Grattapaglia, D.; Bertolucci, FLG.; Penchel, R.; Sederoff, R. R.
Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of forest productivity traits was performed using an open pollinated half-sib family of Eucalyptus grandis. For volume growth, a sequential QTL mapping approach was applied using bulk segregant analysis (BSA), selective genotyping (SG) and cosegregation analysis (CSA). Despite the low heritability of this trait and the heterogeneous genetic background employed for mapping. BSA detected one putative QTL and SG two out of the three later found by CSA. The three putative QTL for volume growth were found to control 13.7% of the phenotypic variation, corresponding to an estimated 43.7% of the genetic variation. For wood specific gravity five QTL were identified controlling 24.7% of the phenotypic variation corresponding to 49% of the genetic variation. Overlapping QTL for CBH, WSG and percentage dry weight of bark were observed. A significant case of digenic epistasis was found, involving unlinked QTL for volume. Our results demonstrate the applicability of the within half-sib design for QTL mapping in forest trees and indicate the existence of major genes involved in the expression of economically important traits related to forest productivity in Eucalyptus grandis. These findings have important implications for marker-assisted tree breeding. PMID:8913761
Grattapaglia, D; Bertolucci, F L; Penchel, R; Sederoff, R R
Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of forest productivity traits was performed using an open pollinated half-sib family of Eucalyptus grandis. For volume growth, a sequential QTL mapping approach was applied using bulk segregant analysis (BSA), selective genotyping (SG) and cosegregation analysis (CSA). Despite the low heritability of this trait and the heterogeneous genetic background employed for mapping, BSA detected one putative QTL and SG two out of the three later found by CSA. The three putative QTL for volume growth were found to control 13.7% of the phenotypic variation, corresponding to an estimated 43.7% of the genetic variation. For wood specific gravity five QTL were identified controlling 24.7% of the phenotypic variation corresponding to 49% of the genetic variation. Overlapping QTL for CBH, WSG and percentage dry weight of bark were observed. A significant case of digenic epistasis was found, involving unlinked QTL for volume. Our results demonstrate the applicability of the within half-sib design for QTL mapping in forest trees and indicate the existence of major genes involved in the expression of economically important traits related to forest productivity in Eucalyptus grandis. These findings have important implications for marker-assisted tree breeding.
Ranney, J.W.; Turhollow, A.F. ); Dinus, R.J. )
A comparative assessment of the biological potential to modify wood for improved conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels identifies specific gravity, lignin and hemicellulose qualities, bark quantity, and hemicellulose content as priority research targets. However, the difference in priorities of 10 characteristics is minimal. When biological opportunities are compared to biofuel conversion priorities, bark quantity and specific gravity fall in priority and concern for lignin content rises. The major conclusion of the comparison is that an assortment of many minor changes hold the greatest and most practical promise. The economic benefit of these potential improvements needs evaluation. The qualities of productivity (growth) and disease/pest tolerance and resistance continue to exist as a major concerns against which energy trait modifications must have little negative effect. 34 refs., 7 tabs.
Ranucci, D; Beghelli, D; Trabalza-Marinucci, M; Branciari, R; Forte, C; Olivieri, O; Badillo Pazmay, G V; Cavallucci, C; Acuti, G
The effects of a pre-formulated commercial plant extract mix, composed of equal parts of oregano essential oil and sweet chestnut wood extract, on performance, oxidative status and pork quality traits were evaluated. In two 155-d studies, 60 pigs (mean liveweight: 42.9 kg) were assigned to either a control diet (CTR) or an identical diet supplemented (0.2%) with the plant extract mix (OC). No differences in the growth rate were observed. Glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in the OC muscles (Longissimus lumborum) were higher than in CTR muscles. The lipid oxidation of meat was lower in the OC group. In the cooked meat samples, OC animals had the lowest L* and H° values and the highest a* values. The OC meat received higher scores for colour, taste and overall liking in both the blind and the labelled consumer tests.
Wood properties influence pulp and paper quality. Certainly, overall pulp yields are directly related to the cellulose content, changes in hemicellulose content are associated with changes in pulp cohesiveness, and pulping efficiency is related to lignin content. Despite the importance of wood properties on product quality, little progress has been made in improving such traits because current methods of assessing wood and fiber characteristics are time-consuming, expensive, and often imprecise. Genetic improvement of wood and fiber properties has been further hampered by the large size of trees, delayed reproductive maturity and long harvest cycles. Recent developments in molecular genetics will help overcome the physical, economic and biological constraints in assessing and improving wood properties. Genetic maps consisting of numerous molecular markers are now available for loblolly pine and hybrid poplar. Such markers/maps may be used as part of a marker-aided selection and breeding effort or to expedite the isolation and characterization of genes and/or promoters that directly control wood properties. The objectives of this project are: (1) to apply new and rapid analytical techniques for assessing component wood properties to segregating F2 progeny populations of loblolly pine and hybrid poplar, (2) to map quantitative trait loci and identify molecular markers associated with wood properties in each of the above species and (3) to validate marker-aided selection methods for wood properties in loblolly pine and hybrid poplar.
González-Martínez, Santiago C; Wheeler, Nicholas C; Ersoz, Elhan; Nelson, C Dana; Neale, David B
Genetic association is a powerful method for dissecting complex adaptive traits due to (i) fine-scale mapping resulting from historical recombination, (ii) wide coverage of phenotypic and genotypic variation within a single experiment, and (iii) the simultaneous discovery of loci and alleles. In this article, genetic association among single nucleotide polymorphisms (58 SNPs) from 20 wood- and drought-related candidate genes and an array of wood property traits with evolutionary and commercial importance, namely, earlywood and latewood specific gravity, percentage of latewood, earlywood microfibril angle, and wood chemistry (lignin and cellulose content), was tested using mixed linear models (MLMs) that account for relatedness among individuals by using a pairwise kinship matrix. Population structure, a common systematic bias in association studies, was assessed using 22 nuclear microsatellites. Different phenotype:genotype associations were found, some of them confirming previous evidence from collocation of QTL and genes in linkage maps (for example, 4cl and percentage of latewood) and two that involve nonsynonymous polymorphisms (cad SNP M28 with earlywood specific gravity and 4cl SNP M7 with percentage of latewood). The strongest genetic association found in this study was between allelic variation in alpha-tubulin, a gene involved in the formation of cortical microtubules, and earlywood microfibril angle. Intragenic LD decays rapidly in conifers; thus SNPs showing genetic association are likely to be located in close proximity to the causative polymorphisms. This first multigene association genetic study in forest trees has shown the feasibility of candidate gene strategies for dissecting complex adaptive traits, provided that genes belonging to key pathways and appropriate statistical tools are used. This approach is of particular utility in species such as conifers, where genomewide strategies are limited by their large genomes.
Venugopal, Parvathy; Junninen, Kaisa; Edman, Mattias; Kouki, Jari
The interactions among saprotrophic fungal species, as well as their interactions with environmental factors, may have a major influence on wood decay and carbon release in ecosystems. We studied the effects that decomposer diversity (species richness and assemblage composition) have on wood decomposition when the climatic variables and substrate quality vary simultaneously. We used two temperature (16 and 21(°)C) and two humidity (70% and 90%) levels at two wood qualities (wood from managed and old-growth forests) of Pinus sylvestris In a nine-month experiment, the effects of fungal diversity were tested using four wood-decaying fungi (Antrodia xantha, Dichomitus squalens, Fomitopsis pinicola and Gloeophyllum protractum) at assemblage levels one, two and four species. Wood quality and assemblage composition affected the influence of climatic factors on decomposition rates. Fungal assemblage composition was found to be more important than fungal species richness, indicating that species-specific fungal traits are of paramount importance in driving decomposition. We conclude that models containing fungal wood-decay species (and wood-based carbon) need to take into account species - and assemblage composition - specific properties to improve predictive capacity in regard to decomposition related carbon dynamics.
The seeds of the cereal crops provide a large portion of both the total calories and protein in the human diet. The utility of any cereal depends on the precise characteristics of their grain and the summation of parameters that translate in the grain "quality" for speific utilizations. This chapter...
van Geffen, Koert G; Poorter, Lourens; Sass-Klaassen, Ute; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Cornelissen, Johannes H C
The decomposition of dead wood is a critical uncertainty in models of the global carbon cycle. Despite this, relatively few studies have focused on dead wood decomposition, with a strong bias to higher latitudes. Especially the effect of interspecific variation in species traits on differences in wood decomposition rates remains unknown. In order to fill these gaps, we applied a novel method to study long-term wood decomposition of 15 tree species in a Bolivian semi-evergreen tropical moist forest. We hypothesized that interspecific differences in species traits are important drivers of variation in wood decomposition rates. Wood decomposition rates (fractional mass loss) varied between 0.01 and 0.31 yr(-1). We measured 10 different chemical, anatomical, and morphological traits for all species. The species' average traits were useful predictors of wood decomposition rates, particularly the average diameter (dbh) of the tree species (R2 = 0.41). Lignin concentration further increased the proportion of explained inter-specific variation in wood decomposition (both negative relations, cumulative R2 = 0.55), although it did not significantly explain variation in wood decomposition rates if considered alone. When dbh values of the actual dead trees sampled for decomposition rate determination were used as a predictor variable, the final model (including dead tree dbh and lignin concentration) explained even more variation in wood decomposition rates (R2 = 0.71), underlining the importance of dbh in wood decomposition. Other traits, including wood density, wood anatomical traits, macronutrient concentrations, and the amount of phenolic extractives could not significantly explain the variation in wood decomposition rates. The surprising results of this multi-species study, in which for the first time a large set of traits is explicitly linked to wood decomposition rates, merits further testing in other forest ecosystems.
Hietz, Peter; Rosner, Sabine; Hietz-Seifert, Ursula; Wright, S Joseph
Wood structure differs widely among tree species and species with faster growth, higher mortality and larger maximum size have been reported to have fewer but larger vessels and higher hydraulic conductivity (Kh). However, previous studies compiled data from various sources, often failed to control tree size and rarely controlled variation in other traits. We measured wood density, tree size and vessel traits for 325 species from a wet forest in Panama, and compared wood and leaf traits to demographic traits using species-level data and phylogenetically independent contrasts. Wood traits showed strong phylogenetic signal whereas pairwise relationships between traits were mostly phylogenetically independent. Trees with larger vessels had a lower fraction of the cross-sectional area occupied by vessel lumina, suggesting that the hydraulic efficiency of large vessels permits trees to dedicate a larger proportion of the wood to functions other than water transport. Vessel traits were more strongly correlated with the size of individual trees than with maximal size of a species. When individual tree size was included in models, Kh scaled positively with maximal size and was the best predictor for both diameter and biomass growth rates, but was unrelated to mortality.
Martin, Adam R.; Thomas, Sean C.; Zhao, Yong
Wood anatomical traits are important correlates of life-history strategies among tree species, yet little is known about wood chemical traits. Additionally, size-dependent changes in wood chemical traits have been rarely examined, although these changes may represent an important aspect of tree ontogeny. Owing to selection for pathogen resistance and biomechanical stability, we predicted that saplings would show higher lignin (L) and wood carbon (Cconv), and lower holocellulose (H) concentrations, compared with conspecific large trees. To test these expectations, we quantified H, L and Cconv in co-occurring Panamanian tree species at the large tree vs. sapling size classes. We also examined inter- and intraspecific patterns using multivariate and phylogenetic analyses. In 15 of 16 species, sapling L concentration was higher than that in conspecific large trees, and in all 16 species, sapling H was lower than that in conspecific large trees. In 16 of 24 species, Cconv was higher in saplings than conspecific large trees. All large-tree traits were unrelated to sapling values and were unrelated to four life-history variables. Wood chemical traits did not show a phylogenetic signal in saplings, instead showing similar values across distantly related taxa; in large trees, only H showed a significant phylogenetic signal. Size-dependent changes in wood chemistry show consistent and predictable patterns, suggesting that ontogenetic changes in wood chemical traits are an important aspect of tree functional biology. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that at early ontogenetic stages, trees are selected for greater L to defend against cellulose-decaying pathogens, or possibly to confer biomechanical stability.
Baker, T. R.; Phillips, O. L.; Laurance, W. F.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Almeida, S.; Arroyo, L.; Difiore, A.; Erwin, T.; Higuchi, N.; Killeen, T. J.; Laurance, S. G.; Nascimento, H.; Monteagudo, A.; Neill, D. A.; Silva, J. N. M.; Malhi, Y.; López Gonzalez, G.; Peacock, J.; Quesada, C. A.; Lewis, S. L.; Lloyd, J.
Understanding the relationships between plant traits and ecosystem properties at large spatial scales is important for predicting how compositional change will affect carbon cycling in tropical forests. In this study, we examine the relationships between species wood density, maximum height and above-ground, coarse wood production of trees ≥10 cm diameter (CWP) for 60 Amazonian forest plots. Average species maximum height and wood density are lower in Western than Eastern Amazonia and are negatively correlated with CWP. To test the hypothesis that variation in these traits causes the variation in CWP, we generate plot-level estimates of CWP by resampling the full distribution of tree biomass growth rates whilst maintaining the appropriate tree-diameter and functional-trait distributions for each plot. These estimates are then compared with the observed values. Overall, the estimates do not predict the observed, regional-scale pattern of CWP, suggesting that the variation in community-level trait values does not determine variation in coarse wood productivity in Amazonian forests. Instead, the regional gradient in CWP is caused by higher biomass growth rates across all tree types in Western Amazonia. Therefore, the regional gradient in CWP is driven primarily by environmental factors, rather than the particular functional composition of each stand. These results contrast with previous findings for forest biomass, where variation in wood density, associated with variation in species composition, is an important driver of regional-scale patterns in above-ground biomass. Therefore, in tropical forests, above-ground wood productivity may be less sensitive than biomass to compositional change that alters community-level averages of these plant traits.
Morel, Mélanie; Meux, Edgar; Mathieu, Yann; Thuillier, Anne; Chibani, Kamel; Harvengt, Luc; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Gelhaye, Eric
Fungal degradation of wood is mainly restricted to basidiomycetes, these organisms having developed complex oxidative and hydrolytic enzymatic systems. Besides these systems, wood-decaying fungi possess intracellular networks allowing them to deal with the myriad of potential toxic compounds resulting at least in part from wood degradation but also more generally from recalcitrant organic matter degradation. The members of the detoxification pathways constitute the xenome. Generally, they belong to multigenic families such as the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and the glutathione transferases. Taking advantage of the recent release of numerous genomes of basidiomycetes, we show here that these multigenic families are extended and functionally related in wood-decaying fungi. Furthermore, we postulate that these rapidly evolving multigenic families could reflect the adaptation of these fungi to the diversity of their substrate and provide keys to understand their ecology. This is of particular importance for white biotechnology, this xenome being a putative target for improving degradation properties of these fungi in biomass valorization purposes.
Morel, Mélanie; Meux, Edgar; Mathieu, Yann; Thuillier, Anne; Chibani, Kamel; Harvengt, Luc; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Gelhaye, Eric
Fungal degradation of wood is mainly restricted to basidiomycetes, these organisms having developed complex oxidative and hydrolytic enzymatic systems. Besides these systems, wood-decaying fungi possess intracellular networks allowing them to deal with the myriad of potential toxic compounds resulting at least in part from wood degradation but also more generally from recalcitrant organic matter degradation. The members of the detoxification pathways constitute the xenome. Generally, they belong to multigenic families such as the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and the glutathione transferases. Taking advantage of the recent release of numerous genomes of basidiomycetes, we show here that these multigenic families are extended and functionally related in wood-decaying fungi. Furthermore, we postulate that these rapidly evolving multigenic families could reflect the adaptation of these fungi to the diversity of their substrate and provide keys to understand their ecology. This is of particular importance for white biotechnology, this xenome being a putative target for improving degradation properties of these fungi in biomass valorization purposes. PMID:23279857
Prasad, A G Devi; Al-Sagheer, Nageeb A
Wood elements and anatomical ratio of Dipterocarpus indicus were studied to evaluate variation among populations and to recommend for end selection. The variation of wood element [fibre length (FL), fibre diameter (FD), lumen diameter (LD), cell wall thickness (CWT), double wall thickness (DWT), and lumen volume (LV)] and anatomical ratio [fibre lumen area (FLA), slenderness ratio (SR) and runkel ratio (RR)] were investigated in a girth class of 100 - 120 cm among eight populations of Dipterocarpus indicus in Western Ghats, India. The study revealed a significant variations in FL (0.2426), FD (4.7019), LD (3.1689), CWT (2.7104), DWT and (5.4298) among populations. The variations in anatomical ratios were significant among populations except in case of LV. The causes of variations among populations in their wood traits were attributed to the site factors. The interaction between genetic makeup of wood traits combined with effects of edaphic, local and regional climatic conditions reflect the amount of variation among populations. The highest coefficient of variation (CV %) for FL, FD, CWT and DWT was recorded in population of Gundya whereas low coefficient of variation were recorded in the population of Makuta (FL), Devimane (FD, CWT and DWT), and Sampaje (LD). The wood of Dipterocarpus indicus was found undesirable for pulp wood but can be utilized for plywood timbers.
Kačíková, Danica; Kačík, František; Cabalová, Iveta; Durkovič, Jaroslav
In several different branches of the wood industry heat treatment is a growing application as it changes the chemical, mechanical, physical and biological properties of wood. Investigations using wet chemical analyses, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, and CIELab colour system have been conducted to study the changes in Norway spruce wood subjected to temperature up to 270°C over a 30 min time period. The results showed that mass loss (ML), total crystallinity index (TCI) of cellulose, total colour difference (ΔE*), and the content of lignin and extractives increased with the temperature, whereas degree of polymerization (DP) of cellulose, modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), lightness difference (ΔL*), and the content of holocellulose, cellulose and hemicelluloses all decreased with the thermal treatment. Relationships between temperature and the examined wood traits were all fitted by exponential curves. Power law relationships were found to fit the trends for DP of cellulose with ΔE*, ΔL*, and TCI of cellulose. Also found were power law regressions for the content of hemicelluloses with MOE, MOR, ΔL*, and ML. Temperatures ranging from 20 to 187°C formed a compact cluster, clearly separated from the higher examined temperatures in the multivariate wood trait space.
Schreiber, Stefan G; Hacke, Uwe G; Hamann, Andreas; Thomas, Barb R
Intensive forestry systems and breeding programs often include either native aspen or hybrid poplar clones, and performance and trait evaluations are mostly made within these two groups. Here, we assessed how traits with potential adaptive value varied within and across these two plant groups. Variation in nine hydraulic and wood anatomical traits as well as growth were measured in selected aspen and hybrid poplar genotypes grown at a boreal planting site in Alberta, Canada. Variability in these traits was statistically evaluated based on a blocked experimental design. We found that genotypes of trembling aspen were more resistant to cavitation, exhibited more negative water potentials, and were more water-use-efficient than hybrid poplars. Under the boreal field test conditions, which included major regional droughts, height growth was negatively correlated with branch vessel diameter (Dv ) in both aspen and hybrid poplars and differences in Dv were highly conserved in aspen trees from different provenances. Differences between the hybrid poplars and aspen provenances suggest that these two groups employ different water-use strategies. The data also suggest that vessel diameter may be a key trait in evaluating growth performance in a boreal environment.
Aramaki, Mitsuko; Baillères, Henri; Brancheriau, Loïc; Kronland-Martinet, Richard; Ystad, Sølvi
Xylophone sounds produced by striking wooden bars with a mallet are strongly influenced by the mechanical properties of the wood species chosen by the xylophone maker. In this paper, we address the relationship between the sound quality based on the timbre attribute of impacted wooden bars and the physical parameters characterizing wood species. For this, a methodology is proposed that associates an analysis-synthesis process and a perceptual classification test. Sounds generated by impacting 59 wooden bars of different species but with the same geometry were recorded and classified by a renowned instrument maker. The sounds were further digitally processed and adjusted to the same pitch before being once again classified. The processing is based on a physical model ensuring the main characteristics of the wood are preserved during the sound transformation. Statistical analysis of both classifications showed the influence of the pitch in the xylophone maker judgement and pointed out the importance of two timbre descriptors: the frequency-dependent damping and the spectral bandwidth. These descriptors are linked with physical and anatomical characteristics of wood species, providing new clues in the choice of attractive wood species from a musical point of view.
Santiago, L S; Goldstein, G; Meinzer, F C; Fisher, J B; Machado, K; Woodruff, D; Jones, T
We investigated how water transport capacity, wood density and wood anatomy were related to leaf photosynthetic traits in two lowland forests in Panama. Leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity ( k(L)) of upper branches was positively correlated with maximum rates of net CO(2) assimilation per unit leaf area ( A(area)) and stomatal conductance ( g(s)) across 20 species of canopy trees. Maximum k(L) showed stronger correlation with A(area) than initial k(L) suggesting that allocation to photosynthetic potential is proportional to maximum water transport capacity. Terminal branch k(L) was negatively correlated with A(area)/ g(s) and positively correlated with photosynthesis per unit N, indicating a trade-off of efficient use of water against efficient use of N in photosynthesis as water transport efficiency varied. Specific hydraulic conductivity calculated from xylem anatomical characteristics ( k(theoretical)) was positively related to A(area) and k(L), consistent with relationships among physiological measurements. Branch wood density was negatively correlated with wood water storage at saturation, k(L), A(area), net CO(2) assimilation per unit leaf mass ( A(mass)), and minimum leaf water potential measured on covered leaves, suggesting that wood density constrains physiological function to specific operating ranges. Kinetic and static indices of branch water transport capacity thus exhibit considerable co-ordination with allocation to potential carbon gain. Our results indicate that understanding tree hydraulic architecture provides added insights to comparisons of leaf level measurements among species, and links photosynthetic allocation patterns with branch hydraulic processes.
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain quality traits that are controlled by quantitative traits loci (QTLs) define suitable growing areas and potential end-use products of a wheat cultivar. To dissect the QTLs for these traits including protein content (GPC), test weight (TW), single kernel characteriz...
Grain quality traits were analyzed in a diverse sorghum sample set which consisted of 174 sorghum lines (110 non-tannin lines and 64 tannin lines). These samples were previously grouped into five distinct genetic populations which made it possible to compare grain quality traits across the genetic g...
Grain quality traits were analyzed in a diverse sorghum sample set which consisted of 174 sorghum lines (110 non-tannin lines and 64 tannin lines). These samples were previously grouped into five distinct genetic populations which made it possible to compare grain quality traits across the genetic g...
Tumuluru, J.S.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Lim, C. Jim; Bi, X.T.; Lau, A.K.; Melin, Staffan; Oveisi, E.; Sowlati, T.
Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.
J. S. Tumuluru; S. Sokhansanj; C. J. Lim; T. Bi; A. Lau; S. Melin; T. Sowlati; E. Oveisi
Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.
Tsikas, Angelos; Karanikola, Paraskevi; Papageorgiou, Aristotelis C
Red wood ants (RWA) are of great ecological importance for the forest ecosystem. Forestry practices, like clear-cutting, and trampling load, due to tourism, logging, and grazing stock, can greatly affect their colonies, disturbing their microhabitat. RWA in Greek forests have not been investigated so far. We herein report on the distribution and morphological traits of Formica lugubris mounds studied in Elatia forest (Rhodope mountains, Northern Greece), an all-aged managed mixed forest where selective logging practices are performed. Nearby vegetation, slope, canopy cover, shrub density, and distance from the nearest neighboring trees were also recorded. Mound density was shown to be much higher in this Greek forest compared to RWA mounds in other European-managed forests. Furthermore, we recorded a continuous nest establishment, despite forest management disturbances and trampling load. Our study suggests that single-tree selective forestry practices are essential for creating ideal microhabitats for the RWA and, therefore, for maintaining RWA populations.
Spannl, Susanne; Homeier, Jürgen; Bräuning, Achim
Regarding woody plant responses on higher atmospheric inputs of the macronutrients nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) on tropical forests in the future, an adaptive modification of wood anatomical traits on the cellular level of woody plants is expected. As part of an interdisciplinary nutrient manipulation experiment (NUMEX) carried out in Southern Ecuador, we present here the first descriptive and quantitative wood anatomical analysis of the tropical evergreen tree species Alchornea lojaensis (Euphorbiaceae). We sampled branch wood of nine individual trees belonging to treatments with N fertilization, N+P fertilization, and a control group, respectively. Quantitative evaluations of eleven different vessel parameters were conducted. The results showed that this endemic tree species will be able to adapt well to the future effects of climate change and higher nutrient deposition. This was firstly implied by an increase in vessel diameter and consequently a higher theo. area-specific hydraulic conductivity with higher nutrient availability. Secondly, the percentage of small vessels (0-20µm diameter) strongly increased with fertilization. Thirdly, the vessel arrangement (solitary vessels vs. multiple vessel groupings) changed towards a lower percentage of solitary vessel fraction (VS), and concurrently towards a higher total vessel grouping index (VG) and a higher mean group size of non-solitary vessels (VM) after N and N+P addition. We conclude that higher nutrient availability of N and N+P triggered higher foliage amount and water demand, leading to higher cavitation risk in larger vessels. This is counteracted by a stronger grouping of vessels with smaller risk of cavitation to ensure water supply during drier periods that are expected to occur in higher frequency in the near future.
Improving food quality traits has become a major goal of fruit and vegetable breeding due to the increasing public awareness of nutraceutical compounds to human nutrition and health. During domestication and breeding of modern varieties, many traits were left behind in the wild and in the primitive ...
Hajek, Peter; Kurjak, Daniel; von Wühlisch, Georg; Delzon, Sylvain; Schuldt, Bernhard
In angiosperms, many studies have described the inter-specific variability of hydraulic-related traits and little is known at the intra-specific level. This information is however mandatory to assess the adaptive capacities of tree populations in the context of increasing drought frequency and severity. Ten 20-year old European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) provenances representing the entire distribution range throughout Europe and differing significantly in aboveground biomass increment (ABI) by a factor of up to four were investigated for branch wood anatomical, hydraulic, and foliar traits in a provenance trial located in Northern Europe. We quantified to which extend xylem hydraulic and leaf traits are under genetic control and tested whether the xylem hydraulic properties (hydraulic efficiency and safety) trades off with yield and wood anatomical and leaf traits. Our results showed that only three out of 22 investigated ecophysiological traits showed significant genetic differentiations between provenances, namely vessel density (VD), the xylem pressure causing 88% loss of hydraulic conductance and mean leaf size. Depending of the ecophysiological traits measured, genetic differentiation between populations explained 0–14% of total phenotypic variation, while intra-population variability was higher than inter-population variability. Most wood anatomical traits and some foliar traits were additionally related to the climate of provenance origin. The lumen to sapwood area ratio, vessel diameter, theoretical specific conductivity and theoretical leaf-specific conductivity as well as the C:N-ratio increased with climatic aridity at the place of origin while the carbon isotope signature (δ13C) decreased. Contrary to our assumption, none of the wood anatomical traits were related to embolism resistance but were strong determinants of hydraulic efficiency. Although ABI was associated with both VD and δ13C, both hydraulic efficiency and embolism resistance were
Hajek, Peter; Kurjak, Daniel; von Wühlisch, Georg; Delzon, Sylvain; Schuldt, Bernhard
In angiosperms, many studies have described the inter-specific variability of hydraulic-related traits and little is known at the intra-specific level. This information is however mandatory to assess the adaptive capacities of tree populations in the context of increasing drought frequency and severity. Ten 20-year old European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) provenances representing the entire distribution range throughout Europe and differing significantly in aboveground biomass increment (ABI) by a factor of up to four were investigated for branch wood anatomical, hydraulic, and foliar traits in a provenance trial located in Northern Europe. We quantified to which extend xylem hydraulic and leaf traits are under genetic control and tested whether the xylem hydraulic properties (hydraulic efficiency and safety) trades off with yield and wood anatomical and leaf traits. Our results showed that only three out of 22 investigated ecophysiological traits showed significant genetic differentiations between provenances, namely vessel density (VD), the xylem pressure causing 88% loss of hydraulic conductance and mean leaf size. Depending of the ecophysiological traits measured, genetic differentiation between populations explained 0-14% of total phenotypic variation, while intra-population variability was higher than inter-population variability. Most wood anatomical traits and some foliar traits were additionally related to the climate of provenance origin. The lumen to sapwood area ratio, vessel diameter, theoretical specific conductivity and theoretical leaf-specific conductivity as well as the C:N-ratio increased with climatic aridity at the place of origin while the carbon isotope signature (δ(13)C) decreased. Contrary to our assumption, none of the wood anatomical traits were related to embolism resistance but were strong determinants of hydraulic efficiency. Although ABI was associated with both VD and δ(13)C, both hydraulic efficiency and embolism resistance were
Baltzer, Jennifer L; Grégoire, Dorthea M; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Noor, N Supardi M; Davies, Stuart J
Drought is a critical factor in plant species distributions. Much research points to its relevance even in moist tropical regions. Recent studies have begun to elucidate mechanisms underlying the distributions of tropical tree species with respect to drought; however, how such desiccation tolerance mechanisms correspond with the coordination of hydraulic and photosynthetic traits in determining species distributions with respect to rainfall seasonality deserves attention. In the present study, we used a common garden approach to quantify inherent differences in wood anatomical and foliar physiological traits in 21 tropical tree species with either widespread (occupying both seasonal and aseasonal climates) or southern (restricted to aseasonal forests) distributions with respect to rainfall seasonality. Use of congeneric species pairs and phylogenetically independent contrast analyses allowed examination of this question in a phylogenetic framework. Widespread species opted for wood traits that provide biomechanical support and prevent xylem cavitation and showed associated reductions in canopy productivity and consequently growth rates compared with southern species. These data support the hypothesis that species having broader distributions with respect to climatic variability will be characterized by traits conducive to abiotic stress tolerance. This study highlights the importance of the well-established performance vs. stress tolerance trade-off as a contributor to species distributions at larger scales.
Resende, Rafael Tassinari; Resende, Marcos Deon Vilela; Silva, Fabyano Fonseca; Azevedo, Camila Ferreira; Takahashi, Elizabete Keiko; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Grattapaglia, Dario
Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided valuable insights into the decoding of the relationships between sequence variation and complex phenotypes, they have explained little heritability. Regional heritability mapping (RHM) provides heritability estimates for genomic segments containing both common and rare allelic effects that individually contribute too little variance to be detected by GWAS. We carried out GWAS and RHM for seven growth, wood and disease resistance traits in a breeding population of 768 Eucalyptus hybrid trees using EuCHIP60K. Total genomic heritabilities accounted for large proportions (64-89%) of pedigree-based trait heritabilities, providing additional evidence that complex traits in eucalypts are controlled by many sequence variants across the frequency spectrum, each with small contributions to the phenotypic variance. RHM detected 26 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) encompassing 2191 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), whereas GWAS detected 13 single SNP-trait associations. RHM and GWAS QTLs individually explained 5-15% and 4-6% of the genomic heritability, respectively. RHM was superior to GWAS in capturing larger proportions of genomic heritability. Equated to previously mapped QTLs, our results highlighted genomic regions for further examination towards gene discovery. RHM-QTLs bearing a combination of common and rare variants could be useful enhancements to incorporate prior knowledge of the underlying genetic architecture in genomic prediction models.
Growers offering high quality watermelons [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb.), Matsum & Nakai] that are also high in phytonutrients will have stronger market opportunities. In order to offer highly nutritious fruit, the industry must understand the nature of phytonutrient accumulation as it is affected by ...
Fruit quality traits and dayneutrality are two major foci of several strawberry breeding programs. The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and molecular markers linked to these traits could improve breeding efficiency. In this work, an F1 population derived from the cross ‘Delmarvel’ × ...
Jones, D L; Quilliam, R S
Pyrolysis or combustion of waste wood can provide a renewable source of energy and produce byproducts which can be recycled back to land. To be sustainable requires that these byproducts pose minimal threat to the environment or human health. Frequently, reclaimed waste wood is contaminated by preservative-treated timber containing high levels of heavy metals. We investigated the effect of feedstock contamination from copper-preservative treated wood on the behaviour of pyrolysis-derived biochar and combustion-derived ash in plant-soil systems. Biochar and wood ash were applied to soil at typical agronomic rates. The presence of preservative treated timber in the feedstock increased available soil Cu; however, critical Cu guidance limits were only exceeded at high rates of feedstock contamination. Negative effects on plant growth and soil quality were only seen at high levels of biochar contamination (>50% derived from preservative-treated wood). Negative effects of wood ash contamination were apparent at lower levels of contamination (>10% derived from preservative treated wood). Complete removal of preservative treated timber from wood recycling facilities is notoriously difficult and low levels of contamination are commonplace. We conclude that low levels of contamination from Cu-treated wood should pose minimal environmental risk to biochar and ash destined for land application.
Uchiyama, Kentaro; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Moriguchi, Yoshinari; Ujino-Ihara, Tokuko; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Taguchi, Yuriko; Tsubomura, Miyoko; Mishima, Kentaro; Iki, Taiichi; Watanabe, Atsushi; Futamura, Norihiro; Shinohara, Kenji; Tsumura, Yoshihiko
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are an alternative to bi-parental QTL mapping in long-lived perennials. In the present study, we examined the potential of GWAS in conifers using 367 unrelated plus trees of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, which is the most widely planted and commercially important tree species in Japan, and tried to detect significant associations between wood property traits and quantity of male strobili on the one hand, and 1,032 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assigned to 1,032 genes on the other. Association analysis was performed with the mixed linear model taking into account kinship relationships and subpopulation structure. In total, 6 SNPs were found to have significant associations with the variations in phenotype. These SNPs were not associated with the positions of known genes and QTLs that have been reported to date, thus they may identify novel QTLs. These 6 SNPs were all found in sequences showing similarities with known genes, although further analysis is required to dissect the ways in which they affect wood property traits and abundance of male strobili. These presumptive QTL loci provide opportunities for improvement of C. japonica, based on a marker approach. The results suggest that GWAS has potential for use in future breeding programs in C. japonica.
Mortimer, S I; van der Werf, J H J; Jacob, R H; Hopkins, D L; Pannier, L; Pearce, K L; Gardner, G E; Warner, R D; Geesink, G H; Edwards, J E Hocking; Ponnampalam, E N; Ball, A J; Gilmour, A R; Pethick, D W
Genetic parameters were estimated for a range of meat quality traits recorded on Australian lamb meat. Data were collected from Merino and crossbred progeny of Merino, terminal and maternal meat breed sires of the Information Nucleus programme. Lambs born between 2007 and 2010 (n=8968) were slaughtered, these being the progeny of 372 sires and 5309 dams. Meat quality traits were found generally to be of moderate heritability (estimates between 0.15 and 0.30 for measures of meat tenderness, meat colour, polyunsaturated fat content, mineral content and muscle oxidative capacity), with notable exceptions of intramuscular fat (0.48), ultimate pH (0.08) and fresh meat colour a* (0.08) and b* (0.10) values. Genetic correlations between hot carcass weight and the meat quality traits were low. The genetic correlation between intramuscular fat and shear force was high (-0.62). Several measures of meat quality (fresh meat redness, retail meat redness, retail oxy/met value and iron content) appear to have potential for inclusion in meat sheep breeding objectives.
Goldenberg, Livnat; Yaniv, Yossi; Kaplunov, Tatiana; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Porat, Ron; Carmi, Nir
A detailed phenotypic analysis of fruit-quality traits was conducted among 46 mandarin varieties within the Israeli Citrus breeding collection, belonging to genetically different natural subgroups, including common mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco), clementine (C. clementina Hort. ex. Tan), satsuma (C. unshiu Marcovitch), Mediterranean mandarin (C. deliciosa Tenore), King mandarin (C. nobilis Loureiro), and mandarin hybrids, such as tangor (C. reticulata × C. sinensis) and tangelo (C. reticulata × C. paradisi). Evaluated qualities included physical attributes (size, shape, color, peel thickness, and seed number); physiological properties (ripening period, peelability, and segmentation); nutritional and biochemical composition (vitamin C, phenol, flavonoid, and carotenoid contents and total antioxidant activity); and sensory attributes (total soluble solids and acid levels, flavor preference, sweetness, sourness, and fruitiness). The results indicated wide genetic variability in fruit-quality traits among mandarin varieties and natural subgroups, and statistical and hierarchical clustering analysis revealed multiple correlations among attributes. Such phenomic analysis is an obligatory requirement for identification of molecular markers for distinct fruit-quality traits and for selection of appropriate parents for future breeding programs.
Stoler, Aaron B; Stephens, Jeffrey P; Relyea, Rick A; Berven, Keith A; Tiegs, Scott D
For organisms that exhibit complex life cycles, resource conditions experienced by individuals before metamorphosis can strongly affect phenotypes later in life. Such resource-induced effects are known to arise from variation in resource quantity, yet little is known regarding effects stemming from variation in resource quality (e.g., chemistry). For larval anurans, we hypothesized that variation in resource quality will induce a gradient of effects on metamorph morphology. We conducted an outdoor mesocosm experiment in which we manipulated resource quality by rearing larval wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) under 11 leaf litter treatments. The litter species represented plant species found in open- and closed-canopy wetlands and included many plant species of current conservation concern (e.g., green ash, common reed). Consistent with our hypothesis, we found a gradient of responses for nearly all mass-adjusted morphological dimensions. Hindlimb dimensions and gut mass were positively associated with litter nutrient content and decomposition rate. In contrast, forelimb length and head width were positively associated with concentrations of phenolic acids and dissolved organic carbon. Limb lengths and widths were positively related with the duration of larval period, and we discuss possible hormonal mechanisms underlying this relationship. There were very few, broad differences in morphological traits of metamorphs between open- and closed-canopy litter species or between litter and no-litter treatments. This suggests that the effects of litter on metamorph morphology are litter species-specific, indicating that the effects of changing plant community structure in and around wetlands will largely depend on plant species composition.
Breeding baking quality improvements into soft winter wheat (SWW) entails crossing lines based on quality traits, assessing new lines, and repeating several times as little is known about the genetics of these traits. Previous research on SWW baking quality focused on quantitative trait locus and ge...
Ferreira, M. J. O.; Neves, J. A. C.
This paper describes an application of image processing for the furniture industry. It uses an input data, images acquired directly from wood planks where defects were previously marked by an operator. A set of image processing algorithms separates and codes each defect and detects a polygonal approach of the line representing them. For such a purpose we developed a pattern classification algorithm and a new technique of segmenting defects by carving the convex hull of the binary shape representing each isolated defect.
Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Fernandes, S; Sartori, J R; Teixeira, P S S; Moura, A S A M T
Rabbits are very sensitive to heat stress because they have difficulty eliminating excess body heat. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of heat stress on slaughter weight, dressing percentage and carcass and meat quality traits of rabbits from two genetic groups. Ninety-six weaned rabbits were used: half were from the Botucatu genetic group and half were crossbreds between New Zealand White sires and Botucatu does. They were assigned to a completely randomized design in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (two genetic groups and three ambient temperatures: 18°C, 25°C and 30°C) and kept under controlled conditions in three environmental chambers from 5 to 10 weeks of age. Slaughter took place at 10 weeks, on 2 consecutive days. Meat quality measurements were made in the longissimus muscle. Actual average ambient temperature and relative humidity in the three chambers were 18.4°C and 63.9%, 24.4°C and 80.2% and 29.6°C and 75.9%, respectively. Purebred rabbits were heavier at slaughter and had heavier commercial and reference carcasses than crossbreds at 30°C; however, no differences between genetic groups for these traits were found at lower temperatures. No genetic group × ambient temperature interaction was detected for any other carcass or meat quality traits. The percentages of distal parts of legs, skin and carcass forepart were higher in crossbred rabbits, indicating a lower degree of maturity at slaughter in this group. The percentage of thoracic viscera was higher in the purebreds. Lightness of the longissimus muscle was higher in the purebreds, whereas redness was higher in the crossbreds. Slaughter, commercial and reference carcass weights and the percentages of thoracic viscera, liver and kidneys were negatively related with ambient temperature. Commercial and reference carcass yields, and the percentage of distal parts of legs, on the other hand, had a positive linear relationship with ambient temperature. Meat redness and
Graduate training in the sciences requires strong personal interactions among faculty, senior lab members and more junior members. Within the lab-group setting we learn to frame problems, to conduct research and to communicate findings. The result is that individual scientists are partly shaped by a few influential mentors. We have all been influenced by special relationships with mentors, and on reflection we may find that certain qualities have been especially influential in our career choices. In this presentation I will discuss favorable mentoring traits as determined from an informal survey of scientists in varying stages of careers and from diverse backgrounds. Respondents addressed questions about traits they value in their mentors in several categories: 1) personal qualities such as approachability, humor and encouragement; background including gender, ethnicity, and family status; 2) scientific qualities including discipline or specialization, perceived stature in discipline, seniority, breadth of perspective, and level of expectations; and 3) community-oriented qualities promoted by mentors, such as encouraging service contributions and peer-mentoring within the lab group. The results will be compared among respondents by gender, ethnicity, stage of career, type of work, and subdiscipline within the broadly defined Biogeoscience community. We hope to contribute to the growing discussion on building a diverse and balanced scientific workforce.
Cushman, K.; Muller-Landau, H. C.; Kellner, J. R.; Wright, S. J.; Condit, R.; Detto, M.; Tribble, C. M.
Tropical forest carbon budgets play a major role in global carbon dynamics, but the responses of tropical forests to current and future inter-annual climatic variation remains highly uncertain. Better predictions of future tropical forest carbon fluxes require an improved understanding of how different species of tropical trees respond to changes in climate at seasonal and inter-annual temporal scales. We installed dendrometer bands on a size-stratified sample of 2000 trees in old growth forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, a moist lowland forest that experiences an annual dry season of approximately four months. Tree diameters were measured at the beginning and end of the rainy season since 2008. Additionally, we recorded the canopy illumination level, canopy intactness, and liana coverage of all trees during each census. We used linear mixed-effects models to evaluate how tree growth was related to seasonal and interannual variation in local climate, tree condition, and species identity, and how species identity effects related to tree functional traits. Climatic variables considered included precipitation, solar radiation, soil moisture, and climatological water deficit, and were all calculated from high-quality on-site measurements. Functional traits considered included wood density, maximum adult stature, deciduousness, and drought tolerance. We found that annual wood production was positively related to water availability, with higher growth in wetter years. Species varied in their response to seasonal water availability, with some species showing more pronounced reduction of growth during the dry season when water availability is limited. Interspecific variation in seasonal and interannual growth patterns was related to life-history strategies and species functional traits. The finding of higher growth in wetter years is consistent with previous tree ring studies conducted on a small subset of species with reliable annual rings. Together with previous
In this study we assess the genetic architecture of bread-making quality traits in spring wheat. A mapping population derived from BR34 and Grandin, a soft x hard cross, was used to measure 20 end-use quality traits including six kernel characteristics, seven milling and flour traits, four dough mi...
De Brito, Gerlane F; McGrath, Shawn R; Holman, Benjamin W B; Friend, Michael A; Fowler, Stephanie M; van de Ven, Remy J; Hopkins, David L
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different forage-types on lamb carcass, meat quality and sensory attributes. Sixty-two, White Dorper lambs finished on bladder clover, brassica, chicory+arrowleaf clover, lucerne+phalaris or lucerne, were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. At 24h post-mortem, the m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL) was removed from the left side and sliced into three equal sub-samples, vacuum packaged and randomly assigned to ageing periods (5, 12 or 40days) and the right side was aged for 5days. The m. semimembranosus and m. adductor femoris were removed and, the former was then aged for 40days. Lambs fed chicory+arrowleaf clover or lucerne had a higher dressing percentage and fat depth. Bladder clover gave the highest level of glycogen in the LL. No sensory or other meat quality trait differences were found between the treatments. In general, no treatments showed any unfavourable effect on the traits examined.
Gao, Wei; Baars, Johan J P; Maliepaard, Chris; Visser, Richard G F; Zhang, Jinxia; Sonnenberg, Anton S M
The demand for button mushrooms of high quality is increasing. Superior button mushroom varieties require the combination of multiple traits to maximize productivity and quality. Very often these traits are correlated and should, therefore, be evaluated together rather than as single traits. In order to unravel the genetic architecture of multiple traits of Agaricus bisporus and the genetic correlations among traits, we have investigated a total of six agronomic and quality traits through multi-trait QTL analyses in a mixed-model. Traits were evaluated in three heterokaryon sets. Significant phenotypic correlations were observed among traits. For instance, earliness (ER) correlated to firmness (FM), cap color, and compost colonization, and FM correlated to scales (SC). QTLs of different traits located on the same chromosomes genetically explains the phenotypic correlations. QTL detected on chromosome 10 mainly affects three traits, i.e., ER, FM and SC. It explained 31.4 % phenotypic variation of SC on mushroom cap (heterokaryon Set 1), 14.9 % that of the FM (heterokaryon Set 3), and 14.2 % that of ER (heterokaryon Set 3). High value alleles from the wild parental line showed beneficial effects for several traits, suggesting that the wild germplasm is a valuable donor in terms of those traits. Due to the limitations of recombination pattern, we only made a start at understanding the genetic base for several agronomic and quality traits in button mushrooms.
Buksnowitz, Christoph; Teischinger, Alfred; Müller, Ulrich; Pahler, Andreas; Evans, Robert
The definition of quality in the field of resonance wood for musical instrument making has attracted considerable interest over decades but has remained incomplete. The current work compares the traditional knowledge and practical experience of violin makers with a material-science approach to objectively characterize the properties of resonance wood. Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] has earned a very high reputation for the construction of resonance tops of stringed instruments and resonance boards of keyboard instruments, and was therefore chosen as the focus of the investigation. The samples were obtained from numerous renowned resonance wood regions in the European Alps and cover the whole range of available qualities. A set of acoustical, anatomical, mechanical and optical material properties was measured on each sample. These measurements were compared with subjective quality grading by violin makers, who estimated the acoustical, optical and overall suitability for violin making. Multiple linear regression models were applied to evaluate the predictability of the subjective grading using the measured material characteristics as predictors. The results show that luthiers are able to estimate wood quality related to visible features, but predictions of mechanical and acoustical properties proved to be very poor.
Homyak, P.M.; Yanai, R.D.; Burns, Douglas A.; Briggs, R.D.; Germain, R.H.
Forest harvesting disrupts the nitrogen cycle, which may affect stream water quality by increasing nitrate concentrations, reducing pH and acid neutralizing capacity, and mobilizing aluminum and base cations. We tested the application of wood chips derived from logging slash to increase immobilization of N after harvesting, which should reduce nitrate flux to streams. In August 2004, a stand of northern hardwoods was patch-clearcut in the Catskill Mountains, NY, and four replicates of three treatments were implemented in five 0.2-ha cut patches. Wood chips were applied to the soil surface at a rate equivalent to the amount of slash smaller than eight inches in diameter (1?? treatment). A second treatment doubled that rate (2??), and a third treatment received no chips (0??). Additionally, three uncut reference plots were established in nearby forested areas. Ion exchange resin bags and soil KCl-extractions were used to monitor nitrate availability in the upper 5-10 cm of soil approximately every seven weeks, except in winter. Resin bags indicated that the wood chips retained 30% or 42% of the nitrate pulse, while for KCl extracts, the retention rate was 78% or 100% of the difference between 0?? and uncut plots. During the fall following harvest, wood-chip treated plots had resin bag soil nitrate concentrations about 25% of those in 0?? plots (p = 0.0001). In the first growing season after the cut, nitrate concentrations in wood-chip treated plots for KCl extracts were 13% of those in 0?? treatments (p = 0.03) in May and about half those in 0?? treatments (p = 0.01) in July for resin bags. During spring snowmelt, however, nitrate concentrations were high and indistinguishable among treatments, including the uncut reference plots for resin bags and below detection limit for KCl extracts. Wood chips incubated in litterbags had an initial C:N of 125:1, which then decreased to 70:1 after one year of field incubation. These changes in C:N values indicate that the wood
Sexton, Ken; Spengler, John D.; Treitman, Robert D.; Turner, William A.
The recent upsurge in residential wood combustion has raised questions about potential adverse effects on ambient air quality and public health. Before policymakers can make informed and rational decisions about the need for government intervention, more information is needed concerning the nature and extent of the problem. This paper presents findings from the 1982 Harvard Wood-Burning Study in Waterbury, Vermont. Waterbury, a rural community of about 2000 people, was an ideal location for this investigation because: (1) half of the private residences are heated with wood fuel; (2) frequent winter temperature inversions promote pollution buildup in the valley; (3) there are no major industrial sources and (4) the Vermont Agency of Environmental Conservation has compiled a detailed wood-burning inventory. The ambient air monitoring study, from January to March 1982, emphasized measurements of total, inhalable and respirable particulate matter. Results indicate that 60-70% of the Waterbury aerosol was composed of particles less than 2.5 μm. A combination of indirect evidence suggests that wood burning was the major source of airborne particles in residential sections of the town. Dramatic diurnal variations in particulate concentrations were observed, with peak values at night exceeding afternoon levels by 5- to 10-fold. Both meteorology and emission patterns contributed to observed fluctuations.
Omil, Beatriz; Balboa, Miguel A.; Fonturbel, M. Teresa; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arias-González, Ander; Vega, Jose A.; Merino, Agustin
The strategy of the European Union "Europe 2020" states that by 2020, 20% of final energy consumption must come from renewables. In this scenario, there is an increasing use of biomass utilization for energy production. Indeed, it is expected that the production of wood-ash will increase in coming years. Wood ash, a mixture of ash and charcoal, generated as a by-product of biomass combustion in power plants, can be applied to soil to improve the soil quality and crop production. Since the residue contains significant content of charcoal, the application of mixed wood ash may also improve the SOM content and soil quality in the long term, in soils degraded as a consequence of intensive management. The objective of this study was asses the changes in SOM quality and soil properties in a degraded soils treated with wood ash containing charcoal. The study was carried out in a field devoted to cereal crops during the last decades. The soil was acidic (pH 4.5) with a low SOC content (3 %) and fine texture. The experiment was based on a randomised block design with four replicates. Each block included the following four treatments: Control, 16 Mg fly wood ash ha-1, 16 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (16 Mg) and 32 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (32 Mg). The application was carried out once. The ash used in the study was obtained from a thermal power plant and was mainly derived from the combustion of Pinus radiata bark and branches. The wood ash is highly alkaline (pH= 10), contains 10 % of highly condensed black carbon (atomic H/C ratio < 0.5 and T50 en DSC= 500 ºC). The evolution of SOM properties were monitored over three years by solid state 13C CPMAS NMR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). These techniques were applied in bulk samples and aggregates of different sizes. The changes in microbial activity were studied by analysis of microbial biomass C and basal respiration. The soil bacterial community was studied by the Biolog method. Several physical properties, such soil
Salthammer, Tunga; Schripp, Tobias; Wientzek, Sebastian; Wensing, Michael
The use of combustion heat sources like wood-burning fireplaces has regained popularity in the past years due to increasing energy costs. While the outdoor emissions from wood ovens are strictly regulated in Germany, the indoor release of combustion products is rarely considered. Seven wood burning fireplaces were tested in private homes between November 2012 and March 2013. The indoor air quality was monitored before, during and after operation. The following parameters were measured: ultra-fine particles (5.6-560 nm), fine particles (0.3-20 μm), PM2.5, NOx, CO, CO2, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Most ovens were significant sources of particulate matter. In some cases, an increase of benzene and BaP concentrations was observed in the indoor air. The results illustrate that wood-burning fireplaces are potential sources of indoor air contaminants, especially ultra-fine particles. Under the aspect of lowering indoor air exchange rates and increasing the use of fuels with a net zero-carbon footprint, indoor combustion sources are an important topic for the future. With regards to consumer safety, product development and inspection should consider indoor air quality in addition to the present fire protection requirements.
Mirzaei, H R; Verbyla, A P; Deland, M P B; Pitchford, W S
In order to investigate variation in carcass quality traits, during a four-year period, mature Hereford cows (637) were mated to 97 sires from seven breeds (Jersey, Wagyu, Angus, Hereford, South Devon, Limousin and Belgian Blue), resulting in 1144 calves. Carcass production traits (carcass weight = HCWt, fat depth = P8, eye muscle area = EMA, intramuscular fat = IMF) were obtained from these cattle that constitute the Australia's Southern Crossbreeding Project. Data were analysed using multi-variate sire model containing fixed effects of sex, sire breed, slaughter age nested within sexes. Random effects were sire, dam, management (location-year-post-weaning groups) and environmental effects. HCWt of South Devon, Belgian Blue, Limousin and unexpectedly, Angus were the heaviest on the average. Hereford calves were intermediate and Jersey and Wagyu were lighter on the average than others. Carcasses of the Belgian Blue and Limousin had low P8 and IMF, carcasses of Hereford and South Devon were intermediate and Angus, Jersey and Wagyu had high P8 and IMF. Management group effects were greatest especially for EMA and IMF. The sire variation was about 6, 6, 4 and 2% of total variation for HCWt, P8, EMA and IMF. Heritability ranged from 0.20 to 0.37 (carcass weight). The genetic correlation between the two fat depots was not as high (0.18) as expected. Results from this study suggest that strategies to increase genetic potential for HCWt would increase the genetic potential for EMA but may reduce marbling and tend to slightly increase P8. All phenotypic correlations were positive, although not large.
Zorrilla-Fontanesi, Yasmín; Cabeza, Amalia; Domínguez, Pedro; Medina, Juan Jesús; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Denoyes-Rothan, Beatrice; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F; Amaya, Iraida
Breeding for fruit quality traits in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, 2n = 8x = 56) is complex due to the polygenic nature of these traits and the octoploid constitution of this species. In order to improve the efficiency of genotype selection, the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and associated molecular markers will constitute a valuable tool for breeding programs. However, the implementation of these markers in breeding programs depends upon the complexity and stability of QTLs across different environments. In this work, the genetic control of 17 agronomical and fruit quality traits was investigated in strawberry using a F(1) population derived from an intraspecific cross between two contrasting selection lines, '232' and '1392'. QTL analyses were performed over three successive years based on the separate parental linkage maps and a pseudo-testcross strategy. The integrated strawberry genetic map consists of 338 molecular markers covering 37 linkage groups, thus exceeding the 28 chromosomes. 33 QTLs were identified for 14 of the 17 studied traits and approximately 37% of them were stable over time. For each trait, 1-5 QTLs were identified with individual effects ranging between 9.2 and 30.5% of the phenotypic variation, indicating that all analysed traits are complex and quantitatively inherited. Many QTLs controlling correlated traits were co-located in homoeology group V, indicating linkage or pleiotropic effects of loci. Candidate genes for several QTLs controlling yield, anthocyanins, firmness and L-ascorbic acid are proposed based on both their co-localization and predicted function. We also report conserved QTLs among strawberry and other Rosaceae based on their syntenic location.
Alméras, T; Fournier, M
Studies on tree biomechanical design usually focus on stem stiffness, resistance to breakage or uprooting, and elastic stability. Here we consider another biomechanical constraint related to the interaction between growth and gravity. Because stems are slender structures and are never perfectly symmetric, the increase in tree mass always causes bending movements. Given the current mechanical design of trees, integration of these movements over time would ultimately lead to a weeping habit unless some gravitropic correction occurs. This correction is achieved by asymmetric internal forces induced during the maturation of new wood. The long-term stability of a growing stem therefore depends on how the gravitropic correction that is generated by diameter growth balances the disturbance due to increasing self weight. General mechanical formulations based on beam theory are proposed to model these phenomena. The rates of disturbance and correction associated with a growth increment are deduced and expressed as a function of elementary traits of stem morphology, cross-section anatomy and wood properties. Evaluation of these traits using previously published data shows that the balance between the correction and the disturbance strongly depends on the efficiency of the gravitropic correction, which depends on the asymmetry of wood maturation strain, eccentric growth, and gradients in wood stiffness. By combining disturbance and correction rates, the gravitropic performance indicates the dynamics of stem bending during growth. It depends on stem biomechanical traits and dimensions. By analyzing dimensional effects, we show that the necessity for gravitropic correction might constrain stem allometric growth in the long-term. This constraint is compared to the requirement for elastic stability, showing that gravitropic performance limits the increase in height of tilted stem and branches. The performance of this function may thus limit the slenderness and lean of stems, and
Körber, Niklas; Bus, Anja; Li, Jinquan; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Wittkop, Benjamin; Snowdon, Rod J.; Stich, Benjamin
In Brassica napus breeding, traits related to commercial success are of highest importance for plant breeders. However, such traits can only be assessed in an advanced developmental stage. Molecular markers genetically linked to such traits have the potential to accelerate the breeding process of B. napus by marker-assisted selection. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify (i) genome regions associated with the examined agronomic and seed quality traits, (ii) the interrelationship of population structure and the detected associations, and (iii) candidate genes for the revealed associations. The diversity set used in this study consisted of 405 B. napus inbred lines which were genotyped using a 6K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and phenotyped for agronomic and seed quality traits in field trials. In a genome-wide association study, we detected a total of 112 associations between SNPs and the seed quality traits as well as 46 SNP-trait associations for the agronomic traits with a P < 1.28e-05 (Bonferroni correction of α = 0.05) for the inbreds of the spring and winter trial. For the seed quality traits, a single SNP-sulfur concentration in seeds (SUL) association explained up to 67.3% of the phenotypic variance, whereas for the agronomic traits, a single SNP-blossom color (BLC) association explained up to 30.2% of the phenotypic variance. In a basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) search within a distance of 2.5 Mbp around these SNP-trait associations, 62 hits of potential candidate genes with a BLAST-score of ≥100 and a sequence identity of ≥70% to A. thaliana or B. rapa could be found for the agronomic SNP-trait associations and 187 hits of potential candidate genes for the seed quality SNP-trait associations. PMID:27066036
Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark III
The forest industry will increasingly rely on fast-growing intensively managed southern pine plantations to furnish wood and fiber. Intensive silvicultural practices, including competition control, stand density control, fertilization, and genetic improvement are yielding tremendous gains in the quantity of wood production from commercial forest land. How these technologies affect wood properties was heretofore unknown, although there is concern about the suitability of fast-grown wood for traditional forest products. A four year study was undertaken to examine the effects of these intensive practices on the properties of loblolly and slash pine wood by applying a common sampling method over 10 existing field experiments. Early weed control gets young pines off to a rapid start, often with dramatically increased growth rates. This response is all in juvenile wood however, which is low in density and strength. Similar results are found with early Nitrogen fertilization at the time of planting. These treatments increase the proportion of juvenile wood in the tree. Later, mid-rotation fertilization with Nitrogen and Phosphorus can have long term (4-8 year) growth gains. Slight reductions in wood density are short-lived (1-2 years) and occur while the tree is producing dense, stiff mature wood. Impacts of mid-rotation fertilization on wood properties for manufacturing are estimated to be minimal. Genetic differences are evident in wood density and other properties. Single family plantings showed somewhat more uniform properties than bulk improved or unimproved seedlots. Selection of genetic sources with optimal wood properties may counter some of the negative impacts of intensive weed control and fertilization. This work will allow forest managers to better predict the effects of their practices on the quality of their final product.
Röder, Marion S.; van Eeuwijk, Fred
Malting quality is an important trait in breeding barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). It requires elaborate, expensive phenotyping, which involves micro-malting experiments. Although there is abundant historical information available for different cultivars in different years and trials, that historical information is not often used in genetic analyses. This study aimed to exploit historical records to assist in identifying genomic regions that affect malting and kernel quality traits in barley. This genome-wide association study utilized information on grain yield and 18 quality traits accumulated over 25 years on 174 European spring and winter barley cultivars combined with diversity array technology markers. Marker-trait associations were tested with a mixed linear model. This model took into account the genetic relatedness between cultivars based on principal components scores obtained from marker information. We detected 140 marker-trait associations. Some of these associations confirmed previously known quantitative trait loci for malting quality (on chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 5H). Other associations were reported for the first time in this study. The genetic correlations between traits are discussed in relation to the chromosomal regions associated with the different traits. This approach is expected to be particularly useful when designing strategies for multiple trait improvements. PMID:25372869
del Campo, Rubén; Gómez, Rosa
In stream ecosystems, coarse organic matter from the riparian vegetation, a key food resource, is often retained in the floodplains before reaching the channel. During floodplain exposure, organic matter can be affected by abiotic and biotic processes ("preconditioning"), which alter its quality and affect its subsequent decomposition in streams. We analyzed the effect of floodplain preconditioning on wood quality (lignin, C, N, P, K, among others), and its subsequent aquatic breakdown, paying special attention to microbial activity. We simulated preconditioned standard wooden sticks on one arid stream floodplain for 3 and 4 months, and then monitored their breakdown in three different streams, together with control (non-preconditioned) sticks. Preconditioning reduced lignin mass and C:N and lignin:N ratios, caused the leaching of soluble nutrients such as P and K, as well as N immobilization by microbes. These changes enhanced the breakdown of wood in the first week of immersion, but had no effect on breakdown rates after 4 months of incubation in the streams, although N immobilization was diminished. Our results suggest that terrestrial preconditioning could alter the role of wood as a long-lasting nutrients and energy source for freshwater ecosystem.
