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Sample records for world bank technical

  1. Poverty in Albania: A Qualitative Assessment. World Bank Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Soto, Hermine; Gordon, Peter; Gedeshi, Ilir; Sinoimeri, Zamira

    This World Bank qualitative assessment of poverty in Albania outlines five objectives: (1) it seeks to develop the understanding of poverty in the country by involving poor Albanians in a process of exploring the causes, nature, extent of poverty and its effects; (2) it is intended to support the Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (GPRS),…

  2. Rehabilitation of degraded forests in Asia. World Bank technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, A.K.

    1995-12-31

    The degraded forests discussed in this paper are those that have been so badly damaged they have completely lost their protective or productive functions--but still retain their potential revive. The paper focusses on the major areas in Asia fitting this description: swidden agriculture areas in moist forests; human-induced extensive Imperata grasslands; repeatedly hacked, low-profile hardwood forests; and overlogged forests. The areas are defined carefully to determine their extent in Asia; key characteristics are described; their impacts on the local ecology are evaluated; the social and economic pressures that prolong the degradation are analyzed; and technical methods for rehabilitating the damaged areas are proposed.

  3. Population and the World Bank.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, S

    1973-12-01

    The World Bank Group regards excessive population growth as the single greatest obstacle to economic and social advance in the underdeveloped world. Since 1969 the Bank and the International Development Agency have provided countries with technical assistance through education, fact-finding, and analysis and given 65.7 million dollars for population projects. These projects, in India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, and Malaysia provide training centers, population education, research, and evaluation as well as actual construction of clinics and mobile units. Because population planning touches sensitive areas of religion, caste, race, morality, and politics, the involved nation's political commitment to plan population growth is critical to the success of any program.

  4. Living with trees: Policies for forestry management in Zimbabwe. World Bank technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, P.N.; McNamara, K.

    1993-01-01

    Living with Trees, is an account of the results of a joint World Bank and Zimbabwe Forestry Commission study, in which the status, use and future of Zimbabwes forest, woodland and tree resources are reviewed. The first chapter is, in effect, an executive summary, capturing the major themes of the review and presenting them within a framework which targets the key policy issues affecting forestry in Zimbabwe. The second chapter is a national overview and deals with land, agriculture and economic structural adjustments, which are key policy concerns in Zimbabwe. Within the national context, chapter 2 also reflects on the form and role of the Forestry Commission. This provides a macroeconomic setting for the subsequent chapters which detail social and industrial forestry issues.

  5. Adjusting Educational Policies: Conserving Resources while Raising School Quality. World Bank Discussion Papers, Africa Technical Department Series, No. 132.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Bruce, Ed.; Habte, Aklilu, Ed.

    Progress made by African governments toward improving their educational policies is described in this collection of papers, which were presented at a conference cosponsored by the World Bank and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). Since the mid-1980s, several educational policy adjustment programs have been initiated in…

  6. On World Bank Education Financing. Review Article.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Phillip W.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the World Bank's 1995 policy statement, "Priorities and Strategies for Education: A World Bank Review." Reviews the bank's evolving policy of the past 35 years. Interprets the statement in light of recent structural adjustment strategies and end of the Cold War, which have sharpened bank attitudes about economic, social, and…

  7. Water resources management. World Bank policy paper

    SciTech Connect

    Easter, K.W.; Feder, G.; Le Moigne, G.; Duda, A.M.; Forsyth, E.

    1993-01-01

    Water resources have been one of the most important areas of World Bank lending during the past three decades. Through its support for sector work and investments in irrigation, water supply, sanitation, flood control, and hydropower, the Bank has contributed to the development of many countries and helped provide essential services to many communities. Moreover, the Bank and governments have not taken sufficient account of environmental concerns in the management of water resources. (Copyright (c) 1993 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.)

  8. Educational Development in Thailand: The Role of World Bank Lending. A World Bank Operations Evaluation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    The World Bank's Operation Evaluation Department (OED) evaluates educational development in Thailand and assesses the cumulative impact of the Bank's projects on development in that country. From 1966 to date, the Bank supported six education projects with an estimated cost of a half billion dollars. The report covers: (1) economic and educational…

  9. World Bank Atlas. [Twenty-Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This edition of the World Bank Atlas presents curent economic and social data for 185 countries and territories in the world. A number of maps, tables, and graphs highlight key relationships and trends in the development of the countries. The atlas includes data on population, gross national product (GNP), share of agriculture in gross domestic…

  10. IMF, World Bank programs hinder AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    Denoon, D J

    1995-07-10

    International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank structural adjustment programs (SAPs) imposed on developing nations in the 1980s inadvertently helped set the stage for the AIDS epidemic. These programs continue to hinder efforts to prevent HIV transmission. SAPs resulted in the following phenomena which place populations at risk of HIV infection: increased rural-urban migration of cheap labor sparked by a shift to an export-oriented economy, the development of transportation infrastructures in the 1980s to support the changed economy, increased migration and urbanization, and reduced government spending upon health and social services necessitated by the SAPs. For HIV transmission in developing countries to be substantially reduced, the SAP economic policies which may have promoted disease must be modified. An alternative development strategy must satisfy basic human needs such as food, housing, and transport; shift emphasis from the production of a small number of primary commodities for export to diversified agricultural production; support marginal producers and subsistence farmers; emphasize human resource development; end the top-down approach favored by the IMF and World Bank in favor of a truly cooperative development policy; alter the charters of the IMF and World Bank to permit the cancellation or restructuring of debt; and require AIDS Impact Reports of the IMF and World Bank.

  11. The World Bank and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    In September 1989 the World Bank set out a three-year agenda for action to combat environmental degradation. The main goal of this agenda has been the integration of environmental concerns into the Bank's development work. This report- the Bank's first annual report on the environment - reviews progress in this area during fiscal 1990 (July 1989 - June 1990). Environmental concerns were addressed in Bank operations during FY90 through country-focused environmental strategy work, policy and research activities, and lending operations. Five problem areas required special attention: destruction of natural habitats; land degradation; degradation and depletion of fresh water resources; urban, industrial, and agricultural pollution; and degradation of the global commons' through, for example, atmospheric and marine pollution. The book describes not only the Bank's successes in its environmental work but also the problems it has encountered. It raises important questions about whether real progress can be made by the Bank if inadequate resources are devoted to supervision, project monitoring, and environmental regulation.

  12. Uncommon Knowledge: World Bank Policy and the Unmaking of the Knowledge Economy in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obamba, Milton O.

    2013-01-01

    The World Bank is clearly one of the most influential global intergovernmental operators for international development assistance. In recent decades, the Bank and other agencies have invested immense technical and financial resources in a troubled and unprecedented mission of revitalizing and restructuring the development of education in Africa. A…

  13. World Bank predicts development for next century.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, K

    1999-09-18

    The World Bank reports that localization and globalization will be the two primary forces that will dominate the trend in the next millennium. These trends could either revolutionize human development or lead to greater chaos and suffering. The report further examines three aspects of globalization: trade, capital flows and environment; and three aspects of localization: decentralization, cities and making livable cities. It focuses on the impact of these two forces on the poor and their health. It stated that economic growth in the past 30 years had little impact on indicators of real development such as political stability, education, life expectancy, and gender equality. Moreover, a weak correlation between income and standard of living exists because countries and communities placed different priorities on education and health. The recommendations of the bank include the need for macroeconomic stability and a socially flexible sustained development.

  14. Indonesia; World Bank assists Second Population Project.

    PubMed

    1977-01-01

    Indonesia's First Population Project, funded jointly by the International Development Association and UNFPA, was started in 1972 and provided for construction of service and training facilities, equipment, research and evaluation studies, education, and communication activities. The national family planning program has made progress in the last 20 years. Acceptor and family planning personnel statistics are given. The World Bank has recently awarded Indonesia a loan to fund its Second Population Project, to aid in reaching the goal of a 50% reduction in fertility by 2000.

  15. GIS project opportunities in the World Bank. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The report includes information on how U.S. firms can participate in World Bank financed projects, the role of TDA in promoting exports through multilateral development bank projects, the role of the U.S. executive Director`s Office in the World Bank and how it provides assistance, and projects with potential Geographic Information System opportunities.

  16. Vocational Education and Training: A Review of World Bank Investment. World Bank Discussion Papers 51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, John; Demsky, Terry

    A study of a representative sample of 121 World Bank-funded vocational education and training components suggests that the level of economic development and consequent size and dynamism of industrial employment powerfully influence the outcome of such education and training. Consequently, future investment strategies should differ among countries…

  17. Review of Early Childhood Policy and Programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank Technical Paper No. 367, Africa Region Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colletta, Nat J.; Reinhold, Amy Jo

    Children in Sub-Saharan Africa face the greatest challenges to healthy development of any region in the world. This report presents reviews of 11 Early Childhood Development programs, studied to define financial and institutional conditions necessary to sustain early intervention efforts. Interviews and existing documentation from governmental and…

  18. Rethinking the World Bank Agenda for Chinese Higher Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Jinyuan

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the way in which the World Bank has worked effectively with China in higher education. It investigates whether or not the cooperation between the two has changed in line with their changing relationship. More specifically, it discusses whether the World Bank's China agenda reflects the reform package of socio-institutional…

  19. Six Questions about The World Bank's 2020 Education Sector Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2011-01-01

    Based on interviews with World Bank staff in April 2011, this article answers six questions about the World Bank's Education Sector Strategy 2020 (ESS 2020): (1) What is the ESS 2020? (2) What is it not? (3) How was the development process of the ESS 2020 different from that of past Strategies? (4) How are the policy recommendations of the ESS…

  20. University Examinations and Standardized Testing: Principles, Experience, and Policy Options. World Bank Technical Paper Number 78. Proceedings of a Seminar on the Uses of Standardized Tests and Selection Examinations (Beijing, China, April 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P., Ed.; Fagerlind, Ingemar, Ed.

    In September 1984, the Chinese government asked the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank to assist the officials of the Chinese Ministry of Education in thinking through some policy options for examinations and standardized testing. This document summarizes the descriptions of testing programs and advice provided to these Chinese…

  1. The World Bank and international health policy: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Ugalde, A; Jackson, J T

    1995-01-01

    In 1993, the World Bank released the World Development Report: Investing in Health, its public statement of what it believes to be sound international health policy. This paper critically examines the report with regard to the applicability of its recommendations to the Third World. It looks at the World Bank and its critics, the Bank's view of development, the globalization of health policy making, and profits for multinationals. Report recommendations on privatization, decentralization, cost recovery fees, nutrition, and essential drug programs are analyzed, with the authors concluding that the World Bank's approach to health fits its ideologically-driven development model which favors Northern nations at the expense of the South. Moreover, the DALY index has major theoretical flaws and is of little value as a guide to health policy makers. The index could be used to deny essential health services to the poor in developing countries.

  2. Rhetoric and Reality: World Bank and CIDA Gender Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hales, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The picture the World Bank paints of the world is an optimistic one: living standards are higher than ever before, humanity is progressing, and situations for women are improving. If this is really the case, why then does "the impoverishment of hundreds of millions of people" throughout the world continue? (Chossudovsky 1997, 33). Why do "the…

  3. World Bank Education Policy: Do the Neoliberal Critiques Still Apply?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oise, Francine Menashy

    2007-01-01

    Throughout much of the 1990s, the overriding critique of the World Bank was placed on its neoliberal mandate, reflected in its various education measures. However, recently the Bank seems to have taken a notable shift away from this ideological stance in its rhetoric and initiatives. This paper attempts to ascertain the degree to which the…

  4. World Bank Policy on Education: A Personal Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George

    2006-01-01

    Based on the author's over two decades of association with the World Bank, this paper reviews the institution's policies and practice on education. It describes why education policy, as revealed by operations, shifted dramatically since the early Bank projects on education and identifies the reasons for such a shift. The paper argues that the…

  5. Reflective Practice: How the World Bank Explored Its Own Biases?

    PubMed

    McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2015-12-10

    While many international organisations have independent evaluations, including the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Health organization (WHO), uniquely the World Bank in its 2015 World Development Report sought to ascertain the potential biases that influence how its staff interpret evidence and influence policy. Here, we describe the World Bank's study design, including experiments to ascertain the impact on Bank staff's judgements of complexity, confirmation bias, sunk cost bias, and an understanding of the wishes of those whom they seek to help. We then review the Bank's proposed mechanisms to minimise the impact of the biases they identified. We argue that this approach, that we refer to as 'reflective practice,' deserves to be adopted more widely among institutions that seek to use evidence from research to inform policy and practice.

  6. Banking on Knowledge: The New Knowledge Projects of the World Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Examines the tensions and debates at the heart of the World Bank's desire to become a knowledge agency. Discusses implications of the Bank's changing priorities towards education, trade-off between knowledge sharing versus knowledge development, and use of information and communications technology to create a global knowledge hypermarket called…

  7. Technical Services and the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheschy, Virginia M.

    The World Wide Web and browsers such as Netscape and Mosaic have simplified access to electronic resources. Today, technical services librarians can share in the wealth of information available on the Web. One of the premier Web sites for acquisitions librarians is AcqWeb, a cousin of the AcqNet listserv. In addition to interesting news items,…

  8. World Bank education policy: market liberalism meets ideological conservatism.

    PubMed

    Puiggrós, A

    1997-01-01

    Neoliberalism does not consider education a strategic investment. World Bank discourse for Latin America lacks a medium- and long-term view and is based on a short-term cost-benefit analysis. The Bank's education policy is determined by "adjustment" of countries economies so that they can go on paying their external debts. The goal is to eliminate educational expenses for the states by keeping education for elites, breaking up and privatizing the large public education systems, and nullifying teachers' contracts. To justify its policy, the Bank argues that governments should stop financing secondary and higher education and instead focus on primary education, where investments would be more efficient. But at the same time, governments should shift the financing of primary education to the private sector. Teachers' unions are now at the forefront of opposition to the World Bank's education reforms.

  9. Water resources management. (Arabic version). World Bank policy paper

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-01

    A new approach, recognizing that water is a scarce natural resource-subject to many interdependencies in conveyance and use-should be adopted by the World Bank and its member countries. Chapter 2 discusses the management problems that have beset the sector in many countries and how these are being aggravated by increasing demands for water and rising costs of new supplies. Chapter 3 outlines the strategy for improving the management of water resources. Chapter 4 spells out the role of the World Bank in helping countries implement better approaches to water resources management. Five appendixes discuss in detail market failures and public policy; lessons learned about the relation among water, people, and the environment; privatization and user participation; Bank guidelines related to water resources; and Bank experience with investments in water resources.

  10. Banking on Key Reforms for Educational Development: A Critique of the World Bank Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Keith

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates the review of world education produced by the World Bank in 1995, "Priorities and Strategies of Education." This review is a document created by and for bankers and economists, and may not provide answers educators need. Time will determine whether its approaches are the best responses for educational improvement. (SLD)

  11. Plundering the poor: the role of the World Bank in the Third World.

    PubMed

    Feder, E

    1983-01-01

    The World Bank, the most important so-called development assistance agency, annually dispenses billions of dollars to Third World governments, ostensibly to "develop" their economics through a variety of loan projects. But even a superficial analysis reveals that the Bank is the perfect mechanism to help (i.e., subsidize) the large transnational corporations from the industrial countries to expand their industrial, commercial, and financial activities in the Third World, at the expense of the latter and particularly at the expense of the rural and urban proletariat. This article discusses Cheryl Payer's recent book, The World Bank: A Critical Analysis, in which she analyzes the Bank's role in the Third World and sets forth the major reasons why poverty, hunger, and malnutrition, as well as unemployment, and all the adverse social phenomena associated with them, are on the increase.

  12. Reflective Practice: How the World Bank Explored Its Own Biases?

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    While many international organisations have independent evaluations, including the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Health organization (WHO), uniquely the World Bank in its 2015 World Development Report sought to ascertain the potential biases that influence how its staff interpret evidence and influence policy. Here, we describe the World Bank’s study design, including experiments to ascertain the impact on Bank staff’s judgements of complexity, confirmation bias, sunk cost bias, and an understanding of the wishes of those whom they seek to help. We then review the Bank’s proposed mechanisms to minimise the impact of the biases they identified. We argue that this approach, that we refer to as ‘reflective practice,’ deserves to be adopted more widely among institutions that seek to use evidence from research to inform policy and practice. PMID:26927392

  13. The World Bank’s Clean Technology Fund (CTF)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-24

    intention to create a set of funds at the World Bank to help developing countries “bridge the gap between dirty and clean energy ” and “boost the World...Eight (G8) countries launched an initiative focusing on climate change, clean energy , and sustainable development. By creating a forum outside of the...China, India, Mexico, and South Africa) agreed on the Gleneagles Plan of Action on Climate Change, Clean Energy , and Sustainable Development. The

  14. Brazil: Finance of Primary Education. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, D.; And Others

    Compiled by the World Bank, this study of educational finance in Brazil identifies principal problems, possible solutions, and recommendations for policy changes. The study indicates that Brazil has not given high priority to educational investment, and identifies the problems as: (1) a lack of financial policy analysis and planning; (2) too…

  15. The World Bank's Africa Virtual University Project: A Revisit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nafukho, Fredrick M.; Muyia, Machuma Helen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of using technology in the delivery of virtual learning programs in higher education in Africa is to ensure access and equity as a strategy to develop human resources. Examining how specific educational innovations in higher education are working is necessary. The purpose of this study is to examine the World Bank's…

  16. World Bank Okays Public Interest in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, David; Clipper, Lutitia; Enkhbaatar, D.; Manning, Anitra; Riley, Thomas; Zaman, Husam

    2004-01-01

    This essay review discusses the report of The Task Force on Higher Education and Society (TFHES), convened in 1998 by the World Bank but independently financed and staffed in collaboration with UNESCO and several foundations. "Peril and Promise" marks an historic turning point in the framework for postsecondary educational planning. Rate-of-return…

  17. Economic Analysis of World Bank Education Projects and Project Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vawda, Ayesha Yaqub; Moock, Peter; Gittinger, J. Price; Patrinos, Harry Anthony

    2003-01-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that World Bank education projects have a higher likelihood of being successful if at the time of appraisal, they underwent good quality economic analysis. Analysis shows a strong relationship between the quality of cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis and the quality of project outcomes. Economic…

  18. Investing in Young Children. World Bank Discussion Papers No. 275.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mary Eming

    Designed primarily for World Bank staff and their colleagues in borrowing countries, this paper summarizes why investment in human capital formation through early child development is worthwhile. Chapter 1 introduces the importance of early childhood programs, noting events that have given new visibility to children's issues at the international…

  19. Extractive industries and sustainable development: an evaluation of World Bank Group experience

    SciTech Connect

    Andres Liebenthal; Roland Michelitsch; Ethel Tarazona

    2005-07-01

    How effectively has the World Bank Group assisted its clients in enhancing the contribution of the extractive industries to sustainable development? (Extractive industries include oil, gas, and mining of minerals including coals and metals.) This evaluation finds that with its global mandate and experience, comprehensive country development focus, and overarching mission to fight poverty, the World Bank Group is well positioned to help countries overcome the policy, institutional, and technical challenges that prevent them from transforming resource endowments into sustainable benefits. Furthermore, the World Bank Group's achievements are many. On the whole, its extractive industries projects have produced positive economic and financial results, though compliance with its environmental and social safeguards remains a challenge. Its research has broadened and deepened understanding of the causes for the disappointing performance of resource-rich countries. Its guidelines for the mitigation of adverse environmental and social impacts have been widely used and appreciated. More recently, it has begun to address the challenge of country governance with a variety of instruments. The World Bank Group can, however, do much to improve its performance in enhancing the extractive industry sector's contribution to sustainable development and poverty reduction. The report identifies three main areas for improvement - formulating an integrated strategy, strengthening implementation and engagement of stakeholders. 5 annexes.

  20. Railways and energy. World Bank staff working paper

    SciTech Connect

    Alston, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper addresses questions which arise in discussions about the effects which increases in oil prices have on railway development. Part I of the paper reviews the relative energy efficiencies of rail and of road transport, and measures for decreasing railway energy consumption. Only energy used for traction is considered. Part II is a review of the factors which determine the economic viability of railway electrification, and includes a methodology which can readily be used for prefeasibility analyses to determine whether a more detailed study is warranted. (Copyright (c) 1984 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.)

  1. The Changing Role of the WORLD BANK in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2005-01-01

    The World Bank began operations on June 25, 1946. Although it was established to finance European reconstruction after World War II, the bank today is a considerable force in the health, nutrition, and population (HNP) sector in developing countries. Indeed, it has evolved from having virtually no presence in global health to being the world’s largest financial contributor to health-related projects, now committing more than $1 billion annually for new HNP projects. It is also one of the world’s largest supporters in the fight against HIV/AIDS, with commitments of more than $1.6 billion over the past several years. I have mapped this transformation in the World Bank’s role in global health, illustrating shifts in the bank’s mission and financial orientation, as well as the broader changes in development theory and practice. Through a deepened understanding of the complexities of development, the World Bank now regards investments in HNP programs as fundamental to its role in the global economy. PMID:15623860

  2. World Bank will lend more money to India for AIDS.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, K S

    1998-07-01

    This article discusses the World Bank's plans to lend India money that will be used in part to fund HIV/AIDS prevention and control. The loan amounts to about US$200 million, of which 25% would be directed to research and development for HIV/AIDS. The loan is a 5-year extension of support that ended March 1999. The loan will cover the cost of blood safety programs, hospital and community care plans, and medical drugs for treating opportunistic infections. According to the Department of Biotechnology and the Indian Council of Medical Research, research and development money will be split between indigenous AIDS vaccine programs and assessment of local production of HIV diagnostic kits and development of vaginal microbicides. The government will support clinical trials of more than herbal medicines for treating tuberculosis. Funding will also support evaluation research on cost of patient care and the HIV/AIDS impact on the work force. A major focus will be on the high risk population of women and children. The World Bank requires that 50% of the loans go to nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). However, the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) of India lost government financial funding and will not be able to fund NGO efforts directly. NACO must channel funding through state governments. There is fear that the AIDS control program will suffer due to the restructuring of operations and shortages of manpower. The AIDS program funding could be halted by the Bank due to India's nuclear testing.

  3. Managing Climate Risk. Integrating Adaptation into World Bank Group Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Aalst, M.

    2006-08-15

    Climate change is already taking place, and further changes are inevitable. Developing countries, and particularly the poorest people in these countries, are most at risk. The impacts result not only from gradual changes in temperature and sea level but also, in particular, from increased climate variability and extremes, including more intense floods, droughts, and storms. These changes are already having major impacts on the economic performance of developing countries and on the lives and livelihoods of millions of poor people around the world. Climate change thus directly affects the World Bank Group's mission of eradicating poverty. It also puts at risk many projects in a wide range of sectors, including infrastructure, agriculture, human health, water resources, and environment. The risks include physical threats to the investments, potential underperformance, and the possibility that projects will indirectly contribute to rising vulnerability by, for example, triggering investment and settlement in high-risk areas. The way to address these concerns is not to separate climate change adaptation from other priorities but to integrate comprehensive climate risk management into development planning, programs, and projects. While there is a great need to heighten awareness of climate risk in Bank work, a large body of experience on climate risk management is already available, in analytical work, in country dialogues, and in a growing number of investment projects. This operational experience highlights the general ingredients for successful integration of climate risk management into the mainstream development agenda: getting the right sectoral departments and senior policy makers involved; incorporating risk management into economic planning; engaging a wide range of nongovernmental actors (businesses, nongovernmental organizations, communities, and so on); giving attention to regulatory issues; and choosing strategies that will pay off immediately under current

  4. The World Bank, the Monetary Fund, and poverty.

    PubMed

    Brand, H

    1994-01-01

    The debt crisis into which heavy borrowing, steeply rising interest rates, and a worldwide recession had plunged a number of developing countries in the late 1970s and 1980s was alleviated largely by policies and conditionalities imposed by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. These policies and conditions were meant to strengthen the export and financial markets of those countries, stabilize their currencies, and reduce the reach of their governments in their economies. However, they contributed to deepening poverty and structural crises, as the reports and data published by the international financial institutions themselves attest.

  5. Reforming the World Bank: From Social-Liberalism to Neo-Liberalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girdwood, John

    2007-01-01

    Using an analytics of government perspective, it is argued that neo-liberalism as an art of government, especially its form as North American advanced liberal political reason, has shaped enterprise governance and managerial reform at the World Bank. With a focus on the World Bank as a financial banking enterprise, the article explores questions…

  6. The World Bank Depository Library Program: Directory of Libraries. January 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This directory lists World Bank depository libraries that have agreed to work with the World Bank as active partners in the dissemination of Bank materials by promoting their use among the libraries' different groups of readers. Entries are organized alphabetically by the depository library's country and city, and the entries typically include the…

  7. The World Bank New Discourse and the 1999 Education Sector Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Siqueira, Angela C.

    The climate of growing dissatisfaction in the developing world seems to have led to some changes in the World Bank's main discourse. The current World Bank president, James Wolfensohn, pointed out the existence of a "human crisis," besides the overemphasized financial one. He proposed a new development framework taking into account the…

  8. The World Bank, Support for Universities, and Asymmetrical Power Relations in International Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Christopher S.; Rhoads, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of the World Bank in advancing higher education sectors in the developing world, considering in particular the increasing power and strength of a global knowledge-based economy. Given the powerful role that intergovernmental organizations such as the World Bank play in shaping global economic policies, the authors…

  9. Knowledge Banking in Global Education Policy: A Bibliometric Analysis of World Bank Publications on Public-Private Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menashy, Francine; Read, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    As a leading mobilizer of international development and educational knowledge, the World Bank has been critiqued in two key areas: (1) the dominance of economic thinking in its policies, and (2) its Northern-generated knowledge which informs its work in the Global South. In this paper, we investigate the disciplinary foundation of Bank knowledge,…

  10. [Cancer screening in Hungary: World Bank supported model programs].

    PubMed

    Bodó, M; Döbrössy, L; Liszka, G; Ottó, S; Péter, Z

    1997-07-13

    Since 1995, a model cancer screening program has been in operation in Hungary, the overall purpose of which is to promote the establishment of effective and efficient screening programs by means of adapting the internationally agreed principles of organized screening to the needs and opportunities in Hungary. The establishment and operation of a national population-based cancer registration system is an other aim of the Program. The model program--financed partly from a loan from the World Bank, partly from local funds provided by the Government of Hungary--is to develop standard procedure for cervical, breast and colorectal screening and to end up with tested recommendations for introduction of organized screening of proved effectiveness, integrated into the health care system, on country-wide service bases in Hungary.

  11. The World Bank Rural Development Field Staff Distance Learning and Training Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortera-Gutierrez, Fernando

    The Rural Development Distance Learning and Training Strategy targets locally recruited field staff of the World Bank Rural Sector. Field staff at the bank's mission offices worldwide are heterogeneous in terms of culture, ethnicity, race, gender, social class, and religion. However, they have the following in common: they follow the Bank's work…

  12. IMF / World Bank boards of governors discuss population, migration.

    PubMed

    1994-05-01

    A brief presentation was given of the statements Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and Secretary General of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), made before a meeting of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank on resource flows to developing countries, population, international trade, and migration. The meeting was attended by finance ministers from 24 countries. The IMF Managing Director gave an overview at the meeting of the world economic situation and the need for international assistance for effective population and family planning programs. Dr. Sadik emphasized this need as a requirement for implementation of the 20-year ICPD Programme of Action. The increased investment was considered beneficial because it would increase life expectancy, lower demand for health and education services, reduce pressure in the job market, reduce economic hardship, and increase social stability. The growth of prosperity was considered by Dr. Sadik to be tied to increased demand for housing, energy, and utilities. A slower and more balanced population growth would allow for government services to meet demands and for the world to adjust to increasing numbers of people. Several ministers supported the call for increased funding of population programs and poverty reduction programs. A special communique by ministers recognized that the connections between economic growth, population, poverty reduction, health, investment in human resources, and environmental degradation must be integrated into population policy. Ministers urged the ICPD to emphasize improvements in primary school enrollment in low income countries, in access to family planning and health services, and in maternal and child mortality rates. Ministers wanted to see increases in the proportion of aid directed to population programs above the current 1.25%. Requests were made for more research into the social

  13. Poverty Reduction and the World Bank. Progress in Fiscal 1996 and 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report reviews progress in implementation of the World Bank's poverty reduction strategy during fiscal 1996-97. Chapter 1, "The World Bank's Poverty Reduction Strategy and Future Directions," outlines elements in the poverty reduction strategy: policies to promote broad-based labor-demanding growth and increase the productivity and…

  14. International Monetary Fund and World Bank policies can hurt poor, study says.

    PubMed

    Drajem, M

    2001-01-01

    According to a study by a World Bank economist, developing countries that do not follow International Monetary Fund and World Bank economic programs have seen more of their people lifted out of poverty in times of economic growth than have countries that do take the advice of these lenders.

  15. The effects of customers' mobile experience and technical support on the intention to use mobile banking.

    PubMed

    Chung, Namho; Kwon, Soon Jae

    2009-10-01

    While mobile banking has become an integral part of banking activities, it has also caused systems-related stress and consequent distrust among mobile banking users. This study looks into the phenomenon of technology adoption for mobile banking users and identifies potential factors that nurture positive intentions toward mobile banking usage. It examines the effects of a customer's mobile experience and technical support on mobile banking acceptance and explains how some variables affect this intention. After a literature review, the method of empirical analysis using a structured questionnaire is developed. Hierarchical Moderated Regression Analyses (HMRA) is used to examine the model. We find that mobile experience and technical support tend to strengthen the relationship between technological characteristics and a customer's intention to use the mobile technology.

  16. Suppose There Were a "World Bank" for American Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    About 120 nations can borrow from an international bank for the purposes of financing domestic educational improvement. The United States is a donor to this bank, but by virtue of its economic development, it cannot borrow. Nevertheless, the virtues of having such a facility might be worth considering within the United States. This article briefly…

  17. Excerpts from Joseph Stiglitz's speech to the World Bank, April 1999.

    PubMed

    Scher, A; Baxandall, P

    2000-01-01

    The Journal has published several articles critical of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. These articles have shown the damage caused by the neoliberal policies advocated by these agencies to the health and quality of life of the people in countries where such policies are carried out. Published here are excerpts of a speech given by Joseph Stiglitz, senior economist of the World Bank, in which he finally recognizes the damage these policies have caused in Russia, where life expectancy has fallen quite dramatically during the years of neoliberal reform. The question triggered by his speech is why the World Bank continues its neoliberal policies.

