Sample records for wood drying kiln

  1. The Kiln Drying of Wood for Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiemann, Harry D

    1919-01-01

    This report is descriptive of various methods used in the kiln drying of woods for airplanes and gives the results of physical tests on different types of woods after being dried by the various kiln-drying methods.

  2. The Effect of Kiln Drying on the Strength of Airplane Woods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, T R C

    1920-01-01

    This report is a very complete treatise on the comparative strength of air and kiln dried wood. The series of tests includes 26 species of wood, approximately 100 kiln runs, and over 10,000 mechanical tests.

  3. Dry kiln schedules for commercial woods : temperate and tropical

    Treesearch

    R. Sidney Boone; Charles J. Kozlik; Paul J. Bois; Eugene M. Wengert

    1988-01-01

    This report contains suggested dry kiln schedules for over 500 commercial woods, both temperate and tropical. Kiln schedules are completely assembled and written out for easy use. Schedules for several thicknesses and specialty products (e.g. squares, handle stock, gunstock blanks) are given for many species. The majority of the schedules are from the world literature...

  4. FPL design for lumber dry kiln using solar/wood energy in tropical latitudes

    Treesearch

    J. L. Tschernitz; W. T. Simpson

    1985-01-01

    Developing countries with a timber resource that can be manufactured into finished products either for local use or export often lack the capital to build high-cost dry kilns. Many of these countries are in the tropics where solar radiation and ambient temperatures are high. The low-cost solar/wood energy lumber dry kiln described in this report was designed and tested...

  5. Dry kiln operator's manual

    Treesearch

    William T. Simpson

    1991-01-01

    The modern dry kiln is a unique product of research, development, and experience. It is the only practical means now in wide use for rapid, high- volume drying of lumber to conditions necessary for maximum serviceability in housing, furniture, millwork, and many other wood products. As part of our charge to help further the efficient utilization of our nation’s timber...

  6. Relationship between longitudinal stress wave transit time and moisture content of lumber during kiln-drying

    Treesearch

    William T. Simpson; Xiping. Wang

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between longitudinal stress wave transit time and wood moisture content (MC) was examined as a potential means of estimating MC control points in dry kiln schedules for lumber. A linear relationship was found between the relative transit time and the average MC of sugar maple and ponderosa pine boards dried according to typical kiln schedules.

  7. Potential sources of variation that influence the final moisture content of kiln-dried hardwood lumber

    Treesearch

    Hongmei Gu; Timothy M. Young; William W. Moschler; Brian H. Bond

    2004-01-01

    Excessive variability in the final moisture content (MC) of hardwood lumber may have a significant impact on secondary wood processing and final product performance. Sources of final MC variation during kiln- drying have been studied in prior research. A test examining the final MC of red oak (Quercus spp.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) lumber after kiln-...

  8. Small-scale lumber drying using wood gasification as a heat source

    Treesearch

    Richard Bergman

    2005-01-01

    Small, rural forested communities have the economic need to develop a wood products industry to replace the loss of large sawmills and maintain forest health. The main objective of this study was to explore the potential of using producer (wood) gas to fire a hot water boiler for a small dry kiln capable of drying both softwood and hardwood lumber. A BioMax wood...

  9. Accelerating the kiln drying of oak

    Treesearch

    William T. Simpson

    1980-01-01

    Reducing kiln-drying time for oak lumber can reduce energy requirements as well as reduce lumber inventories. In this work, l-inch northern red oak and white oak were kiln dried from green by a combination of individual accelerating techniques– presurfacing, presteaming, accelerated and smooth schedule, and high-temperature drying below 18 percent moisture content....

  10. Kiln Size Affects Energy Required to Dry Lumber

    Treesearch

    Howard N. Rosen

    1980-01-01

    Energy requirements for lumber drying kilns can depend on kiln size and range from 18,000 Btu/lb water evaporated for a 10 board food capacity kiln to 1,600 Btu/lb water evaporated for a 100,000 board foot capacity kiln.

  11. Operation and cost of a small dehumidification dry kiln

    Treesearch

    Richard D. Bergman

    2008-01-01

    Obtaining small quantities of custom kiln-dried lumber can be an expensive process for an individual woodworker. Building and operating a small kiln capable of drying custom cuts of lumber (such as slabs, bowl blanks) gives woodworkers another option. Our approach was to build and operate a small dehumidification dry kiln. The four charges of lumber ranged from 600 to...

  12. Drying hard maple (Acer saccharum L.) lumber in a small dehumidification kiln

    Treesearch

    Neal Bennett

    2013-01-01

    Portable sawmill owners quickly recognize the advantage to kiln drying lumber they produce. Having the ability to provide properly kiln-dried lumber opens new market opportunities and can increase profit margins. However, the construction and operation of a dry kiln must be economical and simple. A small dehumidification dry kiln constructed and tested in Princeton, WV...

  13. Investment opportunity : the FPL low-cost solar dry kiln

    Treesearch

    George B. Harpole

    1988-01-01

    Two equations are presented that may be used to estimate a maximum investment limit and working capital requirements for the FPL low-cost solar dry kiln systems. The equations require data for drying cycle time, green lumber cost, and kiln-dried lumber costs. Results are intended to provide a preliminary estimate.

  14. Improvements In solar dry kiln design

    Treesearch

    E. M. Wengert

    1971-01-01

    Interest in solar drying of lumber has increased in recent years because previous results had indicated that: Drying times are shorter and final moisture contents are lower in solar drying than in air drying; much less lumber degrade occurs in solar drying when compared to air drying; and the cost of energy is less in solar drying than in kiln drying. Work in the field...

  15. Evaluating a Small Structural Insulated Panel (SIP) Designed Solar Kiln in Southwestern New Mexico - Part 1

    Treesearch

    Richard D. Bergman; Ted E.M. Bilek

    2012-01-01

    With increasing energy costs, using small dry kilns for drying lumber for small-volume value-added wood products has become more of an option when compared with conventional drying. Small solar kilns are one such option, and a number of solar kiln designs exist and are in use. However, questions remain about the design and operation of solar kilns, particularly during...

  16. Drying firewood in a temporary solar kiln: a case study.

    Treesearch

    George R. Sampson; Anthony F. Gasbarro

    1986-01-01

    A pilot study was undertaken to determine drying rates for small diameter, unsplit paper birch firewood that was dried: (1) in a conventional top-covered pile; (2) in a simple, temporary solar kiln; and (3) in tree length. Drying rates were the same for firewood piles whether they were in the temporary solar kilns or only covered on top to keep rain or snow from...

  17. Infrared and colorimetric characterization of discolored kiln-dried hard maple lumber

    Treesearch

    Benjamin E. Dawson-Andoh; Michael Wiemann; Laurent Matuana; John Baumgras

    2004-01-01

    Discoloration of hard maple lumber commonly occurs during kiln-drying. In this study, discolored andnondiscolored kiln-dried hard maple lumber boards were characterized using a colorimetric method and Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Colorimetric measurements (L*, a*, b*) were found to be in good agreement with visual...

  18. Design and operation of a solarheated dry kiln for tropical latitudes

    Treesearch

    Brian Bond; Omar Espinoza; Philip Araman

    2011-01-01

    Lumber is usually dried to a specific moisture content prior to further manufacturing or use. While lumber can be air-dried, the ambient humidity in most localities prevents the lumber from reaching the moisture content necessary for dimensional stability and use, especially for interior use. Solar kilns are an inexpensive alternative to conventional steam-heated kilns...

  19. Manual of design and installation of Forest Service water spray dry kiln

    Treesearch

    L.V. Teesdale

    1920-01-01

    The best thing that can be said of any dry kiln is that when it is run by a properly informed operator the temperature, humidity, and circulation are constant and uniform. In an endeavor to produce a kiln in which each of these could be regulated independently of the others, the Forest Products Laboratory designed and developed the "Forest Service Humidity...

  20. 7 CFR 300.2 - Dry Kiln Operator's Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry Kiln Operator's Manual. 300.2 Section 300.2... in 7 CFR chapter III by the Director of the Office of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C..._locations.html; or (2) Are for sale as ISBN 0-16-035819-1 by the U.S. Government Printing Office...

  1. Solar Kilns: Feasibility of Utilizing Solar Energy for Drying Lumber in Developing Countries,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    Design. .. ............. ... 52 Direct ( Greenhouse ) Design .. .. ............ ... 57 Literature Cited and Partial Bibliography of Solar Lumber Drying...experimental performance of a greenhouse -type solar kiln in Puerto Rico. (Chudnoff et al., 1966). 36"J. Table 9.--Comparison of experimental and calculated...at one dryer orientation (long axis north-south) from 30 percent to 10 percent moisture content. 49 Table 15.-- Greenhouse -type solar kiln capacity

  2. Steaming of Red Oak Prior to Kiln-Drying: Effects on Moisture Movement

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Harris; James G. Schroeder; Stan C. Addis

    1989-01-01

    Red oak boards were steamed prior to kiln-drying to determine the effect of steaming on initial moisture content (MC), moisture distribution, and drying rate. Four hours of steaming in a saturated steam atmosphere caused a drop of approximately 10 percent in initial MC, a reduced moisture gradient through the thickness of the boards, and an increase in drying rate...

  3. Seasoning degrade in kiln drying ponderosa pine in south central Oregon.

    Treesearch

    A.C. Knauss

    1957-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine the loss in volume and value of lumber when kiln drying and surfacing the production from ponderosa pine logs. The study measured (1) the reduction in volume due to trimming and culling dry lumber after surfacing, (2) the reduction in grade due to seasoning defects, (3) the reduction in grade due to failure of...

  4. Drying hardwoods with impinging jets.

    Treesearch

    Howard N. Rosen

    1980-01-01

    Silver maple, yellow poplar, and black walnut lumber was dried in a prototype jet dryer over a range of temperatures from 120 degrees to 400 degrees Fahrenheit and air velocities from 1,000 to 9,000 fpm. Different drying schedules were developed for each type of wood. The quality of the jet-dried lumber was good and compared favorably with kiln-dried lumber.

  5. Seasoning and surfacing degrade in kiln-drying ponderosa pine in eastern Washington.

    Treesearch

    A.C. Knauss; E.H. Clarke

    1961-01-01

    This report presents results of a study to determine the degrade (loss in volume and value) of ponderosa pine lumber when cut, kiln-dried, and surfaced in accordance with commercial practice. The study measured (1) loss in volume due to culling and trimming surfaced dry lumber because of sawing, seasoning, and surfacing defects; (2) reduction in grade due to seasoning...

  6. Seasoning and surfacing degrade in kiln-drying western hemlock in western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    A.C. Knauss; E.H. Clarke

    1961-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine the degrade (loss in volume and value) of western hemlock lumber cut, kiln-dried, and surfaced in accordance with commercial practice in western Oregon. The study measured (1) loss in volume due to culling and trimming surfaced dry lumber because of sawing, seasoning, and surfacing defects; (2) reduction in grade...

  7. Seasoning and surfacing degrade in kiln-drying Douglas-fir in western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    A.C. Knauss; E.H. Clarke

    1959-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine the degrade—loss in volume and grade—of coast-type Douglas-fir lumber when kiln-dried and surfaced in accordance with commercial practice. The study measured (1) loss in volume due to culling and trimming of dry-surfaced lumber because of seasoning and surfacing defects, (2) reduction in grade...

  8. 1998 data bank for kiln-dried red oak lumber

    Treesearch

    Charles J. Gatchell; R. Edward Thomas; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1998-01-01

    A collection of 3,487 fully described, kiln-dried red oak boards totaling 20,021 board feet. The boards, which are straight or contain no more than ? inch of crook, are FAS, FAS ONE FACE (F1F), Selects, No. 1 Common, No. 2A Common, or No. 3A common. The boards were graded with the UGRS (Ultimate Grading and Remanufacturing System) computer program. After the grade was...

  9. The Correlation Between Green Density and the Occurrence of Honeycomb in Kiln-Dried

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Harris; Philip A. Araman

    1995-01-01

    Fresh-cut, 5/4 red oak (Quercus sp.) boards were weighed, measured to determine volume and then kiln-dried to determine if the initial green density (green weight/green volume) was correlated to the occurrence of honeycomb. A positive relationship was found between the occurrence of honeycomb during drying and the initial green density. These results...

  10. Kiln drying lumber in the United States : a survey of volume, species, kiln capacity, equipment, and procedures, 1992-1993

    Treesearch

    Robert W. Rice; Jeffrey L. Howe; R. Sidney Boone; John L. Tschernitz

    1994-01-01

    A survey was conducted of primary and secondary manufacturing firms that have at least one dry kiln and process approximately 2 million board feet or more of lumber annually. More than 1,500 surveys were completed, representing manufacturers in 43 states. According to survey respondents, approximately 5 billion board feet of hardwood lumber and 24 billion board feet of...

  11. Use of wood-based materials in beef bedded manure packs: 1. Effect on ammonia, total reduced sulfide, and greenhouse gas concentrations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of using corn stover or three different wood-based bedding materials (kiln-dried pine wood chips, dry cedar chips, or green cedar chips) on airborne concentrations of ammonia (NH3), total reduced sulfur (TRS), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (C...

  12. Detection of wood cell wall porosity using small carbohydrate molecules and confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, L A; Kroese, H W; Hill, S J; Franich, R A

    2015-09-01

    A novel approach to nanoscale detection of cell wall porosity using confocal fluorescence microscopy is described. Infiltration of cell walls with a range of nitrophenyl-substituted carbohydrates of different molecular weights was assessed by measuring changes in the intensity of lignin fluorescence, in response to the quenching effect of the 4-nitrophenyl group. The following carbohydrates were used in order of increasing molecular weight; 4-nitrophenyl β-D-glucopyrano-side (monosaccharide), 4-nitrophenyl β-D-lactopyranoside (disaccharide), 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl β-D-maltotrioside (trisaccharide), and 4-nitrophenyl α-D-maltopentaoside (pentasaccharide). This technique was used to compare cell wall porosity in wood which had been dewatered to 40% moisture content using supercritical CO2, where cell walls remain fully hydrated, with kiln dried wood equilibrated to 12% moisture content. Infiltration of cell walls as measured by fluorescence quenching, was found to decrease with increasing molecular weight, with the pentasaccharide being significantly excluded compared to the monosaccharide. Porosity experiments were performed on blocks and sections to assess differences in cell wall accessibility. Dewatered and kiln dried wood infiltrated as blocks showed similar results, but greater infiltration was achieved by using sections, indicating that not all pores were easily accessible by infiltration from the lumen surface. In wood blocks infiltrated with 4-nitrophenyl α-D-maltopentaoside, quenching of the secondary wall was quite variable, especially in kiln dried wood, indicating limited connectivity of pores accessible from the lumen surface. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  13. [Atmospheric emission of PCDD/Fs from modern dry processing cement kilns with preheating in the southwest area, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Lu, Yi; Jian, Chuan; Guo, Zhi-Shun; Zhu, Ming-Ji; Deng, Li; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Six cement kilns were measured for emissions of PCDD/Fs in the Southwest Area, China. The results indicated that the emission levels of PCDD/Fs were 0.0029-0.0062 ng-m(-3) (Average, 0.0043 ng X m(-3)) from cement kilns which did not burn solid waste, and 0.028 ng X m(-3) from co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln. The levels of PCDD/Fs emissions from cement manufacturing in the Southwest Area were significantly below the national emissions standard (0.1 ng x m(-3)). Emission factors of PCDD/Fs from the six cement kilns varied between 0.0089 and 0.084 microg x t(-1) cement, which were near or below the lowest emission factor reported by UNEP in 2005. Moreover, the emission factor of PCDD/Fs from co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln was 7.6 times of the average factors from the other five cement kilns. Moreover,congener distribution of PCDD/F in stack gas from the two types of cement kilns was very different. The results showed that modern dry process cement kilns with preheating have lower emissions of PCDD/Fs. This suggested that the product of co-processing solid waste in cement kilns should be largely enhanced in China in future.

  14. Use of wood-based materials in beef bedded manure packs: 2. Effect on odorous volatile organic compounds, odor activity value, Escherichia coli, and nutrient concentrations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of three types of wood-based bedding materials (kiln-dried pine wood chips, dry cedar chips, and green cedar chips) and corn stover on concentration of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and total Escherichia coli in bedded pack materi...

  15. Development of automated control system for wood drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sereda, T. G.; Kostarev, S. N.

    2018-05-01

    The article considers the parameters of convective wood drying which allows changing the characteristics of the air that performs drying at different stages: humidity, temperature, speed and direction of air movement. Despite the prevalence of this type of drying equipment, the main drawbacks of it are: the high temperature and humidity, negatively affecting the working conditions of maintenance personnel when they enter the drying chambers. It makes the automation of wood drying process necessary. The synthesis of a finite state of a machine control of wood drying process is implemented on a programmable logic device Omron.

  16. Microwave drying of wood strands

    Treesearch

    Guanben Du; Siqun Wang; Zhiyong Cai

    2005-01-01

    Characteristics of microwave drying of wood strands with different initial moisture contents and geometries were investigated using a commercial small microwave oven under different power inputs. Temperature and moisture changes along with the drying efficiency were examined at different drying scenarios. Extractives were analyzed using gas chromatography=mass...

  17. Long-term efficacy of wood dip-treated with multicomponent biocides

    Treesearch

    Carol A. Clausen; Vina W. Yang

    2005-01-01

    Biocides designed for prevention of indoor mold growth on wood-based materials need to provide long-term protection under conditions of high humidity. Specimens of kiln-dried southern pine and unseasoned southern pine, aspen, and Douglas-fir were dip-treated with borate-dimethylcocoamine (DMCA) supplemented with voriconazole, thiabendazole, or thujaplicin and evaluated...

  18. Chapter 5:Drying and heat sterilization of maple lumber for structural uses

    Treesearch

    William T. Simpson; Xiping Wang

    2005-01-01

    Traditional hardwood lumber drying processes were developed for appearance-type products such as furniture, cabinetry, and millwork. This means that air-drying practices were managed to minimize the chemical and fungal stains that occur in white woods such as maple, as well as surface checking that is common in some species. It also means that the kiln schedules which...

  19. Charcoal kiln relicts - a favorable site for tree growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buras, Allan; Hirsch, Florian; van der Maaten, Ernst; Takla, Melanie; Räbiger, Christin; Cruz Garcia, Roberto; Schneider, Anna; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Wilmking, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Soils with incompletely combusted organic material (aka 'black carbon') are considered fertile for plant growth. Considerable enrichment of soils with black carbon is known from Chernozems, from anthropogenic induced altering of soils like the 'Terra Preta' in South America (e.g. Glaser, 2001), and from charcoal kiln relicts. Recent studies have reported a high spatial frequency of charcoal kiln relicts in the Northeastern German lowlands (Raab et al., 2015), which today are often overgrown by forest plantations. In this context the question arises whether these sites are favorable for tree growth. Here we compare the performance of 22 Pinus sylvestris individuals - a commonly used tree species in forestry - growing on charcoal kiln relicts with 22 control trees. Growth performance (height growth and diameter growth) of the trees was determined using dendrochronological techniques, i.e. standard ring-width measurements were undertaken on each two cores per tree and tree height was measured in the field. Several other wood properties such as annual wood density, average resin content, as well as wood chemistry were analyzed. Our results indicate that trees growing on charcoal kiln relicts grow significantly less and have a significantly lower wood density in comparison with control trees. Specific chemical components such as Manganese as well as resin contents were significantly higher in kiln trees. These results highlight that tree growth on charcoal kiln relicts is actually hampered instead of enhanced. Possibly this is a combined effect of differing physical soil properties which alter soil water accessibility for plants and differing chemical soil properties which may negatively affect tree growth either if toxic limits are surpassed or if soil nutrient availability is decreased. Additional soil analyses with respect to soil texture and soil chemistry shall reveal further insight into this hypothesis. Given the frequent distribution of charcoal kiln relicts in

  20. Continuous tunnel kiln direct-fired with bark to dry 1.75-inch southern pine in 12 hours.

    Treesearch

    P. Koch; W.L. Wellford

    1977-01-01

    Length-sorted lumber is surfaced on one side to 1.75-inch thickness, mechanically stacked 5 feet wide and 10 feet high on 1-1/4-inch-thick sticks, and continuously transported through a zone-controlled tunnel kiln at 8 ft./hr. to yield 500,000 fbm of lumber dried to 9 percent average MC per 168-hour week. In the tunnel, the lumber is dried for 8 (possibly 10) hours at...

  1. Continuous tunnel kiln direct-fired with bark to dry 1.75-inch southern pine in 12 hours

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch; Walker L. Wellford

    1976-01-01

    Length-sorted lumber is surfaced on one side to 1.75-inch thickness, mechanically stacked 5 feet wide and 10 feet high on 1-1/4-inch-thick sticks, and continuously transported through a zone-controlled tunnel kiln at 8 ft./hr. to yield 500,000 fbm of lumber dried to 9 percent average MC per 168-hour week. In the tunnel, the lumber is dried for 8 (possibly 10) hours of...

  2. How to use hand-held computers to evaluate wood drying.

    Treesearch

    Howard N. Rosen; Darrell S. Martin

    1985-01-01

    Techniques have been developed to evaluate end generate wood drying curves with hand-held computers (3-5K memory). Predictions of time to dry to a specific moisture content, drying rates, and other characteristics of wood drying curves can be made. The paper describes the development of programs and illustrates their use.

  3. Method for predicting dry mechanical properties from wet wood and standing trees

    DOEpatents

    Meglen, Robert R.; Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-08-12

    A method for determining the dry mechanical strength for a green wood comprising: illuminating a surface of the wood to be determined with light between 350-2,500 nm, the wood having a green moisture content; analyzing the surface using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data, and using a multivariate analysis to predict the dry mechanical strength of green wood when dry by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data obtained from a reference wood having a green moisture content, the second spectral data correlated with a known mechanical strength analytical result obtained from a reference wood when dried and having a dry moisture content.

  4. Using acoustic analysis to presort warp-prone ponderosa pine 2 by 4s before kiln-drying

    Treesearch

    Xiping Wang; William T. Simpson

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential of acoustic analysis as presorting criteria to identify warp-prone boards before kiln-drying. Dimension lumber, 38 by 89 mm (nominal 2 by 4 in.) and 2.44 m (8 it) long, sawn from open-grown small-diameter ponderosa pine trees, was acoustically tested lengthwise at green condition. Three acoustic properties (acoustic speed, rate of...

  5. 7 CFR 305.28 - Kiln sterilization treatment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kiln sterilization treatment schedule. 305.28 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS Heat Treatments § 305.28 Kiln sterilization treatment schedule. T404-b-4 Dry bulb temperature( °F) Wet bulb depression( °F) Percent...

  6. Comparing the VOC emissions between air-dried and heat-treated Scots pine wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manninen, Anne-Marja; Pasanen, Pertti; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from air-dried Scots pine wood and from heat-treated Scots pine wood were compared with GC-MS analysis. Air-dried wood blocks released about 8 times more total VOCs than heat-treated (24 h at 230°C) ones. Terpenes were clearly the main compound group in the air-dried wood samples, whereas aldehydes and carboxylic acids and their esters dominated in the heat-treated wood samples. Only 14 compounds out of 41 identified individual compounds were found in both wood samples indicating considerable changes in VOC emission profile during heat-treatment process. Of individual compounds α-pinene, 3-carene and hexanal were the most abundant ones in the air-dried wood. By contrast, in the heat-treated wood 2-furancarboxaldehyde, acetic acid and 2-propanone were the major compounds of VOC emission. Current emission results reveal that significant chemical changes have occurred, and volatile monoterpenes and other low-molecular-weight compounds have evaporated from the wood during the heat-treatment process when compared to air-dried wood. Major chemical changes detected in VOC emissions are explained by the thermal degradation and oxidation of main constituents in wood. The results suggest that if heat-treated wood is used in interior carpentry, emissions of monoterpenes are reduced compared to air-dried wood, but some irritating compounds might be released into indoor air.

  7. Impact of ancient charcoal kilns on chemical properties of several forest soils after 2 centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufey, Joseph; Hardy, Brieuc; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Pyrogenic carbon plays a major role in soil biogeochemical processes and carbon budgets. Until the early 19th century, charcoal was the unique combustible used for iron metallurgy in Wallonia (Belgium). Traditional charcoal kilns were built directly in the forest: wood logs were piled into a mound and isolated from air oxygen with a covering of vegetation residues and soil before setting fire, inducing wood pyrolysis. Nowadays, ancient wood-charring platforms are still easy to identify on the forest floor as heightened domes of 10 meters in diameter characterized by a very dark topsoil horizon containing charcoal dust and fragments. Our goal is to assess the effects of wood charring at mound kiln sites on the properties of various forest soil types in Wallonia (Belgium), after two centuries. We sampled soil by horizon in 18 ancient kiln sites to 1.20 meter depth. The adjacent charcoal-unaffected soils were sampled the same way. We also collected recent charcoal fragments and topsoil samples from a still active charcoal kiln located close to Dole (France) to apprehend the evolution of soil properties over time. The pH, total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, available phosphorus (Pav), cation exchange capacity at pH 7 (CEC), exchangeable cations (Ca++, Mg++, K+, Na+) and loss on ignition at 550°C (LI550) were measured on each soil sample. We separated the soil profiles in 5 groups based on the nature of soil substrate and pedogenesis for interpretation of the results. We show that the total carbon stock is significantly increased at kiln sites due to higher C concentrations and greater depth of the organo-mineral horizon. The C/N ratio in charcoal-enriched soil horizons is significantly higher than in the neighboring reference soils but clearly attenuated compared to pure wood-charcoal fragments. The CEC is higher in the charcoal-enriched soil horizons, not only due to higher C concentrations but also to increased CEC by carbon unit at kiln sites. The high

  8. Kiln time and temperature affect shrinkage, warp, and mechanical properties of southern pine lumber

    Treesearch

    E.W. Price; P. Koch

    1980-01-01

    Four hundred and eighty No.2 Dense southern pine 2 by 6's, 95 inches long, were kiln-dried in 4-foot-wide loads with a 3,000-pound top load restraint. The kiln-drying regimes consisted of dry-bulb temperatures of 180°, 240°, and 270°F with wet-bulb temperature of 160°F and kiln times of 120 hours at 180°F; 36 and 120 hours at 240°F; and 9, 36, and 120 hours at 270...

  9. Fuzzy Rule Suram for Wood Drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Situmorang, Zakarias

    2017-12-01

    Implemented of fuzzy rule must used a look-up table as defuzzification analysis. Look-up table is the actuator plant to doing the value of fuzzification. Rule suram based of fuzzy logic with variables of weather is temperature ambient and humidity ambient, it implemented for wood drying process. The membership function of variable of state represented in error value and change error with typical map of triangle and map of trapezium. Result of analysis to reach 4 fuzzy rule in 81 conditions to control the output system can be constructed in a number of way of weather and conditions of air. It used to minimum of the consumption of electric energy by heater. One cycle of schedule drying is a serial of condition of chamber to process as use as a wood species.

  10. Knot, heartwood, and sapwood extractives related to VOCs from drying southern pine lumber

    Treesearch

    Leonard L. Ingram; M. Curry Templeton; G. Wayne McGraw; Richard W. Hemingway

    2000-01-01

    The presence of knots or heartwood influences the amount and composition of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions associated with drying of southern pine lumber. Experimental kiln charges of lumber containing 0 to 5% of knot volume gave VOC emissions ranging from 2.86 to 4.25 lb of carbonldry ton of wood. Studies of emissions from sapwood and knots showed that...

  11. A note of effects of kiln stick thickness and air velocity on drying time of southern pine 2 by 4 and 2 by 6 lumber

    Treesearch

    E.W. Price; P. Koch

    1982-01-01

    To dry to 10% moisture content, 4- and 6-inch-wide lumber 1.75 inch thick required about 13.7 h (including 4 3/4-h kiln warmup time) in 5-ft-wide loads at 260 F (wet-bulb temperature was 180 F) on 1.00-inch-thick sticks with air cross-circulated at 1,000 fpm. If air velocity is increased to 1,400 fpm or stick thickness increased to 1.5 inches, kiln time required to...

  12. Serrated kiln sticks and top load substantially reduce warp in southern pine studs dried at 240°F

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1974-01-01

    Sharply toothed aluminum kiln sticks pressed into 2 by 4's cut from veneer cores, with a clamping force of 50 to 200 pounds per stick-pair per stud, significantly reduced warp from that observed in matched studs stacked on smooth sticks with a top load of 10 pounds per stick-pair per stud. When dried in 24 hours to an average MC of 8.1 percent (standard deviation...

  13. Serrated kiln sticks and top load substantially reduce warp in southern pine studs dried at 240°F

    Treesearch

    P. Koch

    1974-01-01

    Sharply toothed luminum kiln sticks pressed into 2 by 4's cut from veneer cores, willi a clamping force of 50 to 200 pounds per stick-pair per stud, significantly reduced warp from that observed in matched studs stacked on smooth sticks with a top load of 10 pounds per stick-pair per stud. When dried in 24 hours to an average MC of 8.1 percent (standard deviation...

  14. The effect of air temperature on the sappan wood extract drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djaeni, M.; Triyastuti, M. S.; Asiah, N.; Annisa, A. N.; Novita, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The sappan wood extract contain natural colour called brazilin that can be used as a food colouring and antioxidant. The product is commonly found as a dry extract powder for consummer convenience. The spray dryer with air dehumidification can be an option to retain the colour and antioxidant agent. This paper discusses the effect of air temperature on sappan wood extract drying that was mixed with maltodextrin. As responses, the particle size, final moisture content, and extract solubility degradation were observed. In all cases, the process conducted in temperature ranging 90 - 110°C can retain the brazilin quality as seen in solubility and particle size. In addition, the sappan wood extract can be fully dried with moisture content below 2%. Moreover, with the increase of air temperature, the particle size of dry extract can be smaller.

  15. Use of wood energy for lumber drying and community heating in southeast Alaska

    Treesearch

    David L. Nicholls; John I. Zerbe; Richard D. Bergman; Peter M. Crimp

    2004-01-01

    The inadequate transportation infrastructure and undeveloped markets for sawmill residues in southeast Alaska are among the factors that limit the use of this forest resource. This study considers the potential use of sawmill residues to supply two bioenergy systems that would produce thermal energy for (1) community heating and (2) a lumber dry kiln in Hoonah, Alaska...

  16. Low temperature fluidized wood chip drying with monoterpene analysis

    Treesearch

    Bridget N. Bero; Alarick Reiboldt; Ward Davis; Natalie Bedard; Evan Russell

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the drying of ponderosa pine wood chips at low (20°C and 50°C) temperatures using a bench-scale batch pulsed fluidizer to evaluate both volatile pine oils (monoterpenes) and moisture losses during drying.

  17. Characteristics of ammonia emission during thermal drying of lime sludge for co-combustion in cement kilns.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Xu, Jingcheng; Liu, Jia; Cao, Haihua; Huang, Xiang-Feng; Li, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Thermal drying was used to reduce sludge moisture content before co-combustion in cement kilns. The characteristics of ammonia (NH3) emission during thermal drying of lime sludge (LS) were investigated in a laboratory-scale tubular dry furnace under different temperature and time conditions. As the temperature increased, the NH3 concentration increased in the temperature range 100-130°C, decreased in the temperature range 130-220°C and increased rapidly at >220°C. Emission of NH3 also increased as the lime dosage increased and stabilized at lime dosages>5%. In the first 60 min of drying experiments, 55% of the NH3 was released. NH3 accounted for about 67-72% of the change in total nitrogen caused by the release of nitrogen-containing volatile compounds (VCs) from the sludge. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the main forms of nitrogen in sludge were amides and amines. The addition of lime (CaO) could cause conversion of N-H, N-O or C-N containing compounds to NH3 during the drying process.

  18. A comparison of kiln-drying schedules and quality outcomes for 4/4-thickness black cherry lumber sawn from small-diameter logs

    Treesearch

    Matthew S. Scholl; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Paul R. Blankenhorn; Charles D. Ray; Lee R. Stover; Brian W. Beakler

    2008-01-01

    With high stumpage prices, many sawmills are interested in the feasibility of processing smaller diameter hardwood logs. Most of these mills do not know the lumber yield, lumber grade, or cost of processing these logs. In this project we investigated the impact of alternative dry kiln schedules on the grade yields and defect occurrence in lumber sawn from small-...

  19. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): Emissions of particulate matter from garbage burning, wood and dung cooking fires, motorcycles and brick kilns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayarathne, T. S.; Rathnayake, C.; Stockwell, C.; Daugherty, K.; Islam, R. M.; Christian, T. J.; Bhave, P.; Praveen, P. S.; Panday, A. K.; Adhikari, S.; Rasmi, M.; Goetz, D.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Saikawa, E.; Yokelson, R. J.; Stone, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMASTE) field campaign targeted the in-situ characterization of widespread and under-sampled combustion sources in South Asia by determining emission factors (EF) for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. Garbage burning had the highest EF PM2.5 among the sampled sources ranging 7-124 g kg-1, with maximum EFs for garbage burned under higher moisture conditions. Garbage burning emissions contained high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn) that are associated with acute and chronic health effects. Triphenylbenzene and antimony (Sb) were unique to garbage burning are good candidates for tracing this source. Cook stove emissions varied largely by stove technology (traditional mud stove, 3-stone cooking fire, chimney stove, etc.) and biomass fuel (dung, hardwood, twigs, and mixtures thereof). Burning dung consistently emitted more PM2.5 than burning wood and contained characteristic fecal sterols and stanols. Motorcycle emissions were evaluated before and after servicing, which decreased EF PM2.5 from 8.8 g kg-1 to 0.7 g kg-1. Organic species analysis indicated that this reduction in PM2.5­ is largely due to a decrease in emission of motor oil. For brick kilns, the forced draft zig-zag kilns had higher EF PM2.5 (12-19 g kg-1) compared to clamp kilns (8-13 g kg-1) and also exhibited chemical differences. PM2.5 emitted from the zig-zag kiln were mainly OC (7%), sulfate (32%) and uncharacterized chemical components (60%), while clamp kiln emissions were dominated by OC (64%) and ammonium sulfate (36%). The quantitative emission factors developed in this study may be used for source apportionment and to update regional emission inventories.

  20. Emissions and Char Quality of Flame-Curtain "Kon Tiki" Kilns for Farmer-Scale Charcoal/Biochar Production.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Gerard; Pandit, Naba Raj; Taylor, Paul; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Sparrevik, Magnus; Schmidt, Hans Peter

    2016-01-01

    Pyrolysis of organic waste or woody materials yields charcoal, a stable carbonaceous product that can be used for cooking or mixed into soil, in the latter case often termed "biochar". Traditional kiln technologies for charcoal production are slow and without treatment of the pyrolysis gases, resulting in emissions of gases (mainly methane and carbon monoxide) and aerosols that are both toxic and contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. In retort kilns pyrolysis gases are led back to a combustion chamber. This can reduce emissions substantially, but is costly and consumes a considerable amount of valuable ignition material such as wood during start-up. To overcome these problems, a novel type of technology, the Kon-Tiki flame curtain pyrolysis, is proposed. This technology combines the simplicity of the traditional kiln with the combustion of pyrolysis gases in the flame curtain (similar to retort kilns), also avoiding use of external fuel for start-up. A field study in Nepal using various feedstocks showed char yields of 22 ± 5% on a dry weight basis and 40 ± 11% on a C basis. Biochars with high C contents (76 ± 9%; n = 57), average surface areas (11 to 215 m2 g-1), low EPA16-PAHs (2.3 to 6.6 mg kg-1) and high CECs (43 to 217 cmolc/kg)(average for all feedstocks, mainly woody shrubs) were obtained, in compliance with the European Biochar Certificate (EBC). Mean emission factors for the flame curtain kilns were (g kg-1 biochar for all feedstocks); CO2 = 4300 ± 1700, CO = 54 ± 35, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) = 6 ± 3, CH4 = 30 ± 60, aerosols (PM10) = 11 ± 15, total products of incomplete combustion (PIC) = 100 ± 83 and NOx = 0.4 ± 0.3. The flame curtain kilns emitted statistically significantly (p<0.05) lower amounts of CO, PIC and NOx than retort and traditional kilns, and higher amounts of CO2. With benefits such as high quality biochar, low emission, no need for start-up fuel, fast pyrolysis time and, importantly, easy and cheap

  1. Method for lowering the VOCS emitted during drying of wood products

    DOEpatents

    Banerjee, Sujit; Boerner, James Robert; Su, Wei

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for removal of VOCs from wood products prior to drying the wood products. The method of the invention includes the steps of providing a chamber having an opening for receiving wood and loading the chamber with green wood. The wood is loaded to an extent sufficient to provide a limited headspace in the chamber. The chamber is then closed and the wood is heated in the chamber for a time and at a temperature sufficient to saturate the headspace with moisture and to substantially transfer VOCs from the wood product to the moisture in the headspace.

  2. Emissions and Char Quality of Flame-Curtain "Kon Tiki" Kilns for Farmer-Scale Charcoal/Biochar Production

    PubMed Central

    Cornelissen, Gerard; Pandit, Naba Raj; Taylor, Paul; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Sparrevik, Magnus; Schmidt, Hans Peter

    2016-01-01

    Flame Curtain Biochar Kilns Pyrolysis of organic waste or woody materials yields charcoal, a stable carbonaceous product that can be used for cooking or mixed into soil, in the latter case often termed "biochar". Traditional kiln technologies for charcoal production are slow and without treatment of the pyrolysis gases, resulting in emissions of gases (mainly methane and carbon monoxide) and aerosols that are both toxic and contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. In retort kilns pyrolysis gases are led back to a combustion chamber. This can reduce emissions substantially, but is costly and consumes a considerable amount of valuable ignition material such as wood during start-up. To overcome these problems, a novel type of technology, the Kon-Tiki flame curtain pyrolysis, is proposed. This technology combines the simplicity of the traditional kiln with the combustion of pyrolysis gases in the flame curtain (similar to retort kilns), also avoiding use of external fuel for start-up. Biochar Characteristics A field study in Nepal using various feedstocks showed char yields of 22 ± 5% on a dry weight basis and 40 ± 11% on a C basis. Biochars with high C contents (76 ± 9%; n = 57), average surface areas (11 to 215 m2 g-1), low EPA16—PAHs (2.3 to 6.6 mg kg-1) and high CECs (43 to 217 cmolc/kg)(average for all feedstocks, mainly woody shrubs) were obtained, in compliance with the European Biochar Certificate (EBC). Gas Emission Factors Mean emission factors for the flame curtain kilns were (g kg-1 biochar for all feedstocks); CO2 = 4300 ± 1700, CO = 54 ± 35, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) = 6 ± 3, CH4 = 30 ± 60, aerosols (PM10) = 11 ± 15, total products of incomplete combustion (PIC) = 100 ± 83 and NOx = 0.4 ± 0.3. The flame curtain kilns emitted statistically significantly (p<0.05) lower amounts of CO, PIC and NOx than retort and traditional kilns, and higher amounts of CO2. Implications With benefits such as high quality biochar, low emission

  3. Western juniper drying project summaries, 1993-96.

    Treesearch

    Scott Leavengood; Larry Swan

    1999-01-01

    Drying tests and trials for western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook.) were conducted between 1993 and 1996 to (1) test and refine existing dry kiln schedules; (2) develop moisture meter correction factors; (3) test dry western juniper in different types of kilns, both by itself and with ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa...

  4. A neglected - but not negligible - carbon reservoir in the Italian forests: relic charcoal kiln soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrolonardo, Giovanni; Francioso, Ornella; Carrari, Elisa; Brogi, Cristiana; Venturi, Martina; Certini, Giacomo

    2017-04-01

    Charcoal production in forests is one of the oldest human activities in Italy and the other European countries. Here, 3 thousand years ago civilizations were already used to convert wood into charcoal for energetic and metallurgic purposes. The technique for making charcoal remained substantially unchanged in time: wood piles covered with turf were built in appositely shaped emplacements, and then left to pyrolyse for days under controlled semi-anoxic conditions. This widespread activity lasted until a few decades ago, leaving as legacy a plethora of repeatedly used emplacements where soil shows a thick top layer very rich in charcoal. Despite the high frequency of relic charcoal kilns in the European forests, no studies aimed at accurately determining their C stock to assess their relevance as C sink in forest environment. In this work, we studied some relic charcoal kilns in a mixed oak forest at Marsiliana, Tuscany, central Italy, where charcoal production was enduring and massive at least since the Middle age. At Marsiliana, density of charcoal kiln sites was not uniform within the forest areas as it mostly depends on biomass availability. According to the aspect, northerly or southerly, we recognized two main forest areas where kiln sites density ranged between 2 and 3 sites per hectare. In general, the C content in the kiln soils was eight times the one in the surrounding soil, with just one third of the C in the form of pyrogenic C. Hence, natural organic carbon content was significantly higher in the kiln soils. Such a finding confirms that charcoal gives a substantial contribution to the C stock in the kilns but does not fully account for their particular richness in C. It has been thus hypothesized that charcoal is somehow able to stimulate the accumulation of native soil organic matter. At Marsiliana forest, relic charcoal kilns soils cover less than 0.5% of total surface. Nonetheless, their contribution to the total C stock in the top soil (30 cm

  5. Lumber drying and heat sterilization research at the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory

    Treesearch

    William T. Simpson

    2002-01-01

    The Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) has a long history of research and technology transfer in lumber drying. Many of the dry kiln schedules used in industry today were developed by the staff of the Laboratory, and for many years the Laboratory conducted a kiln drying short course for training dry kiln operators. The purpose of this report is to describe the Laboratory...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1343 - Standards for kilns and in-line kiln/raw mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .../raw mills. 63.1343 Section 63.1343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Industry Emission Standards and Operating Limits § 63.1343 Standards for kilns and in-line kiln/raw mills. (a) General. The provisions in this section apply to each kiln, each in-line kiln/raw mill, and any...

  7. Quality drying of softwood lumber : guidebook - checklist

    Treesearch

    M. R. Milota; J. D. Danielson; R. S. Boone; D. W. Huber

    The IMPROVE Lumber Drying Program is intended to increase awareness of the lumber drying system as a critical component in the manufacture of quality lumber. One objective of the program is to provide easy-to-use tools that a kiln operator can use to maintain an efficient kiln operation and therefore contribute to lumber drying quality. This report is one component of...

  8. Quality drying of hardwood lumber : guidebook -- checklist

    Treesearch

    R. S. Boone; M. R. Milota; J. D. Danielson; D. W. Huber

    The IMPROVE Lumber Drying Program is intended to increase awareness of the lumber drying system as a critical component in the manufacture of quality lumber. One objective of the program is to provide easy-to-use tools that a kiln operator can use to maintain an efficient kiln operation and therefore improve lumber drying quality. This report is one component of the...

  9. Variation in seasonal moisture content

    Treesearch

    John E. Phelps

    1992-01-01

    Several properties of wood are affected by moisture content-weight, fuel value, electrical conductivity, strength, and shrinkage. Differences in these properties are commonly observed in wood in service. For example, a green 2 X 4 weighs more than a kiln-dried 2 X 4, dried wood burns more easily and hotter than green wood, etc.

  10. Serpula lacrymans, the dry rot fungus and tolerance towards copper-based wood preservatives

    Treesearch

    Anne Christine Steenkjaer Hastrup; Frederick Green; Carol Clausen; Bo Jensen

    2005-01-01

    Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen : Fries) Schröter, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in temperate regions of the world i.e. northern Europe, Japan and Australia. Previously copper based wood preservatives were the most commonly used preservatives for pressure treatment of wood for building constructions. Because of a...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1344 - Operating limits for kilns and in-line kiln/raw mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... kiln/raw mills. 63.1344 Section 63.1344 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Industry Emission Standards and Operating Limits § 63.1344 Operating limits for kilns and in-line kiln/raw... specified in paragraph (b) of this section. The owner or operator of an in-line kiln/raw mill subject to a D...

  12. High-temperature kilning of southern pine poles, timbers, lumber, and thick veneer

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1973-01-01

    At dry-bulb temperatures above the boiling point of water, with large wet-bulb depressions and high air velocities, southern pine prodcuts can be dried quickly. In an impingement-jet kiln at 300o F., veneer 3/8-inch to 5/8-inch thick can be brought to 10 percent moisture content in 40 to 75 minutes. Drying times for lumber arte linearly related...

  13. The construction and use of a small-scale dehumidification kiln

    Treesearch

    Neal. Bennett

    2012-01-01

    Kiln-drying small volumes of lumber (less than 1,000 board feet) is an available service many portable sawmill owners would like to have. Unfortunately, in most areas, no one offers this capability, but the ability to provide it could open new market opportunities.

  14. Pyrolysis of automotive shredder residue in a bench scale rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Notarnicola, Michele; Cornacchia, Giacinto; De Gisi, Sabino; Di Canio, Francesco; Freda, Cesare; Garzone, Pietro; Martino, Maria; Valerio, Vito; Villone, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    Automotive shredder residue (ASR) can create difficulties when managing, with its production increasing. It is made of different type of plastics, foams, elastomers, wood, glasses and textiles. For this reason, it is complicated to dispose of in a cost effective way, while also respecting the stringent environmental restrictions. Among thermal treatments, pyrolysis seems to offer an environmentally attractive method for the treatment of ASR; it also allows for the recovery of valuable secondary materials/fuels such as pyrolysis oils, chars, and gas. While, there is a great deal of significant research on ASR pyrolysis, the literature on higher scale pyrolysis experiments is limited. To improve current literature, the aim of the study was to investigate the pyrolysis of ASR in a bench scale rotary kiln. The Italian ASR was separated by dry-sieving into two particle size fractions: d<30mm and d>30mm. Both the streams were grounded, pelletized and then pyrolyzed in a continuous bench scale rotary kiln at 450, 550 and 650°C. The mass flow rate of the ASR pellets was 200-350g/h and each test ran for about 4-5h. The produced char, pyrolysis oil and syngas were quantified to determine product distribution. They were thoroughly analyzed with regard to their chemical and physical properties. The results show how higher temperatures increase the pyrolysis gas yield (44wt% at 650°C) as well as its heating value. The low heating value (LHV) of syngas ranges between 18 and 26MJ/Nm 3 dry. The highest pyrolysis oil yield (33wt.%) was observed at 550°C and its LHV ranges between 12.5 and 14.5MJ/kg. Furthermore, only two out of the six produced chars respect the LHV limit set by the Italian environmental regulations for landfilling. The obtained results in terms of product distribution and their chemical-physical analyses provide useful information for plant scale-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Alaska's lumber-drying industry—impacts from a federal grant program.

    Treesearch

    David L. Nicholls; Allen M. Brackley; Thomas D. Rojas

    2006-01-01

    A survey determined that installed dry kiln capacity in Alaska more than doubled to an estimated 220 thousand board feet (mbf) within 4 years (2000-2004). This increased ability to produce dry lumber and value-added products resulted from industry efforts to obtain federal funding to support a dry kiln grant program. This report reviews grantees' progress in...

  16. Solar heated rotary kiln

    DOEpatents

    Shell, Pamela K.

    1984-01-01

    A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

  17. Solar-heated rotary kiln

    DOEpatents

    Shell, P.K.

    1982-04-14

    A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate is disclosed. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

  18. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): Emissions of particulate matter from wood and dung cooking fires, brick kilns, generators, trash and crop residue burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Elizabeth; Jayarathne, Thilina; Stockwell, Chelsea; Christian, Ted; Bhave, Prakash; Siva Praveen, Puppala; Panday, Arnico; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; Goetz, Doug; DeCarlo, Peter; Saikawa, Eri; Yokelson, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMASTE) field campaign targeted the in situ characterization of widespread and under-sampled combustion sources. In Kathmandu and the Terai, southern Nepal's flat plains, samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected from wood and dung cooking fires (n = 22), generators (n = 2), groundwater pumps (n = 2), clamp kilns (n = 3), zig-zag kilns (n = 3), trash burning (n = 4), one heating fire, and one crop residue fire. Co-located measurements of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds allowed for the application of the carbon mass balance approach to estimate emission factors for PM2.5, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and water-soluble inorganic ions. Organic matter was chemically speciated using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sterols, n-alkanes, hopanes, steranes, and levoglucosan, which accounted for 2-8% of the measured organic carbon. These data were used to develop molecular-marker based profiles for use in source apportionment modeling. This study provides quantitative emission factors for particulate matter and its constituents for many important combustion sources in Nepal and South Asia.

  19. Seasoning small quantities of lumber

    Treesearch

    E.F. Rasmussen

    1965-01-01

    The owner of a small quantity of green lumber or logs is often confronted with seasoning it to a state of dryness suitable for use in furniture, wood carving, or other handiwork. He cannot follow the practice of commercial mills, which employ dry kilns for the purpose. because kilns are too costly. On the other hand, air seasoning outdoors usually does not dry lumber...

