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Sample records for wormwood artemisia absinthium

  1. Analysis of sesquiterpene lactones, lignans, and flavonoids in wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-mass spectrometry, reversed phase HPLC, and HPLC-solid phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Aberham, Anita; Cicek, Serhat Sezai; Schneider, Peter; Stuppner, Hermann

    2010-10-27

    Today, the medicinal use of wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) is enjoying a resurgence of popularity. This study presents a specific and validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detection method for the simultaneous determination and quantification of bioactive compounds in wormwood and commercial preparations thereof. Five sesquiterpene lactones, two lignans, and a polymethoxylated flavonoid were baseline separated on RP-18 material, using a solvent gradient consisting of 0.085% (v/v) o-phosphoric acid and acetonitrile. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min, and chromatograms were recorded at 205 nm. The stability of absinthin was tested exposing samples to light, moisture, and different temperatures. Methanolic and aqueous solutions of absinthin were found to be stable for up to 6 months. This was also the case when the solid compound was kept in the refrigerator at -35 °C. In contrast, the colorless needles, when stored at room temperature, turned yellow. Three degradation compounds (anabsin, anabsinthin, and the new dimer 3'-hydroxyanabsinthin) were identified by HPLC-mass spectrometry and HPLC-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance and quantified by the established HPLC method.

  2. A new chemical tool for absinthe producers, quantification of α/β-thujone and the bitter components in Artemisia absinthium.

    PubMed

    Bach, Benoit; Cleroux, Marilyn; Saillen, Mayra; Schönenberger, Patrik; Burgos, Stephane; Ducruet, Julien; Vallat, Armelle

    2016-12-15

    The concentrations of α/β-thujone and the bitter components of Artemisia absinthium were quantified from alcoholic wormwood extracts during four phenological stages of their harvest period. A solid-phase micro-extraction method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine the concentration of the two isomeric forms of thujone. In parallel, the combination of ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry allowed to quantify the compounds absinthin, artemisetin and dihydro-epi-deoxyarteannuin B. This present study aimed at helping absinthe producers to determine the best harvesting period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. EFFECT OF-GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE, CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS AND ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM ON BLOOD GLUCOSE AND LIPID PROFILE IN DIABETIC HUMAN.

    PubMed

    Li, Youshan; Zheng, Min; Zhai, Xing; Huang, Youliang; Khalid, Anwar; Malik, Aneela; Shah, Pervaiz; Karim, Sabiha; Azhar, Saira; Hou, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to manage diabetes with medicinal plants (Gymnema sylvestre, Artemisia absinthium and Citillus colocynthis) in human patients with type II diabetes. Thirty two patients of type II diabetes from both sexes of 30-60 years age were registered for this study and distributed them into four groups, each having 8 patients. Capsules of each, Gymnema sylvestre, Artemisia absinthium and Citrullus colocynthis were given to patients twice a day for 30 days in 1 g per day dosage and investigated for glucose, triglyceride (TGL) and cholesterol level. Gymnema sylvestre reduced 37% glucose, 5% TGL, 13% cholesterol and 19% low desity lipoproteins (LDL) level in diabetic individuals. Citrullus colocynth reduced glucose, cholesterol and TGL and HDL-cholesterol level by 35, 6, 6, and 5%, respectively. Artemisia absinthium reduced 3% high desity lipoproteins (HDL) and 6% LDL level. From results, it can be concluded that the powdered Gymnema sylvestre, Citrulus colocynthis, and Artemisia absinthium possess good anti-diabetic features, however these herbal products had no significant effect on lipid profiles of the diabetic human.

  4. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. ethanolic extracts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae) are medicinal plants native to temperate regions of Europe, including Romania, traditionally used for treatment of skin wounds, bruises and contusions. In the present study, A. montana and A. absinthium ethanolic extracts were evaluated for their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in a mouse fibroblast-like NCTC cell line. Results A. absinthium extract showed a higher antioxidant capacity than A. montana extract as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging activity, in correlation with its flavonoids and phenolic acids content. Both plant extracts had significant effects on the growth of NCTC cells in the range of 10–100 mg/L A. montana and 10–500 mg/L A. absinthium. They also protected fibroblast cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage, at the same doses. The best protection was observed in cell pre-treatment with 10 mg/L A. montana and 10–300 mg/L A. absinthium, respectively, as determined by Neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase assays. In addition, cell pre-treatment with plant extracts, at these concentrations, prevented morphological changes induced by hydrogen peroxide. Flow-cytometry analysis showed that pre-treatment with A. montana and A. absinthium extracts restored the proportion of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. Conclusions A. montana and A. absinthium extracts, rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids, showed a good antioxidant activity and cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage in fibroblast-like cells. These results provide scientific support for the traditional use of A. montana and A. absinthium in treatment of skin disorders. PMID:22958433

  5. Trypanocidal, trichomonacidal and cytotoxic components of cultivated Artemisia absinthium Linnaeus (Asteraceae) essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Díaz, Rafael Alberto; Ibáñez-Escribano, Alexandra; Burillo, Jesús; Heras, Lorena de las; del Prado, Gema; Agulló-Ortuño, M Teresa; Julio, Luis F; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia absinthium is an aromatic and medicinal plant of ethnopharmacological interest and it has been widely studied. The use ofA. absinthium based on the collection of wild populations can result in variable compositions of the extracts and essential oils (EOs). The aim of this paper is the identification of the active components of the vapour pressure (VP) EO from a selected and cultivated A. absinthiumSpanish population (T2-11) against two parasitic protozoa with different metabolic pathways: Trypanosoma cruzi andTrichomonas vaginalis. VP showed activity on both parasites at the highest concentrations. The chromatographic fractionation of the VP T2-11 resulted in nine fractions (VLC1-9). The chemical composition of the fractions and the antiparasitic effects of fractions and their main compounds suggest that the activity of the VP is related with the presence oftrans-caryophyllene and dihydrochamazulene (main components of fractions VLC1 and VLC2 respectively). Additionally, the cytotoxicity of VP and fractions has been tested on several tumour and no tumour human cell lines. Fractions VLC1 and VLC2 were not cytotoxic against the nontumoural cell line HS5, suggesting selective antiparasitic activity for these two fractions. The VP and fractions inhibited the growth of human tumour cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26107187

  6. Antimicrobial, antioxidative, and insect repellent effects of Artemisia absinthium essential oil.

    PubMed

    Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana; Jovanović, Boris; Jović, Jovana; Ilić, Budimir; Miladinović, Dragoljub; Matejić, Jelena; Rajković, Jelena; Dorđević, Ljubiša; Cvetković, Vladimir; Zlatković, Bojan

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil of Artemisia absinthium was studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of ethnopharmacological uses of this plant species in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases and wounds, and as an insect repellent. The aerial part of the plant was hydrodistilled, and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Forty-seven compounds, corresponding to 94.65 % of the total oil, were identified, with the main constituents being sabinene (24.49 %), sabinyl acetate (13.64 %), and α-phellandrene (10.29 %). The oil yield was 0.23 % (v/w). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated against ten bacterial isolates (from patients wounds and stools) and seven American Type Culture Collection strains using a microwell dilution assay. The minimal inhibitory/bactericidal concentration of the oil ranged from < 0.08 to 2.43 mg/mL and from 0.08 to 38.80 mg/mL, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical-scavenging methods and assessed as significant. Skin irritation potential and acute toxicity of the oil were also investigated. Results of the skin irritant reaction showed that none of the 30 volunteers developed a positive skin irritant reaction to undiluted A. absinthium essential oil. Acute oral exposure to the essential oil did not cause mortality in the treated mice, but it did cause neurological, muscle, and gastrointestinal problems. A subchronic toxicity test on Drosophila melanogaster showed that the essential oil of A. absinthium is toxic for developing insect larvae. Starting with the concentration of 0.38 % of essential oil in medium, significant mortality of larvae exposed to the oil was noted when compared to the control. Probit

  7. Selective nematocidal effects of essential oils from two cultivated Artemisia absinthium populations.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Juan José; Andrés, María-Fé; Ibañez-Escribano, Alexandra; Julio, Luis F; Burillo, Jesús; Bolás-Fernández, Francisco; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2015-09-01

    Essential oils (EOs) obtained from two crops and populations of thujone-free cultivated Artemisia absinthium were tested against two nematode models, the mammalian parasite Trichinella spiralis, and the plant parasitic root knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. The EOs were characterized by the presence of (Z)-epoxyocimene and chrysanthenol as major components and showed time and population dependent quantitative and qualitative variations in composition. The EOs showed a strong ex vivo activity against the L1 larvae of the nematode Trichinella spiralis with a reduction of infectivity between 72 and 100% at a dose range of 0.5-1 mg/ml in absence of cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. Moreover, the in vivo activity of the EO against T. spiralis showed a 66% reduction of intestinal adults. However, these oils were not effective against M. javanica.

  8. The effect of essential oils of dietary wormwood (Artemisia princeps), with and without added vitamin E, on oxidative stress and some genes involved in cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chung, Mi Ja; Kang, Ah-Young; Park, Sung-Ok; Park, Kuen-Woo; Jun, Hee-Jin; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2007-08-01

    Wormwood (Artemisia princeps) due to the abundance of antioxidant in its essential oils (EO), has been used as a traditional drug and health food in Korea. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology of atherosclerosis thus antioxidative chemicals improves hepatic lipid metabolism partly by reducing oxysterol formation. The antioxidant activity was assessed using two methods, human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and the anti-DPPH free radical assays. It was found that the antioxidant activity of EO with vitamin E higher than EO alone. To study mechanisms accounting for the antiatherosclerotic properties of this wormwood EO, we examined the expression of key genes in cholesterol metabolism such as the LDL receptor, the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and sterol regulatory element binding proteins. The induction was increased up to twofold at 0.05 mg/mL of EO treatment in HepG2 cells for 24h. When EO (0.2 mg/mL) was co-incubated with vitamin E, interestingly, the LDL receptor was dramatically induced by 5-6-folds. HMG-CoA reductase did not change. However, treatment with the higher concentration resulted in cytotoxicity. Our data suggest that wormwood EO with vitamin E may be anti-atherogenic due to their inhibition of LDL oxidation and upregulation of the LDL receptor.

  9. Effect of crude extracts of Moringa stenopetala and Artemisia absinthium on parasitaemia of mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment of trypanosomosis is currently facing a number of problems including toxicity of trypanocidal drugs and development of resistance by the parasites. These limitations have prompted the search for alternative active substances (such as of natural origin). The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of extracts of Moringa stenopetala and Artemisia absinthium on Trypanosoma congolense in mice. Methods Swiss white male mice aged 8–12 weeks were divided into six experimental groups of six animals. Water and methanol extracts of the two plants were prepared. T. congolense was isolated from cattle at Ghibe valley (Ethiopia). All experimental mice received approximately 1 x 105 trypanosomes in 0.2 ml of blood. Plant extracts were given orally to four groups (2 plant species and two extraction methods) at 400 mg/kg body weight for seven consecutive days. One group remained as distilled water treated control and the other as diminzene aceturate treated control. The effect of the extracts on levels of parasitaemia, body weight, packed cell volume (PCV) and mice survival was monitored for 25 days. Results All treatments have significantly reduced parasitaemia and helped improve body weight, PCV and survival of mice compared to the water-treated control (P < 0.01 in all cases). These effects were comparable to that with diminazene aceturate. No significant difference was observed in the reduction of parasitaemia between plant extract treatment groups. However, mice with extracts of A. absinthium had significantly higher body weight than those with extracts of M. stenopetala (P < 0.05). Conclusions The two plants have antitrypanosomal potential against T. congolense by reducing the levels of parasitaemia, maintaining good PCV and body weight, and prolonging the lives of infected animals. PMID:24962241

  10. Effect of crude extracts of Moringa stenopetala and Artemisia absinthium on parasitaemia of mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense.

    PubMed

    Kifleyohannes, Tsegabirhan; Terefe, Getachew; Tolossa, Yacob H; Giday, Mirutse; Kebede, Nigatu

    2014-06-24

    Treatment of trypanosomosis is currently facing a number of problems including toxicity of trypanocidal drugs and development of resistance by the parasites. These limitations have prompted the search for alternative active substances (such as of natural origin). The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of extracts of Moringa stenopetala and Artemisia absinthium on Trypanosoma congolense in mice. Swiss white male mice aged 8-12 weeks were divided into six experimental groups of six animals. Water and methanol extracts of the two plants were prepared. T. congolense was isolated from cattle at Ghibe valley (Ethiopia). All experimental mice received approximately 1 x 10(5) trypanosomes in 0.2 ml of blood. Plant extracts were given orally to four groups (2 plant species and two extraction methods) at 400 mg/kg body weight for seven consecutive days. One group remained as distilled water treated control and the other as diminzene aceturate treated control. The effect of the extracts on levels of parasitaemia, body weight, packed cell volume (PCV) and mice survival was monitored for 25 days. All treatments have significantly reduced parasitaemia and helped improve body weight, PCV and survival of mice compared to the water-treated control (P < 0.01 in all cases). These effects were comparable to that with diminazene aceturate. No significant difference was observed in the reduction of parasitaemia between plant extract treatment groups. However, mice with extracts of A. absinthium had significantly higher body weight than those with extracts of M. stenopetala (P < 0.05). The two plants have antitrypanosomal potential against T. congolense by reducing the levels of parasitaemia, maintaining good PCV and body weight, and prolonging the lives of infected animals.

  11. Efficient in vitro propagation of Artemisia nilagirica var. nilagirica (Indian wormwood) and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Smita; Sebastian, Joseph Kadanthottu; Jain, Jyothi Ramesh; Hanamanthagouda, Manohar Shirugumbi; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana

    2016-10-01

    A reliable protocol has been established for in vitro propagation of Artemisia nilagirica var. nilagirica (Indian wormwood), a valuable medicinal plant from India. A highly proliferating organogenic callus was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2.5 µM IAA when nodal explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various growth regulators. Further, highest regeneration frequency (83.3 %) of adventitious shoots was observed, when the callus was sub-cultured on MS medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP; 2.5 µM) along with 7.5 µM 2-isopentenyl adenine (2-iP). An optimal of 10.16 ± 2.24 shoots were regenerated on medium supplemented with 2.5 µM BAP + 7.5 µM 2-iP. Quarter strength MS medium supplemented with 10 µM IBA was effective for rooting of the shoots. Ex-vitro plants were normal and were established successfully. Cytological and molecular marker studies showed that regenerated plants showed genetic stability in micro-propagated plants.

  12. Strategies to enhance biologically active-secondary metabolites in cell cultures of Artemisia - current trends.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Ahmad, Nisar; Khan, Haji; Ali, Gul Shad

    2017-11-01

    The genus Artemisia has been utilized worldwide due to its immense potential for protection against various diseases, especially malaria. Artemisia absinthium, previously renowned for its utilization in the popular beverage absinthe, is gaining resurgence due to its extensive pharmacological activities. Like A. annua, this species exhibits strong biological activities like antimalarial, anticancer and antioxidant. Although artemisinin was found to be the major metabolite for its antimalarial effects, several flavonoids and terpenoids are considered to possess biological activities when used alone and also to synergistically boost the bioavailability of artemisinin. However, due to the limited quantities of these metabolites in wild plants, in vitro cultures were established and strategies have been adopted to enhance medicinally important secondary metabolites in these cultures. This review elaborates on the traditional medicinal uses of Artemisia species and explains current trends to establish cell cultures of A. annua and A. absinthium for enhanced production of medicinally important secondary metabolites.

  13. In vitro evaluation of cytotoxic activity of flower, leaf, stem and root extracts of five Artemisia species

    PubMed Central

    Gordanian, B.; Behbahani, M.; Carapetian, J.; Fazilati, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate cytotoxic activity of flower, leaf, stem and root extracts of five Artemisia species against breast cancer cell line (MCF7) and human embryonic kidney normal cell line (HEK293). The studied Artemisia species were A. absinthium, A. vulgaris, A. incana, A. fragrans and A. spicigera. The cytotoxic activity was measured by MTT assay at different concentrations (62.5, 125, 250, 500 μg/ml). Among these five species, methanol extracts of flower, leaf, stem and root of A. absinthium and A. vulgaris exhibited considerable cytotoxic activity. The flower extracts of these two species were found to have higher cytotoxic effect on MCF7 cell with an IC50 value of 221.5 and >500 μg/ml, respectively. Leaf methanol extract of A. incana also showed cytotoxic activity. Cytotoxic activity of different extracts of A. absinthium, A. vulgaris and A. incana against MCF7 was 10%-40% more than HEK293 cells. Not only the extracts of A. spicigera and A. fragrans did not show any cytotoxic effect against both cell lines, but also increased the number of cells. This study revealed that A. absinthium and A. vulgaris may have a great potential to explore new anticancer drugs. PMID:25657777

  14. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Artemisia absinthium aqueous extract--A comprehensive study.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad; Kim, Bosung; Belfield, Kevin D; Norman, David; Brennan, Mary; Ali, Gul Shad

    2016-01-01

    Unlike chemical synthesis, biological synthesis of nanoparticles is gaining tremendous interest, and plant extracts are preferred over other biological sources due to their ample availability and wide array of reducing metabolites. In this project, we investigated the reducing potential of aqueous extract of Artemisia absinthium L. for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Optimal synthesis of AgNPs with desirable physical and biological properties was investigated using ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). To determine their appropriate concentrations for AgNP synthesis, two-fold dilutions of silver nitrate (20 to 0.62 mM) and aqueous plant extract (100 to 0.79 mg ml(-1)) were reacted. The results showed that silver nitrate (2mM) and plant extract (10 mg ml(-1)) mixed in different ratios significantly affected size, stability and yield of AgNPs. Extract to AgNO3 ratio of 6:4v/v resulted in the highest conversion efficiency of AgNO3 to AgNPs, with the particles in average size range of less than 100 nm. Furthermore, the direct imaging of synthesized AgNPs by TEM revealed polydispersed particles in the size range of 5 to 20 nm. Similarly, nanoparticles with the characteristic peak of silver were observed with EDX. This study presents a comprehensive investigation of the differential behavior of plant extract and AgNO3 to synthesize biologically stable AgNPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. (Chemotaxonomic) Implications of Postharvest/Storage-Induced Changes in Plant Volatile Profiles--the Case of Artemisia absinthium L. Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Blagojević, Polina D; Radulović, Niko S; Skropeta, Danielle

    2015-08-01

    The plant volatile profile and the essential-oil chemical composition change during the storage of plant material. The objective of this study was to develop a mathematical model able to predict, explain, and quantify these changes. Mathematical equations, derived under the assumption that the essential oil contained within plant material could be treated as an ideal solution (Raoult's law), were applied for tracking of postharvest changes in the volatile profile of Artemisia absinthium L. (the essential oils were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS). Starting from a specific chemical composition of an essential-oil sample obtained from plant material after a short drying period (typically 5-10 d), and by using the equations derived from this model, one could easily predict evaporation-induced changes in the volatile profile of the plant material. Based on the composition of the essential-oil sample obtained after a given storage time t, it is possible to identify those components that were involved in chemical reactions, both as reactants and possible products. The established model even allowed the recognition of pairs of transformation, i.e., 'daughter' products and their 'parent' compounds. The obtained results highlight that the essential-oil composition is highly dependent on the storage period of any plant material and urges caution in different types of phytochemical studies, especially chemotaxonomic ones, or practical application. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  16. Allelopathic effects of water extracts ofArtemisia princeps var.orientalis on selected plant species.

    PubMed

    Kil, B S; Yun, K W

    1992-01-01

    The allelopathic effects of wormwood plants (Artemisia princeps var.orientalis) and their possible phytotoxicity on receptor species were investigated. The aqueous extracts of mature leaf, stem, and root of wormwood plants caused significant inhibition in germination and decreased seedling elongation of receptor plants, whereas germination of some species was not inhibited by extracts of stems and roots. Dry weight growth was slightly increased at lower concentrations of the extract, whereas it was proportionally inhibited at higher concentrations. The calorie value of the organic matter in receptor plants measured by bomb calorimeter was reduced proportionally to the extract concentration. However, results with extracts of juvenile leaf did not correlate with inhibition or promotion of elongation and dry weight.

  17. Bitters: Time for a New Paradigm.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Michael K; Whitehouse, Julie M; Towell, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    In plant-based medical systems, bitter tasting plants play a key role in managing dyspepsia. Yet when it comes to defining their mechanism of activity, herbalists and pharmacologists are split between two theories: one involves cephalic elicited vagal responses while the other comprises purely local responses. Recent studies indicate that bitters elicit a range of cephalic responses which alter postprandial gastric phase haemodynamics. Caffeine and regular coffee (Coffea arabica semen, L.) increase heart rate whereas gentian (Gentiana lutea radix, L.) and wormwood (Artemisia absinthium herba L.) increase tonus in the vascular resistance vessels. Following meals increased cardiac activity acts to support postprandial hyperaemia and maintain systemic blood pressure. The increased vascular tonus acts in parallel with the increased cardiac activity and in normal adults this additional pressor effect results in a reduced cardiac workload. The vascular response is a sympathetic reflex, evident after 5 minutes and dose dependent. Thus gentian and wormwood elicit cephalic responses which facilitate rather than stimulate digestive activity when postprandial hyperaemia is inadequate. Encapsulated caffeine elicits cardiovascular responses indicating that gastrointestinal bitter receptors are functionally active in humans. However, neither encapsulated gentian nor wormwood elicited cardiovascular responses during the gastric phase. These findings provide the platform for a new evidence-based paradigm.

  18. Bitters: Time for a New Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    McMullen, Michael K.; Whitehouse, Julie M.; Towell, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    In plant-based medical systems, bitter tasting plants play a key role in managing dyspepsia. Yet when it comes to defining their mechanism of activity, herbalists and pharmacologists are split between two theories: one involves cephalic elicited vagal responses while the other comprises purely local responses. Recent studies indicate that bitters elicit a range of cephalic responses which alter postprandial gastric phase haemodynamics. Caffeine and regular coffee (Coffea arabica semen, L.) increase heart rate whereas gentian (Gentiana lutea radix, L.) and wormwood (Artemisia absinthium herba L.) increase tonus in the vascular resistance vessels. Following meals increased cardiac activity acts to support postprandial hyperaemia and maintain systemic blood pressure. The increased vascular tonus acts in parallel with the increased cardiac activity and in normal adults this additional pressor effect results in a reduced cardiac workload. The vascular response is a sympathetic reflex, evident after 5 minutes and dose dependent. Thus gentian and wormwood elicit cephalic responses which facilitate rather than stimulate digestive activity when postprandial hyperaemia is inadequate. Encapsulated caffeine elicits cardiovascular responses indicating that gastrointestinal bitter receptors are functionally active in humans. However, neither encapsulated gentian nor wormwood elicited cardiovascular responses during the gastric phase. These findings provide the platform for a new evidence-based paradigm. PMID:26074998

  19. Topical Effects of Artemisia Absinthium Ointment and Liniment in Comparison with Piroxicam Gel in Patients with Knee Joint Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Basiri, Zahra; Zeraati, Fatemeh; Esna-Ashari, Farzaneh; Mohammadi, Farshid; Razzaghi, Keyvan; Araghchian, Malihe; Moradkhani, Shirin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pain alleviation and improvement of functional status are the main objectives in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Artemisia absinthium (AA) was used traditionally in reducing pain and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of topical formulations of AA and piroxicam gel (PG) among patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: In total, 90 outpatients aged 30-70 years with the diagnosis of primary osteoarthritis in at least one knee were enrolled in a randomized double-blind clinical trial. The patients referred to the Rheumatology Clinic at Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Hamadan province during 2012-2013. The patients were randomly assigned into three groups, 30 patients per group, and respectively received AA ointment (AAO) 3%, AA liniment (AAL) 3%, and PG; three times daily (TID) for 4 weeks. The patients were visited at baseline, week 4, and week 6. The effectiveness criteria were pain severity which was assessed with a 10-point visual analog scale (VAS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) for total pain score (WTPS), total physical function score (WTPFS), and total stiffness score (WTSS). Repeated measure ANOVA, paired t test and post hoc were used to compare variables. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software, version 13.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois). Results: All groups had similar patient demographics. The administration of PG significantly improved all tested criteria with no recurrence after discontinuing the treatment protocol. AAO alleviated all tested factors except for WTSS. Alleviation was comparable to PG. AAL only reduced pain factors (VAS, WTPS) in week 4 with recurrence in week 6. Conclusion: Administration of Artemisia ointment may have beneficial effects in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201202123109N3 PMID:29184260

  20. Topical Effects of Artemisia Absinthium Ointment and Liniment in Comparison with Piroxicam Gel in Patients with Knee Joint Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Basiri, Zahra; Zeraati, Fatemeh; Esna-Ashari, Farzaneh; Mohammadi, Farshid; Razzaghi, Keyvan; Araghchian, Malihe; Moradkhani, Shirin

    2017-11-01

    Pain alleviation and improvement of functional status are the main objectives in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Artemisia absinthium (AA) was used traditionally in reducing pain and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of topical formulations of AA and piroxicam gel (PG) among patients with knee osteoarthritis. In total, 90 outpatients aged 30-70 years with the diagnosis of primary osteoarthritis in at least one knee were enrolled in a randomized double-blind clinical trial. The patients referred to the Rheumatology Clinic at Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Hamadan province during 2012-2013. The patients were randomly assigned into three groups, 30 patients per group, and respectively received AA ointment (AAO) 3%, AA liniment (AAL) 3%, and PG; three times daily (TID) for 4 weeks. The patients were visited at baseline, week 4, and week 6. The effectiveness criteria were pain severity which was assessed with a 10-point visual analog scale (VAS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) for total pain score (WTPS), total physical function score (WTPFS), and total stiffness score (WTSS). Repeated measure ANOVA, paired t test and post hoc were used to compare variables. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software, version 13.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois). All groups had similar patient demographics. The administration of PG significantly improved all tested criteria with no recurrence after discontinuing the treatment protocol. AAO alleviated all tested factors except for WTSS. Alleviation was comparable to PG. AAL only reduced pain factors (VAS, WTPS) in week 4 with recurrence in week 6. Administration of Artemisia ointment may have beneficial effects in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201202123109N3.

  1. Evaluation of DNA barcode candidates for the discrimination of Artemisia L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Geyu; Ning, Huixia; Ayidaerhan, Nurbolati; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2017-11-01

    Because of the very similar morphologies and wide diversity of Artemisia L. varieties, they are difficult to identify, and there have been many arguments about the systematic classification Artemisia L., especially concerning the division of species. DNA barcode technology is used to rapidly identify species based on standard short DNA sequences. To evaluate seven candidate DNA barcodes (ITS, ITS2, psbA-trnH, rbcL, matK, rpoB, and rpoC1) regarding their ability to identify closely related species of the Artemisia genus in Xinjiang. The corresponding PCR amplification efficiency, detectable genetic divergence, identification efficiency and phylogenetic tree were assessed. We found that the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region exhibited the highest interspecific divergence, which was significantly higher than the observed intraspecific variation and showed the highest identification efficiency, followed by ITS2, psbA-trnH and, finally, rpoB. matK, rbcL, and rpoC1 performed poorly in this evaluation. ITS, ITS2, and psbA-trnH were able to perfectly identify the tested species Artemisia annua, A. absinthium, A. rupestris, A. tonurnefortiana, A. austriaca, A. dracunculus, A. vulgaris, and A. macrocephala. Therefore, we propose the ITS, ITS2, and psbA-trnH regions as promising DNA barcodes for the closely related species of Artemisia L. in Xinjiang.

  2. Antimicrobial and Efflux Pump Inhibitory Activity of Caffeoylquinic Acids from Artemisia absinthium against Gram-Positive Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Fiamegos, Yiannis C.; Kastritis, Panagiotis L.; Exarchou, Vassiliki; Han, Haley; Bonvin, Alexandre M. J. J.; Vervoort, Jacques; Lewis, Kim; Hamblin, Michael R.; Tegos, George P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Traditional antibiotics are increasingly suffering from the emergence of multidrug resistance amongst pathogenic bacteria leading to a range of novel approaches to control microbial infections being investigated as potential alternative treatments. One plausible antimicrobial alternative could be the combination of conventional antimicrobial agents/antibiotics with small molecules which block multidrug efflux systems known as efflux pump inhibitors. Bioassay-driven purification and structural determination of compounds from plant sources have yielded a number of pump inhibitors which acted against gram positive bacteria. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we report the identification and characterization of 4′,5′-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4′,5′-ODCQA) from Artemisia absinthium as a pump inhibitor with a potential of targeting efflux systems in a wide panel of Gram-positive human pathogenic bacteria. Separation and identification of phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, 3′,5′-ODCQA, 4′,5′-ODCQA) was based on hyphenated chromatographic techniques such as liquid chromatography with post column solid-phase extraction coupled with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. Microbial susceptibility testing and potentiation of well know pump substrates revealed at least two active compounds; chlorogenic acid with weak antimicrobial activity and 4′,5′-ODCQA with pump inhibitory activity whereas 3′,5′-ODCQA was ineffective. These intitial findings were further validated with checkerboard, berberine accumulation efflux assays using efflux-related phenotypes and clinical isolates as well as molecular modeling methodology. Conclusions/Significance These techniques facilitated the direct analysis of the active components from plant extracts, as well as dramatically reduced the time needed to analyze the compounds, without the need for prior isolation. The calculated energetics of the docking poses supported the

  3. Effect of Sweet Wormwood Artemisia annua Crude Leaf Extracts on Some Biological and Physiological Characteristics of the Lesser Mulberry Pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Roya; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Yezdani, Elham

    2011-01-01

    The lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a monophagous and dangerous pest of mulberry that has been recently observed in Guilan province, northern Iran. In this study, the crude methanol extract of sweet wormwood Artemisia annua L. (Asterales: Asteracaea) was investigated on toxicity, biological and physiological characteristics of this pest under controlled conditions (24 ± 1 °C, 75 ± 5% RH, and 16:8 L:D photoperiod). The effect of acute toxicity and sublethal doses on physiological characteristics was performed by topical application. The LC50 and LC20 values on fourth instar larvae were calculated as 0.33 and 0.22 gram leaf equivalent/ mL, respectively. The larval duration of fifth instar larvae in LC50 treatment was prolonged (5.8 ± 0.52 days) compared with the control group (4.26 ± 0.29 days). However larval duration was reduced in the LC20 treatment. The female adult longevity in the LC50 dose was the least (4.53 ± 0.3 days), while longevity among controls was the highest (9.2 ± 0.29 days). The mean fecundity of adults after larval treatment with LC50 was recorded as 105.6 ± 16.84 eggs/female, while the control was 392.74 ± 22.52 eggs/female. The percent hatchability was reduced in all treatments compared with the control. The effect of extract in 0.107, 0.053, 0.026 and 0.013 gle/mL on biochemical characteristics of this pest was also studied. The activity of α-amylase and protease 48 hours post—treatment was significantly reduced compared with the control. Similarly lipase, esterase, and glutathione S-transferase activity were significantly affected by A. annua extract. PMID:22239100

  4. Water deficit on the accumulation of biomass and artemisinin in annual wormwood (Artemisia annua L., Asteraceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite the importance of Artemisia annua as the only source of the anti-parasitic drug artemisinin, little can be found on the role of biotic and abiotic stress on artemisinin. Water stress is the most limiting factor on plant growth, but can trigger secondary metabolite accumulation, depending on...

