 patients who took WP and 25/30 who took E completed all cycles. Patients were evaluated by clinical examination and breast MRI at baseline and after completion of E or WP. Surgical pCR in breast and lymph nodes was determined by a local pathologist following chemotherapy. Forty-nine patients received ≥1 dose of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and are included in this analysis. Forty-eight underwent surgery; one had disease that was inoperable (on E) and is included as no-pCR patient. 17/19 of these patients who took WP completed 12 doses; 28/30 on E completed 4 cycles. Six discontinued treatment on WP, E, or AC. Both treatments were well tolerated. pCR on WP = 5/19(26 %) and on E = 5/30(17 %). Both regimens were equally well tolerated with no unexpected toxicities. pCR did not suggest higher activity with E than with other standard regimens in these LABC patients.

  3. Review of the role of the sentinel node biopsy in neoadjuvant chemotherapy in women with breast cancer and negative or positive axillary node at diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ruano Pérez, R; Rebollo Aguirre, A C; García-Talavera San Miguel, P; Díaz Expósito, R; Vidal-Sicart, S; Cordero García, J M; Carrera Salazar, D; Rioja Martín, M E

    The role of the selective sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is increasing in relevance in breast cancer women with indication of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). The Radiosurgery Working Group of the SEMNIM is aware of the necessity of establishing the need for SNB before or after NAC, and also how to manage patients with axillary node-negative or node-positive. There is sufficient data to assess that the SNB with radioisotope techniques are feasible and safe in all these scenarios. An adequate axilla evaluation prior to surgery and the possibility of marking prior to NAC the nodes infiltrated must be the two main pillars to guarantee the success of the SNB. It has been shown that to incorporate the SNB in breast cancer women with indication of NAC increases the rate of a conservative treatment of the axilla that will be a clear benefit for these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  4. Is aortic lymphadenectomy indicated in locally advanced cervical cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical surgery? A retrospective study on 261 women.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, F; Signorelli, M; Bogani, G; Ditto, A; Chiappa, V; Perotto, S; Scaffa, C; Lorusso, D; Raspagliesi, F

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the rate of aortic lymph nodes (LN) metastases/recurrences among patients affected by locally advanced stage cancer patients (LACC), treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and radical surgery. Retrospective evaluation of consecutive 261 patients affected by LACC (stage IB2-IIB), treated with NACT followed by radical surgery at National Cancer Institute, Milan, Italy, between 1990 and 2011. Stage at presentation included stage IB2, IIA and IIB in 100 (38.3%), 50 (19.2%) and 111 (42.5%) patients, respectively. Squamous cell carcinoma accounted for more than 80%, followed by adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous cancers (20%). Overall, 56 women (21.5%) had LN metastases. Four out of 83 women (5%) who underwent both pelvic and aortic LN dissection had aortic LN metastases, and all women had concomitant pelvic and aortic LN metastases. Only one woman out of 178 (0.5%) who underwent pelvic lymphadenectomy only, had an aortic LN recurrence. Overall 2% of women (5/261) had aortic LN metastases/recurrence. Our data suggest that aortic lymphadenectomy at the time of surgery is not routinely indicated in LACC after NACT, but should reserved in case of bulky LN in both pelvic and/or aortic area. The risk of isolated aortic LN relapse is negligible. Further prospective studies are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ the Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  5. Prognostic value of neoadjuvant treatment response in locally advanced rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sada, Yvonne H; Tran Cao, Hop S; Chang, George J; Artinyan, Avo; Musher, Benjamin L; Smaglo, Brandon G; Massarweh, Nader N

    2018-06-01

    For locally advanced rectal cancer, response to neoadjuvant radiation has been associated with improved outcomes but has not been well characterized in general practice. The goals of this study were to describe disease response rates after neoadjuvant treatment and to evaluate the association between disease response and survival. Retrospective cohort study of patients aged 18-80 y with clinical stage II and III rectal adenocarcinoma in the National Cancer Database (2006-2012). All patients underwent radical resection after neoadjuvant treatment. Treatment responses were defined as follows: no tumor response; intermediate-T and/or N downstaging with residual disease; and complete-ypT0N0. Multivariable, multinomial regression was used to evaluate the association between neoadjuvant radiation use and disease response. Multivariable Cox regression was used to evaluate the association between disease response and overall risk of death. Among 12,024 patients, 12% had a complete and 30% an intermediate response. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone was less likely to achieve an intermediate (relative risk ratio: 0.70 [0.56-0.88]) or a complete response (relative risk ratio: 0.59 [0.41-0.84]) relative to neoadjuvant radiation. Tumor response was associated with improved 5-y overall survival (complete = 90.2%, intermediate = 82.0%, no response = 70.5%; log-rank, P < 0.001). Complete and intermediate pathologic responses were associated with decreases in risk of death (hazard ratio: 0.40 [0.34-0.48] and 0.63 [0.57-0.69], respectively) compared to no response. Primary tumor and nodal response were independently associated with decreased risk of death. Neoadjuvant radiation is associated with treatment response, and pathologic response is associated with improved survival. Pathologic response may be an early benchmark for the oncologic effectiveness of neoadjuvant treatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Neoadjuvant radiation therapy prior to total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer is not associated with postoperative complications using current techniques.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Sarah A; Goodman, Karyn A; Nash, Garrett M; Paty, Philip B; Guillem, José G; Temple, Larissa K; Weiser, Martin R; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio

    2014-07-01

    Neoadjuvant radiation therapy (RT) downstages rectal cancer but may increase postoperative morbidity. This study aims to quantify 30-day complication rates after total mesorectal excision (TME) using current techniques and to assess for an association of these complications with neoadjuvant RT. Stage I-III rectal cancer patients who underwent TME from 2005 to 2010 were identified. Complications occurring within 30 days after TME were retrieved from a prospectively maintained institutional database of postoperative adverse events. The cohort consisted of 461 patients. Median age was 59 years (range 18-90), and 274 patients (59 %) were male. Comorbid conditions included obesity (n = 147; 32 %), coronary artery disease (n = 83; 18 %), diabetes (n = 65; 14 %), and inflammatory bowel disease (n = 19; 4 %). A low anterior resection (LAR) was performed in 383 cases (83 %), an abdominoperineal resection (APR) was performed in 72 cases (16 %), and a Hartmann's procedure was performed in 6 cases (1 %). Preoperative RT was delivered to 310 patients (67 %; median dose of 50.4 Gy, range 27-55.8 Gy). The 30-day incidence of postoperative mortality was 0.4 % (n = 2), any complication 25 % (n = 117), grade 3 or more complication 5 % (n = 24), intra-abdominal infection 3 % (n = 12), abdominal wound complication 9 % (n = 42), perineal wound complication after APR 11 % (n = 8/72), and anastomotic leak after LAR 2 % (n = 6/383). These events were not associated with neoadjuvant RT. In a cohort undergoing TME using current techniques, neoadjuvant RT was not associated with 30-day postoperative morbidity or mortality.

  7. Analysis of Follicular Fluid Retinoids in Women Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Pauli, Samuel A.; Session, Donna R.; Shang, Weirong; Easley, Kirk; Wieser, Friedrich; Taylor, Robert N.; Pierzchalski, Keely; Napoli, Joseph L.; Kane, Maureen A.

    2013-01-01

    Retinol (ROL) and its biologically active metabolite, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), are essential for a number of reproductive processes. However, there is a paucity of information regarding their roles in ovarian folliculogenesis, oocyte maturation, and early embryogenesis. The objectives of this study were to quantify and compare peripheral plasma (PP) and follicular fluid (FF) retinoid levels, including ATRA in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and to investigate the relationship between retinoid levels and embryo quality. Retinoid levels were evaluated in PP and FF from 79 women undergoing IVF at the time of oocyte retrieval and corresponding embryo quality assessed on a daily basis after retrieval for 3 days until uterine transfer. Analysis compared the retinoid levels with day 3 embryo grades and between endometriosis versus control patients. Results demonstrated distinctive levels of retinoid metabolites and isomers in FF versus PP. There was a significantly larger percentage of high-quality grade I embryos derived from the largest versus smallest follicles. An increase in follicle size also correlated with a >50% increase in FF ROL and ATRA concentrations. Independent of follicle size, FF yielding grade I versus nongrade I embryos showed higher mean levels of ATRA but not ROL. In a nested case–control analysis, control participants had 50% higher mean levels of ATRA in their FF and PP than women with endometriosis. These findings strongly support the proposition that ATRA plays a fundamental role in oocyte development and quality, and that reduced ATRA synthesis may contribute to decreased fecundity of participants with endometriosis. PMID:23427183

  8. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors: case report.

    PubMed

    Thatikunta, Meena; Mutchnick, Ian; Elster, Jennifer; Thompson, Matthew P; Huang, Michael A; Spalding, Aaron C; Moriarty, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) are a rare pediatric brain tumor with high mortality rate. Several large series have reported achieving gross-total resection (GTR) in less than 50% of patients due to the lesions' large size, vascularity, and limited blood volume in young patients. While neoadjuvant chemotherapy for choroid plexus carcinomas in pediatric patients has become widely accepted, it has not been used as widely for other pediatric brain tumors. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there are only 3 published cases of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for ATRTs. In the present report, the authors present a fourth case of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for ATRT and review the available literature on this strategy. A 17-month-old child presented with a left ventricular ATRT for which imaging raised concern for a highly vascularized tumor. The authors undertook neoadjuvant chemotherapy with 2 cycles of Head Start II therapy, which reduced the size of the ventricular tumor by 35% and decreased the vascularity of the lesion on imaging. The estimated blood loss during resection was 425 ml and GTR was achieved. The patient continued with postoperative chemotherapy but suffered an on-therapy recurrence. While higher-quality data are necessary, available evidence suggests that neoadjuvant chemotherapy can reduce the size and vascularity of ATRTs and facilitate a surgical avenue for large or "inoperable" tumors.

  9. Risk factors for psychiatric disorders in infertile women and men undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment.

    PubMed

    Volgsten, Helena; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta; Ekselius, Lisa; Lundkvist, Orjan; Sundström Poromaa, Inger

    2010-03-01

    To identify risk factors associated with depression and anxiety in infertile women and men undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Prospective study. A university hospital in Sweden during a 2-year period. 825 participants (413 women and 412 men). Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD), based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV), as the diagnostic tool for evaluating mood and anxiety disorders, and fertility history and outcome of IVF treatment collected from the patients' medical records. Risk factors associated with depression and anxiety disorders. A negative pregnancy test and obesity were the independent risk factors for any mood disorders in women. Among men, the only independent risk factor for depression was unexplained infertility. No IVF-related risk factors could be identified for any anxiety disorder. A negative pregnancy test is associated with an increased risk for depression in women undergoing IVF, but no risk of developing anxiety disorders is associated with the pregnancy test result after IVF. Pregnancy test results were not a risk factor for depression or anxiety among men. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Quality of Life During Neoadjuvant Treatment and After Surgery for Resectable Esophageal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Meerten, Esther van; Gaast, Ate van der; Looman, Caspar W.N.

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: Because of the trade-off between the potentially negative quality-of-life (QoL) effects and uncertain favorable survival effect of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with resectable esophageal cancer, we assessed heath-related QoL (HRQoL) for up to 1 year postoperatively in these patients treated with preoperative CRT with a non-platinum-based outpatient regimen followed by esophagectomy. Methods and Materials: Patients undergoing neoadjuvant paclitaxel and carboplatin therapy concurrent with radiotherapy followed by surgery completed standardized HRQoL questionnaires before and after CRT and at regular times up to 1 year postoperatively. We analyzed differences in generic Qol core questionnaire [QLQ-C30] and condition-specific (esophageal site-specific [OES-18])more » HRQoL scores over time by using a linear mixed-effects model. Results: Mean scores of most HRQoL scales deteriorated significantly during neoadjuvant CRT. The largest deterioration was observed for physical and role-functioning scales. All except two symptom scores worsened significantly. Postoperatively, most mean HRQoL scores improved until recovery to baseline level. Speed of improvement varied. Average taste score returned to baseline 3 months postoperatively, whereas it took 1 year for the average role-functioning score to restore. The emotional-functioning score showed a different pattern; it was worst at baseline and increased over time during CRT and postoperatively. Dysphagia and pain scores worsened considerably during CRT, restored to baseline 3 months postoperatively, and were even significantly better 1 year postoperatively. Conclusions: Preoperative CRT with paclitaxel and carboplatin for patients with resectable esophageal cancer had a considerable temporary negative effect on most aspects of HRQoL. Nonetheless, all HRQoL scores were restored or even improved 1 year postoperatively.« less

  11. National survey of the current management of endometriomas in women undergoing assisted reproductive treatment.

    PubMed

    Raffi, F; Shaw, R W; Amer, S A

    2012-09-01

    What is the current management of women with ovarian endometriomas undergoing assisted reproductive treatment (ART) in the UK? It appears that the majority of gynaecologists in the UK offer surgery (mostly cystectomy) for endometriomas prior to ART, regardless of the presence of symptoms. The ideal management of endometriomas in women undergoing ART remains controversial and presents a dilemma to reproductive specialists. This was a national cross-sectional survey. A total of 388 gynaecologists completed the questionnaire. All clinicians fully registered with the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists were contacted. An 11-item survey was administered electronically using Survey Monkey software. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive and comparative statistics. The majority of responders were consultants (65%), 25% practiced ART and 65% performed laparoscopic surgery. Overall, 95% of responders would offer surgery for endometriomas in women undergoing ART, either on the basis of the size (>3-5 cm) of the endometrioma (52%), the presence of symptoms (16%), the presence of multiple/bilateral endometriomas (2%), regardless of the size and symptoms (19%) or only to women undergoing IVF (6%). The remaining 5% of responders would not offer surgery before ART. Excision was the most common surgical modality (68%), followed by ablation (25%). Laparoscopic surgeons were almost twice as likely to 'offer surgery to all patients with endometriomas prior to ART' compared with clinicians performing laparotomy (22 versus 12%, P < 0.001). Our overall response rate, with answers to the questionnaire, was low (15%). However, the response rate amongst reproductive specialists was estimated at 60%. It is possible that there might have been an element of bias towards over-representation of responders who are more concerned about 'normalization' of the pelvic anatomy. Furthermore, our survey relied on self-reporting of practice and it is possible that being

  12. Radiation-induced liver disease as a mimic of liver metastases at serial PET/CT during neoadjuvant chemoradiation of distal esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Grant, Michael J; Didier, Ryne A; Stevens, Jeffrey S; Beyder, Dmitry D; Hunter, John G; Thomas, Charles R; Coakley, Fergus V

    2014-10-01

    To determine the frequency and appearance of radiation-induced liver disease on PET/CT in patients undergoing serial imaging during neoadjuvant chemoradiation of distal esophageal cancer. In this IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective analysis, we identified 112 patients with distal esophageal cancer treated by neoadjuvant chemoradiation who had serial PET/CT imaging available for review. Two readers reviewed all studies in consensus and recorded those cases where new foci of visually detectable increased FDG avidity appeared in the liver during therapy. The etiology of such foci was determined from corresponding findings at CT or MRI, by hepatic biopsy during surgery, by characteristic evolution on post-operative imaging, or by a combination of these methods. New foci of FDG avidity developed in the liver during neoadjuvant therapy in 10 of 112 (9%) patients, of whom nine (8%) were determined to have radiation-induced liver disease based on further imaging and/or biopsy and one of whom had developed interval metastatic disease based on biopsy. In the cases of radiation-induced liver disease, the abnormal foci were found only in the caudate and left hepatic lobes, near the primary tumor, while the patient who developed interval metastatic disease had involvement of the inferior right hepatic lobe, remote from the radiation therapy field. New foci of increased FDG avidity are commonly seen in the caudate and left hepatic lobes of the liver during neoadjuvant chemoradiation of distal esophageal cancer, and these findings generally reflect radiation-induced liver disease rather than metastatic disease.

  13. Effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without zoledronic acid on pathological response: A meta-analysis of randomised trials.

    PubMed

    Kroep, J R; Charehbili, A; Coleman, R E; Aft, R L; Hasegawa, Y; Winter, M C; Weilbaecher, K; Akazawa, K; Hinsley, S; Putter, H; Liefers, G J; Nortier, J W R; Kohno, N

    2016-02-01

    The addition of bisphosphonates to adjuvant therapy improves survival in postmenopausal breast cancer (BC) patients. We report a meta-analysis of four randomised trials of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CT) +/- zoledronic acid (ZA) in stage II/III BC to investigate the potential for enhancing the pathological response. Individual patient data from four prospective randomised clinical trials reporting the effect of the addition of ZA on the pathological response after neoadjuvant CT were pooled. Primary outcomes were pathological complete response in the breast (pCRb) and in the breast and lymph nodes (pCR). Trial-level and individual patient data meta-analyses were done. Predefined subgroup-analyses were performed for postmenopausal women and patients with triple-negative BC. pCRb and pCR data were available in 735 and 552 patients respectively. In the total study population ZA addition to neoadjuvant CT did not increase pCRb or pCR rates. However, in postmenopausal patients, the addition of ZA resulted in a significant, near doubling of the pCRb rate (10.8% for CT only versus 17.7% with CT+ZA; odds ratio [OR] 2.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-4.55) and a non-significant benefit of the pCR rate (7.8% for CT only versus 14.6% with CT+ZA; OR 2.62, 95% CI 0.90-7.62). In patients with triple-negative BC a trend was observed favouring CT+ZA. This meta-analysis shows no impact from the addition of ZA to neoadjuvant CT on pCR. However, as has been seen in the adjuvant setting, the addition of ZA to neoadjuvant CT may augment the effects of CT in postmenopausal patients with BC. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Adoption of Total Neoadjuvant Therapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cercek, Andrea; Roxburgh, Campbell S D; Strombom, Paul; Smith, J Joshua; Temple, Larissa K F; Nash, Garrett M; Guillem, Jose G; Paty, Philip B; Yaeger, Rona; Stadler, Zsofia K; Seier, Kenneth; Gonen, Mithat; Segal, Neil H; Reidy, Diane L; Varghese, Anna; Shia, Jinru; Vakiani, Efsevia; Wu, Abraham J; Crane, Christopher H; Gollub, Marc J; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio; Saltz, Leonard B; Weiser, Martin R

    2018-03-22

    Treatment of locally advanced rectal (LARC) cancer involves chemoradiation, surgery, and chemotherapy. The concept of total neoadjuvant therapy (TNT), in which chemoradiation and chemotherapy are administered prior to surgery, has been developed to optimize delivery of effective systemic therapy aimed at micrometastases. To compare the traditional approach of preoperative chemoradiation (chemoRT) followed by postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with the more recent TNT approach for LARC. A retrospective cohort analysis using Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSK) records from 2009 to 2015 was carried out. A total of 811 patients who presented with LARC (T3/4 or node-positive) were identified. Of the 811 patients, 320 received chemoRT with planned adjuvant chemotherapy and 308 received TNT (induction fluorouracil- and oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy followed by chemoRT). Treatment and outcome data for the 2 cohorts were compared. Dosing and completion of prescribed chemotherapy were assessed on the subset of patients who received all therapy at MSK. Of the 628 patients overall, 373 (59%) were men and 255 (41%) were women, with a mean (SD) age of 56.7 (12.9) years. Of the 308 patients in the TNT cohort, 181 (49%) were men and 127 (49%) were women. Of the 320 patients in the chemoRT with planned adjuvant chemotherapy cohort, 192 (60%) were men and 128 (40%) were women. Patients in the TNT cohort received greater percentages of the planned oxaliplatin and fluorouracil prescribed dose than those in the chemoRT with planned adjuvant chemotherapy cohort. The complete response (CR) rate, including both pathologic CR (pCR) in those who underwent surgery and sustained clinical CR (cCR) for at least 12 months posttreatment in those who did not undergo surgery, was 36% in the TNT cohort compared with 21% in the chemoRT with planned adjuvant chemotherapy cohort. Our findings provide additional support for the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines that

  15. Self-Confidence and Quality of Life in Women Undergoing Treatment for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shafaee, Fahimeh Sehati; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Harischi, Sepideh; Esfahani, Ali; Amirzehni, Jalileh

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Quality of life is an important topic in the study of chronic diseases, especially cancer which can have a major effect on patient self-confidence. This study was conducted to determine quality of life and its relationship with self-confidence in women undergoing treatment for breast cancer. Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical study was conducted in 2016 on 166 women with breast cancer undergoing treatment at Ghazi, Al-Zahra, International and/or Shams hospitals in Tabriz. The subjects were selected through convenience sampling. A personal-demographic questionnaire, the Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) were completed for each patient. The data obtained were analyzed using independent t-tests, one-way ANOVA, multivariate linear regression and Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Findings: The mean total score of quality of life was 59.1±17.4, ranging from 0 to 100. The highest mean score was obtained in the cognitive subscale (74.9±23.8) and the lowest in the emotional subscale (51.4±21.1). The mean score for self-confidence was 0.3 with a standard deviation of 0.1, ranging from -1 to +1. There was a significant positive relationship between self-confidence and quality of life, except in three symptom subscales for diarrhea, constipation and loss of appetite (P<0.05). Self-confidence, disease duration, lifestyle, marital satisfaction and caregiver status were among the predictors of quality of life. Discussion: Given the significant relationship between quality of life and self-confidence, health care providers may need to pay special attention to women undergoing treatment for breast cancer and perform timely measures to maintain their belief in themselves. PMID:29582628

  16. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in technically unresectable carcinoma of external auditory canal

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Amit; Tandon, Nidhi; Noronha, Vanita; Dhumal, Sachin; Patil, Vijay; Arya, Supreeta; Juvekar, Shashikant; Agarwal, Jaiprakash; DCruz, Anil; Pai, Prathmesh; Prabhash, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Carcinoma of external auditory canal (EAC) is a very rare malignancy with surgical resection as the main modality of treatment. The outcomes with nonsurgical modalities are very dismal. We present a retrospective analysis of 4 patients evaluating the role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in technically unresectable cancers. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 4 patients from our institute from 2010 to 2014 with carcinoma EAC who were deemed unfit for surgery due to extensive disease involving occipital bone with soft tissue infiltration (n = 2), temporal dura (n = 1), left temporal lobe, and extensive soft tissue involvement (n = 1). All these patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin and 5 fluorouracil (n = 3) and paclitaxel and cisplatin (n = 1). Results: Response evaluation showed a partial response (PR) in 3 and stable disease (SD) in 1 patient by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria. All 3 patients who received 3 drug chemotherapy had PR while 1 patient who received 2 drug chemotherapy had SD. Two of these patients underwent surgery, and other 2 underwent definitive chemoradiation. One of 3 patients who achieved PR underwent surgical resection; the other 2 remained unresectable in view of the persistent intradural extension and infratemporal fossa involvement. One patient who had SD could undergo surgery in view of clearance of infraatemporal fossa. Recent follow-up shows that 3 out of these 4 patients are alive. Conclusion: This indicates that there may be a role of induction chemotherapy in converting potentially unresectable tumors to resectable disease that could produce better outcomes in carcinoma EAC. PMID:26855526

  17. Effect of Acupuncture vs Sham Acupuncture on Live Births Among Women Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caroline A; de Lacey, Sheryl; Chapman, Michael; Ratcliffe, Julie; Norman, Robert J; Johnson, Neil P; Boothroyd, Clare; Fahey, Paul

    2018-05-15

    Acupuncture is widely used by women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), although the evidence for efficacy is conflicting. To determine the efficacy of acupuncture compared with a sham acupuncture control performed during IVF on live births. A single-blind, parallel-group randomized clinical trial including 848 women undergoing a fresh IVF cycle was conducted at 16 IVF centers in Australia and New Zealand between June 29, 2011, and October 23, 2015, with 10 months of pregnancy follow-up until August 2016. Women received either acupuncture (n = 424) or a sham acupuncture control (n = 424). The first treatment was administered between days 6 to 8 of follicle stimulation, and 2 treatments were administered prior to and following embryo transfer. The sham control used a noninvasive needle placed away from the true acupuncture points. The primary outcome was live birth, defined as the delivery of 1 or more living infants at greater than 20 weeks' gestation or birth weight of at least 400 g. Among 848 randomized women, 24 withdrew consent, 824 were included in the study (mean [SD] age, 35.4 [4.3] years); 371 [45.0%] had undergone more than 2 previous IVF cycles), 607 proceeded to an embryo transfer, and 809 (98.2%) had data available on live birth outcomes. Live births occurred among 74 of 405 women (18.3%) receiving acupuncture compared with 72 of 404 women (17.8%) receiving sham control (risk difference, 0.5% [95% CI, -4.9% to 5.8%]; relative risk, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.76 to 1.38]). Among women undergoing IVF, administration of acupuncture vs sham acupuncture at the time of ovarian stimulation and embryo transfer resulted in no significant difference in live birth rates. These findings do not support the use of acupuncture to improve the rate of live births among women undergoing IVF. anzctr.org.au Identifier: ACTRN12611000226909.

  18. Profiles and experiences of women undergoing genital fistula repair: Findings from five countries

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Evelyn; Vera, Frajzyngier; Ruminjo, Joseph; Asiimwe, Frank; Barry, Thierno Hamidou; Bello, Abubakar; Danladi, Dantani; Ganda, Sanda Oumarou; Idris, Sa'ad; Inoussa, Maman; Kanoma, Bashir; Lynch, Maura; Mussell, Felicity; Podder, Dulal Chandra; Wali, Abba; Mielke, Erin; Barone, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents data from 1354 women from five countries who participated in a prospective cohort study conducted between 2007 and 2010. Women undergoing surgery for fistula repair were interviewed at the time of admission, discharge, and at a 3-month follow-up visit. While women's experiences differed across countries, a similar picture emerges across countries: women married young, most were married at the time of admission, had little education, and for many, the fistula occurred after the first pregnancy. Median age at the time of fistula occurrence was 20.0 years (interquartile range 17.3–26.8). Half of the women attended some antenatal care (ANC); among those who attended ANC, less than 50% recalled being told about signs of pregnancy complications. At follow-up, most women (even those who were not dry) reported improvements in many aspects of social life, however, reported improvements varied by repair outcome. Prevention and treatment programmes need to recognise the supportive role that husbands, partners, and families play as women prepare for safe delivery. Effective treatment and support programmes are needed for women who remain incontinent after surgery. PMID:23947903

  19. Assessing pathological complete response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ryan, J E; Warrier, S K; Lynch, A C; Heriot, A G

    2015-10-01

    Pathological complete response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is found in 20% of patients with rectal cancer undergoing long-course chemoradiotherapy. Some authors have suggested that these patients do not need to undergo surgery and can be managed with careful follow-up, with surgery only used in the event of clinical failure. Widespread adoption of this regimen is limited by the accuracy of methods to confirm a pathological complete response (pCR). A systematic search of PubMed, Medline and Cochrane databases was conducted to identify clinical, histological and radiological features in those patients with rectal cancer who achieved a pCR following chemoradiotherapy. Searches were conducted with the following keywords and MeSH search terms: 'rectal neoplasm', 'response', 'neoadjuvant', 'preoperative chemoradiation' and 'tumour response'. After review of title and abstracts, 89 articles addressing the assessment of pCR were identified. Histology and clinical assessment are the most effective methods of assessment of pCR, with histology considered the gold standard. Clinical assessment is limited to low rectal tumours and is open to significant inter-rater variability, while histological examination requires a surgical specimen. Diffusion-weighted MRI and (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT demonstrate the greatest potential for the assessment of pCR, but both modalities have limited accuracy. Determination of a pCR is crucial if a nonoperative approach is to be undertaken proactively. Various methods are available, but currently they lack sufficient sensitivity and specificity to define management. This is likely to be an area of further research in the future. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  20. Population pharmacokinetic model for tumescent lidocaine in women undergoing breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Riff, Camille; Bourgoin, Aurélie; Marsot, Amelie; Allanioux, Laurent; Leone, Marc; Blin, Olivier; Guilhaumou, Romain

    2018-06-16

    Tumescent lidocaine anesthesia (TLA) is an opportunity to perform mastectomy for breast cancer without general anesthesia in elderly women. Few reports are available on the pharmacokinetics of lidocaine in a context of TLA during a unilateral mastectomy. The aim of this study was to describe lidocaine pharmacokinetics in elderly women undergoing breast cancer surgery after TLA and to explore the risk of the toxicity of this technique. A prospective study was conducted to examine the pharmacokinetics of lidocaine in women undergoing TLA. TLA consists of an intradermal lidocaine instillation (20 mL, 1% [200 mg]) followed by a tumescent lidocaine infiltration (100 mL of 1% lidocaine [1000 mg] and 0.5 mg epinephrine to 1 L Ringer's lactate) via an infusion pump. A population pharmacokinetic (popPK) analysis was performed using the nonlinear mixed effects model (NONMEM). The analysis included 116 observations from 17 women with a median (range) age of 83.4 (60.5-90.0). The median tumescent lidocaine dose was 800 mg (range 375-1000 mg) infused over 48.0 ± 11.0 min. A one-compartment disposition model with first order absorption, two input compartments, and a central elimination best described the pharmacokinetics of lidocaine. The estimates (between subject variability; relative standard error, %) of apparent volume, apparent clearance, tumescent absorption rate, and instillation absorption rate were 195.0 (46.3; 14.5%) L, 24.7 (48.9; 13.3%) L h -1 , 0.28 (39.6; 13.8%) h -1 , and 2.56 (135.3; 44.9%) h -1 , respectively. This is the first popPK model developed to describe kinetic profiles of TLA. These findings confirm the slow diffusion of lidocaine from the tumescent deposit.

  1. Temporal changes in outcomes of women and men undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for chronic total occlusion: 2005-2013.

    PubMed

    Toma, Aurel; Stähli, Barbara E; Gick, Michael; Ferenc, Miroslaw; Mashayekhi, Kambis; Buettner, Heinz Joachim; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Gebhard, Catherine

    2018-06-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO) has undergone impressive progress during the last decade, both in strategies and equipment. It is unknown whether technical refinement has translated into improved outcomes in women undergoing CTO-PCI. A total of 2002 consecutive patients (17% females, mean age 65.2 ± 10.7 years) undergoing PCI of at least one CTO lesion at our center between 01/2005 and 12/2013 were evaluated. The incidence of adverse events was compared between two time series (2005-2009 and 2010-2013). A significant increase in adverse lesion characteristics over time was noted in both, women and men (p < 0.001), while technical success rates significantly increased in men but not in women (p trend  < 0.001 in men and p trend =0.9 in women). The incidence of procedural complications was significantly higher in women as compared to men and increased over the study period in women (p < 0.05) but not in men. Accordingly, multivariate logistic regression analysis identified female sex as a strong predictor of PCI-related complications in recent years, while this was not the case in earlier years (adjusted HR 2.03, 95% CI 0.62-6.6, p = 0.2 and adjusted HR 4.7, 95% CI 1.8-12.3, p = 0.002, respectively, p < 0.001 for log LH ratio). In addition, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) after a 3-year follow-up significantly declined in men (log rank = 0.046), while no changes were observed in women. While higher success rates and a reduced rate of MACE have been achieved in men, the incidence of procedural complications in women undergoing CTO-PCI has increased over time.

  2. Yoga effects on mood and quality of life in Chinese women undergoing heroin detoxification: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Shu-mei; An, Shi-hui; Zhao, Yue

    2013-01-01

    Yoga, as a mind-body therapy, is effective in improving quality of life for patients with chronic diseases, yet little is known about its effectiveness in female heroin addicts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of yoga on mood status and quality of life among women undergoing detoxification for heroin dependence in China. This study was a randomized controlled trial. Seventy-five women aged 20-37 years undergoing detoxification for heroin dependence at AnKang Hospital were allocated randomly into an intervention or a control group. Women in the intervention group received a 6-month yoga intervention in addition to hospital routine care, and women in the control group received hospital routine care only. Mood status and quality of life were assessed using the Profile of Mood States and Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey at baseline and following 3 and 6 months of treatment. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate treatment and time effects on mood and quality of life. Most female heroin addicts were young and single, with a low education level. Most had used heroin by injection. Mood state and quality of life of female heroin addicts were poor. The intervention group showed a significant improvement in mood status and quality of life over time compared with their counterparts in the control group. Yoga may improve mood status and quality of life for women undergoing detoxification for heroin dependence. Yoga can be used as an auxiliary treatment with traditional hospital routine care for these women.

  3. Benefit of neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced perihilar cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jang Han; Lee, Hyun Jik; Lee, Hee Seung; Jo, Jung Hyun; Cho, In Rae; Chung, Moon Jae; Park, Jeong Youp; Park, Seung Woo; Song, Si Young; Bang, Seungmin

    2017-01-01

    AIM To clarify the role of neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (NACCRT) followed by surgical resection for localized or locally advanced perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). METHODS We retrospectively reviewed 57 patients who underwent surgical resection with or without NACCRT for perihilar CCA; 12 patients received NACCRT and 45 patients did not received NACCRT. Patients with locally advanced perihilar CCA requiring NACCRT were defined as follows: (1) a mass involving unilateral branches of the portal vein or hepatic artery with insufficient volume of the anticipated remnant lobe; or (2) an infiltrating mass in the main portal vein that was too long for reconstruction, identified at preoperative staging. RESULTS The median disease-free survival (DFS) durations of the neoadjuvant and non-neoadjuvant CCRT groups were 26.0 and 15.1 mo, respectively (P = 0.91). The median overall survival (OS) durations of the neoadjuvant and non-neoadjuvant CCRT groups were 32.9 and 27.1 mo, respectively (P = 0.26). The NACCRT group showed a downstaging tendency compared to the non-NACCRT group as compared with the tumor stage confirmed by histological examination after surgery and the tumor stage confirmed by imaging test at the time of diagnosis (P = 0.01). CONCLUSION NACCRT does not prolong DFS and OS in localized or locally advanced perihilar CCA. However, NACCRT may allow tumor downstaging and improve tumor resectability. PMID:28566890

  4. Urinary bisphenol A concentrations and early reproductive health outcomes among women undergoing IVF.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Shelley; Williams, Paige L; Missmer, Stacey A; Flaws, Jodi A; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Petrozza, John C; Wright, Diane; Hauser, Russ

    2012-12-01

    In women undergoing IVF, are urinary bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations associated with ovarian response and early reproductive outcomes, including oocyte maturation and fertilization, Day 3 embryo quality and blastocyst formation? Higher urinary BPA concentrations were found to be associated with decreased ovarian response, number of fertilized oocytes and decreased blastocyst formation. Experimental animal and in vitro studies have reported associations between BPA exposure and adverse reproductive outcomes. We previously reported an association between urinary BPA and decreased ovarian response [peak serum estradiol (E(2)) and oocyte count at the time of retrieval] in women undergoing IVF; however, there are limited human data on reproductive health outcomes, such as fertilization and embryo development. Prospective preconception cohort study. One hundred and seventy-four women aged 18-45 years and undergoing 237 IVF cycles were recruited at the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center, Boston, MA, USA, between November 2004 and August 2010. These women were followed until they either had a live birth or discontinued treatment. Cryothaw and donor egg cycles were not included in the analysis. Urinary BPA concentrations were measured by online solid-phase extraction-high-performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution-tandem mass spectrometry. Mixed effect models, poisson regression and multivariate logistic regression models were used wherever appropriate to evaluate the association between cycle-specific urinary BPA concentrations and measures of ovarian response, oocyte maturation (metaphase II), fertilization, embryo quality and cleavage rate. We accounted for correlation among multiple IVF cycles in the same woman using generalized estimating equations. The geometric mean (SD) for urinary BPA concentrations was 1.50 (2.22) µg/l. After adjustment for age and other potential confounders (Day 3 serum FSH, smoking, BMI), there was a significant linear

  5. Predictors and perception of pain in women undergoing first trimester surgical abortion.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rameet H; Ghanem, Khalil G; Burke, Anne E; Nichols, Mark D; Rogers, Kathy; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate pain and predictors of pain in women undergoing electric (EVA) or manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) for first trimester surgical abortions and to examine how perceptions of pain differ among participants, advocates (participant support person) and physicians. In this randomized controlled study, women presenting for first trimester abortion underwent standardized EVA or MVA. Participants completed questionnaires, visual analog scales (VAS) and Likert scales for pain. Logistic and linear regression models were used to analyze the data. Nonwhite women and women who preoperatively expected more pain reported higher procedure-related pain scores. Vacuum source, previous history of abortion, comfort with decision to have an abortion and partner involvement did not affect participant pain scores. In the multivariable analyses, no single factor predicted procedure-associated pain. The advocates perceived that more educated women had less pain. Physicians felt longer procedures and a woman's fear of pelvic examinations caused more pain. Physicians believed women had less pain than the participants reported themselves (p<.001). Only physicians thought that EVA was less painful than MVA (p<.01). Distinct factors other than vacuum source affect the perception of abortion-related pain. Understanding these factors may help inform counseling strategies aimed at ameliorating pain perception during first trimester abortions.

  6. The effect of G-CSF on infertile women undergoing IVF treatment: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Mo, Sien; Chen, Yang

    2017-08-01

    Evidence for the effect of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) on infertile women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) remains inconsistent. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of G-CSF on infertile women undergoing IVF. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched before August 2016. Comparing the transvaginal perfusion of G-CSF and placebo or no treatment, the available studies were considered. The pooled risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was used in the analysis and six studies were included. Transvaginal perfusion of G-CSF was significantly associated with a higher clinical pregnancy rate versus the placebo (RR=1.563, 95%CI: 1.122, 2.176), especially for the Asian population. Among patients with a thin endometrium or repeated IVF failure, the implantation and biochemical pregnancy rates were also significantly increased in patients with the use of G-CSF (implantation rate: RR = 1.887, 95% CI: 1.256, 2.833; biochemical pregnancy rate: RR = 2.385, 95% CI: 1.414, 4.023). However, no statistical significance in increasing endometrial thickness was detected. Transvaginal perfusion of G-CSF for infertile women may play a critical role in assisting human reproduction, especially for patients with a thin endometrium or repeated IVF failure in the Asian population.

  7. A Randomized Controlled Trial Provides Evidence to Support Aromatherapy to Minimize Anxiety in Women Undergoing Breast Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Trambert, Renee; Kowalski, Mildred Ortu; Wu, Betty; Mehta, Nimisha; Friedman, Paul

    2017-10-01

    Aromatherapy has been used to reduce anxiety in a variety of settings, but usefulness associated with breast biopsies has not been documented. This study was conducted in women undergoing image-guided breast biopsy. We explored the use of two different aromatherapy scents, compared to placebo, aimed at reducing anxiety with the intent of generating new knowledge. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled study of two different types of external aromatherapy tabs (lavender-sandalwood and orange-peppermint) compared with a matched placebo-control delivery system. Anxiety was self-reported before and after undergoing a breast biopsy using the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory Scale. Eighty-seven women participated in this study. There was a statistically significant reduction in self-reported anxiety with the use of the lavender-sandalwood aromatherapy tab compared with the placebo group (p = .032). Aromatherapy tabs reduced anxiety during image-guided breast biopsy. The completion of the biopsy provided some relief from anxiety in all groups. The use of aromatherapy tabs offers an evidence-based nursing intervention to improve adaptation and reduce anxiety for women undergoing breast biopsy. Lavender-sandalwood aromatherapy reduced anxiety and promoted adaptation more than orange-peppermint aromatherapy or placebo. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  8. Which outcomes do women expect to achieve after undergoing induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Nouhjah, Sedigheh; Zamani-Alavijeh, Fereshteh; Heydarabadi, Akbar Babaei; Hozaili, Maedeh

    2017-02-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the most important health problems in many countries. Because of legal and moral issues, abortion is one of the most sensitive decisions. The aim of this study was to understand women's expected gains from undergoing induced abortion. To explain the factors leading to induced abortion, we collected the stories and experiences of a total of 21 people, including 18 women who underwent induced abortion in their most recent pregnancies, two women's health providers, and a companion of a mother who died after an induced abortion. This qualitative study was conducted in Imam Khomeini and Razi hospital of Ahvaz and also a number of health centers, from February to September 2014. To collect the required data, we used open and semi-structured deep interviews. Content analysis method was used to analyze the data. Three major themes emerged from the analysis of the collected data, which included the following: 1) Expected favorable health-related outcomes, 2) Expected favorable economic outcomes, and 3. Expected favorable outcomes in social level and family relationships. The results of this study showed that the studied women, to achieve to desirable outcomes in areas of health, economic and social, have undergone induced abortion. Hence, to develop programs for the prevention of induced abortion it is necessary to consider the motivations of women to intentionally terminate a pregnancy.

  9. Cytokine Response to Subclinical Cytomegalovirus Reactivation as a Cause of Severe Fatigue in Women Undergoing Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    herpesvirus cytomegalovirus (CMV) might contribute to severe cancer treatment related fatigue (CTRF) in women undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer...reactivation of the latent herpesvirus CMV, which would stimulate inflammatory cytokines. We predicted that women harboring latent CMV (CMV positives) would

  10. Incidence of scalp metastases in breast cancer: a retrospective cohort study in women who were offered scalp cooling.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Julie; Amireault, Carl; Provencher, Louise; Maunsell, Elizabeth

    2009-12-01

    Scalp cooling is an intervention used to decrease the degree of chemotherapy-induced alopecia. The objective is to determine the incidence of scalp metastases among women with early breast cancer who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women with breast carcinoma diagnosed between June 1, 1998 and June 30, 2002. The median follow-up was 5.8 years (+/-1.7) for the scalp cooling group (n = 553) and 5.4 years (+/-1.7) for the non-scalp cooling group (n = 87). The incidence of scalp metastases was 1.1% (6 cases out of 553 patients) among women who used scalp cooling in the neoadjuvant or adjuvant setting and 1.2% also (1 case out of 87 patients) among women who did not use scalp cooling in the neoadjuvant or adjuvant setting. The incidence of scalp metastases was low and no case presented as an isolated site of relapse.

  11. The effect of aromatherapy on postoperative nausea in women undergoing surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Ferruggiari, Luisa; Ragione, Barbara; Rich, Ellen R; Lock, Kathleen

    2012-08-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common source of patient discomfort and decreased satisfaction. Aromatherapy has been identified as a complementary modality for the prevention and management of PONV. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of aromatherapy on the severity of postoperative nausea (PON) in women undergoing surgical procedures in the postanesthesia care unit. Women complaining of PON received traditional antiemetics, inhalation of peppermint oil, or saline vapor. A visual analog scale was used to rate nausea at the first complaint; at 5 minutes after intervention; and, if nausea persisted, at 10 minutes after intervention. At both 5 and 10 minutes, statistical analysis showed no significant differences between intervention and nausea rating. Obtaining eligible subjects was challenging. Although many women consented, most received intraoperative antiemetics and did not report nausea postoperatively. Copyright © 2012 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Does neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal cancer increase postoperative morbidity or mortality?

    PubMed

    Mungo, B; Molena, D; Stem, M; Yang, S C; Battafarano, R J; Brock, M V; Lidor, A O

    2015-10-01

    Neoadjuvant therapy has proven to be effective in the reduction of locoregional recurrence and mortality for esophageal cancer. However, induction treatment has been reported to be associated with increased risk of postoperative complications. We therefore compared outcomes after esophagectomy for esophageal cancer for patients who underwent neoadjuvant therapy and patients treated with surgery alone. Using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database (2005-2011), we identified 1939 patients who underwent esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Seven hundred and eight (36.5%) received neoadjuvant therapy, while 1231 (63.5%) received no neoadjuvant therapy within 90 days prior to surgery. Primary outcome was 30-day mortality, and secondary outcomes included overall and serious morbidity, length of stay, and operative time. Patients who underwent neoadjuvant treatment were younger (62.3 vs. 64.7, P < 0.001), were more likely to have experienced recent weight loss (29.4% vs. 15.9%, P < 0.001), and had worse preoperative hematological cell counts (white blood cells <4.5 or >11 × 10(9) /L: 29.3% vs. 15.0%, P < 0.001; hematocrit <36%: 49.7% vs. 30.0%, P < 0.001). On unadjusted analysis, 30-day mortality, overall, and serious morbidity were comparable between the two groups, with the exception of the individual complications of venous thromboembolic events and bleeding transfusion, which were significantly lower in the surgery-only patients (5.71% vs. 8.27%, P = 0.027; 6.89% vs. 10.57%, P = 0.004; respectively). Multivariable and matched analysis confirmed that 30-day mortality, overall, and serious morbidity, as well as prolonged length of stay, were comparable between the two groups of patients. An increasing trend of preoperative neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal cancer was observed through the study years (from 29.0% in 2005-2006 to 44.0% in 2011, P < 0.001). According to our analysis, preoperative neoadjuvant therapy for

  13. Screening Women Aged 50-59 for CRC Using Fecal Occult Blood Test Produces Outcomes Similar to Men Undergoing Screening Colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Mooers, Harrison M; Holub, Jennifer L; Lieberman, David A

    2018-06-13

    Average-risk women aged 50-59 years have a lower incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer relative to age-matched men, calling into question the benefit of screening colonoscopy in this age group. We aimed to determine whether FOBT is an effective initial screening test in 50-59-year-old women. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a computerized endoscopic report generator. We identified 320,906 individuals who had average-risk screening colonoscopy and 32,369 who had colonoscopy for positive FOBT. The primary outcome was the positive predictive value (PPV) of FOBT for large polyp(s) greater than 9 mm, as a surrogate for advanced neoplasia. Among patients aged 50-59 years undergoing screening colonoscopy, men were more likely than women to have large polyps (6.3 vs 4.2%, p < 0.0001). Black women undergoing screening colonoscopy had higher rates of large polyps compared to non-Black women. The PPV in FOBT-positive men aged 50-54 (11.5%) and 55-59 (14.4%) was higher than in women aged 50-54 (6.1%) and 55-59 (5.4%). Despite this lower PPV, women aged 50-54 with a positive FOBT had a similar rate of large polyps as 50-54-year-old men undergoing screening colonoscopy (6.1 vs 6.3%, p = 0.626). CRC screening with FOBT identifies 50-59-year-old men and women with a higher risk of large polyps. Since younger women have a lower risk of large polyps than men, screening with FOBT in 50-59-year-old non-Black women could be an effective screening strategy, with outcomes similar to the use of screening colonoscopy in 50-59-year-old men.

  14. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic neoadjuvant study of hedgehog pathway inhibitor Sonidegib (LDE-225) in men with high-risk localized prostate cancer undergoing prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Ross, Ashley E; Hughes, Robert M; Glavaris, Stephanie; Ghabili, Kamyar; He, Ping; Anders, Nicole M; Harb, Rana; Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Marchionni, Luigi; Schaeffer, Edward M; Partin, Alan W; Allaf, Mohamad E; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Chapman, Carolyn; O'Neal, Tanya; DeMarzo, Angelo M; Hurley, Paula J; Rudek, Michelle A; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S

    2017-11-28

    To determine the pharmacodynamic effects of Sonidegib (LDE-225) in prostate tumor tissue from men with high-risk localized prostate cancer, by comparing pre-surgical core-biopsy specimens to tumor tissue harvested post-treatment at prostatectomy. We conducted a prospective randomized (Sonidegib vs. observation) open-label translational clinical trial in men with high-risk localized prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients in each arm who achieved at least a two-fold reduction in GLI1 mRNA expression in post-treatment versus pre-treatment tumor tissue. Secondary endpoints included the effect of pre-surgical treatment with Sonidegib on disease progression following radical prostatectomy, and safety. Fourteen men were equally randomized (7 per arm) to either neoadjuvant Sonidegib or observation for 4 weeks prior to prostatectomy. Six of seven men (86%) in the Sonidegib arm (and none in the control group) achieved a GLI1 suppression of at least two-fold. In the Sonidegib arm, drug was detectable in plasma and in prostatic tissue; and median intra-patient GLI1 expression decreased by 63-fold, indicating potent suppression of Hedgehog signaling. Sonidegib was well tolerated, without any Grade 3-4 adverse events observed. Disease-free survival was comparable among the two arms (HR = 1.50, 95% CI 0.26-8.69, P = 0.65). Hedgehog pathway activity (as measured by GLI1 expression) was detectable at baseline in men with localized high-risk prostate cancer. Sonidegib penetrated into prostatic tissue and induced a >60-fold suppression of the Hedgehog pathway. The oncological benefit of Hedgehog pathway inhibition in prostate cancer remains unclear.

  15. The effect of endometrial injury on ongoing pregnancy rate in unselected subfertile women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Tracy Wing Yee; Chai, Joyce; Li, Raymond Hang Wun; Lee, Vivian Chi Yan; Ho, Pak Chung; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu

    2014-11-01

    Does endometrial injury in the cycle preceding ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF) improve the ongoing pregnancy rate in unselected subfertile women? Endometrial injury induced by endometrial aspiration in the preceding cycle does not improve the ongoing pregnancy rate in unselected subfertile women undergoing IVF. Implantation failure remains one of the major limiting factors for IVF success. Mechanical endometrial injury in the cycle preceding ovarian stimulation of IVF treatment has been shown to improve implantation and pregnancy rates in women with repeated implantation failures. There is limited data on unselected subfertile women, especially those undergoing their first IVF treatment. This randomized controlled trial recruited 300 unselected subfertile women scheduled for IVF/ICSI treatment between March 2011 and August 2013. Subjects were randomized into endometrial aspiration (EA) (n = 150) and non-EA (n = 150) groups according to a computer-generated randomization list. Subjects were recruited and randomized in the assisted reproductive unit at the University of Hong Kong. In the preceding cycle, women in the EA group underwent endometrial aspiration using a Pipelle catheter in mid-luteal phase. All women were treated with a cycle of IVF/ICSI. Pregnancy outcomes were compared. There were no significant differences in baseline or cycle characteristics between the groups. There were 209 subjects (69.7%) who were undergoing their first IVF cycle and 91 (30.3%) subjects who had repeated cycles. There was no significant difference in ongoing pregnancy rates [26.7% (40/150) versus 32.0% (48/150); RR 0.833 (95% CI 0.585-1.187), P = 0.375] in the EA and non-EA groups. The implantation rates [32.8% (67/204) versus 29.7% (68/229); RR 1.080 (95% CI 0.804-1.450), P = 0.120], clinical pregnancy rates [34.0% (51/150) versus 38.0 (57/150); RR 0.895 (95% CI 0.661-1.211), P = 0.548], miscarriage rates [30.3% (17/56) versus 18.6% (11/59), RR 1.628 (95% CI

  16. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and treatment outcomes of women undergoing assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Abadia, Laura; Gaskins, Audrey J; Chiu, Yu-Han; Williams, Paige L; Keller, Myra; Wright, Diane L; Souter, Irene; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2016-09-01

    Vitamin D deficiency impairs fertility in animal models, but the role of vitamin D in human fertility or treatment of infertility is less clear. We examined the association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations and the outcome in women undergoing assisted reproduction technologies (ARTs). We randomly selected 100 women undergoing infertility treatment with ART enrolled in an ongoing prospective cohort study who underwent 168 treatment cycles. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in samples collected from women between days 3 and 9 of gonadotropin treatment. Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate the association of 25(OH)D concentrations with ART outcomes while adjusting for potential confounders and accounting for repeated treatment cycles per woman. Median (range) serum 25(OH)D concentrations were 86.5 (33.5-155.5) nmol/L. Ninety-one percent of participants consumed multivitamins. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were positively related to fertilization rate. The adjusted fertilization rate for women in increasing quartiles of serum 25(OH)D were 0.62 (95% CI: 0.51, 0.72), 0.53 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.63), 0.67 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.76), and 0.73 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.80), respectively (P-trend = 0.03). This association persisted when analyses were restricted to women with serum 25(OH)D between 50 and 125 nmol/L when models were further adjusted for season of blood draw and when analyses were restricted to the first treatment cycle. However, 25(OH)D concentrations were unrelated to probability of pregnancy (P-trend = 0.83) or live birth after ART (P-trend = 0.47). Vitamin D may be associated with higher fertilization rates, but this apparent benefit does not translate into higher probability of pregnancy or live birth. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00011713. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Surgical Outcomes of Patients Undergoing Extrafascial Hysterectomy After Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy With or Without Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Endometrial Cancer Clinically Extending to the Cervix or Parametria.

    PubMed

    Boisen, Michelle M; Vargo, J Austin; Beriwal, Sushi; Sukumvanich, Paniti; Olawaiye, Alexander B; Kelley, Joseph L; Edwards, Robert P; Huang, Marilyn; Courtney-Brooks, Madeleine; Comerci, John T

    2017-07-01

    Recent data have shown high rates of clinical and pathologic responses to neoadjuvant radiation therapy for locally advanced endometrial cancer. There are limited data on the surgical outcomes of these patients in the era of modern radiation and surgical techniques. We sought to characterize surgical outcomes after extrafascial hysterectomy in this population. Patients with endometrial cancer of all histologies clinically involving the cervix or parametria treated with neoadjuvant brachytherapy followed by extrafascial hysterectomy from 1999 to 2014 were identified. Patient charts were reviewed for data regarding treatment characteristics and postoperative outcomes. Pearson χ and logistic regression analyses were used to assess correlations between surgical complications and treatment-related variables. Twenty-nine patients met inclusion criteria. Mean operating time for the cohort was 115 minutes. Mean estimated blood loss was 100 mL. No visceral injuries occurred. Mean length of hospital stay was 1 and 4 days for the minimally invasive and laparotomy groups, respectively. Rates of postoperative ileus, blood transfusion, wound infection, and readmission were 3%, 3%, 6%, and 3%, respectively. No case of prolonged urodynamic dysfunction was noted. The rate of vaginal complications was significantly higher in the group of patients who underwent minimally invasive surgery as compared with laparotomy (33% vs 5%, P < 0.041). These data support adjuvant extrafascial hysterectomy after neoadjuvant radiotherapy for endometrial cancer with cervical or parametrial involvement as a safe and viable procedure, with low rates of postoperative complications. Extra care should be taken when closing the vaginal cuff to reduce the risk of vaginal cuff complications.

  18. Interventions for preventing nausea and vomiting in women undergoing regional anaesthesia for caesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, James D; Gyte, Gillian ML; Paranjothy, Shantini; Brown, Heather C; Broughton, Hannah K; Thomas, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Background Nausea and vomiting are distressing symptoms which are experienced commonly during caesarean section under regional anaesthesia and can also occur in the period following the procedure. Objectives To assess the efficacy of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions given prophylactically to prevent nausea and vomiting in women undergoing regional anaesthesia for caesarean section. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (27 February 2012) and reference lists of identified studies. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and excluded quasi-RCTs and cross-over studies. Data collection and analysis Review authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. Data entry was checked. Main results Fifty-two studies met the inclusion criteria but only 41 studies, involving 5046 women, provided useable data for the review involving women having caesareans under regional anaesthesia. The majority of the studies involved women undergoing elective caesarean section. Only two studies included emergency surgery, however, they did not stratify data according to type of surgery. The studies covered numerous comparisons, but the majority of studies involved 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, dopamine receptor antagonists, corticosteroids or acupressure. Studies were mainly small and of unclear quality. Three classes of intervention were found to be effective in at least three out of four of our primary outcomes (intraoperative nausea, intraoperative vomiting, postoperative nausea and postoperative vomiting). These interventions were 5-HT3 antagonists, dopamine antagonists and sedatives. Other classes of intervention were effective for fewer than three of our primary outcomes. With 5-HT antagonists, we found a reduction in intraoperative nausea (average risk ratio (RR) 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 0.88, eight studies

  19. Evaluation of the Utility of Screening Mammography for High-Risk Women Undergoing Screening Breast MR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Lo, Glen; Scaranelo, Anabel M; Aboras, Hana; Ghai, Sandeep; Kulkarni, Supriya; Fleming, Rachel; Bukhanov, Karina; Crystal, Pavel

    2017-10-01

    Purpose To evaluate the value of mammography in detecting breast cancer in high-risk women undergoing screening breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods An ethics-approved, retrospective review of prospective databases was performed to identify outcomes of 3934 screening studies (1977 screening MR imaging examinations and 1957 screening mammograms) performed between January 2012 and July 2014 in 1249 high-risk women. Performance measures including recall and cancer detection rates, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values were calculated for both mammography and MR imaging. Results A total of 45 cancers (33 invasive and 12 ductal carcinomas in situ) were diagnosed, 43 were seen with MR imaging and 14 with both mammography and MR imaging. Additional tests (further imaging and/or biopsy) were recommended in 461 screening MR imaging studies (recall rate, 23.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21.5%, 25.2%), and mammography recalled 217 (recall rate, 11.1%; 95% CI: 9.7%, 12.6%). The cancer detection rate for MR imaging was 21.8 cancers per 1000 examinations (95% CI: 15.78, 29.19) and that for mammography was 7.2 cancers per 1000 examinations (95% CI: 3.92, 11.97; P < .001). Sensitivity and specificity of MR imaging were 96% and 78% respectively, and those of mammography were 31% and 89%, respectively (P < .001). Positive predictive value for MR imaging recalls was 9.3% (95% CI: 6.83%, 12.36%) and that for mammography recalls was 6.5% (95% CI: 3.57%, 10.59%). Conclusion Contemporaneous screening mammography did not have added value in detection of breast cancer for women who undergo screening MR imaging. Routine use of screening mammography in women undergoing screening breast MR imaging warrants reconsideration. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  20. The Role of Neoadjuvant Trials in Drug Development for Solid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Funt, Samuel A; Chapman, Paul B

    2016-05-15

    The relatively low success rate of phase II oncology trials in predicting success of novel drugs in phase III trials and in gaining regulatory approval may be due to reliance on the endpoint of response rate defined by the RECIST. The neoadjuvant treatment paradigm allows the antitumor activity of a novel therapy to be determined on a pathologic basis at the time of surgery instead of by RECIST, which was not developed to guide clinical decision making or correlate with long-term outcomes. Indeed, the FDA endorsed pathologic complete response (pCR) as a surrogate for overall survival (OS) in early-stage breast cancer and granted accelerated approval to pertuzumab based on this endpoint. We propose that pCR is a biologically rational method of determining treatment effect that may be more likely to predict OS. We discuss some advantages of the neoadjuvant trial design, review the use of neoadjuvant therapy as standards of care, and consider the neoadjuvant platform as a method for drug development. Clin Cancer Res; 22(10); 2323-8. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Assessment of hot flushes and vaginal dryness among obese women undergoing bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Goughnour, S L; Thurston, R C; Althouse, A D; Freese, K E; Edwards, R P; Hamad, G G; McCloskey, C; Ramanathan, R; Bovbjerg, D H; Linkov, F

    2016-01-01

    Menopausal symptoms are associated with a negative impact on the quality of life, leading women to seek medical treatment. Obesity has been linked to higher levels of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes. This assessment will explore whether the prevalence and bother of hot flushes and vaginal dryness change from pre- to post-bariatric surgery among obese midlife women. This study is a longitudinal analysis of data from 69 women (ages 35-72 years) undergoing bariatric surgery with reported reproductive histories and menopausal symptoms at preoperative and 6-month postoperative visits. Prevalence of and degree of bother of hot flushes and vaginal dryness at pre- and post-surgery were compared using McNemar's test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The reported degree of bother of symptoms associated with hot flushes decreased from pre- to post-surgery (p < 0.01). There was no significant change in the prevalence of hot flushes or vaginal dryness in the overall study sample. The degree of bother of symptoms associated with hot flushes among midlife women may decrease after bariatric surgery. These results highlight important secondary gains, including less bothersome menopausal symptoms, for women who choose bariatric surgery for weight loss.