  20. Assessment of the lumber drying industry and current potential for value-added processing in Alaska.

    Treesearch

    David L. Nicholls; Kenneth A. Kilborn

    2001-01-01

    An assessment was done of the lumber drying industry in Alaska. Part 1 of the assessment included an evaluation of kiln capacity, kiln type, and species dried, by geographic region of the state. Part 2 of the assessment considered the value-added potential associated with lumber drying. Various costs related to lumber drying were evaluated in an Excel spreadsheet....

  1. 40 CFR 63.1345 - Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers; and raw and finish mills, and open clinker piles. 63.1345 Section 63.1345 Protection of Environment... for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed...

  2. Wood Decomposition of Cyrilla racemiflora (Cyrillaceae) in Puerto Rican Dry and Wet Forests: A 13-year Case Study.

    Treesearch

    Juan A. Torres; Grizelle Gonzalez

    2005-01-01

    We studied the decomposition of Cyrilla racemiflora logs over a 13-yr period in tropical dry and wet forests in Puerto Rico. The mean mass loss, ratio of soft to hard wood, nutrient concentrations, and the diversity of wood-inhabiting organisms were greater in logs decomposing in the dry forest than in the wet forest. Termites were also more abundant in the logs...

  3. A Pottery Electric Kiln Using Decompression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naoe, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Hirofumi; Nakayama, Tetsuo; Nakayama, Minoru; Minamide, Akiyuki; Takemata, Kazuya

    This paper presents a novel type electric kiln which fires the pottery using the decompression. The electric kiln is suitable for the environment and the energy saving as the pottery furnace. This paper described the baking principle and the baking characteristic of the novel type electric kiln.

  4. Environmental impact of incineration of calorific industrial waste: rotary kiln vs. cement kiln.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Isabel; Van Caneghem, Jo; Block, Chantal; Dewulf, Wim; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2012-10-01

    Rotary kiln incinerators and cement kilns are two energy intensive processes, requiring high temperatures that can be obtained by the combustion of fossil fuel. In both processes, fossil fuel is often substituted by high or medium calorific waste to avoid resource depletion and to save costs. Two types of industrial calorific waste streams are considered: automotive shredder residue (ASR) and meat and bone meal (MBM). These waste streams are of current high interest: ASR must be diverted from landfill, while MBM can no longer be used for cattle feeding. The environmental impact of the incineration of these waste streams is assessed and compared for both a rotary kiln and a cement kiln. For this purpose, data from an extensive emission inventory is applied for assessing the environmental impact using two different modeling approaches: one focusing on the impact of the relevant flows to and from the process and its subsystems, the other describing the change of environmental impact in response to these physical flows. Both ways of assessing emphasize different aspects of the considered processes. Attention is paid to assumptions in the methodology that can influence the outcome and conclusions of the assessment. It is concluded that for the incineration of calorific wastes, rotary kilns are generally preferred. Nevertheless, cement kilns show opportunities in improving their environmental impact when substituting their currently used fuels by more clean calorific waste streams, if this improvement is not at the expense of the actual environmental impact. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Kiln emissions and potters' exposures.

    PubMed

    Hirtle, B; Teschke, K; van Netten, C; Brauer, M

    1998-10-01

    Some ten thousand British Columbia potters work in small private studios, cooperative facilities, educational institutions, or recreation centers. There has been considerable concern that this diffuse, largely unregulated activity may involve exposures to unacceptable levels of kiln emissions. Pottery kiln emissions were measured at 50 sites--10 from each of 5 categories: professional studios, recreation centers, elementary schools, secondary schools, and colleges. Area monitoring was done 76 cm from firing kilns and 1.6 m above the floor to assess breathing zone concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, fluorides, aldehydes, aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gold, iron, lead, lithium, magnesium, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, vanadium, and zinc. Personal exposures to the same metals were measured at 24 sites. Almost all measured values were well below permissible concentrations for British Columbia work sites and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit values (TLVs) with the following two exceptions. A single firing duration (495 minute) acrolein measurement adjacent to an electric kiln (0.109 ppm) exceeded these guidelines. One 15-minute sulfur dioxide measurement collected adjacent to a gas kiln (5.7 ppm) exceeded the ACGIH short-term exposure limit. The fact that concentrations in small, ventilated kiln rooms ranked among the highest measured gives rise to concern that unacceptable levels of contamination may exist where small kiln rooms remain unventilated. Custom designed exhaust hoods and industrial heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems were the most effective ventilation strategies. Passive diffusion and wall/window fans were least effective.

  6. The Forgotten Forest--New Training for Sawmillers and Wood Handlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringling, Dennis F.

    1978-01-01

    Considers the full-time program in sawmilling and wood handling at Williamsport Area Community College (Pennsylvania), which stresses head sawing; edging and trimming processes; log and lumber grading; marketing and business principles; yard, storage, and kiln operations; and sawmill skills. (MB)

  7. Bacteroidales ectosymbionts of gut flagellates shape the nitrogen-fixing community in dry-wood termites

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Mahesh S; Brune, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Although it is well documented that the lack of nitrogen in the diet of wood-feeding termites is compensated by the nitrogen-fixing capacity of their gut microbiota, the bacteria responsible for this activity are largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the diversity and expression of nitrogenase genes (homologs of nifH) in four species of dry-wood termites (Kalotermitidae), which thrive on a particularly nitrogen-poor resource. Although each species harbored a highly diverse suite of termite-specific homologs in their microliter-sized hindgut, only a core set related to nifH genes of Treponema and Azoarcus spp., ‘Azobacteroides pseudotrichonymphae', the first member of the Bacteroidales identified as a diazotroph, and termite-gut-specific anfH genes of hitherto unknown origin were preferentially expressed. Transcription patterns corroborated that the populations of active diazotrophs differ fundamentally between termite genera. Capillary-picked suspensions of the flagellates Devescovina arta and Snyderella tabogae revealed that their bacterial ectosymbionts each possess two paralogs of nifH, which apparently have been acquired consecutively during evolution of Bacteroidales, but only one of them (anfH) is actively expressed. Transcription patterns correlated neither with the molybdenum content of the diet nor with intestinal hydrogen concentrations, measured with microsensors. We propose that the nitrogen-fixing community in different dry-wood termites is shaped by the symbionts of their specific flagellate populations. Our findings suggest that the diazotrophic nature of ‘Armantifilum devescovinae' has an important role in the nitrogen metabolism of dry-wood termites and is the driving force of co-evolution with its flagellate host. PMID:22189498

  8. Assessment of air pollutant emissions from brick kilns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajarathnam, Uma; Athalye, Vasudev; Ragavan, Santhosh; Maithel, Sameer; Lalchandani, Dheeraj; Kumar, Sonal; Baum, Ellen; Weyant, Cheryl; Bond, Tami

    2014-12-01

    India has more than 100,000 brick kilns producing around 250 billion bricks annually. Indian brick industry is often a small scale industry and third largest consumer of coal in the country. With the growing demand for building materials and characterised by lack of pollution control measures the brick industry has a potential to cause adverse effects on the environment. This paper presents assessment of five brick making technologies based on the measurements carried out at seventeen individual brick kilns. Emissions of PM, SO2, CO and CO2 were measured and these emissions were used to estimate the emission factors for comparing the emissions across different fuel or operating conditions. Estimated emission from brick kilns in South Asia are about 0.94 million tonnes of PM; 3.9 million tonnes of CO and 127 million tonnes of CO2 per year. Among various technologies that are widely used in India, Zig zag and vertical shaft brick kilns showed better performance in terms of emissions over the traditional fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns. This suggests that the replacement of traditional technologies with Zig zag, vertical shaft brick kilns or other cleaner kiln technologies will contribute towards improvements in the environmental performance of brick kiln industry in the country. Zig zag kilns appear to be the logical replacement because of low capital investment, easy integration with the existing production process, and the possibility of retrofitting fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns into Zig zag firing.

  9. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.27 Lime Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley...

  10. Rotary kiln seal

    DOEpatents

    Drexler, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    A rotary seal used to prevent the escape of contaminates from a rotating kiln incinerator. The rotating seal combines a rotating disc plate which is attached to the rotating kiln shell and four sets of non-rotating carbon seal bars housed in a primary and secondary housing and which rub on the sides of the disc. A seal air system is used to create a positive pressure in a chamber between the primary and secondary seals to create a positive air flow into the contaminated gas chamber. The seal air system also employs an air inlet located between the secondary and tertiary seals to further insure that no contaminates pass the seal and enter the external environment and to provide makeup air for the air which flows into the contaminated gas chamber. The pressure exerted by the seal bars on the rotating disc is controlled by means of a preload spring. The seal is capable of operating in a thermally changing environment where the both radial expansion and axial movement of the rotating kiln do not result in the failure of the seal.

  11. Woodworking Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego State Coll., CA. Dept. of Industrial Arts.

    Six teaching units which were developed by the 24 institute participants are given. "Wood Identification and Chemistry" covers the physical properties and structural features of hardwoods and softwoods. "Seasoning" explains air drying, kiln drying, and seven special lumber seasoning processes. "Research on Laminates"…

  12. Comparison of VOC emissions between air-dried and heat-treated Norway spruce ( Picea abies), Scots pine ( Pinus sylvesteris) and European aspen ( Populus tremula) wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyttinen, Marko; Masalin-Weijo, Marika; Kalliokoski, Pentti; Pasanen, Pertti

    2010-12-01

    Heat-treated wood is an increasingly popular decoration material. Heat-treatment improves dimensional stability of the wood and also prevents rot fungus growth. Although production of heat-treated wood has been rapidly increasing, there is only little information about the VOC emissions of heat-treated wood and its possible influences on indoor air quality. In the present study, VOC emissions from three untreated (air-dried) and heat-treated wood species were compared during a four weeks test period. It appeared that different wood species had clearly different VOC emission profiles. Heat-treatment was found to decrease VOC emissions significantly and change their composition. Especially, emissions of terpenes decreased from softwood samples and aldehydes from European aspen samples. Emissions of total aldehydes and organic acids were at the same level or slightly higher from heat treated than air-dried softwood samples. In agreement with another recent study, the emissions of furfural were found to increase and those of hexanal to decrease from all the wood species investigated. In contrast to air-dried wood samples, emissions of VOCs were almost in steady state from heat treated wood samples even in the beginning of the test.

  13. Lunar Rhythms In Forestry Traditions - Lunar-Correlated Phenomena In Tree Biology And Wood Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zürcher, Ernst

    For more than 2000 years, certain forestry practices and rules regarding tree felling have been carried out in observance to Moon cycles. A general review of the different types of rules followed (known in Europe and on other continents and stemming from both written sources and current practitioners) shows that special timber uses are mentioned in relation to a specific felling date which supposedly ensures advantageous wood properties. These empirical forestry traditions apply to a range of wood uses as diverse as building timber, shingles, wooden chimneys, fuel wood, resonance wood for harmony tables of violins, cheese-boxes, barrels and ploughs. In each of these cases, felling at the ``right date'' is thought to be an important factor to ensure the required properties of the product. Moreover, the rafting of timber used to be limited to certain days of the Moon cycle, when the water was supposed to carry the wood in the best way. The second part presents scientific studies concerned, on the one hand, with ``Moon phases'' factor. They deal with elements of tree biology such as germination and initial growth of tropical trees (where strong and systematic variations and their complicating aspects have been observed), insect attacks on trees and reversible fluctuations of stem diameters. On the other hand, some works concentrate on wood properties and the relation between wood and water. They deal with the durability of wood, with systematic density variations after kiln-drying and with variations in the compression strength of the corresponding samples. An overview tries to find a common link between empirical practices and the scientific results.

  14. 40 CFR 63.1348 - Standards for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers; and raw...; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers; and raw and finish mills. The owner or operator of each new or existing raw material, clinker, or finished product...

  15. 40 CFR 270.235 - Options for incinerators, cement kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Technology (MACT) Standards § 270.235 Options for incinerators, cement kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns... malfunction plan, design, and operating history. (2) Retain or add these permit requirements to the permit to... information including the source's startup, shutdown, and malfunction plan, design, and operating history; and...

  16. Evaluation of the release of dioxins and PCBs during kiln-firing of ball clay.

    PubMed

    Broadwater, Kendra; Meeker, John D; Luksemburg, William; Maier, Martha; Garabrant, David; Demond, Avery; Franzblau, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    Ball clay is known to be naturally contaminated with high levels of polychlorinated di-benzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). This study evaluated the potential for PCDD, polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) release during the kiln firing of ball clay in an art studio. Toxic equivalence (TEQ) were calculated using World Health Organization (WHO) 2005 toxic equivalence factors (TEF) and congener concentrations. Ten bags of commercial ball clay were found to have an average TEQ of 1,370 nanograms/kilogram (ng kg(-1)) dry weight (dw), almost exclusively due to PCDDs (99.98% of TEQ). After firing, none of the 29 dioxin-like analytes was measured above the limits of detection (LOD) in the clay samples. Air samples were taken during firings using both low-flow and high-flow air samplers. Few low-flow air samples contained measurable levels of dioxin congeners above the LOD. The mean TEQ in the high volume air samples ranged from 0.07 pg m(-3) to 0.21 pg m(-3) when firing ball clay, and was 0.11 pg m(-3) when no clay was fired. These concentrations are within the range measured in typical residences and well-controlled industrial settings. The congener profiles in the high-flow air samples differed from the unfired clay; the air samples had a considerable contribution to the TEQ from PCDFs and PCBs. Given that the TEQs of all air samples were very low and the profiles differed from the unfired clay, it is likely that the PCDDs in dry ball clay were destroyed during kiln firing. These results suggest that inhalation of volatilized dioxins during kiln firing of dry ball clay is an unlikely source of exposure for vocational and art ceramicists. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Preference of Formosan subterranean termites for blue-stained southern yellow pine sapwood.

    PubMed

    Little, N S; Blount, N A; Londo, A J; Kitchens, S C; Schultz, T P; McConnell, T E; Riggins, J J

    2012-10-01

    Little research has been conducted to investigate interactions between the invasive Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, and pine bark beetles native to the southeastern United States. Facilitative interactions between these organisms could alter stand dynamics and impact wood utilization strategies. American Wood Protection Association Standard E1-09 choice tests were carried out to determine the feeding preference of Formosan subterranean termites for blue-stained versus unstained southern yellow pine sapwood. Three separate colonies of Formosan subterranean termites consumed on average twice as much air-dried blue-stained southern yellow pine sapwood over unstained air-dried controls. Additionally, Formosan subterranean termites consumed over five-times more kiln-dried blue-stained sapwood than unstained kiln-dried control wafers. The implications of these results are particularly relevant to pine forest ecology, nutrient cycling, and the utilization of blue-stained southern pine building products in the southeastern United States, where Formosan subterranean termites have become established.

  18. Process-based control of HAPs emissions from drying wood flakes.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sujit; Pendyala, Krishna; Buchanan, Mike; Yang, Rallming; Abu-Daabes, Malyuba; Otwell, Lawrence P E

    2006-04-01

    Industrial wood flake drying generates methanol, formaldehyde, and other hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). A simple theoretical model shows that particles smaller than 400 microm will begin to thermally degrade and release disproportionately large quantities of HAPs. This is confirmed in full-scale practice where particles smaller than 500 microm show visible signs of charring. Laboratory measurement of the activation energy for the breakdown of wood tissue into methanol and formaldehyde led to a value of about 17 kcal/mol. The apparent activation energy measured in the field was higher. This result was obtained under nonisothermal conditions and is biased high by the fines fraction of the furnish, which is exposed to elevated temperatures. It is proposed that a combination of screening out the fines fraction smaller than 500 microm and reducing the dryer inlet temperature will substantially reduce emissions, possibly to the point where control devices can be downsized or eliminated. Our findings allow these HAPs reductions to be semiquantitatively estimated.

  19. Biochar from "Kon Tiki" flame curtain and other kilns: Effects of nutrient enrichment and kiln type on crop yield and soil chemistry.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Naba Raj; Mulder, Jan; Hale, Sarah Elisabeth; Schmidt, Hans Peter; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Biochar application to soils has been investigated as a means of improving soil fertility and mitigating climate change through soil carbon sequestration. In the present work, the invasive shrub "Eupatorium adenophorum" was utilized as a sustainable feedstock for making biochar under different pyrolysis conditions in Nepal. Biochar was produced using several different types of kilns; four sub types of flame curtain kilns (deep-cone metal kiln, steel shielded soil pit, conical soil pit and steel small cone), brick-made traditional kiln, traditional earth-mound kiln and top lift up draft (TLUD). The resultant biochars showed consistent pH (9.1 ± 0.3), cation exchange capacities (133 ± 37 cmolc kg-1), organic carbon contents (73.9 ± 6.4%) and surface areas (35 to 215 m2/g) for all kiln types. A pot trial with maize was carried out to investigate the effect on maize biomass production of the biochars made with various kilns, applied at 1% and 4% dosages. Biochars were either pretreated with hot or cold mineral nutrient enrichment (mixing with a nutrient solution before or after cooling down, respectively), or added separately from the same nutrient dosages to the soil. Significantly higher CEC (P< 0.05), lower Al/Ca ratios (P< 0.05), and high OC% (P<0.001) were observed for both dosages of biochar as compared to non-amended control soils. Importantly, the study showed that biochar made by flame curtain kilns resulted in the same agronomic effect as biochar made by the other kilns (P > 0.05). At a dosage of 1% biochar, the hot nutrient-enriched biochar led to significant increases of 153% in above ground biomass production compared to cold nutrient-enriched biochar and 209% compared to biochar added separately from the nutrients. Liquid nutrient enhancement of biochar thus improved fertilizer effectiveness compared to separate application of biochar and fertilizer.

  20. Climate change-induced heat risks for migrant populations working at brick kilns in India: a transdisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Lundgren-Kownacki, Karin; Kjellberg, Siri M; Gooch, Pernille; Dabaieh, Marwa; Anandh, Latha; Venugopal, Vidhya

    2018-03-01

    During the summer of 2015, India was hit by a scorching heat wave that melted pavements in Delhi and caused thousands of deaths, mainly among the most marginalized populations. One such group facing growing heat risks from both occupational and meteorological causes are migrant brick kiln workers. This study evaluates both current heat risks and the potential future impacts of heat caused by climate change, for the people working at brick kilns in India. A case study of heat stress faced by people working at brick kilns near Chennai, India, is the anchor point around which a transdisciplinary approach was applied. Around Chennai, the situation is alarming since occupational heat exposure in the hot season from March to July is already at the upper limits of what humans can tolerate before risking serious impairment. The aim of the study was to identify new pathways for change and soft solutions by both reframing the problem and expanding the solution space being considered in order to improve the quality of life for the migrant populations at the brick kilns. Technical solutions evaluated include the use of sun-dried mud bricks and other locally "appropriate technologies" that could mitigate the worsening of climate change-induced heat. Socio-cultural solutions discussed for empowering the people who work at the brick kilns include participatory approaches such as open re-localization, and rights-based approaches including the environmental sustainability and the human rights-based approach framework. Our analysis suggests that an integrative, transdisciplinary approach could incorporate a more holistic range of technical and socio-culturally informed solutions in order to protect the health of people threatened by India's brick kiln industry.

  1. Climate change-induced heat risks for migrant populations working at brick kilns in India: a transdisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundgren-Kownacki, Karin; Kjellberg, Siri M.; Gooch, Pernille; Dabaieh, Marwa; Anandh, Latha; Venugopal, Vidhya

    2018-03-01

    During the summer of 2015, India was hit by a scorching heat wave that melted pavements in Delhi and caused thousands of deaths, mainly among the most marginalized populations. One such group facing growing heat risks from both occupational and meteorological causes are migrant brick kiln workers. This study evaluates both current heat risks and the potential future impacts of heat caused by climate change, for the people working at brick kilns in India. A case study of heat stress faced by people working at brick kilns near Chennai, India, is the anchor point around which a transdisciplinary approach was applied. Around Chennai, the situation is alarming since occupational heat exposure in the hot season from March to July is already at the upper limits of what humans can tolerate before risking serious impairment. The aim of the study was to identify new pathways for change and soft solutions by both reframing the problem and expanding the solution space being considered in order to improve the quality of life for the migrant populations at the brick kilns. Technical solutions evaluated include the use of sun-dried mud bricks and other locally "appropriate technologies" that could mitigate the worsening of climate change-induced heat. Socio-cultural solutions discussed for empowering the people who work at the brick kilns include participatory approaches such as open re-localization, and rights-based approaches including the environmental sustainability and the human rights-based approach framework. Our analysis suggests that an integrative, transdisciplinary approach could incorporate a more holistic range of technical and socio-culturally informed solutions in order to protect the health of people threatened by India's brick kiln industry.

  2. Quality drying in a hardwood lumber predryer : guidebook--checklist

    Treesearch

    E. M. Wengert; R. S. Boone

    The IMPROVE Lumber Drying Program is intended to increase awareness of the lumber drying system as a critical component in the manufacture of quality lumber. One objective of the program is to provide easy-to-use tools that a kiln/predryer operator can use to maintain an efficient drying operation and therefore improve lumber drying quality. This report is one...

  3. 62. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIME KILN BUILDING, LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIME KILN BUILDING, LOOKING AT THE LIME KILNS AND MOTOR DRIVES FOR THE KILNS. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  4. Effects of surface inactivation, high temperature drying and preservative treatment on surface roughness and colour of alder and beech wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Ismail; Colakoglu, Gursel

    2005-10-01

    Although extensive research has been conducted in wood surface quality analysis, a unified approach to surface quality characterisation does not exist. Measurements of the variation in surface roughness and surface colour are used widely for the evaluation of wood surface quality. Colour is a basic visual feature for wood and wood-based products. Colour measurement is one of the quality control tests that should be carried out because the colour deviations are spotted easily by the consumers. On the other hand, a common problem faced by plywood manufacturers is panel delamination, for which a major cause is poor quality glue-bonds resulting from rough veneer. Rotary cut veneers with dimensions of 500 mm × 500 mm × 2 mm manufactured from alder ( Alnus glutinosa subsp. barbata) and beech ( Fagus orientalis Lipsky) logs were used as materials in this study. Veneer sheets were oven-dried in a veneer dryer at 110 °C (normal drying temperature) and 180 °C (high drying temperature) after peeling process. The surfaces of some veneers were then exposed at indoor laboratory conditions to obtain inactive wood surfaces for glue bonds, and some veneers were treated with borax, boric acid and ammonium acetate solutions. After these treatments, surface roughness and colour measurements were made on veneer surfaces. High temperature drying process caused a darkening on the surfaces of alder and beech veneers. Total colour change value (Δ E*) increased linear with increasing exposure time. Among the treatment solutions, ammonium acetate caused the biggest colour change while treatment with borax caused the lowest changes in Δ E* values. Considerable changes in surface roughness after preservative treatment did not occur on veneer surfaces. Generally, no clear changes were obtained or the values mean roughness profile ( Ra) decreased slightly in Ra values after the natural inactivation process.

  5. Industrial hazardous waste treatment featuring a rotary kiln and grate furnace incinerator: a case study in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Pan; Ma, Zengyi; Yan, Jianhua; Chi, Yong; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    2011-10-01

    As one of the fastest developing countries, China is facing severe problems concerning hazardous waste treatment and disposal. This paper presents a new incineration technology and demonstration project in eastern China. The incineration system includes a rotary kiln, a grate furnace for burning out the kiln residue and a flue gas post-combustion chamber. Flue gas treatment and emission control is based on: a quench tower, followed by dry hydrated lime and activated carbon injection, a dual bag filter system, and a wet scrubber. It demonstrated that this incineration technology can effectively dispose of industrial hazardous waste with variable and complex characteristics. Gas emissions meet the demands of the Chinese Environmental Protection Association standard.

  6. New emission controls for Missouri batch-type charcoal kilns

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yronwode, P.; Graf, W.J.

    1999-07-01

    Charcoal kilns have been exempted from air emission regulation in the state of Missouri. Today, 80% of US charcoal production takes place in Missouri. As a result of a petition filed by people in the area around an installation in southern Missouri, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) set up air monitors and measured ambient air levels at that charcoal manufacturing installation. These monitors yielded the highest particulate matter less than 10 micron (PM{sub 10}) levels ever recorded in the state. Earlier stack testing at another charcoal manufacturing installation indicated that toxics and carcinogens are present in charcoal kiln airmore » emissions. A Charcoal Kiln Workgroup was formed to determine the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for charcoal kilns and to draft a charcoal kiln rule that requires BACT. The BACT report determined that afterburners were suitable for controlling emissions from batch-type charcoal kilns. In addition, the charcoal industry supported incorporating the BACT limits and requirements into an enforceable state rule and submitting this rule to the EPA for federal approval. A consent agreement between the EPA and three major charcoal companies was signed with provisions to install, operate, and maintain emission control devices on charcoal kilns. This agreement was to settle complaints alleging that the three major charcoal producers had failed to report toxic air emissions to federal and state regulators. The agreement provided that industry would install control devices on a set schedule with some charcoal kilns being shut down.« less

  7. Moisture distributions in western hemlock lumber from trees harvested near Sitka, Alaska.

    Treesearch

    David L. Nicholls; Allen M. Brackley; Travis. Allen

    2003-01-01

    Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) can be characterized by localized regions of high-moisture-content wood, often referred to as wet pockets, and uneven drying conditions may occur when lumber of higher and lower moisture content is mixed together in a dry kiln. The primary objective of this preliminary study was to characterize the frequency and...

  8. Biochar from "Kon Tiki" flame curtain and other kilns: Effects of nutrient enrichment and kiln type on crop yield and soil chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Naba Raj; Mulder, Jan; Hale, Sarah Elisabeth; Schmidt, Hans Peter

    2017-01-01

    Biochar application to soils has been investigated as a means of improving soil fertility and mitigating climate change through soil carbon sequestration. In the present work, the invasive shrub "Eupatorium adenophorum" was utilized as a sustainable feedstock for making biochar under different pyrolysis conditions in Nepal. Biochar was produced using several different types of kilns; four sub types of flame curtain kilns (deep-cone metal kiln, steel shielded soil pit, conical soil pit and steel small cone), brick-made traditional kiln, traditional earth-mound kiln and top lift up draft (TLUD). The resultant biochars showed consistent pH (9.1 ± 0.3), cation exchange capacities (133 ± 37 cmolc kg-1), organic carbon contents (73.9 ± 6.4%) and surface areas (35 to 215 m2/g) for all kiln types. A pot trial with maize was carried out to investigate the effect on maize biomass production of the biochars made with various kilns, applied at 1% and 4% dosages. Biochars were either pretreated with hot or cold mineral nutrient enrichment (mixing with a nutrient solution before or after cooling down, respectively), or added separately from the same nutrient dosages to the soil. Significantly higher CEC (P< 0.05), lower Al/Ca ratios (P< 0.05), and high OC% (P<0.001) were observed for both dosages of biochar as compared to non-amended control soils. Importantly, the study showed that biochar made by flame curtain kilns resulted in the same agronomic effect as biochar made by the other kilns (P > 0.05). At a dosage of 1% biochar, the hot nutrient-enriched biochar led to significant increases of 153% in above ground biomass production compared to cold nutrient-enriched biochar and 209% compared to biochar added separately from the nutrients. Liquid nutrient enhancement of biochar thus improved fertilizer effectiveness compared to separate application of biochar and fertilizer. PMID:28448621

  9. Utilization of mill residues in the timber products mills of the Lakeview Working Circle.

    Treesearch

    A.C. Knauss

    1953-01-01

    The manufacture of lumber from logs is always accompanied by the accumulation of wood fiber in the form of sawdust, slabs, edgings, trim, and shavings which is of little commercial value. Sawmills use a portion of this "residual" wood fiber for generating steam with which to run the mill and dry kilns, some is used as a raw material for other industries, but...

  10. Dynamic Analysis of the Temperature and the Concentration Profiles of an Industrial Rotary Kiln Used in Clinker Production.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Diulia C Q; Soares, Atílio P; Costa, Esly F; Costa, Andréa O S

    2017-01-01

    Cement is one of the most used building materials in the world. The process of cement production involves numerous and complex reactions that occur under different temperatures. Thus, there is great interest in the optimization of cement manufacturing. Clinker production is one of the main steps of cement production and it occurs inside the kiln. In this paper, the dry process of clinker production is analysed in a rotary kiln that operates in counter flow. The main phenomena involved in clinker production is as follows: free residual water evaporation of raw material, decomposition of magnesium carbonate, decarbonation, formation of C3A and C4AF, formation of dicalcium silicate, and formation of tricalcium silicate. The main objective of this study was to propose a mathematical model that realistically describes the temperature profile and the concentration of clinker components in a real rotary kiln. In addition, the influence of different speeds of inlet gas and solids in the system was analysed. The mathematical model is composed of partial differential equations. The model was implemented in Mathcad (available at CCA/UFES) and solved using industrial input data. The proposal model is satisfactory to describe the temperature and concentration profiles of a real rotary kiln.

  11. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report Number 9

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yan, H.; Banerjee, S.; Conners, T.

    1999-01-01

    Results from a multi-year study show that a significant part of the extensive variability observed in oriented strand board (OSB) flake dryer emissions can be traced to physiological effects, and the rest can be attributed to handling and other factors. Low-headspace treatment of lumber was scaled up to the 50 kg level. The amount of turpentine collected was of the same magnitude as that released upon drying lumber. For the process to be economical, the wood must first be brought to about 95 C with steam, and then processed with RF. Attempts to remove VOCs from OSB through low-headspace bymore » placing a curtain over the wood failed because of leaks. A more rigid container will be required. RF-treatment does not alter the gas permeability of lumber.« less

  12. Zink rotary kiln seal: Cam followers. Revision 1

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fisher, D.L.

    1994-12-09

    The CIF will treat hazardous and mixed low-level radioactive waste in a rotary kiln and secondary combustion chamber. A high efficiency air pollution control system follows the secondary chamber. The rotary kiln is designed with a gas seal at each end of its rotating barrel which provides a barrier between the interior of the kiln and outside air. The internal pressure of the rotary kiln will be maintained below atmospheric pressure, so exterior air passing the seals is forced into the kiln`s interior. Positive pressure may be applied in the seal labyrinth, adding a barrier to flow. Both CIF sealsmore » will be covered entirely with exhaust hoods, drawing air over the outside of the seal and into a HEPA filtered exhaust system. Cam follower misalignment on a John Zink rotary kiln seal caused damage to the seal`s rotor. The misalignment was quantified, corrected, and checked to verify straightness. The primary purpose of the correction was to allow seal testing 1 to continue, but the information is applicable to the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) since two large seals of similar design will be installed there. Cam follower straightness was off as much as 3.5{degrees}, causing followers to run untrue on the rotor. High contact forces resulted, removing flakes of metal from the rotor surface. The misalignment caused weight bearing followers on one side of the seal to back out of their threaded mounts. The root cause was poor machining of the follower mounting holes. Correction was accomplished by relieving the holes and installing machined spacers and retaining nuts. Cam followers on the CIF`s Zink seals should be inspected for straightness before the seals are installed.« less

  13. [Characteristics of odors and VOCs from sludge direct drying process].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-He; Deng, Ming-Jia; Luo, Hui; Zhang, Jing-Ying; Ding, Wen-Jie; Liu, Jun-Xin; Liu, Jun-Xin

    2014-08-01

    Co-processing sewage sludge by using the high-temperature feature of cement kiln can realize harmless disposal and energy recycling. In this paper, investigation on characteristics of the flue gas from sludge drying process was carried out in Guangzhou Heidelberg Yuexiu Cement Co., LTD. The composition and the main source of odors and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during the drying process were analyzed, aimed to provide scientific basis for the treatment of sewage sludge. Results showed that there were a large number of malodorous substances and VOCs in the flue gas. Sulfur dioxide and other sulfur-containing compounds were the main components in the malodorous substances, while benzene derivatives were predominant in VOCs. The compositions of odors and VOCs were influenced by the characteristics of the sludge and the heat medium (kiln tail gas). Total organic compounds in the sludge were significantly decreased after drying. Other organic substances such as volatile fatty acid, protein, and polysaccharide were also obviously reduced. The organic matter in sludge was the main source of VOCs in the flue gas. Part of sulfurous substances, such as sulfur dioxide, carbon disulfide, were from sulfur-containing substances in the sludge, and the rest were from the kiln tail gas itself.

  14. Method and apparatus for maximizing throughput of indirectly heated rotary kilns

    DOEpatents

    Coates, Ralph L; Smoot, L. Douglas; Hatfield, Kent E

    2012-10-30

    An apparatus and method for achieving improved throughput capacity of indirectly heated rotary kilns used to produce pyrolysis products such as shale oils or coal oils that are susceptible to decomposition by high kiln wall temperatures is disclosed. High throughput is achieved by firing the kiln such that optimum wall temperatures are maintained beginning at the point where the materials enter the heating section of the kiln and extending to the point where the materials leave the heated section. Multiple high velocity burners are arranged such that combustion products directly impact on the area of the kiln wall covered internally by the solid material being heated. Firing rates for the burners are controlled to maintain optimum wall temperatures.

  15. A Thermoelectric Waste-Heat-Recovery System for Portland Cement Rotary Kilns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qi; Li, Peng; Cai, Lanlan; Zhou, Pingwang; Tang, Di; Zhai, Pengcheng; Zhang, Qingjie

    2015-06-01

    Portland cement is produced by one of the most energy-intensive industrial processes. Energy consumption in the manufacture of Portland cement is approximately 110-120 kWh ton-1. The cement rotary kiln is the crucial equipment used for cement production. Approximately 10-15% of the energy consumed in production of the cement clinker is directly dissipated into the atmosphere through the external surface of the rotary kiln. Innovative technology for energy conservation is urgently needed by the cement industry. In this paper we propose a novel thermoelectric waste-heat-recovery system to reduce heat losses from cement rotary kilns. This system is configured as an array of thermoelectric generation units arranged longitudinally on a secondary shell coaxial with the rotary kiln. A mathematical model was developed for estimation of the performance of waste heat recovery. Discussions mainly focus on electricity generation and energy saving, taking a Φ4.8 × 72 m cement rotary kiln as an example. Results show that the Bi2Te3-PbTe hybrid thermoelectric waste-heat-recovery system can generate approximately 211 kW electrical power while saving 3283 kW energy. Compared with the kiln without the thermoelectric recovery system, the kiln with the system can recover more than 32.85% of the energy that used to be lost as waste heat through the kiln surface.

  16. Method and apparatus for maximizing throughput of indirectly heated rotary kilns

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Coates, Ralph L; Smoot, Douglas L.; Hatfield, Kent E

    An apparatus and method for achieving improved throughput capacity of indirectly heated rotary kilns used to produce pyrolysis products such as shale oils or coal oils that are susceptible to decomposition by high kiln wall temperatures is disclosed. High throughput is achieved by firing the kiln such that optimum wall temperatures are maintained beginning at the point where the materials enter the heating section of the kiln and extending to the point where the materials leave the heated section. Multiple high velocity burners are arranged such that combustion products directly impact on the area of the kiln wall covered internallymore » by the solid material being heated. Firing rates for the burners are controlled to maintain optimum wall temperatures.« less

  17. Conversion of Conventional Rotary Kiln Into Effective Sandy Alumina Calciner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, M.; Hirano, T.; Yajima, H.

    Using conventional rotary kiln for calcining sandy alumina in potlines, remakable heat-saving and capacity-improving can be achieved. 83 liters of oil per tonne of alumina (3200MJ/tonne) were required for calcining 800 m.t.p.d. of sandy alumina in the rotary kiln at Shimizu Works. The kiln is installed with two stages of flash dryers and planetary coolers, and was originally designed for calcining floury alumina at 550 m.t.p.d. This improvement in capacity and unit oil consumption was achieved mainly through shortening the flame by using a special burner and effective heat recovery. The quality of sandy alumina calcined by the kiln is good enough for potlines.

  18. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In Addition, other pollu...

  19. Ultrasonic inspection and analysis techniques in green and dried lumber

    Treesearch

    Mark E. Schafer; Robert J. Ross; Brian K. Brashaw; Roy D. Adams

    1999-01-01

    Ultrasonic inspection of lumber has been under investigation for over 20 years, with little commercial impact. Recently, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) developed ultrasound-based scanning technology to examine both green and dried lumber. In green lumber, the bacterial infection called wetwood (a significant source of degradation in oak at the kiln-drying...

  20. Drying and control of moisture content and dimensional changes

    Treesearch

    William T. Simpson

    1999-01-01

    In the living tree, wood contains large quantities of water. As green wood dries, most of the water is removed. The moisture remaining in the wood tends to come to equilibrium with the relative humidity of the surrounding air. Correct drying, handling, and storage of wood will minimize moisture content changes that might occur after drying when the wood is in service...

  1. One-day kilning dries pine studs to 10% moisture

    Treesearch

    P. Koch

    1971-01-01

    USDA Southern Forest Experiment Station tested drying southern pine studs in air cross-circulated at velocity of 930 fpm and temperature of 240°F; wet-bulb depression was 80°F. Under same regime, 1" boards dried in 1 0 hours, plus time to condition.

  2. Wood wastes and residues generated along the Colorado Front Range as a potential fuel source

    Treesearch

    Julie E. Ward; Kurt H. Mackes; Dennis L. Lynch

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the United States there is interest in utilizing renewable fuel sources as an alternative to coal and nat-ural gas. This project was initiated to determine the availability of wood wastes and residues for use as fuel in ce-ment kilns and power plants located along the Colorado Front Range. Research was conducted through literature searches, phone surveys,...

  3. New R-SiC extends service life in kiln furniture

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sonntag, A.

    1997-11-01

    Silicon carbide kiln furniture systems are an essential part of modern high-temperature technology. SiC ceramics have exceptional high-temperature stability and thermal shock resistance., They show no plastic deformation (creep) under mechanical load and maintain their geometry after each high-temperature cycle. Therefore, various new kiln systems with light and open setting patterns can be realized where more fired goods can be produced with less kiln furniture ballast and within shorter firing cycles. The fast-firing technology of porcelain is an opportunity for new SiC kiln furniture ceramics. The new SiC ceramic systems available include: (1) recrystallized SiC (R-SiC); (2) silicon-infiltrated reaction-bonded SiCmore » (SiSiC); and (3) nitride-bonded SiC (NSiC). The new SiC ceramics have an important production criterion in common. They show practically no shrinkage during production. This is important for the manufacture of large shapes, such as beams, rollers and setter plates, as well as tailored geometries that allow light and open kiln furniture construction. Because of the extraordinarily high thermal shock resistance, high strength and high-temperature creep stability of these SiC ceramics, delicate and precise kiln furniture configurations have been introduced. One application is the fast firing of tableware with automatic setting robots.« less

  4. Optimum drying temperature to prevent oxidative stain in soft maple

    Treesearch

    Michael C. Wiemann; Mark Knaebe; Scott A. Bowe

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the kiln conditions necessary to avoid interior enzymatic oxidative discoloration in soft maple. Three drying chambers were designed and constructed to control temperature and relative humidity of maple test samples. The tests showed that drying as soon as possible after harvest at temperatures below 42°C will...

  5. Drying southern pine at 240°F. -- effects of air velocity and humidity, board thickness and density

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1972-01-01

    Kiln time to each 10 percent moisture content was shortened by circulating air at high velocity, but was little affected by board specific gravity. A wet-bulb depression of 80oF. provided faster drying than depressions of 40 or 115oF. At 80 depression and with air circulated at 930 f.p.m., kiln time was directly...

  6. 63. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIME KILN BUILDING, LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIME KILN BUILDING, LOOKING AT THE FIRE BOX AND KILN FOR DILLUTANT. APRIL 22, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  7. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report Number 9 [January 1999

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yan, H.; Banerjee, S.; Conners, T.

    1999-01-01

    Results from a multi-year study show that a significant part of the extensive variability observed in oriented strand board (OSB) flake dryer emissions can be traced to physiological effects, and the rest can be attributed to handling and other factors. Low-headspace treatment of lumber was scaled up to the 50 kg level. The amount of turpentine collected was of the same magnitude as that released upon drying lumber. For the process to be economical, the wood must first be brought to about 95 C with steam, and then processed with RF. Attempts to remove VOCs from OSB through low-headspace bymore » placing a curtain over the wood failed because of leaks. A more rigid container will be required. RF-treatment does not alter the gas permeability of lumber.« less

  8. Decay of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) wood in moist and dry boreal, temperate, and tropical forest fragments

    Treesearch

    Grizelle Gonzalez; William Gould; Andrew T. Hudak; Teresa Nettleton Hollingsworth

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we set up a wood decomposition experiment to i) quantify the percent of mass remaining, decay constant and performance strength of aspen stakes (Populus tremuloides) in dry and moist boreal (Alaska and Minnesota, USA), temperate (Washington and Idaho, USA), and tropical (Puerto Rico) forest types, and ii) determine the effects of...

  9. 57. ORIGINAL TILE PRESS AND EXPERIMENTAL DENTAL KILN, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. ORIGINAL TILE PRESS AND EXPERIMENTAL DENTAL KILN, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH WING, HENRY MERCER USED THE KILN FOR HIS EARLIEST GLAZE TESTS. THE PRESS WAS DESIGNED TO BE USED WITH METAL CASED MOLDS. SINCE ONLY THE EARLIEST TILE DESIGNS ARE IN METAL CASES. THIS TECHNIQUE WAS PROBABLY DISCONTINUED. THIS PRESS WAS, THEREFORE, PROBABLY NOT USED EXTENSIVELY AT THIS SITE. THE UPPER PART OF GLAZE KILN No. 2 IS AT THE LEFT REAR. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  10. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lozada, E.P.; Timmins, W.H.; Metcalfe, E.

    There are about a million smoke kilns in the world that are being used to dry coconuts produced from over 7,000,000 hectares. Smoke emissions from these kilns are known to contain large quantities of greenhouse and acid rain gases. To minimize the generation of these gases, kilns with better combustion characteristics and heat utilization efficiencies must be used. A possible alternative is a direct-fired, free convection dryer known as the Los Banos (Lozada) Multicrop Dryer. Developed at the University of the Philippines Los Banos, the multicrop dryer consists of a simple burner, a heat distributor and a drying bin. Themore » burner burns coconut shell, corn cob and wood pieces with extremely high efficiency, thus, minimizing fuel consumption and dramatically reducing the release of airborne pollutants. The resulting copra (dried coconut kernel) is practically smoke-free with low levels of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH`s). Tests have also shown that the gas emissions from the dryer, when compared to that of the traditional smoke kiln, have lower concentrations of CO{sub 2} (1% vs 6%), of CO (50 ppm vs 2000-3000 ppm), of NO{sub x} (5 ppm vs 400 ppm) and SO{sub x} (5 ppm vs 400 ppm).« less

  11. Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    DOEpatents

    McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

    1997-09-02

    A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet. 5 figs.

  12. Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    DOEpatents

    McIntosh, Michael J.; Arzoumanidis, Gregory G.

    1997-01-01

    A method of destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500.degree. C. to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

  13. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): emissions of trace gases and light-absorbing carbon from wood and dung cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Christian, Ted J.; Goetz, J. Douglas; Jayarathne, Thilina; Bhave, Prakash V.; Praveen, Puppala S.; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Saikawa, Eri; Blake, Donald R.; Simpson, Isobel J.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Panday, Arnico K.

    2016-09-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE) campaign took place in and around the Kathmandu Valley and in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) of southern Nepal during April 2015. The source characterization phase targeted numerous important but undersampled (and often inefficient) combustion sources that are widespread in the developing world such as cooking with a variety of stoves and solid fuels, brick kilns, open burning of municipal solid waste (a.k.a. trash or garbage burning), crop residue burning, generators, irrigation pumps, and motorcycles. NAMaSTE produced the first, or rare, measurements of aerosol optical properties, aerosol mass, and detailed trace gas chemistry for the emissions from many of the sources. This paper reports the trace gas and aerosol measurements obtained by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, whole-air sampling (WAS), and photoacoustic extinctiometers (PAX; 405 and 870 nm) based on field work with a moveable lab sampling authentic sources. The primary aerosol optical properties reported include emission factors (EFs) for scattering and absorption coefficients (EF Bscat, EF Babs, in m2 kg-1 fuel burned), single scattering albedos (SSAs), and absorption Ångström exponents (AAEs). From these data we estimate black and brown carbon (BC, BrC) emission factors (g kg-1 fuel burned). The trace gas measurements provide EFs (g kg-1) for CO2, CO, CH4, selected non-methane hydrocarbons up to C10, a large suite of oxygenated organic compounds, NH3, HCN, NOx, SO2, HCl, HF, etc. (up to ˜ 80 gases in all). The emissions varied significantly by source, and light absorption by both BrC and BC was important for many sources. The AAE for dung-fuel cooking fires (4.63 ± 0.68) was significantly higher than for wood-fuel cooking fires (3.01 ± 0.10). Dung-fuel cooking fires also emitted high levels of NH3 (3.00 ± 1.33 g kg-1), organic acids (7.66 ± 6.90 g kg-1), and HCN (2.01 ± 1.25 g kg-1), where the latter could

  14. 9. Rear of northern kiln group, looking northeast. Although not ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Rear of northern kiln group, looking northeast. Although not visible from this distance, the Viola Mine was located in the mountain range in the background. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  15. ELIMINATION OF WATER POLLUTION BY RECYCLING CEMENT PLANT KILN DUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excessive amounts of alkalies can have deleterious effects upon the process of cement manufacture and the product. Normally much of the alkali present in cement raw materials is volatilized in the cement kiln and condenses on the particles of kiln dust which are carried out of th...

  16. Improvements of gas-fired kiln by use of a microcomputer control system for the porcelain manufacture

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Loong, H.; Liang, C.C.; Tseng, K.T.

    1988-01-01

    The use of microcomputer control system to gas-fired kiln not only enhanced the porcelain kiln's productivity from 75% to 95% but also saved its operation cost around US$ 200,000 per year. The self-designed microcomputer control system can simultaneous set and control the firing conditions of the period kiln which was built up in our laboratory. Our period kiln having volume of 4 M/sup 3/ was insulated by ceramic fiber which is different from use of refractory in traditional kilns. At the bottom of the kiln is an off-gas tunnel connected with a chimney. Besides the auto start-up and continuous operationmore » of kiln, the main functions of this microcomputer control system are summarized.« less

  17. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): emissions of particulate matter from wood- and dung-fueled cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayarathne, Thilina; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Bhave, Prakash V.; Praveen, Puppala S.; Rathnayake, Chathurika M.; Robiul Islam, Md.; Panday, Arnico K.; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; Goetz, J. Douglas; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Saikawa, Eri; Yokelson, Robert J.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2018-02-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE) characterized widespread and under-sampled combustion sources common to South Asia, including brick kilns, garbage burning, diesel and gasoline generators, diesel groundwater pumps, idling motorcycles, traditional and modern cooking stoves and fires, crop residue burning, and heating fire. Fuel-based emission factors (EFs; with units of pollutant mass emitted per kilogram of fuel combusted) were determined for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. For the forced-draft zigzag brick kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 12 to 19 g kg-1 with major contributions from OC (7 %), sulfate expected to be in the form of sulfuric acid (31.9 %), and other chemicals not measured (e.g., particle-bound water). For the clamp kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 8 to 13 g kg-1, with major contributions from OC (63.2 %), sulfate (23.4 %), and ammonium (16 %). Our brick kiln EFPM2.5 values may exceed those previously reported, partly because we sampled emissions at ambient temperature after emission from the stack or kiln allowing some particle-phase OC and sulfate to form from gaseous precursors. The combustion of mixed household garbage under dry conditions had an EFPM2.5 of 7.4 ± 1.2 g kg-1, whereas damp conditions generated the highest EFPM2.5 of all combustion sources in this study, reaching up to 125 ± 23 g kg-1. Garbage burning emissions contained triphenylbenzene and relatively high concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Sb), making these useful markers of this source. A variety of cooking stoves and fires fueled with dung, hardwood, twigs, and/or other biofuels were studied. The use of dung for cooking and heating produced higher EFPM2.5 than other biofuel sources and consistently emitted more PM2.5 and OC than burning hardwood and/or twigs; this trend was consistent across traditional mud stoves, chimney stoves, and three-stone cooking

  18. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1991-04-22

    The focus of our work during the first quarter of 1991 was on combustion tests at the PEDCO rotary kiln reactor at North American Rayon (NARCO) plant in Elizabethton, TN. The tests had essentially tow related objectives: (a) to obtain basic data on the combustion of anthracite culm in a rotary kiln reactor, and (b) upon the test results, determine how best to proceed with our own planned program at the Humphrey Charcoal kiln in Brookville, PA. The rationale for the tests at PEDCO arose from process analysis which posted red flags on the feasibility of burning low-grade, hard-to-burn fuelsmore » like anthracite culms, in the rotary kiln. The PEDCO unit afforded a unique opportunity to obtain some quick answers at low cost. Two different anthracite culm fuels were tested: a so-called Jeddo culm with an average heating value of 7000 Btu/lb, and a relatively poorer culm, and Emerald'' culm, with an average heating value of 5000 Btu/lb. An attempt was also made to burn a blend of the Emerald culm with bituminous coal in 75/25 percent proportions. This report describes the tests, their chronology, and preliminary results. As it turned out, the PEDCO unit is not configured properly for the combustion of anthracite culm. As a result, it proved difficult to achieve a sustained period of steady-state combustion operation, and combustion efficiencies were low even when supplemental fuel was used to aid combustion of the culm. 1 fig., 2 tabs.« less

  19. Effect of fire-retardant treatment on plywood pH and the relationship of pH to strength properties

    Treesearch

    S. T. Lebow; J. E. Winandy

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between wood pH and the strength properties of fire-retardant-treated (FRT) plywood, as it is affected by fire-retardant (FR) formulations, processing variables, and extended high temperature exposure conditions. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify the effect of post-treatment kiln-drying temperature, followed by...