  18. Paying for Education: How the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund Influence Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Nancy C.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the roles of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank from 1980 to the present, distinguishing between two types of impacts they exert in the education sector of borrowing countries (the World Bank's direct involvement in education and economic reform and Structural Adjustment Programs financed by the IMF and World Bank). The…

  19. The World Bank's Shift Away from Neoliberal Ideology: Real or Rhetoric?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adhikary, Rino Wiseman

    2012-01-01

    Some literature on World Bank education policies after 1999 tries to project a shift away of the Bank from its 1980s neoliberal mandate. This article argues that the shift is only in the form of rhetoric, which facilitates a hidden agenda of creating a worldwide higher education market, leaving the poor with primary education only. At the…

  20. Educational Neocolonialism and the World Bank: A Rancièrean Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwaruddin, Sardar M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I employ Jacques Rancière's conception of an explicative order to explore how the World Bank contributes to the global project of educational neocolonialism. I argue that the Bank operates as a Master Explicator who taps into students' "inability" to learn by themselves. It explicates concepts such as…

  1. World bank and the environment: A progress report, fiscal year 1993. Annual report; Banque mondiale et l`environnement

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    This fourth annual report examines how well the World Bank`s environmental policies have worked during fiscal year 1993. It presents an agenda of actions that will help countries manage their environment better and link environmental protection with sustainable development. It describes ways to improve environmental impact studies of Bank-financed projects. The report notes the World Bank`s improved public communications network and increased cofinancing for environmental projects. The Bank`s work in implementing Global Environment Facility (GEF) policies and the Montreal Protocol is also reviewed.

  2. Restoring and protecting the world`s lakes and reservoirs. World Bank technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Dinar, A.; Seidl, P.; Olem, H.; Jorden, V.; Duda, A.

    1995-10-01

    The paper calls attention to the particular problems that lakes and reservoirs have suffered as a result of increased siltation, nutrient loading, toxics, habitat degradation, over-exploitation, and changes to marginal ecosystems. It identifies vital components of the water-based ecosystem requiring special consideration to maintain biodiversity, including wetlands and marginal floodplains inextricably linked to lakes and reservoirs.

  3. Early Child Development in Latin America and the Caribbean: List of Projects with World Bank Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC. Human Development Network.

    In recent years the World Bank, currently the largest single funding source for education and health programs in the world, has put new emphasis on reaching children in the years before they enter school. Despite the acknowledged benefits to be gained from investing in education, schooling in Latin America has failed to keep pace with the…

  4. World wide web implementation of the Langley technical report server

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Gottlich, Gretchen L.; Bianco, David J.

    1994-01-01

    On January 14, 1993, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) made approximately 130 formal, 'unclassified, unlimited' technical reports available via the anonymous FTP Langley Technical Report Server (LTRS). LaRC was the first organization to provide a significant number of aerospace technical reports for open electronic dissemination. LTRS has been successful in its first 18 months of operation, with over 11,000 reports distributed and has helped lay the foundation for electronic document distribution for NASA. The availability of World Wide Web (WWW) technology has revolutionized the Internet-based information community. This paper describes the transition of LTRS from a centralized FTP site to a distributed data model using the WWW, and suggests how the general model for LTRS can be applied to other similar systems.

  5. New perspectives of malaria control in India under World Bank Project.

    PubMed

    Das Gupta, R K; Thakor, Hitendrasinh G; Sonal, G S; Dhillon, G P S

    2009-12-01

    The World Bank has been assisting Government of India (GoI) for a number of years with development of effective health services for the control of vector borne diseases (VBDs). An Enhanced Malaria Control Project (EMCP) under financial assistance from Bank was implemented in selected tribal states and districts from 1997 to 2005. While most of the project districts did report a decline in malaria incidence, the Implementation Completion Report (ICR) highlighted the need for major reform. Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria, which accounts for almost all malaria related mortality, has been increasing in India and there is widespread resistance to chloroquine. The needed reform would require, first and foremost, updating of policy on malaria case management in public and private sectors. Also needed are innovative approaches for promoting the use of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and strengthening institutions at the district and state levels for effective implementation of new policies. Several important changes in the policy on diagnosis and treatment of malaria are being implemented in this new project. The most important of these are: Use of artesunate combination therapy (ACT) as the first line treatment for all confirmed Pf malaria cases, introduction of rapid diagnostic kits for quick diagnosis of Pf cases, promotion of long lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) in vulnerable population. Supervision and monitoring will be strengthened by deployment of Malarial/Kala azar Technical Supervisors (MTS/KTS) and VBD consultants at district level. The project has also envisaged two important components like Environment Management Plan (EMP) for safe use of insecticides and materials and Vulnerable Community Plan (VCP) for the benefit of underprivileged population.

  6. World Bank credits Uganda with $50m. -- emphasis on communities, NGOs and health.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Between 1983 and 1984, the World Bank financed 11 AIDS/STD projects in Africa, most of which tended to cost comparatively small amounts. It increased the amount of its AIDS/STD loans considerably in 1993 and 1994 ($75 million in Zimbabwe and $50 million in Uganda). The Ugandan government, Germany, Sweden, and the UK are also funding the AIDS/STD project. Since the money is from the Bank's International Development Association, Uganda does not need to pay any interest on the loan. About 1.5 million people in Uganda are HIV positive. The number of AIDS patients continues to rise. The AIDS project in Uganda focuses on prevention of sexual transmission of HIV, mitigation of the personal impact of the epidemic, and institutional development. Prevention of sexual transmission activities are: promotion of safer sex behavior, condoms, and STD care-seeking behavior and effective STD care. Support for community-based and home-based health care and social support for people with AIDS, training staff about and providing drugs for opportunistic infections, protective supplies for public and private district health facilities, and diagnosis and case management of tuberculosis comprise mitigation of the personal impact of AIDS activities. Institutional development efforts include strengthening the district level's capacity to plan, coordinate, implement, monitor, and evaluate integrated AIDS-related activities, and the national level's capacity to provide adequate technical support on health issues linked to AIDS. Three key policies of the project are decentralization, community mobilization, and encouragement of nongovernmental organizations to work with communities and to complement government efforts. A large scale AIDS/STD mass media program is planned. Project goals are: 50% of the population knowing at least 2 actual ways to protect themselves from HIV. 50% of the population using condoms, and 70% of people seeking STD care receiving appropriate STD case management.

  7. 75 FR 53567 - Gulf of the Farallones, Monterey Bay and Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuaries Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... the National Weather Service and is in effect for San Mateo County and only during December, January...] [Pages 53567-53572] [FR Doc No: 2010-21878] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric... and Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuaries Technical Corrections AGENCY: Office of National...

  8. Energy loans from the World Bank: a controversy that won't go away

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, C.

    1981-03-28

    When the US withdrew support for an energy-loan facility to be affiliated with the World Bank, it reversed US policy toward Third World development and signaled the Reagan Administration's preference for linking aid and foreign policy through bilateral aid. The debate continues, however, because of the economic problems of nonoil-producing developing countries and their need to develop new energy sources. The World Bank had left the financing of energy development to the private sector until the steep price increases of the 1970s prompted it to expand its loan programs to finance oil and gas exploration in 18 countries. The bank sees this as a stabilizing influence and a justification for expanding the effort with a separate financing facility. A background summary covers the negotiation process and policy issues now under debate. (DCK)

  9. The concern and contribution of the World Bank in population planning.

    PubMed

    Kanagaratnam, K

    1973-01-01

    The present efforts to improve standards of living throughout the world would be threatened by high population growth rates. In three different ways the World Bank is trying to do something about this problem: a) increasing awareness of adverse consequences of population growth, b) alerting national leaders to the demographic conditions of their own countries, c) giving aid to countries willing to implement programs for reduction of growth rates. Tables complement the text in summarizing the growth of lending by the Bank and the International Development Association and indicating future planned activities.

  10. Holding the World Bank accountable for leakage of funds from Africa's health sector.

    PubMed

    Marouf, Fatma E

    2010-06-15

    This article explores the accountability of international financial institutions (IFIs), such as the World Bank, for human rights violations related to the massive leakage of funds from sub-Saharan Africa's health sector. The article begins by summarizing the quantitative results of Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys performed in six African countries, all showing disturbingly high levels of leakage in the health sector. It then addresses the inadequacy of good governance and anticorruption programs in remedying this problem. After explaining how the World Bank's Inspection Panel may serve as an accountability mechanism for addressing the leakage of funds, discussing violations of specific Bank policies and procedures that would support a claim related to leakage and examining the relevance of human rights concerns to such as claim, the article explores some of the Panel's limitations and the positive steps taken to address these concerns.

  11. The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and U.S. Economic Self-Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewlett, Sylvia Ann; Burton, Daniel F.

    1983-01-01

    It is important that the Reagan administration understand the domestic economic utility of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, rather than dismiss them as philanthropic institutions that are expendable in an era in which charity should begin at home. (RM)

  12. Education in Asia: A Comparative Study of Cost and Financing. World Bank Regional and Sectoral Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Jee-Peng; Mingat, Alain

    Data analyzed in this study are drawn from varied sources including documents provided by governments in the context of the World Bank's operational activity. The data on a basic set of indicators were assembled for a core of 11 Asian countries (Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Sri…

  13. Efficiency in Reaching the Millennium Development Goals. World Bank Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayasuriya, Ruwan, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provide clear targets and areas of focus for international organizations such as the World Bank. At a conceptual level, to reduce poverty and hunger, to improve education and health indicators, and to promote gender equality and sustainable development, countries can either increase the resources they…

  14. Knowledge Aid as Instrument of Regulation: World Bank's Non-Lending Higher Education Support for Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Tebeje

    2014-01-01

    In the context of low-income countries, the role of donors in public policymaking is of great importance. Donors use a combination of lending and non-lending instruments as pathways of influence to shape policy directions in aid-recipient countries. This paper reports some findings from a doctoral study on the role of the World Bank in the recent…

  15. World Bank's Global Development Learning Network: Sharing Knowledge Electronically between Nations To "Fight Poverty."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo, George

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Global Development Learning Network (GDLN), a satellite-driven global communication system developed by the World Bank to help developing countries fight poverty and share in a global exchange of information. Explains Distance Learning Centers that are used by private and public organizations and institutions for distance education…

  16. Creating religiously compliant milk banks in the Muslim world: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Alnakshabandi, Kholoud; Fiester, Autumn

    2016-02-01

    Human milk banks are vital for providing donor milk to infants for whom there are maternal or postnatal barriers to the mother's own milk. Although more than 35 countries have active milk banks, not one of those is a Muslim country.(1) Despite widespread support for breastfeeding across the Muslim world, religious constraints surrounding milk-sharing have created challenging barriers to the creation of milk banks. The religious objection centres around the Islamic tenet that consuming human milk builds a kinship bond between individuals who have consumed the same woman's milk which prohibits future marriage between the 'milk-brothers and sisters.' While a small-scale, experimental 'milk exchange' programme has been attempted in two Muslim countries (Kuwait and Malaysia), the only proposed milk bank in the Muslim world was a pilot programme in Turkey that was halted because of religious concerns. The problem with milk banking is the step in the process during which the milk from individual donors is pooled and de-identified, making it impossible to trace its origins and acknowledge the newly formed kinship relationship. To meet the need for Muslim children to be able to access human milk while remaining compliant with the prevalent understanding of Islamic doctrine on milk-sharing, we propose a new approach to milk banking that we term the Conditional Identified Milk Banking System (CIMBS). In this new system, both the donor's and recipient's identities are accessible to all parties through a voluntary registry, and the milk-pooling is limited to three milk donors. Based on recent survey data, we believe that there would be receptivity among practicing Muslims and religious leaders to this alternative approach.

  17. How International Monetary Fund and World Bank policies undermine labor power and rights.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Vincent; Weissman, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Based on reviews of hundreds of loan and project documents from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank, this article provides detailed evidentiary support for critics who have long claimed that the international financial institutions require Third World countries to adopt policies that harm the interests of working people. After reviewing loan documents between the IMF and World Bank and 26 countries, the authors show that the institutions' loan conditionalities include a variety of provisions that undermine labor rights, labor power, and tens of millions of workers' standard of living. These include downsizing of the civil service and privatization of government-owned enterprises; promotion of labor flexibility: the notion that firms should be able to hire and fire workers, or change terms and conditions of work, with minimal regulatory restrictions; mandated wage rate reductions, minimum-wage reductions or containment, and spreading the wage gap between government employees and managers; and pension reforms, including privatization, that cut social security benefits. These labor-related policies take place in the context of broader IMF and World Bank structural adjustment packages that emphasize trade liberalization, with macroeconomic policies that further advance corporate interests at the expense of labor.

  18. Clean energy for development investment framework: the World Bank Group action plan

    SciTech Connect

    2007-03-06

    In September 2005 the Development Committee requested the World Bank to develop an Investment Framework for Clean Energy and Development - in the context of the Gleneagles Communique on Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development which was issued in July 2005. This Action Plan provides an update of work undertaken to date as well as actions planned by the World Bank Group (WBG) in support of the Clean Energy for Development Investment Framework (CEIF). The Action Plan relies on partnerships, including with the International Financial Institutions (IFIs) and the private sector. While it concentrates on maximizing and extending existing instruments, it provides for continued dialogue with governments and the private sector on new approaches to accelerate the transition to a low carbon economy. In addition to increased investments, the private sector has an important role to play in closing the investment gap in many countries. Projects such as Bujagali (Uganda), Nam Theun II (Laos) and China and India Thermal Power Plant Rehabilitation projects are examples of how partnerships with the private sector can work, both on financing but also on enhancing the overall regulatory framework for enhanced partnerships. The report was prepared for the 15 April 2007 Development Committee meeting, a joint committee of the Board of Governors of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund on the transfer of real resources to developing countries. 3 figs., 3 tabs., 5 annexes.

  19. The International Monetary Fund and World Bank in Africa: a "disastrous" record.

    PubMed

    Dembele, Demba Moussa

    2005-01-01

    In their 60th anniversary year, the International Monetary Fund and World Bank will attempt to highlight their "assistance" to Africa. But in reality, since the 1970s, these institutions have gradually become the chief architects of policies that are responsible for the worst inequalities and the explosion of poverty in the world, especially in Africa. When they began to intervene on that continent in the late 1970s and early 1980s, their stated goal was to "accelerate development." But the actual record is just disastrous, as this article reveals.

  20. Neoliberalism revised? A critical account of World Bank conceptions of good governance and market friendly intervention.

    PubMed

    Kiely, R

    1998-01-01

    This article examines recent World Bank reports on the role of the state in the development process, with particular reference to the rise of the East Asian newly industrializing countries and the crisis of "governance" in sub-Saharan Africa. The concepts of market friendly intervention and good governance are critically discussed, and are found to be inadequate as explanations for East Asian "success" and African "failure." The author presents an alternative explanation for the rise of the newly industrializing countries, which draws out some of the implications for the developing world.

  1. Re-thinking skilled international labour migration: world cities and banking organisations.

    PubMed

    Beaverstock, J V

    1994-08-01

    "Highly skilled professional and managerial labour migration has become an important facet of the contemporary world economy. The operations of transnational corporations have created more opportunities for skilled migrants to work abroad.... There is a growing interest amongst economic geographers to examine this form of migration through an appreciation of global economic restructuring, labour market change and world cities. Consequently, this paper introduces a new conceptual framework...[which] is based on the rationale that world cities, and the patterns of labour market demand that exist within them, are of paramount importance in influencing highly skilled professional and managerial labour migration within the world economy. The author uses an example of highly skilled labour migration within the transnational banking sector [in London] to illustrate this new conceptual framework."

  2. The World Bank and Private Provision of Schooling: A Look through the Lens of Sociological Theories of Organizational Hypocrisy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundy, Karen; Menashy, Francine

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we explore how the World Bank operationalizes its focus on poverty alleviation in one of the most controversial arenas of educational change: the expansion of privately provided schooling. We argue that the Bank's role in promoting private provision has been far more complicated than most critics have discerned. It has…

  3. Neoliberalism and the World Bank: Economic Discourse and the (Re)Production of Gendered Identity(ies)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Penny

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the World Bank's discourse of neoliberalism with a view to understanding how this informs and sustains the Bank's policies and practices in particularly gendered ways. "Neoliberalism" is, here, a discursive structure that constitutes a powerful and pervasive contemporary model of economic development, resting on assumptions…

  4. Economics, health and development: some ethical dilemmas facing the World Bank and the international community

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, A.

    2001-01-01

    The World Bank is committed to "work[ing] with countries to improve the health, nutrition and population outcomes of the world's poor, and to protect[ing] the population from the impoverishing effects of illness, malnutrition and high fertility".1 Ethical issues arise in the interpretation of these objectives and in helping countries formulate strategies and policies. It is these ethical issues—which are often not acknowledged by commentators—that are the subject of this paper. It asks why there should be a focus on the poor, and explores the link between improving the health of the poor, and reducing health inequalities between the poor and better-off. It discusses difficult ethical issues at both the global level (including debt relief and the link between country ownership and donor commitment) and the country level (including user fees and whether providing assistance to the non-poor may in the long run be a way of helping the poor). Key Words: World Bank • poverty • health • population • health economics • global ethics PMID:11479358

  5. The World Bank and the environment, fiscal 1992, exercise 92. Annual report. Banque mondiale et l'environnement, ejercicio 92

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The report describes the Bank's activities in assisting countries with environmental management, such as programs to reduce poverty without exhausting natural resources. Included are assessments of the environmental impacts of projects supported by World Bank loans, and accounts of efforts to meet global environmental challenges with coordinated international action through the Global Environment Facility (GEF). Among the events in the period covered by the report are the affirmation of the World Bank's participation with United Nations organizations in the GEF and the Bank's administration of pilot programs aimed at finding solutions to such global environmental problems as pollution of international waters, global warming, depletion of the Earth's ozone layer, and dwindling biological diversity; the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development; and the publication of the World Development Report 1992, with its theme of development and the environment.

  6. The world bank and the environment, exercise 1992. Annual report. Banco mundial y el medio ambiente, ejercicio de 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The report describes the Bank's activities in assisting countries with environmental management, such as programs to reduce poverty without exhausting natural resources. Included are assessments of the environmental impacts of projects supported by World Bank loans, and accounts of efforts to meet global environmental challenges with coordinated international action through the Global Environment Facility (GEF). Among the events in the period covered by the report are the affirmation of the World Bank's participation with United Nations organizations in the GEF and the Bank's administration of pilot programs aimed at finding solutions to such global environmental problems as pollution of international waters, global warming, depletion of the Earth's ozone layer, and dwindling biological diversity; the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development; and the publication of the World Development Report 1992, with its theme of development and the environment.

  7. Moving International Technical Communication Forward: A World Englishes Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokor, Michael Jarvis Kwadzo

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how the English language contributes to cross-boundary communication failure and establishes that there is an "English language problem" that has not been adequately addressed in preparing United States native English-speaking students for international technical communication tasks. For example, U.S. technical communication…

  8. 78 FR 40152 - World Trade Center Health Program Scientific/Technical Advisory Committee; Nominations of Candidates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention World Trade Center Health Program Scientific... Nominations of Candidates to Serve on the World Trade Center Health Program Scientific/Technical Advisory... Health and Human Services. The CDC is soliciting nominations for membership on the World Trade...

  9. Antigen and vaccine banks: technical requirements and the role of the european antigen bank in emergency foot and mouth disease vaccination.

    PubMed

    Lombard, M; Füssel, A E

    2007-04-01

    Antigen and vaccine banks are stocks of immunogenic materials ready to be formulated into vaccines (bulk antigens) or ready to use (vaccines) in case of need by one or more of the parties of the bank. These stocks were primarily developed by foot and mouth disease [FMD] free European countries to control unexpected severe FMD episodes after the cessation of routine vaccination in the 1990s. For various reasons, including the lack of suitable antigens or of discriminatory tests to be used following emergency vaccination, such banks have so far not been developed to control other transboundary diseases, although over the last few years stocks of vaccines have been collected by the European Community to support control measures for bluetongue or classical swine fever. The FMD virus antigens in the banks are stored at ultra-low temperatures (usually -130 degrees C) to guarantee a shelf life of at least five years compared to a shelf-life of one to two years for vaccines stored at +4 degrees C. When concentrated, a 50 I volume of antigens can contain up to 15 million cattle doses as per the standard potency specifications in the OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. Selecting antigen/vaccine strains for storage in a bank and selecting the appropriate strain(s) to be used in the case of emergency vaccination is the responsibility of FMD disease experts. The paper discusses the role of serological testing for the detection of infected animals in a vaccinated population, which is necessary for the recognition of FMD status. Technical advantages and disadvantages of antigen and vaccine banks in general are also outlined in this article. Finally, the experience of the European Community in organising, renewing, and controlling a sizeable FMD antigen bank since 1993 is discussed, and the use of the European Union (EU) antigen bank for international actions outside the EU is presented.

  10. Assessing the Feasibility of a Test Item Bank and Assessment Clearinghouse: Strategies to Measure Technical Skill Attainment of Career and Technical Education Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derner, Seth; Klein, Steve; Hilber, Don

    2008-01-01

    This report documents strategies that can be used to initiate development of a technical skill test item bank and/or assessment clearinghouse and quantifies the cost of creating and maintaining such a system. It is intended to inform state administrators on the potential uses and benefits of system participation, test developers on the needs and…

  11. Economics, health and development: some ethical dilemmas facing the World Bank and the international community.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, A

    2001-08-01

    The World Bank is committed to "work[ing] with countries to improve the health, nutrition and population outcomes of the world's poor, and to protect[ing] the population from the impoverishing effects of illness, malnutrition and high fertility".(1) Ethical issues arise in the interpretation of these objectives and in helping countries formulate strategies and policies. It is these ethical issues--which are often not acknowledged by commentators--that are the subject of this paper. It asks why there should be a focus on the poor, and explores the link between improving the health of the poor, and reducing health inequalities between the poor and better-off. It discusses difficult ethical issues at both the global level (including debt relief and the link between country ownership and donor commitment) and the country level (including user fees and whether providing assistance to the non-poor may in the long run be a way of helping the poor).

  12. Market commodities and poor relief: the world bank proposal for health.

    PubMed

    Laurell, A C; Arellano, O L

    1996-01-01

    Investing in Health is the World Bank's blueprint for a new health policy within the context of structural adjustment. While this document includes a broad range of arguments, its implicit premises are neoliberal as can be deduced from its "agenda for action." Health is defined as a private responsibility and health care as a private good. This leads to a health policy based on two complementary principles: the reduction of state intervention and public responsibility, and the promotion of diversity and competition (i.e., privatization). Thus, public institutions should provide only a limited number of public goods and narrowly defined, cost-efficient forms of relief for the poor. All other health-related activities are considered private duties, to be resolved by the market, NGOs, or families. The World Bank policy provides a pragmatic contribution to efforts to achieve fiscal balance. However, it also pushes to recommodify health care and to turn health into a terrain for capital accumulation through the selective privatization of health-related financial and "discretionary" services. The proposal implies large-scale experimentation and dismantling of public institutions which are the only alternative now accessible to the majority. It rejects health as a human need and a social right, and violates basic values by claiming that life and death decisions can be justly made by the market or through a cost-effectiveness formula.

  13. Local participation, international politics, and the environment: the World Bank and the Grenada Dove.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, J; Korsmo, F L

    2001-07-01

    The process of locating waste disposal sites in the Eastern Caribbean country of Grenada illustrates important lessons in the implementation of new international mandates to invite stakeholder participation in projects with environmental and social impacts. This case study analyzes the participatory methods and results of the World Bank-funded project in Grenada, including an unexpected shift in the policy agenda toward habitat protection for the elusive Grenada Dove, the national bird of Grenada. We conclude that the impact of new requirements for stakeholder inclusion by funding agencies such as the World Bank and Global Environmental Facility has been palpable, but mixed. As the catalysts of more participatory methods, funding agencies still must give more careful consideration to the methods by which their participatory requirements are implemented. In particular they must develop more effective knowledge of and relationships with a broader range of stakeholders than are routinely considered by existing methods, allow for and learn from unexpected contingencies, and be flexible as to project goals and methods.

  14. The health systems funding platform and World Bank legacy: the gap between rhetoric and reality.

    PubMed

    Brown, Scott S; Sen, Kasturi; Decoster, Kristof

    2013-03-06

    Global health partnerships created to encourage funding efficiencies need to be approached with some caution, with claims for innovation and responsiveness to development needs based on untested assumptions around the potential of some partners to adapt their application, funding and evaluation procedures within these new structures. We examine this in the case of the Health Systems Funding Platform, which despite being set up some three years earlier, has stalled at the point of implementation of its key elements of collaboration. While much of the attention has been centred on the suspension of the Global Fund's Round 11, and what this might mean for health systems strengthening and the Platform more broadly, we argue that inadequate scrutiny has been made of the World Bank's contribution to this partnership, which might have been reasonably anticipated based on an historical analysis of development perspectives. Given the tensions being created by the apparent vulnerability of the health systems strengthening agenda, and the increasing rhetoric around the need for greater harmonization in development assistance, an examination of the positioning of the World Bank in this context is vital.

  15. World bank's role in the electric power sector: Policies for effective institutional, regulatory, and financial reform. World Bank policy paper. Funcion del banco mundial en el sector de la electricidad: politicas para efectuar una reforma institucional, regulatoria y financiera eficaz

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The paper outlines the World Bank's new policies for the energy sector. It recommends several new policies to improve the performance of the electric power sector in developing countries. Bank loans for electric power will go first to countries clearly committed to improving the performance of their power sectors. The Bank will also discourage subsidies on energy prices and will encourage private investment in utilities. And it will provide financing to help the least developed countries import power where local generation is not practical.

  16. Community monitoring of integrated pest management versus conventional pesticide use in a World Bank project in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ishii-Eiteman, Marcia J; Ardhianie, Nila

    2002-01-01

    Pesticide Action Network North America (PANNA) collaborated with a local Indonesian nongovernmental organization (NGO), Yayasan Duta Awam (YDA), in monitoring impacts of the World Bank-financed Integrated Swamps Development Project (ISDP). This paper reports the results of the community-based investigation, which found wide disparities between the World Bank's policy on pest management and its implementation. Instead of reducing farmers' reliance on pesticides as required, the ISDP led to increased intensity and frequency of pesticide use and adverse health and environmental effects from pesticide exposures. YDA and PANNA presented the findings to the Indonesian government and World Bank officials, and farmers requested training in IPM among other recommendations. After NGOs undertook joint advocacy efforts to reduce pesticide dependence in the project, the World Bank withdrew hazardous pesticides from input packages, IPM training was initiated, and community monitors became local leaders in their villages. The study demonstrates the importance and efficacy of independent community-based monitoring in documenting pesticide problems and replacing pesticides with IPM in World Bank development projects.

  17. 78 FR 38983 - World Trade Center Health Program Scientific/Technical Advisory Committee (WTCHP-STAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention World Trade Center Health Program Scientific... name of the Committee should read World Trade Center Health Program Scientific/Technical...

  18. 76 FR 27648 - World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program Scientific/Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program... establishment of the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program Scientific/Technical Advisory Committee. The WTC... WTC Program Administrator. For information, contact Larry Elliott, Designated Federal Officer,...

  19. The Vision of Students Enrolled in European Technical Universities Regarding Tomorrow'S World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duşe, Dan-Maniu; Nemeş, Cătălin

    2014-11-01

    Starting from Michael Rendell and his team's "Managing tomorrow's people", this paper sets out to build a possible future of leadership in European technical universities. We can ask ourselves if European technical universities could exist in a Blue, Green and Orange World. How would they look like and how efficient would "corporate" universities be, assuming that the Blue World would prevail in the next 10 years. What should their development strategies be and what labor markets would absorb its graduates? What if universities would be in the Green or Orange World? What leaders should they have then? Starting from these questions we try to construct possible scenarios for a European reality

  20. The health systems funding platform and World Bank legacy: the gap between rhetoric and reality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Global health partnerships created to encourage funding efficiencies need to be approached with some caution, with claims for innovation and responsiveness to development needs based on untested assumptions around the potential of some partners to adapt their application, funding and evaluation procedures within these new structures. We examine this in the case of the Health Systems Funding Platform, which despite being set up some three years earlier, has stalled at the point of implementation of its key elements of collaboration. While much of the attention has been centred on the suspension of the Global Fund’s Round 11, and what this might mean for health systems strengthening and the Platform more broadly, we argue that inadequate scrutiny has been made of the World Bank’s contribution to this partnership, which might have been reasonably anticipated based on an historical analysis of development perspectives. Given the tensions being created by the apparent vulnerability of the health systems strengthening agenda, and the increasing rhetoric around the need for greater harmonization in development assistance, an examination of the positioning of the World Bank in this context is vital. PMID:23497327

  1. Your Money or Your Life! A Critical Canadian Perspective on the World Bank's "Reform Agenda" for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhouse, Howard

    2011-01-01

    In 1998 the World Bank published a "Reform Agenda" for higher education in the new millennium designed to accelerate privatization and the restructuring of the academic workforce. Before analyzing the report, I consider how changes in Canadian universities reflect the growth of the "knowledge-based economy." I then provide a…

  2. In the Best Interests of Youth or Neoliberalism? The World Bank and the New Global Youth Empowerment Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukarieh, Mayssoun; Tannock, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    Youth, and youth employment especially, have jumped to the forefront of the international development agenda, driven by new funding and reporting priorities of the World Bank and allied international and national aid organisations. Despite the seductive rhetoric of youth empowerment, however, we argue that the new turn to youth serves primarily to…

  3. Interrogating an Omission: The Absence of a Rights-Based Approach to Education in World Bank Policy Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menashy, Francine

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a discursive analysis of World Bank policy documents in order to reveal the stark omission of a rights-based approach to education, while highlighting instead the support of an economic-instrumentalist approach. Plausible explanations are provided to shed light on this exclusion, including the feasibility critique of education…

  4. Financing Reduction of Information Poverty in Nigerian University Libraries: A Study of the IMF and World Bank Credit Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawal, Olu Olat

    1995-01-01

    Examines the financing of 20 Federal University Libraries in Nigeria by the World Bank, which provides for acquisition of books, journals, and equipment based on conditions to be met by the universities. Considers socioeconomic effects and assesses the impact of the loan on selection, acquisition, and staff development. Discusses the inability of…

  5. The World Bank's Position on Early Child Education in Brazil: A Critical Assessment of Contributions and Shortcomings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the World Bank published a policy study on early child education (ECE) developments in Brazil, entitled "Early Child Education: Making Programs Work for Brazil's Most Important Generation. Development." This paper analyses the report's assessment of ECE policy in Brazil as well as the recommendations it provides. A critical…

  6. The History and Problems in the Making of Education Policy at the World Bank 1960-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, S. P.