  5. Essential oil variation in wild populations of Artemisia saharae (Asteraceae) from Tunisia: chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Zouari, Sami; Ayadi, Imen; Fakhfakh, Nahed; Jdir, Hamida; Aloui, Latifa; Kossentini, Mohamed; Rebai, Ahmed; Zouari, Nacim

    2014-12-01

    Artemisia saharae Pomel is a new taxon of Artemisia herba-alba Asso (Asteraceae) which is endemic to Tunisia and Algeria. This shrub, commonly known as white wormwood or desert wormwood, is largely used in folk medicine and as a culinary herb. The bulks aromatic plants come from wild populations whose essential oils compositions as well as their biological properties are severely affected by several factors such as geographic conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present work is to provide more information about the influence of altitude variation on the essential oil composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Artemisia saharae growing wild in the same geographical area. Essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation of leaves and flowers of the plant collected from seven different altitudes of the Baten Zamour region (southwest of Tunisia). The highest essential oil yields (2.70-2.80%) were obtained for populations of high altitudes. Seventy-five compounds, representing 92.78 to 96.95% of the total essential oils, were separated and identified. Essential oils were characterized by very high percentage of oxygenated monoterpenes (52.1-72.6%) which constituted the predominant class. From the analyzed populations, the major compounds (>7%) were α-thujone, β-thujone, chrysanthenone, camphor, chrysanthenyl acetate, and sabinyl acetate. Sabinyl acetate which was detected in some populations at relatively high percentages (7.7-10.8%) seems to be characteristic to Southern Tunisian A. saharae. The studied essential oil showed a chemical diversity depending on the population altitude as revealed by linear discriminant and cluster analyses. Three population groups associated with altitudinal levels were distinguished. It is worthy to note that the most discriminating compounds of chemical groups were the minor ones. Despite the high variation of essential oil compositions, the high altitude population did not affect severely the antibacterial activity

  6. Prenatal heat stress reduces male anogenital distance at birth and adult testis size, which are rescued by concurrent maternal Artemisia absinthium consumption.

    PubMed

    Desaulniers, A T; Lamberson, W R; Safranski, T J

    2016-04-01

    Boars from sows with elevated plasma cortisol during pregnancy have shorter anogenital distance (AGD), a trait associated with subfertility. Since gestating sows often experience summer heat stress (HS), a mouse model was used to evaluate the effect of prenatal HS on AGD and fertility; efficacy of the heat stress-mitigating supplement Artemisia absinthium (AB) was also evaluated. Dams were treated from d 8-18 of gestation, residing in ambient temperatures from 0700 to 1900h. From 1900 to 0700h females were exposed to 34.13±0.27°C (HS) with access to water (HSW; n=9), HS with access to a 1% w/v decoction of AB (HSA; n=9), 20.81±0.20°C (thermal neutral; TN) with water (TNW; n=10) or TN with AB (TNA; n=10). Daily liquid consumption was measured from d 6-18, and tail temperature was recorded at 0700 and 1900h from d 8-18. Progeny weight and AGD were recorded at birth and weaning. At maturity, males were mated to non-littermate females from each treatment; these females were euthanized after 16 d of TN gestation. Reproductive traits were compared among all male/female treatment combinations; testes were weighed. Average liquid intake differed among treatments with HS and AB animals drinking more (P<0.0004). A treatment by time interaction for tail temperature (P<0.001) was observed; HS increased tail temperature of HSA and HSW animals similarly compared to TNA and TNW. Treatment affected (P<0.01) male birth AGD (HSW shortest; P<0.07). At maturity, HSW males also had the smallest testes (P<0.02). However, we observed no differences in fertility (P>0.10). These data indicate that in utero HS decreases both male birth AGD and adult testis size, effects which maternal AB consumption mitigates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Toxic essential oils. Part V: Behaviour modulating and toxic properties of thujones and thujone-containing essential oils of Salvia officinalis L., Artemisia absinthium L., Thuja occidentalis L. and Tanacetum vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Radulović, Niko S; Genčić, Marija S; Stojanović, Nikola M; Randjelović, Pavle J; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica Z; Stojiljković, Nenad I

    2017-07-01

    Neurotoxic thujones (α- and β-diastereoisomers) are common constituents of plant essential oils. In this study, we employed a statistical approach to determine the contribution of thujones to the overall observed behaviour-modulating and toxic effects of essential oils (Salvia officinalis L., Artemisia absinthium L., Thuja occidentalis L. and Tanacetum vulgare L.) containing these monoterpene ketones. The data from three in vivo neuropharmacological tests on rats (open field, light-dark, and diazepam-induced sleep), and toxicity assays (brine shrimp, and antimicrobial activity against a panel of microorganisms), together with the data from detailed chemical analyses, were subjected to a multivariate statistical treatment to reveal the possible correlation(s) between the content of essential-oil constituents and the observed effects. The results strongly imply that the toxic and behaviour-modulating activity of the oils (hundreds of constituents) should not be associated exclusively with thujones. The statistical analyses pinpointed to a number of essential-oil constituents other than thujones that demonstrated a clear correlation with either the toxicity, antimicrobial effect or the activity on CNS. Thus, in addition to the thujone content, the amount and toxicity of other constituents should be taken into consideration when making risk assessment and determining the regulatory status of plants in food and medicines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antimalarial activity of three Pakistani medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Irshad, Saba; Mannan, Abdul; Mirza, Bushra

    2011-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the in vitro anti-malarial activity of three medicinal plants, Picrorhiza kurroa, Caesalpinia bonducella and Artemisia absinthium of Pakistan. Different extracts of various parts of these plants were prepared by maceration and percolation, and were evaluated for their antimalarial activity. Aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa showed 34%, 100% and 90% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively, at 2.00 mg/ml. While aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extracts of Caesalpinia bonducella showed 65%, 56% and 76% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively at same concentrations. In the case of Artemisia absinthium, aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium showed 35%, 55% and 21% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively at 2.00 mg/ml. In our study, extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa were found good for traditional therapy with highly significant results.

  9. Influence ofArtemisia princeps var.orientalis components on callus induction and growth.

    PubMed

    Kil, B S; Yun, K W; Lee, S Y

    1992-08-01

    An in vitro study was performed to determine the potential application of tissue culture in determining allelopathic potentialof Artemisia princeps var.Orientalis (wormwood). Aqueous extracts and volatile substances ofA. princeps var.Orientalis were tested to determine their effects on callus induction and growth of several tested species. Extracts of 5%A. princeps var.Orientalis caused some reduction in concentration, induction, and growth of callus, although they looked normal, whereas the expiants of most receptor plants did not develop callus at higher concentration. Lettuce andEclipta prostrata were the most sensitive species, andA. princeps var.Orientalis was affected by its own extracts. The growth of calluses in MS 121 medium treated with essential oil ofA. princeps var.Orientalis was inhibited, and the degree of inhibition was proportional to the concentration of the essential oil.

  10. Differences in chemical constituents of Artemisia annua L from different geographical regions in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Zhao, Yuping; Guo, Lanping; Qiu, Zhidong; Huang, Luqi; Qu, Xiaobo

    2017-01-01

    Daodi-herb is a part of Chinese culture, which has been naturally selected by traditional Chinese medicine clinical practice for many years. Sweet wormwood herb is a kind of Daodi-herb, and comes from Artemisia annua L. Artemisinin is a kind of effective antimalarial drug being extracted from A. annua. Because of artemisinin, Sweet wormwood herb earns a reputation. Based on the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (PPRC), Sweet wormwood herb can be used to resolve summerheat-heat, and prevent malaria. Besides, it also has other medical efficacies. A. annua, a medicinal plant that is widely distributed in the world contains many kinds of chemical composition. Research has shown that compatibility of artemisinin, scopoletin, arteannuin B and arteannuic acid has antimalarial effect. Compatibility of scopoletin, arteannuin B and arteannuic acid is conducive to resolving summerheat-heat. Chemical constituents in A. annua vary significantly according to geographical locations. So, distribution of A. annua may play a key role in the characteristics of efficacy and chemical constituents of Sweet wormwood herb. It is of great significance to study this relationship. We mainly analyzed the relationship between the chemical constituents (arteannuin B, artemisinin, artemisinic acid, and scopoletin) with special efficacy in A. annua that come from different provinces in china, and analyzed the relationship between chemical constituents and spatial distribution, in order to find out the relationship between efficacy, chemical constituents and distribution. A field survey was carried out to collect A. annua plant samples. A global positioning system (GPS) was used for obtaining geographical coordinates of sampling sites. Chemical constituents in A. annua were determined by liquid chromatography tandem an atmospheric pressure ionization-electrospray mass spectrometry. Relationship between chemical constituents including proportions, correlation analysis (CoA), principal

  11. The Assessment of Toxic Metals in Plants Used in Cosmetics and Cosmetology

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Agnieszka; Brodziak-Dopierała, Barbara; Loska, Krzysztof; Stojko, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metals polluting the natural environment are absorbed by plants. The use of herbs as components of cosmetics may pose a health risk for humans. The aim of the study was to determine the concentrations of Pb, Cd and Hg in selected species of herbs (horsetail Equisetum arvense, nettle Urtica dioica, St. John’s wort Hypericum perforatum, wormwood Artemisia absinthium, yarrow Achillea millefolium, cottonwood Solidago virgaurea) self-collected from the natural environment in two different locations, and purchased in stores on the territory of Poland. The concentration of the metals studied was: 4.67–23.8 mg/kg Pb, 0.01–1.51 mg/kg Cd, 0.005–0.028 mg/kg Hg. Different concentrations of metals, depending on species and origin of plants, were found. The mean concentration of all studied metals was the lowest in St. John’s wort, and the highest in nettle. In herbs purchased in Polish stores, the concentration of Pb was higher than in plants self-collected in the natural environment. PMID:29064437

  12. Multiplex PCR method to discriminate Artemisia iwayomogi from other Artemisia plants.

    PubMed

    Doh, Eui Jeong; Oh, Seung-Eun

    2012-01-01

    Some plants in the genus Artemisia have been used for medicinal purposes. Among them, Artemisia iwayomogi, commonly referred to as "Haninjin," is one of the major medicinal materials used in traditional Korean medicine. By contrast, Artemisia capillaris and both Artemisia argyi and Artemisia princeps, referred to as "Injinho" and "Aeyup," respectively, are used to treat diseases different from those for which "Haninjin" is prescribed. Therefore, the development of a reliable method to differentiate each Artemisia herb is necessary. We found that a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method can be used to efficiently discriminate a few Artemisia plants from one another. To improve the reliability of RAPD amplification, we designed primer sets based on the nucleotide sequences of RAPD products to amplify a sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker of A. iwayomogi. In addition, we designed two other primer sets to amplify SCAR markers of "Aeyup" (A. argyi and A. princeps) along with "Injinho" (A. capillaris) and Artemisia japonica, which are also traded in Korean herbal markets. Using these three primer sets, we developed a multiplex PCR method concurrently not only to discriminate A. iwayomogi from other Artemisia plants, but also to identify Artemisia plants using a single PCR process.

  13. Sucrose-enhanced biosynthesis of medicinally important antioxidant secondary metabolites in cell suspension cultures of Artemisia absinthium L.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Ahmad, Nisar; Ali, Syed Shujait; Ali, Shahid; Ali, Gul Shad

    2016-12-01

    Natural products are gaining tremendous importance in pharmaceutical industry and attention has been focused on the applications of in vitro technologies to enhance yield and productivity of such products. In this study, we investigated the accumulation of biomass and antioxidant secondary metabolites in response to different carbohydrate sources (sucrose, maltose, fructose and glucose) and sucrose concentrations (1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 %). Moreover, the effects of 3 % repeated sucrose feeding (day-12, -18 and -24) were also investigated. The results showed the superiority of disaccharides over monosaccharides for maximum biomass and secondary metabolites accumulation. Comparable profiles for maximum biomass were observed in response to sucrose and maltose and initial sucrose concentrations of 3 and 5 %. Maximum total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were displayed by cultures treated with sucrose and maltose; however, initial sucrose concentrations of 5 and 7 % were optimum for both classes of metabolites, respectively. Following 3 % extra sucrose feeding, cultures fed on day-24 (late-log phase) showed higher biomass, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents as compared to control cultures. Highest antioxidant activity was exhibited by maltose-treated cultures. Moreover, sucrose-treated cultures displayed positive correlation of antioxidant activity with total phenolics and total flavonoids production. This work describes the stimulatory role of disaccharides and sucrose feeding strategy for higher accumulation of phenolics and flavonoids, which could be potentially scaled up to bioreactor level for the bulk production of these metabolites in suspension cultures of A. absinthium.

  14. Bitter tastants alter gastric-phase postprandial haemodynamics.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Michael K; Whitehouse, Julie M; Whitton, Peter A; Towell, Anthony

    2014-07-03

    Since Greco-Roman times bitter tastants have been used in Europe to treat digestive disorders, yet no pharmacological mechanism has been identified which can account for this practice. This study investigates whether the bitter tastants, gentian root (Gentian lutea L.) and wormwood herb (Artemisia absinthium L.), stimulate cephalic and/or gut receptors to alter postprandial haemodynamics during the gastric-phase of digestion. Normal participants ingested (1) 100 mL water plus capsules containing either cellulose (placebo-control) or 1000 mg of each tastant (n=14); or (2) 100mL of water flavoured with 500 or 1500 mg of each tastant (a) gentian (n=12) and (b) wormwood (n=12). A single beat-to-beat cardiovascular recording was obtained for the entire session. Pre/post-ingestion contrasts with the control were analysed for (1) the encapsulated tastants, in the "10 to 15" minute post-ingestion period, and (2) the flavoured water in the "5 to 10" minute post-ingestion period. Water, the placebo-control, increased cardiac contraction force and blood pressure notwithstanding heart rate decreases. Encapsulated tastants did not further alter postprandial haemodynamics. In contrast gentian (500 and 1500 mg) and wormwood (1500 mg) flavoured water elicited increased peripheral vascular resistance and decreased cardiac output, primarily by reducing stroke volume rather than heart rate. Drinking 100mL water elicits a pressor effect during the gastric-phase of digestion due to increased cardiac contraction force. The addition of bitter tastants to water elicits an additional and parallel pressor effect due to increased peripheral vascular resistance; yet the extent of the post-prandial blood pressure increases are unchanged, presumably due to baroreflex buffering. The vascular response elicited by bitter tastants can be categorised as a sympathetically-mediated cephalic-phase response. A possible mechanism by which bitter tastants could positively influence digestion is altering

  15. Systematic review of complementary and alternative medicine treatments in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Langhorst, J; Wulfert, H; Lauche, R; Klose, P; Cramer, H; Dobos, G J; Korzenik, J

    2015-01-01

    We performed a systematic review for Complementary and Alternative Medicine [CAM] as defined by the National Institute of Health in Inflammatory Bowel Disease [IBD], ie Crohn's disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC], with the exception of dietary and nutritional supplements, and manipulative therapies. A computerized search of databases [Cochrane Library, Pubmed/Medline, PsychINFO, and Scopus] through March 2014 was performed. We screened the reference sections of original studies and systematic reviews in English language for CAM in IBD, CD and UC. Randomized controlled trials [RCT] and controlled trials [CT] were referred and assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. A total of: 26 RCT and 3 CT for herbal medicine, eg aloe-vera gel, andrographis paniculata, artemisia absinthium, barley foodstuff, boswellia serrata, cannabis, curcumin, evening primrose oil, Myrrhinil intest®, plantago ovata, silymarin, sophora, tormentil, wheatgrass-juice and wormwood; 1 RCT for trichuris suis ovata; 7 RCT for mind/body interventions such as lifestyle modification, hypnotherapy, relaxation training and mindfulness; and 2 RCT in acupuncture; were found. Risk of bias was quite heterogeneous. Best evidence was found for herbal therapy, ie plantago ovata and curcumin in UC maintenance therapy, wormwood in CD, mind/body therapy and self-intervention in UC, and acupuncture in UC and CD. Complementary and alternative therapies might be effective for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases; however, given the low number of trials and the heterogeneous methodological quality of trials, further in-depth research is necessary. Copyright © 2014 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. An unusual burn caused by hot argy wormwood leaf water

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xun; Chen, Xu-Lin; Wang, Fei; Guo, Feng

    2011-01-01

    An unusual burn case caused by hot wormwood leaf water was discussed. A 29-year-old woman sustained a 7% second-degree burn on both buttocks and left thigh. This case report highlights a rare cause of a chemical burn that may become more common with increasing use of this Chinese traditional medicine. The prevention measures of this burn injury were also presented. PMID:24765332

  17. An unusual burn caused by hot argy wormwood leaf water

    PubMed Central

    Liang, X.; Chen, X.-L.; Wang, F.; Guo, F.

    2011-01-01

    Summary An unusual burn case caused by hot wormwood leaf water is discussed. A 29-yr-old woman sustained a 7% seconddegree burn on both buttocks and the left thigh. This case report highlights a rare cause of chemical burn that may become more common with increasing use of this method of traditional Chinese medicine. Measures for preventing this type of burn injury are also presented. PMID:22396673

  18. Worldwide Discoveries Help People Everywhere

    MedlinePlus

    ... immunized against hepatitis B. It's the first cancer vaccine—a model for other viral associated cancers (e.g., cervical cancer and papilloma virus). Malaria China—A traditional medicine made from wormwood, Artemisia ...

  19. Absinthism: a fictitious 19th century syndrome with present impact

    PubMed Central

    Padosch, Stephan A; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kröner, Lars U

    2006-01-01

    Absinthe, a bitter spirit containing wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.), was banned at the beginning of the 20th century as consequence of its supposed unique adverse effects. After nearly century-long prohibition, absinthe has seen a resurgence after recent de-restriction in many European countries. This review provides information on the history of absinthe and one of its constituent, thujone. Medical and toxicological aspects experienced and discovered before the prohibition of absinthe are discussed in detail, along with their impact on the current situation. The only consistent conclusion that can be drawn from those 19th century studies about absinthism is that wormwood oil but not absinthe is a potent agent to cause seizures. Neither can it be concluded that the beverage itself was epileptogenic nor that the so-called absinthism can exactly be distinguished as a distinct syndrome from chronic alcoholism. The theory of a previous gross overestimation of the thujone content of absinthe may have been verified by a number of independent studies. Based on the current available evidence, thujone concentrations of both pre-ban and modern absinthes may not have been able to cause detrimental health effects other than those encountered in common alcoholism. Today, a questionable tendency of absinthe manufacturers can be ascertained that use the ancient theories of absinthism as a targeted marketing strategy to bring absinthe into the spheres of a legal drug-of-abuse. Misleading advertisements of aphrodisiac or psychotropic effects of absinthe try to re-establish absinthe's former reputation. In distinction from commercially manufactured absinthes with limited thujone content, a health risk to consumers is the uncontrolled trade of potentially unsafe herbal products such as absinthe essences that are readily available over the internet. PMID:16722551

  20. Application of Partial Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences for the Discrimination of Artemisia capillaris from Other Artemisia Species

    PubMed Central

    Doh, Eui Jeong; Paek, Seung-Ho; Lee, Guemsan; Lee, Mi-Young; Oh, Seung-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Several Artemisia species are used as herbal medicines including the dried aerial parts of Artemisia capillaris, which are used as Artemisiae Capillaris Herba (known as “Injinho” in Korean medicinal terminology and “Yin Chen Hao” in Chinese). In this study, we developed tools for distinguishing between A. capillaris and 11 other Artemisia species that grow and/or are cultured in China, Japan, and Korea. Based on partial nucleotide sequences in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) that differ between the species, we designed primers to amplify a DNA marker for A. capillaris. In addition, to detect other Artemisia species that are contaminants of A. capillaris, we designed primers to amplify DNA markers of A. japonica, A. annua, A. apiacea, and A. anomala. Moreover, based on random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, we confirmed that primers developed in a previous study could be used to identify Artemisia species that are sources of Artemisiae Argyi Folium and Artemisiae Iwayomogii Herba. By using these primers, we found that multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was a reliable tool to distinguish between A. capillaris and other Artemisia species and to identify other Artemisia species as contaminants of A. capillaris in a single PCR. PMID:27313651

  1. Isolation of 4,5-O-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid as a Pigmentation Inhibitor Occurring in Artemisia capillaris Thunberg and Its Validation In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Nadia; Lee, Ji-Hyung; Yim, Soon-Ho; Batkhuu, Galzad Javzan; Jung, Da-Woon; Williams, Darren R

    2016-01-01

    There is a continual need to develop novel and effective melanogenesis inhibitors for the prevention of hyperpigmentation disorders. The plant Artemisia capillaris Thunberg (Oriental Wormwood) was screened for antipigmentation activity using murine cultured cells (B16-F10 malignant melanocytes). Activity-based fractionation using HPLC and NMR analyses identified the compound 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid as an active component in this plant. 4,5-O-Dicaffeoylquinic acid significantly reduced melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner in the melanocytes. In addition, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid treatment reduced the expression of tyrosinase-related protein-1. Significantly, we could validate the antipigmentation activity of this compound in vivo, using a zebrafish model. Moreover, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid did not show toxicity in this animal model. Our discovery of 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid as an inhibitor of pigmentation that is active in vivo shows that this compound can be developed as an active component for formulations to treat pigmentation disorders.

  2. Potential ecological roles of Artemisinin produced by Artemisis annua L

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Artemisia annua L. (annual wormwood, Asteraceae) and its secondary metabolite artemisinin, a unique sesquiterpene lactone with an endoperoxide bridge, has gained much attention due to its antimalarial properties. Artemisinin is a complex structure that is requires a significant amount of energy for ...

  3. Development of SCAR marker for discrimination of Artemisia princeps and A. argyi from other Artemisia herbs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Young; Doh, Eui Jeong; Park, Chae Haeng; Kim, Young Hwa; Kim, Eung Soo; Ko, Byong Seob; Oh, Seung-Eun

    2006-04-01

    Some Artemisia herbs are used for medicinal purposes. In particular, A. princeps and A. argyi are classified as 'Aeyup' and are used as important medicinal material in traditional Korean medicine. On the other hand, A. capillaris and A. iwayomogi, which are classified as 'Injinho' and 'Haninjin', respectively, are used for other purposes distinct from those of 'Aeyup'. However, sometimes 'Aeyup' is not clearly discriminated from 'Injinho' and/or 'Haninjin'. Furthermore, Artemisia capillaris and/or A. iwayomogi have been used in place of A. princeps and A. argyi. In this study, we developed an efficient method to discriminate A. argyi and A. princeps from other Artemisia plants. The RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) method efficiently discriminated various Artemisia herbs. In particular, non-specific primer 329 (5'-GCG AAC CTC C-3'), which shows polymorphism among Artemisia herbs, amplified 838 bp products, which are specific to A. princeps and A. argyi only. Based on nucleotide sequence of the primer 329 product, we designed a Fb (5'-CAT CAA CCA TGG CTT ATC CT-3') and R7 (5'-GCG AAC CTC CCC ATT CCA-3') primer-set to amplify a 254 bp sized SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions) marker, through which A. princeps and A. argyi can be efficiently discriminated from other Artemisia herbs, particularly, A. capillaris and A. iwayomogi.

  4. Potential ecological roles of artemisinin produced by Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Knudsmark Jessing, Karina; Duke, Stephen O; Cedergreeen, Nina

    2014-02-01

    Artemisia annua L. (annual wormwood, Asteraceae) and its secondary metabolite artemisinin, a unique sesquiterpene lactone with an endoperoxide bridge, has gained much attention due to its antimalarial properties. Artemisinin has a complex structure that requires a significant amount of energy for the plant to synthesize. So, what are the benefits to A. annua of producing this unique compound, and what is the ecological role of artemisinin? This review addresses these questions, discussing evidence of the potential utility of artemisinin in protecting the plant from insects and other herbivores, as well as pathogens and competing plant species. Abiotic factors affecting the artemisinin production, as well as mechanisms of artemisinin release to the surroundings also are discussed, and new data are provided on the toxicity of artemisinin towards soil and aquatic organisms. The antifungal and antibacterial effects reported are not very pronounced. Several studies have reported that extracts of A. annua have insecticidal effects, though few studies have proven that artemisinin could be the single compound responsible for the observed effects. However, the pathogen(s) or insect(s) that may have provided the selection pressure for the evolution of artemisinin synthesis may not have been represented in the research thus far conducted. The relatively high level of phytotoxicity of artemisinin in soil indicates that plant/plant allelopathy could be a beneficial function of artemisinin to the producing plant. The release routes of artemisinin (movement from roots and wash off from leaf surfaces) from A. annua to the soil support the rationale for allelopathy.

  5. The genus Artemisia: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Bora, Kundan Singh; Sharma, Anupam

    2011-01-01

    Medicinal plants are nature's gift to human beings to make disease free healthy life, and play a vital role to preserve our health. They are believed to be much safer and proven elixir in the treatment of various ailments. The genus Artemisia (Astraceae) consists of about 500 species, occurring throughout the world. The present review comprises the ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and therapeutic potential of various species of Artemisia. The aim of this this review is to bring together most of the available scientific research conducted on the genus Artemisia, which is currently scattered across various publications. Through this review the authors hope to attract the attention of natural product researchers throughout the world to focus on the unexplored potential of Artemisia species. This review has been compiled using references from major databases such as Chemical Abstracts, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts, ScienceDirect, SciFinder, PubMed, King's American Dispensatory, Henriette's Herbal Homepage, Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. An exhaustive survey of literature revealed that the different species of Artemisia have a vast range of biological activities including antimalarial, cytotoxic, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity. Some very important drug leads have been discovered from this genus, notably artemisinin, the well known antimalarial drug isolated from the Chinese herb Artemisia annua. Terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, caffeoylquinic acids, sterols and acetylenes constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. Various species of Artemisia seems to hold great potential for in-depth investigation for various biological activities, especially their effects on the central nervous and cardiovascular systems.

  6. Endophytic Fungi in Species of Artemisia.

    PubMed

    Cosoveanu, Andreea; Cabrera, Raimundo

    2018-05-01

    The genus Artemisia , a collection of ~400 hardy herbaceous plant and shrub species, is an important resource contributing to chemistry, medicine, agriculture, industry, and ecology. Its communities of endophytic fungi have only recently begun to be explored. Summarized from studies conducted on the fungal endophytes in Artemisia species, both fungal phylogenetic diversity and the associated bioactivity was examined. Isolations from 14 species of Artemisia have led to 51 genera of fungal endophytes, 28 families, and 18 orders. Endophytes belonged mainly to Ascomycota , except for two taxa of Cantharellales and Sporidiobolales , one taxon of Mucoromycota , and one species of Oomycota . The mostly common families were Pleosporaceae , Trichocomaceae , Leptosphaeriaceae , and Botryosphaeriaceae (relative abundance = 14.89, 8.51, 7.14 and 6.38, respectively). In the search for bioactive metabolites, 27 novel compounds were characterized and 22 metabolites were isolated between 2006 and 2017. The first study on endophytic fungi isolated from species of Artemisia was published but 18 years ago. This summary of recently acquired data illustrates the considerable diversity of biological purposes addressed by fungal endophytes of Artemisia spp.

  7. Herbal and plant therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Xanthos, Theodoros; Papalois, Apostolos; Triantafillidis, John K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of herbal therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in IBD patients. Studies on herbal therapy for IBD published in Medline and Embase were reviewed, and response to treatment and remission rates were recorded. Although the number of the relevant clinical studies is relatively small, it can be assumed that the efficacy of herbal therapies in IBD is promising. The most important clinical trials conducted so far refer to the use of mastic gum, tormentil extracts, wormwood herb, aloe vera, triticum aestivum, germinated barley foodstuff, and boswellia serrata. In ulcerative colitis, aloe vera gel, triticum aestivum, andrographis paniculata extract and topical Xilei-san were superior to placebo in inducing remission or clinical response, and curcumin was superior to placebo in maintaining remission; boswellia serrata gum resin and plantago ovata seeds were as effective as mesalazine, whereas oenothera biennis had similar relapse rates as ω-3 fatty acids in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. In Crohn’s disease, mastic gum, Artemisia absinthium, and Tripterygium wilfordii were superior to placebo in inducing remission and preventing clinical postoperative recurrence, respectively. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit by different mechanisms including immune regulation, antioxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-kappa B, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing the most commonly used natural substances should urgently be conducted. PMID:25830661

  8. Application of the multiplex PCR method for discrimination of Artemisia iwayomogi from other Artemisia herbs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Young; Doh, Eui Jeong; Kim, Eung Soo; Kim, Young Wha; Ko, Byong Seob; Oh, Seung-Eun

    2008-04-01

    Some plants classified in the genus Artemisia are used for medicinal purposes. In particular, A. iwayomogi, which is referred to as 'Haninjin,' is used as an important medicinal material in traditional Korean medicine. However, A. capillaris, and both A. argyi and A. princeps, referred to as 'Injinho' and 'Aeyup,' respectively, are used for purposes other than those for which 'Haninjin' is utilized. However, it is occasionally difficult to differentiate 'Haninjin' from 'Injinho' and/or 'Aeyup' on the basis of their morphological features, particularly when in the dried and/or sliced form. Therefore, the development of a reliable method by which to discriminate 'Haninjin' from other Artemisia herbs, especially 'Injinho' and 'Aeyup,' is clearly necessary. We recently determined that the RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) technique can be used to discriminate efficiently between some Artemisia herbs. In particular, when applied to RAPD, the non-specific UBC primer 391 (5'-GCG AAC CTC G-3') was demonstrated to amplify PCR products specific to A. iwayomogi. Based on the nucleotide sequences of the PCR product, we designed a 2F1 (5'-ACC TCG GAC CTA AAT ACA-3')/ 2F3 (5'-TTA TGA TTC ATG TTC AAT TC-3') primer set to amplify a SCAR (sequence-characterized amplified region) marker of A. iwayomogi. Employing this primer set, along with two other primer sets amplifying SCAR markers of 'Aeyup' (A. argyi and A. princeps) and both 'Injinho' (A. capillaris) and A. japonica, which are classified into the same subgroup in a phenogram constructed from RAPD analysis, we developed a multiplex PCR method by which A. iwayomogi could be discriminated with certainty from other Artemisia herbs. Via this method, we determined not only whether the tested Artemisia herb was A. iwayomogi, but also which Artemisia herbs were tested concurrently with A. iwayomogi.