  20. Study of influence of 2.4 GHz electromagnetic waves on electrophysical properties of coniferous trees wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdurahimov, Nursulton; Lagunov, Alexey; Melehov, Vladimir

    2017-09-01

    Climate change has a significant impact on changing weather conditions in the Arctic. Wood is a traditional building material in the North of Russia. Supports of communication lines are made of wood. Dry wood is a solid dielectric with a low conductivity. At the same time it is porous material having high hygroscopicity. The presence of moisture leads to wood rotting. To prevent rotting of a support it needs to be impregnated with antiseptics. A tree dried by means of convection drying cannot provide required porosity of wood for impregnation. Our studies of electrophysical properties of coniferous species showed that microwave drying of wood increases the porosity of the wood. Wood dried in this way is easily impregnated with antiseptics. Thorough wood drying requires creating optimal conditions in a microwave oven. During the drying process in a chamber there is a resonant phenomenon. These phenomena depend on electro-physical properties of the material placed in the chamber. Dielectric constant of wood has the most influence. A resonator method to determine the dielectric constant of the wood was used. The values of permittivity for the spruce and pine samples were determined. The measured value of the dielectric constant of wood was used to provide optimal matching of the generator with the resonator in a wood-drying resonator type microwave chamber, and to maintain it in the process of wood drying. It resulted in obtaining the samples with a higher permeability of wood in radial and longitudinal direction. This creates favorable conditions for wood impregnation with antiseptics and flame retardants. Timber dried by means of electromagnetic waves in the 2.4 GHz band has a deeper protective layer. The support made of such wood will serve longer as supports of communication lines.

  1. A review of wood thermal pretreatments to improve wood composite properties

    Treesearch

    Manuel Raul Pelaez-Samaniego; Vikram Yadama; Eini Lowell; Raul Espinoza-Herrera

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the published literature on improving properties of wood composites through thermal pretreatment of wood. Thermal pretreatment has been conducted in moist environments using hot water or steam at temperatures up to 180 and 230 ˚C, respectively, or in dry environments using inert gases at temperatures up to 240 ...

  2. New Developments in Wood-Destroying Organisms from the International Research Group on Wood Preservation \\t

    Treesearch

    Elmer L. Schmidt

    1991-01-01

    New developments in wood-destroying organisms and in wood protection from the 20th annual meeting (May 1989 at Lappeenranta, Finland) of the International Research Group on Wood Preservation (IRG) are highlighted in the areas of biological control of fungi, dry rot, decay mechanisms and product problems, new techniques, insect problems and control, and developments in...

  3. The Importance of Measuring Mercury in Wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Yanai, R. D.; Driscoll, C. T.; Montesdeoca, M.

    2014-12-01

    Forests are important receptors of Hg deposition, and biological Hg hotspots occur mainly in forested regions, but few efforts have been made to determine the Hg content of trees. Mercury concentrations in stem tissue are lower than the foliage and bark, so low that they have often been below detection limits, especially in hardwood species. However, because wood is the largest component of forest biomass, it can be a larger Hg pool than the foliage, and thus quantifying concentrations in wood is important to Hg budgets in forests. The objective of our study was to determine the methods necessary to detect Hg in bole wood of four tree species, including two hardwoods and two conifers. We also evaluated the effect of air-drying and oven-drying samples on Hg recovery, compared to freeze-drying samples prior to analysis, which is the standard procedure. Many archived wood samples that were air-dried or oven-dried could be appropriate for Hg analysis if these methods could be validated; few are freeze-dried. We analyzed samples for total Hg using thermal decomposition, catalytic conversion, amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Method 7473, USEPA 1998). The result of the method detection limit study was 1.27 ng g-1, based on apple leaf standards (NIST 1515, 44 ± 4 ng/g). Concentrations in the hardwood species were 1.48 ± 0.23 ng g-1 for sugar maple and 1.75 ± 0.14 ng g-1 for American beech. Concentrations were higher in red spruce and balsam fir. Samples that were analyzed fresh, freeze-dried, or oven-dried at 65 ˚C were in close agreement, after correcting for moisture content. However, Hg concentrations were 34 to 45% too high in the air-dry samples, presumably reflecting absorption from the atmosphere, and they were 44 to 66% too low in the samples oven-dried at 103 ˚C, presumably due to volatilization. We recommend that samples be freeze-dried or oven-dried at 65 ˚C for analysis of Hg in wood; archived samples that have been oven-dried at

  4. Drying southern pine at 240°F-- effects of air velocity and humidity, board thickness and density

    Treesearch

    P. Koch

    1972-01-01

    Kiln time to reach 10 percent moisture content was shortened by circulating air at high velocity, but was little affected by board specific gravity. A wet-bulb depression of 80°F. provided faster drying than depressions of 40 or 115°F. At 80° depression and with air circulated at 930 f.p.m.. kiln time was directly proportional to board thickness. Under these optimum...

  5. Estimating air-drying times of small-diameter ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir logs

    Treesearch

    William T. Simpson; Xiping Wang

    2004-01-01

    One potential use for small-diameter ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir timber is in log form. Many potential uses of logs require some degree of drying. Even though these small diameters may be considered small in the forestry context, their size when compared to typical lumber thickness dimensions is large. These logs, however, may require uneconomically long kiln-drying...

  6. Improving lumber yield using a dual system

    Treesearch

    R. Edward Thomas; Omar Espinoza; Urs Buehlmann

    2015-01-01

    Rough mills embody the process of cutting up kiln-dried lumber to components used by discrete wood products manufacturers to manufacture products like furniture, kitchen cabinets, flooring, or other items. Rough mills traditionally have either ripped the lumber first (e.g., the lumber is first cut into strips lengthwise) then cut the strips to the required part lengths...

  7. Using aspen for artist stretcher frames: adding value through quality service, direct marketing, and careful material selection

    Treesearch

    Chris Polson

    2001-01-01

    Aspen wood, when carefully selected and kiln dried, makes excellent stock for artist stretcher frames. Direct marketing techniques including the Internet and word of mouth give access to national markets, providing a more diverse and stable customer base for operations from a rural area. High-quality service, as shown by product performance and rapid order fulfillment...

  8. 38. SLABROLLING ROOM, SHOWING BISCUIT KILN No. 4 IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. SLAB-ROLLING ROOM, SHOWING BISCUIT KILN No. 4 IN THE CENTER BACKGROUND AND BISCUIT KILN No. 5 AT THE RIGHT. TILE PRESSES ARE THROUGH THE DOORWAY AT THE LEFT. NOTE THE AIR FILTER, INSTALLED IN 1986. HANGING IN THE CENTER OF THE ROOM. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  9. Characterization of a gel in the cell wall to elucidate the paradoxical shrinkage of tension wood.

    PubMed

    Clair, Bruno; Gril, Joseph; Di Renzo, Francesco; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Quignard, Françoise

    2008-02-01

    Wood behavior is characterized by high sensibility to humidity and strongly anisotropic properties. The drying shrinkage along the fibers, usually small due to the reinforcing action of cellulosic microfibrils, is surprisingly high in the so-called tension wood, produced by trees to respond to strong reorientation requirements. In this study, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms of supercritically dried tension wood and normal wood show that the tension wood cell wall has a gel-like structure characterized by a pore surface more than 30 times higher than that in normal wood. Syneresis of the tension wood gel explains its paradoxical drying shrinkage. This result could help to reduce technological problems during drying. Potential applications in biomechanics and biomimetics are worth investigating, considering that, in living trees, tension wood produces tensile growth stresses 10 times higher than that of normal wood.

  10. CFD modeling using PDF approach for investigating the flame length in rotary kilns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elattar, H. F.; Specht, E.; Fouda, A.; Bin-Mahfouz, Abdullah S.

    2016-12-01

    Numerical simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are performed to investigate the flame length characteristics in rotary kilns using probability density function (PDF) approach. A commercial CFD package (ANSYS-Fluent) is employed for this objective. A 2-D axisymmetric model is applied to study the effect of both operating and geometric parameters of rotary kiln on the characteristics of the flame length. Three types of gaseous fuel are used in the present work; methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO) and biogas (50 % CH4 + 50 % CO2). Preliminary comparison study of 2-D modeling outputs of free jet flames with available experimental data is carried out to choose and validate the proper turbulence model for the present numerical simulations. The results showed that the excess air number, diameter of kiln air entrance, radiation modeling consideration and fuel type have remarkable effects on the flame length characteristics. Numerical correlations for the rotary kiln flame length are presented in terms of the studied kiln operating and geometric parameters within acceptable error.

  11. Relations between water balance, wood traits and phenological behavior of tree species from a tropical dry forest in Costa Rica--a multifactorial study.

    PubMed

    Worbes, Martin; Blanchart, Sofie; Fichtler, Esther

    2013-05-01

    Drought tolerance is a key factor for the establishment and survival of tree species in tropical ecosystems. Specific mechanisms of drought resistance can be grouped into four functional ecotypes based on differences in leaf fall behavior: deciduous, brevi-deciduous, stem succulent and evergreen. To identify the key factors influencing phenology and cambial activity and thus drought tolerance, we tested the stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and stable carbon isotopes in the leaves and wood of 12 species from a tropical dry forest in Costa Rica. With wood anatomical techniques, we further studied seasonal cambial activity and a suite of wood traits related to water transport for each of the functional ecotypes. Using a principal component analysis, we identified two groups of variables that can be related to (i) hydraulic conductivity and (ii) control of transpiration and water loss. Hydraulic conductivity is controlled by vessel size as the limiting variable, water potential as the driving force and wood density as the stabilizing factor of the anatomical structure of an effective water transport system. Stomatal control plays a major role in terms of water loss or saving and is the dominant factor for differences in phenological behavior. Stem succulent species in particular developed a rarely identified but highly effective strategy against drought stress, which makes it a successful pioneer species in tropical dry forests.

  12. Five new machines and six products can triple commodity recovery from southern forests

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1978-01-01

    Mixed southern pine-hardwood stands now yield 20 to 22 percent of their biomass in wood products. A new energy self-sufficient system using tree pullers, wet-fuel burners, mobile chippers, shaping-lathe headrigs, and continuous kilns can convert 67 percent of the biomass (above- and below-ground parts of trees of all species) into products worth about $150 per dry ton...

  13. Lumber Cost Minimization through Optimum Grade-Mix Selection

    Treesearch

    Xiaoqiu Zuo; Urs Buehlmann; R. Edward Thomas; R. Edward Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Rough mills process kiln-dried lumber into components for the furniture and wood products industries, Lumber is a significant portion of total rough mill costs and lumber quality can have a serious impact on mill productivity. Lower quality lumber is less expensive yet is harder to process. Higher quality lumber is more expensive yet easier to process. The problem of...

  14. Acoustic emission and acousto-ultrasonic techniques for wood and wood-based composites: a review

    Treesearch

    Sumire Kawamoto; R. Sam Williams

    2002-01-01

    This review focuses on the feasibility of acoustic emission (AE) and acousto-ultrasonic (AU) techniques for monitoring defects in wood, particularly during drying. The advantages and disadvantages of AE and AU techniques are described. Particular emphasis is placed on the propagation and attenuation of ultrasonic waves in wood and the associated measurement problems....

  15. 51. UPPER CHAMBER OF BISCUIT KILN No. 4, FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. UPPER CHAMBER OF BISCUIT KILN No. 4, FROM THE SECOND FLOOR. ALL BRICK KILNS AT THE MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS HAD TWO CHAMBERS. WARE WAS STACKED IN THE LOWER CHAMBERS FOR FIRING AND THE UPPER CHAMBERS PROVIDED ACCESS TO FLUES AND DAMPERS FROM THE SECOND FLOOR. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  16. Effect of drying temperature on warp and downgrade of 2 by 4's from small-diameter ponderosa pine

    Treesearch

    William T. Simpson

    2004-01-01

    Kiln drying at high temperature may reduce warp in dimension lumber sawn from small-diameter trees. In this study, we examined the effect on warp of high drying temperatures in conjunction with top loading immediately after drying and after storage in typical conditions that result in further moisture loss. Eight-foot-long 2- by 4-in. (2 by 4) boards sawn from open-...

  17. The Earliest Chinese Proto-Porcelain Excavated from Kiln Sites: An Elemental Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Huansheng; Zheng, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    In June 2012, the Piaoshan kiln site was excavated in Huzhou, Zhejiang Province, which hitherto proved to be the earliest known Chinese proto-porcelain kiln. Judging from the decorative patterns of unearthed impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain sherds, the site was determined to date to the late Xia (c. 2070–c. 1600 BC), the first dynasty of China. Here, we report on proton-induced X-ray emission analyses of 118 proto-porcelain and 35 impressed stoneware sherds from Piaoshan and five subsequent kiln sites in the vicinity. Using principal components analysis on the major chemical compositions, we reveal the relationships between impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain samples from the six kiln sites. The sherds from different sites have distinctive chemical profiles. The results indicate that the raw materials were procured locally. We find a developmental tendency for early glazes towards mature calcium-based glaze. It is most likely that woody plant ashes with increased calcia-potash ratios were applied to the formula. PMID:26535583

  18. The Earliest Chinese Proto-Porcelain Excavated from Kiln Sites: An Elemental Analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Huansheng; Zheng, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    In June 2012, the Piaoshan kiln site was excavated in Huzhou, Zhejiang Province, which hitherto proved to be the earliest known Chinese proto-porcelain kiln. Judging from the decorative patterns of unearthed impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain sherds, the site was determined to date to the late Xia (c. 2070-c. 1600 BC), the first dynasty of China. Here, we report on proton-induced X-ray emission analyses of 118 proto-porcelain and 35 impressed stoneware sherds from Piaoshan and five subsequent kiln sites in the vicinity. Using principal components analysis on the major chemical compositions, we reveal the relationships between impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain samples from the six kiln sites. The sherds from different sites have distinctive chemical profiles. The results indicate that the raw materials were procured locally. We find a developmental tendency for early glazes towards mature calcium-based glaze. It is most likely that woody plant ashes with increased calcia-potash ratios were applied to the formula.

  19. California black oak drying problems and the bacterial factor

    Treesearch

    James C. Ward; Del Shedd

    1979-01-01

    It is often difficult to kiln dry California black oak lumber green from the saw without developing excessive degrade from honeycomb, ring failure, and collapse. Results from this study indicate that defect-prone lumber contains heartwood that was infected and weakened by anaerobic bacteria in the living tree. Green, bacterially infected boards should be segregated and...

  20. Study on the property of the production for Fengdongyan kiln in Early Ming dynasty by INAA and EDXRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Huang, Y.; Sun, H. Y.; Yan, L. T.; Feng, S. L.; Xu, Q.; Feng, X. Q.

    2016-08-01

    A lot of official wares carved "Guan" or the dragon patterns were excavated on the strata of Ming dynasty of the Fengdongyan kiln site at Dayao County. The imperial porcelain was fired in Hongwu and Yongle eras. However, the emergence of this imperial porcelain has triggered academic debate about the property of Fengdongyan kiln in the Early Ming dynasty. Based on the differences of the official kiln management, some scholars have determined that the property of the production for this kiln was the civilian kiln. According to the historical textural records and typology, others preliminary confirmed that Fengdongyan kiln was the official kiln. In this paper, the elemental compositions of body and glaze in imperial and civilian porcelain are study by INAA and EDXRF for determining the property of the production for this kiln in Early Ming dynasty. After the processing of experimental data by geochemical analysis and principal component analysis, the result show that the raw materials for making body and glaze in imperial porcelain are similar with those of the civilian porcelain and the degrees of elutriation for body can be slightly different in HW-M period of Ming dynasty. The analytical results support the view that the Fengdongyan kiln is civilian not official.

  1. The System of Simulation and Multi-objective Optimization for the Roller Kiln

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, He; Chen, Xishen; Li, Wugang; Li, Zhuoqiu

    It is somewhat a difficult researching problem, to get the building parameters of the ceramic roller kiln simulation model. A system integrated of evolutionary algorithms (PSO, DE and DEPSO) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), is proposed to solve the problem. And the temperature field uniformity and the environment disruption are studied in this paper. With the help of the efficient parallel calculation, the ceramic roller kiln temperature field uniformity and the NOx emissions field have been researched in the system at the same time. A multi-objective optimization example of the industrial roller kiln proves that the system is of excellent parameter exploration capability.

  2. Pulmonary dysfunctions, oxidative stress and DNA damage in brick kiln workers.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, R; Khaliq, F; Subramaneyaan, M; Ahmed, R S

    2012-11-01

    Brick kilns in the suburban areas in developing countries pose a big threat to the environment and hence the health of their workers and people residing around them. The present study was planned to assess the lung functions, oxidative stress parameters and DNA damage in brick kiln workers. A total of 31 male subjects working in brick kiln, and 32 age, sex and socioeconomic status matched controls were included in the study. The lung volumes, capacities and flow rates, namely, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV(1)/FVC, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity (IC), maximal expiratory flow when 50% of FVC is remaining to be expired, maximum voluntary ventilation, peak expiratory flow rate and vital capacity were significantly decreased in the brick kiln workers. Increased oxidative stress as evidenced by increased malonedialdehyde levels and reduced glutathione content, glutathione S-transferase activity and ferric reducing ability of plasma were observed in the study group when compared with controls. Our results indicate a significant correlation between oxidative stress parameters and pulmonary dysfunction, which may be due to silica-induced oxidative stress and resulting lung damage.

  3. Air Drying of Chunkwood and Chips

    Treesearch

    Joseph B. Sturos; Lynne A. Coyer; Rodger A. Arola

    1983-01-01

    A new method of communicating wood has resulted in a new wood particle form called chunkwood, which is much larger than the common pulp-size chip. Chunkwood appears well suited for use as a fuel but nothing is yet known about its storage, drying, or combustion characteristics. This paper reports on two exploratory drying experiments we conducted to see whether chunks...

  4. Process for straightening and drying southern pine 2 by 4's in 24 hours

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1971-01-01

    In 21 hours under mechanical restraint and in a kiln providing a cross-circulation velocity of 1,000 f.p.m. at dry-and wet-bulb temperatures of 240 and 160oF., followed by 3 hours at 195 and 185oF., southern pine 2 by 4 studs cut from steamed veneer cores or small logs were dried to 9-percent moisture content (Standard...

  5. Utilization of lime-dried sludge for eco-cement clinker production: effects of different feeding points.

    PubMed

    Cao, Haihua; Liu, Wei; Xu, Jingcheng; Liu, Jia; Huang, Juwen; Huang, Xiangfeng; Li, Guangming

    2018-02-01

    Co-processing lime-dried sludge (LDS) in cement kilns is an appropriate technique to solve the problem of LDS disposal and promote the sustainable development for cement industry. However, there were limited studies that investigated the effects of feeding points on product quality and cement kiln emissions. In this study, simulated experiments were conducted by dividing the feeding points into high-temperature zones (HTZs) and raw mill (RM). Cement quality and major cement kiln emission characteristics were comprehensively investigated. The results showed that in terms of burnability, compressive strength and microstructure, the optimum co-processing amount of LDS were 9 wt% when feeding at RM, while 6% when feeding at HTZs. Meanwhile, the organic emissions of RM samples were mainly low environmental risk compounds of amides and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds. Inorganic gaseous pollutions of NO X and SO 2 , respectively, were 8.11 mg/g DS and 12.89 mg/g DS, compared with 7.61 mg/g DS and 4.44 mg/g DS for HTZs. However, all the cement kiln emissions concentration were still much lower than standard requirements. Overall, RM had a bigger LDS co-processing capacity and higher, but acceptable, cement kiln emissions. Feeding LDS via RM could dispose larger amounts of sludge and provide more alternative materials for cement manufacturing.

  6. Analysis of elemental composition of porcelains unearthed from Waguantan kiln site by PIXE-RBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.; Zhang, K.; Xia, C. D.; Liu, M. T.; Zhu, J. J.; An, Z.; Bai, B.

    2015-03-01

    A method combining proton-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was used to determine the composition of 61 porcelain shards from the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368 A.D.) unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site at Tianzhu County in Guizhou Province, China. Based on our previous experimental setup, an electron gun device with a LaB6 crystal cathode was installed to solve the problem created when the incident proton beams generated electric charge accumulations on the surfaces of the insulating porcelain samples, which induced a large bremsstrahlung background. The use of the electron gun has largely eliminated the large bremsstrahlung background and has therefore improved the detection limits for elements, especially for trace elements, and made it possible to determine the origin of the porcelains based on the trace elements. Major and trace elemental compositions of the porcelain bodies and glazes measured by PIXE and RBS were analyzed by the factor analysis method. The factor analysis showed that a few pieces of porcelain with a style similar to the porcelain of the Longquan kiln among the unearthed porcelains from the Waguantan kiln site did not have obvious differences in elemental compositions from other remaining porcelains unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site, indicating that the pieces of unearthed porcelain with the Longquan kiln style did in fact belong to the product fired locally by imitating the model of the Longquan celadon with local raw materials. This result therefore indicated that the Longquan kiln technology that originated from the Five Dynasties (907-960 A.D.) had been propagated to the Waguantan kiln site of Guizhou Province in the Yuan Dynasty.

  7. Respiratory Abnormalities among Occupationally Exposed, Non-Smoking Brick Kiln Workers from Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Supriya; Gupta, Sharat; Singh, Sharanjeet; Kumar, Avnish

    2017-07-01

    Brick manufacturing industry is one of the oldest and fast-growing industries in India that employs a large section of people. Brick kiln workers are occupationally exposed to air pollutants. Nonetheless, only a few studies have so far been conducted on their respiratory health. To investigate the extent of respiratory impairment in brick kiln workers and to correlate it with the duration of exposure. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Spirometric parameters of 110 non-smoking male brick kiln workers aged 18-35 years in Patiala district, Punjab, India, were compared with an age-matched comparison group of 90 unexposed individuals. Brick kiln workers showed a significant (p<0.05) decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced mid-expiratory flow rate (FEF 25-75% ) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) compared with those of the comparison group. The extent of deterioration in lung function of brick kiln workers was associated with the duration of exposure. In workers with >8 years of exposure, the mean values of FEV 1 (1.92 L), FVC (2.01 L), FEF 25-75% (2.19 L/s) and PEFR (4.81 L/s) were significantly (p<0.05) lower than those recorded in workers with <8 years of exposure in whom the values were 2.01 L, 2.68 L, 2.71 L/s, and 5.76 L/s, respectively. There is a significant association between exposure to workplace pollutants and lung function deterioration among brick kiln workers.

  8. Multi-disciplinary dating of a baked clay kiln excavated at Chieri, Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tema, Evdokia; Fantino, Fulvio; Ferrara, Enzo; Lo Giudice, Alessandro; Re, Alessandro; Barello, Federico; Vella, Silvia; Cirillo, Luigi; Gulmini, Monica

    2014-05-01

    A combined archaeological, archaeomagnetic and thermoluminescence study has been carried out on a rescue excavation kiln, discovered at Chieri, Northern Italy. Rock magnetic experiments indicate the dominance of a low coercivity magnetic phase, such as magnetite and/or Ti-magnetite as the main carrier of the remanent magnetization. Stepwise thermal demagnetization experiments generally show a stable characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM). The mean archaeomagnetic direction, calculated from 17 independently oriented samples, is D=18.2o, I=66.8o with α95=2.6o and k=184. Archaeomagnetic dating of the kiln has been obtained after comparison of the kiln's ChRM direction with the reference curves produced by the SHA.DIF.3K European regional geomagnetic field model. Independent dating of the kiln has also been obtained from thermoluminescence (TL) study of two baked clay samples coming from the kiln's walls. The environmental dose has been measured in situ using field dosimeters. Accurate TL procedures have been followed for the calculation of annual dose and eventually the TL age. The combination of the archaeological evidence, archaeomagnetic and TL datings suggest that the last usage of the kiln occurred around the 17th century AD. Comparison of the results obtained from the different methods shows the relevant potential of these techniques on dating of baked clay artefacts; yet it also highlights the range of uncertainty sources affecting measurements, related to the samples and/or to the environment, and the utility of dating cross-checking for obtaining reliable dates.

  9. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN EQUIPPED WITH AN AFTERBURNER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln equipped with an afterburner. A laboratory-scale simulator was constructed and tested to determine if it could be used to produce charcoal that was similar to that produced in Missouri-type charcoal kilns...

  10. Trucking Characteristics for an In-woods Biomass Chipping Operation

    Treesearch

    J. D. Thompson; J. Klepac; W. and Sprinkle

    2012-01-01

    A study was implemented to evaluate the transportation of woody biomass. This paper reports on the results of transporting wood chips produced in the field from transpirationally dried trees. For the study, a stand of timber was felled and allowed to dry in the field for approximately six weeks. The timber was then chipped in the woods and transported to market. In...

  11. Migration and transformation of sulfur in the municipal sewage sludge during disposal in cement kiln.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuyan; Li, Haoxin; Jiang, Zhengwu; Yang, Xiaojie; Chen, Qing

    2018-05-07

    The aim of this work was to investigate the migration and transformation of sulfur in the municipal sewage sludge during disposal in cement kiln, and better understand the emission of the sulfur related pollutants in this process. In consideration of the temperature conditions in the practical operation, municipal sewage sludge was pre-dried at 105 °C, and then dried at 210, 260 and 310 °C, co-combusted with cement raw mill at 800, 900 and 1000 °C, and 1350, 1400 and 1450 °C respectively in the laboratory. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine the S2p spectral lines of the municipal sewage sludge treated in the different process. Besides, The Thermal Analysis-Thermogravimetry (DTA-TG), Back Scattered Electron (BSE) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) were also employed to explore the mechanism of sulfur subsistence at 1450 °C. The results indicate that sulfide, thiophene, sulfone and sulfate are mainly sulfur compound in the municipal sewage sludge dried at 105 °C. Sulfoxide, a new sulfur compound, appears after it is further dried at 210 °C. The relative contents of sulfide and thiophene are continuously declined as the drying temperature increases due to their evaporation, decomposition and transformation in this process. The transformation of sulfide and thiophene makes the relative contents of sulfoxide and sulfate accordingly increased. However, the relative content of sulfone experiences an elevating-lowering process while the dry temperature elevated from 210 to 310 °C. This case is related to its evaporation and decomposition, as well as its production for the transformation of sulfide and thiophene. In the co-combustion process, sulfide, thiophene and sulfone are entirely vanished for their evaporation, decomposition and transformation. Sulfone is still contained at 800 °C, but when the temperature unceasingly rises, it is completely decomposed or evaporated and sulfate is the only sulfur compound. The

  12. Equilibrium moisture content during storage, manufacturing, and shipping of Bolivian wood products

    Treesearch

    Omar A. Espinoza; Brian H. Bond; Joseph R. Loferski

    2007-01-01

    After lumber is kiln-dried it is important to keep its moisture content (MC) as close as possible to its target value during all stages of production to assure final product quality. Knowledge of climate conditions at all stages of the manufacturing process is essential to provide a good control of lumber MC. This study is the first step to provide Bolivian companies...

  13. Case study of an MBT plant producing SRF for cement kiln co-combustion, coupled with a bioreactor landfill for process residues.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Mario; Dellavedova, Stefano; Rigamonti, Lucia; Scotti, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the performances of the energy recovery pathway from the residual waste based on the production of a Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) to be exploited via co-combustion in a cement kiln. The SRF is produced in a single stream Mechanical-Biological Treatment plant, where bio-drying of the waste is followed by mechanical refining in order to fulfil the quality requirements by the cement kilns. Peculiar of this MBT is the fact that sorting residues are disposed in a nearby landfill, managed according to a bioreactor approach, where landfill gas is collected for electric energy recovery. A detailed mass and energy balance of the system is presented based on one year operational data, followed by its Life Cycle Assessment. Results show that the system is energetically and environmentally effective, with most of the impacts being more than compensated by the savings of materials and energy. Major role in determining such outcome is the displacement of petcoke in the cement kiln, both in terms of its fossil CO2 emissions and of its life cycle impacts, including the trans-oceanic transport. To check the robustness of the results, two sensitivity analyses are performed on the landfill gas collection efficiency and on the avoided electric energy mix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. MECHANISMS GOVERNING TRANSIENTS FROM THE BATCH INCINERATION OF LIQUID WASTES IN ROTARY KILNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When "containerized" liquid wastes, bound on sorbents. are introduced into a rotary kiln in a batch mode, transient phenomena in-volving heat transfer into, and waste mass transfer out of, the sorbent can oromote the raoid release of waste vaoor into the kiln environment. This ra...

  15. Meeting the Solid Wood Needs of the Furniture and Cabinet Industries: Standard-Size Hardwood Blanks

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman; Charles J Gatchell; Hugh W. Reynolds

    1982-01-01

    Standard-size, kiln-dried hardwood blanks (panels) of specified lengths, widths, thicknesses, and qualities can be used instead of lumber to produce rough dimension furniture parts. Standard sizes were determined by analyzing thousands of part requirements from 20 furniture and 12 kitchen cabinet companies. The International Woodworking Machinery and Furniture Supply...

  16. Black Carbon And Co-Pollutants Emissions And Energy Efficiency From Bricks Production In Guanajuato, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, L. T.; Zavala, M.; Maiz, P.; Monsivais, I.; Chow, J.; Munguia, J.

    2013-12-01

    In many parts of the world, small-scale traditional brick kilns are a notorious informal sector source of urban air pollution. Many are both inefficient and burn highly polluting fuels that emit significant levels of black carbon and other pollutants into local communities and to the atmosphere, resulting in severe health and environmental impacts. It is estimated that there are nearly 20,000 traditional brick kilns in Mexico, in which bricks are still produced as they have been for centuries. They are made by hand, dried in the sun, and generally fired in small, one chamber kilns that use various types of fuels, including plastic refuse, used tires, manure, wood scrap, and used motor oil. Three brick kilns, two traditional kilns and an improved kiln (MK2), were sampled as part of the SLCFs-Mexico campaign in Guanajuato, Mexico during March of 2013. The concept of the MK-2 involves covering the kiln with a dome and channeling the output of an active kiln through a second, identical loaded kiln for its additional filtration of the effluents. The results of energy efficiency and carbon mass balance calculations are presented for comparing the production efficiency and carbon emissions from the sampled kilns. Measurements included PM2.5 mass with quartz filters and temporally-resolved elemental carbon and organic carbon composition obtained using thermo-optical methods. The carbon emissions obtained with the mass balance method are compared with concurrent, high- time resolution, emissions measurements obtained using the Aerodyne mobile laboratory employing the tracer method (see abstract by Fortner et al.)

  17. Equilibrium moisture content of wood in outdoor locations in the United States and worldwide

    Treesearch

    W. T. Simpson

    1998-01-01

    With relative humidity and temperature data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the average equilibrium moisture content for each month of the year was calculated for 262 locations in the United States and 122 locations outside the United States. As an aid for storage of kiln-dried lumber, a graph is presented for determining the reduction in...

  18. Automated grading, upgrading, and cuttings prediction of surfaced dry hardwood lumber

    Treesearch

    Sang-Mook Lee; Phil Araman; A.Lynn Abbott; Matthew F. Winn

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns the scanning, sawing, and grading of kiln-dried hardwood lumber. A prototype system is described that uses laser sources and a video camera to scan boards. The system automatically detects defects and wane, searches for optimal sawing solutions, and then estimates the grades of the boards that would result. The goal is to derive maximum commercial...

  19. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in relation to wood dust and monoterpene exposure in the wood pellet industry.

    PubMed

    Löfstedt, Håkan; Hagström, Katja; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Holmström, Mats; Rask-Andersen, Anna

    2017-06-01

    Wood pellets are used as a source of renewable energy for heating purposes. Common exposures are wood dust and monoterpenes, which are known to be hazardous for the airways. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of occupational exposure on respiratory health in wood pellet workers. Thirty-nine men working with wood pellet production at six plants were investigated with a questionnaire, medical examination, allergy screening, spirometry, and nasal peak expiratory flow (nasal PEF). Exposure to wood dust and monoterpenes was measured. The wood pellet workers reported a higher frequency of nasal symptoms, dry cough, and asthma medication compared to controls from the general population. There were no differences in nasal PEF between work and leisure time. A lower lung function than expected (vital capacity [VC], 95%; forced vital capacity in 1 second [FEV 1 ], 96% of predicted) was noted, but no changes were noted during shifts. There was no correlation between lung function and years working in pellet production. Personal measurements of wood dust at work showed high concentrations (0.16-19 mg/m 3 ), and exposure peaks when performing certain work tasks. Levels of monoterpenes were low (0.64-28 mg/m 3 ). There was no association between exposure and acute lung function effects. In this study of wood pellet workers, high levels of wood dust were observed, and that may have influenced the airways negatively as the study group reported upper airway symptoms and dry cough more frequently than expected. The wood pellet workers had both a lower VC and FEV 1 than expected. No cross-shift changes were found.

  20. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in relation to wood dust and monoterpene exposure in the wood pellet industry

    PubMed Central

    Löfstedt, Håkan; Hagström, Katja; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Holmström, Mats; Rask-Andersen, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Wood pellets are used as a source of renewable energy for heating purposes. Common exposures are wood dust and monoterpenes, which are known to be hazardous for the airways. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of occupational exposure on respiratory health in wood pellet workers. Materials and methods Thirty-nine men working with wood pellet production at six plants were investigated with a questionnaire, medical examination, allergy screening, spirometry, and nasal peak expiratory flow (nasal PEF). Exposure to wood dust and monoterpenes was measured. Results The wood pellet workers reported a higher frequency of nasal symptoms, dry cough, and asthma medication compared to controls from the general population. There were no differences in nasal PEF between work and leisure time. A lower lung function than expected (vital capacity [VC], 95%; forced vital capacity in 1 second [FEV1], 96% of predicted) was noted, but no changes were noted during shifts. There was no correlation between lung function and years working in pellet production. Personal measurements of wood dust at work showed high concentrations (0.16–19 mg/m3), and exposure peaks when performing certain work tasks. Levels of monoterpenes were low (0.64–28 mg/m3). There was no association between exposure and acute lung function effects. Conclusions In this study of wood pellet workers, high levels of wood dust were observed, and that may have influenced the airways negatively as the study group reported upper airway symptoms and dry cough more frequently than expected. The wood pellet workers had both a lower VC and FEV1 than expected. No cross-shift changes were found. PMID:28276782

  1. Development of Portable Venturi Kiln for Agricultural Waste Utilization by Carbonization Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustina, S. E.; Chasanah, N.; Eris, A. P.

    2018-05-01

    Many types of kiln or carbonization equipment have been developed, but most of them were designed for big capacity and some also having low performance. This research aims to develop kiln, especially portable metal kiln, which has higher performance, more environmental- friendly, and can be used for several kinds of biomass or agricultural waste (not exclusive for one kind of biomass) as feeding material. To improve the kiln performance, a venturi drum type of portable kiln has been designed with an optimum capacity of 12.45 kg coconut shells. Basic idea of those design is heat flow improvement causing by venturi effect. The performance test for coconut shell carbonization shows that the carbonization process takes about 60-90 minutes to produce average yields of 23.8%., and the highest temperature of the process was 441 °C. The optimum performance has been achieved in the 4th test, which was producing 24% yield of highest charcoal quality (represented by LHV) in 65 minutes process at average temperature level 485 °C. For pecan shell and palm shell, design modification has been done by adding 6 air inlet holes and 3 ignition column to get better performance. While operation procedure should be modified on loading and air supply, depending on each biomass characteristic. The result of performance test showed that carbonization process of pecan shell produce 17 % yield, and palm shell produce 15% yield. Based on Indonesian Standard (SNI), all charcoal produced in those carbonization has good quality level.

  2. Mechanical Properties of Longleaf Pine Treated with Waterborne Salt Preservatives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    were measured on small clear bending specimens of longleaf pine sapwood treated with three wateroorne salt preservative systems. Preservative...wood, but the results of past research in this area (appendix I: Literature) are inconsistent and inconclusive, particularly at high loadings of...pine sapwood either air or kiln dried after treatment to retentions from 0.25 to 2.5 lb/ft3. ACA has no effect on MOR. but CCA-type preservatives

  3. Perspectives and limits for cement kilns as a destination for RDF.

    PubMed

    Genon, G; Brizio, E

    2008-11-01

    RDF, the high calorific value fraction of MSW obtained by conventional separation systems, can be employed in technological plants (mainly cement kilns) in order to obtain a useful energy recovery. It is interesting and important to evaluate this possibility within the general framework of waste-to-energy solutions. The solution must be assessed on the basis of different aspects, namely: technological features and clinker characteristics; local atmospheric pollution; the effects of RDF used in cement kilns on the generation of greenhouse gases; the economics of conventional solid fuels substitution and planning perspectives, from the point of view of the destination of RDF and optimal cement kiln policy. The different experiences of this issue throughout Europe are reviewed, and some applications within Italy are also been considered. The main findings of the study are that the use of RDF in cement kilns instead of coal or coke offers environmental benefits in terms of greenhouse gases, while the formation of conventional gaseous pollutants is not a critical aspect. Indeed, the generation of nitrogen oxides can probably be lower because of lower flame temperatures or lower air excess. The presence of chlorinated micro-pollutants is not influenced by the presence of RDF in fuel, whereas depending on the quality of the RDF, some problems could arise compared to the substituted fuel as far as heavy metals are concerned, chiefly the more volatile ones.

  4. 40 CFR 63.1204 - What are the standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste burning cement kilns that are effective until compliance with the standards under § 63.1220? 63... standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until compliance with the standards... plant site where a cement kiln (whether burning hazardous waste or not) did not previously exist, to 50...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1204 - What are the standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... waste burning cement kilns that are effective until compliance with the standards under § 63.1220? 63... standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until compliance with the standards... plant site where a cement kiln (whether burning hazardous waste or not) did not previously exist, to 50...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1204 - What are the standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste burning cement kilns that are effective until compliance with the standards under § 63.1220? 63... standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until compliance with the standards... plant site where a cement kiln (whether burning hazardous waste or not) did not previously exist, to 50...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1204 - What are the standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waste burning cement kilns that are effective until compliance with the standards under § 63.1220? 63... What are the standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until compliance... plant site where a cement kiln (whether burning hazardous waste or not) did not previously exist, to 50...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1204 - What are the standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste burning cement kilns that are effective until compliance with the standards under § 63.1220? 63... What are the standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until compliance... plant site where a cement kiln (whether burning hazardous waste or not) did not previously exist, to 50...

  9. Thermal co-treatment of combustible hazardous waste and waste incineration fly ash in a rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Huber, Florian; Blasenbauer, Dominik; Mallow, Ole; Lederer, Jakob; Winter, Franz; Fellner, Johann

    2016-12-01

    As current disposal practices for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash are either associated with significant costs or negative environmental impacts, an alternative treatment was investigated in a field scale experiment. Thereto, two rotary kilns were fed with hazardous waste, and moistened MSWI fly ash (water content of 23%) was added to the fuel of one kiln with a ratio of 169kg/Mg hazardous waste for 54h and 300kg/Mg hazardous waste for 48h while the other kiln was used as a reference. It was shown that the vast majority (>90%) of the inserted MSWI fly ash was transferred to the bottom ash of the rotary kiln. This bottom ash complied with the legal limits for non-hazardous waste landfills, thereby demonstrating the potential of the investigated method to transfer hazardous waste (MSWI fly ash) into non-hazardous waste (bottom ash). The results of a simple mixing test (MSWI fly ash and rotary kiln bottom ash have been mixed accordingly without thermal treatment) revealed that the observed transformation of hazardous MSWI fly ash into non-hazardous bottom ash during thermal co-treatment cannot be referred to dilution, as the mixture did not comply with legal limits for non-hazardous waste landfills. For the newly generated fly ash of the kiln, an increase in the concentration of Cd, K and Pb by 54%, 57% and 22%, respectively, was observed. In general, the operation of the rotary kiln was not impaired by the MSWI fly ash addition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tolerance of Serpula lacrymans to copper-based wood preservatives

    Treesearch

    Anne Christine Steenkjaer Hastrup; Frederick Green; Carol A. Clausen; Bo Jensen

    2005-01-01

    Serpula lacrymans, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in certain temperate regions of the world, namely northern Europe, Japan, and Australia. Previously, copper-based wood preservatives were commonly used for pressure treatment of wood for building construction, but some decay fungi are known to be copper tolerant. In...

  11. Application of the dynamic model of Saeman to an industrial rotary kiln incinerator: numerical and experimental results.

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, L G; Caillat, S; Chinnayya, A; Gambier, D; Baudoin, B

    2010-07-01

    In order to simulate granular materials structure in a rotary kiln under the steady-state regime, a mathematical model has been developed by Saeman (1951). This model enables the calculation of the bed profiles, the axial velocity and solids flow rate along the kiln. This model can be coupled with a thermochemical model, in the case of a reacting moving bed. This dynamic model was used to calculate the bed profile for an industrial size kiln and the model projections were validated by measurements in a 4 m diameter by 16 m long industrial rotary kiln. The effect of rotation speed under solids bed profile and the effect of the feed rate under filling degree were established. On the basis of the calculations and the experimental results a phenomenological relation for the residence time estimation was proposed for the rotary kiln. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dry chips versus green chips as furnish for medium-density fiberboard

    Treesearch

    Paul H. Short; George E. Woodson; Duane E. Lyon

    1978-01-01

    The fiber characteristics and the physical and mechanical properties of medium-density fiberboard (MDF), manufactured with pressure-refined fiber from green and partially dried raw material, were analyzed to determine if dry wood chips made a better furnish than green wood chips. Pressure-refining dry material produced coarser fiber than those obtained from green...

  13. Dry chips versus green chips as furnish for medium-density fiberboard

    Treesearch

    P.H. Short; G.E. Woodson; D.E. Lyon

    1978-01-01

    The fiber characteristics and the physical and mechanical properties of medium-density fiberboard (MDF), manufactured with pressure-refined fiber from green and partially dried raw material, were analyzed to determine if dry wood chips made a better furnish than green wood chips. Pressure-refined dry material produced coarser fiber than those obtained from green...

  14. Characterization and utilization of cement kiln dusts (CKDs) as partial replacements of Portland cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Om Shervan

    The characteristics of cement kiln dusts (CKDs) and their effects as partial replacement of Portland Cement (PC) were studied in this research program. The cement industry is currently under pressure to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and solid by-products in the form of CKDs. The use of CKDs in concrete has the potential to substantially reduce the environmental impact of their disposal and create significant cost and energy savings to the cement industry. Studies have shown that CKDs can be used as a partial substitute of PC in a range of 5--15%, by mass. Although the use of CKDs is promising, there is very little understanding of their effects in CKD-PC blends. Previous studies provide variable and often conflicting results. The reasons for the inconsistent results are not obvious due to a lack of material characterization data. The characteristics of a CKD must be well-defined in order to understand its potential impact in concrete. The materials used in this study were two different types of PC (normal and moderate sulfate resistant) and seven CKDs. The CKDs used in this study were selected to provide a representation of those available in North America from the three major types of cement manufacturing processes: wet, long-dry, and preheater/precalciner. The CKDs have a wide range of chemical and physical composition based on different raw material sources and technologies. Two fillers (limestone powder and quartz powder) were also used to compare their effects to that of CKDs at an equivalent replacement of PC. The first objective of this study was to conduct a comprehensive composition analysis of CKDs and compare their characteristics to PC. CKDs are unique materials that must be analyzed differently from PC for accurate chemical and physical analysis. The present study identifies the chemical and physical analytical methods that should be used for CKDs. The study also introduced a method to quantify the relative abundance of the different

  15. Shrinkage and footage loss from drying 4/4-inch hard maple lumber.

    Treesearch

    Daniel E. Dunmire

    1968-01-01

    Equations are presented for estimating shrinkage and resulting footage losses due to drying hard maple lumber. The equations, based on board shrinkage data taken from a representative lumber sample, are chiefly intended for use with lots of hard maple lumber, such as carloads, truckloads, or kiln loads, but also can be used for estimating the average shrinkage of...

  16. Failure to phytosanitize ash firewood infested with emerald ash borer in a small dry kiln using ISPM-15 standards.

    PubMed

    Goebel, P Charles; Bumgardner, Matthew S; Herms, Daniel A; Sabula, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    Although current USDA-APHIS standards suggest that a core temperature of 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F) for 75 min is needed to adequately sanitize emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire-infested firewood, it is unclear whether more moderate (and economical) treatment regimes will adequately eradicate emerald ash borer larvae and prepupae from ash firewood. We constructed a small dry kiln in an effort to emulate the type of technology a small- to medium-sized firewood producer might use to examine whether treatments with lower temperature and time regimes successfully eliminate emerald ash borer from both spilt and roundwood firewood. Using white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) firewood collected from a stand with a heavy infestation of emerald ash borer in Delaware, OH, we treated the firewood using the following temperature and time regime: 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 30 min, 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 60 min, 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 30 min, and 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 60 min. Temperatures were recorded for the outer 2.54-cm (1-in.) of firewood. After treatment, all firewood was placed under mesh netting and emerald ash borer were allowed to develop and emerge under natural conditions. No treatments seemed to be successful at eliminating emerald ash borer larvae and perpupae as all treatments (including two nontreated controls) experienced some emerald ash borer emergence. However, the 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) treatments did result in considerably less emerald ash borer emergence than the 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) treatments. Further investigation is needed to determine whether longer exposure to the higher temperature (56 degrees C) will successfully sanitize emerald ash borer-infested firewood.

  17. Modification of oil palm wood using acetylation and impregnation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subagiyo, Lambang; Rosamah, Enih; Hesim

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is chemical modification by process of acetylation and impregnation of oil palm wood to improve the dimensional stability. Acetylation process aimed at substituting the hydroxyl groups in a timber with an acetyl group. By increasing the acetyl groups in wood is expected to reduce the ability of wood to absorb water vapor which lead to the dimensions of the wood becomes more stable. Studies conducted on oil palm wood (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) by acetylation and impregnation method. The results showed that acetylated and impregnated wood oil palm (E. guineensis Jacq) were changed in their physical properties. Impregnation with coal ashfly provide the greatest response to changes in weight (in wet conditions) and after conditioning (dry) with the average percentage of weight gain of 198.16% and 66.41% respectively. Changes in volume indicates an increase of volume in the wet condition (imbibition) with the coal ashfly treatment gave highest value of 23.04 %, whereas after conditioning (dry) the highest value obtained in the treatment of gum rosin:ethanol with a volume increase of 13:44%. The highest changes of the density with the coal ashfly impregnation in wet condition (imbibition) in value of 142.32% and after conditioning (dry) of 57.87%. The result of reduction in water absorption (RWA) test showed that in the palm oil wood samples most stable by using of gum rosin : ethanol of 0.97%, whereas the increase in oil palm wood dimensional stability (ASE) is the best of 59.42% after acetylation with Acetic Anhydride: Xylene.

  18. GREENHOUSE GASES FROM SMALL-SCALE COMBUSTION DEVICES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, CHARCOAL-MAKING KILNS IN THAILAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of measurements of airborne emissions, during typical operating conditions, from charcoal-making kilns commonly used in the developing world. The kilns tested were of five types: brick beehive, mud beehive, earth mound, rice husk mound, and single (oil) d...

  19. Perspectives and limits for cement kilns as a destination for RDF

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Genon, G.; Brizio, E.