    2003-01-01

    The reports seem contradictory. With about three billion dollars per year in new loan commitments, the World Bank has become the single largest source of development capital in the field of international education. These resources help expand educational opportunities for young women in South Asia and rebuild primary schools following civil…

  7. Using Quantitative Data in World Bank Per-Student Funding Reform Projects: Data, Designs and Dilemmas in Transition Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levacic, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, education systems have increasingly moved to allocating funding for general education by means of a per-student formula. The trend started with developed economies and moved to transition and developing economies, where the World Bank has promoted the adoption of per-student funding (PSF). But promoting a particular reform,…

  8. Earth Science World ImageBank (ESWIB): A Comprehensive Collection of Geoscience Images Being Developed by the American Geological Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, A. W.; Keane, C. M.

    2003-12-01

    Although there are geoscience images available in numerous locations around the World Wide Web, there is no universal comprehensive digital archive where teachers, students, scientists, and the general public can gather images related to the Earth Sciences. To fill this need, the American Geological Institute (AGI) is developing the largest image database available: the Earth Science World ImageBank (ESWIB). The goal of ESWIB is to provide a variety of users with free access to high-quality geoscience images and technical art gathered from photographers, government organizations, and scientists. Each image is cataloged by location, author, image rights, and a detailed description of what the image shows. Additionally, images are cataloged using keywords from AGI's precise Georef indexing methodology. Students, teachers, and the general public can search or browse and download these images for use in slide show presentations, lectures, papers, or for other educational and outreach uses. This resource can be used for any age level, in any kind of educational venue. Users can also contribute images of their own to the database through the ESWIB website. AGI is scanning these images at a very high resolution (16 x 20 inches) and depending on the author's rights, is making high-resolution copies (digital or print) available for non-commercial and commercial purposes. This ImageBank is different from other photo sites available in that the scope has more breadth and depth than other image resources, and the images are cataloged with a very high grade of detail and precision, which makes finding needed images fast and easy. The image services offered by ESWIB are also unique, such as the low-cost commercial options and high quality image printouts. AGI plans on adding more features to ESWIB in the future, including connecting this resource to the up-coming online Glossary of Geology, a geospatial search option, using the images to make generic PowerPoint presentations

  9. Are hybrid umbilical cord blood banks really the best of both worlds?

    PubMed

    Guilcher, Gregory M T; Fernandez, Conrad V; Joffe, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Since the first use of umbilical cord blood (UCB) as a medical therapy, the number of UCB banks worldwide has grown. Public UCB banks offer the option of altruistic donation, whereas private banks allow a product to be stored for the exclusive use of the paying client. With many more UCB products banked privately than publicly in countries such as the USA, hybrid models blending aspects of public and private banking have been proposed. One such bank is in operation in the UK. In this paper we review the hybrid UCB model and conclude that it offers limited benefit to the general public. Furthermore, compared with private banking, this model provides few advantages and potential disadvantages to private clients.

  10. Perspectives of co-operation with the World Bank towards elimination of low emission sources in Krakow

    SciTech Connect

    Goerlich, K.

    1995-12-31

    I am not going to speak about or for the World Bank. More time and a different scope of the conference would be needed in order to more deeply assess the role of the World Bank and other international lenders and donors in the environmental and energy sectors in Poland. I am going to stay within the context of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project financed by the US AID and managed by the US DOE (called here for simplicity the Krakow Programme). However, in order to assess a role of the World Bank and other international lenders and donors in the pro-environment transformation of the energy systems of Krakow, one needs to briefly discuss: the possibilities and confinements related to the {open_quotes}technology{close_quotes} of disbursement of the financial resources by the multilateral development banks (MDB`s) in Poland, the type of results obtained within the {open_quotes}Krakow Programme{close_quotes} and a concept of involving American commercial companies to implement the clean-air policy for Krakow.

  11. Promotion of Linkage between Technical and Vocational Education and the World of Work. UNEVOC Studies in Technical and Vocational Education, Number 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Section for Technical and Vocational Education.

    This document contains seven papers about and from an international meeting on promoting linkage between technical and vocational education and the world of work. The first paper, a Final Report on the "International Expert Meeting on the Promotion of Linkage between Technical/Vocational Education and the World of Work (Tokyo, Japan, 3-6…

  12. Forest sector: A World Bank policy paper. Secteur forestier: document de politique generale de la banque mondiale

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Forests are the most extensive terrestrial ecosystem, and nearly 500 million people depend on forests for their livelihood. Since the World Bank issued its forestry sector policy paper in 1978, there has been growing concern about the accelerated rate of destruction of the remaining primary forests in various parts of the world. The policy paper identifies two key challenges: to slow the alarmingly rapid rates of deforestation, especially (although not exclusively) in the tropical moist forests, and to ensure adequate planting of new trees to meet the rapidly growing demand for fuelwood in developing countries. The Bank intends to move vigorously to promote the conservation of natural forests and the sustainable development of managed forestry resources.

  13. Health and social security reforms in Latin America: the convergence of the World Health Organization, the World Bank, and transnational corporations.

    PubMed

    Armada, F; Muntaner, C; Navarro, V

    2001-01-01

    International financial institutions have played an increasing role in the formation of social policy in Latin American countries over the last two decades, particularly in health and pension programs. World Bank loans and their attached policy conditions have promoted several social security reforms within a neoliberal framework that privileges the role of the market in the provision of health and pensions. Moreover, by endorsing the privatization of health services in Latin America, the World Health Organization has converged with these policies. The privatization of social security has benefited international corporations that become partners with local business elites. Thus the World Health Organization, international financial institutions, and transnational corporations have converged in the neoliberal reforms of social security in Latin America. Overall, the process represents a mechanism of resource transfer from labor to capital and sheds light on one of the ways in which neoliberalism may affect the health of Latin American populations.

  14. The Missing Link in Donor Prescribed Educational Reforms: Lack of Ownership (The Case of the World Bank in Ethiopian Higher Education)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garomssa, Habtamu Diriba

    2016-01-01

    The World Bank (WB) as an international policy transfer and diffusion agent has been actively involved in orchestrating and driving Higher Education (HE) reforms globally. Such impact of the Bank has arguably, been more evident in the context of loan recipient countries. By using a hard mode of influence (financial), and more subtle or soft modes…

  15. Investing in amnesia, or fantasy and forgetfulness in the World Bank's approach to healthcare reform in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Epprecht, M

    1997-01-01

    "Investing in Health," the World Bank's 1993 World Development Report, and a follow-up report, "Better Health in Africa," advocate investments in Third World health sectors as a means of increasing individual productivity and strengthening economic growth. Both reports maintain that structural adjustment policies have enhanced the physical health of low-income populations by improving the fiscal health of business elites. This essay critiques the World Bank's approach through a historical analysis of health care problems in sub-Saharan Africa with an emphasis on the devastating effects of colonialism, patriarchy, and imperialism. Although these documents contain many useful recommendations for Western donors (e.g., recognition of the destructive potential of alcohol and tobacco, the need for state regulation over key parts of the health sector, and the effects of gender on health status), they reflect an "investment in amnesia" regarding historical evidence on health care reform in Africa and an erroneous assumption that Western biomedicine is politically neutral. Foreign aid has tended to serve the needs of multinational corporations rather than African populations. Recommended, in place of structural adjustment policies, are measures such as a massive rebuilding of Africa's urban infrastructure, the enforcement of minimum wage laws, the preservation of ecosystems that supply traditional medicines, attention to the ecologic and health consequences of economic growth, and a feminist-led reproductive rights movement.

  16. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    SciTech Connect

    Letschert, Virginie; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Ke, Jing; McNeil, Michael

    2012-07-01

    As part of the ongoing effort to estimate the foreseeable impacts of aggressive minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) programs in the world’s major economies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a scenario to analyze the technical potential of MEPS in 13 major economies around the world1 . The “best available technology” (BAT) scenario seeks to determine the maximum potential savings that would result from diffusion of the most efficient available technologies in these major economies.

  17. The world bank and the environment. Progress report. Banque mondiale et l'environnement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The second annual report describes specific environmental strategies and environmental lending in the Bank's four operational regions: Africa; Asia; Europe, Middle East, and North Africa; and Latin America and the Caribbean. It details the Bank's progress in eight environmental categories: energy and the environment, pollution, urban environment, water resources management, forest and land management, social and cultural, environmental economics, and the global environment. One chapter is devoted exclusively to tropical forests, studying ways in which the Bank is dealing with deforestation as a part of the constant review of its forest policies. Suggestions are made for decreasing the degradation of tropical forests while meeting demands for forest products. This chapter reflects a shift in Bank emphasis from commercial ventures to conservation measures. The publication reports on other initiatives by the Bank during fiscal 1991, including the launching of the Global Environment Facility (GEF)--a pilot program to oversee reduction of global warming, preservation of biological diversity, protection of international waters, and prevention of ozone depletion.

  18. World bank and the environment. Progress report. Banco mundial y el medio ambiente

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The second annual report describes specific environmental strategies and environmental lending in the Bank's four operational regions: Africa; Asia; Europe, Middle East, and North Africa; and Latin America and the Caribbean. It details the Bank's progress in eight environmental categories: energy and the environment, pollution, urban environment, water resources management, forest and land management, social and cultural, environmental economics, and the global environment. One chapter is devoted exclusively to tropical forests, studying ways in which the Bank is dealing with deforestation as a part of the constant review of its forest policies. Suggestions are made for decreasing the degradation of tropical forests while meeting demands for forest products. This chapter reflects a shift in Bank emphasis from commercial ventures to conservation measures. The publication reports on other initiatives by the Bank during fiscal 1991, including the launching of the Global Environment Facility (GEF)--a pilot program to oversee reduction of global warming, preservation of biological diversity, protection of international waters, and prevention of ozone depletion.

  19. Water resources management. World Bank policy paper; Gestion des ressources en eau

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The management framework presented in this study addresses the demand for water in Asia caused by rapid population growth and economic development. It focuses on three key actions to meet the challenge: evaluate how the region manages water resources; identify guidelines for the Bank`s water resource programs; and develop country-specific strategies and promote joint programs. Reforms built into the framework seek to modernize institutions that affect water sources. The authors suggest ways to improve planning and long-term management, streamline economic and financial policy, and upgrade `real-time` management, operation, and maintenance.

  20. Vehicular air pollution: Experiences from seven Latin american urban centers. World Bank Technical Paper No. 373

    SciTech Connect

    Onursal, B.; Gautam, S.P.

    1997-09-01

    Air pollution caused by motor vehicles is a major environmental problem in many Latin American urban centers. If appropriate measures are not taken soon, vehicular air pollution in the region is likely to worsen, posing a great threat to human health and welfare. This report analyzes the pollutants emitted by motor vehicles, their effects, and pollutant-control measures targeted at vehicles, fuels, and transport management. Case studies for Mexico City, Mexico, Santiago, Chile, Sao Paulo, Brazil, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and Botota, Colombia, illustrate how these measures have been used in the region and how they can be strengthened.

  1. Implementing Educational Policies in Swaziland. World Bank Discussion Papers No. 88. Africa Technical Department Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalula, Cisco

    At the time of independence in 1968, education in Swaziland was characterized by poor quality, uneven distribution of schools, high dropout and repeater rates, serious shortages of teachers, and inappropriate and highly academic curricula. This paper describes the status of present-day education in Swaziland in terms of the effect of government…

  2. Organic and compost-based growing media for seedling nurseries. World Bank Technical Paper No. 264

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.; Jones, N.

    1995-04-01

    The report outlines the characteristics of good potting media to help nursery or plantation managers promote successful root development in forest trees. Past research into tree planting has revealed that inadequate attention is given to root development in seedling containers. This study recommends the development of a high quality potting mediato give plants the best possible chances of survival in the field after transplanting. The book describes the characteristics of good potting media. It notes that the largely organic media used in temperate countries have proven successful in protecting roots. In tropical countries, soil mixed with sand and a little organic matter is the main component. The study offers some explanations as to why potting media in tropical countries do not contain more organic matter and points to the difficulty in acquiring organic materials in adequate amounts and the cost involved. A special section deals specifically with different methods of making compost, its raw materials, and outlines ways of blending them.

  3. Reforming Education in the Regions of Russia. World Bank Technical Paper No. 457.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canning, Mary; Moock, Peter; Heleniak, Timothy

    After the breakup of the Soviet Union, reforms of Russia's educational system included rapid decentralization of responsibilities to the regions, but without commensurate transfer of resources or clarification of government roles and responsibilities. Problems were greatly worsened by the severe fiscal stringency of the 1990s. This paper examines…

  4. Strategy for the forest sector in sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, N.P.; Rietbergen, S.; Heimo, C.R.; Patel, J.

    1994-12-31

    Wise use of forest resources in Sub-Saharan Africa can contribute to sustainable development and benefit many people, especially the poor, who depend on these resources for their livelihoods. There are complex sociopolitical and economic factors that create incentives for rapid exploitation of forest resources. In Africa, there are strong interlinkages between rapid population growth, environmental degradation, and poor agricultural performance. The strategy presented in this paper places forest depletion and degradation firmly within this context. It recognizes that many of the root causes contributing to these problems lie outside the forest sector and, thus, the strategy provides African countries with a series of options that encompass actions necessary both within and outside the forest sector.

  5. Implementing Educational Policies in Tanzania. World Bank Discussion Papers No. 86. Africa Technical Department Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galabawa, C. J.

    Of the three East African British colonies (Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania), Tanzania was the least well off at the time of independence in 1961. At that time, only 16,691 students were enrolled in secondary schools, and all general education at higher levels was provided outside the country. Thus, the goals of post-independence educational policy…

  6. Poverty and Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank Technical Paper No. 467.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodon, Quentin T.

    Although the progress toward poverty reduction remains sluggish, other dimensions of social welfare in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region show signs of improvement. Adult literacy and school enrollment rates, life expectancy at birth, access to safe water, and nutrition indicators are improving. However, other factors demonstrate that…

  7. Implementing Educational Policies in Uganda. World Bank Discussion Papers No. 89. Africa Technical Department Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odaet, Cooper F.

    At the time of independence from Britain in 1962, education in Uganda was more advanced than in neighboring countries, although still unsatisfactory. This paper reviews the recommendations of commissions, educational reviews, and 5-year plans for the development of educational policies since independence. There have been two main long-term…

  8. From Early Child Development to Human Development: Investing in Our Children's Future. Proceedings of a World Bank Conference (Washington, D.C., April 10-11, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mary Eming, Ed.

    In April 2000, the World Bank hosted a global conference that addressed the benefits and challenges of investing in early child development (ECD). The landmark conference brought together the world's leading experts, academicians, practitioners, and policymakers to focus on various aspects of ECD. This volume contains the proceedings of the…

  9. Schistosomiasis control in China: the impact of a 10-year World Bank Loan Project (1992-2001).

    PubMed Central

    Xianyi, Chen; Liying, Wang; Jiming, Cai; Xiaonong, Zhou; Jiang, Zheng; Jiagang, Guo; Xiaohua, Wu; Engels, D.; Minggang, Chen

    2005-01-01

    China has been carrying out large-scale schistosomiasis control since the mid-1950s, but in the early 1990s, schistosomiasis was still endemic in eight provinces. A World Bank Loan Project enabled further significant progress to be made during the period 1992-2001. The control strategy was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy -- primarily to reinforce morbidity control -- while at the same time acting on transmission with the ultimate goal of interrupting it. Chemotherapy was complemented by health education, chemical control of snails and environmental modification where appropriate. A final evaluation in 2002 showed that infection rates in humans and livestock had decreased by 55% and 50%, respectively. The number of acute infections and of individuals with advanced disease had also significantly decreased. Although snail infection rates continued to fluctuate at a low level, the densities of infected snails had decreased by more than 75% in all endemic areas. The original objectives of the China World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control had all been met. One province, Zhejiang, had already fulfilled the criteria for elimination of schistosomiasis by 1995. The project was therefore a success and has provided China with a sound basis for further control. PMID:15682248

  10. Equity Issues in Public Examinations in Developing Countries. World Bank Technical Paper Number 272. Asia Technical Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaney, Vincent; Kellaghan, Thomas

    Public examinations in developing countries play a critical role in the selection of students for participation in the educational system. The examinations tend to be highly academic, bearing little reference to the everyday lives of students, limited to paper-and-pencil tests, and geared toward discriminating among high achieving students.…

  11. 77 FR 30371 - Procedures for Monitoring Bank Secrecy Act Compliance and Fair Credit Reporting: Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ...: Technical Amendments. This correction clarifies that the FDIC did not intend to remove a paragraph from its... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Rules and Regulations #0; Federal Register #0; #0; #0;This section of the FEDERAL REGISTER contains regulatory documents...

  12. Radio for Education and Development: Case Studies, Volume II. World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 266.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spain, Peter L.; And Others

    Use of radio for nonformal education and development communications and the technical and economic considerations related to radio services are covered in this second volume of case studies on use of radio for education and development. Under radio and nonformal education are: an evaluation of radio schools as part of the popular promotion…

  13. World Wide Comparism of Technical and Vocational Education: Lessons for Nigerian Technical and Vocational Education Sector (I)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayeni, Abiodun Olumide

    2015-01-01

    This paper compared technical/vocational education in: Germany, Australia, Finland, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, and Nigeria, and found that technical/vocational education was given proper attention in countries considered except Nigeria, where it was handled with laissez faire attitude. Set-Up of Technical/Vocational…

  14. Tribunal on the policies of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, West Berlin, September 26-29, 1988: verdict. Permanent Peoples' Tribunal.

    PubMed

    1990-01-01

    At the request of the American Association of Jurists, the Permanent Peoples' Tribunal was called upon to consider violations of international law of the self-determination of peoples by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, as well as to make proposals for change. The Tribunal declared the request to be admissible, in accordance with Article 3 of the Statutes; therefore, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank were informed, in application of the provisions of Articles 14 and 15. The Tribunal convened in West Berlin, September 26-29, 1988. Presented here is the report of the Tribunal, including its verdict and proposals for action.

  15. An analysis of GAVI, the Global Fund and World Bank support for human resources for health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Marko; Weber, Stephanie E; Nikolic, Irina A; Atun, Rifat; Kumar, Ranjana

    2012-12-01

    Shortages, geographic imbalances and poor performance of health workers pose major challenges for improving health service delivery in developing countries. In response, multilateral agencies have increasingly recognized the need to invest in human resources for health (HRH) to assist countries in achieving their health system goals. In this paper we analyse the HRH-related activities of three agencies: the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI); the Global Fund for Aids, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (the Global Fund); and the World Bank. First, we reviewed the type of HRH-related activities that are eligible for financing within each agency. Second, we reviewed the HRH-related activities that each agency is actually financing. Third, we reviewed the literature to understand the impact that GAVI, Global Fund and World Bank investments in HRH have had on the health workforce in developing countries. Our analysis found that by far the most common activity supported across all agencies is short-term, in-service training. There is relatively little investment in expanding pre-service training capacity, despite large health worker shortages in developing countries. We also found that the majority of GAVI and the Global Fund grants finance health worker remuneration, largely through supplemental allowances, with little information available on how payment rates are determined, how the potential negative consequences are mitigated, and how payments are to be sustained at the end of the grant period. Based on the analysis, we argue there is an opportunity for improved co-ordination between the three agencies at the country level in supporting HRH-related activities. Existing initiatives, such as the International Health Partnership and the Health Systems Funding Platform, could present viable and timely vehicles for the three agencies to implement this improved co-ordination.

  16. How Commercial Banks Use the World Wide Web: A Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leovic, Lydia K.

    New telecommunications vehicles expand the possible ways that business is conducted. The hypermedia portion of the Internet, the World Wide Web, is such a telecommunications device. The Web is presently one of the most flexible and dynamic methods for electronic information dissemination. The level of technological sophistication necessary to…

  17. Child Health in China. World Bank Staff Working Papers, Number 767.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mary E.; Prost, Andre

    Utilizing mainly Chinese publications, this paper reviews the existing data on childhood diseases in order to assess the health status and morbidity patterns of Chinese children. China's infant mortality rate is among the very lowest in the developing world. The number of post-neonatal deaths as a proportion of total infant deaths has decreased to…

  18. Closing the Gap in Education and Technology. World Bank Latin American and Caribbean Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Ferranti, David; Perry, Guillermo E.; Gill, Indermit; Guasch, J. Luis; Maloney, William F.; Sanchez-Paramo, Carolina; Schady, Norbert

    This document examines the gap between the Latin America and Caribbean region and the world's developed nations in the areas of education and technology. It also examines policies and strategies to close the gap. The following are among the specific topics discussed: (1) skills upgrading and innovation policies (the major actors; the role of…

  19. Uganda: The Challenge of Growth and Poverty Reduction. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report examines the outcomes of economic reform in Uganda and defines issues that Uganda must address in medium- and long-term strategies for poverty reduction. With a per capita income of approximately $220, Uganda is one of the poorest countries in the world. Its economy and social indicators bear the marks of nearly 15 years of political…

  20. World Bank Education Policy and Human Resource Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutamba, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the intersection of education and training through societal development in the developing world, a concept linked to national human resource development (NHRD). In addition, education and training is known to correlate strongly with employment outcomes that are connected to economic success, health and family…

  1. Executive Development Programs in Bangladesh. Phase II Final Report and Case Writing. A Component of the World Bank/Bangladesh Management Education and Training Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Gary N.

    With funding made available by the World Bank, additional (Phase II) activities were undertaken in Bangladesh to enhance business management education and training. Executive Development Programmes (EDPs) were planned and carried out according to the model previously developed and validated. Eight seminars were offered for the Institute of…

  2. The Politics of Privatization and Decentralization in Global School Reform: The Value of Equity Claims for Neoliberalism at the World Bank and in El Salvador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmond, Cheryl

    This paper focuses on the role of the World Bank and its subsidiaries in promoting the neoliberal educational reforms of privatization and decentralization globally and in El Salvador. Neoliberalism is first defined as a sociopolitical philosophy that supports concepts such as the free market, market-driven education, and the use of a voucher…

  3. Executive Development Programs in Bangladesh. Phase I, Final Report. A Component of the World Bank/Bangladesh Management Education and Training Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Gary N.

    With funding made available by the World Bank, activities were undertaken in Bangladesh to enhance business management education and training. A model for management development was explained and carried through with the Commerce Faculty of the University of Chittagong. Steps in the model were as follows: (1) analysis of the current status of…

  4. Experimenting in Distance Education: The African Virtual University (AVU) and the Paradox of the World Bank in Kenya--A Rejoinder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munene, Ishmael I.

    2007-01-01

    This rejoinder is in response to criticism against the African Virtual University (AVU), an internet-based education modality, by Amutabi and Oketch [2003. Experimenting in distance education: the African Virtual University (AVU) and the Paradox of World Bank in Kenya. International Journal of Educational Development 23, 57-73]. By closely…

  5. World Bank Contribution to Building National HIV/AIDS Monitoring and Evaluation Capacity in Africa: Going beyond Indicator Development and Conceptual Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David

    2004-01-01

    International commitment to the human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic has grown rapidly in recent years, stimulated by the leadership of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and its cosponsors and supported by a range of new mechanisms. These include the World Bank's Multi-Country…

  6. Valuing tropical forests: Methodology and case study of madagascar. World Bank environment paper

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, R.A.; Sharma, N.; Munasinghe, M.

    1995-08-01

    The loss of large areas of tropical forests has become a major concern of the world community. Although there are many causes of tropical deforestation and forest degradation, an important cause appears to be undervaluation of forests by markets and governments. This volume examines some causes of tropical deforestation and explores forest valuation issues in the context of a protected area project. Part A (Chapters 1 and 2) sets out the context of tropical deforestation and loss of diodiversity and provides a framework for examining the economic value of forests. Part B (Chapter 3 to 8) is devoted to a detailed case study of Madagascar that illustrates the practical application of the techniques of analysis of the valuation of forests described earlier. Finally, the main findings and conclusions of this volume are summarized in Part C.

  7. 77 FR 5258 - World Trade Center Health Program Scientific/Technical Advisory Committee (WTCHP STAC or Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention World Trade Center Health Program Scientific/Technical Advisory Committee (WTCHP STAC or Advisory Committee), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Notice of...

  8. 77 FR 8877 - World Trade Center Health Program Scientific/Technical Advisory Committee (WTCHP STAC or Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention World Trade Center Health Program Scientific/Technical Advisory Committee (WTCHP STAC or Advisory Committee), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Correction This...

  9. The IAEA technical cooperation programme and nuclear medicine in the developing world: objectives, trends, and contributions.

    PubMed

    Casas-Zamora, Juan Antonio; Kashyap, Ridhi

    2013-05-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's technical cooperation (TC) programme helps Member States in the developing world with limited infrastructure and human resource capacity to harness the potential of nuclear technologies in meeting socioeconomic development challenges. As a part of its human health TC initiatives, the Agency, through the TC mechanism, has the unique role of promoting nuclear medicine applications of fellowships, scientific visits, and training courses, via technology procurement, and in the past decade has contributed nearly $54 million through 180 projects in supporting technology procurement and human resource capacity development among Member States from the developing world (low- and middle-income countries). There has been a growing demand in nuclear medicine TC, particularly in Africa and ex-Soviet Union States where limited infrastructure presently exists, based on cancer and cardiovascular disease management projects. African Member States received the greatest allocation of TC funds in the past 10 years dedicated to building new or rehabilitating obsolete nuclear medicine infrastructure through procurement support of single-photon emission computed tomography machines. Agency support in Asia and Latin America has emphasized human resource capacity building, as Member States in these regions have already acquired positron emission tomography and hybrid modalities (positron emission tomography/computed tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography) in their health systems. The strengthening of national nuclear medicine capacities among Member States across different regions has enabled stronger regional cooperation among developing countries who through the Agency's support and within the framework of regional cooperative agreements are sharing expertise and fostering the sustainability and productive integration of nuclear medicine within their health systems.

  10. Learning from All? The World Bank, Aid Agencies and the Construction of Hegemony in Education for Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verger, Antoni; Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Altinyelken, Hulya Kosar

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the nature and quality of the participation that characterises the Bank's consultations with external actors and examines the extent to which the Bank is responsive to such feedback when it comes to defining its policy preferences and strategies in the education domain. It draws on a case study of the participatory process that…

  11. Achievements and challenges of the World Bank Loan/Department for International Development grant-assisted Tuberculosis Control Project in China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Peng; Jiang, Xu; Zhang, Ben; Jiang, Shi-wen; Liu, Bo

    2011-07-01

    In March 2002, the government of China launched the World Bank Loan/ Department for International Development-supported Tuberculosis (TB) Control Project to reduce the prevalence and mortality of TB. The project generated promising results in policy development, strengthening of TB control systems, patient treatment success, funds management, and the introduction of legislation. In light of the global TB epidemic and control environment, it is useful to review the TB control priorities of the project, summarize the achievements and experiences around its implementation.

  12. Overview of US AID-World Bank-NASA Collaboration to Address Water Management Issues in the MENA Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    The World Bank, USAID and NASA have recently established a joint project to study multiple issues pertaining to water related applications in the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region. The main concentration of the project is on utilization of remote sensing data and hydrological models to address crop irrigation and mapping, flood mapping and forecasting, evapotranspiration and drought problems prevalent in this large geographic area. Additional emphases are placed on understanding the climate impact on these areas as well. Per IPCC 2007 report, by the end of this century MENA region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C rise in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation. This poses a serious problem for this geographic zone especially when majority of the hydrological consumption is for the agriculture sector and the remaining amount is for domestic consumption. The remote sensing data from space is one of the best ways to study such complex issues and further feed into the decision support systems. NASA's fleet of Earth Observing satellites offer a great vantage point from space to look at the globe and provide vital signs necessary to maintain healthy and sustainable ecosystem. These observations generate multiple products such as soil moisture, global precipitation, aerosols, cloud cover, normalized difference vegetation index, land cover/use, ocean altimetry, ocean salinity, sea surface winds, sea surface temperature, ozone and atmospheric gases, ice and snow measurements, and many more. All of the data products, models and research results are distributed-via the Internet freely through out the world. This project will utilize several NASA models such as global Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) to generate hydrological states and fluxes in near real time. These LDAS products will then be further compared with other NASA satellite observations (MODIS, VIIRS, TRMM, etc.) and other discrete models to compare and optimize

  13. Technical Communication--The Need and the Demand of Global World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Dipika S.

    2013-01-01

    The present world is known as Hi-tech world as it is driven by technology. It is the vehicle to get access with this modernized world. However, due to continuous changes taking place in the field of technology, people keep looking for new developments for improving the quality of teaching and learning methodologies. In the fast developing 21st…

  14. Technical Problems Experienced in the Transformation of Virtual Worlds into an Education Environment and Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coban, Murat; Karakus, Turkan; Karaman, Asiye; Gunay, Fatma; Goktas, Yuksel

    2015-01-01

    Research into virtual worlds demonstrates that to successfully use virtual world platforms in different disciplines, certain limitations and potential difficulties of these platforms must be overcome. The current study extends previous research by investigating problems in integrating virtual worlds in education with a longitudinal observation of…

  15. The Internet as a Reference Tool: Accessing Scientific and Technical Information via the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosier, Mona L.