  2. What is the role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, radiation, and adjuvant treatment in resectable esophageal cancer?

    PubMed

    Altorki, Nasser; Harrison, Sebron

    2017-03-01

    The majority of patients with operable esophageal cancers present with locally advanced disease, for which surgical resection as a sole treatment modality has been historically associated with poor survival. Even following radical resection, most of these patients will eventually succumb to their disease due to distant metastasis. For this reason, there has been intense interest in the role of neoadjuvant therapy. Neoadjuvant therapy primarily consists of either chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of the two. Multiple studies of variable scope, design, and patient characteristics have been conducted to determine whether neoadjuvant therapy is warranted, and-if so-what is the best modality of treatment. Despite nearly three decades of study, decisions regarding neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal cancer remain controversial. Regardless, the available evidence provided by large, prospective studies supports preoperative chemotherapy as opposed to surgery alone. Therefore, in our opinion, there is no longer any question as to whether induction therapy is appropriate for locally advanced esophageal cancer. Less clear, however, is the evidence that the addition of radiation to chemotherapy in the preoperative setting is superior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone. Our group generally advocates for neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone followed by radical esophageal resection. The data for adjuvant therapy are soft, and particularly troubling is the high rate of treatment drop out in trials studying adjuvant therapy. Therefore, we strongly prefer neoadjuvant chemotherapy and reserve adjuvant chemotherapy for those rare, highly selected patients-patients with T1 tumors, for example-who do not receive neoadjuvant treatment and are found to have occult nodal disease at the time of surgery.

  3. Preoperative risk assessment among women undergoing bilateral prophylactic mastectomy for cancer risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Rueth, Natasha M; McMahon, Melissa; Arrington, Amanda K; Swenson, Karen; Leach, Joseph; Tuttle, Todd M

    2011-09-01

    Cancer risk assessment is an important decision-making tool for women considering irreversible risk-reducing surgery. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of BRCA testing among women undergoing bilateral prophylactic mastectomy (BPM) and to review the characteristics of women who choose BPM within a metropolitan setting. We retrospectively reviewed records of women who underwent BPM in the absence of cancer within 2 health care systems that included 5 metropolitan hospitals. Women with invasive carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) were excluded; neither lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) nor atypical hyperplasia (AH) were exclusion criteria. We collected demographic information and preoperative screening and risk assessment, BRCA testing, reconstruction, and associated cancer risk-reducing surgery data. We compared women who underwent BRCA testing to those not tested. From January 2002 to July 2009, a total of 71 BPMs were performed. Only 25 women (35.2%) had preoperative BRCA testing; 88% had a BRCA mutation. Compared with tested women, BRCA nontested women were significantly older (39.1 vs. 49.2 years, P < 0.001), had significantly more preoperative biopsies and mammograms and had fewer previous or simultaneous cancer risk-reducing surgery (oophorectomy). Among BRCA nontested women, common indications for BPM were family history of breast cancer (n = 21, 45.6%) or LCIS or AH (n = 16, 34.8%); 9 nontested women (19.6%) chose BPM based on exclusively on cancer-risk anxiety or personal preference. Most women who underwent BPM did not receive preoperative genetic testing. Further studies are needed to corroborate our findings in other geographic regions and practice settings.

  4. Diffuse Optical Monitoring of the Neoadjuvant Breast Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Regine; Durduran, Turgut

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in the use of diffuse optical techniques for monitoring the hemodynamic, metabolic and physiological signatures of the neoadjuvant breast cancer therapy effectiveness is critically reviewed. An extensive discussion of the state-of-theart diffuse optical mammography is presented alongside a discussion of the current approaches to breast cancer therapies. Overall, the diffuse optics field is growing rapidly with a great deal of promise to fill an important niche in the current approaches to monitor, predict and personalize neoadjuvant breast cancer therapies. PMID:23243386

  5. Carbetocin versus oxytocin for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage in obese nulliparous women undergoing emergency cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    El Behery, Manal M; El Sayed, Gamal Abbas; El Hameed, Azza A Abd; Soliman, Badeea S; Abdelsalam, Walid A; Bahaa, Abeer

    2016-01-01

    To assess and compare the effectiveness and safety of single IV polus dose of carbetocin, versus IV oxytocin infusion in the prevention of PPH in obese nulliparous women undergoing emergency Cesarean Delivery. A double-blinded randomized-controlled trial was conducted on 180 pregnant women with BMI >30. Women were randomized to receive either oxytocin or carbetocin during C.S. The primary outcome measure was major primary PPH >1000 ml within 24 h of delivery as per the definition of PPH by the World Health Organization Secondary outcome measures were hemoglobin and hematocrit changes pre- and post-delivery, use of further ecobolics, uterine tone 2 and 12-h postpartum and adverse effects. A significant difference in the amount of estimated blood loss or the incidence of primary postpartum haemorrhage (>1000 ml) in both groups. Haemoglobin levels before and 24-h postpartum was similar. None from the carbetocin group versus 71.5% in oxytocin group needed additional utrotonics (p < 0.01). The uterine contractility was better in the carbetocin group at 2, and 12-h postpartum (p < 0.05). A single 100-µg IV carbetocin is more effective than IV oxytocin infusion for maintaining adequate uterine tone and preventing postpartum bleeding in obese nulliparous women undergoing emergency cesarean delivery, both has similar safety profile and minor hemodynamic effect.

  6. Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy: Changing the Treatment Sequence to Allow Immediate Free Autologous Breast Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Kimberley; Neoh, Derek

    2018-06-16

     Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) is traditionally treated with a multimodal approach of chemotherapy, surgery, and postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT). The advantages of immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) are well described and include improved aesthetic outcomes, fewer surgical procedures, shorter treatment period, and a higher quality of life. However, this sequence makes immediate free autologous reconstruction more challenging as PMRT can have deleterious and unpredictable effects on the flap. We have reversed this treatment sequence with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy, followed by mastectomy and immediate free autologous reconstruction. To our knowledge, this is the first series to assess the outcomes of neoadjuvant radiotherapy on immediate free microvascular breast reconstruction.  A review of patients with LABC who underwent immediate free autologous breast reconstruction post neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy between 2013 and 2017 was conducted. All reconstructions were performed by a single reconstructive team. The primary end points were flap failure and surgical complications. Secondary end points were pathological response rate and disease recurrence.  A total of 40 women with an average age of 48.1 (36-61) and average body mass index of 25.6 (18-37) were included. The most common choice of flap was immediate deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP, 31), followed by transverse or diagonal upper gracilis (5), muscle-sparing transversus abdominis (3), and stacked DIEP (1). Our major complication rate was 12.5% and minor complication 15%. There were no cases of local recurrence and only three cases (7.5%) of distant disease progression.  From our experience, this treatment sequence allows patients to have an immediate gold standard reconstruction without an increase in surgical morbidity. It affords the benefits of IBR without concern in delaying adjuvant therapy and appears to be safe from an oncological perspective. Thieme

  7. Use of Electric Power Morcellation and Prevalence of Underlying Cancer in Women Who Undergo Myomectomy.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jason D; Tergas, Ana I; Cui, Rosa; Burke, William M; Hou, June Y; Ananth, Cande V; Chen, Ling; Richards, Catherine; Neugut, Alfred I; Hershman, Dawn L

    2015-04-01

    Myomectomy, the excision of uterine leiomyoma, is now commonly performed via minimally invasive surgery. Electric power morcellation, or fragmentation of the leiomyoma with a mechanical device, may be used to facilitate extraction of the leiomyoma. To analyze the prevalence of underlying cancer and precancerous changes in women who underwent myomectomy with and without electric power uterine morcellation. We used a US nationwide database to retrospectively analyze women who underwent myomectomy at 496 hospitals from January 2006 to December 2012. Use of electric power morcellation at the time of myomectomy was investigated. The prevalence of uterine cancer, uterine neoplasms of uncertain malignant potential, and endometrial hyperplasia were estimated. Multivariable mixed-effects regression models were developed to examine predictors of use of electric power morcellation and factors associated with adverse pathologic outcomes. Use of electric power morcellation at the time of myomectomy was examined. The occurrence of uterine cancer and precancerous uterine lesions was determined. The cohort consisted of 41 777 women who underwent myomectomy at 496 hospitals and included 3220 (7.7%) who had electric power morcellation. Uterine cancer was identified in 73 (1 in 528) women who underwent myomectomy without electric power morcellation (0.19%; 95% CI, 0.15%-0.23%) and in 3 (1 in 1073) women who underwent electric power morcellation (0.09%; 95% CI, 0.02%-0.27%). The corresponding rates of any pathologic finding (cancer, tumors of uncertain malignant potential, or endometrial hyperplasia) were 0.67% (n = 257) (95% CI, 0.59%-0.75%) (1 in 150) and 0.43% (n = 14) (95% CI, 0.21%-0.66%) (1 in 230), respectively. Advanced age was the strongest risk factor for uterine cancer. The prevalence of cancers and precancerous abnormalities of the uterus in women who undergo myomectomy with or without electric power morcellation is low overall, but risk increases with age

  8. Biomarkers for Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kuremsky, Jeffrey G.; UNC Doris Duke Clinical Research Fellowship Program, Chapel Hill, NC; Tepper, Joel E.

    2009-07-01

    Locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) is currently treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Although approximately 45% of patients respond to neoadjuvant therapy with T-level downstaging, there is no effective method of predicting which patients will respond. Molecular biomarkers have been investigated for their ability to predict outcome in LARC treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. A literature search using PubMed resulted in the initial assessment of 1,204 articles. Articles addressing the ability of a biomarker to predict outcome for LARC treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation were included. Six biomarkers met the criteria for review: p53, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), thymidylatemore » synthase, Ki-67, p21, and bcl-2/bax. On the basis of composite data, p53 is unlikely to have utility as a predictor of response. Epidermal growth factor receptor has shown promise as a predictor when quantitatively evaluated in pretreatment biopsies or when EGFR polymorphisms are evaluated in germline DNA. Thymidylate synthase, when evaluated for polymorphisms in germline DNA, is promising as a predictive biomarker. Ki-67 and bcl-2 are not useful in predicting outcome. p21 needs to be further evaluated to determine its usefulness in predicting outcome. Bax requires more investigation to determine its usefulness. Epidermal growth factor receptor, thymidylate synthase, and p21 should be evaluated in larger prospective clinical trials for their ability to guide preoperative therapy choices in LARC.« less

  9. Utility of Adjuvant Chemotherapy After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation and Esophagectomy for Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Burt, Bryan M; Groth, Shawn S; Sada, Yvonne H; Farjah, Farhood; Cornwell, Lorraine; Sugarbaker, David J; Massarweh, Nader N

    2017-08-01

    To determine whether adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) after neoadjuvant chemoradiation and esophagectomy is associated with improved overall survival for patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer, and to evaluate how pathologic disease response to neoadjuvant treatment impacts this effect. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation is currently the preferred management approach for locoregional esophageal cancer. Although there is interest in the use of AC, the benefit of systemic therapy after neoadjuvant chemoradiation and esophagectomy is unclear. Retrospective cohort study of patients with esophageal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation and esophagectomy in the National Cancer Data Base (2006-2012). Among 3592 patients with esophageal cancer (84.7% adenocarcinoma, 15.2% squamous cell carcinoma), 335 (9.3%) were treated with AC. AC was not associated with a significantly lower risk of death among patients with no residual disease (ypT0N0) or residual non-nodal disease (ypT+N0). Among patients with residual nodal disease (ypTanyN+), AC was associated with a 30% lower risk of death in the overall cohort [hazard ratio (HR) 0.70, (0.57-0.85)] and among those with adenocarcinoma [HR 0.69 (0.57-0.85)]. Using a 90-day postoperative landmark, findings were similar. Among patients with postoperative length of stay ≤10 days and no unplanned readmission, AC was associated with approximately 40% lower risk of death among patients with residual nodal disease [overall cohort, HR 0.63 (0.48-0.84); adenocarcinoma, HR 0.66 (0.49-0.88)]. AC after neoadjuvant chemoradiation and esophagectomy is associated with improved survival in patients with residual nodal disease. Our findings suggest AC may provide additional benefit for esophageal cancer patients, and merits further investigation.

  10. Clinicopathologic Comparison of High-Dose-Rate Endorectal Brachytherapy versus Conventional Chemoradiotherapy in the Neoadjuvant Setting for Resectable Stages II and III Low Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jessica A.; Wild, Aaron T.; Singhi, Aatur; Raman, Siva P.; Qiu, Haoming; Kumar, Rachit; Hacker-Prietz, Amy; Hruban, Ralph H.; Kamel, Ihab R.; Efron, Jonathan; Wick, Elizabeth C.; Azad, Nilofer S.; Diaz, Luis A.; Le, Yi; Armour, Elwood P.; Gearhart, Susan L.; Herman, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To assess for differences in clinical, radiologic, and pathologic outcomes between patients with stage II-III rectal adenocarcinoma treated neoadjuvantly with conventional external beam radiotherapy (3D conformal radiotherapy (3DRT) or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)) versus high-dose-rate endorectal brachytherapy (EBT). Methods. Patients undergoing neoadjuvant EBT received 4 consecutive daily 6.5 Gy fractions without chemotherapy, while those undergoing 3DRT or IMRT received 28 daily 1.8 Gy fractions with concurrent 5-fluorouracil. Data was collected prospectively for 7 EBT patients and retrospectively for 25 historical 3DRT/IMRT controls. Results. Time to surgery was less for EBT compared to 3DRT and IMRT (P < 0.001). There was a trend towards higher rate of pathologic CR for EBT (P = 0.06). Rates of margin and lymph node positivity at resection were similar for all groups. Acute toxicity was less for EBT compared to 3DRT and IMRT (P = 0.025). Overall and progression-free survival were noninferior for EBT. On MRI, EBT achieved similar complete response rate and reduction in tumor volume as 3DRT and IMRT. Histopathologic comparison showed that EBT resulted in more localized treatment effects and fewer serosal adhesions. Conclusions. EBT offers several practical benefits over conventional radiotherapy techniques and appears to be at least as effective against low rectal cancer as measured by short-term outcomes. PMID:22830003

  11. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Facilitating Surgical Resection of Infantile Massive Intracranial Immature Teratoma.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, Takahiro; Tsuji, Yoshihito; Shirase, Tomoyuki; Yukawa, Hiroyuki; Takeichi, Yasuhiro; Yamazoe, Naohiro

    2016-04-01

    Immature teratoma (IMT) is the most frequent histological subtype of infantile intracranial teratoma, the most common congenital brain tumor. IMT contains incompletely differentiated components resembling fetal tissues. Infantile intracranial IMT has a dismal prognosis, because it is often inoperable due to its massive size and high vascularity. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been shown to be effective in decreasing tumor volume and vascularity to facilitate surgical resection in other types of infantile brain tumors. However, only one recent case report described the effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for infantile intracranial IMT in the literature, even though it is common entity with a poor prognosis in infants. Here, we describe the case of a 2-month-old male infant with a very large intracranial IMT. Maximal surgical resection was first attempted but was unsuccessful because of severe intraoperative hemorrhage. Neoadjuvant carboplatin and etoposide (CARE) chemotherapy was then administered with the aim of shrinking and devascularizing the tumor. After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, tumor size did not decrease, but intraoperative blood loss significantly decreased and near-total resection was achieved by the second and third surgery. The patient underwent adjuvant CARE chemotherapy and has been alive for 3 years after surgery without tumor regrowth. Even when neoadjuvant chemotherapy does not decrease tumor volume of infantile intracranial IMT, surgical resection should be tried because chemotherapy can facilitate surgical resection and improve clinical outcome by reducing tumor vascularity.

  12. Preoperative neo-adjuvant therapy for curable rectal cancer--reaching a consensus 2008.

    PubMed

    Scott, N A; Susnerwala, S; Gollins, S; Myint, A Sun; Levine, E

    2009-03-01

    Our aim was to determine the range of neo-adjuvant therapy the multidisciplinary team (MDT) currently offers patients with curable (M(0)) rectal cancer. A senior oncologist from each of the four oncology centres in north Wales and the north-west of England (approximate target population 8 million - Glan Clwyd, Clatterbridge, Christie and Preston) reviewed his/her understanding of the current evidence of neo-adjuvant therapy in rectal cancer. Then a representative from each centre was asked to identify which of three neo-adjuvant options (no neo-adjuvant therapy, short-course radiotherapy 25 Gy over five fractions and long-course chemoradiotherapy) he/she would use for a rectal cancer in the upper, middle or lower third of the rectum staged by magnetic resonance imaging as being T(2)-T(4) and/or N(0)-N(2). In all cases of locally advanced rectal cancer (T(3a) N(1)-T(4)), oncologists from the four oncology centres recommended long-course chemoradiotherapy before rectal resection. This consensus was maintained for cases of lower third T(3a) N(0) cancers. Thereafter, the majority of patients with rectal cancer are offered adjuvant short-course radiotherapy. Neo-adjuvant therapy is less likely to be offered if the tumour is early (T(2), N(0)) and/or situated in the upper third of the rectum.

  13. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in soft tissue sarcomas: latest evidence and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Pasquali, Sandro; Gronchi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are a rare and multifaceted group of solid tumours. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is increasingly used to limit loss of function after wide surgical excision with the ultimate aim of improving patient survival. Recently, advances in the identification of effective treatment strategies and improvements in patient risk stratification have been reached. A randomized trial demonstrated that neoadjuvant epirubicin and ifosfamide improves survival of patients affected by five high-risk soft tissue sarcoma histologies of trunk and extremities, including undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, myxoid liposarcoma, synovial sarcoma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours, and leiomyosarcoma. Selection of patients for these treatments is expected to be improved by the eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging system, as it tailors T-stage categories on primary tumour site and considers a prognostic nomogram for retroperitoneal sarcoma, which also includes soft tissue sarcoma histology and other patient and tumour features not directly included in the TNM staging. Within this framework, this article will present neoadjuvant treatment strategies for high-risk soft tissue sarcoma, emphasizing the most recent advances and discussing the need for further research to improve the effectiveness of neoadjuvant treatments. PMID:28607580

  14. Neoadjuvant therapy versus upfront surgical strategies in resectable pancreatic cancer: A Markov decision analysis.

    PubMed

    de Geus, S W L; Evans, D B; Bliss, L A; Eskander, M F; Smith, J K; Wolff, R A; Miksad, R A; Weinstein, M C; Tseng, J F

    2016-10-01

    Neoadjuvant therapy is gaining acceptance as a valid treatment option for borderline resectable pancreatic cancer; however, its value for clearly resectable pancreatic cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study was to use a Markov decision analysis model, in the absence of adequately powered randomized trials, to compare the life expectancy (LE) and quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) of neoadjuvant therapy to conventional upfront surgical strategies in resectable pancreatic cancer patients. A Markov decision model was created to compare two strategies: attempted pancreatic resection followed by adjuvant chemoradiotherapy and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by restaging with, if appropriate, attempted pancreatic resection. Data obtained through a comprehensive systematic search in PUBMED of the literature from 2000 to 2015 were used to estimate the probabilities used in the model. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Of the 786 potentially eligible studies identified, 22 studies met the inclusion criteria and were used to extract the probabilities used in the model. Base case analyses of the model showed a higher LE (32.2 vs. 26.7 months) and QALE (25.5 vs. 20.8 quality-adjusted life months) for patients in the neoadjuvant therapy arm compared to upfront surgery. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses for LE and QALE revealed that neoadjuvant therapy is favorable in 59% and 60% of the cases respectively. Although conceptual, these data suggest that neoadjuvant therapy offers substantial benefit in LE and QALE for resectable pancreatic cancer patients. These findings highlight the value of further prospective randomized trials comparing neoadjuvant therapy to conventional upfront surgical strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  15. A phase II study evaluating neo-/adjuvant EIA chemotherapy, surgical resection and radiotherapy in high-risk soft tissue sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Thomas; Lehner, Burkhard; Kasper, Bernd; Bischof, Marc; Roeder, Falk; Dietrich, Sascha; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia; Strauss, Ludwig G; Mechtersheimer, Gunhild; Wuchter, Patrick; Ho, Anthony D; Egerer, Gerlinde

    2011-12-07

    The role of chemotherapy in high-risk soft tissue sarcoma is controversial. Though many patients undergo initial curative resection, distant metastasis is a frequent event, resulting in 5-year overall survival rates of only 50-60%. Neo-adjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy (CTX) has been applied to achieve pre-operative cytoreduction, assess chemosensitivity, and to eliminate occult metastasis. Here we report on the results of our non-randomized phase II study on neo-adjuvant treatment for high-risk STS. Patients with potentially curative high-risk STS (size ≥ 5 cm, deep/extracompartimental localization, tumor grades II-III [FNCLCC]) were included. The protocol comprised 4 cycles of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (EIA, etoposide 125 mg/m(2) iv days 1 and 4, ifosfamide 1500 mg/m2 iv days 1 - 4, doxorubicin 50 mg/m(2) day 1, pegfilgrastim 6 mg sc day 5), definitive surgery with intra-operative radiotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy and 4 adjuvant cycles of EIA. Between 06/2005 and 03/2010 a total of 50 subjects (male = 33, female = 17, median age 50.1 years) were enrolled. Median follow-up was 30.5 months. The majority of primary tumors were located in the extremities or trunk (92%), 6% originated in the abdomen/retroperitoneum. Response by RECIST criteria to neo-adjuvant CTX was 6% CR (n = 3), 24% PR (n = 12), 62% SD (n = 31) and 8% PD (n = 4). Local recurrence occurred in 3 subjects (6%). Distant metastasis was observed in 12 patients (24%). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 2 years was 83% and 68%, respectively. Multivariate analysis failed to prove influence of resection status or grade of histological necrosis on OS or DFS. Severe toxicities included neutropenic fever (4/50), cardiac toxicity (2/50), and CNS toxicity (4/50) leading to CTX dose reductions in 4 subjects. No cases of secondary leukemias were observed so far. The current protocol is feasible for achieving local control rates, as well as OS and DFS comparable to previously published

  16. Resection after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced carcinoma of the gallbladder: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Veda Padma Priya; Zaidi, Shuaib; Pande, Pankaj; Goel, Ashish; Kumar, Kapil

    2015-03-01

    Although rare over most of the world, Gallbladder cancer is very common in northern india. A delayed presentation, aggressive nature,lack of randomised trials and a poor prognosis have all contributed to the nihilistic halo encircling gallbladder cancer. None of the advances in oncology have been exploited enough to shatter the nihilistic halo. In this background we sought to analyze if the addition of neoadjuvant chemotherapy had any impact on the resectability, overall and disease free survival in patients with advanced carcinoma of the gallbladder. We reviewed the records of all patients who underwent surgery for carcinoma of the gall bladder from 2004 to 2010 at our institute retrospectively. Twenty-one patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and subsequently taken up for surgery. Outcome analysis of these 21 patients were done by Kaplan meier method and graphs plotted. Out of the 21 patients who were taken up for surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, fourteen patients underwent R0 resection (Group 1). Seven patients had been rendered inoperable on exploration (Group 2). Thus about 66.67 % of patients deemed resectable after neoadjuvant chemotherapy on imaging underwent R0 resection. The mean overall survival of the group 1 was 42.8 months versus 6.6 months of group 2(Hazard Ratio: 3.42). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy improves resectability in some patients with unresectable gall bladder cancer. Resection after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is feasible and may improve survival in a select group of patients. However randomized studies are required to establish its definitive role.

  17. Prevalence of Poor Bone Quality in Women Undergoing Spinal Fusion Using Biomechanical-CT Analysis.

    PubMed

    Burch, Shane; Feldstein, Michael; Hoffmann, Paul F; Keaveny, Tony M

    2016-02-01

    Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of vertebral bone quality in spine-fusion patients at a single medical center. To characterize the prevalence of osteoporosis and fragile bone strength in a spine-fusion population of women with an age range of 50 years to 70 years. Fragile bone strength is defined as the level of vertebral strength below which a patient is at as high a risk of future vertebral fracture as a patient having bone density-defined osteoporosis. Poor bone quality--defined here as the presence of either osteoporosis or fragile bone strength--is a risk factor for spine-fusion patients that often goes undetected but can now be assessed preoperatively by additional postprocessing of computed tomography (CT) scans originally ordered for perioperative clinical assessment. Utilizing such perioperative CT scans for a cohort of 98 women (age range: 51-70 yr) about to undergo spine fusion, we retrospectively used a phantomless calibration technique and biomechanical-CT postprocessing analysis to measure vertebral trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) (in mg/cm³) and by nonlinear finite element analysis, vertebral compressive strength (in Newtons, N) in the L1 or L2 vertebra. Preestablished validated threshold values were used to define the presence of osteoporosis (trabecular BMD of 80 mg/cm³ or lower) and fragile bone strength (vertebral strength of 4500 N or lower). Fourteen percent of the women tested positive for osteoporosis, 27% tested positive for fragile bone strength, and 29% were classified as having poor bone quality (either osteoporosis or fragile bone strength). Over this narrow age range, neither BMD nor vertebral strength were significantly correlated with age, weight, height, or body mass index (P values 0.14-0.97 for BMD; 0.13-0.51 for strength). Poor bone quality appears to be common in women between ages 50 years and 70 years undergoing spinal fusion surgery. 3.

  18. Randomized trial using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist triptorelin for the preservation of ovarian function during (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Munster, Pamela N; Moore, Amy P; Ismail-Khan, Roohi; Cox, Charles E; Lacevic, Mensura; Gross-King, Margaret; Xu, Ping; Carter, W Bradford; Minton, Susan E

    2012-02-10

    Chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea is a serious concern for women undergoing cancer therapy. This prospective randomized trial evaluated the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog triptorelin to preserve ovarian function in women treated with chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Premenopausal women age 44 years or younger were randomly assigned to receive either triptorelin or no triptorelin during (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy and were further stratified by age (< 35, 35 to 39, > 39 years), estrogen receptor status, and chemotherapy regimen. Objectives included the resumption of menses and serial monitoring of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and inhibin A and B levels. Targeted for 124 patients with a planned 5-year follow-up, the trial was stopped for futility after 49 patients were enrolled (median age, 39 years; range, 21 to 43 years); 47 patients were treated according to assigned groups with four cycles of adriamycin plus cyclophosphamide alone or followed by four cycles of paclitaxel or six cycles of fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide. Menstruation resumed in 19 (90%) of 21 patients in the control group and in 23 (88%) of 26 in the triptorelin group (P= .36). Menses returned after a median of 5.8 months (range, 1 to 19 months) after completion of chemotherapy in the triptorelin versus 5.0 months (range, 0 to 28 months) in the control arm (P= .58). Two patients (age 26 and 35 years at random assignment) in the control group had spontaneous pregnancies with term deliveries. FSH and inhibin B levels correlated with menstrual status. When stratified for age, estrogen receptor status, and treatment regimen, amenorrhea rates on triptorelin were comparable to those seen in the control group.

  19. Survival After Neoadjuvant and Adjuvant Treatments Compared to Surgery Alone for Resectable Esophageal Carcinoma: A Network Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Sandro; Yim, Guang; Vohra, Ravinder S; Mocellin, Simone; Nyanhongo, Donald; Marriott, Paul; Geh, Ju Ian; Griffiths, Ewen A

    2017-03-01

    This network meta-analysis compared overall survival after neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy (CT), radiotherapy (RT), or combinations of both (chemoradiotherapy, CRT) or surgery alone to identify the most effective approach. The optimal treatment for resectable esophageal cancer is unknown. A search for randomized controlled trials reporting on neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies was conducted. Using a network meta-analysis, treatments were ranked based on their effectiveness for improving survival. In 33 eligible randomized controlled trials, 6072 patients were randomized to receive either surgery alone (N = 2459) or neoadjuvant CT (N = 1332), RT (N = 58), and CRT (N = 1196) followed by surgery or surgery followed by adjuvant CT (N = 542), RT (N = 383), and CRT (N = 102). Twenty-one comparisons were generated. Neoadjuvant CRT followed by surgery compared with surgery alone was the only treatment to significantly improve survival [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68-0.87]. When trials were grouped considering neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies and surgery alone, neoadjuvant therapies combined with surgery compared with surgery alone showed a survival advantage (HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.76-0.90), whereas surgery along with adjuvant therapies showed no significant survival advantage (HR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.67-1.14). A subgroup analysis of neoadjuvant therapies showed a superior effectiveness of neoadjuvant CRT and surgery compared with surgery alone (HR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.68-0.87). This network meta-analysis showed neoadjuvant CRT followed by surgery to be the most effective strategy in improving survival of resectable esophageal cancer. Resources should be focused on developing the most effective neoadjuvant CRT regimens for both adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus.

  20. Duodenal Bulb Adenocarcinoma Benefitted from Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Geng-Yuan; Mao, Jie; Zhao, Bin; Long, Bo; Zhan, Hao; Zhang, Jun-Qiang; Zhou, Hui-Nian; Guo, Ling-Yun; Jiao, Zuo-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Duodenal bulb adenocarcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy in the alimentary tract which has a low incidence rate and nonspecific symptoms. It is difficult to diagnose early, and the misdiagnosis rate is high. CT, MRI, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and other advanced imaging modalities should be combined to make a comprehensive evaluation. The diagnostic confirmation of this tumor type mainly depends on the pathological examination. The combination of surgery with other treatment modalities is effective. A review of reports on duodenal bulb adenocarcinoma with chemotherapy revealed 6 cases since 1990. However, there are few reports on neoadjuvant chemotherapy for the disease. In this report, preoperative S-1 in combination with oxaliplatin neoadjuvant chemotherapy achieved a complete pathological response in the treatment of duodenal bulb adenocarcinoma. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy shows a better clinical efficacy in the treatment of duodenal bulb adenocarcinoma, but its value needs to be further verified. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Esophageal cancer: outcomes of surgery, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and three-dimension conformal radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fréchette, Eric; Buck, David A; Kaplan, Brian J; Chung, Theodore D; Shaw, James E; Kachnic, Lisa A; Neifeld, James P

    2004-08-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation are being utilized with increasing frequency in the multimodal treatment of esophageal cancer, although their effects on morbidity, mortality, and survival remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the outcome of multimodal treatment in patients with localized esophageal cancer treated at a single institution. Between 1995 and 2002, 118 patients underwent treatment for localized esophageal cancer, utilizing surgery alone, chemoradiation alone, or surgery following neoadjuvant chemoradiation. There was no statistically significant difference in morbidity, mortality, or length of stay between the patients who received multimodal therapy when compared to surgery alone. A surgical resection after down-staging was possible in 9 out of 28 patients (32%) with a clinically non-resectable tumor (T4 or M1a). Forty-seven percent of the patients who received neoadjuvant therapy had a complete pathologic response with a 3-year survival of 59% as compared to only 20 months in those patients who did not achieve a complete response (P = 0.037). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy administered concomitantly with conformal radiotherapy can be performed safely in the treatment of esophageal cancer, without increasing the operative morbidity, mortality, or length of stay. The higher complete response rates to neoadjuvant treatment (as compared to other reports) may be due to the use of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy or the novel use of weekly carboplatin and paclitaxel. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. A polymorphism at the 3'-UTR region of the aromatase gene defines a subgroup of postmenopausal breast cancer patients with poor response to neoadjuvant letrozole

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Aromatase (CYP19A1) regulates estrogen biosynthesis. Polymorphisms in CYP19A1 have been related to the pathogenesis of breast cancer (BC). Inhibition of aromatase with letrozole constitutes the best option for treating estrogen-dependent BC in postmenopausal women. We evaluate a series of polymorphisms of CYP19A1 and their effect on response to neoadjuvant letrozole in early BC. Methods We analyzed 95 consecutive postmenopausal women with stage II-III ER/PgR [+] BC treated with neoadjuvant letrozole. Response to treatment was measured by radiology at 4th month by World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Three polymorphisms of CYP19A1, one in exon 7 (rs700519) and two in the 3'-UTR region (rs10046 and rs4646) were evaluated on DNA obtained from peripheral blood. Results Thirty-five women (36.8%) achieved a radiological response to letrozole. The histopathological and immunohistochemical parameters, including hormonal receptor status, were not associated with the response to letrozole. Only the genetic variants (AC/AA) of the rs4646 polymorphism were associated with poor response to letrozole (p = 0.03). Eighteen patients (18.9%) reported a progression of the disease. Those patients carrying the genetic variants (AC/AA) of rs4646 presented a lower progression-free survival than the patients homozygous for the reference variant (p = 0.0686). This effect was especially significant in the group of elderly patients not operated after letrozole induction (p = 0.009). Conclusions Our study reveals that the rs4646 polymorphism identifies a subgroup of stage II-III ER/PgR [+] BC patients with poor response to neoadjuvant letrozole and poor prognosis. Testing for the rs4646 polymorphism could be a useful tool in order to orientate the treatment in elderly BC patients. PMID:20144226

  3. Obstetric outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and isolated polycystic ovaries undergoing in vitro fertilization: a retrospective cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Wan, Hei Lok Tiffany; Hui, Pui Wah; Li, Hang Wun Raymond; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu

    2015-03-01

    This retrospective cohort study evaluated the obstetric outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and isolated polycystic ovaries (PCO) undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. We studied 104 women with PCOS, 184 with PCO and 576 age-matched controls undergoing the first IVF treatment cycle between 2002 and 2009. Obstetric outcomes and complications including gestational diabetes (GDM), gestational hypertension (GHT), gestational proteinuric hypertension (PET), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), gestation at delivery, baby's Apgar scores and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were reviewed. Among the 864 patients undergoing IVF treatment, there were 253 live births in total (25 live births in the PCOS group, 54 in the PCO group and 174 in the control group). The prevalence of obstetric complications (GDM, GHT, PET and IUGR) and the obstetric outcomes (gestation at delivery, birth weight, Apgar scores and NICU admissions) were comparable among the three groups. Adjustments for age and multiple pregnancies were made using multiple logistic regression and we found no statistically significant difference among the three groups. Patients with PCO ± PCOS do not have more adverse obstetric outcomes when compared with non-PCO patients undergoing IVF treatment.

  4. The prevalence of occult endometrial cancer in women undergoing hysterectomy for benign indications.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Lavanya H Palavalli; Pedersen, Rebecca; Richardson, Debra L; Kho, Kimberly A

    2018-04-01

    To estimate the frequency of occult endometrial cancer in women undergoing hysterectomy for benign indications. We performed a retrospective review of all patients undergoing hysterectomies for benign indications at our institution from 2006 to 2014. A departmental database was used to identify all hysterectomies performed, and institutional tumor registry was used to identify cases of endometrial carcinoma. Occult carcinomas were defined as cases with no suspicion preoperatively and histopathologic diagnosis of endometrial cancer postoperatively. A total of 6981 hysterectomies were performed for benign indications. Among these, thirteen patients (0.19%) were found to have occult endometrial cancer, with an overall rate of 1 in 537 patients (95% confidence interval 1:314-1:1008). Twelve patients had stage IA and one had stage IB disease. Median age of women found to have endometrial cancer was 50 years (range 35-72 years). The median BMI was 29.8 kg/m 2 (range 21.3-50.4 kg/m 2 ). The most common indications for hysterectomy were abnormal bleeding (47%), postmenopausal bleeding (15%), adnexal mass (15%), prolapse (15%), and endometrial hyperplasia without atypia (8%). Of the postmenopausal women that had bleeding, all patients underwent evaluation of the endometrium, however 75% of samples did not have adequate amount of endometrium to be evaluated and 25% were found to have hyperplasia. This is one of the largest single institution cohorts to examine occult malignancy. Unexpected endometrial carcinomas were found to occur in 0.19% or 1:537 (95% confidence interval 1:314-1:1008) hysterectomies for benign indications in our population. PRéCIS: Occult endometrial carcinomas are found to occur in 1:537 (0.19%) hysterectomies for benign indications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Phase I study of neoadjuvant accelerated short course radiation therapy with photons and capecitabine for resectable pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Wo, Jennifer Y; Mamon, Harvey J; Ferrone, Cristina R; Ryan, David P; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S; Kwak, Eunice L; Tseng, Yolanda D; Napolitano, Brian N; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Swanson, Richard S; Lillemoe, Keith D; Fernandez-del Castillo, Carlos; Hong, Theodore S

    2014-01-01

    In this phase I study, we sought to determine the feasibility and tolerability of neoadjuvant short course radiotherapy (SC-CRT) delivered with photon RT with concurrent capecitabine for resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Ten patients with localized, resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma were enrolled from December 2009 to August 2011. In dose level I, patients received 3 Gy × 10. In dose level 2, patients received 5 Gy × 5 (every other day). In dose level 3, patients received 5 Gy × 5 (consecutive days). Capecitabine was given during weeks 1 and 2. Surgery was performed 1-3 weeks after completion of chemotherapy. With an intended accrual of 12 patients, the study was closed early due to unexpected intraoperative complications. Compared to the companion phase I proton study, patients treated with photons had increased intraoperative RT fibrosis reported by surgeons (27% vs. 63%). Among those undergoing a Whipple resection, increased RT fibrosis translated to an increased mean OR time of 69 min. Dosimetric comparison revealed significantly increased low dose exposure to organs at risk for patients treated with photon RT. This phase I experience evaluating the tolerability of neoadjuvant SC-CRT with photon RT closed early due to unexpected intraoperative complications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Addition of zoledronic acid to neoadjuvant chemotherapy does not enhance tumor response in patients with HER2-negative stage II/III breast cancer: the NEOZOTAC trial (BOOG 2010-01).

    PubMed

    Charehbili, A; van de Ven, S; Smit, V T H B M; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, E; Hamdy, N A T; Putter, H; Heijns, J B; van Warmerdam, L J C; Kessels, L; Dercksen, M; Pepels, M J; Maartense, E; van Laarhoven, H W M; Vriens, B; Wasser, M N; van Leeuwen-Stok, A E; Liefers, G J; van de Velde, C J H; Nortier, J W R; Kroep, J R

    2014-05-01

    The role of zoledronic acid (ZA) when added to the neoadjuvant treatment of breast cancer (BC) in enhancing the clinical and pathological response of tumors is unclear. The effect of ZA on the antitumor effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy has not prospectively been studied before. NEOZOTAC is a national, multicenter, randomized study comparing the efficacy of TAC (docetaxel, adriamycin and cyclophosphamide i.v.) followed by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on day 2 with or without ZA 4 mg i.v. q 3 weeks inpatients withstage II/III, HER2-negative BC. We present data on the pathological complete response (pCR in breast and axilla), on clinical response using MRI, and toxicity. Post hoc subgroup analyses were undertaken to address the predictive value of menopausal status. Addition of ZA to chemotherapy did not improve pCR rates (13.2% for TAC+ZA versus 13.3% for TAC). Postmenopausal women (N = 96) had a numerical benefit from ZA treatment (pCR 14.0% for TAC+ZA versus 8.7% for TAC, P = 0.42). Clinical objective response did not differ between treatment arms (72.9% versus 73.7%). There was no difference in grade III/IV toxicity between treatment arms. Addition of ZA to neoadjuvant chemotherapy did not improve pathological or clinical response to chemotherapy. Further investigations are warranted in postmenopausal women with BC, since this subgroup might benefit from ZA treatment.

  7. Attitudes of women of advanced maternal age undergoing invasive prenatal diagnosis and the impact of genetic counselling

    PubMed Central

    Godino, Lea; Pompilii, Eva; D'Anna, Federica; Morselli-Labate, Antonio M; Nardi, Elena; Seri, Marco; Rizzo, Nicola; Pilu, Gianluigi; Turchetti, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing availability and effectiveness of non-invasive screening for foetal aneuploidies, most women of advanced maternal age (AMA) still opt for invasive tests. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was performed on women of AMA undergoing prenatal invasive procedures, in order to explore their motivations and the outcome of preliminary genetic counselling according to the approach (individual or group) adopted. Of 687 eligible women, 221 (32.2%) participated: 117 had received individual counselling, while 104 had attended group sessions. The two groups did not differ by socio-demographic features. The commonest reported reason to undergo invasive tests was AMA itself (67.4%), while only 10.4% of women mentioned the opportunity of making informed choices. The majority perceived as clear and helpful the information received at counselling, and only 12.7% had doubts left that, however, often concerned non-pertinent issues. The impact of counselling on risk perception and decisions was limited: a minority stated their perceived risk of foetal abnormalities had either increased (6.8%) or reduced (3.6%), and only one eventually declined invasive test. The 52.6% of women expressed a preference toward individual counselling, which also had a stronger impact on perceived risk reduction (P=0.003). Nevertheless, group counselling had a more favourable impact on both clarity of understanding and helpfulness (P=0.0497 and P=0.035, respectively). The idea that AMA represents an absolute indication for invasive tests appears deeply rooted; promotion of non-invasive techniques may require extensive educational efforts targeted to both the general population and health professionals. PMID:26014424

  8. Relief of dysphagia during neoadjuvant treatment for cancer of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction.

    PubMed

    Sunde, B; Ericson, J; Kumagai, K; Lundell, L; Tsai, J A; Lindblad, M; Rouvelas, I; Friesland, S; Wang, N; Nilsson, M

    2016-07-01

    Dysphagia is the main symptom of cancer of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction and causing nutritional problems and weight loss, often counteracted by insertion of self-expandable metal stents or nutrition via an enteral route. Clinical observations indicate that neoadjuvant therapy may effectively and promptly alleviate dysphagia, making such nutrition supportive interventions redundant before surgical resection. The objective of the current study was to carefully study the effects of induction neoadjuvant therapy on dysphagia and its subsequent course and thereby investigate the actual need for alimentary gateways for nutritional support. Thirty-five consecutive patients scheduled for neoadjuvant therapy were recruited and assessed regarding dysphagia and appetite at baseline, after the first cycle of preoperative treatment with either chemotherapy alone or with chemoradiotherapy and before surgery. Platinum-based therapy in combination with 5-fluorouracil was administered intravenously days 1-5 every 3 weeks and consisted of three treatments. Patients receiving combined chemoradiotherapy started radiotherapy on day one of second chemotherapy cycle. They received fractions of 2 Gy/day each up to a total dose of 40 Gy. Watson and Ogilvie dysphagia scores were used to assess dysphagia, while appetite was assessed by the Edmonton Assessment System Visual analogue scale-appetite questionnaire. Patients were evaluated at regular outpatient clinic visits or by telephone. The histological tumor response in the surgical specimen was assessed using the Chirieac scale. Ten patients scheduled for neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 25 patients scheduled for chemoradiotherapy were included in the analysis. There was a significant improvement in dysphagia in both treatment groups, according to both scales, already from baseline to the completion of the first chemotherapy cycle which remained to the end of the neoadjuvant treatment (P < 0.001). Appetite also improved

  9. Neoadjuvant denosumab for the treatment of a sacral osteoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Jeremy J; Rothenfluh, Dominique A; Athanasou, Nick; Wilson, Shaun; Kieser, David C

    2018-01-22

    To present a case of aggressive sacral osteoblastoma (OB) treated with neoadjuvant denosumab therapy and en bloc resection. Case report of a 14-year-old male with an aggressive OB affecting the superior articular process of the left first sacral segment. The lesion was lytic and metabolically active and involved the left-sided posterior elements of S1-S3 with extension into the spinal canal, affecting the left S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5 nerve roots. He was treated for 1 month with neoadjuvant denosumab followed by en bloc resection. Denosumab therapy caused regression of the tumour and converted the diffuse infiltrative mass into a well-defined solid (osteoma-like) structure, aiding surgical resection and preserving the S1, S4 and S5 nerve roots. Histologically, the treated lesion showed abundant sclerotic woven bone and osteoblasts with absence of osteoclasts. A short course of denosumab caused tumour regression, ossification and conversion of an aggressive OB into a sclerotic, well-defined lesion thus aiding surgical resection and preservation of neural structures. Neoadjuvant therapy reduced osteoclast numbers but PET showed that the lesion remained FDG avid post-therapy.

  10. The Impact of Number of Cycles of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy on Survival of Patients Undergoing Interval Debulking Surgery for Stage IIIC-IV Unresectable Ovarian Cancer: Results From a Multi-Institutional Study.

    PubMed

    Bogani, Giorgio; Matteucci, Laura; Tamberi, Stefano; Arcangeli, Valentina; Ditto, Antonino; Maltese, Giuseppa; Signorelli, Mauro; Martinelli, Fabio; Chiappa, Valentina; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Perotto, Stefania; Scaffa, Cono; Comerci, Giuseppe; Stefanetti, Marco; Raspagliesi, Francesco; Lorusso, Domenica

    2017-11-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by interval debulking surgery (IDS) may be a valuable treatment option in advanced ovarian cancer when primary cytoreduction is not feasible. However, a consensus on the ideal number of NACT cycles is still lacking. In the present investigation, we aimed to evaluate how number of cycles of NACT influenced patients' outcomes. Data of consecutive patients undergoing NACT and IDS were retrospectively reviewed in 4 Italian centers, and survival outcomes were evaluated. Overall, 193 patients were included. Cycles of NACT were 3, 4, and at least 5 in 77 (40%), 74 (38%), and 43 (22%) patients, respectively. Patients undergoing 3 cycles experienced a similar disease-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89-1.65; P = 0.20) but an improved overall survival (HR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.05-2.4; P = 0.02) in comparison to patients receiving at least 4 cycles. Five-year overall survival was 46% and 31% for patients having 3 and at least 4 cycles. Ten-year overall survival was 26% and 18% for patients having 3 and at least 4 cycles (HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.13-2.55; P = 0.009). Using multivariate analysis, we observed that only Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status correlated with overall survival (HR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.2-2.49; P = 0.001). In addition, a trend toward worse overall survival was observed for patients with residual disease at IDS (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.98-1.70; P = 0.06) and patients receiving at least 4 cycles (HR, 1.76; 95% CI, 0.95-3.22; P = 0.06). Our data underline the potential implication of number of cycles of NACT before IDS. Further prospective studies are warranted to assess this correlation.

  11. DNA Repair Biomarkers Predict Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy in Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Brian M., E-mail: bmalexander@lroc.harvard.edu; Wang Xiaozhe; Niemierko, Andrzej

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: The addition of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy prior to surgical resection for esophageal cancer has improved clinical outcomes in some trials. Pathologic complete response (pCR) following neoadjuvant therapy is associated with better clinical outcome in these patients, but only 22% to 40% of patients achieve pCR. Because both chemotherapy and radiotherapy act by inducing DNA damage, we analyzed proteins selected from multiple DNA repair pathways, using quantitative immunohistochemistry coupled with a digital pathology platform, as possible biomarkers of treatment response and clinical outcome. Methods and Materials: We identified 79 patients diagnosed with esophageal cancer between October 1994 and September 2002, withmore » biopsy tissue available, who underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy prior to surgery at the Massachusetts General Hospital and used their archived, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsy samples to create tissue microarrays (TMA). TMA sections were stained using antibodies against proteins in various DNA repair pathways including XPF, FANCD2, PAR, MLH1, PARP1, and phosphorylated MAPKAP kinase 2 (pMK2). Stained TMA slides were evaluated using machine-based image analysis, and scoring incorporated both the intensity and the quantity of positive tumor nuclei. Biomarker scores and clinical data were assessed for correlations with clinical outcome. Results: Higher scores for MLH1 (p = 0.018) and lower scores for FANCD2 (p = 0.037) were associated with pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation on multivariable analysis. Staining of MLH1, PARP1, XPF, and PAR was associated with recurrence-free survival, and staining of PARP1 and FANCD2 was associated with overall survival on multivariable analysis. Conclusions: DNA repair proteins analyzed by immunohistochemistry may be useful as predictive markers for response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in patients with esophageal cancer. These results are hypothesis generating and need

  12. NEOadjuvant therapy monitoring with PET and CT in Esophageal Cancer (NEOPEC-trial)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Surgical resection is the preferred treatment of potentially curable esophageal cancer. To improve long term patient outcome, many institutes apply neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. In a large proportion of patients no response to chemoradiotherapy is achieved. These patients suffer from toxic and ineffective neoadjuvant treatment, while appropriate surgical therapy is delayed. For this reason a diagnostic test that allows for accurate prediction of tumor response early during chemoradiotherapy is of crucial importance. CT-scan and endoscopic ultrasound have limited accuracy in predicting histopathologic tumor response. Data suggest that metabolic changes in tumor tissue as measured by FDG-PET predict response better. This study aims to compare FDG-PET and CT-scan for the early prediction of non-response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients with potentially curable esophageal cancer. Methods/design Prognostic accuracy study, embedded in a randomized multicenter Dutch trial comparing neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for 5 weeks followed by surgery versus surgery alone for esophageal cancer. This prognostic accuracy study is performed only in the neoadjuvant arm of the randomized trial. In 6 centers, 150 consecutive patients will be included over a 3 year period. FDG-PET and CT-scan will be performed before and 2 weeks after the start of the chemoradiotherapy. All patients complete the 5 weeks regimen of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, regardless the test results. Pathological examination of the surgical resection specimen will be used as reference standard. Responders are defined as patients with < 10% viable residual tumor cells (Mandard-score). Difference in accuracy (area under ROC curve) and negative predictive value between FDG-PET and CT-scan are primary endpoints. Furthermore, an economic evaluation will be performed, comparing survival and costs associated with the use of FDG-PET (or CT-scan) to predict tumor response with survival and costs of

  13. Ki67 Proliferation Index as a Tool for Chemotherapy Decisions During and After Neoadjuvant Aromatase Inhibitor Treatment of Breast Cancer: Results From the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1031 Trial (Alliance).

    PubMed

    Ellis, Matthew J; Suman, Vera J; Hoog, Jeremy; Goncalves, Rodrigo; Sanati, Souzan; Creighton, Chad J; DeSchryver, Katherine; Crouch, Erika; Brink, Amy; Watson, Mark; Luo, Jingqin; Tao, Yu; Barnes, Michael; Dowsett, Mitchell; Budd, G Thomas; Winer, Eric; Silverman, Paula; Esserman, Laura; Carey, Lisa; Ma, Cynthia X; Unzeitig, Gary; Pluard, Timothy; Whitworth, Pat; Babiera, Gildy; Guenther, J Michael; Dayao, Zoneddy; Ota, David; Leitch, Marilyn; Olson, John A; Allred, D Craig; Hunt, Kelly

    2017-04-01

    Purpose To determine the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate in estrogen receptor (ER) -positive primary breast cancer triaged to chemotherapy when the protein encoded by the MKI67 gene (Ki67) level was > 10% after 2 to 4 weeks of neoadjuvant aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy. A second objective was to examine risk of relapse using the Ki67-based Preoperative Endocrine Prognostic Index (PEPI). Methods The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z1031A trial enrolled postmenopausal women with stage II or III ER-positive (Allred score, 6 to 8) breast cancer whose treatment was randomly assigned to neoadjuvant AI therapy with anastrozole, exemestane, or letrozole. For the trial ACOSOG Z1031B, the protocol was amended to include a tumor Ki67 determination after 2 to 4 weeks of AI. If the Ki67 was > 10%, patients were switched to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A pCR rate of > 20% was the predefined efficacy threshold. In patients who completed neoadjuvant AI, stratified Cox modeling was used to assess whether time to recurrence differed by PEPI = 0 score (T1 or T2, N0, Ki67 < 2.7%, ER Allred > 2) versus PEPI > 0 disease. Results Only two of the 35 patients in ACOSOG Z1031B who were switched to neoadjuvant chemotherapy experienced a pCR (5.7%; 95% CI, 0.7% to 19.1%). After 5.5 years of median follow-up, four (3.7%) of the 109 patients with a PEPI = 0 score relapsed versus 49 (14.4%) of 341 of patients with PEPI > 0 (recurrence hazard ratio [PEPI = 0 v PEPI > 0], 0.27; P = .014; 95% CI, 0.092 to 0.764). Conclusion Chemotherapy efficacy was lower than expected in ER-positive tumors exhibiting AI-resistant proliferation. The optimal therapy for these patients should be further investigated. For patients with PEPI = 0 disease, the relapse risk over 5 years was only 3.6% without chemotherapy, supporting the study of adjuvant endocrine monotherapy in this group. These Ki67 and PEPI triage approaches are being definitively studied in the ALTERNATE trial (Alternate

  14. Pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic nervous system responses to psychiatric disorders in women undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment.

    PubMed

    An, Yuan; Wang, Zhuoran; Ji, Hongping; Zhang, Yajuan; Wu, Kun

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate whether psychological variables as well as changes in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) at baseline and in response to a psychosocial stressor affect the chance of achieving pregnancy in women undergoing a first in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle. Prospective study. Private IVF center. 264 women undergoing IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. Oocyte retrieval after ovarian stimulation. Standardized psychological questionnaires to assess anxiety and depression, and norepinephrine and cortisol in serum or follicular fluid measured by specific assays. Only a trend increase was found in psychological scores during treatment, which did not affect the ongoing pregnancy rates. On the oocyte retrieval day, a statistically significant increase in norepinephrine and cortisol concentrations was found. Lower concentrations of norepinephrine and cortisol, both in serum and follicular fluid, were found in women whose treatments were successful. Concentrations of steroid in serum before treatment and in follicular fluid were positively associated with the State Anxiety scores. Norepinephrine and cortisol concentrations may negatively influence the clinical pregnancy rate in IVF treatment. These biological stress markers could be one of the links in the complex relationship between psychosocial stress and outcome after IVF-ICSI. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Defining a reference range for vital signs in healthy term pregnant women undergoing caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Dennis, A; Hardy, L

    2016-11-01

    Early warning systems (EWS), used to identify deteriorating hospitalised patients, are based on measurement of vital signs. When the patients are pregnant, most EWS still use non-pregnant reference ranges of vital signs to determine trigger thresholds. There are no published reference ranges for all vital signs in pregnancy. We aimed to define vital signs reference ranges for term pregnancy in the preoperative period, and to determine the appropriateness of EWS trigger criteria in pregnancy. We conducted a one-year retrospective study in a tertiary referral obstetric hospital. The study sample was healthy term women undergoing planned caesarean section (CS). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) and temperature were all measured automatically and data was extracted from the medical record. Two hundred and fifty-eight women met inclusion criteria. Results were (mean ± SD [standard deviation]) SBP 118 ± 11.2 mmHg, DBP 75 ± 10.3 mmHg, HR 84 ± 10.2 /minute, respiratory rate 18 ± 1.5 /minute, SpO 2 99%  ± 1.0% and temperature 36.4°C ± 0.43°C. The reference ranges (mean ± 2SD) determined were SBP 96-140 mmHg, DBP 54-96 mmHg, HR 64-104/minute, RR 15-21 /minute, SpO 2 97%-100% and temperature 35.5°C-37.3°C. This study defined a reference range for vital signs in healthy term pregnant women undergoing CS. Study findings suggest that currently used criteria for EWS triggers, based on non-pregnant values, may be too extreme for timely detection of deteriorating pregnant patients. Further research examining the modified HR triggers of ≤50 and ≥110 /minute in pregnant women and their relationship to clinical outcomes is required.