    2008-11-15

    RDF, the high calorific value fraction of MSW obtained by conventional separation systems, can be employed in technological plants (mainly cement kilns) in order to obtain a useful energy recovery. It is interesting and important to evaluate this possibility within the general framework of waste-to-energy solutions. The solution must be assessed on the basis of different aspects, namely: technological features and clinker characteristics; local atmospheric pollution; the effects of RDF used in cement kilns on the generation of greenhouse gases; the economics of conventional solid fuels substitution and planning perspectives, from the point of view of the destination of RDFmore » and optimal cement kiln policy. The different experiences of this issue throughout Europe are reviewed, and some applications within Italy are also been considered. The main findings of the study are that the use of RDF in cement kilns instead of coal or coke offers environmental benefits in terms of greenhouse gases, while the formation of conventional gaseous pollutants is not a critical aspect. Indeed, the generation of nitrogen oxides can probably be lower because of lower flame temperatures or lower air excess. The presence of chlorinated micro-pollutants is not influenced by the presence of RDF in fuel, whereas depending on the quality of the RDF, some problems could arise compared to the substituted fuel as far as heavy metals are concerned, chiefly the more volatile ones.« less

  20. CFD analysis of a full-scale ceramic kiln module under actual operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Massimo; Montorsi, Luca; Stefani, Matteo; Venturelli, Matteo

    2017-11-01

    The paper focuses on the CFD analysis of a full-scale module of an industrial ceramic kiln under actual operating conditions. The multi-dimensional analysis includes the real geometry of a ceramic kiln module employed in the preheating and firing sections and investigates the heat transfer between the tiles and the burners' flame as well as the many components that comprise the module. Particular attention is devoted to the simulation of the convective flow field in the upper and lower chambers and to the effects of radiation on the different materials is addressed. The assessment of the radiation contribution to the tiles temperature is paramount to the improvement of the performance of the kiln in terms of energy efficiency and fuel consumption. The CFD analysis is combined to a lumped and distributed parameter model of the entire kiln in order to simulate the module behaviour at the boundaries under actual operating conditions. Finally, the CFD simulation is employed to address the effects of the module operating conditions on the tiles' temperature distribution in order to improve the temperature uniformity as well as to enhance the energy efficiency of the system and thus to reduce the fuel consumption.

  1. Model for understanding the durability performance of wood adhesives

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart

    2007-01-01

    When dry wood is placed in water, the water not only fills the lumen (void in the cells) but also diffuses into the cell walls, causing them to expand. Although the wood becomes weaker via this cell wall plasticization, failure generally increases in the bondline rather than in the wood under wet conditions. Thus, the question is why water exposure often causes a...

  2. California Black Oak Drying Problems and the Bacterial Factor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    operations in Anderson area and to adjacent kilns by spacing stickers 18 inches apart and Georgia and wondered if bacterial tree drying softwood lumber at...on stickers in a weighted, volatile fatty acids which are the sapwood , and then from the outer, covered pile placed outdoors on the characteristic of...1. JT~~~ Figure 1 —Scanning electron micrographs of nonintected sapwood (A-B) and bacterially infected heartwood (C-D) from

  3. Numerical analysis of an entire ceramic kiln under actual operating conditions for the energy efficiency improvement.

    PubMed

    Milani, Massimo; Montorsi, Luca; Stefani, Matteo; Saponelli, Roberto; Lizzano, Maurizio

    2017-12-01

    The paper focuses on the analysis of an industrial ceramic kiln in order to improve the energy efficiency and thus the fuel consumption and the corresponding carbon dioxide emissions. A lumped and distributed parameter model of the entire system is constructed to simulate the performance of the kiln under actual operating conditions. The model is able to predict accurately the temperature distribution along the different modules of the kiln and the operation of the many natural gas burners employed to provide the required thermal power. Furthermore, the temperature of the tiles is also simulated so that the quality of the final product can be addressed by the modelling. Numerical results are validated against experimental measurements carried out on a real ceramic kiln during regular production operations. The developed numerical model demonstrates to be an efficient tool for the investigation of different design solutions for the kiln's components. In addition, a number of control strategies for the system working conditions can be simulated and compared in order to define the best trade off in terms of fuel consumption and product quality. In particular, the paper analyzes the effect of a new burner type characterized by internal heat recovery capability aimed at improving the energy efficiency of the ceramic kiln. The fuel saving and the relating reduction of carbon dioxide emissions resulted in the order of 10% when compared to the standard burner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Organic and inorganic pollutants from cement kiln stack feeding alternative fuels.

    PubMed

    Conesa, Juan A; Gálvez, Araceli; Mateos, Fernán; Martín-Gullón, Ignacio; Font, Rafael

    2008-10-30

    In this work, an analysis of the emission of different pollutants when replacing partially the fuel type used in a cement kiln is done. The wastes used to feed the kiln were tyres and two types of sewage sludge. The increasing mass flow of sludge is between 700 kg h(-1) and 5,500 kg h(-1)1, for a total production of clinker of 150th(-1), whereas the fed tyres were in the flow range of 500-1,500 kg h(-1). Dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other hydrocarbons, heavy metals, HCl and HF, CO, CO(2), NO(x) and other parameters of the stack were analyzed, according to the standard methods of sampling and determination, through more than 1 year in six series: one blank (no sewage sludge) and five more with increasing amount of sludge and/or tyres. The emission of PAHs and dioxins seems to increase with the amount of tyres fed to the kiln, probably due to the fed point used for this waste.

  5. MINIMIZATION OF TRANSIENT EMISSIONS FROM ROTARY KILN INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transient emissions of organics can occur from rotary kiln incinerators when drums containing liquid wastes bound on sorbents are introduced in a batch-wise fashion. Physical processes controlling the release of waste from the sorbent material are greatly affected by the rotation...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1220 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning cement kilns? 63.1220 Section 63.1220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... burning cement kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing sources. You must not... (whether burning hazardous waste or not) did not previously exist, to 50 parts per million by volume, over...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1220 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning cement kilns? 63.1220 Section 63.1220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... burning cement kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing sources. You must not... (whether burning hazardous waste or not) did not previously exist, to 50 parts per million by volume, over...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1220 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning cement kilns? 63.1220 Section 63.1220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... burning cement kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing sources. You must not... (whether burning hazardous waste or not) did not previously exist, to 50 parts per million by volume, over...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1220 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning cement kilns? 63.1220 Section 63.1220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... burning cement kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing sources. You must not... (whether burning hazardous waste or not) did not previously exist, to 50 parts per million by volume, over...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1220 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning cement kilns? 63.1220 Section 63.1220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... burning cement kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing sources. You must not... (whether burning hazardous waste or not) did not previously exist, to 50 parts per million by volume, over...

  11. New archaeomagnetic data from three roman kilns in northeast Spain: a contribution to the Iberian palaeosecular variation curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beamud, E.; Gómez-Paccard, M.; McIntosh, G.; Larrasoaña, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    New archaeomagnetic results from three kilns recovered from a roman age archaeological site in Badalona (northeast Spain) are reported. Archaeological evidences constrain the abandonment of kilns BC1 and BC2 between 0 and 50 yrs AD, whereas the abandonment of kiln BC3 is established between 50 and 150 yrs AD. In order to perform the archaeomagnetic study 12 to 14 samples per kiln were collected using a portable electrical drill with a water-cooled diamond bit, following standard palaeomagnetic sampling methods. Samples were distributed all around the combustion chambers, being obtained in different orientations from the burnt walls and central pillars. Rock magnetic measurements revealed a dominance of low titanium titanomagnetite or substituted magnetite as the main carrier of the magnetic signal and a minor contribution of maghemite. The presence of single domain material, along with the thermal stability of the samples, means that they are suitable candidates for archaeomagnetic studies, and in particular intensity determinations. Archaeomagnetic experiments were attempted on 32 specimens characterised by NRM intensities between 0.5 and 8.3 A/m. Mean archaeomagnetic directions and archaeointensities have been obtained from the original Thellier method with regular partial thermoremanent magnetisation (pTRM) checks being used to estimate archaeointensities. Mean intensities of 68.3 ± 4.2 µT, 72.4 ± 5.0 µT and 72.9 ± 3.7 µT were obtained for kilns BC1, BC2 and BC3, respectively. A cooling rate correction factor of 5% has been applied to mean intensities and the values obtained have been relocated to Paris and Madrid through the virtual dipole moment VDM. The mean directions of the characteristic magnetization of each kiln and their associated statistical parameters were derived from principal component analysis and Fisher statistics. Very similar directions were obtained for BC1 and BC2 with the circle of confidence (α95) of the BC2 direction falling within

  12. Integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining Cu-based wood preservatives and Trichoderma spp.

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide) in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. Wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. The objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a Trichoderma spp. with a highly antagonistic potential against wood destroying basidiomycetes that is capable of colonizing Cu-rich environments. For this purpose, the activity of five Trichoderma spp. on Cu-rich medium was evaluated according to its growth and sporulation rates. The influence of the selected Trichoderma spp. on wood colonization and degradation by five wood destroying basidiomycetes was quantitatively analyzed by means of dry weight loss of wood specimens. Furthermore, the preventative effect of the selected Trichoderma spp. in combination with four Cu-based preservatives was also examined by mass loss and histological changes in the wood specimens. Trichoderma harzianum (T-720) was considered the biocontrol agent with higher antagonistic potential to colonize Cu-rich environments (up to 0.1% CuSO4 amended medium). T. harzianum demonstrated significant preventative effect on wood specimens against four wood destroying basidiomycetes. The combined effect of T. harzianum and Cu-based wood preservatives demonstrated that after 9 months incubation with two wood destroying basidiomycetes, wood specimens treated with 3.8 kg m-3 copper-chromium had weight losses between 55–65%, whereas containers previously treated with T. harzianum had significantly lower weight losses (0–25%). Histological studies on one of the wood destroying basidiomycetes revealed typical decomposition of wood cells by brown-rot fungi in Cu-impregnated samples, that were notably absent in wood specimens previously exposed

  13. Integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining Cu-based wood preservatives and Trichoderma spp.

    PubMed

    Ribera, Javier; Fink, Siegfried; Bas, Maria Del Carmen; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2017-01-01

    The production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide) in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. Wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. The objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a Trichoderma spp. with a highly antagonistic potential against wood destroying basidiomycetes that is capable of colonizing Cu-rich environments. For this purpose, the activity of five Trichoderma spp. on Cu-rich medium was evaluated according to its growth and sporulation rates. The influence of the selected Trichoderma spp. on wood colonization and degradation by five wood destroying basidiomycetes was quantitatively analyzed by means of dry weight loss of wood specimens. Furthermore, the preventative effect of the selected Trichoderma spp. in combination with four Cu-based preservatives was also examined by mass loss and histological changes in the wood specimens. Trichoderma harzianum (T-720) was considered the biocontrol agent with higher antagonistic potential to colonize Cu-rich environments (up to 0.1% CuSO4 amended medium). T. harzianum demonstrated significant preventative effect on wood specimens against four wood destroying basidiomycetes. The combined effect of T. harzianum and Cu-based wood preservatives demonstrated that after 9 months incubation with two wood destroying basidiomycetes, wood specimens treated with 3.8 kg m-3 copper-chromium had weight losses between 55-65%, whereas containers previously treated with T. harzianum had significantly lower weight losses (0-25%). Histological studies on one of the wood destroying basidiomycetes revealed typical decomposition of wood cells by brown-rot fungi in Cu-impregnated samples, that were notably absent in wood specimens previously exposed to T

  14. The Moisture Content and Specific Gravity of the Bark and Wood of Northern Pulpwood Species

    Treesearch

    John R. Erickson

    1972-01-01

    Much information is available on the specific gravity of wood on a dry weight over green volume and dry weight over dry volume basis. This paper presents the conventional specific gravity on a green weight over green volume basis. The relative specific gravities of bark and wood chips may be helpful in finding way to remove bark particles from chips.

  15. Static analysis of masonry kilns built with fictile tubules bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivito, Renato S.; Scuro, Carmelo; Codispoti, Rosamaria

    2016-12-01

    Industrial archeology is a branch that studies all the testimony (tangible and intangible, direct and indirect) related to the process of industrialization since its origins. This technical field is based on an interdisciplinary approach, it has the task of deepening the story, understanding the technological development made by man over the centuries. The present work focused attention on the study and analysis of a masonry kiln, built with the technique of hollow clay fictile tubules. The study, in particular, has been carried out analyzing the stress state caused by the wind on the structure. The kiln is constituted by a particular geometric configuration that develops in height due to the presence of chimney over the dome.

  16. Wood-adhesive bonding failure : modeling and simulation

    Treesearch

    Zhiyong Cai

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of wood bonding failure when exposed to wet conditions or wet/dry cycles is not fully understood and the role of the resulting internal stresses exerted upon the wood-adhesive bondline has yet to be quantitatively determined. Unlike previous modeling this study has developed a new two-dimensional internal-stress model on the basis of the mechanics of...

  17. Method of operating an oil shale kiln

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1978-05-23

    Continuously determining the bulk density of raw and retorted oil shale, the specific gravity of the raw oil shale and the richness of the raw oil shale provides accurate means to control process variables of the retorting of oil shale, predicting oil production, determining mining strategy, and aids in controlling shale placement in the kiln for the retorting.

  18. The numerical modelling and process simulation for the fault diagnosis of rotary kiln incinerator.

    PubMed

    Roh, S D; Kim, S W; Cho, W S

    2001-10-01

    The numerical modelling and process simulation for the fault diagnosis of rotary kiln incinerator were accomplished. In the numerical modelling, two models applied to the modelling within the kiln are the combustion chamber model including the mass and energy balance equations for two combustion chambers and 3D thermal model. The combustion chamber model predicts temperature within the kiln, flue gas composition, flux and heat of combustion. Using the combustion chamber model and 3D thermal model, the production-rules for the process simulation can be obtained through interrelation analysis between control and operation variables. The process simulation of the kiln is operated with the production-rules for automatic operation. The process simulation aims to provide fundamental solutions to the problems in incineration process by introducing an online expert control system to provide an integrity in process control and management. Knowledge-based expert control systems use symbolic logic and heuristic rules to find solutions for various types of problems. It was implemented to be a hybrid intelligent expert control system by mutually connecting with the process control systems which has the capability of process diagnosis, analysis and control.

  19. Differential growth responses to water balance of coexisting deciduous tree species are linked to wood density in a Bolivian tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Mendivelso, Hooz A; Camarero, J Julio; Royo Obregón, Oriol; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Toledo, Marisol

    2013-01-01

    A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs). There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability.

  20. Profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in cement kilns co-processing solid waste.

    PubMed

    Jin, Rong; Zhan, Jiayu; Liu, Guorui; Zhao, Yuyang; Zheng, Minghui; Yang, Lili; Wang, Mei

    2017-05-01

    Co-incineration of sewage sludge in cement kilns can be used for its disposal. In the present study, samples were collected from three cement production runs where sewage sludge and other wastes (e.g. municipal solid waste, waste acid and wet sewage sludge) were co-processed. The samples were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The dioxin-like (dl)-PCB concentrations in the stack gases from run 1, 2, and 3 were 344.6, 548.7, and 104.3 pg m -3 , respectively. The toxic equivalency (TEQs) values for runs 1, 2, and 3 were 5.6, 8.9, and 0.7 pg TEQ Nm -3 , respectively. Calculation of net emissions for the three runs indicated that the co-incineration of other waste in addition to sewage sludge in cement kilns would not increase emission of the dl-PCBs. PCB concentrations in samples from the suspension boiler and humidifier tower, kiln-end bag filter, and cyclone preheater were much higher than those in samples from the kiln head area, indicating that these stages will be important for controlling PCB formation. Chlorinated biphenyl (CB)-77, CB-105 and CB-118 were the major dl-PCB congeners, CB-52, CB-101 were the major indicator PCB congeners, and tetra-CB to hexa-CB were the major homologues for the total input or output materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 40 CFR 63.1221 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? 63.1221 Section 63.1221 Protection of Environment... hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for... prior to release to the atmosphere. (2) 99.9999% DRE. If you burn the dioxin-listed hazardous wastes...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1221 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? 63.1221 Section 63.1221 Protection of Environment... hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for... prior to release to the atmosphere. (2) 99.9999% DRE. If you burn the dioxin-listed hazardous wastes...

  3. Concentrations and patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls at different process stages of cement kilns co-processing waste incinerator fly ash.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guorui; Yang, Lili; Zhan, Jiayu; Zheng, Minghui; Li, Li; Jin, Rong; Zhao, Yuyang; Wang, Mei

    2016-12-01

    Cement kilns can be used to co-process fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators. However, this might increase emission of organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Knowledge of PCB concentrations and homolog and congener patterns at different stages in this process could be used to assess the possibility of simultaneously controlling emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and "dioxin-like" compounds. To date, emissions from cement kilns co-processing fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators have not been analyzed for PCBs. In this study, stack gas and particulate samples from two cement kilns co-processing waste incinerator fly ash were analyzed for PCBs. The average total tri- to deca-chlorinated biphenyl (∑ 3-10 PCB) concentration in the stack gas samples was 10.15ngm -3 . The ∑ 3-10 PCB concentration ranges in particulate samples from different stages were 0.83-41.79ngg -1 for cement kiln 1and0.13-1.69ngg -1 for cement kiln 2. The ∑ 3-10 PCB concentrations were much higher in particulate samples from the suspension pre-heater boiler, humidifier tower, and kiln back-end bag filters than in particulate samples from other stages. For these three stages, PCBs contributed to 15-18% of the total PCB, PCDD/F, and polychlorinated naphthalene toxic equivalents in stack gases and particulate matter. The PCB distributions were similar to those found in other studies for PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated naphthalenes, which suggest that it may be possible to simultaneously control emissions of multiple organic pollutants from cement kilns. Homolog patterns in the particulate samples were dominated by the pentachlorobiphenyls. CB-105, CB-118, and CB-123 were the dominant dioxin-like PCB congeners that formed at the back-end of the cement kiln. A mass balance of PCBs in the cement kilns indicated that the total mass of PCBs in the stack gases and clinker was about half the mass of PCBs in the raw materials

  4. Use of a region of the visible and near infrared spectrum to predict mechanical properties of wet wood and standing trees

    DOEpatents

    Meglen, Robert R.; Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-01-01

    In a method for determining the dry mechanical strength for a green wood, the improvement comprising: (a) illuminating a surface of the wood to be determined with a reduced range of wavelengths in the VIS-NIR spectra 400 to 1150 nm, said wood having a green moisture content; (b) analyzing the surface of the wood using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data of a reduced range of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra; and (c) using a multivariate analysis technique to predict the mechanical strength of green wood when dry by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data of a reduced range of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra obtained from a reference wood having a green moisture content, the second spectral being correlated with a known mechanical strength analytical result obtained from the reference wood when dried and a having a dry moisture content.

  5. Effect of kilning on the antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of pale malts.

    PubMed

    Woffenden, Helen M; Ames, Jennifer M; Chandra, Sachin; Anese, Monica; Nicoli, M Cristina

    2002-08-14

    Pale malts were prepared using standard and rapid kilning regimes that differed in the temperature and moisture profiles in the kiln. Samples were taken over the last 9 h of kilning, that is, at 18, 20, 22, 25, and 27 h. Antioxidant activity, assessed by redox potential, scavenging of the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS*+), and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP), increased at moisture levels below 6.7% for both regimes. The 27 h malt exposed to the rapid regime (moisture content of 4.8%) had a higher activity than the 27 h standard regime sample (moisture content of 4.8%). None of the malts scavenged oxygen. Pro-oxidant activity profiles were different for the malts obtained using each regime and, at 27 h, the rapid procedure gave malt with higher activity. Levels of (+)-catechin and ferulic acid (the most abundant phenolic compounds identified) generally increased as the moisture content of malt fell below 6.7%. Differences in antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of the 27 h malts are partly attributed to the Maillard reaction, as evidenced by lower L* and higher b* values and higher levels of Maillard-derived flavor compounds, in the sample obtained by the rapid procedure. Levels of lipid-derived flavor compounds were significantly higher after 27 h of kilning using the rapid procedure.

  6. Performance of rotary kiln reactor for the elephant grass pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    De Conto, D; Silvestre, W P; Baldasso, C; Godinho, M

    2016-10-01

    The influence of process conditions (rotary speed/temperature) on the performance of a rotary kiln reactor for non-catalytic pyrolysis of a perennial grass (elephant grass) was investigated. The product yields, the production of non-condensable gases as well as the biochar properties were evaluated. The maximum H2 yield was close to that observed for catalytic pyrolysis processes, while the bio-oil yield was higher than reported for pyrolysis of other biomass in rotary kiln reactors. A H2/CO ratio suitable for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) was obtained. The biochars presented an alkaline pH (above 10) and interesting contents of nutrients, as well as low electrical conductivity, indicating a high potential as soil amendment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The decomposition of wood products in landfills in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, F A; Gardner, W D; Cowie, A L

    2008-11-01

    Three landfill sites that had been closed for 19, 29 and 46 years and had been operated under different management systems were excavated in Sydney. The mean moisture content of the wood samples ranged from 41.6% to 66.8%. The wood products recovered were identified to species, and their carbon, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin concentration were determined and compared to those of matched samples of the same species. No significant loss of dry mass was measured in wood products buried for 19 and 29 years, but where refuse had been buried for 46 years, the measured loss of carbon (as a percentage of dry biomass) was 8.7% for hardwoods and 9.1% for softwoods, equating to 18% and 17% of their original carbon content, respectively. The results indicate that published decomposition factors based on laboratory research significantly overestimate the decomposition of wood products in landfill.

  8. Woodmetrics: imaging devices and processes in wood inspection at Lulea University of Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagman, Olle

    1999-09-01

    Wood Technology research and education at Lulea University of Technology is located in Skelleftea 800 km north of Stockholm. At the campus about 25 persons are involved in education and research in Wood Technology. We are educating M.Sc. and post- graduate students in Wood Technology. The research at the campus includes the following main fields: -- Wood Machining - - Woodmetrics -- Wood Drying -- Wood Composites/Wood Material Science. Our research strategy is to obtain an individual treatment of every tree, board and piece of wood in order to get highest possible value for the forest products. This shall be accomplished by the aid of advanced scanning technology and computer technology. Woodmetrics means to measure different wood parameters in order to optimize the utilization of the raw material. Today we have the following projects in this field: Automatic wood inspection -- Color changes and moisture flow in drying processes -- Inner quality of logs and lumber - - Stem quality database -- Computer tomography -- Aesthetic properties of wood -- Market/industry/forest relations. In the Woodmetrics field we are using computer tomography, CCD cameras and other sensors in order to find and measure defects in trees and on boards. The signals are analyzed and classified with modern image analyzing techniques and advanced statistical methods.

  9. DEP : a computer program for evaluating lumber drying costs and investments

    Treesearch

    Stewart Holmes; George B. Harpole; Edward Bilek

    1983-01-01

    The DEP computer program is a modified discounted cash flow computer program designed for analysis of problems involving economic analysis of wood drying processes. Wood drying processes are different from other processes because of the large amounts of working capital required to finance inventories, and because of relatively large shares of costs charged to inventory...

  10. Advances in drying: Volume 4

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mujumdar, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Topics covered in this volume include recent thoughts in modeling of drying phenomena, use of computers in rational design of drying particulates, recent advances in drying of wood, and heat/mass transfer phenomena in drying of solids. As the readers will no doubt notice, special effort is made to ensure the truly international nature of the contents of this serial publication. As existing knowledge on drying and dryers becomes more widely and readily accessible, it is expected that more and more dryers will be designed rationally rather than built solely with the benefit of empiricism.

  11. Relation of water level and fish availability to wood stork reproduction in the southern Everglades, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kushlan, James A.; Ogden, John C.; Higer, Aaron L.

    1975-01-01

    The wood stork is a species of colonial wading bird in the Everglades that is most sensitive to changes in the availability of food. Previous studies have shown that the initiation and success of wood stork nesting depends on high densities of fish concentrated in ponds and other catchment basins during the dry season. The extreme dependence of the wood stork on the cyclic hydrologic regime of the southern Florida wetlands makes it an indicator of the well-being and ecological stability of the Everglades. The wood stork has declined in numbers over the last 25 years. One reason for the decline in wood stork population was the change in the hydrologic regimen of the Everglades which affected the feeding habitat and the food production. The fish on which the wood stork feeds increase in density during the dry season as water levels fall. In the Everglades marsh, densities were highest in front of the drying edge of surface water at a depth of about 0.3 m. Dry-season densities were greatest when a drought occurred the previous year. Historically wood stork nesting success was associated with high summer water levels, high rates of surface-water discharge and high rates of drying. Before the closure of the south side of Conservation Area 3 in 1962, years of successful and unsuccessful nesting were characterized by different patterns of drying. These patterns changed after 1962 and generally the predictability of successful nesting breaks down thereafter. Only two nesting years after 1962 were successful and in only one of these was the drying rate similar to years of successful nesting before 1962. Two other potentially successful years failed after 1962. This suggests that further changes in the hydrobiological relations occurred within the Everglades after 1962. Lack of successful nesting after 1962 can be attributed in large part to late colony formation and the interruption of nesting by winter rainfall. In this period (1962-72), colonies formed earlier in years of

  12. Sustainability of cement kiln co-processing of wastes in India: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Baidya, Rahul; Ghosh, Sadhan Kumar; Parlikar, Ulhas V

    2017-07-01

    Co-processing in cement kiln achieves effective utilization of the material and energy value present in the wastes, thereby conserving the natural resources by reducing the use of virgin material. In India, a number of multifolded initiatives have been taken that take into account the potential and volume of waste generation. This paper studies the factors which might influence the sustainability of co-processing of waste in cement kilns as a business model, considering the issues and challenges in the supply chain framework in India in view of the four canonical pillars of sustainability. A pilot study on co-processing was carried out in one of the cement plant in India to evaluate the environmental performance, economical performance, operational performance and social performance. The findings will help India and other developing countries to introduce effective supply chain management for co-processing while addressing the issues and challenges during co-processing of different waste streams in the cement kilns.

  13. Differential Growth Responses to Water Balance of Coexisting Deciduous Tree Species Are Linked to Wood Density in a Bolivian Tropical Dry Forest

    PubMed Central

    Mendivelso, Hooz A.; Camarero, J. Julio; Royo Obregón, Oriol; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Toledo, Marisol

    2013-01-01

    A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs). There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability. PMID:24116001

  14. Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc

    1995-01-01

    A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350.degree. and 375.degree. C. to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan.

  15. Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint

    DOEpatents

    Moens, L.

    1995-07-11

    A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350 and 375 C to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan. 2 figs.

  16. 40 CFR 63.1221 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? 63.1221 Section 63.1221 Protection of Environment... burning lightweight aggregate kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing sources... atmosphere. (2) 99.9999% DRE. If you burn the dioxin-listed hazardous wastes F020, F021, F022, F023, F026, or...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1221 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? 63.1221 Section 63.1221 Protection of Environment... burning lightweight aggregate kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing sources... atmosphere. (2) 99.9999% DRE. If you burn the dioxin-listed hazardous wastes F020, F021, F022, F023, F026, or...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1221 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? 63.1221 Section 63.1221 Protection of Environment... burning lightweight aggregate kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing sources... atmosphere. (2) 99.9999% DRE. If you burn the dioxin-listed hazardous wastes F020, F021, F022, F023, F026, or...

  19. Guidelines for Controlling Indoor Air Quality Problems Associated with Kilns, Copiers, and Welding in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Ronald W.; And Others

    Guidelines for controlling indoor air quality problems associated with kilns, copiers, and welding in schools are provided in this document. Individual sections on kilns, duplicating equipment, and welding operations contain information on the following: sources of contaminants; health effects; methods of control; ventilation strategies; and…

  20. Influence of Dry Soil on the Ability of Formosan Subterranean Termites, Coptotermes formosanus, to Locate Food Sources

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Mary L.; Osbrink, Weste L.A.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of barriers of dry soil on the ability of Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), to construct tunnels and find food was evaluated. Termite movement and wood consumption in a three—chambered apparatus were compared between treatments with dry soil in the center container and treatments where the soil in the center container was moist. When a wood block was located in the release container, termites fed significantly more on that block, regardless of treatment or soil type. In the treatment with dry clay, none of the termites tunneled through the dry clay barrier to reach the distal container. When termites had to tunnel through a barrier of dry sand, topsoil, or clay to reach the sole wood block, there was no effect on wood consumption for the sand treatment, but there was significantly less feeding on wood in the treatments with dry topsoil or clay. When foraging arenas had a section of dry sand in the center, the dry sand significantly reduced tunneling in the distal section after 3 days, but not after 10 days. There was a highly significant effect on the ability of termites to colonize food located in dry sand. Only one feeding station located in dry sand was colonized by termites, compared with 11 feeding stations located in moist sand. PMID:22239343

  1. Hazardous child labor in Nepal: The case of brick kilns.

    PubMed

    Larmar, Stephen; O'Leary, Patrick; Chui, Cheryl; Benfer, Katherine; Zug, Sebastian; Jordan, Lucy P

    2017-10-01

    Hazardous child labor in Nepal is a serious concern, particularly in the brick kiln industry. Although a range of interventions have been implemented in Nepal to address hazardous child labor, there is a lack of research to both measure success and shape further development in interventions that integrate sound child protection practices to ensure the wellbeing of all children. This paper provides a review of the literature outlining interventions for children working in brick kilns in Nepal, and presents preliminary case study findings of one current intervention in the Kathmandu Valley. The paper highlights the strength of applying foundational child protection principles and advocates for the development and implementation of future programs underpinned by broad civil society principles within a child rights and protection framework. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Design of Refractory Linings for Balanced Energy Efficiency, Uptime, and Capacity in Lime Kilns

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gorog, John Peter; Hemrick, James Gordon; Walker, Harold

    2014-01-01

    The rotary kilns used by the pulp and paper industry to regenerate lime in the Kraft process are very energy intensive. Throughout the 90 s, in response to increasing fuel prices, the industry used back up insulation in conjunction with the high alumina brick used to line the burning zones of their kilns. While this improved energy efficiency, the practice of installing insulating brick behind the working lining increased the inner wall temperatures. In the worst case, due to the increased temperatures, rapid brick failures occurred causing unscheduled outages and expensive repairs. Despite these issues, for the most part, themore » industry continued to use insulating refractory linings in that the energy savings were large enough to offset any increase in the cost of maintaining the refractory lining. Due to the dramatic decline in the price of natural gas in some areas combined with mounting pressures to increasing production of existing assets, over the last decade, many mills are focusing more on increasing the uptime of their kilns as opposed to energy savings. To this end, a growing number of mills are using basic (magnesia based) brick instead of high alumina brick to line the burning zone of the kiln since the lime mud does not react with these bricks at the operating temperatures of the burning zone of the kiln. In the extreme case, a few mills have chosen to install basic brick in the front end of the kiln running a length equivalent to 10 diameters. While the use of basic brick can increase the uptime of the kiln and reduce the cost to maintain the refractory lining, it does dramatically increase the heat losses resulting from the increased operating temperatures of the shell. Also, over long periods of time operating at these high temperatures, damage can occur in the shell. There are tradeoffs between energy efficiency, capacity and uptime. When fuel prices are very high, it makes sense to insulate the lining. When fuel prices are lower, trading

  3. Quantification of atmospheric emissions and energy metrics from simulated clamp kiln technology in the clay brick industry.

    PubMed

    Akinshipe, Oladapo; Kornelius, Gerrit

    2018-05-01

    The quantification of atmospheric emissions from clamp kilns in the clay brick industry has met with limited success globally. The complex configuration of clamp kilns using coal or other carbonaceous fuels and uncertainties regarding kiln combustion conditions, has proven to be a hurdle in measurement of emissions and standardization of process and energy metrics. To enable quantification of these metrics, a model kiln was designed to simulate operating conditions and configuration similar to transverse slice of a typical full-scale clamp kiln, but with lower capacity (20,000 to 35,000 bricks per cycle). Hourly measurements of flue gas at extraction duct were recorded for thirteen firing cycles obtained from various source factories, each lasting 8-14 days, for SO 2 , NO 2 , NO, PM, CO and CO 2 emissions in the extraction stack. A statistical mean efficiency for model kiln emissions capturing and channelling capacity was calculated from sulfur mass balance results of batches that lie within 95% confidence interval of assumed true mean (100%) to give 84.2%. Final emission factors (mean ± standard deviation) were quantified as 22.5 ± 18.8 g/brick for CO, 0.14 ± 0.1 g/brick for NO, 0.0 g/brick for NO 2 , 0.14 ± 0.1 g/brick for NO x , 1.07 ± 0.7 g/brick for SO 2 , 378 ± 223 g/brick for CO 2 ; 0.96 ± 0.5 g/brick for PM 10 ; as well as 1.53 g/brick for hydrocarbons. Energy analysis indicate that a significant reduction of 0.9 MJ/kg (36%) in energy use could be achieved by clamp kiln operators, thereby reducing input costs, and significantly reducing atmospheric emissions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. CFD analysis of a rotary kiln using for plaster production and discussion of the effects of flue gas recirculation application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürtürk, Mert; Oztop, Hakan F.; Pambudi, Nugroho Agung

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the CFD analysis of the rotary kiln is carried out for examining effects of various parameters on energy consumption and efficiency of the rotary kiln. The flue gas recirculation using in many applications is a useful method for combusting of fuel unburned in the flue gas. Also, effects of flue gas recirculation on the combusting of fuel, operating temperature and efficiency of the rotary kiln are discussed in this study. The rotary kiln, which is considered in this study, is used in plaster plant. Two different CFD models were created and these models are compared according to many parameters such as temperature distribution, mixture fraction, the mass fraction of O2, CO, CO and CH4 in the combustion chamber. It is found that the plaster plant has a great potential for an increase in energy efficiency. Results obtained for producers of rotary kiln and burner will be useful for determining better design parameters.

  5. The use of wood for wind turbine blade construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.

    1979-01-01

    The interrelationships between moisture and wood, conditions for dry rot spore activity, the protection of wood fibers from moisture, wood resin composites, wood laminating, quality control, and the mechanical properties of wood are discussed. The laminated veneer and the bonded sawn stock fabrication techniques, used in the construction of a turbine blade with a monocoque 'D' section forming the leading edge and a built up trailing edge section, are described. A 20 foot root end sample complete with 24 bonded-in studs was successfully subjected to large onetime loads in both the flatwise and edgewise directions, and to fatigue tests. Results indicate that wood is both a viable and advantageous material for use in wind turbine blades. The basic material is reasonably priced, domestically available, ecologically sound, and easily fabricated with low energy consumption.

  6. 25. INTERIOR OF GLAZE KILN NO. 2, SHOWING HOW SAGGERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. INTERIOR OF GLAZE KILN NO. 2, SHOWING HOW SAGGERS AND LOOSE QUARRY TILES WERE STACKED. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  7. Possibility study of gasifier with axial circulating flue gas for reducing Tar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poowadin, T.; Polsongkram, M.; Khantikomol, P.

    2018-01-01

    This present research article aims to study the possibility of gasification by axial core flue gas circulating kiln and find the efficiency of syngas production. An axial core flue gas circulating tube was installed in the center of the updraft gasifier in purposing of tar reducing. In the present study, the eucalyptus wood chip 4, 8, and 10 kg with the moisture content 16% were examined. Several type-K thermocouples were employed to measure the temperatures at preheat, combustion, reduction, pyrolysis, drying, and gas outlet zone. The results showed that the temperatures in the combustion and the reduction zone of the kiln with the axial core flue gas recirculating were lower than the kiln without the core owing to installing the core would reduce the combustion zone area in biomass burning. Obviously, the temperature in the pyrolysis and drying zone were nearly the same as both with and without the core. In consideration of syngas components, it was found that CO production from the gasifier with the core was higher than the gasifier without the core about 25%. Other gases, however, were almost same. The syngas production efficiency obtained from the gasifier with the core decreased with increasing the mass of biomass. It showed that the highest efficiency was 30% at 4 kg supplying biomass. In comparison, the efficiencies of both the kilns with and without the core were not different. For liquid product, the amount of liquid decreased about 47.23% comparing with the gasifier without the core.

  8. 23. THE FIRST FLOOR HALLWAY, NORTH WING LOOKING WEST SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. THE FIRST FLOOR HALLWAY, NORTH WING LOOKING WEST SHOWING GLAZE KILN No. 1 IN THE RIGHT FOREGROUND. KILN No 1 IS THE LEAST ALTERED OF THE ORIGINAL KILNS AND WAS USED UNTIL 1984. ALL KILNS ARE OF COMBINATION UPDRAFT/DOWNDRAFT DESIGN, AND BURNED WOOD AND COAL. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  9. Effects of co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln on NOx, NH3 and PAHs emissions.

    PubMed

    Lv, Dong; Zhu, Tianle; Liu, Runwei; Lv, Qingzhi; Sun, Ye; Wang, Hongmei; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Fan

    2016-09-01

    The effects of co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln on NOx, NH3 and PAHs emissions were systematically investigated in a cement production line in Beijing. The results show that co-processing the sewage sludge was helpful to reduce NOx emission, which primarily depends on the NH3 amount released from the sewage sludge. Meanwhile, NOx and NH3 concentrations in the flue gas have a negative correlation, and the contribution of feeding the sewage sludge to NOx removal decreased with the increase of injection amount of ammonia water in the SNCR system. Therefore, it is suggested that the injection amount of ammonia water in SNCR system may reduce to cut down the operating costs during co-processing the sewage sludge in cement kiln. In addition, the emission of total PAHs seems to increase with the increased amount of the sewage sludge feeding to the cement kiln. However, the distributions of PAHs were barely changed, and lower molecular weight PAHs were mainly distributed in gaseous phase, accounted for the major portion of PAHs when co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. TRANSIENT SUPPRESSION PACKAGING FOR REDUCED EMISSIONS FROM ROTARY KILN INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed on a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator to determine whether innovative waste packaging designs might reduce transient emissions of products of incomplete combustion due to batch charging of containerized liquid surrogate waste compounds bound on g...

  11. Controlling moisture content of wood samples using a modified soil-pan decay method

    Treesearch

    Jerrold E. Winandy; Simon F. Curling; Patricia K. Lebow

    2005-01-01

    In wood, the threshold level below which decay cannot occur varies with species or type of wood product and other factors such as temperature, humidity, and propensity of exposure or service-use to allow rain-induced wetting and subsequent drying. The ability to control wood moisture content (MC) during laboratory decay testing could allow research on the moisture...

  12. Characteristics of dioxin emissions from a Waelz plant with acid and basic kiln mode.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pao Chen; Chi, Kai Hsien; Chen, Mei Lien; Chang, Moo Been

    2012-01-30

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were measured in the flue gas of a Waelz plant operated in acid and basic modes, respectively. To abate (PCDD/F) and other pollutants, the plant operates with a post-treatment of flue gases by activated carbon injection and subsequent filtration. Relatively high PCDD/F discharge by fly ashes is found with acid kiln mode of the Waelz process. Therefore, basic kiln mode of the Waelz process is investigated and compared in this plant. With the adsorbent injection rate of 7 kg/h (95 mg/Nm(3)), the PCDD/F concentration in stack gas was measured as 0.123 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3) in the basic operating mode. The added Ca(OH)(2) reacted with metal catalysts and HCl((g)) in the flue gas and thus effectively suppressed the formation of PCDD/Fs. PCDD/F concentrations in fly ashes sampled from the dust settling chamber, cyclone, primary filter and secondary filter in basic kiln mode were significantly lower than that in acid kiln mode. Total PCDD/F emission on the basis of treating one kg of electric arc furnace dust in the basic operation mode was 269 ng I-TEQ/kg EAF-dust treated which was significantly lower than that in acid mode (640 ng I-TEQ/kg EAF-dust treated). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 80. KILN AT FIRST MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. KILN AT FIRST MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS AT ALDIE, 1901. PHOTOGRAPH PUBLISHED IN HOUSE AND GARDEN. AUGUST 1901, p. 19. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  14. 91. THE FIRST FLOOR HALLWAY, NORTH WING LOOKING WEST SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. THE FIRST FLOOR HALLWAY, NORTH WING LOOKING WEST SHOWING GLAZE KILN No. 1 IN THE RIGHT FOREGROUND. KILN No. 1 IS THE LEAST ALTERED OF THE ORIGINAL KILNS AND WAS USED UNTIL 1984. ALL KILNS ARE OF COMBINATION UPDRAFT/DOWNDRAFT DESIGN, AND BURNED WOOD AND COAL SAME VIEW AS PA-107-23. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  15. The effect of sintering time on recycled magnesia brick from kiln of the cement plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aji, B. B.; Rosalina, D.; Azhar; Amin, M.

    2018-01-01

    This research aim was to investigate the effect of sintering time on reuse waste of magnesia brick from the rotary kiln of the cement plant. Reuse of the magnesia brick was carried out by mixed the kaolin as the binder. Spent refractory was used as aggregate with the composition of 85% spent refractory and 15% kaolin clay, respectively. The reuse brick then was molded with the size of 5x5x5 cm using hydraulic press under a load of 10 tons in order to forms green body. Green body then dried and sintered at 1200 °C with time variation of 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, 8 hours and 10 hours, respectively. Thus, for comparison reuse brick was tested to its apparent porosity, the bulk density, and Cold Crushing Strength (CCS). The effect of kaolin addition as binder was also discussed.

  16. Palaeointensity determination on an early medieval kiln from Switzerland and the effect of cooling rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donadini, F.; Kovacheva, M.; Kostadinova, M.; Hedley, I. G.; Pesonen, L. J.

    The archaeomagnetic intensity reference curve for Western Europe lacks data during the period from 600 to 1000 AD. Baked clay from the walls of a pottery kiln at Reinach (Switzerland), archaeologically dated to the beginning of the 9th century AD, and having a 14C date of 1250 ± 50 BP, was investigated in order to refine the ancient geomagnetic field intensity during this period. A previous study to test the suitability of the material has shown that the magnetic properties of the baked clay from this Reinach kiln are appropriate for an archaeomagnetic study, and furthermore an archaeomagnetic directional date agrees well with the 14C date. A series of palaeointensity measurements was carried out in Sofia (Bulgaria). Here we present the results obtained from the same material, as performed in Helsinki (Finland) using different techniques. The comparison of the results shows significant differences between the two datasets. Based on the literature data, the discrepancy can be explained in terms of the different cooling rates of the samples used during the experiments in the two laboratories. Nevertheless, the results show that the geomagnetic field intensity had a high mean value of 86.85 ± 1.49 μT when the kiln was last used. This observation is consistent with recent studies from France covering the period during which the Reinach kiln functioned.

  17. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential wood combustion in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, Mário; Gomes, Luís; Tarelho, Luís; Pio, Casimiro

    2013-06-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to characterize formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential combustion of common wood species growing in Portugal. Five types of wood were investigated: maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), cork oak (Quercus suber), holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia) and pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica). Laboratory experiments were performed with a typical wood stove used for domestic heating in Portugal and operating under realistic home conditions. Aldehydes were sampled from diluted combustion flue gas using silica cartridges coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The average formaldehyde to acetaldehyde concentration ratio (molar basis) in the stove flue gas was in the range of 2.1-2.9. Among the tested wood types, pyrenean oak produced the highest emissions for both formaldehyde and acetaldehyde: 1772 ± 649 and 1110 ± 454 mg kg-1 biomass burned (dry basis), respectively. By contrast, maritime pine produced the lowest emissions: 653 ± 151 and 371 ± 162 mg kg-1 biomass (dry basis) burned, respectively. Aldehydes were sampled separately during distinct periods of the holm oak wood combustion cycles. Significant variations in the flue gas concentrations were found, with higher values measured during the devolatilization stage than in the flaming and smoldering stages.

  18. New Medium for Isolation of Bacteria From Cement Kiln Dust with a Potential to Apply in Bio-Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshalif, A. F.; Irwan, J. M.; Othman, N.; Al-Gheethi, A.

    2018-04-01

    The present study aimed to introduce a new isolation medium named kiln dust medium (KDM) for recovering of bacteria from cement kiln dust with high pH (>pH 11) without the need for nutrients additives. The cement kiln dust samples were collected from five different areas of Cement Industries of Malaysia Berhad (CIMA). The bacterial isolates were recovered on KDM by direct plating technique. The chemical components for all collected samples were identified using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The primary identification for the bacterial isolates indicated that these bacteria belongs to Bacillus spp. Based on the morphological characteristics. The growth curve of the bacterial strains was monitored using the optical density (OD) with 650 nm wavelength, which in role confirmed that all isolated bacteria had the ability to grow successfully in the proposed medium. The ability of the bacterial strains to grow at high pH reflects their potential in the bio-concrete applications (aerated and non-aerated concrete). These findings indicated that the cement kiln dust samples from Cement Industries represent the most appropriate source for bacteria used in the bioconcrete.

  19. Integration Research on Gas Turbine and Tunnel Kiln Combined System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hefei; Ma, Liangdong; Liu, Mingsheng

    2018-04-01

    Through the integrated modeling of gas turbine and tunnel kiln combined system, a thermodynamic calculation method of combined system is put forward, and the combined system operation parameters are obtained. By this method, the optimization of the combined system is analyzed and the optimal configuration of the gas turbine is calculated. At the same time, the thermal efficiency of the combined system is analyzed, and the heat distribution and thermal efficiency of the system before and after the improvement are explained. Taking the 1500 kg/h ceramic production as an example, pointed out that if the tunnel kiln has a gas turbine with a power of 342 kw. The amount of electricity of the combined system that produced per unit volume of the fuel which consumes more than it used to will be 7.19 kwh, the system thermal efficiency will reach 57.49%, which higher than the individual gas turbine’s cycle thermal efficiency 20% at least.

  20. Improvements in Pyrolysis of Wastes in an Externally Heated Rotary Kiln

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Tomoko; Okazaki, Teruyuki; Yamamoto, Kenji; Nakata, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Osamu

    The effects of rotating speed and internal structure on the performance of an externally heated rotary kiln for waste pyrolysis were investigated. A newly developed method was adopted to evaluate the overall heat transfer coefficient km-w from the inner wall to the wastes for this purpose. The experimental results revealed that km-w monotonically increased with the number of lifters and their height. When six lifters 200 mm in height were attached to the inner wall of the kiln, the mean value of km-w increased from 38.6 W/m2K to 45.3 W/m2K at 2.7 rpm. In addition, km-w increased to 50.1 W/m2K when the rotating speed was increased to 4.0 rpm. In the water vaporization phase during the course of the pyrolysis process, the height of the lifters had a significant influence on km-w. However, the number of lifters had a significant impact on km-w in the pyrolysis phase of the plastic-based wastes. According to measurements, a 10 % increase in km-w could be obtained when installing lifters to attain a ratio of lifter height Hl to the thickness of the waste layer Hw larger than 0.45 or when arc length between two lifters Ll to the arc length of the interface between the wastes and the kiln wall Lw was larger than 1.

  1. Properties of flat-pressed wood plastic composites containing fire retardants

    Treesearch

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Jan. T. Benthien; Heiko Thoemen; Robert H. White

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated physical, mechanical, and fire properties of the flat-pressed wood plastic composites (WPCs) incorporated with various fire retardants (FRs) [5 or 15% by weight (wt)] at 50 wt % of the wood flour (WF). The WPC panels were made from dry-blended WF, polypropylene (PP) with maleic anhydride grafted PP (2 wt %), and FR powder formulations using a...

  2. Improving the operating effectiveness of the shaft kilns of magnesite combine

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Utenkov, A.F.; Sinitsyn, E.A.; Gor'kova, T.V.

    1986-11-01

    The authors analyze the combustion efficiency of a natural gas-fired tunnel kiln and propose design and performance modifications to the burner and fuel systems to provide for optimum combustion and utilization of the calorific value of the fuel.

  3. Localization of wood floor structure by infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochior Plescanu, C.; Klein, M.; Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Bendada, A.; Maldague, X.

    2008-03-01

    One of our industrial partners, Assek Technologie, is interested in developing a technique that would improve the drying process of wood floor in basements after flooding. In order to optimize the procedure, the floor structure and the damaged (wet) area extent must first be determined with minimum intrusion (minimum or no dismantling). The present study presents the use of infrared thermography to reveal the structure of (flooded) wood floors. The procedure involves opening holes in the floor. Injecting some hot air through those holes reveals the framing structure even if the floor is covered by vinyl or ceramic tiles. This study indicates that thermal imaging can also be used as a tool to validate the decontamination process after drying. Thermal images were obtained on small-scale models and in a demonstration room.

  4. 40 CFR 63.1343 - What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker storage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker storage piles? 63.1343 Section 63.1343 Protection... Limits § 63.1343 What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker... associated with that kiln, clinker cooler, raw material dryer, and open clinker storage pile. All D/F, HCl...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1343 - What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker storage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker storage piles? 63.1343 Section 63.1343 Protection... Limits § 63.1343 What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker... associated with that kiln, clinker cooler, raw material dryer, and open clinker storage pile. All D/F, HCl...

  6. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood pulp...

  7. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood pulp...

  8. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood pulp...

  9. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood pulp...

  10. Incidence of the pine wood nematode in green coniferous sawn wood in Oregon and California. Forest Service research note

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dwinell, L.D.