    Los Alamos National Laboratory's Research Library has developed a World Wide Web (WWW) page to allow laboratory staff, as well as individuals from around the world, access to information via the Internet. While many Web pages offer information solely on the organization, the Los Alamos National Laboratory page provides links to reference materials…

  16. Seizing the Future: How Ohio's Career-Technical Education Programs Fuse Academic Rigor and Real-World Experiences to Prepare Students for College and Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Heidi; Yoder, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    "Seizing the Future: How Ohio's Career and Technical Education Programs Fuse Academic Rigor and Real-World Experiences to Prepare Students for College and Work," demonstrates Ohio's progress in developing strong policies for career and technical education (CTE) programs to promote rigor, including college- and career-ready graduation…

  17. Wetlands Mitigation Banking Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    Naval Amphibious Bas Eslgrss Mit. Bank CA, San Diego Co. dredging & facilities Dept of the Navy SeaWorld Eelgras Mitigation Dank CA, San Diego Co...shore development, private projects SeaWorld 8 Table 2. WETLAND MITIGATION BANKS UNDER PLANNING, Institute for Water Resources Preliminary Survey Data

  18. Pulling back the covers: technical lessons of a real-world health information exchange.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Atif; Dixon, Brian E

    2007-01-01

    Several nations and local communities are striving to achieve widespread, secure exchange of clinical data between various health care providers and public health organizations. Most of the literature on health information exchange focuses on the financial, political, and privacy aspects of these initiatives. Perhaps just as important are the technical and organizational factors that have influenced development of data exchange methods and results. One mature network in the Midwestern United States has had success in establishing consistent, secure exchange of clinical data for more than ten years. Presented here are the technical lessons learned and design decisions made from this initiative with the hope that they can be used by others striving to connect disparate clinical information systems for the improvement of health care quality and safety.

  19. Socioeconomic obstacles to HIV prevention and treatment in developing countries: the roles of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.

    PubMed

    Lurie, P; Hintzen, P; Lowe, R A

    1995-06-01

    This paper explores the socioeconomic obstacles to HIV prevention and treatment in developing countries. The opening sections explain the historical origins of structural adjustment programs and their characteristics. Structural adjustment programs undermine the social fabric of many developing countries, and potentially promote behaviors which place people at increased risk of HIV infection. The authors discuss the declining sustainability of the rural subsistence economy, development of a transportation infrastructure, migration and urbanization, and reductions in spending on health and social services. Social and economic interventions are needed to stem the spread of HIV and care for those who are already infected. While a substantial amount of biomedical research has been conducted, socioeconomic aspects of the AIDS epidemic have often been ignored. For HIV transmission in developing countries to be substantially reduced, economic policies which may have promoted the spread of disease must be modified. An alternative development strategy consists of satisfying people's basic human needs, shifting from an export-driven economy to diversified agricultural production in the interest of securing regional self-sufficiency, supporting marginal producers and subsistence farmers, and placing greater emphasis upon human resource development in developing countries. Moreover, the IMF and World Bank need to change their policy to one which is truly about cooperative development, while the charters of the IMF and World Bank need to be altered to permit the cancellation or rescheduling of debt. These institutions should also play a leading role in the restructuring of debt owed to private lenders.

  20. Tobacco Industry attempts to counter the World Bank Report Curbing the Epidemic and obstruct the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross

    2008-01-01

    In 1999 the World Bank published a landmark study on the economics of tobacco control, Curbing the Epidemic: Governments and the Economics of Tobacco Control (CTE), which concluded that tobacco control brings unprecedented health benefits without harming economies, threatening the transnational tobacco companies’ ability to use economic arguments to dissuade governments from enacting tobacco control policies and supporting the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). We used tobacco industry documents to analyze how tobacco companies worked to discredit CTE. They hired public relations firms, had academics critique CTE, hired consultants to produce “independent” estimates of the importance of tobacco to national economies, and worked through front groups, particularly the International Tobacco Growers’ Association, to question CTE’s findings. These efforts failed, and the report remains an authoritative economic analysis of global tobacco control during the ongoing FCTC negotiations. The industry’s failure suggests that the World Bank should continue their analytic work on the economics of tobacco control and make tobacco control part of its development agenda. PMID:18950924

  1. Poverty and Ethnicity: A Cross-Country Study of Roma Poverty in Central Europe. World Bank Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revenga, Ana; Ringold, Dena; Tracy, William Martin

    Roma, or "gypsies," are the main poverty risk group in many countries of central and eastern Europe. Living standards for the Roma have deteriorated more severely during the region's transition to a market economy than they have for other population groups, and Roma have been poorly positioned to take advantage of emerging economic and…

  2. Conserving biological diversity: A strategy for protected areas in the Asia-Pacific region. World Bank technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Braatz, S.; Davis, G.; Shen, S.; Rees, C.

    1992-01-01

    The paper acknowledges the importance of biodiversity conservation and suggests that policy change coupled with the establishment of protected area systems will be critical to success. A wide range of interventions will be needed to support these efforts toward conserving biodiversity-interventions involving national and local governments, national and international nongovernmental organizations and, most importantly, local people. The strategy defined in the paper is intended to complement existing national and international initiatives and to build partnerships in conservation for the 1990s.

  3. Organic and compost-based growing media for tree seedling nurseries. Forestry series. World Bank technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.; Jones, N.

    1995-04-01

    Experience in the support of tree planting projects has indicated that inadequate attention is currently paid to root development on container grown seedlings, particularly for projects in the tropics. A literature review combined with extensive consultation with international tree planters in both tropical and temperate countries indicated that organic matter should form the major fraction of the container media. This component is not easily obtained in many tropical and subtropical countries. However, elements for the manufacture of compost are often available or could be made available. The paper outlines the characteristics of good potting media indicating to nursery or plantation managers the type of product they should aim at. This is followed by a section dealing specifically with different methods of making compost because this is likely to be the most important component of their organic fraction. Finally there is a chapter dealing with raw materials for making compost and how they can be blended.

  4. An Atlas of Nuclear Energy. A Non-Technical World Portrait of Commercial Nuclear Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, John M.

    This atlas is a nontechnical presentation of the geography and history of world commercial nuclear power with particular emphasis on the United States. Neither pro- nor antinuclear, it presents commercial nuclear power data in a series of specially prepared, easily read maps, tables, and text. The first section (United States) includes information…

  5. An Investigation of Elementary Children's Perceptions of Selected Countries of the World. A Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eicher, Charles E.; And Others

    Perceptions of elementary school students in selected schools of Iowa, Nebraska, and South Dakota toward the world, China, India, and Nigeria are investigated. The study includes a review of related literature, a review of existing research on children's attitudes toward American and other nations, and recording and interpreting approximately 300…

  6. Expanding Horizons in Higher and Technical Education to Adopt New Visions of New World: A Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naik, B. M.; Kandlikar, W. S.; Shirkhedkar, M. P.

    2009-01-01

    Which government does not want to generate hi-tech employment, high pay international jobs, spur industrial growth, and make education globally competitive? Then it must install research parks, incubators, Patent & IPR to facilitate commercial exploitation of sunrise technologies. Industries world over are seen flocking round the advanced…

  7. Medical Laboratory Technician--Hematology, Serology, Blood Banking & Immunohematology, 10-4. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This course, the third of three courses in the medical laboratory technician field adapted from military curriculum materials for use in vocational and technical education, was designed as a refresher course for student self-study and evaluation. It is suitable for use by advanced students or beginning students participating in a supervised…

  8. World mussel watch database. National status and trends program for marine environmental quality: Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Cantillo, A.Y.

    1997-04-01

    The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) is an internationally cooordinated system for systematic operational data collection and analysis. This contribution to GOOS is an attempt to determine the levels of contaminants in mussels and oysters collected worldwide and to compare the results with the long-term Mussel Watch programs of the United States and France. A comprehensive literature search of studies using any species of mussels and/or oysters worldwide to monitor the levels of trace metals and organic contaminants was conducted and the data compiled into the World Mussel Watch database. Data sources and statistics of the database are included. Results of the World Mussel Watch and the US and France Mussel Watch programs were compared and typical levels of some trace metals in uncontaminated mussels and oysters were calculated.

  9. Technical Considerations in Remote LIMS Access via the World Wide Web

    PubMed Central

    Schlabach, David M.

    2005-01-01

    The increased dependency on the World Wide Web by both laboratories and their customers has led LIMS developers to take advantage of thin-client web applications that provide both remote data entry and manipulation, along with remote reporting functionality. Use of an LIMS through a web browser allows a person to interact with a distant application, providing both remote administration and real-time analytical result delivery from virtually anywhere in the world. While there are many benefits of web-based LIMS applications, some concern must be given to these new methods of system architecture before justifying them as a suitable replacement for their traditional client-server systems. Developers and consumers alike must consider the security aspects of introducing a wide area network capable system into a production environment, as well as the concerns of data integrity and usability. PMID:18924736

  10. Secondary Education in Africa: Strategies for Renewal. World Bank Presentations at the UNESCO/BREDA-World Bank Regional Workshop on the Renewal of Secondary Education in Africa (Mauritius, Africa, December 2001). Africa Region Human Development Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastri, Lawrence, Ed.

    During the last 3 decades secondary education has become universal in most industrialized countries. Sub-Saharan African countries face special challenges to benefit from this international trend. The gap between these countries and the rest of the world in coverage, quality, and relevance of secondary education is widening. To address these…

  11. Joint US/UK Epoch World Magnetic Model 1995. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, J.M.; Coleman, R.J.; Shiel, D.L.

    1995-04-01

    This report contains a detailed summary of the data used, analyses performed, modeling techniques employed, and results obtained during the course of the 1995 Epoch World Magnetic Modeling effort. This report also contains the GEOMAG algorithm and describes its uses and limitations. Charts derived from the WMM-95 model and the GEOMAG algorithm for both the main geomagnetic field components and their secular variations are presented on Mercator and polar stereographic projections. Additionally, the numerical values of the main geomagnetic field components and their secular variations are tabulated on a 5-degree worldwide grid.

  12. Dynamics of spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in the Yangtze River Valley at the end of and following the World Bank Loan Project.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Luo, Can; Ward, Michael; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Lijuan; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-06-01

    The 10-year (1992-2001) World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) contributed greatly to schistosomiasis control in China. However, the re-emergence of schistosomiasis in recent years challenged the long-term progress of the WBLP strategy. In order to gain insight in the long-term progress of the WBLP, the spatial pattern of the epidemic was investigated in the Yangtze River Valley between 1999-2001 and 2007-2008. Two spatial cluster methods were jointly used to identify spatial clusters of cases. The magnitude and number of clusters varied during 1999-2001. It was found that prevalence of schistosomiasis had been greatly reduced and maintained at a low level during 2007-2008, with little change. Besides, spatial clusters most frequently occurred within 16 counties in the Dongting Lake region and within 5 counties in the Poyang Lake region. These findings precisely pointed out the prior places for future public health planning and resource allocation of schistosomiasis.

  13. Hybrid imaging worldwide-challenges and opportunities for the developing world: a report of a Technical Meeting organized by IAEA.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Ravi; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana; Mariani, Guliano

    2013-05-01

    The growth in nuclear medicine, in the past decade, is largely due to hybrid imaging, specifically single-photon emission tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT). Introduction and use of hybrid imaging has been growing at a fast pace. This has led to many challenges and opportunities to the personnel dealing with it. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) keeps a close watch on the trends in applications of nuclear techniques in health by many ways, including obtaining inputs from member states and professional societies. In 2012, a Technical Meeting on trends in hybrid imaging was organized by IAEA to understand the current status and trends of hybrid imaging using nuclear techniques, its role in clinical practice, and associated educational needs and challenges. Perspective of scientific societies and professionals from all the regions of the world was obtained. Heterogeneity in value, educational needs, and access was noted and the drivers of this heterogeneity were discussed. This article presents the key points shared during the technical meeting, focusing primarily on SPECT-CT and PET-CT, and shares the action plan for IAEA to deal with heterogeneity as suggested by the participants.

  14. The effects of ball possession status on physical and technical indicators during the 2014 FIFA World Cup Finals.

    PubMed

    da Mota, Gustavo Ribeiro; Thiengo, Carlos Rogério; Gimenes, Samuel Valencia; Bradley, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of high- (HPBPT) and low-percentage ball possession (LPBPT) on physical and technical indicators during 2014 FIFA World Cup matches. This would enable a regression model to be constructed to further understand the impact of different ball possession (BP) strategies on match performance. Data were collected from 346 international soccer players using a multiple-camera computerised tracking system. Although players in HPBPT covered lower distances (P < 0.01) in total and at low speed compared to LPBPT, this produced a trivial effect size (ES). However, they covered similar distances (P > 0.05) at medium and high speeds. Players in LPBPT covered more distance without BP but less with BP than HPBPT (P < 0.01; ES large). All positions in LPBPT spent less time in the opposing half and attacking third than the players in HPBPT (P < 0.01; ES small-moderate), but all positions in HPBPT completed more short and medium passes than LPBPT (P < 0.01; ES moderate). Players in HPBPT produced more solo runs into the attacking third and penalty area than LPBPT (P < 0.05, ES small). The equation to predict BP from physical and technical indicators highlighted the importance of distances covered (total, with and without BP), time spent in the attacking third and successful short passes during matches. In practical terms, high or low BP does not influence the activity patterns of international matches although HPBPT spend more time in offensive areas of the pitch.

  15. Poverty and Hunger: Issues and Options for Food Security in Developing Countries. A World Bank Policy Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutlinger, Shlomo; And Others

    Food security means access by all people at all times to enough food for an active and healthy life. Available data suggest that more than 700 million people in the developing world lack the food necessary for such a life. No problem of underdevelopment may be more serious or have such important implications for the long-term growth of low-income…

  16. The Condition of Young Children in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Convergence of Health, Nutrition, and Early Education. World Bank Technical Paper No. 326, Africa Technical Department Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colletta, Nat J.; And Others

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, severe adverse conditions have placed children at high risk: persistent and worsening poverty, rapid economic change and population growth, increasing urbanization, a changing family structure, growing numbers of orphaned refugees, and displaced women and children from internal civil strife. These conditions make a viable…

  17. Using Examinations To Improve Education: A Study in Fourteen African Countries. World Bank Technical Paper Number 165. Africa Technical Department Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellaghan, Thomas; Greaney, Vincent

    A detailed description is presented of the types, functions, performance levels, governance, administration, and funding of public examinations in 14 Sub-Saharan African countries with different educational traditions, based on English, French, or other backgrounds. The countries are: (1) Kenya; (2) Lesotho; (3) Mauritius; (4) Swaziland; (5)…

  18. Girls and Schools in Sub-Saharan Africa: From Analysis to Action. World Bank Technical Paper Number 298. Africa Technical Department Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odaga, Adhiambo; Heneveld, Ward

    This study presents a summary of the major research findings on the factors that constrain girls' schooling in Sub-Saharan Africa. The factors are discussed under three categories: (1) sociocultural and socioeconomic factors; (2) factors related to the school environment; and (3) political and institutional factors. The study provides an outline…

  19. Banking on Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Few organizations have as racially and culturally diverse a work force as the organizations that make up the World Bank Group. Of its 13,000 employees, nearly 60 percent of whom are located in downtown Washington, D.C., and the rest scattered across 160 offices around the globe, nearly every nation in the world is represented in the World Bank…

  20. World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilinc, M.; Beringer, J.; Hutley, L.; Kurioka, K.; Wood, S.; D'Argent, N.; Martin, D.; McHugh, I.; Tapper, N.; McGuire, D.

    2009-04-01

    Natural forests store vast amounts of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, and play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Given the significance of natural forests, there is a lack of carbon accounting of primary forests that are undisturbed by human activities. One reason for this lack of interest stems from ecological orthodoxy that suggests that primary forests should be close to dynamic equilibrium, in that Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) approaches zero. However, recent results from the northern hemisphere and tropics, using eddy covariance flux towers, indicate that primary forests are a greater sink than first thought. The role of evergreen primary forests in Australian carbon balance studies remain uncertain and hence may function differently to their deciduous counterparts in the Northern Hemisphere. In order to address the lack of baseline carbon accounts, an undisturbed, 300 year old Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans) ecosystem, located in the Central Highlands of Victoria (Australia) was selected as a permanent study site to investigate carbon and water budgets over diurnal, seasonal and annual cycles. Mountain Ash trees are the world's tallest angiosperms (flowering plants), and one of the largest carbon reservoirs in the biosphere, with an estimated 1900 tC ha-1. A 110 m tall micrometeorological tower that includes eddy covariance instrumentation was installed in August 2005. An independent biometric approach quantifying the annual net gain or loss of carbon was also made within close proximity to the flux tower. Analysis of NEP in 2006 suggests that the ecosystem acted as a carbon sink of 2.5 tC ha-1 yr-1. Woody and soil biomass increment for the same year was estimated to be 2.8 tC ha-1yr-1, in which nearly half of the biomass production was partitioned into the aboveground woody tissue. These results indicate that temperate primary forests act as carbon sinks, and are able to maintain their carbon sink status due to their uneven stand

  1. 12 CFR 1290.6 - Bank community support programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Bank's community support program shall: (1) Provide technical assistance to members; (2) Promote and... technical assistance to nonprofit housing developers or community groups with outstanding records of... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bank community support programs....

  2. Eruption parameters elicitation for volcanoes in Ethiopia and Kenya Informing a World Bank GFDRR project on volcanic threat in sub-Saharan Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Susanna; Lark, Murray; Loughlin, Sue; Fontijn, Karen; Mather, Tamsin; Pyle, David; Lewi, Elias; Yirgu, Gezahegn; Vye-Brown, Charlotte; Sparks, Steve

    2016-04-01

    Despite large numbers of very visible active volcanoes in sub-Saharan Africa, data about eruptions are limited compared to elsewhere in the world. We present the method and findings from elicitations carried out to characterise likely future eruptions in the region as part of a World Bank GFDRR risk profiling project for sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of the elicitations was to better understand the characteristics and frequencies of explosive eruptions at volcanoes in Ethiopia and Kenya. The elicitations will provide source parameters for tephra fall modelling at select volcanoes in Ethiopia (Aluto, Corbetti, Fentale) and Kenya (Menegai, Longonot, Suswa). There were two stages of elicitation: 1) a 'sanity check' of initial assumptions around likely eruption style, magnitude and frequency for the six selected volcanoes; 2) a formal SHELF (SHeffield ELicitation Framework) elicitation that centred round establishing frequency-magnitude relationships for the volcanoes. The elicitation suggested that explosive eruptions at Aluto and Corbetti were less likely than at the other volcanoes, although the uncertainty was significant. Menengai and Rungwe volcano in Tanzania (elicited as an analogue for Fentale, Longonot and Suswa volcanoes) were characterised by approximately similar probabilities of eruption. However, Rungwe was considered more likely to produce larger explosive (VEI ≥ 4) eruptions than Menengai. Elicitation discussions highlighted the knowledge and data gaps for African volcanoes and raised important questions around whether gaps in the eruption record were real and related to changing regimes at the volcanoes over time or if they were a function of under-recording or lack of preservation. Further investigation is therefore needed to validate the findings of the elicitation. It is hoped that continued collaboration with local partners and studies within the ongoing NERC-funded RiftVolc project will address these issues and help to improve our knowledge

  3. Changing Patterns of Spatial Clustering of Schistosomiasis in Southwest China between 1999–2001 and 2007–2008: Assessing Progress toward Eradication after the World Bank Loan Project

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yi; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Luo, Can; Cohen, Ted; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Lijuan; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-01-01

    We compared changes in the spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in Southwest China at the conclusion of and six years following the end of the World Bank Loan Project (WBLP), the control strategy of which was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy. Parasitological data were obtained through standardized surveys conducted in 1999–2001 and again in 2007–2008. Two alternate spatial cluster methods were used to identify spatial clusters of cases: Anselin’s Local Moran’s I test and Kulldorff’s spatial scan statistic. Substantial reductions in the burden of schistosomiasis were found after the end of the WBLP, but the spatial extent of schistosomiasis was not reduced across the study area. Spatial clusters continued to occur in three regions: Chengdu Plain, Yangtze River Valley, and Lancang River Valley during the two periods, and regularly involved five counties. These findings suggest that despite impressive reductions in burden, the hilly and mountainous regions of Southwest China remain at risk of schistosome re-emergence. Our results help to highlight specific locations where integrated control programs can focus to speed the elimination of schistosomiasis in China. PMID:24394217

  4. Changing patterns of spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in Southwest China between 1999-2001 and 2007-2008: assessing progress toward eradication after the World Bank Loan Project.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Luo, Can; Cohen, Ted; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Lijuan; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-01-03

    We compared changes in the spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in Southwest China at the conclusion of and six years following the end of the World Bank Loan Project (WBLP), the control strategy of which was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy. Parasitological data were obtained through standardized surveys conducted in 1999-2001 and again in 2007-2008. Two alternate spatial cluster methods were used to identify spatial clusters of cases: Anselin's Local Moran's I test and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. Substantial reductions in the burden of schistosomiasis were found after the end of the WBLP, but the spatial extent of schistosomiasis was not reduced across the study area. Spatial clusters continued to occur in three regions: Chengdu Plain, Yangtze River Valley, and Lancang River Valley during the two periods, and regularly involved five counties. These findings suggest that despite impressive reductions in burden, the hilly and mountainous regions of Southwest China remain at risk of schistosome re-emergence. Our results help to highlight specific locations where integrated control programs can focus to speed the elimination of schistosomiasis in China.

  5. Privatization of health services in less developed countries: an empirical response to the proposals of the World Bank and Wharton School.

    PubMed

    Waitzkin, Howard; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca; Iriart, Celia

    2007-01-01

    Academics and World Bank officials argue that, by reducing out-of-pocket expenditures, expanded private insurance may improve access to needed health services in less developed countries. In this empirical response, the authors examine this recommendation through observations from their research on privatization of health services in the United States, Argentina, Chile, and Mexico. Privatization, either through conversion of public sector to private sector insurance or by expansion of private insurance through enhanced participation by corporate entrepreneurs, generally has not succeeded in improving access to health services for vulnerable groups. Although the impact of privatization has differed among the Latin American countries studied, expansion of private insurance often has generated additional co-payments, which have increased rather than decreased out-of-pocket expenditures, thereby worsening access to needed services. Privatization usually has improved conditions for private corporations and has led to higher administrative costs. To address the devastating problems of access to services worldwide, we must find ways to enhance the delivery of public sector services and must move beyond conventional wisdom about market-based policies such as privatization.

  6. The World Bank and the Afghan Government Have Established Mechanisms to Monitor and Account for Funds Contributed to the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund, but Some Limitations and Challenges Should Be Addressed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-22

    report is on page ii. When preparing the final report, we considered comments from the U.S. Embassy in Kabul and the World Bank. These comments are...this performance audit in Kabul , Afghanistan, and Washington, D.C., from November 2010 to July 2011, in accordance with generally accepted...and report on the efficiency and effectiveness of ARTF funding. Second, the monitoring agent has not conducted site visits outside of Kabul to

  7. 12 CFR 411.300 - Professional and technical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Professional and technical services. 411.300 Section 411.300 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Other Than Own Employees § 411.300 Professional and technical services. (a) The prohibition...

  8. 12 CFR 411.205 - Professional and technical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Professional and technical services. 411.205 Section 411.205 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 411.205 Professional and technical services. (a) The prohibition on the use...

  9. 12 CFR 411.205 - Professional and technical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Professional and technical services. 411.205 Section 411.205 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 411.205 Professional and technical services. (a) The prohibition on the use...

  10. 12 CFR 411.205 - Professional and technical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Professional and technical services. 411.205 Section 411.205 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 411.205 Professional and technical services. (a) The prohibition on the use...

  11. 12 CFR 411.205 - Professional and technical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Professional and technical services. 411.205 Section 411.205 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 411.205 Professional and technical services. (a) The prohibition on the use...

  12. 12 CFR 411.205 - Professional and technical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Professional and technical services. 411.205 Section 411.205 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 411.205 Professional and technical services. (a) The prohibition on the use...

  13. Designing Agricultural Development Projects for the Small Scale Farmers: Some Lessons from the World Bank Assistance Small Holder Oil Palm Development Scheme in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orewa, S. I.

    The study was carried out to investigate farmers reasons for intercropping their oil palm farms with food and other cash crops rather than the sole oil palm planting arrangement specified for participation in the World Bank Assistance Smallholder Oil Palm development project financed during the 1975-83 period. The study was conducted at the Ekuku-Agbor Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the East) and Mosogar Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the Southwest) of the old Bendel State of Nigeria. A total of 35 oil palm farmers were randomly selected from each zone for the study. The study tried to identify the size of oil palm cultivated, types of food and cash crops planted and the proportion consumed and sold and the sufficiency of labour for various farm activities. The study showed that the average oil palm farm size at Ekuku-Agbor zone was smaller (about 1.57 ha) and more fragmented while for Mosogar zone it was 2.28 ha. However a greater percentage (over 65%) of the farms at both locations were within 0.01-2.00 ha farm size range which could be said to be relatively small. The study revealed that among other factors the farmers desire to ensure adequate family food needs which equates to food security and some cash to meet regular family financial needs necessitated their intercropping of the oil palm farms. Others include the need to maximize the returns from the use of labour which they considered a major limiting factor in farm maintenance and to take advantage of the relative high unit price of cassava and its products that prevailed then by cultivating on any available land space including the palm plantations and thereby increasing their farm income.

  14. 25 Years of GenBank

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Unique DNA database has helped advance scientific discoveries worldwide Since ... GenBank? Basically, GenBank is the biggest database of DNA in the world. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the ...

  15. Barriers to Banking - Towards an Inclusive Banking Environment in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Estelle; Martinson, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    A recent study in South Africa on the barriers to banking which involved customers in three disability groups namely mobility, hearing and vision has highlighted that currently banking in South Africa is not accessible. Customers with a disability are unable to independently use banking services across a wide range of channels. Exclusion from something as fundamental as managing their own financial affairs raise serious human rights concerns and requires committed action from decision-makers to address this. The fact that solutions to all of the identified barriers have been successfully implemented in banks in other parts of the world for many years emphasize that this is not a technical challenge. While some solutions require complex or expensive changes such as removing physical access barriers and ensuring that digital channels meet internationally accepted standards of accessibility, there are many simple and low-cost solutions which can be implemented immediately and would make a world of difference to these customers and their experience of banking. One key barrier which emerged in all the focus groups and surveys is attitudinal barriers - staff who are unwilling to assist, impatient, interact with the customer's assistant instead of directly with them and lack basic skills on how to interact with someone who has a disability. A comprehensive framework of banking was used to identify a wide range of barriers. The barriers were classified as attitudinal, barriers to physical access, digital access barriers, barriers to information, communication barriers and some generic concerns such as safe evacuation during emergencies and alternative authentication. Both the barriers and the solutions where ranked by participants. From a theoretical perspective, the benefit of a customer-centric approach to understanding these barriers and the innovation potential of a Universal Design approach is affirmed by this study.

  16. 78 FR 25858 - National Practitioner Data Bank

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Parts 60 and 61 RIN 0906-AA87 National Practitioner Data Bank AGENCY: Health... corrects non-substantive technical errors in the final rule entitled ``National Practitioner Data Bank...: Director, Division of Practitioner Data Banks, Bureau of Health Professions, Health Resources and...

  17. 12 CFR 705.10 - Technical assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Technical assistance. 705.10 Section 705.10... DEVELOPMENT REVOLVING LOAN PROGRAM FOR CREDIT UNIONS § 705.10 Technical assistance. NCUA may provide technical... or NCUA. NCUA will base technical assistance on funds availability, the needs of the...

  18. 76 FR 81947 - World Trade Center Health Program Scientific/Technical Advisory Committee (WTCHP STAC or Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... recommendations to the World Trade Center (WTC) Program Administrator regarding additional WTC Health Program eligibility criteria and potential additions to the list of covered WTC-related health conditions. Title... (HHS), the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program, to be administered by the WTC Program...

  19. The American Indian Development Bank?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottinger, Richard

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, the Indian Finance Corporation Act died in committee for lack of Indian support. A model for an American Indian Development Bank is proposed, based on the International Finance Corporation of the World Bank. Two case studies illustrate how this model can meet Indian economic development needs. (SV)

  20. Reconstruction of War Damaged Buildings - A Problem that Still Stands. The Case of the National Economy Bank in Warsaw Restored During the Second World War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łotysz, Sławomir

    2016-12-01

    The Polish national historiography remains silent on the reconstruction of damaged towns and cities that was undertaken by the German administration after capturing Poland in September 1939. This paper, on the war-time restoration of the National Economy Bank's headquarters in Warsaw, is an attempt to at least partially fill the gap. Designed by celebrated architect Rudolf Świerczyński in the late 1920s in accordance with contemporary air raid defence regulations, it was bombed and nevertheless seriously damaged during the September Campaign. Under the German management of the bank, the building was reconstructed and even modernized by commissioned Polish engineers.

  1. Multimedia Courseware Development for World Heritage Sites and Its Trial Integration into Instruction in Higher Technical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Shu-Chiao

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on creative ways of using technology in the classroom, specifically the development of multimedia courseware on World Heritage through which learners are able to upgrade their knowledge and cognition regarding historical and cultural legacies from the past, and to improve English skills. The content of the pilot courseware…

  2. 77 FR 14017 - World Trade Center Health Program Scientific/Technical Advisory Committee (WTCHP STAC or Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/NIOSH/topics/wtc/stac/meetings/ . Public Comment Times and Date: 1:10 p.m... and medical evidence and to make recommendations to the World Trade Center (WTC) Program Administrator regarding additional WTC Health Program eligibility criteria and potential additions to the list of...

  3. 76 FR 64088 - World Trade Center Health Program Scientific/Technical Advisory Committee (WTCHP STAC or Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... (WTC) Program Administrator regarding additional WTC Health Program eligibility criteria and potential additions to the list of covered WTC-related health conditions. Title XXXIII of the Public Health Service Act established within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the World Trade Center...

  4. Field methods for discovering practical wisdom: the microdynamics of going beyond technical rationality in real-world practice.