  16. Pharmacogenetics Biomarkers and Their Specific Role in Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy Treatments: An Exploratory Study on Rectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dreussi, Eva; Cecchin, Erika; Polesel, Jerry; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; Agostini, Marco; Boso, Caterina; Belluco, Claudio; Buonadonna, Angela; Lonardi, Sara; Bergamo, Francesca; Gagno, Sara; De Mattia, Elena; Pucciarelli, Salvatore; De Paoli, Antonino; Toffoli, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) is still ascribed to a minority of patients. A pathway based-approach could highlight the predictive role of germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The primary aim of this study was to define new predictive biomarkers considering treatment specificities. Secondary aim was to determine new potential predictive biomarkers independent from radiotherapy (RT) dosage and cotreatment with oxaliplatin. Methods: Thirty germ-line SNPs in twenty-one genes were selected according to a pathway-based approach. Genetic analyses were performed on 280 LARC patients who underwent fluoropyrimidine-based CRT. The potential predictive role of these SNPs in determining pathological tumor response was tested in Group 1 (94 patients undergoing also oxaliplatin), Group 2 (73 patients treated with high RT dosage), Group 3 (113 patients treated with standard RT dosage), and in the pooled population (280 patients). Results: Nine new predictive biomarkers were identified in the three groups. The most promising one was rs3136228-MSH6 (p = 0.004) arising from Group 3. In the pooled population, rs1801133-MTHFR showed only a trend (p = 0.073). Conclusion: This exploratory study highlighted new potential predictive biomarkers of neoadjuvant CRT and underlined the importance to strictly define treatment peculiarities in pharmacogenetic analyses. PMID:27608007

  17. Potential adverse effects of prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy on skin aging in premenopausal women undergoing hysterectomy for benign conditions.

    PubMed

    Töz, Emrah; Özcan, Aykut; Balsak, Deniz; Avc, Muhittin Eftal; Eraslan, Arzu Görgülü; Balc, Didem Didar

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO)--compared with the effects of hysterectomy alone--on skin aging in premenopausal women undergoing hysterectomy for benign conditions. One hundred thirty-five premenopausal women who underwent hysterectomy with BSO were compared with a control group of women who underwent hysterectomy alone based on skin parameters (including wrinkling, laxity/sagging, and texture/dryness) and Skindex-29 questionnaire scores. The inclusion criteria were as follows: aged between 40 and 50 years, follicle-stimulating hormone level lower than 40 mIU/mL, undergoing hysterectomy with or without BSO for benign conditions, and not receiving estrogen or progesterone treatment. The exclusion criteria were as follows: adrenocortical hyperplasia or Cushing's syndrome; use of corticosteroids for autoimmune diseases; malignancy, connective tissue diseases (eg, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome), or dermatological diseases (eg, lichen sclerosus); or regular use of medications known to interfere with the condition of the skin. All skin parameters in the hysterectomy group and the hysterectomy with BSO group worsened on weeks 24 and 48. Laxity/sagging and texture/dryness scores on weeks 24 and 48 were significantly worse in the BSO group; laxity/sagging and texture/dryness scores continued to worsen between 24 and 48 weeks. Scores for the Skindex-29 questionnaire emotion and symptom subscales were significantly higher in the BSO group compared with the non-BSO group. Prophylactic BSO during hysterectomy is a significant independent risk factor for worsening skin laxity/sagging and texture/dryness in premenopausal women undergoing hysterectomy for benign conditions. Prophylactic BSO in the presence of dermatological conditions is also associated with reduced quality of life.

  18. Risk Behavior and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Transgender Women and Men Undergoing Community-Based Screening for Acute and Early HIV Infection in San Diego.

    PubMed

    Green, Nella; Hoenigl, Martin; Morris, Sheldon; Little, Susan J

    2015-10-01

    The transgender community represents an understudied population in the literature. The objective of this study was to compare risk behavior, and HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates between transgender women and transgender men undergoing community-based HIV testing.With this retrospective analysis of a cohort study, we characterize HIV infection rates as well as reported risk behaviors and reported STI in 151 individual transgender women and 30 individual transgender men undergoing community based, voluntary screening for acute and early HIV infection (AEH) in San Diego, California between April 2008 and July 2014.HIV positivity rate was low for both, transgender women and transgender men undergoing AEH screening (2% and 3%, respectively), and the self-reported STI rate for the prior 12 months was 13% for both. Although transgender women appeared to engage in higher rates of risk behavior overall, with 69% engaged in condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI) and 11% engaged in sex work, it is important to note that 91% of transgender women reported recent sexual intercourse, 73% had more than 1 sexual partner, 63% reported intercourse with males, 37% intercourse with males and females, and 30% had CRAI.Our results indicate that in some settings rates of HIV infection, as well as rates of reported STIs and sexual risk behavior in transgender men may resemble those found in transgender women. Our findings support the need for comprehensive HIV prevention in both, transgender women and men.

  19. Women undergoing aortic surgery are at higher risk for unplanned readmissions compared with men especially when discharged home.

    PubMed

    Flink, Benjamin J; Long, Chandler A; Duwayri, Yazan; Brewster, Luke P; Veeraswamy, Ravi; Gallagher, Katherine; Arya, Shipra

    2016-06-01

    Women undergoing vascular surgery have higher morbidity and mortality. Our study explores gender-based differences in patient-centered outcomes such as readmission, length of stay (LOS), and discharge destination (home vs nonhome facility) in aortic aneurysm surgery. Patients were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database (2011-2013) undergoing abdominal, thoracic, and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (N = 17,763), who were discharged and survived their index hospitalization. The primary outcome was unplanned readmission, and secondary outcomes were discharge to a nonhome facility, LOS, and reasons for unplanned readmission. Univariate, multivariate, and stratified analyses based on gender and discharge destination were used. Overall, 1541 patients (8.7%) experienced an unplanned readmission, with a significantly higher risk in women vs men (10.8% vs 8%; P < .001) overall (Procedure subtypes: abdominal aortic aneurysm [10.1% vs 7.7%; P < .001], thoracic aortic aneurysm [14.1% vs 13.5%; P = .8], and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm [14.8% vs 10%; P = .051]). The higher odds of readmission in women compared with men persisted in multivariate analysis after controlling for covariates (odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.4). Similarly, the rate of discharge to a nonhome facility was nearly double in women compared with men (20.6% vs 10.7%; P < .001), but discharge to a nonhome facility was not a significant predictor of unplanned readmission. Upon stratification by discharge destination, the higher odds of readmissions in women compared with men occurred in patients who were discharged home (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.02-1.4) but not in those who were discharged to a nonhome facility (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.8-1.4). Significant differences in LOS were seen in patients who were discharged home. No gender differences were found in reasons for readmission with the three most common reasons

  20. A systematic review of the effectiveness of warming interventions for women undergoing cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Munday, Judy; Hines, Sonia; Wallace, Karen; Chang, Anne M; Gibbons, Kristen; Yates, Patsy

    2014-12-01

    Women undergoing cesarean section are vulnerable to adverse effects associated with inadvertent perioperative hypothermia, but there has been a lack of synthesized evidence for temperature management in this population. This systematic review aimed to synthesize the best available evidence in relation to preventing hypothermia in mothers undergoing cesarean section surgery. Randomized controlled trials meeting the inclusion criteria (adult patients of any ethnic background, with or without comorbidities, undergoing any mode of anesthesia for any type of cesarean section) were eligible for consideration. Active or passive warming interventions versus usual care or placebo, aiming to limit or manage core heat loss in women undergoing cesarean section were considered. The primary outcome was maternal core temperature. A comprehensive search with no language restrictions was undertaken of multiple databases from their inception until May 2012. Two independent reviewers using the standardized critical appraisal instrument for randomized controlled trials from the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instruments (JBI-MASTARI) assessed retrieved papers for methodological quality and conducted data collection. Where possible, results were combined in a fixed effects meta-analysis using the Cochrane Collaboration Review Manager software. Due to heterogeneity for one outcome, random effects meta-analysis was also used. A combined total of 719 participants from 12 studies were included. Intravenous fluid warming was found to be effective at maintaining maternal temperature and preventing shivering. Warming devices, including forced air warming and under-body carbon polymer mattresses, were effective at preventing hypothermia. However, effectiveness increased if the devices were applied preoperatively. Preoperative warming devices reduced shivering and improved neonatal temperatures at birth. Intravenous fluid warming did not improve

  1. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy and pathological complete response in rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Linda; Fichera, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The management of rectal cancer has evolved significantly in the last few decades. Significant improvements in local disease control were achieved in the 1990s, with the introduction of total mesorectal excision and neoadjuvant radiotherapy. Level 1 evidence has shown that, with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) the rates of local recurrence can be lower than 6% and, as a result, neoadjuvant CRT currently represents the accepted standard of care. This approach has led to reliable tumor down-staging, with 15–27% patients with a pathological complete response (pCR)—defined as no residual cancer found on histological examination of the specimen. Patients who achieve pCR after CRT have better long-term outcomes, less risk of developing local or distal recurrence and improved survival. For all these reasons, sphincter-preserving procedures or organ-preserving options have been suggested, such as local excision of residual tumor or the omission of surgery altogether. Although local recurrence rate has been stable at 5–6% with this multidisciplinary management method, distal recurrence rates for locally-advanced rectal cancers remain in excess of 25% and represent the main cause of death in these patients. For this reason, more recent trials have been looking at the administration of full-dose systemic chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant setting (in order to offer early treatment of disseminated micrometastases, thus improving control of systemic disease) and selective use of radiotherapy only in non-responders or for low rectal tumors smaller than 5 cm. PMID:26290512

  2. Factors associated with reduction in use of neoadjuvant androgen suppression therapy before radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Matthew J; Jarosek, Stephanie L; Virnig, Beth A; Konety, Badrinath R; Elliott, Sean P

    2013-04-01

    To determine whether the prescribing patterns for nonindicated androgen suppression therapy (AST), using neoadjuvant AST as the model, changed according to the prevailing clinical evidence, changes in reimbursement, or evidence of increased harm from treatment. We identified 34,976 men with prostate cancer who had undergone radical prostatectomy within 12 months of diagnosis from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare data set (1992-2007), and their clinical and demographic parameters were assessed. We measured the Medicare claims for receipt of AST before radical prostatectomy and calculated the annual rates of neoadjuvant AST, which were adjusted for confounding variables using multivariate logistic regression analysis, and compared them with the prevailing published clinical data on the outcomes of neoadjuvant AST, changes in reimbursement, or published data on clinical harm from treatment. The use of neoadjuvant AST increased from 7.8% in 1992 to a peak of 17.6% in 1996 and then decreased steadily to 4.6% in 2007. This rate change was significant on multivariate regression analysis, with a single join point in 1996 (P <.001), and corresponded to published data showing improved surgical margin rates and pathologic downstaging in the early 1990s and data showing no improvement in disease recurrence or overall survival beginning in 1997. Changes in reimbursement and evidence of harm from AST were not associated with the decreased use of neoadjuvant AST. Using neoadjuvant AST as the model for the nonindicated use of AST, physicians reduced AST use in response to high-level evidence showing a lack of benefit, despite the high reimbursement. This suggests that physicians adapt to emerging evidence and use evidence-based practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Randomized Trial Using Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Triptorelin for the Preservation of Ovarian Function During (Neo)Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Munster, Pamela N.; Moore, Amy P.; Ismail-Khan, Roohi; Cox, Charles E.; Lacevic, Mensura; Gross-King, Margaret; Xu, Ping; Carter, W. Bradford; Minton, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea is a serious concern for women undergoing cancer therapy. This prospective randomized trial evaluated the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog triptorelin to preserve ovarian function in women treated with chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Patients and Methods Premenopausal women age 44 years or younger were randomly assigned to receive either triptorelin or no triptorelin during (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy and were further stratified by age (< 35, 35 to 39, > 39 years), estrogen receptor status, and chemotherapy regimen. Objectives included the resumption of menses and serial monitoring of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and inhibin A and B levels. Results Targeted for 124 patients with a planned 5-year follow-up, the trial was stopped for futility after 49 patients were enrolled (median age, 39 years; range, 21 to 43 years); 47 patients were treated according to assigned groups with four cycles of adriamycin plus cyclophosphamide alone or followed by four cycles of paclitaxel or six cycles of fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide. Menstruation resumed in 19 (90%) of 21 patients in the control group and in 23 (88%) of 26 in the triptorelin group (P= .36). Menses returned after a median of 5.8 months (range, 1 to 19 months) after completion of chemotherapy in the triptorelin versus 5.0 months (range, 0 to 28 months) in the control arm (P= .58). Two patients (age 26 and 35 years at random assignment) in the control group had spontaneous pregnancies with term deliveries. FSH and inhibin B levels correlated with menstrual status. Conclusion When stratified for age, estrogen receptor status, and treatment regimen, amenorrhea rates on triptorelin were comparable to those seen in the control group. PMID:22231041

  4. Which outcomes do women expect to achieve after undergoing induced abortion

    PubMed Central

    Nouhjah, Sedigheh; Zamani-Alavijeh, Fereshteh; Heydarabadi, Akbar Babaei; Hozaili, Maedeh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Unsafe abortion is one of the most important health problems in many countries. Because of legal and moral issues, abortion is one of the most sensitive decisions. The aim of this study was to understand women’s expected gains from undergoing induced abortion. Methods To explain the factors leading to induced abortion, we collected the stories and experiences of a total of 21 people, including 18 women who underwent induced abortion in their most recent pregnancies, two women’s health providers, and a companion of a mother who died after an induced abortion. This qualitative study was conducted in Imam Khomeini and Razi hospital of Ahvaz and also a number of health centers, from February to September 2014. To collect the required data, we used open and semi-structured deep interviews. Content analysis method was used to analyze the data. Results Three major themes emerged from the analysis of the collected data, which included the following: 1) Expected favorable health-related outcomes, 2) Expected favorable economic outcomes, and 3. Expected favorable outcomes in social level and family relationships. Conclusion The results of this study showed that the studied women, to achieve to desirable outcomes in areas of health, economic and social, have undergone induced abortion. Hence, to develop programs for the prevention of induced abortion it is necessary to consider the motivations of women to intentionally terminate a pregnancy. PMID:28465801

  5. Interval Between Surgery and Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy for Distal Rectal Cancer: Does Delayed Surgery Have an Impact on Outcome?

    SciTech Connect

    Habr-Gama, Angelita; Perez, Rodrigo Oliva; Proscurshim, Igor

    Background: The optimal interval between neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) and surgery in the treatment of patients with distal rectal cancer is controversial. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether this interval has an impact on survival. Methods and Materials: Patients who underwent surgery after CRT were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with a sustained complete clinical response (cCR) 1 year after CRT were excluded from this study. Clinical and pathologic characteristics and overall and disease-free survival were compared between patients undergoing surgery 12 weeks or less from CRT and patients undergoing surgery longer than 12 weeks from CRT completion andmore » between patients with a surgery delay caused by a suspected cCR and those with a delay for other reasons. Results: Two hundred fifty patients underwent surgery, and 48.4% had CRT-to-surgery intervals of 12 weeks or less. There were no statistical differences in overall survival (86% vs. 81.6%) or disease-free survival rates (56.5% and 58.9%) between patients according to interval ({<=}12 vs. >12 weeks). Patients with intervals of 12 weeks or less had significantly higher rates of Stage III disease (34% vs. 20%; p = 0.009). The delay in surgery was caused by a suspected cCR in 23 patients (interval, 48 {+-} 10.3 weeks). Five-year overall and disease-free survival rates for this subset were 84.9% and 51.6%, not significantly different compared with the remaining group (84%; p = 0.96 and 57.8%; p = 0.76, respectively). Conclusions: Delay in surgery for the evaluation of tumor response after neoadjuvant CRT is safe and does not negatively affect survival. These results support the hypothesis that shorter intervals may interrupt ongoing tumor necrosis.« less

  6. Histologic parameters predictive of disease outcome in women with advanced stage ovarian carcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Samrao, Damanzoopinder; Wang, Dan; Ough, Faith; Lin, Yvonne G; Liu, Song; Menesses, Teodulo; Yessaian, Annie; Turner, Nicole; Pejovic, Tanja; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette

    2012-12-01

    The use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by tumor reduction surgery, also called interval debulking surgery (IDS), is considered an alternative therapeutic regimen for selected patients with advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Although minimal residual disease has been proven to be a prognostic factor in traditional cytoreduction for advanced stage EOC, predictive factors after IDS still remain unexplored. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of post-neoadjuvant histologic changes with clinical outcome. Three pathologists evaluated 67 cases for the following parameters: fibrosis, necrosis, residual tumor, and inflammation. The Cohen's kappa statistic was used to measure agreement among pathologists. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the association between histologic parameters and recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). There was substantial to almost perfect agreement among the three pathologists in all four histologic parameters (k ranged from 0.65 to 0.97). Fibrosis was associated with longer RFS (P = 0.0257) with a median of 20 months for tumors with fibrosis (3+) versus 12 months for tumors with fibrosis (1+, 2+) and longer OS (P = 0.0249) with a median of 51 months for tumors with fibrosis (3+) versus 32 months for tumors with fibrosis (1+, 2+). Our results revealed that patients with tumors exhibiting fibrosis (1+, 2+), as well as necrosis (0, 1+), had significant shorter RFS and OS (P = 0.059 and P = 0.0234, respectively). We suggest that the assessment of fibrosis and necrosis should be implemented in pathologic evaluation and prospectively validated in future studies.

  7. Patterns of Local-Regional Management Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer: Results From ACOSOG Z1071 (Alliance)

    SciTech Connect

    Haffty, Bruce G., E-mail: hafftybg@cinj.rutgers.edu; McCall, Linda M.; Ballman, Karla V.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1071 was a prospective trial evaluating the false negative rate of sentinel lymph node (SLN) surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in breast cancer patients with initial node-positive disease. Radiation therapy (RT) decisions were made at the discretion of treating physicians, providing an opportunity to evaluate variability in practice patterns following NAC. Methods and Materials: Of 756 patients enrolled from July 2009 to June 2011, 685 met all eligibility requirements. Surgical approach, RT, and radiation field design were analyzed based on presenting clinical and pathologic factors. Results: Of 401 node-positive patients, mastectomy was performed inmore » 148 (36.9%), mastectomy with immediate reconstruction in 107 (26.7%), and breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in 146 patients (36.4%). Of the 284 pathologically node-negative patients, mastectomy was performed in 84 (29.6%), mastectomy with immediate reconstruction in 69 (24.3%), and BCS in 131 patients (46.1%). Bilateral mastectomy rates were higher in women undergoing reconstruction than in those without (66.5% vs 32.2%, respectively, P<.0001). Use of internal mammary RT was low (7.8%-11.2%) and did not differ between surgical approaches. Supraclavicular RT rate ranged from 46.6% to 52.2% and did not differ between surgical approaches but was omitted in 193 or 408 node-positive patients (47.3%). Rate of axillary RT was more frequent in patients who remained node-positive (P=.002). However, 22% of patients who converted to node-negative still received axillary RT. Post-mastectomy RT was more frequently omitted after reconstruction than mastectomy (23.9% vs 12.1%, respectively, P=.002) and was omitted in 19 of 107 patients (17.8%) with residual node-positive disease in the reconstruction group. Conclusions: Most clinically node-positive patients treated with NAC undergoing mastectomy receive RT. RT is less common in patients undergoing reconstruction

  8. Prognostic role of initial pan-endoscopic tumor length at diagnosis in operable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma undergoing esophagectomy with or without neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chen-Sung; Liu, Chao-Yu; Cheng, Chih-Tao; Tsai, Yu-Chen; Chiou, Lun-Wei; Lee, Ming-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to appraise the prognostic role of initial pan-endoscopic tumor length at diagnosis within or between operable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) undergoing upfront esophagectomy or neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (nCCRT) followed by esophagectomy. Methods Between Jan 2001 and Dec 2013 in Koo-Foundation Sun Yat-sen Cancer Center in Taiwan, 101 ESCC patients who underwent upfront esophagectomy (surgery group) and 128 nCCRT followed by esophagectomy (nCCRT-surgery group) were retrospectively collected. Prognostic variables, including initial pan-endoscopic tumor length at diagnosis (sub-grouped ≤3, 3–5 and >5 cm), status of circumferential resection margin (CRM), and pathological T/N/M-status and cancer stage, were appraised within or between surgery and nCCRT-surgery groups. Results Within surgery group, longer initial pan-endoscopic tumor length at diagnosis (≤3, 3–5 and >5 cm; HR =1.000, 1.688 and 4.165; P=0.007) was an independent prognostic factor that correlated with advanced T/N/M-status, late cancer stage, and CRM invasion (all’s P<0.001). Based on the initial pan-endoscopic tumor length at diagnosis ≤3, 3–5 and >5 cm, nCCRT-surgery group had a poorer (P=0.039), similar (P=0.447) and better (P<0.001) survivals than did surgery group, respectively. For those with initial pan-endoscopic tumor length at diagnosis >5 cm, nCCRT-surgery group had more percentage of T0/N0-status and stage 0 (all’s P<0.05), and fewer rate of CRM invasion (P=0.036) than did surgery group. Conclusions Initial pan-endoscopic tumor length at diagnosis could be a criterion to select proper ESCC cases for nCCRT followed by esophagectomy to improve survival and reduce CRM invasion. PMID:29221296

  9. Neoadjuvant plus adjuvant bevacizumab in early breast cancer (NSABP B-40 [NRG Oncology]): secondary outcomes of a phase 3, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bear, Harry D; Tang, Gong; Rastogi, Priya; Geyer, Charles E; Liu, Qing; Robidoux, André; Baez-Diaz, Luis; Brufsky, Adam M; Mehta, Rita S; Fehrenbacher, Louis; Young, James A; Senecal, Francis M; Gaur, Rakesh; Margolese, Richard G; Adams, Paul T; Gross, Howard M; Costantino, Joseph P; Paik, Soonmyung; Swain, Sandra M; Mamounas, Eleftherios P; Wolmark, Norman

    2015-09-01

    NSABP B-40 was a 3 × 2 factorial trial testing whether adding capecitabine or gemcitabine to docetaxel followed by doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide neoadjuvant chemotherapy would improve outcomes in women with operable, HER2-negative breast cancer and whether adding neoadjuvant plus adjuvant bevacizumab to neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens would also improve outcomes. As reported previously, addition of neoadjuvant bevacizumab increased the proportion of patients achieving a pathological complete response, which was the primary endpoint. We present secondary patient outcomes, including disease-free survival, a specified endpoint by protocol, and data for distant recurrence-free interval, and overall survival, which were not prespecified endpoints but were collected prospectively. In this randomised controlled trial (NSABP B-40), we enrolled women aged 18 years or older, with operable, HER2-non-amplified invasive adenocarcinoma of the breast, 2 cm or greater in diameter by palpation, clinical stage T1c-3, cN0, cN1, or cN2a, without metastatic disease and diagnosed by core needle biopsy. Patients received one of three docetaxel-based neoadjuvant regimens for four cycles: docetaxel alone (100 mg/m(2)) with addition of capecitabine (825 mg/m(2) oral twice daily days 1-14, 75 mg/m(2) docetaxel) or with addition of gemcitabine (1000 mg/m(2) days 1 and 8 intravenously, 75 mg/m(2) docetaxel), all followed by neoadjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (60 mg/m(2) and 600 mg/m(2) intravenously) every 3 weeks for four cycles. Those randomly assigned to bevacizumab groups were to receive bevacizumab (15 mg/kg, every 3 weeks for six cycles) with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and postoperatively for ten doses. Randomisation was done (1:1:1:1:1:1) via a biased-coin minimisation procedure to balance the characteristics with respect to clinical nodal status, clinical tumour size, hormone receptor status, and age. Intent-to-treat analyses were done for disease-free survival and

  10. Efficacy of assessing circulating cell-free DNA using a simple fluorescence assay in patients with triple-negative breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kwonoh; Woo, Miyoung; Kim, Jeong Eun; Ahn, Jin-Hee; Jung, Kyung Hae; Roh, Jin; Gong, Gyungyub; Kim, Sung-Bae

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to assess cell-free DNA (CFD) by a fluorescence assay as a biomarker for early prediction of a pathologic complete response (pCR) and relapse in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Patients with clinical stage II or III TNBC scheduled for neoadjuvant chemotherapy were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent four cycles of Adriamycin plus cyclophosphamide (AC), followed by four cycles of cisplatin or docetaxel chemotherapy and surgery. Blood samples were obtained before the initial chemotherapy (baseline-CFD) and after four AC neoadjuvant chemotherapy cycles (AC-CFD) to evaluate CFD levels. In total, 72 patients who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled. The mean baseline-CFD and AC-CFD levels were 239 ± 68 and 210 ± 66 ng/mL, respectively, with a significant decline in the CFD levels after AC neoadjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.001). In the 33.6-month median follow-up, 18 cases of relapse were reported. A ROC curve analysis of baseline-CFD was performed to determine the predictive value for relapse, and an area under the curve of 0.62 (95% CI, 0.46–0.78) at 264 ng/mL was obtained. Patients with baseline-CFD >264 ng/mL were at a higher risk of relapse than those with baseline-CFD ≤264 ng/mL (HR, 2.84; 95% CI, 1.11–7.24; P = 0.029). Multivariate analysis established baseline-CFD as an independent predicting factor for relapse (HR, 3.74; 95% CI, 1.32–10.53; P = 0.013). In conclusion, baseline-CFD measured by a fluorescence assay might be a potential biomarker to predict relapse, which could be useful for risk stratification of TNBC. PMID:29423090

  11. Individualized threshold for tumor segmentation in 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging: The key for response evaluation of neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy in patients with rectal cancer?

    PubMed

    Fagundes, Theara C; Mafra, Arnoldo; Silva, Rodrigo G; Castro, Ana C G; Silva, Luciana C; Aguiar, Priscilla T; Silva, Josiane A; P Junior, Eduardo; Machado, Alexei M; Mamede, Marcelo

    2018-02-01

    The standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer (RC) consists of neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by radical surgery. Regardless the extensive use of SUVmax in 18F-FDG PET tumor uptake as representation of tumor glycolytic consumption, there is a trend to apply metabolic volume instead. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate a noninvasive method for tumor segmentation using the 18F-FDG PET imaging in order to predict response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy in patients with rectal cancer. The sample consisted of stage II and III rectal cancer patients undergoing 18F-FDG PET/CT examination before and eight weeks after neoadjuvant therapy. An individualized tumor segmentation methodology was applied to generate tumor volumes (SUV2SD) and compare with standard SUVmax and fixed threshold (SUV40%, SUV50% and SUV60%) pre- and post-therapy. Therapeutic response was assessed in the resected specimens using Dworak's protocol recommendations. Several variables were generated and compared with the histopathological results. Seventeen (17) patients were included and analyzed. Significant differences were observed between responders (Dworak 3 and 4) and non-responders for SUVmax-2 (p<0.01), SUV2SD-2 (p<0.05), SUV40%-2 (p<0.05), SUV50%-2 (p<0.05) and SUV60%-2 (p<0.05). ROC analyses showed significant areas under the curve (p<0.01) for the proposed methodology with sensitivity and specificity varying from 60% to 83% and 73% to 82%, respectively. The present study confirmed the predictive power of the variables using a noninvasive individualized methodology for tumor segmentation based on 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging for response evaluation in patients with rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy.

  12. Associated factors with mammographic changes in women undergoing breast cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Sant'Ana, Ricardo Soares de; Mattos, Jacó Saraiva de Castro; Silva, Anderson Soares da; Mello, Luanes Marques de; Nunes, Altacílio Aparecido

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate association of sociodemographic, anthropometric, and epidemiological factors with result of mammogram in women undergoing breast cancer screening. This is a cross-sectional study with data obtained through interviews, anthropometric measurements, and mammography of 600 women aged 40 to 69 years at the Preventive Medicine Department of Hospital de Câncer de Barretos, Brazil, in 2014. The results of these examinations in the BI-RADS categories 1 and 2 were grouped and classified in this study as normal mammogram outcome, and those of BI-RADS categories 3, 4A, 4B, 4C, and 5 were grouped and classified as altered mammogram outcome. The statistical analysis included the Student's t-test to compare means, as well as odds ratios (OR), with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), to verify an association by means of the multivariate analysis. Of 600 women evaluated, 45% belonged to the age group of 40-49 years-old and 60.2% were classified as BI-RADS category 2. The multivariate analysis showed that women with blood hypertension (OR: 2.64; 95%CI: 1.07-6.49; p<0.05) were more likely to present changes in the mammography, while physical activity was associated with lower chances (OR: 0.30; 95%CI: 0.11-0.81; p<0.05). Hypertensive women undergoing screening mammography are more likely to present mammographic changes, whereas women practicing physical activity have lower chances (70%) of presenting changes in the breast compared with sedentary individuals. Avaliar a associação de fatores sociodemográficos, antropométricos e epidemiológicos com o resultado das mamografias de mulheres submetidas ao rastreamento. Trata-se de um estudo transversal com dados obtidos por meio de entrevistas, avaliação antropométrica e mamografia de 600 mulheres entre 40 a 69 anos, atendidas no Departamento de Prevenção do Hospital de Câncer de Barretos, em 2014. Os resultados de tais exames nas categorias BI-RADS 1 e 2 foram agrupados e classificados neste estudo

  13. Clinical differences between men and women undergoing surgery for acute Type A aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomoaki; Asai, Tohru; Kinoshita, Takeshi

    2018-06-01

    The differences in clinical features, surgical outcome and long-term prognosis between men and women who undergo surgery for Type A aortic dissection are not well known. From January 2004 to December 2016, 303 patients, consisting of 147 women and 156 men, underwent surgery for acute Type A aortic dissection at our institution. We compared clinical outcomes between the 2 cohorts. Women were older than men (72.6 vs 63.0; P < 0.001). Operative mortality was similar between the groups (8.2% vs 8.9%; P = 0.80). The duration of intensive care unit stay (54 vs 64 h median; P = 0.03) and mechanical ventilator support (34 vs 43 h; P = 0.02) was significantly shorter in women. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that preoperative cardiopulmonary resuscitation, cardiac tamponade, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, haemodialysis and longer cardiopulmonary bypass time were independent risk factors for early death. Among the hospital survivors, the actuarial survival rate was 59.0% in women and 65.7% in men at 10 years (P = 0.81). During the follow-up period, there were 9 female and 27 male patients who underwent reoperation related to the aortic dissection. The rate of 10-year actuarial freedom from reoperation was 80.7% in women and 53.1% in men (log-rank P = 0.018). No differences were observed in both early and long-term mortality between women and men. Male patients had a significantly higher rate of reoperation. UMIN000029179.

  14. Phase III Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial of Risedronate for the Prevention of Bone Loss in Premenopausal Women Undergoing Chemotherapy for Primary Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Stephanie L.; Mincey, Betty Anne; Sloan, Jeff A.; Thomas, Sachdev P.; Chottiner, Elaine; Loprinzi, Charles L.; Carlson, Mark D.; Atherton, Pamela J.; Salim, Muhammad; Perez, Edith A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Risedronate prevents bone loss in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to determine whether risedronate prevents bone loss in premenopausal women undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer. Patients and Methods Premenopausal women undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer were treated with oral calcium 600 mg and vitamin D 400 U daily and randomly assigned to receive oral risedronate 35 mg weekly or placebo, with all these therapies beginning within a month of the start of chemotherapy. Most chemotherapy regimens included anthracyclines, taxanes, or cyclophosphamide. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at baseline and 1 year. The primary end point was the change in lumbar spine (LS) BMD from baseline to 1 year. Results A total of 216 women enrolled; 170 women provided BMD data at 1 year. There was no difference in the mean change or percent change in LS BMD between groups, with a loss of 4.3% in the risedronate arm and 5.4% for placebo at 1 year (P = .18). Loss of BMD at the femoral neck and total hip were also similar between treatment groups. Risedronate was well tolerated, with no significant differences in adverse events compared with placebo, except that arthralgias and chest pain were worse in those receiving the placebos. Conclusion Risedronate did not prevent bone loss in premenopausal women undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. PMID:19075260

  15. Perception of control, coping and psychological stress of infertile women undergoing IVF.

    PubMed

    Gourounti, Kleanthi; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Potamianos, Grigorios; Lykeridou, Katerina; Schmidt, Lone; Vaslamatzis, Grigorios

    2012-06-01

    The study aimed to examine: (i) the association between perception of infertility controllability and coping strategies; and (ii) the association between perception of infertility controllability and coping strategies to psychological distress, applying multivariate statistical techniques to control for the effects of demographic variables. This cross-sectional study included 137 women with fertility problems undergoing IVF in a public hospital. All participants completed questionnaires that measured fertility-related stress, state anxiety, depressive symptomatology, perception of control and coping strategies. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated between all study variables, followed by hierarchical multiple linear regression. Low perception of personal and treatment controllability was associated with frequent use of avoidance coping and high perception of treatment controllability was positively associated with problem-focused coping. Multivariate analysis showed that, when controlling for demographic factors, low perception of personal control and avoidance coping were positively associated with fertility-related stress and state anxiety, and problem-appraisal coping was negatively and significantly associated with fertility-related stress and depressive symptomatology scores. The findings of this study merit the understanding of the role of control perception and coping in psychological stress of infertile women to identify beforehand those women who might be at risk of experiencing high stress and in need of support. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Variability of inter-observer agreement on feasibility of partial nephrectomy before and after neoadjuvant axitinib for locally advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC): independent analysis from a phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Karam, Jose A; Devine, Catherine E; Fellman, Bryan M; Urbauer, Diana L; Abel, E Jason; Allaf, Mohamad E; Bex, Axel; Lane, Brian R; Thompson, R Houston; Wood, Christopher G

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate how many patients could have undergone partial nephrectomy (PN) rather than radical nephrectomy (RN) before and after neoadjuvant axitinib therapy, as assessed by five independent urological oncologists, and to study the variability of inter-observer agreement. Pre- and post-systemic treatment computed tomography scans from 22 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma in a phase II neoadjuvant axitinib trial were reviewed by five independent urological oncologists. R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score and κ statistics were calculated. The median R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score changed from 11 before treatment to 10 after treatment (P = 0.002). Five tumours with moderate complexity before axitinib treatment remained moderate complexity after treatment. Of 17 tumours with high complexity before axitinib treatment, three became moderate complexity after treatment. The overall κ statistic was 0.611. Moderate-complexity κ was 0.611 vs a high-complexity κ of 0.428. Before axitinib treatment the κ was 0.550 vs 0.609 after treatment. After treatment with axitinib, all five reviewers agreed that only five patients required RN (instead of eight before treatment) and that 10 patients could now undergo PN (instead of three before treatment). The odds of PN feasibility were 22.8-times higher after treatment with axitinib. There is considerable variability in inter-observer agreement on the feasibility of PN in patients treated with neoadjuvant targeted therapy. Although more patients were candidates for PN after neoadjuvant axitinib therapy, it remains difficult to identify these patients a priori. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Circulating myeloid-derived suppressor cells increase in patients undergoing neo-adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wesolowski, Robert; Duggan, Megan C; Stiff, Andrew; Markowitz, Joseph; Trikha, Prashant; Levine, Kala M; Schoenfield, Lynn; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Layman, Rachel; Ramaswamy, Bhuvaneswari; Macrae, Erin R; Lustberg, Maryam B; Reinbolt, Raquel E; Mrozek, Ewa; Byrd, John C; Caligiuri, Michael A; Mace, Thomas A; Carson, William E

    2017-11-01

    This study sought to evaluate whether myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) could be affected by chemotherapy and correlate with pathologic complete response (pCR) in breast cancer patients receiving neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Peripheral blood levels of granulocytic (G-MDSC) and monocytic (M-MDSC) MDSC were measured by flow cytometry prior to cycle 1 and 2 of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide and 1st and last administration of paclitaxel or paclitaxel/anti-HER2 therapy. Of 24 patients, 11, 6 and 7 patients were triple negative, HER2+ and hormone receptor+, respectively. 45.8% had pCR. Mean M-MDSC% were <1. Mean G-MDSC% and 95% confidence intervals were 0.88 (0.23-1.54), 5.07 (2.45-7.69), 9.32 (4.02-14.61) and 1.97 (0.53-3.41) at draws 1-4. The increase in G-MDSC by draw 3 was significant (p < 0.0001) in all breast cancer types. G-MDSC levels at the last draw were numerically lower in patients with pCR (1.15; 95% CI 0.14-2.16) versus patients with no pCR (2.71; 95% CI 0-5.47). There was no significant rise in G-MDSC from draw 1 to 3 in African American patients, and at draw 3 G-MDSC levels were significantly lower in African Americans versus Caucasians (p < 0.05). It was concluded that G-MDSC% increased during doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide therapy, but did not significantly differ between patients based on pathologic complete response.

  18. Repair of the threatened feminine identity: experience of women with cervical cancer undergoing fertility preservation surgery.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Hiroko; Yagasaki, Kaori; Shoda, Rie; Chung, Younghui; Iwata, Takashi; Sugiyama, Juri; Fujii, Takuma

    2014-01-01

    Fertility preservation is important for women of reproductive age with cervical cancer. The underlying reasons behind suboptimal reproductive results after successful fertility-preserving surgery have not yet been fully revealed. The objective of this study was to explore the experience of fertility preservation with radical trachelectomy from the perspective of women with cervical cancer. We conducted interviews with women with cervical cancer who underwent radical trachelectomy using a Grounded Theory methodology with a theoretical framework of symbolic interactionism. Our findings articulate a process in which feminine identity is first threatened by a diagnosis of cancer, then repaired by fertility preservation with radical trachelectomy, and finally reconstructed after the surgery, through interactions with self, others, and external events in women with cervical cancer. Feeling incomplete as a woman because of the loss of the uterus was a critical factor in the women's feeling that their feminine identity was threatened. Thus, fertility preservation was significant for these women. The meaning of fertility preservation varied among the women, and their life perspectives were therefore distinct after the surgery. Women with cervical cancer who undergo radical trachelectomy experience an identity transformation process, and child bearing is not the only expected outcome of fertility preservation. Nurses should coordinate care through the cancer trajectory. Understanding the identity transformation process helps nurses to assess patients' needs and provide appropriate individual care.

  19. Bispectral index values during sevoflurane-nitrous oxide general anesthesia in women undergoing cesarean delivery: a comparison between women with and without prior labor.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Kyung Y; Jeong, Cheol W; Kang, Myung W; Kim, Seok J; Chung, Sung T; Shin, Min H; Lee, JongUn

    2008-06-01

    An end-tidal concentration of 1% sevoflurane (1% ET(SEVO)) in 50% nitrous oxide (N(2)O) during elective cesarean delivery has been associated with bispectral index (BIS) values >60, which are associated with an increased risk of awareness. We hypothesized that BIS values during sevoflurane-N(2)O general anesthesia for cesarean delivery would be lower in women with prior labor compared with women without prior labor. Forty patients undergoing cesarean delivery were enrolled in this observational study. One group had urgent surgery after labor (labor group, n = 20) and the other had elective surgery without labor (control group, n = 20). General anesthesia was induced with thiopental 4 mg/kg, followed by succinylcholine 1.5 mg/kg, and maintained with 1% ET(SEVO) and 50% N(2)O in oxygen. BIS values, systolic arterial blood pressure, heart rate, plasma stress hormone concentrations, Apgar scores, and postoperative analgesia variables were assessed and compared between groups. BIS values during the period between intubation and delivery were lower in the labor group than in the control group (P < 0.001). Plasma norepinephrine concentrations increased at delivery compared with baseline in both groups. They were higher in the labor group than in the control group both at baseline and at delivery. Systolic arterial blood pressure, heart rate, Apgar scores, surgical characteristics, and plasma concentrations of vasopressin and cortisol were not different between groups. Postoperative visual analog scale pain scores were similar between groups, while the labor group consumed less analgesics (P < 0.01) during the first 24 h after the operation. Prior labor was associated with lower intraoperative BIS values during sevoflurane/N(2)O general anesthesia and reduced postoperative analgesic consumption in women undergoing cesarean delivery compared with women without prior labor.

  20. Ovarian reserve and response to stimulation in women undergoing fertility preservation according to malignancy type.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Tiphaine; Mirallié, Sophie; Leperlier, Florence; Reignier, Arnaud; Barrière, Paul; Fréour, Thomas

    2018-05-02

    Does ovarian reserve and ovarian response to ovarian stimulation in women with cancer undergoing oocyte vitrification for fertility preservation vary according to the type of malignancy? Retrospective cohort study including 105 women aged between 18 and 40 years, who were referred for fertility preservation (oocyte vitrification) between 2013 and 2016. The women were divided into three groups: breast cancer, lymphoma or other cancer. All of them had been recently diagnosed with cancer, with gonadotoxic treatment scheduled, and had oocyte vitrification after ovarian stimulation with antagonist protocol. Baseline antral follicle count and anti-Müllerian hormone were no different between women with breast cancer, lymphoma or other cancer. The number of cancelled cycles for poor ovarian response was similar between the groups. The number of FSH units per mature oocyte, the number of mature oocytes (metaphase II) retrieved, and the oocyte maturity rate were not significantly different between the three groups. As the type of cancer does not seem to significantly affect ovarian reserve and ovarian response to ovarian stimulation, our results do not support the relevance of integrating this parameter when establishing ovarian stimulation protocol for oocyte vitrification cycle in women with cancer. Copyright © 2018 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Progression following neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy may not be a contraindication to a curative approach for colorectal carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Passot, Guillaume; Vaudoyer, Delphine; Cotte, Eddy; You, Benoit; Isaac, Sylvie; Noël Gilly, François; Mohamed, Faheez; Glehen, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the influence of neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy on patients with colorectal carcinomatosis before a curative procedure. Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) from colorectal cancer may be treated with a curative intent by cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). The role of perioperative systemic chemotherapy for this particular metastatic disease remains unclear. One hundred twenty patients with PC from colorectal cancer were consecutively treated by 131 procedures combining CRS with HIPEC. The response to neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy was assessed on data from previous explorative surgery and/or radiological imaging. Ninety patients (75%) were treated with neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy in whom 32 (36%) were considered to have responded, 19 (21%) had stable disease, and 19 (21%) developed diseases progression. Response could not be evaluated in 20 patients (22%). On univariate analysis, the use of neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy had a significant positive prognostic influence (P = 0.042). On multivariate analysis, the completeness of CRS and the use of adjuvant systemic chemotherapy were the only significant prognostic factors (P < 0.001 and P = 0.049, respectively). Response to neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy had no significant prognostic impact with median survival of 31.4 months in patients showing disease progression. In patients with PC from colorectal cancer without extraperitoneal metastases, failure of neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy should not constitute an absolute contraindication to a curative procedure combining CRS and HIPEC.

  2. Effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on HER-2 expression in surgically treated gastric and oesophagogastric junction carcinoma: a multicentre Italian study.

    PubMed

    Chiari, Damiano; Orsenigo, Elena; Guarneri, Giovanni; Baiocchi, Gian Luca; Mazza, Elena; Albarello, Luca; Bissolati, Massimiliano; Molfino, Sarah; Staudacher, Carlo

    2017-03-01

    Predictors of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy are not available for gastric and oesophago-gastric junction carcinoma. HER-2 over-expression in breast cancer correlates with poor prognosis and high incidence of recurrence. First aim of this study was to evaluate if the HER-2 expression/amplification is predictive of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in terms of pathologic regression. Secondary aim was to evaluate if HER-2 expression varies after neoadjuvant treatment. Thirty-five patients with locally advanced gastric or oesophago-gastric junction carcinoma underwent preoperative chemotherapy and surgical resection at San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Spedali Civili of Brescia. HER-2 expression/amplification was evaluated on every biopsy at diagnosis time and on every surgical sample after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Pathologic response to chemotherapy was evaluated according to TNM classification (ypT status and ypN status) and Mandard's tumour regression grade classification. In our series 10 patients (28.6%) showed a reduction in HER-2 overexpression and in 6 of them (17.1%) HER-2 expression completely disappeared. Only three of the six patients with HER-2 disappearance had a complete pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. There was a strong correlation between HER-2 negativity on biopsy and absence of lymph node metastasis in surgical samples after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, irrespective of nodal status before chemotherapy. A direct correlation between HER-2 reduction after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and pathologic regression (primary tumour and lymph nodes) in surgical samples was found. HER-2 negativity may represent a predictor of pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for gastric and oesophago-gastric junction adenocarcinoma. Neoadjuvant treatment can reduce HER-2 overexpression.

  3. Pertuzumab for the Neoadjuvant Treatment of Early-Stage HER2-Positive Breast Cancer: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    PubMed

    Squires, Hazel; Pandor, Abdullah; Thokala, Praveen; Stevens, John W; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Clowes, Mark; Coleman, Robert; Wyld, Lynda

    2018-01-01

    As part of its single technology appraisal process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence invited the manufacturer of pertuzumab (Perjeta ® ; Roche Products Limited) to submit evidence of its clinical and cost- effectiveness for the neoadjuvant treatment of women with high-risk, early-stage, HER2-positive breast cancer when used in combination with trastuzumab and chemotherapy. High-risk women included those with locally advanced (including inflammatory) breast cancer and women with high-risk early-stage breast cancer (classified as T2/3 or N1). The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group. This article presents the critical review of the company's submission by the Evidence Review Group and the outcome of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance. The clinical data were mainly taken from a phase II, randomised, open-label, active controlled study (NeoSphere), which reported a significant advantage in terms of pathological complete response rates of pertuzumab in combination with trastuzumab and chemotherapy, compared with trastuzumab alone with chemotherapy (45.8 vs. 29.0%, p = 0.0141). The company did not make any indirect comparisons. A meta-analysis of 12 neoadjuvant studies investigating the relationship between pathological complete response and event-free survival was used to extrapolate the outcomes reported in the NeoSphere study. A cardiac safety study (TRYPHAENA) demonstrated the safety of pertuzumab. The company undertook a model-based economic evaluation of neoadjuvant pertuzumab plus trastuzumab and docetaxel compared with neoadjuvant trastuzumab and docetaxel over a lifetime horizon from the National Health Service and Personal Social Services perspective. The probabilistic incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated to be £20,104 per quality-adjusted life-year gained for pertuzumab

  4. Less than 12 lymph nodes in the surgical specimen after neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy: an indicator of tumor regression in locally advanced rectal cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Gurawalia, Jaiprakash; Nayak, Sandeep P.; Kurpad, Vishnu; Pandey, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Background The number of lymph node retrieved in the surgical specimen is important for tumor staging and has paramount impact on prognosis in colorectal cancer and imitates the adequacy of lymph node surgical clearance. The paucity of lymph node yields in patients undergoing resection after preoperative chemo radiotherapy (CRT) in rectal cancer has seen. Lower total number of lymph nodes in the total mesoractal excision (TME) specimen after CRT, could a marker of better tumor response. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the prospectively managed data of patients underwent excision for rectal cancer, who treated by neoadjuvant radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer. From 2010 to 2014, 364 patients underwent rectal cancer surgery, of which ninety-one treated with neoadjuvant treatment. Standard surgical and pathological protocols were followed. Patients were categorized into two groups based on the number of total harvested lymph nodes with group 1, having 12 or more nodes harvested, and group 2 including patients who had <12 lymph nodes harvested. The total number of lymph nodes retrieved from the surgical specimen was correlated with grade of tumor regression with neoadjuvant treatment. Results Out of 91 patients, 38 patients (42%) had less than 12 lymph nodes examined in specimen. The difference in median number of lymph nodes was observed significantly as 9 (range, 2–11) versus 16 (range, 12–32), in group 2 and 1, respectively (P<0.01). Patients with fewer lymph node group were comparable with respect to age, BMI, pre-operative staging, neoadjuvant treatment. Pathological complete response in tumor pCR was seen with significantly higher rate (40% vs. 26%, P<0.05) in group 2. As per Mandard criteria, there was significant difference in tumor regression grade (TRG) between both the groups (P<0.05). Among patients with metastatic lymph nodes, median LNR was lower in <12 lymph nodes group at 0.167 (range, 0.09–0.45) versus

  5. Stress matters! Psychophysiological and emotional loadings of pregnant women undergoing fetal magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Derntl, Birgit; Krajnik, Jacqueline; Kollndorfer, Kathrin; Bijak, Manfred; Nemec, Ursula; Leithner, Katharina; Prayer, Daniela; Schöpf, Veronika

    2015-02-13

    While the application of fetal MRI in high-risk pregnant women is steadily rising, little is known about the psychological consequences of this procedure. The aim of the present study was to investigate emotional and psychophysiological reactions of females undergoing fetal MRI. Sixty women (17-44 ys), assigned for fetal MRI, were included. Affective state was assessed by standardized measures of anxiety, emotional states and depressive symptoms. Stress coping strategies were assessed using a self-report questionnaire. Stress responses were determined using skin conductance levels (SCL) during fetal MRI as well as measurement of salivary cortisol levels immediately before and after fetal MRI. Analysis of fast and slow physiological stress measures revealed significant differences between women with and without a supporting person accompanying them to the examination. For SCLs, lower levels of stress during MRI emerged in accompanied women. Women with well-marked stress-coping-strategies experienced lower levels of stress during the examination. Although fast and slow stress measures before and after MRI did not show significant correlations, a significant difference of SCLs pre and post examination was clearly detectable, as well as a trend of decreased cortisol levels for both time points. The results imply that the elevation of SCLs is an accurate instrument to assess fast stress alterations in patients during fetal MRI. Stress coping strategies and whether women are accompanied or not play an important role in the experience of anxiety and depressive symptoms. These factors should be considered especially in patients with high-risk-pregnancies to improve patient care.

  6. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy versus Chemoradiation Prior to Esophagectomy: Impact on Rate of Complete Pathologic Response and Survival in Esophageal Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Samson, Pamela; Robinson, Clifford; Bradley, Jeffrey; Lockhart, A Craig; Puri, Varun; Broderick, Stephen; Kreisel, Daniel; Krupnick, A Sasha; Patterson, G Alexander; Meyers, Bryan; Crabtree, Traves

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in pathologic complete response (pCR) rates and overall survival among patients receiving either neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation before esophagectomy for locally advanced esophageal cancer. Patients with esophageal cancer receiving either neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation before esophagectomy were identified using the National Cancer Database. Univariate analysis compared patient, tumor, and postoperative outcome characteristics. Logistic regression was performed to identify variables associated with achieving pCR. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to compare overall median survival by neoadjuvant therapy type and pCR status. Finally, a Cox proportional hazards model was fitted to identify variables associated with increased mortality hazard. From 2006 to 2012, a total of 916 of 7338 of patients (12.5%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy whereas 6422 (87.5%) received neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Patients who received neoadjuvant chemoradiation were more likely to achieve a pCR (17.2% versus 6.4%, p < 0.001) and less likely to have positive margins (5.6% versus 11.5%, p < 0.001) than were patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, with no difference in 30- or 90-day mortality. Achieving a pCR was associated with improved overall median survival (59.5 ± 4.0 months versus 30.1 ± 0.76 months for those with persistent disease, p < 0.001). On logistic regression, neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy was independently associated with achieving a pCR (OR = 2.75, 95% confidence interval: 2.01-3.77, p < 0.001). Despite improvement in the pCR rate with neoadjuvant chemoradiation, neoadjuvant therapy type was not independently associated with long-term survival (hazard ratio = 1.12; 95% confidence interval: 0.97-1.30, p = 0.12). Although neoadjuvant chemoradiation is more successful in downstaging esophageal cancer before esophagectomy, it was not independently prognostic for improved long

  7. Ki67 Proliferation Index as a Tool for Chemotherapy Decisions During and After Neoadjuvant Aromatase Inhibitor Treatment of Breast Cancer: Results From the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1031 Trial (Alliance)

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Matthew J.; Suman, Vera J.; Hoog, Jeremy; Goncalves, Rodrigo; Sanati, Souzan; Creighton, Chad J.; DeSchryver, Katherine; Crouch, Erika; Brink, Amy; Watson, Mark; Luo, Jingqin; Tao, Yu; Barnes, Michael; Dowsett, Mitchell; Budd, G. Thomas; Winer, Eric; Silverman, Paula; Esserman, Laura; Carey, Lisa; Ma, Cynthia X.; Unzeitig, Gary; Pluard, Timothy; Whitworth, Pat; Babiera, Gildy; Guenther, J. Michael; Dayao, Zoneddy; Ota, David; Leitch, Marilyn; Olson, John A.; Allred, D. Craig; Hunt, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate in estrogen receptor (ER) –positive primary breast cancer triaged to chemotherapy when the protein encoded by the MKI67 gene (Ki67) level was > 10% after 2 to 4 weeks of neoadjuvant aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy. A second objective was to examine risk of relapse using the Ki67-based Preoperative Endocrine Prognostic Index (PEPI). Methods The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z1031A trial enrolled postmenopausal women with stage II or III ER-positive (Allred score, 6 to 8) breast cancer whose treatment was randomly assigned to neoadjuvant AI therapy with anastrozole, exemestane, or letrozole. For the trial ACOSOG Z1031B, the protocol was amended to include a tumor Ki67 determination after 2 to 4 weeks of AI. If the Ki67 was > 10%, patients were switched to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A pCR rate of > 20% was the predefined efficacy threshold. In patients who completed neoadjuvant AI, stratified Cox modeling was used to assess whether time to recurrence differed by PEPI = 0 score (T1 or T2, N0, Ki67 < 2.7%, ER Allred > 2) versus PEPI > 0 disease. Results Only two of the 35 patients in ACOSOG Z1031B who were switched to neoadjuvant chemotherapy experienced a pCR (5.7%; 95% CI, 0.7% to 19.1%). After 5.5 years of median follow-up, four (3.7%) of the 109 patients with a PEPI = 0 score relapsed versus 49 (14.4%) of 341 of patients with PEPI > 0 (recurrence hazard ratio [PEPI = 0 v PEPI > 0], 0.27; P = .014; 95% CI, 0.092 to 0.764). Conclusion Chemotherapy efficacy was lower than expected in ER-positive tumors exhibiting AI-resistant proliferation. The optimal therapy for these patients should be further investigated. For patients with PEPI = 0 disease, the relapse risk over 5 years was only 3.6% without chemotherapy, supporting the study of adjuvant endocrine monotherapy in this group. These Ki67 and PEPI triage approaches are being definitively studied in the ALTERNATE trial (Alternate

  8. TGFbeta1 (Leu10Pro), p53 (Arg72Pro) can predict for increased risk for breast cancer in south Indian women and TGFbeta1 Pro (Leu10Pro) allele predicts response to neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Thangarajan; Samson, Mani; Rama, Ranganathan; Sridevi, Veluswami; Mahji, Urmila; Swaminathan, Rajaraman; Nancy, Nirmala K

    2008-11-01

    The breast cancer incidence has been increasing in the south Indian women. A case (n=250)-control (n=500) study was undertaken to investigate the role of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP's) in GSTM1 (Present/Null); GSTP1 (Ile105Val), p53 (Arg72Pro), TGFbeta1 (Leu10Pro), c-erbB2 (Ile655Val), and GSTT1 (Null/Present) in breast cancer. In addition, the value of the SNP's in predicting primary tumor's pathologic response following neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy was assessed. Genotyping was done using PCR (GSTM1, GSTT1), Taqman Allelic discrimination assay (GSTP1, c-erbB2) and PCR-CTPP (p53 and TGFbeta1). None of the gene SNP's studied were associated with a statistically significant increased risk for the breast cancer. However, combined analysis of the SNP's showed that p53 (Arg/Arg and Arg/Pro) with TGFbeta1 (Pro/Pro and Leu/Pro) were associated with greater than 2 fold increased risk for breast cancer in Univariate (P=0.01) and Multivariate (P=0.003) analysis. There was no statistically significant association for the GST family members with the breast cancer risk. TGFbeta1 (Pro/Pro) allele was found to predict complete pathologic response in the primary tumour following neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (OR=6.53 and 10.53 in Univariate and Multivariate analysis respectively) (P=0.004) and was independent of stage. This study suggests that SNP's can help predict breast cancer risk in south Indian women and that TGFbeta1 (Pro/Pro) allele is associated with a better pCR in the primary tumour.

  9. Analysis of follicular fluid retinoids in women undergoing in vitro fertilization: retinoic acid influences embryo quality and is reduced in women with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Samuel A; Session, Donna R; Shang, Weirong; Easley, Kirk; Wieser, Friedrich; Taylor, Robert N; Pierzchalski, Keely; Napoli, Joseph L; Kane, Maureen A; Sidell, Neil

    2013-09-01

    Retinol (ROL) and its biologically active metabolite, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), are essential for a number of reproductive processes. However, there is a paucity of information regarding their roles in ovarian folliculogenesis, oocyte maturation, and early embryogenesis. The objectives of this study were to quantify and compare peripheral plasma (PP) and follicular fluid (FF) retinoid levels, including ATRA in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and to investigate the relationship between retinoid levels and embryo quality. Retinoid levels were evaluated in PP and FF from 79 women undergoing IVF at the time of oocyte retrieval and corresponding embryo quality assessed on a daily basis after retrieval for 3 days until uterine transfer. Analysis compared the retinoid levels with day 3 embryo grades and between endometriosis versus control patients. Results demonstrated distinctive levels of retinoid metabolites and isomers in FF versus PP. There was a significantly larger percentage of high-quality grade I embryos derived from the largest versus smallest follicles. An increase in follicle size also correlated with a >50% increase in FF ROL and ATRA concentrations. Independent of follicle size, FF yielding grade I versus nongrade I embryos showed higher mean levels of ATRA but not ROL. In a nested case-control analysis, control participants had 50% higher mean levels of ATRA in their FF and PP than women with endometriosis. These findings strongly support the proposition that ATRA plays a fundamental role in oocyte development and quality, and that reduced ATRA synthesis may contribute to decreased fecundity of participants with endometriosis.