  9. Annotations on Artemisia.

    PubMed

    Gedo, John E

    2013-10-01

    To demonstrate the relevance of an artist's biography to the understanding of her creations, no instance is more persuasive than the career of the 17th-century Italian painter Artemisia Gentileschi. Numerous scholars have attempted to correlate the nature of her subject matter with the more dramatic events of her picaresque private life. A psychoanalytic effort to make such a correlation needs to go beyond discrete incidents, to reconstruct her personality and its development. Artemisia's oeuvre is tightly focused on a fantasy system of sexual irrestibility, probably based on the interactions of this motherless child with a delinquent father. Hypotheses that the artist became a vengeful victim overtook her strength, resilience, and affability.

  10. Botanical Provenance of Traditional Medicines From Carpathian Mountains at the Ukrainian-Polish Border.

    PubMed

    Kozlowska, Weronika; Wagner, Charles; Moore, Erin M; Matkowski, Adam; Komarnytsky, Slavko

    2018-01-01

    Plants were an essential part of foraging for food and health, and for centuries remained the only medicines available to people from the remote mountain regions. Their correct botanical provenance is an essential basis for understanding the ethnic cultures, as well as for chemical identification of the novel bioactive molecules with therapeutic effects. This work describes the use of herbal medicines in the Beskid mountain ranges located south of Krakow and Lviv, two influential medieval centers of apothecary tradition in the region. Local botanical remedies shared by Boyko, Lemko, and Gorale ethnic groups were a part of the medieval European system of medicine, used according to their Dioscoridean and Galenic qualities. Within the context of ethnic plant medicine and botanical classification, this review identified strong preferences for local use of St John's-wort ( Hypericum perforatum L.), wormwood ( Artemisia absinthium L.), garlic ( Allium sativum L.), gentian ( Gentiana lutea L.), lovage ( Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch), and lesser periwinkle ( Vinca minor L.). While Ukrainian ethnic groups favored the use of guilder-rose ( Viburnum opulus L.) and yarrow ( Achillea millefolium L.), Polish inhabitants especially valued angelica ( Angelica archangelica L.) and carline thistle ( Carlina acaulis L.). The region also holds a strong potential for collection, cultivation, and manufacture of medicinal plants and plant-based natural specialty ingredients for the food, health and cosmetic industries, in part due to high degree of biodiversity and ecological preservation. Many of these products, including whole food nutritional supplements, will soon complement conventional medicines in prevention and treatment of diseases, while adding value to agriculture and local economies.

  11. Botanical Provenance of Traditional Medicines From Carpathian Mountains at the Ukrainian-Polish Border

    PubMed Central

    Kozlowska, Weronika; Wagner, Charles; Moore, Erin M.; Matkowski, Adam; Komarnytsky, Slavko

    2018-01-01

    Plants were an essential part of foraging for food and health, and for centuries remained the only medicines available to people from the remote mountain regions. Their correct botanical provenance is an essential basis for understanding the ethnic cultures, as well as for chemical identification of the novel bioactive molecules with therapeutic effects. This work describes the use of herbal medicines in the Beskid mountain ranges located south of Krakow and Lviv, two influential medieval centers of apothecary tradition in the region. Local botanical remedies shared by Boyko, Lemko, and Gorale ethnic groups were a part of the medieval European system of medicine, used according to their Dioscoridean and Galenic qualities. Within the context of ethnic plant medicine and botanical classification, this review identified strong preferences for local use of St John's-wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), gentian (Gentiana lutea L.), lovage (Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch), and lesser periwinkle (Vinca minor L.). While Ukrainian ethnic groups favored the use of guilder-rose (Viburnum opulus L.) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), Polish inhabitants especially valued angelica (Angelica archangelica L.) and carline thistle (Carlina acaulis L.). The region also holds a strong potential for collection, cultivation, and manufacture of medicinal plants and plant-based natural specialty ingredients for the food, health and cosmetic industries, in part due to high degree of biodiversity and ecological preservation. Many of these products, including whole food nutritional supplements, will soon complement conventional medicines in prevention and treatment of diseases, while adding value to agriculture and local economies. PMID:29674964

  12. Disgust evoked by strong wormwood bitterness influences the processing of visual food cues in women: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Daniela; Giraldo, Matteo; Spiegl, Benjamin; Schienle, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The perception of intense bitterness is associated with disgust and food rejection. The present cross-modal event-related potential (ERP) study investigated whether a bitter aftertaste is able to influence affective ratings and the neuronal processing of visual food cues. We presented 39 healthy normal-weight women (mean age: 22.5 years) with images depicting high-caloric meat dishes, high-caloric sweets, and low-caloric vegetables after they had either rinsed their mouth with wormwood tea (bitter group; n = 20) or water (control group; n = 19) for 30s. The bitter aftertaste of wormwood enhanced fronto-central early potentials (N100, N200) and reduced P300 amplitudes for all food types (meat, sweets, vegetables). Moreover, meat and sweets elicited higher fronto-central LPPs than vegetables in the water group. This differentiation was absent in the bitter group, which gave lower arousal ratings for the high-caloric food. We found that a minor intervention ('bitter rinse') was sufficient to induce changes in the neuronal processing of food images reflecting increased early attention (N100, N200) as well as reduced affective value (P300, LPP). Future studies should investigate whether this intervention is able to influence eating behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). PMID:21756341

  14. Polyploid response of Artemisia annua L. to colchicine treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunus, A.; Parjanto; Samanhudi; Hikam, M. P.; Widyastuti, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Artemisia (Artemisia annua) is a a medicinal herb originated from Asia, its contains Artemisinin for malaria (caused by Plasmodium falciparum) treatment. Artemisinin content in A. annua are relatively low, ranging from 0.01% -0.5%. In order to increase the Artemisinin content, polyploid induction could be one effort to be done. For that, this experiment aims to examine the effect of colchicine on morphological characteristics and the induction of polyploidization in Artemisia plants. Polyploid induction on Artemisia annua L. seeds was performed by soaking the Artemisia seeds in colchicine (0%, 0,05%, 0,1% and 0,2%; concentration based) for 2 hours. The experimental design was Completely Randomized Design, one factor, 4 colchicine treatments and in each treatment 7 replicate. The results showed that polyploid occur in plants treated with 0.05% colchicine concentration and its morphological characteristic are 89.4 cm height, 30 branches, 15.9 CCI chlorophyll content, 0.78 cm stem diameter, and chromosome number 2n = 27. In the stomata density of polyploid plants (treated by 0.05% colchicine) was 130 number/mm2 with stomata diameter of 22.8 μm.

  15. Hypocholesterolemic and antiatherosclerotic effect of artemisia aucheri in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Dinani, N Jafari; Asgary, Asgary; Madani, H; Naderi, Gh; Mahzoni, P

    2010-07-01

    Atherosclerosis which results from gradual deposition of lipids in arteries is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Diet is one of the most important factors underlying atherosclerosis. High-cholesterol diets enhance atherosclerosis and vegetarian diets are known to slow down the process. Artemisia aucheri is an herb of the Composite family. Many species of Artemisia have proven hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties. This study determine the effects of Artemisia aucheri on lipoproteins and atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Fifteen male rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. Normal diet group, high-cholesterol diet group (1% cholesterol) and Artemisia aucheri group (1% cholesterol diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg body weight the Artemisi aucheri every other day). Biochemical factors were measured at the start, end of the first and second months of the study. At the end of the study, the aorta were removed for assessment of atherosclerotic plaques. The results indicate that Artemisia aucheri significantly reduced the level of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerids and increased HDL cholesterol. The degree of atherosclerotic thickness was significantly reduced in the treated group. Therefore, Artemisia aucheri is one of the useful herbal medicine for preventation of atherosclerosis and more studies in this regard is recommended.

  16. [Flavonoids of Artemisia campestris, ssp. glutinosa].

    PubMed

    Hurabielle, M; Eberle, J; Paris, M

    1982-10-01

    Four flavanones (pinostrobin, pinocembrin, sakuranetin and naringenin), one dihydroflavonol (7-methyl aromadendrin) and one flavone (hispidulin) have been isolated from Artemisia campestris L. ssp. glutinosa Gay and identified by spectroscopic methods. Artemisia campestris L. sous-espèce glutinosa Gay est une Composée Anthémidée largement répandue sur les sables du littoral méditerranéean et abondante dans certaines régions d'Espagne et d'Italie. Dans le cadre d'une étude chimiotaxonomique du genre Artemisia Tourn., nous nous sommes intéressés à l'analyse des flavonoïdes, composés jamais décrits, à notre connaissance, dans cette espèce d' Artemisia. Les sommités fleuries d' Artemisia campestris sous-espèce glutinosa, séchées et pulvérisées, sont dégraissées à l'ether de pétrole et épuisées par le chloroforme. Le fractionnement de l'extrait chloroformique, par chromatographie sur colonne de silice, et la purification de certaines fractions conduisent à l'isolement de six génines flavoniques, à l'etat pur. L' étude des spectres UV, des spectres de masse et des spectres de RMN [1,2] et la comparaison avec des échantillons authentiques permettent de proposer, pour ces flavonoïdes, les structures de la pinostrobine [3], de la pinocembrine [4], de la sakuranétine, de la naringénine [5] (flavanones), de la méthyl-7-aromadendrine, [6, 7] (dihydroflavonol) et de l'hispiduline [8, 9] (flavone); quatre de ces génines sont méthylées. Parmi ces flavonoïdes, la pinostrobine n'a jamais été décrite, à notre connaissance, dans la famille des Composées; la pinocembrine, la sakuranétine et la naringénine ont déjà été signalées chez quelques Astéracées et Eupatoriées [10], et l'hispiduline dans la tribu des Anthémidées ( Santolina chamaecyparissus L.) [8]. Seule, la méthyl-7-aromadendrine semble décrite, à ce jour, dans le genre Artemisia Tourn. [7].

  17. [Quality evaluation of Artemisiae Argyi Folium based on fingerprint analysis and quantitative analysis of multicomponents].

    PubMed

    Guo, Long; Jiao, Qian; Zhang, Dan; Liu, Ai-Peng; Wang, Qian; Zheng, Yu-Guang

    2018-03-01

    Artemisiae Argyi Folium, the dried leaves of Artemisia argyi, has been widely used in traditional Chinese and folk medicines for treatment of hemorrhage, pain, and skin itch. Phytochemical studies indicated that volatile oil, organic acid and flavonoids were the main bioactive components in Artemisiae Argyi Folium. Compared to the volatile compounds, the research of nonvolatile compounds in Artemisiae Argyi Folium are limited. In the present study, an accurate and reliable fingerprint approach was developed using HPLC for quality control of Artemisiae Argyi Folium. A total of 10 common peaks were marked,and the similarity of all the Artemisiae Argyi Folium samples was above 0.940. The established fingerprint method could be used for quality control of Artemisiae Argyi Folium. Furthermore, an HPLC method was applied for simultaneous determination of seven bioactive compounds including five organic acids and two flavonoids in Artemisiae Argyi Folium and Artemisiae Lavandulaefoliae Folium samples. Moreover, chemometrics methods such as hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis were performed to compare and discriminate the Artemisiae Argyi Folium and Artemisiae Lavandulaefoliae Folium based on the quantitative data of analytes. The results indicated that simultaneous quantification of multicomponents coupled with chemometrics analysis could be a well-acceptable strategy to identify and evaluate the quality of Artemisiae Argyi Folium. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Allergenicity of Artemisia contained in bee pollen is proportional to its mass.

    PubMed

    Nonotte-Varly, C

    2015-11-01

    Bee product mugwort is identified as being at the origin of allergic accidents but the biological potency of Artemisia contained in bee pollen is not well known. In this experiment, Artemisia mass was identified in bee pollen mass and after having calculated the proportion of Artemisia using the bee pollen melissopalynology spectrum. Skin reactivity to Artemisia was assessed by measuring wheal diameters (W) from skin prick tests using three serial dilutions of bee pollen on 11 allergic patients to Artemisia, in order to calculate the relationship between Artemisia mass (Massartemisia) in bee pollen and skin reactivity. The dose-response power regression curve (Wartemisia)=3.328 (Massartemisia)0.297 (R2=0.9947) and the linear function Log10 (Wartemisia)=0.297 (Log10 (Massartemisia)+0.520 (R=0.9974)) were established using a bee pollen sample with 0.246 mg of Artemisia pollen per mg. Mugwort allergens seem to be little or not altered by bee secretions and bee pollen retains its allergenic capacity. To our knowledge this is the first time it has been shown that skin reactivity of patients allergic to mugwort is proportional to the absolute mugwort mass contained in the bee pollen.

  19. Artemisia systematics and phylogeny: Cytogenetic and molecular insights

    Treesearch

    Joan Valles; E. Durant McArthur

    2001-01-01

    The genus Artemisia (Asteraceae, Anthemideae, Artemisiinae) is a large genus, one of the largest genera in its family. It is comprised of about 500 taxa at the specific or subspecific level, distributed in 5 sections or subgenera. Most species are perennial and many are landscape dominants of arid or semiarid regions. Artemisia is widely distributed in the Northern...

  20. Some popular medicinal plants and diseases of the Upper Palaeolithic in Western Georgia.

    PubMed

    Martkoplishvili, Inga; Kvavadze, Eliso

    2015-05-26

    Palynological studies of cultural layers of cave sediments have been used in order to better understand traditional practices. The Upper Palaeolithic in Georgia (36,000-11,000 cal. BP) provides a rich source of such material. However, up to day from such sediments the identification of medicinal plants has hardly been achieved. Large quantities of pollen most notably from entomophilous taxa in fossil spectra can serve as a tool to identify traditionally important species. As these plants are used in modern popular medicine on the territory of Georgia (like Achillea millefolium L., Artemisia annua L., Artemisia absinthium L., Centaurea jacea L., Urtica dioica L.) can be served as an indirect evidence for their medicinal relevance from the Palaeolithic Period up to days. Their modern uses may point that the main diseases during the Upper Palaeolithic were the same as today. The Upper Palaeolithic sediments were studied palynologically come from four caves: Dzudzuana, Satsurblia, Kotias Klde and Bondi. Modern sediments were investigated from 6 caves. Fossil and modern samples were taken according to the standard procedure in palynology. The laboratory treatment was carried out as follows: first, 50g of the sample was boiled in 10% KOH. At the second stage, centrifuging of the material in cadmium liquid was performed. At the final stage, acetolysis treatment was used. Pollen of A. absinthium L. (Asteraceae), A. annua L. (Asteraceae), A. millefolium L. (Asteraceae), C. jacea L. (Asteraceae), and U. dioica L. (Urticaceae) are identified to species level. This species are not edible and are popular in present-day folk medicine. In the Upper Palaeolithic layers, significant amounts of studies species pollen were recorded in the cave, likely due to their flowering branches being brought in by humans for use. Detailed consideration of the pharmacological characteristics of the examined species showed that almost all of them have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial

  1. Applying high-resolution melting (HRM) technology to identify five commonly used Artemisia species.

    PubMed

    Song, Ming; Li, Jingjian; Xiong, Chao; Liu, Hexia; Liang, Junsong

    2016-10-04

    Many members of the genus Artemisia are important for medicinal purposes with multiple pharmacological properties. Often, these herbal plants sold on the markets are in processed forms so it is difficult to authenticate. Routine testing and identification of these herbal materials should be performed to ensure that the raw materials used in pharmaceutical products are suitable for their intended use. In this study, five commonly used Artemisia species included Artemisia argyi, Artemisia annua, Artemisia lavandulaefolia, Artemisia indica, and Artemisia atrovirens were analyzed using high resolution melting (HRM) analysis based on the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences. The melting profiles of the ITS2 amplicons of the five closely related herbal species are clearly separated so that they can be differentiated by HRM method. The method was further applied to authenticate commercial products in powdered. HRM curves of all the commercial samples tested are similar to the botanical species as labeled. These congeneric medicinal products were also clearly separated using the neighbor-joining (NJ) tree. Therefore, HRM method could provide an efficient and reliable authentication system to distinguish these commonly used Artemisia herbal products on the markets and offer a technical reference for medicines quality control in the drug supply chain.

  2. Fire tolerance of a resprouting Artemisia (Asteraceae) shrub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, S.L.; Fuhlendorf, S.D.; Goad, C.L.; Davis, C.A.; Hickman, K.R.; Leslie, David M.

    2011-01-01

    In North America, most Artemisia (Asteraceae) shrub species lack the ability to resprout after disturbances that remove aboveground biomass. We studied the response of one of the few resprouting Artemisia shrubs, Artemisia filifolia (sand sagebrush), to the effects of prescribed fires. We collected data on A. filifolia density and structural characteristics (height, canopy area, and canopy volume) in an A. filifolia shrubland in the southern Great Plains of North America. Our study sites included areas that had not been treated with prescribed fire, areas that had been treated with only one prescribed fire within the previous 5 years, and areas that had been treated with two prescribed fires within the previous 10 years. Our data were collected at time periods ranging from 1/2 to 5 years after the prescribed fires. Density of A. filifolia was not affected by one or two fires. Structural characteristics, although initially altered by prescribed fire, recovered to levels characteristic of unburned areas in 3-4 years after those fires. In contrast to most non-sprouting North American Artemisia shrub species, our research suggested that the resprouting A. filifolia is highly tolerant to the effects of fire. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  3. Artemisia L.: sagebrush

    Treesearch

    Susan E. Meyer

    2008-01-01

    Sagebrush - Artemisia L. - species are probably the most common shrubs in western North America. Big sagebrush alone occupies an estimated 60 million ha as a landscape dominant or codominant in the semiarid interior, and related species of the subgenus Tridentatae are estimated to occupy an additional 50 million ha (Beetle 1960; McArthur and Stevens in press)....

  4. Mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp vaseyana) seed production

    Treesearch

    Melissa L. Landeen

    2015-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) is the most widespread and common shrub in the sagebrush biome of western North America. Of the three most common subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), mountain big sagebrush (ssp. vaseyana; MBS) is the most resilient to disturbance, but still requires favorable climactic conditions and a viable post-...

  5. [Chemical studies on essential oils from 6 Artemisia species].

    PubMed

    Pan, J G; Xu, Z L; Ji, L

    1992-12-01

    The constituents of the essential oils obtained from the leaves of Artemisia argyi, A. argyi cv.qiai, A. lavandulaefolia, A. mongolica, A. princeps and A. argyi var. gracilis were analysed by GC-MS. 96 compounds including alpha-thujene, 1,8-cineole, camphor and artemisia alcohol, etc. were identified. Their percentages in the oils were given.

  6. Cytogeography and chromosome evolution of subgenus Tridentatae of Artemisia (Asteraceae)

    Treesearch

    E. Durant McArthur; Stewart C. Sanderson

    1999-01-01

    The subgenus Tridentatae of Artemisia (Asteraceae: Anthemideae) is composed of 11 species of various taxonomic and geographic complexities. It is centered on Artemisia tridentata with its three widespread common subspecies and two more geographically confined ones. Meiotic chromosome counts on pollen mother cells...

  7. Comparison of Artemisia annua Bioactivities between Traditional Medicine and Chemical Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nageeb, Ahmed; Al-Tawashi, Azza; Mohammad Emwas, Abdul-Hamid; Abdel-Halim Al-Talla, Zeyad; Al-Rifai, Nahla

    2013-01-01

    The present work investigates the efficacy of using Artemisia annua in traditional medicine in comparison with chemical extracts of its bioactive molecules. In addition, the effects of location (Egypt and Jericho) on the bioactivities of the plant were investigated. The results showed that water extracts of Artemisia annua from Jericho have stronger antibacterial activities than organic solvent extracts. In contrast, water and organic solvent extracts of the Artemisia annua from Egypt do not have anti-bacterial activity. Furthermore, while the methanol extract of EA displayed high anticancer affects, the water extract of Egypt and the extracts of Jericho did not show significant anticancer activity. Finally, the results showed that the methanol and water extracts of Jericho had the highest antioxidant activity, while the extracts of Egypt had none. The current results validate the scientific bases for the use of Artemisia annua in traditional medicine. In addition, our results suggest that the collection location of the Artemisia annua has an effect on its chemical composition and bioactivities. PMID:24761137

  8. Transport pathway and source area for Artemisia pollen in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xiaoxin; Li, Yiyin; Sun, Xu; Meng, Ling; Wang, Xiaoke

    2017-12-01

    Artemisia pollen is an important allergen responsible for allergic rhinitis in Beijing, China. To explore the transport pathways and source areas of Artemisia pollen, we used Burkard 7-day traps to monitor daily pollen concentrations in 2016 in an urban and suburban locality. Backward trajectories of 24- and 96-h and their cluster analysis were performed to identify transport pathways of Artemisia pollen using the HYSPLIT model on 0.5° × 0.5° GADS meteorological data. The potential source contribution function (PSCF) and concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) were calculated to further identify the major potential source areas at local, regional, and long-range scales. Our results showed significant differences in Artemisia pollen concentration between urban and suburban areas, attributed to differences in plant distribution and altitude of the sampling locality. Such differences arisen from both pollen emission and air mass movements, hence pollen dispersal. At local or regional scales, source area of northwestern parts of Beijing City, Hebei Province and northern and northwestern parts of Inner Mongolia influenced the major transport pathways of Artemisia pollen. Transport pathway at a long-range scale and its corresponding source area extended to northwestern parts of Mongolia. The regional-scale transport affected by wind and altitude is more profound for Artemisia pollen at the suburban than at the urban station.

  9. Artemisia spp. essential oils against the disease-carrying blowfly Calliphora vomitoria.

    PubMed

    Bedini, Stefano; Flamini, Guido; Cosci, Francesca; Ascrizzi, Roberta; Echeverria, Maria Cristina; Guidi, Lucia; Landi, Marco; Lucchi, Andrea; Conti, Barbara

    2017-02-13

    Synanthropic flies play a considerable role in the transmission of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms. In this work, the essential oil (EO) of two aromatic plants, Artemisia annua and Artemisia dracunculus, were evaluated for their abilities to control the blowfly Calliphora vomitoria. Artemisia annua and A. dracunculus EOs were extracted, analysed and tested in laboratory bioassays. Besides, the physiology of EOs toxicity and the EOs antibacterial and antifungal properties were evaluated. Both Artemisia EOs deterred C. vomitoria oviposition on fresh beef meat. At 0.05 μl cm -2 A. dracunculus EO completely inhibited C. vomitoria oviposition. Toxicity tests, by contact, showed LD 50 of 0.49 and 0.79 μl EO per fly for A. dracunculus and A. annua, respectively. By fumigation, LC 50 values were 49.55 and 88.09 μl l -1 air for A. dracunculus and A. annua, respectively. EOs AChE inhibition in C. vomitoria (IC 50  = 202.6 and 472.4 mg l -1 , respectively, for A. dracunculus and A. annua) indicated that insect neural sites are targeted by the EOs toxicity. Finally, the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the two Artemisia EOs may assist in the reduction of transmission of microbial infections/contaminations. Results suggest that Artemisia EOs could be of use in the control of C. vomitoria, a common vector of pathogenic microorganisms and agent of human and animal cutaneous myiasis. The prevention of pathogenic and parasitic infections is a priority for human and animal health. The Artemisia EOs could represent an eco-friendly, low-cost alternative to synthetic repellents and insecticides to fight synanthropic disease-carrying blowflies.

  10. Fractionation and Characterization of Biologically-active Polysaccharides from Artemisia tripartita

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Gang; Schepetkin, Igor A.; Siemsen, Daniel W.; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Wiley, James A.; Quinn, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    The leaves of Artemisia species have been traditionally used for prevention and treatment of a number of diseases. In this study, five polysaccharide fractions (designated A-I to A-V) were isolated from the leaves of Artemisia tripartita Rydb. by the sequential use of hot-water extraction, ethanol precipitation, ultra-filtration, and chromatography. The homogeneity and average molecular weight of each fraction were determined by high performance size-exclusion chromatography. Sugar composition analysis revealed that Artemisia polysaccharides consisted primarily of xylose, glucose, arabinose, galactose, and galactosamine. Moreover, all fractions contained at least 3.4% sulfate, and fractions A-II through A-V contained an arabinogalactan type II structure. All fractions exhibited macrophage-activating activity, enhancing production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and release of nitric oxide, interleukin 6, interleukin 10, tumor necrosis factor α, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. In addition, all fractions exhibited scavenging activity for reactive oxygen species generated enzymatically or produced extracellularly by human neutrophils. Finally, fractions A-I and A-V exhibited complement-fixing activity. Taken together, our results provide a molecular basis to explain at least part of the beneficial therapeutic effects of Artemisia extracts, and suggest the possibility of using Artemisia polysaccharides as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant. PMID:18325553

  11. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences of Mongolia Medicine Artemisia frigida and Phylogenetic Relationships with Other Plants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yue; Huo, Naxin; Dong, Lingli; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Shuixian; Young, Hugh A.; Feng, Xiaoxiao; Gu, Yong Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Artemisia frigida Willd. is an important Mongolian traditional medicinal plant with pharmacological functions of stanch and detumescence. However, there is little sequence and genomic information available for Artemisia frigida, which makes phylogenetic identification, evolutionary studies, and genetic improvement of its value very difficult. We report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of Artemisia frigida based on 454 pyrosequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings The complete chloroplast genome of Artemisia frigida is 151,076 bp including a large single copy (LSC) region of 82,740 bp, a small single copy (SSC) region of 18,394 bp and a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 24,971 bp. The genome contains 114 unique genes and 18 duplicated genes. The chloroplast genome of Artemisia frigida contains a small 3.4 kb inversion within a large 23 kb inversion in the LSC region, a unique feature in Asteraceae. The gene order in the SSC region of Artemisia frigida is inverted compared with the other 6 Asteraceae species with the chloroplast genomes sequenced. This inversion is likely caused by an intramolecular recombination event only occurred in Artemisia frigida. The existence of rich SSR loci in the Artemisia frigida chloroplast genome provides a rare opportunity to study population genetics of this Mongolian medicinal plant. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates a sister relationship between Artemisia frigida and four other species in Asteraceae, including Ageratina adenophora, Helianthus annuus, Guizotia abyssinica and Lactuca sativa, based on 61 protein-coding sequences. Furthermore, Artemisia frigida was placed in the tribe Anthemideae in the subfamily Asteroideae (Asteraceae) based on ndhF and trnL-F sequence comparisons. Conclusion The chloroplast genome sequence of Artemisia frigida was assembled and analyzed in this study, representing the first plastid genome sequenced in the Anthemideae tribe. This complete chloroplast genome sequence will be

  12. Influence of Mowing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on Winter Habitat for Wildlife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Kirk W.; Bates, Jonathan D.; Johnson, Dustin D.; Nafus, Aleta M.

    2009-07-01

    Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the influence of mowing on winter habitat for wildlife is lacking. This information is crucial because many wildlife species depended on A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities for winter habitat and consume significant quantities of Artemisia during this time . Furthermore, information is generally limited describing the recovery of A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis to mowing and the impacts of mowing on stand structure. Stand characteristics and Artemisia leaf tissue crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations were measured in midwinter on 0-, 2-, 4-, and 6-year-old fall-applied mechanical (mowed at 20 cm height) treatments and compared to adjacent untreated (control) areas. Mowing compared to the control decreased Artemisia cover, density, canopy volume, canopy elliptical area, and height ( P < 0.05), but all characteristics were recovering ( P < 0.05). Mowing A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities slightly increases the nutritional quality of Artemisia leaves ( P < 0.05), but it simultaneously results in up to 20 years of decrease in Artemisia structural characteristics. Because of the large reduction in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis for potentially 20 years following mowing, mowing should not be applied in Artemisia facultative and obligate wildlife winter habitat. Considering the decline in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis-dominated landscapes, we caution against mowing these communities.

  13. Identification and partial purification of pollen allergens from Artemisia princeps.

    PubMed

    Park, H S; Hong, C S; Choi, H J; Hahm, K S

    1989-12-01

    The pollen of Artemisia has been considered as the main late summer-autumn allergen source in this country. To identify its allergenic components, Artemisia princeps pollen extracts were separated by 10% sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and transferred to nitrocellulose membrane, where IgE binding components were detected by the reaction with sera of twenty Artemisia-allergic patients and 125I-anti-human IgE, sixteen components in the molecular range of 10,000 and 85,000 daltons were detected. Twelve bands bound to IgE from 50% of the sera tested, and two bands (37,000, 23,000 daltons) showed the highest (85%) frequency of IgE-binding in twenty sera tested. When the gel of SDS-PAGE with Artemisia pollen extracts was sliced into 11 allergenic groups (AG) and the protein of each AG was obtained by the gel elution method, the wormwool-RAST inhibition test showed that the AG 10 demonstrated to be the most potent, and the AG 7 was the next. Six AGs showed significant responses (more than 100% of wheal size to histamine, 1 mg/ml) on the skin prick test in more than 50% of the patients tested. It is suggested that electrophoretic transfer analysis with SDS-PAGE may be a valuable method for Artemisia allergen identification, and the possibility of partial purification of allergens by employing gel elution is discussed.

  14. Molecular phylogeny of Subtribe Artemisiinae (Asteraceae), including Artemisia and its allied and segregate genera

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Linda E; Bates, Paul L; Evans, Timothy M; Unwin, Matthew M; Estes, James R

    2002-01-01

    Background Subtribe Artemisiinae of Tribe Anthemideae (Asteraceae) is composed of 18 largely Asian genera that include the sagebrushes and mugworts. The subtribe includes the large cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated genus Artemisia, as well as several smaller genera and Seriphidium, that altogether comprise the Artemisia-group. Circumscription and taxonomic boundaries of Artemisia and the placements of these small segregate genera is currently unresolved. Results We constructed a molecular phylogeny for the subtribe using the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA analyzed with parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian criteria. The resulting tree is comprised of three major clades that correspond to the radiate genera (e.g., Arctanthemum and Dendranthema), and two clades of Artemisia species. All three clades have allied and segregate genera embedded within each. Conclusions The data support a broad concept of Artemisia s.l. that includes Neopallasia, Crossostephium, Filifolium, Seriphidium, and Sphaeromeria. However, the phylogeny excludes Elachanthemum, Kaschgaria, and Stilnolepis from the Artemisia-group. Additionally, the monophyly of the four subgenera of Artemisia is also not supported, with the exception of subg. Dracunculus. Homogamous, discoid capitula appear to have arisen in parallel four to seven times, with the loss of ray florets. Thus capitular morphology is not a reliable taxonomic character, which traditionally has been one of the defining characters. PMID:12350234

  15. Poaceae, Secale spp. and Artemisia spp. pollen in the air at two sites of different degrees of urbanisation.

    PubMed

    Kruczek, Aleksandra; Puc, Małgorzata; Wolski, Tomasz

    2017-03-21

    Among herbal plants, most cases of allergic reactions, like seasonal inflammation of nasal mucosa, conjunctivitis and pollen asthma, are related to the allergens from grass pollen. As the blossoming and pollination of rye is known to start the pollen season of grasses, information about the airborne rye pollen count permits alerting the people allergic to certain allergens contained in rye pollen. An important cause of allergy is also the pollen from wormwood, blossoming in late summer, as its two main allergens produce cross-reactions with many other plant allergens. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of allergic reactions in persons with pollinosis on the basis of the pollen calendar, analysis of concentrations of pollen grains of grass and rye, and comparison of diurnal pattern of airborne pollen grain concentrations at two sites with different degrees of urbanisation (Gudowo in the country and the city of Szczecin) in 2012-2014. The concentration of pollen was measured by the volume method. Length of the pollination season was determined by the method of 98%, assuming that the beginning and the end of the pollen season are the days on which 1% and 99% of the annual sum of pollen appeared. The first pollen grains to appear in the air are those produced by rye, followed by those produced by grass and wormwood. The pollen seasons of grasses and wormwood started about one week earlier in Gudowo than in Szczecin, while the pollen season of rye started at almost the same time in the country and in the city. Airborne pollen counts of grasses, rye and wormwood were much higher in the country than in the city. The differences most probably result from the different floristic composition at these two sites and reflect the local contribution of the taxa studied in the country. The risk of allergy caused by the pollen of the taxa analysed was much higher in Gudowo (in the country), than in Szczecin city.