    PubMed

    Gray-Murray, Jo Ann; Leary, Meggan; Watts, Michelle; Xiong, Fue; Willis, Earnestine

    Practical wisdom is essential to occupational and professional practice. However, the emphasis on technical rationality in these domains neglects the necessity of practical wisdom in doing specialized, skilled work. Microdynamic methods for analyzing social action enabled the discovery and examination of practical wisdom in two interactional episodes from community health work. Practical wisdom was found in specific acts: in adaptation to and interpretation of logical forces and interactional rules of these acts; and in deliberation among choices to reach intended outcomes. Cultivating skills in microdynamic methods for finding and analyzing practical wisdom is an essential tool for practitioners and organizations.

  5. 12 CFR 1805.303 - Technical assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Technical assistance. 1805.303 Section 1805.303... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Use of Funds/Eligible Activities § 1805.303 Technical assistance. (a) The Fund may provide technical assistance to build the capacity of a CDFI or an entity...

  6. 12 CFR 1805.303 - Technical assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Technical assistance. 1805.303 Section 1805... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Use of Funds/Eligible Activities § 1805.303 Technical assistance. (a) The Fund may provide technical assistance to build the capacity of a CDFI or an entity...

  7. 12 CFR 1805.303 - Technical assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Technical assistance. 1805.303 Section 1805.303... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Use of Funds/Eligible Activities § 1805.303 Technical assistance. (a) The Fund may provide technical assistance to build the capacity of a CDFI or an entity...

  8. Development of tissue bank

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole. PMID:23162240

  9. Development of tissue bank.

    PubMed

    Narayan, R P

    2012-05-01

    The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole.

  10. Brain banking in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hulette, Christine M

    2003-07-01

    Many of us who conduct research based on disorders that uniquely affect the human nervous system are involved directly or indirectly with brain banks. Brain banking is by its very nature a multi-disciplinary endeavor that requires close collaboration with our colleagues in clinical departments and also with the families and patients who are donors of brain tissue. These brain tissues will ultimately be used for many types of basic science investigations. Thus, many brain banks are as unique as the basic research programs that they serve. However, there are some commonalities in the field of brain banking. This paper represents a broad overview of brain banking and the issues that are common to all brain banks. Legal and ethical concerns regarding confidentiality of donor records and donor recruitment procedures, as well as safety precautions for technical staff, tissue banking methods and disbursement will be discussed. Finally, issues surrounding financial support for brain banks will be considered.

  11. Preparing to understand and use science in the real world: interdisciplinary study concentrations at the Technical University of Darmstadt.

    PubMed

    Liebert, Wolfgang J

    2013-12-01

    In order to raise awareness of the ambiguous nature of scientific-technological progress, and of the challenging problems it raises, problems which are not easily addressed by courses in a single discipline and cannot be projected onto disciplinary curricula, Technical University of Darmstadt has established three interdisciplinary study concentrations: "Technology and International Development", "Environmental Sciences", and "Sustainable Shaping of Technology and Science". These three programmes seek to overcome the limitations of strictly disciplinary research and teaching by developing an integrated, problem-oriented approach. For example, one course considers fundamental nuclear dilemmas and uses role-playing techniques to address a controversy in the area of nuclear security. At the same time, incorporating interdisciplinary teaching into a university that is organized around mono- or multi-disciplinary faculties also poses a number of challenges. Recognition in disciplinary curricula, and appropriate organizational support and funding are examples of those challenges. It is expected that science and engineering students, empowered by such interdisciplinary study programmes, will be better prepared to act responsibly with regard to scientific and technological challenges.

  12. What makes people cook with improved biomass stoves. A comparative international review of Stove Programs. Energy series. World Bank technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, D.F.; Openshaw, K.; Smith, K.R.; van der Plas, R.

    1994-05-01

    Hundreds of millions of people rely on woodfuels for most of their energy needs, despite the problems associated with traditional use of woodfuels. Modern, efficient biomass stoves can alleviate some of these problems by reducing some householders' cash outlays for fuel, diminishing the time others must spend to collect fuel, reducing air pollution, and relieving local pressure on wood resources. The study explores the successes and failures of stove programs and suggests how adoption rates can be improved more consistently. Under the right conditions, the social, economic, and environmental benefits of promoting improved stoves are large. Programs must be targeted carefully, however, to situations in which people pay high prices for fuel or walk long distances to collect fuelwood or other biomass materials. Subsidies may aid in the distribution of stoves but may not result in actual stove use. Ultimately, dissemination programs are most effective when they allow for interaction and feedback between stove designers, producers, and users.

  13. Access to Education for the Poor in Europe and Central Asia: Preliminary Evidence and Policy Implications. World Bank Technical Paper No. 511.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandycke, Nancy

    In Europe and Central Asia, the poor face three problems: (1) the education system as a whole does not work well, and hence fails to meet their needs; (2) the private cost of education has risen, so that "education," as a commodity, competes with other consumption goods in shrinking household budgets; and (3) the perceived benefits of…

  14. Measurement and Meaning: Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Methods for the Analysis of Poverty and Social Exclusion in Latin America. World Bank Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gacitua-Mario, Estanislao, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

    This report consists of a collection of case studies from Latin America combining qualitative and quantitative research methods for the analysis of poverty within a social exclusion framework. The first chapter provides an overview of the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods, and the gains from using both types of methods in…

  15. Women's water polo world championships: technical and tactical aspects of winning and losing teams in close and unbalanced games.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Corrado; Condello, Giancarlo; Capranica, Laura; Tessitore, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the technical and tactical aspects between winning and losing teams in close (i.e., 1-3 goals of difference) and unbalanced (i.e., >3 goals of difference) elite women's water polo games. A notational analysis was performed on 45 games to evaluate occurrence of action, mean duration, action outcome, origin and execution of shot, offensive and defensive role, and arrangement of even, counterattack, power play, and transition situations. Independent 2-sided t-tests were applied to show differences (p < 0.05) between teams. Regarding close games, effects emerged for action outcome (counterattack: lost possessions; power play: goals, no goal shots), origin (even: zone 1, zone 4; counterattack: zone 1, zone 5) and execution (even: off-the-water shots; counterattack: shots after > than 2 fakes; power play: drive shots) of shots, offensive even arrangements (6 vs. 6/5 vs. 5; 2 vs. 2/1 vs. 1), and role. Regarding unbalanced games, differences emerged for the occurrence of action (even, counterattack), duration (even; power play), action outcome (even: goals, penalties; counterattack: goals, no goal shots, penalties; power play: goals, no goal shots; transition: lost possessions), origin (even: zone 2, zone 4; counterattack: zone 5) and execution (even: free throws, drive shots; counterattack: drive shots, shots after > 2 fakes; power play: drive shots, shots after 1 fake) of shots; offensive even arrangements (2 vs. 2/1 vs. 1), and role; and defensive even arrangements (pressing, zones 1-2, zone M, zones 2-3-4). Differences between close and unbalanced games underlining that water polo performance should be analyzed in relation to specific margins of victory. Therefore, water polo coaches and physical trainers can plan a sound training session according to the most important aspects of close (opponent's exclusion, center forward play, and power play actions) and unbalanced (defensive skills) games.

  16. The technical basis for air pathway assessment of resuspended radioactive aerosols: LLNL experiences at seven sites around the world

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.

    1993-09-01

    There is a large uncertainty in quantifying the inhalation pathway and the aerosol emission rate in human health assessments of radioactive-contamination sites. The need for site-specific assessments led to formation of our team of specialists at LLNL, who have participated in numerous field campaigns around the world. Our goal was to obtain all the information necessary for determining potential human exposures and to estimate source terms for turbulent transport of the emissions during both normal and disturbed soil conditions. That is, measurements were made of the key variables to quantify the suspended aerosols at the actual contamination sites, but different scenarios for habitation, site management, and site cleanup were included. The most notable locations of these site-investigations were the Marshall Islands (Bikini, Enewetak, and Rongelap), Nevada Test Site (GMX, Little Feller, Palanquin, and Plutonium Valley), Tonopah (Nevada--site of Roller Coaster), Savannah River Lab (South Carolina--H-Area site), Johnston Island (cleanup of rocket-impact site), Chernobyl (Ukraine--grass field end sandy beach sites near Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4), and Palomares (Spain--site of aircraft accident). This discussion will review the variables quantified, methods developed, general results, uncertainty of estimations, and recommendations for future research that are a result of our experience in these field studies.

  17. Early Childhood Development through an Integrated Program: Evidence from the Philippines. Impact Evaluation Series No. 2. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3922-IE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armecin, Graeme; Behrman, Jere R.; Ghuman, Sharon; Gultiano, Socorro; King, Elizabeth M.; Lee, Nanette

    2006-01-01

    More attention and resources have been devoted in recent years to early childhood development (ECD) in low- and middle-income countries. Rigorous studies on the effectiveness of ECD-related programs for improving children's development in various dimensions in the developing world are scant. The authors evaluate an important ECD initiative of the…

  18. What Do People Think about Disabled Youth and Employment in Developed and Developing Countries? Results from an E-Discussion Hosted by the World Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roggero, Paola; Tarricone, Rosanna; Nicoli, Marco; Mangiaterra, Viviana

    2006-01-01

    Even though there are good examples of people with disabilities mainstreamed in the labour market (Bruyere et al., 2004), the situation is still far from being positive, particularly when labour markets are in constant flux due to rapid globalization and technological change, unless new approaches are adopted. In light of this, the World Bank…

  19. Corneal grafting and banking.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Niels; Hjortdal, Jesper; Nielsen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Corneal transplantation was conceptualized at the end of the 18th century, but it took more than 100 years before human corneal grafting was introduced. The greatest step forward was the demonstration by Filatov that corneal tissue can be collected and used post mortem. The history of eye banking includes the development of preservation techniques. Storage in cold to minimize microbial growth and tissue disintegration was first choice but during the last 30 years this has been taken over by warm storage (organ culture) where the donor cornea proves its sterility and vitality before being transferred to the recipient. The long-term organ culture storage makes exchange between centres possible and allows for histocompatibility matching. The internationalization led to the establishing of the European Eye Bank Association but also to an increasing number of governmental regulations. Developments in years to come may lead to control of graft biomechanics and optics. This technical development tends to favour a centralization.

  20. Learning to Do: Values for Learning and Working Together in a Globalized World. An Integrated Approach to Incorporating Values Education in Technical and Vocational Education and Training. UNESCO-APNIEVE Sourcebook No. 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quisumbing, Lourdes R., Ed.; de Leo, Joy, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This new Sourcebook provides information on how to teach values for learning and working together in a globalized world. It is designed for educators and trainers of technical and vocational education and training (TVET). Its emphasis is on the integrated development of the whole person within the context of lifelong learning and TVET, in…

  1. World Marrow Donor Association framework for the implementation of HLA matching programs in hematopoietic stem cell donor registries and cord blood banks.

    PubMed

    Bochtler, W; Maiers, M; Bakker, J N A; Oudshoorn, M; Marsh, S G E; Baier, D; Hurley, C K; Müller, C R

    2011-03-01

    A major goal of the World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA) is to foster international transplants of hematopoietic stem cells through the establishment of guidelines and recommendations in this field. In this tradition, this study defines a comprehensive framework for HLA matching programs, which use intricate algorithms to rapidly select potential donors for a patient from a database and to present these donors in a prioritized list. Starting with the comparison of single HLA markers of the donor and the patient possibly obtained using different testing methodologies at different resolutions, the more complex matching of loci and phenotypes is inductively built up. The consensus of this international collaborative group describes the state of the art in the field and points out many important design options compatible with the best practice. This should help existing registries to review and validate the most critical part of their IT systems and newly created donor registries around the world to tackle one of their real challenges.

  2. [Cord blood banking].

    PubMed

    Cepulić, Branka Golubić; Bojanić, Ines; Mazić, Sanja

    2009-06-01

    Transplantation of cord blood stem cells is a new and rapidly developing area. It has been used as a treatment for many diseases such as hematologic malignancies, primary immune deficiencies and metabolic diseases. Recently, stem cells have been used in regenerative medicine, particularly in neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. For these reasons interest has been growing in banking cord blood. To be able to find an acceptable donor for any recipient in need, it is necessary to have on stock a great diversity of cells with different genetic types from different populations. Networks of banks and registries have been created around the world in order to share and exchange transplants. Public banks organize collection for altruistic donor of cord blood for unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and for directed donation in families at risk. But there are increasing numbers of families that are requesting storage of cord blood for possible future therapeutic use in the family. Establishment of cord blood banks has raised a number of important scientific, legal, ethical and political issues, which are discussed in this paper.

  3. 12 CFR 1805.303 - Technical assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... proposes to become a CDFI. Such technical assistance may include training for management and other... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Technical assistance. 1805.303 Section 1805.303... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Use of Funds/Eligible Activities § 1805.303...

  4. Technical assistance and the transfer of remote sensing technology. [for economic development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipman, R.

    1977-01-01

    The transfer of technology from industrialized countries to the third world is a very complicated process and one that requires a great deal of research and development. The political and social obstacles to this transfer are generally greater than the technical obstacles, but technical assistance programs have neither the competence nor the inclination to deal with these factors adequately. Funding for technical assistance in remote sensing is now expanding rapidly, and there is a growing need for institutions to study and promote the effective use of this technology for economic development. The United Nations, the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Bank, the United States Agency for International Development and the Canadian technical assistance agencies take different approaches to the problem and deal with the political pressures in different ways.

  5. Tumour banking: the Spanish design.

    PubMed

    Morente, M M; de Alava, E; Fernandez, P L

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade the technical advances in high throughput techniques to analyze DNA, RNA and proteins have had a potential major impact on prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of many human diseases. Key pieces in this process, mainly thinking about the future, are tumour banks and tumour bank networks. To face these challenges, diverse suitable models and designs can be developed. The current article presents the development of a nationwide design of tumour banks in Spain based on a network of networks, specially focusing on its harmonization efforts mainly regarding technical procedures, ethical requirements, unified quality control policy and unique sample identification. We also describe our most important goals for the next years. This model does not correspond to a central tumour bank, but to a cooperative and coordinated network of national and regional networks. Independently from the network in which it is included, sample collections reside in their original institution, where it can be used for further clinical diagnosis, teaching and research activities of each independent hospital. The herein described 'network of networks' functional model could be useful for other countries and/or international tumour bank activities.

  6. Bank Terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, employees of the UAB Bank, Knoxville, Tennessee, are using Teller Transaction Terminals manufactured by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, an electronics firm which has worked on a number of space projects under contract with NASA. The terminals are part of an advanced, computerized financial transaction system that offers high efficiency in bank operations. The key to the system's efficiency is a "multiplexing" technique developed for NASA's Space Shuttle. Multiplexing is simultaneous transmission of large amounts of data over a single transmission link at very high rates of speed. In the banking application, a small multiplex "data bus" interconnects all the terminals and a central computer which stores information on clients' accounts. The data bus replaces the maze-of wiring that would be needed to connect each terminal separately and it affords greater speed in recording transactions. The SCI system offers banks real-time data management through constant updating of the central computer. For example, a check is immediately cancelled at the teller's terminal and the computer is simultaneously advised of the transaction; under other methods, the check would be cancelled and the transaction recorded at the close of business. Teller checkout at the end of the day, conventionally a time-consuming matter of processing paper, can be accomplished in minutes by calling up a summary of the day's transactions. SCI manufactures other types of terminals for use in the system, such as an administrative terminal that provides an immediate printout of a client's account, and another for printing and recording savings account deposits and withdrawals. SCI systems have been installed in several banks in Tennessee, Arizona, and Oregon and additional installations are scheduled this year.

  7. Concepts of marine specimen banking.

    PubMed

    Rossbach, M; Kniewald, G

    1997-05-01

    For more than a decade environmental specimen banking (ESB) has been an established approach for monitoring and retrospective environmental survey purposes in a number of developed countries. Specimen banking is carried out on regional or national scales for various environmental materials. The ecological or problem-oriented approach, as pursued e.g. in Germany or USA has the advantages of a restricted survey and a clear political mandate. Environmental problems, however, are by no means national or regional issues, since the diversity and dispersion of hazardous substances make environmental monitoring clearly a global affair. The structuring of our environment suggests that banking should not be limited by national boundaries, but rather be based on eco-systematic principles. Such distinct banking efforts should be devoted to the monitoring of physico-chemical aspects of climatic change and air pollution, soil quality, and aquatic monitoring on a world-wide scale. As some experience already exists with specialized banking programs for marine samples, such as the National Marine Mammal Tissue Bank or the Mussel Watch Program in the United States, an international marine specimen bank, based on principles of national ESB's, is advocated to be established in due time. Following the recommendations of the 1992 Rio 'Earth Summit' to pursue sustainable development strategies, such an establishment could strongly facilitate efforts concerning pollution control and mitigation, overexploitation and mining of ocean resources on a regional or global scale.

  8. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  9. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  10. Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

  11. Quality issues in tissue banking: quality management systems - a review.

    PubMed

    Von Versen, R; Mönig, H J; Salai, M; Bettin, D

    2000-01-01

    The situation in tissue banking changed radically and fundamentally at the beginning of the 1990s. The essential causes are on the one hand, the continually increasing demand for human cells and tissue and other biological material for clinical use and research, and on the other hand, the rapid progress in the medical, technical and natural sciences. Biotechnology in particular, has profited from this. Modern tissue banks could no longer be imagined without its methods.A consequence of these developments and a prerequisite for the fulfilment of the derived requirements is the necessity for national and international cooperation as well as the harmonisation of ethical principles and quality assurance standards and regulations (von Versen (1999) Ann Chir Gynaecol 88: 215-220). The introduction of an all-encompassing Quality Management System (QMS) is a suitable instrument for this purpose.After the presentation of explanations and definitions of quality terminology, this article describes the use of the international standard ISO 9000 as a general QMS, which embraces both the specific methodology as well as the general aspects of Quality Management (research and development, design control, education and training, documentation, traceability, management control, corrective action, etc.) in tissue banking. The individual elements of this system are explained and selected examples are described. The authors look upon this QMS as an indispensable instrument for harmonisation and international cooperation in tissue banking.Finally, the use of such a standard would be a positive sign to the regulatory authorities and the public that tissue banking is making a visible effort to introduce a world-class QMS in its operations.

  12. Who pays for cooperation in global health? A comparative analysis of WHO, the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance.

    PubMed

    Clinton, Chelsea; Sridhar, Devi

    2017-01-27

    In this report we assess who pays for cooperation in global health through an analysis of the financial flows of WHO, the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. The past few decades have seen the consolidation of influence in the disproportionate roles the USA, UK, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation have had in financing three of these four institutions. Current financing flows in all four case study institutions allow donors to finance and deliver assistance in ways that they can more closely control and monitor at every stage. We highlight three major trends in global health governance more broadly that relate to this development: towards more discretionary funding and away from core or longer-term funding; towards defined multi-stakeholder governance and away from traditional government-centred representation and decision-making; and towards narrower mandates or problem-focused vertical initiatives and away from broader systemic goals.

  13. 12 CFR 705.10 - Technical assistance grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT REVOLVING LOAN FUND ACCESS FOR CREDIT UNIONS § 705.10 Technical assistance grants. Technical assistance grants may be funded in such amounts, and in accordance with such terms and conditions... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Technical assistance grants. 705.10 Section...

  14. 12 CFR 705.10 - Technical assistance grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT REVOLVING LOAN FUND ACCESS FOR CREDIT UNIONS § 705.10 Technical assistance grants. Technical assistance grants may be funded in such amounts, and in accordance with such terms and conditions... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Technical assistance grants. 705.10 Section...

  15. Social network structures and bank runs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shouwei; Li, Jiaheng

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the impact of social network structures of depositors on bank runs. The analyzed network structures include random networks, small-world networks and scale-free networks. Simulation results show that the probability of bank run occurrence in random networks is larger than that in small-world networks, but the probability of bank run occurrence in scale-free networks drops from the highest to the lowest among the three types of network structures with the increase of the proportion of impatient depositors. The average degree of depositor networks has a significant impact on bank runs, but this impact is related to the proportion of impatient depositors and the confidence levels of depositors in banks.

  16. Diving into Real World Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldana, Matt; Rodden, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how educators can engage students in real world learning using their academic knowledge and technical skills. They describe how school districts have discovered that the world of robotics can help students use technical skills to solve simulated problems found in the real world, while understanding the…

  17. The World Report on Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickenbach, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    The World Report on Disability, a joint endeavor of the World Health Organization and the World Bank, launched in June 2011, is an astonishing achievement that will set the standard for disability studies research for evidence-informed policy for years to come. The product of collaborative and participatory work between organizations of persons…

  18. Spatial comparison of areas at risk for schistosomiasis in the hilly and mountainous regions in the People's Republic of China: evaluation of the long-term effect of the 10-year World Bank Loan Project.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Jie; Zhu, Rong; Bergquist, Robert; Chen, Dong-Mei; Chen, Yue; Zhang, Li-Juan; Guo, Jia-Gang; Zhao, Fei; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2012-05-01

    The long-term effectiveness of the mainly chemotherapy-based control strategy of the World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) for schistosomiasis control in Chinese hilly and mountainous regions was evaluated with a view to determine the best road forward. Based on the national database of schistosomiasis prevalence for the periods of 1999-2001 and 2007-2008 in the People's Republic of China, a Bayesian regression model was used for spatial comparison of schistosomiasis risk distribution between two periods taking account of all the potential risk factors simultaneously through two latent components of random effects: spatially correlated heterogeneities (CH) and spatially uncorrelated heterogeneities (UH). Four different types of endemic areas were investigated: those that remained endemic despite control efforts (17 or 37.8%), those that became non-endemic (9 or 20.0%), those that reverted back to endemicity (7 or 15.6%), and those with fluctuating endemicity (12 or 26.7%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was lower in 2007-2008 compared with that in 1999-2001, but the spatial distribution of risk remained similar. Compared to 1999-2001, the magnitude and range of risk even tended to be greater in 2007-2008. UH showed a fluctuating pattern, while CH increased gradually doubling over the two periods. There was no evidence for long-term effectiveness of the WBLP chemotherapy-based control strategy in this region. Controlling the effect of UH is still the main aspect of current schistosomiasis control strategy for the hilly and mountainous regions, but innovative methods are urgently needed for effectively controlling UH.

  19. Allogeneic unrelated cord blood banking worldwide: an update.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J

    2010-06-01

    Today Cord Blood (CB) Transplants are accepted as a therapeutic resource for the treatment of a variety of disorders, comparing in some cases, with transplants performed with other sources of progenitors. Unrelated Cord Blood Banks (CBBs) have significantly contributed to this improvement by the improvement on the knowledge of the CB biology and technical developments. Today, there are more than 100 active Cord Blood Banks (CBB), with an inventory of more than 400,000 units, which have generated more than 10000 cord blood transplants all around the world. Access to the world-wide CB inventory, as well as the hemopoietic progenitors inventory from adult donors, is a rather complex task which is continuously subject to improvements and consolidations. The growing numbers of CBBs and the search for efficiency has driven them to constitute or adapt consolidated data bases and access systems, and to develop a number of registries or networks to improved the access to inventories. The purpose of the present article is to provide a general overview on the number of CB units stored around the word, the quality accreditation systems and how the CB networks and their national and international inventories and registries are organized in order to support the, every time more efficient search for suitable CB units for patients lacking family donors.

  20. Forecasting the Future Food Service World of Work. Final Report. Volume III. Technical Papers on the Future of the Food Service Industry. Service Management Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Thomas F., Ed.; Swinton, John R., Ed.

    This third and final volume of a study on the future of the food service industry contains the technical papers on which the information in the previous two volumes was based. The papers were written by various members of the Pennsylvania State University departments of economics, food science, nutrition, social psychology, and engineering and by…

  1. The Bank that Failed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumstead, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    The school bank at Easton Middle School operated successfully as an educational experience until the state bank examiners closed it for violating banking laws. The process has become a "real life" education as school authorities and students work to change the law and open a "legal bank." (MD)

  2. Organizational and investigational aspects of bone banking in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Delloye, C; De Halleux, J; Cornu, O; Wegmann, E; Buccafusca, G C; Gigi, J

    1991-01-01

    Our experience with the bone banking methodology that we have used over the last years is reported. The technical and investigational aspects of the procurement, storage and treatment of the donor bone and related tissues are presented. For different purposes, we have prepared sterile and nonsterile procured implants. Appropriate donor selection and sterility controls remain the two major concerns of bone banking activities.

  3. [Cord blood banks].

    PubMed

    Buljan Culej, Jasminka

    2007-12-01

    Cord blood is an excellent source of stem cells which are universal for all other cells of the whole body. They have the ability to develop in any of the body cells, depending on stimulation by different growth factors. The ease of sampling, cryopreservation, and above all successful engraftment make placental blood a possible alternative for bone marrow donation. The advantages of cord blood cells over bone marrow stem cells in allogeneic transplants include their young age and immature status, which reduce the severity of graft versus host reaction. However, the number of cells is much more limited than with bone marrow (about ten time less); therefore, for the time being, the procedure is not equivalent to marrow donation. Cord blood banks would increase HLA diversity, and they are therefore expected to solve two sets of immunogenetic problems: (1) since less stringent compatibility is needed, children with a rare HLA group could benefit from a graft when the donor is not perfectly matched; and (2) HLA types infrequently represented in registries may be represented more readily in placental blood banks; although they occur repeatedly in certain ethnic groups or populations, they are only rarely donated to volunteer registries, while these populations are also concerned in transplantation. Many countries in the world have recognized the significance of collecting and preserving cord blood stem cells and their ability to heal or at least improve life.

  4. Youth Explore Consumer World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Charla B.

    1974-01-01

    A series of five short-term, special interest Four-H projects on the consumer world (banking, money management, shopping, supermarket, and credit) are being used in cooperative efforts with schools throughout Florida. The materials can be used for various courses in grades seven through twelve and also are applicable to disadvantaged youth. (EA)

  5. Maximizing the phylogenetic diversity of seed banks.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Kate E; Balding, Sharon T; Dickie, John B; Lewis, Gwilym P; Pearce, Tim R; Grenyer, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Ex situ conservation efforts such as those of zoos, botanical gardens, and seed banks will form a vital complement to in situ conservation actions over the coming decades. It is therefore necessary to pay the same attention to the biological diversity represented in ex situ conservation facilities as is often paid to protected-area networks. Building the phylogenetic diversity of ex situ collections will strengthen our capacity to respond to biodiversity loss. Since 2000, the Millennium Seed Bank Partnership has banked seed from 14% of the world's plant species. We assessed the taxonomic, geographic, and phylogenetic diversity of the Millennium Seed Bank collection of legumes (Leguminosae). We compared the collection with all known legume genera, their known geographic range (at country and regional levels), and a genus-level phylogeny of the legume family constructed for this study. Over half the phylogenetic diversity of legumes at the genus level was represented in the Millennium Seed Bank. However, pragmatic prioritization of species of economic importance and endangerment has led to the banking of a less-than-optimal phylogenetic diversity and prioritization of range-restricted species risks an underdispersed collection. The current state of the phylogenetic diversity of legumes in the Millennium Seed Bank could be substantially improved through the strategic banking of relatively few additional taxa. Our method draws on tools that are widely applied to in situ conservation planning, and it can be used to evaluate and improve the phylogenetic diversity of ex situ collections.

  6. Stem cell banking: between traceability and identifiability.

    PubMed

    Knoppers, Bartha M; Isasi, Rosario

    2010-10-05

    Stem cell banks are increasingly seen as an essential resource of biological materials for both basic and translational research. Stem cell banks support transnational access to quality-controlled and ethically sourced stem cell lines from different origins and of varying grades. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, advances in regenerative medicine are leading to the development of a bioeconomy, 'a world where biotechnology contributes to a significant share of economic output'. Consequently, stem cell banks are destined to constitute a pillar of the bioeconomy in many countries. While certain ethical and legal concerns are specific to the nature of stem cells, stem cell banking could do well to examine the approaches fostered by tissue banking generally. Indeed, the past decade has seen a move to simplify and harmonize biological tissue and data banking so as to foster international interoperability. In particular, the issues of consent and of traceability illustrate not only commonalities but the opportunity for stem cell banking to appreciate the lessons learned in biobanking generally. This paper analyzes convergence and divergence in issues surrounding policy harmonization, transnational sharing, informed consent, traceability and return of results in the context of stem cell banks.

  7. Quantifying Quality: Technical Issues Surrounding "U.S. News and World Report's" Rankings of U.S. Colleges and Graduate Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Marguerite

    This paper examines two common criticisms of the method that "U.S. News and World Report" used in its annual rankings of the academic quality of colleges and graduate schools. There are constant changes to the formula that make it impossible to interpret yearly shifts in a school's relative ranking in terms of change in its academic…

  8. Regulatory Mechanisms for Nursing Training and Practice: Meeting Primary Health Care Needs. World Health Organization Technical Report Series No. 738. Report of a WHO Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    A report on laws and regulations governing nursing education and practice in 81 countries belonging to the World Health Organization and effects on primary health care is presented by an international group of experts. Suggestions for training and licensure are provided to national governments and nursing regulatory bodies to promote the goal of…

  9. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  10. Banking on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Internet Research, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Electronic ground was broken in 1995 with the development of the completely Internet-based bank Security First Network Bank. This article discusses the need for developing online services, outlines the reasons for the formation of an Internet-based bank and argues that to remain competitive financial services providers must provide easier customer…

  11. What a bank can do for the ophthalmologist.

    PubMed

    Harrington, J T

    1975-01-01

    The selection of a bank is the key to personal and professional finance. In this world of specialization, it is advisable to seek a banker who can assist one with not only the routine banking functions but also with credit accommodations and financial planning which will result in both the successful operation of a profession and the achieving of a sound estate plan.

  12. Our World Their World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisco, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…

  13. Bahrain's offshore banking center

    SciTech Connect

    Gerakis, A.S.; Roncesvalles, O.