    1993-05-01

    Samples of green sawn Douglas-fir, redwood, ponderosa pine, and white fir were collected in August and September 1992 from seven mills in Oregon and California, and assayed for the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The mills produced about 108 million board feet during the survey period. The pine wood nematode was not found in any of the 424 samples of Douglas-fir, the 192 of redwood, or the 3 of white fir. The nematode was recovered from 8 of 105 samples of green ponderosa pine lumber from a mill in Oregon. These eight samples contained an average of 54 pine woodmore » nematodes per gram of dry weight. This is the first report of the pine wood nematode in Oregon.« less

  11. Relative in vitro wood decay resistance of sapwood from landscape trees of southern temperate regions

    Treesearch

    Manuela Baietto; A. Dan Wilson

    2010-01-01

    The development of wood decay caused by 12 major root-rot and trunk-rot fungi was investigated in vitro with sapwood extracted from nine ornamental and landscape hardwood and conifer species native to southern temperate regions of North America, Europe, and the lower Mississippi Delta. Wood decay rates based on dry weight loss for 108 host tree–wood decay fungi...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1349 - Performance testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-line kiln/raw mill is not operating. The owner or operator of a clinker cooler subject to limitations..., kg/dscm. Qsd = volumetric flow rate of effluent gas, dscm/hr. P = total kiln feed (dry basis), Mg/hr... kiln feed (dry basis), Mg/hr. (v) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(1)(vi) of this section the...

  13. Secular variation between 5 and 10c CE in Japan: remeasurements of 2000 samples collected between 1960-70's from Sueki earthenware kilns in Osaka.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibuya, H.; Mochizuki, N.; Hatakeyama, T.

    2015-12-01

    In Japan, archeomagnetic measurements are vigorously developed for years, though it is not well known to paleomagnetism community in english. One of the works is massive archeomagnetic study of Suemura kiln group carried out in Osaka University in 1960's to early 70's. More than 500 kilns were excavated in Sakai city and vicinities, Osaka Prefecture, Japan. The kiln group is called as Suemura Kilns, and are for Sueki earthenware of 5c to 10c CE. About 300 kilns were sampled and most of the samples were measured at the time, and the results are reported in e.g. Hirooka (1971) and Shibuya (1980). However, the results have significant scatter in direction, which may be due to the limitation of old astatic magnetometer measurements and handwriting graphic determination of magnetic direction, and/or the lack of demagnetization. We recently inherited many of those samples and remeasured them with spinner magnetometer applying alternation field demagnetization (afd). The magnetizations are generally very stable, as usual as other archeomagnetic samples, and afd does not change the magnetic direction mostly. However, significant number of sites show large scatter in magnetic directions, which might be due to the wrong identification of kiln floor or disturbance at the time of collapsing or excavation. Taking kilns of α95<4o, we recovered 131 paleomagnetic directions. Although third of them are dated by pottery shape chronology, the range of each pottery style is not precisely known and the relation of the baked floor and the potteries excavated around kilns are not always clear. The carbon dating of those kilns are very scares. Thus we first try to draw secular variation curve in declination-inclination plot. With the rough ages of those kilns, it is pretty easy to draw the SVC. It is also numerically determined taking the distance of each direction from nearest point in SVC and the velocity change of the SVC as penalty function, within a couple of degrees in the error

  14. Air pollution tolerance index of plants around brick kilns in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Achakzai, Khanoranga; Khalid, Sofia; Adrees, Muhammad; Bibi, Aasma; Ali, Shafaqat; Nawaz, Rab; Rizwan, Muhammad

    2017-04-01

    In any contaminated environment, the sensitive plant species can serve as bio-indicator of air pollution while tolerant plant species can act as a sink for air pollutants. Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) is an important tool to screen out plants based on their tolerance or sensitivity level to different air pollutants. The present study was aimed to identify the sensitive and tolerant plant species in the vicinity of brick kilns in the Rawalpindi city. To determine the susceptibility level of the selected plant species, four biochemical parameters, ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll content, relative water content and pH of leaf extract, were assessed and APTI was calculated. Plant sampling was carried out with increasing distance of 100, 300 and 500 m around three brick kiln sites and APTI values were calculated by following the standard methods. The results of the study revealed that among nine studied plant species, Calotropis procera (APTI = 20.05) and Althernanthera pungens (APTI = 17.13) were found to be the most tolerant species, whereas Malva neglecta (APTI = 8.83) was found to be the most sensitive species. Inconsistent trend of variations was seen in the APTI values at each site. The present study suggested that the most tolerant species, C. procera and A. pungens, could be grown in the vicinity of such pollution sources as a remedial measure of brick kiln pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Volatile organic compound analysis in wood combustion and meat cooking emissions

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zielinska, B.; McDonald, J.

    1999-07-01

    Residential wood combustion and meat cooking emissions were each analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC). Emissions were diluted 60--100 times, cooled to ambient temperature, and allowed 80 seconds for condensation prior to collection with the aid of a DRI-constructed dilution stack sampler. Fireplace and wood-stove emissions testing was conducted at the DRI facilities. Wood type, wood moisture, burn rate, and fuel load were varied for different experiments. Meat emissions testing was conducted at the CE-CERT stationary emissions lab, University of California, Riverside. Meat type, fat content, and cooking appliance were changed in different tests. VOCs were collected using stainless-steel 6more » L canisters and Tenax cartridges, whereas for carbonyl compound collection 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-impregnated C{sub 18} SepPack cartridges were used. Analysis of VOC collected with canisters and Tenax cartridges was conducted by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) and by GC/FID/ECD (flame ionization detection/electron capture detection). DNPH-impregnated cartridges were analyzed for fourteen C{sub 1}--C{sub 7} carbonyl compounds, using the HPLC method. The results of these measurements are discussed.« less

  16. Numerical approach to describe complementary drying of banana slices osmotically dehydrated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Júnior, Aluízio Freire; da Silva, Wilton Pereira; de Farias Aires, Juarez Everton; Farias Aires, Kalina Lígia C. A.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, diffusion model was used to describe the water loss in the complementary drying process of cylindrical slices of banana pretreated by osmotic dehydration. A numerical solution has been proposed for the diffusion equation in cylindrical coordinates, which was obtained through the Finite Volume Method. The diffusion equation was discretized assuming that the effective water diffusivity and the dimensions of a finite cylinder may vary; also considering the boundary condition of the third kind. The banana slices were cut in length of about 1.00 cm and average radius 1.70 cm before osmotic pretreatment, and completed the pretreatment with length of about 0.74 cm and average radius 1.40 cm. The complementary drying was carried out in a kiln with circulation and air exchange. Drying temperatures were the same as used in the osmotic pretreatment (40 to 70 °C). The proposed model described well the water loss, with good statistical indicators for all fits.

  17. [Line scanning analysis of white porcelain from Gong Kiln in early Tang dynasty by energy disperse X-ray fluorescence].

    PubMed

    Ling, Xue; Mao, Zhen-wei; Feng, Min; Hu, Yao-wu; Wang, Chang-sui; Liu, Hong-miao

    2005-07-01

    Gong kiln, for its long porcelain-firing history, was one of three representative white porcelain kilns in northern China. In order to improve the quality and whiteness of white porcelain, a decorating layer or cosmetic earth was laid on the body surface in Gong kiln during early Tang dynasty, which was able to blot out rough surface and weaken the influence of fuscous body upon surface color. In this paper the main chemical composition of the white porcelain's profile was analyzed by using energy disperse X-Ray fluorescence. The result showed that different materials were used as cosmetic earth during early Tang dynasty, in accordance with the phenomenon under optical microscope. In addition, the glaze belongs to calcium glaze in which plant ash was added.

  18. Probing crystallinity of never-dried wood cellulose with Raman spectroscopy

    Treesearch

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Sally A. Ralph; Richard S. Reiner; Carlos Baez

    2016-01-01

    The structure of wood cell wall cellulose in its native state remains poorly understood, limiting the progress of research and development in numerous areas, including plant science, biofuels, and nanocellulose based materials. It is generally believed that cellulose in cell wall microfibrils has both crystalline and amorphous regions. However, there is evidence that...

  19. Drought alters timing, quantity, and quality of wood formation in Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Eilmann, Britta; Zweifel, Roman; Buchmann, Nina; Graf Pannatier, Elisabeth; Rigling, Andreas

    2011-05-01

    Drought has been frequently discussed as a trigger for forest decline. Today, large-scale Scots pine decline is observed in many dry inner-Alpine valleys, with drought discussed as the main causative factor. This study aimed to analyse the impact of drought on wood formation and wood structure. To study tree growth under contrasting water supply, an irrigation experiment was installed in a mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest at a xeric site in a dry inner-Alpine valley. Inter- and intra-annual radial increments as well as intra-annual variations in wood structure of pine trees were studied. It was found that non-irrigated trees had a noticeably shorter period of wood formation and showed a significantly lower increment. The water conduction cells were significantly enlarged and had significantly thinner cell walls compared with irrigated trees. It is concluded that pine trees under drought stress build a more effective water-conducting system (larger tracheids) at the cost of a probably higher vulnerability to cavitation (larger tracheids with thinner cell walls) but without losing their capability to recover. The significant shortening of the growth period in control trees indicated that the period where wood formation actually takes place can be much shorter under drought than the 'potential' period, meaning the phenological growth period.

  20. Amino acids in modern and fossil woods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C.; Bada, J. L.; Peterson, E.

    1976-01-01

    The amino acid composition and the extent of racemization in several modern and fossil woods are reported. The method of analysis is described, and data are presented on the total amino acid concentration, the amino acid ratios, and the enantiomeric ratios in each sample. It is found that the amino acid concentration per gram of dry wood decreases with age of the sample, that the extent of racemization increases with increasing age, and that the amounts of aspartic acid, threonine, and serine decrease relative to valine with increasing age. The relative racemization rates of amino acids in wood, bone, and aqueous solution are compared, and it is shown that racemization in wood is much slower than in bone or aqueous solution. Racemization results for woods from the Kalambo Falls area of Zambia are used to calculate a minimum age of 110,000 years for the transition between the Sangoan and Acheulian industries at that site. This result is shown to be consistent with numerous radiometric dates for older Acheulian sites in Africa and to compare well with geologically inferred dates for the beginning of the Eemian and the end of the Acheulian industry in southern Africa.

  1. The primary evaluation and characterization of obsolete DDT pesticide from a precalciner of a cement kiln.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qifei; He, Jie

    2014-01-01

    1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bi(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) pesticide that has been extensively used in agriculture in China in the last century, and even now, has been banned from all purposes. The disposal of obsolete DDT pesticide has been an urgent task for the Chinese government. In order to evaluate the feasibility of co-processing DDT in the current new style dry-process rotary kiln with a precalciner as the feeding point, the destruction efficiency (DE) of DDTs (including p,p(')-DDT, o,p(')-DDT, p,p(')-DDE and p,p(')-DDD), proportion of DDTs in the combustion residue and exhaust gas, and the release of chlorine were studied under different operating conditions of temperature, oxygen content and gas retention time in the laboratory. The DE of DDTs exceeded 99% when the temperature was over 800 °C with enough oxygen. As the temperature increased from 600 °C to 1200 °C, the proportion of p,p(')-DDD increased and p,p(')-DDT decreased but still the main effective component remained in the combustion residue. In the exhaust gas, the most dominant phenomenon was the rapid increase in p,p(')-DDE concentration as the temperature increased. The release of chlorine reached a peak between 800 °C and 900 °C. It was found that the oxygen content had a positive correlation with the process of dechlorination. The proportion of p,p(')-DDE increased as the oxygen content was increased in the exhaust gas. The gas retention time had almost no influenced on the DE of DDTs, but affected the degradation extent of DDTs in the gas phase. These experiments showed that co-processing of obsolete DDT pesticide in cement kiln precalciners is feasible.

  2. Precision wood particle feedstocks with retained moisture contents of greater than 30% dry basis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfacesmore » in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.« less

  3. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Aaaaa of... - Initial Compliance With Emission Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... All new or existing lime kilns and their associated lime coolers (kilns/coolers) PM emissions must not exceed 0.12 lb/tsf for all existing kilns/coolers with dry controls, 0.60 lb/tsf for existing kilns/coolers with wet scrubbers, 0.10 lb/tsf for all new kilns/coolers, or a weighted average calculated...

  4. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Aaaaa of... - Initial Compliance With Emission Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... All new or existing lime kilns and their associated lime coolers (kilns/coolers) PM emissions must not exceed 0.12 lb/tsf for all existing kilns/coolers with dry controls, 0.60 lb/tsf for existing kilns/coolers with wet scrubbers, 0.10 lb/tsf for all new kilns/coolers, or a weighted average calculated...

  5. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Aaaaa of... - Initial Compliance With Emission Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... All new or existing lime kilns and their associated lime coolers (kilns/coolers) PM emissions must not exceed 0.12 lb/tsf for all existing kilns/coolers with dry controls, 0.60 lb/tsf for existing kilns/coolers with wet scrubbers, 0.10 lb/tsf for all new kilns/coolers, or a weighted average calculated...

  6. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Aaaaa of... - Initial Compliance With Emission Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... All new or existing lime kilns and their associated lime coolers (kilns/coolers) PM emissions must not exceed 0.12 lb/tsf for all existing kilns/coolers with dry controls, 0.60 lb/tsf for existing kilns/coolers with wet scrubbers, 0.10 lb/tsf for all new kilns/coolers, or a weighted average calculated...

  7. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Aaaaa of... - Initial Compliance With Emission Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... All new or existing lime kilns and their associated lime coolers (kilns/coolers) PM emissions must not exceed 0.12 lb/tsf for all existing kilns/coolers with dry controls, 0.60 lb/tsf for existing kilns/coolers with wet scrubbers, 0.10 lb/tsf for all new kilns/coolers, or a weighted average calculated...

  8. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a hardwood processing plant related to heavy mold exposure.

    PubMed

    Veillette, Marc; Cormier, Yvon; Israël-Assayaq, Evelyne; Meriaux, Anne; Duchaine, Caroline

    2006-06-01

    Two workers employed in a hardwood floor plant presented symptoms suggestive of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). At that plant, kiln-dried wood often shows moldy growth and is subsequently brought inside for processing. This study evaluated the environment in attempt to identify the causative antigen and verify whether other workers of this and similar plants had or were at risk of developing HP. Dust from dust-removing systems and molds on the surface of wood planks were collected and air samples taken from a sister plant. Blood samples, spirometry, and symptoms' questionnaires were obtained from 11 co-workers. Dense Paecilomyces growth was observed on the surface of the dried processed wood in the index plant. This fungal genus was not detected in the sister plant. An additional worker had symptoms suggestive of HP, and his bronchoalveolar lavage revealed a lymphocytic alveolitis. The 3 confirmed cases of HP and the other 10 workers had positive specific IgG antibodies to Paecilomyces. We report 3 cases of HP out of 13 workers and a 100% sensitization to molds in workers of a hardwood processing plant. This rate is much higher than what is commonly seen in other environments associated with HP. The drying process is suspected of being responsible for the massive Paecilomyces contamination likely responsible for the HP.

  9. New directional results and determination of absolute archaeointensity using both the classical Thellier and the multi-specimen procedures for two kilns excavated at Osterietta, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tema, Evdokia; Camps, Pierre; Ferrara, Enzo

    2014-05-01

    A detailed rock-magnetic and archaeomagnetic study has been carried out on two rescue excavation kilns discovered during the works to expand a highway at the location of Osterietta, in Northen Italy. Systematic archaeomagnetic sampling was carried out collecting 15 samples from the first kiln (OSA) and 8 samples from the second kiln (OSB), all of them oriented in situ with a magnetic compass and an inclinometer. Magnetic mineralogy measurements have been carried out in order to determine the main magnetic carrier of the samples and to check their thermal stability. Standard thermal demagnetization procedures have been used to determine the archaeomagnetic direction registered by the bricks during their last firing. Demagnetization results show a very stable characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM). We averaged the directions for each kiln separately and calculated the statistical parameters assuming a Fisherian distribution. The archaeointensity of both kilns has also been recovered with both the classical Thellier-Thellier method and the multi-specimen procedure (MSP-DSC). During the Thellier experiments, regular partial thermoremanent magnetization checks have been performed and the effect of the anisotropy of the thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) and cooling rate upon TRM intensity acquisition have been investigated in all samples. The multi-specimen procedure was performed with a very fast-heating oven developed at Montpellier (France). The intensity results obtained from both methods have been compared and the full geomagnetic field vector determined for each kiln has been used for archaeomagnetic dating. The obtained results show that the kilns were almost contemporaneous and their last use occurred in the 1750-1850 AD time interval.

  10. Effects of drying-induced fiber hornification on enzymatic saccharification of lignocelluloses

    Treesearch

    Xiaolin Luo; Junyong Zhu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of fiber hornification during drying on lignocellulosic substrate enzymatic saccharification. Two chemically pretreated wood substrates and one commercial bleached kraft hardwood pulp were used. Heat drying at 105 and 150°C and air drying at 50% RH and 23.8°C for different durations were applied to produce substrate...

  11. Gaseous pollutants from brick kiln industry decreased the growth, photosynthesis, and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Adrees, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Shah, Aamir Mehmood; Abbas, Farhat; Saleem, Farhan; Rizwan, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Jabeen, Fariha; Ali, Shafaqat

    2016-05-01

    Gaseous pollutant emissions from brick kiln industries deteriorate the current state of ambient air quality in Pakistan and worldwide. These gaseous pollutants affect the health of plants and may decrease plant growth and yield. A field experiment that was conducted to monitor the concentration of gaseous pollutants emitted mainly from brick kilns in the ambient air and associated impacts on the growth and physiological attributes of the two wheat (Triticum spp.) cultivars. Plants were grown at three sites, including control (Ayub Agriculture Research Institute, AARI), low pollution (LP) site (Small Estate Industry), and high pollution (HP) site (Sidar Bypass), of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Monitoring of ambient air pollution at experimental sites was carried out using the state-of-art ambient air analyzers. Plants were harvested after 120 days of germination and were analyzed for different growth attributes. Results showed that the hourly average concentration of gaseous air pollutants CO, NO2, SO2, and PM10 at HP site were significantly higher than the LP and control sites. Similarly, gaseous pollutants decreased plant height, straw and grain yield, photosynthesis and increased physical injury, and metal concentrations in the grains. However, wheat response toward gaseous pollutants did not differ between cultivars (Galaxy and 8173) studied. Overall, the results indicated that brick kiln emissions could reduce the performance of wheat grown in the soils around kilns and confirm the adverse impacts of pollutants on the growth, yield, and quality of the wheat.

  12. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Cccc of... - Emission Limitations for Waste-Burning Kilns That Commenced Construction After June 4, 2010, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission Limitations for Waste-Burning... Waste-Burning Kilns That Commenced Construction After June 4, 2010, or Reconstruction or Modification... indefinitely. Table 7 to Subpart CCCC of Part 60—Emission Limitations for Waste-Burning Kilns That Commenced...

  13. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Cccc of... - Emission Limitations for Waste-Burning Kilns That Commenced Construction After June 4, 2010, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission Limitations for Waste-Burning... Waste-Burning Kilns That Commenced Construction After June 4, 2010, or Reconstruction or Modification... indefinitely. Table 7 to Subpart CCCC of Part 60—Emission Limitations for Waste-Burning Kilns That Commenced...

  14. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Cccc of... - Emission Limitations for Waste-burning Kilns That Commenced Construction After June 4, 2010, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission Limitations for Waste-burning Kilns That Commenced Construction After June 4, 2010, or Reconstruction or Modification After August 7... to Subpart CCCC of Part 60—Emission Limitations for Waste-burning Kilns That Commenced Construction...

  15. The role of sediment ingestion in exposing wood ducks to lead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Audet, D.

    1997-01-01

    Waterfowl on lateral lakes of the Coeur d'Alene River and on Lake Coeur d'Alene have been poisoned for many years by lead (Pb) from mining and smelting. In 1992 we undertook a study in the area to determine the importance of sediment ingestion in exposing wood ducks (Aix sponsa) to Pb. Digesta were removed from the intestines of wood ducks collected from contaminated and reference areas. The average Pb concentration in digesta of wood ducks from the contaminated area was 32 ppm dry weight. The sediment content was estimated to average less than 2% of the dry weight of the wood duck diet. Lead concentrations in digesta were closely correlated with concentrations of acid-insoluble ash, Al, Ti and Fe in digesta, and these four variables are associated with sediment. Samples containing low concentrations of these variables also had low concentrations of Pb. These results suggest that most of the Pb in the digesta came from ingested sediment, rather than from plant material in the diet. The importance of ingested sediment as a source of lead was unexpected, because wood ducks are surface feeders on aquatic plants and they rarely dabble beneath the surface or feed on the bottom. However, it appears that sediment ingestion is sometimes the principal route of exposure to environmental contaminants that are not readily taken up by plants and invertebrates, and this route should be considered in risk assessments of waterfowl.

  16. Feasibility of disposing waste glyphosate neutralization liquor with cement rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Bai, Y; Bao, Y B; Cai, X L; Chen, C H; Ye, X C

    2014-08-15

    The waste neutralization liquor generated during the glyphosate production using glycine-dimethylphosphit process is a severe pollution problem due to its high salinity and organic components. The cement rotary kiln was proposed as a zero discharge strategy of disposal. In this work, the waste liquor was calcinated and the mineralogical phases of residue were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mineralogical phases and the strength of cement clinker were characterized to evaluate the influence to the products. The burnability of cement raw meal added with waste liquor and the calorific value of waste liquor were tested to evaluate the influence to the thermal state of the kiln system. The results showed that after the addition of this liquor, the differences of the main phases and the strength of cement clinker were negligible, the burnability of raw meal was improved; and the calorific value of this liquor was 6140 J/g, which made it could be considered as an alternative fuel during the actual production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Selenium recovery from kiln powder of cement manufacturing by chemical leaching and bioreduction.

    PubMed

    Soda, S; Hasegawa, A; Kuroda, M; Hanada, A; Yamashita, M; Ike, M

    2015-01-01

    A novel process by using chemical leaching followed by bacterial reductive precipitation was proposed for selenium recovery from kiln powder as a byproduct of cement manufacturing. The kiln powder at a slurry concentration of 10 w/v% with 0.25 M Na2CO3 at 28°C produced wastewater containing about 30 mg-Se/L selenium. The wastewater was diluted four-fold and adjusted to pH 8.0 as preconditioning for bioreduction. A bacterial strain Pseudomonas stutzeri NT-I, capable of reducing selenate and selenite into insoluble elemental selenium, could recover about 90% selenium from the preconditioned wastewater containing selenium of 5 mg-Se/L when supplemented with lactate or glycerol. The selenium concentrations in the treated wastewater were low around the regulated effluent concentration of 0.1 mg-Se/L in Japan.

  18. Lump wood combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  19. Lime kiln dust as a potential raw material in portland cement manufacturing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M. Michael; Callaghan, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    In the United States, the manufacture of portland cement involves burning in a rotary kiln a finely ground proportional mix of raw materials. The raw material mix provides the required chemical combination of calcium, silicon, aluminum, iron, and small amounts of other ingredients. The majority of calcium is supplied in the form of calcium carbonate usually from limestone. Other sources including waste materials or byproducts from other industries can be used to supply calcium (or lime, CaO), provided they have sufficiently high CaO content, have low magnesia content (less than 5 percent), and are competitive with limestone in terms of cost and adequacy of supply. In the United States, the lime industry produces large amounts of lime kiln dust (LKD), which is collected by dust control systems. This LKD may be a supplemental source of calcium for cement plants, if the lime and cement plants are located near enough to each other to make the arrangement economical.

  20. A COMPARISON OF IN-SITU VITRIFICATION AND ROTARY KILN INCINERATION FOR SOILS TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the hazardous waste community, the term "thermal destruction" is a catch-all phrase that broadly refers to high temperature destruction of hazardous contaminants. ncluded in the thermal destruction category are treatment technologies such as rotary kiln incineration, fluidized...

  1. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    PubMed

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  2. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Cccc of... - Emission Limitations for Waste-Burning Kilns That Commenced Construction After June 4, 2010, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission Limitations for Waste-Burning..., Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart CCCC of Part 60—Emission Limitations for Waste-Burning Kilns That Commenced... limit. b NOX limits for new waste-burning kilns based on data for best-performing similar source...

  3. Environment-friendly wood fibre composite with high bonding strength and water resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xiaodi; Dong, Yue; Nguyen, Tat Thang; Chen, Xueqi

    2018-01-01

    With the growing depletion of wood-based materials and concerns over emissions of formaldehyde from traditional wood fibre composites, there is a desire for environment-friendly binders. Herein, we report a green wood fibre composite with specific bonding strength and water resistance that is superior to a commercial system by using wood fibres and chitosan-based adhesives. When the mass ratio of solid content in the adhesive and absolute dry wood fibres was 3%, the bonding strength and water resistance of the wood fibre composite reached the optimal level, which was significantly improved over that of wood fibre composites without adhesive and completely met the requirements of the Chinese national standard GB/T 11718-2009. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterizations revealed that the excellent performance of the binder might partly be due to the amide linkages and hydrogen bonding between wood fibres and the chitosan-based adhesive. We believe that this strategy could open new insights into the design of environment-friendly wood fibre composites with high bonding strength and water resistance for multifunctional applications. PMID:29765653

  4. Environment-friendly wood fibre composite with high bonding strength and water resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xiaodi; Dong, Yue; Nguyen, Tat Thang; Chen, Xueqi; Guo, Minghui

    2018-04-01

    With the growing depletion of wood-based materials and concerns over emissions of formaldehyde from traditional wood fibre composites, there is a desire for environment-friendly binders. Herein, we report a green wood fibre composite with specific bonding strength and water resistance that is superior to a commercial system by using wood fibres and chitosan-based adhesives. When the mass ratio of solid content in the adhesive and absolute dry wood fibres was 3%, the bonding strength and water resistance of the wood fibre composite reached the optimal level, which was significantly improved over that of wood fibre composites without adhesive and completely met the requirements of the Chinese national standard GB/T 11718-2009. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterizations revealed that the excellent performance of the binder might partly be due to the amide linkages and hydrogen bonding between wood fibres and the chitosan-based adhesive. We believe that this strategy could open new insights into the design of environment-friendly wood fibre composites with high bonding strength and water resistance for multifunctional applications.

  5. New archeointensity results from the reconstructed ancient kiln by the Tsunakawa-Shaw method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Hatakeyama, T.; Kitahara, Y.; Saito, T.

    2017-12-01

    Yamamoto et al. (2015) reported that baked clay samples from the floor of a reconstructed ancient kiln provided a reliable Tsunakawa-Shaw (LTD-DHT Shaw) archeointensity (AI) estimate of 47.3 +/- 2.2 microT which is fairly consistent with the in situ geomagnetic field of 46.4 microT at the time of the reconstruction. The reconstruction was conducted to reproduce an excavated kiln of the seventh century in Japan and Sue-type potteries of contemporary style were also fired (Nakajima et al., 1974). Two of the potteries with reddish color were recently subjected to the Tsunakawa-Shaw archeointensity determinations, resulting in reliable AI estimates of 45.4 +/- 2.3 (N=6) and 48.2 +/- 2.7 microT (N=15) when specimens were heated in air in laboratory (Yamamoto et al., 2017 JpGU-AGU Joint Meeting). We have had another opportunity to take samples from a new reconstructed ancient kiln in Japan which was fired in autumn 2016. The samples were two Sue-type potteries with grayish color (bowl-type and plate-type) and some blocks collected from inner wall of the kiln body. They were cut into mini specimens and then subjected to the Tsunakawa-Shaw experiment. Heating in laboratory was done either in air or vacuum.For the bowl-type pottery, AIs of 46.9 +/- 2.8 (N=6, air) and 45.3 +/- 2.3 microT (N=6, vacuum) are obtained. They are indistinguishable each other and consistent with the IGRF field of 47.4 microT at the reconstructed location in 2016. For the plate-type pottery, AIs result in 41.8 +/- 1.3 (N=4, air) and 43.9 +/- 3.9 microT (N=4, vacuum). They are also indistinguishable each other but the former AI is slightly lower than the IGRF field.For the inner wall, AIs of 45.0 (N=1, air) and 46.8 microT (N=1, vacuum) are obtained from a right-side wall, and those of 45.5 +/- 2.5 (N=2, air) and 47.7 +/- 3.0 microT (N=2, vacuum) are observed from a left-side wall. They are all indistinguishable and consistent with the IGRF field.

  6. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Dddd of... - Model Rule-Emission Limitations That Apply to Waste-Burning Kilns After May 20, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Apply to Waste-Burning Kilns After May 20, 2011 8 Table 8 to Subpart DDDD of Part 60 Protection of..., Table 8 Table 8 to Subpart DDDD of Part 60—Model Rule—Emission Limitations That Apply to Waste-Burning... to Waste-Burning Kilns After May 20, 2011 For the air pollutant You must meet this emissionlimitation...

  7. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Dddd of... - Model Rule-Emission Limitations That Apply to Waste-Burning Kilns After May 20, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Model Rule-Emission Limitations That Apply to Waste-Burning Kilns After May 20, 2011 8 Table 8 to Subpart DDDD of Part 60 Protection of...—Emission Limitations That Apply to Waste-Burning Kilns After May 20, 2011 [Date to be specified in state...

  8. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Dddd of... - Model Rule-Emission Limitations That Apply to Waste-Burning Kilns After May 20, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Model Rule-Emission Limitations That Apply to Waste-Burning Kilns After May 20, 2011 8 Table 8 to Subpart DDDD of Part 60 Protection of...—Emission Limitations That Apply to Waste-Burning Kilns After May 20, 2011 [Date to be specified in state...

  9. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Dddd of... - Model Rule-Emission Limitations That Apply to Waste-Burning Kilns After May 20, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Model Rule-Emission Limitations That Apply to Waste-Burning Kilns After May 20, 2011 8 Table 8 to Subpart DDDD of Part 60 Protection of...—Emission Limitations That Apply to Waste-Burning Kilns After May 20, 2011 For the air pollutant You must...

  10. Inspection of wood density by spectrophotometry and a diffractive optical element based sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palviainen, Jari; Silvennoinen, Raimo

    2001-03-01

    Correlation among gravimetric, spectrophotometric and radiographic data from dried wood samples of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L) was observed. A diffractive optical element (DOE) based sensor was applied to investigate density variations as well as optical anisotropy inside year rings of the wood samples. The correlation between bulk density of wood and spectrophotometric data (reflectance and transmittance) was investigated for the wavelength range 200-850 nm and the highest correlation was found at wavelengths from 800 to 850 nm. The correlation at this wavelength was smaller than the correlation between bulk density and radiography data. The DOE sensor was found to be capable of sensing anisotropy of the wood samples inside the year ring.

  11. Preparation and testing of plant seed meal-based wood adhesives.

    PubMed

    He, Zhongqi; Chapital, Dorselyn C

    2015-03-05

    Recently, the interest in plant seed meal-based products as wood adhesives has steadily increased, as these plant raw materials are considered renewable and environment-friendly. These natural products may serve as alternatives to petroleum-based adhesives to ease environmental and sustainability concerns. This work demonstrates the preparation and testing of the plant seed-based wood adhesives using cottonseed and soy meal as raw materials. In addition to untreated meals, water washed meals and protein isolates are prepared and tested. Adhesive slurries are prepared by mixing a freeze-dried meal product with deionized water (3:25 w/w) for 2 hr. Each adhesive preparation is applied to one end of 2 wood veneer strips using a brush. The tacky adhesive coated areas of the wood veneer strips are lapped and glued by hot-pressing. Adhesive strength is reported as the shear strength of the bonded wood specimen at break. Water resistance of the adhesives is measured by the change in shear strength of the bonded wood specimens at break after water soaking. This protocol allows one to assess plant seed-based agricultural products as suitable candidates for substitution of synthetic-based wood adhesives. Adjustments to the adhesive formulation with or without additives and bonding conditions could optimize their adhesive properties for various practical applications.

  12. Validating the Heat Stress Indices for Using In Heavy Work Activities in Hot and Dry Climates.

    PubMed

    Hajizadeh, Roohalah; Golbabaei, Farideh; Farhang Dehghan, Somayeh; Beheshti, Mohammad Hossein; Jafari, Sayed Mohammad; Taheri, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Necessity of evaluating heat stress in the workplace, require validation of indices and selection optimal index. The present study aimed to assess the precision and validity of some heat stress indices and select the optimum index for using in heavy work activities in hot and dry climates. It carried out on 184 workers from 40 brick kilns workshops in the city of Qom, central Iran (as representative hot and dry climates). After reviewing the working process and evaluation the activity of workers and the type of work, environmental and physiological parameters according to standards recommended by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) including ISO 7243 and ISO 9886 were measured and indices were calculated. Workers engaged in indoor kiln experienced the highest values of natural wet temperature, dry temperature, globe temperature and relative humidity among studied sections (P<0.05). Indoor workplaces had the higher levels of all environmental parameters than outdoors (P=0.0001), except for air velocity. The wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and heat stress index (HSI) indices had the highest correlation with other physiological parameters among the other heat stress indices. Relationship between WBGT index and carotid artery temperature (r=0.49), skin temperature (r=0.319), and oral temperature (r=0.203) was statistically significant (P=0.006). Since WBGT index, as the most applicable index for evaluating heat stress in workplaces is approved by ISO, and due to the positive features of WBGT such as ease of measurement and calculation, and with respect to some limitation in application of HSI; WBGT can be introduced as the most valid empirical index of heat stress in the brick workshops.

  13. Effects of blends of cement kiln dust and fly ash on properties of concrete.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluated concretes containing cement kiln dust (CKD) and fly ash to determine whether satisfactory properties can be achieved for long-lasting performance in the field. The results indicate that certain combinations of cement, CKD, and fl...

  14. Energy consumption analysis and simulation of waste heat recovery technology of ceramic rotary kiln

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiguang; Zhou, Yu; Qin, Chaokui; Zhang, Xuemei

    2018-03-01

    Ceramsite is widely used in the construction industry, insulation works and oil industry in China, and the manufacture equipment is mainly industrial kiln. In this paper, energy consumption analysis had been carried out through experimental test of a Ceramsite kiln in Henan province. Results showed that the discharge temperature of Ceramsite was about 1393K, and the waste heat accounted for 22.1% of the total energy consumption. A structure of cyclone preheater which recovered waste heat of the high temperature Ceramsite by blast cooling was designed. Then, using Fluent software, performance of the unit was simulated. The minimum temperature that Ceramsite could reach, heat dissipating capacity of Ceramsite, temperature at air outlet, wall temperature of the unit and pressure loss were analyzed. Performance of the designed unit under different inlet velocity was analyzed as well.

  15. Effects of processing method and moisture history on laboratory fungal resistance of wood-HDPE composites.

    Treesearch

    Craig M. Clemons; Rebecca E. Ibach

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of composite processing and moisture sorption on laboratory fungal resistance of wood-plastic composites. A 2-week water soaking or cyclic boiling-drying procedure was used to infuse moisture into composites made from high-density polyethylene filled with 50 percent wood flour and processed by extrusion, compression...

  16. Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material.

    Treesearch

    Forest Products Laboratory

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

  17. Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Ross; Forest Products Laboratory USDA Forest Service.

    2010-01-01

    Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

  18. Patterns and determinants of wood physical and mechanical properties across major tree species in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, JiangLing; Shi, Yue; Fang, LeQi; Liu, XingE; Ji, ChengJun

    2015-06-01

    The physical and mechanical properties of wood affect the growth and development of trees, and also act as the main criteria when determining wood usage. Our understanding on patterns and controls of wood physical and mechanical properties could provide benefits for forestry management and bases for wood application and forest tree breeding. However, current studies on wood properties mainly focus on wood density and ignore other wood physical properties. In this study, we established a comprehensive database of wood physical properties across major tree species in China. Based on this database, we explored spatial patterns and driving factors of wood properties across major tree species in China. Our results showed that (i) compared with wood density, air-dried density, tangential shrinkage coefficient and resilience provide more accuracy and higher explanation power when used as the evaluation index of wood physical properties. (ii) Among life form, climatic and edaphic variables, life form is the dominant factor shaping spatial patterns of wood physical properties, climatic factors the next, and edaphic factors have the least effects, suggesting that the effects of climatic factors on spatial variations of wood properties are indirectly induced by their effects on species distribution.

  19. Effect of adding wood vinegar on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L) seed germination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Ming; Liu, Bingjie; Wang, Xiao

    2018-03-01

    Wood vinegar, a liquid by-product that was obtained from the condensed vapor generated during the biomass pyrolysis, had been reported as plant growth promotor, but the impact on the plant seeds was still not clear. Thus, we investigated the effects of wood vinegar on the germination and seedling growth of cucumber seeds through the germination experiments. The results showed that the different diluted wood vinegar addition showed no significant difference in the germination rates of cucumber seeds compared to those of the CK treatment (P > 0.05). However, the added wood vinegar at the 10000-time dilution significantly increased the root length and dry biomass of cucumber by 20.9 % and 5.92 %, respectively (P < 0.05). Therefore, the wood vinegar at an optimal time of dilution could be used a promising soaking agent for the seeds germination, and further enhance crop yields.

  20. How the climate limits the wood density of angiosperms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Ho-Young

    2017-11-01

    Flowering trees have various types of wood structure to perform multiple functions under their environmental conditions. In addition to transporting water from the roots to the canopy and providing mechanical support, the structure should provide resistance to embolism to maintain soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. By investigating existing data of the resistivity to embolism and wood density of 165 angiosperm species, here we show that the climate can limit the intrinsic properties of trees. Trees living in the dry environments require a high wood density to slow down the pressure decrease as it loses water relatively fast by evaporation. However, building too much tissues will result in the decrease of hydraulic conductivity and moisture concentration around mesophyll cells. To rationalize the biologically observed lower bound of the wood density, we construct a mechanical model to predict the wood density as a function of the vulnerability to embolism and the time for the recovery. Also, we build an artificial system using hydrogel microchannels that can test the probability of embolism as a function of conduit distributions. Our theoretical prediction is shown to be consistent with the results obtained from the artificial system and the biological data.

  1. A new shock wave assisted wood preservative injection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. S.; Ravikumar, G.; Lai, Ram; Jagadeesh, G.

    Preservative treatment of many tropical hard woods and bamboo pose severe problem. A number of wood preservatives (chemical formulations toxic to wood decay/ destroying organisms like fungi, wood destroying termites, marine borers etc.) and wood impregnating techniques are currently in use for improving bio resistance of timber and bamboo and thereby enhancing service life for different end uses. How ever, some species of tropical hardwoods and many species of bamboo are difficult to treat, posing technical problems. In this paper we report preliminary results of treatment of bamboo with a novel Shockwave assisted injection treatment. Samples (30×2.5×1.00 cm) of an Indian species of bamboo Dendrocalamus strictus prepared from defect free culms of dry bamboo are placed in the driven section of a vertical shock tube filled with the 4Coppepr-Chrome-Arsenic(CCA) preservative solution.The bamboo samples are subjected to repeated shock wave loading (3 shots) with typical over pressures of 30 bar. The results from the study indicate excellent penetration and retention of CCA preservative in bamboo samples. The method itself is much faster compared to the conventional methods like pressure treatment or hot and cold process.

  2. Environmental assessment of a wood-waste-fired industrial watertube boiler. Volume 1. Technical results. Final report, March 1981-March 1984

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Castaldini, C.; Waterland, L.R.

    1987-03-01

    The two-volume report gives results from field tests of a wood-waste-fired industrial watertube boiler. Two series of tests were performed: one firing dry (11% moisture) wood waste, and the other firing green (34% moisture) wood waste. Emission measurements included: continuous monitoring of flue-gas emissions; source-assessment sampling system (SASS) sampling of the flue gas with subsequent laboratory analysis of samples to give total flue-gas organics in two boiling-point ranges, compound category information within these ranges, specific quantitation of the semi-volatile organic priority pollutants, and flue-gas concentrations of 73 trace elements; Method 5 sampling for particulate; controlled condensation system sampling for SO/submore » 2/ and SO/sub 3/; and grab sampling of boiler mechanical collector hopper ash for inorganic composition determinations. Total organic emissions decreased from 60-135 mg/dscm firing dry wood to 2-65 mg/dscm firing green wood, in parallel with corresponding boiler CO emissions.« less

  3. Environmental assessment of a wood-waste-fired industrial watertube boiler. Volume 2. Data supplement. Final report, March 1981-March 1984

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Castaldini, C.; Waterland, L.R.

    1987-03-01

    The two-volume report gives results from field tests of a wood-waste-fired industrial watertube boiler. Two series of tests were performed: one firing dry (11% moisture) wood waste, and the other firing green (34% moisture) wood waste. Emission measurements included: continuous monitoring of flue-gas emissions; source-assessment sampling system (SASS) sampling of the flue-gas with subsequent laboratory analysis of samples to give total flue-gas organics in two boiling-point ranges, compound category information within these ranges, specific quantitation of the semi-volatile organic priority pollutants, and flue gas concentrations of 73 trace elements; Method 5 sampling for particulate; controlled condensation system sampling for SO/submore » 2/ and SO/sub 3/; and grab sampling of boiler mechanical collector hopper ash for inorganic and organic composition determinations. Total organic emissions decreased from 60-135 mg/dscm firing dry wood to 2-65 mg/dscm firing green wood, in parallel with corresponding boiler CO emissions.« less

  4. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report number 9

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hooda, U.; Banerjee, S.; Ingram, L.

    1998-10-01

    This project is based on the finding that brief microwave or RF-treatment of wood under low-headspace conditions leads to the release of VOCs. On occasion the authors have found that prolonged irradiation increases turpentine yield much more than anticipated from a simple mass balance; i.e., more pinene appeared to be released than was present in the wood in the first place. If taken at face value, this suggests that brief low-headspace irradiation removes VOCs, while prolonged exposure creates it. While seemingly improbable, this could follow if dielectric heating exposed regions of wood that were otherwise inaccessible to the solvent usedmore » for extraction (unlikely), or if the irradiation induced depolymerization of terpene dimers or higher polymers. In this report the authors attempt to identify the conditions that lead to this apparent enhancement of terpene yield, by constructing relationships between yield and irradiation parameters. The tentative conclusions are that this enhancement only occurs with relatively wet heartwood, and only under prolonged irradiation. An additional conclusion is that continuing analyses of twelve trees in the MSU forest confirm that the absence of a significant seasonal influence on turpentine content. An apparatus for permeability testing has been constructed, and work is underway.« less

  5. Dimensional Changes of Tracheids during Drying of Radiata Pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) Compression Woods: A Study Using Variable-Pressure Scanning Electron Microscopy (VP-SEM)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Miao; Smith, Bronwen G.; McArdle, Brian H.; Chavan, Ramesh R.; James, Bryony J.

    2018-01-01

    Variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the dimensional changes in longitudinal, tangential and radial directions, on wetting and drying, of tracheids of opposite wood (OW) and three grades of compression woods (CWs), including severe CW (SCW) and two grades of mild compression wood (MCW) (MCW1 and MCW2) in corewood of radiata pine (Pinus radiata) saplings. The CW was formed on the underside and OW on the upper side of slightly tilted stems. In the longitudinal direction, the shrinkage of SCW tracheids was ~300% greater than that of OW tracheids, with the shrinkage of the MCW1 and MCW2 tracheids being intermediate. Longitudinal swelling was also investigated and hysteresis was demonstrated for the tracheids of all corewood types, with the extent of hysteresis increasing with CW severity. A statistical association was found between longitudinal shrinkage and the content of lignin and galactosyl residues in the cell-wall matrix. The galactosyl residues are present mostly as (1→4)-β-galactans, which are known to have a high capacity for binding water and swell on hydration. The small proportions of (1→3)-β-glucans in the CWs have similar properties. These polysaccharides may play a functional role in the longitudinal shrinking and swelling of CW tracheids. Tangential shrinkage of tracheids was greater than radial shrinkage but both were greatest for OW and least for SCW, with the MCW1 and MCW2 being intermediate. PMID:29495536

  6. Demonstration of no-VOC/no-HAP wood furniture coating system

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Huang, E.W.; Guan, R.; McCrillis, R.C.

    1997-12-31

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has contracted with AeroVironment Environmental Services, Inc. and its subcontractor, Adhesive Coating Co., to develop and demonstrate a no-VOC (volatile organic compound)/no-HAP (hazardous air pollutant) wood furniture coating system. The objectives of this project are to develop a new wood coating system that is sufficiently mature for demonstration and to develop a technology transfer plan to get the product into public use. The performance characteristics of this new coating system are excellent in terms of adhesion, drying times, gloss, hardness, mar resistance, level of solvents, and stain resistance. Workshops will be held to providemore » detailed information to wood furniture manufacturers on what is required to change to the new coating system. Topics such as spray gun selection, spray techniques, coating repair procedures, drying times and procedures, and spray equipment cleaning materials and techniques will be presented. A cost analysis, including costs of materials, capital outlay, and labor will be conducted comparing costs to finish furniture with the new system to systems currently used. Film performance, coating materials cost per unit production, productivity, manufacturing changes, and emission levels will be compared in the workshops, based on data gathered during the in-plant, full scale demonstrations.« less

  7. The Freeze-Drying of Wet and Waterlogged Materials from Archaeological Excavations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jacqui

    2004-01-01

    Large quantities of wood and leather have been found in the waterlogged layers on archaeological excavations. Centuries of burial, however, have left these materials in a very degraded and vulnerable state such that if they dry out they will fall apart. This paper discusses the physics behind the freeze-drying techniques that allow the…

  8. Wood Litter Consumption by three Species of Nasutitermes Termites in an Area of the Atlantic Coastal Forest in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcellos, Alexandre; Moura, Flávia Maria da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Termites constitute a considerable fraction of the animal biomass in tropical forest, but little quantitative data are available that indicates their importance in the processes of wood decomposition. This study evaluated the participation of Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky) (Isoptera: Termitidae), N. ephratae (Holmgren), and N. macrocephalus (Silvestri) in the consumption of the wood litter in a remnant area of Atlantic Coastal Forest in northeastern Brazil. The populations of this species were quantified in nests and in decomposing tree trunks, while the rate of wood consumption was determined in the laboratory using wood test-blocks of Clitoria fairchildiana Howard (Fabales: Fabaceae), Cecropia sp. (Urticales: Cecropiaceae), and Protium heptaphyllum (Aublet) Marchand (Sapindales: Burseraceae). The abundance of the three species of termites varied from 40.8 to 462.2 individuals/m2. The average dry wood consumption for the three species was 9.4 mg/g of termites (fresh weight)/day, with N. macrocephalus demonstrating the greatest consumption (12.1 mg/g of termite (fresh weight)/day). Wood consumption by the three species of Nasutitermes was estimated to be 66.9 kg of dry wood /ha/year, corresponding to approximately 2.9% of the annual production of wood-litter in the study area. This consumption, together with that of the other 18 exclusively wood-feeders termite species known to occur in the area, indicates the important participation of termites in removing wood-litter within the Atlantic Coastal Forest domain. PMID:20673190

  9. Preparation and Testing of Plant Seed Meal-based Wood Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhongqi; Chapital, Dorselyn C.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the interest in plant seed meal-based products as wood adhesives has steadily increased, as these plant raw materials are considered renewable and environment-friendly. These natural products may serve as alternatives to petroleum-based adhesives to ease environmental and sustainability concerns. This work demonstrates the preparation and testing of the plant seed-based wood adhesives using cottonseed and soy meal as raw materials. In addition to untreated meals, water washed meals and protein isolates are prepared and tested. Adhesive slurries are prepared by mixing a freeze-dried meal product with deionized water (3:25 w/w) for 2 hr. Each adhesive preparation is applied to one end of 2 wood veneer strips using a brush. The tacky adhesive coated areas of the wood veneer strips are lapped and glued by hot-pressing. Adhesive strength is reported as the shear strength of the bonded wood specimen at break. Water resistance of the adhesives is measured by the change in shear strength of the bonded wood specimens at break after water soaking. This protocol allows one to assess plant seed-based agricultural products as suitable candidates for substitution of synthetic-based wood adhesives. Adjustments to the adhesive formulation with or without additives and bonding conditions could optimize their adhesive properties for various practical applications. PMID:25867092

  10. 40 CFR Table Aa-2 to Subpart Aa of... - Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions Factors for CH4 and N2O

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions Factors for CH4 and N2O AA Table AA-2 to Subpart AA of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Manufacturing Pt. 98, Subpt. AA, Table AA -2 Table AA-2 to Subpart AA of Part 98—Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner...

  11. Wood : adhesives

    Treesearch

    A.H. Conner

    2001-01-01

    This chapter on wood adhesives includes: 1) Classification of wood adhesives 2) Thermosetting wood adhesives 3) Thermoplastic adhesives, 4) Wood adhesives based on natural sources 5) Nonconventional bonding of wood 6) Wood bonding.