  16. Phytotoxic Lignans from Artemisia arborescens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A systematic bioassay-guided fractionation of methylene chloride extracts of the aerial part of Artemisia arborescens was performed in order to identify its phytotoxic compounds. Two lignans were isolated, sesamin and ashantin, that inhibited growth of Agrostis stolonifera (bentgrass), a monocot, a...

  17. [The advantages and disadvantages of Artemisia princeps and A. montana].

    PubMed

    Oda, R

    2000-01-01

    In Japan, Moxa is made from Artemisia princeps and A. montana P. which are plants of the composiae family. Evaluations of the superiority or inferiority of these raw materials for Moxa have been confusing. The judgement of superiority or inferiority is roughly based on the strenght of the fragrance and somewhat of down. When I investigated 14 kinds of documents from the Edo period to the Showa period, 10 of the documents gave good evaluations for Artemisia princeps. On the other hand the remaining four gave good evaluations for A. montana P. But there is quite an opposite opinion, because the four deemed good for Artemisia princeps were misunderstood regarding the discrimination of Artemisia princeps and A. montana P. Since correcting them, each material has seven good evaluations, tying the score. Therefore, I researched the contents of the principal ingredient, Cineole, using an important evaluation index and the fragrances were compared measuring both materials, which were collected from different places. The results to examining six kinds of Artemisia princeps, and eight kinds of A. montana P. (14 kinds in total) are as follows: The A. montana P. contents Cineole was more abundant than the other on average. However, it is from three to five times the change by the growing both ground, and superiority or inferiority cannot be decided indiscriminately. When quality is evaluated, it is necessary to clarify the materials orgin. Generally speaking, the fragrance of A. montana P. is stronger than the other.

  18. Artemisia annua respon to various types of organic fertilizer and dose in lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunus, A.; Samanhudi; Brahmanto, N.; Widyastuti, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Artemisia annua belongs to asteraceae genus which has many benefits in the medical field. Artemisia contains artemisinin which is used to cure malaria disease. The obstacle of artemisia development in Indonesia is low artemisinin content and the fact that artemisia only able to grow well in the highland area. For that this experiment aimed to increase the artemisinin content through enhancing artemisia biomass in the lowland using the application of organic fertilizer. Experiment was conducted in GreenhouseLab, Faculty of Agriculture, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta from October 2015 to January 2016. Two factor of treatment and three replications was performed during experiment. The first factor is the organic fertilizer type and the second is the application dose. Result showed that Rabbit manure at 40% application dose give best influence on the plant height (172,62 cm), number of branches (68,3 branch), flowering time (102,67 day after planted), fresh weight (56,47 g) and dry weight (43,15 g), moreover Rabbit manure at 80% dose give the best influence on the root length (27,33 cm).

  19. A phylogenetic road map to antimalarial Artemisia species.

    PubMed

    Pellicer, Jaume; Saslis-Lagoudakis, C Haris; Carrió, Esperança; Ernst, Madeleine; Garnatje, Teresa; Grace, Olwen M; Gras, Airy; Mumbrú, Màrius; Vallès, Joan; Vitales, Daniel; Rønsted, Nina

    2018-06-21

    The discovery of the antimalarial agent artemisinin is considered one of the most significant success stories of ethnopharmacological research in recent times. The isolation of artemisinin was inspired by the use of Artemisia annua in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and was awarded a Nobel Prize in 2015. Antimalarial activity has since been demonstrated for a range of other Artemisia species, suggesting that the genus could provide alternative sources of antimalarial treatments. Given the stunning diversity of the genus (c. 500 species), a prioritisation of taxa to be investigated for their likely antimalarial properties is required. Here we use a phylogenetic approach to explore the potential for identifying species more likely to possess antimalarial properties. Ethnobotanical data from literature reports is recorded for 117 species. Subsequent phylogenetically informed analysis was used to identify lineages in which there is an overrepresentation of species used to treat malarial symptoms, and which could therefore be high priority for further investigation of antimalarial activity. We show that these lineages indeed include several species with documented antimalarial activity. To further inform our approach, we use LC-MS/MS analysis to explore artemisinin content in fifteen species from both highlighted and not highlighted lineages. We detected artemisinin in nine species, in eight of them for the first time, doubling the number of Artemisia taxa known to content this molecule. Our findings indicate that artemisinin may be widespread across the genus, providing an accessible local resource outside the distribution area of Artemisia annua. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Inhibitory Activity of Eleven Artemisia Species from Iran against Leishmania Major Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Zamanai Taghizadeh Rabe, Shahrzad; Ahi, Ali; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s) Annual incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis is increasingly growing and development of the alternative drugs against it is a major concern. Artemisia genus is a traditional medicinal plant in Iran. The aim of this study was to examine the leishmanicidal activity of various Iranian Artemisia species extracts. Materials and Methods Different extracts were gathered from eleven Iranian Artemisia species. Their leishmanicidal activities against the growth of Leishmania major (L. major) promastigotes were examined as the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) using MTT assay. Results Obtained results showed that ethanol extracts especially those taken from A. ciniformis, A. santolina and A. kulbadica have the strongest effects. Conclusion Looking for the effective leishmanicidal agents from natural resources in Iran, we found that the ethanol extract of collected Artemisia species had significant effect on in vitro leishmanicidal activity and may be suitable candidates in the treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:23493354

  1. Taxonomic and nomenclatural rearrangements in Artemisia subgen. Tridentatae, including a redefinition of Sphaeromeria (Asteraceae, Anthemideae)

    Treesearch

    Sonia Garcia; Teresa Garnatje; E. Durant McArthur; Jaume Pellicer; Stewart C. Sanderson; Joan Valles

    2011-01-01

    A recent molecular phylogenetic study of all members of Artemisia subgenus Tridentatae, as well as most of the other New World endemic Artemisia and the allied genera Sphaeromeria and Picrothamnus, raised the necessity of revising the taxonomic framework of the North American endemic Artemisia. Composition of the subgenus Tridentatae is enlarged to accommodate other...

  2. Cellular engineering of Artemisia annua and Artemisia dubia with the rol ABC genes for enhanced production of potent anti-malarial drug artemisinin.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Bushra Hafeez; Suberu, John; Mirza, Bushra

    2016-05-04

    Malaria is causing more than half of a million deaths and 214 million clinical cases annually. Despite tremendous efforts for the control of malaria, the global morbidity and mortality have not been significantly changed in the last 50 years. Artemisinin, extracted from the medicinal plant Artemisia sp. is an effective anti-malarial drug. In 2015, elucidation of the effectiveness of artemisinin as a potent anti-malarial drug was acknowledged with a Nobel prize. Owing to the tight market and low yield of artemisinin, an economical way to increase its production is to increase its content in Artemisia sp. through different biotechnological approaches including genetic transformation. Artemisia annua and Artemisia dubia were transformed with rol ABC genes through Agrobacterium tumefacienes and Agrobacterium rhizogenes methods. The artemisinin content was analysed and compared between transformed and untransformed plants with the help of LC-MS/MS. Expression of key genes [Cytochrome P450 (CYP71AV1), aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), amorpha-4, 11 diene synthase (ADS)] in the biosynthetic pathway of artemisinin and gene for trichome development and sesquiterpenoid biosynthetic (TFAR1) were measured using Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). Trichome density was analysed using confocal microscope. Artemisinin content was significantly increased in transformed material of both Artemisia species when compared to un-transformed plants. The artemisinin content within leaves of transformed lines was increased by a factor of nine, indicating that the plant is capable of synthesizing much higher amounts than has been achieved so far through traditional breeding. Expression of all artemisinin biosynthesis genes was significantly increased, although variation between the genes was observed. CYP71AV1 and ALDH1 expression levels were higher than that of ADS. Levels of the TFAR1 expression were also increased in all transgenic lines. Trichome density was also significantly

  3. Phytochemical screening of Artemisia arborescens L. by means of advanced chromatographic techniques for identification of health-promoting compounds.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rosaria; Ragusa, Salvatore; Russo, Marina; Certo, Giovanna; Franchina, Flavio A; Zanotto, Antonio; Grasso, Elisa; Mondello, Luigi; Germanò, Maria Paola

    2016-01-05

    Artemisia arborescens, also known as tree wormwood, is a typical species of the Mediterranean flora. It has been used in folk medicine for its antispasmodic, anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory, and abortifacient properties. In the current study, the application of multidimensional comprehensive gas chromatography (GC×GC), allowed to obtain a detailed fingerprint of the essential oil from A. arborescens aerial parts, highlighting an abundant presence of chamazulene followed by camphor, β-thujone, myrcene, and α-pinene. Moreover, flavonoids in the dichloromethane extract were analyzed by means of liquid chromatography with photodiode array and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry detections (HPLC-PDA and HPLC-APCI-MS). Six polymethoxyflavones were identified and three of them, including chrysosplenetin, eupatin, and cirsilineol, were described in this species for the first time. The anti-angiogenic activity was investigated in the dichloromethane extract by two in vivo models, chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and zebrafish embryos. Results showed that this extract produced a strong reduction on vessel formation, both on zebrafish (57% of inhibition, 0.1 mg/mL) and chick chorioallantoic membrane (58% of inhibition, 0.8 mg/mL). The high separation power and sensitivity of the analytical methodology applied confirmed the safety of A. arborescens essential oil for human consumption, due to the very low level of the psychotrope α-thujone determined. Moreover, the knowledge of the flavonoidic profile holds a great significance for the use of A. arborescens as a valuable source of anti-angiogenic compounds that might contribute to the valorization of the phytotherapeutic potential of this plant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Allergy to foods in patients monosensitized to Artemisia pollen.

    PubMed

    Garcia Ortiz, J C; Cosmes, P M; Lopez-Asunsolo, A

    1996-12-01

    It is known that patients with pollinosis may display clinical characteristics caused by allergy to certain fruits and vegetables, but subjects allergic to Artemisia seem to show particularly peculiar characteristics. The clinical features of 84 patients with rhinitis, asthma, urticaria, and/or anaphylaxis whose inhalant allergy was exclusively to Artemisia vulgaris were studied and compared with a control group of 50 patients monosensitized to grass pollen. The mean age for the beginning of symptoms was 30.2 years, and this was higher than in the control group (P < 0.05). We found the main incidence to be in women (70.2%). Some 42.3% had family history of atopia, lower than in the control group (P < 0.05), while the prevalence of asthma and urticaria was significantly higher (P < 0.05). Food hypersensitivity was reported by 23 patients (27.3%) allergic to Artemisia. The foods responsible (with respective numbers of cases) were honey (14), sunflower seeds (11), camomile (four), pistachio (three), hazelnut (two), lettuce (two), pollen (two), beer (two), almond (one), peanut (one), other nuts (one), carrot (one), and apple (one). None of the patients monosensitized to grass had food allergy. CAP inhibition experiments were carried out on a single patient. Results showed the existence of common antigenic epitopes in pistachio and Artemisia pollen for this patient. We concluded that mugwort hay fever can be associated with the Compositae family of foods, but that it is not normally associated with other foods.

  5. Studies of a new hybrid taxon in the Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae: Anthemideae) complex

    Treesearch

    Heather D. Garrison; Leila M. Shultz; E. Durant McArthur

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Artemisia tridentata complex (ASTERACEAE: Anthemideae: Artemisia subgen. Tridentatae) have adapted to changing environmental conditions through geographic migration, introgression, and hybridization. These processes have resulted in morphologic and genetic variation. A presumed hybrid ("Bonneville" big sagebrush) of the complex occurs in the...

  6. DNA Barcode for Identifying Folium Artemisiae Argyi from Counterfeits.

    PubMed

    Mei, Quanxi; Chen, Xiaolu; Xiang, Li; Liu, Yue; Su, Yanyan; Gao, Yuqiao; Dai, Weibo; Dong, Pengpeng; Chen, Shilin

    2016-01-01

    Folium Artemisiae Argyi is an important herb in traditional Chinese medicine. It is commonly used in moxibustion, medicine, etc. However, identifying Artemisia argyi is difficult because this herb exhibits similar morphological characteristics to closely related species and counterfeits. To verify the applicability of DNA barcoding, ITS2 and psbA-trnH were used to identify A. argyi from 15 closely related species and counterfeits. Results indicated that total DNA was easily extracted from all the samples and that both ITS2 and psbA-trnH fragments can be easily amplified. ITS2 was a more ideal barcode than psbA-trnH and ITS2+psbA-trnH to identify A. argyi from closely related species and counterfeits on the basis of sequence character, genetic distance, and tree methods. The sequence length was 225 bp for the 56 ITS2 sequences of A. argyi, and no variable site was detected. For the ITS2 sequences, A. capillaris, A. anomala, A. annua, A. igniaria, A. maximowicziana, A. princeps, Dendranthema vestitum, and D. indicum had single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The intraspecific Kimura 2-Parameter distance was zero, which is lower than the minimum interspecific distance (0.005). A. argyi, the closely related species, and counterfeits, except for Artemisia maximowicziana and Artemisia sieversiana, were separated into pairs of divergent clusters by using the neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood tree methods. Thus, the ITS2 sequence was an ideal barcode to identify A. argyi from closely related species and counterfeits to ensure the safe use of this plant.

  7. The growth response of Artemisia annua L. to organic fertilizer type in lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetyo, L.; Widyastuti, Y.; Yunus, A.; Samanhudi

    2018-03-01

    Artemisia annua L. is a medicinal plant known in long period of time. Artemisia annua has a drug content therein, the compound is artemisinin, these compounds are useful as anti-malarial compounds. Growth of Artemisia annua L. in normal conditions is on the plateau. Planting can be done in lowland, but there is a risk that must be faced. This study was conducted to evaluate the response of the growth of the plant Artemisia annua conducted in lowland. This research was conducted at the Laboratory Jumantono of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sebelas Maret Surakarta. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and if there is a significant difference continued with Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) level of 5%. The results showed that the application of goat manure has a positive effect on plant height by 201.9 cm, the number of branches by 57, 30.67 ml root volume and root length of 25 cm, and weight 12.4 grams interest.

  8. Response of Artemisia annua L. to shade and manure fertilizer application in lowland altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permana, H. H.; Widyastuti, Y.; Samanhudi; Yunus, A.

    2018-03-01

    Artemisia is a plant producing artemisinin substance which is the main compound in the treatment of malaria. Artemisia comes from China, usually grows wild in native habitats in the plains with an altitude of 1,000-1,500 meters above the sea level. Artemisia development efforts in Indonesia hampered by limited land with the required altitude due to their competition with vegetable crops. Based on this reason, this research is conducted to observe the growth of artemisia planted in lowland with the help of shade and manure. This study aims to determine the level of shade and best manure on the growth of Artemisia. Research conducted at the Laboratory of the Faculty of Agriculture UNS Jumantono using nested design with two factors, shade as main factor and manure fertilizer as sub factor. The data analysis used F test with confidence level of 5%, if significant, then continued with DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test). The results showed the treatment of shade gave no difference in growth within 50% shade, 75% shade as well as without shade treatment. Goat manure fertilizer gave the highest result and able to increase plant height, number of branches, flower weight and root volume.

  9. [Essential oil from Artemisia lavandulaefolia induces apoptosis and necrosis of HeLa cells].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu-min; Lv, Xue-wei; Shao, Lin-xiang; Ma, Yan-fang; Cheng, Wen-zhao; Gao, Hai-tao

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the effects of Artemisia lavandulaefolia essential oil on apoptosis and necrosis of HeLa cells. Cell viability was assayed using MTT method. The morphological and structure alterations in HeLa cells were observed by microscopy. Furthermore, cell apoptosis was measured by DNA Ladder and flow cytometry. DNA damage was measured by comet assay, and the protein expression was examined by Western blot analysis. MTT assay displayed essential oil from Artemisia lavandulaefolia could inhibit the proliferation of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. After treated with essential oil of Artemisia lavadulaefolia for 24 h, HeLa cells in 100 and 200 microg/mL experiment groups exhibited the typical morphology changes of undergoing apoptosis, such as cell shrinkage and nucleus chromatin condensed. However, the cells in the 400 microg/mL group showed the necrotic morphology changes including cytomembrane rupture and cytoplasm spillover. In addition, DNA Ladder could be demonstrated by DNA electrophoresis in each experiment group. Apoptosis peak was also evident in flow cytometry in each experiment group. After treating the HeLa cells with essential oil of Artemisia lavadulaefolia for 6 h, comet tail was detected by comet assay. Moreover, western blotting analysis showed that caspase-3 was activated and the cleavage of PARP was inactivated. Essential oil from Artemisia lavadulaefolia can inhibit the proliferation of HeLa cells in vitro. Low concentration of essential oil from Artemisia lavadulaefolia can induce apoptosis, whereas high concentration of the compounds result in necrosis of HeLa cells. And,the mechanism may be related to the caspase-3-mediated-PARP apoptotic signal pathway.

  10. Climate drives adaptive genetic responses associated with survival in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    Treesearch

    Lindsay Chaney; Bryce A. Richardson; Matthew J. Germino

    2016-01-01

    A genecological approach was used to explore genetic variation for survival in Artemisia tridentata (big sagebrush). Artemisia tridentata is a widespread and foundational shrub species in western North America. This species has become extremely fragmented, to the detriment of dependent wildlife, and efforts to restore it are now a land management priority. Common-...

  11. Study of artemisinin and sugar accumulation in Artemisia vulgaris and Artemisia dracunculus "hairy" root cultures.

    PubMed

    Drobot, Kateryna O; Matvieieva, Nadiia A; Ostapchuk, Andriy M; Kharkhota, Maxim A; Duplij, Volodymyr P

    2017-09-14

    We studied the effect of genetic transformation on biologically active compound (artemisinin and its co-products (ART) as well as sugars) accumulation in Artemisia vulgaris and Artemisia dracunculus "hairy" root cultures. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and mannitol were accumulated in A. vulgaris and A. dracunculus "hairy" root lines. Genetic transformation has led in some cases to the sugar content increasing or appearing of nonrelevant for the control plant carbohydrates. Sucrose content was 1.6 times higher in A. vulgaris "hairy" root lines. Fructose content was found to be 3.4 times higher in A. dracunculus "hairy" root cultures than in the control roots. The accumulation of mannitol was a special feature of the leaves of A. vulgaris and A. dracunculus control roots. A. vulgaris "hairy" root lines differed also in ART accumulation level. The increase of ART content up to 1.02 mg/g DW in comparison with the nontransformed roots (up to 0.687 mg/g DW) was observed. Thus, Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated genetic transformation can be used for obtaining of A. vulgaris and A. dracunculus "hairy" root culture produced ART and sugars in a higher amount than mother plants.

  12. Chemical composition and antiprolifrative activity of Artemisia persica Boiss. and Artemisia turcomanica Gand. essential oils.

    PubMed

    Nikbakht, M R; Sharifi, S; Emami, S A; Khodaie, L

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Artemisia persica and Artemisia turcomanica were analyzed by GC/MS. While 28 components representing 91.01 % of A. persica were identified, the identity of 50 components, constituting 81.93 % of the total oil, was confirmed in A. turcomanica. β-thujone was the main compound (75.23%) in A. persica while the major identified phytochemicals in A. turcomanica were 1,8-cineol (19.23%), camphor (15.55%) and filifolone (15.53%). Both of the essential oils were predominantly made up of monoterpenes. Time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic effects of A. persica and A. turcomanica on MCF-7 cell line evaluated by MTT assay at 24, 48 and 72 h, showed that the highest cytotoxic effect of A. persica and A. turcomanica were appeared at 72 h incubation. At that incubation period, CI50 of A. persica was found to be 0.15 μg/ml, while that of A. turcomanica was 0.1 μg/ml. Thus, cytotoxicity of A. turcomanica was slightly higher than A. persica which could be attributed to the higher content of sesquiterpene present in A. turcomanica. As a conclusion, these volatile oils could have chemotherapeutic potentials.

  13. Chemical composition and antiprolifrative activity of Artemisia persica Boiss. and Artemisia turcomanica Gand. essential oils

    PubMed Central

    Nikbakht, M.R.; Sharifi, S.; Emami, S.A.; Khodaie, L.

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Artemisia persica and Artemisia turcomanica were analyzed by GC/MS. While 28 components representing 91.01 % of A. persica were identified, the identity of 50 components, constituting 81.93 % of the total oil, was confirmed in A. turcomanica. β-thujone was the main compound (75.23%) in A. persica while the major identified phytochemicals in A. turcomanica were 1,8-cineol (19.23%), camphor (15.55%) and filifolone (15.53%). Both of the essential oils were predominantly made up of monoterpenes. Time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic effects of A. persica and A. turcomanica on MCF-7 cell line evaluated by MTT assay at 24, 48 and 72 h, showed that the highest cytotoxic effect of A. persica and A. turcomanica were appeared at 72 h incubation. At that incubation period, CI50 of A. persica was found to be 0.15 μg/ml, while that of A. turcomanica was 0.1 μg/ml. Thus, cytotoxicity of A. turcomanica was slightly higher than A. persica which could be attributed to the higher content of sesquiterpene present in A. turcomanica. As a conclusion, these volatile oils could have chemotherapeutic potentials. PMID:25657784

  14. Artemisia tridenata seed bank densities following wildfires

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) is a critical shrub to such sagebrush obligate species as sage grouse, (Centocercus urophasianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis). Big sagebrush do not sprout after wildfires and big sagebrush seed is generally short-lived a...

  15. Chemical Polymorphism of Essential Oils of Artemisia vulgaris Growing Wild in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Judzentiene, Asta; Budiene, Jurga

    2018-02-01

    Compositional variability of mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) essential oils has been investigated in the study. Plant material (over ground parts at full flowering stage) was collected from forty-four wild populations in Lithuania. The oils from aerial parts were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC(FID) and GC/MS. In total, up to 111 components were determined in the oils. As the major constituents were found: sabinene, 1,8-cineole, artemisia ketone, both thujone isomers, camphor, cis-chrysanthenyl acetate, davanone and davanone B. The compositional data were subjected to statistical analysis. The application of PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and AHC (Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering) allowed grouping the oils into six clusters. AHC permitted to distinguish an artemisia ketone chemotype, which, to the best of our knowledge, is very scarce. Additionally, two rare cis-chrysanthenyl acetate and sabinene oil types were determined for the plants growing in Lithuania. Besides, davanone was found for the first time as a principal component in mugwort oils. The performed study revealed significant chemical polymorphism of essential oils in mugwort plants native to Lithuania; it has expanded our chemotaxonomic knowledge both of A. vulgaris species and Artemisia genus. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  16. The genus Artemisia L. in the northern region of Saudi Arabia: essential oil variability and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Guetat, Arbi; Al-Ghamdi, Faraj A; Osman, Ahmed K

    2017-03-01

    Four species of the genus Artemisia L. (Artemisia monosperma, Artemisia scoparia, Artemisia judaica and Artemisia sieberi) growing in the northern region of Saudi Arabia were investigated with respect to their volatile oil contents. The yield of oil varied between 0.30 and 0.41%, % (w/w). A. monosperma showed the highest number of compounds with 30 components representing 93.78% of oil composition. However, A. judaica showed the lowest number of compounds with only 16 components representing 87.47% of essential oil. A. scoparia and A. sieberi are both composed of 17 components, representing 97.14 and 94.2% of total oil composition. A. sieberi and A. judaica were dominated by spathulenol (30.42 and 28.41%, respectively). For A. monosperma, butanoic acid (17.87%) was a major component. However, A. scoparia was a chemotype of acenaphthene. (83.23%). Essential oil of studied species showed high antibacterial activities against common human pathogens.

  17. Effect aquadest-extracted Gloriosa superba seed as mutagen on morphology of Artemisia annua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmawati, S. I.; Susilowati, A.; Yunus, A.; Widyastuti, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Gloriosa superba is a plant that contains colchicine in all parts of organs, especially in the seeds. Its extract is as a mutagen to produce plants with polyploid cells. Artemisia annua is a plant that produces active ingredients artemisinin as malarial drugs, hemorrhoids therapy, aromatherapy, antiviral, anticancer, and anti-bacterial. The aims of this research was to determine the effect aquadest-extracted Gloriosa superba seed as a mutagen to Artemisia annua morphology. Extraction of Gloriosa superba seeds obtained from Sukoharjo using maceration method with aquadest solvent (1: 1). The extracts were diluted (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) for Artemisia annua sprinkling with different times (0, 30, 60 and 90 minutes). Observations of morphology Artemisia annua included height, stem circumference, number of branches, number of leaves, leaf width and leaf length. The treatments did not affect plant morphology observation included height, stem circumference, number of branches, number of leaves, leaf width, and leaf length. The EB treatment (100%, 30 minutes) was higher (120 cm) than other. In all treatments stem circumference about 2.5 cm, number of branches ranged between 40-50, leaves width ranged 9-16c m, and leaf length ranged 8-15 cm.

  18. Chemical composition and biological effects of Artemisia maritima and Artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plant of Western Himalaya

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Artemisia species possess pharmacological properties that are used for medical purposes worldwide. In this paper, the essential oils from the aerial parts of A. nilagirica and A. maritima from the western Indian Himalaya region are described. The main compounds analyzed by simultaneous GC/MS and GC/...

  19. Artemisia supplementation differentially affects the mucosal and luminal ileal microbiota of diet-induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Shawna, Wicks; M., Taylor Christopher; Meng, Luo; Eugene, Blanchard IV; David, Ribnicky; T., Cefalu William; L., Mynatt Randall; A., Welsh David

    2014-01-01

    Objective The gut microbiome has been implicated in obesity and metabolic syndrome; however, most studies have focused on fecal or colonic samples. Several species of Artemisia have been reported to ameliorate insulin signaling both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to characterize the mucosal and luminal bacterial populations in the terminal ileum with or without supplementation with Artemisia extracts. Materials/Methods Following 4 weeks of supplementation with different Artemisia extracts (PMI 5011, Santa or Scopa), diet-induced obese mice were sacrificed and luminal and mucosal samples of terminal ileum were used to evaluate microbial community composition by pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA hypervariable regions. Results Significant differences in community structure and membership were observed between luminal and mucosal samples, irrespective of diet group. All Artemisia extracts increased the Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio in mucosal samples. This effect was not observed in the luminal compartment. There was high inter-individual variability in the phylogenetic assessments of the ileal microbiota, limiting the statistical power of this pilot investigation. Conclusions Marked differences in bacterial communities exist dependent upon the biogeographic compartment in the terminal ileum. Future studies testing the effects of Artemisia or other botanical supplements require larger sample sizes for adequate statistical power. PMID:24985102

  20. Fabrication of Natural Sensitizer Extracted from Mixture of Purple Cabbage, Roselle, Wormwood and Seaweed with High Conversion Efficiency for DSSC.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ho; Lai, Xuan-Rong

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to deal with the influence of different solvent in extraction of natural sensitizer and different thickness of photoelectrode thin film on the photoelectric conversion efficiency and the electron transport properties for the prepared dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The natural dyes of anthocyanin and chlorophyll dyes are extracted from mixture of purple cabbage and roselle and mixture of wormwood and seaweed, respectively. The experimental results show the cocktail dye extracted with ethanol and rotating speed of spin coating at 1000 rpm can achieve the greatest photoelectric conversion efficiency up to 1.85%. Electrochemical impedance result shows that the effective diffusion coefficient for the prepared DSSC with the thickness of photoelectrode thin film at 21 microm are 5.23 x 10(-4) cm2/s.

  1. Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons against the background of the synoptic situations in Poland.

    PubMed

    Stępalska, Danuta; Myszkowska, Dorota; Katarzyna, Leśkiewicz; Katarzyna, Piotrowicz; Katarzyna, Borycka; Kazimiera, Chłopek; Łukasz, Grewling; Idalia, Kasprzyk; Barbara, Majkowska-Wojciechowska; Małgorzata, Malkiewicz; Małgorzata, Nowak; Krystyna, Piotrowska-Weryszko; Małgorzata, Puc; Elżbieta, Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2017-04-01

    The Asteraceae family is one of the largest families, comprising 67 genera and 264 species in Poland. However, only a few genera, including Artemisia and Ambrosia are potential allergenic sources. The aim of the study was to estimate how often and to what degree Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons co-occur intensifying human health risk, and how synoptic situations influence frequency of days with high pollen concentrations of both taxa. Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen data were collected, using the volumetric method, at 8 sites in Poland. Daily concentrations of Artemisia pollen equal to 30 grains or more and Ambrosia pollen equal to 10 grains or more were accepted as high values. Concentrations of more than 10 pollen grains were defined as high in the case of Ambrosia because its allergenicity is considered higher. High concentrations were confronted with synoptic situations. Analysis was performed on the basis of two calendars on circulation types of atmosphere in Poland (Niedźwiedź, 2006, 2015). Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons is being found most often, when Ambrosia pollen season starts in the first half of August. If it happens in the last 10 days of August high pollen concentrations of Artemisia and Ambrosia do not occur at the same days. At three sites (Sosnowiec, Rzeszów, Lublin) high Ambrosia pollen concentrations during the Artemisia pollen season appear more often than in other sites under question. The high Artemisia pollen concentrations occur, when continental or polar maritime old air masses inflow into Poland. The impact of air masses on high Ambrosia pollen concentrations depends on site localizations. It is likely, that in the south-eastern part of Poland high Ambrosia pollen concentrations result from the pollen transport from east-south-south-westerly directions and the local sources. Co-occurrence of both taxa pollen seasons depends on the air masses inflow and appears more often in a south-eastern part of Poland.