    1983-01-01

    The economic effects of Bahrain's schemes for licensing offshore banking units (OBUs) were the immediate response of major international banks and the financial services the banking center has rendered by improving regional money and exchange markets at a time when a Middle East link was needed to service the increasing demand for oil-wealth banking services. Bahrain's leadership also created a favorable climate. Aggressive competition from banks in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia have caused some friction, but informal supervision by the Bahrain Monetary Agency (BMA) should be able to avoid serious difficulty. Bahrain's success required a banking infrastructure, a free-enterprise system, a willingness to maintain banking standards, a country small enough to benefit directly from OBU income, and a gap in nearby competing centers. 39 references, 1 figure, 5 tables. (DCK)

  14. Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation. Volume 32; Estimates of AOD Trends (2002 - 2012) Over the World's Major Cities Based on the MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provencal, Simon; Kishcha, Pavel; Elhacham, Emily; daSilva, Arlindo M.; Alpert, Pinhas; Suarez, Max J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office has extended the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Application (MERRA) tool with five atmospheric aerosol species (sulfates, organic carbon, black carbon, mineral dust and sea salt). This inclusion of aerosol reanalysis data is now known as MERRAero. This study analyses a ten-year period (July 2002 - June 2012) MERRAero aerosol reanalysis applied to the study of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and its trends for the aforementioned aerosol species over the world's major cities (with a population of over 2 million inhabitants). We found that a proportion of various aerosol species in total AOD exhibited a geographical dependence. Cities in industrialized regions (North America, Europe, central and eastern Asia) are characterized by a strong proportion of sulfate aerosols. Organic carbon aerosols are dominant over cities which are located in regions where biomass burning frequently occurs (South America and southern Africa). Mineral dust dominates other aerosol species in cities located in proximity to the major deserts (northern Africa and western Asia). Sea salt aerosols are prominent in coastal cities but are dominant aerosol species in very few of them. AOD trends are declining over cities in North America, Europe and Japan, as a result of effective air quality regulation. By contrast, the economic boom in China and India has led to increasing AOD trends over most cities in these two highly-populated countries. Increasing AOD trends over cities in the Middle East are caused by increasing desert dust.

  15. The World Report on Disability and People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Officer, Alana; Shakespeare, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The "World Report on Disability" was requested by the World Health Assembly, the governing body of the World Health Organization (WHO). Because disability is broader than health, WHO partnered with the World Bank. The "World Report" was published in 2011 and provides a comprehensive scientific analysis on the global situation…

  16. Employee occupational stress in banking.

    PubMed

    Michailidis, Maria; Georgiou, Yiota

    2005-01-01

    Occupational stress literature emphasizes the importance of assessment and management of work related stress. The recognition of the harmful physical and psychological effects of stress on both individuals and organizations is widely studied in many parts of the world. However, in other regions such research is only at the introductory stages. The present study examines occupational stress of employees in the banking sector. A sample of 60 bank employees at different organizational levels and educational backgrounds was used. Data collection utilized the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI). Results of data analysis provided evidence that employees' educational levels affect the degree of stress they experience in various ways. Bank employees cannot afford the time to relax and "wind down" when they are faced with work variety, discrimination, favoritism, delegation and conflicting tasks. The study also shows the degree to which some employees tend to bring work-related problems home (and take family problems to work) depends on their educational background, the strength of the employees' family support, and the amount of time available for them to relax. Finally, the drinking habits (alcohol) of the employees were found to play a significant role in determining the levels of occupational stress.

  17. Bank Record Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Barnett Banks of Florida, Inc. operates 150 banking offices in 80 Florida cities. Banking offices have computerized systems for processing deposits or withdrawals in checking/savings accounts, and for handling commercial and installment loan transactions. In developing a network engineering design for the terminals used in record processing, an affiliate, Barnett Computing Company, used COSMIC's STATCOM program. This program provided a reliable network design tool and avoided the cost of developing new software.

  18. Oceanographic Data Bank Survey.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings of an Oceanographic Data Bank Survey. The survey was conducted in order to eliminate duplication of data base...development and to aid the Data Base Manager in establishing the data banks for the Acoustic Environmental Support Detachment (AESD). A key finding is...that no one data bank exists that will satisfy the total needs of AESD. Data bases available from the National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), Fleet

  19. Banking: shop and compare.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jennifer A; DeJarnette, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    There are many reasons to take a critical look at the practice's banking relationship(s)--technology advancements, security measures, improvements in available services, recent banking enhancements designed specifically for medical practices, the impact of the financial crisis on bank ratings and stability, changing practice needs, opportunities for operational automation at the practice--and it is just simply smart to periodically evaluate and compare the features, pricing, and potential savings offered by vendors.

  20. Quantifying bank storage of variably saturated aquifers.

    PubMed

    Li, Hailong; Boufadel, Michel C; Weaver, James W

    2008-01-01

    Numerical simulations were conducted to quantify bank storage in a variably saturated, homogenous, and anisotropic aquifer abutting a stream during rising stream stage. Seepage faces and bank slopes ranging from 1/3 to 100/3 were simulated. The initial conditions were assumed steady-state flow with water draining toward the stream. Then, the stream level rose at a constant rate to the specified elevation of the water table given by the landward boundary condition and stayed there until the system reached a new steady state. This represents a highly simplified version of a real world hydrograph. For the specific examples considered, the following conclusions can be made. The volume of surface water entering the bank increased with the rate of stream level rise, became negligible when the rate of rise was slow, and approached a positive constant when the rate was large. Also, the volume decreased with the dimensionless parameter M (the product of the anisotropy ratio and the square of the domain's aspect ratio). When M was large (>10), bank storage was small because most pore space was initially saturated with ground water due to the presence of a significant seepage face. When M was small, the seepage face became insignificant and capillarity began to play a role. The weaker the capillary effect, the easier for surface water to enter the bank. The effect of the capillary forces on the volume of surface water entering the bank was significant and could not be neglected.

  1. Technical writing versus technical writing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillingham, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Two terms, two job categories, 'technical writer' and 'technical author' are discussed in terms of industrial and business requirements and standards. A distinction between 'technical writing' and technical 'writing' is made. The term 'technical editor' is also considered. Problems inherent in the design of programs to prepare and train students for these jobs are discussed. A closer alliance between industry and academia is suggested as a means of preparing students with competent technical communication skills (especially writing and editing skills) and good technical skills.

  2. A quality system for placental blood banking.

    PubMed

    Sirchia, G; Rebulla, P; Mozzi, F; Lecchi, L; Lazzari, L; Ratti, I

    1998-06-01

    A Quality System for Placental Blood Banking aimed at the transplantation of haematopoietic stem cells to related and unrelated allogeneic recipients is described. It includes the organizational structure, procedures, processes and resources needed to implement quality management. The Quality System described in this article is based on ISO 9002, a model for quality assurance in production, installation and servicing developed in 1987 and revised in 1994 by the International Organization for Standardization. ISO 9002 includes 20 clauses that provide guidance for the implementation of the Quality System. The development of the Quality System is started by the Placental Blood Bank Medical Director with the definition of a General Quality Plan including: (1) the written description of the Mission, Objectives, Technical and Organizational Policies, and Staff Organization Chart; (2) the definition and acquisition of adequate financial, human and structural resources; (3) the appointment of a Quality System Head, who must identify the Placental Blood Banking process together with the Placental Blood Bank personnel; implement a documentation plan; identify quality indicators; start regular internal audit; report audit results to the Medical Director for review. Following staff training and qualification, the Quality System is launched. The Placental Blood Bank can then undergo audit by an external inspector and be finally certified for compliance to ISO 9002. The Quality System must be maintained and subjected to external audit at regular intervals so that certification is confirmed.

  3. Corporatisation, Global Banking Impact on the Australian Education System: Reflecting on Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balon-Rotheram, Auston

    Trends, such as a massive increase in globalization, neo-liberalization, and economic rationalization, have been supported and directed by major governments and major financial institutions, such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The pact between the World Bank and the IMF has created an economic juggernaut that is…

  4. 78 FR 12360 - PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association, Retail...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Employment and Training Administration PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank West Chester, IL; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application... Assistance (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of PNC Bank, National Association, Retail...

  5. Blood Bank Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Blood bank operations of various hospitals in the Monterey area and the Red Cross Center in San Jose were studied, and as a result a simulation model...is developed which is used to determine the effects on shortages and outdating of various operating policies in a given blood bank . Data from Fort

  6. Airport Land Banking.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    the Secretary of Transportation to conduct a study with respect to the feasibility, practicability, and cost of land bank planning and development...1977. Airport land banking was studied and analyzed from several different perspectives, including legal, economic, and financial, and the results of this study are reported in this document. (Author)

  7. Volunteer Community Language Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Sigfrid S.; And Others

    Lake Charles, Louisiana established a language bank capable of providing interpreters for 20 foreign languages. All participants are volunteers who offer to help free of charge in case of emergencies arising because of the considerable numbers of foreign visitors in the area. Smooth operation of the language bank depends on the following: (1) an…

  8. GenBank

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W.

    2016-01-01

    GenBank® (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for over 340 000 formally described species. Recent developments include a new starting page for submitters, a shift toward using accession.version identifiers rather than GI numbers, a wizard for submitting 16S rRNA sequences, and an Identical Protein Report to address growing issues of data redundancy. GenBank organizes the sequence data received from individual laboratories and large-scale sequencing projects into 18 divisions, and GenBank staff assign unique accession.version identifiers upon data receipt. Most submitters use the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the nuccore, nucest, and nucgss databases of the Entrez retrieval system, which integrates these records with a variety of other data including taxonomy nodes, genomes, protein structures, and biomedical journal literature in PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. PMID:26590407

  9. GenBank.

    PubMed

    Benson, Dennis A; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Wheeler, David L

    2008-01-01

    GenBank (R) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 260 000 named organisms, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Molecular Biology Laboratory Nucleotide Sequence Database in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through NCBI's retrieval system, Entrez, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, begin at the NCBI Homepage: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

  10. GenBank.

    PubMed

    Benson, Dennis A; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W

    2011-01-01

    GenBank® is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 380,000 organisms named at the genus level or lower, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system that integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, begin at the NCBI Homepage: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

  11. GenBank.

    PubMed

    Benson, Dennis A; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W

    2010-01-01

    GenBank is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 300,000 organisms named at the genus level or lower, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Molecular Biology Laboratory Nucleotide Sequence Database in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bi-monthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, begin at the NCBI homepage: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

  12. GenBank.

    PubMed

    Benson, Dennis A; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Wheeler, David L

    2007-01-01

    GenBank (R) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 240 000 named organisms, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the EMBL Data Library in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through NCBI's retrieval system, Entrez, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, begin at the NCBI Homepage (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov).

  13. GenBank.

    PubMed

    Benson, Dennis A; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Wheeler, David L

    2006-01-01

    GenBank (R) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available DNA sequences for more than 205 000 named organisms, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the Web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the EMBL Data Library in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through NCBI's retrieval system, Entrez, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, go to the NCBI Homepage at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

  14. GenBank.

    PubMed

    Benson, Dennis A; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W

    2009-01-01

    GenBank is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 300,000 organisms named at the genus level or lower, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank(R) staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Molecular Biology Laboratory Nucleotide Sequence Database in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Entrez retrieval system, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, begin at the NCBI Homepage: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

  15. GenBank.

    PubMed

    Benson, Dennis A; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Wheeler, David L

    2005-01-01

    GenBank is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available DNA sequences for more than 165,000 named organisms, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the EMBL Data Library in the UK and the DNA Data Bank of Japan helps to ensure worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through NCBI's retrieval system, Entrez, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, go to the NCBI Homepage at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

  16. Forest pricing and concession policies: Managing the high forest of west and central Africa. World Bank technical paper; Politique de redevances et de concessions forestieres: gestion des futaies en afrique occidentale et centrale

    SciTech Connect

    Grut, M.; Gray, J.A.; Egli, N.

    1993-12-01

    This French edition describes forest revenue systems and concession policies in the tropical moist hardwood forests of West and Central Africa. The paper reviews current issues in silviculture, tenure, concession management, and biological and financial sustainable development. Until the fledgling forestry departments of governments in West and Central Africa are strengthened, the report concludes that a simple system of forest fees should be implemented. The report recommends that such a system emphasize bidding and concession fees.

  17. Forest pricing and concession policies: Managing the high forest of west and Central Africa. World Bank Technical Paper 143; Politique de redevances et de concessions forestires: gestion des futaies en afrique occidentale et centrale

    SciTech Connect

    Grut, M.; Gray, J.A.; Egli, N.

    1993-12-01

    This French edition of Forest Pricing and Concession Policies: Managing the High Forest of West and Central Africa describes forest revenue systems and concession policies in the tropical moist hardwood forests of West and Central Africa. Virtually all the forests of Africa are publicly owned by central governments or local communities. Revenues from these forests are generally very low due to low forest fees and low collection rates. The lack of concession fees encourages acquisition and waste rather than management and conservation, leading to the allocation of large areas as logging concessions. This paper reviews current issues in silviculture, tenure, concession management, and biological and financial sustainable development. Until the fledgling forestry departments of governments in West and Central Africa are strengthened, the report concludes that a simple system of forest fees should be implemented. The report recommends that such a system emphasize bidding and concession fees. Three specific options in forest pricing are examined for a proposed system; annual concession rent; annual concession rent set by competitive bidding; logging concessions replaced by forest management concessions.

  18. Cracking Bank PINs by Playing Mastermind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focardi, Riccardo; Luccio, Flaminia L.

    The bank director was pretty upset noticing Joe, the system administrator, spending his spare time playing Mastermind, an old useless game of the 70ies. He had fought the instinct of telling him how to better spend his life, just limiting to look at him in disgust long enough to be certain to be noticed. No wonder when the next day the director fell on his chair astonished while reading, on the newspaper, about a huge digital fraud on the ATMs of his bank, with millions of Euros stolen by a team of hackers all around the world. The article mentioned how the hackers had 'played with the bank computers just like playing Mastermind', being able to disclose thousands of user PINs during the one-hour lunch break. That precise moment, a second before falling senseless, he understood the subtle smile on Joe's face the day before, while training at his preferred game, Mastermind.

  19. Using GenBank.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Eric W; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene

    2016-01-01

    GenBank(®) is a comprehensive database of publicly available DNA sequences for 300,000 named organisms, more than 110,000 within the embryophyta, obtained through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system that integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, as well as the biomedical journal literature in PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. GenBank usage scenarios ranging from local analyses of the data available via FTP to online analyses supported by the NCBI web-based tools are discussed. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, go to the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov .

  20. Using GenBank.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, David

    2007-01-01

    GenBank(R) is a comprehensive database of publicly available DNA sequences for more than 205,000 named organisms and for more than 60,000 within the embryophyta, obtained through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Daily data exchange with the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) retrieval system, Entrez, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure, and domain information and the biomedical journal literature through PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available through FTP. GenBank usage scenarios ranging from local analyses of the data available through FTP to online analyses supported by the NCBI Web-based tools are discussed. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, go to the NCBI Homepage at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

  1. GenBank

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Dennis A.; Cavanaugh, Mark; Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W.

    2017-01-01

    GenBank® (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for 370 000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or the NCBI Submission Portal. GenBank staff assign accession numbers upon data receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Nucleotide database, which links to related information such as taxonomy, genomes, protein sequences and structures, and biomedical journal literature in PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. Recent updates include changes to policies regarding sequence identifiers, an improved 16S submission wizard, targeted loci studies, the ability to submit methylation and BioNano mapping files, and a database of anti-microbial resistance genes. PMID:27899564

  2. "Technical" Writing vs. Technical "Writing."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillingham, J. W.

    Technical writers must have a working knowledge of technology in order to rearrange material others provide, but they do not have the expertise needed to originate materials; that is the job of the technical author. Another job function is that of technical editor--a person who can write, can perform the policy making tasks of an editor, and who…

  3. Cord blood banking activity in Iran National Cord Blood Bank: a two years experience.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Mostafa; Atarodi, Kamran; Nakhlestani, Mozhdeh; Abolghasemi, Hasan; Sadegh, Hosein; Faranoosh, Mohammad; Golzade, Khadije; Fadai, Razieh; Niknam, Fereshte; Zarif, Mahin Nikougoftar

    2014-02-01

    Today umbilical cord blood (UCB) has known as a commonly used source of hematopoietic stem cells for allogeneic transplantation and many cord blood banks have been established around the world for collection and cryopreservation of cord blood units. Herein, we describe our experience at Iran National Cord Blood Bank (INCBB) during 2 years of activity. From November 2010 to 2012, UCBs were collected from 5 hospitals in Tehran. All the collection, processing, testing, cryopreservation and storage procedures were done according to standard operation procedures. Total nucleated cells (TNC) count, viability test, CD34+ cell count, colony forming unit (CFU) assay, screening tests and HLA typing were done on all banked units. Within 3770 collected units, only 32.9% fulfilled banking criteria. The mean volume of units was 105.2 ml and after volume reduction the mean of TNC, viability, CD34+ cells and CFUs was 10.76×10(8), 95.2%, 2.99×10(6) and 7.1×10(5), respectively. One unit was transplanted at Dec 2012 to a 5-year old patient with five of six HLA compatibilities. In our country banking of UCB is new and high rate of hematopoietic stem cell transplants needs expanding CB banks capacity to find more matching units, optimization of methods and sharing experiences to improve biological characterization of units.

  4. Cord-Blood Banking

    MedlinePlus

    ... lymphoma , aplastic anemia , severe sickle cell disease , and severe combined immunodeficiency . There are two types of banks that store ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services A Guide ...

  5. Tree-bank grammars

    SciTech Connect

    Charniak, E.

    1996-12-31

    By a {open_quotes}tree-bank grammar{close_quotes} we mean a context-free grammar created by reading the production rules directly from hand-parsed sentences in a tree bank. Common wisdom has it that such grammars do not perform well, though we know of no published data on the issue. The primary purpose of this paper is to show that the common wisdom is wrong. In particular, we present results on a tree-bank grammar based on the Penn Wall Street Journal tree bank. To the best of our knowledge, this grammar outperforms all other non-word-based statistical parsers/grammars on this corpus. That is, it outperforms parsers that consider the input as a string of tags and ignore the actual words of the corpus.

  6. Mitigation Banking Factsheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A mitigation bank is an aquatic resource area that has been restored, established, enhanced, or preserved for the purpose of providing compensation for unavoidable impacts to aquatic resources permitted under Section 404

  7. Ethical aspects to be considered in brain banking.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Sánchez, F F; Mordini, E; Ravid, R

    1997-01-01

    A brain bank is a prospective source of adequately collected and preserved tissues of the central nervous system obtained via a donor program, which are supplied for neurobiological research. Brain tissue banks collect brains, serum and cerebro-spinal fluid from patients suffering from neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's diseases, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis for diagnostic purposes and for the development of future diagnostic tests. To create and develop the right infrastructure underlying brain bank activities, one should have a medico-legal and ethical support according to local legislation. From an ethical point of view, brain bank activities can be divided into the following categories: a) factors related to the donor program; b) factors related to handling and management of organs; c) factors related to scientific research. The present paper deals with the above mentioned issues according to world-wide recognised ethical considerations and recommendations of several official statements, and specifies the objectives of the European Brain Bank Network (EBBN).

  8. Femoral head banking: NUH tissue bank experience.

    PubMed

    Nather, Aziz; David, Vikram

    2007-04-01

    National University Hospital Tissue Bank protocol follows guidelines recommended by the American Association of Tissue Banks and the European Association of Tissue Banks using donor selection criteria: medical history, clinical examination, chart review and laboratory tests for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis, and specimen for culture/sensitivity tests. For living donors, repeat testing is performed for AIDS and hepatitis C approximately 180 days after procurement. Femoral heads are procured using the "sterile double jar technique" and stored at -80 degrees C. Our first study of 273 consecutive potential donors undergoing hemiarthroplasty from 1989 to 1994 showed that a high percentage (42.5%) was unsuitable for use. A second study involving 175 potential donors was conducted from 1995 to 2003 after hepatitis C screening was introduced. The bacterial contamination rates in both studies (3.5% and 5.7%) are low. The incidence of other diseases also are low: hepatitis B, 2.3% and syphilis, 1.8% in the first study and hepatitis B, 5.7%; hepatitis C, 0.6%; and syphilis, 5.1% in the second cohort. No cases of AIDS were reported in either study. By 2003, femoral heads were transplanted in 205 patients with a low complication rate of 2.9%.

  9. Tissue banking training courses: Polish experience.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Artur; Gut, Grzegorz; Uhrynowska-Tyszkiewicz, Izabela; Olender, Ewa

    2013-03-01

    Personnel directly involved in the donation, procurement, testing, processing, preservation, storage and distribution of human tissues and cells should be appropriately qualified and provided with timely and relevant training according to EU directives. In the time of new tissue and cells regulations implementation such a training system existed in Poland only at a local level. The first training programme outlines for various groups of health professionals engaged in tissue banking practice was created in co-operation with the Institute for LifeLong Learning at University of Barcelona in 2006. This initial training courses were financially supported by EU Transition Facility Programme 2004. Then, starting from 2006, based on previous experience, system of advanced training courses was created. This training programme was financially supported by the National Programme for the Development of Transplantation Medicine 2006-2009-POLGRAFT financed by Polish Ministry of Health. During 2006 and 2007 first set of tissue banking initial training courses were provided according to TF 2004 project. Over 200 pathologists, forensic medicine specialists and other medical doctors responsible for donor screening and classification, medical directors of tissue establishments, technical staff; tissue graft users: orthopaedic surgeons, neurosurgeons, cardiosurgeons and ophthalmologists were trained. Between 2006 and 2009 there were organized 8 advanced tissue banking training courses according to POLGRAFT programme. There were organized both theoretical and practical courses on various aspects of tissue for over 350 persons. We present our experience in organisation of international and national tissue banking training courses.

  10. BrainNet Europe's Code of Conduct for brain banking.

    PubMed

    Klioueva, Natasja M; Rademaker, Marleen C; Dexter, David T; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Seilhean, Danielle; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Schmitz, Peer; Bell, Jeanne E; Ironside, James W; Arzberger, Thomas; Huitinga, Inge

    2015-07-01

    Research utilizing human tissue and its removal at post-mortem has given rise to many controversies in the media and posed many dilemmas in the fields of law and ethics. The law often lacks clear instructions and unambiguous guidelines. The absence of a harmonized international legislation with regard to post-mortem medical procedures and donation of tissue and organs contributes to the complexity of the issue. Therefore, within the BrainNet Europe (BNE) consortium, a consortium of 19 European brain banks, we drafted an ethical Code of Conduct for brain banking that covers basic legal rules and bioethical principles involved in brain banking. Sources include laws, regulations and guidelines (Declarations, Conventions, Recommendations, Guidelines and Directives) issued by international key organizations, such as the Council of Europe, European Commission, World Medical Association and World Health Organization. The Code of Conduct addresses fundamental topics as the rights of the persons donating their tissue, the obligations of the brain bank with regard to respect and observance of such rights, informed consent, confidentiality, protection of personal data, collections of human biological material and their management, and transparency and accountability within the organization of a brain bank. The Code of Conduct for brain banking is being adopted by the BNE network prior to being enshrined in official legislation for brain banking in Europe and beyond.

  11. Domestic Banks in Bangladesh Could Ensure Efficiency by Improving Human Resource Management Practices

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad Masum, Abdul Kadar; Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Hoque, Kazi Enamul; Beh, Loo-See

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to examine the influence of human resource management (HRM) practices on bank efficiency using Malmquist index of total factor productivity. The model comprises HRM index that represents the quality of HRM practices. The results are decomposed into three efficiency scores, namely, technical efficiency, pure efficiency, and scale efficiency. In this study, panel data for 44 banks in Bangladesh are used for the period 2008-2013. This paper reveals that foreign banks are ahead in converting the influence of HRM practices into efficiency scores (0.946>0.833). On the other hand, domestic banks performed better than foreign banks in terms of pure efficiency and scale efficiency. But, in terms of technical efficiency, the domestic banks are regressed by 6.7% annually whereas foreign banks are progressed with a yearly value of 5.8%. The results are robust, because the Mann-Whitney test and Kruskall-Wallis test (non-parametric tests) also confirm the same results. This study emphasizes HRM practices in the banking industry to ensure efficiency in the long-term scenario. Domestic banks are suggested to ensure continuous development in HRM practices in order to compete with foreign banks. PMID:26221727

  12. Domestic Banks in Bangladesh Could Ensure Efficiency by Improving Human Resource Management Practices.

    PubMed

    Masum, Abdul Kadar Muhammad; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Hoque, Kazi Enamul; Beh, Loo-See

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to examine the influence of human resource management (HRM) practices on bank efficiency using Malmquist index of total factor productivity. The model comprises HRM index that represents the quality of HRM practices. The results are decomposed into three efficiency scores, namely, technical efficiency, pure efficiency, and scale efficiency. In this study, panel data for 44 banks in Bangladesh are used for the period 2008-2013. This paper reveals that foreign banks are ahead in converting the influence of HRM practices into efficiency scores (0.946>0.833). On the other hand, domestic banks performed better than foreign banks in terms of pure efficiency and scale efficiency. But, in terms of technical efficiency, the domestic banks are regressed by 6.7% annually whereas foreign banks are progressed with a yearly value of 5.8%. The results are robust, because the Mann-Whitney test and Kruskall-Wallis test (non-parametric tests) also confirm the same results. This study emphasizes HRM practices in the banking industry to ensure efficiency in the long-term scenario. Domestic banks are suggested to ensure continuous development in HRM practices in order to compete with foreign banks.

  13. Development Bank Encourages Natural Disaster Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-02-01

    In an effort to make countries in Latin America and the Caribbean less vulnerable to natural disasters, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) announced on 21 December 2005 that it has developed a new draft disaster risk management policy to encourage its member countries to plan for these events. The IDB, the major development bank for the region, decided to place a focus on natural disaster risk planning following several devastating disasters in the region in the 1990s, including 1998's Hurricane Mitch, said Caroline Clarke, IDB senior specialist in disaster prevention and risk management. The IDB provides loans, technical assistance, and policy guidance to reduce poverty and promote sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  14. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.5 Bank... the bank's loan customers. (b) Income derived from credit life insurance sales to loan customers...

  15. [Quality Control in Umbilical Cord Blood Bank

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sheng-Li; Song, Dao-Gang; Shen, Bai-Jun; Pan, Jie

    2001-03-01

    Recent clinical reports have demonstrated that the use of umbilical cord blood (UCB) opened a new source of stem cell for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, leading to the development of cord blood banks world-wide. Prior to the large scale construction of UCB banks, quality control must be performed for health care providers and manufactures. With increasingly stringent regulatory requirement in blood industry, quality control is playing an important role in the operation of blood centers and stem cell laboratories. Reviewed the lectures in the biology of UCB and UCB banks published in recent years, our experiences were discussed in setting up Shandong blood bank to define process variables associated with the collection of UCB, to determine and optimize the procedures and materials used, to ascertain how UCB can be processed in clean room as mononucleated cell preparations, and to analyze using of long-term storage of UCB in research and clinic in the future. Our conclusions are: (1) the establishment of UCB banks for use in transplantation appears to be easy, effective and particularly suitable approach in China under cGMP conditions; (2) the procedures for volume reduction by closed and semi-automated blood processing system, SSP HLA typing, biocode and local computer net, microbiological tests and the 50 ml cryobags for storage constitute a cost efficient system for large-scale UCB banking; (3) the average of 60 ml UCB collection may contain sufficent marrow repopulating cells for children and most of adult recipients; and (4) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in cord blood have a more potent proliferative ability than those derived from bone marrow in cell expansion potentials.

  16. The International Energy Agency`s role in world-wide wind energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Rangi, R.; Ancona, D.

    1997-12-31

    Wind energy is now being deployed world-wide at a rapidly increasing rate and the International Energy Agency (IEA) has a changing role in its growth. IEA was founded in 1974 within the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to collaborate on comprehensive international energy programs. IEA membership consists of eighteen parties from sixteen countries and the European Commission. Recently there has been increasing interest in IEA participation from both OECD and non-OECD countries. Non-OECD countries participating in various IEA Agreements include: China, India, Israel, Korea, and Russia. Because of its diverse international makeup, the IEA is viewed as a source of reliable technical and economic information. The World Bank has approached the Executive Committee for Wind Energy R & D, through the IEA Renewable Energy Working Party, to assist in the expansion of wind deployment. In addition, IEA is moving from R & D programs to include tracking of implementation incentives offered by its members.

  17. TECHNICAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRIGIOLA, NICHOLAS F.

    THE CONSENSUS OF OUR NATION'S LEADERS AFFIRMS THAT THE COUNTRY'S GREATEST TECHNICAL EDUCATION VOID IS IN THE AREA BETWEEN THE 12TH GRADE AND THE BACCALAUREATE DEGREE. THE IMPACT OF ACCELERATED PROGRESS IN TECHNOLOGICAL ACHIEVEMENTS MAKES TECHNICAL EDUCATION MANDATORY IF THE MANPOWER SHORTAGE IS NOT TO BECOME A NATIONAL EMERGENCY. BECAUSE NEARLY 80…

  18. Human Milk Banking.

    PubMed

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula.

  19. A novel filter bank for biotelemetry.

    PubMed

    Karagözoglu, B

    2001-03-01

    In a multichannel biotelemetry system, signals taken from a patient are distributed along the available frequency range (bandwidth) of the system through frequency-division-multiplexing, and combined into a single composite signal. Biological signals that are limited to low frequencies (below 10 Hz) modulate the frequencies of respective sub-carriers. Other biological signals are carried in amplitude-modulated forms. It is recognized that recovering original signals from a composite signal at the receiver side is a technical challenge when a telemetry system with narrow bandwidth capacity is used, since such a system leaves little frequency spacing between information channels. A filter bank is therefore utilized for recovering biological signals that are transmitted. The filter bank contains filter units comprising switched-capacitor filter integrated circuits. The filters have two distinct and opposing outputs (band-stop (notch) and band-pass). Since most biological signals are at low frequencies, and modulated signals occupy a narrow band around the carrier, notch filters can be used to efficiently stop signals in the narrow frequency range. Once the interim channels are removed, other channels become well separated from each other, and band-pass filters can select them. In the proposed system, efficient filtering of closely packed channels is achieved, with low interference, from neighboring channels. The filter bank is applied to a system that carries four biological signals and a battery status indicator signal. Experimental results reinforce theoretical predictions that the filter bank successfully de-multiplexes closely packed information channels with low crosstalk between them. It is concluded that the proposed filter bank allows utilization of cost-effective multichannel biotelemetry systems that are designed around commercial audio devices, and that it can be readily adapted to a broad range of physiological recording requirements.