  12. VOC emissions from residential combustion of Southern and mid-European woods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evtyugina, Margarita; Alves, Célia; Calvo, Ana; Nunes, Teresa; Tarelho, Luís; Duarte, Márcio; Prozil, Sónia O.; Evtuguin, Dmitry V.; Pio, Casimiro

    2014-02-01

    Emissions of trace gases (carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC)), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from combustion of European beech, Pyrenean oak and black poplar in a domestic woodstove and fireplace were studied. These woods are widely used as biofuel in residential combustion in Southern and mid-European countries. VOCs in the flue gases were collected in Tedlar bags, concentrated in sorbent tubes and analysed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (GC-FID). CO2 emissions ranged from 1415 ± 136 to 1879 ± 29 g kg-1 (dry basis). The highest emission factors for CO and THC, 115.8 ± 11.7 and 95.6 24.7 ± 6.3 g kg-1 (dry basis), respectively, were obtained during the combustion of black poplar in the fireplace. European beech presented the lowest CO and THC emission factors for both burning appliances. Significant differences in emissions of VOCs were observed among wood species burnt and combustion devices. In general the highest emission factors were obtained from the combustion of Pyrenean oak in the woodstove. Among the VOCs identified, benzene and related compounds were always the most abundant group, followed by oxygenated compounds and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The amount and the composition of emitted VOCs were strongly affected by the wood composition, the type of burning device and operating conditions. Emission data obtained in this work are useful for modelling the impact of residential wood combustion on air quality and tropospheric ozone formation.

  13. Properties of wood-plastic composites: effect of inorganic additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakraji, Elias Hanna; Salman, Numan

    2003-01-01

    Wood-plastic composites from Syrian tree species (white poplar, cypress tree, and white willow) were prepared using gamma-ray irradiation. Dry wood was impregnated with acrylamide or butylmethacrylate at various methanol compositions as the swelling solvent. Effect of inorganic additives and co-additives such as lithium nitrate (LiNO 3), copper sulfate (CuSO 4) and sulfuric acid (H 2SO 4), used at a very low concentration (1%), on the polymer loading (PL) and the compression strength (CS) was also investigated. It has been found that all the additives and co-additives, except Cu 2+, increase the PL values and only Li + has a positive effect on CS.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A NO-VOC/NO-HAP WOOD FURNITURE COATINGS SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the development and demonstration of a no-VOC (volatile organic compound)/no-HAP (hazardous air pollutant) wood furniture coating system. The performance characteristics of the new coating system are excellent in terms of adhesion, drying time, gloss, ...

  15. Combustion modeling and performance evaluation in a full-scale rotary kiln incinerator.

    PubMed

    Chen, K S; Hsu, W T; Lin, Y C; Ho, Y T; Wu, C H

    2001-06-01

    This work summarizes the results of numerical investigations and in situ measurements for turbulent combustion in a full-scale rotary kiln incinerator (RKI). The three-dimensional (3D) governing equations for mass, momentum, energy, and species, together with the kappa - epsilon turbulence model, are formulated and solved using a finite volume method. Volatile gases from solid waste were simulated by gaseous CH4 distributed nonuniformly along the kiln bed. The combustion process was considered to be a two-step stoichiometric reaction for primary air mixed with CH4 gas in the combustion chamber. The mixing-controlled eddy-dissipation model (EDM) was employed to predict the conversion rates of CH4, O2, CO2, and CO. The results of the prediction show that reverse flows occur near the entrance of the first combustion chamber (FCC) and the turning point at the entrance to the second combustion chamber (SCC). Temperature and species are nonuniform and are vertically stratified. Meanwhile, additional mixing in the SCC enhances postflame oxidation. A combustion efficiency of up to 99.96% can be achieved at approximately 150% excess air and 20-30% secondary air. Reasonable agreement is achieved between numerical predictions and in situ measurements.

  16. Effect of metal ions on autofluorescence of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans grown on spruce wood.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Jiří; Žižka, Zdeněk; Švec, Karel; Nasswettrová, Andrea; Šmíra, Pavel; Kofroňová, Olga; Benada, Oldřich

    2016-03-01

    This work describes autofluorescence of the mycelium of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans grown on spruce wood blocks impregnated with various metals. Live mycelium, as opposed to dead mycelium, exhibited yellow autofluorescence upon blue excitation, blue fluorescence with ultraviolet (UV) excitation, orange-red and light-blue fluorescence with violet excitation, and red fluorescence with green excitation. Distinctive autofluorescence was observed in the fungal cell wall and in granula localized in the cytoplasm. In dead mycelium, the intensity of autofluorescence decreased and the signal was diffused throughout the cytoplasm. Metal treatment affected both the color and intensity of autofluorescence and also the morphology of the mycelium. The strongest yellow signal was observed with blue excitation in Cd-treated samples, in conjunction with increased branching and the formation of mycelial loops and protrusions. For the first time, we describe pink autofluorescence that was observed in Mn-, Zn-, and Cu-treated samples with UV, violet or. blue excitation. The lowest signals were obtained in Cu- and Fe-treated samples. Chitin, an important part of the fungal cell wall exhibited intensive primary fluorescence with UV, violet, blue, and green excitation.

  17. Fiberboard created using the natural adhesive properties of distillers dried grains with solubles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were employed as a bio-based resin/adhesive. DDGS were defatted with hexane, ball ground and screened prior to use. DDGS flour was mixed dry with Paulownia wood (PW) to make composites using the following conditions: temperature of 150-195 oC, PW particle...

  18. Wood duck brood movements and habitat use on prairie rivers in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granfors, D.A.; Flake, Lester D.

    1999-01-01

    Wood duck (Aix sponsa) populations have been increasing in the Central Flyway, but little is known about wood duck brood rearing in prairie ecosystems. We compared movements and habitat use of radiomarked female wood ducks with broods in South Dakota on 2 rivers with contrasting prairie landscapes. The perennial Big Sioux River had a broad floodplain and riparian forest, whereas the intermittent Maple River had emergent vegetation along the river channel. Movements between nest sites and brood-rearing areas were longer on the Maple River than on the Big Sioux River (P = 0.02) and were among the longest reported for wood duck broods. Movements on the Big Sioux River were longer in 1992 (P = 0.01), when the floodplain was dry, than in 1993 or 1994. Before flooding occurred on the Big Sioux River, broods used semipermanent wetlands and tributaries outside the floodplain; thereafter, females selected forested wetlands along the river. Broods on the Maple River used emergent vegetation along the river channel throughout the study. Because median length of travel to brood-rearing areas was 2-3 km we recommend maintenance of brood-rearing habitat every 3-5 km along prairie rivers. Wildlife managers should encourage landowners to retain riparian vegetation along perennial rivers and emergent vegetation along intermittent streams to provide brood-rearing habitat during wet and dry cycles.

  19. Faecal-wood biomass co-combustion and ash composition analysis.

    PubMed

    Somorin, Tosin Onabanjo; Kolios, Athanasios J; Parker, Alison; McAdam, Ewan; Williams, Leon; Tyrrel, Sean

    2017-09-01

    Fuel blending is a widely used approach in biomass combustion, particularly for feedstocks with low calorific value and high moisture content. In on-site sanitation technologies, fuel blending is proposed as a pre-treatment requirement to reduce moisture levels and improve the physiochemical properties of raw faeces prior to drying. This study investigates the co-combustion performance of wood dust: raw human faeces blends at varying air-to-fuel ratios in a bench-scale combustor test rig. It concludes with ash composition analyses and discusses their potential application and related problems. The study shows that a 50:50 wood dust (WD): raw human faeces (FC) can reduce moisture levels in raw human faeces by ∼40% prior to drying. The minimum acceptable blend for treating moist faeces without prior drying at a combustion air flow rate of 14-18 L/min is 30:70 WD: FC. For self-sustained ignition and flame propagation, the minimum combustion temperature required for conversion of the fuel to ash is ∼400 °C. The most abundant elements in faecal ash are potassium and calcium, while elements such as nickel, aluminium and iron are in trace quantities. This suggests the potential use of faecal ash as a soil conditioner, but increases the tendency for fly ash formation and sintering problems.

  20. Assessment of the Bioaccessibility of Micronized Copper Wood on Simulated Stomach Fluid

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The widespread use of copper-treated lumber has increased the potential for human exposure. Moreover, there is a lack of information on the fate and behavior of copper-treated wood particles following oral ingestion. In this study, the in vitro bioaccessibility of copper from copper-treated wood dust in simulated stomach fluid and DI water was determined. Three copper-treated wood products, liquid alkali copper quaternary and two micronized copper quarternary from different manufacturers, were incubated in the extraction media then fractionated by centrifugation and filtration through 0.45 ?m and 10 kDa filters. The copper concentrations from isolated fractions were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Total amounts of copper from each wood product were also determined using microwave-assisted acid digestion of dried wood samples and quantification using ICP-OES. The percent in vitro bioaccessible copper was between 83 and 90 % for all treated wood types. However, the percent of copper released in DI water was between 14 and 25 % for all wood products. This data suggests that copper is highly bioaccessible at low pH and may pose a potential human exposure risk upon ingestion. This dataset is associated with the following publication:Santiago-Rodrigues, L., J.L. Griggs, K. Bradham , C. Nelson , T. Luxton , W. Platten , and K. Rogers. Assessment of the bioaccessibility of micronized copper wood in synthetic stomach flu

  1. 40 CFR 60.64 - Test methods and procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... flow rate of effluent gas, where Cs and Qs are on the same basis (either wet or dry), dscf/hr; P = total kiln feed (dry basis) rate, ton/hr. For kilns constructed, modified or reconstructed on or after... associated alkali bypass and cooler) subject to the 10 percent opacity limit must follow the appropriate...

  2. 40 CFR 63.7112 - What performance tests, design evaluations, and other procedures must I use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cooler if there is a separate exhaust to the atmosphere from the lime cooler) must be computed for each.../ton) of stone feed. Ck = Concentration of PM in the kiln effluent, grain/dry standard cubic feet (gr/dscf). Qk = Volumetric flow rate of kiln effluent gas, dry standard cubic feet per hour (dscf/hr). Cc...

  3. 40 CFR 63.7112 - What performance tests, design evaluations, and other procedures must I use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cooler if there is a separate exhaust to the atmosphere from the lime cooler) must be computed for each.../ton) of stone feed. Ck = Concentration of PM in the kiln effluent, grain/dry standard cubic feet (gr/dscf). Qk = Volumetric flow rate of kiln effluent gas, dry standard cubic feet per hour (dscf/hr). Cc...

  4. 40 CFR 63.7112 - What performance tests, design evaluations, and other procedures must I use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cooler if there is a separate exhaust to the atmosphere from the lime cooler) must be computed for each.../ton) of stone feed. Ck = Concentration of PM in the kiln effluent, grain/dry standard cubic feet (gr/dscf). Qk = Volumetric flow rate of kiln effluent gas, dry standard cubic feet per hour (dscf/hr). Cc...

  5. 40 CFR 63.7112 - What performance tests, design evaluations, and other procedures must I use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cooler if there is a separate exhaust to the atmosphere from the lime cooler) must be computed for each.../ton) of stone feed. Ck = Concentration of PM in the kiln effluent, grain/dry standard cubic feet (gr/dscf). Qk = Volumetric flow rate of kiln effluent gas, dry standard cubic feet per hour (dscf/hr). Cc...

  6. 40 CFR 63.7112 - What performance tests, design evaluations, and other procedures must I use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cooler if there is a separate exhaust to the atmosphere from the lime cooler) must be computed for each.../ton) of stone feed. Ck = Concentration of PM in the kiln effluent, grain/dry standard cubic feet (gr/dscf). Qk = Volumetric flow rate of kiln effluent gas, dry standard cubic feet per hour (dscf/hr). Cc...

  7. 40 CFR 60.64 - Test methods and procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... flow rate of effluent gas, where Cs and Qs are on the same basis (either wet or dry), dscf/hr; P = total kiln feed (dry basis) rate, ton/hr. For kilns constructed, modified or reconstructed on or after... associated alkali bypass and cooler) subject to the 10 percent opacity limit must follow the appropriate...

  8. Reducing firing of an early pottery making kiln at Batán Grande, Peru: A Mössbauer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, U.; Gebhard, R.; Häusler, W.; Hutzelmann, T.; Riederer, J.; Shimada, I.; Sosa, J.; Wagner, F. E.

    1999-11-01

    Material from field firing experiments using a 2,700-year old Formative kiln at Batán Grande, Peru, was studied by X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The experiments explore the technology involved in producing the gray and black reduced ware for which Cupisnique and other Formative ceramics are justly known. During firing, the iron-bearing compounds in clays undergo characteristic changes which depend on kiln temperature and atmosphere. These changes can be observed in the Mössbauer spectra. By comparing spectra of an appropriate clay fired in field experiments and in the laboratory with the spectra of ancient ceramics, a description of Formative firing techniques in a reducing environment is attempted.

  9. Wood flour

    Treesearch

    Craig M. Clemons; Daniel F. Caufield

    2005-01-01

    The term “wood flour” is somewhat ambiguous. Reineke states that the term wood flour “is applied somewhat loosely to wood reduced to finely divided particles approximating those of cereal flours in size, appearance, and texture”. Though its definition is imprecise, the term wood flour is in common use. Practically speaking, wood flour usually refers to wood particles...

  10. Wood flour

    Treesearch

    Craig M. Clemons

    2010-01-01

    The term “wood flour” is somewhat ambiguous. Reineke states that the term wood flour “is applied somewhat loosely to wood reduced to finely divided particles approximating those of cereal flours in size, appearance, and texture.” Though its definition is imprecise, the term wood flour is in common use. Practically speaking, wood flour usually refers to wood particles...

  11. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Butcher, T.; Trojanowski, R.; Wei, G.

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here ismore » to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.« less

  12. 40 CFR 63.1341 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cement. Clinker cooler means equipment into which clinker product leaving the kiln is placed to be cooled... system in a portland cement production process where a dry kiln system is integrated with the raw mill so... construction after May 6, 2009, for purposes of determining the applicability of the kiln, clinker cooler and...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1341 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... other materials to form cement. Clinker cooler means equipment into which clinker product leaving the... kiln or coal mills using exhaust gases from the clinker cooler are not an in-line coal mill. In-line kiln/raw mill means a system in a portland cement production process where a dry kiln system is...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1341 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cement. Clinker cooler means equipment into which clinker product leaving the kiln is placed to be cooled... system in a portland cement production process where a dry kiln system is integrated with the raw mill so... construction after May 6, 2009, for purposes of determining the applicability of the kiln, clinker cooler and...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1341 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... other materials to form cement. Clinker cooler means equipment into which clinker product leaving the... kiln or coal mills using exhaust gases from the clinker cooler are not an in-line coal mill. In-line kiln/raw mill means a system in a portland cement production process where a dry kiln system is...

  16. Dynamic control of moisture during hot pressing of wood composites

    Treesearch

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse

    2006-01-01

    Hot pressing is an important step in the manufacture of wood composites. In the conventional pressing system, hot press output often acts as a constraint to increased production. Severe drying of the furnish (e.g., particles, flakes, or fibers) required by this process substantially increases the manufacturing cost and creates air-polluting emissions of volatile...

  17. Kiln for hot-pressing compacts in a continuous manner

    DOEpatents

    Reynolds, C.D Jr.

    1983-08-08

    The invention is directed to a hot pressing furnace or kiln which is capable of preheating, hot pressing, and cooling a plurality of articles in a sequential and continuous manner. The hot pressing furnace of the present invention comprises an elongated, horizontally disposed furnace capable of holding a plurality of displaceable pusher plates each supporting a die body loaded with refractory or ceramic material to be hot pressed. Each of these plates and the die body supported thereby is sequentially pushed through the preheating zone, a temperature stabilizing and a hot pressing zone, and a cooling zone so as to provide a continuous hot-pressing operation of a plurality of articles.

  18. Modeling the combustion behavior of hazardous waste in a rotary kiln incinerator.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongxiang; Pijnenborg, Marc J A; Reuter, Markus A; Verwoerd, Joep

    2005-01-01

    Hazardous wastes have complex physical forms and chemical compositions and are normally incinerated in rotary kilns for safe disposal and energy recovery. In the rotary kiln, the multifeed stream and wide variation of thermal, physical, and chemical properties of the wastes cause the incineration system to be highly heterogeneous, with severe temperature fluctuations and unsteady combustion chemistry. Incomplete combustion is often the consequence, and the process is difficult to control. In this article, modeling of the waste combustion is described by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Through CFD simulation, gas flow and mixing, turbulent combustion, and heat transfer inside the incinerator were predicted and visualized. As the first step, the waste in various forms was modeled to a hydrocarbon-based virtual fuel mixture. The combustion of the simplified waste was then simulated with a seven-gas combustion model within a CFD framework. Comparison was made with previous global three-gas combustion model with which no chemical behavior can be derived. The distribution of temperature and chemical species has been investigated. The waste combustion model was validated with temperature measurements. Various operating conditions and the influence on the incineration performance were then simulated. Through this research, a better process understanding and potential optimization of the design were attained.

  19. Odor, gaseous and PM10 emissions from small scale combustion of wood types indigenous to Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kistler, Magdalena; Schmidl, Christoph; Padouvas, Emmanuel; Giebl, Heinrich; Lohninger, Johann; Ellinger, Reinhard; Bauer, Heidi; Puxbaum, Hans

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the emissions, including odor, from log wood stoves, burning wood types indigenous to mid-European countries such as Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Switzerland, as well as Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria (Germany) and South Tyrol (Italy). The investigations were performed with a modern, certified, 8 kW, manually fired log wood stove, and the results were compared to emissions from a modern 9 kW pellet stove. The examined wood types were deciduous species: black locust, black poplar, European hornbeam, European beech, pedunculate oak (also known as “common oak”), sessile oak, turkey oak and conifers: Austrian black pine, European larch, Norway spruce, Scots pine, silver fir, as well as hardwood briquettes. In addition, “garden biomass” such as pine cones, pine needles and dry leaves were burnt in the log wood stove. The pellet stove was fired with softwood pellets. The composite average emission rates for log wood and briquettes were 2030 mg MJ−1 for CO; 89 mg MJ−1 for NOx, 311 mg MJ−1 for CxHy, 67 mg MJ−1 for particulate matter PM10 and average odor concentration was at 2430 OU m−3. CO, CxHy and PM10 emissions from pellets combustion were lower by factors of 10, 13 and 3, while considering NOx – comparable to the log wood emissions. Odor from pellets combustion was not detectable. CxHy and PM10 emissions from garden biomass (needles and leaves) burning were 10 times higher than for log wood, while CO and NOx rise only slightly. Odor levels ranged from not detectable (pellets) to around 19,000 OU m−3 (dry leaves). The odor concentration correlated with CO, CxHy and PM10. For log wood combustion average odor ranged from 536 OU m−3 for hornbeam to 5217 OU m−3 for fir, indicating a considerable influence of the wood type on odor concentration. PMID:23471123

  20. Odor, gaseous and PM10 emissions from small scale combustion of wood types indigenous to Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistler, Magdalena; Schmidl, Christoph; Padouvas, Emmanuel; Giebl, Heinrich; Lohninger, Johann; Ellinger, Reinhard; Bauer, Heidi; Puxbaum, Hans

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the emissions, including odor, from log wood stoves, burning wood types indigenous to mid-European countries such as Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Switzerland, as well as Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria (Germany) and South Tyrol (Italy). The investigations were performed with a modern, certified, 8 kW, manually fired log wood stove, and the results were compared to emissions from a modern 9 kW pellet stove. The examined wood types were deciduous species: black locust, black poplar, European hornbeam, European beech, pedunculate oak (also known as “common oak”), sessile oak, turkey oak and conifers: Austrian black pine, European larch, Norway spruce, Scots pine, silver fir, as well as hardwood briquettes. In addition, “garden biomass” such as pine cones, pine needles and dry leaves were burnt in the log wood stove. The pellet stove was fired with softwood pellets. The composite average emission rates for log wood and briquettes were 2030 mg MJ-1 for CO; 89 mg MJ-1 for NOx, 311 mg MJ-1 for CxHy, 67 mg MJ-1 for particulate matter PM10 and average odor concentration was at 2430 OU m-3. CO, CxHy and PM10 emissions from pellets combustion were lower by factors of 10, 13 and 3, while considering NOx - comparable to the log wood emissions. Odor from pellets combustion was not detectable. CxHy and PM10 emissions from garden biomass (needles and leaves) burning were 10 times higher than for log wood, while CO and NOx rise only slightly. Odor levels ranged from not detectable (pellets) to around 19,000 OU m-3 (dry leaves). The odor concentration correlated with CO, CxHy and PM10. For log wood combustion average odor ranged from 536 OU m-3 for hornbeam to 5217 OU m-3 for fir, indicating a considerable influence of the wood type on odor concentration.

  1. Odor, gaseous and PM10 emissions from small scale combustion of wood types indigenous to Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Magdalena; Schmidl, Christoph; Padouvas, Emmanuel; Giebl, Heinrich; Lohninger, Johann; Ellinger, Reinhard; Bauer, Heidi; Puxbaum, Hans

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the emissions, including odor, from log wood stoves, burning wood types indigenous to mid-European countries such as Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Switzerland, as well as Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria (Germany) and South Tyrol (Italy). The investigations were performed with a modern, certified, 8 kW, manually fired log wood stove, and the results were compared to emissions from a modern 9 kW pellet stove. The examined wood types were deciduous species: black locust, black poplar, European hornbeam, European beech, pedunculate oak (also known as "common oak"), sessile oak, turkey oak and conifers: Austrian black pine, European larch, Norway spruce, Scots pine, silver fir, as well as hardwood briquettes. In addition, "garden biomass" such as pine cones, pine needles and dry leaves were burnt in the log wood stove. The pellet stove was fired with softwood pellets. The composite average emission rates for log wood and briquettes were 2030 mg MJ -1 for CO; 89 mg MJ -1 for NO x , 311 mg MJ -1 for C x H y , 67 mg MJ -1 for particulate matter PM 10 and average odor concentration was at 2430 OU m -3 . CO, C x H y and PM 10 emissions from pellets combustion were lower by factors of 10, 13 and 3, while considering NO x - comparable to the log wood emissions. Odor from pellets combustion was not detectable. C x H y and PM10 emissions from garden biomass (needles and leaves) burning were 10 times higher than for log wood, while CO and NO x rise only slightly. Odor levels ranged from not detectable (pellets) to around 19,000 OU m -3 (dry leaves). The odor concentration correlated with CO, C x H y and PM 10 . For log wood combustion average odor ranged from 536 OU m -3 for hornbeam to 5217 OU m -3 for fir, indicating a considerable influence of the wood type on odor concentration.

  2. Bacterial treatment of alkaline cement kiln dust using Bacillus halodurans strain KG1.

    PubMed

    Kunal; Rajor, Anita; Siddique, Rafat

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate an acid-producing, alkaliphilic bacterium to reduce the alkalinity of cement industry waste (cement kiln dust). Gram-positive isolate KG1 grew well at pH values of 6-12, temperatures of 28-50°C, and NaCl concentrations of 0-16% and thus was further screened for its potential to reduce the pH of an alkaline medium. Phenotypic characteristics of the KG1 isolate were consistent with those of the genus Bacillus, and the highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was found with Bacillus halodurans strain DSM 497 (94.7%). On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and genotypic distinctiveness from other phylogenetic neighbors belonging to alkaliphilic Bacillus species, the isolated strain was designated B. halodurans strain KG1, with GenBank accession number JQ307184 (= NCIM 5439). Isolate KG1 reduced the alkalinity (by 83.64%) and the chloride content (by 86.96%) of cement kiln dust and showed a potential to be used in the cement industry for a variety of applications. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Desorption isotherms of heavy (AZOBE, EBONY) and light heavyweight tropical woods (IROKO, SAPELLI) of Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nsouandélé, J. L.; Tamba, J. G.; Bonoma, B.

    2018-04-01

    This work is centered on the study of the desorption isotherms of heavy (Azobe, Ebony) and heavyweight (Iroko, Sapelli) tropical woods, which contribute in the determination of drying and storage of tropical plank woods. Desorption isotherms of tropical woods were experimentally determined under different temperatures in this study using the gravimetric method. The determination of Henderson's model isotherms parameters of desorption were obtained for temperatures of 20 °C, 30 °C, 40 °C, and 50 °C. The mean relative deviation between theoretical and experimental moisture contents was calculated and fitted well with the desorption models of tropical woods. We noticed that Henderson models fitted much better with experimental ones for 95% of relative humidity. The sigmoid shapes of results are satisfactory. Hysteresis phenomenon was observed for desorption isotherms of heavy (Azobe, Ebony) and heavyweight (Iroko, Sapelli) tropical woods. Results showed the difference between the stability and use of heavy and heavyweight tropical wood. These results help in the estimation of water content at equilibrium of tropical woods in relative humidity from experimented ones. Hygroscopic equilibrium humidity of heavy tropical woods varied between 0% and 50% while those of heavyweight varied between 0% and 25%. Therefore, these woods can be used in an opened environment; woodwork and decoration.

  4. A multi-analytical study of degradation of lignin in archaeological waterlogged wood.

    PubMed

    Colombini, Maria P; Lucejko, Jeannette J; Modugno, Francesca; Orlandi, Marco; Tolppa, Eeva-Liisa; Zoia, Luca

    2009-11-15

    Historical or archaeological wooden objects are generally better conserved in wet environments than in other contexts. Nevertheless, anaerobic erosion bacteria can slowly degrade waterlogged wood, causing a loss of cellulose and hemicellulose and leading to the formation of water-filled cavities. During this process, lignin can also be altered. The result is a porous and fragile structure, poor in polysaccharides and mainly composed of residual lignin, which can easily collapse during drying and needs specific consolidation treatments. For this reason, the chemical characterization of archaeological lignin is of primary importance in the diagnosis and conservation of waterlogged wood artifacts. Current knowledge of the lignin degradation processes in historical and archaeological wood is extremely inadequate. In this study lignin extracted from archaeological waterlogged wood was examined using both Py-GC/MS, NMR spectroscopy and GPC analysis. The samples were collected from the Site of the Ancient Ships of San Rossore (Pisa, Italy), where since 1998 31 shipwrecks, dating from 2nd century BC to 5th century AD, have been discovered. The results, integrated by GPC analysis, highlight the depolymerization of lignin with cleavage of ether bonds, leading to an higher amount of free phenol units in the lignin from archaeological waterlogged wood, compared to sound lignin from reference wood of the same species.

  5. Chapter 6: Wood energy and competing wood product markers

    Treesearch

    Kenneth E. Skog; Robert C. Abt; Karen Abt

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effect of expanding wood energy markets is important to all wood-dependent industries and to policymakers debating the implementation of public programs to support the expansion of wood energy generation. A key factor in determining the feasibility of wood energy projects (e.g. wood boiler or pellet plant) is the long-term (i.e. 20-30year) supply...

  6. PAHs in corn grains submitted to drying with firewood.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Rafael Friedrich; Dionello, Rafael Gomes; Peralba, Maria do Carmo Ruaro; Barrionuevo, Simone; Radunz, Lauri Lourenço; Reichert Júnior, Francisco Wilson

    2017-01-15

    Grain drying using firewood as fuel for air heating, with direct fire, is still widely used in Brazil. The combustion of organic material, such as wood, can generate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are known to have carcinogenic potential. In the present work corn grain drying was carried out at three drying air temperatures: 60°C, 60/80°C and 80°C. Following the drying process, the presence and quantification of PAH in the corn grains was investigated. After extracting the PAHs of the matrix, the material was subjected to analysis by gas chromatography with mass detector. he results showed the presence of seven compounds: fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Wood adhesives : vital for producing most wood products

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart

    2011-01-01

    A main route for the efficient utilization of wood resources is to reduce wood to small pieces and then bond them together (Frihart and Hunt 2010). Although humankind has been bonding wood since early Egyptian civilizations, the quality and quantity of bonded wood products has increased dramatically over the past 100 years with the development of new adhesives and...

  8. Effect of moisture content on warp in hardwood 2 by 6`s for structural use

    Treesearch

    William T. Simpson; John W. Forsman

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum), red maple (Acer rubrum), and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) 2 by 6as were dried and evaluated for warp as it affects ability to meet softwood dimension lumber grading rule requirements for warp. In the first part of the study, sugar maple was kiln-dried to three levels of final moisture content: 27%, 19%, and 12%. Warp during kiln...

  9. 40 CFR 60.62 - Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... matter (PM) in excess of: (i) 0.30 pound per ton of feed (dry basis) to the kiln if construction... conducted by § 60.8 is completed, you may not discharge into the atmosphere from any clinker cooler any gases which: (1) Contain PM in excess of: (i) 0.10 pound per ton of feed (dry basis) to the kiln if...

  10. 40 CFR 60.62 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... particulate matter in excess of 0.15 kg per metric ton of feed (dry basis) to the kiln (0.30 lb per ton). (2... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any clinker cooler any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.050 kg per metric ton of feed (dry basis) to the kiln (0.10 lb...

  11. 40 CFR 60.62 - Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... matter (PM) in excess of: (i) 0.30 pound per ton of feed (dry basis) to the kiln if construction... conducted by § 60.8 is completed, you may not discharge into the atmosphere from any clinker cooler any gases which: (1) Contain PM in excess of: (i) 0.10 pound per ton of feed (dry basis) to the kiln if...

  12. An engineering assessment of the burning of the combustible fraction of construction and demolition wastes in a redundant brick kiln.

    PubMed

    Chang, N B; Lin, K S; Sun, Y P; Wang, H P

    2001-12-01

    This paper confirms both technical feasibility and economic potential via the use of redundant brick kilns as an alternative option for disposal of the combustible fractions of construction and demolition wastes by a three-stage analysis. To assess such an idea, one brick kiln was selected for performing an engineering feasibility study. First of all, field sampling and lab-analyses were carried out to gain a deeper understanding of the physical, chemical, and thermodynamic properties of the combustible fractions of construction and demolition wastes. Kinetic parameters for the oxidation of the combustible fractions of construction and demolition wastes were therefore numerically calculated from the weight loss data obtained through a practice of thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Secondly, an engineering assessment for retrofitting the redundant brick kiln was performed based on integrating several new and existing unit operations, consisting of waste storage, shredding, feeding, combustion, flue gas cleaning, and ash removal. Such changes were subject to the operational condition in accordance with the estimated mass and energy balances. Finally, addressing the economic value of energy recovery motivated a renewed interest to convert the combustible fractions of construction and demolition wastes into useful hot water for secondary uses.

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Aaaaa of... - Emission Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... following emission limit 1. Existing lime kilns and their associated lime coolers that did not have a wet... of stone feed (lb/tsf). 2. Existing lime kilns and their associated lime coolers that have a wet... not exceed 0.60 lb/tsf. If at any time after January 5, 2004 the kiln changes to a dry control system...

  14. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Aaaaa of... - Emission Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emission limit 1. Existing lime kilns and their associated lime coolers that did not have a wet scrubber... feed (lb/tsf). 2. Existing lime kilns and their associated lime coolers that have a wet scrubber, where... 0.60 lb/tsf. If at any time after January 5, 2004 the kiln changes to a dry control system, then the...

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Aaaaa of... - Emission Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... emission limit 1. Existing lime kilns and their associated lime coolers that did not have a wet scrubber... feed (lb/tsf). 2. Existing lime kilns and their associated lime coolers that have a wet scrubber, where... 0.60 lb/tsf. If at any time after January 5, 2004 the kiln changes to a dry control system, then the...

  16. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Aaaaa of... - Emission Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... following emission limit 1. Existing lime kilns and their associated lime coolers that did not have a wet... of stone feed (lb/tsf). 2. Existing lime kilns and their associated lime coolers that have a wet... not exceed 0.60 lb/tsf. If at any time after January 5, 2004 the kiln changes to a dry control system...

  17. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Aaaaa of... - Emission Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... following emission limit 1. Existing lime kilns and their associated lime coolers that did not have a wet... of stone feed (lb/tsf). 2. Existing lime kilns and their associated lime coolers that have a wet... not exceed 0.60 lb/tsf. If at any time after January 5, 2004 the kiln changes to a dry control system...

  18. Prevalence of chest symptoms amongst brick kiln migrant workers and care seeking behaviour: a study from South India.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Beena E; Charles, Niruparani; Watson, Basilea; Chandrasekaran, V; Senthil Kumar, R; Dhanalakshmi, A; Wares, Fraser; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2015-12-01

    Early detection and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) have been key principles of TB control. However, this can be a challenge with 'hard to reach' populations such as migrants. Brick kiln workers are one such group of migrants who are exposed to smoke, heat and dust from brick kilns which are one of the major causes of respiratory illnesses. A cross-sectional community based study was carried out in Thiruvallur, Tamil Nadu, South India, from August 2011 to June 2012. A total of 4002 individuals from 55 brick kiln chambers were interviewed to determine the prevalence of chest symptoms and care seeking behaviour patterns. Three hundred and seventy-seven (9.4%) chest symptomatics were identified. The most significant variables associated with chest symptoms were illiteracy, alcohol abuse and heavy smoking. Of the chest symptomatics identified, 50.4% took action to get relief from their symptoms. The duration of over 6-month stay in the chamber was significantly associated with taking action (OR, 5.5, 95% CI: 2.3, 13.3). The TB control programme needs to further explore how to extend its services to such 'hard to reach' groups. Active case finding to ensure early diagnosis and treatment initiation amongst such groups needs consideration. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Underestimation of terpene exposure in the Nordic wood industry.

    PubMed

    Granström, Karin M

    2010-03-01

    This study determined that emission of sesquiterpenes from processed wood warrants attention in the work environment. Currently, only the monoterpenes in the terpene group are monitored in occupational hygiene studies. Terpene emissions are a work environment issue for industries that process wood, as they are known to cause respiratory difficulties and mucous membrane irritation. Fresh sawdust of the most common boreal conifers, Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), was subjected to processing (drying), and the emissions were analyzed with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The data indicate that workers are exposed to significant amounts of sesquiterpenes, an observation that has not been recorded previously at wood processing plants. On average, the proportion of sesquiterpenes to monoterpenes was 21 +/- 5% (STD, n = 11) for spruce and 15 +/- 5% (STD, n = 13) for pine. The composition of terpenes emitted in air from spruce wood differs from the composition in resin. The sum of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes can exceed the occupational exposure limit for turpentine for processes where monoterpene concentrations are already close to the occupational exposure limit, and for processes involving the processing of bark. Findings suggest that future studies of health effects from terpenes in air should measure monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes to assess whether the current OELs are appropriate.

  20. Kiln for hot-pressing compacts in a continuous manner

    DOEpatents

    Reynolds, Jr., Carl D.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a hot pressing furnace or kiln which is capable of preheating, hot pressing, and cooling a plurality of articles in a sequential and continuous manner. The hot pressing furnace of the present invention comprises an elongated, horizontally disposed furnace capable of holding a plurality of displaceable pusher plates each supporting a die body loaded with refractory or ceramic material to be hot pressed. Each of these plates and the die body supported thereby is sequentially pushed through the preheating zone, a temperature stabilizing and a hot pressing zone, and a cooling zone so as to provide a continuous hot-pressing operation of a plurality of articles.

  1. Assessment of potential concerns associated with the use of cement kiln baghouse dust in FDOT concrete mixes.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-08-01

    As a means of controlling mercury (Hg) stack emissions at cement kiln operations, some facilities have proposed or have instituted a practice known as dust shuttling, where baghouse filter dust (BFD) is routed to be blended with the final cement prod...

  2. Propagation of dry tropical forest trees in Mexico

    Treesearch

    Martha A. Cervantes Sanchez

    2002-01-01

    There is a distinct lack of technical information on the propagation of native tree species from the dry tropical forest ecosystem in Mexico. This ecosystem has come under heavy human pressures to obtain several products such as specialty woods for fuel, posts for fences and construction, forage, edible fruits, stakes for horticulture crops, and medicinal products. The...

  3. DNA barcode authentication of wood samples of threatened and commercial timber trees within the tropical dry evergreen forest of India.

    PubMed

    Nithaniyal, Stalin; Newmaster, Steven G; Ragupathy, Subramanyam; Krishnamoorthy, Devanathan; Vassou, Sophie Lorraine; Parani, Madasamy

    2014-01-01

    India is rich with biodiversity, which includes a large number of endemic, rare and threatened plant species. Previous studies have used DNA barcoding to inventory species for applications in biodiversity monitoring, conservation impact assessment, monitoring of illegal trading, authentication of traded medicinal plants etc. This is the first tropical dry evergreen forest (TDEF) barcode study in the World and the first attempt to assemble a reference barcode library for the trees of India as part of a larger project initiated by this research group. We sampled 429 trees representing 143 tropical dry evergreen forest (TDEF) species, which included 16 threatened species. DNA barcoding was completed using rbcL and matK markers. The tiered approach (1st tier rbcL; 2nd tier matK) correctly identified 136 out of 143 species (95%). This high level of species resolution was largely due to the fact that the tree species were taxonomically diverse in the TDEF. Ability to resolve taxonomically diverse tree species of TDEF was comparable among the best match method, the phylogenetic method, and the characteristic attribute organization system method. We demonstrated the utility of the TDEF reference barcode library to authenticate wood samples from timber operations in the TDEF. This pilot research study will enable more comprehensive surveys of the illegal timber trade of threatened species in the TDEF. This TDEF reference barcode library also contains trees that have medicinal properties, which could be used to monitor unsustainable and indiscriminate collection of plants from the wild for their medicinal value.

  4. DNA Barcode Authentication of Wood Samples of Threatened and Commercial Timber Trees within the Tropical Dry Evergreen Forest of India

    PubMed Central

    Nithaniyal, Stalin; Newmaster, Steven G.; Ragupathy, Subramanyam; Krishnamoorthy, Devanathan; Vassou, Sophie Lorraine; Parani, Madasamy

    2014-01-01

    Background India is rich with biodiversity, which includes a large number of endemic, rare and threatened plant species. Previous studies have used DNA barcoding to inventory species for applications in biodiversity monitoring, conservation impact assessment, monitoring of illegal trading, authentication of traded medicinal plants etc. This is the first tropical dry evergreen forest (TDEF) barcode study in the World and the first attempt to assemble a reference barcode library for the trees of India as part of a larger project initiated by this research group. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled 429 trees representing 143 tropical dry evergreen forest (TDEF) species, which included 16 threatened species. DNA barcoding was completed using rbcL and matK markers. The tiered approach (1st tier rbcL; 2nd tier matK) correctly identified 136 out of 143 species (95%). This high level of species resolution was largely due to the fact that the tree species were taxonomically diverse in the TDEF. Ability to resolve taxonomically diverse tree species of TDEF was comparable among the best match method, the phylogenetic method, and the characteristic attribute organization system method. Conclusions We demonstrated the utility of the TDEF reference barcode library to authenticate wood samples from timber operations in the TDEF. This pilot research study will enable more comprehensive surveys of the illegal timber trade of threatened species in the TDEF. This TDEF reference barcode library also contains trees that have medicinal properties, which could be used to monitor unsustainable and indiscriminate collection of plants from the wild for their medicinal value. PMID:25259794

  5. Wood preservation

    Treesearch

    Stan T. Lebow

    2010-01-01

    Many commonly used wood species can deteriorate if exposed to conditions that support growth of wood-degrading organisms (see Chap. 14). Wood products can be protected from the attack of decay fungi, harmful insects, or marine borers by applying chemical preservatives. Preservative treatments greatly increase the life of wood structures, thus reducing replacement costs...

  6. Wood biodegradation in laboratory-scale landfills.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; Padgett, Jennifer M; De la Cruz, Florentino B; Barlaz, Morton A

    2011-08-15

    The objective of this research was to characterize the anaerobic biodegradability of major wood products in municipal waste by measuring methane yields, decay rates, the extent of carbohydrate decomposition, carbon storage, and leachate toxicity. Tests were conducted in triplicate 8 L reactors operated to obtain maximum yields. Measured methane yields for red oak, eucalyptus, spruce, radiata pine, plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB) from hardwood (HW) and softwood (SW), particleboard (PB) and medium-density fiberboard (MDF) were 32.5, 0, 7.5, 0.5, 6.3, 84.5, 0, 5.6, and 4.6 mL CH(4) dry g(-1), respectively. The red oak, a HW, exhibited greater decomposition than either SW (spruce and radiata), a trend that was also measured for the OSB-HW relative to OSB-SW. However, the eucalyptus (HW) exhibited toxicity. Thus, wood species have unique methane yields that should be considered in the development of national inventories of methane production and carbon storage. The current assumption of uniform biodegradability is not appropriate. The ammonia release from urea formaldehyde as present in PB and MDF could contribute to ammonia in landfill leachate. Using the extent of carbon conversion measured in this research, 0-19.9%, predicted methane production from a wood mixture using the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change waste model is only 7.9% of that predicted using the 50% carbon conversion default.

  7. Field pilot study on emissions, formations and distributions of PCDD/Fs from cement kiln co-processing fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guorui; Zhan, Jiayu; Zheng, Minghui; Li, Li; Li, Chunping; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Wang, Mei; Zhao, Yuyang; Jin, Rong

    2015-12-15

    A pilot study was performed to evaluate formation, distribution and emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from cement kilns that co-process fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). Stack gas and particulate samples from multiple stages in the process were collected and analyzed for PCDD/Fs. Stack emissions of PCDD/Fs were below the European Union limit for cement kilns (0.1 ng TEQ m(-3)). PCDD/F concentrations in particulates from the cyclone preheater outlet, suspension preheater boiler, humidifier tower, and back-end bag filter were much higher than in other samples, which suggests that these areas are the major sites of PCDD/F formation. Comparison of PCDD/F homolog and congener profiles from different stages suggested that tetra- and penta-chlorinated furans were mainly formed during cement kiln co-processing of MSWI fly ash. Three lower chlorinated furan congeners, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran, 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, were identified as dominant contributors to the toxic equivalents (TEQ) of the PCDD/Fs. The concentration of PCDD/Fs in particulates was correlated with chloride content, which is consistent with its positive effect on PCDD/F formation. This could be mitigated by pretreating the feedstock to remove chloride and metals. Mass balance indicated that cement kilns eliminated about 94% of the PCDD/F TEQ input from the feedstock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Wood anatomy of Pleodendron costaricense (Canellaceae) from Southern Pacific, Costa Rica

    Treesearch

    Roger Moya Roque; Manuel Morales Salazar; Michael C. Wiemann; Luis Poveda Alvarez

    2007-01-01

    Pleodendron costaricense N. Zamora, Hammel & R. Aguilar (Canellaceae) is an endemic species from the southern Pacific region of Costa Rica. It is rare and is considered to be a living fossil. The wood of P. costaricense has high density (0.92 Kg/cm3, air dry) with little distinction between heartwood and sapwood. The growth rings are marked...

  9. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Plywood Treated with a new Wood Preservative (CEB) Chemical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalawate, Aparna; Shahoo, Shadhu Charan; Khatua, Pijus Kanti; Das, Himadri Sekhar

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the physical and mechanical properties of the plywood made with phenolic glue and rubber wood as core veneer with CEB as a wood preservative. The studied properties were glue shear strength in dry, wet mycological, modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture and tensile strength in parallel to grain direction as per IS:1734 part-4, 11 and 9 (1983) respectively. Results of the above mentioned tests were compared with the prescribed values given in IS 710-2010 and results revealed that samples conformed the prescribed values.

  10. Emissions characterization of residential wood-fired hydronic heater technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsey, John S.; Touati, Abderrahmane; Yelverton, Tiffany L. B.; Aurell, Johanna; Cho, Seung-Hyun; Linak, William P.; Gullett, Brian K.

    2012-12-01

    Residential wood-fired hydronic heaters (RWHHs) can negatively impact the local ambient air quality and thus are an environmental concern in wood burning areas of the U. S. Only a few studies have been conducted which characterize the emissions from RWHHs. To address the lack of emissions data, a study was conducted on four appliances of differing design using multiple fuel types to determine their thermal, boiler, and combustion efficiency as well as the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), total particulate matter (PM) mass, and particle number as well as particle size distribution (PSD). Three of these appliances were fired with split-log cordwood with the fourth unit using hardwood pellets. The measured thermal efficiencies for the appliances tested varied from 22 to 44% and the combustion efficiencies from 81 to 98%. Depending on appliance and fuel type, the emission factors ranged from about 1300 to 1800 g kg-1 dry fuel for CO2, 8-190 g kg-1 dry fuel for CO, <1-54 g kg-1 dry fuel for THC and 6-120 mg kg-1 for N2O. For the particle phase pollutants, the PM mass emission factors ranged from 0.31 to 47 g kg-1 dry fuel and the PM number emission factors from 8.5 × 1010 to 2.4 × 1014 particles kg-1 dry fuel, also depending on the appliance and fuel tested. The PSD for all four appliances indicated a well established accumulation mode with evidence of a nucleation mode present for Appliances A and B. The average median aerodynamic particle diameters observed for the four appliances ranged from 84 to 187 nm while burning red oak or pellets. In general, the pellet-burning appliance had the highest overall operating efficiency and lowest emissions of the four units tested.

  11. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer August 1931, EXTERIOR VIEW OF KILN, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Apple Drying Kiln, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  12. Elemental analyses of pine bark and wood in an environmental study.

    PubMed

    Saarela, K-E; Harju, L; Rajander, J; Lill, J-O; Heselius, S-J; Lindroos, A; Mattsson, K

    2005-05-01

    Bark and wood samples were taken from the same individuals of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from a polluted area close to a Cu-Ni smelter in Harjavalta and from some relatively unpolluted areas in western Finland. The samples were analysed by thick-target particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) after preconcentration by dry ashing at 550 degrees C. The elemental contents of pine bark and wood were compared to study the impact of heavy metal pollution on pine trees. By comparison of the elemental contents in ashes of bark and wood, a normalisation was obtained. For the relatively clean areas, the ratios of the concentration in bark ash to the concentration in wood ash for different elements were close to 1. This means that the ashes of Scots Pine wood and bark have quite similar elemental composition. For the samples from the polluted area the mean concentration ratios for some heavy metals were elevated (13-28), reflecting the effect of direct atmospheric contamination. The metal contents in the ashes of pine bark and wood were also compared to recommendations for ashes to be recycled back to the forest environment. Bark from areas close to emission sources of heavy metal pollution should be considered with caution if aiming at recycling the ash. Burning of bark fuel of pine grown within 6 km of the Cu-Ni smelter is shown to generate ashes with high levels of Cu, Ni as well as Cd, As and Pb.

  13. Competitive outcomes between wood-decaying fungi are altered in burnt wood.

    PubMed

    Edman, Mattias; Eriksson, Anna-Maria

    2016-06-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in boreal forests where it creates a wide variety of charred and other types of heat-modified dead wood substrates, yet how these substrates affect fungal community structure and development within wood is poorly understood. We allowed six species of wood-decaying basidiomycetes to compete in pairs in wood-discs that were experimentally burnt before fungal inoculation. The outcomes of interactions in burnt wood differed from those in unburnt control wood for two species:Antrodia sinuosanever lost on burnt wood and won over its competitor in 67% of the trials compared to 40% losses and 20% wins on unburnt wood. In contrast, Ischnoderma benzoinumwon all interactions on unburnt wood compared to 33% on burnt wood. However, the responses differed depending on the identity of the competing species, suggesting an interaction between competitor and substrate type. The observed shift in competitive balance between fungal species probably results from chemical changes in burnt wood, but the underlying mechanism needs further investigation. Nevertheless, the results indicate that forest fires indirectly structure fungal communities by modifying dead wood, and highlight the importance of fire-affected dead wood substrates in boreal forests. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Wood Stove Pollution in the Developed World: A Case to Raise Awareness Among Pediatricians.

    PubMed

    Rokoff, Lisa B; Koutrakis, Petros; Garshick, Eric; Karagas, Margaret R; Oken, Emily; Gold, Diane R; Fleisch, Abby F

    2017-06-01

    Use of wood for residential heating is regaining popularity in developed countries. Currently, over 11 million US homes are heated with a wood stove. Although wood stoves reduce heating costs, wood smoke may adversely impact child health through the emission of gaseous and particulate air pollutants. Our purpose is to raise awareness of this environmental health issue among pediatricians. To summarize the state of the science, we performed a narrative review of articles published in PubMed and Web of Science. We identified 36 studies in developed countries that reported associations of household wood stove use and/or community wood smoke exposure with pediatric health outcomes. Studies primarily investigated respiratory outcomes, with no evaluation of cardiometabolic or neurocognitive health. Studies found community wood smoke exposure to be consistently associated with adverse pediatric respiratory health. Household wood stove use was less consistently associated with respiratory outcomes. However, studies of household wood stoves always relied on participant self-report of wood stove use, while studies of community wood smoke generally assessed air pollution exposure directly and more precisely in larger study populations. In most studies, important potential confounders, such as markers of socioeconomic status, were unaccounted for and may have biased results. We conclude that studies with improved exposure assessment, that measure and account for confounding, and that consider non-respiratory outcomes are needed. While awaiting additional data, pediatricians can refer patients to precautionary measures recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to mitigate exposure. These include replacing old appliances with EPA-certified stoves, properly maintaining the stove, and using only dry, well-seasoned wood. In addition, several studies have shown mechanical air filters to effectively reduce wood stove pollution exposure in affected homes and

  15. Wood Stove Pollution in the Developed World: A Case to Raise Awareness Among Pediatricians

    PubMed Central

    Rokoff, Lisa B.; Koutrakis, Petros; Garshick, Eric; Karagas, Margaret R.; Oken, Emily; Gold, Diane R.; Fleisch, Abby F.