Worbes, Martin; Blanchart, Sofie; Fichtler, Esther
Drought tolerance is a key factor for the establishment and survival of tree species in tropical ecosystems. Specific mechanisms of drought resistance can be grouped into four functional ecotypes based on differences in leaf fall behavior: deciduous, brevi-deciduous, stem succulent and evergreen. To identify the key factors influencing phenology and cambial activity and thus drought tolerance, we tested the stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and stable carbon isotopes in the leaves and wood of 12 species from a tropical dry forest in Costa Rica. With wood anatomical techniques, we further studied seasonal cambial activity and a suite of wood traits related to water transport for each of the functional ecotypes. Using a principal component analysis, we identified two groups of variables that can be related to (i) hydraulic conductivity and (ii) control of transpiration and water loss. Hydraulic conductivity is controlled by vessel size as the limiting variable, water potential as the driving force and wood density as the stabilizing factor of the anatomical structure of an effective water transport system. Stomatal control plays a major role in terms of water loss or saving and is the dominant factor for differences in phenological behavior. Stem succulent species in particular developed a rarely identified but highly effective strategy against drought stress, which makes it a successful pioneer species in tropical dry forests.
Milanovich, Joseph R; Barrett, Kyle; Crawford, John A
Single-site experiments have demonstrated detritus quality in wetlands can have strongly negative, neutral, and even positive influences on wildlife. However, an examination of the influence of detritus quality across several regions is lacking and can provide information on whether impacts from variation in detritus quality are consistent across species with wide ranges. To address this gap in regional studies we examined effects of emergent and allochthonous detritus of different nutrient qualities on amphibians and assessed a mechanism that may contribute to potential impacts. We used aquatic mesocosms to raise wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) from two regions of the United States with whole plants from purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), leaf litter from native hardwood trees, and a mixture of both. We examined several metrics of amphibian fitness and life history, including survival, number of days to metamorphosis, and size at metamorphosis. Further, we quantified whether the effects of detritus type could translate to variation in anuran biomass or standing stock of nitrogen or phosphorus export. Our results show detritus with high nutrient quality (purple loosestrife) negatively influenced survival of wood frogs, but increased size of metamorphic individuals in two different regions of the United States. Despite the decrease in survival, the increase in size of post-metamorphic anurans raised with high quality detritus resulted in anuran biomass and standing stock of N and P export being similar across treatments at both locations. These results further demonstrate the role of plant quality in shaping wetland ecosystem dynamics, and represent the first demonstration that effects are consistent within species across ecoregional boundaries.
Milanovich, Joseph R.; Barrett, Kyle; Crawford, John A.
Single-site experiments have demonstrated detritus quality in wetlands can have strongly negative, neutral, and even positive influences on wildlife. However, an examination of the influence of detritus quality across several regions is lacking and can provide information on whether impacts from variation in detritus quality are consistent across species with wide ranges. To address this gap in regional studies we examined effects of emergent and allochthonous detritus of different nutrient qualities on amphibians and assessed a mechanism that may contribute to potential impacts. We used aquatic mesocosms to raise wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) from two regions of the United States with whole plants from purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), leaf litter from native hardwood trees, and a mixture of both. We examined several metrics of amphibian fitness and life history, including survival, number of days to metamorphosis, and size at metamorphosis. Further, we quantified whether the effects of detritus type could translate to variation in anuran biomass or standing stock of nitrogen or phosphorus export. Our results show detritus with high nutrient quality (purple loosestrife) negatively influenced survival of wood frogs, but increased size of metamorphic individuals in two different regions of the United States. Despite the decrease in survival, the increase in size of post-metamorphic anurans raised with high quality detritus resulted in anuran biomass and standing stock of N and P export being similar across treatments at both locations. These results further demonstrate the role of plant quality in shaping wetland ecosystem dynamics, and represent the first demonstration that effects are consistent within species across ecoregional boundaries. PMID:27824915
Hori, Kiyosumi; Suzuki, Keitaro; Iijima, Ken; Ebana, Kaworu
The eating quality of cooked rice is important and determines its market price and consumer acceptance. To comprehensively describe the variation of eating quality in 183 rice germplasm accessions, we evaluated 33 eating-quality traits including amylose and protein contents, pasting properties of rice flour, and texture of cooked rice grains. All eating-quality traits varied widely in the germplasm accessions. Principal-components analysis (PCA) revealed that allelic differences in the Wx gene explained the largest proportion of phenotypic variation of the eating-quality traits. In 146 accessions of non-glutinous temperate japonica rice, PCA revealed that protein content and surface texture of the cooked rice grains significantly explained phenotypic variations of the eating-quality traits. An allelic difference based on simple sequence repeats, which was located near a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on the short arm of chromosome 3, was associated with differences in the eating quality of non-glutinous temperate japonica rice. These results suggest that eating quality is controlled by genetic factors, including the Wx gene and the QTL on chromosome 3, in Japanese rice accessions. These genetic factors have been consciously selected for eating quality during rice breeding programs in Japan. PMID:27162502
Hori, Kiyosumi; Suzuki, Keitaro; Iijima, Ken; Ebana, Kaworu
The eating quality of cooked rice is important and determines its market price and consumer acceptance. To comprehensively describe the variation of eating quality in 183 rice germplasm accessions, we evaluated 33 eating-quality traits including amylose and protein contents, pasting properties of rice flour, and texture of cooked rice grains. All eating-quality traits varied widely in the germplasm accessions. Principal-components analysis (PCA) revealed that allelic differences in the Wx gene explained the largest proportion of phenotypic variation of the eating-quality traits. In 146 accessions of non-glutinous temperate japonica rice, PCA revealed that protein content and surface texture of the cooked rice grains significantly explained phenotypic variations of the eating-quality traits. An allelic difference based on simple sequence repeats, which was located near a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on the short arm of chromosome 3, was associated with differences in the eating quality of non-glutinous temperate japonica rice. These results suggest that eating quality is controlled by genetic factors, including the Wx gene and the QTL on chromosome 3, in Japanese rice accessions. These genetic factors have been consciously selected for eating quality during rice breeding programs in Japan.
Pork quality has a large impact on consumer preference and perception of eating quality. A genome-wide association was performed for pork quality traits [intramuscular fat (IMF)], slice shear force (SSF), color attributes, purge, cooking loss, and pH] from 531 to 1,237 records on barrows and gilts o...
Gottschalk, Maren; Metzger, Julia; Martinsson, Gunilla; Sieme, Harald; Distl, Ottmar
We performed a genome-wide association study for semen quality traits in 139 German Warmblood stallions. Stallions were genotyped using the Illumina equine SNP50 Beadchip. Traits analysed were de-regressed estimated breeding values (EBVs) for gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total number of sperm, progressive motility and the total number of progressively motile sperm. The GWAS revealed 29 SNPs on 12 different chromosomes as genome-wide significantly associated with semen quality traits. For ten genomic regions we could retrieve candidate genes influencing stallion fertility. Among the candidate genes, we could find the genes encoding cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISP1, CRISP2 and CRISP3). This was the first GWAS in horses performed for semen quality traits.
Bonin, M N; Ferraz, J B S; Eler, J P; Rezende, F M; Cucco, D C; Carvalho, M E; Silva, R C G; Gomes, R C; Oliveira, E C M
Meat quality is being increasingly demanded by consumers in recent years. Several factors can affect meat quality, ranging from animal traits such as breed and genetic heritage to pre- and post-slaughter processes. This study investigated the influence of Nellore bulls on carcass and meat quality traits. We used 475 young uncastrated males, the progeny of 54 bulls, to evaluate characteristics of the following carcass traits: hot carcass weight, rib-eye area, and fat thickness. We also evaluated the following beef quality traits: marbling, color, drip loss, cooking loss, and shear force at 0, 7, and 14 days of aging. Bulls had a significant influence (P≤0.05) on rib-eye area, fat thickness, marbling, drip loss at 14 days of aging and color at all aging periods. Based on these results, the use of bulls with high breeding values for these traits can provide important advances in carcass traits and meat quality in breeding programs of Nellore cattle that are raised in tropical conditions.
Liu, Guozheng; Zhao, Yusheng; Gowda, Manje; Longin, C. Friedrich H.; Reif, Jochen C.; Mette, Michael F.
Bread-making quality traits are central targets for wheat breeding. The objectives of our study were to (1) examine the presence of major effect QTLs for quality traits in a Central European elite wheat population, (2) explore the optimal strategy for predicting the hybrid performance for wheat quality traits, and (3) investigate the effects of marker density and the composition and size of the training population on the accuracy of prediction of hybrid performance. In total 135 inbred lines of Central European bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and 1,604 hybrids derived from them were evaluated for seven quality traits in up to six environments. The 135 parental lines were genotyped using a 90k single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Genome-wide association mapping initially suggested presence of several quantitative trait loci (QTLs), but cross-validation rather indicated the absence of major effect QTLs for all quality traits except of 1000-kernel weight. Genomic selection substantially outperformed marker-assisted selection in predicting hybrid performance. A resampling study revealed that increasing the effective population size in the estimation set of hybrids is relevant to boost the accuracy of prediction for an unrelated test population. PMID:27383841
Oliva Carrasco, Laureano; Bucci, Sandra J; Di Francescantonio, Débora; Lezcano, Oscar A; Campanello, Paula I; Scholz, Fabián G; Rodríguez, Sabrina; Madanes, N; Cristiano, Piedad M; Hao, Guang-You; Holbrook, N Michele; Goldstein, Guillermo
Wood biophysical properties and the dynamics of water storage discharge and refilling were studied in the trunk of canopy tree species with diverse life history and functional traits in subtropical forests of northeast Argentina. Multiple techniques assessing capacitance and storage capacity were used simultaneously to improve our understanding of the functional significance of internal water sources in trunks of large trees. Sapwood capacitances of 10 tree species were characterized using pressure-volume relationships of sapwood samples obtained from the trunk. Frequency domain reflectometry was used to continuously monitor the volumetric water content in the main stems. Simultaneous sap flow measurements on branches and at the base of the tree trunk, as well as diurnal variations in trunk contraction and expansion, were used as additional measures of stem water storage use and refilling dynamics. All evidence indicates that tree trunk internal water storage contributes from 6 to 28% of the daily water budget of large trees depending on the species. The contribution of stored water in stems of trees to total daily transpiration was greater for deciduous species, which exhibited higher capacitance and lower sapwood density. A linear relationship across species was observed between wood density and growth rates with the higher wood density species (mostly evergreen) associated with lower growth rates and the lower wood density species (mostly deciduous) associated with higher growth rates. The large sapwood capacitance in deciduous species may help to avoid catastrophic embolism in xylem conduits. This may be a low-cost adaptation to avoid water deficits during peak water use at midday and under temporary drought periods and will contribute to higher growth rates in deciduous tree species compared with evergreen ones. Large capacitance appears to have a central role in the rapid growth patterns of deciduous species facilitating rapid canopy access as these species
Peñagaricano, F; Valente, B D; Steibel, J P; Bates, R O; Ernst, C W; Khatib, H; Rosa, G J M
Structural equation models (SEQM) can be used to model causal relationships between multiple variables in multivariate systems. Among the strengths of SEQM is its ability to consider causal links between latent variables. The use of latent variables allows modeling complex phenomena while reducing at the same time the dimensionality of the data. One relevant aspect in the quantitative genetics context is the possibility of correlated genetic effects influencing sets of variables under study. Under this scenario, if one aims at inferring causality among latent variables, genetic covariances act as confounders if ignored. Here we describe a methodology for assessing causal networks involving latent variables underlying complex phenotypic traits. The first step of the method consists of the construction of latent variables defined on the basis of prior knowledge and biological interest. These latent variables are jointly evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. The estimated factor scores are then used as phenotypes for fitting a multivariate mixed model to obtain the covariance matrix of latent variables conditional on the genetic effects. Finally, causal relationships between the adjusted latent variables are evaluated using different SEQM with alternative causal specifications. We have applied this method to a data set with pigs for which several phenotypes were recorded over time. Five different latent variables were evaluated to explore causal links between growth, carcass, and meat quality traits. The measurement model, which included 5 latent variables capturing the information conveyed by 19 different phenotypic traits, showed an acceptable fit to data (e.g., χ/df = 1.3, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.028, standardized root-mean-square residual = 0.041). Causal links between latent variables were explored after removing genetic confounders. Interestingly, we found that both growth (-0.160) and carcass traits (-0.500) have a significant
Ahmed, Mukhtar; Fayyaz-ul-Hassan
The unpredictability and large fluctuation of the climatic conditions in rainfed regions do affect spring wheat yield and grain quality. These variations offer the opportunity for the production of better quality wheat. The effect of variable years, locations and sowing managements on wheat grain yield and quality was studied through field experiments using three genotypes, three locations for two years under rainfed conditions. The two studied years as contrasting years at three locations and sowing dates depicted variability in temperature and water stress during grain filling which resulted considerable change in grain yield and quality. Delayed sowing, years (2009-10) and location (Talagang) with high temperature and water stress resulted increased proline, and grain quality traits i.e. grain protein (GP) and grain ash (GA) than optimum conditions (during 2008-09, at Islamabad and early sowing). However, opposite trend was observed for dry gluten (DG), sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), SPAD content and grain yield irrespective of genotypes. The influence of variable climatic conditions was dominant in determining the quality traits and inverse relationship was observed among some quality traits and grain yield. It may be concluded that by selecting suitable locations and different sowing managements for subjecting the crop to desirable environmental conditions (temperature and water) quality traits of wheat crop could be modified.
Pork quality plays an important role in the meat processing industry, thus different methodologies have been implemented to elucidate the genetic architecture of traits affecting meat quality. One of the most common and widely used approaches is to perform genome-wide association (GWA) studies. Howe...
Ahmed, Mukhtar; Fayyaz-ul-Hassan
The unpredictability and large fluctuation of the climatic conditions in rainfed regions do affect spring wheat yield and grain quality. These variations offer the opportunity for the production of better quality wheat. The effect of variable years, locations and sowing managements on wheat grain yield and quality was studied through field experiments using three genotypes, three locations for two years under rainfed conditions. The two studied years as contrasting years at three locations and sowing dates depicted variability in temperature and water stress during grain filling which resulted considerable change in grain yield and quality. Delayed sowing, years (2009–10) and location (Talagang) with high temperature and water stress resulted increased proline, and grain quality traits i.e. grain protein (GP) and grain ash (GA) than optimum conditions (during 2008–09, at Islamabad and early sowing). However, opposite trend was observed for dry gluten (DG), sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), SPAD content and grain yield irrespective of genotypes. The influence of variable climatic conditions was dominant in determining the quality traits and inverse relationship was observed among some quality traits and grain yield. It may be concluded that by selecting suitable locations and different sowing managements for subjecting the crop to desirable environmental conditions (temperature and water) quality traits of wheat crop could be modified. PMID:25927839
Given the importance of pork quality in the meat processing industry, genome-wide association studies were performed for eight meat quality traits and also, a meta-analysis (MA) of GWA was implemented combining independent results from pig populations. Data from three pig datasets (USMARC, Commercia...
Wang, Panjun; Cheng, Li; Gu, Zhengbiao; Li, Zhaofeng; Hong, Yan
Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) was used to detect the reaction homogeneity of vinyl acetate grafted on starch granules and help to assess the quality of high solid content starch-based wood adhesive (HSSWA). Primarily, four experimental starch samples were investigated, and by analysis of band area ratio (carbonyl/carbohydrate) of each granule, information about reaction homogeneity was collected. The results showed that reaction extent and homogeneity were inconsistent for samples with different G values, and the distribution of ester groups on blend samples was much less uniform than grafted starch samples with the same G value, confirming that CRM was useful for determining the homogeneity of chemical modification. Afterwards, the technique was applied to research HSSWA prepared by two-stage seeded polymerization and traditional process. The distribution of ester groups was more uniform among starch granules prepared by former method, resulted in adhesive with much better performance, indicating that uniformity of polymerization was an important factor related to properties of starch-based wood adhesive.
González-Prendes, Rayner; Quintanilla, Raquel; Cánovas, Angela; Manunza, Arianna; Figueiredo Cardoso, Tainã; Jordana, Jordi; Noguera, José Luis; Pena, Ramona N.; Amills, Marcel
Meat quality traits have an increasing importance in the pig industry because of their strong impact on consumer acceptance. Herewith, we have combined phenotypic and microarray expression data to map loci with potential effects on five meat quality traits recorded in the longissimus dorsi (LD) and gluteus medius (GM) muscles of 350 Duroc pigs, i.e. pH at 24 hours post-mortem (pH24), electric conductivity (CE) and muscle redness (a*), lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*). We have found significant genome-wide associations for CE of LD on SSC4 (~104 Mb), SSC5 (~15 Mb) and SSC13 (~137 Mb), while several additional regions were significantly associated with meat quality traits at the chromosome-wide level. There was a low positional concordance between the associations found for LD and GM traits, a feature that reflects the existence of differences in the genetic determinism of meat quality phenotypes in these two muscles. The performance of an eQTL search for SNPs mapping to the regions associated with meat quality traits demonstrated that the GM a* SSC3 and pH24 SSC17 QTL display positional concordance with cis-eQTL regulating the expression of several genes with a potential role on muscle metabolism. PMID:28054563
van Dongen, Renee; Germer, Sonja; Kern, Jürgen; Stoorvogel, Jetse
Returning crop residues to the soil is a well-known practice to keep a sustainable soil quality in agriculture. In an orchard, pruning material could be returned for soil and water conservation or could be removed for energy production. Pruning wood decomposition rates and their impact on soil quality and greenhouse-gas emissions depend on climate, soil type, land management and water availability. Changing the soil management from leaving wood prunings on soil to removing them from the orchard is expected to result in a slow but lasting change of soil quality. Therefore a quick and cost-effective technique for soil quality evaluation is needed. This study aims to compare pruning wood decomposition effects on soil quality determined by soil chemistry (pH, C/N-ratio) or by Visual Soil Examination and Evaluation (VSEE). In addition, treatments effects on soil quality were compared for sampling positions in tree rows versus interrows. In a cherry orchard (Northeast Germany) six plots were established spreading over two planting rows. At each plot, three subplots with 1x (0.55 kg/m2), 2x (1.10 kg/m2) and 10x (5.50 kg/m2) the average pruning wood rates were installed in both tree and interrows. 5 months later the soils were sampled and a Visual Soil Evaluation and Examination (VSEE) was applied. To relate wood decomposition to impacts on soil quality, wood bags were placed in each plot and were sampled in time intervals of 5 weeks (till a maximum of 20 weeks). Wood decomposition was characterized by decomposition rates and changes in carbon and nitrogen contents. To assess environmental effects, CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions or uptake from soils with different pruning rates were determined with the closed chamber method. There were no significant differences in pH and C/N-ratio between the 3 pruning rates. However, pH was significant higher in the tree row compared to the interrow for the 10-fold pruning rate. The 10-fold pruning rate had significant higher VSEE
Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Jovani, Roger; Mougeot, François
Animal coloration is key in natural and sexual selection, playing significant roles in intra- and interspecific communication because of its linkage to individual behaviour, genetics and physiology. Simple animal traits such as the area or the colour intensity of homogeneous patches have been profusely studied. More complex patterns are widespread in nature, but they escape our understanding because their variation is difficult to capture effectively by standard, simple measures. Here, we used fractal geometry to quantify inter-individual variation in the expression of a complex plumage trait, the heterogeneous black bib of the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa). We show that a higher bib fractal dimension (FD) predicted better individual body condition, as well as immune responsiveness, which is condition-dependent in our study species. Moreover, when food intake was experimentally reduced during moult as a means to reduce body condition, the bib's FD significantly decreased. Fractal geometry therefore provides new opportunities for the study of complex animal colour patterns and their roles in animal communication.
Pereira da Costa, J H; Rodríguez, G R; Pratta, G R; Picardi, L A; Zorzoli, R
The aim of this study was to detect polypeptides and genomic regions associated with fruit quality traits in a backcross generation using as parent the Argentinean cultivated tomato Caimanta of Solanum lycopersicum and the wild accession LA722 of S. pimpinellifolium. We tested two types of molecular marker: polypeptide profile (at two ripening stages, mature green and red ripe) and SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism). A polypeptide of 45 kDa present in the wild parents at the mature green stage was associated with larger fruit and long shelf life. Some amplification fragments from SRAP markers were associated with more than one quality trait such as fruit color, firmness, titratable acidity, and fruit soluble solids content. This study demonstrated for the first time the usefulness of the polypeptide profiles of pericarp and SRAP markers in finding associations with quality fruit traits in a tomato backcross generation.
Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Hyung-Lae
Personality is a trait that affects behavior and lifestyle, and sleep quality is an important component of a healthy life. We analyzed the association between personality traits and sleep quality in a cross-section of 1,406 young women (from 18 to 40 years of age) who were not reporting clinically meaningful depression symptoms. Surveys were carried out from December 2011 to February 2012, using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). All analyses were adjusted for demographic and behavioral variables. We considered beta weights, structure coefficients, unique effects, and common effects when evaluating the importance of sleep quality predictors in multiple linear regression models. Neuroticism was the most important contributor to PSQI global scores in the multiple regression models. By contrast, despite being strongly correlated with sleep quality, conscientiousness had a near-zero beta weight in linear regression models, because most variance was shared with other personality traits. However, conscientiousness was the most noteworthy predictor of poor sleep quality status (PSQI ≥ 6) in logistic regression models and individuals high in conscientiousness were least likely to have poor sleep quality, which is consistent with an OR of 0.813, with conscientiousness being protective against poor sleep quality. Personality may be a factor in poor sleep quality and should be considered in sleep interventions targeting young women.
Dia, Mahendra; Wehner, Todd C; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Hassell, Richard; Price, Daniel S; Boyhan, George E; Olson, Stephen M; King, Stephen R; Davis, Angela R; Tolla, Gregory E; Bernier, Jerome; Juarez, Benito
Lycopene is a naturally occurring red carotenoid compound that is found in watermelon. Lycopene has antioxidant properties. Lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance are subject to significant genotype×environment interaction (G×E), which makes breeding for these fruit quality traits difficult. The objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate the influence of years and locations on lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance for a set of watermelon genotypes, and (ii) identify genotypes with high stability for lycopene, sugar, and hollowheart resistance. A diverse set of 40 genotypes was tested over 3 years and 8 locations across the southern United States in replicated, multi-harvest trials. Lycopene was tested in a subset of 10 genotypes. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate stability statistics (BLUP-GGE biplot) using SASGxE and RGxE programs. There were strong effects of environment as well as G×E interaction on watermelon quality traits. On the basis of stability measures, genotypes were classified as stable or unstable for each quality trait. 'Crimson Sweet' is an inbred line with high quality trait performance as well as trait stability. 'Stone Mountain', 'Tom Watson', 'Crimson Sweet' and 'Minilee' were among the best genotypes for lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance. We developed a stability chart based on marketable yield and average ranking generated from different stability measures for yield attributes and quality traits. The chart will assist in choosing parents for improvement of watermelon cultivars. See http://cuke.hort.ncsu.edu/cucurbit/wmelon/wmelonmain.html. PMID:28066557
Dia, Mahendra; Wehner, Todd C; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Hassell, Richard; Price, Daniel S; Boyhan, George E; Olson, Stephen M; King, Stephen R; Davis, Angela R; Tolla, Gregory E; Bernier, Jerome; Juarez, Benito
Lycopene is a naturally occurring red carotenoid compound that is found in watermelon. Lycopene has antioxidant properties. Lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance are subject to significant genotype×environment interaction (G×E), which makes breeding for these fruit quality traits difficult. The objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate the influence of years and locations on lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance for a set of watermelon genotypes, and (ii) identify genotypes with high stability for lycopene, sugar, and hollowheart resistance. A diverse set of 40 genotypes was tested over 3 years and 8 locations across the southern United States in replicated, multi-harvest trials. Lycopene was tested in a subset of 10 genotypes. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate stability statistics (BLUP-GGE biplot) using SASGxE and RGxE programs. There were strong effects of environment as well as G×E interaction on watermelon quality traits. On the basis of stability measures, genotypes were classified as stable or unstable for each quality trait. 'Crimson Sweet' is an inbred line with high quality trait performance as well as trait stability. 'Stone Mountain', 'Tom Watson', 'Crimson Sweet' and 'Minilee' were among the best genotypes for lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance. We developed a stability chart based on marketable yield and average ranking generated from different stability measures for yield attributes and quality traits. The chart will assist in choosing parents for improvement of watermelon cultivars. See http://cuke.hort.ncsu.edu/cucurbit/wmelon/wmelonmain.html.
Marek, Laura F.
Three fields were planted in Ames in 2010, two association mapping fields, N3 and A, and a recombinant inbred line field, N13. Phenotype data and images were transferred to UGA to support genetic and genomic analyses of woody biomass-related traits.
The Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) is located on Woods Reservoir at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). Part of the role of UTSI, as participants in the DOE program, is to document environmental aspects of coal-fired MHD. In early 1979, prior to operation of the CFFF, a water quality program was initiated to establish baseline conditions for the reservoir. The study was designed to provide an accurate assessment of water quality which could be used as a basis for comparison to evaluate the impact, if any, of the plant operation on the aquatic environment. Results of a one year baseline study of water quality on Woods Reservoir are presented in this report. The key findings are that this reservoir is a eutrophic lake. Its predominant ions are calcium and bicarbonate and its pH is circumneutral.
As consumers seek healthy and more diverse food products the demand for tropical fruits has increased significantly during the past 15 years. There is a lack of formal experimentation to determine yield performance and fruit quality traits of atemoya (Annona squamosa x A. cherimola) hybrids. Six a...
The demand for tropical fruits has increased more than 33% during the last decade as consumers seek healthy and more diverse food products. There is a lack of formal experimentation to determine yield performance and fruit quality traits of atemoya (Annona squamosa x A. cherimola) cultivars. Six a...
Su, Junji; Li, Libei; Pang, Chaoyou; Wei, Hengling; Wang, Caixiang; Song, Meizhen; Wang, Hantao; Zhao, Shuqi; Zhang, Chi; Mao, Guangzhi; Huang, Long; Wang, Chengshe; Fan, Shuli; Yu, Shuxun
Fiber quality is one of the most important agronomic traits of cotton, and understanding the genetic basis of its target traits will accelerate improvements to cotton fiber quality. In this study, a panel comprising 355 upland cotton accessions was used to perform genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of five fiber quality traits in four environments. A total of 16, 10 and 7 SNPs were associated with fiber length (FL), fiber strength (FS) and fiber uniformity (FU), respectively, based on the mixed linear model (MLM). Most importantly, two major genomic regions (MGR1 and MGR2) on chromosome Dt7 and four potential candidate genes for FL were identified. Analyzing the geographical distribution of favorable haplotypes (FHs) among these lines revealed that two favorable haplotype frequencies (FHFs) were higher in accessions from low-latitude regions than in accessions from high-latitude regions. However, the genetic diversity of lines from the low-latitude regions was lower than the diversity of lines from the high-latitude regions in China. Furthermore, the FHFs differed among cultivars developed during different breeding periods. These results indicate that FHs have undergone artificial selection during upland cotton breeding in recent decades in China and provide a foundation for the further improvement of fiber quality traits. PMID:27924947
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the second most commonly consumed vegetable after in the world, after potato. There is a growing demand for quality tomato in the market place. Traits such as lycopene, total soluble solids (TSS), vitamin C and titratable acid (TA) content contribute to the overal...
Flour yield is an important quality trait of wheat, especially for flour millers because it directly affects profitability. In addition to the grain characteristics and milling conditions known to affect flour yield, easy and clean separation of starchy endosperm from bran during milling could have ...
The objectives of this work were to estimate heterosis and breed genetic effects for carcass quantity, quality, and palatability traits of steers (Bos spp.) produced from matings of Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus cattle. Steers (n = 464) were weaned at 7 mo of age and transported to the Southern G...
Introduction: Organic acid efficacy as an antimicrobial treatment of beef carcass surfaces may be increased through the addition of surfactants. However, the effects of antimicrobial-surfactant mixtures on beef quality traits such as flavor and color stability may make their use unacceptable. Purp...
Queso Fresco (QF), a popular high-moisture, high-pH Hispanic cheese sold in the U.S., underwent high- pressure processing (HPP) to determine if this process, which has the potential to improve the safety of cheese, would alter its quality traits. Starter-free rennet-set QF (manufactured from pasteur...
Pork quality is a critical concern in the meat industry. Implementation of genome-wide association studies (GWA) allows identification of genomic regions that explain a substantial portion of the variation of relevant traits. It is also important to determine the consistency of results of GWA across...
Lloveras, M R; Goenaga, P R; Irurueta, M; Carduza, F; Grigioni, G; García, P T; Améndola, A
This report describes the meat quality of two INTA hybrids (hybrid females) sired by Duroc (D) or Yorkshire (Y) boars and a third one from PIC (S), a cross of females C22 to 412 boars. Starting at 30kg live weight, 18 barrows and 18 gilts of each genotype were kept in identical conditions until slaughtered at 110kg. Longissimus dorsi muscles were analyzed. Means differed significantly (P<0.05) for drip loss (higher in S); tenderness (more tender in D), water holding capacity (higher in Y); cooking loss (higher in Y); colour parameter L(∗) (lower in D) and b(∗) (higher in S) and intramuscular fat content (higher in D). As a result of sensory analysis, it was found that D was the most tender and juicy. There were few sex effects and no genotype-sex interactions. Distinct differences in meat quality between hybrids do exist, with D superior, S the worst, and Y intermediate.
Locatello, Lisa; Pizzolon, Matteo; Rasotto, Maria Berica
Colourful ornaments are traditionally evaluated as one trait. However, they could consist of several components, such as total size, colour intensity and extension, each possibly bearing its own message about one aspect of quality. Males of the blenny Salaria pavo exhibit a colourful head crest and solely care for eggs. During the breeding season, the head crest shows a yellow colouration, the intensity and relative extension of which are independent of crest size. Here, we show that: (1) carotenoids are responsible for the head crest yellow patch; (2) activating the immune system by injecting the bacterial antigen lipopolysaccharides affects both the intensity and extent of the yellow colouration; and (3) females assess males on the basis of colour patch expression. However, the response of the yellow patch to the immune challenge was dependent on head crest size. Indeed, males with a larger head crest reacted better to the simulated infection, sustaining a level of yellow patch close to pre-challenge size.
Liu, Xuan; Usman, Tahir; Wang, Yachun; Wang, Zezhao; Xu, Xianzhou; Wu, Meng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Xu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Lin; Shi, Wanhai; Qin, Chunhua; Geng, Fanjun; Wang, Congyong; Tan, Rui; Huang, Xixia; Liu, Airong; Wu, Hongjun; Tan, Shixin; Yu, Ying
Improvement for carcass traits related to beef quality is the key concern in beef production. Recent reports found that epigenetics mediates the interaction of individuals with environment and nutrition. The present study was designed to analyze the genetic effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven epigenetic-related genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3L, Ago1, Ago2, and HDAC5) and two meat quality candidate genes (CAPN1 and PRKAG3) on fourteen carcass traits related to beef quality in a Snow Dragon beef population, and also to identify SNPs in a total of fourteen cattle populations. Sixteen SNPs were identified and genotyped in 383 individuals sampled from the 14 cattle breeds, which included 147 samples from the Snow Dragon beef population. Data analysis showed significant association of 8 SNPs within 4 genes related to carcass and/or meat quality traits in the beef populations. SNP1 (13154420A>G) in exon 17 of DNMT1 was significantly associated with rib-eye width and lean meat color score (p<0.05). A novel SNP (SNP4, 76198537A>G) of DNMT3a was significantly associated with six beef quality traits. Those individuals with the wild-type genotype AA of DNMT3a showed an increase in carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, flank thicknesses, chuck short rib thickness, chuck short rib score and in chuck flap weight in contrast to the GG genotype. Five out of six SNPs in DNMT3b gene were significantly associated with three beef quality traits. SNP15 (45219258C>T) in CAPN1 was significantly associated with chuck short rib thickness and lean meat color score (p<0.05). The significant effect of SNP15 on lean meat color score individually and in combination with each of other 14 SNPs qualify this SNP to be used as potential marker for improving the trait. In addition, the frequencies of most wild-type alleles were higher than those of the mutant alleles in the native and foreign cattle breeds. Seven SNPs were identified in the epigenetic-related genes. The SNP
Noonan, Curtis W; Ward, Tony J; Navidi, William; Sheppard, Lianne; Bergauff, Megan; Palmer, Chris
Many rural mountain valley communities experience elevated ambient levels of fine particulate matter (PM*) in the winter, because of contributions from residential wood-burning appliances and sustained temperature inversion periods during the cold season. A wood stove change-out program was implemented in a community heavily affected by wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 (PM < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of this intervention program on ambient and indoor PM2.5 concentrations and to identify possible corresponding changes in the frequency of childhood respiratory symptoms and infections and illness-related school absences. Over 1100 old wood stoves were replaced with new EPA-certified wood stoves or other heating sources. Ambient PM2.5 concentrations were 30% lower in the winter after the changeout program, compared with baseline winters, which brought the community's ambient air within the PM2.5 standards of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The installation of a new wood stove resulted in an overall reduction in indoor PM2.5 concentrations in a small sample of wood-burning homes, but the effects were highly variable across homes. Community-level reductions in wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 concentration were associated with decreased reports of childhood wheeze and of other childhood respiratory health conditions. The association was not limited to children living in homes with wood stoves nor does it appear to be limited to susceptible children (e.g., children with asthma). Community-level reductions in wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 concentration were also associated with lower illness-related school absences among older children, but this finding was not consistent across all age-groups. This community-level intervention provided a unique opportunity to prospectively observe exposure and outcome changes resulting from a targeted air pollution reduction strategy.
Rong, E G; Yang, H; Zhang, Z W; Wang, Z P; Yan, X H; Li, H; Wang, N
Methionine synthase (MTR) plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis of intracellular methionine, folate, and homocysteine, and its activity correlates with DNA methylation in many mammalian tissues. Our previous genomewide association study identified that 1 SNP located in the gene was associated with several wool production and quality traits in Chinese Merino. To confirm the potential involvement of the gene in sheep wool production and quality traits, we performed sheep tissue expression profiling, SNP detection, and association analysis with sheep wool production and quality traits. The semiquantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis showed that the gene was differentially expressed in skin from Merino and Kazak sheep. The sequencing analysis identified a total of 13 SNP in the gene from Chinese Merino sheep. Comparison of the allele frequencies revealed that these 13 identified SNP were significantly different among the 6 tested Chinese Merino strains ( < 0.001). Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed that SNP 3 to 11 were strongly linked in a single haplotype block in the tested population. Association analysis showed that SNP 2 to 11 were significantly associated with the average wool fiber diameter and the fineness SD and that SNP 4 to 11 were significantly associated with the CV of fiber diameter trait ( < 0.05). Single nucleotide polymorphism 2 and SNP 5 to 12 were weakly associated with wool crimp. Similarly, the haplotypes derived from these 13 identified SNP were also significantly associated with the average wool fiber diameter, fineness SD, and the CV of fiber diameter ( < 0.05). Our results suggest that is a candidate gene for sheep wool production and quality traits, and the identified SNP might be used in sheep breeding.
Carrer, Marco; Brunetti, Michele; Castagneri, Daniele
Extreme climate events are of key importance for forest ecosystems. However, both the inherent infrequency, stochasticity and multiplicity of extreme climate events, and the array of biological responses, challenges investigations. To cope with the long life cycle of trees and the paucity of the extreme events themselves, our inferences should be based on long-term observations. In this context, tree rings and the related xylem anatomical traits represent promising sources of information, due to the wide time perspective and quality of the information they can provide. Here we test, on two high-elevation conifers (Larix decidua and Picea abies sampled at 2100 m a.s.l. in the Eastern Alps), the associations among temperature extremes during the growing season and xylem anatomical traits, specifically the number of cells per ring (CN), cell wall thickness (CWT), and cell diameter (CD). To better track the effect of extreme events over the growing season, tree rings were partitioned in 10 sectors. Climate variability has been reconstructed, for 1800–2011 at monthly resolution and for 1926–2011 at daily resolution, by exploiting the excellent availability of very long and high quality instrumental records available for the surrounding area, and taking into account the relationship between meteorological variables and site topographical settings. Summer temperature influenced anatomical traits of both species, and tree-ring anatomical profiles resulted as being associated to temperature extremes. Most of the extreme values in anatomical traits occurred with warm (positive extremes) or cold (negative) conditions. However, 0–34% of occurrences did not match a temperature extreme event. Specifically, CWT and CN extremes were more clearly associated to climate than CD, which presented a bias to track cold extremes. Dendroanatomical analysis, coupled to high-quality daily-resolved climate records, seems a promising approach to study the effects of extreme events on
Carrer, Marco; Brunetti, Michele; Castagneri, Daniele
Extreme climate events are of key importance for forest ecosystems. However, both the inherent infrequency, stochasticity and multiplicity of extreme climate events, and the array of biological responses, challenges investigations. To cope with the long life cycle of trees and the paucity of the extreme events themselves, our inferences should be based on long-term observations. In this context, tree rings and the related xylem anatomical traits represent promising sources of information, due to the wide time perspective and quality of the information they can provide. Here we test, on two high-elevation conifers (Larix decidua and Picea abies sampled at 2100 m a.s.l. in the Eastern Alps), the associations among temperature extremes during the growing season and xylem anatomical traits, specifically the number of cells per ring (CN), cell wall thickness (CWT), and cell diameter (CD). To better track the effect of extreme events over the growing season, tree rings were partitioned in 10 sectors. Climate variability has been reconstructed, for 1800-2011 at monthly resolution and for 1926-2011 at daily resolution, by exploiting the excellent availability of very long and high quality instrumental records available for the surrounding area, and taking into account the relationship between meteorological variables and site topographical settings. Summer temperature influenced anatomical traits of both species, and tree-ring anatomical profiles resulted as being associated to temperature extremes. Most of the extreme values in anatomical traits occurred with warm (positive extremes) or cold (negative) conditions. However, 0-34% of occurrences did not match a temperature extreme event. Specifically, CWT and CN extremes were more clearly associated to climate than CD, which presented a bias to track cold extremes. Dendroanatomical analysis, coupled to high-quality daily-resolved climate records, seems a promising approach to study the effects of extreme events on trees
Wei, Wenliang; Zhang, Yanxin; Lü, Haixia; Li, Donghua; Wang, Linhai; Zhang, Xiurong
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of a sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) panel for association analysis, and investigate the genetic basis of oil content (OC), protein content, oleic acid concentration, and linoleic acid concentration using association mapping. A panel of 216 sesame accessions was phenotyped in a multi-environment trial and fingerprinted with 608 polymorphic loci produced by 79 primers, including simple sequence repeats (SSRs), sequence-related amplified polymorphisms (SRAPs), and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Population structure analysis revealed two subgroups in the population. The Q model performed better for its ability to re-identify associations for the four traits at highly significant P-values compared to the other three mixed models. And a total of 35 and 25 associations for the four traits in 2010 and 2011 were identified, respectively, with the Q model after Bonferroni correction. Among those associations, only one for OC was re-identified in two environments, and several markers associated simultaneously with multiple traits were discovered. These results suggest the power and stability of the Q model for association analysis of nutritional traits in this sesame panel for its slight population stratification and familial relationship, which could aid in dissecting complex traits, and could help to develop strategies for improving nutritional quality.
Fidelis, H A; Bonilha, S F M; Tedeschi, L O; Branco, R H; Cyrillo, J N S G; Mercadante, M E Z
A total of 127 Nellore bulls classified as low and high residual feed intake (RFI), from three selection lines, were evaluated in five experiments aiming to identify associations between RFI, carcass, and meat quality traits. Feedlot performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of Longissimus muscle were evaluated. A mixed model including the fixed effects of RFI class, selection line, interaction between RFI class and selection line, and age at slaughter as a covariate, and the random effects of diet within experiment and experiment was used, with means compared by the t-test. Feed intake average difference was 0.962kg/day; low RFI animals consumed 0.479kg/day less feed and high RFI animals consumed 0.483kg/day more feed than expected. No differences between RFI classes were detected for most of studied variables, demonstrating the absence of unfavorable associations between RFI and carcass and meat quality traits. Low RFI Nellore animals use feed efficiently and produce good quality carcasses and meat.
Carriero, G; Emiliani, G; Giovannelli, A; Hoshika, Y; Manning, W J; Traversi, M L; Paoletti, E
This is the longest continuous experiment where ethylenediurea (EDU) was used to protect plants from ozone (O3). Effects of long-term ambient O3 exposure (23 ppm h AOT40) on biomass of an O3 sensitive poplar clone (Oxford) were examined after six years from in-ground planting. Trees were irrigated with either water or 450 ppm EDU. Above (-51%) and below-ground biomass (-47%) was reduced by O3 although the effect was significant only for stem and coarse roots. Ambient O3 decreased diameter of the lower stem, and increased moisture content along the stem of not-protected plants (+16%). No other change in the physical wood structure was observed. A comparison with a previous assessment in the same experiment suggested that O3 effects on biomass partitioning to above-ground organs depend on the tree ontogenetic stage. The root/shoot ratios did not change, suggesting that previous short-term observations of reduced allocation to tree roots may be overestimated.
Sari, M; Tilki, M; Saatci, M
This study was conducted to determine the genetic parameters of internal and external quality traits of Japanese quail eggs. Two statistical models were used in the calculation of genetic parameters and variance components. While 286 eggs were used based on model 1, 1,524 eggs were used based on model 2. Genetic parameters of the first eggs were calculated with direct genetic effect included in the analysis as random factors by using model 1. Model 2 was used for all eggs (5 to 6 eggs from each hen for six rearing groups). As different from model 1, their permanent environmental effects were also included in the model 2. Heritability of egg weight, egg length, egg width, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness, and shell ratio among the external quality traits of the eggs was respectively found to be 0.44, 0.53, 0.51, 0.70, 0.19, 0.16, and 0.05, respectively, according to model 1. These values were found to be 0.46, 0.40, 0.74, 0.48, 0.60, 0.28, and 0.21, respectively, according to model 2. Yolk weight, yolk diameter, yolk height, yolk index, yolk ratio, albumen weight, albumen height, albumen ratio, and Haugh unit values among the internal quality traits of the egg were found to be 0.22, 0.32, 0.02, 0.16, 0.19, 0.34, 0.19, 0.17, and 0.17, respectively, according to model 1. These internal quality traits were found to be 0.27, 0.18, 0.38, 0.06, 0.20, 0.41, 0.15, 0.15, and 0.12, respectively, according to model 2. Consequently, in this study, strong genetic correlations were detected between albumen height and Haugh unit, and also between albumen height and albumen weight. Additionally, a high and positive correlation was observed between some yolk traits (yolk weight and diameter) and albumen traits (weight and height). All these genetic correlations can be used to improve egg quality with a selection according to albumen weight.
Reed, Eleanor Swain; Chadwick, David; Hill, Paul; Jones, Davey
The application of energy production by-products as soil amendments to agricultural land is rapidly growing in popularity, however the increasing body of literature on primarily biochar but also wood ash have yielded contrary evidence of the range of these soil amendments function sensitivity in soil. This study aims to assess the efficacy of two by-products; biochar and wood ash to provide nutrients to grassland as well as the potential to improve overall soil quality. The study of soil amendments at field scale are scarce, and the agronomic benefits of biochar and wood ash in temperate soils remain unclear. We used replicated field plots with three soil treatments (biochar, wood ash and control) to measure the soil and crop properties over twelve months, including PLFA analysis to quantify the total soil microbial biomass and community structure. After a soil residency of one year, there were no significant differences in soil EC, total N, dissolved organic N (DON), dissolved organic C (DOC), NO3-N and NH4-N concentrations, between biochar amended, wood ash amended and un-amended soil. In contrast, the application of biochar had a significant effect on soil moisture, pH, PO4-P concentrations, soil organic carbon (SOC) and total organic carbon (TOC), whilst the wood ash amendment resulted in an increase in soil pH only. There were no significant treatment effects on the growth performance or nutrient uptake of the grass. In a parallel laboratory incubation study, the effects of biochar and wood ash on soil C priming was explored, in which soil with 14C-labelled native SOC was amended with either biochar or wood ash at the same rate as the field trial. The rates of 14CO2 (primed C) production was measured with a liquid scintillation counter over a 50 day period. The 14CO2 that evolved during decomposition likely originated from conversions in the (microbial) biomass. The results indicated that biochar application did not prime for the loss of native SOC (i.e. there
Dalla Costa, Filipe Antônio; Lopes, Letícia S.; Dalla Costa, Osmar Antônio
Simple Summary Transportation is a complex stressor in which animals are exposed to a series negatively stimuli, such as vibration, new environmental conditions, variation in temperature and humidity, social mixing, noises among other poor factors, which can result in welfare problems and economic losses such as increased skin lesions, poorer pork quality traits. Transport stress may be reduced through a vehicle suspension system that provides a much smoother ride during transport, and consequently is less aversive to pigs. However, air suspension systems are more expensive and have bigger maintenance costs. This increase in transportation cost must be supported by the benefits from improvements in quality of freight transport; otherwise, the truckers will be paying unnecessarily for a similar or equivalent ride quality. Thus, finishing pigs were assessed after transport to slaughter by the same two double-decked trucks using two types of commercial vehicle suspension, leaf-spring and air suspension, to compare effects on blood cortisol and lactate at exsanguination, behaviour during lairage, and carcass (skin lesions) and pork quality traits. The use of leaf-spring suspension system negatively affects the welfare of pigs due to the increased carcass damage and resulted in poorer pork quality traits. Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the effects of two types of commercial suspension (leaf-spring (LS) vs. air suspension (AS)) installed on two similar double-decked trucks on blood cortisol and lactate concentration, lairage behavior, carcass skin lesions and pork quality traits of 120 crossbred pigs. The suspension type neither influenced pig behaviour in lairage nor blood cortisol and lactate concentrations (p > 0.10). However, when compared with the AS suspension system, the use of LS increased the number of skin lesions in the back and thigh (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01, respectively) and produced thigh with lower pHu (p < 0.001) and yellower colour
Wheeler, Amanda J; Gibson, Mark D; MacNeill, Morgan; Ward, Tony J; Wallace, Lance A; Kuchta, James; Seaboyer, Matt; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Guernsey, Judith Read; Stieb, David M
Residential wood combustion is an important source of ambient air pollution, accounting for over 25% of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions in Canada. In addition to these ambient contributions, wood smoke pollutants can enter the indoor environment directly when loading or stoking stoves, resulting in a high potential for human exposure. A study of the effectiveness of air cleaners at reducing wood smoke-associated PM2.5 of indoor and outdoor origin was conducted in 31 homes during winter 2009-10. Day 1, the residents' wood burning appliance operated as usual with no air cleaner. Days 2 and 3, the wood burning appliance was not operational and the air cleaner was randomly chosen to operate in "filtration" or "placebo filtration" mode. When the air cleaner was operating, total indoor PM2.5 levels were significantly lower than on placebo filtration days (p = 0.0001) resulting in a median reduction of 52%. There was also a reduction in the median PM2.5 infiltration factor from 0.56 to 0.26 between these 2 days, suggesting the air cleaner was responsible for increased PM2.5 deposition on filtration days. Our findings suggest that the use of an air cleaner reduces exposure to indoor PM2.5 resulting from both indoor and ambient wood smoke sources.
Mirzaei, H R; Verbyla, A P; Pitchford, W S
A joint growth-carcass analysis was conducted to develop equations for predicting carcass quality traits associated with variation in growth path of crossbred cattle. During a four-year period (1994-1997) of the Australian "Southern Crossbreeding Project", mature Hereford cows (r = 581) were mated to 97 sires of Jersey, Wagyu, Angus, Hereford, South Devon, Limousin, and Belgian Blue breeds, resulting in 1141 calves. Data included body weight measurements of steers and heifers from birth until slaughter and four carcass quality traits: hot standard carcass weight, rump fat depth, rib eye muscle area, and intramuscular fat content. The model provides nine outputs: median and mean of carcass quality traits, predicted means, and lower and upper confidence intervals, as well as predicted intervals of carcass quality traits (95%) and economic values for domestic market and export markets. Input to the model consists of sex, sire breeds, age (in days)-weight (kg) pairs and slaughter age (500 days for heifer and 700 days for steers). The prediction model is able to accommodate different sexes across seven sire breeds and various management groups at any slaughter age. Its strength lies in its simplicity and flexibility, desirable to accommodate producers with different management schemes. In general, fat depth and intramuscular fat were found to be more affected by differences in growth rate than hot carcass weight and eye muscle area. Also, export market value was more sensitive to growth rate modifications than domestic market value. This model provides a tool by which the producer can estimate the impact of management decisions.
Wada, Haruka; Bergeron, Christine M; McNabb, F M Anne; Todd, Brian D; Hopkins, William A
Mercury (Hg) is a neurotoxicant known to cause developmental and behavioral abnormalities in vertebrates. Increasing evidence suggests that Hg can also disrupt endocrine functions and endocrine-dependent processes. For example, dietary Hg has been shown to delay tail resorption during metamorphic climax in amphibians, a process mediated by thyroid hormones. However, a direct link between Hg, hormone disruption, and developmental delays in amphibians has not been explored. Therefore, we examined the effects of dietary Hg (0.01, 2.5, and 10 μg/g total Hg, dry wt) on thyroid hormone concentrations, development, growth, performance, and survival of wood frogs (Rana sylvatica). Tadpoles accumulated Hg in a concentration-dependent manner; total Hg concentrations in tadpoles at the beginning of metamorphic climax (Gosner stage 42) were 0.03, 1.06, 3.54 μg/g, dry wt, for control, low, and high Hg diets, respectively. During metamorphic climax, tadpoles eliminated 35% of the inorganic Hg from their tissues but retained most of their accumulated methylmercury. Contrary to our predictions, we found no effect of Hg on the duration of tadpole development, size at metamorphosis, tail resorption time, or hopping performance. Consistent with the lack of effects on development, we also detected no differences in whole-body thyroid hormone concentrations among our dietary treatments. Our results, when compared with the effects of Hg on other amphibians, suggest that amphibian species may differ substantially in their sensitivity to dietary Hg, emphasizing the need for data on multiple species when establishing toxicity benchmarks.
Zhang, L C; Ning, Z H; Xu, G Y; Hou, Z C; Yang, N
Albumen height, albumen weight (AW), eggshell color (ESC), eggshell index, eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, eggshell weight (ESW), egg weight (EW), Haugh units, and yolk weight (YW) were measured in 2,272 eggs collected 3 d sequentially from 920 brown-egg dwarf layers caged individually. The restricted maximum likelihood procedure was applied to estimate heritabilities and genotypic and phenotypic correlations for these egg quality traits. Heritabilities of albumen height, AW, ESC, eggshell index, eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, ESW, EW, Haugh units, and YW were 0.51, 0.59, 0.46, 0.40, 0.24, 0.34, 0.64, 0.63, 0.41, and 0.45, respectively. The genetic correlations between EW and AW, YW, and ESW were high ranging from 0.67 to 0.97, whereas those for ESC with external and internal egg quality traits were low ranging from -0.23 to 0.13. Thus although heritabilities for these traits were moderate to high, genetic correlations with ESC were low, suggesting a minor relationship between shell color and physical attributes of the shell as well as internal egg quality in brown-egg dwarf layers.
Ma, Lei; Li, Bin; Han, Fenxia; Yan, Shurong; Wang, Lianzheng; Sun, Junming
The soybean seed chemical quality traits (including protein content, oil content, fatty acid composition, isoflavone content, and protein subunits), soymilk chemical character (soluble solid), and soymilk sensory attributes were evaluated among 70 genotypes to determine the correlation between seed chemical quality traits and soymilk sensory attributes. Six sensory parameters (i.e., soymilk aroma, smoothness in the mouth, thickness in the mouth, sweetness, colour and appearance, and overall acceptability) and a seven-point hedonic scale for each parameter were developed. Significant positive correlations were observed between overall acceptability and the other five evaluation parameters, suggesting that overall acceptability is an ideal parameter for evaluating soymilk flavour. The soymilk sensory attributes were significantly positively correlated with the characteristics of the glycinin (11S)/beta-conglycinin (7S) protein ratio, soluble solid, and oil content but negatively correlated with glycitein and protein content. Our results indicated that soymilk sensory attributes could be improved by selecting the desirable seed chemical quality traits in practical soybean breeding programs.
Pecetti, Luciano; Brummer, E. Charles; Palmonari, Alberto; Tava, Aldo
Genetic progress for forage quality has been poor in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), the most-grown forage legume worldwide. This study aimed at exploring opportunities for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and genomic selection of forage quality traits based on breeding values of parent plants. Some 154 genotypes from a broadly-based reference population were genotyped by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), and phenotyped for leaf-to-stem ratio, leaf and stem contents of protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL), and leaf and stem NDF digestibility after 24 hours (NDFD), of their dense-planted half-sib progenies in three growing conditions (summer harvest, full irrigation; summer harvest, suspended irrigation; autumn harvest). Trait-marker analyses were performed on progeny values averaged over conditions, owing to modest germplasm × condition interaction. Genomic selection exploited 11,450 polymorphic SNP markers, whereas a subset of 8,494 M. truncatula-aligned markers were used for a genome-wide association study (GWAS). GWAS confirmed the polygenic control of quality traits and, in agreement with phenotypic correlations, indicated substantially different genetic control of a given trait in stems and leaves. It detected several SNPs in different annotated genes that were highly linked to stem protein content. Also, it identified a small genomic region on chromosome 8 with high concentration of annotated genes associated with leaf ADL, including one gene probably involved in the lignin pathway. Three genomic selection models, i.e., Ridge-regression BLUP, Bayes B and Bayesian Lasso, displayed similar prediction accuracy, whereas SVR-lin was less accurate. Accuracy values were moderate (0.3–0.4) for stem NDFD and leaf protein content, modest for leaf ADL and NDFD, and low to very low for the other traits. Along with previous results for the same germplasm set, this study indicates that GBS data can be exploited to improve both quality traits
Wickström, E; Persson Waller, K; Lindmark-Månsson, H; Sternesjö, A
The main objective of this study was to investigate whether the α-lactalbumin (α-LA) content of bulk milk is related with some known inflammatory markers and milk quality traits. An additional objective was to study whether combining α-LA, haptoglobin (Hp), and serum amyloid A (SAA) in an acute phase index (API) could be useful as an alternative marker for bulk milk quality. For the dairy industry, it is of great importance to receive high quality bulk milk for manufacture of liquid milk and dairy products. The somatic cell count (SCC) is currently used as an indirect marker for bulk milk quality, but because it is somewhat insensitive and unspecific, interest exists in alternative markers. Bulk milk samples were analyzed for α-LA, SCC, polymorphonuclear leukocyte count, Hp, SAA, fat, lactose, total protein and casein contents, casein number, protein composition, proteolysis, and coagulating properties. No significant differences were found in SCC, polymorphonuclear leukocyte count, Hp, or SAA between milk samples containing low, medium, or high concentrations of α-LA. Differences between α-LA groups were, however, found in some milk quality traits because high α-LA concentration was related to low concentrations of α(S1)-, α(S2)-, and β-caseins and high concentrations of lactose and β-lactoglobulin. A high API was related to low lactose content and casein number. Samples with high SCC contained less casein and had a lower casein number than milk with a low SCC, and proteolysis was significantly higher in high SCC milk than in low SCC milk. Neither α-LA nor API proved to be a better marker than SCC for the quality traits investigated, and α-LA was not considered to be a useful inflammatory marker in bulk milk.
Kumar, Satish; Chagné, David; Bink, Marco C. A. M.; Volz, Richard K.; Whitworth, Claire; Carlisle, Charmaine
The genome sequence of apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) was published more than a year ago, which helped develop an 8K SNP chip to assist in implementing genomic selection (GS). In apple breeding programmes, GS can be used to obtain genomic breeding values (GEBV) for choosing next-generation parents or selections for further testing as potential commercial cultivars at a very early stage. Thus GS has the potential to accelerate breeding efficiency significantly because of decreased generation interval or increased selection intensity. We evaluated the accuracy of GS in a population of 1120 seedlings generated from a factorial mating design of four females and two male parents. All seedlings were genotyped using an Illumina Infinium chip comprising 8,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and were phenotyped for various fruit quality traits. Random-regression best liner unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP) and the Bayesian LASSO method were used to obtain GEBV, and compared using a cross-validation approach for their accuracy to predict unobserved BLUP-BV. Accuracies were very similar for both methods, varying from 0.70 to 0.90 for various fruit quality traits. The selection response per unit time using GS compared with the traditional BLUP-based selection were very high (>100%) especially for low-heritability traits. Genome-wide average estimated linkage disequilibrium (LD) between adjacent SNPs was 0.32, with a relatively slow decay of LD in the long range (r2 = 0.33 and 0.19 at 100 kb and 1,000 kb respectively), contributing to the higher accuracy of GS. Distribution of estimated SNP effects revealed involvement of large effect genes with likely pleiotropic effects. These results demonstrated that genomic selection is a credible alternative to conventional selection for fruit quality traits. PMID:22574211
Cai, Caiping; Ye, Wenxue; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen
Exploring the elite alleles and germplasm accessions related to fiber quality traits will accelerate the breeding of cotton for fiber quality improvement. In this study, 99 Gossypium hirsutum L. accessions with diverse origins were used to perform association analysis of fiber quality traits using 97 polymorphic microsatellite marker primer pairs. A total of 107 significant marker-trait associations were detected for three fiber quality traits under three different environments, with 70 detected in two or three environments and 37 detected in only one environment. Among the 70 significant marker-trait associations, 52.86% were reported previously, implying that these are stable loci for target traits. Furthermore, we detected a large number of elite alleles associated simultaneously with two or three traits. These elite alleles were mainly from accessions collected in China, introduced to China from the United States, or rare alleles with a frequency of less than 5%. No one cultivar contained more than half of the elite alleles, but 10 accessions were collected from China and the two introduced from the United States did contain more than half of these alleles. Therefore, there is great potential for mining elite alleles from germplasm accessions for use in fiber quality improvement in modern cotton breeding.
Liu, Peifa; Shi, Lei; Wang, Xiaohua; Wang, Meng; Meng, Jinling; Reif, Jochen Christoph
Improving seed oil yield and quality are central targets in rapeseed (Brassica napus) breeding. The primary goal of our study was to examine and compare the potential and the limits of marker-assisted selection and genome-wide prediction of six important seed quality traits of B. napus. Our study is based on a bi-parental population comprising 202 doubled haploid lines and a diverse validation set including 117 B. napus inbred lines derived from interspecific crosses between B. rapa and B. carinata. We used phenotypic data for seed oil, protein, erucic acid, linolenic acid, stearic acid, and glucosinolate content. All lines were genotyped with a 60k SNP array. We performed five-fold cross-validations in combination with linkage mapping and four genome-wide prediction approaches in the bi-parental population. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) with large effects were detected for erucic acid, stearic acid, and glucosinolate content, blazing the trail for marker-assisted selection. Despite substantial differences in the complexity of the genetic architecture of the six traits, genome-wide prediction models had only minor impacts on the prediction accuracies. We evaluated the effects of training population size, marker density and phenotyping intensity on the prediction accuracy. The prediction accuracy in the independent and genetically very distinct validation set still amounted to 0.14 for protein content and 0.17 for oil content reflecting the utility of the developed calibration models even in very diverse backgrounds. PMID:27880793
Yarnes, Shawn C; Ashrafi, Hamid; Reyes-Chin-Wo, Sebastian; Hill, Theresa A; Stoffel, Kevin M; Van Deynze, Allen
Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses in pepper are common for horticultural, disease resistance, and fruit quality traits; although none of the studies to date have used sequence-based markers associated with genes. In this study we measured plant architectural, phenological, and fruit quality traits in a pepper mapping population consisting of 92 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between Capsicum frutescens acc. 2814-6 and C. annuum var. NuMexRNAKY. Phenotypic measurements were correlated to loci in a high-density EST-based genetic map. In total, 96 QTL were identified for 38 traits, including 12 QTL associated with capsaicinoid levels. Twenty-one loci showed correlation among seemingly unrelated phenotypic categories, highlighting tight linkage or shared genetics between previously unassociated traits in pepper.