  20. Cord blood banking: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Cristina; Contreras, Marcela

    2009-10-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) contains stem and progenitor cells capable of restoring haematopoietic and immunological function in vivo. UCB is currently used as an alternative source of haematopoietic stem cells for transplantation in patients suffering from haematological malignancies, bone marrow failures and inherited metabolic disorders. In order to facilitate transplantation, large repositories of frozen cord blood units (CBUs) from altruistic donations have been established in many parts of the world and to date there are more than 300,000 units stored worldwide. These products have been banked under stringent quality conditions, in order to ensure their safety and efficacy. The development and evolution of the policies and procedures currently in use in cord blood banking have been largely influenced by the clinical results of cord blood transplantation. This review aims to provide a historical overview of the various developments in the field of cord blood banking from its inception, highlighting the relevant aspects in their collection, banking and release that are known to influence the clinical outcome of these transplants.

  1. 12 CFR 250.200 - Investment in bank premises by holding company banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. 250.200 Section 250.200 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS... bank premises by holding company banks. (a) The Board of Governors has been asked whether,...

  2. 75 FR 20848 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... voting shares of Bank of Anderson, National Association, Anderson, South Carolina, Seneca National Bank, Seneca, South Carolina, and The Peoples National Bank, Easley, South Carolina. B. Federal Reserve Bank...

  3. Military Blood Banking (Civil Disasters).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    number of casualties the hospital can accommodate and this information should be available to the professional staff and blood bank . This variable is...responsible for handling mass casualties are strongly recommended for the blood bank and hospital staff. (Author)

  4. Human milk banking.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Esther Marie; Wood, Angela; Fiske, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Forms of human milk banking and donation have been present for more than a century worldwide, but, since 1985, the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HM BANA) has established guidelines to make the use of donor's breast milk safe and the second best form of feeding to maternal breast milk for a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant. The Indiana Mother's Human Milk Bank provides an extensive and meticulous process of selecting breast milk donors. The process begins with a phone interview with a potential donor and includes the review of the donor's medical records, blood laboratory screening, medication and dietary intake, as well as consent from the donor's pediatrician. The milk bank follows steps of collecting, storing, and receiving the breast milk in accordance with the guidelines of the HM BANA. Pasteurization is the method used to ensure the proper heating and cooling of breast milk. Despite the rigorous pasteurization method, the donor's breast milk will not lose most of the important beneficial components needed for sick or ill NICU infants. Every batch of pasteurized breast milk will be cultured for any possible contamination and shipped to NICUs after it has been cleared by laboratory testing.

  5. Bank-a-Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karls, Doris; Jordan, Elaine

    1978-01-01

    The article gives procedures for consumer foods teachers to use to actively involve students in making independent food purchasing decisions according to the school foods lab budget and food buying principles. Included are forms used to keep records for each lab: unit bank account, meat lab evaluation, and market order. (MF)

  6. Banking On People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower, 1970

    1970-01-01

    In July 1968, the First National City Bank in New York (Citibank) received a government contract to train the disadvantaged by providing orientation, counseling, job related education, supervisor training, child care, transportation, and some medical and dental care. The Job Opportunities in the Business Sector Program (JOBS) stipulated pay of $70…

  7. Cord blood banking.

    PubMed

    Warwick, Ruth; Armitage, Sue

    2004-12-01

    Cord blood (CB) is a unique product, rich in haemopoietic stem cells (HSC), that is currently used in the transplantation setting to restore haemopoiesis. It restores haemopoietic stem cell function in patients suffering from malignancies, bone marrow (BM) failure disorders and inherited metabolic and immunological disorders. Related and unrelated CB donations have been successfully transplanted in both the paediatric and adult settings. CB, previously considered a waste product, can be collected from both vaginal deliveries and caesarean sections, either in utero or ex utero, at no risk to the donor, processed to remove excess plasma and red cells, cryopreserved, tested, HLA-typed and stored to provide an 'off-the-shelf' product. CB has a lower risk of some important viral infections and a lower incidence and severity of acute and chronic graft versus host disease (GvHD) than BM. CB transplantation is under innovative development and international collaborative studies are investigating ways to improve transplant outcomes. Other uses for CB remain speculative and it is premature to speculate whether non-haemopoietic stem cells are present in cord blood in sufficient numbers for use against degenerative conditions, as is currently postulated by some commercial organisations. Cord blood banking in EU member countries is now regulated by an EU Directive, which provides a statutory basis for regulation safety to ensure efficacy. Compliance is required by 2006. It requires that all banking establishments are inspected and accredited by a Competent Authority. This includes public altruistic banking as well as directed banking activities.

  8. How Banks Create Money.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Lyndi

    This teaching module explains how the U.S. banking system uses excess reserves to create money in the form of new deposits for borrowers. The module is part of a computer-animated series of four-to-five-minute modules illustrating standard concepts in high school economics. Although the module is designed to accompany the video program, it may be…

  9. Chlordane (Technical)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW of CHLORDANE ( TECHNICAL ) ( CAS No . 12789 - 03 - 6 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) December 1997 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC TABLE OF CONTENTS Authors and Reviewers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  10. 77 FR 22786 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  11. 78 FR 5179 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  12. 78 FR 75349 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  13. 75 FR 36089 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  14. 77 FR 65689 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  15. 78 FR 16504 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  16. 76 FR 48862 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  17. 77 FR 14015 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  18. Banking on women's spirit.

    PubMed

    Yunus, M

    1993-11-01

    An interview with Professor Mummadad Yunus, Managing Director of the Grameen Bank, revealed that he has provided loans to poor women in Bangladesh since 1976 and that the Grameen Bank has continued his work since 1983. The idea behind the banking system is that poor people without traditionally accepted collateral are good credit risks. In 1993, the Grameen Bank had operations in 33,000 out of a possible 68,000 villages in Bangladesh. The operations include 1030 branches and a staff of 12,000 people. 1.6 million people are recipients of loans, of whom 94% are women. The population served is the poorest and has no experience in income generation. Conclusions drawn from this experience are that women are better managers of resources and are more serious entrepreneurs than men and that the benefits of loan programs for the poor go directly to children and households. Women's self-image suffers from negative social conceptions, and one task is to convince women of their value, skills, and possibility of advancement. The bank philosophy rests with the belief that all human beings are a "treasure of potential possibilities." Women are advised to protect their money and marriage and not to sacrifice one for the other. Husbands initially are against money going to wives, but eventually they understand that the family benefits. Over 200,000 loans have been made for the provision of housing. The loan requirement is that the woman must own the land on which the house is built. Husband's have the opportunity to transfer title of the land to the wife. Ownership of land provides security for the wife.

  19. Teaching Bank Runs through Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The author advocates the use of films to supplement textbook treatments of bank runs and panics in money and banking or general banking classes. Modern students, particularly those in developed countries, tend to be unfamiliar with potential fragilities of financial systems such as a lack of deposit insurance or other safety net mechanisms. Films…

  20. NetEnquiry--A Competitive Mobile Learning Approach for the Banking Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beutner, Marc; Teine, Matthias; Gebbe, Marcel; Fortmann, Lara Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Initial and further education in the banking sector is becoming more and more important due to the fact that the regulations and the complexity in world of work and an international banking scene is increasing. In this article we provide the structures of and information on NetEnquiry, an innovative mobile learning environment in this field,…

  1. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and... compensation. (a) Nothing contained in this part prohibits a bank employee, officer, director, or principal... turn over to the bank as compensation all income received from the sale of the credit life insurance...

  2. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and... compensation. (a) Nothing contained in this part prohibits a bank employee, officer, director, or principal... turn over to the bank as compensation all income received from the sale of the credit life insurance...

  3. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... be credited to an affiliate operating under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, 12 U.S.C. 1841 et... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.5...

  4. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... be credited to an affiliate operating under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, 12 U.S.C. 1841 et... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.5...

  5. 12 CFR 204.121 - Bankers' banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal Home Loan Bank, or in the National Credit Union Administration Central Liquidity Facility if the... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bankers' banks. 204.121 Section 204.121 Banks... REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) Interpretations § 204.121 Bankers' banks. (a)(1)...

  6. Wetland mitigation banking for the oil and gas industry: Assessment, conclusions, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkey, P.L.; Sundell, R.C.; Bailey, K.A.; Hayes, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    Wetland mitigation banks are already in existence in the United States, and the number is increasing. To date, most of these banks have been created and operated for mitigation of impacts arising from highway or commercial development and have not been associated with the oil and gas industry. Argonne National Laboratory evaluated the positive and negative aspects of wetland mitigation banking for the oil and gas industry by examining banks already created for other uses by federal, state, and private entities. Specific issues addressed in this study include (1) the economic, ecological, and technical effectiveness of existing banks; (2) the changing nature of local, state, and federal jurisdiction; and (3) the unique regulatory and jurisdictional problems affecting bank developments associated with the oil and gas industry.

  7. Bank Transfer Over Quantum Channel With Digital Checks

    SciTech Connect

    Kanamori, Yoshito; Yoo, Seong-Moo; Sheldon, Frederick T

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, many quantum cryptographic schemes have been proposed. However, it seems that there are many technical difficulties to realize them (except Quantum Key Distributions) as practical applications. In this paper, we propose a bank transfer (i.e., funds or Electronic Funds Transfer) system utilizing both classical and quantum cryptography to provide theoretically unbreakable security. This system can be realized using current technologies (e.g., linear polarizers and Faraday rotators) and requires no additional authentication and no key distribution scheme. However, a trusted third party must keep all member banks' private keys for encryption, authentication and also for functions to generate classical digital signatures.

  8. Wavelet transforms and filter banks in digital communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Alan R.; Medley, Michael J.

    1996-03-01

    Within the past few years, wavelet transforms and filter banks have received considerable attention in the technical literature, prompting applications in a variety of disciplines including applied mathematics, speech and image processing and compression, medical imaging, geophysics, signal processing, and information theory. More recently, several researchers in the field of communications have developed theoretical foundations for applications of wavelets as well. The objective of this paper is to survey the connections of wavelets and filter banks to communication theory and summarize current research efforts.

  9. Multilateral Agencies and Their Policy Proposals for Education: Are They Contributing to Reduce the Knowledge Gap in the World?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Siqueira, Angela C.

    Since the 1960s, the World Bank has been involved in educational policy around the world. Applying a human capital theory/manpower forecasting approach, the World Bank has focused on the infrastructure, that is, buildings and equipment, in vocational and higher education. At the same time, the power and influence of UNICEF and UNESCO, the main…

  10. The Denver Serum Bank.

    PubMed

    Eickhoff, Theodore C; Graves, Patricia S

    2015-10-01

    At the University of Colorado, Dr. Gordon Meiklejohn pursed the study of influenza and other respiratory pathogens for an unbroken period of 40 years, under the auspices of the Commission on Influenza of the Armed Forces Epidemiological Board through a series of contracts with the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command. Sera, throat washings, and other specimens for diagnosis were sent to Dr. Meiklejohn's laboratory. After serologic and virologic studies were carried out, aliquots of sera and virus samples were logged in and frozen. Sera were stored at -20°C and virus specimens at -70°C. These specimens became known as the Denver Serum Bank. The Bank supported military research programs and other researchers nationally and internationally until the 1990s when lacking of funding and considerations of administration, space, and cost resulted in the destruction of all specimens.

  11. GenBank

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Christian; Cinkosky, Michael J.; Fischer, William M.; Gilna, Paul; Hayden, Jamie E.-D.; Keen, Gifford M.; Kelly, Michael; Kristofferson, David; Lawrence, Julie

    1992-01-01

    The GenBank nucleotide sequence database now contains sequence data and associated annotation corresponding to 85,000,000 nucleotides in 67,000 entries from a total of 3,000 organisms. The input stream of data coming into the database is primarily as direct submissions from the scientific community on electronic media, with little or no data being keyboarded from the printed page by the databank staff. The data are maintained in a relational database management system and are made available in flatfile form through on-line access, and through various network and off-line computer-readable media. The data are also distributed in relational form through satellite copies at a number of institutions in the U.S. and elsewhere. In addition, GenBank provides the U.S. distribution center for the BIOSCI electronic bulletin board service. PMID:1598235

  12. Comprehensive genotyping of the USA national maize inbred seed bank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The germplasm bank at the USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, Iowa, preserves maize inbred lines from breeding programs from all over the world, including some of the key lines from the breeding history of maize. We genotyped 2,815 maize inbred accessions, mo...

  13. Jodrell Bank Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Jodrell Bank Observatory is part of the University of Manchester and was founded by Bernard Lovell in December 1945. Its prime instrument, the 76 m, MK1 radio-telescope, was completed in 1957. It was given a major upgrade in 1971 and is now known as the Lovell Telescope. In its early years it pioneered the technique of long baseline interferometry which led to the discovery of quasars. A majo...

  14. [Banks of vascular homografts].

    PubMed

    Polvani, G L; Guarino, A; Pompilio, G; Parolari, A; Piccolo, G; Sala, A; Biglioli, P

    2001-01-01

    We define as Banking of the tissues all the procedures that include the finding, preparation, conservation and distribution of the homograft. The vascular homografts are taken and put into a solution of transportation at +4 degrees C and kept at this temperature till their arrival at the Bank. The following step is the dissection of the homograft which will have to be performed as quickly as possible at most 24 hours after the taking in conditions of maximum sterility. At the Italian Homograft Bank at Centro Cardiologico, the vascular homografts are kept at +4 degrees C for 96 hours on average with antibiotics. After a phase of sterilization at +4 degrees C the tissue is frozen according to a homogeneous and controlled thermic decrease and stored at -150 degrees C/-180 degrees C in fumes of liquid nitrogen till the moment of their employment allowing a long term conservation. The aim of all these procedures of cryopreservation is to keep the structural and functional integrity of cells and tissues. The thermic decrease of the tissues must occur so that to avoid all the damages of the cellular vitality and functionality and especially of the tissue structure in toto. In order to limitate these events some cryoprotector agents are employed because they reduce the concentration of the solutes, the cellular dehydration, the formation of micro-macro crystals. Another step to establish if the homograft is proper is the study of bacteriological and viral aspects. The viral screenings are performed on the donor's blood and the bacteriological tests are performed on the tissue and on the liquids. For each phase of the banking a series of information about the donor and about the tissues are recorded and filed both on paper and database so that to grant always a right conduct of the material.

  15. 12 CFR 1270.17 - Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Federal Reserve Banks. 1270.17 Section 1270.17 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL... Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. The Banks, FHFA, the Director, the Office of Finance and the Federal Reserve Banks may rely on the information provided in a tender,...

  16. 12 CFR 1270.17 - Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and Federal Reserve Banks. 1270.17 Section 1270.17 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY... of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. The Banks, FHFA, the Director, the Office of Finance and the Federal Reserve Banks may rely on the information provided in a...

  17. 12 CFR 1270.17 - Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Federal Reserve Banks. 1270.17 Section 1270.17 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL... Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. The Banks, FHFA, the Director, the Office of Finance and the Federal Reserve Banks may rely on the information provided in a tender,...

  18. 12 CFR 614.4352 - Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks. 614.4352 Section 614.4352 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4352 Farm Credit Banks and agricultural...

  19. 12 CFR 614.4352 - Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks. 614.4352 Section 614.4352 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4352 Farm Credit Banks and agricultural...

  20. 12 CFR 614.4352 - Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks. 614.4352 Section 614.4352 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4352 Farm Credit Banks and agricultural...

  1. 12 CFR 614.4352 - Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks. 614.4352 Section 614.4352 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4352 Farm Credit Banks and agricultural...

  2. Virtual blood bank.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kit Fai

    2011-01-24

    Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.

  3. World lines.

    PubMed

    Waser, Jürgen; Fuchs, Raphael; Ribicić, Hrvoje; Schindler, Benjamin; Blöschl, Günther; Gröller, Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas, decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting, the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation, visualization and computational steering into a single unified system that is capable of dealing with the extended solution space. World Lines represent simulation runs as causally connected tracks that share a common time axis. This setup enables users to interfere and add new information quickly. A World Line is introduced as a visual combination of user events and their effects in order to present a possible future. To quickly find the most attractive outcome, we suggest World Lines as the governing component in a system of multiple linked views and a simulation component. World Lines employ linking and brushing to enable comparative visual analysis of multiple simulations in linked views. Analysis results can be mapped to various visual variables that World Lines provide in order to highlight the most compelling solutions. To demonstrate this technique we present a flooding scenario and show the usefulness of the integrated approach to support informed decision making.

  4. Superhabitable worlds.

    PubMed

    Heller, René; Armstrong, John

    2014-01-01

    To be habitable, a world (planet or moon) does not need to be located in the stellar habitable zone (HZ), and worlds in the HZ are not necessarily habitable. Here, we illustrate how tidal heating can render terrestrial or icy worlds habitable beyond the stellar HZ. Scientists have developed a language that neglects the possible existence of worlds that offer more benign environments to life than Earth does. We call these objects "superhabitable" and discuss in which contexts this term could be used, that is to say, which worlds tend to be more habitable than Earth. In an appendix, we show why the principle of mediocracy cannot be used to logically explain why Earth should be a particularly habitable planet or why other inhabited worlds should be Earth-like. Superhabitable worlds must be considered for future follow-up observations of signs of extraterrestrial life. Considering a range of physical effects, we conclude that they will tend to be slightly older and more massive than Earth and that their host stars will likely be K dwarfs. This makes Alpha Centauri B, which is a member of the closest stellar system to the Sun and is supposed to host an Earth-mass planet, an ideal target for searches for a superhabitable world.

  5. Virtual Worlds for Virtual Organizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoten, Diana; Lutters, Wayne

    The members and resources of a virtual organization are dispersed across time and space, yet they function as a coherent entity through the use of technologies, networks, and alliances. As virtual organizations proliferate and become increasingly important in society, many may exploit the technical architecture s of virtual worlds, which are the confluence of computer-mediated communication, telepresence, and virtual reality originally created for gaming. A brief socio-technical history describes their early origins and the waves of progress followed by stasis that brought us to the current period of renewed enthusiasm. Examination of contemporary examples demonstrates how three genres of virtual worlds have enabled new arenas for virtual organizing: developer-defined closed worlds, user-modifiable quasi-open worlds, and user-generated open worlds. Among expected future trends are an increase in collaboration born virtually rather than imported from existing organizations, a tension between high-fidelity recreations of the physical world and hyper-stylized imaginations of fantasy worlds, and the growth of specialized worlds optimized for particular sectors, companies, or cultures.

  6. Metrication and the Technical Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Michael

    1975-01-01

    The conclusion of the two-part feature on the S1 metric (International System of Units) reviews the basics and some of the rules technical teachers need to know in order to prepare their students for the changing world. (Author)

  7. Systems Engineering Technical Leadership Development Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    beyond doubt that the conventional approach was the right one.)  The Short Stirling of World War II. (Britain’s first four- engined heavy bomber...Systems Engineering Technical Leadership Development Program Final Technical Report SERC-2012-TR-013-2 February 1, 2012 Principal...2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Systems Engineering Technical Leadership Development Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  8. Optimizing the NASA Technical Report Server.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Michael L.; Maa, Ming-Hokng

    1996-01-01

    Modifying the NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS), a World Wide Web report distribution NASA technical publications service, has enhanced its performance, protocol support, and human interfacing. This article discusses the original and revised NTRS architecture, sequential and parallel query methods, and wide area information server (WAIS) uniform…

  9. Technical Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Carol A.

    This manuscript provides information and problems for teaching mathematics to vocational education students. Problems reflect applications of mathematical concepts to specific technical areas. The materials are organized into six chapters. Chapter 1 covers basic arithmetic, including fractions, decimals, ratio and proportions, percentages, and…

  10. Umbilical cord blood banks. Ethical aspects. Public versus private banks.

    PubMed

    Aznar Lucea, Justo

    2012-01-01

    The creation of umbilical cord blood (UCB) banks raises interesting medical, social, economic and ethical issues. This paper reviews the ethical problems specifically. In this respect, it evaluates: a) whether there are advantages to the use of UCB compared to bone marrow, b) whether or not it is ethical to create UCB banks, c) whether their creation is ethically acceptable in terms of their clinical usefulness or d) the use made of them for therapeutic purposes, and finally e) whether their creation is ethically justified from a cost/profitability point of view. We focus primarily on evaluating the ethical controversy between public and private banks, particularly on whether it is ethical to bank autologous blood in private UCB banks, on the basis of its limited possibilities for use by the cord blood donor. We can conclude that, from an ethical point of view, autologous blood banks have limited acceptance among specialised researchers, scientific societies and other public institutions. Therefore, we believe that it is ethically more acceptable to support the creation of public UCB banks for medical and social reasons and, above all, based on the principle of justice and human solidarity. Nevertheless, there is no definitive ethical argument why a couple, according to their autonomy and freedom, cannot bank their child's UCB in a private bank. An equally acceptable solution could be the creation of mixed banks, such as that proposed by the Virgin Health Bank or like the Spanish system where autologous samples can be stored in public banks but with the proviso that if at any time the stored sample is required by any person other than the donor, it would have to be given to them.

  11. Bank Powers. Activities of Securities, Subsidiaries of Bank Holding Companies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    securities subsidiaries of bank holding companies. ,JUL, ?• 199 These subsidiaries, authorized by the Federal Reserve Board, are com- monly called Section 20...members of the Federal Reserve System to be affiliatcd with firms that are not principally engaged in securities activi- ti-e generally forbidden to banks...for certain specified securities, mainly government swcurities. member banks of the Federal Reserve System are prohibited under the 1933 Glass

  12. PDBe: Protein Data Bank in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Velankar, S.; Best, C.; Beuth, B.; Boutselakis, C. H.; Cobley, N.; Sousa Da Silva, A. W.; Dimitropoulos, D.; Golovin, A.; Hirshberg, M.; John, M.; Krissinel, E. B.; Newman, R.; Oldfield, T.; Pajon, A.; Penkett, C. J.; Pineda-Castillo, J.; Sahni, G.; Sen, S.; Slowley, R.; Suarez-Uruena, A.; Swaminathan, J.; van Ginkel, G.; Vranken, W. F.; Henrick, K.; Kleywegt, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe) (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pdbe/) is actively working with its Worldwide Protein Data Bank partners to enhance the quality and consistency of the international archive of bio-macromolecular structure data, the Protein Data Bank (PDB). PDBe also works closely with its collaborators at the European Bioinformatics Institute and the scientific community around the world to enhance its databases and services by adding curated and actively maintained derived data to the existing structural data in the PDB. We have developed a new database infrastructure based on the remediated PDB archive data and a specially designed database for storing information on interactions between proteins and bound molecules. The group has developed new services that allow users to carry out simple textual queries or more complex 3D structure-based queries. The newly designed ‘PDBeView Atlas pages’ provide an overview of an individual PDB entry in a user-friendly layout and serve as a starting point to further explore the information available in the PDBe database. PDBe’s active involvement with the X-ray crystallography, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy and cryo-Electron Microscopy communities have resulted in improved tools for structure deposition and analysis. PMID:19858099

  13. Vietnam: Education Financing. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This study examines the system of education and training in Vietnam and poses the question: what changes in educational policies will ensure that students who pass through the system today will acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for Vietnam to successfully complete the transition from a planned to a market economy? The report…

  14. Monitoring Educational Performance in the Caribbean. World Bank Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    di Gropello, Emanuela

    This study represents a first attempt at providing a comprehensive quantification of educational outcomes in the Caribbean region. Its main objectives are: (1) to define a set of operationally relevant education indicators; (2) to provide a database of comparable education indicators in Caribbean countries where data is available, namely Belize,…

  15. Agricultural Extension in Africa. A World Bank Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Nigel, Ed.

    The contributors to this document compare the main approaches to agricultural extension in sub-Saharan Africa; the cost-effectiveness in view of precarious national budgets; the weaknesses of the system for generating technology; the difficulties in forging productive partnerships between researchers, extensionists and farmers; the ineffective…

  16. Poverty and Nutrition in Bolivia. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Judith; Lopez, Cynthia

    In Bolivia, malnutrition afflicts about 25 percent of children under 3 and 12-24 percent of women. It contributes to high death rates, immune deficiency, learning disabilities, and low work productivity. Malnutrition and its effects are particularly severe among poor, rural, and indigenous populations. Malnutrition is both caused by and causes…

  17. World Bank's role in electric power projects in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, N. de )

    1994-06-01

    This article examines the impacts of changing energy policy in Latin America to the development of electrical infrastructure, interconnections, and electrical exchanges in the area. The topics of the article include energy as a commodity, hydroelectric capacity potential, growth and investment, natural gas reserves and regional interconnections.

  18. Uganda: Social Sectors. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    The objective of this report was to assist the Ugandan government in considering how its intended improvement in social services can be achieved over the decade of the 1990s. Part 1 provides the necessary background. Chapter 1 illustrates in which areas, and to what extent, Uganda is in a social deficit situation in comparison with other African…

  19. 76 FR 2383 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...: 1. SG-BBC, LLC, and The Stephens Group, LLC, both of Little Rock, Arkansas; to acquire voting...

  20. 76 FR 75548 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... American Bank & Trust, Wessington Springs, South Dakota. 2. Eugene Joseph Welle Irrevocable HJW Trust, Hugh... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of...

  1. 76 FR 41500 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors.... Kirschner Trust A2, acting in concert with The Noble Foundation, Philip and Cheryl Kirschner,...

  2. 40 CFR 91.205 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 91.205 Section 91.205... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 91.205 Banking. (a... banking. (i) For outboard engines in model year (MY) 1997, a manufacturer may bank positive...

  3. Donor human milk banking and the emergence of milk sharing.

    PubMed

    Landers, Susan; Hartmann, Ben T

    2013-02-01

    Donor human milk has emerged as the preferred substrate to feed extremely preterm infants, when mother's own milk is unavailable. This article summarizes the clinical data demonstrating the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of feeding donor human milk to premature babies. It describes the current state of milk banking in North America, as well as other parts of the world, and the differing criteria for donor selection, current pasteurization techniques, and quality control measures. A risk assessment methodology is proposed, which would allow milk banks globally to assess the safety of their process and respond appropriately to differing risk environments.

  4. National Wetland Mitigation Banking Study Wetland Migitation Banking.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    twist on diversity concerns, the Seaworld Eelgrass Mitigation Bank in Southern California has considered taking genetic diversity into account as a...For example, the Seaworld Eelgrass Mitigation Bank is using the density of eelgrass as a measure of quality. 2. Narrowly Tailored

  5. The Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, P. R.

    1999-12-01

    The Green Bank Telescope The 100-m NRAO Green Bank Telescope will be completed in early 2000. The GBT has a large number of unique design and performance features that will give it unprecedented scientific capability. This poster display will review those features, which include an offset feed (clear aperture) design, an active surface, a closed-loop laser metrology system for surface figure and pointing control, broad frequency coverage from 100 MHz to 115 GHz, a versatile receiver selection mechanism, and a new multi-input, 256k-channel autocorrelation spectrometer. The status of the project, the commissioning schedule, plans for early operations, the initial instrumentation suite, and plans for future instrumentation will be reviewed. Scientific areas for which the GBT will have a large impact will be discussed, including observations of young galaxies at extreme redshifts, pulsars, HI and molecular spectroscopy, VLBI work, and millimeter-wave spectroscopy and continuum studies. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  6. Hydraulic design of Three Gorges right bank powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Q.

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents the hydraulic design of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability. The technical challenges faced in the hydraulic design of the turbine are given. The method of hydraulic design for improving the hydraulic stability and particularly for eliminating the upper part load pressure pulsations is clarified. The final hydraulic design results of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine based on modern hydraulic design techniques are presented.

  7. The Accreditation Experience of Clinical Laboratories and Blood Banks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Sandra

    2015-11-01

    The accreditation of clinical laboratories and blood banks based on ISO 15189 is now being consolidated in Mexico, and is coordinated by the Mexican accreditation entity innovative strategies, A.C. (ema) and supported by the activities of the committee of clinical laboratories and blood banks. The active participation in working groups formed by the technical committee of clinical laboratories and blood banks in specific areas, has contributed to the formulation of technical documents and criteria of evaluation that strengthen the current accreditation scheme. The national registry of evaluation (PNE) consists of technical experts and evaluators from different disciplines of clinical laboratory; the evaluators actively participate in accreditation assessment, with an ultimate goal to receive training and feedback for continuous improvement of its own performance.

  8. The Accreditation Experience of Clinical Laboratories and Blood Banks in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The accreditation of clinical laboratories and blood banks based on ISO 15189 is now being consolidated in Mexico, and is coordinated by the Mexican accreditation entity innovative strategies, A.C. (ema) and supported by the activities of the committee of clinical laboratories and blood banks. The active participation in working groups formed by the technical committee of clinical laboratories and blood banks in specific areas, has contributed to the formulation of technical documents and criteria of evaluation that strengthen the current accreditation scheme. The national registry of evaluation (PNE) consists of technical experts and evaluators from different disciplines of clinical laboratory; the evaluators actively participate in accreditation assessment, with an ultimate goal to receive training and feedback for continuous improvement of its own performance. PMID:27683498

  9. 12 CFR 615.5459 - Liability of Farm Credit banks, Funding Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks. 615.5459 Section 615.5459 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION... Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks. The Farm Credit banks, the Funding Corporation, and the Federal Reserve... Federal Reserve Banks shall not be liable for any action taken in accordance with the information set...

  10. 12 CFR 615.5459 - Liability of Farm Credit banks, Funding Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks. 615.5459 Section 615.5459 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION... Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks. The Farm Credit banks, the Funding Corporation, and the Federal Reserve... Federal Reserve Banks shall not be liable for any action taken in accordance with the information set...

  11. 12 CFR 615.5459 - Liability of Farm Credit banks, Funding Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks. 615.5459 Section 615.5459 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION... Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks. The Farm Credit banks, the Funding Corporation, and the Federal Reserve... Federal Reserve Banks shall not be liable for any action taken in accordance with the information set...