  10. Patient and tumor characteristics associated with breast cancer recurrence after complete pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ju, Na Rae; Jeffe, Donna B; Keune, Jason; Aft, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer patients whose tumors achieve a pathological complete response (pCR) with neoadjuvant chemotherapy have a prognosis which is better than that predicted for the stage of their disease. However, within this subgroup of patients, recurrences have been observed. We sought to examine factors associated with recurrence in a population of breast cancer patients who achieved a pCR with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A retrospective chart review was conducted of all patients with unilateral breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010 at one comprehensive cancer center. A pCR was defined as no residual invasive cancer in the breast in the surgical specimen following neoadjuvant therapy. Recurrence was defined as visceral or bony reappearance of cancer after completion of all therapy. Of 818 patients who completed neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 144 (17.6 %) had pCR; six with bilateral breast cancer were excluded from further analysis. The mean time to follow-up was 47.2 months. Among the 138 patients with unilateral breast cancer, there were 14 recurrences (10.1 %). Using a binary multiple logistic regression model, examining types of chemotherapy and surgery, race, lymph node assessment, and lymph node status, breast cancer side, triple-negative status, and radiation receipt, only African-American patients (OR: 5.827, 95 % CI: 1.280-26.525; p = 0.023) were more likely to develop distant recurrence. The mean time to recurrence was 31.9 months. In our study, race was the only independent predictor of recurrence after achieving pCR with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The reasons for this observation require further study.

  11. Study on predictive role of AR and EGFR family genes with response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer in Indian women.

    PubMed

    Singh, L C; Chakraborty, Anurupa; Mishra, Ashwani K; Devi, Thoudam Regina; Sugandhi, Nidhi; Chintamani, Chintamani; Bhatnagar, Dinesh; Kapur, Sujala; Saxena, Sunita

    2012-06-01

    Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) remains a clinical challenge as the majority of patients with this diagnosis develop distant metastases despite appropriate therapy. We analyzed expression of steroid and growth hormone receptor genes as well as gene associated with metabolism of chemotherapeutic drugs in locally advanced breast cancer before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) to study whether there is a change in gene expression induced by chemotherapy and whether such changes are associated with tumor response or non-response. Fifty patients were included with locally advanced breast cancer treated with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, 5-fluorouracil (CAF)-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgery. Total RNA was extracted from 50 match samples of pre- and post-NACT tumor tissues. RNA expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor family genes including EGFR, ERBB2, ERBB3, androgen receptor (AR), and multidrug-resistance gene 1 (MDR1) were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Responders show significantly high levels of pre-NACT AR gene expression (P = 0.016), which reduces following NACT (P = 0.008), and hence can serve as a useful tool for the prediction of the success of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in individual cancer patients with locally advanced breast carcinoma. Moreover, a significant post-therapeutic increase in the expression levels of EGFR and MDR1 gene in responders (P = 0.026 and P < 0.001) as well as in non-responders (P = 0.055, P = 0.001) suggests that expression of these genes changes during therapy but they do not have any impact on tumor response, whereas a post-therapeutic reduction was observed in AR in responders. This indicates an independent predictive role of AR with response to NACT.

  12. Comparison of Mammographic Density Assessed as Volumes and Areas among Women Undergoing Diagnostic Image-Guided Breast Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Gierach, Gretchen L.; Geller, Berta M.; Shepherd, John A.; Patel, Deesha A.; Vacek, Pamela M.; Weaver, Donald L.; Chicoine, Rachael E.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Fan, Bo; Mahmoudzadeh, Amir Pasha; Wang, Jeff; Johnson, Jason M.; Herschorn, Sally D.; Brinton, Louise A.; Sherman, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mammographic density (MD), the area of non-fatty appearing tissue divided by total breast area, is a strong breast cancer risk factor. Most MD analyses have employed visual categorizations or computer-assisted quantification, which ignore breast thickness. We explored MD volume and area, using a volumetric approach previously validated as predictive of breast cancer risk, in relation to risk factors among women undergoing breast biopsy. Methods Among 413 primarily white women, ages 40–65, undergoing diagnostic breast biopsies between 2007–2010 at an academic facility in Vermont, MD volume (cm3) was quantified in cranio-caudal views of the breast contralateral to the biopsy target using a density phantom, while MD area (cm2) was measured on the same digital mammograms using thresholding software. Risk factor associations with continuous MD measurements were evaluated using linear regression. Results Percent MD volume and area were correlated (r=0.81) and strongly and inversely associated with age, body mass index (BMI), and menopause. Both measures were inversely associated with smoking and positively associated with breast biopsy history. Absolute MD measures were correlated (r=0.46) and inversely related to age and menopause. Whereas absolute dense area was inversely associated with BMI, absolute dense volume was positively associated. Conclusions Volume and area MD measures exhibit some overlap in risk factor associations, but divergence as well, particularly for BMI. Impact Findings suggest that volume and area density measures differ in subsets of women; notably, among obese women, absolute density was higher with volumetric methods, suggesting that breast cancer risk assessments may vary for these techniques. PMID:25139935

  13. Serum Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Change After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy Is Associated With Postoperative Pulmonary Complications in Esophageal Cancer Patients Undergoing Combined Modality Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shao-Lun; Hsu, Feng-Ming; Tsai, Chiao-Ling

    Purpose: Our aim was to investigate the association of clinical factors, dosimetric parameters, and biomarkers with postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) in patients with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) treated by neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) under strict pulmonary dose constraints and esophagectomy. Methods and Materials: We prospectively enrolled 112 patients undergoing trimodality treatment (including radiation therapy [40 Gy], concurrent taxane-/5-fluorouracil-based regimens, and radical esophagectomy) for ESCC. A PPC was defined as pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome within 30 days after surgery. Serum samples were collected before and within 1 month after CCRT. The association of serum biomarkers with PPCs wasmore » detected by proximity ligation assay (PLA) and verified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Associations of clinical factors, lung dosimetric parameters, and biomarkers with PPC were tested statistically. Results: Thirty-three patients (29.5%) had PPCs. None of the dosimetric parameters was associated with PPCs. Preoperative functional vital capacity (FVC) was significantly associated with PPCs (P=.004). Of the 15 PLA-screened biomarkers, posttreatment transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was borderline significantly associated with PPCs (P=.087). Patients with PPCs had significantly larger pre-CCRT to post-CCRT decrease in serum TGF-β1 concentration (−11,310 vs −5332 pg/mL, P=.005) and higher pre-CCRT to post-CCRT percent decline in serum TGF-β1 concentration (−37.4% vs −25.0%, P=.009) than patients without PPCs. On multivariate analysis, preoperative FVC (P=.003) and decrease in TGF-β1 >7040 pg/mL (P=.014) were independent factors associated with PPCs. Conclusions: Preoperative FVC and decrease in serum TGF-β1 level after dose-limited CCRT to the lung are associated with the development of PPCs.« less

  14. Failure to Achieve a PSA Level {<=}1 ng/mL After Neoadjuvant LHRHA Therapy Predicts for Lower Biochemical Control Rate and Overall Survival in Localized Prostate Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Darren M.; McAleese, Jonathan; Park, Richard M.

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether failure to suppress the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level to {<=}1 ng/mL after {>=}2 months of neoadjuvant luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy in patients scheduled to undergo external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate carcinoma is associated with reduced biochemical failure-free survival. Methods and Materials: A retrospective case note review of consecutive patients with intermediate- or high-risk localized prostate cancer treated between January 2001 and December 2002 with neoadjuvant hormonal deprivation therapy, followed by concurrent hormonal therapy and radiotherapy was performed. Patient data were divided for analysis according to whether the PSA level in Week 1 of radiotherapymore » was {<=}1.0 ng/mL. Biochemical failure was determined using the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (Phoenix) definition. Results: A total of 119 patients were identified. The PSA level after neoadjuvant hormonal deprivation therapy was {<=}1 ng/mL in 67 patients and >1 ng/mL in 52. At a median follow-up of 49 months, the 4-year actuarial biochemical failure-free survival rate was 84% vs. 60% (p = 0.0016) in favor of the patients with a PSA level after neoadjuvant hormonal deprivation therapy of {<=}1 ng/mL. The overall survival rate was 94% vs. 77.5% (p = 0.0045), and the disease-specific survival rate at 4 years was 98.5% vs. 82.5%. Conclusions: The results of our study have shown that patients with a PSA level >1 ng/mL at the beginning of external beam radiotherapy after {>=}2 months of neoadjuvant luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy have a significantly greater rate of biochemical failure and lower survival rate compared with those with a PSA level of {<=}1 ng/mL. Patients without adequate PSA suppression should be considered a higher risk group and considered for dose escalation or the use of novel treatments.« less

  15. Variation in neoadjuvant chemotherapy utilization for epithelial ovarian cancer at high volume hospitals in the United States and associated survival.

    PubMed

    Barber, Emma L; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Stitzenberg, Karyn B; Rossi, Emma C; Gehrig, Paola A; Boggess, John F; Garrett, Joanne M

    2017-06-01

    To estimate variation in the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy by high volume hospitals and to determine the association between hospital utilization of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and survival. We identified incident cases of stage IIIC or IV epithelial ovarian cancer in the National Cancer Database from 2006 to 2012. Inclusion criteria were treatment at a high volume hospital (>20 cases/year) and treatment with both chemotherapy and surgery. A logistic regression model was used to predict receipt of neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on case-mix predictors (age, comorbidities, stage etc). Hospitals were categorized by the observed-to-expected ratio for neoadjuvant chemotherapy use as low, average, or high utilization hospitals. Survival analysis was performed. We identified 11,574 patients treated at 55 high volume hospitals. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was used for 21.6% (n=2494) of patients and use varied widely by hospital, from 5%-55%. High utilization hospitals (n=1910, 10 hospitals) had a median neoadjuvant chemotherapy rate of 39% (range 23-55%), while low utilization hospitals (n=2671, 14 hospitals) had a median rate of 10% (range 5-17%). For all ovarian cancer patients adjusting for clinical and socio-demographic factors, treatment at a hospital with average or high neoadjuvant chemotherapy utilization was associated with a decreased rate of death compared to treatment at a low utilization hospital (HR 0.90 95% CI 0.83-0.97 and HR 0.85 95% CI 0.75-0.95). Wide variation exists in the utilization of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to treat stage IIIC and IV epithelial ovarian cancer even among high volume hospitals. Patients treated at hospitals with low rates of neoadjuvant chemotherapy utilization experience decreased survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Variation in Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Utilization for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer at High Volume Hospitals in the United States and Associated Survival

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Emma L; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Stitzenberg, Karyn B; Rossi, Emma C; Gehrig, Paola A; Boggess, John F; Garrett, Joanne M

    2017-01-01

    Objective To estimate variation in the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy by high volume hospitals and to determine the association between hospital utilization of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and survival. Methods We identified incident cases of stage IIIC or IV epithelial ovarian cancer in the National Cancer Database from 2006–2012. Inclusion criteria were treatment at a high volume hospital (>20 cases/yr) and treatment with both chemotherapy and surgery. A logistic regression model was used to predict receipt of neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on case-mix predictors (age, comorbidities, stage etc). Hospitals were categorized by the observed-to-expected ratio for neoadjuvant chemotherapy use as low, average, or high utilization hospitals. Survival analysis was performed. Results We identified 11,574 patients treated at 55 high volume hospitals. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was used for 21.6% (n=2494) of patients and use varied widely by hospital, from 5%–55%. High utilization hospitals (n=1910, 10 hospitals) had a median neoadjuvant chemotherapy rate of 39% (range 23–55%), while low utilization hospitals (n=2671, 14 hospitals) had a median rate of 10% (range 5–17%). For all ovarian cancer patients adjusting for clinical and socio-demographic factors, treatment at a hospital with average or high neoadjuvant chemotherapy utilization was associated with a decreased rate of death compared to treatment at a low utilization hospital (HR 0.90 95%CI 0.83–0.97 and HR 0.85 95%CI 0.75–0.95). Conclusions Wide variation exists in the utilization of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to treat stage IIIC and IV epithelial ovarian cancer even among high volume hospitals. Patients treated at hospitals with low rates of neoadjuvant chemotherapy utilization experience decreased survival. PMID:28366545

  17. Self-Expanding Metal Stents Improve Swallowing and Maintain Nutrition During Neoadjuvant Therapy for Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Smith, Zachary L; Gonzaga, Jason E; Haasler, George B; Gore, Elizabeth M; Dua, Kulwinder S

    2017-06-01

    Patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer can have significant dysphagia. Nutritional support during neoadjuvant therapy is often delivered via nasoenteric or percutaneous feeding tubes. These approaches do not allow for per-oral feeding. Evaluate the safety and efficacy of fully covered self-expanding metal esophageal stents for nutritional support during neoadjuvant therapy. This was a pilot, prospective study at a single tertiary center. From March 2012 to May 2013, consecutive patients with esophageal cancer eligible for neoadjuvant therapy were enrolled. Metal stents were placed prior to starting neoadjuvant therapy. Data were collected at baseline and predetermined intervals until an endpoint (surgery or disease progression). Outcomes included dysphagia grade, satisfaction of swallowing score, nutritional status (weight, serum albumin), impact on surgery, and adverse events. Fourteen stents were placed in 12 patients (59.1 ± 9.5 years, 11 men, 1 woman). Dysphagia grade (pre 3.4 ± 0.5 vs post 0.2 ± 0.4, p < 0.0001) and swallowing scores (20.2 ± 5.9 vs 6.3 ± 4.7, p < 0.0001) significantly improved after stent placement. Improvements were sustained throughout neoadjuvant therapy. Body weight and serum albumin levels remained stable. Adverse events included severe chest pain (2), food impaction (1), and delayed stent migration (2). Five patients underwent surgical resection. No significant chemoradiation or operative adverse events occurred due to the presence of a stent. During neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal cancer, self-expanding metal stents are safe and effective in relieving dysphagia and maintaining nutrition. They allow patients to eat orally, thereby improving patient satisfaction. The presence of an in situ stent did not interfere with surgery.

  18. Birth preference in women undergoing treatment for childbirth fear: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Birgitta; Karlström, Annika; Rubertsson, Christine; Ternström, Elin; Ekdahl, Johanna; Segebladh, Birgitta; Hildingsson, Ingegerd

    2017-12-01

    Childbirth fear is the most common underlying reason for requesting a caesarean section without medical reason. The aim of this randomised controlled study was to investigate birth preferences in women undergoing treatment for childbirth fear, and to investigate birth experience and satisfaction with the allocated treatment. Pregnant women classified with childbirth fear (≥60 on the Fear Of Birth Scale) (n=258) were recruited at one university hospital and two regional hospitals over one year. The participants were randomised (1:1) to intervention (Internet-based Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (ICBT)) (n=127) or standard care (face-to-face counselling) (n=131). Data were collected by questionnaires in pregnancy week 20-25 (baseline), week 36 and two months after birth. Caesarean section preference decreased from 34% to 12% in the ICBT group and from 24% to 20% in the counselling group. Two months after birth, the preference for caesarean increased to 20% in the ICBT group and to 29% in the counselling group, and there was no statistically significant change over time. Women in the ICBT group were less satisfied with the treatment (OR 4.5). The treatment had no impact on or worsened their childbirth fear (OR 5.5). There were no differences between the groups regarding birth experience. Women's birth preferences fluctuated over the course of pregnancy and after birth regardless of treatment method. Women felt their fear was reduced and were more satisfied with face-to-face counselling compared to ICBT. A higher percentage were lost to follow-up in ICBT group suggesting a need for further research. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors That Influence the Decision to Undergo Labiaplasty: Media, Relationships, and Psychological Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Gemma; Tiggemann, Marika; Mattiske, Julie

    2016-04-01

    An increasing number of women are undergoing labiaplasty procedures; however, very little is known about the psychological factors that motivate women to seek out this procedure. To investigate the factors that influence women's decisions to undergo labiaplasty. Women seeking to undergo labiaplasty (n = 35) were compared with women who were not (n = 30). Standardized measures were employed to assess the patients' media exposure (television, the Internet, advertising, pornography), relationship quality, and psychological well-being. Women's motivations for deciding to undergo a labiaplasty procedure were characterized as "appearance," "functional," "sexual," or "psychological" motivations, with concerns about the labia's appearance being the most commonly reported motivation. Correspondingly, women seeking labiaplasty were significantly less satisfied with the appearance of their genitals than the comparison group (P < .001). These women had also experienced greater exposure to images of female genitalia on the Internet (P = .004) and in advertisements (P = .021), and had internalized these images to a greater extent (P = .010). There were no differences between the two groups on the measures of relationship quality. However, significantly fewer of the women seeking to undergo a labiaplasty procedure were involved in a romantic relationship at the time of the study (P = .039). There were also no differences between the two groups on the measures of psychological well-being, except that women seeking to undergo labiaplasty were less satisfied with their lives overall (P = .027). The findings identified media exposure and relationship status as important factors that influence women's decisions to undergo labiaplasty. 3 Risk. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Accuracy of Physical Examination, Ultrasonography, and Mammography in Predicting Residual Pathologic Tumor Size in Patients Treated With Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chagpar, Anees B.; Middleton, Lavinia P.; Sahin, Aysegul A.; Dempsey, Peter; Buzdar, Aman U.; Mirza, Attiqa N.; Ames, Fredrick C.; Babiera, Gildy V.; Feig, Barry W.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Kuerer, Henry M.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Ross, Merrick I.; Singletary, S Eva

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the accuracy of physical examination, ultrasonography, and mammography in predicting residual size of breast tumors following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Background: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an accepted part of the management of stage II and III breast cancer. Accurate prediction of residual pathologic tumor size after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is critical in guiding surgical therapy. Although physical examination, ultrasonography, and mammography have all been used to predict residual tumor size, there have been conflicting reports about the accuracy of these methods in the neoadjuvant setting. Methods: We reviewed the records of 189 patients who participated in 1 of 2 protocols using doxorubicin-containing neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and who had assessment by physical examination, ultrasonography, and/or mammography no more than 60 days before their surgical resection. Size correlations were performed using Spearman rho analysis. Clinical and pathologic measurements were also compared categorically using the weighted kappa statistic. Results: Size estimates by physical examination, ultrasonography, and mammography were only moderately correlated with residual pathologic tumor size after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (correlation coefficients: 0.42, 0.42, and 0.41, respectively), with an accuracy of ±1 cm in 66% of patients by physical examination, 75% by ultrasonography, and 70% by mammography. Kappa values (0.24–0.35) indicated poor agreement between clinical and pathologic measurements. Conclusion: Physical examination, ultrasonography, and mammography were only moderately useful for predicting residual pathologic tumor size after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:16432360

  1. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for brain tumors in infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Iwama, Junya; Ogiwara, Hideki; Kiyotani, Chikako; Terashima, Keita; Matsuoka, Kentaro; Iwafuchi, Hideto; Morota, Nobuhito

    2015-05-01

    Because of their large size and high vascularity, complete removal of brain tumors in infants and young children is often difficult. In most cases the degree of resection is associated with prognosis. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy may facilitate resection by reducing the vascularity of the tumor. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the management of these tumors. The authors performed a retrospective review of infants and young children who underwent tumor removal after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Nine consecutive patients underwent resection after neoadjuvant chemotherapy during the period February 2004 to December 2012. The mean age at diagnosis was 18 months (range 2-50 months). The average largest tumor diameter was 71 mm (range 30-130 mm) at initial surgery. Five patients underwent partial resection, and 4 underwent biopsy as the initial surgery. The histopathological diagnoses were ependymoma in 2 patients, anaplastic ependymoma in 1, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) in 2, choroid plexus carcinoma in 1, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) in 1, glioblastoma in 1, and embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and true rosettes in 1. After 2-4 courses of multiagent chemotherapy (mainly with vincristine, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and cisplatin), the second-look surgery was performed. In 1 patient with a PNET, intratumoral hemorrhage was observed after 2 courses of chemotherapy. The mean interval between the initial and the second-look surgery was 3 months. The tumor volume was reduced to varying degrees in 5 patients (56%) after chemotherapy. Intraoperatively, the vascularity of the tumor was considerably reduced, and the tumor was more circumscribed in all cases. Gross-total resection was achieved in 8 patients (89%) and neartotal resection in 1 (11%). Histopathological examination demonstrated fibrotic tissue circumscribing the tumor in 6 of 9 cases (67%). The average blood loss was 20% of the estimated blood volume, and

  2. Pre-operative factors indicating risk of multiple operations versus a single operation in women undergoing surgery for screen detected breast cancer.

    PubMed

    O'Flynn, E A M; Currie, R J; Mohammed, K; Allen, S D; Michell, M J

    2013-02-01

    We aim to identify preoperative factors at diagnosis which could predict whether women undergoing wide local excision (WLE) would require further operations. 1593 screen-detected invasive and non-invasive breast cancers were reviewed. Age, presence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive cancer size on mammography, mammographic sign, tumour type, grade and confidence of the radiologist in malignancy were compared. 83%(1315/1593) of women had a WLE. Of these, 70%(919/1315) had a single operation, and 30%(396/1315) multiple operations. These included repeat WLE to clear margins (60%(238/396)), mastectomy (34%(133/396)) and axillary dissection (6%(25/396)). The presence of mammographic microcalcification, lobular carcinoma and grade 2 malignancy on core biopsy were independent risk factors for multiple operations on multivariate analysis. Women with mammographic DCIS >30 mm were 3.4 times more likely to undergo repeat surgery than those with smaller foci. The multidisciplinary team should pay particular attention to these factors when planning surgery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hepatocellular carcinoma with main portal vein tumor thrombus: a comparative study comparing hepatectomy with or without neoadjuvant radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Feng, Shuang; Xue, Jie; Wei, Xu-Biao; Shi, Jie; Guo, Wei-Xing; Lau, Wan-Yee; Wu, Meng-Chao; Cheng, Shu-Qun; Meng, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with main portal vein tumor thrombus (mPVTT) has a poor prognosis even after surgical resection. Whether neoadjuvant radiotherapy improves surgical outcomes is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the survival of patients with resectable HCC and mPVTT who underwent neoadjuvant therapy to those who underwent surgery alone. A non-randomized comparative study was performed. For patients in the neoadjuvant radiotherapy group, three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy was administrated with a daily fraction of 300 cGy in 6 consecutive days. Hepatectomy was carried out 4 weeks after completion of irradiation. 95 patients were enrolled into this study. In the neoadjuvant radiotherapy group (n = 45), 12 patients showed gross radiological reduction in extent of PVTT. In 6 patients, the extent of PVTT was reduced to be within the ipsilateral side of the portal vein. When compared with patients who underwent surgery alone (n = 50), neoadjuvant radiotherapy significantly decreased the rates of HCC recurrence and HCC-related death, with hazard ratios of 0.36 (95% CI, 0.19-0.70) and 0.32 (95% CI, 0.18-0.57), respectively. For patients with HCC with mPVTT, neoadjuvant radiotherapy before partial hepatectomy provided better postoperative survival outcomes than partial hepatectomy alone. Copyright © 2016 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The association between nitroglycerin use and adverse outcomes in women undergoing cesarean delivery in the second stage of labor.

    PubMed

    Isquick, Sarah; Henry, Dana; Nakagawa, Sanae; Moghadassi, Michelle; Thiet, Mari-Paule; Norton, Mary; Lucero, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    To identify predictors of hysterotomy extension in women undergoing cesarean delivery (CD) in the second stage of labor, and whether use of nitroglycerin (NTG) during CD has a protective effect. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women undergoing CD in the second stage of labor from 2012 to 2015. Some women received NTG at the obstetrician's request. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between second stage duration and NTG administration on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Of the 391 women in the sample, 27% had an extension and 12% received NTG. Second stage ≥4 h was associated with a 2.14-fold higher risk of extension (95% CI 1.22-3.75), a 2.00-fold higher risk of hemorrhage (95% CI: 1.20-3.33) and 2.42-fold higher risk of blood transfusion during delivery hospitalization (95% CI: 0.99-5.91). Intravenous (IV) and sublingual-spray (SL-spray) NTG administration were not associated with an increased risk of hemorrhage or extension. SL-NTG was associated with 4.68-fold increased odds of 5-min Apgar <7 (95% CI 1.42-15.41) and 3.36-fold greater odds of NICU admission (95% CI 1.20-9.41). We found no evidence that NTG protects against extension, and SL-NTG use was associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. Clinical trials should be conducted to evaluate risk and benefits of NTG use.

  5. Current status of predictive biomarkers for neoadjuvant therapy in esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Uemura, Norihisa; Kondo, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    Neoadjuvant therapy has been proven to be extremely valuable and is widely used for advanced esophageal cancer. However, a significant proportion of treated patients (60%-70%) does not respond well to neoadjuvant treatments and develop severe adverse effects. Therefore, predictive markers for individualization of multimodality treatments are urgently needed in esophageal cancer. Recently, molecular biomarkers that predict the response to neoadjuvant therapy have been explored in multimodal approaches in esophageal cancer and successful examples of biomarker identification have been reported. In this review, promising candidates for predictive molecular biomarkers developed by using multiple molecular approaches are reviewed. Moreover, treatment strategies based on the status of predicted biomarkers are discussed, while considering the international differences in the clinical background. However, in the absence of adequate treatment options related to the results of the biomarker test, the usefulness of these diagnostic tools is limited and new effective therapies for biomarker-identified nonresponders to cancer treatment should be concurrent with the progress of predictive technologies. Further improvement in the prognosis of esophageal cancer patients can be achieved through the introduction of novel therapeutic approaches in clinical practice. PMID:25133032

  6. Does preoperative urodynamics improve outcomes for women undergoing surgery for stress urinary incontinence? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rachaneni, S; Latthe, P

    2015-01-01

    Urodynamics is widely used in the investigation of urinary incontinence. The existing evidence questions its add-on value in improving the outcome of surgical treatment for stress urinary incontinence (SUI). To compare the surgical outcomes in women with SUI or stress-predominant mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) based on urodynamic diagnoses compared with diagnoses based on office evaluation without urodynamics. We searched Cochrane, MedLine, Embase, CINAHL, LILACS, metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and Google Scholar databases from inception until March 2013. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing surgical outcomes in women investigated by urodynamics and women who had office evaluation only. Two independent reviewers (S.R. and P.L.) extracted the data and analysed it using review manager (revman) 5.2 software. Of the 388 articles identified, only four RCTs met our criteria. The data from one study are as yet unpublished. In the other three RCTs, the women with SUI or stress-predominant MUI were randomised either to office evaluation and urodynamics (n = 388) or to office evaluation only (n = 387). There was no statistical difference in the risk ratio (RR) of subjective cure in the two groups (RR 1.02, 95%CI 0.90-1.15, P = 0.79, I(2) = 45%), objective cure (RR 1.01, 95%CI 0.93-1.11, P = 0.28, I(2) = 20%) or complications such as voiding dysfunction (RR 1.54, 95%CI 0.61-3.89, P = 0.27, I(2) = 18%) or urinary urgency (RR 0.80, 95%CI 0.28-2.3, P = 0.19, I(2) = 40%). In women undergoing primary surgery for SUI or stress-predominant MUI without voiding difficulties, urodynamics does not improve outcomes - as long as the women undergo careful office evaluation. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. Docetaxel as adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment for patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Heys, Steven D; Sarkar, Tarun; Hutcheon, Andrew W

    2004-10-01

    Developments in the role of adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy for the treatment of patients with breast cancer have focused on the taxes, in particular, docetaxel. This paper discusses the rationale for the introduction of docetaxel into the management of patients following surgery and also its role in those patients with locally-advanced disease, focussing on key clinical trials. The addition of docetaxel to standard adjuvant chemotherapeutic regimens does seem to result in an increased survival in some patients with early-stage disease. In the neoadjuvant setting, the addition of docetaxel to standard regimens does increase pathological response rates, which is a surrogate marker of eventual outcome.

  8. Examining Mediators and Moderators of Yoga for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, Chelsea G; Milbury, Kathrin; Chandwani, Kavita D; Chaoul, Alejandro; Perkins, George; Nagarathna, Raghuram; Haddad, Robin; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao; Raghuram, N V; Spelman, Amy; Arun, Banu; Wei, Qi; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2016-09-01

    Hypothesis This study examines moderators and mediators of a yoga intervention targeting quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes in women with breast cancer receiving radiotherapy.Methods Women undergoing 6 weeks of radiotherapy were randomized to a yoga (YG; n = 53) or stretching (ST; n = 56) intervention or a waitlist control group (WL; n = 54). Depressive symptoms and sleep disturbances were measured at baseline. Mediator (posttraumatic stress symptoms, benefit finding, and cortisol slope) and outcome (36-item Short Form [SF]-36 mental and physical component scales [MCS and PCS]) variables were assessed at baseline, end-of-treatment, and 1-, 3-, and 6-months posttreatment. Results Baseline depressive symptoms (P = .03) and sleep disturbances (P < .01) moderated the Group × Time effect on MCS, but not PCS. Women with high baseline depressive symptoms in YG reported marginally higher 3-month MCS than their counterparts in WL (P = .11). Women with high baseline sleep disturbances in YG reported higher 3-months MCS than their counterparts in WL (P < .01) and higher 6-month MCS than their counterparts in ST (P = .01). YG led to greater benefit finding than ST and WL across the follow-up (P = .01). Three-month benefit finding partially mediated the effect of YG on 6-month PCS. Posttraumatic stress symptoms and cortisol slope did not mediate treatment effect on QOL. Conclusion Yoga may provide the greatest mental-health-related QOL benefits for those experiencing pre-radiotherapy sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms. Yoga may improve physical-health-related QOL by increasing ability to find benefit in the cancer experience. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Examining Mediators and Moderators of Yoga for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, Chelsea G.; Milbury, Kathrin; Chandwani, Kavita D.; Chaoul, Alejandro; Perkins, George; Nagarathna, Raghuram; Haddad, Robin; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao; Raghuram, N. V.; Spelman, Amy; Arun, Banu; Wei, Qi; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Hypothesis. This study examines moderators and mediators of a yoga intervention targeting quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes in women with breast cancer receiving radiotherapy.Methods. Women undergoing 6 weeks of radiotherapy were randomized to a yoga (YG; n = 53) or stretching (ST; n = 56) intervention or a waitlist control group (WL; n = 54). Depressive symptoms and sleep disturbances were measured at baseline. Mediator (posttraumatic stress symptoms, benefit finding, and cortisol slope) and outcome (36-item Short Form [SF]-36 mental and physical component scales [MCS and PCS]) variables were assessed at baseline, end-of-treatment, and 1-, 3-, and 6-months posttreatment. Results. Baseline depressive symptoms (P = .03) and sleep disturbances (P < .01) moderated the Group × Time effect on MCS, but not PCS. Women with high baseline depressive symptoms in YG reported marginally higher 3-month MCS than their counterparts in WL (P = .11). Women with high baseline sleep disturbances in YG reported higher 3-months MCS than their counterparts in WL (P < .01) and higher 6-month MCS than their counterparts in ST (P = .01). YG led to greater benefit finding than ST and WL across the follow-up (P = .01). Three-month benefit finding partially mediated the effect of YG on 6-month PCS. Posttraumatic stress symptoms and cortisol slope did not mediate treatment effect on QOL. Conclusion. Yoga may provide the greatest mental-health–related QOL benefits for those experiencing pre-radiotherapy sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms. Yoga may improve physical-health–related QOL by increasing ability to find benefit in the cancer experience. PMID:26867802

  10. A mild ovarian stimulation strategy in women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing IVF: a multicenter randomized non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Youssef, M A; van Wely, M; Al-Inany, H; Madani, T; Jahangiri, N; Khodabakhshi, S; Alhalabi, M; Akhondi, M; Ansaripour, S; Tokhmechy, R; Zarandi, L; Rizk, A; El-Mohamedy, M; Shaeer, E; Khattab, M; Mochtar, M H; van der Veen, F

    2017-01-01

    In subfertile women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing IVF does a mild ovarian stimulation strategy lead to comparable ongoing pregnancy rates in comparison to a conventional ovarian stimulation strategy? A mild ovarian stimulation strategy in women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing IVF leads to similar ongoing pregnancy rates as a conventional ovarian stimulation strategy. Women diagnosed with poor ovarian reserve are treated with a conventional ovarian stimulation strategy consisting of high-dose gonadotropins and pituitary downregulation with a long mid-luteal start GnRH-agonist protocol. Previous studies comparing a conventional strategy with a mild ovarian stimulation strategy consisting of low-dose gonadotropins and pituitary downregulation with a GnRH-antagonist have been under powered and their effectiveness is inconclusive. This open label multicenter randomized trial was designed to compare one cycle of a mild ovarian stimulation strategy consisting of low-dose gonadotropins (150 IU FSH) and pituitary downregulation with a GnRH-antagonist to one cycle of a conventional ovarian stimulation strategy consisting of high-dose gonadotropins (450 IU HMG) and pituitary downregulation with a long mid-luteal GnRH-agonist in women of advanced maternal age and/or women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing IVF between May 2011 and April 2014. Couples seeking infertility treatment were eligible if they fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: female age ≥35 years, a raised basal FSH level >10 IU/ml irrespective of age, a low antral follicular count of ≤5 follicles or poor ovarian response or cycle cancellation during a previous IVF cycle irrespective of age. The primary outcome was ongoing pregnancy rate per woman randomized. Analyses were on an intention-to-treat basis. We randomly assigned 195 women to the mild ovarian stimulation strategy and 199 women to the conventional ovarian stimulation strategy. Ongoing pregnancy rate was 12.8% (25/195) for mild

  11. Development of a teaching tool for women with a gynecologic malignancy undergoing minimally invasive robotic-assisted surgery.

    PubMed

    Castiglia, Luisa Luciani; Drummond, Nancy; Purden, Margaret A

    2011-08-01

    Women undergoing minimally invasive robotic-assisted surgery for a gynecologic malignancy have many questions and concerns related to the cancer diagnosis and surgery. The provision of information enhances coping with such illness-related challenges. A lack of print materials for these patients prompted the creation of a written teaching tool to improve informational support. A booklet was developed using guidelines for the design of effective patient education materials, including an iterative process of collaboration with healthcare providers and women who had undergone robotic-assisted surgery, as well as attention to readability. The 52-page booklet covers the trajectory of the woman's experience and includes the physical, psychosocial, and sexual aspects of recovery.

  12. Cisplatin, Gemcitabine, and Lapatinib as Neoadjuvant Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Vivek; Mamtani, Ronac; Keefe, Stephen; Guzzo, Thomas; Malkowicz, S Bruce; Vaughn, David J

    2016-07-01

    We sought to investigate the safety and efficacy of gemcitabine, cisplatin, and lapatinib (GCL) as neoadjuvant therapy in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) planned for radical cystectomy. Four cycles of GCL were administered as neoadjuvant therapy for patients with MIBC. Although initially designed as a phase II efficacy study with a primary endpoint of pathologic complete response at the time of radical cystectomy, the dose selected for investigation proved excessively toxic. A total of six patients were enrolled. The initial four patients received gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m(2) intravenously on days 1 and 8 and cisplatin 70 mg/m(2) intravenously on day 1 of each 21-day treatment cycle. Lapatinib was administered as 1,000 mg orally daily starting one week prior to the initiation of cycle 1 of gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) and continuing until the completion of cycle 4 of GC. These initial doses were poorly tolerated, and the final two enrolled patients received a reduced lapatinib dose of 750 mg orally daily. However, reduction of the lapatinib dose did not result in improved tolerance or drug-delivery, and the trial was terminated early due to excessive toxicity. Grade 3/4 toxicities included diarrhea (33%), nausea/vomiting (33%), and thrombocytopenia (33%). The addition of lapatinib to GC as neoadjuvant therapy for MIBC was limited by excessive treatment-related toxicity. These findings highlight the importance of thorough dose-escalation investigation of combination therapies prior to evaluation in the neoadjuvant setting, as well as the limitations of determination of maximum tolerated dose for novel targeted combination regimens.

  13. Acupuncture to improve live birth rates for women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caroline A; de Lacey, Sheryl; Chapman, Michael; Ratcliffe, Julie; Norman, Robert J; Johnson, Neil; Sacks, Gavin; Lyttleton, Jane; Boothroyd, Clare

    2012-05-18

    IVF is a costly treatment option for women, their partners, and the public. Therefore new therapies that improve reproductive and health outcomes are highly desirable. There is a growing body of research evaluating the effect of acupuncture administered during IVF, and specifically on the day of embryo transfer (ET). Many trials are heterogeneous and results inconsistent. There remains insufficient evidence to determine if acupuncture can enhance live birth rates when used as an adjunct to IVF treatment.The study will determine the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture with improving the proportion of women undergoing IVF having live births. Other objectives include: determination of the cost effectiveness of IVF with acupuncture; and examination of the personal and social context of acupuncture in IVF patients, and examining the reasons why the acupuncture may or may not have worked. We will conduct a randomized controlled trial of acupuncture compared to placebo acupuncture.Inclusion criteria include: women aged less than 43 years; undergoing a fresh IVF or ICSI cycle; and restricted to women with the potential for a lower live birth rate defined as two or more previous unsuccessful ETs; and unsuccessful clinical pregnancies of quality embryos deemed by the embryologist to have been suitable for freezing by standard criteria. Women will be randomized to acupuncture or placebo acupuncture. Treatment is administered on days 6 to 8 of the stimulated cycle and two treatments on the day of ET. A non-randomized cohort of women not using acupuncture will be recruited to the study. The primary study outcome is the proportion of women reporting a live birth. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of women reporting a clinical pregnancy miscarriage prior to 12 weeks, quality of life, and self-efficacy. The sample size of the study is 1,168 women, with the aim of detecting a 7% difference in live births between groups (P = 0.05, 80% power). There remains a need for

  14. Acupuncture to improve live birth rates for women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background IVF is a costly treatment option for women, their partners, and the public. Therefore new therapies that improve reproductive and health outcomes are highly desirable. There is a growing body of research evaluating the effect of acupuncture administered during IVF, and specifically on the day of embryo transfer (ET). Many trials are heterogeneous and results inconsistent. There remains insufficient evidence to determine if acupuncture can enhance live birth rates when used as an adjunct to IVF treatment. The study will determine the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture with improving the proportion of women undergoing IVF having live births. Other objectives include: determination of the cost effectiveness of IVF with acupuncture; and examination of the personal and social context of acupuncture in IVF patients, and examining the reasons why the acupuncture may or may not have worked. Methods We will conduct a randomized controlled trial of acupuncture compared to placebo acupuncture. Inclusion criteria include: women aged less than 43 years; undergoing a fresh IVF or ICSI cycle; and restricted to women with the potential for a lower live birth rate defined as two or more previous unsuccessful ETs; and unsuccessful clinical pregnancies of quality embryos deemed by the embryologist to have been suitable for freezing by standard criteria. Women will be randomized to acupuncture or placebo acupuncture. Treatment is administered on days 6 to 8 of the stimulated cycle and two treatments on the day of ET. A non-randomized cohort of women not using acupuncture will be recruited to the study. The primary study outcome is the proportion of women reporting a live birth. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of women reporting a clinical pregnancy miscarriage prior to 12 weeks, quality of life, and self-efficacy. The sample size of the study is 1,168 women, with the aim of detecting a 7% difference in live births between groups (P = 0.05, 80% power

  15. Use of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Plus Molecular Targeted Therapy in Colorectal Liver Metastases: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sabanathan, Dhanusha; Eslick, Guy D; Shannon, Jenny

    2016-12-01

    Surgery remains the standard of care for patients with colorectal liver metastases (CLMs), with a 5-year survival rate approaching 35%. Perioperative chemotherapy confers a survival benefit in selected patients with CLMs. The use of molecular targeted therapy combined with neoadjuvant chemotherapy for CLMs, however, remains controversial. We reviewed the published data on combination neoadjuvant chemotherapy and molecular targeted therapy for resectable and initially unresectable CLMs. A literature search of the Medline and PubMed databases was conducted to identify studies of neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus molecular targeted therapy in the management of resectable or initially unresectable CLMs. We calculated the pooled proportion and 95% confidence intervals using a random effects model for the relationship of the combination neoadjuvant treatment on the overall response rate and performed a systematic review of all identified studies. The analysis was stratified according to the study design. The data from 11 studies of 908 patients who had undergone systemic chemotherapy plus targeted therapy for CLM were analyzed. The use of combination neoadjuvant therapy was associated with an overall response rate of 68% (95% confidence interval, 63%-73%), with significant heterogeneity observed in the studies (I 2  = 89.35; P < .001). Of the 11 studies, 4 used a combination that included oxaliplatin, 2 included irinotecan, and 5 included a combination of both. Also, 7 studies used cetuximab and 4 bevacizumab. The overall progression-free survival was estimated at 14.4 months. Current evidence suggests that neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus molecular targeted agents for CLM confers high overall response rates. Combination treatment might also increase the resectability rates in initially unresectable CLM. Further studies are needed to examine the survival outcomes, with a focus on the differential role of molecular targeted therapy in the neoadjuvant versus adjuvant setting

  16. Serum omega-3 fatty acids and treatment outcomes among women undergoing assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Y-H; Karmon, A E; Gaskins, A J; Arvizu, M; Williams, P L; Souter, I; Rueda, B R; Hauser, R; Chavarro, J E

    2018-01-01

    Are serum polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) concentrations, including omega-3 (ω3-PUFA) and omega-6 (ω6-PUFA), related to ART outcomes? Serum levels of long-chain ω3-PUFA were positively associated with probability of live birth among women undergoing ART. Intake of ω3-PUFA improves oocyte and embryo quality in animal and human studies. However, a recent cohort study found no relation between circulating ω3-PUFA levels and pregnancy rates after ART. This analysis included a random sample of 100 women from a prospective cohort study (EARTH) at the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center who underwent 136 ART cycles within one year of blood collection. Serum fatty acids (expressed as percentage of total fatty acids) were measured by gas chromatography in samples taken between Days 3 and 9 of a stimulated cycle. Primary outcomes included the probability of implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth per initiated cycle. Cluster-weighted generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to analyze the association of total and specific PUFAs with ART outcomes adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status, physical activity, use of multivitamins and history of live birth. The median [25th, 75th percentile] serum level of ω3-PUFA was 4.7% [3.8%, 5.8%] of total fatty acids. Higher levels of serum long-chain ω3-PUFA were associated with higher probability of clinical pregnancy and live birth. Specifically, after multivariable adjustment, the probability of clinical pregnancy and live birth increased by 8% (4%, 11%) and 8% (95% CI: 1%, 16%), respectively, for every 1% increase in serum long-chain ω3-PUFA levels. Intake of long-chain ω3-PUFA was also associated with a higher probability of life birth in these women, with RR of 2.37 (95% CI: 1.02, 5.51) when replacing 1% energy of long-chain ω3-PUFA for 1% energy of saturated fatty acids. Serum ω6-PUFA, ratios of ω6 and ω3-PUFA, and total PUFA were not associated with ART outcomes. The

  17. Barriers faced by Vietnamese immigrant women in Taiwan who do not regularly undergo cervical screenings: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Fang Hsin; Wang, Hsiu Hung; Yang, Yung Mei; Tsai, Hsiu Min

    2014-01-01

    To assess and understand the barriers faced by Vietnamese marital immigrant women who do not regularly undergo cervical screenings in Southeast Taiwan. Studies have shown a low uptake rate of preventive medical services among immigrants. As immigrant women may not be aware of the healthcare delivery system in their host country, their uptake of and access to healthcare services might be limited. A qualitative, descriptive inquiry design was adopted. This qualitative study employed semi-structured, individual, in-depth interviews of 17 Vietnamese immigrant women. Data were collected from February-July 2011 and analysed using content analysis. The barriers to receiving cervical screening were lack of health literacy, lack of female healthcare providers, negative perceptions of cervical screening and personal reasons. The results might serve as a reference for government entities and healthcare providers in Taiwan to improve cervical screening rates; this should help enhance the effectiveness of healthcare services for Vietnamese immigrant women. The findings can also provide a reference for making appropriate healthcare policies for immigrant women in other countries. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Association of cytochrome P450 genetic polymorphisms with neoadjuvant chemotherapy efficacy in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family (CYPs) play an important role in the metabolism of a great variety of anticancer agents; therefore, polymorphisms in genes encoding for metabolizing enzymes and drugs transporters can affect drug efficacy and toxicity. Methods The genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 were studied in 395 patients with breast cancer by RLFP analysis. Results Here, we studied the association of functionally significant variant alleles of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 with the clinical response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. A significant correlation was observed between the CYP2C9*2 polymorphism and chemotherapy resistance (OR = 4.64; CI 95% = 1.01 – 20.91), as well as between CYP2C9*2 heterozygotes and chemotherapy resistance in women with nodal forms of breast cancer and a cancer hereditary load (OR = 15.50; CI 95% = 1.08 – 826.12) when the potential combined effects were examined. No significant association between chemotherapy resistance and the other examined genotypes and the potential combined clinical and tumour-related parameters were discovered. Conclusion In conclusion, CYP2C9*2 was associated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy resistance (OR = 4.64; CI 95% = 1.01 – 20.91) in the population of interest. PMID:22702493

  19. Asymptomatic bacteriuria screened by catheterized samples at pregnancy term in women undergoing cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Atacag, T; Yayci, E; Guler, T; Suer, K; Yayci, F; Deren, S; Cetin, A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of urinary tract infection (UTI) with urine samples obtained via catheterization among women undergoing cesarean delivery at term pregnancy. A cross-sectional study involving 159 women in whom cesarean delivery was conducted at term pregnancy after a regular follow-up from first to third trimester. For screening and diagnosis of UTI during antenatal period, the authors used dipstick test and microscopic urinalysis, and urine culture was used in the presence of symptomatic UTI unresponsive to initial antibiotic therapy. A urine sample was obtained immediately after insertion of Foley catheter for urine dipstick test, microscopic urinalysis, and culture during cesarean delivery. Obstetric and UTI data were recorded. Of 159 pregnant women, 95 (59.8%) did not develop UTI during antenatal care. There was no patient with symptomatic UTI at the admission for cesarean delivery. The authors found UTI with urine dipstick and microscopic urinalysis in 12 patients and of them, four patients had no history of UTI, and all the remaining eight patients had asymptomatic UTI during antenatal follow-up. UTI according to urine culture was encountered in three patients, two of them had one episode of UTI, and one had two episodes of UTI during antenatal follow-up. After regular antenatal follow-up screening with urine dipstick, microscopic urinalysis, and counseling of pregnant women regarding UTIs, the frequency of bacteriuria decreases considerably during cesarean delivery.

  20. Pain relief for women undergoing oocyte retrieval for assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Irene; Wang, Rui; Pearce, Emily; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2018-05-15

    Various methods of conscious sedation and analgesia (CSA) have been used during oocyte retrieval for assisted reproduction. The choice of agent has been influenced by the quality of sedation and analgesia and by concerns about possible detrimental effects on reproductive outcomes. To assess the effectiveness and safety of different methods of conscious sedation and analgesia for pain relief and pregnancy outcomes in women undergoing transvaginal oocyte retrieval. We searched; the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility specialised register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and CINAHL, and trials registers in November 2017. We also checked references, and contacted study authors for additional studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different methods and administrative protocols for conscious sedation and analgesia during oocyte retrieval. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Our primary outcomes were intraoperative and postoperative pain. Secondary outcomes included clinical pregnancy, patient satisfaction, analgesic side effects, and postoperative complications. We included 24 RCTs (3160 women) in five comparisons. We report the main comparisons below. Evidence quality was generally low or very low, mainly owing to poor reporting and imprecision.1. CSA versus other active interventions.All evidence for this comparison was of very low quality.CSA versus CSA plus acupuncture or electroacupunctureData show more effective intraoperative pain relief on a 0 to 10 visual analogue scale (VAS) with CSA plus acupuncture (mean difference (MD) 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18 to 1.82, 62 women) or electroacupuncture (MD 3.00, 95% CI 2.23 to 3.77, 62 women).Data also show more effective postoperative pain relief (0 to 10 VAS) with CSA plus acupuncture (MD 0.60, 95% CI -0.10 to 1.30, 61 women) or electroacupuncture (MD 2.10, 95% CI 1.40 to 2.80, 61 women).Evidence was insufficient to show whether clinical pregnancy

  1. Cumulative live-birth rate in women with polycystic ovary syndrome or isolated polycystic ovaries undergoing in-vitro fertilisation treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Hang Wun Raymond; Lee, Vivian Chi Yan; Lau, Estella Yee Lan; Yeung, William Shu Biu; Ho, Pak Chung; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu

    2014-02-01

    This retrospective cohort study evaluated the cumulative live birth rate in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and isolated polycystic ovaries (PCO) undergoing in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment. We studied 104 women with PCOS, 184 with PCO and 576 age-matched controls undergoing the first IVF treatment cycle between 2002 and 2009. The main outcome measure was cumulative live birth in the fresh plus all the frozen embryo transfers combined after the same stimulation cycle. Women in both the PCOS (n = 104) and isolated PCO groups (n = 184) had higher ovarian response parameters compared to age-matched controls (n = 576), and higher rates of withholding fresh embryo transfer for risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). The actual incidence of moderate to severe OHSS was significantly higher in the PCOS (11.5 %) but not the isolated PCO group (8.2%) compared to controls (4.9%). The live birth rates in the fresh cycle were comparable among the 3 groups, but the PCOS group had a significantly higher miscarriage rate compared to the other 2 groups. Cumulative live birth rate was significantly higher in the isolated PCO group (60.3%), but not the PCOS group (50.0%), compared to controls (47.5%). Women in the isolated PCO group, but not the PCOS group, had a significantly higher cumulative live birth rate compared to controls. This could be explained by the quantitative effect of the higher number of transferable embryos obtained per stimulation cycle, which is uncompromised by the unfavourable embryo competence otherwise observed in PCOS.

  2. Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration: neoadjuvant pathologic staging data.

    PubMed

    Rice, T W; Lerut, T E M R; Orringer, M B; Chen, L-Q; Hofstetter, W L; Smithers, B M; Rusch, V W; van Lanschot, J; Chen, K N; Davies, A R; D'Journo, X B; Kesler, K A; Luketich, J D; Ferguson, M K; Räsänen, J V; van Hillegersberg, R; Fang, W; Durand, L; Allum, W H; Cecconello, I; Cerfolio, R J; Pera, M; Griffin, S M; Burger, R; Liu, J-F; Allen, M S; Law, S; Watson, T J; Darling, G E; Scott, W J; Duranceau, A; Denlinger, C E; Schipper, P H; Ishwaran, H; Apperson-Hansen, C; DiPaola, L M; Semple, M E; Blackstone, E H

    2016-10-01

    To address uncertainty of whether pathologic stage groupings after neoadjuvant therapy (ypTNM) for esophageal cancer share prognostic implications with pathologic groupings after esophagectomy alone (pTNM), we report data-simple descriptions of patient characteristics, cancer categories, and non-risk-adjusted survival-for pathologically staged cancers after neoadjuvant therapy from the Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration (WECC). Thirty-three institutions from six continents submitted data using variables with standard definitions: demographics, comorbidities, clinical cancer categories, and all-cause mortality from first management decision. Of 7,773 pathologically staged neoadjuvant patients, 2,045 had squamous cell carcinoma, 5,686 adenocarcinoma, 31 adenosquamous carcinoma, and 11 undifferentiated carcinoma. Patients were older (61 years) men (83%) with normal (40%) or overweight (35%) body mass index, 0-1 Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (96%), and a history of smoking (69%). Cancers were ypT0 (20%), ypT1 (13%), ypT2 (18%), ypT3 (44%), ypN0 (55%), ypM0 (94%), and G2-G3 (72%); most involved the distal esophagus (80%). Non-risk-adjusted survival for yp categories was unequally depressed, more for earlier categories than later, compared with equivalent categories from prior WECC data for esophagectomy-alone patients. Thus, survival of patients with ypT0-2N0M0 cancers was intermediate and similar regardless of ypT; survival for ypN+ cancers was poor. Because prognoses for ypTNM and pTNM categories are dissimilar, prognostication should be based on separate ypTNM categories and groupings. These data will be the basis for the 8th edition cancer staging manuals following risk adjustment for patient, cancer, and treatment characteristics and should direct 9th edition data collection. © 2016 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  3. Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration: neoadjuvant pathologic staging data

    PubMed Central

    Rice, T. W.; Lerut, T. E. M. R.; Orringer, M. B.; Chen, L.-Q.; Hofstetter, W. L.; Smithers, B. M.; Rusch, V. W.; van Lanschot, J.; Chen, K. N.; Davies, A. R.; D’Journo, X. B.; Kesler, K. A.; Luketich, J. D.; Ferguson, M. K.; Rasanen, J. V.; van Hillegersberg, R.; Fang, W.; Durand, L.; Allum, W. H.; Cecconello, I.; Cerfolio, R. J.; Pera, M.; Griffin, S. M.; Burger, R.; Liu, J.-F.; Allen, M. S.; Law, S.; Watson, T. J.; Darling, G. E.; Scott, W. J.; Duranceau, A.; Denlinger, C. E.; Schipper, P. H.; Ishwaran, H.; Apperson-Hansen, C.; DiPaola, L. M.; Semple, M. E.; Blackstone, E. H.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY To address uncertainty of whether pathologic stage groupings after neoadjuvant therapy (ypTNM) for esophageal cancer share prognostic implications with pathologic groupings after esophagectomy alone (pTNM), we report data—simple descriptions of patient characteristics, cancer categories, and non–risk-adjusted survival—for pathologically staged cancers after neoadjuvant therapy from the Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration (WECC). Thirty-three institutions from six continents submitted data using variables with standard definitions: demographics, comorbidities, clinical cancer categories, and all-cause mortality from first management decision. Of 7,773 pathologically staged neoadjuvant patients, 2,045 had squamous cell carcinoma, 5,686 adenocarcinoma, 31 adenosquamous carcinoma, and 11 undifferentiated carcinoma. Patients were older (61 years) men (83%) with normal (40%) or overweight (35%) body mass index, 0–1 Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (96%), and a history of smoking (69%). Cancers were ypT0 (20%), ypT1 (13%), ypT2 (18%), ypT3 (44%), ypN0 (55%), ypM0 (94%), and G2-G3 (72%); most involved the distal esophagus (80%). Non–risk-adjusted survival for yp categories was unequally depressed, more for earlier categories than later, compared with equivalent categories from prior WECC data for esophagectomy-alone patients. Thus, survival of patients with ypT0-2N0M0 cancers was intermediate and similar regardless of ypT; survival for ypN+ cancers was poor. Because prognoses for ypTNM and pTNM categories are dissimilar, prognostication should be based on separate ypTNM categories and groupings. These data will be the basis for the 8th edition cancer staging manuals following risk adjustment for patient, cancer, and treatment characteristics and should direct 9th edition data collection. PMID:27731548

  4. The effects of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and an in-hospital exercise training programme on physical fitness and quality of life in locally advanced rectal cancer patients (The EMPOWER Trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Loughney, Lisa; West, Malcolm A; Kemp, Graham J; Rossiter, Harry B; Burke, Shaunna M; Cox, Trevor; Barben, Christopher P; Mythen, Michael G; Calverley, Peter; Palmer, Daniel H; Grocott, Michael P W; Jack, Sandy

    2016-01-13

    The standard treatment pathway for locally advanced rectal cancer is neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by surgery. Neoadjuvant CRT has been shown to decrease physical fitness, and this decrease is associated with increased post-operative morbidity. Exercise training can stimulate skeletal muscle adaptations such as increased mitochondrial content and improved oxygen uptake capacity, both of which are contributors to physical fitness. The aims of the EMPOWER trial are to assess the effects of neoadjuvant CRT and an in-hospital exercise training programme on physical fitness, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and physical activity levels, as well as post-operative morbidity and cancer staging. The EMPOWER Trial is a randomised controlled trial with a planned recruitment of 46 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer and who are undergoing neoadjuvant CRT and surgery. Following completion of the neoadjuvant CRT (week 0) prior to surgery, patients are randomised to an in-hospital exercise training programme (aerobic interval training for 6 to 9 weeks) or a usual care control group (usual care and no formal exercise training). The primary endpoint is oxygen uptake at lactate threshold ([Formula: see text] at [Formula: see text]) measured using cardiopulmonary exercise testing assessed over several time points throughout the study. Secondary endpoints include HRQoL, assessed using semi-structured interviews and questionnaires, and physical activity levels assessed using activity monitors. Exploratory endpoints include post-operative morbidity, assessed using the Post-Operative Morbidity Survey (POMS), and cancer staging, assessed by using magnetic resonance tumour regression grading. The EMPOWER trial is the first randomised controlled trial comparing an in-hospital exercise training group with a usual care control group in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. This trial will allow us to determine whether exercise training following

  5. Blood neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio predicts survival in locally advanced cancer stomach treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy FOLFOX 4.

    PubMed

    el Aziz, Lamiss Mohamed Abd

    2014-12-01

    Accurate predictors of survival for patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy are currently lacking. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in patients with stage III-IV gastric cancer who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy FOLFOX 4 as neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We enrolled 70 patients with stage III-IV cancer stomach in this study. Patients received FOLFOX 4 as neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Blood sample was collected before chemotherapy. The NLR was divided into two groups: high (>3) and low (≤ 3). Univariate analysis on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was performed using the Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests, and multivariate analysis was conducted using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. The toxicity was evaluated according to National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria. The univariate analysis showed that PFS and OS were both worse for patients with high NLR than for those with low NLR before chemotherapy (median PFS 28 and 44 months, respectively, P = 0.001; median OS 30 and 48 months, P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that NLRs before chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors of OS but not for progression-free survival. NLR may serve as a potential biomarker for survival prognosis in patients with stage III-IV gastric cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The FOLFOX 4 demonstrated an acceptable toxicity.