  2. Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons against the background of the synoptic situations in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stępalska, Danuta; Myszkowska, Dorota; Katarzyna, Leśkiewicz; Katarzyna, Piotrowicz; Katarzyna, Borycka; Kazimiera, Chłopek; Łukasz, Grewling; Idalia, Kasprzyk; Barbara, Majkowska-Wojciechowska; Małgorzata, Malkiewicz; Małgorzata, Nowak; Krystyna, Piotrowska-Weryszko; Małgorzata, Puc; Elżbieta, Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2017-04-01

    The Asteraceae family is one of the largest families, comprising 67 genera and 264 species in Poland. However, only a few genera, including Artemisia and Ambrosia are potential allergenic sources. The aim of the study was to estimate how often and to what degree Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons co-occur intensifying human health risk, and how synoptic situations influence frequency of days with high pollen concentrations of both taxa. Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen data were collected, using the volumetric method, at 8 sites in Poland. Daily concentrations of Artemisia pollen equal to 30 grains or more and Ambrosia pollen equal to 10 grains or more were accepted as high values. Concentrations of more than 10 pollen grains were defined as high in the case of Ambrosia because its allergenicity is considered higher. High concentrations were confronted with synoptic situations. Analysis was performed on the basis of two calendars on circulation types of atmosphere in Poland (Niedźwiedź, 2006, 2015). Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons is being found most often, when Ambrosia pollen season starts in the first half of August. If it happens in the last 10 days of August high pollen concentrations of Artemisia and Ambrosia do not occur at the same days. At three sites (Sosnowiec, Rzeszów, Lublin) high Ambrosia pollen concentrations during the Artemisia pollen season appear more often than in other sites under question. The high Artemisia pollen concentrations occur, when continental or polar maritime old air masses inflow into Poland. The impact of air masses on high Ambrosia pollen concentrations depends on site localizations. It is likely, that in the south-eastern part of Poland high Ambrosia pollen concentrations result from the pollen transport from east-south-south-westerly directions and the local sources. Co-occurrence of both taxa pollen seasons depends on the air masses inflow and appears more often in a south-eastern part of Poland.

  3. Investigation of Glandular Trichome Proteins in Artemisia annua L. Using Comparative Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yejun; Guo, Dianjing

    2012-01-01

    Glandular secreting trichomes (GSTs) are called biofactories because they are active in synthesizing, storing and secreting various types of plant secondary metabolites. As the most effective drug against malaria, artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone is derived from GSTs of Artemisia annua. However, low artemisinin content (0.001%∼1.54% of dry weight) has hindered its wide application. We investigate the GST-expressed proteins in Artemisia annua using a comparative proteomics approach, aiming for a better understanding of the trichome proteome and arteminisin metabolism. 2D-electrophoresis was employed to compare the protein profiles of GSTs and leaves. More than 700 spots were resolved for GSTs, of which ∼93 non-redundant proteins were confidently identified by searching NCBI and Artemisia EST databases. Over 70% of these proteins were highly expressed in GTSs. Functional classification of these GSTs enriched proteins revealed that many of them participate in major plant metabolic processes such as electron transport, transcription and translation. PMID:22905110

  4. Cross-sensitization to Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen allergens in an area located outside of the current distribution range of Ambrosia.

    PubMed

    Grewling, Łukasz; Jenerowicz, Dorota; Bogawski, Paweł; Smith, Matt; Nowak, Małgorzata; Frątczak, Agata; Czarnecka-Operacz, Magdalena

    2018-02-01

    The role of long-distance transported (LDT) Ambrosia pollen in inducing new sensitization and affecting sensitization rates in Artemisia -sensitized patients is unclear. The aim of this study was to estimate the degree of cross-sensitization to Ambrosia/Artemisi a allergens in citizens of Poznan (Western Poland). This area is covered by extensive Artemisia populations but does not currently have local Ambrosia populations. Sera of 119 patients were tested by fluoroenzyme immunoassay (CAP-FEIA system) against pollen allergen extracts of Artemisia vulgaris and Ambrosia artemisiifolia , an allergenic component of A. vulgaris ( nArt v 1 ), and an allergenic component of A. artemisiifolia ( nAmb a 1 ). Skin prick tests (SPTs, n = 86) were performed with pollen allergen extracts of A. vulgaris and A. artemisiifolia . Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen in ambient air was collected (1996-2013) by a Hirst type volumetric trap sited at roof level (33 m). The SPT showed that the prevalence of sensitization to Ambrosia and Artemisia pollen exceeded 3.5%, and 10.5%, respectively. The measurements of IgE in blood serum (CAP-FEIA) revealed that among Ambrosia -sensitized patients 90.1% (20/22 patients) were concomitantly sensitized to Artemisia . 59.1% (13/22) of these patients reacted to nArt v 1 , suggesting primary sensitization to Artemisia pollen. Only 2 (9.1%) patients were mono-sensitized to Ambrosia pollen extract, but surprisingly not to nAmb a 1 . The LDT Ambrosia pollen had a negligible effect on the rate of sensitization to Ambrosia allergens in Poznan and did not increase the prevalence of sensitization to Artemisia pollen in this region. However, the majority of patients showing hypersensitization to Artemisia pollen might also present symptoms during elevated episodes of LDT of Ambrosia pollen.

  5. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. Methods: We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. Key results: After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30–40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  6. Flower morphology and floral sequence in Artemisia annua (Asteraceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Premise of the study: Artemisia annua produces phytochemicals possessing antimalarial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anthelmintic activities. The main active ingredient, artemisinin, is extremely effective against malaria. Breeding to develop cultivars producing high levels of artemisinin can he...

  7. Fumigant Toxicity and Sublethal Effects of Artemisia khorassanica and Artemisia sieberi on Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Abedi, Z; Abdolmaleki, A; Jafary-Jahed, M; Borzoui, E; Mozaffar Mansouri, Seyed

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Fumigant toxicity and sublethal effects of essential oils from Artemisia khorassanica Podl. and Artemisia sieberi Bess were investigated against adults of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier. To assess the sublethal effects, adult moths were exposed to the LC30 of each essential oil, and life table parameters of the surviving S. cerealella were studied. Higher fumigant toxicity of A. khorassanica (LC50: 7.38 µl/liter air) than A. sieberi (LC50: 9.26 µl/liter air) was observed against S. cerealella. Also, the insecticidal effects of A. khorassanica (LT50: 9.01 h) were faster than A. sieberi (LT50: 14.37 h). A significant extension was observed in the developmental time (egg to adult) of S. cerealella treated with the essential oils. In addition, fecundity of S. cerealella reduced by 25.29 and 35.78% following exposure to sublethal concentrations of A. sieberi and A. khorassanica, respectively. Both tested essential oils caused a significant reduction in the gross and net reproductive rates, intrinsic rate of increase (rm), and finite rate of increase of S. cerealella. The rm values following exposure to A. sieberi, A. khorassanica, and control were 0.098, 0.094, and 0.107 d−1, respectively. The results of this study suggest that tested essential oils have a good potential to apply in integrated pest management of S. cerealella. PMID:29117375

  8. Artemisia Extract Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus by Up-Regulating Adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xia; Sun, Hong; Zhang, Jing; Ji, Xianghong

    2016-12-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has affected a great number of pregnant women worldwide. Artemisia extracts have been found to exhibit a potent antidiabetic effect in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We aimed to examine the effects of Artemisia extract on insulin resistance and lipid profiles in pregnant GDM patients. Patients in their second trimester were randomly assigned to the Artemisia extract group (AE) or to a placebo group (PO). They were instructed to consume either AE or PO daily for a period of 10 weeks. Glucose and insulin profiles and adiponectin level were assessed at baseline (week 0) and after the treatment (week 10). Compared to the PO group, fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin levels, homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and β-cell function (HOMA-B) were significantly reduced in the AE group participants. Moreover, levels of circulating adiponectin were also significantly up-regulated in the AE group, which also positively contributed to improved insulin sensitivity. Daily administration of Artemisia extract improves insulin sensitivity by up-regulating adiponectin in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  9. Spectrophotometry of Artemisia tridentata to quantitatively determine subspecies

    Treesearch

    Bryce A. Richardson; Alicia A. Boyd; Tanner Tobiasson; Matthew J. Germino

    2018-01-01

    Ecological restoration is predicated on our abilities to discern plant taxa. Taxonomic identification is a first step in ensuring that plants are appropriately adapted to the site. An example of the need to identify taxonomic differences comes from big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata). This species is composed of three predominant subspecies occupying distinct...

  10. The complexity of medicinal plants: the traditional Artemisia annua formulation, current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    van der Kooy, Frank; Sullivan, Shaun Edward

    2013-10-28

    Artemisia annua has a long tradition of use for the treatment of intermittent fevers which we now relate to malarial infections. The active principle artemisinin has been isolated from Artemisia annua and today forms the backbone of the global fight against malaria. The traditionally prepared Artemisia annua formulation is however still being used on a global scale for the treatment of malaria, and it is claimed that its action is superior to the single purified drug. Artemisia annua is therefore on the forefront of the heated debate between the single drug-single target approach of western based medicine and the holistic approach of traditional medicinal systems. This review aims to highlight the complexities we face in the general study of medicinal plants at the hand of three levels of complexity. These levels consist of (a) the chemistry of the medicinal plant, (b) the influence of the preparation method on the chemistry of the final formulation and (c) the influence of metabolism on the chemistry of the formulation. We also aim to provide an up-to-date report on all scientific work that has been conducted and published in English on the traditional formulation of Artemisia annua. All English scientific literatures published until the first quarter of 2013 were retrieved from well-known scientific databases (Scifinder scholar, Web of Science, PubMed, Google scholar) and Non-governmental organisations active in this field were consulted. A draft version of this manuscript was sent to the African office of the World Health Organisation (WHO), and to the Non-governmental organisations "Action Médicine Naturelle" (ANAMED) and "Iwerliewen fir bedreete Volleker - Réseau belgo-luxembourgeois pour la valorisation des herbes médicinales" (IFBV-BELHERB) for comments. Very little scientific work has been conducted on the Artemisia annua formulation. The available literature contains many discrepancies which are unfortunately selectively being used by the two different

  11. Effects of Artemisia Princeps Supplementation on Bone Metabolism in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Cho, H-J; Kim, J-W; Ju, S-Y; Park, Y-K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Artemisia princeps (AP) extract on bone metabolism and its potential role in the prevention of osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. Twenty-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups and treated as follows: sham-operated control group (SHAM); ovariectomized control group (OVX), ovariectomized group treated by gavage with 10 mg/kg/day alendronate (ALEN); ovariectomized group treated by gavage with 100 mg/kg/day Artemisia princeps (AP100); ovariectomized group treated by gavage with 300 mg/kg/day Artemisia princeps (AP300). Treatment of ovariectomized rats with AP extracts for 15 weeks prevented the reduction in bone thickness and trabecular bone mineral density caused by urinary Ca and Cr excretion, and also prevented the increase in bone turnover by maintaining the serum Ca/P ratio. As a result, the microarchitecture of the trabecular bone and cortical bone after ovariectomy was markedly improved by administration of AP extracts. In conclusion, AP prevented bone loss and osteoclast activity associated with high bone turnover in ovariectomized rats by controlling the serum Ca/P ratio and through anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Our data implicate AP as a promising therapeutic option for the improvement of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  12. Volatile chemicals identified in extracts from leaves of Japanese mugwort (Artemisia princeps pamp.).

    PubMed

    Umano, K; Hagi, Y; Nakahara, K; Shoji, A; Shibamoto, T

    2000-08-01

    Extracts from leaves of Japanese mugwort (Artemisia princeps Pamp.) were obtained using two methods: steam distillation under reduced pressure followed by dichloromethane extraction (DRP) and simultaneous purging and extraction (SPSE). A total of 192 volatile chemicals were identified in the extracts obtained by both methods using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). They included 47 monoterpenoids (oxygenated monoterpenes), 26 aromatic compounds, 19 aliphatic esters, 18 aliphatic alcohols, 17 monoterpenes (hydrocarbon monoterpenes), 17 sesquiterpenes (hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes), 13 sesquiterpenoids (oxygenated sesquiterpenes), 12 aliphatic aldehydes, 8 aliphatic hydrocarbons, 7 aliphatic ketones, and 9 miscellaneous compounds. The major volatile constituents of the extract by DRP were borneol (10.27 ppm), alpha-thujone (3.49 ppm), artemisia alcohol (2.17 ppm), verbenone (1.85 ppm), yomogi alcohol (1.50 ppm), and germacren-4-ol (1.43 ppm). The major volatile constituents of the extract by SPSE were 1,8-cineole (8.12 ppm), artemisia acetate (4.22 ppm), alpha-thujone (3.20 ppm), beta-caryophyllene (2.39 ppm), bornyl acetate (2.05 ppm), borneol (1.80 ppm), and trans-beta-farnesene (1. 78 ppm).

  13. Fumigant Toxicity and Sublethal Effects of Artemisia khorassanica and Artemisia sieberi on Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Naseri, B; Abedi, Z; Abdolmaleki, A; Jafary-Jahed, M; Borzoui, E; Mozaffar Mansouri, Seyed

    2017-09-01

    Fumigant toxicity and sublethal effects of essential oils from Artemisia khorassanica Podl. and Artemisia sieberi Bess were investigated against adults of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier. To assess the sublethal effects, adult moths were exposed to the LC30 of each essential oil, and life table parameters of the surviving S. cerealella were studied. Higher fumigant toxicity of A. khorassanica (LC50: 7.38 µl/liter air) than A. sieberi (LC50: 9.26 µl/liter air) was observed against S. cerealella. Also, the insecticidal effects of A. khorassanica (LT50: 9.01 h) were faster than A. sieberi (LT50: 14.37 h). A significant extension was observed in the developmental time (egg to adult) of S. cerealella treated with the essential oils. In addition, fecundity of S. cerealella reduced by 25.29 and 35.78% following exposure to sublethal concentrations of A. sieberi and A. khorassanica, respectively. Both tested essential oils caused a significant reduction in the gross and net reproductive rates, intrinsic rate of increase (rm), and finite rate of increase of S. cerealella. The rm values following exposure to A. sieberi, A. khorassanica, and control were 0.098, 0.094, and 0.107 d-1, respectively. The results of this study suggest that tested essential oils have a good potential to apply in integrated pest management of S. cerealella. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  14. H3PO4 solution hydrothermal carbonization combined with KOH activation to prepare argy wormwood-based porous carbon for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Changchao; Wan, Jiafeng; Yang, Juan; Qu, Shanshan; Jin, Tieyu; Ma, Fangwei; Shao, Jinqiu

    2018-06-01

    In this work, argy wormwood-based porous carbon electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors are prepared through H3PO4 solution hydrothermal carbonization and subsequent KOH activation. The obtained carbon has a specific surface area (SSA) of 927 m2 g-1, a total pore volume of 0.56 cm3 g-1, and a high oxygen (9.38%) content. In three-electrode system, it exhibits specific capacitance of 344 F g-1 at 1 A g-1. Moreover, the symmetric supercapacitor shows an excellent rate capability of 87% retention from 1 A g-1 to 10 A g-1, and a good cycling performance with 91.6% retention over 5000 cycles in 6 M KOH. Therefore, the sample activated by H3PO4 & KOH exhibits an excellent future in energy storage.

  15. Nrf2-mediated mucoprotective and anti-inflammatory actions of Artemisia extracts led to attenuate stress related mucosal damages

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Min; Han, Young-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Hong, Sung-Pyo; Kim, Eun-Hee; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare biological actions between isopropanol and ethanol extracts of Artemisia including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective actions. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and confocal microscopy on lipopolysaccharide-induced RGM1 cells, cytoprotection effects evaluated by detecting heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), Nf-E2 related factor2 (Nrf2) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and anti-inflammatory effects investigated by measuring inflammatory mediators. Water immersion restraint stress was imposed to provoke stress related mucosal damages (SRMD) in rats. Isopropanol extracts of Artemisia showed the higher DPPH radical scavenging activity and lesser LPS-induced reactive oxygen species productions and increased HO-1 expression through increased nuclear translocation of Nrf2 transcription factor compared to ethanol extracts. The increased expression of HSP70 and decreased expression of endothelin-1 were only increased with isopropanol extracts. A concentration-dependent inhibition of LPS-induced COX-2 and iNOS even at a rather lower concentration than ethanol extract was achieved with isopropanol extracts. Cytokine protein array revealed Artemisia extracts significantly attenuated the levels of CXCL-1, CXCL-16, and MCP-1. These orchestrated actions led to significant rescue from SRMD. Conclusively, Artemisia extracts imposed significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity against SRMD and isopropanol extracts were superior to ethanol extracts in these beneficiary actions of Artemisia. PMID:25759519

  16. The effects of dried leaves of Manihot esculenta and Artemisia annua on coccidiosis in organically reared pullets in Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of Manihot esculenta and Artemisia annua as natural coccidiostats were investigated as compared to a vaccinated group. The inclusion of Artemisia annua showed poorer performance compared to the vaccinated group whereas dried leaves of M. esculenta presented similar results of a commercia...

  17. Optimization for ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides with chemical composition and antioxidant activity from the Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Quan; Ren, Daoyuan; Yang, Nana; Yang, Xingbin

    2016-10-01

    Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides have been reported to have a variety of important biological activities. However, effective extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides is still an unsolved issue. In this study, the orthogonal rotatable central composite design was employed to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides. Based on a single-factor analysis method, ultrasonic power, extraction time, solid-liquid ratio and extraction temperature were shown to significantly affect the yield of polysaccharides extracted from the A. sphaerocephala Krasch seeds. The optimal conditions for extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides were determined as following: ultrasonic power 243W, extraction time 125min, solid-liquid ratio 64:1 and extraction temperature 64°C, where the experimental yield was 14.78%, which was well matched with the predicted value of 14.81%. Furthermore, ASKP was identified as a typical heteropolysaccharide with d-galacturonic acid (38.8%) d-galactose (20.2%) and d-xylose (15.5%) being the main constitutive monosaccharides. Moreover, Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides exhibited high total reducing power and considerable scavenging activities on DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Artemisinin concentration and antioxidant capacity of Artemisia annua distillation byproduct

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Artemisia annua is mostly known as the source of artemisinin, the raw material for the production of artemisinin-based combination therapy, used against drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum where malaria is endemic. Artemisinin drugs are also effective against helminthic and protozoan parasites tha...

  19. In vitro antiprotozoal activity of the leaves of Artemisia ludoviciana.

    PubMed

    Said Fernández, Salvador; Ramos Guerra, Monica Celina; Mata Cárdenas, Benito David; Vargas Villarreal, Javier; Villarreal Treviño, Licet

    2005-07-01

    The inhabitants of Northeast of Mexico use an infusion of leaves from Artemisia ludoviciana as an antidiarrheal remedy. The aqueous, methanol, acetone and hexane leaf extracts from mature plants were found to be active in vitro against the parasitic protozoa Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia.

  20. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) communities: Ecology, importance and restoration potential

    Treesearch

    Stephen B. Monsen; Nancy L. Shaw

    2000-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) is the most common and widespread sagebrush species in the Intermountain region. Climatic patterns, elevation gradients, soil characteristics and fire are among the factors regulating the distribution of its three major subspecies. Each of these subspecies is considered a topographic climax dominant....

  1. Artemisia communities in arid zones of Uzbekistan (Central Asia)

    Treesearch

    Lyubov A. Kapustina; Montserrat Torrell; Joan Valles

    2001-01-01

    Central Asia, and particularly the former Soviet Middle Asian countries, with more than 180 taxa (45 endemics), is one of the centers of origin and speciation of the genus Artemisia L. (Asteraceae, Anthemideae). Several species of this genus, mainly belonging to subgenus Seriphidium (Besser) Rouy, are shrubs that dominate the landscape and form large communities in...

  2. Bioactivities of volatile components from Nepalese Artemisia species.

    PubMed

    Satyal, Prabodh; Paudel, Prajwal; Kafle, Ananad; Pokharel, Suraj K; Lamichhane, Bimala; Dosoky, Noura S; Moriarity, Debra M; Setzer, William N

    2012-12-01

    The essential oils from the leaves of Artemisia dubia, A. indica, and A. vulgaris growing wild in Nepal were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The major components in A. dubia oil were chrysanthenone (29.0%), coumarin (18.3%), and camphor (16.4%). A. indica oil was dominated by ascaridole (15.4%), isoascaridole (9.9%), trans-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (9.7%), and trans-verbenol (8.4%). The essential oil of Nepalese A. vulgaris was rich in alpha-thujone (30.5%), 1,8-cineole (12.4%), and camphor (10.3%). The essential oils were screened for phytotoxic activity against Lactuca sativa (lettuce) and Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) using both seed germination and seedling growth, and all three Artemisia oils exhibited notable allelopathic activity. A. dubia oil showed in-vitro cytotoxic activity on MCF-7 cells (100% kill at 100 microg/mL) and was also marginally antifungal against Aspergillus niger (MIC = 313 microg/mL). DFT calculations (B3LYP/6-31G*) revealed thermal decomposition of ascaridole to be energetically accessible at hydrodistillation and GC conditions, but these are spin-forbidden processes. If decomposition does occur, it likely proceeds by way of homolytic peroxide bond cleavage rather than retro-Diels-Alder elimination of molecular oxygen.

  3. Selection and clonal propagation of high artemisinin genotypes of Artemisia annua

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Artemisinin, produced in the glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua L. is a vital antimalarial drug effective against Plasmodium falciparum resistant to quinine-derived medicines. Although work has progressed on the semi-synthetic production of artemisinin, field production of A. annua remains the p...

  4. Toxicological and mutagenic analysis of Artemisia dracunculus (tarragon) extract.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, Heibatullah; Galehdari, Hamid; Zaree, Zahra; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Varga, Balazs; Haines, David; Bombicz, Mariann; Tosaki, Arpad; Juhasz, Bela

    2013-01-01

    Mutagenicity and liver toxicity of the herb tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) were evaluated using single cell gel (comet) electrophoresis. Ten microlitres aliquots of peripheral venous human blood were incubated with tarragon extract, saline, or the mutagen sodium dichromate. Cell suspensions dispersed in low-melting agarose were electrophoresed in ethidium bromide. The resulting DNA migration trails were obtained using fluorescent microscopy at 400× magnification, and graded according to the mutagenicity index (MI) for each cell incubation condition. The in vivo liver toxicity of Artemisia dracunculus was assessed in the blood of mice treated orally with the extract of the herb, using alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) as liver function indicators. Liver morphology was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining of liver tissue. The present study demonstrated a direct correlation between tarragon extract dosage and three major outcome variables: MI; serum liver enzyme activity; and liver histopathology. These outcomes are possibly due to the presence in tarragon of methylchavicol and other genotoxic compounds. These findings provide a preliminary guide for risk assessment of tarragon in diet and in possible therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cross-reactivity between pollen extracts from six artemisia species.

    PubMed

    Brandys, J; Grimsøen, A; Nilsen, B M; Paulsen, B S; Park, H S; Hong, C S

    1993-06-01

    Pollen extracts of six different ARTEMISIA species, A. VULGARIS, A. SCOPARIA, A. PRINCEPS, A. TRIDENTATA, A. ANNUA, and A. CAMPESTRIS were compared using SDS-PAGE, IEF, immunoblotting, and immunoelectrophoretic methods. The band patterns obtained after SDS-PAGE and IEF showed a large degree of similarity between the extracts. Immunoblotting of these gels using a pool of sera from patients allergic to A. VULGARIS gave essentially the same IgE-binding band pattern with all the extracts, demonstrating an extensive degree of cross-reactivity between A. VULGARIS and the other ARTEMISIA species. FRIE using a polyspecific antiserum against A. VULGARIS showed that all the extracts contained several antigens that were immunologically identical to antigens in A. VULGARIS extract. Antigens showing immunological identity to the important A. VULGARIS allergens Ag 12 and ART V II were present in all the extracts. The cross-reactivity between A. VULGARIS and A. PRINCEPS was further verified by screening of ten Korean and nine Norwegian individual patient sera against extracts of both species in SDS-PAGE or IEF immunoblotting. Both groups of patients had essentially the same pattern of reactivity towards both pollen extracts.

  6. The Genus Artemisia: A 2012–2017 Literature Review on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial, Insecticidal and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pooja

    2017-01-01

    Essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plants generally have a diverse range of activities because they possess several active constituents that work through several modes of action. The genus Artemisia includes the largest genus of family Asteraceae has several medicinal uses in human and plant diseases aliments. Extensive investigations on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant studies have been conducted for various species of this genus. In this review, we have compiled data of recent literature (2012–2017) on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant activities of different species of the genus Artemisia. Regarding the antimicrobial and insecticidal properties we have only described here efficacy of essential oils against plant pathogens and insect pests. The literature revealed that 1, 8-cineole, beta-pinene, thujone, artemisia ketone, camphor, caryophyllene, camphene and germacrene D are the major components in most of the essential oils of this plant species. Oils from different species of genus Artemisia exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens and insecticidal activity against insect pests. However, only few species have been explored for antioxidant activity. PMID:28930281

  7. Interactive Effects of Moss-Dominated Crusts and Artemisia ordosica on Wind Erosion and Soil Moisture in Mu Us Sandland, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yongsheng; Bu, Chongfeng; Mu, Xingmin; Shao, Hongbo; Zhang, Kankan

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the effects of biological soil crusts (BSCs) on soil moisture and wind erosion and study the necessity and feasibility of disturbance of BSCs in the Mu Us sandland, the effects of four treatments, including moss-dominated crusts alone, Artemisia ordosica alone, bare sand, and Artemisia ordosica combined with moss-dominated crusts, on rainwater infiltration, soil moisture, and annual wind erosion were observed. The major results are as follows. (1) The development of moss-dominated crusts exacerbated soil moisture consumption and had negative effects on soil moisture in the Mu Us sandland. (2) Moss-dominated crusts significantly increased soil resistance to wind erosion, and when combined with Artemisia ordosica, this effect became more significant. The contribution of moss-dominated crusts under Artemisia ordosica was significantly lower than that of moss-dominated crusts alone in sites where vegetative coverage > 50%. (3) Finally, an appropriate disturbance of moss-dominated crusts in the rainy season in sites with high vegetative coverage improved soil water environment and vegetation succession, but disturbance in sites with little or no vegetative cover should be prohibited to avoid the exacerbation of wind erosion. PMID:24982973

  8. Interactive effects of moss-dominated crusts and Artemisia ordosica on wind erosion and soil moisture in Mu Us sandland, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongsheng; Bu, Chongfeng; Mu, Xingmin; Shao, Hongbo; Zhang, Kankan

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the effects of biological soil crusts (BSCs) on soil moisture and wind erosion and study the necessity and feasibility of disturbance of BSCs in the Mu Us sandland, the effects of four treatments, including moss-dominated crusts alone, Artemisia ordosica alone, bare sand, and Artemisia ordosica combined with moss-dominated crusts, on rainwater infiltration, soil moisture, and annual wind erosion were observed. The major results are as follows. (1) The development of moss-dominated crusts exacerbated soil moisture consumption and had negative effects on soil moisture in the Mu Us sandland. (2) Moss-dominated crusts significantly increased soil resistance to wind erosion, and when combined with Artemisia ordosica, this effect became more significant. The contribution of moss-dominated crusts under Artemisia ordosica was significantly lower than that of moss-dominated crusts alone in sites where vegetative coverage > 50%. (3) Finally, an appropriate disturbance of moss-dominated crusts in the rainy season in sites with high vegetative coverage improved soil water environment and vegetation succession, but disturbance in sites with little or no vegetative cover should be prohibited to avoid the exacerbation of wind erosion.

  9. Growth-inhibiting effects of seco-tanapartholides identified in Artemisia princeps var. orientalis whole plant on human intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Cho, S-H; Na, Y-E; Ahn, Y-J

    2003-01-01

    The present work aimed at isolating antibacterial constituents from the whole plant of Artemisia princeps var. orientalis active towards nine human intestinal bacteria. The growth-inhibiting activities of materials derived from the Artemisia whole plant towards test bacteria were examined using an impregnated paper disc method. The biologically active constituents of the Artemisia whole plant were characterized as the sesquiterpene lactones seco-tanapartholides A and B by spectroscopic analysis. In a test using 1 mg per disc, seco-tanapartholides A and B produced a clear inhibitory effect against Clostridium perfringens, Bacteroides fragilis and Staphylococcus aureus. These compounds did not affect the growth of test lactic acid-producing bacteria (Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bif. breve, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lact. casei) and Escherichia coli, whereas weak growth inhibition towards Bif. bifidum was observed. At 0.5 mg per disc, seco-tanapartholides A and B exhibited moderate growth inhibition towards Cl. perfringens but weak growth inhibition towards Bact. fragilis and Staph. aureus. Inhibitory action of seco-tanapartholides A and B towards specific bacteria without any adverse effects on lactic acid-producing bacteria may be an indication of at least one of the pharmacological actions of A. princeps var. orientalis whole plant. These naturally occurring Artemisia whole plant-derived materials could be useful as a new preventive agent against various diseases caused by harmful intestinal bacteria such as clostridia.

  10. Seed production estimation for mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana)

    Treesearch

    Melissa L. Landeen; Loreen Allphin; Stanley G. Kitchen; Steven L. Petersen

    2017-01-01

    Seed production is an essential component of postdisturbance recovery for mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp vaseyana [Rydb] Beetle; MBS). We tested a method for rapid estimation of MBS seed production using measurements of inflorescence morphology. We measured total stem length, stem length from first branchlet to stem tip, stem diameter, fresh...

  11. Loss of artemisinin produced by Artemisia annua L. to the soil environment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Artemisia annua L. synthesizes and accumulates the secondary metabolite artemisinin, a compound with antimalarial properties. As cultivation of the plant is still the only cost effective source of artemisinin, the production takes place in monocultures of A. annua. Artemisinin is known to have inse...

  12. Towards a better understanding of Artemisia vulgaris: Botany, phytochemistry, pharmacological and biotechnological potential.