Blanco, A E; Icken, W; Ould-Ali, D; Cavero, D; Schmutz, M
Egg quality traits are of utmost importance in layer breeding programs due to their effect on profitability in the egg production industry and on the production of quality chicks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze and estimate genetic parameters of different quality traits: egg weight, breaking strength, dynamic stiffness (Kdyn), egg shape index, eggshell thickness, and albumen height. Eggs were obtained from 4 pure lines of birds. Two different tests were performed: a white breeding program, with eggs from a male and female line of a white egg layer program that were analyzed at 67 to 70 wk of age, and a brown breeding program, with eggs from a male and female line of a brown egg layer program that were analyzed at 32 to 36 wk of age. In general, heritabilities were moderate to high for all traits (h² = 0.23 to 0.71). A high genetic correlation was estimated in both tests between breaking strength and Kdyn (rg = +0.40 to +0.61). Shell thickness was also positively correlated with breaking strength (rg = +0.50 to +0.63) and Kdyn (rg = +0.28 to +0.69). These moderate relationships demonstrate that the strength of an egg not only relies on the shell thickness but also on the quality and uniformity of eggshell construction. Dynamic stiffness might be preferred for breeding purposes due to its lower negative genetic correlation with egg weight and its higher heritability (h² = 0.35 to 0.70) compared with breaking strength (h² = 0.23 to 0.35). Breaking strength and Kdyn were positively correlated with shape index, which confirms that round eggs will show higher shell stability. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor egg shape to maintain an optimal form.
Beaver, Kevin M; da Silva Costa, Christian; Poersch, Ana Paula; Freddi, Micheli Cristina; Stelmach, Mônica Celis; Connolly, Eric J; Schwartz, Joseph A
Psychopathic personality traits have consistently been found to predict a range of negative and dysfunctional outcomes. As a result, it is somewhat surprising that the research to date has failed to empirically examine the potential association between psychopathic personality traits and parenting quality. The current study addressed this omission in the literature by analyzing a community sample of adults. The results revealed that respondents scoring higher on psychopathic personality traits tended to report more negative parenting quality. These results were detected for both males and females and remained significant even after controlling for the effects of parental transmission and child-effects. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show a statistically significant association between psychopathic personality traits and parenting quality. We conclude with a discussion of what these findings mean for psychopathy research and the parenting the literature.
Liu, Aiying; Song, Weiwu; Li, Junwen; Deng, Zhuying; Kong, Linglei; Gong, Juwu; Shang, Haihong; Chen, Tingting; Ge, Qun; Shi, Yuzhen; Yuan, Youlu
Chromosome segment substitution lines MBI9804, MBI9855, MBI9752, and MBI9134, which were obtained by advanced backcrossing and continuously inbreeding from an interspecific cross between CCRI36, a cultivar of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) as the recurrent parent, and Hai1, a cultivar of sea island cotton (G. barbadense) as the donor parent, were used to construct a multiple parent population of (MBI9804×MBI9855)×(MBI9752×MBI9134). The segregating generations of double-crossed F1 and F2 and F2:3 were used to map the quantitative trait locus (QTL) for fiber quality and yield-related traits. The recovery rate of the recurrent parent CCRI36 in the four parental lines was from 94.3%–96.9%. Each of the parental lines harbored 12–20 introgressed segments from Hai1across 21 chromosomes. The number of introgressed segments ranged from 1 to 27 for the individuals in the three generations, mostly from 9 to 18, which represented a genetic length of between 126 cM and 246 cM. A total of 24 QTLs controlling fiber quality and 11 QTLs controlling yield traits were detected using the three segregating generations. These QTLs were distributed across 11 chromosomes and could collectively explain 1.78%–20.27% of the observed phenotypic variations. Sixteen QTLs were consistently detected in two or more generations, four of them were for fiber yield traits and 12 were for fiber quality traits. One introgressed segment could significantly reduce both lint percentage and fiber micronaire. This study provides useful information for gene cloning and marker-assisted breeding for excellent fiber quality. PMID:27603312
Smirnakou, Sonia; Ouzounis, Theoharis; Radoglou, Kalliopi M.
Regulation of the growth, development, and quality of plants by the control of light quality has attracted extensive attention worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of continuous LED spectrum for indoor plant pre-cultivation and to investigate the morphological and physiological responses of a common broadleaved tree species in Mediterranean environment, Quercus ithaburensis var. macrolepis at seedling developmental stage. Thus, the seedlings were pre-cultivated for 28 days, under five different LED light qualities: (1) Fluorescent (FL) as control light (2) L20AP67 (high in green and moderate in far-red), (3) AP673L (high in green and red), (4) G2 (highest in red and far-red), AP67 (high in blue, red, and far-red), and (5) NS1 (highest in blue and green and lowest in far-red) LEDs. Further examination was held at the nursery for 1 year, on several seedling quality traits. Indeed, AP67 and AP673L triggered higher leaf formation, while L20AP67 positively affected seedling shoot development. NS1 and AP67 LED pre-cultivated seedlings showed significantly higher root fibrosity than those of FL light. Furthermore, NS1 and AP673L LEDs induced fourfold increase on seedling root dry weight than FL light. Hence, evaluating the seedling nursery performance attributes, most of those photomorphogenetic responses previously obtained were still detectable. Even more so, LED pre-cultivated seedlings showed higher survival and faster growth indicating better adaptation even under natural light conditions, a fact further reinforced by the significantly higher Dickson’s quality index acquired. In conclusion, the goal of each nursery management program is the production of high quality seedlings with those desirable traits, which in turn satisfy the specific needs for a particular reforestation site. Thus, the enhanced oak seedling quality traits formed under continuous LEDs spectrum especially of NS1 and AP673L pre-cultivation may potentially fulfill this goal
Dama, Madhukar Shivajirao
As mobile phone usage is growing rapidly, there is a need for a comprehensive analysis of the literature to inform scientific debates about the adverse effects of mobile phone radiation on sperm quality traits. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of the eligible published research studies on human males of reproductive age. Eleven studies were eligible for this analysis. Based on the meta-analysis, mobile phone use was significantly associated with deterioration in semen quality (Hedges’s g = -0.547; 95% CI: -0.713, -0.382; p < 0.001). The traits particularly affected adversely were sperm concentration, sperm morphology, sperm motility, proportion of non-progressive motile sperm (%), proportion of slow progressive motile sperm (%), and sperm viability. Direct exposure of spermatozoa to mobile phone radiation with in vitro study designs also significantly deteriorated the sperm quality (Hedges’s g = -2.233; 95% CI: -2.758, -1.708; p < 0.001), by reducing straight line velocity, fast progressive motility, Hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test score, major axis (µm), minor axis (µm), total sperm motility, perimeter (µm), area (µm 2), average path velocity, curvilinear velocity, motile spermatozoa, and acrosome reacted spermatozoa (%). The strength of evidence for the different outcomes varied from very low to very high. The analysis shows that mobile phone use is possibly associated with a number of deleterious effects on the spermatozoa. PMID:24327874
Jung, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Young-Chul; Choi, Yang-Il
In this study, we compared qualities and physiochemical traits of meat from Berkshire (black color) pigs with those of meat from 3-way Landrace (white color) × Yorkshire (white color) × Duroc (red color) crossbred pigs (LYD). Meat quality characteristics, including pH, color, drip loss, cooking loss, and free amino acid, fatty acid, vitamin, and mineral contents of longissimus dorsi muscles, were compared. Meat from Berkshire pigs had deeper meat color (redness), higher pH, and lower drip loss and cooking loss than meat from LYD pigs. Moreover, meat from Berkshire pigs had higher levels of phosphoserine, aspartic acid, threonine, serine, asparagine, α-aminoadipic acid, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, histidine, tryptophan, and carnosine and lower levels of glutamic acid, glycine, alanine, and ammonia than did meat from LYD pigs. The fatty acids oleic acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were present in significantly higher concentrations in Berkshire muscles than they were in LYD muscles. Additionally, Berkshire muscles were significantly enriched with nucleotide components (inosine), minerals (Mg and K), and antioxidant vitamins such as ascorbic acid (C) in comparison with LYD muscles. In conclusion, our results show that in comparison with LYD meat, Berkshire meat has better meat quality traits and is a superior nutritional source of all essential amino acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, vitamin C, and minerals (Mg and K). PMID:27857540
Hopkins, Candice B.; Bartolino, James R.
Residents and resource managers of the Wood River Valley of south-central Idaho are concerned about the effects that population growth might have on the quality of groundwater and surface water. As part of a multi-phase assessment of the groundwater resources in the study area, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the quality of water at 45 groundwater and 5 surface-water sites throughout the Wood River Valley during July and August 2012. Water samples were analyzed for field parameters (temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity), major ions, boron, iron, manganese, nutrients, and Escherichia coli (E.coli) and total coliform bacteria. This study was conducted to determine baseline water quality throughout the Wood River Valley, with special emphasis on nutrient concentrations. Water quality in most samples collected did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards for drinking water. E. coli bacteria, used as indicators of water quality, were detected in all five surface-water samples and in two groundwater samples collected. Some analytes have aesthetic-based recommended drinking water standards; one groundwater sample exceeded recommended iron concentrations. Nitrate plus nitrite concentrations varied, but tended to be higher near population centers and in agricultural areas than in tributaries and less populated areas. These higher nitrate plus nitrite concentrations were not correlated with boron concentrations or the presence of bacteria, common indicators of sources of nutrients to water. None of the samples collected exceeded drinking-water standards for nitrate or nitrite. The concentration of total dissolved solids varied considerably in the waters sampled; however a calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate water type was dominant (43 out of 50 samples) in both the groundwater and surface water. Three constituents that may be influenced by anthropogenic activity (chloride, boron, and nitrate plus nitrite) deviate from this
Cecchinato, A; De Marchi, M; Penasa, M; Albera, A; Bittante, G
The aims of this study were 1) to investigate the potential application of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict beef quality (BQ) traits, 2) to assess genetic variations of BQ measures and their predictions obtained by NIRS, and 3) to infer the genetic relationship between measures of BQ and their predictions. Young Piedmontese bulls (n = 1,230) were raised and fattened on 124 farms and slaughtered at the same commercial abattoir. The BQ traits evaluated were shear force (SF, kg), cooking loss (CL, %), drip loss (DL, %), lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), saturation index (SI), and hue angle. Near-infrared spectra were collected using a Foss NIRSystems 5000 instrument over a spectral range of 1,100 to 2,498 nm every 2 nm, in reflectance mode. After editing, prediction models were developed on a calibration subset (n = 268) using partial least squares regressions, followed by application of these models to the validation subset (n = 940). Estimations of (co)variance for measures of BQ and NIRS-based predictions were obtained through a set of bivariate Bayesian analyses on the validation subset. Near-infrared predictions were satisfactory for measurements of L* (R(2) = 0.64), a* (R(2) = 0.68), hue angle (R(2) = 0.81), and saturation index (R(2) = 0.59), but not for b*, DL, CL, and SF. The loss of additive genetic variance of predicted vs. measured L*, a*, DL, CL, and SF was generally high and was similar to the loss of residual variance, being a function of the calibration parameter R(2). As a consequence, estimated heritabilities of measures and predictions of BQ were similar for traits with high calibration R(2) values. Genetic correlations between BQ measures and predictions were high for all color traits and DL, and were greater than the corresponding phenotypic correlations, whereas both the phenotypic and genetic correlations for SF and CL were nil. Results suggest that NIRS-based predictions for color features and DL may be used as
Feng, Hongjie; Guo, Lixue; Wang, Gaskin; Sun, Junling; Pan, Zhaoe; He, Shoupu; Zhu, Heqin; Sun, Jie; Du, Xiongming
Naturally existing colored cotton was far from perfection due to having genetic factors for lower yield, poor fiber quality and monotonous color. These factors posed a challenge to colored cotton breeding and innovation. To identify novel quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fiber color along with understanding of correlation between fiber color and quality in colored cotton, a RIL and two F2 populations were generated from crosses among Zong128 (Brown fiber cotton) and two white fiber cotton lines which were then analyzed in four environments. Two stable and major QTLs (qLC-7-1, qFC-7-1) for fiber lint and fuzz color were detected accounting for 16.01%-59.85% of the phenotypic variation across multiple generations and environments. Meanwhile, some minor QTLs were also identified on chromosomes 5, 14, 21 and 24 providing low phenotypic variation (<5%) from only F2 populations, not from the RILs population. Especially, a multiple-effect locus for fiber color and quality has been detected between flanking markers NAU1043 and NAU3654 on chromosome 7 (A genome) over multiple environments. Of which, qLC-7-1, qFC-7-1 were responsible for positive effects and improved fiber color in offsprings. Meanwhile, the QTLs (qFL-7-1, qFU-7-1, qFF-7-1, qFE-7-1, and qFS-7-1) for fiber quality had negative effects and explained 2.19%-8.78% of the phenotypic variation. This multiple-effect locus for fiber color and quality may reveal the negative correlation between the two types of above traits, so paving the way towards cotton genetic improvement.
Yang, S X; Jowett, S; Chan, D K C
The present study examined the influence of personality traits on the quality of the Chinese coach-athlete relationship and satisfaction through a dyadic research design. A total of 350 coach-athlete dyads completed a self-report instrument that assessed personality traits, as well as perceptions of relationship quality and satisfaction with training. Results revealed that: (a) actor effects (i.e., actor's personality will predict his or her own perceptions of relationship quality) of personality traits, namely, conscientiousness, extroversion, and neuroticism, on both coaches' and athletes' perceptions of relationship quality and (b) partner effects (an actor's own personality will predict his or her partner's perceptions of relationship quality) of only athletes' personality, namely, conscientiousness, extroversion, and neuroticism, on their coaches' perceptions of relationship quality. The findings suggested that each relationship member's personality trait contributed independently to relationship quality, and both actor and partner effects of the relationship quality on satisfaction with training were found to be significant. In Chinese sports culture, there presents a unique dynamics of personality and relationship quality among coach-athlete dyad.
Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; González-Di Pierro, Ana Ma; Lombera, Rafael; Guillén, Susana; Estrada, Alejandro
• Premise of the study: Frugivore selection of fruits and treatment of seeds together with seed deposition site are crucial for the population dynamics of vertebrate-dispersed plants. However, frugivore species may influence dispersal quality differently even when feeding on the same fruit species and, while animals disperse some seeds, others simply fall beneath the parent plant.• Methods: In southern Mexico, we investigated to see if within-species seed traits (i.e., length, width, weight, and volume) and germination success differed according to seed source. For five tropical tree species we obtained ingested seeds from two sources, howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) and spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) feces; and noningested seeds from two sources, the ground and tree crowns (with predispersed seeds used as control).• Key results: A principal components' analysis showed that traits of seeds ingested by howler monkeys differed from other sources while seeds ingested by spider monkeys were similar to noningested seeds. Howlers consumed on average the larger seeds in Ampelocera hottlei, Brosimum lactescens, and Dialium guianense. Both primate species consumed the smaller seeds in Spondias mombin, while no seed trait differences among seed sources were found in Spondias radlkoferi. For all five tree species, germination rate was greatest for seeds ingested by howler monkeys.• Conclusions: For the studied plant species, seed ingestion by howler monkeys confers higher dispersal quality than ingestion by spider monkeys or nondispersal. Dispersal services of both primate species, however, are not redundant and may contribute to germination heterogeneity within plant populations in tropical forests.
Young, Raymond A.
Wood has been utilized by humans since antiquity. Trees provided a source of many products required by early humans such as food, medicine, fuel, and tools. For example, the bark of the willow tree, when chewed, was used as a painkiller in early Greece and was the precursor of the present-day aspirin. Wood served as the primary fuel in the United States until about the turn of the 19th century, and even today over one-half of the wood now harvested in the world is used for heating fuel.
Utrera, M; Armenteros, M; Ventanas, S; Solano, F; Estévez, M
The influence of protein carbonylation and lipid oxidation on colour and texture changes in cooked hams from fresh and pre-frozen (frozen/thawed) raw material was studied. Samples from three muscles, biceps femoris (BF) quadriceps femoris (QF) and semimembranosus (SM) were analysed for the gain of specific protein carbonyls, α-aminoadipic and γ-glutamic semialdehydes, the gain of TBA-RS and their colour and texture properties by instrumental and sensory techniques. The formation of protein carbonyls occurred concomitantly with an intense loss of redness and increase of hardness. Both phenomena were found to be more intense in QF and SM muscles in cooked hams elaborated from frozen material. Lipid oxidation played a negligible role on the impaired quality traits observed in cooked hams as a result of pre-freezing. Plausible mechanisms by which protein carbonylation may be implicated in the loss of quality in cooked hams produced from pre-frozen material are discussed.
Magalhães, Ana F. B.; de Camargo, Gregório M. F.; Fernandes, Gerardo A.; Gordo, Daniel G. M.; Tonussi, Rafael L.; Costa, Raphael B.; Espigolan, Rafael; Silva, Rafael M. de O.; Bresolin, Tiago; de Andrade, Willian B. F.; Takada, Luciana; Feitosa, Fabieli L. B.; Baldi, Fernando; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Chardulo, Luis A. L.; de Albuquerque, Lucia G.
The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions that are associated with meat quality traits in the Nellore breed. Nellore steers were finished in feedlots and slaughtered at a commercial slaughterhouse. This analysis included 1,822 phenotypic records of tenderness and 1,873 marbling records. After quality control, 1,630 animals genotyped for tenderness, 1,633 animals genotyped for marbling, and 369,722 SNPs remained. The results are reported as the proportion of variance explained by windows of 150 adjacent SNPs. Only windows with largest effects were considered. The genomic regions were located on chromosomes 5, 15, 16 and 25 for marbling and on chromosomes 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21 for tenderness. These windows explained 3,89% and 3,80% of the additive genetic variance for marbling and tenderness, respectively. The genes associated with the traits are related to growth, muscle development and lipid metabolism. The study of these genes in Nellore cattle is the first step in the identification of causal mutations that will contribute to the genetic evaluation of the breed. PMID:27359122
Dalla Costa, Filipe Antônio; Lopes, Letícia S; Dalla Costa, Osmar Antônio
The objective of this study was to assess the effects of two types of commercial suspension (leaf-spring (LS) vs. air suspension (AS)) installed on two similar double-decked trucks on blood cortisol and lactate concentration, lairage behavior, carcass skin lesions and pork quality traits of 120 crossbred pigs. The suspension type neither influenced pig behaviour in lairage nor blood cortisol and lactate concentrations (p > 0.10). However, when compared with the AS suspension system, the use of LS increased the number of skin lesions in the back and thigh (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01, respectively) and produced thigh with lower pHu (p < 0.001) and yellower colour (higher b* value; p = 0.03), and paler back muscles (subjective colour; p < 0.05), with a tendency to lower pH (p = 0.06). Therefore, the use air suspension system can improve carcass and meat quality traits of pigs transported to slaughter.
Elzo, Mauricio A.
The objective of this study was to compare carcass composition and meat quality traits in the longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles in the Hyla, Champagne and Tianfu Black rabbit breeds. Tianfu Black rabbits had the heaviest head, skin, thoracic viscera and commercial carcass percentage (p<0.05). In addition, Tianfu Black had the highest pH0 h value, followed by the Champagne and Hyla breeds (p<0.01) in the longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles. Tianfu Black had a higher a* (0 h and 24 h) than the other two breeds in both longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles (p<0.05). The Hyla, Champagne, and Tianfu Black breeds showed a similar pattern of differences for meat quality traits (pH, L*, a* and b*) measured in fresh meat (0 h) and meat stored for 24 h. Hyla had the highest IMF values of the three breeds (p<0.01). The lower intramuscular fat of Tianfu Black and Champagne rabbits gives them an advantage over Hyla rabbits among most consumers seeking lean rabbit meat. PMID:27499668
Wang, Jie; Su, Yuan; Elzo, Mauricio A; Jia, Xianbo; Chen, Shiyi; Lai, Songjia
The objective of this study was to compare carcass composition and meat quality traits in the longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles in the Hyla, Champagne and Tianfu Black rabbit breeds. Tianfu Black rabbits had the heaviest head, skin, thoracic viscera and commercial carcass percentage (p<0.05). In addition, Tianfu Black had the highest pH0 h value, followed by the Champagne and Hyla breeds (p<0.01) in the longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles. Tianfu Black had a higher a* (0 h and 24 h) than the other two breeds in both longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles (p<0.05). The Hyla, Champagne, and Tianfu Black breeds showed a similar pattern of differences for meat quality traits (pH, L*, a* and b*) measured in fresh meat (0 h) and meat stored for 24 h. Hyla had the highest IMF values of the three breeds (p<0.01). The lower intramuscular fat of Tianfu Black and Champagne rabbits gives them an advantage over Hyla rabbits among most consumers seeking lean rabbit meat.
Allen, Tammy D.; Kiburz, Kaitlin M.
The present study investigates the relationship between trait mindfulness and work-family balance among a sample of working parents. Sleep quality and vitality are tested as mediators of this relationship. Results indicate that those with greater mindfulness report greater work-family balance, better sleep quality, and greater vitality. As…
Garmyn, A J; Moser, D W; Christmas, R A; Minick Bormann, J
The purpose of this study was to estimate the heritability of scrotal circumference (SC) and semen traits, genetic correlations between SC and semen quality traits, and the effect of cytoplasmic line on SC and semen traits. Breeding soundness exam (BSE) data were collected on registered Angus bulls at 4 ranches over 7 yr. The American Angus Association provided historical pedigree information to estimate the effect of cytoplasmic line on SC and semen quality traits. After editing, the evaluated data set contained 1,281 bulls with breeding soundness exam data that traced back to 100 founder dams. Data were analyzed using a 2-trait animal model to obtain heritability, genetic correlation between SC and semen quality traits, as well as the effect of cytoplasmic line as a random effect for SC, percent motility (MOT), percent primary abnormalities (PRIM), percent secondary abnormalities (SEC), and percent total abnormalities (TOT) using multiple-trait derivative-free REML. Fixed effects included source ranch and collection year, and test age was used as a covariate. Estimates of heritability for SC, MOT, PRIM, SEC, and TOT were 0.46, 0.05, 0.27, 0.23, and 0.25, respectively. Genetic correlations between SC and MOT, PRIM, SEC, and TOT were 0.36, -0.19, -0.11, and -0.23, respectively. The proportions of phenotypic variance accounted for by cytoplasmic line for SC, MOT, PRIM, SEC, and TOT were <0.001, 0.013, 0.023, 0.002, and <0.001, respectively. Genetic correlations between SC and semen quality traits were low to moderate and favorable. Cytoplasmic line may have a marginal effect on MOT and PRIM, but is likely not a significant source of variation for SC, SEC, or TOT.
Stephens, Jeffrey P; Altman, Karie A; Berven, Keith A; Tiegs, Scott D; Raffel, Thomas R
Leaf litter subsidies are important resources for aquatic consumers like tadpoles and snails, causing bottom-up effects on wetland ecosystems. Recent studies have shown that variation in litter nutritional quality can be as important as litter quantity in driving these bottom-up effects. Resource subsidies likely also have indirect and trait-mediated effects on predation and parasitism, but these potential effects remain largely unexplored. We generated predictions for differential effects of litter nutrition and secondary polyphenolic compounds on tadpole (Lithobates sylvatica) exposure and susceptibility to Ribeiroia ondatrae, based on ecological stoichiometry and community-ecology theory. We predicted direct and indirect effects on key traits of the tadpole host (rates of growth, development and survival), the trematode parasite (production of the cercaria infective stages) and the parasite's snail intermediate host (growth and reproduction). To test these predictions, we conducted a large-scale mesocosm experiment using a natural gradient in the concentrations of nutrients (nitrogen) and toxic secondary compounds (polyphenolics) of nine leaf litter species. To differentiate between effects on exposure vs. susceptibility to infection, we included multiple infection experiments including one with constant per capita exposure. We found that increased litter nitrogen increased tadpole survival, and also increased cercaria production by the snail intermediate hosts, causing opposing effects on tadpole per capita exposure to trematode infection. Increased litter polyphenolics slowed tadpole development, leading to increased infection by increasing both their susceptibility to infection and the length of time they were exposed to parasites. Based on these results, recent shifts in forest composition towards more nitrogen-poor litter species should decrease trematode infection in tadpoles via density- and trait-mediated effects on the snail intermediate hosts. However
Choi, J. S.; Jin, S. K.; Jeong, Y. H.; Jung, Y. C.; Jung, J. H.; Shim, K. S.; Choi, Y. I.
This study was conducted to determine the relationships of five intragenic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers (protein kinase adenosine monophosphate-activated γ3 subunit [PRKAG3], fatty acid synthase [FASN], calpastatin [CAST], high mobility group AT-hook 1 [HMGA1], and melanocortin-4 receptor [MC4R]) and meat quality traits of Duroc breeding stocks in Korea. A total of 200 purebred Duroc gilts from 8 sires and 40 dams at 4 pig breeding farms from 2010 to 2011 reaching market weight (110 kg) were slaughtered and their carcasses were chilled overnight. Longissimus dorsi muscles were removed from the carcass after 24 h of slaughter and used to determine pork properties including carcass weight, backfat thickness, moisture, intramuscular fat, pH24h, shear force, redness, texture, and fatty acid composition. The PRKAG3, FASN, CAST, and MC4R gene SNPs were significantly associated with the meat quality traits (p<0.003). The meats of PRKAG3 (A 0.024/G 0.976) AA genotype had higher pH, redness and texture than those from PRKAG3 GG genotype. Meats of FASN (C 0.301/A 0.699) AA genotype had higher backfat thickness, texture, stearic acid, oleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid than FASN CC genotype. While the carcasses of CAST (A 0.373/G 0.627) AA genotype had thicker backfat, and lower shear force, palmitoleic acid and oleic acid content, they had higher stearic acid content than those from the CAST GG genotype. The MC4R (G 0.208/A 0.792) AA genotype were involved in increasing backfat thickness, carcass weight, moisture and saturated fatty acid content, and decreasing unsaturated fatty acid content in Duroc meat. These results indicated that the five SNP markers tested can be a help to select Duroc breed to improve carcass and meat quality properties in crossbred pigs. PMID:27507182
Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng
Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5′-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P<0.05). In the indigenous genotypes, NC and FC had significantly shorter fiber diameters and lower shear forces than XC and LC (P<0.05), and NC and XC had a higher IMP content than FC and LC (P<0.05). Moreover, the indigenous genotype of LC significantly displayed the highest protein content (P<0.05) in the five genotypes of birds, and no significant differences of protein content were found between the other genotypes of NC, FC, XC, and AAB (P>0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (P<0.05). Significant differences of pH, color values of L* and a*, and drip loss for the five genotypes of birds were also observed. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the meat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned. PMID:24101206
Larraya, Luis M; Alfonso, Mikel; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Ramírez, Lucía
Industrial production of the edible basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) is based on a solid fermentation process in which a limited number of selected strains are used. Optimization of industrial mushroom production depends on improving the culture process and breeding new strains with higher yields and productivities. Traditionally, fungal breeding has been carried out by an empirical trial and error process. In this study, we used a different approach by mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling culture production and quality within the framework of the genetic linkage map of P. ostreatus. Ten production traits and four quality traits were studied and mapped. The production QTLs identified explain nearly one-half of the production variation. More interestingly, a single QTL mapping to the highly polymorphic chromosome VII appears to be involved in control of all the productivity traits studied. Quality QTLs appear to be scattered across the genome and to have less effect on the variation of the corresponding traits. Moreover, some of the new hybrid strains constructed in the course of our experiments had production or quality values higher than those of the parents or other commercial strains. This approach opens the possibility of marker-assisted selection and breeding of new industrial strains of this fungus.
Larraya, Luis M.; Alfonso, Mikel; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Ramírez, Lucía
Industrial production of the edible basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) is based on a solid fermentation process in which a limited number of selected strains are used. Optimization of industrial mushroom production depends on improving the culture process and breeding new strains with higher yields and productivities. Traditionally, fungal breeding has been carried out by an empirical trial and error process. In this study, we used a different approach by mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling culture production and quality within the framework of the genetic linkage map of P. ostreatus. Ten production traits and four quality traits were studied and mapped. The production QTLs identified explain nearly one-half of the production variation. More interestingly, a single QTL mapping to the highly polymorphic chromosome VII appears to be involved in control of all the productivity traits studied. Quality QTLs appear to be scattered across the genome and to have less effect on the variation of the corresponding traits. Moreover, some of the new hybrid strains constructed in the course of our experiments had production or quality values higher than those of the parents or other commercial strains. This approach opens the possibility of marker-assisted selection and breeding of new industrial strains of this fungus. PMID:12788770
Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask; Bilenberg, Niels; Støving, René Klinky
Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels of excitement-seeking and achievement striving whereas scores on straightforwardness and compliance were lower than in the exercise control group. The addiction group reported more bodily pain and injuries. This study supports the hypothesis that exercise addiction is separate to an eating disorder, but shares some of the concerns of body and performance. It is driven by a striving for high goals and excitement which results in pain and injuries from overuse.
Trifilò, Patrizia; Nardini, Andrea; Lo Gullo, Maria A; Barbera, Piera M; Savi, Tadeja; Raimondo, Fabio
Recent studies have reported correlations between stem sapwood capacitance (C(wood)) and xylem vulnerability to embolism, but it is unclear how C(wood) relates to the eventual ability of plants to reverse embolism. We investigated possible functional links between embolism reversal efficiency, C(wood), wood density (WD), vulnerability to xylem embolism and hydraulic safety margins in nine woody species native to dry sclerophyllous forests with different degrees of iso versus anisohydry. Substantial inter-specific differences in terms of seasonal/diurnal changes of xylem and leaf water potential, maximum diurnal values of transpiration rate and xylem vulnerability to embolism formation were recorded. Significant diurnal changes in percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC) were recorded for five species. Significant correlations were recorded between diurnal PLC changes and P50 and P88 values (i.e., xylem pressure inducing 50 and 88% PLC, respectively) as well as between diurnal PLC changes and safety margins referenced to P50 and P88. WD was linearly correlated with minimum diurnal leaf water potential, diurnal PLC changes and wood capacitance across all species. In contrast, significant relationships between P50, safety margin values referenced to P50 and WD were recorded only for the isohydric species. Functional links between diurnal changes in PLC, hydraulic strategies and WD and C(wood) are discussed.
Wei, Mengguan; Li, Xuehui; Li, Junzhou; Fu, Jiafeng; Wang, Yanzhao; Li, Yuling
Both yield and quality traits for stover portion were important for forage and biofuel production utility in maize. A high-oil maize inbred GY220 was crossed with two normal-oil dent maize inbred lines 8984 and 8622 to generate two connected F(2:3) populations with 284 and 265 F(2:3) families. Seven yield and quality traits were evaluated under two environments. The variance components of genotype (sigma(g)(2)), environment (sigma(e)(2)) and genotype x environment interactions (sigma(ge)(2)) were all significant for most traits in both populations. Different levels of correlations were observed for all traits. QTL mapping was conducted using composite interval mapping (CIM) for data under each environment and in combined analysis in both populations. Totally, 45 and 42 QTL were detected in the two populations. Only five common QTL across the two populations, and one and three common QTL across the two environments in the two populations were detected, reflecting substantial influence of genetic backgrounds and environments on the results of QTL detection for stover traits. Combined analysis across two environments failed to detect most QTL mapped using individual environmental data in both populations. Few of the detected QTL displayed digenic epistatic interactions. Common QTL among all traits were consistent with their correlations. Some QTL herein have been detected in previous researches, and linked with candidate genes for enzymes postulated to have direct and indirect roles in cell wall components biosynthesis.
Rasouli, Z; Zerehdaran, S; Azari, M A; Shargh, M S
1. The objective of the study was to investigate the polymorphisms in two regions of the calpain 1 (CAPN1) gene and their association with breast and thigh meat quality in Japanese quail (ultimate pH (pHu), lightness, redness, yellowness, drip loss, thawing-cooking loss, water holding capacity and shear force, SF). 2. Blood samples were collected randomly from 100 birds and DNA was extracted using a commercial kit. Genotypes were determined by PCR amplification followed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. The effect of CAPN1 genotypes on meat quality traits were analysed using a general linear model (GLM) procedure. 3. Genotypes of the CAPN1 gene in the first region (217-bp) analysed were significantly associated with yellowness and SF. The TT genotype showed significantly higher yellowness and lower shear force (more tenderness) than CT and CC genotypes. Genotypes of the second region of the gene (intron 4, 800-bp) were significantly associated with pHu, redness and SF of the breast meat. The BB genotype showed significantly lower pHu and redness and higher SF (lower tenderness) than other genotypes. 4. Information on polymorphisms of the CAPN1 gene will eventually provide useful information for improving meat quality of Japanese quail through marker-assisted selection.
Hafla, A N; Lancaster, P A; Carstens, G E; Forrest, D W; Fox, J T; Forbes, T D A; Davis, M E; Randel, R D; Holloway, J W
A meta-analysis was conducted to examine phenotypic relationships between feed efficiency, scrotal circumference, and semen quality traits in yearling bulls. Data evaluated were obtained from 5 postweaning trials involving Angus (n = 92), Bonsmara (n = 62), and Santa Gertrudis (n = 50) bulls fed diets that ranged from 1.70 to 2.85 Mcal ME/kg DM. After an adaptation period of 24 to 28 d, feed intake was measured daily, and BW was measured at 7- or 14-d intervals during the 70- to 77-d trials. Ultrasound carcass traits (12th-rib back fat thickness, BF; LM area, LMA) and scrotal circumference (SC) were measured at the start and end of each trial. Semen samples were collected by electroejaculation within 51 d of the end of the trials when the age of bulls averaged from 365 to 444 d and were evaluated for progressive sperm motility and morphology. Residual feed intake (RFI) was calculated as the difference between actual DMI and expected DMI from linear regression of DMI on ADG and midtest BW(0.75), with trial, trial by ADG, and trial by midtest BW(0.75) as random effects. Across all studies, bulls with low RFI phenotypes (<0.5 SD below the mean RFI of 0) consumed 20% less DM and had 10% less BF but had similar ADG, SC, and semen quality traits compared with high-RFI bulls (>0.5 SD above the mean RFI of 0). Gain to feed ratio was strongly correlated with ADG (0.60) and weakly correlated with initial BW (-0.17) and DMI (-0.26). Residual feed intake was not correlated with ADG, initial age, or BW but was correlated with DMI (0.71), G:F (-0.70), and BF (0.20). Initial SC (-0.20), gain in SC (-0.28), and percent normal sperm (-0.17) were correlated with G:F, but only sperm morphology was found to be weakly associated with RFI (0.13). These data suggest that RFI is not phenotypically associated with SC or sperm motility but is weakly associated with sperm morphology.
Soglia, F; Mudalal, S; Babini, E; Di Nunzio, M; Mazzoni, M; Sirri, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M
Only a few years ago, the poultry industry began to face a recent abnormality in breast meat, known as wooden breast, which frequently overlaps with white striping. This study aimed to assess the impact of wooden breast abnormality on quality traits of meat. For this purpose, 32 normal (NRM), 32 wooden (WB), and 32 wooden and white-striped (WB/WS) Pectoralis major muscles were selected from the same flock of heavy broilers (males, Ross 708, weighing around 3.7 kg) in the deboning area of a commercial processing plant at 3 h postmortem and used to assess histology, proximate (moisture, protein, fat, ash, and collagen) and mineral composition (Mg, K, P, Na and Ca), sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein patterns, and technological traits of breast meat. Compared to the normal group, WB/WS fillets showed more severe histological lesions characterized by fiber degeneration, fibrosis, and lipidosis, coupled with a significantly harder texture. With regard to proximate and mineral composition, abnormal samples exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher moisture, fat, and collagen contents coupled with lower (P < 0.001) amounts of protein and ash. Furthermore, increased calcium (131 vs. 84 mg kg(-1); P < 0.05) and sodium (741 vs. 393 mg kg(-1); P < 0.001) levels were found in WB/WS meat samples. The SDS-PAGE analysis revealed a significantly lower amount of calcium-ATPase (SERCA, 114 kDa), responsible for the translocation of Ca ions across the membrane, in normal breasts compared to abnormal ones. As for meat quality traits, fillets affected by wooden abnormality exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher ultimate pH and lower water-holding/water-binding capacity. In particular, compared to normal, abnormal samples showed reduced marinade uptake coupled with increased drip loss and cooking losses as well. In conclusion, this study revealed that meat affected by wooden breast or both wooden breast and white striping abnormalities exhibit poorer nutritional value, harder
Isanapong, Jantiya; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Bruce, David; Chen, Amy; Detter, J. Chris; Han, James; Han, Cliff; Held, Brittany; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, N; Land, Miriam L; Mavromatis, K; Nolan, Matt; Pati, Amrita; Pennacchio, Len; Pitluck, Sam; Szeto, Ernest; Tapia, Roxanne; Woyke, Tanja; Rodrigues, Jorge L.M.
Microbial communities in the termite hindgut are essential for degrading plant material. We present the high-quality draft genome sequence of the Opitutaceae bacterium strain TAV1, the first member of the phylum Verrucomicrobia to be isolated from wood-feeding termites. The genomic analysis reveals genes coding for lignocellulosic degradation and nitrogen fixation.
Pradhan, Surendra K; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Weisell, Janne; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of human urine and wood ash fertilization on the yield and quality of red beet by measuring the microbial, nutrient, and antioxidant (betanin) content of the roots. Red beets were fertilized with 133 kg of N/ha as mineral fertilizer, urine and ash, and only urine with no fertilizer as a control. The mineral-fertilized plants and urine- and ash-fertilized plants also received 89 kg of P/ha. Urine and ash and only urine fertilizer produced 1720 and 656 kg/ha more root biomass, respectively, versus what was obtained from the mineral fertilizer. Few fecal coliforms and coliphage were detected in mineral-fertilized and urine- and ash-fertilized red beet roots. The protein and betanin contents in red beet roots were similar in all treatments. In conclusion, this study revealed that urine with or without ash can increase the yield of red beet and furthermore the microbial quality and chemical quality were similar to the situation in mineral-fertilized products.
Fernandez, Irene; González-Prieto, Serafin J; Cabaneiro, Ana
Pine forest plantations of Pinus pinaster Ait. and P. sylvestris L. located in Galicia, NW Spain, were selected to study the 13C/12C-isotopic fingerprint in wood core samples in order to find possible relationships between the delta(13)C at natural abundance levels and the quality of the standing tree mass. For each pine species, 24 forests growing on acidic soils were studied: half developed over granite and half over schists. Two dominant trees from each plot, corresponding to all possible combinations of forest stands with high or low site index and with adults or young trees, were drilled at the basal part of trunks using a Pressler drill to obtain tree ring samples. The C-isotopic compositions of the litter and the soil organic matter from different soil depths were also determined and statistically significant correlations between these values and the 13C content of the wood were observed. Despite internal variations due to the influence of site index, tree age and parent material, the isotopic fingerprint of P. pinaster wood (mean value delta13C=-26.2+/-0.8 per thousand) significantly differed (P<0.001) from that of P. sylvestris (mean value delta13C=-24.6+/-0.7 per thousand). Relationships between the quality of the stand and the C-isotopic composition of the wood were observed, high quality stands having trees more 13C-depleted than low quality ones. A high correlation between wood delta13C and site index values for P. pinaster stands (r=-0.667, P<0.001) was found, this correlation being even clearer when only P. pinaster growing over schists (r=-0.833, P<0.001) are considered. Again, the correlation between the site index and the wood delta13C of young P. pinaster trees is higher when plots over granite or schists are separately considered. A similar fact occurs for adult P. sylvestris trees from schists stands, high quality specimens being 13C-depleted compared with low quality ones. On the other hand, 13C natural abundance of wood from P. sylvestris
Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y; Buriev, Zabardast T; Saha, Sukumar; Jenkins, Johnie N; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Pepper, Alan E
Simultaneous improvement of fibre quality, early-flowering, early-maturity and productivity in Upland cotton (G. hirsutum) is a challenging task for conventional breeding. The influence of red/far-red light ratio on the fibre length prompted us to examine the phenotypic effects of RNA interference (RNAi) of the cotton PHYA1 gene. Here we show a suppression of up to ~70% for the PHYA1 transcript, and compensatory overexpression of up to ~20-fold in the remaining phytochromes in somatically regenerated PHYA1 RNAi cotton plants. Two independent transformants of three generations exhibited vigorous root and vegetative growth, early-flowering, significantly improved upper half mean fibre length and an improvement in other major fibre characteristics. Small decreases in lint traits were observed but seed cotton yield was increased an average 10-17% compared with controls. RNAi-associated phenotypes were heritable and transferable via sexual hybridization. These results should aid in the development of early-maturing and productive Upland cultivars with superior fibre quality.
De Palo, Pasquale; Tateo, Alessandra; Maggiolino, Aristide; Centoducati, Pasquale
The present work describes the effect of nutritive level on horse carcass traits and on meat quality. Eighteen male Italian Heavy Draught Horse (IHDH) breed foals were employed in the study. Soon after foaling they were randomly subdivided into three groups according to three nutritive level classes: 150%, 180% and 200% of maintenance requirements. Live weight, hot carcass weight and dressing percentage of each animal were recorded. After slaughtering, meat samples were collected from Longissimus dorsi muscle. The right half carcass of each animal was then divided into cuts. Each one was subdivided into lean, fat and bones. Live weight, carcass weight and dressing percentage were not affected by nutritive level (P > 0.05). Horses fed with the lower nutritive level showed a higher incidence of lean and a lower incidence of fat (P < 0.01). Moreover, fatty acid profile was not affected by nutritive level (P > 0.05). Probably the tendency of IHDH foals to concentrate adipogenesis in the subcutaneous district could explain the lack of influence of nutritive level on meat quality parameters and its influence on carcass and cut composition, which tend to be richer in fat. PMID:24961285
Yuan, J; Wang, B; Huang, Z; Fan, Y; Huang, C; Hou, Z
1. The egg quality of striped and normal duck eggs was compared to determine why striped eggs show decreased hatchability. A total of 430 eggs, obtained from a Pekin duck breeder flock aged 50-65 wks, were used in three experiments. The eggs were weighed and assigned randomly to measure egg quality traits, egg weight (EW) loss and hatchability during incubation. 2. There were no significant differences between egg types in terms of egg shape index, eggshell strength and thickness, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk colour, weight of the eggshell with or without membranes, calcium, phosphorus, copper and manganese contents in the eggshell (with the inner and outer membranes or without the inner membrane), albumen weight, dry matter of albumen, crude protein (CP) of thick albumen and pH of the thick albumen. 3. The weight of eggshells with membranes, weight of thick albumen and CP of thin albumen in striped eggs were lower than those in normal eggs. 4. The thin albumen in striped eggs was heavier than that in normal eggs. The pH of the thin albumin in striped egg was significantly higher than that in normal eggs. 5. There were no significant differences in EW loss during incubation or duckling weight between striped and normal eggs. However, the hatchability of striped eggs was lower. 6. The lower weight of the eggshell inner membrane and thick albumen, lower CP content and higher pH in the thin albumen of striped eggs might contribute to lower hatchability.
Karagiannis, Evangelos; Tanou, Georgia; Samiotaki, Martina; Michailidis, Michail; Diamantidis, Grigorios; Minas, Ioannis S.; Molassiotis, Athanassios
The role of environment in fruit physiology has been established; however, knowledge regarding the effect of altitude in fruit quality traits is still lacking. Here, skin tissue quality characters were analyzed in peach fruit (cv. June Gold), harvested in 16 orchards located in low (71.5 m mean), or high (495 m mean) altitutes sites. Data indicated that soluble solids concentration and fruit firmness at commercial harvest stage were unaffected by alitute. Peach grown at high-altitude environment displayed higher levels of pigmentation and specific antioxidant-related activity in their skin at the commercial harvest stage. Skin extracts from distinct developmental stages and growing altitudes exhibited different antioxidant ability against DNA strand-scission. The effects of altitude on skin tissue were further studied using a proteomic approach. Protein expression analysis of the mature fruits depicted altered expression of 42 proteins that are mainly involved in the metabolic pathways of defense, primary metabolism, destination/storage and energy. The majority of these proteins were up-regulated at the low-altitude region. High-altitude environment increased the accumulation of several proteins, including chaperone ClpC, chaperone ClpB, pyruvate dehydrogenase E1, TCP domain class transcription factor, and lipoxygenase. We also discuss the altitude-affected protein variations, taking into account their potential role in peach ripening process. This study provides the first characterization of the peach skin proteome and helps to improve our understanding of peach's response to altitude. PMID:27891143
Damon, Marie; Denieul, Katy; Vincent, Annie; Bonhomme, Nathalie; Wyszynska-Koko, Joanna; Lebret, Bénédicte
Meat quality (MQ) results from complex phenomenon and despite improved knowledge on MQ development, its variability remains high. The identification of biomarkers and the further development of rapid tests would thus be helpful to evaluate MQ in pork industries. Using transcriptomics, the present study aimed at identifying biomarkers of eight pork quality traits: ultimate pH, drip loss, lightness, redness, hue angle, intramuscular fat, shear force and tenderness, based on an experimental design inducing a high variability in MQ. Associations between microarray gene expression and pork traits (n=50 pigs) highlighted numerous potential biomarkers of MQ. Using quantitative RT-PCR, 113 transcript-trait correlations including 40 of these genes were confirmed (P<0.05, |r|≤0.73), out of which 60 were validated (P<0.05, |r|≤0.68) on complementary experimental data (n=50). Multiple regression models including 3 to 5 genes explained up to 59% of MQ trait variability. Moreover, functional analysis of correlated-trait genes provided information on the biological phenomena underlying MQ.
Paux, Etienne; Carocha, Víctor; Marques, Cristina; Mendes de Sousa, António; Borralho, Nuno; Sivadon, Pierre; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline
Tension wood formed in response to gravitational force is a striking example of the plasticity of angiosperm wood. In this study our goal was to characterize the early changes in gene expression during tension wood formation in Eucalyptus. Using cDNA array technology, transcript profiling of 231 genes preferentially expressed in differentiating Eucalyptus xylem was followed from 6 h to 1 wk of a tension time course of artificially bent Eucalyptus trees. 196 genes were differentially regulated between control and bent trees, some exhibiting distinctive expression patterns related to changes in secondary cell wall structure and composition. For instance, expression of a cellulose synthase gene was well correlated with the appearance of the G-layers. Cluster correlation analysis revealed differential regulation of lignin biosynthetic genes and may also be used to help infer the function of unknown gene products. Eucalyptus wood transcriptome analysis during tension wood formation not only provided new clues into the transcriptional regulatory network of genes preferentially expressed in xylem, but also highlighted candidate genes responsible for the genetic and environmentally induced variation of wood quality traits.
Paes, Geísa Pinheiro; Viana, José Marcelo Soriano; Silva, Fabyano Fonseca e; Mundim, Gabriel Borges
Abstract The objectives of this study were to assess linkage disequilibrium (LD) and selection-induced changes in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequency, and to perform association mapping in popcorn chromosome regions containing quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for quality traits. Seven tropical and two temperate popcorn populations were genotyped for 96 SNPs chosen in chromosome regions containing QTLs for quality traits. The populations were phenotyped for expansion volume, 100-kernel weight, kernel sphericity, and kernel density. The LD statistics were the difference between the observed and expected haplotype frequencies (D), the proportion of D relative to the expected maximum value in the population, and the square of the correlation between the values of alleles at two loci. Association mapping was based on least squares and Bayesian approaches. In the tropical populations, D-values greater than 0.10 were observed for SNPs separated by 100-150 Mb, while most of the D-values in the temperate populations were less than 0.05. Selection for expansion volume indirectly led to increase in LD values, population differentiation, and significant changes in SNP frequency. Some associations were observed for expansion volume and the other quality traits. The candidate genes are involved with starch, storage protein, lipid, and cell wall polysaccharides synthesis. PMID:27007903
Paes, Geísa Pinheiro; Viana, José Marcelo Soriano; Silva, Fabyano Fonseca E; Mundim, Gabriel Borges
The objectives of this study were to assess linkage disequilibrium (LD) and selection-induced changes in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequency, and to perform association mapping in popcorn chromosome regions containing quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for quality traits. Seven tropical and two temperate popcorn populations were genotyped for 96 SNPs chosen in chromosome regions containing QTLs for quality traits. The populations were phenotyped for expansion volume, 100-kernel weight, kernel sphericity, and kernel density. The LD statistics were the difference between the observed and expected haplotype frequencies (D), the proportion of D relative to the expected maximum value in the population, and the square of the correlation between the values of alleles at two loci. Association mapping was based on least squares and Bayesian approaches. In the tropical populations, D-values greater than 0.10 were observed for SNPs separated by 100-150 Mb, while most of the D-values in the temperate populations were less than 0.05. Selection for expansion volume indirectly led to increase in LD values, population differentiation, and significant changes in SNP frequency. Some associations were observed for expansion volume and the other quality traits. The candidate genes are involved with starch, storage protein, lipid, and cell wall polysaccharides synthesis.
George, Jan-Peter; Schueler, Silvio; Karanitsch-Ackerl, Sandra; Mayer, Konrad; Klumpp, Raphael T.; Grabner, Michael
Understanding drought sensitivity of tree species and its intra-specific variation is required to estimate the effects of climate change on forest productivity, carbon sequestration and tree mortality as well as to develop adaptive forest management measures. Here, we studied the variation of drought reaction of six European Abies species and ten provenances of Abies alba planted in the drought prone eastern Austria. Tree-ring and X-ray densitometry data were used to generate early- and latewood measures for ring width and wood density. Moreover, the drought reaction of species and provenances within six distinct drought events between 1970 and 2011, as identified by the standardized precipitation index, was determined by four drought response measures. The mean reaction of species and provenances to drought events was strongly affected by the seasonal occurrence of the drought: a short, strong drought at the beginning of the growing season resulted in growth reductions up to 50%, while droughts at the end of the growing season did not affect annual increment. Wood properties and drought response measures showed significant variation among Abies species as well as among A. alba provenances. Whereas A. alba provenances explained significant parts in the variation of ring width measures, the Abies species explained significant parts in the variation of wood density parameters. A consistent pattern in drought response across the six drought events was observed only at the inter-specific level, where A. nordmanniana showed the highest resistance and A. cephalonica showed the best recovery after drought. In contrast, differences in drought reaction among provenances were only found for the milder drought events in 1986, 1990, 1993 and 2000 and the ranking of provenances varied at each drought event. This indicates that genetic variation in drought response within A. alba is more limited than among Abies species. Low correlations between wood density parameters and
Malting barley is of high economic and scientific importance. Determining barley grains that are suitable for malting involves measuring malting quality, which is an expensive and complex process. In order to decrease the cost of phenotyping and accelerate the process of developing superior malting ...
Albert, Elise; Segura, Vincent; Gricourt, Justine; Bonnefoi, Julien; Derivot, Laurent; Causse, Mathilde
Water scarcity constitutes a crucial constraint for agriculture productivity. High-throughput approaches in model plant species identified hundreds of genes potentially involved in survival under drought, but few having beneficial effects on quality and yield. Nonetheless, controlled water deficit may improve fruit quality through higher concentration of flavor compounds. The underlying genetic determinants are still poorly known. In this study, we phenotyped 141 highly diverse small fruit tomato accessions for 27 traits under two contrasting watering conditions. A subset of 55 accessions exhibited increased metabolite contents and maintained yield under water deficit. Using 6100 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), association mapping revealed 31, 41, and 44 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) under drought, control, and both conditions, respectively. Twenty-five additional QTLs were interactive between conditions, emphasizing the interest in accounting for QTLs by watering regime interactions in fruit quality improvement. Combining our results with the loci previously identified in a biparental progeny resulted in 11 common QTLs and contributed to a first detailed characterization of the genetic determinants of response to water deficit in tomato. Major QTLs for fruit quality traits were dissected and candidate genes were proposed using expression and polymorphism data. The outcomes provide a basis for fruit quality improvement under deficit irrigation while limiting yield losses.
Albert, Elise; Segura, Vincent; Gricourt, Justine; Bonnefoi, Julien; Derivot, Laurent; Causse, Mathilde
Water scarcity constitutes a crucial constraint for agriculture productivity. High-throughput approaches in model plant species identified hundreds of genes potentially involved in survival under drought, but few having beneficial effects on quality and yield. Nonetheless, controlled water deficit may improve fruit quality through higher concentration of flavor compounds. The underlying genetic determinants are still poorly known. In this study, we phenotyped 141 highly diverse small fruit tomato accessions for 27 traits under two contrasting watering conditions. A subset of 55 accessions exhibited increased metabolite contents and maintained yield under water deficit. Using 6100 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), association mapping revealed 31, 41, and 44 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) under drought, control, and both conditions, respectively. Twenty-five additional QTLs were interactive between conditions, emphasizing the interest in accounting for QTLs by watering regime interactions in fruit quality improvement. Combining our results with the loci previously identified in a biparental progeny resulted in 11 common QTLs and contributed to a first detailed characterization of the genetic determinants of response to water deficit in tomato. Major QTLs for fruit quality traits were dissected and candidate genes were proposed using expression and polymorphism data. The outcomes provide a basis for fruit quality improvement under deficit irrigation while limiting yield losses. PMID:27856709
Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).
Fugitive dust from eroding land poses both environmental quality and human health problems in the western United States. Since the advent of the Clean Air Act in 1990, regulations have been imposed on particulate matter in the atmosphere. Agricultural straw has been widely used for erosion control...
Plowman, Jeffrey E; Deb-Choudhury, Santanu; Clerens, Stefan; Thomas, Ancy; Cornellison, Charisa D; Dyer, Jolon M
With ongoing efforts to make wool more competitive alongside other fibres, notably synthetics, there is a need to obtain a better understanding of the relationship between protein composition and characteristic wool properties to assist sheep breeding programmes. Before this can be achieved, the wool proteome needs to be mapped, by gel and non-gel techniques, and methods developed to reliably quantitate protein expression. Nevertheless, in setting out to achieve this, there are numerous challenges to be faced in the application of proteomics to wool, including the relative lack of wool protein sequence information in the publically accessible databases, the wide variety of proteins in the wool fibre, the high homology within the Type I and Type II keratins, the high degree of homology and polymorphism within individual keratin associated protein families, the dominance of the keratin proteins over others in wool and the peculiar chemistries found in keratins and their associated proteins. This review will discuss the various strategies that have been developed to both identify these proteins in the wool protein map and quantify them with the view to their application to the identification of markers for wool quality traits.
Nielsen, Nanna Hellum; Jahoor, Ahmed; Jensen, Jens Due; Orabi, Jihad; Cericola, Fabio; Edriss, Vahid; Jensen, Just
Genomic selection was recently introduced in plant breeding. The objective of this study was to develop genomic prediction for important seed quality parameters in spring barley. The aim was to predict breeding values without expensive phenotyping of large sets of lines. A total number of 309 advanced spring barley lines tested at two locations each with three replicates were phenotyped and each line was genotyped by Illumina iSelect 9Kbarley chip. The population originated from two different breeding sets, which were phenotyped in two different years. Phenotypic measurements considered were: seed size, protein content, protein yield, test weight and ergosterol content. A leave-one-out cross-validation strategy revealed high prediction accuracies ranging between 0.40 and 0.83. Prediction across breeding sets resulted in reduced accuracies compared to the leave-one-out strategy. Furthermore, predicting across full and half-sib-families resulted in reduced prediction accuracies. Additionally, predictions were performed using reduced marker sets and reduced training population sets. In conclusion, using less than 200 lines in the training set can result in low prediction accuracy, and the accuracy will then be highly dependent on the family structure of the selected training set. However, the results also indicate that relatively small training sets (200 lines) are sufficient for genomic prediction in commercial barley breeding. In addition, our results indicate a minimum marker set of 1,000 to decrease the risk of low prediction accuracy for some traits or some families. PMID:27783639
Farzinpour, Amjad; Karashi, Naser
Silver nanoparticles could prove to be a valuable alternative raw material for antibiotics and disinfectants as it is relatively free of adverse effects. Nanosilver is now been put to practical use in commonly used items, such as, clothes, electric home appliances, and electronic industry, but has not been widely applied in the medical or pharmacological fields. This study was designed to investigate the effects of nanosilver on egg quality traits in laying Japanese quail in completely randomized design with four treatments and six repetitions at 0, 4, 8 and 12 ppm of silver nanoparticle levels. Eggs collected daily and egg parameters, including egg weight, length, width; yolk weight and eggshell thickness were examined. The effect of the different silver nanoparticle levels was determined using the General Linear Model of SAS procedure, whilst differences between the groups were determined using least significant difference test. Results indicated that silver nanoparticles at all levels caused significantly reduce of yolk weight and hen-day egg production for each week than the control treatment ( P < 0.05), whilst silver nanoparticle had no significant effect on egg weight, egg length and width and eggshell thickness.
Yoshikawa, Yoko; Chen, Pengyin; Zhang, Bo; Scaboo, Andrew; Orazaly, Moldir
Natto is a popular soyfood in Japan, and the U.S. is the largest supplier of natto soybeans. However, information on natto seed chemical and sensory properties is very limited. The objectives of this study were to evaluate differences of seed chemical and sensory properties among natto types and determine heritability and correlation. A total of 15 small-seeded natto genotypes (three superior, nine moderate and three inferior) were evaluated for protein, oil, calcium, manganese, boron and sugar content and processed into a natto product to evaluate appearance, stickiness, flavor, texture and shelf-life. The superior natto group had a higher sugar content but lower protein plus oil, calcium, manganese and boron content than other two groups. Most seed quality traits exhibited high heritability. The natto sensory preference was positively correlated with sucrose and oil content, but negatively correlated with seed hardness, protein, protein plus oil, calcium, manganese, and boron contents. Selecting soybean lines with low protein, protein plus oil, calcium, manganese, and boron content while with high sucrose will be an effective approach for soybean breeding for natto production.
Matics, Zs; Szendrő, Zs; Odermatt, M; Gerencsér, Zs; Nagy, I; Radnai, I; Dalle Zotte, A
Production, carcass traits and meat quality of rabbits housed in cages or in different pens were compared. Rabbits (n=579) were sorted into 5 groups: C=cage (2 rabbits/cage); pen without platform: P11=9 rabbits/pen; P16=14 rabbits/pen; pen with platform: PW=wire net platform, 14 rabbits/pen; PD=platform with straw-litter, 14 rabbits/pen. Feed intake and average daily gain between 5 and 11 weeks, and body weight at 11 weeks were significantly higher in C rabbits than that of the mean of pen-housed groups, while the PD group had the lowest growth performance. C rabbits had the smallest hind part to reference carcass (P<0.001) and the largest percentage of perirenal and scapular fat (P<0.001). The meat/bone ratio was the largest in group C (P<0.05). Differences were recorded in a* value and lipid content of m. Longissimus dorsi. Rabbits housed in cages generally had the best performance whereas those housed in pens with platform exhibited the worst.
Reyer, Henry; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus; Murani, Eduard
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a ubiquitously acting transcription factor that is responsible for mediating the physiological response to stress and adaptation to environmental conditions. Genetic variation of a GR gene (NR3C1) may therefore contribute to multiple phenotypic alterations and influence relevant traits of animal production. Here, we examined effects of two non-synonymous mutations of the porcine NR3C1, leading to amino acid exchanges p.Glu13Asp (c.39A>C) and p.Val19Leu (c.55G>C) in the N-terminal domain of the GR, on meat quality and carcass composition. In addition, we explored their influence on transcriptional activity of GR in vitro. A commercial crossbreed Pietrain × (German Large White × German Landrace) herd (n = 545) in which genotypes and relevant traits had been collected was used to perform the association analysis. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) c.55G>C was significantly associated with conductivity and meat color scores. These effects were highly consistent considering the physiological relationship between these traits. Association analysis of SNP c.39A>C also revealed significant effects on closely connected meat quality traits. In addition, SNP c.55G>C showed association with carcass traits, mainly those related to muscle deposition. The molecular mechanism of action of both amino acid substitutions remains obscure because neither showed significant influence on transcriptional activity of GR. Our study emphasizes NR3C1 as an important candidate gene for muscle-related traits in pigs, but further work is necessary to clarify the molecular background of the identified associations.
Janss, LLG.; Van-Arendonk, JAM.; Brascamp, E. W.