  6. In situ immune response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer predicts survival.

    PubMed

    Ladoire, Sylvain; Mignot, Grégoire; Dabakuyo, Sandrine; Arnould, Laurent; Apetoh, Lionel; Rébé, Cedric; Coudert, Bruno; Martin, Francois; Bizollon, Marie Hélène; Vanoli, André; Coutant, Charles; Fumoleau, Pierre; Bonnetain, Franck; Ghiringhelli, François

    2011-07-01

    Accumulating preclinical evidence suggests that anticancer immune responses contribute to the success of chemotherapy. However, the predictive value of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer remains unknown. We hypothesized that the nature of the immune infiltrate following neoadjuvant chemotherapy would predict patient survival. In a series of 111 consecutive HER2- and a series of 51 non-HER2-overexpressing breast cancer patients treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy, we studied by immunohistochemistry tumour infiltration by FOXP3 and CD8 T lymphocytes before and after chemotherapy. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox modelling were used to assess relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). A predictive scoring system using American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) pathological staging and immunological markers was created. Association of high CD8 and low FOXP3 cell infiltrates after chemotherapy was significantly associated with improved RFS (p = 0.02) and OS (p = 0.002), and outperformed classical predictive factors in multivariate analysis. A combined score associating CD8/FOXP3 ratio and pathological AJCC staging isolated a subgroup of patients with a long-term overall survival of 100%. Importantly, this score also identified patients with a favourable prognosis in an independent cohort of HER2-negative breast cancer patients. These results suggest that immunological CD8 and FOXP3 cell infiltrate after treatment is an independent predictive factor of survival in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and provides new insights into the role of the immune milieu and cancer. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Endometrial preparation for women undergoing embryo transfer with frozen embryos or embryos derived from donor oocytes.

    PubMed

    Glujovsky, Demián; Pesce, Romina; Fiszbajn, Gabriel; Sueldo, Carlos; Hart, Roger J; Ciapponi, Agustín

    2010-01-20

    If a fresh embryo, assisted reproductive technology procedure cycle is unsuccessful and there are frozen embryos available, a frozen-thawed embryo transfer is performed. In some specific cases women may undergo oocyte donation treatment. In both situations the endometrium is primed by the administration of estrogen and progesterone. To prevent the possibility of spontaneous ovulation, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists are frequently used. To evaluate the most effective endometrial preparation for women undergoing transfer with frozen embryos or embryos from donor oocytes with regard to the subsequent live birth rate. We searched the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and abstracts of reproductive societies' meetings (from inception). No language restrictions were applied. Experts in the field were contacted. Randomised controlled trials evaluating endometrial preparation in women undergoing fresh donor cycles and frozen embryo transfers. Two review authors independently applied the inclusion criteria, assessed trial risk of bias, and extracted data. Twenty two randomised controlled trials were included. Five studies analysed the use of a GnRH agonist versus control. No significant benefit was demonstrated when using GnRH agonists. No evidence of statistically significant benefit was found for one GnRH agonist over another, or vaginal over intramuscular progesterone administration. No difference in pregnancy rate was demonstrated when no treatment was compared to aspirin, steroids, ovarian stimulation, or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) prior to embryo transfer, although using hCG several times before the oocyte retrieval decreases the pregnancy rate. Finally, when oocyte recipients were studied further, starting progesterone on the day of oocyte pick-up (OPU) or the day after OPU produced a significantly higher

  8. The Comparison of the Advantages of Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy versus Postoperative Chemoradiotherapy: Outcomes in Esophageal Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Sadrizadeh, Ali; Bagheri, Reza; Soltani, Ehsan; Anvari, Kazem; Toussi, Mehdi Seilanian; Moadikhah, Soheila

    2018-03-01

    Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common type of cancer worldwide. For the treatment of which, surgical intervention alone or with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy or chemotherapy is recommended. In this study, we aimed to compare the benefits of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy versus postoperative chemoradiotherapy. We collected data regarding 325 patients admitted for esophageal cancer to Qaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, during 2006-2016. The participants were divided into two groups of neoadjuvant and postoperative adjuvant therapies. Chi-square, McNemar, Kaplan-Mayer, and multivariate regression tests were performed using SPSS. Gender, age, stage of the disease, tumor grade and location, disease histopathology, and the recurrence showed no significant differences between the two groups (P ˃ 0.05), but there was a significant association between the two types of treatment in terms of postoperative complications (P = 0.03). We followed up 147 patients postoperatively and found no significant differences between the groups (P ˃ 0.05). No conclusion can be drawn on whether there are any advantages in adjuvant chemoradiotherapy over neoadjuvant approaches. Further confirmatory trials, particularly randomized trials, are necessary before any recommendations can be made.

  9. Oncologic safety of breast conserving surgery after tumour downsizing by neoadjuvant therapy: a retrospective single centre cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fitzal, F; Riedl, O; Mittlböck, M; Dubsky, P; Bartsch, R; Steger, G; Jakesz, R; Gnant, M

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study is to analyse local recurrence rates in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (nCT) comparing mastecomized (MX) patients with those undergoing breast conserving therapy (BCT). Patients undergoing breast cancer surgery after nCT (3xCMF or 3-6xED) between 1995 and 2007 at our department were retrospectively analysed. The median follow up was 60 months for 308 patients. Patients who were downsized from MX to BCT with partial or complete response (n = 104) had a similar local recurrence free survival (LRFS) compared to patients who did not experience successful downsizing (n = 67) and finally undergoing MX (LRFS MX-BCT 81% vs. MX-MX 91%; P = 0.79). Uni- and multivariate analyses demonstrated that BCT itself was not an independent prognostic factor for a worse LRFS (P = 0.07 and 0.14). After no pathologic change or progressive disease the risk of local recurrence was increased in patients undergoing BCT (MX-BCT; n = 6 LRFS 66%) compared with MX (n = 44; LRFS 90%; P = 0.04). Overall survival in general was better for the BCT group (n = 197) compared with MX group (n = 111) regardless of clinical response (92% vs. 72%; P < 0.0001). Breast conservation, nodal negativity and low or medium grade histology were prognostic factors for an improved OS (P = 0.02, 0.01, 0.004). In conclusion, our study suggests that BCT is oncologically safe after tumour downsizing by nCT in patients primarily scheduled for mastectomy. These patients, however, should not be treated with breast conservation in the absence of any proven response after nCT.

  10. Reduction in PSA messenger-RNA expression and clinical recurrence in patients with prostatic cancer undergoing neoadjuvant therapy before radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, Marco; Lania, Caterina; Blanco, Salvatore; Baruffi, Marco; Mocellin, Simone

    2004-01-01

    Background We assessed the incidence of micro-metastases at surgical margins (SM) and pelvic lymph nodes (LN) in patients submitted to radical retropubic prostatectomy (RP) after neoadjuvant therapy (NT) or to RP alone. We compared traditional staging to molecular detection of PSA using Taqman-based quantitative real-time PCR (qrt-PCR) never used before for this purpose. Methods 29 patients were assigned to NT plus RP (arm A) or RP alone (arm B). Pelvic LN were dissected for qrt-PCR analysis, together with right and left lateral SM. Results 64,3% patients of arm B and 26.6% of arm A had evidence of PSA mRNA expression in LN and/or SM. 17,2% patients, all of arm B, had biochemical recurrence. Conclusions Qrt-PCR may be more sensitive, compared to conventional histology, in identifying presence of viable prostate carcinoma cells in SM and LN. Gene expression of PSA in surgical periprostatic samples might be considered as a novel and reliable indicator of minimal residual disease after NT. PMID:15104791

  11. Effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Raúl; Hijona, Elizabeth; Emparanza, José; Alústiza, Jose M; Hijona, Lander; Macarulla, Maria T; Portillo, Maria P; Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Beguiristain, Adolfo; Arenas, Juan; Bujanda, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Chemotherapy drugs often produce side effects in the liver. In recent years, there has been speculation about the ability to produce hepatic steatosis in patients treated with 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin. This prospective study examines whether these drugs can produce steatosis in patients with neoadjuvant treatment who were operated on for liver tumors. Our objective was to assess the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) on the development of hepatic steatosis in the healthy liver. This was a prospective study based on 32 patients divided into two groups. The presence of steatosis was assessed using a histological score (Kleiner classification) and a biochemical method (Folch method) for patients from both groups. A total of 14 patients (44%) had hepatic steatosis and half of these were in each group. The steatosis was moderate to severe (grades 2-3) in 4 patients (13%), 2 in each group. The mean levels of triglycerides in the liver were 33.38 and 29.94 mg/g in group I and group II, respectively, with the difference not being statistically significant. Almost half of the patients treated with NAC for liver neoplasia developed steatosis. Nevertheless, NAC does not seem to increase the risk of hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Quality of Life in Patients with Bladder Cancer Undergoing Ileal Conduit: A Comparison of Women Versus Men

    PubMed Central

    SIRACUSANO, SALVATORE; D’ELIA, CAROLINA; CERRUTO, MARIA ANGELA; SALEH, OMAR; SERNI, SERGIO; GACCI, MAURO; CICILIATO, STEFANO; SIMONATO, ALCHIEDE; PORCARO, ANTONIO; DE MARCO, VINCENZO; TALAMINI, RENATO; TOFFOLI, LAURA; VISALLI, FRANCESCO; NIERO, MAURO; LONARDI, CRISTINA; IMBIMBO, CIRO; VERZE, PAOLO; MIRONE, VINCENZO; RACIOPPI, MARCO; IAFRATE, MASSIMO; CACCIAMANI, GIOVANNI; DE MARCHI, DAVIDE; BASSI, PIERFRANCESCO; ARTIBANI, WALTER

    2018-01-01

    Background/Aim: Studies comparing health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) between patients who underwent radical cystectomy (RC) and those who underwent a different form of urinary diversion has not reached yet univocal and reliable conclusions. The aim of our study was to evaluate bladder-specific long-term HR-QoL after radical cystectomy and ileal conduit. Patients and Methods: A multicenter study was carried out on 145 consecutive patients (112 males and 33 females) undergoing RC and ileal conduit (IC). HR-QoL assessment was conducted using Italian versions of European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and EORTC BLM-30 questionnaires. Results: Our data showed that women who underwent IC presented greater problems than men in cognitive functioning (mean score±SD: 77.3±27.9 vs. 87.8±18.6) as well in future perspective (score: 42.4±34.4 vs. 21.9±24.6). Nevertheless, men undergoing IC had more problems in sexual functioning than women (score: 23.3±24.5 vs. 7.0±20.3) (all p<0.05). Conclusion: In our series, female patients presented a greater burden than male patients in cognitive functioning as well in future perspective, but lower concerns with regard to sexual function. PMID:29275311

  13. Quality of Life in Patients with Bladder Cancer Undergoing Ileal Conduit: A Comparison of Women Versus Men.

    PubMed

    Siracusano, Salvatore; D'Elia, Carolina; Cerruto, Maria Angela; Saleh, Omar; Serni, Sergio; Gacci, Mauro; Ciciliato, Stefano; Simonato, Alchiede; Porcaro, Antonio; DE Marco, Vincenzo; Talamini, Renato; Toffoli, Laura; Visalli, Francesco; Niero, Mauro; Lonardi, Cristina; Imbimbo, Ciro; Verze, Paolo; Mirone, Vincenzo; Racioppi, Marco; Iafrate, Massimo; Cacciamani, Giovanni; DE Marchi, Davide; Bassi, Pierfrancesco; Artibani, Walter

    2018-01-01

    Studies comparing health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) between patients who underwent radical cystectomy (RC) and those who underwent a different form of urinary diversion has not reached yet univocal and reliable conclusions. The aim of our study was to evaluate bladder-specific long-term HR-QoL after radical cystectomy and ileal conduit. A multicenter study was carried out on 145 consecutive patients (112 males and 33 females) undergoing RC and ileal conduit (IC). HR-QoL assessment was conducted using Italian versions of European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and EORTC BLM-30 questionnaires. Our data showed that women who underwent IC presented greater problems than men in cognitive functioning (mean score±SD: 77.3±27.9 vs. 87.8±18.6) as well in future perspective (score: 42.4±34.4 vs. 21.9±24.6). Nevertheless, men undergoing IC had more problems in sexual functioning than women (score: 23.3±24.5 vs. 7.0±20.3) (all p<0.05). In our series, female patients presented a greater burden than male patients in cognitive functioning as well in future perspective, but lower concerns with regard to sexual function. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  14. The Quality-of-Life Effects of Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, Joseph M., E-mail: jherma15@jhmi.edu; Narang, Amol K.; Griffith, Kent A.

    Purpose: Existing studies that examine the effect of neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer on patient quality of life (QOL) are limited. Our goals were to prospectively explore acute changes in patient-reported QOL endpoints during and after treatment and to establish a distribution of scores that could be used for comparison as new treatment modalities emerge. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were prospectively enrolled at 2 institutions. Validated cancer-specific European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC QLQ-CR30) and colorectal cancer-specific (EORTC QLQ-CR38 and EORTC QLQ-CR 29) QOL questionnaires were administered tomore » patients 1 month before they began CRT, at week 4 of CRT, and 1 month after they had finished CRT. The questionnaires included multiple symptom scales, functional domains, and a composite global QOL score. Additionally, a toxicity scale was completed by providers 1 month before the beginning of CRT, weekly during treatment, and 1 month after the end of CRT. Results: Global QOL showed a statistically significant and borderline clinically significant decrease during CRT (-9.50, P=.0024) but returned to baseline 1 month after the end of treatment (-0.33, P=.9205). Symptoms during treatment were mostly gastrointestinal (nausea/vomiting +9.94, P<.0001; and diarrhea +16.67, P=.0022), urinary (dysuria +13.33, P<.0001; and frequency +11.82, P=.0006) or fatigue (+16.22, P<.0001). These symptoms returned to baseline after therapy. However, sexual enjoyment (P=.0236) and sexual function (P=.0047) remained persistently diminished after therapy. Conclusions: Rectal cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant CRT may experience a reduction in global QOL along with significant gastrointestinal and genitourinary symptoms during treatment. Moreover, provider-rated toxicity scales may not fully capture this decrease in patient-reported QOL. Although most symptoms are

  15. [11C]Choline PET/CT in therapy response assessment of a neoadjuvant therapy in locally advanced and high risk prostate cancer before radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Schwarzenböck, Sarah M; Knieling, Anna; Souvatzoglou, Michael; Kurth, Jens; Steiger, Katja; Eiber, Matthias; Esposito, Irene; Retz, Margitta; Kübler, Hubert; Gschwend, Jürgen E; Schwaiger, Markus; Krause, Bernd J; Thalgott, Mark

    2016-09-27

    Recent studies have shown promising results of neoadjuvant therapy in prostate cancer (PC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of [11C]Choline PET/CT in therapy response monitoring after combined neoadjuvant docetaxel chemotherapy and complete androgen blockade in locally advanced and high risk PC patients. In [11C]Choline PET/CT there was a significant decrease of SUVmax and SUVmean (p = 0.004, each), prostate volume (p = 0.005) and PSA value (p = 0.003) after combined neoadjuvant therapy. MRI showed a significant prostate and tumor volume reduction (p = 0.003 and 0.005, respectively). Number of apoptotic cells was significantly higher in prostatectomy specimens of the therapy group compared to pretherapeutic biopsies and the control group (p = 0.02 and 0.003, respectively). 11 patients received two [11C]Choline PET/CT and MRI scans before and after combined neoadjuvant therapy followed by radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. [11C]Choline uptake, prostate and tumor volume, PSA value (before/after neoadjuvant therapy) and apoptosis (of pretherapeutic biopsy/posttherapeutic prostatectomy specimens of the therapy group and prostatectomy specimens of a matched control group without neoadjuvant therapy) were assessed and tested for differences and correlation using SPSS. The results showing a decrease in choline uptake after combined neoadjuvant therapy (paralleled by regressive and apoptotic changes in histopathology) confirm the potential of [11C]Choline PET/CT to monitor effects of neoadjuvant therapy in locally advanced and high risk PC patients. Further studies are recommended to evaluate its use during the course of neoadjuvant therapy for early response assessment.

  16. Response of glutathione S-transferase Pi (GSTP1) to neoadjuvant therapy in rectal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bedford, M R; Anathhanam, S; Saleh, D; Hickson, A; McGregor, A K; Boyle, K; Burke, D

    2012-12-01

    The response of rectal adenocarcinoma to neoadjuvant therapy is variable. Accurate prediction of response would enable selective administration of therapy. The enzyme glutathione S-transferase Pi (GSTP1) has been shown to influence response to therapy in some solid tumours. Few data are available for rectal cancer. The GSTP1 levels in rectal adenocarcinoma and adjacent normal mucosa were quantified before and after exposure to neoadjuvant therapy. Venous blood samples and biopsies of normal rectal mucosa and tumour were prospectively obtained from patients with primary rectal cancer. Patients were stratified by exposure to neoadjuvant therapy or surgery alone. GSTP1 was quantitatively measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ninety-two patients (54 men; median age 68 years) were recruited. The median GSTP1 level was significantly higher in rectal adenocarcinoma than in matched normal mucosa [6.59 μg/mg vs 4.57 μg/mg; P < 0.001]. The median tumour GSTP1 level was significantly lower in the therapy group compared with unmatched samples from the no-therapy group [4.47 μg/mg vs 7.76 μg/mg; P < 0.001]. The GSTP1 level is increased in rectal adenocarcinoma compared with adjacent normal mucosa. It decreases following neoadjuvant therapy. Future studies correlating pre-therapy GSTP1 levels with pathological response would be of interest. © 2012 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2012 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  17. [Effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on nutritional status of locally advanced gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Deng, Guopeng; Qu, Jianjun; Zhai, Shengyong; Shi, Yiran; Wang, Xinbo

    2018-03-25

    To study the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on nutritional status in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer. Cases inclusion criteria: (1)18-65 years old; (2) Gastric cancer confirmed by gastroscopic biopsy; (3) Preoperative TNM stage III( according to the AJCC stage 2000 standard; (4) Kamosfsky functional status score> 60 points; (5)Receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy voluntarily and signing the informed consent form. Case exclusion criteria: (1)Having contraindications of chemotherapy and surgery; (2) Suffering from heart, liver and kidney and other underlying diseases; (3) Concurrent with malignant diseases, wasting disease or other digestive diseases. According to the above criteria, clinical data of 73 patients of stage III( gastric cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy at Weifang People's Hospital from May 2015 to March 2017 were prospectively collected. The cohort study was adopted. After removing 3 patients who did not complete the chemotherapy, a total of 70 patients who completed the chemotherapy were included in the study. All the patients received SOX chemotherapy without nutritional support during chemotherapy. Changes of body composition and nutritional indicators were analyzed before and after chemotherapy, and according to the tumor regression after chemotherapy, patients were divided into response group (complete or sub-total tumor regression) and non-response group (tumor part, with or without a small amount of retreat) for stratified analysis. Of 70 gastric cancer patients, 40 were male and 30 were female with a age of (53.8±6.4) (28 to 64) years. There were 26 cases (37.1%) of stage III(a, 35 cases (50.0%) of stage III(b and 9 cases (12.9%) of stage III(c. There were 41 cases in response group and 29 cases in non-response group. Three patients (4.3%) were complete remission (CR) and 38 patients (54.3%) were partial remission (PR) in response group, while 23 cases (32.9%) were stable disease (SD) and 6 cases (8.6%) were progressive

  18. Anastomotic Complications After Ivor Lewis Esophagectomy in Patients Treated With Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Are Related to Radiation Dose to the Gastric Fundus

    SciTech Connect

    Vande Walle, Caroline; Ceelen, Wim P., E-mail: wim.ceelen@ugent.be; Boterberg, Tom

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) is increasingly used in locally advanced esophageal cancer. Some studies have suggested that CRT results in increased surgical morbidity. We assessed the influence of CRT on anastomotic complications in a cohort of patients who underwent CRT followed by Ivor Lewis esophagectomy. Patients and Methods: Clinical and pathologic data were collected from all patients treated with neoadjuvant CRT (36 Gy combined with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin) followed by Ivor Lewis esophagectomy. On the radiotherapy (RT) planning computed tomography scans, normal tissue volumes were drawn encompassing the proximal esophageal region and the gastric fundus. Within these volumes, dose-volume histogramsmore » were analyzed to generate the total dose to 50% of the volume (D{sub 50}). We studied the ability of the D{sub 50} to predict anastomotic complications (leakage, ischemia, or stenosis). Dose limits were derived using receiver operating characteristics analysis. Results: Fifty-four patients were available for analysis. RT resulted in either T or N downstaging in 51% of patients; complete pathologic response was achieved in 11%. In-hospital mortality was 5.4%, and major morbidity occurred in 36% of patients. Anastomotic complications (AC) developed in 7 patients (13%). No significant influence of the D{sub 50} on the proximal esophagus was noted on the anastomotic complication rate. The median D{sub 50} on the gastric fundus, however, was 33 Gy in patients with AC and 18 Gy in patients without AC (p = 0.024). Using receiver operating characteristics analysis, the D{sub 50} limit on the gastric fundus was defined as 29 Gy. Conclusions: In patients undergoing neoadjuvant CRT followed by Ivor Lewis esophagectomy, the incidence of AC is related to the RT dose on the gastric fundus but not to the dose received by the proximal esophagus. When planning preoperative RT, efforts should be made to limit the median dose on the gastric fundus to 29 Gy

  19. Impact of treatment characteristics on response of different breast cancer phenotypes: pooled analysis of the German neo-adjuvant chemotherapy trials.

    PubMed

    von Minckwitz, Gunter; Untch, Michael; Nüesch, Eveline; Loibl, Sibylle; Kaufmann, Manfred; Kümmel, Sherko; Fasching, Peter A; Eiermann, Wolfgang; Blohmer, Jens-Uwe; Costa, Serban Dan; Mehta, Keyur; Hilfrich, Jörn; Jackisch, Christian; Gerber, Bernd; du Bois, Andreas; Huober, Jens; Hanusch, Claus; Konecny, Gottfried; Fett, Werner; Stickeler, Elmar; Harbeck, Nadia; Müller, Volkmar; Jüni, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant treatment correlates with outcome in breast cancer. We determined whether characteristics of neoadjuvant therapy are associated with pCR. We used multi-level models, which accounted for heterogeneity in pCR across trials and trial arms, to analyze individual patient data from 3332 women included in 7 German neoadjuvant trials with uniform protocols. PCR was associated with an increase in number of chemotherapy cycles (odds ratio [OR] 1.2 for every two additional cycles; P = 0.009), with higher cumulative anthracycline doses (OR 1.6; P = 0.002), higher cumulative taxane doses (OR 1.6; P = 0.009), and with capecitabine containing regimens (OR 1.62; P = 0.022). Association of pCR with increase in number of cycles appeared more pronounced in hormone receptor (HR)-positive tumors (OR 1.35) than in HR-negative tumors (OR 1.04; P for interaction = 0.046). Effect of anthracycline dose was particularly pronounced in HER2-negative tumors (OR 1.61), compared to HER2-positive tumors (OR 0.83; P for interaction = 0.14). Simultaneous trastuzumab treatment in HER2-positive tumors increased odds of pCR 3.2-fold (P < 0.001). No association of pCR and number of trastuzumab cycles was found (OR 1.20, P = 0.39). Dosing characteristics appear important for successful treatment of breast cancer. Longer treatment, higher cumulative doses of anthracyclines and taxanes, and the addition of capecitabine and trastuzumab are associated with better response. Tailoring according to breast cancer phenotype might be possible: longer treatment in HR-positive tumors, higher cumulative anthracycline doses for HER2-negative tumors, shorter treatment at higher cumulative doses for triple-negative tumors, and limited number of preoperative trastuzumab cycles in HER2-positive tumors.

  20. Prevalence and predicting factors for anxiety in thai women with abnormal cervical cytology undergoing colposcopy.

    PubMed

    Jerachotechueantaveechai, Tanut; Charoenkwan, Kittipat; Wongpakaran, Nahathai

    2015-01-01

    To compare prevalence of anxiety in women with abnormal cervical cytology (Pap) undergoing colposcopy to that of women attending the outpatient clinic for check-up and to examine predicting factors. In this cross-sectional analytical study, 100 women with abnormal cervical cytology (abnormal Pap group) and 100 women who attended our outpatient clinic for check-up (control group) were recruited from June 2013 to January 2014. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was employed to determine anxiety in the participants with the score of ≥ 11 suggestive of clinically significant anxiety. The prevalence of anxiety and the mean HADS scores for anxiety were compared between the groups. For those with abnormal Pap, association between clinical factors and anxiety was assessed. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Median age was different between the groups, 44.0 years in the abnormal Pap group and 50.0 years in the control group (p=0.01). The proportion of participants who had more than one sexual partner was higher in the abnormal Pap group, 39.2% vs. 24.7% (p=0.03) and the prevalence of anxiety was significantly higher 14/100 (14.0%) vs. 3/100 (3.0%) (p < 0.01). The prevalence of depression was comparable between the groups. The mean HADS scores for anxiety and depression subscales were significantly higher in the abnormal Pap group, 6.6 vs. 4.8 (P < 0.01) and 3.9 vs. 3.1 (p=0.05), respectively. For the abnormal Pap group, no definite association between clinical factors and anxiety was demonstrated. The prevalence of anxiety in women with abnormal Pap awaiting colposcopy was significantly higher than that of normal controls. Special attention including thorough counselling, with use of information leaflets and psychological support, should be directed to these women.

  1. Evaluation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy effects on liver parenchyma in resected pediatric malignancies.

    PubMed

    Scuderi, Maria Grazia; Magro, Gaetano; Di Cataldo, Andrea; Pesce, Antonino; Scalora, Luisa; Vecchio, Giada Maria; Portale, Rosanna; Di Benedetto, Vincenzo; Puleo, Stefano

    2013-08-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal liver metastases in adults is responsible for chemotherapy-associated liver injury (CALI), characterized by steatosis, steatohepatitis, and sinusoidal obstruction syndrome. These alterations cause delayed operation to reduce the risk of hemorrhage, portal hypertension, and hepatic failure. Children with hepatic malignancies usually receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively whether the CALI occurs in this pediatric population. This study evaluated patients referred since 1996 for hepatic malignancies who received hepatectomy after chemotherapy. Liver resection material was reviewed, in order to investigate the presence of morphological changes compatible with the CALI in the peritumoral hepatic tissue. Twelve patients were recruited. All patients satisfied the inclusion criteria except one who did not receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Eleven children underwent surgery 1 month after the last chemotherapy cycle. All are alive disease-free. Histological examination of specimen revealed only mild changes such as diffuse swelling of hepatocytes and focal, mild portal inflammation. Severe hepatic changes such as steatosis, necrosis, or fibrosis were not identified. CALI-related morphological changes were not found in our patients. The absence of the CALI could be attributed to the younger age of patients (possible different response to stress) and/or to the different chemotherapy schedules compared to those in use for adults patients.

  2. ABC Transporters and Their Role in the Neoadjuvant Treatment of Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vaclavikova, Radka; Neoral, Cestmir; Vrba, Jiri; Aujesky, Rene; Matzenauer, Marcel; Melichar, Bohuslav

    2018-01-01

    The prognosis of esophageal cancer (EC) is poor, despite considerable effort of both experimental scientists and clinicians. The tri-modality treatment consisting of neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by surgery has remained the gold standard over decades, unfortunately, without significant progress in recent years. Suitable prognostic factors indicating which patients will benefit from this tri-modality treatment are missing. Some patients rapidly progress on the neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, which is thus useless and sometimes even harmful. At the same time, other patients achieve complete remission on neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and subsequent surgery may increase their risk of morbidity and mortality. The prognosis of patients ranges from excellent to extremely poor. Considering these differences, the role of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters, among other factors, in the EC response to chemotherapy may be more important compared, for example, with pancreatic cancer where all patients progress on chemotherapy regardless of the treatment or disease stage. This review surveys published literature describing the potential role of ATP-binding cassette transporters, the genetic polymorphisms, epigenetic regulations, and phenotypic changes in the prognosis and therapy of EC. The review provides knowledge base for further research of potential predictive biomarkers that will allow the stratification of patients into defined groups for optimal therapeutic outcome. PMID:29543757

  3. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of preoperative tranexamic acid among women undergoing elective cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Maged, Ahmed M; Helal, Omneya M; Elsherbini, Moutaz M; Eid, Marwa M; Elkomy, Rasha O; Dahab, Sherif; Elsissy, Maha H

    2015-12-01

    To study the efficacy and safety of preoperative intravenous tranexamic acid to reduce blood loss during and after elective lower-segment cesarean delivery. A single-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study was undertaken of women undergoing elective lower-segment cesarean delivery of a full-term singleton pregnancy at a center in Cairo, Egypt, between November 2013 and November 2014. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) using computer-generated random numbers to receive either 1g tranexamic acid or 5% glucose 15 minutes before surgery. Preoperative and postoperative complete blood count, hematocrit values, and maternal weight were used to calculate the estimated blood loss (EBL) during cesarean, which was the primary outcome. Analyses included women who received their assigned treatment, whose surgery was 90 minutes or less, and who completed follow-up. Analyses included 100 women in each group. Mean EBL was significantly higher in the placebo group (700.3 ± 143.9 mL) than in the tranexamic acid group (459.4 ±7 5.4 mL; P<0.001). Only six women, all in the placebo group, experienced an EBL of more than 1000 mL. There were no reports of thromboembolic events up to 4 weeks postoperatively. Preoperative administration of tranexamic acid safely reduces blood loss during elective lower-segment cesarean delivery. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry:ACTRN12615000312549. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. NEOADJUVANT СHEMOTHERAPY FOR LOCALLY ADVANCED BREAST CANCER.

    PubMed

    Fomenko, Y; Sirota, V; Omarova, I; Kabildina, N; Amanov, A

    2017-03-01

    93 patients with LABC (T2N1-2M0, T3N0-2M0) at the age from 35 to 75 years were included in the trial. With 2 stage - 60 patients, with the third stage - 33 patients. All patients were randomized into 3 groups: The I control group (n=36) received 4 courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy according to AC-protocol (doxorubicin 50 mg/m2, cyclophosphan-500 mg/m2 on day 1, repeated every three weeks) followed by radical mastectomy, 4 courses of adjuvant chemotherapy (АС), radiotherapy and hormone therapy if indicated. II investigative group (n=30) received the same CTX but in combination with Arglabin at a dose of 370 mg/m2 for 7 days. III investigative group (n=27) received Arglabin as monotherapy. The clinical efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy according to the scheme of AC and AC + arglabin was the same and significantly exceeded Arlabine monotherapy. There was no statistically significant difference in pathological response in patients of all three groups. Arglabin has very low toxicity and eliminates the toxic effects of standard chemotherapy.

  5. Standardizing of Pathology in Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bossuyt, Veerle; Symmans, W Fraser

    2016-10-01

    The use of neoadjuvant systemic therapy for the treatment of breast cancer patients is increasing. Pathologic response in the form of pathologic complete response (pCR) and grading systems of partial response, such as the residual cancer burden (RCB) system, gives valuable prognostic information for patients and is used as a primary endpoint in clinical trials. The breast cancer and pathology communities are responding with efforts to standardize pathology in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In this review, we summarize the challenges that postneoadjuvant systemic therapy surgical specimens pose and how pathologists and the multidisciplinary team can work together to optimize handling of these specimens. Multidisciplinary communication is essential. A single, standardized approach to macroscopic and microscopic pathologic examination makes it possible to provide reliable response information. This approach employs a map of tissue sections to correlate clinical, gross, microscopic, and imaging findings in order to report the presence of pCR (ypT0 ypN0 and ypT0/is ypN0) versus residual disease, the ypT and ypN stage using the current AJCC/UICC staging system, and the RCB.

  6. The use of berberine for women with polycystic ovary syndrome undergoing IVF treatment.

    PubMed

    An, Yuan; Sun, Zhuangzhuang; Zhang, Yajuan; Liu, Bin; Guan, Yuanyuan; Lu, Meisong

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have indicated that berberine is an effective insulin sensitizer with comparable activity to metformin (Diabetes 2006, 55, 2256). Reduced insulin sensitivity is reportedly a factor adversely affecting the outcome of IVF in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (Human Reproduction 2006, 21, 1416). Our objective was to evaluate the clinical, metabolic and endocrine effects of berberine vs metformin in PCOS women scheduled for IVF treatment and to explore the potential benefits to the IVF process. We performed a prospective study in 150 infertile women with PCOS undergoing IVF treatment. Patients were randomized to receive berberine, metformin or placebo tablets for 3 months before ovarian stimulation. The clinical, endocrine, metabolic parameters and the outcome of IVF. Compared with placebo, greater reductions in total testosterone, free androgen index, fasting glucose, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR, and increases in SHBG, were observed in the berberine and metformin groups. Three months of treatment with berberine or metformin before the IVF cycle increased the pregnancy rate and reduced the incidence of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Furthermore, treatment with berberine, in comparison with metformin, was associated with decreases in BMI, lipid parameters and total FSH requirement, and an increase in live birth rate with fewer gastrointestinal adverse events. Berberine and metformin treatments prior to IVF improved the pregnancy outcome by normalizing the clinical, endocrine and metabolic parameters in PCOS women. Berberine has a more pronounced therapeutic effect and achieved more live births with fewer side effects than metformin. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Increased pathological complete response rate after a long-term neoadjuvant letrozole treatment in postmenopausal oestrogen and/or progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Allevi, G; Strina, C; Andreis, D; Zanoni, V; Bazzola, L; Bonardi, S; Foroni, C; Milani, M; Cappelletti, M R; Gussago, F; Aguggini, S; Giardini, R; Martinotti, M; Fox, S B; Harris, A L; Bottini, A; Berruti, A; Generali, D

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to determine the optimal scheduling of 2.5 mg daily letrozole in neoadjuvant breast cancer patients to obtain pathological complete response (pathCR) and assess Ki-67 expression as an early predictor of response. Patients and methods: This single institution study comprised 120 oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive postmenopausal women with primary breast cancer (clinical stage ⩾T2, N0–1), from three sequential cohorts (cohort A of 40, cohort B of 40 and cohort C of 40 patients, respectively) based on different duration of the neoadjuvant letrozole. Biological markers such as ER, progesterone receptor, HER2 and Ki-67 expression were tested at diagnosis and at definitive surgery. Results: A total of 89 patients (75.4%) achieved an objective response with 44 (37.3%) clinical CRs and 45 (38.1%) partial responses. The clinical CRs were significantly observed in cohort C (23 out of 40 patients, 57.5%) and B (16 out of 38 patients, 42.1%) compared with cohort A (5 out of 40 patients, 12.5%) (P-value for trend <0.001). Letrozole induced a similar significant reduction in Ki-67 index after treatment in all cohorts. The pathCR rate was significantly more frequent in cohort C (7 out of 40 patients, 17.5%) than in cohort A (1 out of 40 patients, 2.5%) and B (2 out of 40 patients, 5.0%) (P-value for trend <0.04). Conclusion: One-year neoadjuvant letrozole therapy leads to a higher pathCR rate and may be the optimal length of drug exposure. PMID:23579222

  8. Laparoscopic surgery is feasible for the treatment of rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ju, Wencui; Luo, Xiaoyong; Han, Baowei

    2016-09-01

    This case-control study aimed to clarify the short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemo radiotherapy compared with conventional open resection. Between January 2008 and December 2014, a series of 227 patients with rectal cancer underwent radical surgery after neoadjuvant chemo radiotherapy. Age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, clinical stage, and type of resection were matched by propensity scoring and 106 patients (53 patients with laparoscopic total mesorectal excision and 53 patients with open resection) were selected for analysis. There were no significant differences in the clinicopathological features between the two groups. With regard to short-term outcomes, blood loss, postoperative analgesia and hospital stay were significantly shorter in the laparoscopy group than in the open group, whereas operative time was significantly longer in the laparoscopy group than in the open group. The overall morbidity was similar in the two groups. There were no significant differences in the 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates between the two groups. In summary, laparoscopic surgery may be both feasible and efficient compared with open resection for rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemo radiotherapy.

  9. Misrecognition of need: women's experiences of and explanations for undergoing cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Tully, Kristin P; Ball, Helen L

    2013-05-01

    International rates of operative delivery are consistently higher than the World Health Organization determined is appropriate. This suggests that factors other than clinical indications contribute to cesarean section. Data presented here are from interviews with 115 mothers on the postnatal ward of a hospital in Northeast England during February 2006 to March 2009 after the women underwent either unscheduled or scheduled cesarean childbirth. Using thematic content analysis, we found women's accounts of their experiences largely portrayed cesarean section as everything that they had wanted to avoid, but necessary given their situations. Contrary to popular suggestion, the data did not indicate impersonalized medical practice, or that cesareans were being performed 'on request.' The categorization of cesareans into 'emergency' and 'elective' did not reflect maternal experiences. Rather, many unscheduled cesareans were conducted without indications of fetal distress and most scheduled cesareans were not booked because of 'choice.' The authoritative knowledge that influenced maternal perceptions of the need to undergo operative delivery included moving forward from 'prolonged' labor and scheduling cesarean as a prophylactic to avoid anticipated psychological or physical harm. In spontaneously defending themselves against stigma from the 'too posh to push' label that is currently common in the media, women portrayed debate on the appropriateness of cesarean childbirth as a social critique instead of a health issue. The findings suggest the 'need' for some cesareans is due to misrecognition of indications by all involved. The factors underlying many cesareans may actually be modifiable, but informed choice and healthful outcomes are impeded by lack of awareness regarding the benefits of labor on the fetal transition to extrauterine life, the maternal desire for predictability in their parturition and recovery experiences, and possibly lack of sufficient experience for

  10. A rationale for biopsying embryos reaching the morula stage on Day 6 in women undergoing preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Irani, M; Zaninovic, N; Canon, C; O'Neill, C; Gunnala, V; Zhan, Q; Palermo, G; Reichman, D; Rosenwaks, Z

    2018-05-01

    Is there a benefit to assessing ploidy in delayed embryos reaching the morula stage on Day 6 of development? Day-6 morulae should be considered for biopsy in women <40 years old undergoing preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) because they are associated with acceptable, albeit reduced, euploidy and implantation rates (IRs). Embryo development and morphology have been shown to correlate with aneuploidy and pregnancy rates. During PGT-A cycles, embryos are biopsied if they reach the blastocyst stage by Day 5 or 6, whereas slow-developing embryos are typically deselected and discarded. Determining the viability of slow-developing embryos is particularly relevant for women undergoing PGT-A who have diminished ovarian reserve and a relatively low blastocyst yield. This is a retrospective cohort study that was performed at an academic medical center. Patients who underwent IVF with PGT-A were reviewed for inclusion. A total of 1615 cycles were reviewed. All cycles which involved a biopsy of a cavitating or compacted morula on Day 6 were included (n = 763). PGT-A was performed using array comparative genomic hybridization. The aneuploidy and implantation of morulae were compared to those of blastocysts originating from the same couples. The study included 763 cycles in which 1260 morulae and 3014 blastocysts were biopsied. Women were divided into four age groups (<35, 35-37, 38-39 and ≥40 years): the prevalence of aneuploidy was consistently lower among blastocysts (40.3, 50.8, 56 and 78.3%, respectively) than among compacted morulae (68.7, 75.5, 88.9 and 98.1%, respectively) and cavitating morulae (57, 66.4, 81 and 91.6%, respectively) throughout the different age groups (P < 0.001). Of note, the majority of compacted morulae (98.1%) and cavitating morulae (91.6%) were aneuploid in women aged ≥40 years. Compacted and cavitating morulae had significantly higher rates of complex aneuploidy, which involves ≥3 chromosomes, compared with blastocysts (P

  11. Anxiety levels in women undergoing prenatal maternal serum screening for Down syndrome: the effect of a fast reporting system by mobile phone short-message service.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Po-Jen; Wu, Tzong-Lin; Shaw, Sheng-Wen; Chueh, Ho-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Tao; Hsu, Jenn-Jeih; Hsieh, T'sang-T'ang; Soong, Yung-Kuei

    2008-05-01

    To study the effect of fast reporting by mobile phone short-message service (SMS) on anxiety levels in women undergoing prenatal biochemical screening for Down syndrome. From January 2005 to December 2006, 2782 women undergoing prenatal biochemical serum screening were randomized into fast reporting by SMS (group A) or without mobile phone reporting (group B). Anxiety levels were measured with the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) before prenatal screen testing, before the appointed clinic (when the SMS report had already been given to group A), and 3 days after the appointed clinic (when the full screening report had been given to groups A and B). For screen-negative women, anxiety scores did not differ between groups before prenatal screen testing and 3 days after the appointed clinic. The state-anxiety scores measured on the second occasion had declined significantly in group A. The state-anxiety scores in both groups increased over the 3-week period after being informed of positive screen results. The trait- and state-anxiety scores at all points did not differ between the two groups of screen-positive women. The provision of a routine reporting system plus additional SMS report revealed some overall benefits in reducing anxiety among women with screen-negative result. 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  12. A Feasibility Study of Neoadjuvant XELOX Without Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Lower Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Takashi; Manabe, Tatsuya; Inoue, Shigetaka; Ienaga, Jun; Yamanaka, Naoki; Egami, Takuya; Ishikawa, Mikimasa; Konomi, Hiroyuki; Ikubo, Akashi; Nagayoshi, Kinuko; Nakamura, Masafumi; Tanaka, Masao

    2016-02-01

    This study was planned to evaluate the efficacy and safety of preoperative capecitabine and oxaliplatin (XELOX) without radiation in patients with locally advanced lower rectal cancer. Patients with clinical stage II/III lower rectal cancer underwent three cycles of XELOX followed by radical surgery. The primary end-point was the R0 resection rate. Thirty-one patients were recruited between February 2012 and August 2014. The completion rate of neoadjuvant chemotherapy was 96.5% among the 29 patients who received it; the remaining two refused chemotherapy and underwent immediate surgery. Grade 3-4 adverse events occurred in nine patients (31%). All 29 patients who received chemotherapy underwent radical resection. The R0 resection rate was 96.5% among these 29 patients. Pathological complete responses were achieved in three patients (10.3%) and downstaging occurred in 13 (44.8%). This pilot study found that neoadjuvant XELOX for locally advanced lower rectal cancer is feasible and safe. This neoadjuvant treatment improved resection margin status. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  13. Sarcopenia during neoadjuvant therapy for oesophageal cancer: characterising the impact on muscle strength and physical performance.

    PubMed

    Guinan, Emer M; Doyle, S L; Bennett, A E; O'Neill, L; Gannon, J; Elliott, J A; O'Sullivan, J; Reynolds, J V; Hussey, J

    2018-05-01

    Preoperative chemo(radio)therapy for oesophageal cancer (OC) may have an attritional impact on body composition and functional status, impacting postoperative outcome. Physical decline with skeletal muscle loss has not been previously characterised in OC and may be amenable to physical rehabilitation. This study characterises skeletal muscle mass and physical performance from diagnosis to post-neoadjuvant therapy in patients undergoing preoperative chemo(radio)therapy for OC. Measures of body composition (axial computerised tomography), muscle strength (handgrip), functional capacity (walking distance), anthropometry (weight, height and waist circumference), physical activity, quality-of-life and nutritional status were captured prospectively. Sarcopenia status was defined as pre-sarcopenic (low muscle mass only), sarcopenic (low muscle mass and low muscle strength or function) or severely sarcopenic (low muscle mass and low muscle strength and low muscle function). Twenty-eight participants were studied at both time points (mean age 62.86 ± 8.18 years, n = 23 male). Lean body mass reduced by 4.9 (95% confidence interval 3.2 to 6.7) kg and mean grip strength reduced by 4.3 (2.5 to 6.1) kg from pre- to post-neoadjuvant therapy. Quality-of-life scores capturing gastrointestinal symptoms improved. Measures of anthropometry, walking distance, physical activity and nutritional status did not change. There was an increase in sarcopenic status from diagnosis (pre-sarcopenic n = 2) to post-treatment (pre-sarcopenic n = 5, severely sarcopenic n = 1). Despite maintenance of body weight, functional capacity and activity habits, participants experience declines in muscle mass and strength. Interventions involving exercise and/or nutritional support to build muscle mass and strength during preoperative therapy, even in patients who are functioning normally, are warranted.

  14. Mental distress and personality in women undergoing GnRH agonist versus GnRH antagonist protocols for assisted reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    Stenbæk, D S; Toftager, M; Hjordt, L V; Jensen, P S; Holst, K K; Bryndorf, T; Holland, T; Bogstad, J; Pinborg, A; Hornnes, P; Frokjaer, V G

    2015-01-01

    Do mental distress and mood fluctuations in women undergoing GnRH agonist and GnRH antagonist protocols for assisted reproductive technology (ART) differ depending on protocol and the personality trait, neuroticism? ART treatment did not induce elevated levels of mental distress in either GnRH antagonist or agonist protocols but neuroticism was positively associated with increased mental distress, independent of protocols. ART treatment may increase mental distress by mechanisms linked to sex hormone fluctuations. General psychological characteristics, such as personality traits indexing negative emotionality, e.g. neuroticism, are likely to affect mental distress during ART treatment. A total of 83 women undergoing their first ART cycle were consecutively randomized 1:1 to GnRH antagonist (n = 42) or GnRH agonist (n = 41) protocol. The study population was a subgroup of a larger ongoing Danish clinical randomized trial and was established as an add-on in the period 2010-2012. Women in the GnRH antagonist protocol received daily injections with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone, Puregon(®) and subcutaneous injections with GnRH antagonist, Orgalutran(®). Women in the GnRH agonist protocol received nasal administration of the GnRH agonist, Synarela(®) and subcutaneous injections with FSH, Puregon(®). The study design did not allow for a blinding procedure. All women self-reported the Profile of Mood States, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Symptom Checklist-92-Revised, and the Major Depression Inventory questionnaires, at baseline, at ART cycle day 35, on the day of oocyte pick-up, and on the day of hCG testing. Also, a series of Profile of Mood States were reported daily during pharmacological treatment to monitor mood fluctuations. The personality trait Neuroticism was assessed at baseline by the self-reported NEO-PI-R questionnaire. ART did not induce within- or between-protocol changes in any of the applied measures of mental distress. However, the Gn

  15. Central pathology review with two-stage quality assurance for pathological response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the ARTemis Trial.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jeremy St John; Provenzano, Elena; Hiller, Louise; Dunn, Janet; Blenkinsop, Clare; Grybowicz, Louise; Vallier, Anne-Laure; Gounaris, Ioannis; Abraham, Jean; Hughes-Davies, Luke; McAdam, Karen; Chan, Stephen; Ahmad, Rizvana; Hickish, Tamas; Houston, Stephen; Rea, Daniel; Caldas, Carlos; Bartlett, John Ms; Cameron, David Allan; Hayward, Richard Laurence; Earl, Helena Margaret

    2017-08-01

    The ARTemis Trial tested standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy±bevacizumab in the treatment of HER2-negative early breast cancer. We compare data from central pathology review with report review and also the reporting behavior of the two central pathologists. Eight hundred women with HER2-negative early invasive breast cancer were recruited. Response to chemotherapy was assessed from local pathology reports for pathological complete response in breast and axillary lymph nodes. Sections from the original core biopsy and surgical excision were centrally reviewed by one of two trial pathologists blinded to the local pathology reports. Pathologists recorded response to chemotherapy descriptively and also calculated residual cancer burden. 10% of cases were double-reported to compare the central pathologists' reporting behavior. Full sample retrieval was obtained for 681 of the 781 patients (87%) who underwent surgery within the trial and were evaluable for pathological complete response. Four hundred and eighty-three (71%) were assessed by JSJT, and 198 (29%) were assessed by EP. Residual cancer burden calculations were possible in 587/681 (86%) of the centrally reviewed patients, as 94/681 (14%) had positive sentinel nodes removed before neoadjuvant chemotherapy invalidating residual cancer burden scoring. Good concordance was found between the two pathologists for residual cancer burden classes within the 65-patient quality assurance exercise (kappa 0.63 (95% CI: 0.57-0.69)). Similar results were obtained for the between-treatment arm comparison both from the report review and the central pathology review. For pathological complete response, report review was as good as central pathology review but for minimal residual disease, report review overestimated the extent of residual disease. In the ARTemis Trial central pathology review added little in the determination of pathological complete response but had a role in evaluating low levels of residual disease. Calculation

  16. Breast cancer sensitivity to neoadjuvant therapy in BRCA1 and CHEK2 mutation carriers and non-carriers.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Werner; Sokolenko, Anna P; Potapova, Olga N; Bessonov, Alexandr A; Ivantsov, Alexandr O; Laptiev, Sergey A; Zaitseva, Olga A; Yatsuk, Olga S; Matsko, Dmitry E; Semiglazova, Tatiana Yu; Togo, Alexandr V; Imyanitov, Evgeny N

    2014-12-01

    Breast carcinomas caused by inheritance of cancer-predisposing germ-line mutations have specific bioclinical features. This study aimed to analyze the efficacy of conventional cytotoxic treatment in BRCA1 and CHEK2 mutation carriers and non-carriers. The study included 415 Russian breast cancer patients aged 50 years or younger, who were subjected to various standard schemes of neoadjuvant therapy. The choice of therapy was done without the knowledge of the mutations status, because DNA testing was performed retrospectively using the archival tissue samples. 19 BRCA1 (4.6%) and 8 CHEK2 (1.9%) heterozygous genotypes were identified. BRCA1 mutation carriers achieved pathological complete response more frequently than non-carriers [6/19 (31.6%) vs. 46/388 (11.9%), p = 0.024]; this effect was limited to women treated by anthracycline-based therapy without taxanes [5/9 (55.6%) vs. 28/247 (11.3%), p = 0.002] and was not observed in any of 7 BRCA1 carriers receiving taxane-containing regimens. CHEK2 heterozygotes did not experience pathological complete response and showed lower frequency of objective clinical responses as compared to mutation non-carriers [4/8 (50%) vs. 333/388 (85.5%), p = 0.020]; the efficacy of neoadjuvant therapy was particularly poor in CHEK2 carriers receiving anthracyclines without taxanes. This study provides evidence for distinct sensitivity of BRCA1 and CHEK2 mutation-driven breast carcinomas to standard chemotherapeutic schemes.

  17. Association of adipokines and adhesion molecules with indicators of obesity in women undergoing mammography screening

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The soluble cell adhesion molecules and adipokines are elevated in patients with obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, breast cancer and atherosclerosis. Objective To investigate the relationship between anthropometric profile, dietary intake, lipid profile and fasting glycemia with serum levels of adipokines (adiponectin and PAI-1) and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) in women without breast cancer undergoing routine mammographic screening. Design Transversal study. Subjects One hundred and forty-five women over 40-years old participated in this study. Results In 39.3% of cases the BMI was above 30 kg/m2; 46.9% had hypertension, 14.5% had type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, 31.7% had dyslipidemia and 88.3% presented a waist-to-hip ratio ≥ 0.8. A linear correlation was found between serum levels of PAI-1 and triglycerides, between serum levels of PAI-1 and WHR and between serum levels of VCAM-1 and BMI. Conclusion We found a high prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. PAI-1 and VCAM-1 levels were correlated with clinical indicators of obesity and overweight. PMID:23113882

  18. Moral dilemmas of women undergoing pregnancy termination for medical reasons in Poland.

    PubMed

    Zaręba, Kornelia; Ciebiera, Michał; Bińkowska, Małgorzata; Jakiel, Grzegorz

    2017-08-01

    We explored the religious views and dilemmas of Polish women making the decision to terminate a pregnancy. The article discusses the highly restrictive legislation and significant influence of the Church on the lives of Polish citizens. This study was designed to investigate the effect of religious and political beliefs, social and moral conditioning and professional support on the decision to abort a fetus. A 65-item questionnaire was administered to 60 participants at the time of their pregnancy termination. Pregnancy termination was performed outside the resident county in 32% of cases. Approximately 88% of respondents declared themselves Catholic, but only 22% intended to admit to the pregnancy termination during confession. Five percent of respondents feared the reaction of the priest, while the remaining respondents did not perceive termination of pregnancy for medical reasons as a sin. Of the women who had previously opposed pregnancy termination, 27% changed their mind once they were personally involved. The decision to abort a pregnancy for medical reasons is sensitive to religious and social determinants, especially in the current political situation in which abortion may become prohibited in Poland. The high response rate (100%) was probably the result of the patients' attitudes: they repeatedly emphasised they were thankful for the help and empathy of the medical personnel and for being allowed to undergo the procedure. In Poland, the majority of centres use conscience clauses to justify their refusal to terminate a pregnancy.

  19. Venous thromboembolism in women undergoing pelvic reconstructive surgery with mechanical prophylaxis alone.

    PubMed

    Montoya, T Ignacio; Leclaire, Edgar L; Oakley, Susan H; Crane, Andrea K; Mcpencow, Alexandra; Cichowski, Sara; Rahn, David D

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was determine the frequency of symptomatic perioperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) and risk factor(s) associated with VTE occurrence in women undergoing elective pelvic reconstructive surgery using only intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) for VTE prophylaxis. A multi-center case-cohort retrospective review was conducted at six clinical sites over a 66-month period. All sites utilize IPC as standard VTE prophylaxis for urogynecological surgery. VTE cases occurring during the same hospitalization and up to 6 weeks postoperatively were identified by ICD9 code query. Four controls were temporally matched to each case. Information collected included demographics, medical history, route of surgery, operative time, and intraoperative characteristics. Univariate and multivariate backward stepwise logistic regression analyses were performed to identify potential risk factors for VTE. Symptomatic perioperative VTE was diagnosed in 27 subjects from a cohort of 10,627 women who underwent elective urogynecological surgery (0.25 %). Univariate analysis identified surgical route (laparotomy vs others), type of surgery ("major" vs "minor"), history of gynecological cancer, surgery time, and patient age as risk factors for VTE (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis identified increased frequency of VTE with laparotomy, age ≥ 70, and surgery duration ≥ 5 h. In our study cohort, the frequency of symptomatic perioperative VTE was low. Laparotomy, age ≥ 70 years, and surgery duration ≥ 5 h were associated with VTE occurrence.

  20. Application value of biplane transrectal ultrasonography plus ultrasonic elastosonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in preoperative T staging after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ying; Xu, Dong; Ju, Haixing; Yang, Chen; Wang, Liping; Wang, Jinming; Hazle, John D; Wang, Dongguo

    2018-07-01

    To determine the accuracy of biplane transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) plus ultrasonic elastosonography (UE) and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in preoperative T staging after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer. Fifty-three patients with advanced lower rectal cancer were examined before and after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy with use of TRUS plus UE and CEUS and were diagnosed as having T stage disease. We compared ultrasonic T stages before and after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and analyzed any changes. Also, with postoperative pathological stages as the gold standard, we compared ultrasonic and pathological T stages and determined their consistency by the kappa statistic. For patients with rectal cancer, ultrasonic T stages were lower after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy than before, with a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). The posttreatment downstaging rate was 39.6% (21/53). A total of 84.9% received correct staging with use of biplane TRUS plus UE and CEUS in the evaluation of preoperative T staging after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer, which was highly consistent with that of pathological staging (κ = 0.768, P < 0.05). Its sensitivities were 80.0%, 50.0%, 75.0%, 96.3%, and 100% in the diagnoses of stages T0 to T4 rectal cancers, respectively; the specificities were 95.4%, 97.9%, 95.1%, 88.5%, and 100% at stages T0 to T4, respectively. Biplane TRUS plus UE and CEUS can be used to accurately perform preoperative T staging in rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy; in addition, this procedure well reflects changes in depth of rectal cancer invasion into the intestinal wall before and after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. It is of great value in clinically evaluating the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, in selecting therapeutic regimens, and in avoiding overtreatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in women of different ethnicities undergoing testing for hereditary breast-ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Michael J.; Reid, Julia E.; Burbidge, Lynn A.; Pruss, Dmitry; Deffenbaugh, Amie M.; Frye, Cynthia; Wenstrup, Richard J.; Ward, Brian E.; Scholl, Thomas A.; Noll, Walter W.

    2009-01-01

    Background In women at increased risk for breast and ovarian cancer, the identification of a BRCA1/2 mutation has important implications for screening and prevention counseling. Uncertainty regarding the role of BRCA1/2 testing in high-risk women from diverse ancestral backgrounds exists due to variability in prevalence estimates of deleterious (disease-associated) mutations in non-White populations. We examined the prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations in an ethnically diverse group of women referred for genetic testing. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to assess the prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations in a group of non-Ashkenazi Jewish women undergoing genetic testing. Results From 1996-2006, 46,276 women meeting study criteria underwent DNA full-sequence analysis of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Deleterious mutations were identified in 12.5% of subjects, and recurrent deleterious mutations (prevalence > 2%) were identified in all ancestral groups. Women of non-European descent were younger (45.9 yrs, SD11.6) than European (50.0 yrs, SD11.9)(p<0.001). Women of African (15.6%)[OR 1.3(1.1-1.5)] and Latin American (14.8%)[OR 1.2(1.1-1.4)] ancestries had a significantly higher prevalence of deleterious BRCA1/2 mutations compared to women of Western European ancestry (12.1%), primarily due to an increased prevalence of BRCA1 mutations in these two groups. Non-European ethnicity was strongly associated with having a variant of uncertain significance; however, re-classification decreased variant reporting (12.8%→5.9%), with women of African ancestry experiencing the largest decline (58%). Conclusions Mutation prevalence is high among women referred for clinical BRCA1/2 testing, and risk is similar across diverse ethnicities. BRCA1/2 testing is integral to cancer risk assessment in all high-risk women. PMID:19241424

  2. Quality of life in women undergoing urinary diversion for bladder cancer: results of a multicenter study among long-term disease-free survivors.