    PubMed

    Abiri, Rambod; Silva, Abraão Lincoln Macedo; de Mesquita, Ludmilla Santos Silva; de Mesquita, José Wilson Carvalho; Atabaki, Narges; de Almeida, Eduardo Bezerra; Shaharuddin, Noor Azmi; Malik, Sonia

    2018-07-01

    Artemisia vulgaris is one of the important medicinal plant species of the genus Artemisia, which is usually known for its volatile oils. The genus Artemisia has become the subject of great interest due to its chemical and biological diversity as well as the discovery and isolation of promising anti-malarial drug artemisinin. A. vulgaris has a long history in treatment of human ailments by medicinal plants in various parts of the world. This medicinal plant possesses a broad spectrum of therapeutic properties including: anti-malarial, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, anti-oxidant, anti-tumoral, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, anti-spasmodic and anti-septic. These activities are mainly attributed to the presence of various classes of secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, sesquiterpene lactones, coumarins, acetylenes, phenolic acids, organic acids, mono- and sesquiterpenes. Studies related to A. vulgaris morphology, anatomy and phytochemistry has gained a significant interest for better understanding of production and accumulation of therapeutic compounds in this species. Recently, phytochemical and pharmacological investigations have corroborated the therapeutic potential of bioactive compounds of A. vulgaris. These findings provided further evidence for gaining deeper insight into the identification and isolation of novel compounds, which act as alternative sources of anti-malarial drugs in a cost-effective manner. Considering the rising demand and various medical applications of A. vulgaris, this review highlights the recent reports on the chemistry, biological activities and biotechnological interventions for controlled and continuous production of bioactive compounds from this plant species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Artemisia extracts activate PPARγ, promote adipogenesis, and enhance insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue of obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Allison J.; Burris, Thomas P.; Sanchez-Infantes, David; Wang, Yongjun; Ribnicky, David M.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Studies have shown that the inability of adipose tissue to properly expand during the obese state or respond to insulin can lead to metabolic dysfunction. Artemisia is a diverse group of plants that has a history of medicinal use. This study examines the ability of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia scoparia (SCO) and Artemisia santolinifolia (SAN) to modulate adipocyte development in cultured adipocytes and white adipose tissue (WAT) function in vivo using a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Research Design & Procedures Adipogenesis was assessed using Oil Red O staining and immunoblotting. A nuclear receptor specificity assay was used to examine the specificity of SCO- and SAN-induced PPARγ activation. C57BL/6J mice, fed a high-fat diet, were gavaged with saline, SCO, or SAN for 2 weeks. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was examined using insulin tolerance tests. WAT depots were assessed via immunoblotting for markers of insulin action and adipokine production. Results We established that SCO and SAN were highly specific activators of PPARγ and did not activate other nuclear receptors. After a one-week daily gavage, SCO- and SAN-treated mice had lower insulin-induced glucose disposal rates than control mice. At the end of the 2-week treatment period, SCO- and SAN-treated mice had enhanced insulin-responsive Akt serine-473 phosphorylation and significantly decreased MCP-1 levels in visceral WAT relative to control mice; these differences were depot specific. Moreover, plasma adiponectin levels were increased following SCO treatment. Conclusion Overall, these studies demonstrate that extracts from two Artemisia species can have metabolically favorable effects on adipocytes and WAT. PMID:24985103

  14. Inhibitory effect of eupatilin and jaceosidin isolated from Artemisia princeps on carrageenan-induced inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Min, Sung-Won; Kim, Nam-Jae; Baek, Nam-In; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2009-09-25

    Artemisia princeps Pampanini (family Asteraceae) is an herbal medicine widely used as a hepatoprotective, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial agent in Korea, China, and Japan. This study aimed to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effect of the main constituents, eupatilin and jaceosidin, isolated from Artemisia princeps. We used carrageenan-induced inflammation in an air pouch on the back of mice and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of eupatilin and jaceosidin. Inflammatory makers, such as expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB), were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and immunoblot analyses. Eupatilin and jaceosidin blocked carrageenan-induced increase in leukocyte number and protein levels in air pouch exudates. Eupatilin and jaceosidin inhibited COX-2 expression and NF-kappaB activation, and markedly reduced TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) levels. They also inhibited hind paw edema induced by carrageenan. Eupatilin and jaceosidin had similar activity. These findings suggest that eupatilin and jaceosidin may reduce inflammation by inhibiting NF-kappaB activation, and that Artemisia princeps inhibits inflammation because of these constituents.

  15. Antibacterial Action of Essential Oils of Artemisia as an Ecological Factor

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Julius G.; Tengerdy, Robert P.

    1967-01-01

    Bacterial response to increasing amounts of the volatile oils varies significantly according to species of bacteria tested. Among the four species examined, Escherichia coli was the most resistant to the oils, followed by Neisseria sicca, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. The oils of Artemisia tridentata seem to have the same degree of antibacterial action as oils obtained from A. nova. PMID:4963443

  16. GABA-A Receptor Modulation and Anticonvulsant, Anxiolytic, and Antidepressant Activities of Constituents from Artemisia indica Linn

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imran; Karim, Nasiara; Ahmad, Waqar; Abdelhalim, Abeer; Chebib, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia indica, also known as “Mugwort,” has been widely used in traditional medicines. However, few studies have investigated the effects of nonvolatile components of Artemisia indica on central nervous system's function. Fractionation of Artemisia indica led to the isolation of carnosol, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid which were evaluated for their effects on GABA-A receptors in electrophysiological studies in Xenopus oocytes and were subsequently investigated in mouse models of acute toxicity, convulsions (pentylenetetrazole induced seizures), depression (tail suspension and forced swim tests), and anxiety (elevated plus maze and light/dark box paradigms). Carnosol, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid were found to be positive modulators of α1β2γ2L GABA-A receptors and the modulation was antagonized by flumazenil. Carnosol, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid were found to be devoid of any signs of acute toxicity (50–200 mg/kg) but elicited anticonvulsant, antidepressant, and anxiolytic activities. Thus carnosol, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid demonstrated CNS activity in mouse models of anticonvulsant, antidepressant, and anxiolysis. The anxiolytic activity of all three compounds was ameliorated by flumazenil suggesting a mode of action via the benzodiazepine binding site of GABA-A receptors. PMID:27143980

  17. Cytotoxicity of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua to Molt-4 human leukemia cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cancer is the second cause of death in the United States, and current treatment is expensive and kills also healthy cells. Affordable alternatives that kill only cancer cells are needed. Artemisinin, extracted from the Artemisia annua, has potent anticancer activity and low toxicity to normal cell...

  18. The solid-state fermentation of Artemisia capillaris leaves with Ganoderma lucidum enhances the anti-inflammatory effects in a model of atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hyeong-U; Lee, Seul; Heo, Jin-Chul; Lee, Sang-Han

    2017-01-01

    Artemisia capillaris, which belongs to the Asteraceae family and the genus Artemisia, has been reported to exert inhibitory effects on diabetes, cancer and inflammation. In this study, in order to enhance the bioactivity potential of the leaves of Artemisia by Ganoderma lucidum mycelium, we prepared aqueous samples of Artemisia capillaris (Ac) leaves, Ganoderma lucidum (Gl) and aqueous fractions produced by the solid fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum on Artemisia capillaris leaves (afAc/Gl). Thereafter, we evaluated whether these samples have potential to attenuate inflammation-related symptoms in an amimal model of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced atopic dermatitis. We found that afAc/Gl exhibited enhanced anti-inflamamatory activity following the solid fermentation process when compared with Ac or Gl on ear thickness, ear epidermal thickness and eosinophil infiltration in the skin tissues. The expression of nitric oxide (NO) synthases (NOSs) was measured by immunohistochemical staining. The results revealed that afAc/Gl decreased endothelial NOS and inducible NOS expression compared with the DNFB group, while neuronal NOS expression was not altered. By comparing NO production, we found that as opposed to Ac, afAc/Gl has potential to inhibit atopic dermatitis-related symptoms during the inflammatory event. As regards matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression patterns, afAc/Gl exerted potent inhibitory activity on the mRNA expression of MMP-2, -7, -9, -12, -14 and -19. Taken together, these results suggest that the solid state fermentation of Ac by Gl is an effective strategy to obtaining useful ingredients which are converted into valuable compounds during an atopic inflammatory insult. PMID:28393198

  19. Attempting to restore mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana) four years after fire

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Restoration of shrubs is increasingly needed throughout the world because of altered fire regimes, anthropogenic disturbance, and over-utilization. The native shrub mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) is a restoration priority in western North America be...

  20. Seasonal soil CO2 flux under big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.)

    Treesearch

    Michael C. Amacher; Cheryl L. Mackowiak

    2011-01-01

    Soil respiration is a major contributor to atmospheric CO2, but accurate landscape-scale estimates of soil CO2 flux for many ecosystems including shrublands have yet to be established. We began a project to measure, with high spatial and temporal resolution, soil CO2 flux in a stand (11 x 25 m area) of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) at the Logan, Utah,...

  1. Selection and Clonal Propagation of High Artemisinin Genotypes of Artemisia annua

    PubMed Central

    Wetzstein, Hazel Y.; Porter, Justin A.; Janick, Jules; Ferreira, Jorge F. S.; Mutui, Theophilus M.

    2018-01-01

    Artemisinin, produced in the glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua L. is a vital antimalarial drug effective against Plasmodium falciparum resistant to quinine-derived medicines. Although work has progressed on the semi-synthetic production of artemisinin, field production of A. annua remains the principal commercial source of the compound. Crop production of artemisia must be increased to meet the growing worldwide demand for artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) to treat malaria. Grower artemisinin yields rely on plants generated from seeds from open-pollinated parents. Although selection has considerably increased plant artemisinin concentration in the past 15 years, seed-generated plants have highly variable artemisinin content that lowers artemisinin yield per hectare. Breeding efforts to produce improved F1 hybrids have been hampered by the inability to produce inbred lines due to self-incompatibility. An approach combining conventional hybridization and selection with clonal propagation of superior genotypes is proposed as a means to enhance crop yield and artemisinin production. Typical seed-propagated artemisia plants produce less than 1% (dry weight) artemisinin with yields below 25 kg/ha. Genotypes were identified producing high artemisinin levels of over 2% and possessing improved agronomic characteristics such as high leaf area and shoot biomass production. Field studies of clonally-propagated high-artemisinin plants verified enhanced plant uniformity and an estimated gross primary productivity of up to 70 kg/ha artemisinin, with a crop density of one plant m-2. Tissue culture and cutting protocols for the mass clonal propagation of A. annua were developed for shoot regeneration, rooting, acclimatization, and field cultivation. Proof of concept studies showed that both tissue culture-regenerated plants and rooted cutting performed better than plants derived from seed in terms of uniformity, yield, and consistently high artemisinin content. Use of

  2. Transcriptome characterization and polymorphism detection between subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    Treesearch

    Prabin Bajgain; Bryce A. Richardson; Jared C. Price; Richard C. Cronn; Joshua A. Udall

    2011-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) is one of the most widely distributed and ecologically important shrub species in western North America. This species serves as a critical habitat and food resource for many animals and invertebrates. Habitat loss due to a combination of disturbances followed by establishment of invasive plant species is a serious threat to big...

  3. Effects of artemisinin and Artemisia annua extracts on Haemonchus contortus in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking abomasal parasite of small ruminants that is responsible for major losses to producers worldwide. Resistance of this nematode to commercial anthelmintics has produced a demand for alternative control methods. Artemisia annua is the sole commercial source of ...

  4. The solid-state fermentation of Artemisia capillaris leaves with Ganoderma lucidum enhances the anti-inflammatory effects in a model of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Son, Hyeong-U; Lee, Seul; Heo, Jin-Chul; Lee, Sang-Han

    2017-05-01

    Artemisia capillaris, which belongs to the Asteraceae family and the genus Artemisia, has been reported to exert inhibitory effects on diabetes, cancer and inflammation. In this study, in order to enhance the bioactivity potential of the leaves of Artemisia by Ganoderma lucidum mycelium, we prepared aqueous samples of Artemisia capillaris (Ac) leaves, Ganoderma lucidum (Gl) and aqueous fractions produced by the solid fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum on Artemisia capillaris leaves (afAc/Gl). Thereafter, we evaluated whether these samples have potential to attenuate inflammation-related symptoms in an amimal model of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced atopic dermatitis. We found that afAc/Gl exhibited enhanced anti-inflamamatory activity following the solid fermentation process when compared with Ac or Gl on ear thickness, ear epidermal thickness and eosinophil infiltration in the skin tissues. The expression of nitric oxide (NO) synthases (NOSs) was measured by immunohistochemical staining. The results revealed that afAc/Gl decreased endothelial NOS and inducible NOS expression compared with the DNFB group, while neuronal NOS expression was not altered. By comparing NO production, we found that as opposed to Ac, afAc/Gl has potential to inhibit atopic dermatitis-related symptoms during the inflammatory event. As regards matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression patterns, afAc/Gl exerted potent inhibitory activity on the mRNA expression of MMP-2, -7, -9, -12, -14 and -19. Taken together, these results suggest that the solid state fermentation of Ac by Gl is an effective strategy to obtaining useful ingredients which are converted into valuable compounds during an atopic inflammatory insult.

  5. Cytogeography and chromosome evolution of subgenus Tridentatae of Artemisia (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    McArthur, E D; Sanderson, S C

    1999-12-01

    The subgenus Tridentatae of Artemisia (Asteraceae: Anthemideae) is composed of 11 species of various taxonomic and geographic complexities. It is centered on Artemisia tridentata with its three widespread common subspecies and two more geographically confined ones. Meiotic chromosome counts on pollen mother cells and mitotic chromosome counts on root tips were made on 364 populations ( = 3.1 plants per population). These population counts are ∼60% of all Tridentatae counts. Some are first records for taxa. The Tridentatae are a polyploid complex (x = 9) with ploidy levels from 2x to 8x, but mostly 2x (48%) and 4x (46%). Polyploidy occurs in nine of the 11 species and in many subspecies as well. Supernumerary or b chromosomes are present only at a low frequency. In the principal species, A. tridentata, 2x plants are larger than 4x ones, which are adapted to drier conditions, probably in consequence of their slower growth rates. Gigas diploidy is a phenomenon shared by some other woody genera, but is in contrast to the gigas polyploid nature of many herbaceous genera. Polyploidy occurs within populations and is essentially autoploid. Hybridization sometimes occurs at taxa interfaces in stable hybrid zones. Stable Tridentatae hybrid zones coupled with the group's inherent propensity for polyploidization has led to the establishment of a geographically and numerically large and successful complex of species.

  6. Antioxidant Properties of Artemisia annua Extracts in Model Food Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Skowyra, Monika; Gallego, Maria Gabriela; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano, Maria Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in this Chinese herb, leaf flavonoids have shown a variety of biological activities. The polyphenolic profile of extract from leaves of A. annua was assessed as a source of natural antioxidants. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were established and three assays were used to measure the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract. The measurement of scavenging capacity against the 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were 314.99 µM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, 736.26 µM TE/g DW and 212.18 µM TE/g DW, respectively. A. annua extracts also showed good antioxidant properties in 10% sunflower oil-in-water emulsions during prolonged storage (45 days) at 32 °C. Artemisia extract at 2 g/L was as effective as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) at 0.02 g/L in slowing down the formation of hydroperoxides as measured by peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The results of this study indicate that extract of A. annua may be suitable for use in the food matrix as substitutes for synthetic antioxidants. PMID:26784667

  7. Ethnomedicinal plants of Shankaracharya Hill, Srinagar, J&K, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kewal; Sharma, Yash Pal; Manhas, R K; Bhatia, Harpreet

    2015-07-21

    Primitive human societies have always relied on plants and plant products for various remedies. In certain areas, these folk medical prescriptions are endemic and have survived through ages from one generation to the next through word of mouth. They do not exist as written knowledge. The present study was undertaken with an objective of documenting the ethnobotanical information of medicinal plants of Shankaracharya Hill by taking the help of local herbalists, elderly and knowledgeable people. The data was quantitatively analysed using use-value (UV), informant consensus factor (ICF) and fidelity level (Fl%) indices. Total 130 plant species from 57 families and 111 genera were ethno-medicinally utilized by the 103 informants interviewed in the present study. The most used families were Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Fabaceae and Brassicaceae. The medicinal plants were mainly herbs (79.2%). Leaves were the most used (27.6%) plant part followed by whole plant (14.8%), root (11.4%) and seed (10.5%). The most important species on the basis of UV were Viola odorata, Taraxacum campylodes, Aesculus hippocastanum, Artemisia absinthium, Daucus carota, Thymus serphyllum, Ephedra gerardiana and Salvia moorcroftiana. The values ICF ranged between 0.93 and 0.76. Only Epilobium hirsutum recorded 100% Fl. Some of the most important medicinal plants with high Fl values were Tribulus terrestris, Asparagus officinalis, Trifolium repens, Anemone biflora, Melia azedarach, A. absinthium, Lonicera quinquelocularis, Rosa webbiana, D. carota, Oxalis corniculata and Potentilla reptans. The contribution of plant parts collected through destructive methods was 29.5%. Harvesting of roots, rhizomes, bulbs and corm kills the parent plant and could be a severe threat for survival of the often rare and slowly reproducing medicinal plants, and therefore need sustainable utilization and conservation strategies. Ethnomedicinal species like A. absinthium, A. hippocastanum, D. carota, M. azedarach

  8. Sesquiterpene Lactones from Artemisia Genus: Biological Activities and Methods of Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Miron, Anca; Corciova, Andreia

    2015-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones are a large group of natural compounds, found primarily in plants of Asteraceae family, with over 5000 structures reported to date. Within this family, genus Artemisia is very well represented, having approximately 500 species characterized by the presence of eudesmanolides and guaianolides, especially highly oxygenated ones, and rarely of germacranolides. Sesquiterpene lactones exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiulcer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, and insect deterrent. Many of the biological activities are attributed to the α-methylene-γ-lactone group in their molecule which reacts through a Michael-addition with free sulfhydryl or amino groups in proteins and alkylates them. Due to the fact that most sesquiterpene lactones are thermolabile, less volatile compounds, they present no specific chromophores in the molecule and are sensitive to acidic and basic mediums, and their identification and quantification represent a difficult task for the analyst. Another problematic aspect is represented by the complexity of vegetal samples, which may contain compounds that can interfere with the analysis. Therefore, this paper proposes an overview of the methods used for the identification and quantification of sesquiterpene lactones found in Artemisia genus, as well as the optimal conditions for their extraction and separation. PMID:26495156

  9. Antiatherosclerotic effects of Artemisia princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal in LDL receptor deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Jong-Min; Kim, Min-Jung; Baek, Seung-Hwa; An, Sojin; Jin, Yue-Yan; Chung, Hae-Gon; Baek, Nam-In; Choi, Myung-Sook; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Jeong, Tae-Sook

    2009-02-25

    Antiatherosclerotic effects of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal (ESJ) were investigated in low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice. The Western diet-induced high levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride were similar in the ESJ and control groups. However, circulating oxidized LDL was significantly decreased in the ESJ group (p < 0.05). ESJ also markedly decreased aortic expression levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), and reduced the aortic lesion formation and macrophage accumulation by 36.7% (p < 0.05) and 43% (p < 0.01) in the control group, respectively. Additionally, ESJ inhibited atherogenic properties with cytokine-induced surface expression of cell adhesion molecules, chemokines, and monocyte adhesion to the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and simultaneously suppressed nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. These results suggest that ethanolic extracts of Artemisia princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal contributes to the antiatherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory activities in LDLR(-/-) mice.

  10. Flower morphology and development in Artemisia annua, a medicinal plant used as a treatment against malaria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Artemisia annua produces a wide spectrum of bioactive phytochemicals that possess pharmacological properties including antimalarial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anthelmintic activities. The main active ingredient, artemisinin, is extremely effective against multi-drug resistant Plasmodium fal...

  11. Artemisia asiatica ethanol extract exhibits anti-photoaging activity.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Deok; Lee, Jongsung; Jeong, Seong-Gu; Hong, Yo Han; Yoo, Sulgi; Han, Sang Yun; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Sunggyu; Kim, Jin Sic; Chung, Young Soo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Yi, Young-Su; Cho, Jae Youl

    2018-06-28

    Artemisia asiatica Nakai is a traditional herbal plant that has long been used in anti-inflammatory, anti-infective and skin protective remedies. In this study, traditionally known skin-protective activity of Artemisia asiatica Nakai was examined with its ethanol extract (Aa-EE) under various photoaging conditions using skin-originated cells, and the underlying mechanism was also examined using various types of cells. Effects of Aa-EE on cell viability, photocytotoxicity, and expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and moisturizing factors were measured in B16F10, HEK293, NIH3T3, and HaCaT cells under untreated and ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiation conditions. Anti-melanogenic effect of Aa-EE was also examined by measuring both melanin content in B16F10 cells and tyrosinase activity. Anti-photoaging mechanism of Aa-EE was explored by determining the activation levels of signaling molecules by immunoblotting analysis. Aa-EE protected HaCaT cells from UVB irradiation-induced death. Aa-EE increased the expression of a type 1 pro-collagen gene and decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinases, and COX-2 in NIH3T3 cells induced by UVB. Aa-EE increased the expression of transglutamase-1, hyaluronic acid synthase (HAS)-2, and HAS-3 in HaCaT cells and decreased the production of melanin in α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-stimulated B16F10 cells by suppressing tyrosinase activity and the expression of tyrosinase, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1 and TRP-2. The results suggest that Aa-EE could be skin-protective remedy with anti-photoaging, anti-apoptotic, skin remodeling, moisturizing, and anti-melanogenesis properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Abiotic and biotic influences on Bromus tectoreum invasion and Artemisia tridentata recovery after fire

    Treesearch

    Lea Condon; Peter J. Weisberg; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2011-01-01

    Native sagebrush ecosystems in the Great Basin (western USA) are often invaded following fire by exotic Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass), a highly flammable annual grass. Once B. tectorum is established, higher fire frequencies can lead to local extirpation of Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana (mountain big sagebrush) and have cascading effects on sagebrush ecosystems and...

  13. DRYING AFFECTS ARTEMISININ, DIHYDROARTEMISINIC ACID, ARTEMISINIC ACID, AND THE ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA L. LEAVES

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The anti-parasitic, anti-cancer, and anti-viral sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin, commercially extracted from Artemisia annua, is in high demand worldwide. However, limited information is available on how post-harvest drying procedures affect plant biochemistry leading to the biosynthesis of artem...

  14. Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Activities of Artemisia princeps Pampanini and Its Bioactive Components.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ri; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Lee, Wonhwa; Bae, Jong-Sup; Park, Yong Bok; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2013-09-01

    Artemisia princeps Pampanini (AP) has been used as a traditional medicine in Korea, China and Japan and reported to exhibit various beneficial biological effects including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-atherogenic and lipid lowering activities; however, its antiplatelet and anticoagulant properties have not been studied. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of an ethanol extract of Artemisia princeps Pampanini (EAP) and its major flavonoids, eupatilin and jaceosidin, on platelet aggregation and coagulation. To determine the antiplatelet activity, arachidonic acid (AA)-, collagen- and ADP (adenosine diphosphate)-induced platelet aggregation were examined along with serotonin and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) generation in vitro. The anticoagulant activity was determined by monitoring the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time (PT) in vitro. The data showed that EAP and its major flavonoids, eupatilin and jaceosidin, significantly reduced AA-induced platelet aggregation and the generation of serotonin and TXA2, although no significant change in platelet aggregation induced by collagen and ADP was observed. Moreover, EAP significantly prolonged the PT and aPTT. The PT and/or aPTT were significantly increased in the presence of eupatilin and jaceosidin. Thus, these results suggest that EAP may have the potential to prevent or improve thrombosis by inhibiting platelet activation and blood coagulation.

  15. Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Activities of Artemisia princeps Pampanini and Its Bioactive Components

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Ri; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Hye-jin; Lee, Wonhwa; Bae, Jong-Sup; Park, Yong Bok; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Artemisia princeps Pampanini (AP) has been used as a traditional medicine in Korea, China and Japan and reported to exhibit various beneficial biological effects including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-atherogenic and lipid lowering activities; however, its antiplatelet and anticoagulant properties have not been studied. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of an ethanol extract of Artemisia princeps Pampanini (EAP) and its major flavonoids, eupatilin and jaceosidin, on platelet aggregation and coagulation. To determine the antiplatelet activity, arachidonic acid (AA)-, collagen- and ADP (adenosine diphosphate)-induced platelet aggregation were examined along with serotonin and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) generation in vitro. The anticoagulant activity was determined by monitoring the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time (PT) in vitro. The data showed that EAP and its major flavonoids, eupatilin and jaceosidin, significantly reduced AA-induced platelet aggregation and the generation of serotonin and TXA2, although no significant change in platelet aggregation induced by collagen and ADP was observed. Moreover, EAP significantly prolonged the PT and aPTT. The PT and/or aPTT were significantly increased in the presence of eupatilin and jaceosidin. Thus, these results suggest that EAP may have the potential to prevent or improve thrombosis by inhibiting platelet activation and blood coagulation. PMID:24471130

  16. Antidiabetic effects of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch. gum, a novel food additive in China, on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Zheng-Mao; Hu, Xin-Zhong; Wu, Rui-Qin; Xu, Chao

    2009-09-25

    Since ancient times, practicians of traditional Chinese medicine have discovered that Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch. (Asteraceae) seed powder was useful for the treatment of diabetes. Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch. gum (ASK gum), which is extracted from seed powder of the plant, is a novel food additive favored by the food industry in China. The objective of this study was to determine the antidiabetic function of ASK gum on type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetic rat model was induced with high fat diet and low dose of streptozotocin (STZ). The effects of ASK gum on hyperglycemia, hyperlipemia, insulin resistance, and liver fat accumulation in type 2 diabetic rats were evaluated. The results were compared to those of normal rats and diabetic rats treated with metformin. The addition of ASK gum to the rats' food supply significantly lowered fasting blood glucose, glycated serum protein, serum cholesterol, and serum triglyceride in type 2 diabetic rats, and significantly elevated liver glucokinase, liver glycogen, and serum high density protein cholesterol in the diabetic rats. ASK gum significantly reduced insulin resistance and liver fat accumulation of type 2 diabetes. Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch. gum can alleviate hyperglycemia, hyperlipemia and insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes.

  17. Expression of Beta-glucosidase increases trichome density and artemisinin content in transgenic Artemisia annua plants

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Kumar, Shashi; Daniell, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin is highly effective against multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the etiological agent of the most severe form of malaria. However, a low level of accumulation of artemisinin in Artemisia annua is a major limitation for its production and delivery to malaria endemic areas of the world. While several strategies to enhance artemisinin have been extensively explored, enhancing storage capacity in trichome has not yet been considered. Therefore, trichome density was increased with the expression of β glucosidase (bgl1) gene in A. annua through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene (bgl1) integration and transcript was confirmed by molecular analysis. Trichome density increased up to 20% in leaves and 66% in flowers of BGL1 transgenic plants than Artemisia control plants. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, MS-TOF) data showed that artemisinin content increased up to 1.4% in leaf and 2.56% in flowers (g-1DW), similar to the highest yields achieved so far through metabolic engineering. Artemisinin was enhanced up to 5-fold in BGL1 transgenic flowers. The present study opens the possibility of increasing artemisinin content by manipulating trichomes density, which is a major reservoir of artemisinin. Combining biosynthetic pathway engineering with enhancing trichome density may further increase artemisinin yield in A. annua. Because oral feeding of Artemisia plant cells reduced parasitemia more efficiently than the purified drug, reduced drug resistance and cost of prohibitively expensive purification process, enhanced expression should play a key role in making this valuable drug affordable to treat malaria in a large global population that disproportionally impacts low-socioeconomic areas and underprivileged children. PMID:26360801

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Artemisia Leaf Extract in Mice with Contact Dermatitis In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Yun, Chanyong; Jung, Youngchul; Chun, Wonjoo; Yang, Beodeul; Ryu, Junghyun; Lim, Chiyeon; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Hyungwoo; Cho, Su-In

    2016-01-01

    The leaves of Artemisia argyi Lev. et Vant. and A. princeps Pamp. are well known medicinal herbs used to treat patients in China, Japan, and Korea with skin problems such as eczema and itching, as well as abdominal pain and dysmenorrhoea. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Artemisia leaf extract (ALE) using CD mice and Raw 264.7 cells. The effects of ALE on histopathological changes and cytokine production in ear tissues were assessed in mice with CD induced by 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNFB). Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effects on production levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) and expression levels of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were investigated in Raw 264.7 cells. Topical application of ALE effectively prevented ear swelling induced by repeated DNFB application. ALE prevented epidermal hyperplasia and infiltration of immune cells and lowered the production of interferon- (IFN-) gamma (γ), tumour necrosis factor- (TNF-) alpha (α), and interleukin- (IL-) 6 in inflamed tissues. In addition, ALE inhibited expression of COX-2 and iNOS and production of NO and PGE2 in Raw 264.7 cells. These results indicate that Artemisia leaf can be used as a therapeutic agent for inflammatory skin diseases and that its anti-inflammatory effects are closely related to the inhibition of inflammatory mediator release from macrophages and inflammatory cytokine production in inflamed tissues.

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Artemisia Leaf Extract in Mice with Contact Dermatitis In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Chanyong; Jung, Youngchul; Chun, Wonjoo; Yang, Beodeul; Ryu, Junghyun; Cho, Su-In

    2016-01-01

    The leaves of Artemisia argyi Lev. et Vant. and A. princeps Pamp. are well known medicinal herbs used to treat patients in China, Japan, and Korea with skin problems such as eczema and itching, as well as abdominal pain and dysmenorrhoea. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Artemisia leaf extract (ALE) using CD mice and Raw 264.7 cells. The effects of ALE on histopathological changes and cytokine production in ear tissues were assessed in mice with CD induced by 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNFB). Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effects on production levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) and expression levels of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were investigated in Raw 264.7 cells. Topical application of ALE effectively prevented ear swelling induced by repeated DNFB application. ALE prevented epidermal hyperplasia and infiltration of immune cells and lowered the production of interferon- (IFN-) gamma (γ), tumour necrosis factor- (TNF-) alpha (α), and interleukin- (IL-) 6 in inflamed tissues. In addition, ALE inhibited expression of COX-2 and iNOS and production of NO and PGE2 in Raw 264.7 cells. These results indicate that Artemisia leaf can be used as a therapeutic agent for inflammatory skin diseases and that its anti-inflammatory effects are closely related to the inhibition of inflammatory mediator release from macrophages and inflammatory cytokine production in inflamed tissues. PMID:27647952

  20. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) in a shifting climate context: Assessment of seedling responses to climate

    Treesearch

    Martha A. Brabec

    2014-01-01

    The loss of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) throughout the Great Basin Desert has motivated efforts to restore it because of fire and other disturbance effects on sagebrush-dependent wildlife and ecosystem function. Initial establishment is the first challenge to restoration, and appropriateness of seeds, climate, and weather variability are factors that may...

  1. Chemical and biological diversity of the volatiles of five Artemisia species from far east of Russia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils from aerial parts of Artemisia argyi, A. feddei, A. gmelinii, A. manshurica, A. olgensis (Asteraceae). Plants were collected in the Far East region (Primorski Krai) of the Russian Federatio...