Presence of single genes affecting meat quality traits was investigated in F(2) individuals of a cross between Chinese Meishan and Western pig lines using phenotypic measurements on 11 traits. A Bayesian approach was used for inference about a mixed model of inheritance, postulating effects of polygenic background genes, action of a biallelic autosomal single gene and various nongenetic effects. Cooking loss, drip loss, two pH measurements, intramuscular fat, shearforce and back-fat thickness were traits found to be likely influenced by a single gene. In all cases, a recessive allele was found, which likely originates from the Meishan breed and is absent in the Western founder lines. By studying associations between genotypes assigned to individuals based on phenotypic measurements for various traits, it was concluded that cooking loss, two pH measurements and possibly backfat thickness are influenced by one gene, and that a second gene influences intramuscular fat and possibly shearforce and drip loss. Statistical findings were supported by demonstrating marked differences in variances of families of fathers inferred as carriers and those inferred as noncarriers. It is concluded that further molecular genetic research effort to map single genes affecting these traits based on the same experimental data has a high probability of success. PMID:9071593
Isler, B J; Freking, B A; Thallman, R M; Heaton, M P; Leymaster, K A
There is concern about potential antagonistic correlated responses due to intensive selection for scrapie-resistant haplotypes of the prion (PRNP) gene in sheep. The objective of the present research was to test for associations of PRNP haplotypes for codons 136, 154, and 171 with growth, carcass, and meat quality traits in an F2 Dorset x Romanov population (n = 415) segregating the 2 callipyge alleles. Haplotypes of the 3 PRNP codons were determined for each sheep, and breed of origin of each gamete was predicted by genotyping 6 microsatellite markers flanking the PRNP locus. Twenty-five growth, carcass, and meat quality traits were evaluated. Data were analyzed using a basic model consisting of fixed effects of year, sex, and callipyge genotype, the random effect of sire, and 7 covariates corresponding to the probability that a lamb inherited a specific PRNP haplotype of either Dorset or Romanov origin. A fixed effect of litter size was added to the model for growth traits. The model for carcass traits contained the linear and quadratic effects of chilled carcass weight and the interactions among callipyge genotype and linear and quadratic terms. For meat quality traits, the model contained chilled carcass weight as a covariate and the interaction between callipyge genotype and chilled carcass weight. A contrast between the resistant ARR haplotype and the average effect of other PRNP haplotypes was tested to investigate the effects of potential selection for ARR within each breed of origin (Dorset, ARR vs. ARQ, VRQ, and AHQ; Romanov, ARR vs. ARQ and VRQ). There was limited evidence that selecting for scrapie resistance would cause correlated responses due to linkage disequilibrium. Associations of only 3 traits with PRNP haplotypes were detected in either breed of origin. In Romanov, the ARR haplotype was associated with longer carcasses (P < 0.013), narrower rumps (P = 0.038), and less marbling (P = 0.022) than the average of ARQ and VRQ haplotypes. No
Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z A
This study focused on improving the producer gas quality using radio frequency (RF) tar thermocatalytic treatment reactor. The producer gas containing tar, particles and water was directly passed at a particular flow rate into the RF reactor at various temperatures for catalytic and thermal treatments. Thermal treatment generates higher heating value of 5.76 MJ Nm(-3) at 1200°C. Catalytic treatments using both dolomite and Y-zeolite provide high tar and particles conversion efficiencies of about 97% on average. The result also showed that light poly-aromatic hydrocarbons especially naphthalene and aromatic compounds particularly benzene and toluene were still found even at higher reaction temperatures. Low energy intensive RF tar thermocatalytic treatment was found to be effective for upgrading the producer gas quality to meet the end user requirements and increasing its energy content.
Aazami, Jaber; Esmaili Sari, Abbas; Abdoli, Asghar; Sohrabi, Hormoz; Van den Brink, Paul J.
The objectives of this study were to assess the biological water of the Iranian Tajan River using different metrics, i.e., a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index (MMI) and a traits-based method. Twenty-eight physico-chemical parameters, 10 habitat factors, and abundance of macroinvertebrates were obtained for 17 sites. The Shahid-Rajaie dam divides the Tajan River into an up- and downstream part, with different land uses. Eighteen metrics were used to represent four components of ecosystem quality, including tolerance (Hilsenhoff, SIGNAL), diversity (Margalef, Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, and Evenness), abundance (total number of taxa, individuals, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, EPT, and Insects), and composition of assemblages (% Ephemeroptera, % Plecoptera, % Trichoptera, and % EPT Taxa). The integrated MMI was calculated by averaging the obtained scores of all indices. In the next step, we gathered information on 22 biological traits of macroinvertebrates to evaluate whether (group of) traits could be identified that are indicative for specific or general stress. Result showed a decrease in MMI from upstream (very good water quality) to downstream (bad) due to human activities. Industrial activities like pulping and papermaking operations or sand mining in the downstream part had more effects than agriculture and fish ponds in the upstream part. A redundancy analysis biplot showed the variation between the modalities of trait of macroinvertebrates and their correlation with physico-chemical parameters in Tajan River. The findings show that traits can be indicative for different kind of stress but that more effort has to be put in gathering data sets to disentangle the effect of habitat quality, pollution, and the physico-chemical properties of high- versus lowland rivers.
Aazami, Jaber; Esmaili Sari, Abbas; Abdoli, Asghar; Sohrabi, Hormoz; Van den Brink, Paul J
The objectives of this study were to assess the biological water of the Iranian Tajan River using different metrics, i.e., a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index (MMI) and a traits-based method. Twenty-eight physico-chemical parameters, 10 habitat factors, and abundance of macroinvertebrates were obtained for 17 sites. The Shahid-Rajaie dam divides the Tajan River into an up- and downstream part, with different land uses. Eighteen metrics were used to represent four components of ecosystem quality, including tolerance (Hilsenhoff, SIGNAL), diversity (Margalef, Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, and Evenness), abundance (total number of taxa, individuals, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, EPT, and Insects), and composition of assemblages (% Ephemeroptera, % Plecoptera, % Trichoptera, and % EPT Taxa). The integrated MMI was calculated by averaging the obtained scores of all indices. In the next step, we gathered information on 22 biological traits of macroinvertebrates to evaluate whether (group of) traits could be identified that are indicative for specific or general stress. Result showed a decrease in MMI from upstream (very good water quality) to downstream (bad) due to human activities. Industrial activities like pulping and papermaking operations or sand mining in the downstream part had more effects than agriculture and fish ponds in the upstream part. A redundancy analysis biplot showed the variation between the modalities of trait of macroinvertebrates and their correlation with physico-chemical parameters in Tajan River. The findings show that traits can be indicative for different kind of stress but that more effort has to be put in gathering data sets to disentangle the effect of habitat quality, pollution, and the physico-chemical properties of high- versus lowland rivers.
Bai, Zhi-Yi; Han, Xue-Kai; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Li, Qing-Qing; Li, Jia-Le
A high-density genetic map is essential for quantitative trait locus (QTL) fine mapping. In this study, 4,508 effective single nucleotide polymorphism markers (detected using specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing) and 475 microsatellites were mapped to 19 linkage groups (LGs) using a family with 157 individuals. The map spanned 2,713 cM, with an average of 259 markers and 79 loci per LG and an average inter-marker distance of 1.81 cM. To identify QTLs for pearl quality traits, 26 putatively significant QTLs were detected for 10 traits, including, three for shell width, seven for body weight, two for shell weight, two for margin mantle weight, five for inner mantle weight, and seven for shell nacre colour. Among them, five QTLs associated with shell nacre colour were mapped to LG17 and explained 19.7% to 22.8% of the trait variation; this suggests that some important genes or loci determine shell nacre colour in LG17. The linkage map and mapped QTLs for shell nacre colour would be useful for improving the quality of Hyriopsis cumingii via marker-assisted selection. PMID:27587236
Zhang, Lupei; Ren, Hongyan; Yang, Jiuguang; Gan, Qianfu; Zhao, Fuping; Gao, Huijiang; Li, Junya
The thyroglobulin (TG) gene has been studied as an important gene related to fat deposition, since not only does TG gene locate in a quantitative trait locus with an effect on fat deposition, but also it encodes the precursor of thyroid hormones which have crucial biological functions in energy metabolism. In the present study, we identified four novel SNPs at the 5' flanking region of the bovine TG gene. Association analysis indicated that the G275A, G277C, G280A and C281G SNPs were significantly associated with average daily gain (ADG, P < 0.01 for G275A and G277C, P < 0.05 for G280A and C281G). Five haplotypes for the 4 SNPs were constructed and their effects on growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits were evaluated. The results showed no significant effect of haplotype on ADG. Meanwhile, no significant association was found between 4 SNPs and other growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits including intramuscular fat. Bioinformatics analysis showed that 4 SNPs may results in potential transcription factor binding site changes. Results of this study suggest that TG gene-specific SNPs may be a useful marker for growth traits in marker assisted selection programs in beef cattle.
Domínguez, R; Crecente, S; Borrajo, P; Agregán, R; Lorenzo, J M
Meat has played a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well-balanced diet due to its nutritional richness. Recent studies have shown that horsemeat may be considered as an alternative to other meat (such as beef or pork), and it may have a positive effect on human health from a nutritional point of view. This research was conducted to characterize the carcass measurement, meat quality (chemical composition, colour characteristics and textural traits) and nutritional value (fatty acid and amino acid composition) of foals slaughtered at 8 and 11 months of age (8 and 11 m groups). For this study, a total of 21 foals (10 and 11 animals from the 8 and 11-m groups, respectively) were used. The results obtained showed a positive influence on carcass characteristics with an increase in slaughter age, because 11 m animals had slightly higher values of live (275 v. 247 kg) and carcass weights (148 v. 133 kg), length of leg (72.86 v. 69.85 cm) and carcass (100.41 v. 96.30 cm) and perimeter of leg (97.68 v. 89.22 cm) compared with animals from the 8-m group. Regarding meat quality, only Fe-haeme and cholesterol content in chemical composition and luminosity (L*) in colour parameters showed significant differences. Foals from the 8-m group had the highest content of cholesterol (0.47 v. 0.28 mg/100 g of meat) and luminosity values (39.66 v. 37.88) and the lowest content of ash (1.20% v. 1.40%). In fatty acids content, only five out of 23 fatty acids showed differences between the two groups. However, an interesting change in the fatty acid profile occurred with an increase in the slaughter age. Foals from the 8-m group had the highest values of α-linolenic acid and n-3 fatty acids and the lowest values of linoleic and n-6 fatty acids, which is an interesting fact from a health point of view. Finally, slaughter age had no statistical influence on textural properties or amino acid content. As a main conclusion, animals slaughtered at 8
Molnár, A; Maertens, L; Ampe, B; Buyse, J; Kempen, I; Zoons, J; Delezie, E
1. A field study was conducted to investigate the deterioration of eggshell quality at the end of lay and examine the potential to extend the production cycle. A total of 1200 eggs were assessed originating from commercial farms in Belgium: eggs were random sampled at the collection belt at 57-65 weeks of age and at the end of the production cycle (74-92 weeks). 2. Based on a linear mixed model, egg quality was estimated for an average flock at 60 weeks of age and changes in quality traits were predicted until the end of the laying cycle. 3. Egg weight increased by 0.07 g every week from 60 weeks of age onwards and shape index decreased by 0.04 unit weekly (P < 0.001). Haugh unit values decreased weekly by 0.38 units whereas relative yolk weight was unaffected after 60 weeks of age. Relative albumen weight showed a weekly increase of 0.02% and relative shell decreased by 0.02% weekly until the end of lay. 4. Shell quality traits were also influenced by age: shell index decreased by 0.013 g weekly, shell thickness was calculated to be 0.23 µm thinner every week, deformation increased by 0.06 µm weekly from 60 weeks to the end of the laying cycle. Variability of the deformation of eggs indicated more heterogeneous shell quality at the end of the production cycle. Dynamic stiffness increased from 60 weeks of age on. 5. Laying hens were depopulated on average at 80 weeks of age (varying from 74-92 weeks). Although ageing had a significant effect on most of the egg quality traits, egg quality was still acceptable at the end of lay, indicating the potential to extend the laying cycle.
Bradfield, A.D.; Flexner, N.M.; Webster, D.A.
An investigation of the water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey during December 1990. The objectives of the study were to assess the extent of possible contamination of water and adverse affects on biota in the streams resulting from creosote-related discharge originating of this Superfund site.
de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Dambruoso, Paolo Rosario; Di Gilio, Alessia; Di Palma, Valerio; Marzocca, Annalisa; Tutino, Maria
Around 50% of the world’s population, particularly in developing countries, uses biomass as one of the most common fuels. Biomass combustion releases a considerable amount of various incomplete combustion products, including particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The paper presents the results of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) measurements in six houses equipped with wood burning stoves or fireplaces as heating systems. The houses were monitored for 48-h periods in order to collect PM10 samples and measure PAH concentrations. The average, the maximum and the lowest values of the 12-h PM10 concentration were 68.6 μg/m3, 350.7 μg/m3 and 16.8 μg/m3 respectively. The average benzo[a]pyrene 12-h concentration was 9.4 ng/m3, while the maximum and the minimum values were 24.0 ng/m3 and 1.5 ng/m3, respectively. Continuous monitoring of PM10, PAHs, Ultra Fine Particle (UFP) and Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) was performed in order to study the progress of pollution phenomena due to biomass burning, their trends and contributions to IAQ. The results show a great heterogeneity of impacts on IAQ in terms of magnitude and behavior of the considered pollutants’ concentrations. This variability is determined by not only different combustion technologies or biomass quality, but overall by different ignition mode, feeding and flame management, which can also be different for the same house. Moreover, room dimensions and ventilation were significant factors for pollution dispersion. The increase of PM10, UFP and PAH concentrations, during lighting, was always detected and relevant. Continuous monitoring allowed singling out contributions of other domestic sources of considered pollutants such as cooking and cigarettes. Cooking contribution produced an impact on IAQ in same cases higher than that of the biomass heating system. PMID:26712773
de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Dambruoso, Paolo Rosario; Di Gilio, Alessia; Di Palma, Valerio; Marzocca, Annalisa; Tutino, Maria
Around 50% of the world's population, particularly in developing countries, uses biomass as one of the most common fuels. Biomass combustion releases a considerable amount of various incomplete combustion products, including particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The paper presents the results of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) measurements in six houses equipped with wood burning stoves or fireplaces as heating systems. The houses were monitored for 48-h periods in order to collect PM10 samples and measure PAH concentrations. The average, the maximum and the lowest values of the 12-h PM10 concentration were 68.6 μg/m³, 350.7 μg/m³ and 16.8 μg/m³ respectively. The average benzo[a]pyrene 12-h concentration was 9.4 ng/m³, while the maximum and the minimum values were 24.0 ng/m³ and 1.5 ng/m³, respectively. Continuous monitoring of PM10, PAHs, Ultra Fine Particle (UFP) and Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) was performed in order to study the progress of pollution phenomena due to biomass burning, their trends and contributions to IAQ. The results show a great heterogeneity of impacts on IAQ in terms of magnitude and behavior of the considered pollutants' concentrations. This variability is determined by not only different combustion technologies or biomass quality, but overall by different ignition mode, feeding and flame management, which can also be different for the same house. Moreover, room dimensions and ventilation were significant factors for pollution dispersion. The increase of PM10, UFP and PAH concentrations, during lighting, was always detected and relevant. Continuous monitoring allowed singling out contributions of other domestic sources of considered pollutants such as cooking and cigarettes. Cooking contribution produced an impact on IAQ in same cases higher than that of the biomass heating system.
Choe, J H; Kim, B C
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of blood glucose levels with blood lactate, serum cortisol levels, postmortem muscle glycogen and lactate content, muscle fiber type composition, and pork quality traits. Compared to pigs with lower blood glucose levels, pigs with higher blood glucose levels showed higher blood lactate and serum cortisol levels at exsanguination, and they had lower residual glycogen and higher lactate content in the muscle at 45min postmortem. In addition, pigs with higher blood glucose levels had higher type IIB and lower type I area composition and finally exhibited lower muscle pH, paler color, and excessive loss of fluid on surface. These results imply that measuring blood glucose levels at exsanguination can be useful to indicate early glycolytic rates during postmortem and thus may be of value in the identification of pork with undesirable quality traits.
Hu, Zhi-Liang; Ramos, Antonio M.; Humphray, Sean J.; Rogers, Jane; Reecy, James M.; Rothschild, Max F.
The newly available pig genome sequence has provided new information to fine map quantitative trait loci (QTL) in order to eventually identify causal variants. With targeted genomic sequencing efforts, we were able to obtain high quality BAC sequences that cover a region on pig chromosome 17 where a number of meat quality QTL have been previously discovered. Sequences from 70 BAC clones were assembled to form an 8-Mbp contig. Subsequently, we successfully mapped five previously identified QTL, three for meat color and two for lactate related traits, to the contig. With an additional 25 genetic markers that were identified by sequence comparison, we were able to carry out further linkage disequilibrium analysis to narrow down the genomic locations of these QTL, which allowed identification of the chromosomal regions that likely contain the causative variants. This research has provided one practical approach to combine genetic and molecular information for QTL mining. PMID:22303339
Cuthbertson, Daniel; Andrews, Preston K.; Reganold, John P.; Davies, Neal M.; Lange, B. Markus
A gas chromatography–mass spectrometry approach was employed to evaluate the use of metabolite patterns to differentiate fruit from six commercially grown apple cultivars harvested in 2008. Principal component analysis (PCA) of apple fruit peel and flesh data indicated that individual cultivar replicates clustered together and were separated from all other cultivar samples. An independent metabolomics investigation with fruit harvested in 2003 confirmed the separate clustering of fruit from different cultivars. Further evidence for cultivar separation was obtained using a hierarchical clustering analysis. An evaluation of PCA component loadings revealed specific metabolite classes that contributed the most to each principal component, whereas a correlation analysis demonstrated that specific metabolites correlate directly with quality traits such as antioxidant activity, total phenolics, and total anthocyanins, which are important parameters in the selection of breeding germplasm. These data sets lay the foundation for elucidating the metabolic basis of commercially important fruit quality traits. PMID:22881116
de Vries, Marieke; Geurts, Hilde
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) often experience a low Quality of Life (QoL). We studied if IQ, early language development, current autism traits, and daily Executive Functions (EFs) are related to QoL in children (aged 8-12 years) with ASD (N = 120) and typically developing (TD) children (N = 76). Children with ASD showed a lower…
Ubayasena, Lasantha; Bett, Kirstin; Tar'an, Bunyamin; Warkentin, Thomas
Visual quality of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is one of the most important determinants of the market value of the harvested crop. Seed coat color, seed shape, and seed dimpling are the major components of visual seed quality of field pea and are considered as important breeding objectives. The objectives of this research were to study the genetics and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed coat color, seed shape, and seed dimpling of green and yellow field peas. Two recombinant inbred line populations (RILs) consisting of 120 and 90 lines of F(5)-derived F(7) (F(5:7)) yellow pea (P. sativum 'Alfetta' × P. sativum 'CDC Bronco') and green pea (P. sativum 'Orb' × P. sativum 'CDC Striker'), respectively, were evaluated over two years at two locations in Saskatchewan, Canada. Quantitative inheritance with polygenic control and transgressive segregation were observed for all visual quality traits studied. All 90 RILs of the green pea population and 92 selected RILs from the yellow pea population were screened using AFLP and SSR markers and two linkage maps were developed. Nine QTLs controlling yellow seed lightness, 3 for yellow seed greenness, 15 for seed shape, and 9 for seed dimpling were detected. Among them, five QTLs located on LG II, LG IV, and LG VII were consistent in at least two environments. The QTLs and their associated markers will be useful tools to assist pea breeding programs attempting to pyramid positive alleles for the traits.
Yuan, Feng-Jie; Zhu, Dan-Hua; Deng, Bo; Fu, Xu-Jun; Dong, De-Kun; Zhu, Shen-Long; Li, Bai-Quan; Shu, Qing-Yao
Reduction of phytic acid in soybean seeds has the potential to improve the nutritional value of soybean meal and lessen phosphorus pollution in large scale animal farming. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of two new low phytic acid (LPA) mutations on seed quality and nutritional traits. Multilocation/season comparative analyses showed that the two mutations did not affect the concentration of crude protein, any of the individual amino acids, crude oil, and individual saturated fatty acids. Among other traits, Gm-lpa-TW75-1 had consistently higher sucrose contents (+47.4-86.1%) and lower raffinose contents (-74.2 to -84.3%) than those of wild type (WT) parent Taiwan 75; Gm-lpa-ZC-2 had higher total isoflavone contents (3038.8-4305.4 microg/g) than its parent Zhechun # 3 (1583.6-2644.9 microg/g) in all environments. Further tests of homozygous F(3) progenies of the cross Gm-lpa-ZC-2 x Wuxing # 4 (WT variety) showed that LPA lines had a mean content of total isoflavone significantly higher than WT lines. This study demonstrated that two LPA mutant genes have no negative effects on seed quality and nutritional traits; they instead have the potential to improve a few other properties. Therefore, these two mutant genes are valuable genetic resources for breeding high quality soybean varieties.
Rajkumar, U; Muthukumar, M; Haunshi, S; Niranjan, M; Raju, M V L N; Rama Rao, S V; Chatterjee, R N
A comprehensive study was conducted to analyse the meat quality attributes, composition and carcass traits in Aseel chickens and commercial broilers at market age on the basis of physiological age. A total of 20 Aseel (26 and 56 weeks) and 20 broiler (6 weeks) chickens were divided into two groups on a live weight basis, i.e. large (≥2.5 kg) and small (<2.5 kg) with 10 birds in each subgroup. The pH of meat did not show any significant variation between Aseel and broiler chickens. The meat from heavier birds had significantly higher pH. Shear force value and hydroxyproline contents were significantly higher in Aseel chickens. Aseel birds had significantly higher red (a*) colouration and lower lightness (L*) than broiler chickens. The texture and acceptability of Aseel meat were significantly higher. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that muscle fibres in Aseels were arranged in a more coiled pattern making the muscle tough. A larger amount of connective tissue was also observed between the muscle fibres compared with the broiler chickens. The dressing percentage was significantly higher in larger chickens. Commercial broilers recorded significantly higher meat proportion and lower proportion of bone. The meat:bone ratio was 1.07:1.0 in Aseel and 1.31-1.0 in broiler chicken. Breast muscle content was significantly lower in smaller Aseel chickens. Aseel chicken had stronger and heavier backs and shanks. Abdominal fat percentage was significantly lower in Aseel (0.73-0.78%). The study concluded that the firm texture of Aseel meat was due to the high collagen content and interlocking connective tissue between the muscle fibres. The texture and acceptability of Aseel meat was higher. Aseel cocks had strong legs, lean meat and less abdominal fat, making them a high-value meat bird in addition to their aggressive fighting ability.
Mirzaei, H R; Verbyla, A P; Pitchford, W S
A joint growth-carcass model using random regression was used to estimate the (co)variance components of beef cattle body weights and carcass quality traits and correlations between them. During a four-year period (1994-1997) of the Australian "southern crossbreeding project", mature Hereford cows (N = 581) were mated to 97 sires of Jersey, Wagyu, Angus, Hereford, South Devon, Limousin, and Belgian Blue breeds, resulting in 1141 calves. Data included 13 (for steers) and 8 (for heifers) body weight measurements approximately every 50 days from birth until slaughter and four carcass quality traits: hot standard carcass weight, rump fat depth, rib eye muscle area, and intramuscular fat content. The mixed model included fixed effects of sex, sire breed, age (linear, quadratic and cubic), and their interactions between sex and sire breed with age. Random effects were sire, dam, management (birth location, year, post-weaning groups), and permanent environmental effects, and their interactions with linear, quadratic and cubic growth, when possible. Phenotypic, sire and dam correlations between body weights and hot standard carcass weight and rib eye muscle area were positive and moderate to high from birth to feedlot period. Management variation accounted for the largest proportion of total variation in both growth and carcass traits. Management correlations between carcass traits were high, except between rump fat depth and intramuscular fat (r = 0.26). Management correlations between body weight and carcass traits during the pre-weaning period were positive except for intramuscular fat. The correlations were low from birth to weaning, then increased dramatically and were high during the feedlot period.
Cassandro, M; Comin, A; Ojala, M; Dal Zotto, R; De Marchi, M; Gallo, L; Carnier, P; Bittante, G
Milk coagulation properties (MCP) are an important aspect in assessing cheese-making ability. Several studies showed that favorable conditions of milk reactivity with rennet, curd formation rate, and curd strength, as well as curd syneresis, have a positive effect on the entire cheese-making process and subsequently on the ripening of cheese. Moreover, MCP were found to be heritable, but little scientific literature is available about their genetic aspects. The aims of this study were to estimate heritability of MCP and genetic correlations among MCP and milk production and quality traits. A total of 1,071 Italian Holstein cows (progeny of 54 sires) reared in 34 herds in Northern Italy were sampled from January to July 2004. Individual milk samples were collected during the morning milking and analyzed for coagulation time (RCT), curd firmness (a30), pH, titratable acidity, fat, protein, and casein contents, and somatic cell count. About 10% of individual milk samples did not coagulate in 31 min, so they were removed from the analyses. Estimates of heritability for RCT and a30 were 0.25 +/- 0.04 and 0.15 +/- 0.03, respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations between MCP traits and milk production traits were negligible except for a30 with protein and casein contents (0.44 +/- 0.10 and 0.53 +/- 0.09, respectively). Estimates of genetic correlations between MCP traits and somatic cell score were strong and favorable, as well as those between MCP and pH and titratable acidity. Selecting for high casein content, milk acidity, and low somatic cell count might be an indirect way to improve MCP without reducing milk yield and quality traits.
Breen, K.J.; Dumouchelle, D.H.
The hydrology and quality of ground water were evaluated for the surficial sand and carbonate aquifers in northwestern Ohio. A locally important surficial sand aquifer in western Lucas County was evaluated on the basis of data from 10 wells completed in undeveloped and developed areas. The carbonate aquifer in Silurian and Devonian bedrock at its northernmost extent on the Ohio mainland was evaluated on the basis of data from previous studies and data from 466 wells and 11 springs. Most data are for the period 1985-88. The unconfined surficial sand aquifer is less than 50 ft. (feet) thick. Clay-rich drift, which restricts vertical movement of water, underlines the aquifer. Recharge is from precipitation, and discharge is by evapotranspiration and by flow to local streams and drainage ditches. Water levels are generally 2 to 8 ft. below land surface and fluctuate a total of about 3.5 ft. seasonally in a forested area. Concentrations of iron and manganese in ground water are excessive in some areas. Waters from shallow drive-point wells in residential areas contained larger concentrations of dissolved solids, hardness, sodium, and chloride than did waters from identical wells in undeveloped areas. The presence of nitrate nitrogen an other selected constituents in ground water in residential areas, and the absence of these constituents in ground water in undeveloped areas, indicate that the surficial sand aquifer has been affected by development. In carbonate aquifer, fractures, bedding-plane joints, and other secondary openings are the principal water-bearing zones. These zones can be areally and stratigraphically separated by low-permeability rock. Leaky artesian or semiconfined conditions predominate beneath most of the 1,400-mi? study area. The aquifer is confined by relatively impermeable underlying shale of Silurian age and overlying clay-rich drift of Quaternary age. Unproductive strata, including evaporites, within the sequence of carbonate rocks also confine
Identifying new quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and alleles in exotic germplasm is paramount for further improvement of quality traits in wheat. In the present study, a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed from a cross between an elite wheat line (WCB414) and an exotic genotype wi...
Gondret, F; Larzul, C; Combes, S; de Rochambeau, H
. Finally, Warner-Bratzler shear force and total energy needed to achieve rupture did not differ among groups in semitendinosus muscle (n = 21 per group), whereas they were the least (P < 0.001) in LM (n = 128) from HIGH rabbits. Results from this study indicate that improvement of growth rate by selection has little effect in rabbit carcass and meat quality traits.
Heineman, Katherine D; Turner, Benjamin L; Dalling, James W
Wood contains the majority of the nutrients in tropical trees, yet controls over wood nutrient concentrations and their function are poorly understood. We measured wood nutrient concentrations in 106 tree species in 10 forest plots spanning a regional fertility gradient in Panama. For a subset of species, we quantified foliar nutrients and wood density to test whether wood nutrients scale with foliar nutrients at the species level, or wood nutrient storage increases with wood density as predicted by the wood economics spectrum. Wood nutrient concentrations varied enormously among species from fourfold in nitrogen (N) to > 30-fold in calcium (Ca), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P). Community-weighted mean wood nutrient concentrations correlated positively with soil Ca, K, Mg and P concentrations. Wood nutrients scaled positively with leaf nutrients, supporting the hypothesis that nutrient allocation is conserved across plant organs. Wood P was most sensitive to variation in soil nutrient availability, and significant radial declines in wood P indicated that tropical trees retranslocate P as sapwood transitions to heartwood. Wood P decreased with increasing wood density, suggesting that low wood P and dense wood are traits associated with tree species persistence on low fertility soils. Substantial variation among species and communities in wood nutrient concentrations suggests that allocation of nutrients to wood, especially P, influences species distributions and nutrient dynamics in tropical forests.
Farrell, Ross R.; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N.; Nichols, David S.; Breadmore, Michael C.; Shellie, Robert A.; Yeretzian, Chahan
We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 oC. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles.
Farrell, Ross R.; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N.; Nichols, David S.; Breadmore, Michael C.; Shellie, Robert A.; Yeretzian, Chahan
We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 oC. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles. PMID:26610612
Farrell, Ross R; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N; Nichols, David S; Breadmore, Michael C; Shellie, Robert A; Yeretzian, Chahan
We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 (o)C. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles.
Kang, Eun-Ho; Kim, Borah; Choe, Ah Young; Lee, Jun-Yeob; Choi, Tai Kiu; Lee, Sang-Hyuk
Panic disorder (PD) is a very common anxiety disorder and is often a chronic disabling condition. However, little is known about the factors that predict health-related quality of life (HRQOL) other than sociodemographic factors and illness-related symptomatology that explain HRQOL in only small to modest degrees. This study explored whether anxiety-related individual traits including anxiety sensitivity and trait anxiety can predict independently HRQOL in panic patients. Patients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (N=230) who met the diagnostic criteria in the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV were recruited. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to determine the factors that predict HRQOL in panic disorder. HRQOL was assessed by the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Anxiety sensitivity was an independent predictor of bodily pain and social functioning whereas trait anxiety independently predicted all of the eight domains of the SF-36. Our data suggests that the assessment of symptomatology as well as individual anxiety-related trait should be included in the evaluation of HRQOL in panic patients.
Zhang, Gong-Wei; Gao, Lian; Chen, Shi-Yi; Zhao, Xiao-Bing; Tian, Yao-Fu; Wang, Xia; Deng, Xiao-Song; Lai, Song-Jia
Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene is an excellent candidate to affect the fatness and growth-related traits in pig and cattle. The aim of this study was to reveal the association between FTO and growth and meat quality traits in rabbits. A total of eight coding SNPs were detected, and four SNPs of them in exon 3 were further genotyped for association analysis in 442 rabbits from three breeds, including 248 New Zealand rabbits, 92 Ira rabbits, and 102 Champagne rabbits. Because there were significant differences for the allele and genotype frequencies among breeds, the association analysis was independently conducted in each breed only for these SNPs with minor allele frequency >5.0%. The results revealed that non-synonymous SNP c.499G>A (p.A167T) was significantly associated with body weight (BW) at 35, 70, and 84 days of age in New Zealand rabbits (P<0.01). The CC genotype of synonymous SNP c.660T>C was significantly associated with higher BW84, average daily weight gain, and intramuscular fat content of longissimus lumborum than TT and TC genotypes in Ira rabbits (P<0.05). There were no associations between the four SNPs and growth and meat quality traits in Champagne rabbits. Meanwhile, FTO SNPs were not associated with meat pH value. Our data indicated that FTO gene could be a candidate gene associated with growth and meat quality traits in rabbits. However, the breed-specific effect should be carefully taken into consideration.
Dickerman, D.C.; Bell, R.W.
This report describes the hydrogeology, water quality, and ground-water-development alternatives in the upper Wood River ground-water reservoir, Rhode Island. The report includes discussion of (1) recharge to and hydraulic properties of the stratified-drift aquifer, (2) stream-aquifer interconnection, (3) assessment of the quality of ground water and surface water, (4) input to and calibration of a two-dimensional ground-water-flow model, and (5) results of simulations of the effect of alternative ground-water-development schemes on ground-water levels and streamflow.
Mahmood, T; Rahman, M H; Stringam, G R; Yeh, F; Good, A G
A detailed RFLP-genomic map was used to study the genetics of oil, seed and meal protein and sum of oil and seed/meal protein contents in a recombinant doubled-haploid population developed by crossing black- and yellow-seeded Brassica juncea lines. Two yellow seed color genes (SC-B4, SC-A6) and one QTL for erucic acid content (E(1b)) showed pleiotropic effect for oil, protein and sum of oil and seed/meal protein contents. Six (O-A1, O-A6, O-A9, O-B3, O-B4, O-B5) and five (SP-A1, SP-A9, SP-B4, SP-B6, SP-C) QTLs were significant for oil and seed protein contents, respectively. Tight linkage of three of these QTLs (SP-A1, SP-A9, SP-B4, O-A1, O-A9, O-B4), with opposite effects, poses challenge to the plant breeders for simultaneous improvement of negatively correlated (r = -0.7**) oil and seed protein contents. However, one QTL for oil content (O-B3) and two for seed protein content (SP-B6, SP-C) were found to be unlinked, which offer the possibility for simultaneous improvement of these two traits. QTLs significant for meal protein (MP-A1, MP-A6, MP-A9, MP-B5, MP-B6) were significant at least for oil, seed protein or sum of oil and seed/meal protein contents (T-A6, T-A7, T-B4, T-B5). Sum of oil and seed protein contents and sum of oil and meal protein contents had a perfect correlation, as well as same epistatic interactions and QTLs with similar additive effect. This indicates that protein in seed or meal has practically the same meaning for breeding purposes. Epistatic interactions were significant for the quality traits, and their linkage reflected association among the traits.
Porth, Ilga; Klápště, Jaroslav; Skyba, Oleksandr; Lai, Ben S K; Geraldes, Armando; Muchero, Wellington; Tuskan, Gerald A; Douglas, Carl J; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Mansfield, Shawn D
The increasing ecological and economical importance of Populus species and hybrids has stimulated research into the investigation of the natural variation of the species and the estimation of the extent of genetic control over its wood quality traits for traditional forestry activities as well as the emerging bioenergy sector. A realized kinship matrix based on informative, high-density, biallelic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genetic markers was constructed to estimate trait variance components, heritabilities, and genetic and phenotypic correlations. Seventeen traits related to wood chemistry and ultrastructure were examined in 334 9-yr-old Populus trichocarpa grown in a common-garden plot representing populations spanning the latitudinal range 44° to 58.6°. In these individuals, 9342 SNPs that conformed to Hardy-Weinberg expectations were employed to assess the genomic pair-wise kinship to estimate narrow-sense heritabilities and genetic correlations among traits. The range-wide phenotypic variation in all traits was substantial and several trait heritabilities were > 0.6. In total, 61 significant genetic and phenotypic correlations and a network of highly interrelated traits were identified. The high trait variation, the evidence for moderate to high heritabilities and the identification of advantageous trait combinations of industrially important characteristics should aid in providing the foundation for the enhancement of poplar tree breeding strategies for modern industrial use.
Lee, E A; Kim, J M; Lim, K S; Ryu, Y C; Jeon, W M; Hong, K C
Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the porcine MYOD1 gene were used for association analysis and haplotype construction to evaluate the effects of their substitution. Four hundred and three pigs of Yorkshire and Berkshire breeds were used. The mRNA expression levels of MYOD1 were examined. The g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs were significantly associated with several muscle fiber characteristics, the loin eye area, and lightness. Particularly, animals having hetero-genotypes of both sites showed good performance both in lean meat production and meat quality traits. The results of haplotype substitution were similar to the associations of individual SNPs. Moreover, the 2 SNPs had significant effects on mRNA expression. Therefore, the g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs in MYOD1 may be meaningful DNA markers that can be used for improving important porcine economic traits.
Pan, Qing; Ju, Zhihua; Huang, Jinming; Zhang, Yan; Qi, Chao; Gao, Qin; Zhou, Lei; Li, Qiuling; Wang, Lingling; Zhong, Jifeng; Liu, Mei; Wang, Changfa
The sperm-specific phospholipase C zeta (PLCz) is a candidate sperm-borne oocyte-activating factor that triggers a characteristic series of physiological stimuli via cytoplasmic Ca(2+) oscillations during fertilization. The molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of PLCz gene expression remain largely unknown. To explore the genetic variations in the 5'-flanking region of the PLCz gene and their common haplotypes in Chinese Holstein bulls, as well as to determine whether these variations affect bovine semen quality traits and transcriptional activity, DNA samples were collected from Chinese Holstein bulls and sequenced for the identification of genetic variants in the 5'-flanking region of PLCz. Two genetic variants were identified, and their haplotypic profiles were constructed. The two novel genetic variations (g. -456 G>A and g. +65 T>C) were genotyped in 424 normal Chinese Holstein bulls. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that both loci are in transcription factor binding sites of the core promoter region. The association studies revealed that the two genetic variations and their haplotype combinations significantly affected semen quality traits. Using serially truncated constructs of the bovine PLCz promoters and the luciferase reporter, we found that a 726 bp (-641 nt to +112 nt) fragment constitutes the core promoter region. Furthermore, four haplotypes, H1H1 (GTGT), H2H2 (GCGC), H3H3 (ATAT), and H4H4 (ACAC), were significantly associated with semen quality traits and successfully transfected into MLTC-1 cell lines. The luciferase reporter assay showed that the different haplotypes exhibited distinct promoter activities. Maximal promoter activity was demonstrated by the H2H2 haplotypes, as compared with the other haplotypes. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report on genetic variants and their respective haplotypes in the 5'-flanking region of PLCz gene that can influence the semen quality of Chinese Holstein bulls as well as
Greeff, J C; Safari, E; Fogarty, N M; Hopkins, D L; Brien, F D; Atkins, K D; Mortimer, S I; van der Werf, J H J
Genetic parameters for carcass and meat quality traits of about 18-month-old Merino rams (n = 5870), the progeny of 543 sires from three research resource flocks, were estimated. The estimates of heritability for hot carcass weight (HCW) and the various fat and muscle dimension measurements were moderate and ranged from 0.20 to 0.37. The brightness of meat (colour L*, 0.18 +/- 0.03 standard error) and meat pH (0.22 +/- 0.03) also had moderate estimates of heritability, although meat relative redness (colour a*, 0.10 +/- 0.03) and relative yellowness (colour b*, 0.10 +/- 0.03) were lower. Heritability estimates for live weights were moderate and ranged from 0.29 to 0.41 with significant permanent maternal environmental effects (0.13 to 0.10). The heritability estimates for the hogget wool traits were moderate to high and ranged from 0.27 to 0.60. The ultrasound measurements of fat depth (FATUS) and eye muscle depth (EMDUS) on live animals were highly genetically correlated with the corresponding carcass measurements (0.69 +/- 0.09 FATC and 0.77 +/- 0.07 EMD). Carcass tissue depth (FATGR) had moderate to low genetic correlations with carcass muscle measurements [0.18 +/- 0.10 EMD and 0.05 +/- 0.10 eye muscle area (EMA)], while those with FATC were negative. The genetic correlation between EMD and eye muscle width (EMW) was 0.41 +/- 0.08, while EMA was highly correlated with EMD (0.89 +/- 0.0) and EMW (0.78 +/- 0.04). The genetic correlations for muscle colour with muscle measurements were moderately negative, while those with fat measurements were close to zero. Meat pH was positively correlated with muscle measurements (0.14 to 0.17) and negatively correlated with fat measurements (-0.06 to -0.18). EMDUS also showed a similar pattern of correlations to EMD with meat quality indicator traits, although FATUS had positive correlations with these traits which were generally smaller than their standard error. The genetic correlations among the meat colour traits were
Williamson, G Bruce; Wiemann, Michael C
The specific gravity (SG) of wood is a measure of the amount of structural material a tree species allocates to support and strength. In recent years, wood specific gravity, traditionally a forester's variable, has become the domain of ecologists exploring the universality of plant functional traits and conservationists estimating global carbon stocks. While these developments have expanded our knowledge and sample of woods, the methodologies employed to measure wood SG have not received as much scrutiny as SG's ecological importance. Here, we reiterate some of the basic principles and methods for measuring the SG of wood to clarify past practices of foresters and ecologists and to identify some of the prominent errors in recent studies and their consequences. In particular, we identify errors in (1) extracting wood samples that are not representative of tree wood, (2) differentiating wood specific gravity from wood density, (3) drying wood samples at temperatures below 100°C and the resulting moisture content complications, and (4) improperly measuring wood volumes. In addition, we introduce a new experimental technique, using applied calculus, for estimating SG when the form of radial variation is known, a method that significantly reduces the effort required to sample a tree's wood.
Association mapping is an efficient approach for the identification of the molecular basis of agronomic traits in crop plants. For this purpose in pea (Pisum sativum L.), we genotyped and phenotyped individual lines of the single-plant derived core collection of the USDA pea single-plant (PSP) colle...
The objective of the first study was to evaluate the combined effects of transportation stress and animal temperament on real-time ultrasound body composition traits (primarily percentage of intramuscular fat) in Angus Crossbred (n = 68) and Brahman (n = 60) steers. Temperament scores (1 to 5 scale)...
Genomic selection (GS) is a promising tool for plant and animal breeding that uses genome wide molecular marker data to capture small and large effect quantitative trait loci and predict the genetic value of selection candidates. Genomic selection has been shown previously to have higher prediction ...
Font i Forcada, Carolina; Oraguzie, Nnadozie; Reyes-Chin-Wo, Sebastian; Espiau, Maria Teresa; Socias i Company, Rafael; Fernández i Martí, Angel
To design an appropriate association study, we need to understand population structure and the structure of linkage disequilibrium within and among populations as well as in different regions of the genome in an organism. In this study, we have used a total of 98 almond accessions, from five continents located and maintained at the Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón (CITA; Spain), and 40 microsatellite markers. Population structure analysis performed in 'Structure' grouped the accessions into two principal groups; the Mediterranean (Western-Europe) and the non-Mediterranean, with K = 3, being the best fit for our data. There was a strong subpopulation structure with linkage disequilibrium decaying with increasing genetic distance resulting in lower levels of linkage disequilibrium between more distant markers. A significant impact of population structure on linkage disequilibrium in the almond cultivar groups was observed. The mean r2 value for all intra-chromosomal loci pairs was 0.040, whereas, the r2 for the inter-chromosomal loci pairs was 0.036. For analysis of association between the markers and phenotypic traits, five models comprising both general linear models and mixed linear models were selected to test the marker trait associations. The mixed linear model (MLM) approach using co-ancestry values from population structure and kinship estimates (K model) as covariates identified a maximum of 16 significant associations for chemical traits and 12 for physical traits. This study reports for the first time the use of association mapping for determining marker-locus trait associations in a world-wide almond germplasm collection. It is likely that association mapping will have the most immediate and largest impact on the tier of crops such as almond with the greatest economic value.
Font i Forcada, Carolina; Oraguzie, Nnadozie; Reyes-Chin-Wo, Sebastian; Espiau, Maria Teresa; Socias i Company, Rafael; Fernández i Martí, Angel
To design an appropriate association study, we need to understand population structure and the structure of linkage disequilibrium within and among populations as well as in different regions of the genome in an organism. In this study, we have used a total of 98 almond accessions, from five continents located and maintained at the Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón (CITA; Spain), and 40 microsatellite markers. Population structure analysis performed in ‘Structure’ grouped the accessions into two principal groups; the Mediterranean (Western-Europe) and the non-Mediterranean, with K = 3, being the best fit for our data. There was a strong subpopulation structure with linkage disequilibrium decaying with increasing genetic distance resulting in lower levels of linkage disequilibrium between more distant markers. A significant impact of population structure on linkage disequilibrium in the almond cultivar groups was observed. The mean r2 value for all intra-chromosomal loci pairs was 0.040, whereas, the r2 for the inter-chromosomal loci pairs was 0.036. For analysis of association between the markers and phenotypic traits, five models comprising both general linear models and mixed linear models were selected to test the marker trait associations. The mixed linear model (MLM) approach using co-ancestry values from population structure and kinship estimates (K model) as covariates identified a maximum of 16 significant associations for chemical traits and 12 for physical traits. This study reports for the first time the use of association mapping for determining marker-locus trait associations in a world-wide almond germplasm collection. It is likely that association mapping will have the most immediate and largest impact on the tier of crops such as almond with the greatest economic value. PMID:26111146
Ribeca, C; Bonfatti, V; Cecchinato, A; Albera, A; Gallo, L; Carnier, P
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between 10 candidate genes and carcass weight and conformation, carcass daily gain, and meat quality (pH, color, cooking loss, drip loss and shear force) in 990 double-muscled Piemontese young bulls. Animals were genotyped at each of the following genes: growth hormone, growth hormone receptor, pro-opiomelanocortin, pro-opiomelanocortin class 1 homeobox 1, melanocortin-4 receptor, corticotrophin-releasing hormone, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-1, thyroglobulin, carboxypeptidase E and gamma-3 regulatory subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase. All the investigated SNPs had additive effects which were relevant for at least one of the traits. Relevant associations between the investigated SNPs and carcass weight, carcass daily gain and carcass conformation were detected, whereas associations of SNPs with meat quality were moderate. Results confirmed some of previously reported associations, but diverged for others. Validation in other cattle breeds is required to use these SNPs in gene-assisted selection programs for enhancement of carcass traits and meat quality.
Bhattacharya, T K; Chatterjee, R N; Sharma, R P; Niranjan, M; Rajkumar, U; Reddy, B L N
Expression of prolactin hormone is a crucial event in regulating egg production in chickens for which promoter plays the vital role in expressing the prolactin gene. The objective of the present study was to identify haplotypes in the prolactin promoter and their effects on egg production and egg quality traits in White Leghorn chicken. Single stranded conformation polymorphism followed by sequencing was conducted to explore polymorphism at 561 bp promoter of prolactin gene. The effect of haplotype combinations on egg production and quality traits were estimated following general linear model technique. The expression of prolactin by different haplogroups was quantified by qPCR. Total 28 haplotypes were found in White Leghorn chicken of which h1 haplotype possessed the highest frequency of 0.46 and h8, h14, h16, h25, h26, and h28 haplotypes had the lowest frequency (0.1%). The egg production up to 52 and 64 weeks of age were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) associated with haplotype combinations where the highest 52-w (52 weeks) egg production was found in animals with h1/h22 combination and the lowest production was observed in the birds with h1/h2 haplogroup. The haplotype combinations had the significant effect (p < 0.05) on Haugh Unit, yolk index and albumen weight at 40 weeks of age; Haugh Unit and albumen weight at 52 weeks of age and Haugh unit, yolk weight and yolk percentage at 64 weeks of age. The prolactin expression in h1/h22 birds was found to be the lowest and in h1/h5 birds to be the highest. The prolactin expression showed significant effect on 52-w egg production and albumin weight at 52 weeks age. In conclusion, it may be stated that the prolactin promoter was highly polymorphic and had the significant association with egg production and quality traits in White Leghorn chicken.
Background Proximal cytoplasmic droplets (PCDs), a remnant of germ cell cytoplasm, are common non-specific morphological defects in bovine semen. This study evaluated the effect of higher percentages of PCDs on the quality of frozen-thawed bovine semen, embryo production and early embryo development. Methods Three ejaculates from each of five (group 1: PCD ≤ 1%, control) and eight adult Bos indicus bulls (group 2: PCD ≥ 24%) were analysed. Semen samples were examined for: post-thaw motility, vigour of movement, concentration, sperm morphology, slow thermoresistance test (STT), membrane integrity, acrosome status, mitochondrial function using fluorescent probes association (FITC-PSA, PI and JC-1) and sperm chromatin integrity using acridine orange assay. Two bulls from group 2, with 28.5% and 48.5% PCD, respectively, and three bulls from the control group, each with 0% PCD, were selected for IVF (in vitro fertilisation). Results Semen analyses revealed a significant correlation (P < 0.01) between increased rates of PCD and sperm quality traits. Nevertheless, no differences were observed in sperm motility and vigour either before or after the STT or in the percentage of intact acrosomes (analysed by differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC) after STT), but membrane integrity, acrosome status (evaluated with FITC-PSA staining method after thawing) and mitochondrial function were reduced, when compared with group 1 (P < 0.05). The higher incidence of PCD was positively correlated to chromatin damage, especially after three hours of incubation at 37°C. IVF showed similar results for bull C2 (group 1, control) and bull P2 (group 2, group with higher PCDs). Conclusion Higher PCD levels influenced spermatozoa quality traits. IVF and embryo development data showed that cleavage, blastocyst formation and blastocyst hatching may have been influenced by the interaction of morphology traits and individual bull effects. PMID:22240071
Bonilla, C A; Rubio, M S; Sifuentes, A M; Parra-Bracamonte, G M; Arellano, V W; Méndez, M R D; Berruecos, J M; Ortiz, R
We examined allele and genotype frequencies for the molecular markers CAPN1 316, CAPN1 4751 and TG5, and determined whether they are associated with beef quality traits in Mexican cattle. One hundred and twenty-four longissimus dorsi muscle samples were collected from cattle from north, central and southern Mexico. CAPN1 316 and CAPN1 4751 frequencies were determined using the allelic discrimination assay and the TG5 marker was typed by PCR-RFLP. Meat quality traits included intramuscular fat content (IMF) and tenderness determined by Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) at 24 h postmortem. The association test was made using a mixed model, including genotypes, genetic group, and sampling location as fixed effects. Least squares means and significant interactions were compared using least significant differences based on the mixed procedure. CAPN1 316 CC was found at a low frequency (0.03) and has been reported as a favorable genotype associated with tenderness meat. Genotype frequencies for CAPN1 4751 were similar in favorable (CC) and unfavorable (TT) genotypes (0.26 and 0.28, respectively). The TG5 CC genotype had a frequency of 0.73, while the TT genotype frequency was 0.01. The means for WBSF and IMF were 4.08 ± 1.35 kg and 5.23 ± 2.14%, respectively. Sampling site and the CAPN1 316 genotypes significantly affected WBSF (P < 0.05). Samples collected from Hermosillo, Sonora, had the lowest WBSF (P < 0.05), while those collected in Veracruz were toughest (WBSF = 5.267 kg). The effect of GG and TG5 genotypes on IMF was significant (P < 0.05). CAPN1 316 and TG5 markers were found to be significantly associated with beef quality traits and thus will be useful for Mexican beef characterization.
Zuo, Beiyao; Liu, Guiqiong; Peng, Yuqin; Qian, Hongguang; Liu, Jiasen; Jiang, Xunping; Mara, Adama
The involvement of melanocortin 4 receptor gene (MC4R) in food intake and body weight regulation is well characterized. MC4R mutations are the most frequent monogenic cause of human obesity. Significant associations have been revealed between MC4R mutations and productive traits in pigs, cattle and poultry. Herein, fluorescence-based conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis was used to identify two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding region (93G>A and 292G>A) and two SNPs in the 3'-UTR area (1016G>A and 1240T>C) of MC4R gene in 132 German Merino sheep. We found that the 1016G>A mutation in the 3'-UTR was significantly associated with body weight at 120 and 180 days, average daily gain, back fat thickness and loin-eye area. Allele A located at the 292th position of MC4R gene representing Arg98 was associated with significantly higher loin-eye area in sheep. For the synonymous 93G>A mutation, A allele carrier animals had higher back fat thickness. Our results provide evidence that the MC4R gene may be a candidate gene for growth and meat quality traits with MC4R SNPs being potentially valuable as genetic markers for economic traits in German Merino sheep.
Chave, Jerome; Coomes, David; Jansen, Steven; Lewis, Simon L; Swenson, Nathan G; Zanne, Amy E
Wood performs several essential functions in plants, including mechanically supporting aboveground tissue, storing water and other resources, and transporting sap. Woody tissues are likely to face physiological, structural and defensive trade-offs. How a plant optimizes among these competing functions can have major ecological implications, which have been under-appreciated by ecologists compared to the focus they have given to leaf function. To draw together our current understanding of wood function, we identify and collate data on the major wood functional traits, including the largest wood density database to date (8412 taxa), mechanical strength measures and anatomical features, as well as clade-specific features such as secondary chemistry. We then show how wood traits are related to one another, highlighting functional trade-offs, and to ecological and demographic plant features (growth form, growth rate, latitude, ecological setting). We suggest that, similar to the manifold that tree species leaf traits cluster around the 'leaf economics spectrum', a similar 'wood economics spectrum' may be defined. We then discuss the biogeography, evolution and biogeochemistry of the spectrum, and conclude by pointing out the major gaps in our current knowledge of wood functional traits.
Lin, R L; Chen, H P; Rouvier, R; Marie-Etancelin, C
Three hundred and four female ducks of the Chinese indigenous Shan Ma breed, progeny of 11 sires and 104 dams, were used to study laying traits. Among them, 264 ducks were used to study the egg shell quality traits of eggs laid at 300 days of age. The mean age at first egg was 109 days with an average egg weight of 49.6 ± 3.7 g. Between 210 and 300 days of age, egg weight increased from 65.0 ± 3.9 g to 67.0 ± 4.2 g and the mean of the number of eggs laid up to 300 days was 161 ± 15.0. Egg length was 59.57 ± 3.01 mm and egg width was 45.02 ± 1.98 mm, leading to a shape index of 1.32 ± 0.08. Egg shell thickness was about 0.31 mm whatever the shell region, and the breaking strength was 28.80 ± 8.29 N. The heritability's estimated using restricted maximum likelihood ( REML: ) methodology were high for egg weights (ranging from 0.43 to 0.61), intermediate for the number of eggs laid (ranging from 0.38 to 0.43), and low for the age at first egg (0.13). Heritability's for egg shell quality traits varied from 0.20 for the breaking strength to 0.44 for egg length, with in-between values of 0.28 for shell thickness and 0.34 for the shape index. The number of eggs laid was not genetically correlated with the age at first egg or egg weight, but was correlated with body weight (rg = +0.54 ± 0.23). High positive correlations were found between egg weight and body weight traits, and both of these traits (except egg weight at first egg) were highly and positively correlated with egg length and width. Breaking strength was genetically correlated with egg shell thickness (rg = +0.54 ± 0.19) and the shape index (rg = +0.71 ± 0.23). These results suggest that an efficient selection strategy could be implemented to improve the egg production of the pure Shan Ma duck line.
Cloete, J J E; Hoffman, L C; Cloete, S W P
The slaughter and meat quality traits of 20-month-old wool (Merino), dual-purpose (Dohne Merino and South African Mutton Merino [SAMM]) and mutton (Dormer) type sheep were compared. Average live weights of SAMM and Dormer sheep were 23% heavier than those of Dohne Merinos which were 28% heavier than Merinos. Fat depths at the thirteenth rib and lumbar regions of Merino and Dohne Merino sheep were lower than those of SAMM and Dormer sheep. The cooking loss, drip loss and shearing value from the M. longissimus dorsi did not differ between breeds. The initial juiciness and sustained juiciness of meat from Merinos were rated significantly lower by sensory analysis. Meat from Dohne Merino was rated significantly more tender for the attribute first bite. It was demonstrated that Dormer and SAMM sheep had heavier but fatter carcasses than Merinos and Dohne Merinos, with differences in meat quality between breeds.
Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Bae, Young Sik; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Jun Heon; Kim, Jong Geun; Jo, Cheorun
With the aim of investigating the differences in the quality traits between Korean native chicken (Hanhyup, KNC) and broilers commonly used in two different traditional Korean cuisines, the chemical composition and sensory properties of breast and thigh meat from the two chicken strains were assessed. KNC for baeksuk (chicken meat braised in soup with various Oriental medicinal plants; KNL), KNC for samgyetang (similar to baeksuk but young chickens and ginseng are used; KNS), broiler for baeksuk (BL), and broiler for samgyetang (BS) were used as treatments in this study. KNL and KNS contained higher protein but lower fat content than BL and BS. The L* values of breast and thigh meat, but not the a* values, were significantly different between KNS and BS, whereas significant differences in both values were observed between KNL and BL. Compared to the other three types of chickens, KNS contained the highest total and insoluble collagen content, and KNL and BL showed higher inosine-5’-monophosphate content in their meat. Overall, KNL and KNS contributed darker, less tender meat with higher protein and less fat content together with more n-3 fatty acids, as opposed to their counterparts used for the same cuisines. Based on the results of the sensory analysis, even though there are some differences in physiochemical traits, different chicken sources do not differ in overall sensory quality. This information can help consumers to understand better the meat available for their preferred traditional cuisines. PMID:25049883
Wang, Hantao; Huang, Cong; Zhao, Wenxia; Dai, Baosheng; Shen, Chao; Zhang, Beibei; Li, Dingguo; Lin, Zhongxu
Two immortalized backcross populations (DHBCF1s and JMBCF1s) were developed using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population crossed with the two parents DH962 and Jimian5 (as the males), respectively. The fiber quality and yield component traits of the two backcross populations were phenotyped at four environments (two locations, two years). One hundred seventy-eight quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected including 76 for fiber qualities and 102 for yield components, explaining 4.08–17.79% of the phenotypic variation (PV). Among the 178 QTL, 22 stable QTL were detected in more than one environment or population. A stable QTL, qFL-c10-1, was detected in the previous F2 population, a RIL population in 3 environments and the current two BCF1 populations in this study, explaining 5.79–37.09% of the PV. Additionally, 117 and 110 main-effect QTL (M-QTL) and 47 and 191 digenic epistatic QTL (E-QTL) were detected in the DHBCF1s and JMBCF1s populations, respectively. The effect of digenic epistasis played a more important role on lint percentage, fiber length and fiber strength. These results obtained in the present study provided more resources to obtain stable QTL, confirming the authenticity and reliability of the QTL for molecular marker-assisted selection breeding and QTL cloning. PMID:27907098
Favaro, V R; Ezequiel, J M B; Almeida, M T C; D'Aurea, A P; Paschoaloto, J R; van Cleef, E H C B; Carvalho, V B; Junqueira, N B
Crude glycerin, a potential energy source for ruminant animals, has been evaluated, mainly, in diets with high starch content. However, a limit number of studies have evaluated the inclusion of crude glycerin in low starch diets. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the association of crude glycerin with corn grain or citrus pulp on carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls (n=30, 402±31 kg initial weight). The treatment consisted of: CON=control, without crude glycerin; CG10=10% of crude glycerin and corn grain; CG15=15% of crude glycerin and corn grain; CP10=10% of crude glycerin and citrus pulp; CP15=15% of crude glycerin and citrus pulp. The performance parameters and carcass traits were not affected by treatments (P>0.05). The inclusion of crude glycerin decreased yellow color intensity and increased fatty acids pentadecanoic and heptadecenoic in meat (P<0.05), without affecting neither the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids nor the relationship of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The association of crude glycerin with corn or citrus pulp has no adverse effects on carcass characteristics and meat quality.
Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kyoung Mi; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa
The effect of ripening time on the technological quality traits, fatty acid compositions and sensory characteristics of dry-cured loin was studied. Pork loins (n = 102) at 24 h post-mortem were used to produce dry-cured loins. The dry-cured loins were assessed at 30, 60, and 90 days of ripening for the aforementioned characteristics. Our results showed that the water activity (aw) decreased (p<0.05) up to 60 days and did not change thereafter. The lipid oxidation and weight loss levels significantly (p<0.05) increased with increased ripening time. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) L* decreased for 90 days while CIE a* increased for 60 days and did not increase thereafter. More noticeably, the levels of most of unsaturated fatty acids and total polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly decreased as increasing ripening time up to 90 days. The 30 days-ripened loins had lower (p<0.05) color, flavor and overall acceptability scores than the loins ripened for 60 and 90 days, however, no differences in sensory traits occurred between the 60 and 90 day-ripened samples. Based on the results obtained in the present study, it is suggested that the ripening duration between 30 and 60 days could be more appropriate for producing dry-cured loin product with higher quality and economic benefits. PMID:25715685
Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kyoung Mi; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa
The effect of ripening time on the technological quality traits, fatty acid compositions and sensory characteristics of dry-cured loin was studied. Pork loins (n = 102) at 24 h post-mortem were used to produce dry-cured loins. The dry-cured loins were assessed at 30, 60, and 90 days of ripening for the aforementioned characteristics. Our results showed that the water activity (aw) decreased (p<0.05) up to 60 days and did not change thereafter. The lipid oxidation and weight loss levels significantly (p<0.05) increased with increased ripening time. The Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) L* decreased for 90 days while CIE a* increased for 60 days and did not increase thereafter. More noticeably, the levels of most of unsaturated fatty acids and total polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly decreased as increasing ripening time up to 90 days. The 30 days-ripened loins had lower (p<0.05) color, flavor and overall acceptability scores than the loins ripened for 60 and 90 days, however, no differences in sensory traits occurred between the 60 and 90 day-ripened samples. Based on the results obtained in the present study, it is suggested that the ripening duration between 30 and 60 days could be more appropriate for producing dry-cured loin product with higher quality and economic benefits.