    PubMed

    Gacci, Mauro; Saleh, Omar; Cai, Tommaso; Gore, John L; D'Elia, Carolina; Minervini, Andrea; Masieri, Lorenzo; Giannessi, Claudia; Lanciotti, Michele; Varca, Virginia; Simonato, Alchiede; Serni, Sergio; Carmignani, Giorgio; Carini, Marco

    2013-03-12

    Women undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) and urinary diversion for bladder cancer experience substantial limitations in health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, the level of discomfort caused by different urinary diversion has been never evaluated in long term survivors. The aim of this multicenter study is to evaluate differences in HRQOL among recurrence-free women undergoing cutaneous ureterostomy (CUS), Bricker's ileal conduit (BK-IC) and Orthotopic neobladder VIP (ONB-VIP) in disease-free females treated with radical cystectomy (RC), with long-term follow up (mean 60.1 months; range 36-122 months). All consecutively treated female patients from two urological institutions who underwent RC and urinary diversion from January 2000 to December 2008, with no evidence of tumor recurrence at a minimum follow up of 36 months, were included. Patients received the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) generic (QLQ-C30) and bladder cancer-specific instruments (QLQ-BLM30) and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy for Bladder Cancer (FACT-BL). Clinical data and questionnaire results were analyzed in order to evaluate the HRQOL differences among diversion groups. We identified 37 females (median age: 68, range 45-82 years), including 12 status-post CUS, 16 who underwent BK-IC, and 9 who underwent ONB-VIP. Most were healthy (24/37 with no comorbidities, 4/37 Charlson 1-2, 9/37 Charlson 3 or greater - we didn't considered bladder cancer in Charlson evaluation because bladder cancer was the main inclusion criteria). Women undergoing CUS endorsed worse FACT-BL scores compared with BK-IC and ONB-VIP patients, worse HRQOL regarding physical and emotional well-being (p=0.008 and p=0.02, respectively), and a trend toward worse EORTC QLQ-C30 scores for appetite loss and fatigue (p=0.05 for both). In our study long-term disease-free females treated with CUS endorsed worse HRQOL compared with women who underwent BK-IC or ONB-VIP, mostly due

  3. Pain relief for women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia undergoing colposcopy treatment.

    PubMed

    Gajjar, Ketan; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre P L; Bryant, Andrew; Owens, Gemma L

    2016-07-18

    Pre-cancerous lesions of cervix (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)) are usually treated with excisional or ablative procedures. In the UK, the National Health Service (NHS) cervical screening guidelines suggest that over 80% of treatments should be performed in an outpatient setting (colposcopy clinics). Furthermore, these guidelines suggest that analgesia should always be given prior to laser or excisional treatments. Currently various pain relief strategies are employed that may reduce pain during these procedures. To assess whether the administration of pain relief (analgesia) reduces pain during colposcopy treatment and in the postoperative period. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1950 to March week 3, 2016) and Embase (1980 to week 12, 2016) for studies of any design relating to analgesia for colposcopic management. We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings, reference lists of included studies and contacted experts in the field. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared all types of pain relief before, during or after outpatient treatment to the cervix, in women with CIN undergoing loop excision, laser ablation, laser excision or cryosurgery in an outpatient colposcopy clinic setting. We independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We entered data into Review Manager 5 and double checked it for accuracy. Where possible, we expressed results as mean pain score and standard error of the mean with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and synthesised data in a meta-analysis. We included 19 RCTs (1720 women) of varying methodological quality in the review. These trials compared a variety of interventions aimed at reducing pain in women who underwent treatment for CIN, including cervical injection with lignocaine alone, lignocaine with adrenaline, buffered lignocaine with adrenaline, prilocaine with felypressin, oral

  4. Rapid response of breast cancer to neoadjuvant intramammary testosterone-anastrozole therapy: neoadjuvant hormone therapy in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Rebecca L; Dimitrakakis, Constantine

    2014-06-01

    Experimental and clinical data support the inhibitory effect of testosterone on breast tissue and breast cancer. However, testosterone is aromatized to estradiol, which exerts the opposite effect. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of testosterone, combined with the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole, on a hormone receptor positive, infiltrating ductal carcinoma in the neoadjuvant setting. To determine clinical response, we obtained serial ultrasonic measurements and mammograms before and after therapy. Three combination implants-each containing 60 mg of testosterone and 4 mg of anastrozole-were placed anterior, superior, and inferior to a 2.4-cm tumor in the left breast. Three additional testosterone-anastrozole implants were again placed peritumorally 48 days later. By day 46, there was a sevenfold reduction in tumor volume, as measured on ultrasound. By week 13, we documented a 12-fold reduction in tumor volume, demonstrating a rapid logarithmic response to intramammary testosterone-anastrozole implant therapy, equating to a daily response rate of 2.78% and a tumor half-life of 23 days. Therapeutic systemic levels of testosterone were achieved without elevation of estradiol, further demonstrating the efficacy of anastrozole combined with testosterone. This novel therapy, delivered in the neoadjuvant setting, has the potential to identify early responders and to evaluate the effectiveness of therapy in vivo. This may prove to be a new approach to both local and systemic therapies for breast cancer in subgroups of patients. In addition, it can be used to reduce tumor volume, allowing for less surgical intervention and better cosmetic oncoplastic results.

  5. 18F-FDG PET-CT after Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy in Esophageal Cancer Patients to Optimize Surgical Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Anderegg, Maarten C. J.; de Groof, Elisabeth J.; Gisbertz, Suzanne S.; Bennink, Roel J.; Lagarde, Sjoerd M.; Klinkenbijl, Jean H. G.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Bergman, Jacques J. G. H. M.; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W. M.; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prognosis of esophageal cancer patients can be significantly improved by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT). Given the aggressive nature of esophageal tumors, it is conceivable that in a significant portion of patients treated with nCRT, dissemination already becomes manifest during the period of nCRT. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the value and diagnostic accuracy of PET-CT after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy to identify patients with metastases preoperatively in order to prevent non-curative surgery. Methods From January 2011 until February 2013 esophageal cancer patients deemed eligible for a curative approach with nCRT and surgical resection underwent a PET-CT after completion of nCRT. If abnormalities on PET-CT were suspected metastases, histological proof was acquired. A clinical decision model was designed to assess the cost-effectiveness of this diagnostic strategy. Results 156 patients underwent a PET-CT after nCRT. In 31 patients (19.9%) PET-CT showed abnormalities suspicious for dissemination, resulting in 17 cases of proven metastases (10.9%). Of the patients without proven metastases 133 patients were operated. In 6 of these 133 cases distant metastases were detected intraoperatively, corresponding to 4.5% false-negative results. The standard introduction of a post-neoadjuvant therapy PET-CT led to a reduction of overall health care costs per patient compared to a scenario without restaging with PET-CT ($34,088 vs. $36,490). Conclusion In 10.9% of esophageal cancer patients distant metastases were detected by standard PET-CT after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. To avoid non-curative resections we advocate post-neoadjuvant therapy PET-CT as a cost-effective step in the standard work-up of candidates for surgery. PMID:26529313

  6. Importance of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in olfactory neuroblastoma treatment: Series report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Bartel, Ricardo; Gonzalez-Compta, Xavier; Cisa, Enric; Cruellas, Francesc; Torres, Alberto; Rovira, Aleix; Manos, Manel

    2017-10-20

    Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a rare entity that constitutes less than 5% of nasosinusal malignancies. Mainstream treatment consists in surgical resection+/-adjuvant radiotherapy. By exposing results observed with apparition of new therapeutic options as neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the objective is to evaluate a series and a review of the current literature. A retrospective review was conducted including patients diagnosed and followed-up for ONB from 2008 to 2015 in our institution. 9 patients were included. Mean follow-up of 52.5 months (range 10-107). Kadish stage: A, 1 patient (11.1%) treated with endoscopic surgery; B, 2 patients (22.2%) treated with endoscopic surgery (one of them received adjuvant radiotherapy); C, 6 patients (66.7%), 4 patients presented intracranial extension and were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery and radiotherapy. The other 2 patients presented isolated orbital extension, treated with radical surgery (endoscopic or craniofacial resection) plus radiotherapy. The 5-year disease free and overall survival observed was 88.9%. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy could be an effective treatment for tumor reduction, improving surgical resection and reducing its complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  7. Relative value of physical examination, mammography, and breast sonography in evaluating the size of the primary tumor and regional lymph node metastases in women receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Herrada, J; Iyer, R B; Atkinson, E N; Sneige, N; Buzdar, A U; Hortobagyi, G N

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate physical examination and sonographic and mammographic measurements of breast tumors and regional lymph nodes with pathological findings and to evaluate the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on clinical Tumor-Node-Metastasis stage by noninvasive methods. This was a retrospective analysis of 100 patients with locally advanced breast cancer registered and treated in prospective trials of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All patients received four cycles of a doxorubicin-containing regimen and had noninvasive evaluation of the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy by physical examination, sonography, and mammography and underwent breast surgery and axillary dissection within 5 weeks after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The correlations between clinical and pathological measurements were determined by Spearman rank correlation analysis. A proportional odds model was used to examine predictive values. Eighty-three patients had both a clinically detectable primary tumor and lymph node metastases. Sixty-four patients had a decrease in Tumor-Node-Metastasis stage after chemotherapy. For 54% of patients, there was concordance in clinical response between the primary tumor and lymph node compartment; for the rest, results were discordant. Physical examination correlated best with pathological findings in the measurement of the primary tumor (P = 0.0003), whereas sonography was the most accurate predictor of size for axillary lymph nodes (P = 0.0005). The combination of physical examination and mammography worked best for assessment of the primary tumor (P = 0.003), whereas combining physical examination with sonography gave optimal evaluation of regional lymph nodes (P = 0.0001). In conclusion, physical examination is the best noninvasive predictor of the real size of locally advanced primary breast cancer, whereas sonography correlates better with the real dimensions of axillary lymph

  8. Phase 1 trial of neoadjuvant radiation therapy before prostatectomy for high-risk prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Koontz, Bridget F; Quaranta, Brian P; Pura, John A; Lee, W R; Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Gerber, Leah; Haake, Michael; Anscher, Mitchell S; Robertson, Cary N; Polascik, Thomas J; Moul, Judd W

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate, in a phase 1 study, the safety of neoadjuvant whole-pelvis radiation therapy (RT) administered immediately before radical prostatectomy in men with high-risk prostate cancer. Twelve men enrolled and completed a phase 1 single-institution trial between 2006 and 2010. Eligibility required a previously untreated diagnosis of localized but high-risk prostate cancer. Median follow-up was 46 months (range, 14-74 months). Radiation therapy was dose-escalated in a 3 × 3 design with dose levels of 39.6, 45, 50.4, and 54 Gy. The pelvic lymph nodes were treated up to 45 Gy with any additional dose given to the prostate and seminal vesicles. Radical prostatectomy was performed 4-8 weeks after RT completion. Primary outcome measure was intraoperative and postoperative day-30 morbidity. Secondary measures included late morbidity and oncologic outcomes. No intraoperative morbidity was seen. Chronic urinary grade 2+ toxicity occurred in 42%; 2 patients (17%) developed a symptomatic urethral stricture requiring dilation. Two-year actuarial biochemical recurrence-free survival was 67% (95% confidence interval 34%-86%). Patients with pT3 or positive surgical margin treated with neoadjuvant RT had a trend for improved biochemical recurrence-free survival compared with a historical cohort with similar adverse factors. Neoadjuvant RT is feasible with moderate urinary morbidity. However, oncologic outcomes do not seem to be substantially different from those with selective postoperative RT. If this multimodal approach is further evaluated in a phase 2 setting, 54 Gy should be used in combination with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy to improve biochemical outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Venous thromboembolism in cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Di Nisio, M; Candeloro, M; Rutjes, A W S; Porreca, E

    2018-05-13

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent complication in cancer patients receiving adjuvant treatment. The risk of VTE during neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy remains unclear. This systematic review evaluated the incidence of VTE in patients with cancer receiving neoadjuvant treatment. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched from inception to October 2017. Search results were supplemented with screening of conference proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (2009-2016) and the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (2003-2016). Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts, and extracted data onto standardized forms. Twenty-eight cohort studies (7827 cancer patients, range 11 to 1398) were included. Twenty-five had a retrospective design. Eighteen cohorts included patients with gastrointestinal cancer representing over two-thirds of the whole study population (n = 6002, 78%). In total, 508 of 7768 patients were diagnosed with at least one VTE during neoadjuvant treatment for a pooled VTE incidence of 7% (95% CI, 5% to 10%) in absence of substantial between study heterogeneity. Heterogeneity was not explained by site of cancer or study design characteristics. VTE presented as pulmonary embolism in 22% to 96% of cases (16 cohorts), and it was symptomatic in 22% to 100% of patients (11 cohorts). Highest VTE rates were observed in patients with bladder (10.6%) or esophageal (8.4%) cancer. This review found a relatively high incidence of VTE in cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy in the presence of some between study variation, which deserves further evaluation in prospective studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantifying the Benefit of a Pathologic Complete Response After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy in the Treatment of Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Scheer, Richard V.; Fakiris, Achilles J.; Johnstone, Peter A.S., E-mail: pajohnst@iupui.edu

    Purpose: To better define the benefit of a pathologic complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of esophageal and gastroesophageal cancer, we undertook a comprehensive review of the literature to derive a pooled analysis of crude survival data and quantify the survival benefit of pCR vs. residual disease at esophagectomy. Methods and Materials: In all, 22 articles were reviewed. Crude overall survival data, stratified by patients with pCR vs. those with residual disease at esophagectomy, were collected and analyzed using a chi-square analysis. The relative and absolute survival benefit of achieving a pCR were calculated and analyzed. Finally,more » stratified median survival times were also analyzed. Results: Overall survival for patients with pCR was 93.1%, 75.0%, and 50.0% at 2, 3, and 5 years, respectively, whereas it was 36.8%, 29.0%, and 22.6% for patients with residual tumor (p < 0.025). The mean relative survival benefit of pCR at 2, 3, and 5 years was 2.05, 2.35, and 2.84, respectively. The mean absolute survival benefit of pCR was 35.66%, 33.79%, and 33.20%, respectively. Median survival times for patients with pCR were significantly longer than for those with residual tumor (p = 0.011). Conclusion: In esophageal and gastroesophageal cancers, pCR seems to significantly increase overall survival in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Specifically, the data suggest that patients with pCR are two to three times more likely to survive than are those with residual tumor at esophagectomy. Moreover, these data suggest that 33-36% more patients survive when pCR is achieved than when it is not.« less

  11. Quantifying the benefit of a pathologic complete response after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Richard V; Fakiris, Achilles J; Johnstone, Peter A S

    2011-07-15

    To better define the benefit of a pathologic complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of esophageal and gastroesophageal cancer, we undertook a comprehensive review of the literature to derive a pooled analysis of crude survival data and quantify the survival benefit of pCR vs. residual disease at esophagectomy. In all, 22 articles were reviewed. Crude overall survival data, stratified by patients with pCR vs. those with residual disease at esophagectomy, were collected and analyzed using a chi-square analysis. The relative and absolute survival benefit of achieving a pCR were calculated and analyzed. Finally, stratified median survival times were also analyzed. Overall survival for patients with pCR was 93.1%, 75.0%, and 50.0% at 2, 3, and 5 years, respectively, whereas it was 36.8%, 29.0%, and 22.6% for patients with residual tumor (p < 0.025). The mean relative survival benefit of pCR at 2, 3, and 5 years was 2.05, 2.35, and 2.84, respectively. The mean absolute survival benefit of pCR was 35.66%, 33.79%, and 33.20%, respectively. Median survival times for patients with pCR were significantly longer than for those with residual tumor (p = 0.011). In esophageal and gastroesophageal cancers, pCR seems to significantly increase overall survival in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Specifically, the data suggest that patients with pCR are two to three times more likely to survive than are those with residual tumor at esophagectomy. Moreover, these data suggest that 33-36% more patients survive when pCR is achieved than when it is not. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of sentinel lymph node biopsy to select patients for local–regional therapy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Erdahl, Lillian M.; Boughey, Judy C.

    2014-01-01

    Use of sentinel lymph node biopsy for axillary staging of patients with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been widely debated. Questions arise regarding the accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy in axillary staging for these patients and its use to determine further local–regional therapy, including surgery and radiation therapy. For patients who are clinically node-negative at presentation, sentinel lymph node biopsy enables accurate staging of the axilla after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and determination of which patients should go on to further axillary surgery and regional nodal radiation therapy. Importantly, performing axillary staging after completion of chemotherapy, rather than before chemotherapy, enables assessment of response to chemotherapy and the extent of residual disease. This information can assist the planning of adjuvant treatment. Recent data indicate that sentinel node biopsy can also be used to assess disease response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for patients with clinical N1 disease at presentation. PMID:24683440

  13. Comparing Coordinated Versus Sequential Salpingo-Oophorectomy for BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers With Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    S Chapman, Jocelyn; Roddy, Erika; Panighetti, Anna; Hwang, Shelley; Crawford, Beth; Powell, Bethan; Chen, Lee-May

    2016-12-01

    Women with breast cancer who carry BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations must also consider risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) and how to coordinate this procedure with their breast surgery. We report the factors associated with coordinated versus sequential surgery and compare the outcomes of each. Patients in our cancer risk database who had breast cancer and a known deleterious BRCA1/2 mutation before undergoing breast surgery were included. Women who chose concurrent RRSO at the time of breast surgery were compared to those who did not. Sixty-two patients knew their mutation carrier status before undergoing breast cancer surgery. Forty-three patients (69%) opted for coordinated surgeries, and 19 (31%) underwent sequential surgeries at a median follow-up of 4.4 years. Women who underwent coordinated surgery were significantly older than those who chose sequential surgery (median age of 45 vs. 39 years; P = .025). There were no differences in comorbidities between groups. Patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy were more likely to undergo coordinated surgery (65% vs. 37%; P = .038). Sequential surgery patients had longer hospital stays (4.79 vs. 3.44 days, P = .01) and longer operating times (8.25 vs. 6.38 hours, P = .006) than patients who elected combined surgery. Postoperative complications were minor and were no more likely in either group (odds ratio, 4.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-40.6). Coordinating RRSO with breast surgery is associated with receipt of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, longer operating times, and hospital stays without an observed increase in complications. In the absence of risk, surgical options can be personalized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in occult breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haisong; Li, Ling; Zhang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Shiyong; Xu, Shu; Ma, Xiaoxia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Although rare, occult breast cancer (OBC) originates from breast tissue. Its primary lesions cannot be identified by clinical examination or imaging; therefore, the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis remain controversial. Patient concerns: This study comprised 5 female OBC patients who were admitted to the Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University for painless axillary lumps. Diagnoses: 18F-flurodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) indicated metastasis in the ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes. No clear breast primary lesions were identified; other organs were also excluded as the primary site. Pathological biopsy confirmed axillary lymph node metastasis of adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining of the tumor to identify the source revealed that estrogen receptors (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PgRs) were positive in 2 cases, ER was positive and PR was negative in 1 case, and both were negative in 2 cases. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 was negative in all cases. All patients were diagnosed with OBC. Interventions: All patients underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). One patient did not undergo follow-up therapy. The other 4 underwent total mastectomy plus axillary lymph node dissection followed by radiotherapy. Two patients also underwent endocrine therapy. Outcomes: Patients were followed up for 9.0 to 72.0 months. Four achieved pathological complete response. One patient experienced metastasis to the ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph nodes 2.0 years later, which was cleared after additional treatment. The other patients were tumor free. Lessons: Here, we are reporting 5 cases of OBC treated with NAC that were evaluated by 18F-FDG PET/CT scans. This study suggests that NAC might lead to a positive outcome. PMID:28984771

  15. Phase II study of neoadjuvant gemcitabine, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, and docetaxel in locally advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Artioli, Grazia; Grazia, Artioli; Mocellin, Simone; Simone, Mocellin; Borgato, Lucia; Lucia, Borgato; Cappetta, Alessandro; Alessandro, Cappetta; Bozza, Fernando; Fernando, Bozza; Zavagno, Giorgio; Giorgio, Zavagno; Zovato, Stefania; Stefania, Zovato; Marchet, Alberto; Alberto, Marchet; Pastorelli, Davide; Davide, Pastorelli

    2010-09-01

    This was a phase II study to assess the activity of a novel neoadjuvant regimen in locally-advanced breast cancer. Fifty patients with histological confirmation of locally advanced breast cancer received treatment with gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(2) (day 1) followed by gemcitabine 800 mg/m(2) plus docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) 30 mg/m(2) (day 8) every 3 weeks for at least 4 cycles, plus a final 2 additional cycles. Tumour size was T1 (n=2), T2 (n=32), T3 (n=14), T4 (n=2). All 50 patients underwent surgery. Clinical complete, partial and no response were observed in 13 (26%), 24 (48%) and 11 (22%) patients, respectively (overall response rate: 74%). The number of chemotherapy cycles was found to be an independent predictor of a pathologic complete response. The combination of gemcitabine-docetaxel-PLD can yield high tumour response rates in patients with locally-advanced breast cancer who undergo a full treatment of 6 cycles.

  16. Metabolic monitoring of advanced uterine cervical cancer neoadjuvant chemotherapy by using [F-18]-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography: preliminary results in three patients.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yoshio; Kurokawa, Tetsuji; Kawahara, Kazumi; Yagihara, Akira; Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Kotsuji, Fumikazu

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this report is to describe the potential clinical utility of tracer [F-18]-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake, quantitated as a standardized uptake value (SUV) by positron emission tomography (PET), to evaluate treatment response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in advanced uterine cervical cancer. We briefly describe the clinical courses of three women with advanced cervical cancer who were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) prior to radical hysterectomy and who were analyzed for correlation with the decrease in tumor volume by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in SUV by FDG-PET, and by histologic response. In these individuals, tumor volume and SUV were decreased by NAC. The decrease in SUV by FDG-PET was better correlated to histologic response for NAC than MRI was in advanced cervical cancer. Measurement of SUV by FDG-PET has clinical utility in evaluating treatment response for NAC in advanced cervical cancer. Although work in this field is still in the early stages, this report demonstrates that SUV by FDG-PET has the potential to become the new standard for monitoring the treatment response of NAC in cervical cancer. This monitoring approach must be proven in a larger number of patients for both primary and secondary lesions and should be further explored in another gynecologic cancer.

  17. What do reproductive-age women who undergo oocyte cryopreservation think about the process as a means to preserve fertility?

    PubMed

    Hodes-Wertz, Brooke; Druckenmiller, Sarah; Smith, Meghan; Noyes, Nicole

    2013-11-01

    To better understand women's beliefs, priorities, and attitudes toward oocyte cryopreservation, to appreciate the extent of their reproductive education, and to track the reproductive paths of women who chose to undergo oocyte cryopreservation treatment. An anonymous 30-question survey. Not applicable. From 2005-2011, 478 women completed ≥1 oocyte cryopreservation treatment cycle at our center to defer reproduction. None. Demographics, motivations, desires, fertility knowledge, and outcomes related to oocyte cryopreservation. A total of 183 patients (38%) completed the survey with >80% being aged ≥35 years; white; having no partner at time of oocyte cryopreservation; undergoing oocyte cryopreservation after an optimal reproductive age; feeling they had improved their reproductive future after oocyte cryopreservation and being empowered by the process; aware of age-related infertility; sensing popular media falsely portrayed the upper age limit for natural conception; and recorded lack of partner as the primary rationale for not yet starting a family. Nineteen percent of respondents added that workplace inflexibility contributed to their reproductive dilemma. Half stated they learned about oocyte cryopreservation from a friend; others became aware through a medical provider, the media, and the internet. Most patients (93%) have not yet returned to use their frozen oocytes; 11 stated they had. Overall, 20% reported a successful conception after oocyte cryopreservation. Surveying oocyte cryopreservation patients provides a glimpse into the knowledge base and motivations surrounding current female reproductive practices. Oocyte cryopreservation technology may prove to bridge the gap between reproductive prime and when a woman is realistically "ready" to have children. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Decreased background parenchymal enhancement of the contralateral breast after two cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy is associated with tumor response in HER2-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    You, Chao; Gu, Yajia; Peng, Wen; Li, Jianwei; Shen, Xuxia; Liu, Guangyu; Peng, Weijun

    2018-07-01

    Background Several recent studies have focused on the association between background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), but early prediction of tumor response based on BPE has yet not been investigated. Purpose To retrospectively investigate whether changes in the BPE of the contralateral breast following NAC could help predict tumor response in early stage HER2-positive breast cancer. Material and Methods Data from 71 patients who were diagnosed with unilateral HER2 positive breast cancer and then underwent NAC with trastuzumab before surgery were analyzed retrospectively. Two experienced radiologists independently categorized the patients' levels of BPE of the contralateral breast into four categories (1 = minimal, 2 = mild, 3 = moderate, 4 = marked) at baseline and after the second cycle of NAC. After undergoing surgery, 34 patients achieved pathologic complete response (pCR) and 37 patients had residual disease (non-pCR). The association between BPE and histopathologic tumor response was analyzed. Result The level of BPE was higher in premenopausal than post-menopausal women both at baseline and after the second cycle of NAC ( P < 0.005). A significant reduction in BPE ( P < 0.001) was observed after the second NAC cycle; however, a more obvious decrease in BPE was identified in premenopausal relative to post-menopausal women ( P = 0.041). No significant association was identified between pCR and baseline BPE ( P = 0.287). However, after the second NAC cycle, decreased BPE was significantly associated with pCR ( P = 0.003). Conclusion For HER2-positive patients, changes in BPE may serve as an additional imaging biomarker of treatment response at an early stage.

  19. Subharmonic Imaging and Pressure Estimation for Monitoring Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    and therapy response [10]. However, the level of IFP has been shown to predict disease free survival for cervix cancer (34% disease free survival...p. 1951-1961. 11. Milosevic M, et al., Interstitial fluid pressure predicts survival in patients with cervix cancer independent of clinical...12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is currently the standard of care for locally advanced breast cancer

  20. [Antibiotic prophylaxis with prulifloxacin in women undergoing induced abortion: a randomized controlled trial].

    PubMed

    Caruso, S; Di Mari, L; Cacciatore, A; Mammana, G; Agnello, C; Cianci, A

    2008-02-01

    To verify the efficacy of prulifloxacin in prevention of infective morbidity in women undergoing first trimester induced abortion. The aim of the study was to observe the incidence of infection during four weeks following abortion by monitoring the symptoms which require general practitioner prescription or hospitalization. Randomized controlled trial carried on by the Research Group for Sexology, Familiar Planning Service of the Department of Microbiological and Gynecological Science, University of Catania from September 2005 to March 2007. The study included 466 women, ranging in age from 14 to 44 years (mean age 26.7), who were randomized in three groups: group A (153 subjects) treated with 600 mg daily of prulifloxacin for 5 days after abortion; group B (155 subjects) treated with 600 mg daily of prulifloxacin for 3 days after abortion; group C (158 subjects) treated with 600 mg daily of prulifloxacin one day before and 2 days after abortion. Two hundred sixteen were nulliparous (47%), 96 were pluriparous (38.5%). Thirty-two nulliparous (15%) were under eighteen. Among pluriparous, 96 (38.5%) have had previous surgery delivery and 154 (61.5%) spontaneous delivery; moreover, 56 women have had previous surgical interruption during the first-trimester of pregnancy. Surgical abortion was practiced in a range of gestational age between 6th and 11th week of amenorrhea (average week 8.2). The percentage of pelvic inflammatory disease symptoms (pain, fever, leucoxantorrhea ) were about 10.5 in group A, 7.1 in group B and 2.5 in group C. Group C protocol was statistically more effective than group A protocol (P<0.05), but not than group B, even if prevalence of adverse events were less. Antibiotic prophylaxis before surgical abortion and shortening supplies after abortion is more effective than post abortion treatment alone.

  1. Adherence patterns to extended cervical screening intervals in women undergoing human papillomavirus (HPV) and cytology cotesting.

    PubMed

    Rendle, Katharine A; Schiffman, Mark; Cheung, Li C; Kinney, Walter K; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas; Castle, Philip E

    2018-04-01

    Although guidelines have recommended extended interval cervical screening using concurrent human papillomavirus (HPV) and cytology ("cotesting") for over a decade, little is known about its adoption into routine care. Using longitudinal medical record data (2003-2015) from Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), which adopted triennial cotesting in 2003, we examined adherence to extended interval screening. We analyzed predictors of screening intervals among 491,588 women undergoing routine screening, categorizing interval length into early (<2.5years), adherent (2.5<3.5years), or late (3.5<6.0years). We also examined repeated early screening in a subgroup of 50,691 women. Predictors examined included: cohort year (defined by baseline cotest, 2003-2009), race/ethnicity, and baseline age. Compared to the 2003 cohort, women in the 2009 cohort were significantly less likely to screen early (aOR=0.22, 95% CI=0.21, 0.23) or late (aOR=0.47, 95% CI=0.45, 0.49). African American (AA) and Hispanic women were less adherent overall than Non-Hispanic White women, with increased early [(AA: aOR=1.21, 95%CI=1.17, 1.25) (Hispanic: aOR=1.08, 95%CI=1.06, 1.11)] and late screening [(AA: aOR=1.23, 95%CI=1.19, 1.27) (Hispanic: aOR=1.06, 95%CI=1.03, 1.08)]. Asian women were slightly more likely to screen early (aOR=1.03, 95%CI=1.01, 1.05), and less likely to screen late (aOR=0.92, 95% CI=0.90, 0.94). Women aged 60-64years were most likely to screen early for two consecutive intervals (aOR=2.09, 95%CI=1.91, 2.29). Our study found that widespread and rapid adoption of extended interval cervical cancer screening is possible, at least in this managed care setting. Further research examining multilevel drivers promoting or restricting extended interval screening across diverse healthcare settings is needed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pre-treatment carbohydrate antigen 19-9 does not predict the response to neoadjuvant therapy in patients with localized pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aldakkak, Mohammed; Christians, Kathleen K; Krepline, Ashley N; George, Ben; Ritch, Paul S; Erickson, Beth A; Johnston, Fabian M; Evans, Douglas B; Tsai, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background The prognostic value of CA19-9 in patients with pancreatic cancer (PC) treated with neoadjuvant therapy has not been well described. Methods Pre-treatment CA19-9 levels (with concomitant normal bilirubin level) in patients with localized PC were categorized as normal (≤35), low (36–200), moderate (201–1000), or high (>1000). Post-treatment CA19-9 was measured after neoadjuvant therapy, prior to surgery. Results Pre-treatment CA19-9 levels were evaluable in 235 patients, levels were normal in 60 (25%) patients, low in 78 (33%) patients, moderate in 69 (29%) and high in 28 (12%). After neoadjuvant therapy, post-treatment CA19-9 normalized (≤ 35) in 40 (51%) of the patients in the low group, 14 (21%) of the moderate and 5 (19%) of the high group (P < 0.001). Of the 235 patients, 168 (71%) completed all intended therapy including a pancreatectomy; 44 (73%), 62 (79%), 46 (67%) and 16 (57%) of the normal, low, moderate and high groups (P = 0.10). Among these 168 patients, the median overall survival was 38.4, 43.6, 44.7, 27.2 and 26.4 months for normal, low, moderate and high CA19-9 groups (log rank P = 0.72). Among resected patients, an elevated pre-treatment CA19-9 was of little prognostic value; instead, it was the CA19-9 response to neoadjuvant therapy that was prognostic [hazard ratio (HR): 1.80, P = 0.02]. Conclusions Among patients who completed neoadjuvant therapy and surgery, pre-treatment CA19-9 obtained at the time of diagnosis was not predictive of overall survival, but normalization of post-treatment CA19-9 in response to neoadjuvant therapy was highly prognostic. PMID:26255895

  3. The effect of education given before surgery on self-esteem and body image in women undergoing hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yaman, Şengül; Ayaz, Sultan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of information provided before surgery on the self-esteem and body image of women undergoing hysterectomy. Materials and Methods: The study had a semi-experimental design with pre-post tests. A total of 60 women were included in the study and divided into two groups, the intervention group (n=30) and control group (n=30). A questionnaire, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and the body image scale were used to collect data. Results: The pre- and post-test body image scores were similar in the intervention group patients, but the post-test scores were significantly higher in the control group (p<0.05). The pre- and post-test self-esteem scores were again similar in the intervention group, but the post-test scores were significantly lower in the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study revealed that health education given to patients prior to hysterectomy protects body image and consequently self-esteem. PMID:28913071

  4. MYC Amplification as a Predictive Factor of Complete Pathologic Response to Docetaxel-based Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cynthia Brito Lins; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Abdelhay, Eliana Saul Furquim Werneck; Demachki, Sâmia; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; de Souza, Mirian Carvalho; Moreira-Nunes, Caroline Aquino; Tanaka, Adriana Michiko da Silva; Smith, Marília Cardoso; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez

    2017-06-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a standard treatment for stage II and III breast cancer. The identification of biomarkers that may help in the prediction of response to neoadjuvant therapies is necessary for a more precise definition of the best drug or drug combination to induce a better response. We assessed the role of Ki67, hormone receptors expression, HER2, MYC genes and their protein status, and KRAS codon 12 mutations as predictor factors of pathologic response to anthracycline-cyclophosphamide (AC) followed by taxane docetaxel (T) neoadjuvant chemotherapy (AC+T regimen) in 51 patients with invasive ductal breast cancer. After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 82.4% of patients showed pathologic partial response, with only 9.8% showing pathologic complete response. In multivariate analysis, MYC immunoreactivity and high MYC gain defined as MYC/nucleus ≥ 5 were significant predictor factors for pathologic partial response. Using the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the ratio of 2.5 MYC/CEP8 (sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 89.1%) or 7 MYC/nuclei copies (sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 73.9%) as the best cutoff in predicting a pathologic complete response was identified. Thus, MYC may have a role in chemosensitivity to AC and/or docetaxel drugs. Additionally, MYC amplification may be a predictor factor of pathologic response to the AC+T regimen in patients with breast cancer. Moreover, patients with an increased number of MYC copies showed pathologic complete response to this neoadjuvant treatment more frequently. The analysis of MYC amplification may help in the identification of patients that may have a better response to AC+T treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of increasing radiation dose on pathologic complete response in rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Hall, Matthew D; Schultheiss, Timothy E; Smith, David D; Fakih, Marwan G; Wong, Jeffrey Y C; Chen, Yi-Jen

    2016-12-01

    Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) increases pathological complete response (pCR) rates compared to radiotherapy alone in patients with stage II-III rectal cancer. Limited evidence addresses whether radiotherapy dose escalation further improves pCR rates. Our purpose is to measure the effects of radiotherapy dose and other factors on post-therapy pathologic tumor (ypT) and nodal stage in rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant CRT followed by mesorectal excision. A non-randomized comparative effectiveness analysis was performed of rectal cancer patients treated in 2000-2013 from the National Oncology Data Alliance™ (NODA), a pooled database of cancer registries from >150 US hospitals. The NODA contains the same data submitted to state cancer registries and SEER combined with validated radiotherapy and chemotherapy records. Eligible patients were treated with neoadjuvant CRT followed by proctectomy and had complete data on treatment start dates, radiotherapy dose, clinical tumor (cT) and ypT stage, and number of positive nodes at surgery (n = 3298 patients). Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the predictive value of independent variables on achieving a pCR. On multivariable regression, radiotherapy dose, cT stage, and time interval between CRT and surgery were significant predictors of achieving a pCR. After adjusting for the effect of other variates, patients treated with higher radiotherapy doses were also more likely to have negative nodes at surgery and be downstaged from cT3-T4 and/or node positive disease to ypT0-T2N0 after neoadjuvant CRT. Our study suggests that increasing dose significantly improved pCR rates and downstaging in rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant CRT followed by surgery.

  6. Predictors of overall and recurrence-free survival after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma: Pooled analysis of individual patient data (IPD) from randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

    PubMed

    Ronellenfitsch, U; Schwarzbach, M; Hofheinz, R; Kienle, P; Nowak, K; Kieser, M; Slanger, T E; Burmeister, B; Kelsen, D; Niedzwiecki, D; Schuhmacher, C; Urba, S; van de Velde, C; Walsh, T N; Ychou, M; Jensen, K

    2017-08-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy improves prognosis of patients with locally advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to identify predictors for postoperative survival following neoadjuvant therapy. These could be useful in deciding about postoperative continuation of chemotherapy. This meta-analysis used IPD from RCTs comparing neoadjuvant chemotherapy with surgery alone for gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma. Trials providing IPD on age, sex, performance status, pT/N stage, resection status, overall and recurrence-free survival were included. Survival was calculated in the entire study population and subgroups stratified by supposed predictors and compared using the log-rank test. Multivariable Cox models were used to identify independent survival predictors. Four RCTs providing IPD from 553 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. (y)pT and (y)pN stage and resection status strongly predicted postoperative survival both after neoadjuvant therapy and surgery alone. Patients with R1 resection after neoadjuvant therapy survived longer than those with R1 resection after surgery alone. Patients with stage pN0 after surgery alone had better prognosis than those with ypN0 after neoadjuvant therapy. Patients with stage ypT3/4 after neoadjuvant therapy survived longer than those with stage pT3/4 after surgery alone. Multivariable regression identified resection status and (y)pN stage as predictors of survival in both groups. (y)pT stage predicted survival only after surgery alone. After neoadjuvant therapy for gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma, survival is determined by the same factors as after surgery alone. However, ypT stage is not an independent predictor. These results can facilitate the decision about postoperative continuation of chemotherapy in pretreated patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of trastuzumab as an adjuvant/neoadjuvant therapy in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer in China: The Nvwa study.

    PubMed

    Li, Junjie; Shao, Zhimin; Xu, Binghe; Jiang, Zefei; Cui, Shude; Zhang, Jin; Liao, Ning; Jiang, Jun; Wang, Yongsheng; Ouyang, Quchang; Ying, Ziwei

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to understand current trends in trastuzumab use in China as a neoadjuvant/adjuvant therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positive (HER2+) breast cancer and identify factors influencing trastuzumab use.This was a retrospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study of patients diagnosed with HER2+ breast cancer (stage I-III), between July 2013 and June 2014, at 155 hospitals in 29 provinces/cities in China. Demographic and clinical data, including tumor characteristics and details of adjuvant/neoadjuvant therapies used, were collected. Data analysis included univariate analysis, multivariate logistic regression, and subgroup analyses.Of 4994 HER2+ patients (mean age 51.1 ± 9.9 years) included, only 29.8% received trastuzumab, with 30.5% in adjuvant therapy and 18.3% in neoadjuvant therapy. The highest rates of adjuvant trastuzumab were in Beijing (59.3%), Jiangsu (57.1%), and Ningxia (50.0%), while those of neoadjuvant trastuzumab were in Guangdong (24.8%), Beijing (14.1%), and Zhejiang (10.7%). Multivariate regression results revealed that factors associated with trastuzumab use were medical insurance cover for trastuzumab, residing locally to the hospital, more lymph node involvement, and more advanced tumor stage. Subgroup analysis revealed that patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy were likely to be younger, premenopausal and non-local, and had lymph node metastases, more advanced tumor, and progesterone receptor positive tumor.Trastuzumab use in patients with HER2+ breast cancer is relatively low in China, especially for neoadjuvant therapy. Insurance coverage seems to be the most correlated factor that influences the use of trastuzumab in Chinese patients with HER2+ breast cancer.

  8. Neoadjuvant Radiation Is Associated With Improved Survival in Patients With Resectable Pancreatic Cancer: An Analysis of Data From the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Registry

    SciTech Connect

    Stessin, Alexander M.; Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY; Meyer, Joshua E.

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: Cancer of the exocrine pancreas is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation has been investigated in several trials as a strategy for downstaging locally advanced disease to resectability. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of neoadjuvant radiation therapy (RT) vs. other treatments on long-term survival for patients with resectable pancreatic cancer in a large population-based sample group. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry database (1994-2003) was queried for cases of surgically resected pancreatic cancer. Retrospective analysis was performed. The endpoint of themore » study was overall survival. Results: Using Kaplan-Meier analysis we found that the median overall survival of patients receiving neoadjuvant RT was 23 months vs. 12 months with no RT and 17 months with adjuvant RT. Using Cox regression and controlling for independent covariates (age, sex, stage, grade, and year of diagnosis), we found that neoadjuvant RT results in significantly higher rates of survival than other treatments (hazard ratio [HR], 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.79; p = 0.001). Specifically comparing adjuvant with neoadjuvant RT, we found a significantly lower HR for death in patients receiving neoadjuvant RT rather than adjuvant RT (HR, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.90; p = 0.03). Conclusions: This analysis of SEER data showed a survival benefit for the use of neoadjuvant RT over surgery alone or surgery with adjuvant RT in treating pancreatic cancer. Therapeutic strategies that use neoadjuvant RT should be further explored for patients with resectable pancreatic cancer.« less

  9. Does a similar procedure result in similar survival for women and men undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting?

    PubMed

    Attia, Tamer; Koch, Colleen G; Houghtaling, Penny L; Blackstone, Eugene H; Sabik, Ellen Mayer; Sabik, Joseph F

    2017-03-01

    To (1) identify sex-related differences in risk factors and revascularization strategies for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), (2) assess whether these differences influenced early and late survival, and (3) determine whether clinical effectiveness of the same revascularization strategy was influenced by sex. From January 1972 to January 2011, 57,943 adults-11,009 (19%) women-underwent primary isolated CABG. Separate models for long-term mortality were developed for men and women, followed by assessing sex-related differences in strength of risk factors (interaction terms). Incomplete revascularization was more common in men than women (26% vs 22%, P < .0001), but women received fewer bilateral internal thoracic artery (ITA) grafts (4.8% vs 12%; P < .0001) and fewer arterial grafts (68% vs 70%; P < .0001). Overall, women had lower survival than men after CABG (65% and 31% at 10 and 20 years, respectively, vs 74% and 41%; P ≤ .0001), even after risk adjustment. Incomplete revascularization was associated equally (P > .9) with lower survival in both sexes. Single ITA grafting was associated with equally (P = .3) better survival in women and men. Although bilateral ITA grafting was associated with better survival than single ITA grafting, it was less effective in women-11% lower late mortality (hazard ratio, 0.89 [0.77-1.022]) versus 27% lower in men (hazard ratio, 0.73 [0.69-0.77]; P = .01). Women on average have longer life expectancies than men but not after CABG. Every attempt should be made to use arterial grafting and complete revascularization, but for unexplained reasons, sex-related differences in effectiveness of bilateral arterial grafting were identified. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy for resectable esophageal cancer: is there a standard of care?

    PubMed

    Almhanna, Khaldoun; Shridhar, Ravi; Meredith, Kenneth L

    2013-04-01

    Carcinoma of the esophagus is an aggressive and lethal disease with an increasing incidence worldwide. Despite changes in the treatment approach over the past two decades and even following complete resection, most patients will eventually relapse and die as a result of their disease. Several clinical trials evaluated different modalities in treating locally advanced esophageal cancer; however, because of stage migration and the changes in disease epidemiology, applying these trials to clinical practice has become a daunting task. We searched Medline and conference abstracts for randomized studies published in the past three decades. We restricted our search to articles published in English. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection is an accepted standard of care in the United States for patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer. Esophagectomy remains an essential component of treatment and can lead to improved overall survival, especially when performed at high-volume institutions. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy following curative resection in patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation remains unclear. Several questions still need to be answered regarding the use of neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy for patients with resectable esophageal cancer. The optimal chemotherapy regimen has not yet been identified for these patients, although newer therapies show promise.

  11. Intrauterine administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for subfertile women undergoing assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Craciunas, Laurentiu; Tsampras, Nikolaos; Coomarasamy, Arri; Raine-Fenning, Nick

    2016-05-20

    Subfertility affects 15% of couples and represents the inability to conceive naturally following 12 months of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. Assisted reproduction refers to procedures involving the in vitro handling of both human gametes and represents a key option for many subfertile couples. Most women undergoing assisted reproduction treatment will reach the stage of embryo transfer (ET) but the proportion of embryos that successfully implant following ET has remained small since the mid-1990s. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone synthesised and released by the syncytiotrophoblast and has a fundamental role in embryo implantation and the early stages of pregnancy. Intrauterine administration of synthetic or natural hCG via an ET catheter during a mock procedure around the time of ET is a novel approach that has recently been suggested to improve the outcomes of assisted reproduction. To investigate whether the intrauterine administration of hCG around the time of ET improves the clinical outcomes in subfertile women undergoing assisted reproduction. We performed a comprehensive literature search of the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, registers of ongoing trials andreference lists of all included studies and relevant reviews (from inception to 10 November 2015), in consultation with the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Trials Search Co-ordinator. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating intrauterine administration of hCG around the time of ET in this review irrespective of language and country of origin. Two authors independently selected studies, assessed risk of bias, extracted data from studies and attempted to contact the authors where data were missing. We performed statistical analysis using Review Manager 5 in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of

  12. FDG-PET/CT Imaging Predicts Histopathologic Treatment Responses after Neoadjuvant Therapy in Adult Primary Bone Sarcomas

    DOE PAGES

    Benz, Matthias R.; Czernin, Johannes; Tap, William D.; ...

    2010-01-01

    Purpose . Tmore » he aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate whether FDG-PET allows an accurate assessment of histopathologic response to neoadjuvant treatment in adult patients with primary bone sarcomas. Methods . Twelve consecutive patients with resectable, primary high grade bone sarcomas were enrolled prospectively. FDG-PET/CT imaging was performed prior to the initiation and after completion of neoadjuvant treatment. Imaging findings were correlated with histopathologic response. Results . Histopathologic responders showed significantly more pronounced decreases in tumor FDG-SUVmax from baseline to late follow up than non-responders ( 64 ± 19 % versus 29 ± 30 %, resp.; P = .03 ). Using a 60% decrease in tumor FDG-uptake as a threshold for metabolic response correctly classified 3 of 4 histopathologic responders and 7 of 8 histopathologic non-responders as metabolic responders and non-responders, respectively (sensitivity, 75%; specificity, 88%). Conclusion . These results suggest that changes in FDG-SUVmax at the end of neoadjuvant treatment can identify histopathologic responders and non-responders in adult primary bone sarcoma patients.« less

  13. Downstage migration after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer: the reverse of the Will Rogers phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Fokas, Emmanouil; Liersch, Torsten; Fietkau, Rainer; Hohenberger, Werner; Hess, Clemens; Becker, Heinz; Sauer, Rolf; Wittekind, Christian; Rödel, Claus

    2015-06-01

    Downstaging after neoadjuvant treatment is increasingly used as a prognostic factor and surrogate endpoint in clinical trials. However, in recent trials of neoadjuvant 5-fluorouracil-based chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer, downstaging did not translate into a benefit with regard to either disease-free survival (DFS) or overall survival. By analyzing the 10-year outcome data of the German CAO/ARO/AIO-94 phase 3 trial, the authors demonstrated that significantly fewer patients had poor prognostic features (eg, ypT3-4, ypN1-2) after preoperative 5-fluorouracil-based chemoradiotherapy. Nevertheless, these patients with International Union for Cancer Control stage II disease were found to be at a higher risk of developing distant metastases and had poorer DFS compared with patients with corresponding TNM tumor (sub)groups in the postoperative treatment arm, whereas patients with International Union for Cancer Control stage III disease demonstrated a nonsignificant trend toward a worse outcome after preoperative treatment. Overall, DFS remained identical in both treatment arms. Thus, "downstage migration" after neoadjuvant treatment resembles the reverse of the Will Rogers phenomenon and therefore may not be a reliable endpoint for long-term outcomes. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  14. Practice Patterns and Outcomes for Pemetrexed Plus Platinum Doublet as Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Adenocarcinomas of Lung: Looking Beyond the Usual Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Noronha, V; Zanwar, S; Joshi, A; Patil, V M; Mahajan, A; Janu, A; Agarwal, J P; Bhargava, P; Kapoor, A; Prabhash, K

    2018-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is the standard of care in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) with locally advanced N2 disease. There is a scarcity of data for the pemetrexed-platinum regimen as NACT. Also, apart from N2 disease, the role of NACT in locally advanced NSCLCs for tumour downstaging is unclear. Non-metastatic adenocarcinomas of lung treated with pemetrexed-platinum-based NACT were analysed. The patients with locoregionally advanced N2 disease and those who were borderline candidates for upfront definitive treatment were planned for NACT after discussion in a multidisciplinary clinic. In total, four cycles of 3-weekly pemetrexed and platinum were delivered in the combined neoadjuvant and adjuvant setting. A response assessment was carried out using RECIST criteria. Progression-free (PFS) and overall survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Of 114 patients, 96 evaluable patients received NACT with pemetrexed-platinum. The most common indication for NACT was N2 disease at baseline (46.8%). The objective response rate was 36.4% (95% confidence interval 22-52%), including two complete and 32 partial responses, whereas 12.5% of patients had progressive disease on NACT. The median PFS was 14 months (95% confidence interval 10.7-17.3) and the median overall survival was 22 months (95% confidence interval 15.6-28.4) at a median follow-up of 16 months. There was a significant improvement in the overall survival of patients undergoing definitive therapy versus no definitive therapy (median overall survival 25 months [95% confidence interval 19.6-30.4] versus 12 months [95% confidence interval 3.2-20.7], respectively; P = 0.015, hazard ratio 0.56 [95% confidence interval 0.3-0.9]). Among patients who could not undergo definitive chemoradiation upfront due to dosimetric constraints (n = 34), 24 (70.6%) patients finally underwent definitive therapy after NACT. Pemetrexed-platinum-based NACT seems to be an effective option and many borderline

  15. Effectiveness of acupuncture in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome undergoing in vitro fertilisation or intracytoplasmic sperm injection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jo, Junyoung; Lee, Yoon Jae

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to assess the evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on the efficacy, effectiveness and safety of acupuncture in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). We searched a total of 15 databases through October 2015. The participants were women with PCOS (diagnosed using the Rotterdam criteria) undergoing IVF or ICSI. Eligible trials were those with intervention groups receiving manual acupuncture (MA) or electroacupuncture (EA), and control groups receiving sham acupuncture, no treatment or other treatments. Outcomes included the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), live birth rate (LBR), ongoing pregnancy rate (OPR) and incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and adverse events (AEs). For statistical pooling, the risk ratio (RR) and its 95% (confidence interval) CI was calculated using a random effects model. Four RCTs including 430 participants were selected. All trials compared acupuncture (MA/EA) against no treatment. Acupuncture significantly increased the CPR (RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.71) and OPR (RR 2.03, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.81) and decreased the risk of OHSS (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.94); however, there was no significant difference in the LBR (RR 1.61, 95% CI 0.73 to 3.58). None of the RCTs reported on AEs. Acupuncture may increase the CPR and OPR and decrease the risk of OHSS in women with PCOS undergoing IVF or ICSI. Further studies are needed to confirm the efficacy and safety of acupuncture as an adjunct to assisted reproductive technology in this particular population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Does flushing the endometrial cavity with follicular fluid after oocyte retrieval affect pregnancy rates in subfertile women undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection? A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hashish, N M; Badway, H S; Abdelmoty, H I; Mowafy, A; Youssef, M A F M

    2014-05-01

    Follicular fluid of mature oocytes is rich in growth factors and cytokines that may exert paracrine and autocrine effects on implantation. The aim of this study was to investigate if flushing the endometrial cavity with follicular fluid after oocyte retrieval improved pregnancy rates in subfertile women undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). One hundred subfertile women undergoing ICSI between April 2012 and September 2012 at the centre for reproductive medicine, Cairo University, Egypt were enrolled in this open label, parallel randomized controlled study. Patients were randomized into two groups at the start of treatment using a computer-generated programme and sealed opaque envelopes: the follicular fluid group (n=50) and the control group (n=50). Inclusion criteria were: age 20-38 years; basal follicle-stimulating hormone <10mIU/ml; body mass index <35kg/m(2); and ostradiol >1000pg/ml and <4000pg/ml on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin administration. Exclusion criteria were: evidence of endometriosis; uterine myoma; hydrosalpinges; endocrinological disorders; history of implantation failure in previous in-vitro fertilization/ICSI cycles; and severe male factor infertility. Clinical pregnancy and implantation rates were higher in the follicular fluid group compared with the control group [354% (17/48) vs 319% (15/47); p=0718] and (18.6% vs 11.3%; p=0.153), respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant. Flushing the endometrial cavity with follicular fluid after oocyte retrieval neither improved nor adversely affected clinical pregnancy and implantation rates in subfertile women undergoing ICSI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Predictors of Premenstrual Impairment Among Women Undergoing Prospective Assessment for Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: A Cycle-Level Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schmalenberger, Katja M.; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Surana, Pallavi; Rubinow, David R.; Girdler, Susan S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Women who experience significant premenstrual symptoms differ in the extent to which these symptoms cause cyclical impairment. This study clarifies the type and number of symptoms that best predict premenstrual impairment in a sample of women undergoing prospective assessment for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in a research setting. Central research goals were to determine (1) which emotional, psychological, and physical symptoms of PMDD are uniquely associated with premenstrual impairment, and (2) how many cyclical symptoms optimally predict the presence of a clinically significant premenstrual elevations of impairment. Methods 267 naturally cycling women recruited for retrospective report of premenstrual emotional symptoms completed daily symptom reports using the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) and occupational, recreational, and relational impairment for 1–4 menstrual cycles (N = 563 cycles). Results Multilevel regression revealed that emotional, psychological, and physical symptoms differ in their associations with impairment. The core emotional symptoms of PMDD were predictors of impairment, but not after accounting for psychological symptoms, which were the most robust predictors. The optimal number of premenstrual symptoms for predicting clinically significant premenstrual impairment was four. Conclusion Results enhance our understanding of the type and number of premenstrual symptoms associated with premenstrual impairment among women being evaluated for PMDD in research contexts. Additional work is needed to determine whether cognitive symptoms should receive greater attention in the study of PMDD, and to revisit the usefulness of the five-symptom diagnostic threshold. PMID:28193300

  18. Predictors of premenstrual impairment among women undergoing prospective assessment for premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a cycle-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Schmalenberger, K M; Eisenlohr-Moul, T A; Surana, P; Rubinow, D R; Girdler, S S

    2017-07-01

    Women who experience significant premenstrual symptoms differ in the extent to which these symptoms cause cyclical impairment. This study clarifies the type and number of symptoms that best predict premenstrual impairment in a sample of women undergoing prospective assessment for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in a research setting. Central research goals were to determine (1) which emotional, psychological, and physical symptoms of PMDD are uniquely associated with premenstrual impairment, and (2) how many cyclical symptoms optimally predict the presence of a clinically significant premenstrual elevation of impairment. A total of 267 naturally cycling women recruited for retrospective report of premenstrual emotional symptoms completed daily symptom reports using the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) and occupational, recreational, and relational impairment for 1-4 menstrual cycles (N = 563 cycles). Multilevel regression revealed that emotional, psychological, and physical symptoms differ in their associations with impairment. The core emotional symptoms of PMDD were predictors of impairment, but not after accounting for secondary psychological symptoms, which were the most robust predictors. The optimal number of premenstrual symptoms for predicting clinically significant premenstrual impairment was four. Results enhance our understanding of the type and number of premenstrual symptoms associated with premenstrual impairment among women being evaluated for PMDD in research contexts. Additional work is needed to determine whether cognitive symptoms should receive greater attention in the study of PMDD, and to revisit the usefulness of the five-symptom diagnostic threshold.

  19. Neoadjuvant radiation in primary extremity liposarcoma: correlation of MRI features with histopathology.

    PubMed

    Wortman, Jeremy R; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Tirumani, Harika; Shinagare, Atul B; Jagannathan, Jyothi P; Hornick, Jason L; Ramaiya, Nikhil H

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate MRI features of response of primary extremity liposarcoma (LPS) to neoadjuvant radiation therapy (RT) with histopathologic correlation. In this IRB-approved study including 125 patients with extremity LPS treated with neoadjuvant RT from 2000 to 2013, MRI of the primary tumour in 18 patients (5 pleomorphic LPS, 13 myxoid LPS) before and after RT were reviewed by two radiologists by consensus. Histopathology of the surgical specimens was reviewed by a pathologist with expertise in sarcomas. In the pleomorphic LPS cohort, 3/5 tumours increased in size; 3/5 decreased in enhancing component; and 3/5 increased in peritumoral oedema, intratumoral haemorrhage, and necrosis. In the myxoid LPS cohort, 12/13 tumours decreased in size, 8/13 decreased in enhancing component, and 5/13 increased in internal fat following RT. Histopathology showed ≥50% residual tumour in 1/5 pleomorphic LPS and 2/13 myxoid LPS. Hyalinization/necrosis of ≥75% was noted in 4/5 pleomorphic LPS and 11/13 myxoid LPS. Cytodifferentiation was noted in 1/5 pleomorphic and 9/13 myxoid LPS. While pleomorphic LPS showed an increase in size, peritumoral oedema, intratumoral haemorrhage, and necrosis on MRI following neoadjuvant RT, myxoid LPS showed a decrease in size and enhancement with an increase in internal fat. • Pleomorphic LPS commonly increase in size and necrosis on MRI following RT. • Myxoid LPS commonly decrease in size and enhancement on MRI following RT. • Myxoid LPS often increase in fatty component on MRI following RT.