    2017-01-01

    Use of wood for residential heating is regaining popularity in developed countries. Currently, over 11 million US homes are heated with a wood stove. Although wood stoves reduce heating costs, wood smoke may adversely impact child health through the emission of gaseous and particulate air pollutants. Our purpose is to raise awareness of this environmental health issue among pediatricians. To summarize the state of the science, we performed a narrative review of articles published in PubMed and Web of Science. We identified 36 studies in developed countries that reported associations of household wood stove use and/or community wood smoke exposure with pediatric health outcomes. Studies primarily investigated respiratory outcomes, with no evaluation of cardiometabolic or neurocognitive health. Studies found community wood smoke exposure to be consistently associated with adverse pediatric respiratory health. Household wood stove use was less consistently associated with respiratory outcomes. However, studies of household wood stoves always relied on participant self-report of wood stove use, while studies of community wood smoke generally assessed air pollution exposure directly and more precisely in larger study populations. In most studies, important potential confounders, such as markers of socioeconomic status, were unaccounted for and may have biased results. We conclude that studies with improved exposure assessment, that measure and account for confounding, and that consider non-respiratory outcomes are needed. While awaiting additional data, pediatricians can refer patients to precautionary measures recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to mitigate exposure. These include replacing old appliances with EPA-certified stoves, properly maintaining the stove, and using only dry, well-seasoned wood. In addition, several studies have shown mechanical air filters to effectively reduce wood stove pollution exposure in affected homes and

  16. Cohering Behavior of Coal Ash with Pellet Scrap Powder and Relationship Between Coal Ash and Kiln Ringing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yong-bin; Zhang, Yan; Zhong, Qiang; Jiang, Tao; Li, Qian; Xu, Bin

    The occurrence of different ringing behaviors in oxidized pellet kiln for two kinds of coal (A and B) with similar properties, is difficult to explain based on the relationship between kiln ringing and coal properties. In this paper, the interaction of coal ash with pellet scrap powder was considered by studying the cohering behavior of powders consisting of them. The results showed that the cohering briquette strength of pellet scrap powder increased considerably when mixed with a small amount of coal ash; a maximum could be reached when the mass percent ratio of coal ash was 1.5%; the strength of powder mixed with coal B ash was always higher in same firing system. This obviously illustrated that coal B caused a more serious ringing problem. The relevant mechanism was that the stronger reactivity of coal B ash made cohering briquette have a more perfect crystallization and a more compact structure.

  17. Wood Export and Deposition Dynamics in Mountain Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senter, Anne Elizabeth

    conditions and accompanying hydrologic responses. Chapter 2 contains development of new theory in support of the introduction of multiplicative coefficients, categorized by water year type, that were used to predict wood export quantities via utilization of an existing discharge-based theoretical equation. This new theory was the product of continued investigations into watershed-scale factors in search of explanation of observed variation of wood export rates into New Bullards Bar Reservoir. The gap between known variability and the attribution of wood export to one hydrologic relation continues to be a persistent issue, as the hierarchical and stochastic temporal and spatial nature of wood budget components remain difficult to quantify. The development of "watershed processes" coefficients was specifically focused on a generalized, parsimonious approach using water year type categories, with validation exercises supporting the approach. In dry years, predictions more closely represented observed wood export quantities, whereas the previously derived annual peak discharge relation yielded large over-predictions. Additional data are needed to continue development of these watershed-specific coefficients. This new approach to wood export prediction may be beneficial in regulated river systems for planning purposes, and its efficacy could be tested in other watersheds. Chapter 3 presents the results of an investigation into wood deposition mechanisms in a 12.2 km segment of the confined, bedrock-dominated South Yuba River watershed. Inclusion of coarse wood particles in the analyses was essential in recognizing depositional patterns, thus supporting the value of utilizing a wider wood-size range. A near-census data collection effort yielded myriad data, of which topographic wetted width and bed elevation data, developed for an observed 4.5-year flood event, were standardized in 10-m intervals and then univariate and linked values were ordered into landform classifications

  18. Analysis of the dielectric properties of trunk wood in dominant conifer species from New England and Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, K. J.; Rock, B. N.; Salas, W. A.; Smith, K.; Williams, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Data were collected for dominant conifer species. Dielectric properties of trunk wood were measured using a C-band dielectric probe. For certain specimens, electrical resistance was also measured using a shigometer. The water status of the trees studies was determined either by use of a Scholander pressure chamber on branch samples collected simultaneously with dielectric measurements or by fresh-weight/dry-weight assessment of wood core samples extracted and analyzed with the dielectric probe and shigometer. Diurnal delectric properties and xylem water column tension are inversely correlated such that real and imaginary dielectric values drop as tension increases. The dielectric properties were positively correlated with wood core moisture content while electrical resistance was poorly correlated with wood core moisture content in one species studied. Results support the view that dielectric properties are strongly correlated with moisture status in trunk wood, and possibly ion concentrations associated with decay processes in damaged specimens.

  19. Emissions of metals and polychlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) from Portland cement manufacturing plants: inter-kiln variability and dependence on fuel-types.

    PubMed

    Zemba, Stephen; Ames, Michael; Green, Laura; Botelho, Maria João; Gossman, David; Linkov, Igor; Palma-Oliveira, José

    2011-09-15

    Emissions from Portland cement manufacturing facilities may increase health risks in nearby populations and are thus subject to stringent regulations. Direct testing of pollutant concentrations in exhaust gases provides the best basis for assessing the extent of these risks. However, these tests (i) are often conducted under stressed, rather than typical, operating conditions, (ii) may be limited in number and duration, and (iii) may be influenced by specific fuel-types and attributes of individual kilns. We report here on the results of more than 150 emissions-tests conducted of two kilns at a Portland cement manufacturing plant in Portugal. The tests measured various regulated metals and polychlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs). Stack-gas concentrations of pollutants were found to be highly variable, with standard deviations on the order of mean values. Emission rates of many pollutants were higher when coal was used as the main kiln fuel (instead of petroleum coke). Use of various supplemental fuels, however, had little effect on stack emissions, and few statistically significant differences were observed when hazardous waste was included in the fuel mix. Significant differences in emissions for some pollutants were observed between the two kilns despite their similar designs and uses of similar fuels. All measured values were found to be within applicable regulatory limits. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. How the user can influence particulate emissions from residential wood and pellet stoves: Emission factors for different fuels and burning conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fachinger, Friederike; Drewnick, Frank; Gieré, Reto; Borrmann, Stephan

    2017-06-01

    For a common household wood stove and a pellet stove we investigated the dependence of emission factors for various gaseous and particulate pollutants on burning phase, burning condition, and fuel. Ideal and non-ideal burning conditions (dried wood, under- and overload, small logs, logs with bark, excess air) were used. We tested 11 hardwood species (apple, ash, bangkirai, birch, beech, cherry, hickory, oak, olive, plum, sugar maple), 4 softwood species (Douglas fir, pine, spruce, spruce/fir), treated softwood, beech and oak wood briquettes, paper briquettes, brown coal, wood chips, and herbaceous species (miscanthus, Chinese silver grass) as fuel. Particle composition (black carbon, non-refractory, and some semi-refractory species) was measured continuously. Repeatability was shown to be better for the pellet stove than for the wood stove. It was shown that the user has a strong influence on wood stove emission behavior both by selection of the fuel and of the burning conditions: Combustion efficiency was found to be low at both very low and very high burn rates, and influenced particle properties such as particle number, mass, and organic content in a complex way. No marked differences were found for the emissions from different wood species. For non-woody fuels, much higher emission factors could be observed (up to five-fold increase). Strongest enhancement of emission factors was found for burning of small or dried logs (up to six-fold), and usage of excess air (two- to three-fold). Real world pellet stove emissions can be expected to be much closer to laboratory-derived emission factors than wood stove emissions, due to lower dependence on user operation.

  1. Wood fuel preparation

    Treesearch

    L. H. Reineke

    1965-01-01

    This report gives information on the preparation of wood fuel from wood residues and other wood raw materials. Types of wood fuel discussed are cordwood, stovewood, slabwood, kindling, chips, hogged fuel, sawdust and shavings, bark, charcoal, alcohol, and briquets. Related information is given on types of machinery for preparing wood fuel and on possible markets for...

  2. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest

    PubMed Central

    de Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; de Faria, Maurício Lopes; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. PMID:27271969

  3. Influence of wood-derived biochar on the physico-mechanical and chemical characteristics of agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Ahmed S. F.; Raghavan, Vijaya

    2018-01-01

    Amendment of soil with biochar has been shown to enhance fertility and increase crop productivity, but the specific influence of biochar on soil workability remains unclear. Select physico-mechanical and chemical properties of clay loam and sandy loam soils were measured after amendment with wood-derived biochar of two particle size ranges (0.5-425 and 425-850 µm) at five dosages ranging from 0.5 to 10% dry weight. Whereas the clay loam soil workability decreased when the finer wood-derived biochar was applied at rates of 6 or 10%, soil fertility was not enhanced. The sandy loam soil, due to Proctor compaction, significantly decreased in bulk density with 6 and 10% wood-derived biochar amendments indicating higher soil resistance to compaction.

  4. Dry Matter Losses and Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Outside Storage of Short Rotation Coppice Willow Chip.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Carly; Yates, Nicola E; Powers, Stephen J; Misselbrook, Tom; Shield, Ian

    This study examined the dry matter losses and the greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations within two short rotation coppice (SRC) willow wood chip storage heaps. One heap was built on a grassland area (East Midlands) and the other (Rothamsted) on a concrete hard standing. A series of 1- and 3-m probes were embedded in the heaps in order to retrieve gas samples for analysis, and pre-weighed net bags were positioned in the core of the heap to detect dry matter losses. The bagged samples showed dry matter losses of 18 and 19 % in the East Midlands and Rothamsted heaps after 210 and 97 days storage, respectively. The Rothamsted heap showed a whole-heap dry matter loss of 21 %. During this time, the wood chips dried from 54 to 39 % moisture content in the East Midlands heap and 50 to 43 % at Rothamsted. The results from analysing the whole Rothamsted heap indicated an overall loss of 1.5 GJ per tonne stored, although measurements from bagged samples in the core suggested that the chips dried sufficiently to have a minimal energy loss from storage. The process of mixing the heap, however, led to incorporation of wet outer layers and hence the average moisture content was higher in an average sample of chip. After establishment of the heaps, the temperature rose rapidly and this correlated with a peak in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration within the heap. A peak in methane (CH 4 ) concentration was also detected in both heaps, though more noticeably in the East Midlands heap after around 55 days. In both instances, the peak CH 4 concentration occurred as CO 2 concentrations dropped, suggesting that after an active period of aerobic decomposition in the first 2 months of storage, the conditions in the heap became anaerobic. The results from this study suggest that outside wood chip storage is not an efficient method of storing biomass, though this may be location-specific as there are some studies showing lower dry matter losses. It is necessary to explore other

  5. Ground-Water Budgets for the Wood River Valley Aquifer System, South-Central Idaho, 1995-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, James R.

    2009-01-01

    The Wood River Valley contains most of the population of Blaine County and the cities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, Haley, and Bellevue. This mountain valley is underlain by the alluvial Wood River Valley aquifer system which consists of a single unconfined aquifer that underlies the entire valley, an underlying confined aquifer that is present only in the southernmost valley, and the confining unit that separates them. The entire population of the area depends on ground water for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, and rapid population growth since the 1970s has caused concern about the long-term sustainability of the ground-water resource. To help address these concerns this report describes a ground-water budget developed for the Wood River Valley aquifer system for three selected time periods: average conditions for the 10-year period 1995-2004, and the single years of 1995 and 2001. The 10-year period 1995-2004 represents a range of conditions in the recent past for which measured data exist. Water years 1995 and 2001 represent the wettest and driest years, respectively, within the 10-year period based on precipitation at the Ketchum Ranger Station. Recharge or inflow to the Wood River Valley aquifer system occurs through seven main sources (from largest to smallest): infiltration from tributary canyons, streamflow loss from the Big Wood River, areal recharge from precipitation and applied irrigation water, seepage from canals and recharge pits, leakage from municipal pipes, percolation from septic systems, and subsurface inflow beneath the Big Wood River in the northern end of the valley. Total estimated mean annual inflow or recharge to the aquifer system for 1995-2004 is 270,000 acre-ft/yr (370 ft3/s). Total recharge for the wet year 1995 and the dry year 2001 is estimated to be 270,000 acre-ft/yr (370 ft3/s) and 220,000 acre-ft/yr (300 ft3/s), respectively. Discharge or outflow from the Wood River Valley aquifer system occurs through

  6. Influence of wood barrels classified by NIRS on the ellagitannin content/composition and on the organoleptic properties of wine.

    PubMed

    Michel, Julien; Jourdes, Michael; Le Floch, Alexandra; Giordanengo, Thomas; Mourey, Nicolas; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-11-20

    Ellagitannins are extracted from oak wood during wine aging in oak barrels. This research is based on the NIRS (Oakscan) oak wood classification according to their index polyphenolic (IP) (between 21.07 and 70.15). Their level in wood is very variable (between 5.95 and 32.91 mg/g dry wood) and influenced their concentration in red wine (between 2.30 and 32.56 mg/L after 24 months of aging) and thus their impact on wine organoleptic properties. The results show a good correlation between the NIRS classification and the chemical analysis (HPLC-UV-MS and acidic hydrolysis procedure) and with the wood ellagitannin level, the ellagitannin extraction kinetic, and the ellagitannins evolution in red wine (Cabernet Sauvignon). Moreover, a correlation between the NIRS classification and the increasing intensity of some wood aromas (woody, spicy, vanilla, and smoked/toasted), flavors (bitterness and astringency), and a decreasing intensity of fruitiness was also observed.

  7. Detail of pier structure and wood fenders of Facility No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of pier structure and wood fenders of Facility No. B-1, showing floats in foreground and bollards on pier, view facing east - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, South Quay Wall & Repair Wharf, L-shaped portion of quay walls starting at east side of mouth of Dry Dock No. 1, continuing along ocean side of Sixth Street, adjacent to Pier B-2, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Wood-related occupations, wood dust exposure, and sinonasal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hayes, R B; Gerin, M; Raatgever, J W; de Bruyn, A

    1986-10-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine the relations between type of woodworking and the extent of wood dust exposure to the risks for specific histologic types of sinonasal cancer. In cooperation with the major treatment centers in the Netherlands, 116 male patients newly diagnosed between 1978 and 1981 with primary malignancies of epithelial origin of this site were identified for study. Living controls were selected from the municipal registries, and deceased controls were selected from the national death registry. Interviews were completed for 91 (78%) cases and 195 (75%) controls. Job histories were coded by industry and occupation. An index of exposure was developed to classify the extent of occupational exposure to wood dust. When necessary, adjustment was made for age and usual cigarette use. The risk for nasal adenocarcinoma was elevated by industry for the wood and paper industry (odds ratio (OR) = 11.9) and by occupation for those employed in furniture and cabinet making (OR = 139.8), in factory joinery and carpentry work (OR = 16.3), and in association with high-level wood dust exposure (OR = 26.3). Other types of nasal cancer were not found to be associated with wood-related industries or occupations. A moderate excess in risk for squamous cell cancer (OR = 2.5) was associated with low-level wood dust exposure; however, no dose-response relation was evident. The association between wood dust and adenocarcinoma was strongest for those employed in wood dust-related occupations between 1930 and 1941. The risk of adenocarcinoma did not appear to decrease for at least 15 years after termination of exposure to wood dust. No cases of nasal adenocarcinoma were observed in men whose first exposure to wood dust occurred after 1941.

  9. Drying and heat decomposition of biomass during the production of biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubov, V. K.; Popova, E. I.

    2017-11-01

    The process of wood torrefaction provides an opportunity to combine properties of biofuel and steam coal. Different degrees of biofuel heat treating leads to varied outcomes and varied biochar heating value. Therefore, the torrefaction process requires optimal operation that ensures the highest heating value of biochar with the lowest energy loss. In this paper we present the experimental results of drying cycle and thermal decomposition of particles of spruce stem wood and hydrolytic lignin in argon under various temperature conditions and basic material humidity as well as changes in the morphological structure of the biomass and its grain size composition during the torrefaction.

  10. [Evaluating the Significance of Odor Gas Released During the Directly Drying Process of Sludge: Based on the Multi-index Integrated Assessment Method].

    PubMed

    Ding, Wen-jie; Chen, Wen-he; Deng, Ming-jia; Luo, Hui; Li, Lin; Liu, Jun-xin

    2016-02-15

    Co-processing of sewage sludge using the cement kiln can realize sludge harmless treatment, quantity reduction, stabilization and reutilization. The moisture content should be reduced to below 30% to meet the requirement of combustion. Thermal drying is an effective way for sludge desiccation. Odors and volatile organic compounds are generated and released during the sludge drying process, which could lead to odor pollution. The main odor pollutants were selected by the multi-index integrated assessment method. The concentration, olfactory threshold, threshold limit value, smell security level and saturated vapor pressure were considered as indexes based on the related regulations in China and foreign countries. Taking the pollution potential as the evaluation target, and the risk index and odor emission intensity as evaluation indexes, the odor pollution potential rated evaluation model of the pollutants was built according to the Weber-Fechner law. The aim of the present study is to form the rating evaluation method of odor potential pollution capacity suitable for the directly drying process of sludge.

  11. Effect of cement/wood ratios and wood storage conditions on hydration temperature, hydration time, and compressive strength of wood-cement mixtures

    Treesearch

    Andy W.C. Lee; Zhongli Hong; Douglas R. Phillips; Chung-Yun Hse

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of cement/wood ratios and wood storage conditions on hydration temperature, hydration time, and compressive strength of wood-cement mixtures made from six wood species: southern pine, white oak, southern red oak, yellow-poplar, sweetgum, and hickory. Cement/wood ratios varied from 13/1 to 4/1. Wood storage conditions consisted of air-...

  12. Wood preservation

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    2003-01-01

    When wood is exposed to various environmental conditions, many degradation reactions (biological, ultraviolet, mechanical, moisture, and chemical) can occur. To protect wood from biological degradation, chemical preservatives are applied by nonpressure or pressure treatment. Penetration and retention of a chemical depend upon the wood species and the amount of...

  13. Life cycle assessment of the use of alternative fuels in cement kilns: A case study.

    PubMed

    Georgiopoulou, Martha; Lyberatos, Gerasimos

    2018-06-15

    The benefits of using alternative fuels (AFs) in the cement industry include reduction of the use of non-renewable fossil fuels and lower emissions of greenhouse gases, since fossil fuels are replaced with materials that would otherwise be degraded or incinerated with corresponding emissions and final residues. Furthermore, the use of alternative fuels maximizes the recovery of energy. Seven different scenaria were developed for the production of 1 ton of clinker in a rotary cement kiln. Each of these scenaria includes the use of alternative fuels such as RDF (Refuse derived fuel), TDF (Tire derived fuel) and BS (Biological sludge) or a mixture of them, in partial replacement of conventional fuels such as coal and pet coke. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the environmental impacts of the use of alternative fuels in relation to conventional fuels in the kiln operation. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used to quantify the potential environmental impacts in each scenario. The interpretation of the results provides the conclusion that the most environmentally friendly prospect is the scenario based on RDF while the less preferable scenario is the scenario based on BS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Wood as an adherend

    Treesearch

    Bryan H. River; Charles B. Vick; Robert H. Gillespie

    1991-01-01

    Wood is a porous, permeable, hygroscopic, orthotropic, biological composite material of extreme chemical diversity and physical intricacy. Table 1.1 provides an overview of the may variables, including wood variables, that bear on the bonding and performance of wood in wood joints and wood-based materials. Of particular note is the fact that wood properties vary...

  15. Associations between regional moisture gradient, tree species dominance, and downed wood abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. C.; Mills, J.

    2007-12-01

    Downed wood functions as a source of nurse logs, physical structure in streams, food, and carbon. Because downed wood is important in upland and aquatic habitats, an understanding of wood recruitment along a continuum from wet to dry landscapes is critical for both preservation of biodiversity and restoration of natural ecosystem structure and function. We assessed downed wood in public and private forests of Washington and Oregon by using a subset of the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) database including 15,842 sampled conditions. Multivariate regression trees, ANOVA, and t-tests were used to discern environmental conditions most closely associated with abundance of woody debris. Of the 16 parameters included in the analysis, rainfall, forest ownership, number of damaged standing trees, and forest elevation were most indicative of woody debris abundance. The Hemlock/spruce Group, including hemlock, spruce, cedar, and white pine, most associated with wetter soils, had significantly more downed wood than 12 other forest groups. The Ponderosa Pine Group, indicative of drier sites with higher fire frequencies, included ponderosa pine, sugar pine, and incense cedar, and had significantly less downed wood volume. Overall, the amount of woody debris in either the Spruce/hemlock Group or the Ponderosa Pine Group did not change significantly as tree age increased from 5 to 350 years. Plots within the Hemlock/spruce with greater standing tree volume also had significantly greater downed wood volume. In contrast, greater downed wood volume was not associated with greater standing tree volume in the Ponderosa Pine Group. Knowledge of linkages among environmental variables and stand characteristics are useful in development of regional forest models aimed at understanding the effects of climate change and disturbance on forest succession.

  16. Utilizing TEMPO surface estimates to determine changes in emissions, community exposure and environmental impacts from cement kilns across North America using alternative fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegg, M. J.; Gibson, M. D.; Asamany, E.

    2015-12-01

    A major problem faced by all North American (NA) Governments is managing solid waste from residential and non-residential sources. One way to mitigate the need to expand landfill sites across NA is waste diversion for use as alternative fuel in industries such as cement manufacture. Currently, waste plastic, tires, waste shingles and other high carbon content waste destined for landfill are being explored, or currently used, as an alternative supplemental fuels for use in cement kilns across NA. While this is an attractive, environmentally sustainable solution, significant knowledge gaps remain in our fundamental understanding of whether these alternative fuels may lead to increased air pollution emissions from cement kilns across NA. The long-term objective of using TEMPO is to advance fundamental understanding of uncharacterized air pollution emissions and to assess the actual or potential environmental and health impacts of these emissions from cement kilns across NA. TEMPO measurements will be made in concert with in-situ observations augmented by air dispersion, land-use regression and receptor modelling. This application of TEMPO follows on from current research on a series of bench scale and pilot studies for Lafarge Canada Inc., that investigated the change in combustion emissions from various mixtures of coal (C), petroleum coke (PC) and non-recyclable alternative fuels. From our work we demonstrated that using an alternative fuel mixture in a cement kiln has potential to reduce emissions of CO2 by 34%; reduce NOx by 80%, and reduce fuel SO2 emissions by 98%. We also provided evidence that there would be a significant reduction in the formation of secondary ground-level ozone (O3) and secondary PM2.5 in downwind stack plumes if alternative waste derived fuels are used. The application of air dispersion, source apportionment, land use regression; together with remote sensing offers a powerful set of tools with the potential to improve air pollution

  17. Projected wood energy impact on US forest wood resources

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Skog, K.E.

    1993-12-31

    The USDA Forest Service has developed long-term projections of wood energy use as part of a 1993 assessment of demand for and supply of resources from forest and range lands in the United States. To assess the impact of wood energy demand on timber resources, a market equilibrium model based on linear programming was developed to project residential, industrial, commercial, and utility wood energy use from various wood energy sources: roundwood from various land sources, primary wood products mill residue, other wood residue, and black liquor. Baseline projections are driven by projected price of fossil fuels compared to price ofmore » wood fuels and the projected increase in total energy use in various end uses. Wood energy use is projected to increase from 2.67 quad in 1986 to 3.5 quad in 2030 and 3.7 quad in 2040. This is less than the DOE National Energy Strategy projection of 5.5 quad in 2030. Wood energy from forest sources (roundwood) is projected to increase from 3.1 billion (10{sup 9}) ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 4.4. billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 4.8 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (88, 124 and 136 million m{sup 3}, respectively). This rate of increase of roundwood use for fuel -- 0.8 percent per year -- is virtually the same as the projected increase rate for roundwood for pulpwood. Pulpwood roundwood is projected to increase from 4.2 billion ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 6.0 billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 6.4 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (119, 170 and 183 million m{sup 3}, respectively).« less

  18. Kiln drying maple for structural uses

    Treesearch

    Xiping Wang; William T. Simpson; Brian K. Brashaw; Robert J. Ross

    2002-01-01

    Structural lumber products are traditionally manufactured from softwoods. However, with shrinking supplies of softwood lumber and abundant supplies of hardwood lumber, there is increasing interest in the use of hardwoods for structural applications. One factor that will be important in both the technical and economic feasibility of using hardwoods for structural lumber...

  19. Growth and wood/bark properties of Abies faxoniana seedlings as affected by elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yun-Zhou; Zhang, Yuan-Bin; Wang, Kai-Yun; Wang, Qian; Tian, Qi-Zhuo

    2008-03-01

    Growth and wood and bark properties of Abies faxoniana seedlings after one year's exposure to elevated CO2 concentration (ambient + 350 (+/- 25) micromol/mol) under two planting densities (28 or 84 plants/m(2)) were investigated in closed-top chambers. Tree height, stem diameter and cross-sectional area, and total biomass were enhanced under elevated CO2 concentration, and reduced under high planting density. Most traits of stem bark were improved under elevated CO2 concentration and reduced under high planting density. Stem wood production was significantly increased in volume under elevated CO2 concentration under both densities, and the stem wood density decreased under elevated CO2 concentration and increased under high planting density. These results suggest that the response of stem wood and bark to elevated CO2 concentration is density dependent. This may be of great importance in a future CO2 enriched world in natural forests where plant density varies considerably. The results also show that the bark/wood ratio in diameter, stem cross-sectional area and dry weight are not proportionally affected by elevated CO2 concentration under the two contrasting planting densities. This indicates that the response magnitude of stem bark and stem wood to elevated CO2 concentration are different but their response directions are the same.

  20. The Fungal Degradation of Wood and Wood Products Selected Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    Pi 0-Alt^Jihi 1 TECHNICAL LIBRARY SPECIAL PUBLICATION ARLCD-SP-81006 THE FUNGAL DEGRADATION OF WOOD AND WOOD PRODUCTS SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY...GOVT ACCESSION NO. READ INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE fand SubJltJo; THE FUNGAL DEGRADATION OF...search con- centrated on the microbiological deterioration or degradation of wood (trees) or wood products which are found or used in tropical

  1. Linking wood anatomy and xylogenesis allows pinpointing of climate and drought influences on growth of coexisting conifers in continental Mediterranean climate.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Arturo; Camarero, J Julio; Carrer, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Forecasted warmer and drier conditions will probably lead to reduced growth rates and decreased carbon fixation in long-term woody pools in drought-prone areas. We therefore need a better understanding of how climate stressors such as drought constrain wood formation and drive changes in wood anatomy. Drying trends could lead to reduced growth if they are more intense in spring, when radial growth rates of conifers in continental Mediterranean climates peak. Since tree species from the aforementioned areas have to endure dry summers and also cold winters, we chose two coexisting species: Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensisMill., Pinaceae) and Spanish juniper (Juniperus thuriferaL., Cupressaceae) (10 randomly selected trees per species), to analyze how growth (tree-ring width) and wood-anatomical traits (lumen transversal area, cell-wall thickness, presence of intra-annual density fluctuations-IADFs-in the latewood) responded to climatic variables (minimum and maximum temperatures, precipitation, soil moisture deficit) calculated for different time intervals. Tree-ring width and mean lumen area showed similar year-to-year variability, which indicates that they encoded similar climatic signals. Wet and cool late-winter to early-spring conditions increased lumen area expansion, particularly in pine. In juniper, cell-wall thickness increased when early summer conditions became drier and the frequency of latewood IADFs increased in parallel with late-summer to early-autumn wet conditions. Thus, latewood IADFs of the juniper capture increased water availability during the late growing season, which is reflected in larger tracheid lumens. Soil water availability was one of the main drivers of wood formation and radial growth for the two species. These analyses allow long-term (several decades) growth and wood-anatomical responses to climate to be inferred at intra-annual scales, which agree with the growing patterns already described by xylogenesis approaches for the same

  2. Ion Beam Analyses Of Bark And Wood In Environmental Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lill, J.-O.; Saarela, K.-E.; Harju, L.; Rajander, J.; Lindroos, A.; Heselius, S.-J.

    2011-06-01

    A large number of wood and bark samples have been analysed utilizing particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. Samples of common tree species like Scots Pine, Norway Spruce and birch were collected from a large number of sites in Southern and Southwestern Finland. Some of the samples were from a heavily polluted area in the vicinity of a copper-nickel smelter. The samples were dry ashed at 550 °C for the removal of the organic matrix in order to increase the analytical sensitivity of the method. The sensitivity was enhanced by a factor of 50 for wood and slightly less for bark. The ashed samples were pressed into pellets and irradiated as thick targets with a millimetre-sized proton beam. By including the ashing procedure in the method, the statistical dispersion due to elemental heterogeneities in wood material could be reduced. As a by-product, information about the elemental composition of ashes was obtained. By comparing the concentration of an element in bark ash to the concentration in wood ash of the same tree useful information from environmental point of view was obtained. The obtained ratio of the ashes was used to distinguish between elemental contributions from anthropogenic atmospheric sources and natural geochemical sources, like soil and bedrock.

  3. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest.

    PubMed

    Macedo-Reis, Luiz Eduardo; Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes de; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; Faria, Maurício Lopes de; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  4. Finishing of wood

    Treesearch

    R. Sam Williams

    1999-01-01

    The primary function of any wood finish (paint, varnish, and stain, for example) is to protect the wood surface, help maintain a certain appearance, and provide a cleanable surface. Although wood can be used both outdoors and indoors without finishing, unfinished wood surfaces exposed to the weather change color, are roughened by photodegradation and surface checking,...

  5. Intraspecific Relationships among Wood Density, Leaf Structural Traits and Environment in Four Co-Occurring Species of Nothofagus in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Sarah J.; Allen, Robert B.; Buxton, Rowan P.; Easdale, Tomás A.; Hurst, Jennifer M.; Morse, Christopher W.; Smissen, Rob D.; Peltzer, Duane A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant functional traits capture important variation in plant strategy and function. Recent literature has revealed that within-species variation in traits is greater than previously supposed. However, we still have a poor understanding of how intraspecific variation is coordinated among different traits, and how it is driven by environment. We quantified intraspecific variation in wood density and five leaf traits underpinning the leaf economics spectrum (leaf dry matter content, leaf mass per unit area, size, thickness and density) within and among four widespread Nothofagus tree species in southern New Zealand. We tested whether intraspecific relationships between wood density and leaf traits followed widely reported interspecific relationships, and whether variation in these traits was coordinated through shared responses to environmental factors. Sample sites varied widely in environmental variables, including soil fertility (25–900 mg kg–1 total P), precipitation (668–4875 mm yr–1), temperature (5.2–12.4 °C mean annual temperature) and latitude (41–46 °S). Leaf traits were strongly correlated with one another within species, but not with wood density. There was some evidence for a positive relationship between wood density and leaf tissue density and dry matter content, but no evidence that leaf mass or leaf size were correlated with wood density; this highlights that leaf mass per unit area cannot be used as a surrogate for component leaf traits such as tissue density. Trait variation was predicted by environmental factors, but not consistently among different traits; e.g., only leaf thickness and leaf density responded to the same environmental cues as wood density. We conclude that although intraspecific variation in wood density and leaf traits is strongly driven by environmental factors, these responses are not strongly coordinated among functional traits even across co-occurring, closely-related plant species. PMID:23527041

  6. Why do some wood-adhesive bonds respond poorly to accelerated moisture-resistant tests?

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart; James M. Wescott

    2008-01-01

    The most challenging part of developing acceptable adhesives for wood bonding often is to create a bond that will withstand exposure to wet conditions or wet/dry cycles. Products that pass these tests have been developed empirically, but the aspects that make it difficult for adhesives to pass these tests and systematically ways to develop more durable adhesive bonds...

  7. Former charcoal kiln sites where forest was cleared for cultivation: a case study of old biochar in cropland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Brieuc; Dufey, Joseph E.; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The use of biochar as a soil amendment is being increasingly investigated as a win-win solution for mitigating the anthropic CO2 emissions and improving soil fertility. However, data on the long term impact of chars on soil properties are scarce, although they are crucial for better understanding the implications of large scale application of highly persistent biochars to soil. In Wallonia (Belgium), old charcoal kilns are found in most of the area that was forested in the late 18th century. Since then, a non-negligible part of the forest has been cleared for cultivation. Today, old charcoal-making platforms can be seen on bare soils as circular or elliptic black spots due to charcoal enrichment. In order to assess the long-term (>200 years) effects of biochar on soil chemical properties, seventeen kiln sites were chosen in several cropland areas of Wallonia on loessic luvisols (14) and loamy cambisols (3). Composite samples were taken in the ploughing layer (0 - 25 cm) and the underlying horizon (35 - 50 cm) in and out the kiln sites. The pH, total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents, oxidizable carbon (CW&B), available phosphorus (Pav), cation exchange capacity at pH 7 (CEC), exchangeable cations content (Ca++, Mg++, K+, Na+) and loss on ignition at 550°C (LI550) were measured. In order to assess the impact of cultivation on charcoal aging, we also sampled four kiln sites on loessic luvisols under forest. Here, we show that charcoal, diluted laterally by successive tillage, acts as a carbon surplus in the topsoil layer of the black spots. The charcoal-enriched horizon is characterized by higher CEC, C/N and C/LI550 ratio compared to the reference soil. Cultivation of former forest soils accelerates charcoal aging, likely due to a combined effect of mechanical (tillage splits charcoal fragments in smaller pieces and increases soil aeration) and biological actions (promoted by improved trophic conditions due to application of amendments and fertilizers over many

  8. Wood preservatives and pressure-treated wood: considerations for historic-preservation projects

    Treesearch

    Ronald W. Anthony; Stan T. Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wood, an abundant resource throughout most of the world, has been used as a building material for thousands of years. Many historic buildings have been built primarily of wood, and masonry and stone buildings generally have wood elements, both structural and architectural. As a biological material, wood is both remarkably complex and yet quite durable if well...

  9. Can melamine-based wood primers help in understanding bonded wood durability?

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart; Jermal G. Chandler

    2006-01-01

    Melamine–formaldehyde adhesives form wood bonds with exterior durability, and the melamine is more easily studied because of its significant nitrogen content (compared with the lack of nitrogen in wood components). In addition, some melamine–formaldehyde chemicals reduce wood swelling [6], enter into wood cell walls [7], and strengthen them [8]. This information led to...

  10. Wood composites

    Treesearch

    Lars Berglund; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    A composite can be defined as two or more elements held together by a matrix. By this definition, what we call “solid wood” is a composite. Solid wood is a three-dimensional composite composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin (with smaller amounts of inorganics and extractives), held together by a lignin matrix. The advantages of developing wood composites are (...

  11. Thermal decomposition of wood: influence of wood components and cellulose crystallite size.

    PubMed

    Poletto, Matheus; Zattera, Ademir J; Forte, Maria M C; Santana, Ruth M C

    2012-04-01

    The influence of wood components and cellulose crystallinity on the thermal degradation behavior of different wood species has been investigated using thermogravimetry, chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction. Four wood samples, Pinus elliottii (PIE), Eucalyptus grandis (EUG), Mezilaurus itauba (ITA) and Dipteryx odorata (DIP) were used in this study. The results showed that higher extractives contents associated with lower crystallinity and lower cellulose crystallite size can accelerate the degradation process and reduce the wood thermal stability. On the other hand, the thermal decomposition of wood shifted to higher temperatures with increasing wood cellulose crystallinity and crystallite size. These results indicated that the cellulose crystallite size affects the thermal degradation temperature of wood species. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Archeointensity study on baked clay samples taken from the reconstructed ancient kiln: implication for validity of the Tsunakawa-Shaw paleointensity method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yuhji; Torii, Masayuki; Natsuhara, Nobuyoshi

    2015-05-01

    In 1972, a reconstruction experiment of a kiln had been done to reproduce an excavated kiln of the seventh century in Japan. Baked clay samples were taken from the floor surface and -20 cm level, and they have been stored after determinations of the paleomagnetic directions by partial alternating field demagnetizations. We recently applied the Tsunakawa-Shaw method to the samples to assess how reliable archeointensity results are obtained from the samples. A suite of the rock magnetic experiments and the scanning electron microscope observations elucidate that dominant magnetic carriers of the floor surface samples are Ti-poor titanomagnetite grains in approximately 10 nm size with single-domain and/or super-paramagnetic states, whereas contributions of multi-domain grains seem to be relatively large for the -20-cm level samples. From the floor surface samples, six out of the eight successful results were obtained and they give an average of 47.3 μT with a standard deviation of 2.2 μT. This is fairly consistent with the in situ geomagnetic field of 46.4 μT at the time of the reconstruction. They are obtained with a built-in anisotropy correction using anhysteretic remanent magnetization and without any cooling rate corrections. In contrast, only one out of four was successful from the -20-cm level samples. It yields an archeointensity of 31.6 μT, which is inconsistent with the in situ geomagnetic field. Considering from the in situ temperature record during the firing of the kiln and the unblocking temperature spectra of the samples, the floor surface samples acquired full thermoremanent magnetizations (TRMs) as their natural remanent magnetizations whereas the -20-cm level samples only acquired partial TRMs, and these differences probably cause the difference in the archeointensity results between the two sample groups. For archeointensity researches, baked clay samples from a kiln floor are considered to be ideal materials.

  13. Bacteria in decomposing wood and their interactions with wood-decay fungi.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Sarah R; Boddy, Lynne; Weightman, Andrew J

    2016-11-01

    The fungal community within dead wood has received considerable study, but far less attention has been paid to bacteria in the same habitat. Bacteria have long been known to inhabit decomposing wood, but much remains underexplored about their identity and ecology. Bacteria within the dead wood environment must interact with wood-decay fungi, but again, very little is known about the form this takes; there are indications of both antagonistic and beneficial interactions within this fungal microbiome. Fungi are hypothesised to play an important role in shaping bacterial communities in wood, and conversely, bacteria may affect wood-decay fungi in a variety of ways. This minireview considers what is currently known about bacteria in wood and their interactions with fungi, and proposes possible associations based on examples from other habitats. It aims to identify key knowledge gaps and pressing questions for future research. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Recycling of wood for particle board production: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    PubMed

    Merrild, Hanna; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-11-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the recycling of wood waste have been assessed with the purpose to provide useful data that can be used in accounting of greenhouse gas emissions. Here we present data related to the activities in a material recovery facility (MRF) where wood waste is shredded and foreign objects are removed in order to produce wood chips for use in the production of particleboard. The data are presented in accordance with the UOD (upstream, operational, downstream) framework presented in Gentil et al. (Waste Management & Research, 27, 2009). The GHG accounting shows that the emissions related to upstream activities (5 to 41 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne( -1) wood waste) and to activities at the MRF (approximately 5 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) wood waste) are negligible compared to the downstream processing (-560 to -120 kg CO(2)equivalents tonne(-1) wood waste). The magnitude of the savings in GHG emissions downstream are mainly related to savings in energy consumption for drying of fresh wood for particleboard production. However, the GHG account highly depends on the choices made in the modelling of the downstream system. The inclusion of saved electricity from avoided chipping of virgin wood does not change the results radically (-665 to -125 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(- 1) wood waste). However, if in addition it is assumed that the GHG emissions from combustion of wood has no global warming potential (GWP) and that the energy produced from excess wood due to recycling substitutes energy from fossil fuels, here assumed to be coal, potentially large downstream GHG emissions savings can be achieved by recycling of waste wood (-1.9 to -1.3 tonnes CO(2)-equivalents tonne(- 1) wood waste). As the data ranges are broad, it is necessary to carefully evaluate the feasibility of the data in the specific system which the GHG accounting is to be applied to.

  15. Finishes for Wood Decks

    Treesearch

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Wood decks have become an important part of residential construction. Wood decks can add versatile living space to a home and, with minimal maintenance, provide decades of use. However, wood decks are exposed to high levels of stress from severe weather conditions that shrink and swell the wood. Without proper maintenance, wood decks can develop problems such as checks...

  16. THE FATE OF TRACE METALS IN A ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR WITH A VENTURI/PACKED COLUMN SCRUBBER - VOLUME II: APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 5-week series of pilot-scale incineration tests, employing a synthetic waste feed, was performed at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator equipped with a venturi scrubber/p...

  17. The effects of heat treatment on physical properties and surface roughness of red-bud maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) wood.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Derya Sevim; Guller, Bilgin

    2008-05-01

    Heat treatment is often used to improve the dimensional stability of wood. In this study, the effects of heat treatment on physical properties and surface roughness of red-bud maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) wood were examined. Samples obtained from Düzce Forest Enterprises, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment at varying temperatures and durations. The physical properties of heat-treated samples were compared against controls in order to determine their; oven-dry density, air-dry density, and swelling properties. A stylus method was employed to evaluate the surface characteristics of the samples. Roughness measurements, using the stylus method, were made in the direction perpendicular to the fiber. Three main roughness parameters; mean arithmetic deviation of profile (Ra), mean peak-to-valley height (Rz), and maximum roughness (Rmax) obtained from the surface of wood, were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the surface characteristics of the specimens. Significant differences were determined (p>0.05) between surface roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, Rmax) at three different temperatures and three periods of heat treatment. The results showed that the values of density, swelling and surface roughness decreased with increasing temperature treatment and treatment times. Red-bud maple wood could be utilized successfully by applying proper heat treatment techniques without any losses in investigated parameters. This is vital in areas, such as window frames, where working stability and surface smoothness are important factors.

  18. Dry matter losses and quality changes during short rotation coppice willow storage in chip or rod form.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Carly; Yates, Nicola E; Powers, Stephen J; Misselbrook, Tom; Shield, Ian

    2018-05-01

    This study compares dry matter losses and quality changes during the storage of SRC willow as chips and as rods. A wood chip stack consisting of approximately 74 tonnes of fresh biomass, or 31 tonnes dry matter (DM) was built after harvesting in the spring. Three weeks later, four smaller stacks of rods with an average weight of 0.8 tonnes, or 0.4 tonnes DM were built. During the course of the experiment temperature recorders placed in the stacks found that the wood chip pile reached 60 °C within 10 days of construction, but the piles of rods remained mostly at ambient temperatures. Dry matter losses were calculated by using pre-weighed independent samples within the stacks and by weighing the whole stack before and after storage. After 6 months the wood chip stack showed a DM loss of between 19.8 and 22.6%, and mean losses of 23.1% were measured from the 17 independent samples. In comparison, the rod stacks showed an average stack DM loss of between 0 and 9%, and between 1.4% and 10.6% loss from the independent samples. Analysis of the stored material suggests that storing willow in small piles of rods produces a higher quality fuel in terms of lower moisture and ash content; however, it has a higher fine content compared to storage in chip form. Therefore, according to the two storage methods tested here, there may be a compromise between maximising the net dry matter yield from SRC willow and the final fine content of the fuel.

  19. Lignin-Retaining Transparent Wood.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Qiliang; Rojas, Ramiro; Yan, Min; Lawoko, Martin; Berglund, Lars

    2017-09-11

    Optically transparent wood, combining optical and mechanical performance, is an emerging new material for light-transmitting structures in buildings with the aim of reducing energy consumption. One of the main obstacles for transparent wood fabrication is delignification, where around 30 wt % of wood tissue is removed to reduce light absorption and refractive index mismatch. This step is time consuming and not environmentally benign. Moreover, lignin removal weakens the wood structure, limiting the fabrication of large structures. A green and industrially feasible method has now been developed to prepare transparent wood. Up to 80 wt % of lignin is preserved, leading to a stronger wood template compared to the delignified alternative. After polymer infiltration, a high-lignin-content transparent wood with transmittance of 83 %, haze of 75 %, thermal conductivity of 0.23 W mK -1 , and work-tofracture of 1.2 MJ m -3 (a magnitude higher than glass) was obtained. This transparent wood preparation method is efficient and applicable to various wood species. The transparent wood obtained shows potential for application in energy-saving buildings. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  20. Lignin‐Retaining Transparent Wood

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qiliang; Rojas, Ramiro; Yan, Min; Lawoko, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Optically transparent wood, combining optical and mechanical performance, is an emerging new material for light‐transmitting structures in buildings with the aim of reducing energy consumption. One of the main obstacles for transparent wood fabrication is delignification, where around 30 wt % of wood tissue is removed to reduce light absorption and refractive index mismatch. This step is time consuming and not environmentally benign. Moreover, lignin removal weakens the wood structure, limiting the fabrication of large structures. A green and industrially feasible method has now been developed to prepare transparent wood. Up to 80 wt % of lignin is preserved, leading to a stronger wood template compared to the delignified alternative. After polymer infiltration, a high‐lignin‐content transparent wood with transmittance of 83 %, haze of 75 %, thermal conductivity of 0.23 W mK−1, and work‐tofracture of 1.2 MJ m−3 (a magnitude higher than glass) was obtained. This transparent wood preparation method is efficient and applicable to various wood species. The transparent wood obtained shows potential for application in energy‐saving buildings. PMID:28719095

  1. Chronic human disturbance affects plant trait distribution in a seasonally dry tropical forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfair, Julia C.; de Bello, Francesco; de França, Thaysa Q.; Baldauf, Cristina; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2018-02-01

    The effects of human disturbance on biodiversity can be mediated by environmental conditions, such as water availability, climate and nutrients. In general, disturbed, dry or nutrient-depleted soils areas tend to have lower taxonomic diversity. However, little is known about how these environmental conditions affect functional composition and intraspecific variability in tropical dry forests. We studied a seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF) under chronic anthropogenic disturbance (CAD) along rainfall and soil nutrient gradients to understand how these factors influence the taxonomic and functional composition. Specifically we evaluated two aspects of CAD, wood extraction and livestock pressure (goat and cattle grazing), along soil fertility and rainfall gradients on shrub and tree traits, considering species turnover and intraspecific variability. In addition, we also tested how the traits of eight populations of the most frequent species are affected by wood extraction, livestock pressure, rainfall and soil fertility. In general, although CAD and environmental gradients affected each trait of the most widespread species differently, the most abundant species also had a greater variation of traits. Considering species turnover, wood extraction is associated with species with a smaller leaf area and lower investment in leaf mass, probably due to the indirect effects of this disturbance type on the vegetation, i.e. the removal of branches and woody debris clears the vegetation, favouring species that minimize water loss. Livestock pressure, on the other hand, affected intraspecific variation: the herbivory caused by goats and cattle promoted individuals which invest more in wood density and leaf mass. In this case, the change of functional composition observed is a direct effect of the disturbance, such as the decrease of palatable plant abundance by goat and cattle herbivory. In synthesis, CAD, rainfall and soil fertility can affect trait distribution at community

  2. Feedbacks between earlywood anatomy and non-structural carbohydrates affect spring phenology and wood production in ring-porous oaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-de-Lis, Gonzalo; García-González, Ignacio; Rozas, Vicente; Olano, José Miguel

    2016-10-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) play a central role in the construction and maintenance of a tree's vascular system, but feedbacks between the NSC status of trees and wood formation are not fully understood. We aimed to evaluate multiple dependencies among wood anatomy, winter NSC, and phenology for coexisting temperate (Quercus robur) and sub-Mediterranean (Q. pyrenaica) oaks along a water-availability gradient in the NW Iberian Peninsula. Sapwood NSC concentrations were quantified at three sites in December 2012 (N = 240). Leaf phenology and wood anatomy were surveyed in 2013. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the interplay among hydraulic diameter (Dh), winter NSC, budburst date, and earlywood vessel production (EVP), while the effect of Dh and EVP on latewood width was assessed by using a mixed-effects model. NSC and wood production increased under drier conditions for both species. Q. robur showed a narrower Dh and lower soluble sugar (SS) concentration (3.88-5.08 % dry matter) than Q. pyrenaica (4.06-5.57 % dry matter), but Q. robur exhibited larger EVP and wider latewood (1403 µm) than Q. pyrenaica (667 µm). Stem diameter and Dh had a positive effect on SS concentrations, which were related to an earlier leaf flushing in both species. Sapwood sugar content appeared to limit EVP exclusively in Q. pyrenaica. In turn, Dh and EVP were found to be key predictors of latewood growth. Our results confirm that sapwood SS concentrations are involved in modulating growth resumption and xylem production in spring. Q. pyrenaica exhibited a tighter control of carbohydrate allocation to wood formation than Q. robur, which would play a role in protecting against environmental stress in the sub-Mediterranean area.