Growing environment has been well-documented as playing a large role in effecting the end-use quality traits of rice. Apparent amylose content (AAC) and gelatinization temperature (GT) are considered to be the two most important end-use quality characteristics in rice, defining the major classes tha...
The harmful substances in wood stains are hydrocarbons, or substances that contain only carbon and hydrogen. Other harmful ingredients may include: Alcohol Alkanes Cyclo alkanes Glycol ether Corrosives, such as sodium ...
Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Introna, M; Tufarelli, V
This study was designed to determine the effects on laying performance and egg quality resulting from partial substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber alfalfa (LFA; Medicago sativa L.) meal in the diet of early-phase laying hens. ISA Brown layers, 18 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were fed 2 wheat middling-based diets: a control diet, which contained SBM (15% of diet), and a test diet containing LFA (15% of diet) as the main protein source. Low-fiber alfalfa meal was obtained by a combination of sieving and air-classification processes. Feed intake was recorded daily, and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were weekly collected to evaluate egg components and quality. The partial substitution of SBM with LFA had no adverse effect on growth performance of early-phase laying hens. Egg production and none of the egg-quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P < 0.001) and yolk percentage (P < 0.05) as well as yolk cholesterol and β-carotene contents (P < 0.001), which were improved in hens fed the LFA diet. Including LFA increased serum β-carotene and reduced serum cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.001). Our results suggest that partially replacing conventional SBM as protein source with low-fiber alfalfa meal in the laying-hen diet can positively influence yolk quality without adversely affecting productive traits.
Porth, Ilga; Klapšte, Jaroslav; Skyba, Oleksandr; Hannemann, Jan; McKown, Athena D; Guy, Robert D; DiFazio, Stephen P; Muchero, Wellington; Ranjan, Priya; Tuskan, Gerald A; Friedmann, Michael C; Ehlting, Juergen; Cronk, Quentin C B; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Douglas, Carl J; Mansfield, Shawn D
Establishing links between phenotypes and molecular variants is of central importance to accelerate genetic improvement of economically important plant species. Our work represents the first genome-wide association study to the inherently complex and currently poorly understood genetic architecture of industrially relevant wood traits. Here, we employed an Illumina Infinium 34K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array that generated 29,233 high-quality SNPs in c. 3500 broad-based candidate genes within a population of 334 unrelated Populus trichocarpa individuals to establish genome-wide associations. The analysis revealed 141 significant SNPs (α ≤ 0.05) associated with 16 wood chemistry/ultrastructure traits, individually explaining 3-7% of the phenotypic variance. A large set of associations (41% of all hits) occurred in candidate genes preselected for their suggested a priori involvement with secondary growth. For example, an allelic variant in the FRA8 ortholog explained 21% of the total genetic variance in fiber length, when the trait's heritability estimate was considered. The remaining associations identified SNPs in genes not previously implicated in wood or secondary wall formation. Our findings provide unique insights into wood trait architecture and support efforts for population improvement based on desirable allelic variants.
Biermann, A D M; Yin, T; König von Borstel, U U; Rübesam, K; Kuhn, B; König, S
In endangered and local pig breeds of small population sizes, production has to focus on alternative niche markets with an emphasis on specific product and meat quality traits to achieve economic competiveness. For designing breeding strategies on meat quality, an adequate performance testing scheme focussing on phenotyped selection candidates is required. For the endangered German pig breed 'Bunte Bentheimer' (BB), no breeding program has been designed until now, and no performance testing scheme has been implemented. For local breeds, mainly reared in small-scale production systems, a performance test based on in vivo indicator traits might be a promising alternative in order to increase genetic gain for meat quality traits. Hence, the main objective of this study was to design and evaluate breeding strategies for the improvement of meat quality within the BB breed using in vivo indicator traits and genetic markers. The in vivo indicator trait was backfat thickness measured by ultrasound (BFiv), and genetic markers were allele variants at the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) locus. In total, 1116 records of production and meat quality traits were collected, including 613 in vivo ultrasound measurements and 713 carcass and meat quality records. Additionally, 700 pigs were genotyped at the RYR1 locus. Data were used (1) to estimate genetic (co)variance components for production and meat quality traits, (2) to estimate allele substitution effects at the RYR1 locus using a selective genotyping approach and (3) to evaluate breeding strategies on meat quality by combining results from quantitative-genetic and molecular-genetic approaches. Heritability for the production trait BFiv was 0.27, and 0.48 for backfat thickness measured on carcass. Estimated heritabilities for meat quality traits ranged from 0.14 for meat brightness to 0.78 for the intramuscular fat content (IMF). Genetic correlations between BFiv and IMF were higher than estimates based on carcass backfat
Boz, M A; Sarıca, M; Yamak, U S
1. This study investigates the slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range production systems. 2. The study was conducted with 114 naturally hatched and 102 artificially hatched geese. From each replicate of the intensive and free-range systems, one female and one male goose were slaughtered at the ages of 14, 16 and 18 weeks (a total of 32 geese per slaughter week). 3. Artificially hatched geese had higher slaughter weights (5280 vs. 4404 g), carcass weights (3520 vs. 2863), dressing percentages (66.6-65.2% vs. 65.0-63.6%) and carcass part, feather and edible inner organ weights. The ratio of both edible inner organs and abdominal fat was higher in naturally hatched geese. Breast meat L*, a* and pH values and thigh meat dry matter values were higher in artificially hatched geese, whereas thigh meat b* and pH values were higher in naturally hatched geese. 4. Intensively reared geese had higher slaughter weights (4900 vs. 4783 g), carcass weights (3253 vs. 3130 g) and abdominal fat weights (280 vs. 250 g), as well as higher dressing percentages (66.3-64.9% vs. 65.3-63.9%). Breast meat b* and thigh meat L* values were higher in the intensive system, while breast and thigh pH values, dripping loss and cooking loss were higher in the free-range system. Water-holding capacity was higher in the intensive system. 5. In conclusion, artificially hatched, intensively reared geese had the highest slaughter weights; however, both artificially and naturally hatched geese raised in a free-range system reached acceptable slaughter weights and can thus be recommended for use with this type of production system.
Genetic improvement of fiber quality is necessary to meet the requirements of processors and users of cotton fiber. To foster genetic improvement of cotton fiber quality, adequate genetic variation for the quantitatively inherited physical properties of cotton is required. Additionally, knowledge of...
Bishi, S K; Lokesh, Kumar; Mahatma, M K; Khatediya, N; Chauhan, S M; Misra, J B
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is considered as a highly nutritious foodstuff. Of late, the importance of peanut as a functional food has been growing. Kernels of forty-one Indian peanut cultivars were analyzed for their oil, fatty acid profiles, sucrose, raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs); phenolics, and free amino acids contents along with antioxidant capacity. The range and the mean value (given in parenthesis) for each of the traits analysed were, oil: 44.1-53.8% (50.1%), O/L ratio: 0.9-2.8 (1.4), sucrose: 2.61-6.5% (4.63%), RFOs: 0.12-0.76% (0.47%), phenolics: 0.14-0.39% (0.23%), free amino acids: 0.052-0.19% (0.12%) and antioxidant capacity: 1.05-6.97 (3.40) μmol TEg(-1). The significant correlation between phenol content and antioxidant capacity suggests phenol content as an easy marker for rapid screening of genotypes for their antioxidant capacity. A few cultivars with desirable traits and their prospective utility were identified which would be useful for future breeding programme to develop nutritional superior peanuts.
San Vito, E; Lage, J F; Ribeiro, A F; Silva, R A; Berchielli, T T
The aim of this study was to evaluate the carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls (279.5±16.3 initial body weight) raised on pasture supplemented with crude glycerin at 0%, 7%, 14%, 21% or 28% (DM basis). The diets were similar in energy and protein levels, and the glycerin replaced corn in the supplement. After slaughter, the carcass characteristics were measured, and the longissimus muscle was collected to determine the meat quality. The inclusion of crude glycerin in the supplement did not change (P>0.05) any of the carcass characteristics and meat quality assessed; however, the pH decreased linearly (P=0.03), and margaric acid (17:0) increased (P=0.02) in the longissimus muscle with the addition of glycerin in the diet. Our conclusion is that the inclusion of crude glycerin up to the level of 28% of dry matter in the supplement does not alter the carcass characteristics or the meat quality from animals raised on pasture.
... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...
... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...
... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...
... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...
Kundu, Manju; Khatkar, Bhupendar Singh; Gulia, Neelam
Fifty wheat varieties were assessed for chapatti quality using grain characteristics, dough rheological properties and pasting characteristics. Results revealed that 88% of wheat varieties studied were medium-hard to hard based on kernel texture. Water absorption and damaged starch were found to be important parameters for chapatti quality as both parameters had significant positive effect on the pliability and puffing height of chapatti. Protein content and gluten strength parameters like SDS sedimentation volume, dough stability and gluten index were found to have a negative impact on chapatti quality. Based on chapatti quality assessment the wheat varieties were classified into four distinct clusters viz. good, acceptable, fair and poor for chapatti making. It was elucidated that 46% of the varieties studied were good to acceptable for chapatti making, while 54% resulted in fair or poor chapatti quality thereby clearly indicating the need to establish and substantiate the development of product-specific varieties.
Petrini, J; Iung, L H S; Rodriguez, M A P; Salvian, M; Pértille, F; Rovadoscki, G A; Cassoli, L D; Coutinho, L L; Machado, P F; Wiggans, G R; Mourão, G B
Information about genetic parameters is essential for selection decisions and genetic evaluation. These estimates are population specific; however, there are few studies with dairy cattle populations reared under tropical and sub-tropical conditions. Thus, the aim was to obtain estimates of heritability and genetic correlations for milk yield and quality traits using pedigree and genomic information from a Holstein population maintained in a tropical environment. Phenotypic records (n = 36 457) of 4203 cows as well as the genotypes for 57 368 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 755 of these cows were used. Covariance components were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method under a mixed animal model, considering a pedigree-based relationship matrix or a combined pedigree-genomic matrix. High heritabilities (around 0.30) were estimated for lactose and protein content in milk whereas moderate values (between 0.19 and 0.26) were obtained for percentages of fat, saturated fatty acids and palmitic acid in milk. Genetic correlations ranging from -0.38 to -0.13 were determined between milk yield and composition traits. The smaller estimates compared to other similar studies can be due to poor environmental conditions, which may reduce genetic variability. These results highlight the importance in using genetic parameters estimated in the population under evaluation for selection decisions.
Aspilcueta-Borquis, R R; Araujo Neto, F R; Baldi, F; Bignardi, A B; Albuquerque, L G; Tonhati, H
The availability of accurate genetic parameters for important economic traits in milking buffaloes is critical for implementation of a genetic evaluation program. In the present study, heritabilities and genetic correlations for fat (FY305), protein (PY305), and milk (MY305) yields, milk fat (%F) and protein (%P) percentages, and SCS were estimated using Bayesian methodology. A total of 4,907 lactations from 1,985 cows were used. The (co)variance components were estimated using multiple-trait analysis by Bayesian inference method, applying an animal model, through Gibbs sampling. The model included the fixed effects of contemporary groups (herd-year and calving season), number of milking (2 levels), and age of cow at calving as (co)variable (quadratic and linear effect). The additive genetic, permanent environmental, and residual effects were included as random effects in the model. The posterior means of heritability distributions for MY305, FY305, PY305, %F, P%, and SCS were 0.22, 0.21, 0.23, 0.33, 0.39, and 0.26, respectively. The genetic correlation estimates ranged from -0.13 (between %P and SCS) to 0.94 (between MY305 and PY305). The permanent environmental correlation estimates ranged from -0.38 (between MY305 and %P) to 0.97 (between MY305 and PY305). Residual and phenotypic correlation estimates ranged from -0.26 (between PY305 and SCS) to 0.97 (between MY305 and PY305) and from -0.26 (between MY305 and SCS) to 0.97 (between MY305 and PY305), respectively. Milk yield, milk components, and milk somatic cells counts have enough genetic variation for selection purposes. The genetic correlation estimates suggest that milk components and milk somatic cell counts would be only slightly affected if increasing milk yield were the selection goal. Selecting to increase FY305 or PY305 will also increase MY305, %P, and %F.
Fernández, M. Paulina; Norero, Aldo; Vera, Jorge R.; Pérez, Eduardo
Backgrounds and Aims Functional–structural models are interesting tools to relate environmental and management conditions with forest growth. Their three-dimensional images can reveal important characteristics of wood used for industrial products. Like virtual laboratories, they can be used to evaluate relationships among species, sites and management, and to support silvicultural design and decision processes. Our aim was to develop a functional–structural model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata) given its economic importance in many countries. Methods The plant model uses the L-system language. The structure of the model is based on operational units, which obey particular rules, and execute photosynthesis, respiration and morphogenesis, according to their particular characteristics. Plant allometry is adhered to so that harmonic growth and plant development are achieved. Environmental signals for morphogenesis are used. Dynamic turnover guides the normal evolution of the tree. Monthly steps allow for detailed information of wood characteristics. The model is independent of traditional forest inventory relationships and is conceived as a mechanistic model. For model parameterization, three databases which generated new information relating to P. radiata were analysed and incorporated. Key Results Simulations under different and contrasting environmental and management conditions were run and statistically tested. The model was validated against forest inventory data for the same sites and times and against true crown architectural data. The performance of the model for 6-year-old trees was encouraging. Total height, diameter and lengths of growth units were adequately estimated. Branch diameters were slightly overestimated. Wood density values were not satisfactory, but the cyclical pattern and increase of growth rings were reasonably well modelled. Conclusions The model was able to reproduce the development and growth of the species based on mechanistic
Dickerman, D.C.; Bell, R.W.
The 72.4-square-mile Upper Wood River study area is in the Pawcatuck River basin in southern Rhode Island. Stratified drift is the only principal geologic unit capable of producing yields greater than 0.5 Mgal/d. Transmissivity of the aquifer ranges from 7,600 to 49,200 sq ft/d. Water-table conditions prevail and the aquifer is in good hydraulic connection with perennial streams and ponds. Groundwater and surface water in the study area are generally suitable for most uses. Water is soft, slightly acidic, and contains less than 150 mg/L dissolved solids. Locally, however, groundwater has been contaminated with nitrate, chloride, and volatile organic compounds. A model of the groundwater-flow system was used to evaluate the effect of alternative schemes of groundwater development on water levels, pond levels, and streamflow. Till contacts were simulated as specified-flux boundaries, drainage divides as no-flow boundaries, and streams as leaky boundaries. The areas most favorable for development of 1 Mgal/d are along the Flat and Wood Rivers. From 50 to 65 percent of the water withdrawn from wells would be derived from induced recharge. Results of simulation of development alternatives indicate that the groundwater reservoir could sustain withdrawals of 6 to 12 Mgal/d from 11 wells under long-term average annual (1942-89) and simulated drought (1963-66) conditions without causing water-level declines of greater than 25 percent of the unstressed saturated thickness of the aquifer. Pumping 12 Mgal/d, however, would reduce flow of the Wood River at the basin outlet by an amount almost equal to the 7-day, 10-yr low flow of 20.4 cu ft/s.
Madeira, M S; Alfaia, C M; Costa, P; Lopes, P A; Martins, S V; Lemos, J P C; Moreira, O; Santos-Silva, J; Bessa, R J B; Prates, J A M
Forty entire male pigs from a commercial crossbreed (Duroc × Large White × Landrace) were used to investigate the individual or combined effects of betaine and Arg supplementation in Lys-deficient diets on growth performance, carcass traits, and pork quality. Pigs with 59.9 ± 1.65 kg BW were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments ( = 8). The 5 dietary treatments were normal Lys and CP diet (0.51% Lys and 16% CP; control), reduced Lys and CP diet (0.35% Lys and 13% CP), reduced Lys and CP diet with betaine supplementation (0.33%), reduced Lys and CP diet with Arg supplementation (1.5%), and reduced Lys and CP diet with betaine and Arg supplementation (0.33% betaine and 1.5% Arg). Pigs were slaughtered at 92.7 ± 2.54 kg BW. The Lys-deficient diets (-35% Lys) increased intramuscular fat (IMF) content by 25% ( = 0.041) and meat juiciness by 12% ( = 0.041) but had a negative effect on growth performance ( < 0.05) of pigs. In addition, Lys-deficient diets increased L* ( = 0.005) and b* ( = 0.010) muscle color parameters and perirenal fat deposition ( < 0.001) and decreased both HCW ( = 0.015) and loin weight ( = 0.023). Betaine and Arg supplementation of Lys-deficient diets had no effect on IMF content but increased ( < 0.05) overall pork acceptability. Arginine supplementation also increased ( = 0.003) meat tenderness. Differences in fatty acid composition of pork were not detected among dietary treatment groups. However, oleic acid was positively correlated ( < 0.05) with IMF content, juiciness, flavor, and overall acceptability of meat. Data confirm that dietary CP reduction enhances pork eating quality but negatively affects pigs' growth performance. Moreover, it is suggested that betaine and Arg supplementation of Lys-deficient diets does not further increase IMF content but improves some pork sensory traits, including overall acceptability.
Varidi, Mohammad-Javad; Varidi, Mehdi
Summary In this study physicochemical and quality traits of biceps femoris and longissimus thoracis muscles of male and female Iranian one-humped camel were determined during 14 days of refrigeration storage. Analysis of variance of the results showed that only shear force and temperature were affected by the gender (p<0.05). Anatomical location of the muscle influenced the meat properties except for drip loss (p<0.05). Also, except for cooking loss, ageing influenced the physicochemical and quality properties of meat; during 14 days of storage, proteolysis resulted in an increase of L* and b* values, drip loss and myofibrillar fragmentation index, and the decrease of a* value, expressed juice, shear force and sarcomere length. Proteome changes (myofibrillar proteins) during storage were investigated. Gel analysis revealed that 19 protein spots were significantly changed during 24, 72 and 168 h post-mortem. Fifteen spots were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometer. Correlation analysis revealed significant correlations of actin, troponin T, capping protein, heat shock proteins (HSP) and desmin with physicochemical and quality properties of meat (p<0.05). Actin might be a potential protein marker for colour, tenderness and water-holding capacity, and HSP27 and desmin are good candidate markers for colour and tenderness, respectively. PMID:27956864
Yu, Jiwen; Zhang, Ke; Li, Shuaiyang; Yu, Shuxun; Zhai, Honghong; Wu, Man; Li, Xingli; Fan, Shuli; Song, Meizhen; Yang, Daigang; Li, Yunhai; Zhang, Jinfa
Identification of stable quantitative trait loci (QTLs) across different environments and mapping populations is a prerequisite for marker-assisted selection (MAS) for cotton yield and fiber quality. To construct a genetic linkage map and to identify QTLs for fiber quality and yield traits, a backcross inbred line (BIL) population of 146 lines was developed from a cross between Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and Egyptian cotton (Gossypium barbadense) through two generations of backcrossing using Upland cotton as the recurrent parent followed by four generations of self pollination. The BIL population together with its two parents was tested in five environments representing three major cotton production regions in China. The genetic map spanned a total genetic distance of 2,895 cM and contained 392 polymorphic SSR loci with an average genetic distance of 7.4 cM per marker. A total of 67 QTLs including 28 for fiber quality and 39 for yield and its components were detected on 23 chromosomes, each of which explained 6.65-25.27% of the phenotypic variation. Twenty-nine QTLs were located on the At subgenome originated from a cultivated diploid cotton, while 38 were on the Dt subgenome from an ancestor that does not produce spinnable fibers. Of the eight common QTLs (12%) detected in more than two environments, two were for fiber quality traits including one for fiber strength and one for uniformity, and six for yield and its components including three for lint yield, one for seedcotton yield, one for lint percentage and one for boll weight. QTL clusters for the same traits or different traits were also identified. This research represents one of the first reports using a permanent advanced backcross inbred population of an interspecific hybrid population to identify QTLs for fiber quality and yield traits in cotton across diverse environments. It provides useful information for transferring desirable genes from G. barbadense to G. hirsutum using MAS.
Zomeño, C; Blasco, A; Hernández, P
Correlated responses on carcass and meat quality characteristics after 3 generations of divergent selection for intramuscular fat (IMF) content were assessed by comparing the high and low lines. Selection was based on the phenotypic value of IMF content of LM, measured in 2 full sibs of the first parity. Traits measured were: BW, HCW, commercial carcass weight (CCW), reference carcass weight (RCW), scapular (SF) and perirenal fat (PF) content, meat-to-bone ratio (M:B) of the hind leg, pH of LM, color (lightness, L*; redness, a*; and yellowness, b*) of the carcass and of a LM section, protein content, and fatty acid (FA) composition of LM. A total of 174 records was used to estimate the correlated selection response. Data were analyzed using Bayesian methodology. We considered one-third of the phenotypic SD of a trait as a relevant value for the difference between lines. Then, the probability of the difference being greater than a relevant value (PR) was calculated. A low PR implies that the lines compared are similar. Carcass weights (PR between 0.24 and 0.31) and M:B of the hind leg (PR = 0.15) were not modified by selection for IMF content. There was a slight negative correlated response for BW, although evidence of its relevance was low (PR = 0.48). Scapular fat content was similar between lines (PR = 0.03). There were differences for PF content, although there was low evidence for showing its relevance (PR = 0.47). Color traits of the carcass were not affected by selection (PR between 0.04 and 0.30). In muscle, L* was also similar between lines (PR = 0.26). There were differences for a* and b*, although there was little evidence of their relevance (PR = 0.35 and 0.40, respectively). There was a positive correlated response on muscle pH and differences could be relevant (PR = 0.77). Protein content of LM was similar between lines (PR = 0.13), whereas FA composition was affected by selection. There were relevant differences between lines for MUFA (PR = 0.99), n-3
Hernández, P; Aliaga, S; Pla, M; Blasco, A
The effect of selection for growth rate on carcass and meat quality was assessed by comparing selected and control populations of rabbits measured at the same stage of maturity and slaughtered at 9 and 13 wk of age. Embryos belonging to Generation 7 were frozen, thawed, and implanted in does to produce the control group. The control group was formed from the offspring of the embryos belonging to the Generation 7. Selected animals belonging to Generation 18 (S) were compared with contemporary animals of the control group (C). Carcasses were dissected and measured according to World Rabbit Science Association recommended practices. When animals were compared at similar degrees of maturity, selection for growth rate did not produce a negative effect on carcass and meat quality. There was no increase in fat content of the carcass, and there was an improvement of the meat:bone ratio with selection, with a difference between C and S groups of -0.42. However, the carcasses of S animals have 1.45% lower water-holding capacity. Carcass quality changed markedly with animal age. Heavy rabbit carcasses had lower organ percents and a higher loin percent. Dissectible and i.m. fat content were higher in older rabbits, with older animals having 0.97 and 0.79% more dissectible and i.m. fat content, respectively. Meat quality traits improved with age of slaughter, although there was an increase in glycolytic metabolism. Results from this study indicate that selection for growth rate has little effect in carcass and meat quality when rabbits are measured at the same stage of maturity.
Martínez-Cabrera, Hugo I; Jones, Cynthia S; Espino, Susana; Schenk, H Jochen
Wood density plays a key role in ecological strategies and life history variation in woody plants, but little is known about its anatomical basis in shrubs. We quantified the relationships between wood density, anatomy, and climate in 61 shrub species from eight field sites along latitudinal belts between 31° and 35° in North and South America. Measurements included cell dimensions, transverse areas of each xylem cell type and percentage contact between different cell types and vessels. Wood density was more significantly correlated with precipitation and aridity than with temperature. High wood density was achieved through reductions in cell size and increases in the proportion of wall relative to lumen. Wood density was independent of vessel traits, suggesting that this trait does not impose conduction limitations in shrubs. The proportion of fibers in direct contact with vessels decreased with and was independent of wood density, indicating that the number of fiber-vessel contacts does not explain the previously observed correlation between wood density and implosion resistance. Axial and radial parenchyma each had a significant but opposite association with wood density. Fiber size and wall thickness link wood density, life history, and ecological strategies by controlling the proportion of carbon invested per unit stem volume.
Robinson, Donna E.
Human service organizations are intended to stabilize low-income families and promote self-sufficiency by providing much needed services and benefits. Recipients, however, often do not get everything they need in terms of either benefits or service quality. Understandably, clients want the help they are entitled to and promised from providers who…
The superior fiber properties of Gossypium barbadense L. serve as a source of novel variation for improving fiber quality in Upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.), but introgression from G. barbadense has been largely unsuccessful due to hybrid breakdown and a lack of genetic and genomic resources. In an e...
Cotton fiber properties are very important to the yarn quality. Modern high-speed textile operations around the world require long, strong and fine cotton fibers. The objective of this research was to identify stable fiber quantitative trait loci (QTL) that could be used in cotton breeding through m...
Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class and culinary end-uses. Of interest to wheat breeders is to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for wheat kernel texture, milling performance, or end-use quality because it is imperative for wheat breeders to ascertain the genetic architecture ...
Identifying new QTLs and alleles in exotic germplasm is paramount for further improvement of quality traits in wheat. In the present study, a RIL population developed from a cross of an elite wheat line (WCB414) and an exotic genotype with supernumerary spikelets (SS) was used to identify QTLs and n...
Background: Community-based mentoring interventions can benefit high-risk youth. However, meta-analyses suggest that these benefits may be conditioned by protégés' personality. Objectives: Associations between protégés' personality traits and mentoring expectations, the quality of the mentoring relationship, the perceived mentoring contribution,…
There are concerns about antagonisms between immunity and animal productivity in livestock production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibody levels through a response to vaccination protocol, weaning timing, and their interaction on performance and carcass quality traits...
Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Pelícia, V C; Fascina, V B; Aoyagi, M M; Coutinho, L L; Sartori, J R; Moura, A S A M T
The objective of this study was to determine if a diet supplemented simultaneously with vitamins C and E would alleviate the negative effects of heat stress, applied between 28 and 42 days of age, on performance, carcass and meat quality traits of broiler chickens. A total of 384 male broiler chickens were assigned to a completely randomized design, with a 2×3 factorial arrangement (diet with or without vitamin supplementation and two ambient temperatures plus a pair-feeding group) and 16 replicates. Chickens were kept in thermoneutral conditions up to 28 days of age. They were then housed in groups of four per cage, in three environmentally controlled chambers: two thermoneutral (22.5 and 22.6°C) and one for heat stress (32°C). Half the chickens were fed a diet supplemented with vitamins C (257 to 288 mg/kg) and E (93 to 109 mg/kg). In the thermoneutral chambers, half of the chickens were pair-fed to heat stressed chickens, receiving each day the average feed intake recorded in the heat stress chamber in the previous day. Meat physical quality analyses were performed on the pectoralis major muscle. No ambient temperature×diet supplementation interaction effects were detected on performance, carcass, or meat quality traits. The supplemented diet resulted in lower growth performance, attributed either to a carry-over effect of the lower initial BW, or to a possible catabolic effect of vitamins C and E when supplemented simultaneously at high levels. Heat stress reduced slaughter and carcass weights, average daily gain and feed intake, and increased feed conversion. Growth performance of pair-fed chickens was similar to that of heat stressed chickens. Exposure to heat stress increased carcass and abdominal fat percentages, but reduced breast, liver and heart percentages. Pair-fed chickens showed the lowest fat percentage and their breast percentage was similar to controls. Heat stress increased meat pH and negatively affected meat color and cooking loss. In pair
Dalle Zotte, A; Szendrő, K; Gerencsér, Zs; Szendrő, Zs; Cullere, M; Odermatt, M; Radnai, I; Matics, Zs
The aim of the study was to examine the effects of genotype (Pannon Large × Pannon Ka/Large/or Hungarian Giant × Pannon Ka/Hung), housing system (Cage or small Pen) and hay supplementation (Pellet without or with Hay/P+Hay/) on carcass and meat (Longissimus dorsi/LD/ and hind leg/HL/) quality of growing rabbits. Large rabbits showed higher carcass weights, as well as higher fatness and meatiness compared to Hung rabbits. Caged rabbits were heavier, with higher prevalence of the mid part of the carcass, and showed higher fatness and lower meat toughness than Penned rabbits. Caged rabbits meat was richer in MUFA, but poorer in PUFA and Σ n-6 FA. Hay supplementation impaired carcass weight, carcass fatness, L* and a* color, and lipids content. P+Hay increased the HL meat content of C18:3 n-6 and C20:5 n-3 FA. Overall results offer further information on how alternative breeds, housing systems and feeding strategies can affect carcass traits and meat quality.
Paci, Gisella; Preziuso, Giovanna; D'Agata, Maria; Russo, Claudia; Dalle Zotte, Antonella
The effect of stocking density (16 rabbits/m(2), 5 rabbits/m(2), 2.5 rabbits/m(2), n = 60, Experiment 1) and group size (4 rabbits/cage, 8 rabbits/cage, 16 rabbits/cage, n = 88, Experiment 2) on productive performance, carcass and meat quality of a slow-growing rabbit population reared outdoors was investigated in two experiments. The highest stocking density induced the highest skin percentage. Lower stocking densities showed lower lightness of Biceps femoris and higher redness of Longissimus lumborum muscles. Four rabbits/cage group (Experiment 2) showed the highest daily weight gain and slaughter weight and the lowest skin percentage. The muscles of 16 rabbits/cage showed significantly higher pHu than 8 and 4 rabbits/cage. BF of 16 and 4 rabbits/cage showed higher L* value. Productive performance and meat quality of rabbits reared outdoors improved in low group size while stocking density needs more experiments. The best combination of density, group size and total available surface that showed the best production and carcass traits was of 5 rabbits/m(2), 4 rabbits/cage, and 0.8m(2).
Leal, Laura Carolina; Lima Neto, Mário Correia; de Oliveira, Antônio Fernando Morais; Andersen, Alan N; Leal, Inara R
Recent evidence suggests that the traditional view of myrmecochory as a highly diffuse interaction between diaspores and a wide range of ant species attracted to their elaiosomes may not be correct. The effectiveness of dispersal varies markedly among ant species, and combined with differential attractiveness of diaspores due to elaiosome size and composition, this raises the potential for myrmecochorous plants to target ant species that offer the highest quality dispersal services. We ask the question: Do particular physical and chemical traits of elaiosomes result in disproportionate removal of Euphorbiaceae diaspores by high-quality disperser ants in Caatinga vegetation of north-eastern Brazil? We offered seeds of five euphorb species that varied in morphological and chemical traits of elaiosomes to seed-dispersing ants. High-quality seed-disperser ants (species of Dinoponera, Ectatomma and Camponotus) were identified as those that rapidly collected and transported diaspores to their nests, often over substantial distances, whereas low-quality disperser ants (primarily species of Pheidole and Solenopsis) typically fed on elaiosomes in situ, and only ever transported diaspores very short distances. Low-quality disperser ants were equally attracted to the elaiosomes of all study species. However, high-quality dispersers showed a strong preference for diaspores with the highest elaiosome mass (and especially proportional mass). As far as we are aware, this is the first study to identify a mechanism of diaspore selection by high-quality ant dispersers based on elaiosome traits under field conditions. Our findings suggest that myrmecochorous plants can preferentially target high-quality seed-disperser ants through the evolution of particular elaiosome traits.
Liu, Wen-Chao; Chen, Shi-Yi; Jia, Xian-Bo; Wang, Jie; Lai, Song-Jia
Appetite-related neuropeptides proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) are essential for regulating feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of variants in POMC and NPY genes on growth, carcass and meat quality traits in rabbits. A total of six SNPs were identified for POMC (n = 2) and NPY (n = 4) genes by direct sequencing. Three SNPs were subsequently genotyped by using MassArray system (Sequenom iPLEXassay) in 235 individuals, which belong to three meat rabbit breeds, including 93 Ira rabbits; 81 Champagne rabbits and 61 Tianfu black rabbits. The SNP c.112-12G>T was in intron-exon boundaries (intron 1) of POMC gene, and the association analysis showed that individuals with TT genotype had a greater 84 d body weight (BW84), eviscerated weight and semi-eviscerated weight than those with GT genotype (p<0.05); the TT individuals were also higher than those GG in the ripe meat ratio (RMR) (p<0.05). The g.1778G>C SNP, which was in complete linkage with other three SNPs (g.1491G>A, g.1525G>T and g.1530C>T) in intron 1 of NPY gene, was significantly correlated with eviscerated slaughter percentage and semi-eviscerated slaughter percentage in rabbits, and the individuals with CC genotype had a better performance than CG genotype (p<0.05). These findings would provide primary clues for the biological roles of POMC and NPY underlying the rabbit growth-related traits. PMID:25049995
Liu, Wen-Chao; Chen, Shi-Yi; Jia, Xian-Bo; Wang, Jie; Lai, Song-Jia
Appetite-related neuropeptides proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) are essential for regulating feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of variants in POMC and NPY genes on growth, carcass and meat quality traits in rabbits. A total of six SNPs were identified for POMC (n = 2) and NPY (n = 4) genes by direct sequencing. Three SNPs were subsequently genotyped by using MassArray system (Sequenom iPLEXassay) in 235 individuals, which belong to three meat rabbit breeds, including 93 Ira rabbits; 81 Champagne rabbits and 61 Tianfu black rabbits. The SNP c.112-12G>T was in intron-exon boundaries (intron 1) of POMC gene, and the association analysis showed that individuals with TT genotype had a greater 84 d body weight (BW84), eviscerated weight and semi-eviscerated weight than those with GT genotype (p<0.05); the TT individuals were also higher than those GG in the ripe meat ratio (RMR) (p<0.05). The g.1778G>C SNP, which was in complete linkage with other three SNPs (g.1491G>A, g.1525G>T and g.1530C>T) in intron 1 of NPY gene, was significantly correlated with eviscerated slaughter percentage and semi-eviscerated slaughter percentage in rabbits, and the individuals with CC genotype had a better performance than CG genotype (p<0.05). These findings would provide primary clues for the biological roles of POMC and NPY underlying the rabbit growth-related traits.
Sasson, Daniel A; Munoz, Patricio R; Gezan, Salvador A; Miller, Christine W
The size of weapons and testes can be central to male reproductive success. Yet, the expression of these traits is often extremely variable. Studies are needed that take a more complete organism perspective, investigating the sources of variation in both traits simultaneously and using developmental conditions that mimic those in nature. In this study, we investigated the components of variation in weapon and testis sizes using the leaf-footed cactus bug, Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae) on three natural developmental diets. We show that the developmental diet has profound effects on both weapon and testis expression and scaling. Intriguingly, males in the medium-quality diet express large weapons but have relatively tiny testes, suggesting complex allocation decisions. We also find that heritability, evolvability, and additive genetic variation are highest in the high-quality diet for testis and body mass. This result suggests that these traits may have an enhanced ability to respond to selection during a small window of time each year when this diet is available. Taken together, these results illustrate that normal, seasonal fluctuations in the nutritional environment may play a large role in the expression of sexually selected traits and the ability of these traits to respond to selection.
Giraldo, Patricia; Royo, Conxita; González, Mirvana; Carrillo, Jose M.
Association mapping was performed for 18 agromorphological and grain quality traits in a set of 183 Spanish landraces, including subspecies durum, turgidum and dicoccon, genotyped with 749 DArT (Diversity Array Technology) markers. Large genetic and phenotypic variability was detected, being the level of diversity among the chromosomes and genomes heterogeneous, and sometimes complementary, among subspecies. Overall, 356 were monomorphic in at least one subspecies, mainly in dicoccon, and some of them coincidental between subspecies, especially between turgidum and dicoccon. Several of those fixed markers were associated to plant responses to environmental stresses or linked to genes subjected to selection during tetraploid wheat domestication process. A total of 85 stable MTAs (marker–trait associations) have been identified for the agromorphological and quality parameters, some of them common among subspecies and others subspecies-specific. For all the traits, we have found MTAs explaining more than 10% of the phenotypic variation in any of the three subspecies. The number of MTAs on the B genome exceeded that on the A genome in subsp. durum, equalled in turgidum and was below in dicoccon. The validation of several adaptive and quality trait MTAs by combining the association mapping with an analysis of the signature of selection, identifying the putative gene function of the marker, or by coincidences with previous reports, showed that our approach was successful for the detection of MTAs and the high potential of the collection to identify marker–trait associations. Novel MTAs not previously reported, some of them subspecies specific, have been described and provide new information about the genetic control of complex traits. PMID:27846306
Li, Cong; Dong, Yating; Zhao, Tianlun; Li, Ling; Li, Cheng; Yu, En; Mei, Lei; Daud, M. K.; He, Qiuling; Chen, Jinhong; Zhu, Shuijin
It is of significance to discover genes related to fiber quality and yield traits and tightly linked markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in cotton breeding. In this study, 188 F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), derived from a intraspecific cross between HS46 and MARCABUCAG8US-1-88 were genotyped by the cotton 63K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay. Field trials were conducted in Sanya, Hainan Province, during the 2014–2015 cropping seasons under standard conditions. Results revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) among RILs, environments and replications for fiber quality and yield traits. Broad-sense heritabilities of all traits including fiber length, fiber uniformity, micronaire, fiber elongation, fiber strength, boll weight, and lint percentage ranged from 0.26 to 0.66. A 1784.28 cM (centimorgans) linkage map, harboring 2618 polymorphic SNP markers, was constructed, which had 0.68 cM per marker density. Seventy-one quantitative trait locus (QTLs) for fiber quality and yield traits were detected on 21 chromosomes, explaining 4.70∼32.28% phenotypic variance, in which 16 were identified as stable QTLs across two environments. Meanwhile, 12 certain regions were investigated to be involved in the control of one (hotspot) or more (cluster) traits, mainly focused on Chr05, Chr09, Chr10, Chr14, Chr19, and Chr20. Nineteen pairs of epistatic QTLs (e-QTLs) were identified, of which two pairs involved in two additive QTLs. These additive QTLs, e-QTLs, and QTL clusters were tightly linked to SNP markers, which may serve as target regions for map-based cloning, gene discovery, and MAS in cotton breeding. PMID:27660632
Cavanagh, Colin R; Taylor, Julian; Larroque, Oscar; Coombes, Neil; Verbyla, Arunas P; Nath, Zena; Kutty, Ibrahim; Rampling, Lynette; Butow, Barbara; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Tomoskozi, Sandor; Balazs, Gabor; Békés, Ferenc; Mann, Gulay; Quail, Ken J; Southan, Michael; Morell, Matthew K; Newberry, Marcus
The genetic and phenotypic relationships among wheat quality predictors and sponge and dough bread making were evaluated in a population derived from a cross between an Australian cultivar 'Chara' and a Canadian cultivar 'Glenlea'. The genetic correlation across sites for sponge and dough loaf volume was high; however, phenotypic correlations across sites for loaf volume were relatively low compared with rheological tests. The large difference between sites was most likely due to temperature differences during grain development reflected in a decrease in the percentage of unextractable polymeric protein and mixing time. Predictive tests (mixograph, extensograph, protein content and composition, micro-zeleny and flour viscosity) showed inconsistent and generally poor correlations with end-product performance (baking volume and slice area) at both sites, with no single parameter being effective as a predictor of end-product performance. The difference in the relationships between genetic and phenotypic correlations highlights the requirement to develop alternative methods of selection for breeders and bakers in order to maximise both genetic gain and predictive assessment of grain quality.
Guzek, Dominika; Głąbska, Dominika; Głąbski, Krzysztof; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka
Crossbreeding with Duroc breed allows to improve meat quality, but no data is available regarding specific influence of Duroc breed on characteristics of meat in the case of crossbreeding with various breeds. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding Polish Landrace dames with Duroc sires on quality features of meat in reference to Polish Landrace breed. The objects of the study were Longissimus dorsi lumborum pork muscles obtained from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed animals. Sarcomere length measurements were conducted using microscopic method and basic chemical composition measurement was analyzed using spectrophotometric scanning. Texture analysis of meat samples, performed after thermal treatment was expressed by Warner-Bratzler shear force and color analysis was obtained using CIE L*a*b* color system. No differences in sarcomere length, shear force as well as components of color values between pork meat originated from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed were observed. Analysis of basic chemical composition revealed higher fat and lower ash contents in the case of meat of Polish Landrace breed animals. It was concluded that the actual impact of breed on meat characteristics is possibly altered by other factors. It may be suggested that influence of basic chemical composition on color of meat is breed-related.
Muhlisin; Panjono; Lee, Sung-Jin; Lee, Jeong Koo; Lee, Sung Ki
This study was conducted to observe the effects of crossbreeding and gender on the carcass traits and meat quality of Korean Native Black Pig (KNP) and KNP×Duroc crossbred (KNP×D). A total of 50 pigs comprising seven KNP barrows, eight KNP gilts, twenty KNP×D barrows and fifteen KNP×D gilts were used in this study. Animals were reared in the same housing condition with same feed diet for six months prior to slaughter. After an overnight chilling, the carcasses were graded, and samples of Musculus longissimus dorsi were obtained for meat quality analysis. The slaughter and carcass weights and dressing percentage of KNP×D were higher (p<0.001) than those of KNP. The slaughter and carcass weights and backfat thickness of barrows were higher (p<0.01) than those of gilts. There were no significant difference in carcass conformation and quality grade between KNP and KNP×D as well as barrow and gilt. Fat content of KNP×D was higher (p<0.001) than that of KNP. Fat content of barrow was higher (p<0.001) than that of gilt. There was interaction between crossbreeding and gender on the fat content. KNP gilt showed higher fat content than KNP barrow whereas KNP×D barrow showed higher fat content than KNP×D gilt. Lightness, redness, yellowness, chroma and hue angle values and color preference of meat of KNP×D were lower (p<0.001) than those of KNP. Redness, yellowness and chroma values of meat of barrow were lower (p<0.05) than those of gilt. It is concluded that crossbreeding KNP with Duroc increases carcass productivity and meat fat but decreases meat color values and preference. Crossbreeding of KNP with Duroc produces a better fat deposition in meat of barrows than in gilts. PMID:25050045
Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.
Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan
The aim of this study was to establish the effects of storage temperature on some egg quality in table eggs during 28 days. A total of 100 fresh eggs were obtained from laying hens (Nick chick) that were raised on a local commercial farm. All eggs were collected over a 24 h period. A total of 100 eggs randomly divided into 2 treatments (5 °C and 22 °C; 10 replicates each) with 50 eggs examined in each. Ten eggs from each group were analyzed for eggs weight loss, specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen pH after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage at 5 and 22 °C. All eggs were individually marked and weighed at the beginning of the experiment to calculate egg weight loss. The egg weight loss in eggs stored at 5 °C significantly (P<0.01) lower than the eggs stored at 22 °C group for the entire storage period. The eggs stored at 5 °C showed higher levels of specific gravity than eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage (P<0.01; P<0.05). The albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk index of eggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that of eggs stored at 22 °C during the storage periods. The albumen pH of eggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (P<0.01) lower than that of eggs stored at 22 °C during storage period. The results indicated that the eggs stored at 5 °C are better off in terms of protecting quality compared to the eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage.
Parks, W.S.; Mirecki, J.E.; Kingsbury, J.A.
Hydrogeologic and ground-water-quality data were collected near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee to determine the extent and magnitude of ground-water contamination in offsite areas and to assess the potential for contamination of nearby water-supply wells. New methods were used to collect ground-water samples from the alluvial aquifer at six offsite stations at depths of less than about 40 feet below land surface. In addition, 36 offsite wells were installed at these stations to collect samples from the alluvial aquifer and to depths of about 150 feet in the deeper Fort Pillow aquifer. Ground-water samples collected by the new methods and from the 36 offsite wells were analyzed for selected volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The samples collected from the 36 wells also were analyzed for major and trace inorganic constituents. Naphthalene and some volatile organic compounds were detected at low concentrations in samples from both the alluvial aquifer and the Fort Pillow aquifer. To assess the potential for water-supply contamination from the site, four water-supply wells to the east (upgradient) and three wells to the west (down- gradient) of the abandoned plant site were sampled. These samples were analyzed for the same analytes as the samples from the 36 wells. Although volatile organic compounds and elevated concentrations of trace and major inorganic constituents were measured in samples from some wells east of the site, no organic compounds associated with the wood- preserving process were detected. No contaminants from the site were detected in samples from wells west of the site.
Lebret, B; Ecolan, P; Bonhomme, N; Méteau, K; Prunier, A
Sensory quality of pork is a complex phenotype determined by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. This study aimed at describing the respective influences of breed and production system on the development of pork quality. Plasma stress indicators and Longissimus muscle (LM) composition, physicochemical and sensory quality traits were determined in two contrasted breeds - the conventional Large White (LW, n=40) and the French local Basque (B, n=60). Pigs were reared in either a conventional (C; n=20 per breed), alternative (A; sawdust bedding and outdoor area, n=20 per breed) or extensive system (E; free-range, n=20 B). All the pigs from A and C systems were slaughtered at the same slaughterhouse, whereas B pigs from the E system were slaughtered at a local commercial abattoir. Major breed differences were found for almost all traits under study. LM from B pigs exhibited higher lipid, lower water and collagen concentrations, as well as lower collagen thermal solubility (P0.05) influence plasma stress indicators, LM chemical composition and physicochemical or sensory traits of pork. In contrast, within the B pigs, the E system affected the meat quality more. Lower plasma cortisol levels (P<0.05), but higher plasma lactate, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, and more skin lesions (P<0.05), indicating higher muscular activity during pre-slaughter handling, were found in pigs produced in the E compared with the C system. E pigs exhibited higher meat pH1 and pHu values and shear force (P<0.01) and exhibited lower lightness, hue angle and drip and thawing losses (P<0.01) compared with the C pigs, whereas LM lipid, protein or collagen concentrations were not affected. Regarding sensory traits, the E system produced redder meat, but did not impact the eating quality of pork. Altogether, this study demonstrates that differences in meat quality between B and LW breeds can be modulated by extensive pig production system.
Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Katyal, Mehak; Bhinder, Seerat; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru
The relationship between protein molecular weight (MW) distribution, quality characteristics and muffin making properties amongst Indian wheat varieties were evaluated. Flours from varieties with higher grain weight showed lower proportion of fine particles. Lactic acid solvent retention capacity (LASRC), sedimentation value (SV) and dough stability (DS) correlated with the proportion of 0-55 μm size particles. Paste peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity showed positive correlation with polymeric protein and negatively with monomeric protein, α-amylase activity and sodium carbonate solvent retention capacity (NaSRC). Gluten strength indicators such as DS, dough development time (DDT), LASRC and gluten index (GI) were positively related to polymeric protein and negatively to monomeric protein. Both G' and G″ were correlated significantly with GI, LASRC, DS and DDT. The varieties that possesses high MW glutenin subunits combinations of 91 kDa + 84 kDa + 78 kDa + 74 kDa showed lower G' and G″. Muffin volume was positively correlated with gluten content and LASRC.
Kim, Sun Hyo; Heo, Kang Nyung
The aim of this research was to compare the bioactive compound content and quality traits of breast meat from male and female Korean native ducks (KND) and commercial ducks (CD, Cherry Valley). Meat from three 6-wk old birds of each sex from KND and CD were evaluated for carcass and breast weights, pH, color, cooking loss, shear force, and bioactive compound (creatine, carnosine, anserine, betaine, and L-carnitine) content. KND showed significantly higher carcass weights than CD whereas no such difference (p>0.05) was found between male and female ducks. The breed and sex had no significant effects on the breast weight, pH value, and shear force. However, KND had significantly lower cooking loss values than did CD. Creatine, anserine, and L-carnitine contents were significantly higher in KND than in CD and were predominant in female ducks compared to males. The results of this study provide rare information regarding the amounts and the determinants of several bioactive compounds in duck meat, which can be useful for selection and breeding programs, and for popularizing indigenous duck meat. PMID:26761808
Carvalho, Ana; Paiva, Jorge; Louzada, José; Lima-Brito, José
In the last years, forestry scientists have adapted genomics and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to the search for candidate genes related to the transcriptomics of secondary growth and wood formation in several tree species. Gymnosperms, in particular, the conifers, are ecologically and economically important, namely, for the production of wood and other forestry end products. Until very recently, no whole genome sequencing of a conifer genome was available. Due to the gradual improvement of the NGS technologies and inherent bioinformatics tools, two draft assemblies of the whole genomes sequence of Picea abies and Picea glauca arose in the current year. These draft genome assemblies will bring new insights about the structure, content, and evolution of the conifer genomes. Furthermore, new directions in the forestry, breeding and research of conifers will be discussed in the following. The identification of genes associated with the xylem transcriptome and the knowledge of their regulatory mechanisms will provide less time-consuming breeding cycles and a high accuracy for the selection of traits related to wood production and quality. PMID:24288610
Carvalho, Ana; Paiva, Jorge; Louzada, José; Lima-Brito, José
In the last years, forestry scientists have adapted genomics and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to the search for candidate genes related to the transcriptomics of secondary growth and wood formation in several tree species. Gymnosperms, in particular, the conifers, are ecologically and economically important, namely, for the production of wood and other forestry end products. Until very recently, no whole genome sequencing of a conifer genome was available. Due to the gradual improvement of the NGS technologies and inherent bioinformatics tools, two draft assemblies of the whole genomes sequence of Picea abies and Picea glauca arose in the current year. These draft genome assemblies will bring new insights about the structure, content, and evolution of the conifer genomes. Furthermore, new directions in the forestry, breeding and research of conifers will be discussed in the following. The identification of genes associated with the xylem transcriptome and the knowledge of their regulatory mechanisms will provide less time-consuming breeding cycles and a high accuracy for the selection of traits related to wood production and quality.
Lee, K-T; Lee, Y-M; Alam, M; Choi, B H; Park, M R; Kim, K-S; Kim, T-H; Kim, J-J
A whole genome association (WGA) study was performed to detect significant polymorphisms for meat quality traits in an F2 cross population (N = 478) that were generated with Korean native pig sires and Landrace dams in National Livestock Research Institute, Songwhan, Korea. The animals were genotyped using Illumina porcine 60k SNP beadchips, in which a set of 46,865 SNPs were available for the WGA analyses on ten carcass quality traits; live weight, crude protein, crude lipids, crude ash, water holding capacity, drip loss, shear force, CIE L, CIE a and CIE b. Phenotypes were regressed on additive and dominance effects for each SNP using a simple linear regression model, after adjusting for sex, sire and slaughter stage as fixed effects. With the significant SNPs for each trait (p<0.001), a stepwise regression procedure was applied to determine the best set of SNPs with the additive and/or dominance effects. A total of 106 SNPs, or quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected, and about 32 to 66% of the total phenotypic variation was explained by the significant SNPs for each trait. The QTL were identified in most porcine chromosomes (SSCs), in which majority of the QTL were detected in SSCs 1, 2, 12, 13, 14 and 16. Several QTL clusters were identified on SSCs 12, 16 and 17, and a cluster of QTL influencing crude protein, crude lipid, drip loss, shear force, CIE a and CIE b were located between 20 and 29 Mb of SSC12. A pleiotropic QTL for drip loss, CIE L and CIE b was also detected on SSC16. These QTL need to be validated in commercial pig populations for genetic improvement in meat quality via marker-assisted selection.
Liu, X; Guo, X Y; Xu, X Z; Wu, M; Zhang, X; Li, Q; Ma, P P; Zhang, Y; Wang, C Y; Geng, F J; Qin, C H; Liu, L; Shi, W H; Wang, Y C; Yu, Y
DNA methylation is essential for adipose deposition in mammals. We screened SNPs of the bovine DNA methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) gene in Snow Dragon beef, a commercial beef cattle population in China. Nine SNPs were found in the population and three of six novel SNPs were chosen for genotyping and analyzing a possible association with 16 meat quality traits. The frequencies of the alleles and genotypes of the three SNPs in Snow Dragon beef were similar to those in their terminal-paternal breed, Wagyu. Association analysis disclosed that SNP1 was not associated with any of the traits; SNP2 was significantly associated with lean meat color score and chuck short rib score, and SNP3 had a significant effect on dressing percentage and back-fat thickness in the beef population. The individuals with genotype GG for SNP2 had a 25.7% increase in lean meat color score and a 146% increase in chuck short rib score, compared with genotype AA. The cattle with genotype AG for SNP3 had 35.7 and 24% increases in dressing percentage and 28.8 and 29.2% increases in back-fat thickness, compared with genotypes GG and AA, respectively. Genotypic combination analysis revealed significant interactions between SNP1 and SNP2 and between SNP2 and SNP3 for the traits rib-eye area and live weight. We conclude that there is considerable evidence that DNMT3b is a determiner of beef quality traits.
Lee, Young-Sup; Jeong, Hyeonsoo; Taye, Mengistie; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Ka, Sojeong; Ryu, Youn-Chul; Cho, Seoae
The missing heritability has been a major problem in the analysis of best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP). We introduced the traditional genome-wide association study (GWAS) into the BLUP to improve the heritability estimation. We analyzed eight pork quality traits of the Berkshire breeds using GWAS and BLUP. GWAS detects the putative quantitative trait loci regions given traits. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were obtained using GWAS results with p value <0.01. BLUP analyzed with significant SNPs was much more accurate than that with total genotyped SNPs in terms of narrow-sense heritability. It implies that genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) of pork quality traits can be calculated by BLUP via GWAS. The GWAS model was the linear regression using PLINK and BLUP model was the G-BLUP and SNP-GBLUP. The SNP-GBLUP uses SNP-SNP relationship matrix. The BLUP analysis using preprocessing of GWAS can be one of the possible alternatives of solving the missing heritability problem and it can provide alternative BLUP method which can find more accurate GEBVs.
Mudalal, S; Lorenzi, M; Soglia, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M
One of the consequences of intense genetic selection for growth of poultry is the recent appearance of abnormalities in chicken breast muscles, such as white striping (characterised by superficial white striations) and wooden breast (characterised by pale and bulged areas with substantial hardness). The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality traits of chicken fillets affected by white striping and wooden breast abnormalities. In two replications, 192 fillets were divided into the following four classes: normal (n=48; absence of any visual defects), white striping (n=48, presence of white striations), wooden breast (n=48; diffusely presence of hardened areas) and white striping/wooden breast (n=48; fillets affected by both abnormalities). Morphology, raw meat texture and technological properties were assessed in both unprocessed (pH, colour, drip loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force) and marinated meat (marinade uptake, purge loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force). Fillets affected by white striping, wooden breast or both abnormalities exhibited higher breast weights compared with normal fillets (305.5, 298.7, 318.3 and 244.7 g, respectively; P<0.001). Wooden breast, either alone or in combination with white striping, was associated with a significant (P<0.001) increase of fillet thickness in the caudal area and raw meat hardness compared with both normal and the white striping abnormality, for which there was no difference. Overall, the occurrence of the individual and combined white striping and wooden breast abnormalities resulted in substantial reduction in the quality of breast meat, although these abnormalities are associated with distinct characteristics. Wooden breast fillets showed lower marinade uptake and higher cooking losses than white-striped fillets for both unprocessed and marinated meats. On the other hand, white-striped fillets showed a moderate decline in marinade and cooking yield. Fillets affected by both abnormalities
Information to assist consumers in choosing a wood burning appliance, including types of appliances, the differences between certified and non-certified appliances, and alternative wood heating options.
Alagón, Gilbert; Arce, Orlando; Serrano, Paula; Ródenas, Luis; Martínez-Paredes, Eugenio; Cervera, Concepción; Pascual, Juan José; Pascual, Mariam
The effect of dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on carcass and meat quality of longissimus muscle was studied in 100 growing rabbits from 28 to 59days old. Diets with no DDGS (C), barley (Db20), wheat (Dw20) and corn (Dc20) DDGS at 20% and corn (Dc40) DDGS at 40% were formulated. No effects on most of the carcass traits, texture and water holding capacity were found. Barley and corn DDGS led to a higher dissectible fat percentage. Meat redness was higher with Dw20 and pH was higher with Dw20 and Db20 than with Dc20. Protein and saturated fatty acids concentration declined as corn DDGS level increased. Dc40 led to the lowest saturated/unsaturated fatty acid ratio, atherogenic index and thrombogenic index. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of these DDGS at 20% did not affect most of the carcass and meat quality traits in rabbits.
Park, Ki Jin; Sa, Kyu Jin; Koh, Hee-Jong; Lee, Ju Kyong
In order to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the eating quality of waxy corn and sweet corn (Zea mays L.), QTL analysis was conducted on an F2 population derived from a cross between a waxy corn inbred line and a sweet corn inbred line. Ten QTLs for pericarp thickness (PER), amylose content (AMY), dextrose content (DEX) and sucrose content (SUC) were found in the 158 F2 families. Among them, four QTLs, qAMY4 (10.43%), qAMY9 (19.33%), qDEX4 (21.31%) and qSUC4 (30.71%), may be considered as major QTLs. Three of these, qAMY4, qDEX4 and qSUC4, were found to be located within a region flanked by two adjacent SSR markers on chromosome 4 (umc1088 and bnlg1265), making this SSR marker pair a useful selection tool for screening the eating quality traits of AMY, DEX and SUC. The QTL for amylose content was found to be located between markers phi027 and umc1634, raising the possibility of its identity being the Wx1 gene, which encodes a granule-bound amylose synthase. The new QTLs identified by the present study could serve as useful molecular markers for selecting important eating quality traits in subsequent waxy corn breeding studies. PMID:24273428
Zhang, Z R; Liu, Y P; Jiang, X; Du, H R; Zhu, Q
This study was aimed at investigating the effect of the calpain 1 (CAPN1) gene on carcass and meat quality traits in eight meat-type chicken populations, including five pure lines (developed from Chinese local breeds) and three cross-breeds. Primer pairs for the Coding Sequence (CDS) region in CAPN1 were designed from the chicken genomic sequence database. Polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) and DNA sequencing. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP; C2546T, G3535A and C7198A) were detected among individuals in each population. The associations of their haplotypes (H1 = CGA, H2 = CGC, H3 = CAA, H4 = CAC, H5 = TGA and H7 = TAA) with chicken breast muscle fibre and carcass traits were analysed. Results showed that the haplotypes were associated with live weight (LW), carcass weight (CW), breast muscle weight (BMW) and leg muscle weight (LMW) (p < 0.05), and were also related to eviscerated percentage (%EP) and breast muscle fibre density (p < 0.01). H1H3 haplotype was dominant for LW, CW and BMW; H1H5 haplotype was dominant for EP; H3H4 haplotype was dominant for LMW and H1H1 haplotype was dominant for BFD. It was concluded that the CAPN1 gene may be a major gene affecting meat quality traits of chicken or it is linked with the major gene. H1H3, H1H5 and H3H4 were the most advantageous haplotypes for carcass traits whereas H1H1 was the positive haplotype for breast muscle fibre trait.
Afolabi, Ayo Samuel; Oluwafolakemi Sadare, Olawumi; Olawale Daramola, Michael
In this article the effect of dispersion method and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) loading on the quality and performance of a nanocomposite adhesive is reported. The nanocomposite soy protein isolate adhesive was successfully developed by incorporating CNTs into the soy protein isolate (SPI) for enhanced bond strength and water resistance. Dispersion methods, namely mechanical (shear) mixing and mechanical/sonication were employed to aid good dispersion and interfacial interaction between soy protein matrix and the carbon nanofillers during the preparation of the adhesive. The concentration of the CNT was varied from 0.1-0.7 wt% in the nanocomposite adhesive. The morphology and the surface chemistry of the adhesives were checked with SEM and FTIR, respectively. The shear strength of the developed adhesives was investigated according to European standard (EN-204) for interior wood application on a tensile testing machine. The morphological structure of the nanocomposite adhesive obtained from SEM images showed homogeneous dispersion of CNTs in SPI using the two dispersion methods; shear mixing and sonication/shear mixing. Fourier transform infrared spectra showed chemical functionalities and successful interaction between CNTs and SPI adhesive. Thermogravimetric profile of the adhesive samples showed that the newly developed nanocomposite adhesive was thermally stable at a temperature up to about 600 °C at a higher percentage loading of 0.5 wt% CNTs. The result showed that sonication method of dispersion of CNTs into the SPI adhesive had a higher shear strength compared to the mechanical method of dispersion both at dry and wet state.