  20. [A case of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer, which had a invasion into the vagina followed by curative resection].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kei; Kagawa, Yoshinori; Kato, Takeshi; Ishida, Tomo; Morimoto, Yoshihiro; Matusita, Katsunori; Kusama, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Tadayoshi; Katura, Yoshiteru; Nitta, Kanae; Takeno, Atushi; Nakahira, Shin; Okishiro, Masatsugu; Sakisaka, Hideki; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Egawa, Chiyomi; Takeda, Yutaka; Tamura, Shigeyuki

    2014-11-01

    A-64-years-old woman with locally advanced rectal cancer, which had invaded the vagina, was referred to our hospital. She was administered neoadjuvant chemotherapy to reduce the tumor size. After 4 courses of chemotherapy consisting of folinic acid, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6), an enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicated marked tumor shrinkage. We performed a laparoscopically assisted low anterior resection, which included total mesorectal resection, resection of the vaginal posterior wall, and right lateral lymph node resection. The chemotherapy prevented us from having to create a permanent colostomy. The efficacy of the neoadjuvant chemotherapy was Grade 1b. We experienced a case of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by curative resection.

  1. The Value of Restaging With Chest and Abdominal CT/MRI Scan After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-Chen; Zhang, Xu; Xie, E; An, Xin; Cai, Pei-Qiang; Zhu, Ying; Tang, Jing-Hua; Kong, Ling-Heng; Lin, Jun-Zhong; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Ding, Pei-Rong

    2015-11-01

    Little was known with regard to the value of preoperative systemic restaging for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). This study was designed to evaluate the role of chest and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on preoperative restaging in LARC after neoadjuvant CRT and to assess the impact on treatment strategy.Between January 2007 and April 2013, 386 newly diagnosed consecutive patients with LARC who underwent neoadjuvant CRT and received restaging with chest and abdominal CT/MRI scan were included. Imaging results before and after CRT were analyzed.Twelve patients (3.1%) (6 liver lesions, 2 peritoneal lesions, 2 distant lymph node lesions, 1 lung lesions, 1 liver and lung lesions) were diagnosed as suspicious metastases on the restaging scan after radiotherapy. Seven patients (1.8%) were confirmed as metastases by pathology or long-term follow-up. The treatment strategy was changed in 5 of the 12 patients as a result of restaging CT/MRI findings. Another 10 patients (2.6%) who present with normal restaging imaging findings were diagnosed as metastases intra-operatively. The sensitivity, specificity accuracy, negative predictive value, and positive predictive values of restaging CT/MRI was 41.4%, 98.6%, 58.3%, and 97.3%, respectively.The low incidence of metastases and minimal consequences for the treatment plan question the clinical value of routine restaging of chest and abdomen after neoadjuvant CRT. Based on this study, a routine restaging CT/MRI of chest and abdomen in patients with rectal cancer after neoadjuvant CRT is not advocated, carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) -guided CT/MRI restaging might be an alternative.

  2. Radiation dose does not influence anastomotic complications in patients with esophageal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation and transhiatal esophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Koëter, Marijn; van der Sangen, Maurice J C; Hurkmans, Coen W; Luyer, Misha D P; Rutten, Harm J T; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P

    2015-03-06

    Neoadjuvant chemoradiation might increase anastomotic leakage and stenosis in patients with esophageal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation and esophagectomy. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of radiation dose on the incidence of leakage and stenosis. Fifty-three patients with esophageal cancer received neoadjuvant chemoradiation (23 × 1.8 Gy) (combined with Paclitaxel and Carboplatin) followed by a transhiatal esophagectomy between 2009 and 2011. On planning CT, the future anastomotic region was determined and the mean radiation dose, V20, V25, V30, V35 and V40 were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine determinants of anastomotic leakage and stenosis. Anastomotic leaks occurred in 13 of 53 patients (25.5%) and anastomotic stenosis occurred in 24 of 53 patients (45.3%). Median follow-up was 20 months. Logistic regression analysis showed that mean dose, V20-V40, age, co-morbidity, method of anastomosis, operating time and interval between last radiotherapy treatment and surgery were not predictors of anastomotic leakage and stenosis. A radiation dose of 23 × 1.8 Gy on the future anastomotic region has no influence on the occurrence of anastomotic leakage and stenosis in patients with esophageal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by transhiatal esophagectomy.

  3. 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy used to evaluate tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer: A quantitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    KOGA, KATIA HIROMOTO; MORIGUCHI, SONIA MARTA; NETO, JORGE NAHÁS; PERES, STELA VERZINHASSE; SILVA, EDUARDO TINÓIS DA; SARRI, ALMIR JOSÉ; MICHELIN, ODAIR CARLITO; MARQUES, MARIANGELA ESTHER ALENCAR; GRIVA, BEATRIZ LOTUFO

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 99mTc-sestamibi breast scintigraphy was proposed as a quantitative method. Fifty-five patients with ductal carcinoma were studied. They underwent breast scintigraphy before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, along with clinical assessment and surgical specimen analysis. The regions of interest on the lesion and contralateral breast were identified, and the pixel counts were used to evaluate lesion uptake in relation to background radiation. The ratio of these counts before to after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was assessed. The decrease in uptake rate due to chemotherapy characterized the scintigraphy tumor response. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the mean scintigraphic tumor response and histological type. Dunn’s multiple comparison test was used to detect differences between histological types. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare means between quantitative and qualitative variables: scintigraphic tumor response vs. clinical response and uptake before chemotherapy vs. scintigraphic tumor response. The Spearman’s test was used to correlate the quantitative variables of clinical reduction in tumor size and scintigraphic tumor response. All of the variables compared presented significant differences. The change in 99mTc-sestamibi uptake noted on breast scintigraphy, before to after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, may be used as an effective method for evaluating the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, since this quantification reflects the biological behavior of the tumor towards the chemotherapy regimen. Furthermore, additional analysis on the uptake rate before chemotherapy may accurately predict treatment response. PMID:22966312

  4. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for primary adenocarcinomas of the urinary bladder: a single-site experience.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bin; Zhou, Jin; Cai, Hongzhou; Xu, Ting; Xu, Zicheng; Zou, Qing; Gu, Min

    2015-01-28

    Adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare malignancy. Radical surgery is suggested as the best available treatment for early-stage disease, but there is currently no consensus on standard chemotherapy regimen for advanced stage. We assessed the feasibility and effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) plus S-1 for patients with locally advanced primary adenocarcinomas of the urinary bladder. Six patients with locally advanced urachal or non-urachal (n = 3, each) primary adenocarcinoma of the bladder were treated from October 2010 to October 2013 at a single center. All the patients were treated with 3 cycles (21d, each) of GC plus S-1 (gemcitabine, 1000 mg/m2, days 1 and 8; cisplatin, 70 mg/m2, day 2; and S-1, 50 mg bid, day 1-14). After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, patients with urachal cancer were treated with en bloc radical cystectomy and umbilectomy; the remaining 3 patients were treated with cystectomy. All patients successfully completed the neoadjuvant chemotherapy without serious side effects. Two patients were assessed as complete response, 2 as partial response, 1 as stable disease and 1 as progressive disease. Despite the limitations of a small study population, the GC plus S-1 regimen for locally advanced primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder was effective, and facilitated the success of surgery to a certain extent. Short follow-up time was also a limitation of our study. More studies are needed to evaluate the results.

  5. Changes in gene expression associated with response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hannemann, Juliane; Oosterkamp, Hendrika M; Bosch, Cathy A J; Velds, Arno; Wessels, Lodewyk F A; Loo, Claudette; Rutgers, Emiel J; Rodenhuis, Sjoerd; van de Vijver, Marc J

    2005-05-20

    At present, clinically useful markers predicting response of primary breast carcinomas to either doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide (AC) or doxorubicin-docetaxel (AD) are lacking. We investigated whether gene expression profiles of the primary tumor could be used to predict treatment response to either of those chemotherapy regimens. Within a single-institution, randomized, phase II trial, patients with locally advanced breast cancer received six courses of either AC (n = 24) or AD (n = 24) neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Gene expression profiles were generated from core-needle biopsies obtained before treatment and correlated with the response of the primary tumor to the chemotherapy administered. Additionally, pretreatment gene expression profiles were compared with those in tumors remaining after chemotherapy. Ten (20%) of 48 patients showed a (near) pathologic complete remission of the primary tumor after treatment. No gene expression pattern correlating with response could be identified for all patients or for the AC or AD groups separately. The comparison of the pretreatment biopsy and the tumor excised after chemotherapy revealed differences in gene expression in tumors that showed a partial remission but not in tumors that did not respond to chemotherapy. No gene expression profile predicting the response of primary breast carcinomas to AC- or AD-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy could be detected in this interim analysis. More subtle differences in gene expression are likely to be present but can only be reliably identified by studying a larger group of patients. Response of a breast tumor to neoadjuvant chemotherapy results in alterations in gene expression.

  6. [Practical neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies for rectal cancer. How many patients are actually recruited in multimodality therapy concepts? An analysis of the Tumour Centre Schwerin].

    PubMed

    Sauer, J; Sobolewski, K; Dommisch, K

    2009-09-01

    For rectal cancer in UICC stage II or III, a neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy or short-course radiotherapy is established to reduce the incidence of local relapses. It has been documented that the neoadjuvant therapy is superior to the adjuvant therapy. In spite of the formulation of therapeutic principles in guidelines, they are not consistently applied. The actual rate of application and the reasons for a change from the recommended treatment strategy have been investigated. The data of the tumour centre West Mecklenburg were analysed. Data concerning the type and stage of rectal cancer, multimodal treatment (surgery with or without neoadjuvant therapy or adjuvant therapy) and treatment according to the level of medical care of hospitals were recorded from 2000 to 2008. In addition, in our clinic prospectively collected data of patients with rectal cancer (September 2006 until December 2008) were used to find out the reasons for the denial of neoadjuvant therapy. During the observation period we detected 348 patients with rectal cancer in UICC stage II or III in the area of the tumour centre West Mecklenburg. 16 % of these patients were treated pre-operatively. An increase in the preoperative multimodal treatment from 3 % to 39 % was observed. Hospitals with higher provisions of medical care applied the multimodal treatment 4-fold more frequently during this period of time. 55 patients of our own clinic were found to be of UICC stage II or III. 6 patients were emergency cases. The carcinoma was found in the lower or middle third of the rectum in 38 of our patients. The endosonographical examination could not adequately show the tumour or was falsely negative in 16 of these patients. A neoadjuvant treatment was started for 58 % of the patients. Overall, 76 of patients with rectal carcinoma were treated adjuvant or neoadjuvant, 62 of them with a complete treatment scheme. The application of neoadjuvant treatment for rectal carcinoma in UICC stage II or III in West

  7. Efficacy and tolerability of intravenous morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) in women undergoing cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Andziak, Marta; Beta, Jarosław; Barwijuk, Michal; Issat, Tadeusz; Jakimiuk, Artur J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate analgesic efficacy and tolerability of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with intravenous morphine. Our observational study included 50 women who underwent a Misgav-Ladach or modified Misgav-Ladach cesarean section. Automated PCA infusion device (Medima S-PCA Syringe Pump, Medima, Krakow, Poland) was used for postoperative pain control. Time of morphine administration or initiation of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) with morphine was recorded, as well as post-operative pain at rest assessed by a visual analogue scale (VAS). All patients were followed up for 24 hours after discharge from the operating room, taking into account patient records, worst pain score at rest, number of IV PCA attempts, and drug consumption. Median of total morphine doses used during the postoperative period was 42.9mg (IQR 35.6-48.5), with median infusion time of 687.0 min. (IQR 531.0-757.5). Pain severity and total drug consumption improved after the first 3 hours following cesarean delivery (p < 0.01). Mean number of PCA attempts per patient was 33 (IQR: 24-37), with median of 11 placebo attempts (IQR: 3-27). Patient-controlled analgesia with morphine is an efficient and acceptable analgesic method in women undergoing cesarean section.

  8. Detection of residual disease after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for oesophageal cancer (preSANO): a prospective multicentre, diagnostic cohort study.

    PubMed

    Noordman, Bo Jan; Spaander, Manon C W; Valkema, Roelf; Wijnhoven, Bas P L; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I; Shapiro, Joël; Biermann, Katharina; van der Gaast, Ate; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Hulshof, Maarten C C M; Krishnadath, Kausilia K; Lagarde, Sjoerd M; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; Oostenbrug, Liekele E; Siersema, Peter D; Schoon, Erik J; Sosef, Meindert N; Steyerberg, Ewout W; van Lanschot, J Jan B

    2018-05-31

    After neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for oesophageal cancer, roughly half of the patients with squamous cell carcinoma and a quarter of those with adenocarcinoma have a pathological complete response of the primary tumour before surgery. Thus, the necessity of standard oesophagectomy after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy should be reconsidered for patients who respond sufficiently to neoadjuvant treatment. In this study, we aimed to establish the accuracy of detection of residual disease after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy with different diagnostic approaches, and the optimal combination of diagnostic techniques for clinical response evaluations. The preSANO trial was a prospective, multicentre, diagnostic cohort study at six centres in the Netherlands. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had histologically proven, resectable, squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus or oesophagogastric junction, and were eligible for potential curative therapy with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (five weekly cycles of carboplatin [area under the curve 2 mg/mL per min] plus paclitaxel [50 mg/m 2 of body-surface area] combined with 41·4 Gy radiotherapy in 23 fractions) followed by oesophagectomy. 4-6 weeks after completion of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, patients had oesophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsies and endoscopic ultrasonography with measurement of maximum tumour thickness. Patients with histologically proven locoregional residual disease or no-pass during endoscopy and without distant metastases underwent immediate surgical resection. In the remaining patients a second clinical response evaluation was done (PET-CT, oesophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsies, endoscopic ultrasonography with measurement of maximum tumour thickness, and fine-needle aspiration of suspicious lymph nodes), followed by surgery 12-14 weeks after completion of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. The primary endpoint was the correlation between clinical response during

  9. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy induces breast cancer metastasis through a TMEM-mediated mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Karagiannis, George S.; Pastoriza, Jessica M.; Wang, Yarong; Harney, Allison S.; Entenberg, David; Pignatelli, Jeanine; Sharma, Ved P.; Xue, Emily A.; Cheng, Esther; D’Alfonso, Timothy M.; Jones, Joan G.; Anampa, Jesus; Rohan, Thomas E.; Sparano, Joseph A.; Condeelis, John S.; Oktay, Maja H.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer cells disseminate through TIE2/MENACalc/MENAINV-dependent cancer cell intravasation sites, called tumor microenvironment of metastasis (TMEM), which are clinically validated as prognostic markers of metastasis in breast cancer patients. Using fixed tissue and intravital imaging of a PyMT murine model and patient-derived xenografts, we show that chemotherapy increases the density and activity of TMEM sites and Mena expression and promotes distant metastasis. Moreover, in the residual breast cancers of patients treated with neoadjuvant paclitaxel after doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide, TMEM score and its mechanistically connected MENAINV isoform expression pattern were both increased, suggesting that chemotherapy, despite decreasing tumor size, increases the risk of metastatic dissemination. Chemotherapy-induced TMEM activity and cancer cell dissemination were reversed by either administration of the TIE2 inhibitor rebastinib or knockdown of the MENA gene. Our results indicate that TMEM score increases and MENA isoform expression pattern changes with chemotherapy and can be used in predicting prometastatic changes in response to chemotherapy. Furthermore, inhibitors of TMEM function may improve clinical benefits of chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant setting or in metastatic disease. PMID:28679654

  10. Selective Changes in the Immune Profile of Tumor-Draining Lymph Nodes After Different Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Regimens for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, Alessandra; Buzzonetti, Alexia; Martinelli, Enrica

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To assess how neoadjuvant chemoradiation regimens modulate the immune system state in tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLN), in the setting of advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Tumor-draining lymph nodes of patients undergoing chemotherapy only (nonirradiated, NI-TDLN) and chemoradiation with lower-dose (39.6 Gy, LD-TDLN) and higher-dose radiation (50 Gy, HD-TDLN) were analyzed by multicolor flow cytometry. Results: Enlarging our previous data, LD-TDLN showed features overall indicative of an enhanced antitumor response as compared with NI-TDLN, namely a significant Th1 and Tc1 polarization and a lower amount of the potent CD4{sup +}Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup high} regulatory T cell (Treg) subset identified bymore » neuropilin-1 expression. Conversely, compared with NI-TDLN, HD-TDLN showed features overall indicative of an impaired antitumor response, namely a significantly inverted CD4/CD8 cell ratio, a higher Nrp1{sup +}Treg frequency, and a higher frequency of CCR4{sup +}Treg, a Treg subset facilitated in migrating out from TDLN to suppress the immune response against distant cancer cells. Moreover, the Th1 and Tc1 polarization induced by LD radiation was lost, and there was an unfavorable tolerogenic/immunogenic dendritic cell ratio compared with LD-TDLN. Conclusions: Even minor differences in radiation dose in neoadjuvant regimens for locally advanced cervical cancer are crucial for determining the balance between a tolerogenic and an efficacious antitumor immune response in TDLN. Because most of the anticancer immune response takes place in TDLN, the present findings also emphasize the importance of chemoradiation protocols in the context of immunotherapeutic trials.« less

  11. Neoadjuvant luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone agonist plus low-dose estramustine phosphate improves prostate-specific antigen-free survival in high-risk prostate cancer patients: a propensity score-matched analysis.

    PubMed

    Koie, Takuya; Mitsuzuka, Koji; Yoneyama, Takahiro; Narita, Shintaro; Kawamura, Sadafumi; Kaiho, Yasuhiro; Tsuchiya, Norihiko; Tochigi, Tatsuo; Habuchi, Tomonori; Arai, Yoichi; Ohyama, Chikara; Yoneyama, Tohru; Tobisawa, Yuki

    2015-10-01

    The optimal treatment for high-risk prostate cancer (Pca) remains to be established. We previously reported favorable biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS) in high-risk Pca patients treated with a neoadjuvant therapy comprising a luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist plus low dose estramustine phosphate (EMP) (LHRH+EMP) followed by radical prostatectomy (RP). In the present study, we used a retrospective design via propensity score matching to elucidate the clinical benefit of neoadjuvant LHRH+EMP for high-risk Pca. The Michinoku Urological Cancer Study Group database contained data for 1,268 consecutive Pca patients treated with RP alone at 4 institutions between April 2000 and March 2011 (RP alone group). In the RP alone group, we identified 386 high-risk Pca patients. The neoadjuvant LHRH+EMP group included 274 patients with high-risk Pca treated between September 2005 and November 2013 at Hirosaki University. Neoadjuvant LHRH+EMP therapy included LHRH and EMP administration at a dose of 280 mg/day for 6 months before RP. The outcome measures were overall survival (OS) and BRFS. The propensity score-matched analysis indicated 210 matched pairs from both groups. The 5-year BRFS rates were 90.4 and 65.8 % for the neoadjuvant LHRH+EMP and RP alone groups, respectively (P < 0.0001). The 5-year OS rates were 100 and 96.1 % for the neoadjuvant LHRH+EMP and RP alone groups, respectively (P = 0.110). Although the present study was not randomized, neoadjuvant LHRH+EMP therapy followed by RP appeared to reduce the risk of biochemical recurrence. A prospective randomized study is warranted to determine the clinical implications of the neoadjuvant therapy described here.

  12. Interventions to improve reproductive outcomes in women with elevated natural killer cells undergoing assisted reproduction techniques: a systematic review of literature.

    PubMed

    Polanski, L T; Barbosa, M A P; Martins, W P; Baumgarten, M N; Campbell, B; Brosens, J; Quenby, S; Raine-Fenning, N

    2014-01-01

    Is there any scientific evidence to support the routine use of adjuvant therapies for women with elevated natural killer (NK) cells undergoing assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs) in order to improve live birth rate? Due to the poor quality evidence, this review does not support the use of described adjuvant treatments in women found to have elevated absolute numbers or activity of NK cells undergoing ART. Deregulation in the numbers of NK cells and/or their activity, in the blood as well as in the endometrium, has been associated with various manifestations of reproductive failure. NK cell analysis is becoming increasingly popular as a test offered to investigate the causes of reproductive failure. Adjuvant therapies influencing the NK cells have been postulated as therapeutic options for couples where deregulation of this component of the maternal immune system is suspected as the cause of infertility or implantation failure. Systematic review. Embase, LILACS, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CENTRAL and CINAHL databases from 1946 to present were searched with no language restrictions. Studies evaluating the use of adjuvant therapies in women undergoing ART where NK cell numbers and/or activity were assessed were considered eligible for inclusion. Only three studies (one in abstract form only) meeting the inclusion criteria were identified: two reported the use of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) and one the use of oral prednisolone. All studies demonstrated a beneficial effect of the interventions on clinical pregnancy rates with a risk ratio (RR) of 1.63 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-2.66] for prednisolone and 3.41 (95%CI 1.90-6.11) for IVIg. Studies assessing the efficacy of IVIg have also reported live birth rate with an RR of 3.94 (95% CI 2.01-7.69) favoring the intervention. Data heterogeneity was substantial however (I(2) = 66%) suggesting a cautious interpretation of the results. Differing study populations, lack of statistical power, method of data

  13. Laparoscopic resection of locally advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) of the stomach following neoadjuvant imatinib chemoreduction.

    PubMed

    Berney, Christophe R

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic resection of locally advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) is rarely offered to patients as a first line of treatment. We present two cases of locally advanced gastric GISTs successfully treated with neoadjuvant imatinib and followed up by complete laparoscopic excision of the residual tumour mass. There was no evidence of local recurrence or distant metastases after a mean follow up of more than 40 months. Over the last decade, the development of imatinib has totally revolutionized management of metastatic GISTs and it is now possible to achieve primary tumour downstaging of more than 80%. Unfortunately, current literature on laparoscopic excision of locally advanced gastric GISTs following neoadjuvant treatment of imatinib remains scarce. The present cases strongly suggest that this new therapeutic approach might become the preferred medical option in such clinical situation. Patients with locally advanced non-metastatic gastric GISTs should be offered first-line neoadjuvant. Imatinib-based cytoreductive chemotherapy as an alternative to radical debulking surgery, as a substantial proportion of them will experience significant tumour shrinkage and therefore benefit from a much less invasive laparoscopic approach. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of the Roche Cobas(®) 4800 HPV assay to Digene Hybrid Capture 2, Roche Linear Array and Roche Amplicor for Detection of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Women undergoing treatment for cervical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Samuel; Garland, Suzanne M; Tan, Jeffery H; Quinn, Michael A; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

    2015-01-01

    The recently FDA (U.S. food and drug administration) approved Roche Cobas(®) 4800 (Cobas) human papillomavirus (HPV) has limited performance data compared to current HPV detection methods for test of cure in women undergoing treatment for high grade lesions. Evaluation of Cobas HPV assay using historical samples from women undergoing treatment for cervical dysplasia. A selection of 407 samples was tested on the Cobas assay and compared to previous results from Hybrid Capture 2, HPV Amplicor and Roche Linear Array. Overall, a correlation between high-risk HPV positivity and high grade histological diagnosis was 90.6% by the Cobas, 86.1% by Hybrid Capture 2, 92.9% by HPV Amplicor and 91.8% by Roche Linear Array. The Cobas HPV assay is comparative to both the HPV Amplicor and Roche Linear Array assays and better than Hybrid capture 2 assay in the detection of High-Risk HPV in women undergoing treatment for cervical dysplasia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Weekly paclitaxel and concurrent pazopanib following doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide as neoadjuvant therapy for HER-negative locally advanced breast cancer: NSABP Foundation FB-6, a phase II study.

    PubMed

    Tan, A R; Johannes, H; Rastogi, P; Jacobs, S A; Robidoux, A; Flynn, P J; Thirlwell, M P; Fehrenbacher, L; Stella, P J; Goel, R; Julian, T B; Provencher, L; Bury, M J; Bhatt, K; Geyer, C E; Swain, S M; Mamounas, E P; Wolmark, N

    2015-01-01

    This multicenter single-arm phase II study evaluated the addition of pazopanib to concurrent weekly paclitaxel following doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide as neoadjuvant therapy in human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2)-negative locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Patients with HER2-negative stage III breast cancer were treated with doxorubicin 60 mg/m(2) and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) for four cycles every 3 weeks followed by weekly paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days for four cycles concurrently with pazopanib 800 mg orally daily prior to surgery. Post-operatively, pazopanib was given daily for 6 months. The primary endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR) in the breast and lymph nodes. Between July 2009 and March 2011, 101 patients with stage IIIA-C HER2-negative breast cancer were enrolled. The pCR rate in evaluable patients who initiated paclitaxel and pazopanib was 17 % (16/93). The pCR rate was 9 % (6/67) in hormone receptor-positive tumors and 38 % (10/26) in triple-negative tumors. Pre-operative pazopanib was completed in only 39 % of patients. The most frequent grade 3 and 4 adverse events during paclitaxel and pazopanib were neutropenia (27 %), diarrhea (5 %), ALT and AST elevations (each 5 %), and hypertension (5 %). Although the pCR rate of paclitaxel and pazopanib following AC chemotherapy given as neoadjuvant therapy in women with LABC met the pre-specified criteria for activity, there was substantial toxicity, which led to a high discontinuation rate of pazopanib. The combination does not appear to warrant further evaluation in the neoadjuvant setting for breast cancer.

  16. Suspicious breast calcifications undergoing stereotactic biopsy in women ages 70 and over: Breast cancer incidence by BI-RADS descriptors.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Lars J; Johnson, David Y; Johnson, Karen S; Baker, Jay A; Soo, Mary Scott; Hwang, E Shelley; Ghate, Sujata V

    2017-06-01

    To determine the malignancy rate overall and for specific BI-RADS descriptors in women ≥70 years who undergo stereotactic biopsy for calcifications. We retrospectively reviewed 14,577 consecutive mammogram reports in 6839 women ≥70 years to collect 231 stereotactic biopsies of calcifications in 215 women. Cases with missing images or histopathology and calcifications associated with masses, distortion, or asymmetries were excluded. Three breast radiologists determined BI-RADS descriptors by majority. Histology, hormone receptor status, and lymph node status were correlated with BI-RADS descriptors. There were 131 (57 %) benign, 22 (10 %) atypia/lobular carcinomas in situ, 55 (24 %) ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS), and 23 (10 %) invasive diagnoses. Twenty-seven (51 %) DCIS cases were high-grade. Five (22 %) invasive cases were high-grade, two (9 %) were triple-negative, and three (12 %) were node-positive. Malignancy was found in 49 % (50/103) of fine pleomorphic, 50 % (14/28) of fine linear, 25 % (10/40) of amorphous, 20 % (3/15) of round, 3 % (1/36) of coarse heterogeneous, and 0 % (0/9) of dystrophic calcifications. Among women ≥70 years that underwent stereotactic biopsy for calcifications only, we observed a high rate of malignancy. Additionally, coarse heterogeneous calcifications may warrant a probable benign designation. • Cancer rates of biopsied calcifications in women ≥70 years are high • Radiologists should not dismiss suspicious calcifications in older women • Coarse heterogeneous calcifications may warrant a probable benign designation.

  17. Prognostic impact of blood biomarkers TS and DPD in neoadjuvant-treated esophageal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Grimminger, Peter P; Maus, Martin K H; Bergenthal, Juliane; Wandhöfer, Christoph; Fetzner, Ullrich K; Herbold, Till; Bollschweiler, Elfriede; Hölscher, Arnulf H; Brabender, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The prognostic value of TS (thymidylate synthase) and DPD (dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase) RNA expression in the blood of patients with esophageal cancer is not known. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the significance of these molecular alterations in the blood as a prognostic marker for patients with neoadjuvant-treated esophageal cancer. A total of 29 patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer (cT3-T4, Nx, M0) were enrolled in this prospective study. All patients received neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by a transthoracic resection (curative transthoracic en bloc esophagectomy, RO). Peripheral blood samples were drawn before initiation of therapy. The analysis was performed using quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The histomorphological regressions grading after neoadjuvant therapy was defined as follows: major response (MaR)=less than 10% vital tumor tissue, minor response (MiR)=more than 10% vital tumor tissue. Nineteen out of 29 patients (65.5%) had a MiR and 10 (34.5%) had a MaR. The median survival of patients was 2.08 years (range=0.15-4.53). Among the tested genes, the RNA expression of TS was significantly associated with prognosis of patients. Patients with TS expression above 0.78 had a median survival of 1.1 years (range=0.21-3.96) compared to 2.6 years (range=0.15 to 4.53) in patients with TS expression lower than 0.78 (p=0.031, log rank test). There was no association between clinical variables (e.g., tumor stage, gender, age, etc.) and the RNA expression of TS in the serum. The RNA expression of TS in the blood is a potential prognostic marker in patients with neoadjuvant-treated esophageal cancer. The significance of these molecular alterations as non-invasive prognostic marker for esophageal cancer should be evaluated in prospective studies. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  18. The preconception diet is associated with the chance of ongoing pregnancy in women undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment.

    PubMed

    Twigt, J M; Bolhuis, M E C; Steegers, E A P; Hammiche, F; van Inzen, W G; Laven, J S E; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M

    2012-08-01

    Subfertility and poor nutrition are increasing problems in Western countries. Moreover, nutrition affects fertility in both women and men. In this study, we investigate the association between adherence to general dietary recommendations in couples undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment and the chance of ongoing pregnancy. Between October 2007 and October 2010, couples planning pregnancy visiting the outpatient clinic of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the Erasmus Medical Centre in Rotterdam, the Netherlands were offered preconception counselling. Self-administered questionnaires on general characteristics and diet were completed and checked during the visit. Six questions, based on dietary recommendations of the Netherlands Nutrition Centre, covered the intake of six main food groups (fruits, vegetables, meat, fish, whole wheat products and fats). Using the questionnaire results, we calculated the Preconception Dietary Risk score (PDR), providing an estimate of nutritional habits. Dietary quality increases with an increasing PDR score. We define ongoing pregnancy as an intrauterine pregnancy with positive heart action confirmed by ultrasound. For this analysis we selected all couples (n=199) who underwent a first IVF/ICSI treatment within 6 months after preconception counselling. We applied adjusted logistic regression analysis on the outcomes of interest using SPSS. After adjustment for age of the woman, smoking of the woman, PDR of the partner, BMI of the couple and treatment indication we show an association between the PDR of the woman and the chance of ongoing pregnancy after IVF/ICSI treatment (odds ratio 1.65, confidence interval: 1.08-2.52; P=0.02]. Thus, a one-point increase in the PDR score associates with a 65% increased chance of ongoing pregnancy. Our results show that increasing adherence to Dutch dietary recommendations in women undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment increases the chance of ongoing pregnancy. These data warrant further confirmation in

  19. Can we eliminate neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in favor of neoadjuvant multiagent chemotherapy for select stage II/III rectal adenocarcinomas: Analysis of the National Cancer Data base.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Richard J; Liu, Yuan; Patel, Kirtesh; Zhong, Jim; Steuer, Conor E; Kooby, David A; Russell, Maria C; Gillespie, Theresa W; Landry, Jerome C

    2017-03-01

    Stage II and III rectal cancers have been effectively treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) followed by definitive resection. Advancements in surgical technique and systemic therapy have prompted investigation of neoadjuvant multiagent chemotherapy (NMAC) regimens with the elimination of radiation (RT). The objective of the current study was to investigate factors that predict for the use of NCRT versus NMAC and compare outcomes using the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) for select stage II and III rectal cancers. In the NCDB, 21,707 patients from 2004 through 2012 with clinical T2N1 (cT2N1), cT3N0, or cT3N1 rectal cancers were identified who had received NCRT or NMAC followed by low anterior resection. Kaplan-Meier analyses, log-rank tests, and Cox-proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted along with propensity score matching analysis to reduce treatment selection bias. The 5-year actuarial overall survival (OS) rate was 75% for patients who received NCRT versus 67.2% for those who received NMAC (P < .01). On MVA, those who received NCRT had improved OS (hazard ratio, 0.77. P < .01), and this effect was confirmed on propensity score matching analysis (hazard ratio, 0.72; P = .01). In the same model, the following variables improved OS: age < 65 years, having private insurance, treatment at an academic center, living in an affluent zip code, a low comorbidity score, receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy, and a shorter interval before surgery (all P < .05). African Americans, men, patients with high-grade tumors, those with cT3N1 tumors, and those who underwent incomplete (R1) resection had worse OS (all P < .05). In this series, the elimination of neoadjuvant RT for select patients with stage II and III rectal adenocarcinoma was associated with worse OS and should not be recommended outside of a clinical trial. Cancer 2017;123:783-93. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  20. The Impact of Skin-Sparing Mastectomy With Immediate Reconstruction in Patients With Stage III Breast Cancer Treated With Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Postmastectomy Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhu, Roshan; Godette, Karen; Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: The safety and efficacy of skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) with immediate reconstruction (IR) in patients with locally advanced breast cancer are unclear. The purpose of this study is to compare the outcomes of women with noninflammatory Stage III SSM with IR vs. non-SSM-treated women who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant radiation therapy (XRT). Methods and Materials: Between October 1997 and March 2010, 100 consecutive patients (40 SSM with IR vs. 60 non-SSM) with Stage III breast cancer received anthracycline- and/or taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy, mastectomy, and adjuvant XRT. Clinical stage (SSM with IR vs. for non-SSM) was IIIA (75% vs. 67%),more » IIIB (8% vs. 18%), and IIIC (8% vs. 8%). Tumors greater than 5 cm were found in 74% vs. 69%; 97% of patients in both groups were clinically node positive; and 8% vs. 18% had T4b disease. Results: The time from initial biopsy to XRT was prolonged for SSM-IR patients (274 vs. 254 days, p = 0.04), and there was a trend toward XRT delay of more than 8 weeks (52% vs. 31%, p = 0.07) after surgery. The rate of complications requiring surgical intervention was higher in the SSM-IR group (37.5% vs. 5%, p < 0.001). The 2-year actuarial locoregional control, breast cancer-specific survival, and overall survival rates for SSM with IR vs. non-SSM were 94.7% vs. 97.4%, 91.5% vs. 86.3%, and 87.4% vs. 84.8%, respectively (p = not significant). Conclusions: In our small study with limited follow-up, SSM with IR prolonged overall cancer treatment time and trended toward delaying XRT but did not impair oncologic outcomes. Complication rates were significantly higher in this group. Longer follow-up is needed.« less

  1. The impact of skin-sparing mastectomy with immediate reconstruction in patients with Stage III breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and postmastectomy radiation.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Roshan; Godette, Karen; Carlson, Grant; Losken, Albert; Gabram, Sheryl; Fasola, Carolina; O'Regan, Ruth; Zelnak, Amelia; Torres, Mylin

    2012-03-15

    The safety and efficacy of skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) with immediate reconstruction (IR) in patients with locally advanced breast cancer are unclear. The purpose of this study is to compare the outcomes of women with noninflammatory Stage III SSM with IR vs. non-SSM-treated women who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant radiation therapy (XRT). Between October 1997 and March 2010, 100 consecutive patients (40 SSM with IR vs. 60 non-SSM) with Stage III breast cancer received anthracycline- and/or taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy, mastectomy, and adjuvant XRT. Clinical stage (SSM with IR vs. for non-SSM) was IIIA (75% vs. 67%), IIIB (8% vs. 18%), and IIIC (8% vs. 8%). Tumors greater than 5 cm were found in 74% vs. 69%; 97% of patients in both groups were clinically node positive; and 8% vs. 18% had T4b disease. The time from initial biopsy to XRT was prolonged for SSM-IR patients (274 vs. 254 days, p = 0.04), and there was a trend toward XRT delay of more than 8 weeks (52% vs. 31%, p = 0.07) after surgery. The rate of complications requiring surgical intervention was higher in the SSM-IR group (37.5% vs. 5%, p < 0.001). The 2-year actuarial locoregional control, breast cancer-specific survival, and overall survival rates for SSM with IR vs. non-SSM were 94.7% vs. 97.4%, 91.5% vs. 86.3%, and 87.4% vs. 84.8%, respectively (p = not significant). In our small study with limited follow-up, SSM with IR prolonged overall cancer treatment time and trended toward delaying XRT but did not impair oncologic outcomes. Complication rates were significantly higher in this group. Longer follow-up is needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of acupuncture on rates of pregnancy and live birth among women undergoing in vitro fertilisation: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Manheimer, Eric; Zhang, Grant; Udoff, Laurence; Haramati, Aviad; Langenberg, Patricia; Berman, Brian M; Bouter, Lex M

    2008-03-08

    To evaluate whether acupuncture improves rates of pregnancy and live birth when used as an adjuvant treatment to embryo transfer in women undergoing in vitro fertilisation. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Medline, Cochrane Central, Embase, Chinese Biomedical Database, hand searched abstracts, and reference lists. Review methods Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials that compared needle acupuncture administered within one day of embryo transfer with sham acupuncture or no adjuvant treatment, with reported outcomes of at least one of clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, or live birth. Two reviewers independently agreed on eligibility; assessed methodological quality; and extracted outcome data. For all trials, investigators contributed additional data not included in the original publication (such as live births). Meta-analyses included all randomised patients. Seven trials with 1366 women undergoing in vitro fertilisation were included in the meta-analyses. There was little clinical heterogeneity. Trials with sham acupuncture and no adjuvant treatment as controls were pooled for the primary analysis. Complementing the embryo transfer process with acupuncture was associated with significant and clinically relevant improvements in clinical pregnancy (odds ratio 1.65, 95% confidence interval 1.27 to 2.14; number needed to treat (NNT) 10 (7 to 17); seven trials), ongoing pregnancy (1.87, 1.40 to 2.49; NNT 9 (6 to 15); five trials), and live birth (1.91, 1.39 to 2.64; NNT 9 (6 to 17); four trials). Because we were unable to obtain outcome data on live births for three of the included trials, the pooled odds ratio for clinical pregnancy more accurately represents the true combined effect from these trials rather than the odds ratio for live birth. The results were robust to sensitivity analyses on study validity variables. A prespecified subgroup analysis restricted to the three trials with the higher rates of clinical pregnancy in the control group

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based indication for neoadjuvant treatment of rectal carcinoma and the surrogate endpoint CRM status.

    PubMed

    Strassburg, Joachim; Junginger, Theo; Trinh, Trong; Püttcher, Olaf; Oberholzer, Katja; Heald, Richard J; Hermanek, Paul

    2008-11-01

    Is it possible to reduce the frequency of neoadjuvant therapy for rectal carcinoma and nevertheless achieve a rate of more than 90% circumferential resection margin (CRM)-negative resection specimens by a novel concept of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based therapy planning? One hundred eighty-one patients from Berlin and Mainz, Germany, with primary rectal carcinoma, without distant metastasis, underwent radical surgery with curative intention. Surgical procedures applied were anterior resection with total mesorectal excision (TME) or partial mesorectal excision (PME; PME for tumours of the upper rectum) or abdominoperineal excision with TME. With MRI selection of the highest-risk cases, neoadjuvant therapy was given to only 62 of 181 (34.3%). The rate of CRM-negative resection specimens on histology was 170 of 181 (93.9%) for all patients, and in Berlin, only 1 of 93 (1%) specimens was CRM-positive. Patients selected for primary surgery had CRM-negative specimens on histology in 114 of 119 (95.8%). Those selected for neoadjuvant therapy had a lower rate of clear margin: 56 of 62 (90%). By applying a MRI-based indication, the frequency of neoadjuvant treatment with its acute and late adverse effects can be reduced to 30-35% without reduction of pathologically CRM-negative resection specimens and, thus, without the danger of worsening the oncological long-term results. This concept should be confirmed in prospective multicentre observation studies with quality assurance of MRI, surgery and pathology.

  4. Sex-related differences in outcomes among men and women under 55 years of age with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: Results from the PROMETHEUS study.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Jaya; Baber, Usman; Sartori, Samantha; Faggioni, Michela; Aquino, Melissa; Kini, Annapoorna; Weintraub, William; Rao, Sunil; Kapadia, Samir; Weiss, Sandra; Strauss, Craig; Toma, Catalin; Muhlestein, Brent; DeFranco, Anthony; Effron, Mark; Keller, Stuart; Baker, Brian; Pocock, Stuart; Henry, Timothy; Mehran, Roxana

    2017-03-01

    Young women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) experience greater adverse events than men, potentially due to under-treatment. We sought to compare the 1-year outcomes by sex in patients ≤55 years of age from a contemporary PCI cohort. PROMETHEUS was a retrospective multicenter observational US study comparing outcomes in clopidogrel and prasugrel treated patients following ACS PCI. MACE was defined as a composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke or unplanned revascularization. Clinically significant bleeding was defined as bleeding requiring transfusion or hospitalization. Hazard ratios were generated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. The study cohort included 4,851 patients of which 1,162 (24.0%) were women and 3,689 (76.0%) were men. In this cohort, the prevalence of diabetes (41.0 vs. 27.9%) and chronic kidney disease (12.7 vs. 7.2%) was higher among women compared with men. Irrespective of sex, prasugrel was used in less than one-third of patients (31.8% in men vs. 28.1% in women, P = 0.01). Unadjusted, 1-year MACE (21.1% vs. 16.2%, P < 0.001) and bleeding (3.6% vs. 2.2%, P = 0.01) was significantly higher in women compared with men, but these results were no longer significant after adjustment for risk (HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.94-1.36 for MACE and HR 1.31, 95% CI 0.85-2.04 for bleeding). Women ≤ 55 years of age undergoing ACS PCI have significantly greater comorbidities than young men. Despite a higher risk clinical phenotype in women, prasugrel use was significantly lower in women than men. Female sex was associated with a significantly higher risk of 1-year MACE and bleeding than male sex, findings that are attributable to baseline differences. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Refining pathological evaluation of neoadjuvant therapy for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Fergus; Nolan, Luke; Bateman, Adrian C; Byrne, James P; Kelly, Jamie J; Bailey, Ian S; Sharland, Donna M; Rees, Charlotte N; Iveson, Timothy J; Underwood, Tim J; Bateman, Andrew R

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To assess tumour regression grade (TRG) and lymph node downstaging to help define patients who benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: Two hundred and eighteen consecutive patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus or gastro-esophageal junction treated with surgery alone or neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery between 2005 and 2011 at a single institution were reviewed. Triplet neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisting of platinum, fluoropyrimidine and anthracycline was considered for operable patients (World Health Organization performance status ≤ 2) with clinical stage T2-4 N0-1. Response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) was assessed using TRG, as described by Mandard et al. In addition lymph node downstaging was also assessed. Lymph node downstaging was defined by cN1 at diagnosis: assessed radiologically (computed tomography, positron emission tomography, endoscopic ultrasonography), then pathologically recorded as N0 after surgery; ypN0 if NAC given prior to surgery, or pN0 if surgery alone. Patients were followed up for 5 years post surgery. Recurrence was defined radiologically, with or without pathological confirmation. An association was examined between t TRG and lymph node downstaging with disease free survival (DFS) and a comprehensive range of clinicopathological characteristics. RESULTS: Two hundred and eighteen patients underwent esophageal resection during the study interval with a mean follow up of 3 years (median follow up: 2.552, 95%CI: 2.022-3.081). There was a 1.8% (n = 4) inpatient mortality rate. One hundred and thirty-six (62.4%) patients received NAC, with 74.3% (n = 101) of patients demonstrating some signs of pathological tumour regression (TRG 1-4) and 5.9% (n = 8) having a complete pathological response. Forty four point one percent (n = 60) had downstaging of their nodal disease (cN1 to ypN0), compared to only 15.9% (n = 13) that underwent surgery alone (pre-operatively overstaged: cN1 to pN0), (P < 0.0001). Response to

  6. Spectral presaturation inversion recovery MR imaging sequence after gadolinium injection to differentiate fibrotic scar tissue and neoplastic strands in the mesorectal fat in patients undergoing restaging of rectal carcinoma after neoadjuvant chemo- and radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Quaia, Emilio; Ulcigrai, Veronica; Coss, Matteo; De Paoli, Luca; Ukmar, Maja; Zanconati, Fabrizio; De Pellegrin, Alessandro; De Manzini, Nicolò; Cova, Maria Assunta

    2011-11-01

    To retrospectively assess the value of spectral presaturation by inversion-recovery (SPIR) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequence after gadolinium injection to differentiate fibrotic scar tissue and tumoral infiltration within the mesorectal fat in patients with rectal carcinoma undergoing MR restaging after neoadjuvant chemo- and radiation therapy (CRT). Forty-three consecutive patients (mean age, 65.8 years; range, 46-85 years; male:female, 29:14) with locally advanced rectal carcinoma underwent CRT followed by surgery. MR imaging was performed before and after completion of CRT by using T2-weighted turbo spin-echo and T1-weighted SPIR sequences before and after gadolinium injection, and MR images were assessed by two radiologists in consensus. Logistic regression was conducted to test the significance of the MR image findings with histology. After CRT the disease was either limited to the rectal wall (n = 18 patients) or presented perirectal infiltration (n = 25) on histology. In 21 patients, mesorectal enhancing strands were observed. Reticular-shaped enhancing strands reaching the mesorectal fascia presented the highest correlation with tumor infiltration of the mesorectal fat (OR 130.33, 95% CI: 4.1-4220.29; logistic regression), whereas linear-shaped enhancing strands either reaching or not reaching the mesorectal fascia (OR 0.25 or 0.1, 95% CI: 0.024-2.6 or 0.01-1.07) revealed the lowest correlation. Reticular-shaped enhancing strands on SPIR MR imaging after gadolinium injection are associated with tumor infiltration of the mesorectal fat. Copyright © 2011 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictors of human papillomavirus infection in women undergoing routine cervical cancer screening in Spain: the CLEOPATRE study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted infection that may lead to development of precancerous and cancerous lesions of the cervix. The aim of the current study was to investigate socio-demographic, lifestyle, and medical factors for potential associations with cervical HPV infection in women undergoing cervical cancer screening in Spain. Methods The CLEOPATRE Spain study enrolled 3 261 women aged 18–65 years attending cervical cancer screening across the 17 Autonomous Communities. Liquid-based cervical samples underwent cytological examination and HPV testing. HPV positivity was determined using the Hybrid Capture II assay, and HPV genotyping was conducted using the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra assay. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify putative risk factors for HPV infection. Results A lifetime number of two or more sexual partners, young age (18–25 years), a history of genital warts, and unmarried status were the strongest independent risk factors for HPV infection of any type. Living in an urban community, country of birth other than Spain, low level of education, and current smoking status were also independent risk factors for HPV infection. A weak inverse association between condom use and HPV infection was observed. Unlike monogamous women, women with two or more lifetime sexual partners showed a lower risk of infection if their current partner was circumcised (P for interaction, 0.005) and a higher risk of infection if they were current smokers (P for interaction, 0.01). Conclusion This is the first large-scale, country-wide study exploring risk factors for cervical HPV infection in Spain. The data strongly indicate that variables related to sexual behavior are the main risk factors for HPV infection. In addition, in non-monogamous women, circumcision of the partner is associated with a reduced risk and smoking with an increased risk of HPV infection. PMID:22734435

  8. Predictors of human papillomavirus infection in women undergoing routine cervical cancer screening in Spain: the CLEOPATRE study.

    PubMed

    Roura, Esther; Iftner, Thomas; Vidart, José Antonio; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Bosch, F Xavier; Muñoz, Nubia; Palacios, Santiago; Rodriguez, Maria San Martin; Morillo, Carmen; Serradell, Laurence; Torcel-Pagnon, Laurence; Cortes, Javier; Castellsagué, Xavier

    2012-06-26

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted infection that may lead to development of precancerous and cancerous lesions of the cervix. The aim of the current study was to investigate socio-demographic, lifestyle, and medical factors for potential associations with cervical HPV infection in women undergoing cervical cancer screening in Spain. The CLEOPATRE Spain study enrolled 3 261 women aged 18-65 years attending cervical cancer screening across the 17 Autonomous Communities. Liquid-based cervical samples underwent cytological examination and HPV testing. HPV positivity was determined using the Hybrid Capture II assay, and HPV genotyping was conducted using the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra assay. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify putative risk factors for HPV infection. A lifetime number of two or more sexual partners, young age (18-25 years), a history of genital warts, and unmarried status were the strongest independent risk factors for HPV infection of any type. Living in an urban community, country of birth other than Spain, low level of education, and current smoking status were also independent risk factors for HPV infection. A weak inverse association between condom use and HPV infection was observed. Unlike monogamous women, women with two or more lifetime sexual partners showed a lower risk of infection if their current partner was circumcised (P for interaction, 0.005) and a higher risk of infection if they were current smokers (P for interaction, 0.01). This is the first large-scale, country-wide study exploring risk factors for cervical HPV infection in Spain. The data strongly indicate that variables related to sexual behavior are the main risk factors for HPV infection. In addition, in non-monogamous women, circumcision of the partner is associated with a reduced risk and smoking with an increased risk of HPV infection.

  9. Extremities of body mass index and their association with pregnancy outcomes in women undergoing in vitro fertilization in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kawwass, Jennifer F; Kulkarni, Aniket D; Hipp, Heather S; Crawford, Sara; Kissin, Dmitry M; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the associations among underweight body mass index (BMI), pregnancy, and obstetric outcomes among women using assisted reproductive technology (ART). Retrospective cohort study using national data and log binomial regression. Not applicable. Women undergoing IVF in the United States from 2008 to 2013. None. Pregnancy outcomes (intrauterine pregnancy, live birth rates) per transfer, miscarriage rate per pregnancy, and low birth weight and preterm delivery rates among singleton and twin pregnancies. For all fresh autologous in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles in the United States from 2008 to 2013 (n = 494,097 cycles, n = 402,742 transfers, n = 180,855 pregnancies) reported to the national ART Surveillance System, compared with normal weight women, underweight women had a statistically significant decreased chance of intrauterine pregnancy (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96-0.99) and live birth (aRR 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98) per transfer. Obese women also had a statistically decreased likelihood of both (aRR 0.94; 95% CI, 0.94-0.95; aRR 0.87; 95% CI, 0.86-0.88, respectively). Among cycles resulting in singleton pregnancy, both underweight and obese statuses were associated with increased risk of low birth weight (aRR 1.39; 95% CI, 1.25-1.54, aRR 1.26; 95% CI, 1.20-1.33, respectively) and preterm delivery (aRR 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01-1.23, aRR 1.42; 95% CI, 1.36-1.48, respectively). The association between underweight status and miscarriage was not statistically significant (aRR 1.04; 95% CI, 0.98-1.11). In contrast, obesity was associated with a statistically significantly increased miscarriage risk (aRR 1.23; 95% CI, 1.20-1.26). Among women undergoing IVF, prepregnancy BMI affects pregnancy and obstetric outcomes. Underweight status may have a limited impact on pregnancy and live-birth rates, but it is associated with increased preterm and low-birth-weight delivery risk. Obesity negatively impacts all ART and obstetric

  10. NEOCENT: a randomised feasibility and translational study comparing neoadjuvant endocrine therapy with chemotherapy in ER-rich postmenopausal primary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, C; Cleator, S; Kilburn, L S; Kim, S B; Ahn, S-H; Beresford, M; Gong, G; Mansi, J; Mallon, E; Reed, S; Mousa, K; Fallowfield, L; Cheang, M; Morden, J; Page, K; Guttery, D S; Rghebi, B; Primrose, L; Shaw, J A; Thompson, A M; Bliss, J M; Coombes, R C

    2014-12-01

    Neoadjuvant endocrine therapy is an alternative to chemotherapy for women with oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive early breast cancer (BC). We aimed to assess feasibility of recruiting patients to a study comparing chemotherapy versus endocrine therapy in postmenopausal women with ER-rich primary BC, and response as well as translational endpoints were assessed. Patients requiring neoadjuvant therapy were randomised to chemotherapy: 6 × 3-weekly cycles FE₁₀₀C or endocrine therapy: letrozole 2.5 mg, daily for 18-23 weeks. Primary endpoints were recruitment feasibility and tissue collection. Secondary endpoints included clinical, radiological and pathological response rates, quality of life and translational endpoints. 63/80 patients approached were eligible, of those 44 (70, 95% CI 57-81) were randomised. 12 (54.5, 95% CI 32.2-75.6) chemotherapy patients showed radiological objective response compared with 13 (59.1, 95% CI 36.4-79.3) letrozole patients. Compared with baseline, mean Ki-67 levels fell in both groups at days 2-4 and at surgery [fold change: 0.24 (95% CI 0.12-0.51) and 0.24; (95% CI 0.15-0.37), respectively]. Plasma total cfDNA levels rose from baseline to week 8 [fold change: chemotherapy 2.10 (95% CI 1.47-3.00), letrozole 1.47(95% CI 0.98-2.20)], and were maintained at surgery in the chemotherapy group [chemotherapy 2.63; 95% CI 1.56-4.41), letrozole 0.95 (95% CI 0.71-1.26)]. An increase in plasma let-7a miRNA was seen at surgery for patients with objective radiological response to chemotherapy. Recruitment and tissue collection endpoints were met; however, a larger trial was deemed unfeasible due to slow accrual. Both regimens were equally efficacious. Dynamic changes were seen in Ki-67 and circulating biomarkers in both groups with increases in cfDNA and let-7a miRNA persisting until surgery for chemotherapy patients.

  11. Texture analysis for survival prediction of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients with neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Jayasree; Langdon-Embry, Liana; Escalon, Joanna G.; Allen, Peter J.; Lowery, Maeve A.; O'Reilly, Eileen M.; Do, Richard K. G.; Simpson, Amber L.

    2016-03-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. The five-year survival rate for all stages is approximately 6%, and approximately 2% when presenting with distant disease.1 Only 10-20% of all patients present with resectable disease, but recurrence rates are high with only 5 to 15% remaining free of disease at 5 years. At this time, we are unable to distinguish between resectable PDAC patients with occult metastatic disease from those with potentially curable disease. Early classification of these tumor types may eventually lead to changes in initial management including the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy or radiation, or in the choice of postoperative adjuvant treatments. Texture analysis is an emerging methodology in oncologic imaging for quantitatively assessing tumor heterogeneity that could potentially aid in the stratification of these patients. The present study derives several texture-based features from CT images of PDAC patients, acquired prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and analyzes their performance, individually as well as in combination, as prognostic markers. A fuzzy minimum redundancy maximum relevance method with leave-one-image-out technique is included to select discriminating features from the set of extracted features. With a naive Bayes classifier, the proposed method predicts the 5-year overall survival of PDAC patients prior to neoadjuvant therapy and achieves the best results in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0:858 and accuracy of 83:0% with four-fold cross-validation techniques.

  12. Neoadjuvant irinotecan, cisplatin, and concurrent radiation therapy with celecoxib for patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Cleary, James M; Mamon, Harvey J; Szymonifka, Jackie; Bueno, Raphael; Choi, Noah; Donahue, Dean M; Fidias, Panos M; Gaissert, Henning A; Jaklitsch, Michael T; Kulke, Matthew H; Lynch, Thomas P; Mentzer, Steven J; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Swanson, Richard S; Wain, John; Fuchs, Charles S; Enzinger, Peter C

    2016-07-13

    Patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer who are treated with trimodality therapy have a high recurrence rate. Preclinical evidence suggests that inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) increases the effectiveness of chemoradiation, and observational studies in humans suggest that COX-2 inhibition may reduce esophageal cancer risk. This trial tested the safety and efficacy of combining a COX2 inhibitor, celecoxib, with neoadjuvant irinotecan/cisplatin chemoradiation. This single arm phase 2 trial combined irinotecan, cisplatin, and celecoxib with concurrent radiation therapy. Patients with stage IIA-IVA esophageal cancer received weekly cisplatin 30 mg/m(2) plus irinotecan 65 mg/m(2) on weeks 1, 2, 4, and 5 concurrently with 5040 cGy of radiation therapy. Celecoxib 400 mg was taken orally twice daily during chemoradiation, up to 1 week before surgery, and for 6 months following surgery. Forty patients were enrolled with stage IIa (30 %), stage IIb (20 %), stage III (22.5 %), and stage IVA (27.5 %) esophageal or gastroesophageal junction cancer (AJCC, 5th Edition). During chemoradiation, grade 3-4 treatment-related toxicity included dysphagia (20 %), anorexia (17.5 %), dehydration (17.5 %), nausea (15 %), neutropenia (12.5 %), diarrhea (10 %), fatigue (7.5 %), and febrile neutropenia (7.5 %). The pathological complete response rate was 32.5 %. The median progression free survival was 15.7 months and the median overall survival was 34.7 months. 15 % (n = 6) of patients treated on this study developed brain metastases. The addition of celecoxib to neoadjuvant cisplatin-irinotecan chemoradiation was tolerable; however, overall survival appeared comparable to prior studies using neoadjuvant cisplatin-irinotecan chemoradiation alone. Further studies adding celecoxib to neoadjuvant chemoradiation in esophageal cancer are not warranted. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00137852 , registered August 29, 2005.