  2. Expression of β-glucosidase increases trichome density and artemisinin content in transgenic Artemisia annua plants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Kumar, Shashi; Daniell, Henry

    2016-03-01

    Artemisinin is highly effective against multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the aetiological agent of the most severe form of malaria. However, a low level of accumulation of artemisinin in Artemisia annua is a major limitation for its production and delivery to malaria endemic areas of the world. While several strategies to enhance artemisinin have been extensively explored, enhancing storage capacity in trichome has not yet been considered. Therefore, trichome density was increased with the expression of β-glucosidase (bgl1) gene in A. annua through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene (bgl1) integration and transcript were confirmed by molecular analysis. Trichome density increased up to 20% in leaves and 66% in flowers of BGL1 transgenic plants than Artemisia control plants. High-performance liquid chromatography, time of flight mass spectrometer data showed that artemisinin content increased up to 1.4% in leaf and 2.56% in flowers (per g DW), similar to the highest yields achieved so far through metabolic engineering. Artemisinin was enhanced up to five-fold in BGL1 transgenic flowers. This study opens the possibility of increasing artemisinin content by manipulating trichomes' density, which is a major reservoir of artemisinin. Combining biosynthetic pathway engineering with enhancing trichome density may further increase artemisinin yield in A. annua. Because oral feeding of Artemisia plant cells reduced parasitemia more efficiently than the purified drug, reduced drug resistance and cost of prohibitively expensive purification process, enhanced expression should play a key role in making this valuable drug affordable to treat malaria in a large global population that disproportionally impacts low-socioeconomic areas and underprivileged children. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Quantitative study of medicinal plants used by the communities residing in Koh-e-Safaid Range, northern Pakistani-Afghan borders.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Wahid; Badshah, Lal; Ullah, Manzoor; Ali, Maroof; Ali, Asghar; Hussain, Farrukh

    2018-04-25

    The residents of remote areas mostly depend on folk knowledge of medicinal plants to cure different ailments. The present study was carried out to document and analyze traditional use regarding the medicinal plants among communities residing in Koh-e-Safaid Range northern Pakistani-Afghan border. A purposive sampling method was used for the selection of informants, and information regarding the ethnomedicinal use of plants was collected through semi-structured interviews. The collected data was analyzed through quantitative indices viz. relative frequency citation, use value, and family use value. The conservation status of medicinal plants was enumerated with the help of International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List Categories and Criteria (2001). Plant samples were deposited at the Herbarium of Botany Department, University of Peshawar for future reference. One hundred eight informants including 72 male and 36 female were interviewed. The informants provided information about 92 plants species used in the treatment of 53 ailments. The informant reported maximum number of species used for the treatment of diabetes (16 species), followed by carminatives (12 species), laxatives (11 species), antiseptics (11 species), for cough (10 species), to treat hepatitis (9 species), for curing diarrhea (7 species), and to cure ulcers (7 species), etc. Decoction (37 species, i.e., 40%) was the common method of recipe preparation. Most familiar medicinal plants were Withania coagulans, Caralluma tuberculata, and Artemisia absinthium with relative frequency (0.96), (0.90), and (0.86), respectively. The relative importance of Withania coagulans was highest (1.63) followed by Artemisia absinthium (1.34), Caralluma tuberculata (1.20), Cassia fistula (1.10), Thymus linearis (1.06), etc. This study allows identification of novel uses of plants. Abies pindrow, Artemisia scoparia, Nannorrhops ritchiana, Salvia reflexa, and Vincetoxicum cardiostephanum have not been reported

  4. Flavonoids from Artemisia annua L. as antioxidants and their potential synergism with artemisinin against malaria and cancer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since artemisinin was discovered as the active antimalarial component in a diethyl ether extract of Artemisia annua in early 1970’s, hundreds of papers have focused on the antimalarial effects of the artemisinin semi-synthetic analogs dihydroartemisinin, artemether, arteether, and artesunate. Artem...

  5. Toxicological evaluation of the ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. for use as a dietary supplement and in functional foods.

    PubMed

    Ribnicky, David M; Poulev, Alexander; O'Neal, Joseph; Wnorowski, Gary; Malek, Dolores E; Jäger, Ralf; Raskin, Ilya

    2004-04-01

    TARRALIN is an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus (Russian tarragon), a common medicinal and culinary herb with centuries of use. Artemisia dracunculus is a close relative of the French or cooking tarragon and contains components common to many herbs that are routinely consumed without reported adverse effects. Since safety information of Artemisia dracunculus and its extract is limited to historical use, TARRALIN was examined in a series of toxicological studies. Complete Ames analysis did not reveal any mutagenic activity either with or without metabolic activation. TARRALIN was tested in an acute limit test at 5000 mg/kg with no signs of toxicity noted. In a 14 day repeated dose oral toxicity study, rats appeared to well tolerate 1000 mg/kg/day. Subsequently, TARRALIN was tested in an oral subchronic 90-day toxicity study (rat) at doses of 10, 100 and 1000 mg/kg/day. No noteworthy signs of toxicity were noted in feeding or body weight, functional observational battery or motor activity. Gross necropsy and clinical chemistry did not reveal any effects on organ mass or blood chemistry and microscopic examinations found no lesions associated with treatment. Therefore, TARRALIN appears to be safe and non-toxic in these studies and a no-observed adverse effect level in rats is established at 1000 mg/kg/day.

  6. Free radical scavenging potential of in vitro raised and greenhouse acclimatized plants of Artemisia amygdalina.

    PubMed

    Rasool, R; Ganai, B A; Akbar, S; Kamili, A N

    2013-07-01

    Artemisia amygdalina Decne. (Asteraceae) is a critically endangered and endemic herb of Kashmir Himalayan sub-alpine region and Pakistan. Scientific research throughout the world has evidence to support the tremendous medicinal utility of the genus Artemisia. The natural resources of medicinal plants are being reduced day by day. This study provides the alternative way for medicinal resource utilization and conservation of A. amygdalina. In vitro-raised plants and greenhouse acclimatized plants were obtained by culturing wild explants on Murashige and Skoog's medium. Plant extracts were obtained and subjected to different antioxidant assays: DPPH assay, riboflavin photo-oxidation assay, deoxy ribose assay, ferric thiocyanate assay, thiobarbituric acid assay, post mitochondrial supernatant assay and DNA damage on agarose gel. In vitro grown plants, as well as those acclimatized in the greenhouse reveals antioxidant activity against hydroxyl, superoxide, and lipid peroxyl radicals. This preliminary study revealed the free radical scavenging potential of tissue culture-raised plant extracts of A. amydalina. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A molecular phylogenetic approach to western North America endemic Artemisia and allies (Asteraceae): Untangling the sagebrushes

    Treesearch

    Sonia Garcia; E. Durant McArthur; Jaume Pellicer; Stewart C. Sanderson; Joan Valles; Teresa Garnatje

    2011-01-01

    Premise of the study: Artemisia subgenus Tridentatae plants characterize the North American Intermountain West. These are landscape-dominant constituents of important ecological communities and habitats for endemic wildlife. Together with allied species and genera (Picrothamnus and Sphaeromeria), they make up an intricate series of taxa whose limits are uncertain,...

  8. A stimulatory effect of Artemisia leaf extract on the proliferation of cultured endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kaji, T; Kaga, K; Miezi, N; Ejiri, N; Sakuragawa, N

    1990-02-01

    To investigate the effect of the hot water extract from Artemisia leaf (Artemisia princeps Panpanini) (AFE) on the proliferation of endothelial cells, the cells from bovine aorta were cultured for up to 96 h in the presence of 1, 5, 10 or 50 micrograms/ml AFE in RPMI1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. After a 72 h culture, the cell number was significantly increased by AFE at 1, 5 and 10 micrograms/ml. An increase in the cell number by 5 micrograms/ml AFE observed after a 72 or 96 h treatment. The incorporations of both [3H]thymidine and [14C]leucine by the growing cells were significantly increased by 5 micrograms/ml AFE after a 72 h treatment. In addition, the incorporation of [3H]thymidine by either growing or confluent cells was significantly increased by 50 micrograms/ml AFE after a 72 h treatment. The stimulatory activity of AFE was recognized in the low-molecular-weight fraction (molecular weight less than or equal to 10000 dalton). These results clearly indicated that AFE contained some low-molecular-weight component(s) which stimulates the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells in vitro.

  9. Climate drives adaptive genetic responses associated with survival in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaney, Lindsay; Richardson, Bryce A.; Germino, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    A genecological approach was used to explore genetic variation for survival in Artemisia tridentata(big sagebrush). Artemisia tridentata is a widespread and foundational shrub species in western North America. This species has become extremely fragmented, to the detriment of dependent wildlife, and efforts to restore it are now a land management priority. Common-garden experiments were established at three sites with seedlings from 55 source-populations. Populations included each of the three predominant subspecies, and cytotype variations. Survival was monitored for 5 years to assess differences in survival between gardens and populations. We found evidence of adaptive genetic variation for survival. Survival within gardens differed by source-population and a substantial proportion of this variation was explained by seed climate of origin. Plants from areas with the coldest winters had the highest levels of survival, while populations from warmer and drier sites had the lowest levels of survival. Survival was lowest, 36%, in the garden that was prone to the lowest minimum temperatures. These results suggest the importance of climatic driven genetic differences and their effect on survival. Understanding how genetic variation is arrayed across the landscape, and its association with climate can greatly enhance the success of restoration and conservation.

  10. Investigating contact toxicity of Geranium and Artemisia essential oils on Bemisia tabaci Gen.

    PubMed

    Yarahmadi, Fatemeh; Rajabpour, Ali; Zandi Sohani, Nooshin; Ramezani, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gen. (B. tabaci), is one of the most important pests of various greenhouse crops in Iran. Nowadays, chemical insecticides are broadly used for control of the pests that causes risk to consumer's health. For the first time, contact toxicity of Pelargonium roseum Andrews and Artemisia sieberi Besser essential oils on B. tabaci and its possible application against the whitefly was evaluated in 2012. Essential oil with concentrations of 2500, 1250, 125, and 12 ppm were used. Infested leaves of greenhouse cucumber were treated by mentioned concentrations. After 24 hours, mortality of B. tabaci was recorded and compared after correcting by Abbot's formula. RESULTS showed that all concentrations of the essential oil could significantly reduce population of B. tabaci compared with the control treatment. Phytotoxicity of the treated leaves were recorded after 24, 48, and 72 hours and compared with the control. Concentrations of 2500, 1250, and 125 ppm caused severe phytotoxicity on greenhouse cucumber leaves and therefore are not suitable for greenhouse application. Phytotoxicity of 12 ppm was relatively low. This data implicated suitable protective effects of the essential oils to the pest infestation. Therefore, essential oils distillated from Geranium and Artemisia could be applied to control B. tabaci in greenhouse cucumber at V/V 12 ppm.

  11. AaEIN3 Mediates the Downregulation of Artemisinin Biosynthesis by Ethylene Signaling Through Promoting Leaf Senescence in Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yueli; Li, Ling; Yan, Tingxiang; Fu, Xueqing; Shi, Pu; Shen, Qian; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2018-01-01

    Artemisinin is an important drug for malaria treatment, which is exclusively produced in Artemisia annua . It's important to dissect the regulatory mechanism of artemisinin biosynthesis by diverse plant hormones and transcription factors. Our study shows ethylene, a plant hormone which accelerates flower and leaf senescence and fruit ripening, suppressed the expression of genes encoding three key enzymes ADS, DBR2, CYP71AV1, and a positive regulator AaORA involved in artemisinin biosynthesis. Then we isolated the gene encoding ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3), a key transcription factor in ethylene signaling pathway, by screening the transcriptome and genome database from Artemisia annua , named AaEIN3 . Overexpressing AaEIN3 suppressed artemisinin biosynthesis, while repressing its expression with RNAi enhanced artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua , indicating AaEIN3 negatively regulates artemisinin biosynthesis. Further study showed the downregulation of artemisinin biosynthesis by ethylene required the mediation of AaEIN3. AaEIN3 could accelerate leaf senescence, and leaf senescence attenuated the expression of ADS, DBR2, CYP71AV1 , and AaORA that are involved in artemisinin biosynthesis. Collectively, our study demonstrated a negative correlation between ethylene signaling and artemisinin biosynthesis, which is ascribed to AaEIN3-induced senescence process of leaves. Our work provided novel knowledge on the regulatory network of plant hormones for artemisinin metabolic pathway.

  12. AaEIN3 Mediates the Downregulation of Artemisinin Biosynthesis by Ethylene Signaling Through Promoting Leaf Senescence in Artemisia annua

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yueli; Li, Ling; Yan, Tingxiang; Fu, Xueqing; Shi, Pu; Shen, Qian; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2018-01-01

    Artemisinin is an important drug for malaria treatment, which is exclusively produced in Artemisia annua. It’s important to dissect the regulatory mechanism of artemisinin biosynthesis by diverse plant hormones and transcription factors. Our study shows ethylene, a plant hormone which accelerates flower and leaf senescence and fruit ripening, suppressed the expression of genes encoding three key enzymes ADS, DBR2, CYP71AV1, and a positive regulator AaORA involved in artemisinin biosynthesis. Then we isolated the gene encoding ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3), a key transcription factor in ethylene signaling pathway, by screening the transcriptome and genome database from Artemisia annua, named AaEIN3. Overexpressing AaEIN3 suppressed artemisinin biosynthesis, while repressing its expression with RNAi enhanced artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua, indicating AaEIN3 negatively regulates artemisinin biosynthesis. Further study showed the downregulation of artemisinin biosynthesis by ethylene required the mediation of AaEIN3. AaEIN3 could accelerate leaf senescence, and leaf senescence attenuated the expression of ADS, DBR2, CYP71AV1, and AaORA that are involved in artemisinin biosynthesis. Collectively, our study demonstrated a negative correlation between ethylene signaling and artemisinin biosynthesis, which is ascribed to AaEIN3-induced senescence process of leaves. Our work provided novel knowledge on the regulatory network of plant hormones for artemisinin metabolic pathway. PMID:29675029

  13. Quantitative determination of flavonoids by column high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry and ultraviolet absorption detection in Artemisia afra and comparative studies with various species of Artemisia plants.

    PubMed

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Smillie, Troy J; Mabusela, Wilfred; Vincent, Leszek; Weitz, Frans; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2009-01-01

    A simple and specific analytical method for the quantitative determination of flavonoids from the aerial parts of the Artemisia afra plant samples was developed. By column high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV absorption and mass spectrometry (MS) detection, separation was achieved on a reversed-phase octadecylsilyl (C18) column with water, methanol, and acetonitrile, all containing 0.1% acetic acid, as the mobile phase. These methods were used to analyze various species of Artemisia plant samples. The wavelength used for quantification of flavonoids with the diode array detector was 335 nm. The limits of detection (LOD) by HPLC/MS were found to be 7.5, 7.5, 10, 2.0, and 2.0 ng/mL; and by LC-UV the LODs were 500, 500, 500, 300, and 300 ng/mL for apigenin, chrysoeriol, tamarixetin, acacetin, and genkwanin, respectively. The HPLC/MS method was found to be 50-150 times more sensitive than the HPLC-UV method. HPLC/MS coupled with an electrospray ionization interface is described for the identification and quantification of flavonoids in various plant samples. This method involved the use of the [M+H]+ ions of the compounds at mass-to-charge ratio of 1.0606, 301.0712, 317.0661, 285.0763, and 285.0763 (calculated mass), respectively, in the positive ion mode with extractive ion monitoring.

  14. Flowering branches cause injuries to second-year main stems of Artemisia tridentata nutt. subspecies tridentata

    Treesearch

    Lance S. Evans; Angela Citta; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2012-01-01

    Eccentricity of stems of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. (big sagebrush) has been reported previously. Analysis of samples observed over 2 years documented that each stem terminal produces about 8-10 branches each year, and during second-year growth, 3-8 of these develop into short, flowering, determinate branches. Each flowering branch produces hundreds of seeds and then...

  15. Effects of Plant Extracts on Microbial Population, Methane Emission and Ruminal Fermentation Characteristics in In vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kim, E. T.; Kim, C. -H.; Min, K. -S.; Lee, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate effects of plant extracts on methanogenesis and rumen microbial diversity in in vitro. Plant extracts (Artemisia princeps var. Orientalis; Wormwood, Allium sativum for. Pekinense; Garlic, Allium cepa; Onion, Zingiber officinale; Ginger, Citrus unshiu; Mandarin orange, Lonicera japonica; Honeysuckle) were obtained from the Plant Extract Bank at Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology. The rumen fluid was collected before morning feeding from a fistulated Holstein cow fed timothy and commercial concentrate (TDN; 73.5%, crude protein; 19%, crude fat; 3%, crude fiber; 12%, crude ash; 10%, Ca; 0.8%, P; 1.2%) in the ratio of 3 to 2. The 30 ml of mixture, comprising McDougall buffer and rumen liquor in the ratio of 4 to 1, was dispensed anaerobically into serum bottles containing 0.3 g of timothy substrate and plant extracts (1% of total volume, respectively) filled with O2-free N2 gas and capped with a rubber stopper. The serum bottles were held in a shaking incubator at 39°C for 24 h. Total gas production in all plant extracts was higher (p<0.05) than that of the control, and total gas production of ginger extract was highest (p<0.05). The methane emission was highest (p<0.05) at control, but lowest (p<0.05) at garlic extract which was reduced to about 20% of methane emission (40.2 vs 32.5 ml/g DM). Other plant extracts also resulted in a decrease in methane emissions (wormwood; 8%, onion; 16%, ginger; 16.7%, mandarin orange; 12%, honeysuckle; 12.2%). Total VFAs concentration and pH were not influenced by the addition of plant extracts. Acetate to propionate ratios from garlic and ginger extracts addition samples were lower (p<0.05, 3.36 and 3.38 vs 3.53) than that of the control. Real-time PCR indicted that the ciliate-associated methanogen population in all added plant extracts decreased more than that of the control, while the fibrolytic bacteria population increased. In particular, the F. succinogens community

  16. Effects of Plant Extracts on Microbial Population, Methane Emission and Ruminal Fermentation Characteristics in In vitro.

    PubMed

    Kim, E T; Kim, C-H; Min, K-S; Lee, S S

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate effects of plant extracts on methanogenesis and rumen microbial diversity in in vitro. Plant extracts (Artemisia princeps var. Orientalis; Wormwood, Allium sativum for. Pekinense; Garlic, Allium cepa; Onion, Zingiber officinale; Ginger, Citrus unshiu; Mandarin orange, Lonicera japonica; Honeysuckle) were obtained from the Plant Extract Bank at Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology. The rumen fluid was collected before morning feeding from a fistulated Holstein cow fed timothy and commercial concentrate (TDN; 73.5%, crude protein; 19%, crude fat; 3%, crude fiber; 12%, crude ash; 10%, Ca; 0.8%, P; 1.2%) in the ratio of 3 to 2. The 30 ml of mixture, comprising McDougall buffer and rumen liquor in the ratio of 4 to 1, was dispensed anaerobically into serum bottles containing 0.3 g of timothy substrate and plant extracts (1% of total volume, respectively) filled with O2-free N2 gas and capped with a rubber stopper. The serum bottles were held in a shaking incubator at 39°C for 24 h. Total gas production in all plant extracts was higher (p<0.05) than that of the control, and total gas production of ginger extract was highest (p<0.05). The methane emission was highest (p<0.05) at control, but lowest (p<0.05) at garlic extract which was reduced to about 20% of methane emission (40.2 vs 32.5 ml/g DM). Other plant extracts also resulted in a decrease in methane emissions (wormwood; 8%, onion; 16%, ginger; 16.7%, mandarin orange; 12%, honeysuckle; 12.2%). Total VFAs concentration and pH were not influenced by the addition of plant extracts. Acetate to propionate ratios from garlic and ginger extracts addition samples were lower (p<0.05, 3.36 and 3.38 vs 3.53) than that of the control. Real-time PCR indicted that the ciliate-associated methanogen population in all added plant extracts decreased more than that of the control, while the fibrolytic bacteria population increased. In particular, the F. succinogens community

  17. Artemisinin induces ROS-mediated caspase3 activation in ASTC-a-1 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Feng-Lian; Chen, Tong-Sheng; Qu, Jun-Le; Liu, Cheng-Yi

    2010-02-01

    Artemisinin (ART), an antimalarial phytochemical from the sweet wormwood plant or a naturally occurring component of Artemisia annua, has been shown a potential anticancer activity by apoptotic pathways. In our report, cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay showed that treatment of human lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cells with ART effectively increase cell death by inducing apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. Hoechst 33258 staining was used to detect apoptosis as well. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was observed in cells exposed to ART at concentrations of 400 μM for 48 h. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an oxygen radical scavenger, suppressed the rate of ROS generation and inhibited the ART-induced apoptosis. Moreover, AFC assay (Fluorometric assay for Caspase3 activity) showed that ROS was involved in ART-induced caspase3 acitvation. Taken together, our data indicate that ART induces ROS-mediated caspase3 activation in a time-and dose-dependent way in ASCT-a-1 cells.

  18. Laboratory evaluation of Artemisia annua L. extract and artemisinin activity against Epilachna paenulata and Spodoptera eridania.

    PubMed

    Maggi, María E; Mangeaud, Arnaldo; Carpinella, María C; Ferrayoli, Carlos G; Valladares, Graciela R; Palacios, Sara M

    2005-07-01

    Ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Artemisia annua L. and artemisinin were evaluated as anti-insect products. In a feeding deterrence assay on Epilachna paenulata Germ (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larvae, complete feeding rejection was observed at an extract concentration of 1.5 mg/cm2 on pumpkin leaf tissue. The same concentration produced a feeding inhibition of 87% in Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In a no-choice assay, both species ate less and gained less weight when fed on leaves treated with the extract. Complete mortality in E. paenulata and 50% mortality in S. eridania were observed with extract at 1.5 mg/cm2. Artemisinin exhibited a moderate antifeedant effect on E. paenulata and S. eridania at 0.03-0.375 mg/cm2. However, a strong effect on survival and body weight was observed when E. paenulata larvae were forced to feed on leaves treated at 0.03 and 0.075 mg/cm2. Artemisia annua ethanolic extract of aerial parts at 1.5 mg/cm2 showed no phytotoxic effect on pumpkin seedlings.

  19. Chemical Composition and Antipathogenic Activity of Artemisia annua Essential Oil from Romania.

    PubMed

    Marinas, Ioana C; Oprea, Eliza; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Badea, Irinel Adriana; Buleandra, Mihaela; Lazar, Veronica

    2015-10-01

    The essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from Romanian Artemisia annua aerial parts was characterized by GC/MS analysis, which allowed the identification of 94.64% of the total oil composition. The main components were camphor (17.74%), α-pinene (9.66%), germacrene D (7.55%), 1,8-cineole (7.24%), trans-β-caryophyllene (7.02%), and artemisia ketone (6.26%). The antimicrobial activity of this essential oil was evaluated by determining the following parameters: minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), and minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC). Moreover, the soluble virulence factors were quantified with different biochemical substrates incorporated in the culture media. The reference and resistant, clinical strains proved to be susceptible to the A. annua oil, with MICs ranging from 0.51 to 16.33 mg/ml. The tested essential oil also showed good antibiofilm activity, inhibiting both the initial stage of the microbial cell adhesion to the inert substratum and the preformed mature biofilm. When used at subinhibitory concentrations, the essential oil proved to inhibit the phenotypic expression of five soluble virulence factors (hemolysins, gelatinase, DNase, lipases, and lecithinases). Briefly, the present results showed that the A. annua essential oil contained antimicrobial compounds with selective activity on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains as well as on yeast strains and which also interfere with the expression of cell-associated and soluble virulence factors. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  20. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of different extracts of Artemisia biennis Willd. on K562 and HL-60 cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra; Makki, Farideh-Sadat; Alamolhodaei, Nafiseh-Sadat; Mojarrab, Mahdi; Emami, Seyed Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Artemisia is a genus of herbs and small shrubs forms an important part of natural vegetation in Iran. It has been reported that several Artemisia species possess anti-proliferative effects. Considering the value of this genus in anti-cancer researches we have chosen Artemisia biennis for cytotoxic and mechanistic studies. Materials and Methods: In this study we have investigated the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and ethanol: water (1:1 v/v) extracts of A. biennis Willd. on two cancer human cell lines (K562 and HL-60) and J774 as normal cells. Results: CH2Cl2 extract was found to have the highest anti-proliferative effect on cancer cells. IC50 values obtained in AlamarBlue® assay for CH2Cl2 extract were 64.86 and 54.31 µg/ml on K562 and HL-60 cells respectively. In flow cytometry histogram of the cells treated with CH2Cl2 extract, sub-G1 peak was induced. DNA fragmentation, increased in the level of Bax and cleavage of PARP protein all showed the induction of apoptosis with CH2Cl2 extract after 48 hr contact with cells. Conclusion: The results can corroborate the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the CH2Cl2 extract of A. biennis on the K562 and HL-60 cancer cell lines. PMID:28293393

  1. Investigating contact toxicity of Geranium and Artemisia essential oils on Bemisia tabaci Gen.

    PubMed Central

    Yarahmadi, Fatemeh; Rajabpour, Ali; Zandi Sohani, Nooshin; Ramezani, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gen. (B. tabaci), is one of the most important pests of various greenhouse crops in Iran. Nowadays, chemical insecticides are broadly used for control of the pests that causes risk to consumer's health. For the first time, contact toxicity of Pelargonium roseum Andrews and Artemisia sieberi Besser essential oils on B. tabaci and its possible application against the whitefly was evaluated in 2012. Materials and Methods: Essential oil with concentrations of 2500, 1250, 125, and 12 ppm were used. Infested leaves of greenhouse cucumber were treated by mentioned concentrations. After 24 hours, mortality of B. tabaci was recorded and compared after correcting by Abbot's formula. Results: Results showed that all concentrations of the essential oil could significantly reduce population of B. tabaci compared with the control treatment. Phytotoxicity of the treated leaves were recorded after 24, 48, and 72 hours and compared with the control. Concentrations of 2500, 1250, and 125 ppm caused severe phytotoxicity on greenhouse cucumber leaves and therefore are not suitable for greenhouse application. Phytotoxicity of 12 ppm was relatively low. Conclusions: This data implicated suitable protective effects of the essential oils to the pest infestation. Therefore, essential oils distillated from Geranium and Artemisia could be applied to control B. tabaci in greenhouse cucumber at V/V 12 ppm. PMID:25050264

  2. Evolutionary and ecological implications of genome size in the North American endemic sagebrushes and allies (Artemisia, Asteraceae)

    Treesearch

    Sonia Garcia; Miguel A. Canela; Teresa Garnatje; E. Durant McArthur; Jaume Pellicer; Stewart C. Sanderson; Joan Valles

    2008-01-01

    The genome size of 51 populations of 20 species of the North American endemic sagebrushes (subgenus Tridentatae), related species, and some hybrid taxa were assessed by flow cytometry, and were analysed in a phylogenetic framework. Results were similar for most Tridentatae species, with the exception of three taxonomically conflictive species: Artemisia bigelovii Gray...

  3. Ribosomal DNA, heterochromatin, and correlation with genome size in diploid and polyploid North American endemic sagebrushes (Artemisia, Asteraceae)

    Treesearch

    Sonia Garcia; Teresa Garnatje; Jaume Pellicer; E. Durant McArthur; Sonja Siljak-Yakovlev; Joan Valles

    2009-01-01

    Subgenus Tridentatae (Artemisia, Asteraceae) can be considered a polyploid complex. Both polyploidy and hybridization have been documented in the Tridentatae. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and fluorochrome banding were used to detect and analyze ribosomal DNA changes linked to polyploidization in this group by studying four diploidpolyploid species pairs. In...

  4. Exogenous nitric oxide donor protects Artemisia annua from oxidative stress generated by boron and aluminium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Naeem, M; Idrees, Mohd; Moinuddin; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Ram, M

    2012-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signal molecule modulating the response of plants to environmental stress. Here we report the effects of boron (B) and aluminium (Al) contamination in soil, carried out with or without application of exogenous SNP (NO donor), on various plant processes in Artemisia annua, including changes in artemisinin content. The addition of B or Al to soil medium significantly reduced the yield and growth of plants and lowered the values of net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO(2) concentration and total chlorophyll content. The follow-up treatment of NO donor favoured growth and improved the photosynthetic efficiency in stressed as well as non-stressed plants. Artemisinin content was enhanced by 24.6% and 43.8% at 1mmole of soil-applied B or Al. When SNP was applied at 2mmole concentration together with either 1mmole of B and/or Al, it further stimulated artemisinin biosynthesis compared to the control. Application of B+Al+SNP proved to be the best treatment combination for the artemisinin content in Artemisia annua leaves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Deep sequencing of amplicons reveals widespread intraspecific hybridization and multiple origins of polyploidy in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata, Asteraceae)

    Treesearch

    Bryce A. Richardson; Justin T. Page; Prabin Bajgain; Stewart C. Sanderson; Joshua A. Udall

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Hybridization has played an important role in the evolution and ecological adaptation of diploid and polyploid plants. Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) tetraploids are extremely widespread and of great ecological importance. These tetraploids are often taxonomically identified as A. tridentata subsp. wyomingensis or as autotetraploids of diploid...

  6. Hypolipidaemic Effect of Hericium erinaceum Grown in Artemisia capillaris on Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Sik; Kim, Young-Sun; Park, Byeoung-Soo; Kim, Jang-Eok; Lee, Sung-Eun

    2013-06-01

    In this study, ethanolic extracts from Hericium erinaceum cultivated with Artemisia capillaris (HEAC) were assessed for their ability to lower the cholesterol levels of male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat diet. Rats were randomly subdivided into seven test groups. Each group contained eight rats fed a high-fat diet during a growth period lasting 4 wk. Supplementation with the extracts was performed once a day for 2 wk after the high-fat diet. The control group (rats fed a high-fat diet) showed a high efficiency ratio (feed efficiency ratio) value compared to the normal group. Biochemical parameters, including total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), and triglyceride (TG) levels dramatically increased in the control group compared to the normal group. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) content in the control group was also significantly lower relative to the normal group. Two positive control groups, treated with simvastatin and atorvastatin, had lowered TC, LDL-c, and TG levels, and increased HDL-c content compared to the control group. Treatment with the tested extracts, including HEAC, ethanolic extracts from Hericium erinaceum, and ethanolic extracts from Artemisia capillaris reduced TC, LDL-c, and TG levels and elevated HDL-c content in the hyperlipidemia rats. The atherogenic index and cardiac risk factor values for the HEAC-treated group were 0.95 and 1.95, respectively. Simvastatin- and atorvastatin-treated groups showed atherogenic index values of 1.56 and 1.69, respectively, and cardiac risk factor values of 2.56 and 2.69, respectively. These results show HEAC possesses an ability to cure hyperlipidemia in rats and may serve as an effective natural medicine for treating hyperlipidemia in humans.

  7. Projections of contemporary and future climate niche for Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate subsp. wyomingensis): A guide for restoration

    Treesearch

    Shannon M. Still; Bryce A. Richardson

    2015-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) is one of the most widespread and abundant plant species in the intermountain regions of western North America. This species occupies an extremely wide ecological niche ranging from the semi-arid basins to the subalpine. Within this large niche, three widespread subspecies are recognized. Montane ecoregions are occupied by...