Parks, W.S.; Carmichael, J.K.; Mirecki, J.E.
Direct Push Technology (DPT) and a modified-auger method of sampling were used at an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, to collect lithologic data and ground-water samples in an area known to be affected by a subsurface creosote plume. The groundwater samples were analyzed using (1) gas chromatography with photo-ionization detection (GS/PID), (2) high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (3) colonmetric phenol analysis, and (4) toxicity bioassay. DPT piezocone and cone-penetrometer-type tools provided lithologic data and ground-water samples at two onsite stations to a depth of refusal of about 35 feet below land surface. With the assistance of an auger rig, this depth was extended to about 65 feet by pushing the tools in advance of the augers. Following the DPT work, a modified-auger method was tested by the USGS. This method left doubt as to the integrity of the samples collected once zones of contamination were penetrated. GC/PID and HPLC methods of water-quality analysis provided the most data concerning contaminants in the ground-water and proved to be the most effective in creosote plume detection. Analyses from these methods showed that the highest concentrations of contaminants were detected at depths less than about 35 feet below land surface. Phenol analyses provided data supplemental to the HPLC analyses. Bioassay data indicated that toxicity associated with the plume extended to depths of about 55 feet below land surface.
Selection enhanced estimates of µ-calpain, calpastatin, and dacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 genetic effects on pre-weaning performance, carcass quality traits, and residual variance of tenderness in composite ... cattle
Selection of the composite MARC III population for markers allowed better estimates of effects and inheritance of markers for targeted carcass quality traits (n=254) and nontargeted traits and an evaluation of SNP specific residual variance models for tenderness. Genotypic effects of CAPN1 haplotyp...
Xiccato, G; Trocino, A; Majolini, D; Tazzoli, M; Zuffellato, A
During growth (from 27 to 75 days of age), 384 rabbits were kept in different types of wire-net cages: 72 individual cages (72 rabbits; 10 animals/m2), 48 bicellular cages (96 rabbits; 2 rabbits/cage; 18 animals/m2) and 24 collective cages (216 rabbits; 9 rabbits/cage; 18 animals/m2). The rabbits housed in individual cages showed higher daily weight gain both during the fattening period (from 52 to 75 days of age) and during the whole period of growth (43.0 v. 41.8 and 41.5 g/day; P < 0.05), and they had a higher final live weight at 75 days of age (2678 v. 2619 and 2602 g; P < 0.05) compared with the rabbits in the bicellular and collective cages, respectively. Rabbits in individual cages ingested more feed (133 v. 127 and 126 g/day; P < 0.01), but the feed conversion did not differ significantly among rabbits housed in the three types of cages. At slaughter, the carcass traits and meat quality were weakly affected by the housing system. The transport losses were higher in rabbits kept in individual and bicellular cages compared with those reared in collective cages (3.1% and 2.9% v. 2.2%; P < 0.01). In rabbits kept in individual cages, the hind leg muscle to bone ratio was higher (6.35 v. 6.19 and 5.91; P < 0.05) compared with the bicellular and collective cages, respectively. The pH and colour of the longissimus lumborum did not change with the housing system, while the b* index of the biceps femoris was lower (3.04 and 3.32 v. 4.26; P < 0.001) in the rabbits kept in individual and bicellular cages, respectively, than in those kept in collective cages. In conclusion, the rabbits housed in individual cages showed higher daily growth than rabbits kept in bicellular or collective cages, but they had a similar feed conversion and carcass quality. Differently, neither in vivo performance nor slaughter results differed among the rabbits kept in bicellular cages or in collective cages. The meat colour may be affected by the housing system, but to an extent that is
Bradfield, A.D.; Flexner, N.M.; Webster, D.A.
An investigation of water quality, organic sediment chemistry, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, was conducted during December 1990. The study was designed to assess the extent of possible contamination of water and biota in the streams from creosote-related discharge originating at this Superfund site. Central Creek, adjacent to the plant, had degraded water quality and biological conditions. Water samples from the most downstream station on Central Creek contained 30 micrograms per liter of pentachlorophenol, which exceeds the State's criterion maximum concentrations of 9 micrograms per liter for fish and aquatic life. Bottom-sediment samples from stations on Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, napthalene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1,400 to 2,500 micrograms per kilogram. Chronic or acute toxicity resulted during laboratory experiments using test organisms exposed to creosote-related contaminants. Sediment elutriate samples from Central Creek caused slightly to highly toxic effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Pimephales promelas, and Photobacterium phosphoreum. Fish-tissue samples from this station contained concentrations of naphthalene. dibenzofuran, fluorene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1.5 to 3.9 micrograms per kilogram Blue-green algae at this station represented about 79 percent of the organisms counted, whereas diatoms accounted for only 11 percent. Benthic invertebrate and fish samples from Central Creek had low diversity and density. Sediment samples from a station on the South Fork Forked Deer River downstream from its confluence with Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, anthracene, chrysene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrere, and phenanthrene ranging from 2,800 to 69,000 micrograms per kilogram. Sediment elutriate samples using water as elutriate from this station contained concentrations of extractable organic compounds ranging from an estimated
Kunihisa, Miyuki; Moriya, Shigeki; Abe, Kazuyuki; Okada, Kazuma; Haji, Takashi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Kim, Hoytaek; Nishitani, Chikako; Terakami, Shingo; Yamamoto, Toshiya
Many important apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit quality traits are regulated by multiple genes, and more information about quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these traits is required for marker-assisted selection. In this study, we constructed genetic linkage maps of the Japanese apple cultivars ‘Orin’ and ‘Akane’ using F1 seedlings derived from a cross between these cultivars. The ‘Orin’ map consisted of 251 loci covering 17 linkage groups (LGs; total length 1095.3 cM), and the ‘Akane’ map consisted of 291 loci covering 18 LGs (total length 1098.2 cM). We performed QTL analysis for 16 important traits, and found that four QTLs related to harvest time explained about 70% of genetic variation, and these will be useful for marker-assisted selection. The QTL for early harvest time in LG15 was located very close to the QTL for preharvest fruit drop. The QTL for skin color depth was located around the position of MYB1 in LG9, which suggested that alleles harbored by ‘Akane’ are regulating red color depth with different degrees of effect. We also analyzed soluble solids and sugar component contents, and found that a QTL for soluble solids content in LG16 could be explained by the amount of sorbitol and fructose. PMID:25320559
Mikulski, D; Jankowski, J; Zdunczyk, Z; Juskiewicz, J; Slominski, B A
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different dietary levels of low-glucosinolate rapeseed meal (RSM) on growth performance, blood thyroid hormone concentration, carcass traits, and chemical composition, physicochemical properties, and fatty acid profile of breast meat in growing turkeys. The experiment lasted for 21 wk. Large White BIG-6 turkeys were fed isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets containing 0, 60, 120, and 180 g/kg of RSM. Each experimental group was comprised of 7 replicates/pen of 28 birds each. There was no effect of graded levels of RSM on final BW. An increase in the inclusion rate of RSM was followed by a linear increase in feed conversion ratio, which was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the group fed 180 g/kg of RSM. The blood levels of free triiodothyronine decreased significantly (P < 0.05) regardless of the dietary level of RSM. No significant changes in the carcass dressing percentage or the meat fat content were observed. Significant differences were found in the fatty acid composition and physicochemical properties of breast meat. The concentrations of margaroleic acid and saturated fatty acids, including myristic and palmitic acid, in meat from male turkeys fed 120 and 180 g/kg of RSM decreased linearly; whereas the levels of oleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids, including linoleic and linolenic acid (an n-3 fatty acid), increased linearly. An increase in RSM content of the diets was accompanied by the unfavorable changes in selected functional properties of meat, including a significant increase in drip loss in groups fed 120 g/kg of RSM (from 1.85 to 2.38%) and 180 g/kg of RSM (from 1.85 to 3.02%) and a decrease in Warner-Bratzler shear force values in turkeys fed 180 g/kg of RSM (from 19.1 to 15.8 N). The results suggest that the quality of turkey meat could be affected by impaired triiodothyronine secretion caused by dietary RSM.
Fulton, J E; Soller, M; Lund, A R; Arango, J; Lipkin, E
Avian eggshell quality is an important trait for commercial egg production, as the eggshell is the primary packaging material and antimicrobial barrier for the internal food resource. Strong eggshells are essential to ensure that eggs can reach their final destination without damage. Ovocalyxin-32 (OCX32) is a matrix protein found within the outer layers of the eggshell and in the cuticle. Numerous reports in the literature have identified association between variants in the gene encoding this protein, OCX32, and various eggshell quality traits. Thus, OCX32 is a candidate gene for selection for eggshell traits in commercial poultry populations. Sequencing of exons 2-6 of the OCX32 gene in eight elite brown and white eggshell commercial egg-laying lines revealed 28 SNPs and one SNP/indel. Eighteen of these SNPs were predicted to alter the amino acid sequence of the protein. Clusters of SNPs in complete linkage disequilibrium were found in both exons 2 and 6. A total of 19 different versions or protein-sequence haplotypes of the OCX32 protein were inferred, revealing considerable variation within commercial lines. Genotypes for 13 of the SNPs were determined for 330-1819 individuals per line. Trait association studies revealed a significant effect of OCX32 on shell color in white egg lines and line-specific significant effects on albumen height, early egg weight, puncture score, and yolk weight. Three of the lines showed a significant change in OCX32 frequency over time, indicating selection pressure for certain variants of this gene during the breeding program.
Papst, C; Bohn, M; Utz, H F; Melchinger, A E; Klein, D; Eder, J
In hybrid breeding the performance of lines in hybrid combinations is more important than their performance per se. Little information is available on the correlation between individual line and testcross (TC) performances for the resistance to European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.) in maize ( Zea mays L.). Marker assisted selection (MAS) will be successful only if quantitative trait loci (QTL) found in F(2) derived lines for ECB resistance are still expressed in hybrid combinations. The objectives of our study were: (1) to identify and characterize QTL for ECB resistance as well as agronomic and forage quality traits in a population of testcrossed F(2:3) families; (2) to evaluate the consistency of QTL for per se and TC performances; and (3) to determine the association between per se and TC performances of F(2:3) lines for these traits. Two hundred and four F(2:3) lines were derived from the cross between maize lines D06 (resistant) and D408 (susceptible). These lines were crossed to D171 and the TC progenies were evaluated for ECB resistance and agronomic performance in two locations in 2000 and 2001. Using these TC progenies, six QTL for stalk damage rating (SDR) were found. These QTL explained 27.4% of the genotypic variance in a simultaneous fit. Three QTL for SDR were detected consistently for per se and TC performance. Phenotypic and genotypic correlations were low for per se and TC performance for SDR. Correlations between SDR and quality traits were not significant. Based on these results, we conclude that MAS will not be an efficient method for improving SDR. However, new molecular tools might provide the opportunity to use QTL data as a first step to identify genes involved in ECB resistance. Efficient MAS procedures might then be based on markers designed to trace and to combine specific genes and their alleles in elite maize breeding germplasm.
Lambe, N R; Conington, J; Bishop, S C; McLean, K A; Bünger, L; McLaren, A; Simm, G
Genetic parameters were estimated between current UK hill sheep breeding goals and lamb carcass composition and muscularity traits derived using X-ray computed tomography (CT). To produce these estimates, a total of 648 lambs from two hill farms were CT scanned at weaning (ca 120 days of age), over 3 years, and total weights of carcass muscle (MUSC), fat (CFAT) and bone (BONE) and internal fat (IFAT) were predicted. Previously derived muscularity indices were also calculated for the hind leg (HLMI) and lumbar (LRMI) regions, to assess muscle shape. Data for current breeding goals (lamb performance and maternal traits) were also included from a total of 10 297 lamb records and 12 704 ewe records. Heritabilities were estimated for each trait and genetic and phenotypic correlations were calculated between each CT trait and other lamb or ewe traits. Moderate to high positive genetic correlations were found between CT-predicted tissue weights and breeding goals, which were also weights (lamb weaning weight, carcass weight, mature ewe weight, average weight of lambs reared by the ewe). CFAT was positively genetically correlated with ultrasound backfat depth at weaning (UFD) and subjective fatness grade at slaughter (MLCF), suggesting that carcass fat could be decreased using selection on any of these predictors. Ultrasound muscle depth at weaning (UMD) and subjective conformation score at slaughter (MLCC) had high genetic correlations with the muscularity indices (HLMI and LRMI), but correlations with MUSC were not significantly different from zero. This implies that selection to improve MLCC is likely to be increasing the 'roundness' of muscle shape in the high-priced carcass region, but having little impact on total lean meat yield. Correlations of CT traits with the other ewe traits (number of lambs weaned, number of lambs lost, longevity, fleece weight) were generally small or not significantly different from zero. The genetic parameters generated in this study can
Kong, Rui; Gao, Xiaowei; Zhong, Wanxing; Zhou, Xiaoling
MBA education has become the fastest growing segment of education in China in recent years and a segment that can now be considered indispensable. However, how best to teach it has long been a source of debate. One of the key issues is how to match student traits with teaching methods. While engaged as teachers of marketing management, the authors…
The application of association mapping based on existing genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) between DNA polymorphisms and genes underlying traits is becoming powerful tool that overcome many limitations (high cost, poor resolution, requirement for bi-parentally crossed lines assessing only two ...
Karaca, Serhat; Erdoğan, Sibel; Kor, Dilek; Kor, Aşkın
This study determined the effects of pre-slaughter diet/management system on blood and rumen parameters and meat-quality traits of Norduz lambs. Eighty lambs were divided into two groups according to diet (AH: alfalfa hay; BAH: alfalfa supplemented with 500 g/head barley) for 21 days. Following this period, lambs from each group were distributed among four groups according to pre-slaughter fasting period as 0, 12, 24 or 48 h. Cortisol concentrations were found to be significantly higher in the 24 h and 48 h groups when compared to the 0 h group (p<0.01). Diet and fasting period had limited effect on muscle glycogen content and ultimate pH·L*, WHC and moisture decreased in line with increases in the fasting period (p<0.01). In conclusion, carcass conformation and some meat quality traits were better in BAH lambs. Fasting had a negative effect on some meat quality parameters, with significant increases in some physiological stress indicators after fasting periods of 24 h or longer.
Golkar, Pooran; Arzani, Ahmad; Rezaei, Abdolmajid M
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L.) is an oilseed crop that is valued as a source of high quality vegetable oil. The genetic diversity of 16 safflower genotypes originated from different geographical regions of Iran and some with exotic origin were evaluated. Eight different seed quality-related traits including fatty acid composition of seed oil (stearic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid), the contents of, oil, protein, fiber and ash in its seeds, as well as 20 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) polymorphic primers were used in this study. Analysis of variance showed significant variation in genotypes for the seed quality-related traits. Based on ISSR markers, a total of 204 bands were amplified and 149 bands (about 70%) of these were polymorphic. Cluster analysis based on either biochemical or molecular markers classified the genotypes into four groups, showing some similarities between molecular and biochemical markers for evaluated genotypes. A logical similarity between the genotype clusters based on molecular data with their geographical origins was observed.
Liu, Wenbo; Li, Dongfeng; Liu, Jianfeng; Chen, Sirui; Qu, Lujiang; Zheng, Jiangxia; Xu, Guiyun; Yang, Ning
Availability of the complete genome sequence as well as high-density SNP genotyping platforms allows genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in chickens. A high-density SNP array containing 57,636 markers was employed herein to identify associated variants underlying egg production and quality traits within two lines of chickens, i.e., White Leghorn and brown-egg dwarf layers. For each individual, age at first egg (AFE), first egg weight (FEW), and number of eggs (EN) from 21 to 56 weeks of age were recorded, and egg quality traits including egg weight (EW), eggshell weight (ESW), yolk weight (YW), eggshell thickness (EST), eggshell strength (ESS), albumen height(AH) and Haugh unit(HU) were measured at 40 and 60 weeks of age. A total of 385 White Leghorn females and 361 brown-egg dwarf dams were selected to be genotyped. The genome-wide scan revealed 8 SNPs showing genome-wise significant (P<1.51E-06, Bonferroni correction) association with egg production and quality traits under the Fisher's combined probability method. Some significant SNPs are located in known genes including GRB14 and GALNT1 that can impact development and function of ovary, but more are located in genes with unclear functions in layers, and need to be studied further. Many chromosome-wise significant SNPs were also detected in this study and some of them are located in previously reported QTL regions. Most of loci detected in this study are novel and the follow-up replication studies may be needed to further confirm the functional significance for these newly identified SNPs.
Genetic map construction and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for nitrogen use efficiency and its relationship with productivity and quality of the biennial crop Belgian endive (Cichorium intybus L.).
Cassan, Laurent; Moreau, Laurence; Segouin, Samuel; Bellamy, Annick; Falque, Mathieu; Limami, Anis M
A genetic study of the biennial crop Belgian endive (Cichorium intybus) was carried out to examine the effect of nitrogen nutrition during the vegetative phase in the control of the productivity and quality of the chicon (etiolated bud), a crop that grows during the second phase of development (forcing process). A population of 302 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) was obtained from the cross between contrasting lines "NS1" and "NR2". A genetic map was constructed and QTLs of several physiological and agronomical traits were mapped under two levels of nitrogen fertilization during the vegetative phase (N- and N+). The agronomical traits showed high broad sense heritability, whereas the physiological traits were characterized by low broad sense heritability. Nitrogen reserves mobilization during the forcing process was negatively correlated with nitrogen reserves content of the tuberized root and common QTLs were detected for these traits. The chicon productivity and quality were not correlated, but showed one common QTL. This study revealed that chicon productivity and quality were genetically associated with nitrogen reserves mobilization that exerts opposite effects on both traits. Chicon productivity was positively correlated with N reserves mobilization under N- and N+ and a common QTL with the same additive effects was detected for both traits. Chicon quality was negatively correlated with N reserves mobilization under N- and N+ and a common QTL with opposite additive effects was detected for both traits. These results lead to the conclusion that N reserves mobilization is a more effective trait than N reserves content in predicting chicon productivity and quality. Finally, this study revealed agronomical and physiological QTLs utilizable by breeders via marker-assisted selection to aid the optimization of chicon quality under adapted N fertilization.
Carpenter, Kurt D.; Snyder, Daniel T.; Duff, John H.; Triska, Frank J.; Lee, Karl K.; Avanzino, Ronald J.; Sobieszczyk, Steven
Restoring previously drained wetlands is a strategy currently being used to improve water quality and decrease nutrient loading into Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. In this 2003-05 study, ground- and surface-water quality and hydrologic conditions were characterized in the Wood River Wetland. Nitrogen and phosphorus levels, primarily as dissolved organic nitrogen and ammonium (NH4) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), were high in surface waters. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations also were elevated in surface water, with median concentrations of 44 and 99 milligrams of carbon per liter (mg-C/L) in the North and South Units of the Wood River Wetland, respectively, reaching a maximum of 270 mg-C/L in the South Unit in late autumn. Artesian well water produced NH4 and SRP concentrations of about 6,000 micrograms per liter (ug/L), and concentrations of 36,500 ug-N/L NH4 and 4,110 ug-P/L SRP in one 26-28 ft deep piezometer well. Despite the high ammonium concentrations, the nitrate levels were moderate to low in wetland surface and ground waters. The surface-water concentrations of NH4 and SRP increased in spring and summer, outpacing those for chloride (a conservative tracer), indicative of evapoconcentration. In-situ chamber experiments conducted in June and August 2005 indicated a positive flux of NH4 and SRP from the wetland sediments. Potential sources of NH4 and SRP include diffusion of nutrients from decomposed peat, decomposing aquatic vegetation, or upwelling ground water. In addition to these inputs, evapoconcentration raised surface-water solute concentrations to exceedingly high values by the end of summer. The increase was most pronounced in the South Unit, where specific conductance reached 2,500 uS/cm and median concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus reached 18,000-36,500 ug-N/L and about 18,000-26,000 ug-P/L, respectively. Water-column SRP and total phosphorus levels decreased during autumn and winter following inputs of irrigation
Peck, Katlyn; Mallya, Sasha; Lupien, Sonia J.
This study explored the mediating role of sleep in the relationship between personality traits and depressive symptoms in a group of community-dwelling men and women (Mage = 57.92, SD = 4.00). Participants completed the short form NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). High neuroticism and low conscientiousness was associated with poor sleep, as well as greater depressive symptom severity. Partial indirect mediation effects were found between personality traits (i.e., neuroticism and conscientiousness) and depressive symptoms through self-report sleep measures. An alternative model was also explored, entering depression as the mediator; however a smaller portion of the variance was explained by this model, compared with the hypothesized model. The current study provides preliminary information regarding the mechanisms that influence the relationship between personality traits, sleep, and depression among a group of community-dwelling middle-aged adults. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:27285159
Xu, Haiming; Jiang, Beibei; Cao, Yujie; Zhang, Yingxin; Zhan, Xiaodeng; Shen, Xihong; Cheng, Shihua; Lou, Xiangyang; Cao, Liyong
With development of sequencing technology, dense single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been available, enabling uncovering genetic architecture of complex traits by genome-wide association study (GWAS). However, the current GWAS strategy usually ignores epistatic and gene-environment interactions due to absence of appropriate methodology and heavy computational burden. This study proposed a new GWAS strategy by combining the graphics processing unit- (GPU-) based generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) algorithm with mixed linear model approach. The reliability and efficiency of the analytical methods were verified through Monte Carlo simulations, suggesting that a population size of nearly 150 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) had a reasonable resolution for the scenarios considered. Further, a GWAS was conducted with the above two-step strategy to investigate the additive, epistatic, and gene-environment associations between 701,867 SNPs and three important quality traits, gelatinization temperature, amylose content, and gel consistency, in a RIL population with 138 individuals derived from super-hybrid rice Xieyou9308 in two environments. Four significant SNPs were identified with additive, epistatic, and gene-environment interaction effects. Our study showed that the mixed linear model approach combining with the GPU-based GMDR algorithm is a feasible strategy for implementing GWAS to uncover genetic architecture of crop complex traits. PMID:26345334
Topdar, N; Kundu, A; Sinha, M K; Sarkar, D; Das, M; Banerjee, S; Kar, C S; Satya, P; Balyan, H S; Mahapatra, B S; Gupta, P K
We report the first complete microsatellite genetic map of jute (Corchorus olitorius L.; 2n = 2x = 14) using an F6 recombinant inbred population. Of the 403 microsatellite markers screened, 82 were mapped on the seven linkage groups (LGs) that covered a total genetic distance of 799.9 cM, with an average marker interval of 10.7 cM. LG5 had the longest and LG7 the shortest genetic lengths, whereas LG1 had the maximum and LG7 the minimum number of markers. Segregation distortion of microsatellite loci was high (61%), with the majority of them (76%) skewed towards the female parent. Genomewide non-parametric single-marker analysis in combination with multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL)-models (MQM) mapping detected 26 definitive QTLs for bast fibre quality, yield and yield-related traits. These were unevenly distributed on six LGs, as colocalized clusters, at genomic sectors marked by 15 microsatellite loci. LG1 was the QTL-richest map sector, with the densest colocalized clusters of QTLs governing fibre yield, yield-related traits and tensile strength. Expectedly, favorable QTLs were derived from the desirable parents, except for nearly all of those of fibre fineness, which might be due to the creation of new gene combinations. Our results will be a good starting point for further genome analyses in jute.
Xu, Haiming; Jiang, Beibei; Cao, Yujie; Zhang, Yingxin; Zhan, Xiaodeng; Shen, Xihong; Cheng, Shihua; Lou, Xiangyang; Cao, Liyong
With development of sequencing technology, dense single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been available, enabling uncovering genetic architecture of complex traits by genome-wide association study (GWAS). However, the current GWAS strategy usually ignores epistatic and gene-environment interactions due to absence of appropriate methodology and heavy computational burden. This study proposed a new GWAS strategy by combining the graphics processing unit- (GPU-) based generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) algorithm with mixed linear model approach. The reliability and efficiency of the analytical methods were verified through Monte Carlo simulations, suggesting that a population size of nearly 150 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) had a reasonable resolution for the scenarios considered. Further, a GWAS was conducted with the above two-step strategy to investigate the additive, epistatic, and gene-environment associations between 701,867 SNPs and three important quality traits, gelatinization temperature, amylose content, and gel consistency, in a RIL population with 138 individuals derived from super-hybrid rice Xieyou9308 in two environments. Four significant SNPs were identified with additive, epistatic, and gene-environment interaction effects. Our study showed that the mixed linear model approach combining with the GPU-based GMDR algorithm is a feasible strategy for implementing GWAS to uncover genetic architecture of crop complex traits.
Bovera, F; Lestingi, A; Iannaccone, F; Tateo, A; Nizza, A
This study was conducted to compare the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and antibiotics as a dietary supplement on ADG, ADFI, G:F, and feed nutrient digestibility of rabbits during the fattening period, as well as on carcass traits and meat quality. A total of 512, sixty-day-old hybrid Hyla rabbits were randomly divided into 4 treatment groups based on BW and sex. The 4 treatment groups consisted of a control group and 3 MOS groups. The control group was fed a diet that contained apramycin (50 mg/kg), but diets for the 3 MOS groups contained 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 g/kg of MOS instead of apramycin. The rabbits were fed experimental diets for 22 d and all rabbits were slaughtered at the end of the experiment when they were 82 d old. Individual BW and feed intake per cage were recorded weekly for 32 cages randomly chosen per group (64 rabbits) to calculate ADG, ADFI, and G:F. The apparent digestibility values of OM, CP, ether extract, crude fiber, NDF, ADF, cellulose, and hemicellulose were measured using AIA as an inert marker. Carcass data were collected from 16 randomly chosen rabbits (8 males and 8 females) per group. The control group had less G:F (P < 0.001) than the MOS groups and a linear increase (P < 0.001) in G:F was observed as the concentration of MOS increased from 0.5 to 1.0 and 1.5 g/kg. The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, crude fiber, NDF, ADF, cellulose, and hemicellulose increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) as the concentration of MOS in the diets increased. The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, crude fiber, NDF, ADF, cellulose, and hemicellulose was also greater (P < 0.05) in the diets containing MOS than in the control diet and the digestibility of these nutrients was greater (P < 0.05) in the diet containing 1.5 g/kg of MOS compared with the control diet. The concentration of palmitic acid, stearic acid, and SFA was greater (P < 0.05) in the meat from rabbits fed the control diet than rabbits fed the MOS diets. The concentration of stearic
Takahashi, H; Sasaki, O; Nirasawa, K; Furukawa, T
Broken and cracked eggshells contribute significantly to economic losses in the egg production industry. We previously identified ovocalyxin-32 as a potential gene influencing eggshell traits, by analysing an intercross between two parent lines developed from the same founder population by a two-way selection for eggshell strength with non-destructive deformation (DEF) conducted over 14 generations. We determined the nucleotide sequences of six ovocalyxin-32 exons in the parent individuals and analysed the association between ovocalyxin-32 and eggshell traits in the F2 individuals. We identified three haplotypes (W, M and S) of ovocalyxin-32 in the parent individuals. A mismatch amplification mutation assay was performed to distinguish six diplotype individuals (WW, MM, SS, WM, MS and WS) inthe F2 population. The egg weight (EW) of SS-diplotype individuals was significantly higher than that of WW-, WM- and WS-diplotypes. Short length of the egg (SLE) of SS-diplotype individuals was significantly higher than that of WW-, WM- and MS-diplotypes. Long length of the egg (LLE) of SS-diplotype individuals was significantly higher than that of WM and WS-diplotypes. DEF of WW-diplotype individuals was significantly higher than that ofSS-, WM, MS and WM-diplotypes. Haplotypic effect analyses showed significant differences between the W-haplotype and the S-haplotypes in the EW, SLE, LLE and DEF. The DEF of M-haplotype was significantly lower than that of W- and S-haplotypes. These results suggest that S- and M-haplotypes are critical for high quality of eggshells in the F2 population. In conclusion, ovocalyxin-32 is a useful marker of eggshell traits and can be used to develop strategies for improving eggshell traits in commercial layer houses.
Cavala, Marijana; Trninić, Viktorija; Jasić, Dajana; Tomljanović, Mario
The research was conducted with the aim to establish the structure and the differences of morphological features and personality traits between different age groups of female cadet handball players grouped by their playing quality and playing positions. Further on, the research was done on 70 handball players aged 15, 31 on average, who were grouped according to their positions on goalkeepers, outside players, wings and pivots. Furthermore, according to the quality of playing, they were divided in two quality groups of players, those from the wider cadet national team, thus characterised as top female players in Croatia, and those who had never been invited into the cadet national team and thus can be referred to as low-quality, i.e. average female handball players. The structure of predictor variables has indicated the existence of general morphological factor assessing the players' constitution and two personality features factors - neuroticism and extraversion. The variance analysis showed no statistically significant differences of somatotype variables with relation to quality and playing position. By observing basic personality traits, a statistically significant difference was confirmed only in introversion-extraversion with a lower score in goalkeepers than in other positions, which indicates a higher level of introversion in this playing position. Such result was expected since this particular position abounds in specific tasks and demands in the game in relation to all other playing positions. Further on, it has been concluded that the selection of players must not be based only on the stated physical and psychological characteristics, but on relevant anthropological complexes determining performance and sport achievement.
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Search How We Work Our Focus Areas About RWJF Search Menu How We Work Grants and Grant ... message For Grantees and Grantseekers The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funds a wide array of programs which ...
A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...
The traits database was compiled for a project on climate change effects on river and stream ecosystems. The traits data, gathered from multiple sources, focused on information published or otherwise well-documented by trustworthy sources.
Lage, J F; Berchielli, T T; San Vito, E; Silva, R A; Ribeiro, A F; Reis, R A; Dallantonia, E E; Simonetti, L R; Delevatti, L M; Machado, M
Carcass and meat quality traits of 60 Nellore young bulls fed diets without crude glycerin (CG); with CG replacing corn (CGc; 10% of dry matter - DM) in the concentrate; and with CG replacing soybean hull (CGsh; 10% of DM) in the concentrate were evaluated. Diets were evaluated at two concentrate levels (CLs). The CL did not affect cold carcass weight (CCW; P=0.6074), cold carcass dressing (CCD; P=0.9636), rib fat thickness (RFT; P=0.8696) and longissimus muscle area (LMA; P=0.7524). Animals fed diets with CGc or CGsh showed meat with greater deposition of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA; P=0.0022) and CLA (18:2 cis-9, trans-11) contents (P=0.0001) than animals fed diets without CG. The inclusion of 10% of CG in diets CGc or CGsh does not affect the carcass and meat quality traits; however, it increases the MUFA and CLA contents in beef, although these changes are very small in nutritional terms.
Fowler, Stephanie M; Schmidt, Heinar; van de Ven, Remy; Wynn, Peter; Hopkins, David L
Complementary studies were conducted to determine the potential for a Raman spectroscopic hand held device to predict meat quality traits of fresh lamb m. semimembranosus (topside) after ageing and freezing/thawing. Spectra were collected from 80 fresh muscles at 24h and 5d PM, another 80 muscles were measured at 24h, 5d and following freezing/thawing. Shear force, cooking loss, sarcomere length, colour, particle size, collagen content, pH24, pHu, purge and thaw loss were also measured. Results indicated a potential to predict pHu (R(2)cv=0.59), pH24 (R(2)cv=0.48) and purge (R(2)cv=0.42) using spectra collected 24h PM. L* could be predicted using spectra collected 24h (R(2)cv=0.33) or 5d PM (R(2)cv=0.33). This suggests that Raman spectroscopy is suited to identifying carcases which deviate from the normal metabolic processes and related meat quality traits.
Sandercock, Dale A; Barker, Zoe E; Mitchell, Malcolm A; Hocking, Paul M
Between-breed genetic variation for muscle and meat quality traits was determined at eight weeks of age in 34 lines of purebred commercial broiler and layer lines and traditional breeds (categories) of chickens. Between-breed genetic variation for plasma ion concentrations and element concentration in muscle dry matter and ash were determined. Plasma from broilers had higher concentrations of Na+, K+, Mg++, total and free Ca++ and lower free:total Ca++ than plasma from layer and traditional lines. Muscle from broilers contained more Na and higher concentrations of K, Mg and Ca per mg of ash but not of dry matter compared with layer and traditional lines. In comparison with layer and traditional lines, broiler genotypes were over three times heavier, their plasma creatine kinase activity (CK), a marker of muscle tissue damage, was higher, their breast muscle colour was lighter (L*) and less red (a*) and yellow (b*) in appearance, the initial and final pH of their muscles were lower, the pH change was higher and their breast muscle was more tender. Thus, genetic selection for broiler traits has markedly altered cation regulation in muscle cells and may be associated with changes in muscle cell function and the development of pathology and meat quality problems.
Cho, Eun‐Seok; Lee, Kyung‐Tai; Kim, Jun‐Mo; Lee, Si‐Woo; Jeon, Hyeon‐Jeong; Lee, Seung‐Hwan; Hong, Ki‐Chang
Abstract We identified a potential molecular marker associated with meat quality traits in the myosin heavy chain 4, MYH4 gene of Landrace pigs. Sequencing revealed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; g.‐1398G>T) in the 5' upstream region of MYH4. It was significantly associated with the number of type IIa muscle fibers and water‐holding capacity based on filter‐paper fluid uptake. The GG genotype groups had a greater number of type IIa fibers and a larger area composed of type IIa fibers than the other genotype group (P = 0.004 and P = 0.061, respectively). Expression level of MYH4 gene in the genotype TT or GT was higher than in genotype of GG (P < 0.0001). The T allele may enhance expression level of MYH4 gene and then the portion of IIb type fiber in the muscle be increased by the T allelle. Therefore, we suggest that the g.‐1398G>T in the 5' upstream region of the porcine MYH4 may be used as a molecular marker for meat quality traits, although its functional effect is not defined yet. PMID:26271027
Celia, C; Cullere, M; Gerencsér, Zs; Matics, Zs; Tasoniero, G; Dal Bosco, A; Giaccone, V; Szendrő, Zs; Dalle Zotte, A
This study evaluated effects of Digestarom® (D) dietary inclusion before weaning (0-5weeks old; BW) and/or after weaning (5-12weeks old; AW) on growing rabbit carcass traits and meat quality. During BW, Pannon-Ka rabbits (does, kits) received two diets: a control diet (C) and one supplemented with 300mg Digestarom®/kg (D). At weaning, each group was divided into 3 dietary sub-groups: CC and DD received C and D diets from 5 to 12weeks of age, whereas DC was fed D from 5 to 8weeks and C from 8 to 12weeks of age (54 rabbits/group; AW). Rabbits were slaughtered at 12weeks of age. Digestarom® supplementation improved carcass yield and body mid part proportion only when administered BW. Rabbits fed D BW had higher hind leg meat cooking losses. Loin meat spiciness and rancidity increased with D both BW and AW. In conclusion, Digestarom(®) herbal formulation was ineffective in improving growing rabbit carcass traits or meat quality.
A joint development program between Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection Technologies and The Weyerhaeuser Company resulted in an internal bond analyzer (IBA), a device which combines ultrasonics with acoustic emission testing techniques. It is actually a spinoff from a spinoff, stemming from a NASA Lewis invented acousto-ultrasonic technique that became a system for testing bond strength of composite materials. Hartford's parent company, Acoustic Emission Technology Corporation (AET) refined and commercialized the technology. The IBA builds on the original system and incorporates on-line process control systems. The IBA determines bond strength by measuring changes in pulsar ultrasonic waves injected into a board. Analysis of the wave determines the average internal bond strength for the panel. Results are displayed immediately. Using the system, a mill operator can adjust resin/wood proportion, reduce setup time and waste, produce internal bonds of a consistent quality and automatically mark deficient products.
Balatsky, Viktor; Bankovska, Irina; Pena, Ramona N; Saienko, Artem; Buslyk, Tetyana; Korinnyi, Sergii; Doran, Olena
Cathepsins, growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes have been receiving increasing attention as potential markers for meat quality and pig performance traits. This study investigated the allele variants in four cathepsin genes (CTSB, CTSK, CTSL, CTSS), GHRH and LEPR in pure-bred Ukrainian Large White pigs and evaluated effects of the allele variants on meat quality characteristics. The study was conducted on 72 pigs. Genotyping was performed using PCR-RFLP technique. Meat quality characteristics analysed were intramuscular fat content, tenderness, total water content, ultimate pH, crude protein and ashes. A medium level of heterozygosity values was established for GHRH and LEPR genes which corresponded to very high levels of informativeness indexes. Cathepsins CTSL, CTSB and CTSK had a low level of heterozygosity, and CTSS did not segregate in this breed. Association studies established that intramuscular fat content and tenderness were affected by the allele variance in GHRH and LEPR but not by CTSB and CTSL genes. The GHRH results could be particularly relevant for the production of lean prime cuts as the A allele is associated with both, a lower meat fat content and better tenderness values, which are two attributes highly regarded by consumers. Results of this study suggest that selective breeding towards GHRH/AA genotype would be particularly useful for improving meat quality characteristics in the production systems involving lean Large White lines, which typically have less than 2 % intramuscular fat content.
Fowler, D B; N'Diaye, A; Laudencia-Chingcuanco, D; Pozniak, C J
Plants must respond to environmental cues and schedule their development in order to react to periods of abiotic stress and commit fully to growth and reproduction under favorable conditions. This study was initiated to identify SNP markers for characters expressed from the seedling stage to plant maturity in spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes adapted to western Canada. Three doubled haploid populations with the winter cultivar 'Norstar' as a common parent were developed and genotyped with a 90K Illumina iSelect SNP assay and a 2,998.9 cM consensus map with 17,541 markers constructed. High heritability's reflected large differences among the parents and relatively low genotype by environment interactions for all characters considered. Significant QTL were detected for the 15 traits examined. However, different QTL for days to heading in controlled environments and the field provided a strong reminder that growth and development are being orchestrated by environmental cues and caution should be exercised when extrapolating conclusions from different experiments. A QTL on chromosome 6A for minimum final leaf number, which determines the rate of phenological development in the seedling stage, was closely linked to QTL for low-temperature tolerance, grain quality, and agronomic characters expressed up to the time of maturity. This suggests phenological development plays a critical role in programming subsequent outcomes for many traits. Transgressive segregation was observed for the lines in each population and QTL with additive effects were identified suggesting that genes for desirable traits could be stacked using Marker Assisted Selection. QTL were identified for characters that could be transferred between the largely isolated western Canadian spring and winter wheat gene pools demonstrating the opportunities offered by Marker Assisted Selection to act as bridges in the identification and transfer of useful genes among related genetic islands
Fowler, D. B.; N'Diaye, A.; Laudencia-Chingcuanco, D.; Pozniak, C. J.
Plants must respond to environmental cues and schedule their development in order to react to periods of abiotic stress and commit fully to growth and reproduction under favorable conditions. This study was initiated to identify SNP markers for characters expressed from the seedling stage to plant maturity in spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes adapted to western Canada. Three doubled haploid populations with the winter cultivar ‘Norstar’ as a common parent were developed and genotyped with a 90K Illumina iSelect SNP assay and a 2,998.9 cM consensus map with 17,541 markers constructed. High heritability’s reflected large differences among the parents and relatively low genotype by environment interactions for all characters considered. Significant QTL were detected for the 15 traits examined. However, different QTL for days to heading in controlled environments and the field provided a strong reminder that growth and development are being orchestrated by environmental cues and caution should be exercised when extrapolating conclusions from different experiments. A QTL on chromosome 6A for minimum final leaf number, which determines the rate of phenological development in the seedling stage, was closely linked to QTL for low-temperature tolerance, grain quality, and agronomic characters expressed up to the time of maturity. This suggests phenological development plays a critical role in programming subsequent outcomes for many traits. Transgressive segregation was observed for the lines in each population and QTL with additive effects were identified suggesting that genes for desirable traits could be stacked using Marker Assisted Selection. QTL were identified for characters that could be transferred between the largely isolated western Canadian spring and winter wheat gene pools demonstrating the opportunities offered by Marker Assisted Selection to act as bridges in the identification and transfer of useful genes among related genetic
Charles, François; Coston-Guarini, Jennifer; Guarini, Jean-Marc; Fanfard, Sandrine
The oceans and seas receive coarse woody debris since the Devonian, but the kinetics of wood degradation remains one of many unanswered questions about the fate of driftwood in the marine environment. A simple gravimetric experiment was carried out at a monitoring station located at the exit of a steep, forested Mediterranean watershed in the Eastern Pyrenees. The objective was to describe and quantify, with standardized logs (in shape, structure and constitution), natural degradation of wood in the sea. Results show that the mass decrease of wood logs over time can be described by a sigmoidal curve. The primary process of wood decay observed at the monitoring station was due to the arrival and installation of wood-boring species that consumed more than half of the total wood mass in six months. Surprisingly, in a region where there is little remaining wood marine infrastructure, "shipworms", i.e. xylophagous bivalves, are responsible for an important part of this wood decay. This suggests that these communities are maintained probably by a frequent supply of a large quantity of riparian wood entering the marine environment adjacent to the watershed. By exploring this direct link between terrestrial and marine ecosystems, our long term objective is to determine how these supplies of terrestrial organic carbon can sustain wood-based marine communities as it is observed in the Mediterranean Sea.
Pradhan, Surendra K; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi
This study evaluates the use of human urine and wood ash as fertilizers for tomato cultivation in a greenhouse. Tomatoes were cultivated in pots and treated with 135 kg of N/ha applied as mineral fertilizer, urine + ash, urine only, and control (no fertilization). The urine fertilized plants produced equal amounts of tomato fruits as mineral fertilized plants and 4.2 times more fruits than nonfertilized plants. The levels of lycopene were similar in tomato fruits from all fertilization treatments, but the amount of soluble sugars was lower and Cl(-) was higher in urine + ash fertilized tomato fruits. The beta-carotene content was greater and the NO(3)(-) content was lower in urine fertilized tomato fruits. No enteric indicator microorganisms were detected in any tomato fruits. The results suggest that urine with/without wood ash can be used as a substitute for mineral fertilizer to increase the yields of tomato without posing any microbial or chemical risks.
Penasa, M; Cecchinato, A; Battagin, M; De Marchi, M; Pretto, D; Cassandro, M
The aim of the study was to infer (co)variance components for daily milk yield, fat and protein contents, and somatic cell score (SCS) in Burlina cattle (a local breed in northeast Italy). Data consisted of 13,576 monthly test-day records of 666 cows (parities 1 to 8) collected in 10 herds between 1999 and 2009. Repeatability animal models were implemented using Bayesian methods. Flat priors were assumed for systematic effects of herd test date, days in milk, and parity, as well as for permanent environmental, genetic, and residual effects. On average, Burlina cows produced 17.0 kg of milk per day, with 3.66 and 3.33 percent of fat and protein, respectively, and 358,000 cells per mL of milk. Marginal posterior medians (highest posterior density of 95%) of heritability were 0.18 (0.09-0.28), 0.28 (0.21-0.36), 0.35 (0.25-0.49), and 0.05 (0.01-0.11) for milk yield, fat content, protein content, and SCS, respectively. Marginal posterior medians of genetic correlations between the traits were low and a 95 percent Bayesian confidence region included zero, with the exception of the genetic correlation between fat and protein contents. Despite the low number of animals in the population, results suggest that genetic variance for production and quality traits exists in Burlina cattle.
Understanding the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying variation in seed composition and contents among different genotypes is important for soybean oil quality improvement. We designed a bioinformatics approach to compare seed transcriptomes of 9 soybean genotypes varying in oil composition ...
Pilate, Gilles; Chabbert, Brigitte; Cathala, Bernard; Yoshinaga, Arata; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Laurans, Françoise; Lapierre, Catherine; Ruel, Katia
Hardwood trees are able to reorient their axes owing to tension wood differentiation. Tension wood is characterised by important ultrastructural modifications, such as the occurrence in a number of species, of an extra secondary wall layer, named gelatinous layer or G-layer, mainly constituted of cellulose microfibrils oriented nearly parallel to the fibre axis. This G-layer appears directly involved in the definition of tension wood mechanical properties. This review gathers the data available in the literature about lignification during tension wood formation. Potential roles for lignin in tension wood formation are inferred from biochemical, anatomical and mechanical studies, from the hypotheses proposed to describe tension wood function and from data coming from new research areas such as functional genomics.
Suzuki, K; Ishida, M; Kadowaki, H; Shibata, T; Uchida, H; Nishida, A
This study estimated genetic parameters for fatty acids of different sites of fat tissue, meat production, and meat quality traits of Duroc pigs selected during 7 generations for ADG, LM area, backfat thickness (BF), and intramuscular fat (IMF). For this study, 394 barrows and 153 gilts were slaughtered at 105 kg of BW. High heritabilities for C18:0 of outer and inner subcutaneous fat tissue were estimated, respectively, as 0.54 and 0.51; those of intermuscular and intramuscular fat were 0.40 and 0.51, respectively. Genetic and phenotypic correlations of ADG and BF with saturated fatty acids of outer and inner subcutaneous fat were positive, but those with C16:1 and C18:2 were negative, and those with C18:1 were nearly zero. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between LM area and respective fatty acids showed opposite results. Respective genetic and phenotypic correlations of melting points with C18:0 and C18:1 were positive and high, and negative and high, respectively. Genetic correlations between cooking loss and SFA (C14:0, C16:0, and C18:0) of IMF were positive and moderate: 0.56, 0.47, and 0.47, respectively. On the other hand, monosaturated fatty acid of C18:1 was highly and negatively correlated with cooking loss (-0.61). Moreover, high genetic correlation between meat color (pork color standard and lightness) and fatty acid compositions of IMF suggest that the SFA (C14:0, C16:0, and C18:0) were correlated genetically with meat lightness and that unsaturated fatty acid compositions (C18:1 and C18:2) were correlated with meat darkness. Results of this study suggest that the fatty acid composition of adipose tissue is correlated genetically with meat production and meat quality traits.
Sun, Li-Ping; Du, Qing-Zhi; Song, Ya-Pan; Yu, Jun-Na; Wang, Shu-Juan; Sang, Lei; Song, Luo-Wen; Yue, Yao-Min; Lian, Yu-Ze; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Hua, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Yang, Li-Guo
Genes of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis play a key role in male reproductive performance. This study evaluated the polymorphisms of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) genes and their effects on sperm quality traits including semen volume per ejaculate (VOL), sperm density (SD), fresh sperm motility (FSM), thawed sperm motility (TSM), acrosome integrity rate (AIR), and abnormal sperm rate (ASR) collected from 205 Chinese Hostein bulls. The study bulls consisted of 205 mature Chinese Holstein, 27 Simmental, 28 Charolais, and 14 German yellow cattle. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (A883G) in exon 2 of GnRH and two SNPs (A51703G and G51656T) in intron 9 of LHR were identified in 274 bulls. Analysis of variance in 205 Chinese Holstein bulls showed that age had significant effect on both SD and FSM (P < 0.01), and ASR (P < 0.05). With regards to genotype and its interaction with age, only the SNP of G51656T in LHR gene had significant effect on SD (P < 0.05, P < 0.01; respectively). The association result showed that bulls with AG genotype had higher FSM than bulls with AA and GG genotype in LHR at 51,703 locus (P < 0.10), and bulls with GG genotype had higher SD than bulls with TT genotype in LHR at G51656T locus (P < 0.10). Phenotypic correlation among the traits revealed that significant negative correlations were observed between ASR and AIR (r = -0.736, P < 0.01), ASR and AIR (r = -0.500, P < 0.01). There were moderate positive correlations between VOL and SD (r = 0.422, P < 0.01), as well as FSM (r = 0.411, P < 0.01). In conclusion, LHR may be a potential marker for sperm quality of SD and FSM.
Bertol, T M; de Campos, R M L; Ludke, J V; Terra, N N; de Figueiredo, E A P; Coldebella, A; dos Santos Filho, J I; Kawski, V L; Lehr, N M
A 42-day study was conducted to evaluate the effect of genotype: terminal sire line Duroc×F1 (DC×F1); terminal sire line Embrapa MS-115×F1 (MS-115×F1); and MS-115×Moura (MS-115×MO) and three dietary oil sources: soybean; canola; and canola+flax, on performance, carcass traits, pork quality, and fatty acid composition. Genotype affected the technological quality of pork and fatty acid profile. MS-115-sired pigs had better meat color and Duroc-sired pigs had higher intramuscular fat content, more saturated fat and better omega-6/omega-3 ratio. Moura breed influenced positively meat tenderness and intramuscular fat. Diet did not affect the technological quality of the meat. Canola or canola+flax oil diet supplementations increased monounsaturated and C18:3 and decreased C18:2 fatty acids, reducing the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The best omega-6/omega-3 ratio was obtained through supplementation with canola+flax.
Bobbo, T; Ruegg, P L; Stocco, G; Fiore, E; Gianesella, M; Morgante, M; Pasotto, D; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A
The aim of this study was to investigate associations between pathogen-specific cases of subclinical mastitis and milk yield, quality, protein composition, and cheese-making traits. Forty-one multibreed herds were selected for the study, and composite milk samples were collected from 1,508 cows belonging to 3 specialized dairy breeds (Holstein Friesian, Brown Swiss, and Jersey) and 3 dual-purpose breeds of Alpine origin (Simmental, Rendena, and Grey Alpine). Milk composition [i.e., fat, protein, casein, lactose, pH, urea, and somatic cell count (SCC)] was analyzed, and separation of protein fractions was performed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven coagulation traits were measured: 5 traditional milk coagulation properties [time from rennet addition to milk gelation (RCT, min), curd-firming rate as the time to a curd firmness (CF) of 20 mm (k20, min), and CF at 30, 45, and 60 min from rennet addition (a30, a45, and a60, mm)], and 6 new curd firming and syneresis traits [potential asymptotical CF at an infinite time (CFP, mm), curd-firming instant rate constant (kCF, % × min(-1)), curd syneresis instant rate constant (kSR, % × min(-1)), modeled RCT (RCTeq, min), maximum CF value (CFmax, mm), and time at CFmax (tmax, min)]. We also measured 3 cheese yield traits, expressing the weights of total fresh curd (%CYCURD), dry matter (%CYSOLIDS), and water (%CYWATER) in the curd as percentages of the weight of the processed milk, and 4 nutrient recovery traits (RECPROTEIN, RECFAT, RECSOLIDS, and RECENERGY), representing the percentage ratio between each nutrient in the curd and milk. Milk samples with SCC > 100,000 cells/mL were subjected to bacteriological examination. All samples were divided into 7 clusters of udder health (UH) status: healthy (cows with milk SCC < 100,000 cells/mL and uncultured); culture-negative samples with low, medium, or high SCC; and culture-positive samples divided into contagious, environmental, and opportunistic
Describes the school reading program at Cary Woods Elementary School (in Auburn, Alabama), one of several school reading programs designated by the International Reading Association as exemplary. (SR)
Déjardin, Annabelle; Laurans, Françoise; Arnaud, Dominique; Breton, Christian; Pilate, Gilles; Leplé, Jean-Charles
Wood formation is a complex biological process, involving five major developmental steps, including (1) cell division from a secondary meristem called the vascular cambium, (2) cell expansion (cell elongation and radial enlargement), (3) secondary cell wall deposition, (4) programmed cell death, and (5) heartwood formation. Thanks to the development of genomic studies in woody species, as well as genetic engineering, recent progress has been made in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying wood formation. In this review, we will focus on two different aspects, the lignification process and the control of microfibril angle in the cell wall of wood fibres, as they are both key features of wood material properties.
Schilling, Jonathan S; Kaffenberger, Justin T; Liew, Feng Jin; Song, Zewei
Correlating plant litter decay rates with initial tissue traits (e.g. C, N contents) is common practice, but in woody litter, predictive relationships are often weak. Variability in predicting wood decomposition is partially due to territorial competition among fungal decomposers that, in turn, have a range of nutritional strategies (rot types) and consequences on residues. Given this biotic influence, researchers are increasingly using culture-independent tools in an attempt to link variability more directly to decomposer groups. Our goal was to complement these tools by using certain wood modifications as 'signatures' that provide more functional information about decomposer dominance than density loss. Specifically, we used dilute alkali solubility (DAS; higher for brown rot) and lignin:density loss (L:D; higher for white rot) to infer rot type (binary) and fungal nutritional mode (gradient), respectively. We first determined strength of pattern among 29 fungi of known rot type by correlating DAS and L:D with mass loss in birch and pine. Having shown robust relationships for both techniques above a density loss threshold, we then demonstrated and resolved two issues relevant to species consortia and field trials, 1) spatial patchiness creating gravimetric bias (density bias), and 2) brown rot imprints prior or subsequent to white rot replacement (legacy effects). Finally, we field-tested our methods in a New Zealand Pinus radiata plantation in a paired-plot comparison. Overall, results validate these low-cost techniques that measure the collective histories of decomposer dominance in wood. The L:D measure also showed clear potential in classifying 'rot type' along a spectrum rather than as a traditional binary type (brown versus white rot), as it places the nutritional strategies of wood-degrading fungi on a scale (L:D=0-5, in this case). These information-rich measures of consequence can provide insight into their biological causes, strengthening the links
Schilling, Jonathan S.; Kaffenberger, Justin T.; Liew, Feng Jin; Song, Zewei
Correlating plant litter decay rates with initial tissue traits (e.g. C, N contents) is common practice, but in woody litter, predictive relationships are often weak. Variability in predicting wood decomposition is partially due to territorial competition among fungal decomposers that, in turn, have a range of nutritional strategies (rot types) and consequences on residues. Given this biotic influence, researchers are increasingly using culture-independent tools in an attempt to link variability more directly to decomposer groups. Our goal was to complement these tools by using certain wood modifications as ‘signatures’ that provide more functional information about decomposer dominance than density loss. Specifically, we used dilute alkali solubility (DAS; higher for brown rot) and lignin:density loss (L:D; higher for white rot) to infer rot type (binary) and fungal nutritional mode (gradient), respectively. We first determined strength of pattern among 29 fungi of known rot type by correlating DAS and L:D with mass loss in birch and pine. Having shown robust relationships for both techniques above a density loss threshold, we then demonstrated and resolved two issues relevant to species consortia and field trials, 1) spatial patchiness creating gravimetric bias (density bias), and 2) brown rot imprints prior or subsequent to white rot replacement (legacy effects). Finally, we field-tested our methods in a New Zealand Pinus radiata plantation in a paired-plot comparison. Overall, results validate these low-cost techniques that measure the collective histories of decomposer dominance in wood. The L:D measure also showed clear potential in classifying ‘rot type’ along a spectrum rather than as a traditional binary type (brown versus white rot), as it places the nutritional strategies of wood-degrading fungi on a scale (L:D=0-5, in this case). These information-rich measures of consequence can provide insight into their biological causes, strengthening the
Alcalde, M J; Suárez, M D; Rodero, E; Álvarez, R; Sáez, M I; Martínez, T F
Studies aimed to assess up to what extent farming and transport previous to slaughtering might affect physiology and meat quality in young goat kids are needed, with the ultimate purpose of promoting practices that minimize stress in these animals. In this regard the effects of on-farm management and transport duration on some physiological responses and meat quality parameters in goat kids were assessed. Two farms representing 'high' and 'low' welfare-friendly management practices were selected. In total, 32 suckling kids were withdrawn from each farm, transported by road for 2 or 6 h, and then slaughtered. Blood samples were collected both on-farm and in the slaughterhouse, and biochemistry, cell counts and haematocrit were determined. After slaughtering, carcass quality parameters were measured. Longissimus dorsi muscle was dissected and pH, colour parameters, water holding capacity and shear force were measured throughout 8-day ageing period. Results indicate that, regardless its duration, transport caused significant effects on some blood parameters suggesting stress in live animals, like glucose, cortisol or creatine kinase. Despite the marked stress status in animals, this condition was not decisively reflected on L. dorsi quality parameters, but some effects were observed regarding fat cover in carcasses and colour parameters. The results suggest that postmortem changes throughout ageing were more decisive in terms of meat quality than stressful management either on-farm or during transport.
Kunert, Antje; Naz, Ali Ahmad; Dedeck, Oliver; Pillen, Klaus; Léon, Jens
The advanced backcross QTL (AB-QTL) strategy was utilised to locate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for baking quality traits in two BC(2)F(3) populations of winter wheat. The backcrosses are derived from two German winter wheat cultivars, Batis and Zentos, and two synthetic, hexaploid wheat accessions, Syn022 and Syn086. The synthetics originate from hybridisations of wild emmer (T. turgidum spp. dicoccoides) and T. tauschii, rather than from durum wheat and T. tauschii and thus allowed for the first time to test for exotic QTL effects on wheat genomes A and B in addition to genome D. The investigated quality traits comprised hectolitre weight, grain hardness, flour yield Type 550, falling number, grain protein content, sedimentation volume and baking volume. One hundred and forty-nine SSR markers were applied to genotype a total of 400 BC(2)F(3) lines. For QTL detection, a mixed-model ANOVA was conducted, including the effects DNA marker, BC(2)F(3) line, environment and marker x environment interaction. Overall 38 QTLs significant for a marker main effect were detected. The exotic allele improved trait performance at 14 QTLs (36.8%), while the elite genotype contributed the favourable effect at 24 QTLs (63.2%). The favourable exotic alleles were mainly associated with grain protein content, though the greatest improvement of trait performance due to the exotic alleles was achieved for the traits falling number and sedimentation volume. At the QTL on chromosome 4B the exotic allele increased the falling number by 19.6% and at the QTL on chromosome 6D the exotic allele led to an increase of the sedimentation volume by 21.7%. The results indicate that synthetic wheat derived from wild emmer x T. tauschii carries favourable QTL alleles for baking quality traits, which might be useful for breeding improved wheat varieties by marker-assisted selection.
Overland, M; Granli, T; Kjos, N P; Fjetland, O; Steien, S H; Stokstad, M
Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of adding salts of formic acid to diets for growing-finishing pigs. In Exp. 1, 72 pigs (23.1 kg and 104.5 kg initial and final BW) were used to evaluate the effect of Ca/Na-formate and K-diformate on performance and carcass traits. Treatments were organized in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement with two feeding regimens (limit and semi-ad libitum feeding) and three diets (control, .85% Ca/Na-formate, and .8% K-diformate). No significant feeding regime x diet interaction was found. The K-diformate diet increased overall ADG of pigs compared with the control and Ca/Na-formate diets, but had no effect on ADFI or gain/feed (G/F) ratio. Neither K-diformate nor Ca/Na-formate had any effect on carcass lean or fat content. In Exp. 2, 10 limit-fed pigs (24.3 kg and 85.1 kg initial and final BW) were used to study the effect of K-diformate on performance and sensory quality of pork. Adding .8% K-diformate to diets increased ADG (P < .13) and G/F (P < .04), but had no effect on sensory quality of the pork or content of formate in liver, kidney, or muscle tissue of pigs. In Exp. 3, 96 limit-fed pigs (27.1 kg and 105 kg initial and final BW) were used to determine the effect of adding K-diformate to diets on performance, carcass traits, and stomach keratinization and(or) lesions. Adding K-diformate (0, .6, or 1.2%) to diets increased ADG and ADFI (linear P < .01). The K-diformate reduced the percentage of carcass fat (linear P < .03) and fat area in the cutlet (linear P < .09) and increased percentage lean in the ham (linear P < .01), flank (linear P < .02), loin (linear P < .09), and neck and shoulder (linear P < .09). The K-diformate had no negative effect on stomach alterations. In Exp. 3, the concentration of coliform bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract was evaluated in eight control and eight 1.2% K-diformate-fed pigs. The K-diformate reduced the number of coliforms in the duodenum (P < .03), jejunum (P < .02), and
Even though the potential benefits of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for line and population development to improve yield in cucumber have been demonstrated, its application during tandem selection for yield and quality components has not been investigated. Therefore, two cucumber recombinant inbr...
Booth, Alan; Granger, Douglas A.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.