  12. 12 CFR 615.5459 - Liability of Farm Credit banks, Funding Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks. 615.5459 Section 615.5459 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION... Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks. The Farm Credit banks, the Funding Corporation, and the Federal Reserve... Federal Reserve Banks shall not be liable for any action taken in accordance with the information set...

  13. 12 CFR 615.5459 - Liability of Farm Credit banks, Funding Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks. 615.5459 Section 615.5459 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION... Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks. The Farm Credit banks, the Funding Corporation, and the Federal Reserve... Federal Reserve Banks shall not be liable for any action taken in accordance with the information set...

  14. Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    ,; ,; ,

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 World Materials Summit, held on 10/9-12/2011 in Washington DC, provided a forum for top decision makers and energy experts from aropund the world to focus on the materials research needs for the growing energy economy. Organized jointly by the Materials Research Society (MRS), the European MRS (E-MRS), and the Chinese MRS (C-MRS), the goal of the Summit was to explore how the different regions of the world can work together on the critical issue of clean energy, including its relation to environmental sustainability and water. The participants considered the area of materials research as well as advocacy, economics, outreach, and education. Realizing that the concerns are long-term and that young players will ultimately be the ones who are going to need to solve the energy challenges, the chairs of the Summit inaugurated a Student Congress, a program for graduate students and postdoctoral scholars in fields directly related to energy and environmental science, engineering, and/or policy. The top 45 candidates coming from 18 countries were selected on a competititve basis to participate in the Student Congress. The four-day effort culminated in a 2011 Worlds Materials Summit Declaration delineating materials directions related to global access to clean energy and water in a sustainable way.

  15. Invention and Writing in Technical Work: Representing the Object.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsor, Dorothy A.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the way invention is relevant to the practice of technical writing. Studies three engineering students engaged in a real-world project. Shows how the students' technical work and invention for the final report were simultaneous activities. Claims that invention for and through writing overlaps with technical invention. (HB)

  16. Communication Skills for Banking Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Public Schools, Falls Church, VA. Office of Adult and Community Education.

    The communications skills course was developed for bank employees who are non-native speakers of English, to assist them in improving their English and knowledge of the American workplace culture and to increase productivity. It consists of three instructional levels. Topics covered in level 1 reflect concerns of bank managers about basic…

  17. Item Banking. Basic Testing Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Roy

    This pamphlet describes the exciting potential of item banking--a new approach to testing which combines both comparability of scores with flexibility of test format. Item banks are collections of items where the characteristics of each item is known and these characteristics can be summated to described a test made from such items. The principle…

  18. SVC 2003 Technical Conference Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Peter M.

    2003-07-01

    The 46th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters was held in San Francisco May 2-8. All the world events apparently did not affect the attendance or the spirit of the attendees. The Conference was a huge success and very well attended. Many feel that it was the best Techcon yet. This year's Conference really raised the bar for the 47th Annual Technical Conference in Dallas next year. Congratulations go out to the program committee, board of directors, education committee, scholarship committee and Management Plus for a job well done. Excellent accommodations were provided by the San Francisco Marriott.

  19. Borrowing against the Future: Children and Third World Indebtedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, York W.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    In response to the global debt crisis, international lenders have pressured Third World debtor nations to implement "structural adjustments." Analysis of data from the United Nations, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund suggest that externally imposed austerity measures have adversely affected children's survival and…

  20. World Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceres, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents a report that deals with several topics from different parts of the world. A system for creating more meaningful maps, the recycling of organic wastes in agriculture in China, and producing pigs and poultry without pollution problems are among the topics presented. (HM)

  1. Our World?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling, Ed.

    Authored by individuals from five Nordic countries, this book focuses on questions about the child's right to live in and learn about an ecologically sustainable world. The first five chapters are theoretical in character, while the final six chapters are derived from work done by early childhood teachers together with children. The goal of the…

  2. New Book Recounts Exciting, Colorful History Of Radio Astronomy in Green Bank, West Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-07-01

    size. The book reprints internal memos, reports, and recollections of astronomers who were there, as the initial elation turned to frustration when the 140 Foot Telescope project became mired in technical difficulties, plans for larger dishes were put on hold, and the scientific staff of the fledgling Observatory struggled to create a National Observatory with inadequate equipment in a very remote location. Articles by David Heeschen and John Findlay tell the story of the creation of the 300 Foot Telescope, at that time the largest in the world, which went from initial concept to full operation in only 23 months, and began a rich life of research that put the NRAO on the world scientific map. The 300 Foot Telescope was originally intended to be an interim instrument, but as documented in the book, demand for its use was so high that it was kept in operation long after its initial planned retirement, with regular upgrades and new generations of electronics. The sudden collapse of the 300 Foot Telescope on a calm evening after 26 years of operation shocked the astronomical community. But it was Fun... features dramatic first-hand accounts by the people who were there that night: the telescope operator who found himself under a falling structure; the Observatory staff who at first could not believe what happened, and those who worked during the night and into the next day to secure the area, preserve information on what happened, and deal with the rush of publicity. The book includes extensive photographs and the Executive Summary Report of the panel which was commissioned to investigate the collapse and its implication for the design of other large radio telescopes. But it was Fun... will appeal to a variety of audiences. Historians of science will be interested in the articles by David Heeschen, Gerald Tape, and Hugh van Horn, on the evolution of the concept of a National Observatory, and the difficulties of putting the concepts into practice in Green Bank. Those

  3. 12 CFR 1261.12 - Reporting requirements for Bank directors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reporting requirements for Bank directors. 1261.12 Section 1261.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS FEDERAL....12 Reporting requirements for Bank directors. (a) Annual reporting. Annually, each Bank shall...

  4. 12 CFR 1261.12 - Reporting requirements for Bank directors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....12 Reporting requirements for Bank directors. (a) Annual reporting. Annually, each Bank shall require... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting requirements for Bank directors. 1261.12 Section 1261.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS...

  5. 12 CFR 940.2 - Mission of the Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mission of the Banks. 940.2 Section 940.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MISSION CORE MISSION ACTIVITIES § 940.2 Mission of the Banks. The mission of the Banks is to provide to their members' and...

  6. 12 CFR 615.5030 - Borrowings from commercial banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrowings from commercial banks. 615.5030... commercial banks. (a) Each System bank board, by resolution, shall authorize all commercial bank borrowings by that System bank. (b) The Financial Assistance Corporation may borrow from commercial banks...

  7. 12 CFR 615.5030 - Borrowings from commercial banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Borrowings from commercial banks. 615.5030 Section 615.5030 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL... commercial banks. Each System bank board, by resolution, shall authorize all commercial bank borrowings...

  8. 12 CFR 583.4 - Bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank holding company. 583.4 Section 583.4 Banks... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.4 Bank holding company. The term bank holding company means any company which has control over any bank or over any company that is or becomes a bank...

  9. 12 CFR 583.4 - Bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Bank holding company. 583.4 Section 583.4 Banks... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.4 Bank holding company. The term bank holding company means any company which has control over any bank or over any company that is or becomes a bank...

  10. 12 CFR 583.4 - Bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank holding company. 583.4 Section 583.4 Banks... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.4 Bank holding company. The term bank holding company means any company which has control over any bank or over any company that is or becomes a bank...

  11. 12 CFR 583.4 - Bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Bank holding company. 583.4 Section 583.4 Banks... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.4 Bank holding company. The term bank holding company means any company which has control over any bank or over any company that is or becomes a bank...

  12. 12 CFR 583.4 - Bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank holding company. 583.4 Section 583.4 Banks... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.4 Bank holding company. The term bank holding company means any company which has control over any bank or over any company that is or becomes a bank...

  13. 12 CFR 619.9145 - Farm Credit Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Credit Bank. 619.9145 Section 619.9145 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9145 Farm Credit Bank. The term Farm Credit Bank refers to a bank resulting from the mandatory merger of the Federal...

  14. 12 CFR 619.9020 - Agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agricultural credit banks. 619.9020 Section 619.9020 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9020 Agricultural credit banks. Agricultural credit banks are those banks created by the merger of a Farm...

  15. 12 CFR 619.9145 - Farm Credit Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit Bank. 619.9145 Section 619.9145 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9145 Farm Credit Bank. The term Farm Credit Bank refers to a bank resulting from the mandatory merger of the Federal...

  16. 12 CFR 619.9020 - Agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural credit banks. 619.9020 Section 619.9020 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9020 Agricultural credit banks. Agricultural credit banks are those banks created by the merger of a Farm...

  17. 12 CFR 619.9060 - Bank for cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank for cooperatives. 619.9060 Section 619.9060 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9060 Bank for cooperatives. A bank for cooperatives is a bank that is operating under section 3.0 of the Act....

  18. 78 FR 300 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 2 (Thursday, January 3, 2013)] [Notices] [Page 300] [FR Doc No: 2012-31575] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act...

  19. 78 FR 39729 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of...

  20. 78 FR 49753 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the... Family Trust--GST Exempt Trust, to retain control of the outstanding shares of Marseilles...

  1. 77 FR 72864 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of...

  2. 78 FR 13877 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the... Wichita Falls, Texas, collectively a group acting in concert; to acquire control shares of Wichita...

  3. 78 FR 76305 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of...

  4. 75 FR 1058 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 5 (Friday, January 8, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 1058] [FR Doc No: 2010-90] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12...

  5. 78 FR 76834 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  6. 75 FR 55582 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  7. 78 FR 36781 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  8. 78 FR 19268 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  9. 76 FR 71344 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  10. 75 FR 54883 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  11. 75 FR 11888 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  12. 78 FR 61988 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  13. 76 FR 68762 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... [Federal Register Volume 76, Number 215 (Monday, November 7, 2011)] [Notices] [Page 68762] [FR Doc No: 2011-28760] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of...

  14. 76 FR 59396 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  15. 76 FR 72705 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  16. 78 FR 71612 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  17. 76 FR 31612 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  18. 75 FR 22595 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  19. 78 FR 17404 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  20. 77 FR 8258 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  1. 78 FR 63475 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  2. 75 FR 62132 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  3. 75 FR 81610 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  4. 77 FR 15757 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  5. 77 FR 47843 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  6. 78 FR 9917 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  7. 78 FR 15952 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  8. 77 FR 19287 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  9. 78 FR 19267 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  10. 76 FR 20351 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  11. 77 FR 16550 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  12. 78 FR 77684 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  13. 78 FR 11186 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  14. 77 FR 65888 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  15. 75 FR 43983 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  16. 77 FR 60996 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  17. 78 FR 21367 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  18. 78 FR 44122 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  19. 76 FR 43331 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  20. 77 FR 42730 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  1. 75 FR 54341 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  2. 77 FR 20021 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  3. 75 FR 57272 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  4. 76 FR 49770 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  5. 76 FR 7849 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  6. 78 FR 13343 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  7. 77 FR 75632 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  8. 78 FR 63476 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  9. 76 FR 40365 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the....; and Ira M. Lubert, W. Kirk Wycoff, and James J. Lynch, all of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to...

  10. 78 FR 68073 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  11. 78 FR 65311 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  12. 78 FR 70300 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  13. 78 FR 78357 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  14. 78 FR 67146 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  15. 77 FR 2982 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41)...

  16. 78 FR 31549 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ...: 2013-12364] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or... Federal Reserve Bank indicated. The notices also will be available for inspection at the offices of the... June 4, 2013. A. Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas (E. Ann Worthy, Vice President) 2200 North Pearl...

  17. 77 FR 29643 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ...: 2012-12043] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or... Federal Reserve Bank indicated. The notices also will be available for inspection at the offices of the... June 4, 2012. A. Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City (Dennis Denney, Assistant Vice President)...

  18. 77 FR 64115 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of...

  19. 12 CFR 1501.3 - Comparable ratings requirement for national banks among the second 50 largest insured banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... banks among the second 50 largest insured banks. 1501.3 Section 1501.3 Banks and Banking DEPARTMENT OF... national banks among the second 50 largest insured banks. (a) Scope and purpose. Section 5136A of the Revised Statutes permits a national bank that is within the second 50 largest insured banks to own...

  20. 12 CFR 1501.3 - Comparable ratings requirement for national banks among the second 50 largest insured banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... banks among the second 50 largest insured banks. 1501.3 Section 1501.3 Banks and Banking DEPARTMENT OF... national banks among the second 50 largest insured banks. (a) Scope and purpose. Section 5136A of the Revised Statutes permits a national bank that is within the second 50 largest insured banks to own...

  1. 12 CFR 1501.3 - Comparable ratings requirement for national banks among the second 50 largest insured banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... banks among the second 50 largest insured banks. 1501.3 Section 1501.3 Banks and Banking DEPARTMENT OF... national banks among the second 50 largest insured banks. (a) Scope and purpose. Section 5136A of the Revised Statutes permits a national bank that is within the second 50 largest insured banks to own...

  2. 12 CFR 1501.3 - Comparable ratings requirement for national banks among the second 50 largest insured banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... banks among the second 50 largest insured banks. 1501.3 Section 1501.3 Banks and Banking DEPARTMENT OF... national banks among the second 50 largest insured banks. (a) Scope and purpose. Section 5136A of the Revised Statutes permits a national bank that is within the second 50 largest insured banks to own...

  3. 12 CFR 1501.3 - Comparable ratings requirement for national banks among the second 50 largest insured banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... banks among the second 50 largest insured banks. 1501.3 Section 1501.3 Banks and Banking DEPARTMENT OF... national banks among the second 50 largest insured banks. (a) Scope and purpose. Section 5136A of the Revised Statutes permits a national bank that is within the second 50 largest insured banks to own...

  4. 12 CFR 225.14 - Expedited action for certain bank acquisitions by well-run bank holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Expedited action for certain bank acquisitions by well-run bank holding companies. 225.14 Section 225.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... action for certain bank acquisitions by well-run bank holding companies. (a) Filing of...

  5. The Future of Virtual Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, William Sims; Lutters, Wayne; Rhoten, Diana; Lowood, Henry

    This book, like the May 2008 conference in World of Warcraft, ends with projections toward what the future might hold for virtual worlds. Every chapter thus far has included speculations about future directions, even while standing on data from the past. This last chapter, like the final session of the conference on which it is based, incorporates comments from dozens of participants into a stream of ideas. We have edited selected comments together with the panel's contributions. Our intention is to provide a portal from this book into a wider virtual community comprising researchers and residents in virtual worlds. The discussion surveys many recent lines of development, some of which have already been surveyed in scientific and historical literature, or by journalists (Au 2008; Castronova 2007; Guest 2007; Ludlow and Wallace 2007). Yet, many of the topics here have not received such attention. Considered as a set of socio-technical innovations, virtual worlds are not just about technical possibilities; they also inspired the participants to consider the economic bases for investing in those possibilities and the novel cultural, social, and artistic forms virtual worlds might offer.

  6. The NASA Technical Report Server

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, M. L.; Gottlich, G. L.; Bianco, D. J.; Paulson, S. S.; Binkley, R. L.; Kellogg, Y. D.; Beaumont, C. J.; Schmunk, R. B.; Kurtz, M. J.; Accomazzi, A.; Syed, O.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 established the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and charged it to "provide for the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination of information concerning...its activities and the results thereof". The search for innovative methods to distribute NASA's information led a grass-roots team to create the NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS), which uses the World Wide Web and other popular Internet-based information systems .

  7. BDB: biopanning data bank

    PubMed Central

    He, Bifang; Chai, Guoshi; Duan, Yaocong; Yan, Zhiqiang; Qiu, Liuyang; Zhang, Huixiong; Liu, Zechun; He, Qiang; Han, Ke; Ru, Beibei; Guo, Feng-Biao; Ding, Hui; Lin, Hao; Wang, Xianlong; Rao, Nini; Zhou, Peng; Huang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The BDB database (http://immunet.cn/bdb) is an update of the MimoDB database, which was previously described in the 2012 Nucleic Acids Research Database issue. The rebranded name BDB is short for Biopanning Data Bank, which aims to be a portal for biopanning results of the combinatorial peptide library. Last updated in July 2015, BDB contains 2904 sets of biopanning data collected from 1322 peer-reviewed papers. It contains 25 786 peptide sequences, 1704 targets, 492 known templates, 447 peptide libraries and 310 crystal structures of target-template or target-peptide complexes. All data stored in BDB were revisited, and information on peptide affinity, measurement method and procedures was added for 2298 peptides from 411 sets of biopanning data from 246 published papers. In addition, a more professional and user-friendly web interface was implemented, a more detailed help system was designed, and a new on-the-fly data visualization tool and a series of tools for data analysis were integrated. With these new data and tools made available, we expect that the BDB database would become a major resource for scholars using phage display, with improved utility for biopanning and related scientific communities. PMID:26503249

  8. BDB: biopanning data bank.

    PubMed

    He, Bifang; Chai, Guoshi; Duan, Yaocong; Yan, Zhiqiang; Qiu, Liuyang; Zhang, Huixiong; Liu, Zechun; He, Qiang; Han, Ke; Ru, Beibei; Guo, Feng-Biao; Ding, Hui; Lin, Hao; Wang, Xianlong; Rao, Nini; Zhou, Peng; Huang, Jian

    2016-01-04

    The BDB database (http://immunet.cn/bdb) is an update of the MimoDB database, which was previously described in the 2012 Nucleic Acids Research Database issue. The rebranded name BDB is short for Biopanning Data Bank, which aims to be a portal for biopanning results of the combinatorial peptide library. Last updated in July 2015, BDB contains 2904 sets of biopanning data collected from 1322 peer-reviewed papers. It contains 25,786 peptide sequences, 1704 targets, 492 known templates, 447 peptide libraries and 310 crystal structures of target-template or target-peptide complexes. All data stored in BDB were revisited, and information on peptide affinity, measurement method and procedures was added for 2298 peptides from 411 sets of biopanning data from 246 published papers. In addition, a more professional and user-friendly web interface was implemented, a more detailed help system was designed, and a new on-the-fly data visualization tool and a series of tools for data analysis were integrated. With these new data and tools made available, we expect that the BDB database would become a major resource for scholars using phage display, with improved utility for biopanning and related scientific communities.

  9. American Association of Tissue Banks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Speak. Influence. GET INVOLVED! AATB SmartBrief. Subscribe AATB Job Board Search Jobs Have a Question? More Info Join Our Mailing ... Bank Search Bookstore Bulletins Global Topics Communications & Media Job Center News Releases Patients and Community Useful links ...

  10. Vector computer memory bank contention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    A number of vector supercomputers feature very large memories. Unfortunately the large capacity memory chips that are used in these computers are much slower than the fast central processing unit (CPU) circuitry. As a result, memory bank reservation times (in CPU ticks) are much longer than on previous generations of computers. A consequence of these long reservation times is that memory bank contention is sharply increased, resulting in significantly lowered performance rates. The phenomenon of memory bank contention in vector computers is analyzed using both a Markov chain model and a Monte Carlo simulation program. The results of this analysis indicate that future generations of supercomputers must either employ much faster memory chips or else feature very large numbers of independent memory banks.

  11. Vector computer memory bank contention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.

    1987-01-01

    A number of vector supercomputers feature very large memories. Unfortunately the large capacity memory chips that are used in these computers are much slower than the fast central processing unit (CPU) circuitry. As a result, memory bank reservation times (in CPU ticks) are much longer than on previous generations of computers. A consequence of these long reservation times is that memory bank contention is sharply increased, resulting in significantly lowered performance rates. The phenomenon of memory bank contention in vector computers is analyzed using both a Markov chain model and a Monte Carlo simulation program. The results of this analysis indicate that future generations of supercomputers must either employ much faster memory chips or else feature very large numbers of independent memory banks.

  12. Investing in a Talent Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damroth, William G.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the Talent Bank office at Edison Community College (Florida) which provides students with more contact with persons who have enjoyed successful careers, and affords retired and active professionals an innovative forum for sharing their experience. (AYC)

  13. SAFE Banking Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Brown, Sherrod [D-OH

    2012-05-09

    05/09/2012 Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. Hearings held. Hearings printed: S.Hrg. 112-679. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. 29 CFR 1917.126 - River banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false River banks. 1917.126 Section 1917.126 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.126 River banks. (a) This section applies to temporary installations or temporary operations near a river bank. (b) Where working surfaces at river banks slope...

  15. 29 CFR 1917.126 - River banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false River banks. 1917.126 Section 1917.126 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.126 River banks. (a) This section applies to temporary installations or temporary operations near a river bank. (b) Where working surfaces at river banks slope...

  16. 29 CFR 1917.126 - River banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false River banks. 1917.126 Section 1917.126 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.126 River banks. (a) This section applies to temporary installations or temporary operations near a river bank. (b) Where working surfaces at river banks slope...

  17. 76 FR 10671 - Assessments, Large Bank Pricing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... proposal, retains this exception for banker's banks. A typical banker's bank provides liquidity and other... greater need to maintain liquidity to service its member banks. 6. Comments Several commenters addressed... implications for bank liquidity. The comments suggested that the FDIC provide a deduction for federal...

  18. 29 CFR 1917.126 - River banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false River banks. 1917.126 Section 1917.126 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.126 River banks. (a) This section applies to temporary installations or temporary operations near a river bank. (b) Where working surfaces at river banks slope...

  19. Islamic Banking: Financing Terrorism or Meeting Economic Demand

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    increasing market discipline, and implement international standards. Risk management is the key to strengthening domestic financial systems and managing ...191. 63 • all banks must have comprehensive risk management systems as well as management information systems that enable management to identify...all parts of the Islamic world except Saudi Arabia.183 Internal risk management can be problematic to Islamic bankers. Shari’a boards tend not to

  20. Banque de Terminologie de l'universite de Montreal. Description du systeme Termium (Terminology Bank of the University of Montreal. Description of the Termium System).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubuc, Robert

    The terminology bank at the University of Montreal is described. It consists of a dictionary of scientific and technical terms in the form of a bilingual card index permitting the entry of information into a computer and its retrieval via a terminal. The bank is intended for use by translators, government publication offices, information agencies,…

  1. Cash efficiency for bank branches.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50.

  2. 31 CFR 1010.652 - Special measures against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. 1010.652 Section 1010.652 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Special measures against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Asia Wealth Bank means all headquarters, branches, and offices of Asia Wealth...

  3. 31 CFR 103.187 - Special measures against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. 103.187 Section 103.187 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... measures against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section... in Burma or in any jurisdiction. (4) Asia Wealth Bank means all headquarters, branches, and...

  4. Technical Assistance Viewed with Bhola's Mega Model of Planned Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiappetta, Michael

    1982-01-01

    The practical usefulness of H. S. Bhola's models for planned change is questioned through speculations on problems that would have arisen if the models had been applied in arranging an Inter-American Development Bank technical assistance project in Barbados. (PP)

  5. Computer Security Issues in Online Banking: An Assessment from the Context of Usable Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmadi, FN; Zaaba, ZF; Osman, A.

    2016-11-01

    Today's online banking is a convenient mode of finance management. Despite the ease of doing online banking, there are people that still sceptical in utilizing it due to perception and its security. This paper highlights the subject of online banking security in Malaysia, especially from the perspective of the end-users. The study is done by assessing human computer interaction, usability and security. An online survey utilising 137 participants was previously conducted to gain preliminary insights on security issues of online banking in Malaysia. Following from those results, 37 participants were interviewed to gauge deeper understanding about end-users perception on online banking within the context of usable security. The results suggested that most of the end-users are continuingly experiencing significant difficulties especially in relation to the technical terminologies, security features and other technical issues. Although the security features are provided to provide a shield or protection, users are still incapable to cope with the technical aspects of such implementation.

  6. Banking on nature's power and poetry

    SciTech Connect

    MacLean, H. )

    1990-09-01

    The new NMB Bank headquarters located southeast of Amsterdam, The Netherlands, is a most unusual corporate facility. Its walls slope, there is no air conditioning in the conventional sense, and the profusion of plants within its sunlit atria receive purified rainwater via multi-million dollar sculptures called flowforms. Yet there is method to its seeming madness. For this building - the result of a brilliant collaboration of architects, engineers, artists, and clients led by the Amsterdam architecture firm of Alberts and Van Huut - is one of the lowest consumers of energy of any corporate facility in the world. It has also been chosen by the Amsterdam public as one of the most popular buildings to appear in recent years. Little known in the United States, it is being hailed by many in Europe as an inspired harbinger of a more ecologically-sound, more humanistically-balanced future.

  7. Foreign Banks: Internal Control and Audit Weaknesses in U.S. Branches.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    In September 1995, Daiwa Bank, one of the largest multinational banks in the world, reported to the Federal Reserve that it had incurred losses...to trade illegally and to hide the activities and resulting losses. The Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board said that before the losses were reported...the Federal Reserve had noted, but had not fully appreciated, the seriousness of some of the branch’s weaknesses in internal control. One reason for

  8. 12 CFR 1271.41 - Bank employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., established pursuant to section 21B(b) of the Bank Act (12 U.S.C. 1441b(b)), officers, employees, or agents of... section 21B(c)(6)(B) of the Bank Act (12 U.S.C. 1441b(c)(6)(B)). ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bank employees. 1271.41 Section 1271.41...

  9. The nuclear weapons world

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, P.

    1988-01-01

    This book presents insight into the technical world of weapons production. It discusses accountability in nuclear weapons decisionmaking. Nuclear decisions and the weapons and strategy they concern are too mammoth, too complex and too intimidating a subject for most of us to grapple with. The more so because informed debate is rare, and because information is difficult to obtain. In Britain, Parliamentary questions receive evasive answers or no answers at all, and the rationale of official secrecy is used as a reason to reveal less and less about decisions on national defense: between 1981 and 1987, for example, the number of open government documents published on defence fell from fifty-seven to two. In the case of NATO, decisions on nuclear strategy into the next century are taken in secret by defence ministers meeting in the Nuclear Planning Group.

  10. 76 FR 69240 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Request for the Appointment of a Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... Appointment of a Technical Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Department of Commerce... Technical Advisory Committees (TACs) were established to advise and assist the U.S. Government on export... Banks, Management Analyst, Office of the Chief Information Officer. BILLING CODE 3510-33-P...

  11. Technical Leadership Development Program - Year 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    specifically focuses on Systems Engineering (SE) technical leadership. This Systems Engineeering Technical Leadership Program (TLP) specifically will provide...Short Stirling of World War II. (Britain’s first four- engined heavy bomber, the Stirling was hamstrung with requirements that the wing-span be no...Instructor pilot , a SYS 350A Student Pilot was conducted with US Army systems engineering professionals at the US Army Aberdeen Proving Grounds

  12. Machine-Aided Translation: From Terminology Banks to Interactive Translation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Concetta C.; Serain, Daniel

    The rapid growth of the need for technical translations in recent years has led specialists to utilize computer technology to improve the efficiency and quality of translation. The two approaches considered were automatic translation and terminology banks. Since the results of fully automatic translation were considered unsatisfactory by various…

  13. Skills Conversion Project: Chapter 11, Banking, Finance and Insurance. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Society of Professional Engineers, Washington, DC.

    The National Society of Professional Engineers, under contract to the U.S. Department of Labor, conducted a study to investigate the conversion of skills of displaced aerospace defense technical professional to other industries. The Long Island team of the study project investigated the banking, finance, and insurance industries. Approximately 250…

  14. V-TECS Criterion-Referenced Test Item Bank for Radiologic Technology Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States (V-TECS) criterion-referenced test item bank provides 696 multiple-choice items and 33 matching items for radiologic technology occupations. These job titles are included: radiologic technologist, chief; radiologic technologist; nuclear medicine technologist; radiation therapy technologist;…

  15. Shell worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Kenneth I.; Kennedy, Robert G., III; Fields, David E.

    2013-02-01

    The traditional concept of terraforming assumes ready availability of candidate planets with acceptable qualities: orbiting a star in its "Goldilocks zone", liquid water, enough mass, years longer than days, magnetic field, etc. But even stipulating affordable interstellar travel, we still might never find a good candidate elsewhere. Whatever we found likely would require centuries of heavy terraforming, just as Mars or Venus would here. Our increasing appreciation of the ubiquity of life suggests that any terra nova would already possess it. We would then face the dilemma of introducing alien life forms (us, our microbes) into another living world. Instead, we propose a novel method to create habitable environments for humanity by enclosing airless, sterile, otherwise useless planets, moons, and even large asteroids within engineered shells, which avoids the conundrum. These shells are subject to two opposing internal stresses: compression due to the primary's gravity, and tension from atmospheric pressure contained inside. By careful design, these two cancel each other resulting in zero net shell stress. Beneath the shell an Earth-like environment could be created similar in almost all respects to that of Home, except for gravity, regardless of the distance to the sun or other star. Englobing a small planet, moon, or even a dwarf planet like Ceres, would require astronomical amounts of material (quadrillions of tons) and energy, plus a great deal of time. It would be a quantum leap in difficulty over building Dyson Dots or industrializing our solar system, perhaps comparable to a mission across interstellar space with a living crew within their lifetime. But when accomplished, these constructs would be complete (albeit small) worlds, not merely large habitats. They could be stable across historic timescales, possibly geologic. Each would contain a full, self-sustaining ecology, which might evolve in curious directions over time. This has interesting implications

  16. 12 CFR 25.26 - Small bank performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small bank performance standards. 25.26 Section... § 25.26 Small bank performance standards. (a) Performance criteria—(1) Small banks that are not intermediate small banks.The OCC evaluates the record of a small bank that is not, or that was not during...

  17. 12 CFR 25.26 - Small bank performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small bank performance standards. 25.26 Section... § 25.26 Small bank performance standards. (a) Performance criteria—(1) Small banks that are not intermediate small banks.The OCC evaluates the record of a small bank that is not, or that was not during...

  18. 12 CFR 1281.11 - Bank housing goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bank housing goals. 1281.11 Section 1281.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING GOALS Housing Goals § 1281.11 Bank housing goals. (a) Volume threshold. The housing...

  19. 12 CFR 1281.11 - Bank housing goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank housing goals. 1281.11 Section 1281.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING GOALS Housing Goals § 1281.11 Bank housing goals. (a) Volume threshold. The housing...

  20. 12 CFR 1281.11 - Bank housing goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bank housing goals. 1281.11 Section 1281.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING GOALS Housing Goals § 1281.11 Bank housing goals. (a) Volume threshold. The housing...