  13. [Exploring the Experience of Dysmenorrhea and Life Adjustments of Women Undergoing Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment].

    PubMed

    Tsai, Min-Min; Yang, Fu-Chi; Lee, Shih-Min; Huang, Chiu-Mieh

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies of women with dysmenorrhea have focused on menstrual attitudes, the characteristics of menstrual pain, and self-care behavior. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) studies on dysmenorrhea, on the other hand, have focused on the efficacy and safety of TCM treatments. Few studies have investigated how women perceive their own TCM-treatment experience of dysmenorrhea. The objective of this study was to explore the experience of dysmenorrhea and life adjustments of women undergoing TCM treatment. A semi-structured interviewing guide was used to collect data. A total of 40 dysmenorrheal women participated in the study. Individual, in-depth interviews were conducted for about 60-90 minutes with each participant. Their speech tone, facial expressions, and gestures during the interview process were also observed and recorded. The findings were analyzed using content analysis via ATLAS. ti 5.2 software. The process that the participants used to adjust to dysmenorrhea were distinguished into four progressive stages: "tip of the iceberg", "ice-breaking", "tug-of-war", and "blending-in". Initially, the participants perceived the symptoms of dysmenorrhea as the "tip of the iceberg". They attempted to hide / ignore the initial pain until the problem gradually worsened to the point that the symptoms began to significantly affect various aspects of life. It was only then that the participants began to pay attention to the problem and to seek help from TCM practitioners, which we defined as the "ice-breaking" stage. If they encountered unexpected situations with regard to the treatment regimen, the participants entered the "tug-of-war" stage, during which they struggled over whether to continue with TCM treatments. Afterward, the participants gradually achieved a "blending-in" of new ideas, which allowed them to identify the strategies that best facilitated adjustment and rebalancing. Eventually, the participants achieved a new life balance. The outcomes of the

  14. Prognostic Effect of Carcinoma In Situ in Muscle-invasive Urothelial Carcinoma Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Derek E.; Kaimakliotis, Hristos Z.; Rice, Kevin R.; Pereira, Jose A.; Johnston, Paul; Moore, Marietta L.; Reed, Angela; Cregar, Dylan M.; Franklin, Cindy; Loman, Rhoda L.; Koch, Michael O.; Bihrle, Richard; Foster, Richard S.; Masterson, Timothy A.; Gardner, Thomas A.; Sundaram, Chandru P.; Powell, Charles R.; Beck, Stephen D.W.; Grignon, David J.; Cheng, Liang; Albany, Costantine; Hahn, Noah M.

    2017-01-01

    We performed a single-institution retrospective analysis of 137 patients with muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical cystectomy to assess the prognostic significance of carcinoma in situ (CIS). The pathologic complete response rates were significantly decreased for patients with CIS identified on transurethral resection of the bladder tumor before treatment. The long-term follow-up data from patients with isolated CIS at cystectomy revealed prolonged progression-free and overall survival. Background Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is a poor prognostic finding in urothelial carcinoma. However, its significance in muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma (MIUC) treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is uncertain. We assessed the effect of CIS found in pretreatment transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) biopsies on the pathologic and clinical outcomes. Materials and Methods Subjects with MIUC treated with NAC before cystectomy were identified. The pathologic complete response (pCR) rates stratified by TURBT CIS status were compared. The secondary analyses included tumor response, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and an exploratory post hoc analysis of patients with pathologic CIS only (pTisN0) at cystectomy. Results A total of 137 patients with MIUC were identified. TURBT CIS was noted in 30.7% of the patients. The absence of TURBT CIS was associated with a significantly increased pCR rate (23.2% vs. 9.5%; odds ratio, 4.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.19–13.98; P = .025). Stage pTisN0 disease was observed in 19.0% of the TURBT CIS patients. TURBT CIS status did not significantly affect the PFS or OS outcomes. Post hoc analysis of the pTisN0 patients revealed prolonged median PFS (104.5 vs. 139.9 months; P = .055) and OS (104.5 vs. 152.3 months; P = .091) outcomes similar to those for the pCR patients. Conclusion The absence of CIS on pretreatment TURBT in patients with MIUC undergoing NAC was

  15. HIFU as a Neoadjuvant Therapy in Cancer Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, P.; Xing, F.; Huang, X.; Zhu, H.; Lo, H. W.; Zhong, X.; Pruitt, S.; Robertson, C.

    2011-09-01

    To broaden the application spectrum of HIFU in cancer therapy, we performed a pilot experiment to evaluate the potential of using HIFU as a neoadjuvant therapy prior to surgery. Mice bearing wild-type B16F10 melanoma inoculated subcutaneously were either untreated (control) or treated by HIFU, CPA-7 or HIFU+CPA-7 before surgical resection of the primary tumor two days after HIFU treatment. The animals were then followed for four weeks or up to the humane endpoint to determine local recurrence, distant metastasis, and survival rate. The results demonstrate that animals treated by HIFU+CPA-7 (which is a small molecule that suppresses STAT3 activity) had a significantly lower recurrence rate, and slower growth of the recurrent tumor, with concomitantly higher survival rate, followed by those treated with CPA-7 and HIFU, respectively. Immunological assays revealed that CPA-7 treatment could significantly lower STAT3, and subsequently, Treg activities. In particular, the combination of HIFU and CPA-7 can induce a much stronger anti-tumor immune response than HIFU or surgery alone, as assessed by CTL and IFN-γ secretion. Overall, our results suggest that HIFU in combination with immunotherapy strategies has the potential to be used as a neoadjuvant therapy to prime the host with a strong anti-tumor immune response before surgical resection of the primary tumor. This multimodality, combinational therapy has the potential to greatly broaden the range of HIFU applications in cancer therapy with lower tumor recurrence and improved survival rate.

  16. Femoral stem size mismatch in women undergoing total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Dundon, John M; Felberbaum, Dvorah Leah; Long, William J

    2018-06-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a highly successful surgery with a high prevalence in women. Women have been noted to have smaller proximal femoral anatomy and decreased bone strength compared to males. The goal of our study was to define the size discrepancy in femoral stem implants between men and women using a metaphyseal fitting single taper stem. We retrospectively reviewed the THA's performed by a single surgeon over the previous two years. Data was extracted from operative reports regarding stem size, neck length and offset, and conversion to a different type of stem. This data was reviewed with confidence intervals and a t -test was performed for independent samples with a p < 0.05 being determined significant. We analyzed the data from 276 THA's performed (129 in men, and 147 in women). Women were noted to be associated with smaller stem sizes compared to men (37.67% in women, 6.11% in men), with 7.48% of women requiring conversion to a different type of implant. There was a significant difference in mean stem size (9.21 in men, 6.70 in women, p < 0.0001). Women also required reduced neck options significantly more often than men (38.97% in women, 9.29% in men, p < 0.0001). Review of femoral stem sizes reveals that current femoral stem sizing may not appropriately account for women and alternative stem options should be available if using a metaphyseal fitting single tapered stems. Future consideration should be given to more anatomic female sized femoral stems or alternative options should be available.

  17. MRI evaluation of residual breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: influence of patient, tumor and chemotherapy characteristics on the correlation with pathological response.

    PubMed

    Diguisto, Caroline; Ouldamer, Lobna; Arbion, Flavie; Vildé, Anne; Body, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the residual tumor measured on magnetic resonance imaging and pathological results and to assess whether this correlation varies according to patient, tumor or chemotherapy characteristics. The study population included women treated for breast cancer with indication of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in our tertiary breast cancer Unit between January 2008 and December 2011. Factors related to patients, tumor and chemotherapy were studied. Pearson's correlation coefficient between the size of the tumor on MRI and pathological response was calculated for the entire population. It was also calculated according to patient, tumor and chemotherapy characteristics. During the study period, 107 consecutive women were included. The size of residual tumor on the MRI significantly correlated with the size on pathological result with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.52 (p<0.001). The correlation was stronger for women aged 50 years and older (r=0.64, p<0.001) and for post-menopausal women (r=0.61, p<0.001). The correlation was stronger for those with triple-negative tumors (r=0.69, p=0.002) but weaker for those with tumors with a ductal carcinoma in situ component (r =0.18, p=0.42). The size of breast cancer obtained by MRI is significantly correlated to the pathological size of the tumor. This correlation was stronger among women aged 50 years and more, among post-menopausal women, and among women who had triple-negative tumors. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  18. Emergency department presentations in early stage breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Monica; Horsley, Patrick; Lewis, Craig R

    2018-05-01

    (Neo)adjuvant chemotherapy for early stage breast cancer is associated with side-effects, resulting in increased emergency department (ED) presentations. Treatment-related toxicity can affect quality of life, compromise chemotherapy delivery and treatment outcomes, and increase healthcare use. We performed a retrospective study of ED presentations in patients receiving curative chemotherapy for early breast cancer to identify factors contributing to ED presentations. Of 102 patients, 39 (38%) presented to ED within 30 days of chemotherapy, resulting in 63 ED presentations in total. Most common reasons were non-neutropenic fever (17 presentations/27%), neutropenic fever (15/24%), pain (9/14%), drug reaction (6/10%) and infection (4/6%). Factors significantly associated with ED presentation were adjuvant chemotherapy timing compared to neoadjuvant timing (P = 0.031), prophylactic antibiotics (P = 0.045) and docetaxel-containing regimen (P = 0.018). © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  19. Three-dimensional transvaginal sonographic assessment of uterine volume as preoperative predictor of need to morcellate in women undergoing laparoscopic hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Gerges, B; Mongelli, M; Casikar, I; Bignardi, T; Condous, G

    2017-08-01

    In light of recent statements from the United States Food and Drug Administration warning against the use of power morcellation of uterine leiomyomas during laparoscopy, we sought to evaluate the use of preoperative two- (2D) and three- (3D) dimensional transvaginal ultrasound (US) assessment of uterine volume to predict the need for morcellation in women undergoing laparoscopic hysterectomy (LH). This was a prospective observational study performed between October 2008 and November 2011 in a tertiary referral laparoscopic unit. All women scheduled to undergo LH were included and underwent detailed preoperative transvaginal US. Uterine volumes were calculated using 2D-US measurements (ellipsoid formula), and using Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL™) having acquired 3D-US volumes of the uterus. Age, parity, need to morcellate and final uterine dry weight at histology were recorded. The estimated uterine volumes were then incorporated into a previously published logistic regression model to predict the need to morcellate for both nulliparous and parous women. The probability threshold cut-off of 0.14 (95% sensitivity) was evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and likelihood ratios (LRs). The performance of the models incorporating 2D- and 3D-US calculations were compared with 2D- and 3D-US-generated volumes alone, using receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves. Of 76 women who underwent LH during the study period, 79% (n = 60) had complete background and 3D-US data. Their mean age was 43.7 years, 91.7% were parous and 35% underwent morcellation. The greatest uterine volume that did not require morcellation was 404 mL estimated using 3D-US, which corresponded to a uterine volume of 688.8 mL using 2D-US. The smallest uterine volume that required morcellation was 118.9 mL using 3D-US, which corresponded to a uterine volume of 123.4 mL using 2D-US. The 3D-US uterine volume for

  20. Dual HER2 blockade in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Advani, Pooja; Cornell, Lauren; Chumsri, Saranya; Moreno-Aspitia, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a tyrosine kinase transmembrane receptor that is overexpressed on the surface of 15%–20% of breast tumors and has been associated with poor prognosis. Consistently improved pathologic response and survival rates have been demonstrated with use of trastuzumab in combination with standard chemotherapy in both early and advanced breast cancer. However, resistance to trastuzumab may pose a major problem in the effective treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. Dual HER2 blockade, using agents that work in a complimentary fashion to trastuzumab, has more recently been explored to evade resistance in both the preoperative (neoadjuvant) and adjuvant settings. Increased effectiveness of dual anti-HER2 agents over single blockade has been recently reported in clinical studies. Pertuzumab in combination with trastuzumab and taxane is currently approved in the metastatic and neoadjuvant treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. Various biomarkers have also been investigated to identify subsets of patients with HER2-positive tumors who would likely respond best to these targeted therapy combinations. In this article, available trial data regarding efficacy and toxicity of treatment with combination HER2 agents in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant setting have been reviewed, and relevant correlative biomarker data from these trials have been discussed. PMID:26451122

  1. Supporting stress management for women undergoing the early stages of fertility treatment: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mori, Akiko

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a support program for the stress management of women undergoing fertility treatment to reduce stress related to infertility and treatment. We randomly assigned seven institutions into an experimental group (four institutions, n = 96) and a control group (three institutions, n = 44) using cluster randomization. The women in the experimental group were asked to continue stress management homework for 3 months. A nurse provided feedback on the homework every month. Those in the control group were given only the booklet. The primary outcomes were the risk ratios of "depression" and "anxiety" according to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The secondary outcomes were "health status" from the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36) v2 and "satisfaction" from the Visual Analogue Scale. We excluded 15 women who became pregnant and performed an intention-to-treat analysis of 125 women. There were no differences in the incidence of depression and anxiety between the experimental and control groups. There were significant interaction effects between the program and time in the scores of the two subscales of SF-36 and the summary. There was no difference in satisfaction. The use of ovulation-enhancing agents showed that the scores of "role functioning physical" and "physical component summary" in the non-use subgroup were higher at 2 and 3 months in the experimental group, compared to the control group. Positive effects of the support program were observed on two subscales of the SF-36 in the subgroup that did not use ovulation-enhancing agents.

  2. Differential clonal evolution in oesophageal cancers in response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Findlay, John M; Castro-Giner, Francesc; Makino, Seiko; Rayner, Emily; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Cross, William; Kovac, Michal; Ulahannan, Danny; Palles, Claire; Gillies, Richard S; MacGregor, Thomas P; Church, David; Maynard, Nicholas D; Buffa, Francesca; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Graham, Trevor A; Wang, Lai-Mun; Sharma, Ricky A; Middleton, Mark; Tomlinson, Ian

    2016-04-05

    How chemotherapy affects carcinoma genomes is largely unknown. Here we report whole-exome and deep sequencing of 30 paired oesophageal adenocarcinomas sampled before and after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Most, but not all, good responders pass through genetic bottlenecks, a feature associated with higher mutation burden pre-treatment. Some poor responders pass through bottlenecks, but re-grow by the time of surgical resection, suggesting a missed therapeutic opportunity. Cancers often show major changes in driver mutation presence or frequency after treatment, owing to outgrowth persistence or loss of sub-clones, copy number changes, polyclonality and/or spatial genetic heterogeneity. Post-therapy mutation spectrum shifts are also common, particularly C>A and TT>CT changes in good responders or bottleneckers. Post-treatment samples may also acquire mutations in known cancer driver genes (for example, SF3B1, TAF1 and CCND2) that are absent from the paired pre-treatment sample. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy can rapidly and profoundly affect the oesophageal adenocarcinoma genome. Monitoring molecular changes during treatment may be clinically useful.

  3. Advances in Bone-targeted Drug Delivery Systems for Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng-Jun; Liu, Xiao-Zhou; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Long-Bang; Shi, Xin; Wu, Su-Jia; Zhao, Jian-Ning

    2016-05-01

    Targeted therapy for osteosarcoma includes organ, cell and molecular biological targeting; of these, organ targeting is the most mature. Bone-targeted drug delivery systems are used to concentrate chemotherapeutic drugs in bone tissues, thus potentially resolving the problem of reaching the desired foci and minimizing the toxicity and adverse effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Some progress has been made in bone-targeted drug delivery systems for treatment of osteosarcoma; however, most are still at an experimental stage and there is a long transitional period to clinical application. Therefore, determining how to combine new, polymolecular and multi-pathway targets is an important research aspect of designing new bone-targeted drug delivery systems in future studies. The purpose of this article was to review the status of research on targeted therapy for osteosarcoma and to summarize the progress made thus far in developing bone-targeted drug delivery systems for neoadjuvant chemotherapy for osteosarcoma with the aim of providing new ideas for highly effective therapeutic protocols with low toxicity for patients with osteosarcoma. © 2016 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced cervical carcinoma in pregnancy: a report of two cases and review of issues specific to the management of cervical carcinoma in pregnancy including planned delay of therapy.

    PubMed

    Tewari, K; Cappuccini, F; Gambino, A; Kohler, M F; Pecorelli, S; DiSaia, P J

    1998-04-15

    Women diagnosed with invasive cervical carcinoma during pregnancy are faced with difficult decisions regarding therapy and the fate of their unborn child. A modest treatment delay for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage I cervical lesions is considered acceptable in patients who wish to continue their pregnancy. Two patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma diagnosed early in the second trimester strongly desired continuation of their pregnancies. They were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy until the third trimester, and then underwent delivery and definitive surgical treatment. The patients were evaluated during pregnancy for evidence of a clinical response to chemotherapy. Intraoperative findings and pathologic analysis of the surgical material provided further objective data regarding disease status. Both patients experienced a dramatic reduction in tumor volume, rendering radical hysterectomy feasible at the time of cesarean section. In addition, both patients tolerated chemotherapy well and there were no adverse fetal effects. Favorable neonatal outcomes were achieved. One patient experienced recurrence within 5 months of surgery, whereas the other patient remained without evidence of disease for 2 years. To the authors' knowledge, these reports constitute the first description of the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix in pregnancy (MEDLINE 1966-1997). This therapeutic option should be considered in selected women with locally advanced cervical carcinoma who do not want termination of their pregnancy.

  5. Smoking may modify the association between neoadjuvant chemotherapy and survival from ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Linda E; Warren, Graham W; Koziak, Jennifer M; Köbel, Martin; Steed, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking by cancer patients is associated with increased mortality. Less is known of the impact of smoking on recurrence risk and interaction with chemotherapy treatment. We examined these associations in ovarian cancer. Patients were identified from the Alberta Cancer Registry between 1978 and 2010 and were oversampled for less-common histologic ovarian tumor types. Medical records were abstracted for 678 eligible patients on lifestyle, medical and cancer treatment, and review of pathology slides was performed for 605 patients. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for age at diagnosis, race, stage and residual disease. Among patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy (N=432), current smoking was significantly associated with shorter duration of overall (OS; HR, 8.56; 95% CI, 1.50-48.7) and progression-free (PFS; HR, 5.74; 95% CI, 1.05-31.4) survival from mucinous ovarian cancer only. There was no significant association between neoadjuvant chemotherapy and survival. However, among patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (N=44), current smokers had shorter PFS (HR, 4.32; 95% CI, 1.36-13.8; N=32 progressed/9 censored events) compared to never smokers, but the HRs were not statistically different across smoking categories (P interaction=0.87). Adverse associations were observed between smoking status and OS or PFS among patients with mucinous ovarian cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. No significant effect was found from neoadjuvant chemotherapy on PFS overall; however, smoking may modify this association. Although needing replication, these findings suggest that patients may benefit from smoking cessation interventions prior to treatment with chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Tamoxifen Alters the Plasma Concentration of Molecules Associated with Cardiovascular Risk in Women with Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Walckiria G.; Da Silva, Fabrício B.; Borgo, Mariana V.; Bissoli, Nazaré S.; Gouvêa, Sonia A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of tamoxifen on blood markers that are associated with cardiovascular risk, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), apolipoprotein A-1 (Apo-A), and apolipoprotein B-100 (Apo-B), in women undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer. Methods. Over a period of 12 months, we followed 60 women with breast cancer. The women were divided into the following groups: a group that received only chemotherapy (n = 23), a group that received chemotherapy plus tamoxifen (n = 21), and a group that received only tamoxifen (n = 16). Plasma CRP levels were assessed at 0, 3, 6, and 12 months, and Apo-A and Apo B levels as well as the Apo-B/Apo-A ratio were assessed at 0 and 12 months. Results. We found increases in the plasma concentration of CRP in the chemotherapy alone and chemotherapy plus tamoxifen groups after 3 and 6 months of treatment (before the introduction of tamoxifen). However, after 12 months of treatment, women who used tamoxifen (the chemotherapy plus tamoxifen and tamoxifen alone groups) showed a significant reduction in CRP and Apo-B levels and a decrease in the Apo-B/Apo-A ratio. A significant increase in serum Apo-A levels was observed in the group receiving chemotherapy alone as a treatment for breast cancer. Conclusion. The use of tamoxifen after chemotherapy for the treatment of breast cancer significantly reduces the levels of cardiovascular disease risk markers (CRP, Apo-B, and the Apo-B/Apo-A ratio). PMID:22491005

  7. [Level of depression in women undergoing gynecologic surgery].

    PubMed

    Lewicka, Magdalena; Makara-Studzińska, Marta; Sulima, Magdalena; Wdowiak, Artur; Bakalczuk, Grzegorz; Polska, Anna; Stasiak-Kosarzycka, Marzena; Wiktor, Henryk

    2012-01-01

    To determine the level of depression in women during the early post-operative period. 220 women treated surgically for various gynecologic conditions were enrolled. The study was done between day 4-6 after surgery using Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). The results were analyzed statistically. It was found that the mean level of depression on the BDI scale in the study group of women was 12.24 +/- 8.73. The mean level of depression in patients who underwent surgery using the vaginal route was significantly greater (p = 0.003) than in patients after laparoscopy and patients after laparotomy. The mean level of depression in the study group approached values found in depression. Patients after surgery using the vaginal route demonstrated higher levels of depression than patients after laparoscopy. Age, education, source of subsistence, and number of children had an impact on the level of depression in the study group. Marital status and place of residence were without effect on the level of depression in the patients.

  8. MRI assessment and outcomes in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy only for primary rectal cancer: long-term results from the GEMCAD 0801 trial.

    PubMed

    Patel, U B; Brown, G; Machado, I; Santos-Cores, J; Pericay, C; Ballesteros, E; Salud, A; Isabel-Gil, M; Montagut, C; Maurel, J; Ramón-Ayuso, J; Martin, N; Estevan, R; Fernandez-Martos, C

    2017-02-01

    Primary chemotherapy has been tested as a possible approach for patients with high risk features but predicted clear mesorectal margins on preoperative MRI assessment. This study investigates the prognostic relevance of baseline and post-treatment MRI and pathology staging in rectal cancer patients undergoing primary chemotherapy. Forty-six patients with T3 tumour > =2 mm from the mesorectal fascia were prospectively treated with Neoadjuvant Capecitabine, Oxaliplatin and Bevacizumab prior to surgery between 2009 and 2011. The baseline and post-treatment MRI: T, Nodal and Extra-mural venous invasion (EMVI) status were recorded as well as post-treatment MRI Tumour regression grade (TRG) and modified-RECIST assessment of tumour length. The post-treatment pathology (yp) assessments of T3 substage, N, EMVI and TRG status were also recorded. Three-year disease-free survival (DFS) and cumulative incidence of recurrence were estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine associations between staging and response on MRI and pathology with survival outcomes. About 46 patients underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone for high risk margin safe primary rectal cancer. The median follow-up was 41 months, 5 patients died and 11 patients experienced relapse (2 local, 8 distant and 1 both). In total 23/46 patients were identified with MRI features of EMVI at baseline. mrEMVI positive status carried independent prognostic significance for DFS (P = 0.0097) with a hazard ratio of 31.33 (95% CI: 2.3-425.4). The histopathologic factor that was of independent prognostic importance was a final ypT downstage of ypT3a or less, hazard ratio: 14.0 (95% CI: 1.5-132.5). mrEMVI is an independent prognostic factor at baseline for poor outcomes in rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy while ≤ypT3a is associated with an improvement in DFS. Future preoperative therapy evaluation in rectal cancer

  9. Ultrasound tomography imaging with waveform sound speed: parenchymal changes in women undergoing tamoxifen therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sak, Mark; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Sherman, Mark; Gierach, Gretchen

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound tomography (UST) is an emerging modality that can offer quantitative measurements of breast density. Recent breakthroughs in UST image reconstruction involve the use of a waveform reconstruction as opposed to a raybased reconstruction. The sound speed (SS) images that are created using the waveform reconstruction have a much higher image quality. These waveform images offer improved resolution and contrasts between regions of dense and fatty tissues. As part of a study that was designed to assess breast density changes using UST sound speed imaging among women undergoing tamoxifen therapy, UST waveform sound speed images were then reconstructed for a subset of participants. These initial results show that changes to the parenchymal tissue can more clearly be visualized when using the waveform sound speed images. Additional quantitative testing of the waveform images was also started to test the hypothesis that waveform sound speed images are a more robust measure of breast density than ray-based reconstructions. Further analysis is still needed to better understand how tamoxifen affects breast tissue.

  10. Recommendations for neoadjuvant pathologic staging (ypTNM) of cancer of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction for the 8th edition AJCC/UICC staging manuals.

    PubMed

    Rice, Thomas W; Ishwaran, Hemant; Kelsen, David P; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Apperson-Hansen, Carolyn; Blackstone, Eugene H

    2016-11-01

    We report analytic and consensus processes that produced recommendations for neoadjuvant pathologic stage groups (ypTNM) of esophageal and esophagogastric junction cancer for the AJCC/UICC cancer staging manuals, 8th edition. The Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration provided data for 22,654 patients with epithelial esophageal cancers; 7,773 had pathologic assessment after neoadjuvant therapy. Risk-adjusted survival for each patient was developed. Random forest analysis identified data-driven neoadjuvant pathologic stage groups wherein survival decreased monotonically with increasing group, was distinctive between groups, and homogeneous within groups. An additional analysis produced data-driven anatomic neoadjuvant pathologic stage groups based only on ypT, ypN, and ypM categories. The AJCC Upper GI Task Force, by smoothing, simplifying, expanding, and assessing clinical applicability, produced consensus neoadjuvant pathologic stage groups. Grade and location were much less discriminating for stage grouping ypTNM than pTNM. Data-driven stage grouping without grade and location produced nearly identical groups for squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. However, ypTNM groups and their associated survival differed from pTNM. The need for consensus process was minimal. The consensus groups, identical for both cell types were as follows: ypStage I comprised ypT0-2N0M0; ypStage II ypT3N0M0; ypStage IIIA ypT0-2N1M0; ypStage IIIB ypT3N1M0, ypT0-3N2, and ypT4aN0M0; ypStage IVA ypT4aN1-2, ypT4bN0-2, and ypTanyN3M0; and ypStage IVB ypTanyNanyM1. Absence of equivalent pathologic (pTNM) categories for the peculiar neoadjuvant pathologic categories ypTisN0-3M0 and ypT0N0-3M0, dissimilar stage group compositions, and markedly different early- and intermediate-stage survival necessitated a unified, unique set of stage grouping for patients of either cell type who receive neoadjuvant therapy. © 2016 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  11. COX-2 verexpression in pretreatment biopsies predicts response of rectal cancers to neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Fraser M.; Reynolds, John V.; Kay, Elaine W.

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the utility of COX-2 expression as a response predictor for patients with rectal cancer who are undergoing neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (RCT). Methods and Materials: Pretreatment biopsies (PTB) from 49 patients who underwent RCT were included. COX-2 and proliferation in PTB were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL stain. Response to treatment was assessed by a 5-point tumor-regression grade (TRG) based on the ratio of residual tumor to fibrosis. Results: Good response (TRG 1 + 2), moderate response (TRG 3), and poor response (TRG 4 + 5) were seen in 21 patients (42%), 11 patientsmore » (22%), and 17 patients (34%), respectively. Patients with COX-2 overexpression in PTB were more likely to demonstrate moderate or poor response (TRG 3 + 4) to treatment than were those with normal COX-2 expression (p = 0.026, chi-square test). Similarly, poor response was more likely if patients had low levels of spontaneous apoptosis in PTBs (p = 0.0007, chi-square test). Conclusions: COX-2 overexpression and reduced apoptosis in PTB can predict poor response of rectal cancer to RCT. As COX-2 inhibitors are commercially available, their administration to patients who overexpress COX-2 warrants assessment in clinical trials in an attempt to increase overall response rates.« less

  12. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy plus surgery versus active surveillance for oesophageal cancer: a stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Noordman, Bo Jan; Wijnhoven, Bas P L; Lagarde, Sjoerd M; Boonstra, Jurjen J; Coene, Peter Paul L O; Dekker, Jan Willem T; Doukas, Michael; van der Gaast, Ate; Heisterkamp, Joos; Kouwenhoven, Ewout A; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N; Rosman, Camiel; van Sandick, Johanna W; van der Sangen, Maurice J C; Sosef, Meindert N; Spaander, Manon C W; Valkema, Roelf; van der Zaag, Edwin S; Steyerberg, Ewout W; van Lanschot, J Jan B

    2018-02-06

    Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) plus surgery is a standard treatment for locally advanced oesophageal cancer. With this treatment, 29% of patients have a pathologically complete response in the resection specimen. This provides the rationale for investigating an active surveillance approach. The aim of this study is to assess the (cost-)effectiveness of active surveillance vs. standard oesophagectomy after nCRT for oesophageal cancer. This is a phase-III multi-centre, stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trial. A total of 300 patients with clinically complete response (cCR, i.e. no local or disseminated disease proven by histology) after nCRT will be randomised to show non-inferiority of active surveillance to standard oesophagectomy (non-inferiority margin 15%, intra-correlation coefficient 0.02, power 80%, 2-sided α 0.05, 12% drop-out). Patients will undergo a first clinical response evaluation (CRE-I) 4-6 weeks after nCRT, consisting of endoscopy with bite-on-bite biopsies of the primary tumour site and other suspected lesions. Clinically complete responders will undergo a second CRE (CRE-II), 6-8 weeks after CRE-I. CRE-II will include 18F-FDG-PET-CT, followed by endoscopy with bite-on-bite biopsies and ultra-endosonography plus fine needle aspiration of suspected lymph nodes and/or PET- positive lesions. Patients with cCR at CRE-II will be assigned to oesophagectomy (first phase) or active surveillance (second phase of the study). The duration of the first phase is determined randomly over the 12 centres, i.e., stepped-wedge cluster design. Patients in the active surveillance arm will undergo diagnostic evaluations similar to CRE-II at 6/9/12/16/20/24/30/36/48 and 60 months after nCRT. In this arm, oesophagectomy will be offered only to patients in whom locoregional regrowth is highly suspected or proven, without distant dissemination. The main study parameter is overall survival; secondary endpoints include percentage of patients who do not

  13. Correlation of High-Risk Soft Tissue Sarcoma Biomarker Expression Patterns with Outcome following Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation

    PubMed Central

    Magliocco, Anthony; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Dian; Klimowicz, Alex; Harris, Jonathan; Simko, Jeff; DeLaney, Thomas; Kraybill, William; Kirsch, David G.

    2018-01-01

    Background Sarcoma mortality remains high despite adjuvant chemotherapy. Biomarker predictors of treatment response and outcome could improve treatment selection. Methods Tissue microarrays (TMAs) were created using pre- and posttreatment tumor from two prospective trials (MGH pilot and RTOG 9514) of neoadjuvant/adjuvant MAID chemotherapy and preoperative radiation. Biomarkers were measured using automated computerized imaging (AQUA or ACIS). Expression was correlated with disease-free survival (DFS), distant disease-free survival (DDFS), and overall survival (OS). Results Specimens from 60 patients included 23 pretreatment (PRE), 40 posttreatment (POST), and 12 matched pairs (MPs). In the MP set, CAIX, GLUT1, and PARP1 expression significantly decreased following neoadjuvant therapy, but p53 nuclear/cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio increased. In the PRE set, no biomarker expression was associated with DFS, DDFS, or OS. In the POST set, increased p53 N/C ratio was associated with a significantly decreased DFS and DDFS (HR 4.13, p=0.017; HR 4.16, p=0.016), while increased ERCC1 and XPF expression were associated with an improved DFS and DDFS. No POST biomarkers were associated with OS. Conclusions PRE biomarker expression did not predict survival outcomes. Expression pattern changes after neoadjuvant chemoradiation supports the concepts of tumor reoxygenation, altered HIF-1α signaling, and a p53 nuclear accumulation DNA damage response. Clinical Trial Registration NRG Oncology RTOG 9514 is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov. The ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier is NCT00002791. PMID:29681762

  14. [Injection of methylene blue into inferior mesenteric artery improves lymph node harvest in rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianpei; Huang, Pinjie; Huang, Jianglong; Chen, Tufeng; Wei, Hongbo

    2015-06-09

    To confirm the feasibility of improving lymph node harvest by injecting methylene blue into inferior mesenteric artery in rectal cancer after neoadjuvant therapy. Forty two ex vivo specimens were collected from rectal cancer patients with neoadjuvant therapy and radical operation at our hospital. Traditional method with palpation and injection of methylene blue into inferior mesenteric artery were employed. The data of lymph node harvest were analyzed by paired t and chi-square tests. The average number of detected lymph node in traditional method and methylene blue groups were 6.1 ± 4.3 and 15.2 ± 6.4 respectively (P<0.001). The proportions of lymph nodes <5 mm were 14.1% and 46.7% in traditional method and methylene blue groups respectively (P<0.001). And the injection of methylene blue added 13 extra metastatic lymph nodes and caused a shift to node-positive stage (P=0.89). Neoadjuvant therapy decrease lymph node retrieval in rectal cancer. Injecting methylene blue into inferior mesenteric artery improves lymph node harvest especially for small nodes and helps to acquire more metastatic nodes for accurate pathological staging.

  15. COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL STRESS MANAGEMENT EFFECTS ON PSYCHOSOCIAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATION IN WOMEN UNDERGOING TREATMENT FOR BREAST CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Antoni, Michael H.; Lechner, Suzanne; Diaz, Alain; Vargas, Sara; Holley, Heather; Phillips, Kristin; McGregor, Bonnie; Carver, Charles S.; Blomberg, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND A diagnosis of breast cancer and treatment are psychologically stressful events, particularly over the first year after diagnosis. Women undergo many demanding and anxiety-arousing treatments such as surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Psychosocial interventions that promote psychosocial adaptation to these challenges may modulate physiological processes (neuroendocrine and immune) that are relevant for health outcomes in breast cancer patients. METHODS Women with Stage 1 – 3 breast cancer recruited 4 – 8 weeks after surgery were randomized to either a 10-week group-based cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention or a 1-day psychoeducational control group and completed questionnaires and late afternoon blood samples at study entry and 6 and 12 months after assignment to experimental condition. RESULTS Of 128 women initially providing psychosocial questionnaire and blood samples at study entry, 97 provided complete data for anxiety measures and cortisol analysis at all time points, and immune assays were run on a subset of 85 of these women. Those assigned to a 10-week group-based CBSM intervention evidenced better psychosocial adaptation (lower reported cancer-specific anxiety and interviewer-rated general anxiety symptoms) and physiological adaptation (lower cortisol, greater Th1 cytokine [interleukin-2 and interferon-γ production and IL-2:IL-4 ratio) after their adjuvant treatment compared to those in the control group. Effects on psychosocial adaptation indicators and cortisol appeared to hold across the entire 12-month observation period. Th1 cytokine regulation changes held only over the initial 6-month period. CONCLUSIONS This intervention may have facilitated a “recovery or maintenance” of Th1 cytokine regulation during or after the adjuvant therapy period. Behavioral interventions that address dysregulated neuroendocrine function could play a clinically significant role in optimizing host immunologic resistance during a

  16. Use of antibiotics for urinary tract infection in women undergoing surgery for urinary incontinence: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Guldberg, Rikke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Brostrøm, Søren; Kærlev, Linda; Hansen, Jesper Kjær; Hallas, Jesper; Nørgård, Bente Mertz

    2014-02-04

    To describe the use of antibiotics for urinary tract infection (UTI) before and after surgery for urinary incontinence (UI); and for those with use of antibiotics before surgery, to estimate the risk of treatment for a postoperative UTI, relative to those without use of antibiotics before surgery. A historical population-based cohort study. Denmark. Women (age ≥18 years) with a primary surgical procedure for UI from the county of Funen and the Region of Southern Denmark from 1996 throughout 2010. Data on redeemed prescriptions of antibiotics ±365 days from the date of surgery were extracted from a prescription database. Use of antibiotics for UTI in relation to UI surgery, and the risk of being a postoperative user of antibiotics for UTI among preoperative users. A total of 2151 women had a primary surgical procedure for UI; of these 496 (23.1%) were preoperative users of antibiotics for UTI. Among preoperative users, 129 (26%) and 215 (43.3%) also redeemed prescriptions of antibiotics for UTI within 0-60 and 61-365 days after surgery, respectively. Among preoperative non-users, 182 (11.0%) and 235 (14.2%) redeemed prescriptions within 0-60 and 61-365 days after surgery, respectively. Presurgery exposure to antibiotics for UTI was a strong risk factor for postoperative treatment for UTI, both within 0-60 days (adjusted OR, aOR=2.6 (95% CI 2.0 to 3.5)) and within 61-365 days (aOR=4.5 (95% CI 3.5 to 5.7)). 1 in 4 women undergoing surgery for UI was treated for UTI before surgery, and half of them had a continuing tendency to UTIs after surgery. Use of antibiotics for UTI before surgery was a strong risk factor for antibiotic use after surgery. In women not using antibiotics for UTI before surgery only a minor proportion initiated use after surgery.

  17. A retrospective analysis of ovarian stimulation with letrozole in women undergoing artificial insemination by donor.

    PubMed

    Sun, X J; Jiang, L; Ji, L C; Nie, R; Chen, H; Jin, L; Zhu, G J; Qian, K

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the clinical pregnancy rate in women undergoing letrozole ovarian stimulation and artificial insemination by donor (AID). Between 2012 and 2015, 130 natural cycles, 939 letrozole cycles and 130 letrozole plus gonadotrophin cycles were conducted. Letrozole cycles were divided into three groups according to LH concentration on the day of HCG administration (LH <10 mIU/ml and follicle size ≥18 cm; LH ≤10 to <20 mIU/ml; and LH ≥20 mIU/ml). Pregnancy rates were 17.3%, 22.4% and 26.8%, respectively (P = 0.012). In women given 10 mIU/ml LH or more, logistic regression identified oestradiol (OR 1.002, 95% CI, 1.000 to 1.004, P = 0.029) and leading follicle size (OR 0.861, 95% CI, 0.772 to 0.960, P = 0.007) as significant predictive factors of pregnancy rate; the higher the oestradiol and the smaller the follicles, the better the pregnancy rate. The pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the letrozole plus gonadotrophin group than the letrozole group (P = 0.04). Better pregnancy rates can be achieved if LH surge occurs before HCG administration, especially with higher oestradiol and lower follicle size; treatment with letrozole plus gonadotrophin was significantly more effective than letrozole alone in AID. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Can we avoid dose escalation for intermediate-risk prostate cancer in the setting of short-course neoadjuvant androgen deprivation?

    PubMed

    Shakespeare, Thomas P; Wilcox, Shea W; Aherne, Noel J

    2016-01-01

    Both dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy (DE-EBRT) and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) improve the outcomes in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Despite this, there are only few reports evaluating DE-EBRT for patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer receiving neoadjuvant ADT, and virtually no studies investigating dose escalation >74 Gy in this setting. We aimed to determine whether DE-EBRT >74 Gy improved the outcomes for patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer who received neoadjuvant ADT. In our institution, patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer were treated with neoadjuvant ADT and DE-EBRT, with doses sequentially increasing from 74 Gy to 76 Gy and then to 78 Gy between 2006 and 2012. We identified 435 patients treated with DE-EBRT and ADT, with a median follow-up of 70 months. For the 74 Gy, 76 Gy, and 78 Gy groups, five-year biochemical disease-free survival rates were 95.0%, 97.8%, and 95.3%, respectively; metastasis-free survival rates were 99.1%, 100.0%, and 98.6%, respectively; and prostate cancer-specific survival rate was 100% for all three dose levels. There was no significant benefit for dose escalation either on univariate or multivariate analysis for any outcome. There was no benefit for DE-EBRT >74 Gy in our cohort of intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant ADT. Given the higher risks of toxicity associated with dose escalation, it may be feasible to omit dose escalation in this group of patients. Randomized studies evaluating dose de-escalation should be considered.

  19. Can we avoid dose escalation for intermediate-risk prostate cancer in the setting of short-course neoadjuvant androgen deprivation?

    PubMed Central

    Shakespeare, Thomas P; Wilcox, Shea W; Aherne, Noel J

    2016-01-01

    Background Both dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy (DE-EBRT) and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) improve the outcomes in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Despite this, there are only few reports evaluating DE-EBRT for patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer receiving neoadjuvant ADT, and virtually no studies investigating dose escalation >74 Gy in this setting. We aimed to determine whether DE-EBRT >74 Gy improved the outcomes for patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer who received neoadjuvant ADT. Findings In our institution, patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer were treated with neoadjuvant ADT and DE-EBRT, with doses sequentially increasing from 74 Gy to 76 Gy and then to 78 Gy between 2006 and 2012. We identified 435 patients treated with DE-EBRT and ADT, with a median follow-up of 70 months. For the 74 Gy, 76 Gy, and 78 Gy groups, five-year biochemical disease-free survival rates were 95.0%, 97.8%, and 95.3%, respectively; metastasis-free survival rates were 99.1%, 100.0%, and 98.6%, respectively; and prostate cancer-specific survival rate was 100% for all three dose levels. There was no significant benefit for dose escalation either on univariate or multivariate analysis for any outcome. Conclusion There was no benefit for DE-EBRT >74 Gy in our cohort of intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant ADT. Given the higher risks of toxicity associated with dose escalation, it may be feasible to omit dose escalation in this group of patients. Randomized studies evaluating dose de-escalation should be considered. PMID:27073327

  20. Do we have biomarkers to predict response to neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy and immunotherapy in bladder cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Wezel, Felix; Vallo, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Radical cystectomy (RC) is the standard of care treatment of localized muscle-invasive bladder cancer (BC). However, about 50% of patients develop metastases within 2 years after cystectomy. Neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy before cystectomy improves the overall survival (OS) in patients with muscle-invasive BC. Pathological response to neoadjuvant treatment is a strong predictor of better disease-specific survival. Nevertheless, some patients do not benefit from chemotherapy. The identification of reliable biomarkers enabling clinicians to identify patients who might benefit from chemotherapy is a very important clinical task. An identification tool could lead to individualized therapy, optimizing response rates. In addition, unnecessary treatment with chemotherapy which potentially leads to a loss of quality of life and which might also might cause a delay of cystectomy in a neoadjuvant setting could be avoided. The present review aims to summarize and discuss the current literature on biomarkers for the prediction of response to systemic therapy in muscle-invasive BC. Tremendous efforts in genetic and molecular characterization have led to the identification of predictive candidate biomarkers in urothelial carcinoma (UC), although prospective validation is pending. Ongoing clinical trials examining the benefit of individual therapies in UC of the bladder (UCB) by molecular patient selection hold promise to shed light on this question. PMID:29354494

  1. Tumor necrosis factor-308 polymorphism increases the embryo implantation rate in women undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Vialard, F; El Sirkasi, M; Tronchon, V; Boudjenah, R; Molina-Gomes, D; Bergere, M; Mauduit, C; Wainer, R; Selva, J; Benahmed, M

    2013-10-01

    Do TNF-308 and -238 polymorphisms impact the embryo implantation rate after in vitro fertilization (IVF) in women without female infertility factor? The presence of the TNF-308A allele is associated with high implantation and multiple pregnancy rates in women without known infertility factors after ovarian hyperstimulation with exogenous FSH. Multiple pregnancies are frequent after the use of Assisted Reproductive Technologies. Single embryo transfer (SET) has been proposed as a simple way to prevent these risks. However, the extension of SET indications to patients not selected based on specific criteria is controversial because of reduced pregnancy rates. To date, the predictive value of the parameters used for SET (age, gynecological history of the patient and uterine characteristics) allows a pregnancy rate of ~30%. The potential predictive value of TNF polymorphisms (-308, rs1800629 and -238, rs361525) on implantation rate was evaluated in 424 women requiring IVF due to male fertility factors. This cohort retrospective study was conducted over 4 years in University-affiliated hospitals. The entire patient group included 424 women undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) due to male fertility factors without the contribution of any female factor. From among this group, a selected patient group included 120 women with a normal karyotype, age under 38 years, serum follicle-stimulating hormone (Day-3 FSH) levels below 10 IU/l, a long agonist desensitization protocol associated with recombinant FSH treatment and a Caucasian background. The TNF-238 polymorphism was not associated with implantation rate. In contrast, the presence of the TNF-308A allele was associated with increased Day 3-E2 levels as well as higher implantation and multiple pregnancy rates after fresh embryo transfer in women from the entire and selected patient groups. Moreover, in the selected patient group, the presence of the TNF-308A allele was also associated with a decrease in the

  2. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy induces breast cancer metastasis through a TMEM-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Karagiannis, George S; Pastoriza, Jessica M; Wang, Yarong; Harney, Allison S; Entenberg, David; Pignatelli, Jeanine; Sharma, Ved P; Xue, Emily A; Cheng, Esther; D'Alfonso, Timothy M; Jones, Joan G; Anampa, Jesus; Rohan, Thomas E; Sparano, Joseph A; Condeelis, John S; Oktay, Maja H

    2017-07-05

    Breast cancer cells disseminate through TIE2/MENA Calc /MENA INV -dependent cancer cell intravasation sites, called tumor microenvironment of metastasis (TMEM), which are clinically validated as prognostic markers of metastasis in breast cancer patients. Using fixed tissue and intravital imaging of a PyMT murine model and patient-derived xenografts, we show that chemotherapy increases the density and activity of TMEM sites and Mena expression and promotes distant metastasis. Moreover, in the residual breast cancers of patients treated with neoadjuvant paclitaxel after doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide, TMEM score and its mechanistically connected MENA INV isoform expression pattern were both increased, suggesting that chemotherapy, despite decreasing tumor size, increases the risk of metastatic dissemination. Chemotherapy-induced TMEM activity and cancer cell dissemination were reversed by either administration of the TIE2 inhibitor rebastinib or knockdown of the MENA gene. Our results indicate that TMEM score increases and MENA isoform expression pattern changes with chemotherapy and can be used in predicting prometastatic changes in response to chemotherapy. Furthermore, inhibitors of TMEM function may improve clinical benefits of chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant setting or in metastatic disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  3. Neoadjuvant sirolimus for a large hepatic perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa).

    PubMed

    Bergamo, Francesca; Maruzzo, Marco; Basso, Umberto; Montesco, Maria Cristina; Zagonel, Vittorina; Gringeri, Enrico; Cillo, Umberto

    2014-02-27

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) are rare soft-tissue tumors with an extremely heterogeneous clinical behavior. They may arise in different organs and may behave indolently or sometimes metastasize with different grades of biological aggressiveness. We report the case of a young woman with a primary inoperable PEComa of the liver with malignant histological features. Since the mTOR pathway is often altered in PEComas and responses have been reported with mTOR-inhibitors such as sirolimus or temsirolimus, we decided to start a neoadjuvant treatment with sirolimus. The patient tolerated the treatment fairly well and after 8 months a favorable tumor shrinkage was obtained. The patient then stopped sirolimus and 2 weeks later underwent partial liver resection, with complete clinical recovery and normal liver function. The histological report confirmed a malignant PEComa with vascular invasion and negative margins. Then 6 additional months of post-operative sirolimus treatment were administered, followed by regular radiological follow-up. For patients with a large and histologically aggressive PEComa, we think that neoadjuvant treatment with mTOR-inhibitor sirolimus may be considered to facilitate surgery and allow early control of a potentially metastatic disease. For selected high-risk patients, the option of adjuvant treatment may be discussed.

  4. Extramural vascular invasion and response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer: Influence of the CpG island methylator phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Jeremy Stuart; Jones, Huw Geraint; Williams, Namor; Griffiths, Anthony Paul; Jenkins, Gareth; Beynon, John; Harris, Dean Anthony

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify whether CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) is predictive of response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) and outcomes in rectal cancer. METHODS Patients undergoing NACRT and surgical resection for rectal cancer in a tertiary referral centre between 2002-2011 were identified. Pre-treatment tumour biopsies were analysed for CIMP status (high, intermediate or low) using methylation specific PCR. KRAS and BRAF status were also determined using pyrosequencing analysis. Clinical information was extracted from case records and cancer services databases. Response to radiotherapy was measured by tumour regression scores determined upon histological examination of the resected specimen. The relationship between these molecular features, response to NACRT and oncological outcomes were analysed. RESULTS There were 160 patients analysed with a median follow-up time of 46.4 mo. Twenty-one (13%) patients demonstrated high levels of CIMP methylation (CIMP-H) and this was significantly associated with increased risk of extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) compared with CIMP-L [8/21 (38%) vs 15/99 (15%), P = 0.028]. CIMP status was not related to tumour regression after radiotherapy or survival, however EMVI was significantly associated with adverse survival (P < 0.001). Intermediate CIMP status was significantly associated with KRAS mutation (P = 0.01). There were 14 (9%) patients with a pathological complete response (pCR) compared to 116 (73%) patients having no or minimal regression after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Those patients with pCR had median survival of 106 mo compared to 65.8 mo with minimal regression, although this was not statistically significant (P = 0.26). Binary logistic regression analysis of the relationship between EMVI and other prognostic features revealed, EMVI positivity was associated with poor overall survival, advanced “T” stage and CIMP-H but not nodal status, age, sex, KRAS mutation status and presence of local or

  5. Extramural vascular invasion and response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer: Influence of the CpG island methylator phenotype.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Jeremy Stuart; Jones, Huw Geraint; Williams, Namor; Griffiths, Anthony Paul; Jenkins, Gareth; Beynon, John; Harris, Dean Anthony

    2017-05-15

    To identify whether CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) is predictive of response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) and outcomes in rectal cancer. Patients undergoing NACRT and surgical resection for rectal cancer in a tertiary referral centre between 2002-2011 were identified. Pre-treatment tumour biopsies were analysed for CIMP status (high, intermediate or low) using methylation specific PCR. KRAS and BRAF status were also determined using pyrosequencing analysis. Clinical information was extracted from case records and cancer services databases. Response to radiotherapy was measured by tumour regression scores determined upon histological examination of the resected specimen. The relationship between these molecular features, response to NACRT and oncological outcomes were analysed. There were 160 patients analysed with a median follow-up time of 46.4 mo. Twenty-one (13%) patients demonstrated high levels of CIMP methylation (CIMP-H) and this was significantly associated with increased risk of extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) compared with CIMP-L [8/21 (38%) vs 15/99 (15%), P = 0.028]. CIMP status was not related to tumour regression after radiotherapy or survival, however EMVI was significantly associated with adverse survival ( P < 0.001). Intermediate CIMP status was significantly associated with KRAS mutation ( P = 0.01). There were 14 (9%) patients with a pathological complete response (pCR) compared to 116 (73%) patients having no or minimal regression after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Those patients with pCR had median survival of 106 mo compared to 65.8 mo with minimal regression, although this was not statistically significant ( P = 0.26). Binary logistic regression analysis of the relationship between EMVI and other prognostic features revealed, EMVI positivity was associated with poor overall survival, advanced "T" stage and CIMP-H but not nodal status, age, sex, KRAS mutation status and presence of local or systemic recurrence. We

  6. Correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient and histopathology subtypes of osteosarcoma after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jifei; Sun, Meili; Liu, Dawei; Hu, Xiaoshu; Pui, Margaret H; Meng, Quanfei; Gao, Zhenhua

    2017-08-01

    Background Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has made limb-salvage surgery possible for the patients with osteosarcoma. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) has been used to monitor chemotherapy response. Purpose To correlate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values with histopathology subtypes of osteosarcoma after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Material and Methods Twelve patients with osteoblastic (n = 7), chondroblastic (n = 4), and fibroblastic (n = 1) osteosarcomas underwent post-chemotherapy DWI before limb-salvage surgery. ADCs corresponding to 127 histological tissue samples from the 12 resected specimens were compared to histological features. Results The mean ADC value of non-cartilaginous viable tumor (38/91, ADC = 1.22 ± 0.03 × 10 -3  mm 2 /s) was significantly ( P < 0.001) lower than that of non-cartilaginous tumor cell necrosis without stroma disintegration (25/91, ADC =1.77 ± 0.03 × 10 -3  mm 2 /s), cartilaginous viable tumor (14/91, ADC = 2.19 ± 0.04 × 10 -3  mm 2 /s), and cystic areas including liquefied necrosis, blood space, and secondary aneurysmal bone cyst (14/91, ADC = 2.29 ± 0.05 × 10 -3  mm 2 /s). The mean ADC value of non-cartilaginous tumor cell necrosis was also significantly ( P < 0.001) smaller than those of viable cartilaginous tumor and cystic/hemorrhagic necrosis whereas the mean ADC values were not significantly ( P > 0.05) different between viable cartilaginous tumor and cystic/hemorrhagic necrosis. Conclusion DWI allows assessment of tumor necrosis after neoadjuvant chemotherapy by ADC differences between viable tumor and necrosis in fibroblastic and osteoblastic osteosarcomas whereas viable chondroblastic osteosarcoma has high ADC and cannot be distinguished reliably from necrosis.

  7. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Followed by Radical Surgery Versus Concomitant Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy in Patients With Stage IB2, IIA, or IIB Squamous Cervical Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sudeep; Maheshwari, Amita; Parab, Pallavi; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Hawaldar, Rohini; Sastri Chopra, Supriya; Kerkar, Rajendra; Engineer, Reena; Tongaonkar, Hemant; Ghosh, Jaya; Gulia, Seema; Kumar, Neha; Shylasree, T Surappa; Gawade, Renuka; Kembhavi, Yogesh; Gaikar, Madhuri; Menon, Santosh; Thakur, Meenakshi; Shrivastava, Shyam; Badwe, Rajendra

    2018-06-01

    Purpose We compared the efficacy and toxicity of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical surgery versus standard cisplatin-based chemoradiation in patients with locally advanced squamous cervical cancer. Patients and Methods This was a single-center, phase III, randomized controlled trial ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00193739). Eligible patients were between 18 and 65 years old and had stage IB2, IIA, or IIB squamous cervical cancer. They were randomly assigned, after stratification by stage, to receive either three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy using paclitaxel and carboplatin once every 3 weeks followed by radical hysterectomy or standard radiotherapy with concomitant cisplatin once every week for 5 weeks. Patients in the neoadjuvant group received postoperative adjuvant radiation or concomitant chemotherapy and radiotherapy, if indicated. The primary end point was disease-free survival (DFS), defined as survival without relapse or death related to cancer, and secondary end points included overall survival and toxicity. Results Between September 2003 and February 2015, 635 patients were randomly assigned, of whom 633 (316 patients in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus surgery group and 317 patients in the concomitant chemoradiation group) were included in the final analysis, with a median follow-up time of 58.5 months. The 5-year DFS in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus surgery group was 69.3% compared with 76.7% in the concomitant chemoradiation group (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.87; P = .038), whereas the corresponding 5-year OS rates were 75.4% and 74.7%, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.025; 95% CI, 0.752 to 1.398; P = .87). The delayed toxicities at 24 months or later after treatment completion in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus surgery group versus the concomitant chemoradiation group were rectal (2.2% v 3.5%, respectively), bladder (1.6% v 3.5%, respectively), and vaginal (12.0% v 25.6%, respectively). Conclusion Cisplatin

  8. Outcome following sentinel lymph node biopsy-guided decisions in breast cancer patients with conversion from positive to negative axillary lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Young-Joon; Han, Wonshik; Park, Soojin; You, Ji Young; Yi, Ha Woo; Park, Sungmin; Nam, Sanggeun; Kim, Joo Heung; Yun, Keong Won; Kim, Hee Jeong; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Park, Seho; Lee, Jeong Eon; Lee, Eun Sook; Noh, Dong-Young; Lee, Jong Won

    2017-11-01

    Many breast cancer patients with positive axillary lymph nodes achieve complete node remission after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The usefulness of sentinel lymph node biopsy in this situation is uncertain. This study evaluated the outcomes of sentinel biopsy-guided decisions in patients who had conversion of axillary nodes from clinically positive to negative following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We reviewed the records of 1247 patients from five hospitals in Korea who had breast cancer with clinically axillary lymph node-positive status and negative conversion after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, between 2005 and 2012. Patients who underwent axillary operations with sentinel biopsy-guided decisions (Group A) were compared with patients who underwent complete axillary lymph node dissection without sentinel lymph node biopsy (Group B). Axillary node recurrence and distant recurrence-free survival were compared. There were 428 cases in Group A and 819 in Group B. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that recurrence-free survivals were not significantly different between Groups A and B (4-year axillary recurrence-free survival: 97.8 vs. 99.0%; p = 0.148). Multivariate analysis also indicated the two groups had no significant difference in axillary and distant recurrence-free survival. For breast cancer patients who had clinical conversion of axillary lymph nodes from positive to negative following neoadjuvant chemotherapy, sentinel biopsy-guided axillary surgery, and axillary lymph node dissection without sentinel lymph node biopsy had similar rates of recurrence. Thus, sentinel biopsy-guided axillary operation in breast cancer patients who have clinically axillary lymph node positive to negative conversion following neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a useful strategy.

  9. Noninvasive Subharmonic Pressure Estimation for Monitoring Breast Cancer Response to Neoadjuvant Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    predict disease free survival for cervix cancer (34% disease free survival (DFS) if IFP > 19 mmHg, 68% DFS if IFP < 19 mmHg (p = 0.002)) [11]. Thus, the...pressure predicts survival in patients with cervix cancer independent of clinical prognostic factors and tumor oxygen meas