The majority of studies linking individual differences in the quality of social relationships and activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have focused on the early development of attachment between infants and their caregivers. Later in development, during middle childhood and adolescence, the parallel HPA links to…
Costa, Augusta; Roussado, Cristóvão; Gonçalves, Elsa; Costa, Rita; Graça, José; Oliveira, M. Margarida
DNA methylation is thought to influence Quercus suber cork quality, which is the main constraint for its economic valorisation. However, a deep knowledge of the cytosine methylation patterns disclosing the epigenetic variability of trees with different cork quality types is totally missing. This study investigates the hypothesis that variations in DNA methylation contribute to differences in cork cellular characteristics directly related to original or traumatic phellogen activity. We used MSAPs (Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism) to assess DNA methylation patterns of cork and leaf tissues of Q. suber adult trees growing in three cork oak stands. The relationship between the detected polymorphisms and the diversity of cork quality traits was explored by a marker-trait analysis focusing on the most relevant quality characteristics. Populations differed widely in cork quality, but only slightly in degree of epigenetic differentiation. Four MSAP markers (1.3% of the total) were significantly associated with the most noteworthy quality traits: wood inclusions (nails) and porosity. This evidence supports the potential role of cytosine methylation in the modulation of differential phellogen activity either involved in localized cell death or in pore production, resulting in different cork qualities. Although, the underlying basis of the methylation polymorphism of loci affecting cork quality traits remain unclear, the disclosure of markers statistically associated with cork quality strengthens the potential role of DNA methylation in the regulation of these traits, namely at the phellogen level. PMID:28045988
Inácio, Vera; Barros, Pedro M; Costa, Augusta; Roussado, Cristóvão; Gonçalves, Elsa; Costa, Rita; Graça, José; Oliveira, M Margarida; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor
DNA methylation is thought to influence Quercus suber cork quality, which is the main constraint for its economic valorisation. However, a deep knowledge of the cytosine methylation patterns disclosing the epigenetic variability of trees with different cork quality types is totally missing. This study investigates the hypothesis that variations in DNA methylation contribute to differences in cork cellular characteristics directly related to original or traumatic phellogen activity. We used MSAPs (Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism) to assess DNA methylation patterns of cork and leaf tissues of Q. suber adult trees growing in three cork oak stands. The relationship between the detected polymorphisms and the diversity of cork quality traits was explored by a marker-trait analysis focusing on the most relevant quality characteristics. Populations differed widely in cork quality, but only slightly in degree of epigenetic differentiation. Four MSAP markers (1.3% of the total) were significantly associated with the most noteworthy quality traits: wood inclusions (nails) and porosity. This evidence supports the potential role of cytosine methylation in the modulation of differential phellogen activity either involved in localized cell death or in pore production, resulting in different cork qualities. Although, the underlying basis of the methylation polymorphism of loci affecting cork quality traits remain unclear, the disclosure of markers statistically associated with cork quality strengthens the potential role of DNA methylation in the regulation of these traits, namely at the phellogen level.
The article discusses full-scale residential house tests to evaluate the effects of organic emissions from a wood finishing product--wood stain--on indoor air quality (IAQ). The test house concentrations of three alkane species, nonane, decane, and undecane, were measured as a fu...
The report discusses a project, cofunded by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and the U.S. EPA, to develop a new, low volatile organic compound (VOC) wood coating. Traditional wood furniture coating technologies contain organic solvents which become air pol...
Residential wood-fired hydronic heaters (RWHHs) can negatively impact the local ambient air quality and thus are of major environmental concern in wood burning areas of the U. S. Few studies have been conducted which characterize the emissions from RWHHs. To address the lack of e...
Meder, Roger; Stahl, Wolfgang; Warburton, Paul; Woolley, Sam; Earnshaw, Scott; Haselhofer, Klaus; van Langenberg, Ken; Ebdon, Nick; Mulder, Roger
The reactivity of melamine-urea-formaldehyde resins is of key importance in the manufacture of engineered wood products such as medium density fibreboard (MDF) and other wood composite products. Often the MDF manufacturing plant has little available information on the resin reactivity other than details of the resin specification at the time of batch manufacture, which often occurs off-site at a third-party resin plant. Often too, fresh resin on delivery at the MDF plant is mixed with variable volume of aged resin in storage tanks, thereby rendering any specification of the fresh resin batch obsolete. It is therefore highly desirable to develop a real-time, at-line or on-line, process analytical technology to monitor the quality of the resin prior to MDF panel manufacture. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been calibrated against standard quality methods and against (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measures of molecular composition in order to provide at-line process analytical technology (PAT), to monitor the resin quality, particularly the formaldehyde content of the resin. At-line determination of formaldehyde content in the resin was made possible using a six-factor calibration with an R (2)(cal) value of 0.973, and R (2)(CV) value of 0.929 and a root-mean-square error of cross-validation of 0.01. This calibration was then used to generate control charts of formaldehyde content at regular four-hourly periods during MDF panel manufacture in a commercial MDF manufacturing plant.
Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.
Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…
Martin, Adam R; Erickson, David L; Kress, W John; Thomas, Sean C
In tropical and temperate trees, wood chemical traits are hypothesized to covary with species' life-history strategy along a 'wood economics spectrum' (WES), but evidence supporting these expected patterns remains scarce. Due to its role in nutrient storage, we hypothesize that wood nitrogen (N) concentration will covary along the WES, being higher in slow-growing species with high wood density (WD), and lower in fast-growing species with low WD. In order to test this hypothesis we quantified wood N concentrations in 59 Panamanian hardwood species, and used this dataset to examine ecological correlates and phylogenetic patterns of wood N. Wood N varied > 14-fold among species between 0.04 and 0.59%; closely related species were more similar in wood N than expected by chance. Wood N was positively correlated with WD, and negatively correlated with log-transformed relative growth rates, although these relationships were relatively weak. We found evidence for co-evolution between wood N and both WD and log-transformed mortality rates. Our study provides evidence that wood N covaries with tree life-history parameters, and that these patterns consistently co-evolve in tropical hardwoods. These results provide some support for the hypothesized WES, and suggest that wood is an increasingly important N pool through tropical forest succession.
Yang, Jieun; Jeong, Dawoon; Na, Chong-Sam; Hwang, Inho
Interaction between carcass quality grade and end-point cooking temperature on eating quality of Hanwoo m. longissimus was investigated. Ten (10) of steers were sampled from a commercial population; carcasses with QG 1(++) (n=5) and QG 1 (n=5) were chosen. Samples were cooked by electric oven at 60 or 82℃ and compared with uncooked control samples. The pH was not affected by cooking temperature but decreased the redness after cooking and steaks cooked at 60℃ were more reddish than steaks cooked at 82℃ in both QG groups. Higher cooking temperature greatly (p<0.05) increased the cooking loss, but there was no significant interaction between cooking temperature and QG on the cooking loss. Moisture is negatively correlated with temperature in both QG while the proportionate relationship between crude fat and end-point temperature found in QG 1(++). WBSF values were significantly (p<0.05) high for QG 1, while that was significantly (p<0.05) increased when the temperature continues to increase. The increasing quality grade of beef resulted in significant higher (p<0.01) level of TBARS and cooking temperature increased TBARS content. Fatty acid composition was not altered by cooking at both temperatures and also the amount of fat intake was not changed. The current study indicates that eating quality of beef m. longissimus was greatly influenced by end-point temperature being interacted with QG. However, the amount and composition of fat were stable regardless of end-point temperatures. These results will provide a consumer reference to determine cooking conditions and intramuscular fat content.
Interaction between carcass quality grade and end-point cooking temperature on eating quality of Hanwoo m. longissimus was investigated. Ten (10) of steers were sampled from a commercial population; carcasses with QG 1++ (n=5) and QG 1 (n=5) were chosen. Samples were cooked by electric oven at 60 or 82℃ and compared with uncooked control samples. The pH was not affected by cooking temperature but decreased the redness after cooking and steaks cooked at 60℃ were more reddish than steaks cooked at 82℃ in both QG groups. Higher cooking temperature greatly (p<0.05) increased the cooking loss, but there was no significant interaction between cooking temperature and QG on the cooking loss. Moisture is negatively correlated with temperature in both QG while the proportionate relationship between crude fat and end-point temperature found in QG 1++. WBSF values were significantly (p<0.05) high for QG 1, while that was significantly (p<0.05) increased when the temperature continues to increase. The increasing quality grade of beef resulted in significant higher (p<0.01) level of TBARS and cooking temperature increased TBARS content. Fatty acid composition was not altered by cooking at both temperatures and also the amount of fat intake was not changed. The current study indicates that eating quality of beef m. longissimus was greatly influenced by end-point temperature being interacted with QG. However, the amount and composition of fat were stable regardless of end-point temperatures. These results will provide a consumer reference to determine cooking conditions and intramuscular fat content. PMID:27433099
Soria, L A; Corva, P M; Branda Sica, A; Villarreal, E L; Melucci, L M; Mezzadra, C A; Papaleo Mazzucco, J; Fernández Macedo, G; Silvestro, C; Schor, A; Miquel, M C
The PPARGC1A gene (peroxysome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1alpha gene) controls muscle fiber type and brown adipocyte differentiation; therefore, it is a candidate gene for beef quality traits (tenderness and fat content). Two SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) were identified within exon 8 by multiple alignment of DNA sequences obtained from 24 bulls: a transition G/A (SNP 1181) and a transversion A/T (SNP 1299). The SNP 1181 is a novel SNP, corresponding to a non-conservative substitution (AGT/AAT) that could be the cause of amino acid substitution ((364)Serine/(364)Asparagine). A Mismatch PCR method was designed to determine genotypes of 73 bulls and 268 steers for SNP 1181. Growth, slaughter and meat quality information were available for the group of steers. Allele A of SNP 1181 was not found in Angus. In 243 steers, no significant differences (P > 0.05) were found for either final live body weight, gain in backfat thickness in Spring, kidney fat weight, kidney fat percentage, Warner-Bratzler shear force at 7 days postmortem, intramuscular fat percentage or meat colour between genotype GG and AG. This SNP could be included in breed composition and population admixture analyses because there are marked differences in allelic frequencies between Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds.
Pietrosemoli, Silvana; Moron-Fuenmayor, Oneida Elizabeth; Paez, Angel; Villamide, Maria Jesús
The partial replacement of a commercial concentrate at 10-20% and 15-30% (the first percentage of each dietary treatment corresponded to weeks 1-3 and the second to weeks 4-7 of the experiment, respectively) by sweet potato meal (SPM; 70% foliage: 30% roots) was evaluated for growth performance, carcass yield, instrumental and sensory pork quality using 36 commercial crossbred pigs (56.8 ± 1.3 kg initial body weight). Three dietary treatments were compared in a randomized complete block design. Most growth, carcass traits and pork quality variables were not affected by the SPM inclusion. Growth performance averaged 868 g/day and feed efficiency 0.24 kg/kg. However, feed intake increased 2.2% (P = 0.04) in pigs fed the 10-20% SPM diets, in a similar order of magnitude as the decrease in dietary energy. Despite an increase in gastrointestinal tract as a percent of hot carcass weight (+14.7%) (P = 0.03) with SPM inclusion, carcass yield averaged 69.4%. Conversely, decreases in loin yield (-4.2%) (P = 0.05), backfat thickness (-6.0%) (P < 0.01) and pork tenderness (-13%) (P = 0.02) were observed with 15-30% SPM inclusion. Results suggest that up to 20% SPM inclusion is a viable feed strategy for finishing pigs, easily replicable in small farm settings. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Noor, Rashed; Hasan, Md Faqrul; Rahman, M Majibur
Current investigation characterized export quality shrimp samples in terms of pathogenic load along with the drug-resistance traits of the isolates, and detected the major virulent genes present in those isolates. Among the 30 such shrimp samples (15 each of Macrobrachium rosenbergi or Golda and Penaeus monodon or Bagda) studied, almost all were found to be contaminated with a huge load of bacteria (10(6)-10(8) cfu/g) and fungi (10(4)-10(5) cfu/g). Among the specific pathogens, presence of Escherichia coli, Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., Klebsiella spp., Shigella spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Listeria spp. were detected, of which most were likely to be resistant against commonly used antibiotics. Gene specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) study revealed the presence of eae gene in E. coli, aero specific gene in Aeromonas spp., and sodB gene in Vibrio spp. Together with the huge extent of microbial contamination with a drug-resistance attribute, presence of such virulent genes further projects the probable public health risk upon consumption of the export quality shrimps.
Muhlisin; Song, Chang Soo; Rhee, Yong Joon; Song, Young Han; Lee, Sung Ki
The carcass traits and meat quality of Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) whose diets were supplemented with direct-fed microbial (DFM) and pine cone extract (PCE) were evaluated. Twenty head of Hanwoo steers were divided equally into four groups and for a period of 6 months were given different diets: One group was fed a basal diet as control (CON), the other three groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with DFM-1%, DFM+PCE-1% and DFM+PEC-3%, respectively. DFM+PCE3% diet resulted the lowest carcass quality grade. The loins of DFM-1% contained higher moisture and lower fat than did the loins from the CON group. The crude protein content of DFM+PCE-3% group was significantly higher than that of the other groups. The water holding capacity and Warner-Bratzler shear force of the DFM+PCE-1% and 3% groups were lower than those of the CON and DFM-1% groups. The DFM-1% and 3% groups contained lower saturated fatty acid, higher unsaturated fatty acid, mono-unsaturated fatty acid, and poly-unsaturated fatty acid than did CON and DFM+PCE 1% group. Moreover, the n6:n3 ratios of DFM-1% and DFM+PCE-1% and 3% groups were slightly lower than that of the CON group. Thus we concluded that DFM and PCE supplementation resulted healthier Hanwoo beef with lower fat content and n6:n3 ratio. PMID:26954123
Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.
The interrelationships between moisture and wood, conditions for dry rot spore activity, the protection of wood fibers from moisture, wood resin composites, wood laminating, quality control, and the mechanical properties of wood are discussed. The laminated veneer and the bonded sawn stock fabrication techniques, used in the construction of a turbine blade with a monocoque 'D' section forming the leading edge and a built up trailing edge section, are described. A 20 foot root end sample complete with 24 bonded-in studs was successfully subjected to large onetime loads in both the flatwise and edgewise directions, and to fatigue tests. Results indicate that wood is both a viable and advantageous material for use in wind turbine blades. The basic material is reasonably priced, domestically available, ecologically sound, and easily fabricated with low energy consumption.
Piao, Min Yu; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun Jin; Ko, Jong-Youl; Baik, Myunggi
This study was performed to compare carcass traits, sensory characteristics, physiochemical composition, and contents of nucleotides, collagen, and free amino acids among quality grades (QG) and to understand the association between QG and above parameters in loin and rump of Korean cattle steer. Loin and rump samples were obtained from 48 Korean cattle steers with each of four QG (QG 1++, 1+, 1, and 2; average 32 months of age). Carcass weight and marbling score (MS) were highest in QG 1++, whereas texture score measured by a meat grader was highest in QG 2. A correlation analysis revealed that MS (r = 0.98; p<0.01) and fat content (r = 0.73; p<0.01) had strong positive correlations with QG and that texture had a strong negative correlation (r = −0.78) with QG. Fat content in loin was highest but protein and moisture contents were lowest in QG 1++. Our results confirmed that a major determinant of QG is the MS; thus, intramuscular fat content. The International Commission on Illumination L*, a*, and b* values in loin were highest in QG 1++. Numeric values of shear force in loin were lowest in QG 1++, whereas those of tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability tended to be highest in QG 1++ without statistical significance. QG was strongly correlated with juiciness (r = 0.81; p<0.01) and overall acceptability (r = 0.87; p<0.001). All sensory characteristics were higher (p<0.05) in loin than those in rump. Adenosine-5′-monophosphate (AMP) and inosine-5′-monophosphate (IMP) contents in both loin and rump did not differ among QGs. No nucleotide (AMP, IMP, inosine, hypoxanthine) was correlated with any of the sensory traits. Total, soluble, and insoluble collagen contents in loin were higher in QG 1++ than those in QG 1. All three collagens had lower content in loin than that in rump. All three collagens were positively correlated with tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. Glutamic acid content did not significantly differ among the four QGs in
Schwarze, Francis W M R; Spycher, Melanie; Fink, Siegfried
Violins produced by Antonio Stradivari during the late 17th and early 18th centuries are reputed to have superior tonal qualities. Dendrochronological studies show that Stradivari used Norway spruce that had grown mostly during the Maunder Minimum, a period of reduced solar activity when relatively low temperatures caused trees to lay down wood with narrow annual rings, resulting in a high modulus of elasticity and low density. The main objective was to determine whether wood can be processed using selected decay fungi so that it becomes acoustically similar to the wood of trees that have grown in a cold climate (i.e. reduced density and unchanged modulus of elasticity). This was investigated by incubating resonance wood specimens of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) with fungal species that can reduce wood density, but lack the ability to degrade the compound middle lamellae, at least in the earlier stages of decay. Microscopic assessment of the incubated specimens and measurement of five physical properties (density, modulus of elasticity, speed of sound, radiation ratio, and the damping factor) using resonance frequency revealed that in the wood of both species there was a reduction in density, accompanied by relatively little change in the speed of sound. Thus, radiation ratio was increased from 'poor' to 'good', on a par with 'superior' resonance wood grown in a cold climate.
Effects of dietary supplementation with creatine monohydrate during the finishing period on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and muscle glycolytic potential of broilers subjected to transport stress.
Zhang, L; Li, J L; Gao, T; Lin, M; Wang, X F; Zhu, X D; Gao, F; Zhou, G H
A total of 320 male Arbor Acres broiler chickens (28 days old) were randomly allotted to one of the three experimental diets supplemented with 0 (160 birds), 600 (80 birds) or 1200 mg/kg (80 birds) creatine monohydrate (CMH) for 14 days. On the morning of 42 day, after an 8-h fast, the birds of CMH-free group were divided into two equal groups, and all birds of these four groups were transported according to the follow protocol: 0.75-h transport without CMH supplementation (as a lower stress control group), 3-h transport without CMH supplementation, 3-h transport with 600 or 1200 mg/kg CMH supplementation. Each treatment group was composed of 8 replicates with 10 birds each. The results showed that supplementation of CMH for 14 days before slaughter did not affect the overall growth performance and carcass traits of stressed broilers (P>0.05). A 3-h transport decreased plasma glucose concentration, elevated plasma corticosterone concentration, increased bird live weight loss, breakdown of muscle glycogen, as well as the accumulation of muscle lactate (P<0.05), which induced some detrimental changes to breast meat quality (lower ultimate pH and higher drip loss, P<0.05). Nevertheless, supplementation of 1200 mg/kg CMH reduced chicken weight loss, decreased the contents of lactate and glycolytic potential in pectoralis major of 3-h transported broilers (P<0.05), which is beneficial to maintain breast meat quality by reducing the drip loss (P<0.05). These findings suggest that the reduction of muscle glycolysis is probably the reason for maintainance of meat quality by supplementation of CMH in transported broilers.
Bagh, Jessy; Panigrahi, B.; Panda, N.; Pradhan, C. R.; Mallik, B. K.; Majhi, B.; Rout, S. S.
Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age). The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05) among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD) production or hen-housed egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white and gray in the
Broenstad, B. M.; Auman, N.; Toennessen, K.
Lasers have been used for special woodprocessing purposes for more than twenty years. Besides dieboard manufacturing, which was one of the earliest applications, CO2 lasers are also used for different cutting, marking and engraving operations. High quality slots in varying depths are produced in wood and different plywood materials at high cutting speeds and with excellent accuracy. Decorative marking operations are performed by means of masking techniques, or by moving a defocused beam over the workpiece. Formerly collected and stored data is directly used for laser cutting of card-board and 3D map modeling. Examples of products are shown, processing data given and limitations discussed.
The objective of the paper was to estimate the fungicidal value of wood tar extracted as a product of pyrolysis of wood previously treated with either creosote oil or CCB-type salt preservative. The effectiveness of wood treated with one of these two wood tar residuals was compared to the effectiveness of wood treated with virgin creosote oil (type WEI-B) and an untreated control. Wood was impregnated with alcohol solutions of the two extracted preservatives or virgin creosote oil and then subjected to the Coniophora puteana, Poria placenta and Coriolus versicolor fungi. The fungicidal values of the investigated preservatives were determined with the use of the short agar-block method and the aging test according to the standard EN 84. It was found that wood tar extracted by pyrolysis of old creosote-treated wood and then used to treat wood may have potential as a preservative for wood protection or as a component of preservatives.
Butcher, T.; Trojanowski, R.; Wei, G.
EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.
Huang, Yanling; Yang, Jian; Xiao, Fang; Lloyd, Karen; Lin, Xi
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplemental chromium (Cr) on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of broilers reared under heat stress. A total of 252 1-d-old Cobb 500 commercial female broilers were randomly allotted by body weight (BW) to one of six replicate cages (six broilers per cage) for each of seven treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with three Cr sources (Cr propionate, CrPro; Cr picolinate, CrPic; Cr chloride, CrCl3) and two concentrations of added Cr (0.4, or 2.0 mg of Cr/kg) plus a Cr-unsupplemented control group. Feed and distilled-deionized water were available ad libitum for an experimental phase of 42 days. For induction of heat stress, the house temperature was set at 33 ± 2 °C from 15 to 42 days of age. Results showed that birds supplemented with Cr, regardless of Cr source, had increased ADG (P = 0.032) than controls. Birds fed 2.0 mg Cr/kg diet had greater ADG (P = 0.005) than birds fed 0.4 mg Cr/kg diet. Compared to controls, birds fed with Cr had greater dressing percentage (P = 0.021). Percentage of abdominal fat decreased (P = 0.013), whereas, breast intramuscular fat (IMF) remained unaffected (P = 0.147) in Cr supplemented vs control broilers. Broilers supplemented Cr had decreased b* values of meat color (P = 0.042) in breast muscle. B*values were also lesser (P = 0.049) in birds fed CrPro than birds supplemented with CrCl3 or CrPic. Regardless of Cr source, the percentage of cooking loss was decreased (P = 0.025) with Cr supplementation in breast muscle when compared to controls. Results from this study indicate that Cr supplementation, independent of its source, could promote growth and improve carcass traits and meat quality of broilers under heat stress conditions. Chromium propionate seems to have greater beneficial effects on meat color in comparison with CrPic and CrCl3.
Lorenzo, J M; Crecente, S; Franco, D; Sarriés, M V; Gómez, M
This trial was conducted to study the effect of livestock production system (freedom extensive system (FES) v. semi extensive system (SES)) and amount of finishing feed (1.5 v. 3.0 kg of commercial feed) in SES on carcass characteristics, meat quality and nutritional value of meat foal slaughtered at 18 months of age. For this study, a total of 49 foals (21 from FES and 28 from SES) were used. The obtained results showed that SES had a positive influence on carcass characteristic because these foals showed the best values for live weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, perimeter of leg (PL) and carcass compactness index. On the other hand, finishing feeding also had a significant (P<0.05) effect on PL and lean thickness, as the highest values were obtained in foals finished with 3 kg of commercial fodder. The physico-chemical properties were significantly affected by the livestock production system with the exception of ashes content (P>0.05). Foals finished in SES increased in 408% the intramuscular fat content (0.23 v. 1.17%, for foals reared in FES and SES, respectively). On the other hand, L*-value and a*-value were significantly (P<0.01) affected by livestock production system, as foals from the FES group had a more intense redder color (higher CIE a*-value) and higher lightness (higher CIE L*-value) compared with those from the SES group. Finally, meat nutritional value was significantly affected by livestock production system, as foals from an extensive production system on wood pasture could be considered as healthier in relation to their fatty acid profiles (low n-6/n-3 ratio and high hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio) as a result of the beneficial grass intake on meat fatty acid profile.
Adams, J.; Giam, C.S.
Polynuclear azaarenes in a creosote-pentachlorophenol wood preservative wastewater were analyzed. The total concentration of azaarenes was determined to be 1300 mg kg/sup -1/. Potential adverse effects of these compounds on environmental quality and health suggest a need to develop analytical protocols for measuing azaarenes in hazardous wastes.
Solé, M.; Peña, F.; Domenech, V.; Clemente, I.; Polvillo, O.; Valera, M.; Verona, J. C.; Rubí, M.; Molina, A.
This study assessed the influence of genetic type (Embden-Anser anser, EE; Toulouse-Anser anser, TT and F1 cross, ET) for meat characteristics (carcass, meat quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles), of domestic geese “Anser anser domesticus” raised in dehesa as an alternative, organic feeding system. Carcass and breast muscle weight (p<0.01) were greater for the ET group at the same live weight. None of the groups showed differences in the production of fatty liver with this type of feeding. Higher values were found for maximum Warner–Bratzler shear force (between 7.62 and 8.87 kg/cm2), which implies the improvement of this parameter. High levels of oleic FAs were obtained, especially for the TT group. The polyunsaturated/saturated FA ratio was highest for the ET group (p<0.001), reflecting the optimum nutritional values as a component of a healthy consumer diet. PMID:26954156
Subedi, Maya; Willenborg, Christian J; Vandenberg, Albert
Most red lentil produced worldwide is consumed in dehulled form, and post-harvest milling and splitting qualities are major concerns in the secondary processing industry. Lentil producers in northern temperate regions usually apply pre-harvest desiccants as harvest aids to accelerate the lentil crop drying process and facilitate harvesting operations. This paper reports on field studies conducted at Scott and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada in the 2012 and 2013 cropping seasons to evaluate whether herbicides applied as harvest aids alone or tank mixed with glyphosate affect seed germination, seedling vigor, milling, and splitting qualities. The site-year by desiccant treatment interaction for seed germination, vigor, and milling recovery yields was significant. Glyphosate applied alone or as tank mix with other herbicides (except diquat) reduced seed germination and seedling vigor at Saskatoon and Scott in 2012 only. Pyraflufen-ethyl (20 g ai ha(-1)) applied with glyphosate as well as saflufenacil (36 g ai ha(-1)) decreased dehulling efficiency, while saflufenacil and/or glufosinate with glyphosate reduced milling recovery and football recovery, although these effects were inconsistent. Application of diquat alone or in combination with glyphosate exhibited more consistent dehulling efficiency gains and increases in milling recovery yield. Significant but negative associations were observed between glyphosate residue in seeds and seed germination (r = -0.84, p < 0.001), seed vigor (r = -0.62, p < 0.001), dehulling efficiency (r = -0.55, p < 0.001), and milling recovery (r = -0.62, p < 0.001). These results indicate application of diquat alone or in combination with glyphosate may be a preferred option for lentil growers to improve milling recovery yield.
Subedi, Maya; Willenborg, Christian J.; Vandenberg, Albert
Most red lentil produced worldwide is consumed in dehulled form, and post-harvest milling and splitting qualities are major concerns in the secondary processing industry. Lentil producers in northern temperate regions usually apply pre-harvest desiccants as harvest aids to accelerate the lentil crop drying process and facilitate harvesting operations. This paper reports on field studies conducted at Scott and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada in the 2012 and 2013 cropping seasons to evaluate whether herbicides applied as harvest aids alone or tank mixed with glyphosate affect seed germination, seedling vigor, milling, and splitting qualities. The site-year by desiccant treatment interaction for seed germination, vigor, and milling recovery yields was significant. Glyphosate applied alone or as tank mix with other herbicides (except diquat) reduced seed germination and seedling vigor at Saskatoon and Scott in 2012 only. Pyraflufen-ethyl (20 g ai ha−1) applied with glyphosate as well as saflufenacil (36 g ai ha−1) decreased dehulling efficiency, while saflufenacil and/or glufosinate with glyphosate reduced milling recovery and football recovery, although these effects were inconsistent. Application of diquat alone or in combination with glyphosate exhibited more consistent dehulling efficiency gains and increases in milling recovery yield. Significant but negative associations were observed between glyphosate residue in seeds and seed germination (r = −0.84, p < 0.001), seed vigor (r = −0.62, p < 0.001), dehulling efficiency (r = −0.55, p < 0.001), and milling recovery (r = −0.62, p < 0.001). These results indicate application of diquat alone or in combination with glyphosate may be a preferred option for lentil growers to improve milling recovery yield. PMID:28352275
Kannepalli, Sarat; Strom, Peter F; Krogmann, Uta; Subroy, Vandana; Giménez, Daniel; Miskewitz, Robert
Large-scale open storage of wood mulch is common practice at wood recycling facilities. During rain and snow melt, leachate with soluble compounds and suspended particles is released from mulch stockpiles. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of leachate/runoff from wood recycling facilities to evaluate its potential to contaminate receiving waterbodies. Wood mulch (n = 30) and leachate/runoff (n = 26) samples were collected over 1.5 years from three wood recycling facilities in New Jersey, USA. Differences by site were found (p < 0.05) for most of the 21 constituents tested in the solid wood mulch samples. Biochemical oxygen demand (range <20-3000 mg/L), chemical oxygen demand (134-6000 mg/L) and total suspended solids (69-401 mg/L) median concentrations of the leachate/runoff samples were comparable to those of untreated domestic wastewater. Total Kjeldahl N, total P and fecal coliform median values were slightly lower than typical wastewater values. Dose-response studies with leachate/runoff samples using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos showed that mortality and developmental defects typically did not occur even at the highest concentration tested, indicating low toxicity, although delayed development did occur. Based on this study, leachate/runoff from wood recycling facilities should not be released to surface waters as it is a potential source of organic contamination and low levels of nutrients. A study in which runoff from a controlled drainage area containing wood mulch of known properties is monitored would allow for better assessment of the potential impact of stormwater runoff from wood recycling facilities.
Couto, A M; Teodoro, P E; Trugilho, P F
Path analysis has been used for establishing selection criteria in genetic breeding programs for several crops. However, it has not been used in eucalyptus breeding programs yet. In the present study, we aimed to identify the wood technology traits that could be used as the criteria for direct and indirect selection of eucalyptus genotypes with high energy density of wood. Twenty-four eucalyptus clones were evaluated in a completely randomized design with five replications. The following traits were assessed: basic wood density, total extractives, lignin content, ash content, nitrogen content, carbon content, hydrogen content, sulfur content, oxygen content, higher calorific power, holocellulose, and energy density. After verifying the variability of all evaluated traits among the clones, a two-dimensional correlation network was used to determine the phenotypic patterns among them. The obtained coefficient of determination (0.94) presented a higher magnitude in relation to the effect of the residual variable, and it served as an excellent model for explaining the genetic effects related to the variations observed in the energy density of wood in all eucalyptus clones. However, for future studies, we recommend evaluating other traits, especially the morphological traits, because of the greater ease in their measurement. Selecting clones with high basic density is the most promising strategy for eucalyptus breeding programs that aim to increase the energy density of wood because of its high heritability and magnitude of the cause-and-effect relationship with this trait.
Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R
Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any
Scheelings, Tf; Jessop, Ts
OBJECTIVE The aims of this study were to determine baseline reference intervals for haematological and serum biochemical parameters in lace monitors, and to examine whether such values were influenced by capture method, expected differences in habitat food resource availability and a lizard's body size and body condition. METHODS Thirty-three wild Victorian lace monitors (Varanus varius) of unknown age and sex were captured by noose pole or aluminium box trap from Cape Conran in East Gippsland, Victoria, Australia. RESULTS No statistical differences between the two capture methods were noted for haematology. There was a significant difference in the serum glucose concentrations between the two methods of capture (higher concentration in box-trapped animals) because of a physiological response to capture stress. Habitat food quality did not appear to influence haematology or serum biochemistry. The packed cell volume (PCV) for the lace monitors was 0.29-0.43 L/L. Lymphocytes were identified as the most common leucocyte. The haemoprotozoan parasite, Haemogregarina varanicola, was found in all 33 blood samples. No correlation could be made between parasite burden and PCV, serum globulins or serum proteins, but animals in poor body condition were more likely to harbour large numbers of parasites. CONCLUSION The results of this study may be used as a basis for evaluating health in lace monitors.
Toohey, E S; van de Ven, R; Thompson, J M; Geesink, G H; Hopkins, D L
This study evaluated the effect of SmartStretch™ technology and ageing on meat quality traits of hot-boned beef m. semimembranosus from cull cows. The technology uses a flexible rubber sleeve surrounded by inflatable bladders that are housed within an airtight chamber. The sleeve is expanded allowing the meat to be inserted. Air is then pumped into the inflatable bladders causing the meat to be compressed by force and ejected into packaging. No significant treatment effect (P>0.05) on shear force was found although ageing did significantly reduce shear force (P<0.001). There was a significantly greater (P<0.05) cook loss at 14 days, but less (P<0.05) thaw loss and purge with 0 day cook loss unaffected (P>0.05). Sarcomere length examined by both laser diffraction and a filar micrometre method was significantly increased (P<0.05) following the treatment although a proportion of individual myofibrils appeared to have short and long sarcomeres.
Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles; Harris-Waller, Jayne
The four studies reported here sought to explore the nature of the construct of mind-mindedness. In Study 1, involving 37 mothers of 5- to 8-year-old children, mothers' verbal mind-minded descriptions of their children were positively correlated with their mind-minded descriptions of their current romantic partner. Participants in Studies 2 (N=114), 3 (N=173), and 4 (N=153) were young adults who provided written descriptions of: a close friend and their current romantic partner (Study 2); two specified famous people, two works of art, and a close friend (Study 3); a specified famous person, a famous person of the participant's choice, and a close friend (Study 4). Study 2 obtained paper-and-pen written descriptions, whereas participants completed descriptions in electronic format in Studies 3 and 4. Mind-minded descriptions of friends and partners were positively correlated, but there was no relation between mind-minded descriptions of a friend and the tendency to describe famous people or works of art in mind-minded terms. Levels of mind-mindedness were higher in descriptions of friends compared with descriptions of famous people or works of art. Administration format was unrelated to individuals' mind-mindedness scores. The results suggest that mind-mindedness is a facet of personal relationships rather than a trait-like quality.
Xu, Xiaoling; Xu, Xuewen; Yin, Qin; Sun, Ling; Liu, Bang; Wang, Yanan
The cardiomyopathy associated 5 (CMYA5) gene was also called TRIM76, which was belonged to the tripartite motif super family of proteins (TRIM). It was a direct transcriptional target for MEF2A and it played an important role in myofibrillogenesis. In the present study, a 12056 bp cDNA sequence of the porcine CMYA5 gene was obtained by RT-PCR. The sequence encoded a large protein consisting of 4003 amino acids and the carboxyl terminus of the predicted CMYA5 protein comprised of a B-box coiled-coil, two fibronectin type III (FN3) repeats, and SPRY domains. The porcine CMYA5 gene was assigned to chromosome 2q21-24 by using the radiation hybrid (IMpRH) panel, and it was significantly linked to microsatellite Sw1602 with LOD scores of 6.74. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the porcine CMYA5 gene was broadly expressed in all seven tissues(heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, skeletal muscle and adipose)harvested from different developmental stages(new born, five weeks and adult tongcheng pigs), with a high level in heart and skeletal muscle. One SNP (A7189C), leading to the amino acid alteration from the Ile residue to the Leu residue, was found and detected by BspTI PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The association analysis revealed that the substitution of A7189C had significant associations with the percentage of ham (p < 0.05), water loss (p < 0.01) and intramuscular fat (p < 0.05). These results provide the evidence that the porcine CMYA5 gene can act as a potential candidate gene affecting pig meat quality.
Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.; Stevens, D.J.
The various methods of producing transportation fuels from wood are evaluated in this paper. These methods include direct liquefaction schemes such as hydrolysis/fermentation, pyrolysis, and thermochemical liquefaction. Indirect liquefaction techniques involve gasification followed by liquid fuels synthesis such as methanol synthesis or the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The cost of transportation fuels produced by the various methods are compared. In addition, three ongoing programs at Pacific Northwest Laboratory dealing with liquid fuels from wood are described.
Although it is well known that the strength of wood depends greatly upon the time the wood is under the load, little consideration has been given to this fact in testing materials for airplanes. Here, results are given of impact tests on clear, straight grained spruce. Transverse tests were conducted for comparison. Both Izod and Charpy impact tests were conducted. Results are given primarily in tabular and graphical form.
Crawford, S M; Moeller, S J; Zerby, H N; Irvin, K M; Kuber, P S; Velleman, S G; Leeds, T D
The effect of, and associations between, loin muscle morphology and pork quality indicator traits were assessed at three cooked temperatures in loin chops from 38 purebred Berkshire and 52 purebred Landrace swine. Three loin chops from each pig were randomly assigned to cooked temperature treatments of 62, 71, or 79 degrees C and loin tenderness was assessed as Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Cooked temperature (P<0.001), breed (P<0.001) and breed x cooked temperature (P<0.001) effects influenced loin chop WBSF, whereby WBSF increased as cooked temperature increased. Chops from Landrace pigs had greater WBSF at each cooked temperature compared with chops from Berkshire pigs. Chops from Landrace pigs became less tender with increasing cooked temperature, whereas chops from Berkshire pigs became less tender only when cooked to 79 degrees C. In loins from Landrace pigs, Minolta a* at 62 degrees C (R(2)=0.07), and average muscle fiber diameter at 71 degrees C and 79 degrees C (R(2)=0.07 and 0.24, respectively), contributed to WBSF variation. In contrast, for loins from Berkshire pigs, loin ultimate pH and intramuscular fat percentage accounted for 27% and 30% of the variation in WBSF at 62 degrees C and 71 degrees C, respectively, and loin ultimate pH accounted for 7% of variation in WBSF at 79 degrees C. Results suggest that loins from Berkshire pigs have properties that resist toughening at greater cooked temperatures and that associations between quality measures and loin tenderness differ between Landrace and Berkshire pigs.
Silva, T M; de Medeiros, A N; Oliveira, R L; Gonzaga Neto, S; Queiroga, R de C R do E; Ribeiro, R D X; Leão, A G; Bezerra, L R
This study aimed to determine the impact of replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diets of crossbred Boer goats as determined by carcass characteristics and quality and by the fatty acid profile of meat. Forty vaccinated and dewormed crossbred Boer goats were used. Goats had an average age of 5 mo and an average BW of 15.6 ± 2.7 kg. Goats were fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate consisting of corn bran, soybean meal, and mineral premix. Peanut cake was substituted for soybean meal at levels of 0.0, 33.33, 66.67, and 100%. Biometric and carcass morphometric measurements of crossbred Boer goats were not affected by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. There was no influence of the replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake on weight at slaughter ( = 0.28), HCW ( = 0.26), cold carcass weight ( = 0.23), noncarcass components of weight ( = 0.71), or muscularity index values ( = 0.11). However, regression equations indicated that there would be a reduction of 18 and 11% for loin eye area and muscle:bone ratio, respectively, between the treatment without peanut cake and the treatment with total soybean meal replacement. The weights and yields of the commercial cuts were not affected ( > 0.05) by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. Replacing soybean meal with peanut cake did not affect the pH ( = 0.79), color index ( > 0.05), and chemical composition ( > 0.05) of the meat (). However, a quadratic trend for the ash content was observed with peanut cake inclusion in the diet ( = 0.09). Peanut cake inclusion in the diet did not affect the concentrations of the sum of SFA ( = 0.29), the sum of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; = 0.29), or the sum of PUFA ( = 0.97) or the SFA:UFA ratio ( = 0.23) in goat meat. However, there was a linear decrease ( = 0.01) in the sum of odd-chain fatty acids in the meat with increasing peanut cake in the diet. Soybean meal replacement with peanut cake did not affect the n-6:n-3 ratio ( = 0.13) or the
Chen, Ruiying; Wei, Ping; Liu, Jinghong
With Chinese fir thinnings as raw material, and through measuring the physical-mechanical indices of its compressed wood, observing the variation of its microstructure and using IR analysis, an optimized technique of compressing Chinese fir thinnings was established. The technique was: compression ratio 50%-60%, thickness after compression 20 mm, moisture content before compression 50%, compressing time 20-30 minutes, and hot compressing temperature 180-200 degrees C. CH, an environmentally friendly cooking additive, had positive effects on softening the wood. During compressing, only the cells of fast-growing Chinese fir were extruded, their cavity became smaller, while the cell wall was not destroyed. The thickness reversion ratio of compressed wood was 2.68%, and its size stability and mechanical quality were as good as hardwoods (Betula lumninifera).
McDermott, A; Visentin, G; McParland, S; Berry, D P; Fenelon, M A; De Marchi, M
The color of milk affects the subsequent color features of the resulting dairy products; milk color is also related to milk fat concentration. The objective of the present study was to quantify the ability of mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) to predict color-related traits in milk samples and to estimate the correlations between these color-related characteristics and traditional milk quality traits. Mid-infrared spectral data were available on 601 milk samples from 529 cows, all of which had corresponding gold standard milk color measures determined using a Chroma Meter (Konica Minolta Sensing Europe, Nieuwegein, the Netherlands); milk color was expressed using the CIELAB uniform color space. Separate prediction equations were developed for each of the 3 color parameters (L*=lightness, a*=greenness, b*=yellowness) using partial least squares regression. Accuracy of prediction was determined using both cross validation on a calibration data set (n=422 to 457 samples) and external validation on a data set of 144 to 152 samples. Moderate accuracy of prediction was achieved for the b* index (coefficient of correlation for external validation=0.72), although poor predictive ability was obtained for both a* and L* indices (coefficient of correlation for external validation of 0.30 and 0.55, respectively). The linear regression coefficient of the gold standard values on the respective MIRS-predicted values of a*, L*, and b* was 0.81, 0.88, and 0.96, respectively; only the regression coefficient on L* was different from 1. The mean bias of prediction (i.e., the average difference between the MIRS-predicted values and gold standard values in external validation) was not different from zero for any of 3 parameters evaluated. A moderate correlation (0.56) existed between the MIRS-predicted L* and b* indices, both of which were weakly correlated with the a* index. Milk fat, protein, and casein were moderately correlated with both the gold standard and MIRS-predicted values
Heo, K. N.; Hong, E. C.; Kim, C. D.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, M. J.; Choo, H. J.; Choi, H. C.; Mushtaq, M. M. H.; Parvin, R.; Kim, J. H.
difference in wing, neck, breast and leg ratios among crossbreds. However, back ratios of 4 crossbreds were 17.6%, 18.0%, 15.8%, and 17.6%, respectively, and back ratio of BB was the highest among crossbreds. Finally, these results may provide the basic data on the production, carcass quality, fatty acid and amino acid composition of commercial KND with 2-way crossbreeding. PMID:25656202
Wilkinson, Sarah; Ogée, Jérôme; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Rayment, Mark; Wingate, Lisa
Process-based models that link seasonally varying environmental signals to morphological features within tree rings are essential tools to predict tree growth response and commercially important wood quality traits under future climate scenarios. This study evaluated model portrayal of radial growth and wood anatomy observations within a mature maritime pine (Pinus pinaster (L.) Aït.) stand exposed to seasonal droughts. Intra-annual variations in tracheid anatomy and wood density were identified through image analysis and X-ray densitometry on stem cores covering the growth period 1999-2010. A cambial growth model was integrated with modelled plant water status and sugar availability from the soil-plant-atmosphere transfer model MuSICA to generate estimates of cell number, cell volume, cell mass and wood density on a weekly time step. The model successfully predicted inter-annual variations in cell number, ring width and maximum wood density. The model was also able to predict the occurrence of special anatomical features such as intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) in growth rings. Since cell wall thickness remained surprisingly constant within and between growth rings, variations in wood density were primarily the result of variations in lumen diameter, both in the model and anatomical data. In the model, changes in plant water status were identified as the main driver of the IADFs through a direct effect on cell volume. The anatomy data also revealed that a trade-off existed between hydraulic safety and hydraulic efficiency. Although a simplified description of cambial physiology is presented, this integrated modelling approach shows potential value for identifying universal patterns of tree-ring growth and anatomical features over a broad climatic gradient.
Ziemińska, Kasia; Butler, Don W.; Gleason, Sean M.; Wright, Ian J.; Westoby, Mark
Wood density is considered a key plant trait, affecting mechanical and physiological performance, yet its biological meaning is still rather unclear. Accordingly we investigated the anatomical underpinnings of wood density in trees and shrubs. We measured wood density and anatomical traits in distal stems 4–10 mm diameter under bark in 24 Australian species. Proportions of wood components that are functionally distinct were analysed, including fibre wall and lumen, vessel wall and lumen, and axial and ray parenchyma. Wood density was mainly driven by the density of wood outside vessel lumens (densityNV) rather than by vessel lumen fraction. In turn, densityNV variation was chiefly affected by fibre wall and lumen fractions. Considerable anatomical variation was observed at a given densityNV, especially among medium-densityNV species (0.60–0.85 g cm−3); this range of medium densityNV roughly translates to 0.50–0.75 g cm−3 of overall density. The anatomy of these species formed a continuum from low fibre lumen and medium parenchyma fractions to medium fibre lumen and low parenchyma fractions. Our data suggest that wood density is an emergent property influenced by a complex anatomy rather than an unambiguous functional trait, particularly in medium-density species. With much anatomical variation, they likely represent a wide range of ecological strategies.
Lamara, Mebarek; Raherison, Elie; Lenz, Patrick; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean; MacKay, John
Association studies are widely utilized to analyze complex traits but their ability to disclose genetic architectures is often limited by statistical constraints, and functional insights are usually minimal in nonmodel organisms like forest trees. We developed an approach to integrate association mapping results with co-expression networks. We tested single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2652 candidate genes for statistical associations with wood density, stiffness, microfibril angle and ring width in a population of 1694 white spruce trees (Picea glauca). Associations mapping identified 229-292 genes per wood trait using a statistical significance level of P < 0.05 to maximize discovery. Over-representation of genes associated for nearly all traits was found in a xylem preferential co-expression group developed in independent experiments. A xylem co-expression network was reconstructed with 180 wood associated genes and several known MYB and NAC regulators were identified as network hubs. The network revealed a link between the gene PgNAC8, wood stiffness and microfibril angle, as well as considerable within-season variation for both genetic control of wood traits and gene expression. Trait associations were distributed throughout the network suggesting complex interactions and pleiotropic effects. Our findings indicate that integration of association mapping and co-expression networks enhances our understanding of complex wood traits.
Capron, Arnaud; Chang, Xue Feng; Hall, Hardy; Ellis, Brian; Beatson, Rodger P; Berleth, Thomas
Fibre properties and the biochemical composition of cell walls are important traits in many applications. For example, the lengths of fibres define the strength and quality of paper, and lignin content is a critical parameter for the use of biomass in biofuel production. Identifying genes controlling these traits is comparatively difficult in woody species, because of long generation times and limited amenability to high-resolution genetic mapping. To address this problem, this study mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) defining fibre length and lignin content in the Arabidopsis recombinant inbred line population Col-4 × Ler-0. Adapting high-throughput phenotyping techniques for both traits for measurements in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems identified significant QTLs for fibre length on chromosomes 2 and 5, as well as one significant QTL affecting lignin content on chromosome 2. For fibre length, total variation within the population was 208% higher than between parental lines and the identified QTLs explained 50.58% of the observed variation. For lignin content, the values were 261 and 26.51%, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis of the associated intervals identified a number of candidate genes for fibre length and lignin content. This study demonstrates that molecular mapping of QTLs pertaining to wood and fibre properties is possible in Arabidopsis, which substantially broadens the use of Arabidopsis as a model species for the functional characterization of plant genes.
Ziemińska, Kasia; Westoby, Mark; Wright, Ian J.
Objectives Just as people with the same weight can have different body builds, woods with the same wood density can have different anatomies. Here, our aim was to assess the magnitude of anatomical variation within a restricted range of wood density and explore its potential ecological implications. Methods Twig wood of 69 angiosperm tree and shrub species was analyzed. Species were selected so that wood density varied within a relatively narrow range (0.38–0.62 g cm-3). Anatomical traits quantified included wood tissue fractions (fibres, axial parenchyma, ray parenchyma, vessels, and conduits with maximum lumen diameter below 15 μm), vessel properties, and pith area. To search for potential ecological correlates of anatomical variation the species were sampled across rainfall and temperature contrasts, and several other ecologically-relevant traits were measured (plant height, leaf area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity). Results Despite the limited range in wood density, substantial anatomical variation was observed. Total parenchyma fraction varied from 0.12 to 0.66 and fibre fraction from 0.20 to 0.74, and these two traits were strongly inversely correlated (r = -0.86, P < 0.001). Parenchyma was weakly (0.24 ≤|r|≤ 0.35, P < 0.05) or not associated with vessel properties nor with height, leaf area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity (0.24 ≤|r|≤ 0.41, P < 0.05). However, vessel traits were fairly well correlated with height and leaf area to sapwood area ratio (0.47 ≤|r|≤ 0.65, all P < 0.001). Modulus of elasticity was mainly driven by fibre wall plus vessel wall fraction rather than by the parenchyma component. Conclusions Overall, there seem to be at least three axes of variation in xylem, substantially independent of each other: a wood density spectrum, a fibre-parenchyma spectrum, and a vessel area spectrum. The fibre-parenchyma spectrum does not yet have any clear or convincing ecological interpretation. PMID
Kunstler, Georges; Falster, Daniel; Coomes, David A; Hui, Francis; Kooyman, Robert M; Laughlin, Daniel C; Poorter, Lourens; Vanderwel, Mark; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Wright, S Joseph; Aiba, Masahiro; Baraloto, Christopher; Caspersen, John; Cornelissen, J Hans C; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Hanewinkel, Marc; Herault, Bruno; Kattge, Jens; Kurokawa, Hiroko; Onoda, Yusuke; Peñuelas, Josep; Poorter, Hendrik; Uriarte, Maria; Richardson, Sarah; Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Sun, I-Fang; Ståhl, Göran; Swenson, Nathan G; Thompson, Jill; Westerlund, Bertil; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A; Zeng, Hongcheng; Zimmerman, Jess K; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Westoby, Mark
Phenotypic traits and their associated trade-offs have been shown to have globally consistent effects on individual plant physiological functions, but how these effects scale up to influence competition, a key driver of community assembly in terrestrial vegetation, has remained unclear. Here we use growth data from more than 3 million trees in over 140,000 plots across the world to show how three key functional traits--wood density, specific leaf area and maximum height--consistently influence competitive interactions. Fast maximum growth of a species was correlated negatively with its wood density in all biomes, and positively with its specific leaf area in most biomes. Low wood density was also correlated with a low ability to tolerate competition and a low competitive effect on neighbours, while high specific leaf area was correlated with a low competitive effect. Thus, traits generate trade-offs between performance with competition versus performance without competition, a fundamental ingredient in the classical hypothesis that the coexistence of plant species is enabled via differentiation in their successional strategies. Competition within species was stronger than between species, but an increase in trait dissimilarity between species had little influence in weakening competition. No benefit of dissimilarity was detected for specific leaf area or wood density, and only a weak benefit for maximum height. Our trait-based approach to modelling competition makes generalization possible across the forest ecosystems of the world and their highly diverse species composition.
Cui, Xiaohui; Sun, Yan; Wang, Xiuge; Yang, Chunhong; Ju, Zhihua; Jiang, Qiang; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Jinming; Zhong, Jifeng; Yin, Miao; Wang, Changfa
The micromolar calcium-activated neutral protease gene (CAPN1) is a physiological candidate gene for sperm motility. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in regulating the expression of the CAPN1 gene in bulls remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of CAPN1 in testis, epididymis, and sperm at the RNA and protein levels by qRT-PCR, western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence assay. Results revealed that the expression of CAPN1 levels was higher in the sperm head compared with that in other tissues. Moreover, we identified a novel single-nucleotide polymorphism (g.-1256 A>C, ss 1917715340) in the noncanonical core promoter of the CAPN1 gene between base g.-1306 and g.-1012. Additionally, we observed greater sperm motility in bulls with the genotype CC than in those with the genotype AA (P<0.01), indicating that different genotypes were associated with the bovine semen trait. Furthermore, a higher fluorescence intensity of the C allele than that of the A allele at g. -1256 A>C was revealed by transient transfection in MLTC-1 cells and luciferase report assay. Finally, CAPN1 was highly expressed in the spermatozoa with the CC genotype compared with that with the AA genotype by qRT-PCR. This study is the first report on genetic variant g.-1256 A>C in the promoter region of CAPN1 gene association with the semen quality of Chinese Holstein bulls by influencing its expression. g.-1256 A>C can be a functional molecular marker in cattle breeding.
Boves, Than J.; Buehler, David A.; Wood, Petra Bohall; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Larkin, Jeffrey L.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Wigley, T. Ben
Colorful plumage traits in birds may convey multiple, redundant, or unreliable messages about an individual. Plumage may reliably convey information about disparate qualities such as age, condition, and parental ability because discrete tracts of feathers may cause individuals to incur different intrinsic or extrinsic costs. Few studies have examined the information content of plumage in a species that inhabits forest canopies, a habitat with unique light environments and selective pressures. We investigated the information content of four plumage patches (blue-green crown and rump, tail white, and black breast band) in a canopy-dwelling species, the Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea), in relation to age, condition, provisioning, and reproduction. We found that older males displayed wider breast bands, greater tail white, and crown and rump feathers with greater blue-green (435–534 nm) chroma and hue than males in their first potential breeding season. In turn, older birds were in better condition (short and long term) and were reproductively superior to younger birds. We propose that these age-related plumage differences (i.e. delayed plumage maturation) were not a consequence of a life history strategy but instead resulted from constraints during early feather molts. Within age classes, we found evidence to support the multiple messages hypothesis. Birds with greater tail white molted tails in faster, those with more exaggerated rump plumage (lower hue, greater blue-green chroma) provisioned more, and those with lower rump blue-green chroma were in better condition. Despite evidence of reliable signaling in this species, we found no strong relationships between plumage and reproductive performance, potentially because factors other than individual differences more strongly influenced fecundity.
Torki, Mehran; Zangeneh, Samira; Habibian, Mahmood
A 3 × 2 factorial experiment consisting three levels (0, 200, and 400 μg/kg) of chromium (chromium picolinate) and two levels (0 and 250 mg/kg) of vitamin C was employed to evaluate the effects of these dietary supplements on performance, egg quality traits, and serum biochemical parameters of heat-stressed laying hens (Lohmann LSL-Lite) from 66 to 74 weeks of age. Feed intake increased when birds were given either 400 μg/kg chromium or 250 mg/kg vitamin C (P < 0.05), but the birds that received both chromium and vitamin C consumed feed similar to those that received only chromium. Dietary treatments had no effect on egg production, egg mass, egg volume, feed conversion ratio, and body mass (P > 0.05). The birds that fed on diet with chromium or vitamin C produced eggs with higher shell mass and thickness compared to the control. Both eggshell mass and thickness decreased when vitamin C and chromium were supplemented simultaneously, and birds given the diet supplemented with 400 μg/kg chromium and 250 mg/kg vitamin C had eggshell mass and thickness similar to those of the control group. The serum concentration of chromium increased due to increasing level of dietary chromium (P < 0.05). The birds that received diet with chromium and vitamin C had higher serum concentrations of chromium compared to those that received only chromium (P < 0.05). Similarly, the hens that received chromium and vitamin C had higher serum concentrations of calcium and phosphorus compared to the hens fed with other treatments (P < 0.05). The birds given with supplemental chromium exhibited lower serum glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides concentrations but higher serum albumin and total protein concentrations compared to the other groups (P < 0.05).
Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Lusquiños, F.; Penide, J.; Arias-González, F.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Boutinguiza, M.; Pou, J.
Phenolic resin boards (PRB) are wood substitutes that comprises of a thick core exclusively made of phenolic resin covered by a thin sheet of melamine resin imitating the aspect of natural wood. The use of these materials in furniture and in construction industry has proliferated during last years. Boards made of phenolic resins are dense, hard and very difficult to cut using band saws, disc saws, or milling cutters. Nevertheless, these difficulties can be overcome by means of laser cutting, which is one of the most firmly established techniques for separating materials. This is due to the great advantages of this technique over traditional cutting methods, such as its versatility and flexibility that allow effective cutting. Nevertheless, charring of the cut edge surface caused by laser induced thermal degradation degrades the cut quality under non-optimized processing conditions. In this research work the viability and quality of CO2 laser cutting process of phenolic resin boards and wood particleboard panels has been evaluated. The present work validates the cut of phenolic resin boards by CO2 lasers using a high laser power and elevated cutting speeds. Moreover, this process involves a serious health hazard since the combustion and decomposition of wood may produce fumes and vapors, which can be toxic and carcinogenic according to the International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC). Therefore, this work was complemented by the assessment of the potential toxicity of the condensed residues formed on the cut edges, and assessment of the chemistry of the generated fumes by chromatography.
Wegst, Ulrike G K
The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.
Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N
Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.
Zhu, Y W; Xie, J J; Li, W X; Lu, L; Zhang, L Y; Ji, C; Lin, X; Liu, H C; Odle, J; Luo, X G
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of environmental temperature and dietary Mn on egg production performance, egg quality, and some plasma biochemical traits of broiler breeders. A completely randomized factorial design involved 2 environmental temperatures (a normal temperature, 21 ± 1°C, and a high temperature, 32 ± 1°C) × 3 dietary Mn treatments (a Mn-unsupplemented corn–soybean meal basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 120 mg of Mn/kg of diet as either MnSO4·H2O or manganese proteinate). There were 6 treatments with 6 replicates (4 birds per replicate). High temperature decreased egg weight (P < 0.0001), laying rate (P < 0.0001), egg yield (P < 0.0001), feed intake (P < 0.0001), egg:feed ratio (P < 0.0001), eggshell strength (P < 0.05) and thickness (P < 0.0001), plasma triiodothyronine level (P < 0.05), and alkaline phosphatase activity (P < 0.04) whereas it increased rectal temperature (P < 0.0001); plasma malondialdehyde level (P < 0.02); and activities (P < 0.002) of lactic dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase. Broiler breeders fed the diets supplemented with Mn regardless of source had greater (P < 0.05) eggshell strength and lower (P ≤ 0.05) plasma triiodothyronine level and protein carbonyl content than those fed the control diet. The broiler breeders fed the diet supplemented with the organic Mn had greater (P < 0.01) eggshell thickness than those fed the control diet. There were interactions (P < 0.05) between environmental temperature and dietary Mn in laying rate, egg yield, feed intake, and egg:feed ratio. Under normal temperature, dietary Mn did not affect the above 4 parameters; however, under high temperature, broiler breeders fed the diet supplemented with the organic Mn showed greater (P < 0.03) improvements in these 4 parameters than those fed the control diet. The results from this study indicated that high temperature significantly impaired egg production performance and
The effects of conjugated linoleic acid on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid composition of broilers fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles.
Jiang, Wen; Nie, Shaoping; Qu, Zhe; Bi, Chongpeng; Shan, Anshan
This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid composition of broilers fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Four hundred eighty 1-d-old broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups, consisting of 6 replicates with 20 broilers each. Broilers were allocated 1 of 4 diets and fed for 49 d in a 2 × 2 factorial design. The dietary treatments consisted of 2 levels of DDGS (0 or 15%) and 2 levels of CLA (0 or 1%). The results of growth performance analyses showed that dietary supplementation with 1% CLA, 15% DDGS, or both in broilers had no significant effects on ADG, ADFI, and feed/gain (P > 0.05). Dietary supplementation with 15% DDGS did not significantly affect meat color values, drip loss percentage, pH value at 15 min, crude fat content, or shear force value (P > 0.05). Diets supplemented with 15% DDGS decreased the proportions of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) and monounsaturated fatty acids but increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the thigh meat (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with 1% CLA significantly decreased the abdominal fat percentage (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 1% CLA increased the crude fat content and decreased the color (b*) value and shear force value of the breast meat (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with 1% CLA increased the total superoxide dismutase activity of the serum, breast meat, and liver, and decreased the malondialdehyde content of the serum and breast meat (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 1% CLA decreased the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and increased the proportion of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05). Accumulation of CLA in the thigh meat was significantly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing CLA level in the diet. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 1% CLA had positive effects on meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid
Mäkinen, T; Miksic, A; Ovaska, M; Alava, Mikko J
Wood is a multiscale material exhibiting a complex viscoplastic response. We study avalanches in small wood samples in compression. "Woodquakes" measured by acoustic emission are surprisingly similar to earthquakes and crackling noise in rocks and laboratory tests on brittle materials. Both the distributions of event energies and of waiting (silent) times follow power laws. The stress-strain response exhibits clear signatures of localization of deformation to "weak spots" or softwood layers, as identified using digital image correlation. Even though material structure-dependent localization takes place, the avalanche behavior remains scale-free.
Mäkinen, T.; Miksic, A.; Ovaska, M.; Alava, Mikko J.
Wood is a multiscale material exhibiting a complex viscoplastic response. We study avalanches in small wood samples in compression. "Woodquakes" measured by acoustic emission are surprisingly similar to earthquakes and crackling noise in rocks and laboratory tests on brittle materials. Both the distributions of event energies and of waiting (silent) times follow power laws. The stress-strain response exhibits clear signatures of localization of deformation to "weak spots" or softwood layers, as identified using digital image correlation. Even though material structure-dependent localization takes place, the avalanche behavior remains scale-free.
Kennel, R. P.
Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.