  3. Biodeterioration of wood

    Treesearch

    Carol A. Clausen

    2010-01-01

    Under proper conditions, wood will give centuries of service. However, under conditions that permit the development of wood-degrading organisms, protection must be provided during processing, merchandising, and use. The organisms that can degrade wood are principally fungi, insects, bacteria, and marine borers.

  4. Cement kiln dust (CKD)-filter sand permeable reactive barrier for the removal of Cu(II) and Zn(II) from simulated acidic groundwater.

    PubMed

    Sulaymon, Abbas H; Faisal, Ayad A H; Khaliefa, Qusey M

    2015-10-30

    The hydraulic conductivity and breakthrough curves of copper and zinc contaminants were measured in a set of continuous column experiments for 99 days using cement kiln dust (CKD)-filter sand as the permeable reactive barrier. The results of these experiments proved that the weight ratios of the cement kiln dust-filter sand (10:90 and 20:80) are adequate in preventing the loss of reactivity and hydraulic conductivity and, in turn, avoiding reduction in the groundwater flow. These results reveal a decrease in the hydraulic conductivity, which can be attributed to an accumulation of most of the quantity of the contaminant masses in the first sections of the column bed. Breakthrough curves for the description of the temporal contaminant transport within the barrier were found to be more representative by the Belter-Cussler-Hu and Yan models based on the coefficient of determination and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency. The longevity of the barrier was simulated for the field scale, based on the laboratory column tests and the values verified that cement kiln dust can be effectively used in the future, as the reactive material in permeable reactive barrier technology. These results signify that the longevity of the barrier is directly proportional to its thickness and inversely to the percentage of the CKD used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Wood decay in desert riverine environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Douglas; Stricker, Craig A.; Nelson, S. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Floodplain forests and the woody debris they produce are major components of riverine ecosystems in many arid and semiarid regions (drylands). We monitored breakdown and nitrogen dynamics in wood and bark from a native riparian tree, Fremont cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. wislizeni), along four North American desert streams. We placed locally-obtained, fresh, coarse material [disks or cylinders (∼500–2000 cm3)] along two cold-desert and two warm-desert rivers in the Colorado River Basin. Material was placed in both floodplain and aquatic environments, and left in situ for up to 12 years. We tested the hypothesis that breakdown would be fastest in relatively warm and moist aerobic environments by comparing the time required for 50% loss of initial ash-free dry matter (T50) calculated using exponential decay models incorporating a lag term. In cold-desert sites (Green and Yampa rivers, Colorado), disks of wood with bark attached exposed for up to 12 years in locations rarely inundated lost mass at a slower rate (T50 = 34 yr) than in locations inundated during most spring floods (T50 = 12 yr). At the latter locations, bark alone loss mass at a rate initially similar to whole disks (T50 = 13 yr), but which subsequently slowed. In warm-desert sites monitored for 3 years, cylinders of wood with bark removed lost mass very slowly (T50 = 60 yr) at a location never inundated (Bill Williams River, Arizona), whereas decay rate varied among aquatic locations (T50 = 20 yr in Bill Williams River; T50 = 3 yr in Las Vegas Wash, an effluent-dominated stream warmed by treated wastewater inflows). Invertebrates had a minor role in wood breakdown except at in-stream locations in Las Vegas Wash. The presence and form of change in nitrogen content during exposure varied among riverine environments. Our results suggest woody debris breakdown in desert riverine ecosystems is primarily a microbial process with rates determined by landscape position

  6. Effects of wood fiber characteristics on mechanical properties of wood/polypropylene composites

    Treesearch

    Nicole M. Stark; Robert E. Rowlands

    2003-01-01

    Commercial wood flour, the most common wood-derived filler for thermoplastics, is produced in a mixture of particle sizes and generally has a lower aspect ratio than wood and other natural fibers. To understand how wood flour and fiber characteristics influence the mechanical properties of polypropylene composites, we first investigated the effect of different sizes of...

  7. Biomass and nutrient dynamics associated with slash fires in neotropical dry forests

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kauffman, J.B.; Cummings, D.L.; Sanford, R.L. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Unprecedented rates of deforestation and biomass burning in tropical dry forests are dramatically influencing biogeochemical cycles, resulting in resource depletion, declines in biodiversity, and atmospheric pollution. We quantified the effects of deforestation and varying levels of slash-fire severity on nutrient losses and redistribution in a second-growth tropical dry forest ([open quotes]Caatinga[close quotes]) near Serra Talhada, Pernambuco, Brazil. Total aboveground biomass prior to burning was [approx]74 Mg/ha. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were highest in litter, leaves attached to slash, and fine wood debris (

  8. Ability of near infrared spectroscopy to monitor air-dry density distribution and variation of wood

    Treesearch

    Brian K. Via; Chi-Leung So; Todd F. Shupe; Michael Stine; Leslie H. Groom

    2005-01-01

    Process control of wood density with near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) would be useful for pulp mills that need to maximize pulp yield without compromising paper strength properties. If models developed from the absorbance at wavelengths in the NIR region could provide density histograms, fiber supply personnel could monitor chip density variation as the chips enter the...

  9. The fungus that came in from the cold: dry rot's pre-adapted ability to invade buildings.

    PubMed

    Balasundaram, S V; Hess, J; Durling, M B; Moody, S C; Thorbek, L; Progida, C; LaButti, K; Aerts, A; Barry, K; Grigoriev, I V; Boddy, L; Högberg, N; Kauserud, H; Eastwood, D C; Skrede, I

    2018-03-01

    Many organisms benefit from being pre-adapted to niches shaped by human activity, and have successfully invaded man-made habitats. One such species is the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans, which has a wide distribution in buildings in temperate and boreal regions, where it decomposes coniferous construction wood. Comparative genomic analyses and growth experiments using this species and its wild relatives revealed that S. lacrymans evolved a very effective brown rot decay compared to its wild relatives, enabling an extremely rapid decay in buildings under suitable conditions. Adaptations in intracellular transport machineries promoting hyphal growth, and nutrient and water transport may explain why it is has become a successful invader of timber in houses. Further, we demonstrate that S. lacrymans has poor combative ability in our experimental setup, compared to other brown rot fungi. In sheltered indoor conditions, the dry rot fungus may have limited encounters with other wood decay fungi compared to its wild relatives. Overall, our analyses indicate that the dry rot fungus is an ecological specialist with poor combative ability against other fungi.

  10. Terahertz Measurement of the Water Content Distribution in Wood Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensalem, M.; Sommier, A.; Mindeguia, J. C.; Batsale, J. C.; Pradere, C.

    2018-02-01

    Recently, THz waves have been shown to be an effective technique for investigating the water diffusion within porous media, such as biomaterial or insulation materials. This applicability is due to the sufficient resolution for such applications and the safe levels of radiation. This study aims to achieve contactless absolute water content measurements at a steady state case in semi-transparent solids (wood) using a transmittance THz wave range setup. First, a calibration method is developed to validate an analytical model based on the Beer-Lambert law, linking the absorption coefficient, the density of the solid, and its water content. Then, an estimation of the water content on a local scale in a transient-state case (drying) is performed. This study shows that THz waves are an effective contactless, safe, and low-cost technique for the measurement of water content in a porous medium, such as wood.

  11. Wood energy-commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  12. 40 CFR 63.1343 - What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker piles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker piles? 63.1343 Section 63.1343 Protection of... What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker piles? (a..., clinker cooler, and raw material dryer. All dioxin D/F, HCl, and total hydrocarbon (THC) emission limits...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1343 - What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker piles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker piles? 63.1343 Section 63.1343 Protection of... What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker piles? (a..., clinker cooler, and raw material dryer. All dioxin D/F, HCl, and total hydrocarbon (THC) emission limits...

  14. Production of palm frond based wood plastic composite by using twin screw extruder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russita, M.; Bahruddin

    2018-04-01

    Wood plastic composite (WPC) is the blending product from wood as filler and polymer thermoplastic as matric. Palm frond waste is a material with selulose about 68%, so it has potential to be developed as raw material for WPC. The purpose of this research was to learn how to produce WPC based on palm frond use twin screw extruder. It used popropilen as matric. As for aditif, it used Maleated Polypropilene (MAPP) as compatibilizer and paraffin as plasticizer. The size of palm frond is 40 – 80 mesh. WPC is made from blending polipropylene, palm frond, MAPP and paraffin with dry mixing method in room temperature. Then, PP, Palm frond and additive from dry mixing is fed into twin screw extruder at 190°C and 60 rpm. It use palm frond/polypropylene 60/40, MAPP 5% w/w and paraffin 2% w/w. From the result, it shown that WPC based on palm frond met the standards forcommercial WPC. It has tensile strength up to 19.2 MPa, bending strength 43.6 MPa and water adsorption 0,32% w/w. So, WPC based on palm frond has prospective to be developed for commercial WPC.

  15. Temporal Trend in Wood Dust Exposure During the Production of Wood Pellets.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Kåre; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Hagström, Katja

    2017-05-01

    Wood dust data collected in the production of wood pellets during 2001 to 2013 were evaluated to study a temporal trend in inhalation exposure. A linear mixed effects model of natural ln-transformed data was used to express the relative annual difference in inhalation wood dust exposure. There was an annual decrease of -20.5% of the geometric mean wood dust exposure during 2001 until 2013. The results were based on 617 inhalable dust samples collected at 14 different production units. The exposure to wood dust at the industrial premises investigated has decreased from a relatively high level of 6.4 mg m-3 in 2001 to 1.0 mg-3 in 2013. The Swedish Occupational Exposure Limit (SOEL) of 2 mg m-3 may still be exceeded. Analysis of the temporal trend in soft wood production units revealed declines in exposure of 20.5% per annum. It is important that precautions are taken to protect workers from a hazardous exposure to wood dust at the premises as the SOEL of 2 mg m-3 at some occasions is still exceeded. Additional measurements of wood dust exposure should be carried out on a regular basis in wood pellet production units in Sweden as well in other countries. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  16. THE FATE OF TRACE METALS IN A ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR WITH A VENTURI/PACKED COLUMN SCRUBBER - VOLUME I: TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A five week series of pilot-scale incineration tests, using a synthetic waste feed, was performed at the Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator. Eight tests studied the fate of five ha...

  17. FATE OF TRACE METALS IN A ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR WITH A SINGLE-STAGE IONIZING WET SCRUBBER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of pilot-scale incineration tests was performed at EPA's Incineration Research Facility (IRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas, to evaluate the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator equipped with an ionizing wet scrubber (IWS) for particulate and acid gas control. ...

  18. THE FATE OF TRACE METALS IN A ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR WITH A SINGLE-STAGE IONIZING WET SCRUBBER - VOLUME II: APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of pilot-scale incineration tests was performed at EPA's Incineration Research Facility (IRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas, to evaluate the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator equipped with an ionizing wet scrubber (IWS) for particulate and acid gas control. ...

  19. Near-infrared spectroscopic observation of the ageing process in archaeological wood using a deuterium exchange method.

    PubMed

    Tsuchikawa, Satoru; Yonenobu, Hitoshi; Siesler, H W

    2005-03-01

    The ageing degradation of the fine wood structure of dry-exposed archaeological wood was investigated by Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy with the aid of a deuterium exchange method. The archaeological wood sample was taken from an old wooden temple in Japan (late 7th century), which has been designated as a UNESCO world heritage site. Comparing the analytical results with those of a modern wood sample of the same species, the ageing process of archaeological wood was clarified as a change in the state of order on a macromolecular structural level. It can be concluded from NIR spectra that the amorphous region, and partially semi-crystalline region, in cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin decreased by the ageing degradation, whereas the crystalline region in cellulose was not affected by the ageing. The accessibility of the diffusant to effect H/D-exchange was monitored by an OH-related absorption band obtained from FT-NIR transmission spectroscopy and characteristically varied with the ageing process of the wood samples, the absorption bands characteristic of a specific state of order and the diffusion agent. Finally, we proposed a morphological model to describe the variation of the fine structure of the microfibrils in the cell wall with ageing degradation. The state of microfibrils changed loosely by ageing, so that elementary fibrils were arranged loosely under 5 A, whereas several elementary fibrils in the modern wood were arranged in very close proximity under 3 A to each other.

  20. Wood preservative testing

    Treesearch

    Rebecca Ibach; Stan T. Lebow

    2012-01-01

    Most wood species used in commercial and residential construction have little natural biological durability and will suffer from biodeterioration when exposed to moisture. Historically, this problem has been overcome by treating wood for outdoor use with toxic wood preservatives. As societal acceptance of chemical use changes, there is continual pressure to develop and...

  1. Wood Dust

    Cancer.gov

    Learn about wood dust, which can raise the risk of cancers of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. High amounts of wood dust are produced in sawmills, and in the furniture-making, cabinet-making, and carpentry industries.

  2. Wood Smoke

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  3. True metabolizable energy for wood ducks from acorns compared to other waterfowl foods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaminski, R.M.; Davis, J.B.; Essig, H.W.; Gerard, P.D.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    Acorns of bottomland red oaks (Quercus spp.) are an important food of North American wood ducks (Aix sponsa). Barras et al. (1996) demonstrated that female wood ducks selected willow oak ( Q. phetlos) acorns over other species. We measured true metabolizable energy (TME) derived by captive, wild-strain, adult female wood ducks from acorns of willow oak, water oak (Q. nigra), cherrybark oak (Q. pagoda), and pin oak (Q. patustris) to determine whether female wood ducks' preference for willow oak acorns was related to TME. Estimates of TME within acorn species were relatively precise, yet we did not detect variation in TME among acorn species (P= 0.31 ); hence, we estimated TME across species (2.76 + 0.033 [SE] kcal/g dry mass; n = 34). We concluded that TME apparently did not explain female wood ducks' preference for willow oak acorns and hypothesized that morphological characteristics of willow oak acorns may be proximate cues related to selection by wood ducks. We also summarized known TME estimates for acorns fed to wood ducks and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and natural and agricultural foods fed to mallards, northern pintails (A. acura), blue-winged teal (A. discors), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis). We found that acorns and moist-soil plant seeds and tubers provided, on average, about 76% of the TME in agricultural seeds. Thus, bottomland-hardwood and moist-soil habitats have potential to provide significant amounts of dietary energy, as well as greater diversity of foods and nutrients than croplands. Researchers should continue to determine TME of common foods (plant and animal) of waterfowl, and use TME in estimating waterfowl habitat carrying capacity (e.g., Reinecke et al. 1989). Additionally, large-scale, reliable estimates of plant and animal food availability in bottomland-hardwood and moist-soil habitats are needed to evaluate carrying capacity of landscapes important to waterfowl, such as the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV).

  4. Biodeterioration of wood

    Treesearch

    Terry L. Highley

    1999-01-01

    Under proper conditions, wood will give centuries of service. However, if conditions exist that permit the development of wood-degrading organisms, protection must be provided during processing, merchandising, and use. The principal organisms that can degrade wood are fungi, insects, bacteria, and marine borers. Molds, most sapwood stains, and decay are caused by fungi...

  5. Energy from wood

    Treesearch

    J.I. Zerbe

    2004-01-01

    In most developing countries wood and charcoal are the predominant fuels for preparation of food to maintain the quality of life that encompasses the majority of citizens. In many developing countries wood fuels are also important for small and medium size industries. Moreover, energy from wood continues to be important in industrial countries. In the USA biomass...

  6. Wood thermoplastic composites

    Treesearch

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Craig Clemons; Roger M. Rowell

    2010-01-01

    The wood industry can expand into new sustainable markets with the formation of a new class of composites with the marriage of the wood industry and the plastics industry. The wood component, usually a flour or fiber, is combined with a thermoplastic to form an extrudable, injectable or thermoformable composite that can be used in many non-structural applications....

  7. Canopy reflectance modeling in a tropical wooded grassland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonett, David; Franklin, Janet

    1986-01-01

    Geometric/optical canopy reflectance modeling and spatial/spectral pattern recognition is used to study the form and structure of savanna in West Africa. An invertible plant canopy reflectance model is tested for its ability to estimate the amount of woody vegetation from remotely sensed data in areas of sparsely wooded grassland. Dry woodlands and wooded grasslands, commonly referred to as savannas, are important ecologically and economically in Africa, and cover approximately forty percent of the continent by some estimates. The Sahel and Sudan savannas make up the important and sensitive transition zone between the tropical forests and the arid Sahara region. The depletion of woody cover, used for fodder and fuel in these regions, has become a very severe problem for the people living there. LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data is used to stratify woodland and wooded grassland into areas of relatively homogeneous canopy cover, and then an invertible forest canopy reflectance model is applied to estimate directly the height and spacing of the trees in the stands. Because height and spacing are proportional to biomass in some cases, a successful application of the segmentation/modeling techniques will allow direct estimation of tree biomass, as well as cover density, over significant areas of these valuable and sensitive ecosystems. The model being tested in sites in two different bioclimatic zones in Mali, West Africa, will be used for testing the canopy model. Sudanian zone crop/woodland test sites were located in the Region of Segou, Mali.

  8. Modelling and simulation of wood chip combustion in a hot air generator system.

    PubMed

    Rajika, J K A T; Narayana, Mahinsasa

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on modelling and simulation of horizontal moving bed/grate wood chip combustor. A standalone finite volume based 2-D steady state Euler-Euler Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed for packed bed combustion. Packed bed combustion of a medium scale biomass combustor, which was retrofitted from wood log to wood chip feeding for Tea drying in Sri Lanka, was evaluated by a CFD simulation study. The model was validated by the experimental results of an industrial biomass combustor for a hot air generation system in tea industry. Open-source CFD tool; OpenFOAM was used to generate CFD model source code for the packed bed combustion and simulated along with an available solver for free board region modelling in the CFD tool. Height of the packed bed is about 20 cm and biomass particles are assumed to be spherical shape with constant surface area to volume ratio. Temperature measurements of the combustor are well agreed with simulation results while gas phase compositions have discrepancies. Combustion efficiency of the validated hot air generator is around 52.2 %.

  9. Allowable bending stresses of wood for use in portable wood ladders

    Treesearch

    Fred Werren

    1975-01-01

    A standard for portable wood ladders has been in effect since 1923, and has been revised several times since then. The most recent publication is "American National Standard Safety Standard for Portable Wood Ladders," A14.1-1975, from American National Standards Institute, Inc. Methods of arriving at allowable stresses for wood ladder parts have never been...

  10. Wood and society

    Treesearch

    Christopher D. Risbrudt

    2005-01-01

    Forests, and the wood they produce, have played an important role in human activity since before recorded history. Indeed, one of the first major innovations of humankind was utilizing fire, fueled by wood, for cooking and heating. It is very likely that early hominids used wood fires for cooking as long as 1.5 million years ago (Clark and Harris 1985). Clear evidence...

  11. Mid-winter food use and body weights of mallards and wood ducks in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delnicki, D.; Reinecke, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    We obtained esophageal food samples from 311 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 94 wood ducks (Aix sponsa) and body weights from 2,118 mallards and 315 wood ducks in western Mississippi during December and January 1979-83. On average, mallards ingested 3.0% animal food, principally aquatic invertebrates, and 97.0% plant food. Rice, soybeans, and seeds of 'moist soil' plants provided 41.3, 41.6, and 10-11% of the total food intake. Wood ducks ingested nearly 100% plant food, of which 23.4% was soybeans and 74.3% was acorns from Nuttall (Quercus nuttallii), water (Q. nigra), and willow oaks (Q. phellos). Mallard food use varied with water conditions; the use of rice decreased and soybeans increased during 1980-81 when cumulative November-January precipitation was < 50% of normal. Wood duck food use varied with habitat; the diet included more acorns at sites having larger acreages of intact bottomland hardwood forest. Mallard and wood duck body weights varied within and among winters. Mallard weights decreased by about 2% from December to January each year. We considered this a regulated loss, whereas we attributed increases and decreases of 4-5% in average weights during wet and dry winters to changes in feeding opportunities associated with winter precipitation. Wood duck weights followed similar trends. We concluded that continued drainage in the Mississippi Delta will adversely affect waterfowl foraging opportunities, and that research on winter feeding ecology will progress more rapidly if we develop an understanding of the foraging efficiencies associated with alternate food resources.

  12. Floods and Fluvial Wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comiti, F.

    2014-12-01

    Several studies have recently addressed the complex interactions existing at various spatial scales among riparian vegetation, channel morphology and wood storage. The majority of these investigations has been carried out in relatively natural river systems, focusing mostly on the long-term vegetation-morphology dynamics under "equilibrium" conditions. Little is still known about the role of flood events - of different frequency/magnitude - on several aspects of such dynamics, e.g. entrainment conditions of in-channel wood, erosion rates of vegetation from channel margins and from islands, transport distances of wood elements of different size along the channel network. Even less understood is how the river's evolutionary trajectory may affect these processes, and thus the degree to which conceptual models derivable from near-natural systems could be applicable to human-disturbed channels. Indeed, the different human pressures - present on most river basins worldwide - have greatly impaired the morphological and ecological functions of fluvial wood, and the attempts to "restore" in-channel wood storage are currently carried out without a sufficient understanding of wood transport processes occurring during floods. On the other hand, the capability to correctly predict the magnitude of large wood transport during large floods is now seen as crucial - especially in mountain basins - for flood hazard mapping, as is the identification of the potential wood sources (e.g. landslides, floodplains, islands) for the implementation of sound and effective hazard mitigation measures. The presentation will first summarize the current knowledge on fluvial wood dynamics and modelling at different spatial and temporal scales, with a particular focus on mountain rivers. The effects of floods of different characteristics on vegetation erosion and wood transport will be then addressed presenting some study cases from rivers in the European Alps and in the Italian Apennines featuring

  13. A Jurassic wood providing insights into the earliest step in Ginkgo wood evolution.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zikun; Wang, Yongdong; Philippe, Marc; Zhang, Wu; Tian, Ning; Zheng, Shaolin

    2016-12-16

    The fossil record of Ginkgo leaf and reproductive organs has been well dated to the Mid-Jurassic (170 Myr). However, the fossil wood record that can safely be assigned to Ginkgoales has not yet been reported from strata predating the late Early Cretaceous (ca. 100 Myr). Here, we report a new fossil wood from the Mid-Late Jurassic transition deposit (153-165 Myr) of northeastern China. The new fossil wood specimen displays several Ginkgo features, including inflated axial parenchyma and intrusive tracheid tips. Because it is only slightly younger than the oldest recorded Ginkgo reproductive organs (the Yima Formation, 170 Myr), this fossil wood very probably represents the oldest bona fide fossil Ginkgo wood and the missing ancestral form of Ginkgo wood evolution.

  14. A Jurassic wood providing insights into the earliest step in Ginkgo wood evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zikun; Wang, Yongdong; Philippe, Marc; Zhang, Wu; Tian, Ning; Zheng, Shaolin

    2016-12-01

    The fossil record of Ginkgo leaf and reproductive organs has been well dated to the Mid-Jurassic (170 Myr). However, the fossil wood record that can safely be assigned to Ginkgoales has not yet been reported from strata predating the late Early Cretaceous (ca. 100 Myr). Here, we report a new fossil wood from the Mid-Late Jurassic transition deposit (153-165 Myr) of northeastern China. The new fossil wood specimen displays several Ginkgo features, including inflated axial parenchyma and intrusive tracheid tips. Because it is only slightly younger than the oldest recorded Ginkgo reproductive organs (the Yima Formation, 170 Myr), this fossil wood very probably represents the oldest bona fide fossil Ginkgo wood and the missing ancestral form of Ginkgo wood evolution.

  15. Wood-plastic composites with reduced moisture : effects of chemical modification on durability in the laboratory and field

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons; Rebecca L. Schumann

    2007-01-01

    Although laboratory evaluations of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) are helpful in predicting long-term durability, field studies are needed to verify overall long-term durability. Field exposure can encompass numerous degradations i.e., fungal, ultraviolet light, moisture, wind, temperature, freeze/thaw, wet/ dry cycling, termites, mold, etc. that traditionally are...

  16. Effect of heat treatment of wood on the morphology, surface roughness and penetration of simulated and human blood.

    PubMed

    Rekola, J; Lassila, L V J; Nganga, S; Ylä-Soininmäki, A; Fleming, G J P; Grenman, R; Aho, A J; Vallittu, P K

    2014-01-01

    Wood has been used as a model material for the development of novel fiber-reinforced composite bone substitute biomaterials. In previous studies heat treatment of wood was perceived to significantly increase the osteoconductivity of implanted wood material. The objective of this study was to examine some of the changing attributes of wood materials that may contribute to improved biological responses gained with heat treatment. Untreated and 140°C and 200°C heat-treated downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were used as the wood materials. Surface roughness and the effect of pre-measurement grinding were measured with contact and non-contact profilometry. Liquid interaction was assessed with a dipping test using two manufactured liquids (simulated blood) as well as human blood. SEM was used to visualize possible heat treatment-induced changes in the hierarchical structure of wood. The surface roughness was observed to significantly decrease with heat treatment. Grinding methods had more influence on the surface contour and roughness than heat treatment. The penetration of the human blood in the 200°C heat-treated exceeded that in the untreated and 140°C heat-treated materials. SEM showed no significant change due to heat treatment in the dry-state morphology of the wood. The results of the liquid penetration test support previous findings in literature concerning the effects of heat treatment on the biological response to implanted wood. Heat-treatment has only a marginal effect on the surface contour of wood. The highly specialized liquid conveyance system of wood may serve as a biomimetic model for the further development of tailored fiber-composite materials.

  17. Dilute phosphoric acid-catalysed hydrolysis of municipal bio-waste wood shavings using autoclave parr reactor system.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Angela M; Al-Muhtaseb, Ala'a H; Albadarin, Ahmad B; Rooney, David; Walker, Gavin M; Ahmad, Mohammad N M

    2011-10-01

    The visibility of using municipal bio-waste, wood shavings, as a potential feedstock for ethanol production was investigated. Dilute acid hydrolysis of wood shavings with H₃PO₄ was undertaken in autoclave parr reactor. A combined severity factor (CSF) was used to integrate the effects of hydrolysis times, temperature and acid concentration into a single variable. Xylose concentration reached a maximum value of 17 g/100 g dry mass corresponding to a yield of 100% at the best identified conditions of 2.5 wt.% H₃PO₄, 175 °C and 10 min reaction time corresponding to a CSF of 1.9. However, for glucose, an average yield of 30% was obtained at 5 wt.% H₃PO₄, 200 °C and 10 min. Xylose production increased with increasing temperature and acid concentration, but its transformation to the degradation product furfural was also catalysed by those factors. The maximum furfural formed was 3 g/100 g dry mass, corresponding to the 24% yield. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Structure and function of wood

    Treesearch

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Regis B. Miller

    2005-01-01

    Despite the many human uses to which various woods are suited, at a fundamental level wood is a complex biological structure, itself a composite of many chemistries and cell types acting together to serve the needs of the plant. Although humans have striven to understand wood in the context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the key and basic fact that wood...

  19. Many Roles of Wood Adhesives

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart

    2014-01-01

    Although wood bonding is one of the oldest applications of adhesives, going back to early recorded history (1), some aspects of wood bonds are still not fully understood. Most books in the general area of adhesives and adhesion do not cover wood bonding. However, a clearer understanding of wood bonding and wood adhesives can lead to improved products. This is important...

  20. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FULL SCALE ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR FIELD TRIAL: PHASE I, VERIFICATION TRIAL BURN ON DIOXIN/HERBICIDE ORANGE CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This treatability study reports on the results of one of a series of field trials using various remedial action technologies that may be capable of restoring Herbicide Orange (HO)XDioxin contaminated sites. A full-scale field trial using a rotary kiln incinerator capable of pro...

  1. Wood Substitutes; A Base Syllabus on Wood Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond.

    This curriculum guide is for use by college instructors concerned with expanding traditional woodworking programs. It was developed in a National Defense Education Act summer institute and is based on an outline provided by members of a previous institute. The content concerns wood substitutes which are made to resemble wood and are often used…

  2. Pectin Methylesterase Genes Influence Solid Wood Properties of Eucalyptus pilularis1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Timothy R.; Henry, Robert J.; Harwood, Chris E.; Thomas, Dane S.; McManus, Luke J.; Raymond, Carolyn; Henson, Michael; Shepherd, Mervyn

    2012-01-01

    This association study of Eucalyptus pilularis populations provides empirical evidence for the role of Pectin Methylesterase (PME) in influencing solid wood characteristics of Eucalyptus. PME6 was primarily associated with the shrinkage and collapse of drying timber, which are phenotypic traits consistent with the role of pectin as a hydrophilic polysaccharide. PME7 was primarily associated with cellulose and pulp yield traits and had an inverse correlation with lignin content. Selection of specific alleles in these genes may be important for improving trees as sources of high-quality wood products. A heterozygote advantage was postulated for the PME7 loci and, in combination with haplotype blocks, may explain the absence of a homozygous class at all single-nucleotide polymorphisms investigated in this gene. PMID:22052017

  3. Pyranose Oxidase, a Major Source of H(2)O(2) during Wood Degradation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor, and Oudemansiella mucida.

    PubMed

    Daniel, G; Volc, J; Kubatova, E

    1994-07-01

    The production of the H(2)O(2)-generating enzyme pyranose oxidase (POD) (EC 1.1.3.10) (synonym, glucose 2-oxidase), two ligninolytic peroxidases, and laccase in wood decayed by three white rot fungi was investigated by correlated biochemical, immunological, and transmission electron microscopic techniques. Enzyme activities were assayed in extracts from decayed birch wood blocks obtained by a novel extraction procedure. With the coupled peroxidase-chromogen (3-dimethylaminobenzoic acid plus 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride) spectrophotometric assay, the highest POD activities were detected in wood blocks degraded for 4 months and were for Phanerochaete chrysosporium (149 mU g [dry weight] of decayed wood), Trametes versicolor (45 mU g), and Oudemansiella mucida (1.2 mU g), corresponding to wood dry weight losses of 74, 58, and 13%, respectively. Mn-dependent peroxidase activities in the same extracts were comparable to those of POD, while lignin peroxidase activity was below the detection limit for all fungi with the veratryl alcohol assay. Laccase activity was high with T. versicolor (422 mU g after 4 months), in trace levels with O. mucida, and undetectable in P. chrysosporium extracts. Evidence for C-2 specificity of POD was shown by thin-layer chromatography detection of 2-keto-d-glucose as the reaction product. By transmission electron microscopy-immunocytochemistry, POD was found to be preferentially localized in the hyphal periplasmic space of P. chrysosporium and O. mucida and associated with membranous materials in hyphae growing within the cell lumina or cell walls of partially and highly degraded birch fibers. An extracellular distribution of POD associated with slime coating wood cell walls was also noted. The periplasmic distribution in hyphae and extracellular location of POD are consistent with the reported ultrastructural distribution of H(2)O(2)-dependent Mn-dependent peroxidases. This fact and the dominant presence of POD and

  4. New views on antidiarrheal effect of wood creosote: is wood creosote really a gastrointestinal antiseptic?

    PubMed

    Ataka, Koji; Ito, Masafumi; Shibata, Takashi

    2005-12-01

    Wood creosote, the principal ingredient in Seirogan, has a long history as a known gastrointestinal microbicidal agent. When administered orally, the intraluminal concentration of wood creosote is not sufficiently high to achieve this microbicidal effect. Through further animal tests, we have shown that antimotility and antisecretory actions are the principal antidiarrheal effects of wood creosote. Wood creosote inhibits intestinal secretion induced by enterotoxins by blocking the Cl(-) channel on the intestinal epithelium. Wood creosote also decreases intestinal motility accelerated by mechanical, chemical, or electrical stimulus by the inhibition of the Ca(2+) influx into the smooth muscle cells. In this overview, the antimotility and antisecretory effects of wood creosote are compared with those of loperamide. Wood creosote was observed to inhibit stimulated colonic motility, but not normal jejunal motility. Loperamide inhibits normal jejunal motility, but not stimulated colonic motility. Both wood creosote and loperamide inhibit intestinal secretion accelerated by acetylcholine. Wood creosote was found to have greater antisecretory effects in the colon than loperamide. Based upon these findings, we conclude that the antidiarrheal effects of wood creosote are due to both antisecretory activity in the intestine and antimotility in the colon, but not due to the microbicidal activity as previously thought. Wood creosote was found to have no effects on normal intestinal activity. These conclusions are supported by the results of a recent clinical study comparing wood creosote and loperamide, which concluded that wood creosote was more efficacious in relieving abdominal pain and comparable to loperamide in relieving diarrhea.

  5. Characterization of wood mulch and leachate/runoff from three wood recycling facilities.

    PubMed

    Kannepalli, Sarat; Strom, Peter F; Krogmann, Uta; Subroy, Vandana; Giménez, Daniel; Miskewitz, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Large-scale open storage of wood mulch is common practice at wood recycling facilities. During rain and snow melt, leachate with soluble compounds and suspended particles is released from mulch stockpiles. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of leachate/runoff from wood recycling facilities to evaluate its potential to contaminate receiving waterbodies. Wood mulch (n = 30) and leachate/runoff (n = 26) samples were collected over 1.5 years from three wood recycling facilities in New Jersey, USA. Differences by site were found (p < 0.05) for most of the 21 constituents tested in the solid wood mulch samples. Biochemical oxygen demand (range <20-3000 mg/L), chemical oxygen demand (134-6000 mg/L) and total suspended solids (69-401 mg/L) median concentrations of the leachate/runoff samples were comparable to those of untreated domestic wastewater. Total Kjeldahl N, total P and fecal coliform median values were slightly lower than typical wastewater values. Dose-response studies with leachate/runoff samples using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos showed that mortality and developmental defects typically did not occur even at the highest concentration tested, indicating low toxicity, although delayed development did occur. Based on this study, leachate/runoff from wood recycling facilities should not be released to surface waters as it is a potential source of organic contamination and low levels of nutrients. A study in which runoff from a controlled drainage area containing wood mulch of known properties is monitored would allow for better assessment of the potential impact of stormwater runoff from wood recycling facilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Wood formation and the concept of wood quality

    Treesearch

    Philip R. Larson

    1969-01-01

    Wood has been the principal product of trees from the first hunting club or digging tool of ancient man to the rich variety of industrial and decorative uses of modern civilization. The universal practical value and aesthetic appeal of wood may be traced to the seemingly infinite variation in its characteristics. These variations arise from the structure and...

  7. Emission factors of particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and levoglucosan from wood combustion in south-central Chile.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Jorge; Farias, Oscar; Quiroz, Roberto; Yañez, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    In south-central Chile, wood stoves have been identified as an important source of air pollution in populated areas. Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), Chilean oak (Nothofagus oblique), and mimosa (Acacia dealbata) were burned in a single-chamber slow-combustion wood stove at a controlled testing facility located at the University of Concepción, Chile. In each experiment, 2.7-3.1 kg of firewood were combusted while continuously monitoring temperature, exhaust gases, burn rate, and collecting particulate matter samples in Teflon filters under isokinetic conditions for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and levoglucosan analyses. Mean particulate matter emission factors were 2.03, 4.06, and 3.84 g/kg dry wood for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. The emission factors were inversely correlated with combustion efficiency. The mean emission factors of the sums of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particle phases were 1472.5, 2134.0, and 747.5 μg/kg for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. Fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, and chrysene were present in the particle phase in higher proportions compared with other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that were analyzed. Mean levoglucosan emission factors were 854.9, 202.3, and 328.0 mg/kg for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. Since the emissions of particulate matter and other pollutants were inversely correlated with combustion efficiency, implementing more efficient technologies would help to reduce air pollutant emissions from wood combustion. Residential wood burning has been identified as a significant source of air pollution in populated areas. Local wood species are combusted for home cooking and heating, which releases several toxic air pollutants, including particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Air pollutant emissions depend on the type of wood and the technology and operational conditions of the wood stove. A better understanding of emissions from

  8. Some mechanical properties of small specimens cut from 1.79-inch-thick southern pine dried for 6 hours at 300°F or for 5 days at 180°F- A Comparison

    Treesearch

    P. Koch; W.L. Wellford

    1978-01-01

    Small specimens cut from 1.79-inch-thick southern pine dried from green condition for 6 hours at a dry-bulb temperature of 300 F suffered no diminution in the mechanical properties determined, when compared to matched wood dried for 5 days at 180 F.

  9. Wood-boring beetles in homes

    Treesearch

    V.R. Lewis; S.J. Seybold

    2010-01-01

    Three groups of wood-boring beetles—powderpost, deathwatch, and false powderpost (Table 1)—invade and damage wood furniture as well as structural and decorative wood inside of buildings. The beetle larvae feed in and do most of the damage to wood, and when they reach the adult stage, they emerge through round exit holes, which they create by chewing through the wood...

  10. Weathering Characteristics of Wood Plastic Composites Reinforced with Extracted or Delignified Wood Flour

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yao; Stark, Nicole M.; Tshabalala, Mandla A.; Gao, Jianmin; Fan, Yongming

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated weathering performance of an HDPE wood plastic composite reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour (WF). The wood flour was pre-extracted with three different solvents, toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW), or sodium chlorite/acetic acid. The spectral properties of the composites before and after artificial weathering under accelerated conditions were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, the surface color parameters were analyzed using colorimetry, and the mechanical properties were determined by a flexural test. Weathering of WPC resulted in a surface lightening and a decrease in wood index (wood/HDPE) and flexural strength. WPCs that were reinforced with delignified wood flour showed higher ΔL* and ΔE* values, together with lower MOE and MOR retention ratios upon weathering when compared to those with non-extracted control and extracted WF. PMID:28773732

  11. Environmental footprints of brick kiln bottom ashes: Geostatistical approach for assessment of metal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Ananya; Das, Subhasish; Sah, Rajesh Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar

    2017-12-31

    Coal fired brick kiln factories generate significant of brick kiln bottom ash (BKBA) that contaminate soil and water environments of areas near the dumping sites through leaching of toxic metals (Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Mn, and Cu). However, characteristics and environmental effects of BKBAs are yet unknown. We collected BKBA samples from 32 strategic locations of two rapidly developing States (West Bengal and Assam) of India. Scanning electron microscope images indicated spherical and granular structures of BKBAs produced in West Bengal (WBKBA) and Assam (ABKBA) respectively; while energy dispersive spectroscopy and analytical assessments confirmed substantial occurrence of total organic C and nutrient elements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S) in both the BKBAs. FTIR analysis revealed greater predominance of organic matter in ABKBAs than WBKBAs. Occurrence of toxic metals (Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Cu) was higher in ABKBAs than in WBKBAs; while organic and residual fractions of metals were highly predominant in most of the BKBAs. Principal component analysis showed that metal contents and pH were the major distinguishing characteristics of the BKBAs generated in the two different environmental locations. Human health risk associated with BKBAs generated in Assam is of significant concern. Finally, geo-statistical tools enabled to predict the spatial distribution patterns of toxic metals contributed by the BKBAs in Assam and West Bengal respectively. Assessment of contamination index, geo-accumulation index, and ecological risk index revealed some BKBAs to be more toxic than others. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. A conceptual comparison of bioenergy options for using mountain pine beetle infested wood in Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit

    2009-01-01

    Biomass is nearly carbon neutral and can be used for the production of various liquid fuels and chemicals. Decisions on biomass utilization should be based on the most economical and mature route. This study analyzes mountain pine beetle (MPB) killed wood as the feedstock for production of bio-ethanol and bio-oil and compares it with the direct combustion route to produce electricity. The MPB infestation of British Columbia's (BC), a western province of Canada, forest has reached an epidemic proportion and is spread over an area of 10 millionha. According to the current estimates of BC's Ministry of Forests and Range, about 1 billion m(3) of trees would be killed by MPB by 2013. This infestation would result in large scale loss of jobs and the standing dead trees are a fire hazard and if left unharvested will decay and release carbon back to the atmosphere. The cost of bio-ethanol production from a 2100dry tonne/day plant using the infested wood for two locations (one remote and other near the industry) in BC is in the range of C$0.37-C$0.40/l (C$1.40-C$1.51/gallon). Similarly, cost of bio-oil production from a 220dry tonne/day plant using the infested wood for same two locations in BC is in the range of C$0.27-C$0.29/l (C$1.02-C$1.09/gallon). The cost of producing electricity using this bio-oil is above C$100/MWh which is higher than the current power price in BC. This cost is also higher than the cost of production of electricity by direct combustion of infested wood in a boiler (C$68-C$74/MWh).

  13. Microscopic analysis of "iron spot" on blue-and-white porcelain from Jingdezhen imperial kiln in early Ming dynasty (14th-15th century).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxuan; Zhu, Jian; Jiang, Jianxin; Xu, Changqing; Wu, Shurong; Guan, Li; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Wu, Menglei; Du, Jingnan

    2016-11-01

    "Sumali," as an imported cobalt ore from overseas, was a sort of precious and valuable pigment used for imperial kilns only, which produces characteristic "iron spot" to blue-and-white porcelain in early Ming Dynasty (A.D. 14th-15th century). Although there were some old studies on it, the morphology and formation of iron spot has not been fully investigated and understood. Therefore, five selected samples with typical spot from Jingdezhen imperial kiln in Ming Yongle periods (A.D. 1403-1424) were analyzed by various microscopic analysis including 3D digital microscope, SEM-EDS and EPMA. According to SEM images, samples can be divided into three groups: un-reflected "iron spot" without crystals, un-reflected "iron spot" with crystals and reflected "iron spot" with crystals. Furthermore, 3D micro-images revealed that "iron spots" separate out dendritic or snow-shaped crystals of iron only on and parallel to the surface of glaze for which "iron spot" show strong metallic luster. Combining with microscopic observation and microanalysis on crystallization and non-crystallization areas, it indicates that firing oxygen concentration is the ultimate causation of forming reflective iron spot which has a shallower distribution below the surface and limits crystals growing down. More details about characters of "iron spot" used "Sumali" were found and provided new clues to coloration, formation mechanism and porcelain producing technology of imperial kiln from 14th to 15th centuries of China. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Radiocarbon Dating and Wood Density Chronologies of Mangrove Trees in Arid Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Santini, Nadia S.; Hua, Quan; Schmitz, Nele; Lovelock, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    Mangrove trees tend to be larger and mangrove communities more diverse in tropical latitudes, particularly where there is high rainfall. Variation in the structure, growth and productivity of mangrove forests over climatic gradients suggests they are sensitive to variations in climate, but evidence of changes in the structure and growth of mangrove trees in response to climatic variation is scarce. Bomb-pulse radiocarbon dating provides accurate dates of recent wood formation and tree age of tropical and subtropical tree species. Here, we used radiocarbon techniques combined with X-ray densitometry to develop a wood density chronology for the mangrove Avicennia marina in the Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia (WA). We tested whether wood density chronologies of A. marina were sensitive to variation in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index, which reflects temperature fluctuations in the Pacific Ocean and is linked to the instrumental rainfall record in north WA. We also determined growth rates in mangrove trees from the Exmouth Gulf, WA. We found that seaward fringing A. marina trees (∼10 cm diameter) were 48±1 to 89±23 years old (mean ± 1σ) and that their growth rates ranged from 4.08±2.36 to 5.30±3.33 mm/yr (mean ±1σ). The wood density of our studied mangrove trees decreased with increases in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index. Future predicted drying of the region will likely lead to further reductions in wood density and their associated growth rates in mangrove forests in the region. PMID:24265797

  15. Radiocarbon dating and wood density chronologies of mangrove trees in arid Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Santini, Nadia S; Hua, Quan; Schmitz, Nele; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2013-01-01

    Mangrove trees tend to be larger and mangrove communities more diverse in tropical latitudes, particularly where there is high rainfall. Variation in the structure, growth and productivity of mangrove forests over climatic gradients suggests they are sensitive to variations in climate, but evidence of changes in the structure and growth of mangrove trees in response to climatic variation is scarce. Bomb-pulse radiocarbon dating provides accurate dates of recent wood formation and tree age of tropical and subtropical tree species. Here, we used radiocarbon techniques combined with X-ray densitometry to develop a wood density chronology for the mangrove Avicennia marina in the Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia (WA). We tested whether wood density chronologies of A. marina were sensitive to variation in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index, which reflects temperature fluctuations in the Pacific Ocean and is linked to the instrumental rainfall record in north WA. We also determined growth rates in mangrove trees from the Exmouth Gulf, WA. We found that seaward fringing A. marina trees (~10 cm diameter) were 48 ± 1 to 89 ± 23 years old (mean ± 1 σ) and that their growth rates ranged from 4.08 ± 2.36 to 5.30 ± 3.33 mm/yr (mean ± 1 σ). The wood density of our studied mangrove trees decreased with increases in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index. Future predicted drying of the region will likely lead to further reductions in wood density and their associated growth rates in mangrove forests in the region.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of starch-g-poly(vinyl acetate-co-butyl acrylate) bio-based adhesive for wood application.

    PubMed

    Zia-Ud-Din; Chen, Lei; Ullah, Ikram; Wang, Peng Kai; Javaid, Allah Bakhsh; Hu, Chun; Zhang, Mengchao; Ahamd, Ishtiaq; Xiong, Hanguo; Wang, Zhenjiong

    2018-07-15

    Enhancing the performance of wood adhesive is important for its industrial applications. Accordingly, we designed and demonstrated the use of two co-monomers vinyl acetate (VAc) and butyl acrylate (BA) for promoting the graft copolymerization while improving the bonding performance of wood adhesive. The results showed that the addition of co-monomers in the ratio of VAc/BA 6:4 (v/v, volume basis of VAc) could improve the shear strength to 6.68MPa and 3.32MPa in dry and wet states, respectively. 1 H-nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis revealed successful graft copolymerization reaction while the morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the grafting reaction and thermal stabilities of wood adhesive were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the properties of wood adhesive could improve dramatically by using two co-monomers VAc and BA during the graft copolymerization reaction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Wood preservation

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    1999-01-01

    When left untreated in many outdoor applications, wood becomes subject to degradation by a variety of natural causes. Although some trees possess naturally occurring resistance to decay (Ch. 3, Decay Resistance), many are in short supply or are not grown in ready proximity to markets. Because most commonly used wood species, such as Southern Pine, ponderosa pine, and...

  18. The use of new, aqueous chemical wood modifications to improve the durability of wood-plastic composites

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons; George C. Chen

    2017-01-01

    The wood flour used in wood-plastic composites (WPCs) can biologically deteriorate and thus the overall mechanical performance of WPCs decrease when exposed to moisture and fungal decay. Protecting the wood flour by chemical modification can improve the durability of the wood in a nontoxic way so it is not harmful to the environment. WPCs were made with modified wood...

  19. Bioprocessing preservative-treated waste wood

    Treesearch

    Barbara L. Illman; Vina W. Yang; Les Ferge

    2000-01-01

    Disposal of preservative-treated waste wood is a growing problem worldwide. Bioprocessing the treated wood offers one approach to waste management under certain conditions. One goal is to use wood decay fungi to reduce the volume of waste with an easily managed system in a cost-effective manner. Wood decay fungi were obtained from culture collections in the Mycology...

  20. LCA-based optimization of wood utilization under special consideration of a cascading use of wood.

    PubMed

    Höglmeier, Karin; Steubing, Bernhard; Weber-Blaschke, Gabriele; Richter, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Cascading, the use of the same unit of a resource in multiple successional applications, is considered as a viable means to improve the efficiency of resource utilization and to decrease environmental impacts. Wood, as a regrowing but nevertheless limited and increasingly in demand resource, can be used in cascades, thereby increasing the potential efficiency per unit of wood. This study aims to assess the influence of cascading wood utilization on optimizing the overall environmental impact of wood utilization. By combining a material flow model of existing wood applications - both for materials provision and energy production - with an algebraic optimization tool, the effects of the use of wood in cascades can be modelled and quantified based on life cycle impact assessment results for all production processes. To identify the most efficient wood allocation, the effects of a potential substitution of non-wood products were taken into account in a part of the model runs. The considered environmental indicators were global warming potential, particulate matter formation, land occupation and an aggregated single score indicator. We found that optimizing either the overall global warming potential or the value of the single score indicator of the system leads to a simultaneous relative decrease of all other considered environmental impacts. The relative differences between the impacts of the model run with and without the possibility of a cascading use of wood were 7% for global warming potential and the single score indicator, despite cascading only influencing a small part of the overall system, namely wood panel production. Cascading led to savings of up to 14% of the annual primary wood supply of the study area. We conclude that cascading can improve the overall performance of a wood utilization system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.