Located at the far northern end of the upper harbor is the North of Wood Street study area. This area extends for about a quarter of a mile north of the Wood Street Bridge between New Bedford and Acushnet, Massachusetts.
Strabala, Timothy J; Macmillan, Colleen P
Arabidopsis thaliana has successfully served as a model to discover genes and proteins that have roles in a wide range of plant traits, including wood-related traits, such as lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose biosynthesis, secondary growth regulation, and secondary cell wall synthesis. Both the radially thickened hypocotyl and the inflorescence stem (flower stalk) have been studied. In this review, we address lingering doubts regarding the utility of Arabidopsis as a model for wood development by highlighting studies that provide new biochemical and biophysical evidence that extend support for the Arabidopsis inflorescence stem as a model for wood development beyond what is currently thought. We describe different aspects of Arabidopsis that make it a highly versatile tool for the study of wood development. One would likely utilise the radially thickened hypocotyl because of its more fully developed vascular cambium for traits related specifically to secondary (i.e. cambial) growth. It is more productive to utilise the inflorescence stem for wood-like biophysical traits. Accession variation has been underexploited as a powerful method to discover genes governing wood-like traits. We discuss recent findings that survey the accession variation in Arabidopsis for biochemical and biophysical properties of various wood traits, such as microfibril angle, tensile strength and cellulose/hemicellulose content. Furthermore we discuss how larger-scale studies of this nature using plants grown in long days (as opposed to the current short-day paradigm) could accelerate gene discovery and our understanding of cell wall and wood development. We highlight some relatively unexplored areas of research relating to the secondary cell wall composition, architecture and biophysical properties of the inflorescence stem, and how these traits are relevant to wood formation. The Arabidopsis inflorescence stem has other characteristics, expressed genes and traits held in common with woody
Alnahhas, N; Berri, C; Boulay, M; Baéza, E; Jégo, Y; Baumard, Y; Chabault, M; Le Bihan-Duval, E
Genetic parameters for ultimate pH of pectoralis major muscle (PM-pHu) and sartorius muscle (SART-pHu); color parameters L*, a*, b*; logarithm of drip loss (LogDL) of pectoralis major (PM) muscle; breast meat yield (BMY); thigh and drumstick yield (TY); abdominal fat percentage (AFP); and BW at 6 wk (BW6) were estimated in 2 lines of broiler chickens divergently selected for PM-pHu. Effects of selection on all the previous traits and on glycolytic potential, pectoralis major muscle pH at 15 min postmortem, curing-cooking yield (CCY), cooking loss (CL), and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of the PM muscle were also analyzed after 5 generations. Strong genetic determinism of PM-pHu was observed, with estimated h(2) of 0.57 ± 0.02. There was a significant positive genetic correlation (rg) between PM-pHu and SART-pHu (0.54 ± 0.04), indicating that selection had a general rather than a specific effect on energy storage in skeletal muscles. The h(2) estimates of L*, a*, and b* parameters were 0.58 ± 0.02, 0.39 ± 0.02, and 0.48 ± 0.02, respectively. Heritability estimates for TY, BMY, and AFP were 0.39 ± 0.04, 0.52 ± 0.01, and 0.71 ± 0.02, respectively. Our results indicated different genetic control of LogDL and L* of the meat between the 2 lines; these traits had a strong rg with PM-pHu in the line selected for low ultimate pH (pHu) value (pHu-; -0.80 and -0.71, respectively), which was not observed in the line selected for high pHu value (pHu+; -0.04 and -0.29, respectively). A significant positive rg (0.21 ± 0.04) was observed between PM-pHu and BMY but not between PM-pHu and BW6, AFP, or TY. Significant phenotypic differences were observed after 5 generations of selection between the 2 lines. The mean differences (P < 0.001) in pHu between the 2 lines were 0.42 and 0.21 pH units in the breast and thigh muscle, respectively. Breast meat in the pHu+ line exhibited lower L* (-5 units; P < 0.001), a* (-0.22 units; P < 0.001), b* (-1.53 units; P < 0.001), and
Chang, J.C.S.; Guo, Z.
The article discusses full-scale residential house tests to evaluate the effects of organic emissions from a wood finishing product--wood stain--on indoor air quality (IAQ). The test house concentrations of three alkane species, nonane, decane, and undecane, were measured as a function of time after the application of the wood stain. It was found that the test house concentrations can be simulated by an integrated IAQ model which takes into consideration source, sink, and ventilation effects. The alkane emissions were controlled by an evaporation-like process.
... International Joint Commission Public Hearings on Binational Management of Lake of the Woods and Rainy River... International Lake of the Woods and Rainy River Watershed Task Force (Task Force). The Task Force report to the... water quality, water quantity, and related issues in the international Lake of the Woods and Rainy...
Puntarić, Dinko; Kos, Ankica; Smit, Zdenko; Zecić, Zeljko; Sega, Kresimir; Beljo-Lucić, Ruzica; Horvat, Dubravko; Bosnir, Jasna
The aim of the study was to determine occupational exposure in Croatian wood processing industry and forest workers to harmful effects of wood dust on the risk of nose, nasal cavity and lung carcinoma. Mass concentrations of respirable particles and total wood dust were measured at two wood processing plants, three woodwork shops, and one lumbering site, where 225 total wood dust samples and 221 respirable particle samples were collected. Wood dust mass concentration was determined by the gravimetric method. Mass concentrations exceeding total wood dust maximal allowed concentration (MAC, 3 mg/m3) were measured for beechwood and oakwood dust in 38% (79/206) of study samples from wood processing facilities (plants and woodwork shops). Mass concentrations of respirable particles exceeding MAC (1 mg/m3) were recorded in 24% (48/202) of samples from wood processing facilities (mean 2.38 +/- 2.08 mg/m3 in plants and 3.6 +/- 2.22 mg/m3 in woodwork shops). Thus, 13% (27/206) of work sites in wood processing facilities failed to meet health criteria according to European guidelines. Launching of measures to reduce wood dust emission to the work area is recommended.
Volokitin, G. G.; Skripnikova, N. K.; Sinitsyn, V. A.; Volokitin, O. G.; Shekhovtsov, V. V.; Vaschenko, S. P.; Kuz'min, V. I.
Plasma technology was developed to create protective-decorative coatings on the wood surfaces. Experimental investigation on applying the protective coating using the low-temperature plasma energy as well as studies of the distribution of temperature fields over the section of the treated workpiece have been carried out, and the calculated results have been compared with the experimental data.
Fitzgerald, Diane M.
Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)
Wood Technology research and education at Lulea University of Technology is located in Skelleftea 800 km north of Stockholm. At the campus about 25 persons are involved in education and research in Wood Technology. We are educating M.Sc. and post- graduate students in Wood Technology. The research at the campus includes the following main fields: -- Wood Machining - - Woodmetrics -- Wood Drying -- Wood Composites/Wood Material Science. Our research strategy is to obtain an individual treatment of every tree, board and piece of wood in order to get highest possible value for the forest products. This shall be accomplished by the aid of advanced scanning technology and computer technology. Woodmetrics means to measure different wood parameters in order to optimize the utilization of the raw material. Today we have the following projects in this field: Automatic wood inspection -- Color changes and moisture flow in drying processes -- Inner quality of logs and lumber - - Stem quality database -- Computer tomography -- Aesthetic properties of wood -- Market/industry/forest relations. In the Woodmetrics field we are using computer tomography, CCD cameras and other sensors in order to find and measure defects in trees and on boards. The signals are analyzed and classified with modern image analyzing techniques and advanced statistical methods.
The overall chemistry of Douglas Fir liquefaction as evidenced by Rust Engineering Company's Test Run 8 at Albany, Oregon has been examined. It is concluded that the true total yield of non-gaseous product (oil + water solubles + char) is higher than was measured - probably as high as 52 to 55% of dry wood feed. Wood decomposes to give water and carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide in the gas feed reacts with water to give carbon dioxide and hydrogen. However, there is a substantial net reaction of synthesis gas (CO + H/sub 2/) during the process. This indicates that the reaction CO + (wood product) = CO/sub 2/ + (reduced wood product) is important in formation of low oxygen product oil. Overall stoichiometry (approximate) is: 100 lbs wood + 0.5 Mol CO ..-->.. 1.1 Mol CO/sub 2/ + 0.5 Mol H/sub 2/O + 55 lbs non-vapor product. Consumption of synthesis gas in the process is (very approximately) 1300 SCF/bbl product. The product oil has a hydrogen/carbon atom ratio of 1.2 and is highly aromatic. This analysis of the reaction applies specifically to the particular mode of operation used at Albany; i.e., to the so-called PERC process with a very high recycle of product oil. However, it is shown that the total yield of non-gaseous products is quite insensitive to the average analysis of the product. Thus we would expect total yields in the 50s with alternate processes - such as the LBL water slurry process. What will be different and must be determined is the distribution among water insoluble oil, water solubles and char and the degree of reduction of oxygen content by reaction with carbon monoxide.
Fortunel, Claire; Ruelle, Julien; Beauchêne, Jacques; Fine, Paul V A; Baraloto, Christopher
Wood specific gravity (WSG) is a strong predictor of tree performance across environmental gradients. Yet it remains unclear how anatomical elements linked to different wood functions contribute to variation in WSG in branches and roots across tropical forests. We examined WSG and wood anatomy in white sand, clay terra firme and seasonally flooded forests in French Guiana, spanning broad environmental gradients found throughout Amazonia. We measured 15 traits relating to branches and small woody roots in 113 species representing the 15 most abundant species in each habitat and representative species from seven monophyletic lineages occurring in all habitats. Fiber traits appear to be major determinants of WSG, independent of vessel traits, in branches and roots. Fiber traits and branch and root WSG increased from seasonally flooded species to clay terra firme species and lastly to white sand species. Branch and root wood traits were strongly phylogenetically constrained. Lineages differed in wood design, but exhibited similar variation in wood structure across habitats. We conclude that tropical trees can invest differently in support and transport to respond to environmental conditions. Wind disturbance and drought stress represent significant filters driving tree distribution of Amazonian forests; hence we suggest that biophysical explanations should receive more attention.
Cônsolo, N R B; Gardinal, R; Gandra, J R; de Freitas Junior, J E; Rennó, F P; Santana, M H de A; Pflanzer Junior, S B; Pereira, A S C
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of whole raw soybean (WRS) in the finishing diet of Nellore cattle on productive performance, carcass traits, meat quality, fatty acid profile of meat, and blood parameters. In a completely randomized design, 52 Nellore bulls (mean body weight ± SD: 380 ± 34 kg) were allotted for 84 days. The animals received the following diets with a forage: concentrate ratio of 40/60: (i) WRS0: control diet without soybean grains; (ii) WRS8: diet containing 8% WRS in dry matter basis; (iii) WRS16: diet containing 16% WRS, and (iv) WRS24: diet containing 24% WRS. At intervals of 28 days, the animals were weighed, muscle and adipose tissue was analysed by ultrasound, and blood samples were collected. The animals were slaughtered on day 85 and liver weight and hot carcass weight were measured during slaughter. The pH and carcass dressing were calculated at 24 h after slaughter. Longissimus dorsi muscle samples were collected for the determination of fatty acid profile of meat, ether extract, tenderness and sensory analysis of meat aged for 14 days. Blood cholesterol content increased linearly with increasing proportion of whole raw soybean grains. The diet did not affect performance or carcass attributes. The WRS8 had the highest shear force values. In fatty acid profile, C14:0 decreased (p = 0.05), whereas 16:1, 20:0 and 20:1 fatty acids increased linearly with increasing proportion of WRS (p < 0.05). However, concentration of conjugated linoleic acid cis 9, trans 11 and 17:0 increased with WRS24 and WRS16. In the sensory analysis, WRS24 was more tender with respect to the other treatments (p < 0.05). Finally, the inclusion of WRS in the finishing diet of feedlot Nellore bulls only evidenced little changes in fatty acid profile and tenderness, in animals fed diets containing 16 or 24% soybean.
Bennett, C M; Dharmage, S C; Matheson, M; Gras, J L; Markos, J; Mészáros, D; Hopper, J; Walters, E H; Abramson, M J
Wood smoke exposure has been associated with adverse respiratory health outcomes, with much of the current research focused on wood smoke from domestic heating and cooking. This study examined the association between respiratory symptoms and outdoor wood smoke in Launceston, Tasmania, where ~30% of homes use wood burners for domestic heating. This ecological study examined data from participants of the 2004 Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study postal survey and compared the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in Launceston (n=601) with that in Hobart (n=1071), a larger Tasmanian city with much less wood smoke. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations of interest while adjusting for gender, atopy, history of allergic disease and current smoking status. There were no significant differences in symptom prevalence between Launceston and Hobart. Two subgroup analyses, which examined participants with pre-existing chronic respiratory disease, and those who reported actively using a wood burner in their home, also did not find significant differences. Any impact of wood smoke on non-specific respiratory symptoms might have been overshadowed by other important determinants of respiratory health, such as vehicle exhaust and tobacco smoking, or were too small to have been detected. However, the lack of detectable differences in symptom prevalence might also reflect the success of regulatory action by local governments to reduce wood smoke emissions in Launceston. The results of other epidemiological studies support an association between ambient wood smoke exposure and adverse respiratory health. Further investigations of wood smoke exposure in Australian settings are needed to investigate the lack of significant associations found in this study, especially studies of indoor air quality and health impacts in children and elderly populations.
Jaojaruek, Kitipong; Jarungthammachote, Sompop; Gratuito, Maria Kathrina B; Wongsuwan, Hataitep; Homhual, Suwan
This study conducted experiments on three different downdraft gasification approaches: single stage, conventional two-stage, and an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach. The innovative two-stage approach has two nozzle locations, one for air supply at combustion zone and the other located at the pyrolysis zone for supplying the premixed gas (air and producer gas). The producer gas is partially bypassed to mix with air and supplied to burn at the pyrolysis zone. The result shows that producer gas quality generated by the innovative two-stage approach improved as compared to conventional two-stage. The higher heating value (HHV) increased from 5.4 to 6.5 MJ/Nm(3). Tar content in producer gas reduced to less than 45 mg/Nm(3). With this approach, gas can be fed directly to an internal combustion engine. Furthermore, the gasification thermal efficiency also improved by approximately 14%. The approach gave double benefits on gas qualities and energy savings.
Muscarella, Robert; Uriarte, María
The notion that relationships between community-weighted mean (CWM) traits (i.e. plot-level trait values weighted by species abundances) and environmental conditions reflect selection towards locally optimal phenotypes is challenged by the large amount of interspecific trait variation typically found within ecological communities. Reconciling these contrasting patterns is a key to advancing predictive theories of functional community ecology. We combined data on geographical distributions and three traits (wood density, leaf mass per area and maximum height) of 173 tree species in Puerto Rico. We tested the hypothesis that species are more likely to occur where their trait values are more similar to the local CWM trait values (the ‘CWM-optimality’ hypothesis) by comparing species occurrence patterns (as a proxy for fitness) with the functional composition of forest plots across a precipitation gradient. While 70% of the species supported CWM-optimality for at least one trait, nearly 25% significantly opposed it for at least one trait, thereby contributing to local functional diversity. The majority (85%) of species that opposed CWM-optimality did so only for one trait and few species opposed CWM-optimality in multivariate trait space. Our study suggests that constraints to local functional variation act more strongly on multivariate phenotypes than on univariate traits. PMID:27030412
Muscarella, Robert; Uriarte, María
The notion that relationships between community-weighted mean (CWM) traits (i.e. plot-level trait values weighted by species abundances) and environmental conditions reflect selection towards locally optimal phenotypes is challenged by the large amount of interspecific trait variation typically found within ecological communities. Reconciling these contrasting patterns is a key to advancing predictive theories of functional community ecology. We combined data on geographical distributions and three traits (wood density, leaf mass per area and maximum height) of 173 tree species in Puerto Rico. We tested the hypothesis that species are more likely to occur where their trait values are more similar to the local CWM trait values (the'CWM-optimality' hypothesis) by comparing species occurrence patterns (as a proxy for fitness) with the functional composition of forest plots across a precipitation gradient. While 70% of the species supported CWM-optimality for at least one trait, nearly 25% significantly opposed it for at least one trait, thereby contributing to local functional diversity. The majority (85%) of species that opposed CWM-optimality did so only for one trait and few species opposed CWM-optimality in multivariate trait space. Our study suggests that constraints to local functional variation act more strongly on multivariate phenotypes than on univariate traits.
Pa, Ann; Bi, Xiaotao T; Sokhansanj, Shahab
The replacement of natural gas combustion for district heating by wood waste and wood pellets gasification systems with or without emission control has been investigated by a streamlined LCA. While stack emissions from controlled gasification systems are lower than the applicable regulations, compared to the current base case, 12% and 133% increases are expected in the overall human health impacts for wood pellets and wood waste, respectively. With controlled gasification, external costs and GHG emission can be reduced by 35% and 82% on average, respectively. Between wood pellets and wood waste, wood pellets appear to be the better choice as it requires less primary energy and has a much lower impact on the local air quality.
Zheng, Jingming; Martínez-Cabrera, Hugo I.
Background and Aims In recent years considerable effort has focused on linking wood anatomy and key ecological traits. Studies analysing large databases have described how these ecological traits vary as a function of wood anatomical traits related to conduction and support, but have not considered how these functions interact with cells involved in storage of water and carbohydrates (i.e. parenchyma cells). Methods We analyzed, in a phylogenetic context, the functional relationship between cell types performing each of the three xylem functions (conduction, support and storage) and wood density and theoretical conductivity using a sample of approx. 800 tree species from China. Key Results Axial parenchyma and rays had distinct evolutionary correlation patterns. An evolutionary link was found between high conduction capacity and larger amounts of axial parenchyma that is probably related to water storage capacity and embolism repair, while larger amounts of ray tissue have evolved with increased mechanical support and reduced hydraulic capacity. In a phylogenetic principal component analysis this association of axial parenchyma with increased conduction capacity and rays with wood density represented orthogonal axes of variation. In multivariate space, however, the proportion of rays might be positively associated with conductance and negatively with wood density, indicating flexibility in these axes in species with wide rays. Conclusions The findings suggest that parenchyma types may differ in function. The functional axes represented by different cell types were conserved across lineages, suggesting a significant role in the ecological strategies of the angiosperms. PMID:23904446
Kilian, A.P.; Ferry, C.D.
The paper presents the results of a research project to determine the long-term performance of wood fiber embankments, that were constructed by the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) beginning in 1972. At the time of their construction, concern existed that wood fiber fills would only provide a 15 to 20 year service life. Performance of existing wood fiber fills was evaluated based on the quality of the wood fiber material, quality of the effluent, and condition of the pavement. A visual classification system rating the wood fiber from fresh to completely decomposed was developed and used in order to establish a criteria from which all wood fiber material could be rated. Visual examination in conjunction with laboratory tests were used as determining aspects for the effluent quality. The WSDOT Pavement Management System was used to evaluate relative pavement performance. Site descriptions are presented giving specific characteristics and properties of the fills inventoried. An analysis of this information was done to determine the effectiveness of the fills. Over half the wood fiber samples were found to be nearly fresh or fresh and none were found to be completely decomposed. In all but one case, the pavement quality over the wood fiber fills surpassed the comparative highway segment rating indicating the wood fill's performance exceeded that of the surrounding area.
... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Sickle Cell Trait Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... the trait on to their children. How Sickle Cell Trait is Inherited If both parents have SCT, ...
A wood-burning stove includes side walls joined together in an airtight manner to form a firebox and a heat chamber thereabove. The firebox contains upstanding rails to support wood logs for combustion. Streams of heated air are discharged from a manifold that extends from rail-to-rail outwardly from one terminal end of each rail between opposite side walls of the stove. A plate is adjusted to control the flow of air into the manifold. An access door has openings in a spacer side wall for supplying air as desired to the firebox. The spacer walls of the door support a glass panel at an outwardly spaced location from a deflector to prevent deposits of creosote and other materials on the glass.
Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan
The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.
Novaes, E.; Osorio, L.; Drost, D. R.; Miles, B. L.; Boaventura-Novaes, C. R. D.; Benedict, C.; Dervinis, C.; Yu, Q.; Sykes, R.; Davis, M.; Martin, T. A.; Peter, G. F.; Kirst, M.
The genetic control of carbon allocation and partitioning in woody perennial plants is poorly understood despite its importance for carbon sequestration, biofuels and other wood-based industries. It is also unclear how environmental cues, such as nitrogen availability, impact the genes that regulate growth, biomass allocation and wood composition in trees. We phenotyped 396 clonally replicated genotypes of an interspecific pseudo-backcross pedigree of Populus for wood composition and biomass traits in above- and below-ground organs. The loci that regulate growth, carbon allocation and partitioning under two nitrogen conditions were identified, defining the contribution of environmental cues to their genetic control. Sixty-three quantitative trait loci were identified for the 20 traits analyzed. The majority of quantitative trait loci are specific to one of the two nitrogen treatments, demonstrating significant nitrogen-dependent genetic control. A highly significant genetic correlation was observed between plant growth and lignin/cellulose composition, and quantitative trait loci co-localization identified the genomic position of potential pleiotropic regulators. Pleiotropic loci linking higher growth rates to wood with less lignin are excellent targets to engineer tree germplasm improved for pulp, paper and cellulosic ethanol production. The causative genes are being identified with a genetical genomics approach.
Jacobson, J L
Throughout Africa, Asia and Latin America women are pushed out of forests and from their maintenance by governments and private interests for cash crop development disregarding the role of women in conserving forests. In developing countries forests are a source of wood for fuel; 60-80% of women gather wood for family needs in America. Fruits, vegetables, and nuts gathered in woods enhance their diet. Indonesian women pick bananas, mangos, guavas, and avocados from trees around their homes; in Senegal shea-nut butter is made from a local tree fruit to be sold for cash. Women provide labor also in logging, wood processing, and tree nurseries. They make charcoal and grow seedlings for sale. In India 40% of forest income and 75% of forest products export earnings are derived from nonwood resources. Poor, rural women make items out of bamboo, rattan, and rope to sell: 48% of women in an Egyptian province make a living through such activities. In India 600,000 women harvest tendu leaves for use as wrappings for cigarettes. The expansion of commercial tree plantations replacing once communal natural forests has forced poor households to spend up to 4-% of their income on fuel that they used to find in forests. Tribal women in India know the medicinal uses of 300 forest species, and women in Sierra Leone could name 31 products they obtained or made from trees and bushes, while men named only 8 items. Only 1 forestry project appraised by the World Bank during 1984-97 named women as beneficiaries, and only 1 out of 33 rural development programs funded by the World Bank did. Women provide food, fuel, and water for their families in subsistence economies, they know sustainable methods of forestry, yet they are not included in development programs whose success or failure could hinge on more attention to women's contribution and on more equity.
Chave, Jérôme; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Baker, Timothy R; Easdale, Tomás A; ter Steege, Hans; Webb, Campbell O
Wood density is a crucial variable in carbon accounting programs of both secondary and old-growth tropical forests. It also is the best single descriptor of wood: it correlates with numerous morphological, mechanical, physiological, and ecological properties. To explore the extent to which wood density could be estimated for rare or poorly censused taxa, and possible sources of variation in this trait, we analyzed regional, taxonomic, and phylogenetic variation in wood density among 2456 tree species from Central and South America. Wood density varied over more than one order of magnitude across species, with an overall mean of 0.645 g/cm3. Our geographical analysis showed significant decreases in wood density with increasing altitude and significant differences among low-altitude geographical regions: wet forests of Central America and western Amazonia have significantly lower mean wood density than dry forests of Central and South America, eastern and central Amazonian forests, and the Atlantic forests of Brazil; and eastern Amazonian forests have lower wood densities than the dry forests and the Atlantic forest. A nested analysis of variance showed that 74% of the species-level wood density variation was explained at the genus level, 34% at the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) family level, and 19% at the APG order level. This indicates that genus-level means give reliable approximations of values of species, except in a few hypervariable genera. We also studied which evolutionary shifts in wood density occurred in the phylogeny of seed plants using a composite phylogenetic tree. Major changes were observed at deep nodes (Eurosid 1), and also in more recent divergences (for instance in the Rhamnoids, Simaroubaceae, and Anacardiaceae). Our unprecedented wood density data set yields consistent guidelines for estimating wood densities when species-level information is lacking and should significantly reduce error in Central and South American carbon accounting
Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert
The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.
Ghafghazi, S.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Melin, Staffan
The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.
Meyer, Nickolas K.; Mina, Marco
A novel synergistic approach to reducing emissions from residential wood combustion (RWC) is presented. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization (FCO) aims to provide cleaner burning fuels through optimization of forestry and renewable energy management practices. In this work, beech and spruce forests of average and high quality were modelled and analysed to determine the volume of fuel wood and its associated bark fraction produced during typical forestry cycles. Two separate fuel wood bark production regimes were observed for beech trees, while only one production regime was observed for spruce. The single tree and stand models were combined with existing thinning parameters to replicate existing management practices. Utilizing estimates of initial seedling numbers and existing thinning patterns a dynamic model was formed that responded to changes in thinning practices. By varying the thinning parameters, this model enabled optimization of the forestry practices for the reduction of bark impurities in the fuel wood supply chain. Beech forestry cycles responded well to fuel cycle optimization with volume reductions of bark from fuel wood of between ˜10% and ˜20% for average and high quality forest stands. Spruce, on the other hand, was fairly insensitive to FCO with bark reductions of 0-5%. The responsiveness of beech to FCO further supports its status as the preferred RWC fuel in Switzerland. FCO could easily be extended beyond Switzerland and applied across continental Europe and North America.
Mai, C; Kües, U; Militz, H
Wood is a natural, biodegradable and renewable raw material, used in construction and as a feedstock in the paper and wood product industries and in fuel production. Traditionally, biotechnology found little attention in the wood product industries, apart from in paper manufacture. Now, due to growing environmental concern and increasing scientific knowledge, legal restrictions to conventional processes have altered the situation. Biotechnological approaches in the area of wood protection aim at enhancing the treatability of wood with preservatives and replacing chemicals with biological control agents. The substitution of conventional chemical glues in the manufacturing of board materials is achieved through the application of fungal cultures and isolated fungal enzymes. Moreover, biotechnology plays an important role in the waste remediation of preservative-treated waste wood.
Fahrurozi, A.; Madenda, S.; Ernastuti; Kerami, D.
An image forming specific texture can be distinguished manually through the eye. However, sometimes it is difficult to do if the texture owned quite similar. Wood is a natural material that forms a unique texture. Experts can distinguish the quality of wood based texture observed in certain parts of the wood. In this study, it has been extracted texture features of the wood image that can be used to identify the characteristics of wood digitally by computer. Feature extraction carried out using Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrices (GLCM) built on an image from several edge detection methods applied to wood image. Edge detection methods used include Roberts, Sobel, Prewitt, Canny and Laplacian of Gaussian. The image of wood taken in LE2i laboratory, Universite de Bourgogne from the wood sample in France that grouped by their quality by experts and divided into four types of quality. Obtained a statistic that illustrates the distribution of texture features values of each wood type which compared according to the edge operator that is used and selection of specified GLCM parameters.
Porth, Ilga; Klápště, Jaroslav; Skyba, Oleksandr; Friedmann, Michael C; Hannemann, Jan; Ehlting, Juergen; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Mansfield, Shawn D; Douglas, Carl J
High-throughput approaches have been widely applied to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of industrially important wood properties. Wood traits are polygenic in nature, but gene hierarchies can be assessed to identify the most important gene variants controlling specific traits within complex networks defining the overall wood phenotype. We tested a large set of genetic, genomic, and phenotypic information in an integrative approach to predict wood properties in Populus trichocarpa. Nine-yr-old natural P. trichocarpa trees including accessions with high contrasts in six traits related to wood chemistry and ultrastructure were profiled for gene expression on 49k Nimblegen (Roche NimbleGen Inc., Madison, WI, USA) array elements and for 28,831 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Pre-selected transcripts and SNPs with high statistical dependence on phenotypic traits were used in Bayesian network learning procedures with a stepwise K2 algorithm to infer phenotype-centric networks. Transcripts were pre-selected at a much lower logarithm of Bayes factor (logBF) threshold than SNPs and were not accommodated in the networks. Using persistent variables, we constructed cross-validated networks for variability in wood attributes, which contained four to six variables with 94-100% predictive accuracy. Accommodated gene variants revealed the hierarchy in the genetic architecture that underpins substantial phenotypic variability, and represent new tools to support the maximization of response to selection.
End-use quality of wheat, defined by milling, composition, and rhealogical properties, is vital to the entire wheat industry. An improved understanding of the genetics that control wheat quality is needed to efficiently improve wheat quality. Our objective was to determine the genetics of multipl...
The objectives of the study are to: (1) determine the degree to which physical and chemical wood properties vary in association with environmental and silvicultural practices in Populus and loblolly pine and (2) develop and verify species-specific empirical models in an effort to create a framework for understanding environmental influences on wood quality.
The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.
An improved furnace for burning wood is described which is resistant to creosote deposits from smoke. It consists of: an upright frame; a fire box carried by the frame and having a door for the insertion of the wood; a heat exchanger carried on the fire box and having an interior chamber with a top and bottom; means connecting the fire box and the heat exchanger and directing smoke from the fire box into the exchanger chamber; a chimney stack fixed to and extending upwardly from the exchanger to discharge smoke, the stack also extending substantially downwardly within the exchanger chamber to receive smoke from adjacent the bottom of the chamber to thereby retain hot smoke adjacent the top of the exchanger for an increased time interval to allow additional heat transfer from the smoke to the exchanger; an insulative housing carried on the frame to define an air plenum within the housing and about the fire box and exchanger to permit air in the plenum to be heated by contact with the fire box and the exchanger; and an air inlet for cold air to enter the plenum and an air outlet by which heated air may leave the plenum.
Lex, Jeannette; Ahlemeyer, Jutta; Friedt, Wolfgang; Ordon, Frank
A set of about 100 winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars, comprising diverse and economically important German barley elite germplasm released during the last six decades, was previously genotypically characterized by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using the Illumina GoldenGate BeadArray Technology to detect associations with phenotypic data estimated in three-year field trials at 12 locations. In order to identify further associations and to obtain information on whether the marker type influences the outcome of association genetics studies, the set of winter barley cultivars was re-analyzed using Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers. As with the analysis of the SNPs, only polymorphic markers present at an allele frequency >5% were included to detect associations in a mixed linear model (MLM) approach using the TASSEL software (P ≤ 0.001). The population structure and kinship matrix were estimated on 72 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) covering the whole barley genome. The respective average linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyzed with DArT markers was estimated at 5.73 cM. A total of 52 markers gave significant associations with at least one of the traits estimated which, therefore, may be suitable for marker-assisted breeding. In addition, by comparing the results to those generated using the Illumina GoldenGate BeadArray Technology, it turned out that a different number of associations for respective traits is detected, depending on the marker system. However, as only a few of the respective DArT and Illumina markers are present in a common map, no comprehensive comparison of the detected associations was feasible, but some were probably detected in the same chromosomal regions. Because of the identification of additional marker-trait associations, it may be recommended to use both marker techniques in genome-wide association studies.
μ-Calpain, calpastatin, and growth hormone receptor genetic effects on preweaning performance, carcass quality traits, and residual variance of tenderness in Angus cattle selected to increase minor haplotype and allele frequencies.
Tait, R G; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; King, D A; Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Smith, T P L; Bennett, G L
Genetic marker effects and interactions are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. An Angus population was subjected to marker assisted selection for multiple years to increase divergent haplotype and minor marker allele frequencies to 1) estimate effect size and mode of inheritance for previously reported SNP on targeted beef carcass quality traits; 2) estimate effects of previously reported SNP on nontarget performance traits; and 3) evaluate tenderness SNP specific residual variance models compared to a single residual variance model for tenderness. Divergent haplotypes within µ-calpain (CAPN1), and SNP within calpastatin (CAST) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) were successfully selected to increase their frequencies. Traits evaluated were birth BW, weaning BW, final BW, fat thickness, LM area, USDA marbling score, yield grade, slice shear force (SSF), and visible and near infrared predicted slice shear force. Both CAPN1 and CAST exhibited additive (P < 0.001) modes of inheritance for SSF and neither exhibited dominance (P ≥ 0.19). Furthermore, the interaction between CAPN1 and CAST for SSF was not significant (P = 0.55). Estimated additive effects of CAPN1 (1.049 kg) and CAST (1.257 kg) on SSF were large in this study. Animals homozygous for tender alleles at both CAPN1 and CAST would have 4.61 kg lower SSF (38.6% of the mean) than animals homozygous tough for both markers. There was also an effect of CAST on yield grade (P < 0.02). The tender CAST allele was associated with more red meat yield and less trimmable fat. There were no significant effects (P ≥ 0.23) for GHR on any of the traits evaluated in this study. Furthermore, CAST specific residual variance models were found to fit significantly better (P < 0.001) than single residual variance models for SSF, with the tougher genotypes having larger residual variance. Thus, the risk of a tough steak from the undesired CAST genotype is increased through both an
Maciejewska, A; Wojtczak, J; Bielichowska-Cybula, G; Domańska, A; Dutkiewicz, J; Mołocznik, A
The biological effect of exposure to wood dust depends on its composition and the content of microorganisms which are an inherent element of the dust. The irritant and allergic effects of wood dust have been recognised for a long time. The allergic effect is caused by the wood dust of subtropical trees, e.g. western red cedar (Thuja plicata), redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon), cocabolla (Dalbergia retusa) and others. Trees growing in the European climate such as: larch (Larix), walnut (Juglans regia), oak (Quercus), beech (Fagus), pine (Pinus) cause a little less pronounced allergic effect. Occupational exposure to irritative or allergic wood dust may lead to bronchial asthma, rhinitis, alveolitis allergica, DDTS (Organic dust toxic syndrome), bronchitis, allergic dermatitis, conjunctivitis. An increased risk of adenocarcinoma of the sinonasal cavity is an important and serious problem associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. Adenocarcinoma constitutes about half of the total number of cancers induced by wood dust. An increased incidence of the squamous cell cancers can also be observed. The highest risk of cancer applies to workers of the furniture industry, particularly those dealing with machine wood processing, cabinet making and carpentry. The cancer of the upper respiratory tract develops after exposure to many kinds of wood dust. However, the wood dust of oak and beech seems to be most carcinogenic. It is assumed that exposure to wood dust can cause an increased incidence of other cancers, especially lung cancer and Hodgkin's disease. The adverse effects of microorganisms, mainly mould fungi and their metabolic products are manifested by alveolitis allergica and ODTS. These microorganisms can induce aspergillomycosis, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and allergic dermatitis.
Two basic types of wood are used to make stringed musical instruments: woods for soundboards (top plates) and those for frame boards (back and side plates). A new way to classify the acoustical properties of woods and clearly separate these two groups is proposed in this paper. The transmission parameter (product of propagation speed and Q value of the longitudinal wave along the wood grain) and the antivibration parameter (wood density divided by the propagation speed along the wood grain) are introduced in the proposed classification scheme. Two regression lines, drawn for traditional woods, show the distinctly different functions required by soundboards and frame boards. These regression lines can serve as a reference to select the best substitute woods when traditional woods are not available. Moreover, some peculiarities of Japanese string instruments, which are made clear by comparing woods used for them with woods used for Western and Chinese instruments, are briefly discussed.
Wheat is marketed based on end-use quality characteristics and better knowledge of the underlying genetics of specific quality parameters is essential to enhance the breeding process. A set of 188 recombinant inbred lines from a ‘Louise’ by ‘Penawawa’ mapping population was grown in two crop years a...
Effects of Graded Levels of Chromium Methionine on Performance, Carcass Traits, Meat Quality, Fatty Acid Profiles of Fat, Tissue Chromium Concentrations, and Antioxidant Status in Growing-Finishing Pigs.
Tian, Yao-Yao; Gong, Li-Min; Xue, Jian-Xiang; Cao, Jun; Zhang, Li-Ying
A 97-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary chromium methionine (CrMet) on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, fatty acid profiles of fat, tissue chromium concentrations, and antioxidant status in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 180 crossbred pigs with a mean initial body weight (BW) 30.18 ± 0.28 kg were allotted to 5 treatments with 6 replicates per treatment and 6 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design based on BW and sex. Treatments were added with 0 (control), 100, 200, 400, and 800 μg/kg chromium as CrMet. Blood samples were obtained from the anterior vena cava on days 97. Carcass characteristics, pork quality, and tissue chromium concentration data were collected from one pig per pen. The results indicated that supplemental CrMet did not significantly affect growth performance, carcass traits, or meat amino acid profiles. Chromium at 100, 400, and 800 μg/kg decreased drip loss but increased shear force (P < 0.05). Pigs fed 100 or 400 μg/kg had a higher 24-h pH than the control (P < 0.05). While meat color, muscle moisture, crude protein, or crude fat were not affected by CrMet. Supplemental 800 μg/kg chromium reduced C18:0 levels in belly fat (P < 0.05), and chromium supplementation increased cis-9, trans 11-conjugated linoleic acid levels linearly (P < 0.05). Dietary CrMet supplementation increased serum, kidney, and muscle chromium contents (P < 0.05) but did not affect liver chromium contents. Besides, tissue chromium concentrations were increased linearly with increased chromium dosage (P < 0.05). Chromium at 400 μg/kg increased serum glutathione peroxidase activities (P < 0.05), and chromium at 800 μg/kg decreased serum total antioxidant capacity levels (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, liver and kidney antioxidant status were not significantly affected by CrMet. These results indicated that dietary supplementation CrMet did not significantly influence growth
A central problem in understanding and modeling vegetation dynamics is how to represent the variation in plant properties and function across different environments. Addressing this problem there is a strong trend towards trait-based approaches, where vegetation properties are functions of the distributions of functional traits rather than of species. Recently there has been enormous progress in in quantifying trait variability and its drivers and effects (Van Bodegom et al. 2012; Adier et al. 2014; Kunstler et al. 2015) based on wide ranging datasets on a small number of easily measured traits, such as specific leaf area (SLA), wood density and maximum plant height. However, plant function depends on many other traits and while the commonly measured trait data are valuable, they are not sufficient for driving predictive and mechanistic models of vegetation dynamics -especially under novel climate or management conditions. For this purpose we need a model to predict functional traits, also those not easily measured, and how they depend on the plants' environment. Here I present such a mechanistic model based on fitness concepts and focused on traits related to water and light limitation of trees, including: wood density, drought response, allocation to defense, and leaf traits. The model is able to predict observed patterns of variability in these traits in relation to growth and mortality, and their responses to a gradient of water limitation. The results demonstrate that it is possible to mechanistically predict plant traits as a function of the environment based on an eco-physiological model of plant fitness. References Adier, P.B., Salguero-Gómez, R., Compagnoni, A., Hsu, J.S., Ray-Mukherjee, J., Mbeau-Ache, C. et al. (2014). Functional traits explain variation in plant lifehistory strategies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 111, 740-745. Kunstler, G., Falster, D., Coomes, D.A., Hui, F., Kooyman, R.M., Laughlin, D.C. et al. (2015). Plant functional traits
Introduction. Human exposure to particles associated with wood burning is of great consequence in both indoor air quality and air pollution and has been listed by the World Health Organization as one of the world's ten greatest health concerns. This investigation tested the postu...
Garvey, Christopher J.; Knott, Robert B.; Searson, Matthew; Conroy, Jann P.
Wood performs a vascular and structural function in trees. In this study we used the double-crystal diffractometer BT5 at the NIST Center for Neutron Scattering (Gaithersburg, USA) to study the pore structure inside wood sections. The slit-smeared intensity of scattered neutrons was measured from wood sections in directions parallel, orthogonal and transverse to the tree's trunk axis over a scattering vector range 0.00004-0.002 Å -1. The interpretation of the data in terms of a reductionist model consisting of infinitely long cylinders (cell lumens) is discussed.
Fleeson, William; Jayawickreme, Eranda
Personality researchers should modify models of traits to include mechanisms of differential reaction to situations. Whole Trait Theory does so via five main points. First, the descriptive side of traits should be conceptualized as density distributions of states. Second, it is important to provide an explanatory account of the Big 5 traits. Third, adding an explanatory account to the Big 5 creates two parts to traits, an explanatory part and a descriptive part, and these two parts should be recognized as separate entities that are joined into whole traits. Fourth, Whole Trait Theory proposes that the explanatory side of traits consists of social-cognitive mechanisms. Fifth, social-cognitive mechanisms that produce Big-5 states should be identified. PMID:26097268
Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…
PURCELL, FRANK X.
A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET…
Mizrachi, Eshchar; Maloney, Victoria J; Silberbauer, Janine; Hefer, Charles A; Berger, Dave K; Mansfield, Shawn D; Myburg, Alexander A
Tension wood has distinct physical and chemical properties, including altered fibre properties, cell wall composition and ultrastructure. It serves as a good system for investigating the genetic regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis and wood formation. The reference genome sequence for Eucalyptus grandis allows investigation of the global transcriptional reprogramming that accompanies tension wood formation in this global wood fibre crop. We report the first comprehensive analysis of physicochemical wood property changes in tension wood of Eucalyptus measured in a hybrid (E. grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla) clone, as well as genome-wide gene expression changes in xylem tissues 3 wk post-induction using RNA sequencing. We found that Eucalyptus tension wood in field-grown trees is characterized by an increase in cellulose, a reduction in lignin, xylose and mannose, and a marked increase in galactose. Gene expression profiling in tension wood-forming tissue showed corresponding down-regulation of monolignol biosynthetic genes, and differential expression of several carbohydrate active enzymes. We conclude that alterations of cell wall traits induced by tension wood formation in Eucalyptus are a consequence of a combination of down-regulation of lignin biosynthesis and hemicellulose remodelling, rather than the often proposed up-regulation of the cellulose biosynthetic pathway.
Wood samples of Gmelina arborea were collected from Nigerian plantations. The wood density was measured with an X-ray densitometer. Fiber length was measured with a modified map measurer. Fiber proportion was determined with a modification of Ladell's (1959) randomized dot technique. Considerable between-tree differences were observed in wood density, fiber length, fiber proportion, and sizes of trees of the same age, planted at the same spacing within the same environment. The magnitude of within-tree variations in these wood properties was different in trees within the same plot. Some individual trees combined comparatively high density, fiber length, and fiber proportion with fast growth rate and uniform wood. There was sufficient phenotypic variation to encourage genetic improvement of the wood properties and growth rate by selecting and breeding trees with higher values of these traits. Tree selection should be based on a preliminary screening for tree form and volume growth followed by a second selection for the desired wood properties.
Background. Human exposure to wood smoke particles (WSP) is of consequence in indoor air quality, exposures from wild fires, burning ofbiomass, and air pollution. This investigation tested the postulate that healthy volunteers exposed to WSP would demonstrate pulmonary and cardio...
Find EPA regulatory information for the wood product and paper manufacturing sectors, including paper, pulp and lumber. Information includes NESHAPs and effluent guidelines for pulp and paper rulemaking, and compliance guidelines
Profile of Goddard intern Danielle Wood. Danielle is interning at Goddard in the Innovative Partnerships Program and at NASA Headquarters in the Office of the Chief Technologist in the summer of 20...
Blomme, Erik; Bulcaen, Dirk; Cool, Tijl; Declercq, Filip; Lust, Pieter
Air-coupled ultrasound (ACU) provides a tool to evaluate wood samples of small or moderate thickness (<30 mm) thereby avoiding direct contact or liquid coupling. Results of through-transmission ACU measurements on wood veneer samples and related products are reported with respect to a wide variety of quality aspects. Fluctuations in the averaged received signal levels appear to be correlated to the presence of natural or machine-induced thickness and density variations, flaws and grain damage, errors produced by the manufacturing process, insufficient bonding on a substrate, etc. In addition it is seen that the variability of the signal levels enables to distinguish between quarter and crown areas.
Matics, Zs; Cullere, M; Szín, M; Gerencsér, Zs; Szabó, A; Fébel, H; Odermatt, M; Radnai, I; Dalle Zotte, A; Szendrő, Zs
The present experiment tested a dietary supplementation with linseed oil and selenium to growing rabbits. The basal diet (B) contained 3% sunflower oil, while it was substituted with 3% linseed oil in the experimental feed (S). The selenium (Se) content of the two diets was 0.10 vs. 0.46 mg/kg. Rabbits were fed with B diet from the age of 18 days. One group was fed with the B diet until 11 weeks of age (group B), whereas the experimental groups were fed with S diet for 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks (groups S1, S2, S3 and S4, respectively), before slaughtering (11 weeks of age). Live performance and carcass traits of rabbits, fatty acid (FA) profile and selenium content of their hind leg (HL) and Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) meat were considered in this study. In addition, the effect of two different cooking methods on the nutritional value of the enriched HL meat was also assessed. The tested dietary supplementation only minimally affected the live performance and carcass traits of rabbits. The S supplementation significantly reduced the Σ n-6 FA and increased the Σ n-3 FA of the HL meat and LTL meat, compared to the B diet (p < 0.001); thus, n-6/n-3 ratio was improved (p < 0.001). In addition, HL meat and LTL meat of S fed rabbits were significantly enriched in Se reaching a twofold increase in both meat cuts (p < 0.01). Therefore, the S supplementation improved the functional value of the rabbit meat. The heat treatment affected cooking loss, Se and vitamin E contents as well as the oxidative status of the HL meat (p < 0.001), with the different cooking methods providing different results. In addition, even if the beneficial C20:5 n-3 and C22:6 n-3 decreased with cooking, the n-6/n-3 ratio remained unaffected.
Ianasi, A. C.
In recent years, carbon fiber composites have been increasingly used in different ways in reinforcing structural elements. Specifically, the use of composite materials as a reinforcement for wood beams under bending loads requires paying attention to several aspects of the problem such as the number of the composite layers applied on the wood beams. Study consolidation of composites revealed that they are made by bonding fibrous material impregnated with resin on the surface of various elements, to restore or increase the load carrying capacity (bending, cutting, compression or torque) without significant damage of their rigidity. Fibers used in building applications can be fiberglass, aramid or carbon. Items that can be strengthened are concrete, brick, wood, steel and stone, and in terms of structural beams, walls, columns and floors. This paper describes an experimental study which was designed to evaluate the effect of composite material on the stiffness of the wood beams. It proposes a summary of the fundamental principles of analysis of composite materials and the design and use. The type of reinforcement used on the beams is the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheet and plates and also an epoxy resin for bonding all the elements. Structural epoxy resins remain the primary choice of adhesive to form the bond to fiber-reinforced plastics and are the generally accepted adhesives in bonded CFRP-wood connections. The advantages of using epoxy resin in comparison to common wood-laminating adhesives are their gap-filling qualities and the low clamping pressures that are required to form the bond between carbon fiber plates or sheets and the wood beams. Mechanical tests performed on the reinforced wood beams showed that CFRP materials may produce flexural displacement and lifting increases of the beams. Observations of the experimental load-displacement relationships showed that bending strength increased for wood beams reinforced with CFRP composite plates
Saxe, Jennifer K; Wannamaker, Eric J; Conklin, Scott W; Shupe, Todd F; Beck, Barbara D
Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood has been used for more than 50 years. Recent attention has been focused on appropriate disposal of CCA-treated wood when its service life ends. Groups in the US and Europe concerned with the possibility of arsenic migration to groundwater from disposed CCA-treated wood have proposed that consumers be required to dispose of the wood as a hazardous waste, in the most protective of landfills. We examined available data for evidence of arsenic migration from unlined construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills in Florida, where CCA-treated wood is disposed. Florida was chosen because soil, groundwater, landfill design, weather, and levels of CCA-treated wood use make the state a uniquely sensitive indicator for observing arsenic migration from CCA-treated wood disposal sites, should it occur. We developed and quality-checked a CCA-treated wood disposal model to estimate the amount of wood and associated arsenic disposed. By 2000, an estimated 13 million kg of arsenic in CCA-treated wood was disposed in Florida; however, groundwater monitoring data do not indicate that arsenic is migrating from unlined C&D landfills. Our results provide evidence that highly stringent regulation of CCA-treated wood disposal, such as treatment as a hazardous waste, is unnecessary.
North American Breeding Bird Survey data show that wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) populations in eastern U.S. forests have declined 1.8% per year during 1966-95. The declining quality of breeding forest tracts in North America is one possible cause for the apparent decline of some neotropical migratory birds, such as the wood thrush. In Georgia, however, wood thrush populations have declined during a period of increasing pine forest area and larger patch sizes. We hypothesized that forest management practices such as thinning and prescribed burning might create unsuitable habitat for wood thrushes. We conducted a four-year before/after, treatment/control experiment at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia to study to the effects of a treatment of thinning and prescribed burning on wood thrush demographic parameters. We simultaneously monitored wood thrush adults and juveniles with mark-recapture, radio-telemetry, nest searches, and plot-map surveys. Our analyses showed that wood thrushes were less likely to emigrate from the study compartments after the treatment, and wood thrushes exhibited some tendency to increase preference for hardwood habitats and decrease preference for pine habitats following the treatment. However, we observed no effects of treatment on nest success, adult survival, and adult and juvenile dispersal distances. We also found that female wood thrushes had lower survival rates than males during the breeding season, and we documented large-scale, within-year dispersal movements of adult (up to 17 km) and juvenile (up to 7 km) wood thrushes. We conclude that landscape level habitat quantity and quality must be considered during songbird management decisions. The documentation of sex- and age-specific wood thrush survival and movement rates was critical for construction of a set of population models. We used three stochastic models to learn more about wood thrush population dynamics and make predictions about population
Mughetti, Laura; Ranucci, David; Acuti, Gabriele; Olivieri, Oliviero; Miraglia, Dino; Branciari, Raffaella
The effects of dietary extruded linseed (EL) on growth performance, meat quality, and lipid profile of Semimembranosus and Longissimus lumborum muscles of 81 Sarda lambs were studied in a 3 × 3 design: EL content (0%, 10%, and 20%) of maternal dietary concentrate fed from 20 d to parturition to 60 d of lactation and EL content (0%, 10%, 20%) of lamb concentrate fed after weaning for 30 d. The basal diet was composed of alfalfa and meadow hay during pregnancy and alfalfa hay during lactation. At slaughter, carcass and meat quality were evaluated. Sensory quality of Semimembranosus from 0% and 20% EL lambs was assessed. Both maternal and postweaning diets affected growth performance, with higher body weights recorded with the 10% EL concentrate. Carcass and meat quality were not affected by diet. Saturated and monounsaturated FA decreased and n-3 polyunsaturated FA increased with increasing EL content in lamb diet. An increase in vaccenic and rumenic acid was associated with the EL content of the maternal diet. Both diets increased the n-6/n-3 FA ratio. No differences in acceptability were detected by consumers among groups. It is concluded that EL supplementation and early life nutrition can influence performance and FA metabolism in growing lambs. PMID:27034972
Cobb, J.T., Jr.; Elder, W.W.
The prime objective of the University of Pittsburgh's overall wood/coal cofiring program is the successful introduction of commercial cofiring of urban wood wastes into the stoker boilers of western Pennsylvania. Central to this objective is the demonstration test at the Pittsburgh Brewing Company. In this test the project team is working to show that two commercially-available clean wood wastes - tub-ground pallet waste and chipped clearance wood - can be included in the fuel fed daily to an industrial stoker boiler. Irrespective of its economic outcome, the technical success of the demonstration at the brewery will allow the local air quality regulation agency to permit a parametric test at the Bellefield Boiler Plant. The objective of this test is to obtain comprehensive data on all key parameters of this operational boiler while firing wood with coal. The data would then be used for thorough generic technical and economic analyses. The technical analysis would be added to the open literature for the general planning and operational guidance for boiler owners and operators. The economic analysis would gage the potential for providing this stoker fuel commercially in an urban setting and for purchasing it regularly for combustion in an urban stoker boiler.
Sharma, Shruti; Sharma, Amit
The Wood's lamp aids in the diagnosis of multiple infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic dermatologic conditions. Although the Wood's lamp has many applications, which have improved both the diagnosis and management of disease, the man credited for its invention is relatively unknown in medicine. Robert Williams Wood, a prominent physicist of the early 20th century, is credited for the invention of the Wood's lamp. Wood was the father of infrared and ultraviolet photography and made significant contributions to other areas in optics and spectroscopy. Wood's work encompassed the formative years of American Physics; he published over 200 original papers over his lifetime. A few years after the invention of the Wood's lamp for ultraviolet photography, physicians in Europe adopted the Wood's lamp for dermatologic applications. Wood's lamp remains popular in clinics globally, given its ease of use and ability to improve diagnostic precision.
Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.
The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.
Gonzàlez, J; Gispert, M; Gil, M; Hviid, M; Dourmad, J Y; de Greef, K H; Zimmer, C; Fàbrega, E
A market conformity tool, based on technological meat quality parameters, was developed within the Q-PorkChains project, to be included in a global sustainability evaluation of pig farming systems. The specific objective of the market conformity tool was to define a scoring system based on the suitability of meat to elaborate the main pork products, according to their market shares based on industry requirements, in different pig farming systems. The tool was based on carcass and meat quality parameters that are commonly used for the assessment of technological quality, which provide representative and repeatable data and are easily measurable. They were the following: cold carcass weight; lean meat percentage; minimum subcutaneous back fat depth at m. gluteus medius level, 45 postmortem and ultimate pH (measured at 24-h postmortem) in m. longissimus lumborum and semimembranosus; meat colour; drip losses and intramuscular fat content in a m. longissimus sample. Five categories of pork products produced at large scale in Europe were considered in the study: fresh meat, cooked products, dry products, specialties and other meat products. For each of the studied farming systems, the technological meat quality requirements, as well as the market shares for each product category within farming system, were obtained from the literature and personal communications from experts. The tool resulted in an overall conformity score that enabled to discriminate among systems according to the degree of matching of the achieved carcass and meat quality with the requirements of the targeted market. In order to improve feasibility, the tool was simplified by selecting ultimate pH at m. longissimus or semimembranosus, minimum fat thickness measured at the left half carcass over m. gluteus medius and intramuscular fat content in a m. longissimus sample as iceberg indicators. The overall suitability scores calculated by using both the complete and the reduced tools presented good
Lebret, B; Massabie, P; Granier, R; Juin, H; Mourot, J; Chevillon, P
The effects of restricted outdoor rearing during winter (W) or summer (S), and the influence of indoor ambient temperature [17 °C (I17) vs. 24 °C (I24), the latter being considered as control] on pig growth performance, carcass, muscular and adipose tissue traits, and technological and eating quality of dry-cured hams were evaluated. I17 pigs exhibited higher, whereas W had similar and S lower growth rates than the controls (P<0.001). Carcass traits were not different between groups, except in lower back fat weights of S and W pigs (P<0.01). Decrease in environmental temperature affected the fatty acid composition of the back fat leading to higher MUFA and lower SFA and PUFA contents (P<0.001) in I17 and W pigs, whereas S pigs exhibited higher PUFA levels (P<0.001) and fat firmness (P<0.01) than the controls. Rearing system did not significantly influence the intramuscular fat content of Semimembranosus (P=0.08), and had no effect on ultimate pH. In the Longissimus lumborum, percentage and relative area of αR fibers increased in W pigs (P<0.05), but citrate synthase activity did not differ between groups. I17 and W hams exhibited higher processing yields of dry-cured hams than controls (P<0.05). Sensory analyses showed that pig rearing conditions influenced the product appearance, the I17 and W hams exhibiting lower homogeneity (P<0.01) and intensity (P<0.05) of colour, and higher marbling scores (P<0.01) than I24 hams, but had no influence on texture or flavour.
Wolfe, Alexander P; Csank, Adam Z; Reyes, Alberto V; McKellar, Ryan C; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis
We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada's Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma), revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae). The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose δ(18)O and δ(2)H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12-17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information.
Wolfe, Alexander P.; Csank, Adam Z.; Reyes, Alberto V.; McKellar, Ryan C.; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis
We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada’s Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma), revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae). The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose δ18O and δ2H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12–17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information. PMID:23029080
Bortoletto, Aline M; Alcarde, André R
The profile of volatile compounds and aging markers in sugar cane spirits aged for 36 months in casks made of 10 types of wood were studied. The ethanol content, volatile acidity, aldehydes, esters, higher alcohols, and methanol were determined. In addition, gallic, vanilic and syringic acids, siringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, sinapaldehyde, vanillin, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural were identified and quantified. The profile of volatile compounds characterised aging in each type of wood. The beverage aged in oak cask achieved the highest contents of maturation-related congeners. The Brazilian woods, similar to oak, were jequitibá rosa and cerejeira, which presented the highest contents of some maturation-related compounds, such as vanillin, vanilic acid, syringaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. Although oak wood conferred more chemical complexity to the beverage, Brazilian woods, singly or complementarily, present potential for spirit characterisation and for improving the quality of sugar cane spirits.
Background Eucalyptus is an important genus in industrial plantations throughout the world and is grown for use as timber, pulp, paper and charcoal. Several breeding programmes have been launched worldwide to concomitantly improve growth performance and wood properties (WPs). In this study, an interspecific cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and E. grandis was used to identify major genomic regions (Quantitative Trait Loci, QTL) controlling the variability of WPs. Results Linkage maps were generated for both parent species. A total of 117 QTLs were detected for a series of wood and end-use related traits, including chemical, technological, physical, mechanical and anatomical properties. The QTLs were mainly clustered into five linkage groups. In terms of distribution of QTL effects, our result agrees with the typical L-shape reported in most QTL studies, i.e. most WP QTLs had limited effects and only a few (13) had major effects (phenotypic variance explained > 15%). The co-locations of QTLs for different WPs as well as QTLs and candidate genes are discussed in terms of phenotypic correlations between traits, and of the function of the candidate genes. The major wood property QTL harbours a gene encoding a Cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR), a structural enzyme of the monolignol-specific biosynthesis pathway. Conclusions Given the number of traits analysed, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of the genetic architecture of wood properties in this Eucalyptus full-sib pedigree. At the dawn of Eucalyptus genome sequence, it will provide a framework to identify the nature of genes underlying these important quantitative traits. PMID:21651758
Yan, En-Rong; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Scott X.; Wang, Xi-Hua
Understanding how plant trait-species abundance relationships change with a range of single and multivariate environmental properties is crucial for explaining species abundance and rarity. In this study, the abundance of 94 woody plant species was examined and related to 15 plant leaf and wood traits at both local and landscape scales involving 31 plots in subtropical forests in eastern China. Further, plant trait-species abundance relationships were related to a range of single and multivariate (PCA axes) environmental properties such as air humidity, soil moisture content, soil temperature, soil pH, and soil organic matter, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) contents. At the landscape scale, plant maximum height, and twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, whereas mean leaf area (MLA), leaf N concentration (LN), and total leaf area per twig size (TLA) were negatively correlated with species abundance. At the plot scale, plant maximum height, leaf and twig dry matter contents, twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, but MLA, specific leaf area, LN, leaf P concentration and TLA were negatively correlated with species abundance. Plant trait-species abundance relationships shifted over the range of seven single environmental properties and along multivariate environmental axes in a similar way. In conclusion, strong relationships between plant traits and species abundance existed among and within communities. Significant shifts in plant trait-species abundance relationships in a range of environmental properties suggest strong environmental filtering processes that influence species abundance and rarity in the studied subtropical forests. PMID:23560114
Hasan, A Rasem; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Townsend, Timothy
Sorting of waste wood is an important process practiced at recycling facilities in order to detect and divert contaminants from recycled wood products. Contaminants of concern include arsenic, chromium and copper found in chemically preserved wood. The objective of this research was to evaluate the sorting efficiencies of both treated and untreated parts of the wood waste stream, and metal (As, Cr and Cu) mass recoveries by the use of automated X-ray fluorescence (XRF) systems. A full-scale system was used for experimentation. This unit consisted of an XRF-detection chamber mounted on the top of a conveyor and a pneumatic slide-way diverter which sorted wood into presumed treated and presumed untreated piles. A randomized block design was used to evaluate the operational conveyance parameters of the system, including wood feed rate and conveyor belt speed. Results indicated that online sorting efficiencies of waste wood by XRF technology were high based on number and weight of pieces (70-87% and 75-92% for treated wood and 66-97% and 68-96% for untreated wood, respectively). These sorting efficiencies achieved mass recovery for metals of 81-99% for As, 75-95% for Cu and 82-99% of Cr. The incorrect sorting of wood was attributed almost equally to deficiencies in the detection and conveyance/diversion systems. Even with its deficiencies, the system was capable of producing a recyclable portion that met residential soil quality levels established for Florida, for an infeed that contained 5% of treated wood.