  8. Comparative Study of Composition, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Stanković, Nemanja; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana; Zlatković, Bojan; Matejić, Jelena; Stankov Jovanović, Vesna; Kocić, Branislava; Čomić, Ljiljana

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study to perform a comparative analysis of the chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of plant species Hyssopus officinalis, Achillea grandifolia, Achillea crithmifolia, Tanacetum parthenium, Laserpitium latifolium, and Artemisia absinthium from Balkan Peninsula. The chemical analysis of essential oils was performed by using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Monoterpenes were dominant among the recorded components, with camphor in T. parthenium, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (51.4, 45.4, and 25.4 %, respectively), 1,8-cineole in H. officinalis, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (49.1, 16.4, and 14.8 %, respectively), and sabinene in L. latifolium and A. absinthium (47.8 and 21.5 %). The antiradical and antioxidant activities were determined by using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods. The essential oil of A. grandifolia has shown the highest antioxidant activity [IC50 of 33.575 ± 0.069 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2.510 ± 0.036 mg vitamin C/g for the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay]. The antimicrobial activity against 16 multiresistant pathogenic bacteria isolated from human source material was tested by the broth microdilution assay. The resulting minimum inhibitory concentration/minimum bactericidal concentration values ranged from 4.72 to 93.2 mg/mL. Therefore, the essential oils of the plant species included in this study may be considered to be prospective natural sources of antimicrobial substances, and may contribute as effective agents in the battle against bacterial multiresistance. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. UFLC/MS-IT-TOF guided isolation of anti-HBV active chlorogenic acid analogues from Artemisia capillaris as a traditional Chinese herb for the treatment of hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Geng, Chang-An; Ma, Yun-Bao; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Hao; Cao, Tuan-Wu; He, Kang; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Chen, Ji-Jun

    2014-10-28

    Hepatitis B induced by HBV is a serious health problem. Artemisia capillaris (Yin-Chen) has long been used to treat hepatitis in traditional Chinese medicine. Coumarins, flavonoids and organic acids were revealed as its hepatoprotective and choleretic components, but its anti-HBV active components remain unknown. This current study focused on its anti-HBV active constituents by various chromatographic methods. LC/MS and bioassay-guided fractionation on the active extract of Artemisia capillaris led to the isolation of nine chlorogenic acid analogues. Structures of the isolates were elucidated by MS/MS and NMR techniques. Anti-HBV assay was performed on HepG 2.2.15 cell line in vitro: reduction of HBsAg and HBeAg secretions was measured by an ELISA method; inhibition of HBV DNA replication was monitored by real-time quantitative PCR and cellular toxicity was assessed by a MTT method. The 90% ethanol extract of Artemisia capillaris (Fr. AC) showed significantly inhibitory activity on HBV DNA replication with an IC₅₀ value of 76.1 ± 3.9 μg/mL and low cytotoxic effects (SI>20.1). To clarify its active constituents, the extract was further separated into 3 sub-fractions (AC-1, AC-2 and AC-3), of which Fr. AC-2 was the most active fraction against HBeAg secretion and HBV DNA replication with IC50 values of 44.2 ± 2.8 and 23.2 ± 1.9 μg/mL. Nine chlorogenic acid analogues were detected from the active part (Fr. AC-2) by a LC/MS technique and further separated by a HPLC method. The isolates were determined as chlorogenic acid (1), cryptochlorogenic acid (2), neochlorogenic acid (3), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4), 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (5), 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (6), chlorogenic acid methyl ester (7), cryptochlorogenic acid methyl ester (8), neochlorogenic acid methyl ester (9). Compounds 1-6 possessed potent activity against HBV DNA replication with IC50 values in the range of 5.5 ± 0.9-13.7 ± 1.3 μM. Di-caffeoyl analogues (4-6) also exhibited activity

  10. Selection and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in Artemisia sphaerocephala based on transcriptome sequence data.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaowei; Zhang, Lijing; Nan, Shuzhen; Miao, Xiumei; Yang, Pengfang; Duan, Guoqin; Fu, Hua

    2018-05-30

    Artemisia sphaerocephala, a dicotyledonous perennial semi-shrub belonging to the Artemisia genus of the Compositae family, is widely distributed in northwestern China. This shrub is one of the most important pioneer plants which is capable of protecting rangelands from wind erosion. It therefore plays a vital role in maintaining desert ecosystem stability. In addition, to its use as a forage grass, it has excellent prospective applications as a source of plant oil and as a plant-based fuel. The use of internal genes is the basis for accurately assessing Real time quantitative PCR. In this study, based on transcriptome data of A. sphaerocephala, we analyzed 21 candidate internal genes to determine the optimal internal genes in this shrub. The stabilities of candidate genes were evaluated in 16 samples of A. sphaerocephala. Finally, UBC9 and TIP41-like were determined as the optimal reference genes in A. sphaerocephala by Delta Ct and three various programs. There were GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fungi as Endophytes in Artemisia thuscula: Juxtaposed Elements of Diversity and Phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Cosoveanu, Andreea; Rodriguez Sabina, Samuel; Cabrera, Raimundo

    2018-01-27

    Artemisia is a plant genus highly studied for its medicinal applications. The studies on the associated fungal endophytes are scarce. Ten plants specimens of Artemisia thuscula from Tenerife and La Palma were sampled to isolate the endophytic fungi. Identification of the endophytic fungi was based on morphology, Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) and Large Subunit (LSU) regions sequencing and indicates 37 fungal species affiliated to 25 fungal genera. Colonization rate varied among plants (CR = 25% to 92.11%). The most dominant colonizers found were Alternaria alternata (CF = 18.71%), Neofusicoccum sp. (CF = 8.39%) and Preussia sp. (CF = 3.23). Tendency for host specificity of most endophytic fungal species was observed. Sorensen-Dice index revealed that of 45 cases in the matrix, 27 of them were of zero similarity. Further, only one case was found to have 57% similarity (TF2 and TF7) and one case with 50% similarity (TF1 and TF4). The rest of the cases had values ranging between 11% and 40% similarity. Diversity indices like Brillouin, Margalef species richness, Simpson index of diversity and Fisher's alpha, revealed plants from La Palma with higher values than plants from Tenerife. Three nutrient media (i.e., potato dextrose agar-PDA, lignocellulose agar-LCA, and tomato juice agar-V8) were used in a case study and revealed no differences in terms of colonization rate when data was averaged. Colonization frequency showed several species with preference for nutrient medium (63% of the species were isolated from only one nutrient medium). For the phylogenetic reconstruction using the Bayesian method, 54 endophytic fungal ITS sequences and associated GenBank sequences were analyzed. Ten orders (Diaporthales, Dothideales, Botryosphaeriales, Hypocreales, Trichosphaeriales, Amphisphaeriales, Xylariales, Capnodiales, Pleosporales and Eurotiales) were recognized. Several arrangements of genera draw the attention, like Aureobasidium (Dothideales) and Aplosporella

  12. Hypolipidaemic Effect of Hericium erinaceum Grown in Artemisia capillaris on Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Sik; Kim, Young-Sun; Park, Byeoung-Soo; Kim, Jang-Eok

    2013-01-01

    In this study, ethanolic extracts from Hericium erinaceum cultivated with Artemisia capillaris (HEAC) were assessed for their ability to lower the cholesterol levels of male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat diet. Rats were randomly subdivided into seven test groups. Each group contained eight rats fed a high-fat diet during a growth period lasting 4 wk. Supplementation with the extracts was performed once a day for 2 wk after the high-fat diet. The control group (rats fed a high-fat diet) showed a high efficiency ratio (feed efficiency ratio) value compared to the normal group. Biochemical parameters, including total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), and triglyceride (TG) levels dramatically increased in the control group compared to the normal group. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) content in the control group was also significantly lower relative to the normal group. Two positive control groups, treated with simvastatin and atorvastatin, had lowered TC, LDL-c, and TG levels, and increased HDL-c content compared to the control group. Treatment with the tested extracts, including HEAC, ethanolic extracts from Hericium erinaceum, and ethanolic extracts from Artemisia capillaris reduced TC, LDL-c, and TG levels and elevated HDL-c content in the hyperlipidemia rats. The atherogenic index and cardiac risk factor values for the HEAC-treated group were 0.95 and 1.95, respectively. Simvastatin- and atorvastatin-treated groups showed atherogenic index values of 1.56 and 1.69, respectively, and cardiac risk factor values of 2.56 and 2.69, respectively. These results show HEAC possesses an ability to cure hyperlipidemia in rats and may serve as an effective natural medicine for treating hyperlipidemia in humans. PMID:23874132

  13. [Exploring pharmacological principle of Artemisia carvifolia with textmining technology].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu-Ping; Wang, Hui; Yang, Guang; Qiu, Zhi-Dong; Qu, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Bo

    2016-08-01

    To explore the pharmacological principle of Artemisia carvifolia,the text mining technique was used. All the references of A. carvifolia were collected from PubMed database, and then the rules of the main ingredient,relative diseases, organs, tissues, proteins and metabolites were analyzed. Finally, a network was set up. Then it was found that the main ingredients included sesquiterpenoids,flavonoids,and volatileoils.The diseases such as malaria, cerebral malaria, falciparum malaria, visceral leishmaniasis and systemic lupus erythematosus were often treated with A. carvifolia. In association in organ were the liver, skin, trachea,lungs,and spleen.Correlations with tissues were mainly including macrophages, T lymphocytes, blood vessels, epithelial cells.The protein was correlation with it involved CYP450, PI3K, TNF-α, AASDPPT, DNA polymerase and so on. Comprehensive and systematic treatment principle of A. carvifolia was obtained by text mining, which was helpful in clinical application. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Alpine ethnobotany in Italy: traditional knowledge of gastronomic and medicinal plants among the Occitans of the upper Varaita valley, Piedmont

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A gastronomic and medical ethnobotanical study was conducted among the Occitan communities living in Blins/Bellino and Chianale, in the upper Val Varaita, in the Piedmontese Alps, North-Western Italy, and the traditional uses of 88 botanical taxa were recorded. Comparisons with and analysis of other ethnobotanical studies previously carried out in other Piemontese and surrounding areas, show that approximately one fourth of the botanical taxa quoted in this survey are also known in other surrounding Occitan valleys. It is also evident that traditional knowledge in the Varaita valley has been heavily eroded. This study also examined the local legal framework for the gathering of botanical taxa, and the potential utilization of the most quoted medicinal and food wild herbs in the local market, and suggests that the continuing widespread local collection from the wild of the aerial parts of Alpine wormwood for preparing liqueurs (Artemisia genipi, A. glacialis, and A. umbelliformis) should be seriously reconsidered in terms of sustainability, given the limited availability of these species, even though their collection is culturally salient in the entire study area. PMID:19895681

  15. Inhibitory effects of polyphenols in leaves of Artemisia princeps PAMP on protein fragmentation by Cu(II)-H2O2 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Toda, Shizuo

    2004-01-01

    The leaves of Artemisia princeps PAMP have traditionally been used as teas and foods in Japan. Polyphenols in Artemisia plants have been shown to have inhibitory effects against biological damages. The inhibitory effects of polyphenols in the leaves of A. princeps PAMP were investigated on protein fragmentation induced by Cu(II)-H(2)O(2) in vitro. The total polyphenol content in the leaves of A. princeps PAMP was 4.58%. The condensed tannin content was 0.62% by vanillin assay and 0.14% by proanthrocyanidin assay. The polyphenols in the leaves of A. princeps PAMP inhibited bovine albumin fragmentation by Cu(II)-H(2)O(2). The effects of polyphenols in the leaves of A. princeps PAMP were similar to those of tannic acid, studied as a related polyphenol. These results demonstrated that the leaves of A. princeps PAMP have inhibitory effects on protein fragmentation damage.

  16. Narrow hybrid zone between two subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata: Asteraceae): XI. Plant-insect interactions in reciprocal transplant gardens

    Treesearch

    John H. Graham; E. Durant McArthur; D. Carl Freeman

    2001-01-01

    Basin big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata) and mountain big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. vaseyana) hybridize in a narrow zone near Salt Creek, Utah. Reciprocal transplant experiments in this hybrid zone demonstrate that hybrids are more fit than either parental subspecies, but only in the hybrid zone. Do hybrids experience greater, or lesser, use by...

  17. Examining the extraction of artemisinin from artemisia annua using ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briars, Rhianna; Paniwnyk, Larysa

    2012-05-01

    Artemisinin suppresses the life-cycle of the plasmodium parasite which causes malaria. It is found naturally occurring within the trichome glands of the Artemisia annua plant. Traditional methods for extracting artemisinin are time-consuming and have high environmental impact due to the temperatures and organic solvents which must be employed. Ultrasound decreases these through acoustic streaming and micro-jets. But to fully utilise this technology parameters, such as frequency, temperature and the properties of leaf and solvent, must be explored. As with the extraction process there is also no set analysis method for identification of artemisinin. Therefore several methods of analysing these extracts are employed. Initial results indicate that sonication is able to enhance levels of artemisinin extracted when compared to the conventional/traditional extraction process. In addition Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) have been shown to have a high level of reproducible calibration.

  18. Characterization of Nutritional Composition, Antioxidative Capacity, and Sensory Attributes of Seomae Mugwort, a Native Korean Variety of Artemisia argyi H. Lév. & Vaniot

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Lim, Ho-Jeong; Choi, Soo Jung; Kim, Cho Rong; Suh, Soo Hwan; Kim, Chang-Ju; Park, Gwi Gun; Park, Cheung-Seog; Kim, Hye Kyung; Choi, Jong Hun; Shin, Dong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated Seomae mugwort (a Korean native mugwort variety of Artemisia argyi H. Lév. & Vaniot), exclusively cultivated in the southern Korean peninsula, and the possibility of its use as a food resource. In the present study, we compared the nutritional and chemical properties as well as sensory attributes of Seomae mugwort and the commonly consumed species Artemisia princeps Pamp. In comparison with A. princeps, Seomae mugwort had higher contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids, total phenolic compounds, vitamin C, and essential amino acids. In addition, Seomae mugwort had better radical scavenging activity and more diverse volatile compounds than A. princeps as well as favorable sensory attributes when consumed as tea. Given that scant information is available regarding the Seomae mugwort and its biological, chemical, and sensory characteristics, the results herein may provide important characterization data for further industrial and research applications of this mugwort variety. PMID:26550520

  19. Characterization of Nutritional Composition, Antioxidative Capacity, and Sensory Attributes of Seomae Mugwort, a Native Korean Variety of Artemisia argyi H. Lév. & Vaniot.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Lim, Ho-Jeong; Choi, Soo Jung; Kim, Cho Rong; Suh, Soo Hwan; Kim, Chang-Ju; Park, Gwi Gun; Park, Cheung-Seog; Kim, Hye Kyung; Choi, Jong Hun; Song, Sang-Wook; Shin, Dong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated Seomae mugwort (a Korean native mugwort variety of Artemisia argyi H. Lév. & Vaniot), exclusively cultivated in the southern Korean peninsula, and the possibility of its use as a food resource. In the present study, we compared the nutritional and chemical properties as well as sensory attributes of Seomae mugwort and the commonly consumed species Artemisia princeps Pamp. In comparison with A. princeps, Seomae mugwort had higher contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids, total phenolic compounds, vitamin C, and essential amino acids. In addition, Seomae mugwort had better radical scavenging activity and more diverse volatile compounds than A. princeps as well as favorable sensory attributes when consumed as tea. Given that scant information is available regarding the Seomae mugwort and its biological, chemical, and sensory characteristics, the results herein may provide important characterization data for further industrial and research applications of this mugwort variety.

  20. Essential oil of Artemisia argyi suppresses inflammatory responses by inhibiting JAK/STATs activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Hao-Jun; Chao, Jung; Liu, Jun-Feng

    2017-05-23

    Artemisia argyi is a herbal medicine traditionally used in Asia for the treatment of bronchitis, dermatitis and arthritis. Recent studies revealed the anti-inflammatory effect of essential oil in this plant. However, the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic potential have not been well elucidated. The present study is aimed to verify its anti-inflammatory effect and investigate the probable mechanisms. The essential oil from Artemisia argyi (AAEO) was initially tested against LPS-induced production of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in RAW264.7 macrophages. Protein and mRNA expressions of iNOS and COX-2 were determined by Western blotting and RT-PCR analysis, respectively. The effects on the activation of MAPK/NF-κB/AP-1 and JAK/STATs pathway were also investigated by western blot. Meanwhile, in vivo anti-inflammatory effect was examined by histologic and immunohistochemical analysis in TPA-induced mouse ear edema model. The results of in vitro experiments showed that AAEO dose-dependently suppressed the release of pro-inflammatory mediators (NO, PGE 2 and ROS) and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-β and MCP-1) in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages. It down-regulated iNOS and COX-2 protein and mRNA expression but did not affect the activity of these two enzymes. AAEO significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT1/3, but not the activation of MAPK and NF-κB cascades. In animal model, oral administration of AAEO significantly attenuated TPA-induced mouse ear edema and decreased the protein level of COX-2. AAEO suppresses inflammatory responses via down-regulation of the JAK/STATs signaling and ROS scavenging, which could contribute, at least in part, to the anti-inflammatory effect of AAEO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Polysaccharides from the South African medicinal plant Artemisia afra: Structure and activity studies.

    PubMed

    Braünlich, Paula Marie; Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Inngjerdingen, Marit; Johnson, Quinton; Paulsen, Berit Smestad; Mabusela, Wilfred

    2018-01-01

    Artemisia afra (Jacq. Ex. Willd), is an indigenous plant in South Africa and other parts of the African continent, where it is used as traditional medicine mostly for respiratory conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the structural features of the polysaccharides from the leaves of this plant, as well as the biological activities of the polysaccharide fractions against the complement assay. Leaves of Artemisia afra were extracted sequentially with organic solvents (dichloromethane and methanol), 50% aqueous ethanol, and water at 50 and 100°C respectively. The polysaccharide extracts were fractionated by ion exchange chromatography and the resulting fractions were tested for biological activity against the complement fixation assay. Active fractions were further fractionated using gel filtration. Monosaccharide compositions and linkage analyses were determined for the relevant fractions. Polysaccharides were shown to be of the pectin type, and largely contain arabinogalactan, rhamnogalacturonan and homogalacturonan structural features. The presence of arabinogalactan type II features as suggested by methylation analysis was further confirmed by the ready precipitation of the relevant polysaccharides with the Yariv reagent. An unusual feature of some of these polysaccharides was the presence of relatively high levels of xylose as one of its monosaccharide constituents. Purified polysaccharide fractions were shown to possess higher biological activity than the selected standard in the complement assay. Digestion of these polysaccharides with an endo-polygalacturonase enzyme resulted in polymers with lower molecular weights as expected, but still with biological activity which exceeded that of the standard. Thus on the basis of these studies it may be suggested that immunomodulating properties probably contribute significantly to the health-promoting effects of this medicinal plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Artemisia herba-alba essential oil from Buseirah (South Jordan): Chemical characterization and assessment of safe antifungal and anti-inflammatory doses.

    PubMed

    Abu-Darwish, M S; Cabral, C; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Cruz, M T; Efferth, T; Salgueiro, L

    2015-11-04

    Artemisia herba-alba Asso ("desert wormwood" in English; "armoise blanche" in French; "shaih" in Arabic), is a medicinal and strongly aromatic plant widely used in traditional medicine by many cultures since ancient times. It is used to treat inflammatory disorders (colds, coughing, bronchitis, diarrhea), infectious diseases (skin diseases, scabies, syphilis) and others (diabetes, neuralgias). In Jordanian traditional medicine, this plant is used as antiseptic and against skin diseases, scabies, syphilis, fever as well as menstrual and nervous disorders. Considering the traditional medicinal uses and the lack of scientific studies addressing the cellular and molecular players involved in these biological activities, the present study was designed to unveil the antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities of A. herba-alba Asso essential oil at doses devoid of toxicity to mammalian cells. Chemical analysis of A. herba-alba essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation from aerial parts was carried out by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antifungal activity (minimal inhibitory concentrations and minimal lethal concentrations) was evaluated against yeasts, dermatophyte and Aspergillus strains. In order to explore the mechanisms behind the anti-fungal effect of the essential oil, the germ tube inhibition assay was evaluated using Candida albicans. The assessment of cell viability was accomplished using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of A. herba-alba oil at the periphery and central nervous system was evaluated by measuring nitric oxide (NO) production using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophages and microglia, respectively. Oxygen-containing monoterpenes are the main compounds of the oil, namely 1,8-cineole (20.1%), β-thujone (25.1%), α-thujone (22.9%) and camphor (10.5%). Among the fungal strains tested, the oil

  3. Development of a Specific Monoclonal Antibody for the Quantification of Artemisinin in Artemisia annua and Rat Serum.

    PubMed

    Guo, Suqin; Cui, Yongliang; Wang, Kunbi; Zhang, Wei; Tan, Guiyu; Wang, Baomin; Cui, Liwang

    2016-03-01

    Artemisinin, extracted from Artemisia annua, and its derivatives are important frontline antimalarials. To produce specific antibodies for the detection and quantification of artemisinin, artemisinin was transformed to 9-hydroxyartemisinin by microbial fermentation, which was used to prepare a 9-succinate artemisinin hapten for conjugation with ovalbumin. A monoclonal antibody (mAb), designated as 3H7A10, was selected from hybridoma cell lines which showed high specificity to artemisinin. No competitive inhibition was observed with artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, and artemether for up to 20,000 ng mL(-1). An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) was developed, which showed a concentration causing 50% of inhibition (IC50) for artemisinin as 2.6 ng mL(-1) and a working range of 0.6-11.5 ng mL(-1). The icELISA was applied for the quantification of artemisinin in crude extracts of wild A. annua and the study of pharmacokinetics of artemisinin in rat serum after intraperitoneal injection. The results were highly correlated with those determined by HPLC-UV analysis (R(2) = 0.9919). In comparison with reported antiartemisinin mAbs which have broad cross-reactivity with other artemisinin derivatives, the high specificity of 3H7A10 for artemisinin will enable development of methods for quantification of artemisinin in Artemisia plants and antimalarial drugs such as Arco and for pharmacokinetic studies.

  4. Antioxidant Artemisia princeps Extract Enhances the Expression of Filaggrin and Loricrin via the AHR/OVOL1 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Akiko; Goto, Masashi; Mitsui, Tsukasa; Hashimoto-Hachiya, Akiko; Tsuji, Gaku; Furue, Masutaka

    2017-09-11

    The Japanese mugwort, Artemisia princeps ( yomogi in Japanese), has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Skin care products containing Artemisia princeps extract (APE) are known to improve dry skin symptoms in atopic dermatitis. Atopic dry skin is associated with a marked reduction of skin barrier proteins, such as filaggrin (FLG) and loricrin (LOR). Recently, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and its downstream transcription factor OVO-like 1 (OVOL1), have been shown to regulate the gene expression of FLG and LOR. The focus of this paper is to evaluate the effects of APE on the AHR/OVOL1/FLG or LOR pathway since they have remained unknown to this point. We first demonstrated that non-cytotoxic concentrations of APE significantly upregulated antioxidant enzymes, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 and heme oxygenase 1, in human keratinocytes. Even at these low concentrations, APE induced nuclear translocation of AHR and significantly upregulated CYP1A1 (a specific target gene for AHR activation), FLG , and LOR expression. AHR knockdown downregulated OVOL1 expression. The APE-induced upregulation of FLG and LOR was canceled in keratinocytes with AHR or OVOL1 knockdown. In conclusion, antioxidant APE is a potent phytoextract that upregulates FLG and LOR expression in an AHR/OVOL1-dependent manner and this may underpin the barrier-repairing effects of APE in treating atopic dry skin.

  5. Antioxidant Artemisia princeps Extract Enhances the Expression of Filaggrin and Loricrin via the AHR/OVOL1 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Akiko; Goto, Masashi; Mitsui, Tsukasa; Hashimoto-Hachiya, Akiko; Tsuji, Gaku; Furue, Masutaka

    2017-01-01

    The Japanese mugwort, Artemisia princeps (yomogi in Japanese), has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Skin care products containing Artemisia princeps extract (APE) are known to improve dry skin symptoms in atopic dermatitis. Atopic dry skin is associated with a marked reduction of skin barrier proteins, such as filaggrin (FLG) and loricrin (LOR). Recently, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and its downstream transcription factor OVO-like 1 (OVOL1), have been shown to regulate the gene expression of FLG and LOR. The focus of this paper is to evaluate the effects of APE on the AHR/OVOL1/FLG or LOR pathway since they have remained unknown to this point. We first demonstrated that non-cytotoxic concentrations of APE significantly upregulated antioxidant enzymes, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 and heme oxygenase 1, in human keratinocytes. Even at these low concentrations, APE induced nuclear translocation of AHR and significantly upregulated CYP1A1 (a specific target gene for AHR activation), FLG, and LOR expression. AHR knockdown downregulated OVOL1 expression. The APE-induced upregulation of FLG and LOR was canceled in keratinocytes with AHR or OVOL1 knockdown. In conclusion, antioxidant APE is a potent phytoextract that upregulates FLG and LOR expression in an AHR/OVOL1-dependent manner and this may underpin the barrier-repairing effects of APE in treating atopic dry skin. PMID:28892018

  6. Arthropod repellency, especially tick (Ixodes ricinus), exerted by extract from Artemisia abrotanum and essential oil from flowers of Dianthus caryophyllum.

    PubMed

    Tunón, H; Thorsell, W; Mikiver, A; Malander, I

    2006-06-01

    A toluene extract of southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) and the essential oil from flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllum ) exerted pronounced a repellent effect both against ticks (nymphs of Ixodes ricinus) and yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti). The most potent repellents found were coumarin and thujyl alcohol from A. abrotanum and phenylethanol from D. caryophyllum where coumarin and thujyl alcohol were also detected.

  7. Artemisia annua dried leaf tablets treated malaria resistant to ACT and i.v. artesunate: Case reports.

    PubMed

    Daddy, Nsengiyumva Bati; Kalisya, Luc Malemo; Bagire, Pascal Gisenya; Watt, Robert L; Towler, Melissa J; Weathers, Pamela J

    2017-08-15

    Dried leaf Artemisia annua (DLA) has shown efficacy against Plasmodium sp. in rodent studies and in small clinical trials. Rodent malaria also showed resiliency against the evolution of artemisinin drug resistance. This is a case report of a last resort treatment of patients with severe malaria who were responding neither to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) nor i.v. artesunate. Of many patients treated with ACTs and i.v. artesunate during the 6 mon study period, 18 did not respond and were subsequently treated with DLA Artemisia annua. Patients were given a dose of 0.5g DLA per os, twice daily for 5d. Total adult delivered dose of artemisinin was 55mg. Dose was reduced for body weight under 30kg. Clinical symptoms, e.g. fever, coma etc., and parasite levels in thick blood smears were tracked. Patients were declared cured and released from hospital when parasites were microscopically undetectable and clinical symptoms fully subsided. All patients were previously treated with Coartem® provided through Santé Rurale (SANRU) and following the regimen prescribed by WHO. Of 18 ACT-resistant severe malaria cases compassionately treated with DLA, all fully recovered. Of the 18, this report details two pediatric cases. Successful treatment of all 18 ACT-resistant cases suggests that DLA should be rapidly incorporated into the antimalarial regimen for Africa and possibly wherever else ACT resistance has emerged. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  8. The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to an increasing demand for natural products to control coccidiosis in broilers we investigated the effects of supplementing a combination of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa in drinking water. Three different dosages of this herbal mixture were compared with a negative co...

  9. Genetic Transformation of Artemisia carvifolia Buch with rol Genes Enhances Artemisinin Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Dilshad, Erum; Cusido, Rosa Maria; Ramirez Estrada, Karla; Bonfill, Mercedes; Mirza, Bushra

    2015-01-01

    The potent antimalarial drug artemisinin has a high cost, since its only viable source to date is Artemisia annua (0.01-0.8% DW). There is therefore an urgent need to design new strategies to increase its production or to find alternative sources. In the current study, Artemisia carvifolia Buch was selected with the aim of detecting artemisinin and then enhancing the production of the target compound and its derivatives. These metabolites were determined by LC-MS in the shoots of A. carvifolia wild type plants at the following concentrations: artemisinin (8μg/g), artesunate (2.24μg/g), dihydroartemisinin (13.6μg/g) and artemether (12.8μg/g). Genetic transformation of A. carvifolia was carried out with Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 harboring the rol B and rol C genes. Artemisinin content increased 3-7-fold in transgenics bearing the rol B gene, and 2.3-6-fold in those with the rol C gene. A similar pattern was observed for artemisinin analogues. The dynamics of artemisinin content in transgenics and wild type A.carvifolia was also correlated with the expression of genes involved in its biosynthesis. Real time qPCR analysis revealed the differential expression of genes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis, i.e. those encoding amorpha-4, 11 diene synthase (ADS), cytochrome P450 (CYP71AV1), and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), with a relatively higher transcript level found in transgenics than in the wild type plant. Also, the gene related to trichome development and sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis (TFAR1) showed an altered expression in the transgenics compared to wild type A.carvifolia, which was in accordance with the trichome density of the respective plants. The trichome index was significantly higher in the rol B and rol C gene-expressing transgenics with an increased production of artemisinin, thereby demonstrating that the rol genes are effective inducers of plant secondary metabolism.

  10. Transcriptome characterization and polymorphism detection between subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) is one of the most widely distributed and ecologically important shrub species in western North America. This species serves as a critical habitat and food resource for many animals and invertebrates. Habitat loss due to a combination of disturbances followed by establishment of invasive plant species is a serious threat to big sagebrush ecosystem sustainability. Lack of genomic data has limited our understanding of the evolutionary history and ecological adaptation in this species. Here, we report on the sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and detection of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in subspecies of big sagebrush. Results cDNA of A. tridentata sspp. tridentata and vaseyana were normalized and sequenced using the 454 GS FLX Titanium pyrosequencing technology. Assembly of the reads resulted in 20,357 contig consensus sequences in ssp. tridentata and 20,250 contigs in ssp. vaseyana. A BLASTx search against the non-redundant (NR) protein database using 29,541 consensus sequences obtained from a combined assembly resulted in 21,436 sequences with significant blast alignments (≤ 1e-15). A total of 20,952 SNPs and 119 polymorphic SSRs were detected between the two subspecies. SNPs were validated through various methods including sequence capture. Validation of SNPs in different individuals uncovered a high level of nucleotide variation in EST sequences. EST sequences of a third, tetraploid subspecies (ssp. wyomingensis) obtained by Illumina sequencing were mapped to the consensus sequences of the combined 454 EST assembly. Approximately one-third of the SNPs between sspp. tridentata and vaseyana identified in the combined assembly were also polymorphic within the two geographically distant ssp. wyomingensis samples. Conclusion We have produced a large EST dataset for Artemisia tridentata, which contains a large sample of the big sagebrush leaf transcriptome. SNP

  11. Artemisia umbelliformis Lam. and Génépi Liqueur: Volatile Profile as Diagnostic Marker for Geographic Origin and To Predict Liqueur Safety.

    PubMed

    Boggia, Lorenzo; Pignata, Giuseppe; Sgorbini, Barbara; Colombo, Maria Laura; Marengo, Arianna; Casale, Manuela; Nicola, Silvana; Bicchi, Carlo; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2017-04-05

    Artemisia umbelliformis, commonly known as "white génépi", is characterized by a volatile fraction rich in α- and β-thujones, two monoterpenoids; under European Union (EU) regulations these are limited to 35 mg/L in Artemisia-based beverages because of their recognized activity on the human central nervous system. This study reports the results of an investigation to define the geographical origin and thujone content of individual plants of A. umbelliformis from different geographical sites, cultivated experimentally at a single site, and to predict the thujone content in the resulting liqueurs through their volatile fraction. Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and non-separative HS-SPME-MS were used as analytical platforms to create a database suitable for chemometric description and prediction through linear discriminant analysis (LDA). HS-SPME-MS was applied to shorten analysis time. With both approaches, a diagnostic prediction of (i) plant geographical origin and (ii) thujone content of plant-related liqueurs could be made.

  12. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of plant extracts traditionally used in organic and biodynamic farming.

    PubMed

    Andreu, Vanessa; Levert, Annabel; Amiot, Anaïs; Cousin, Anaïs; Aveline, Nicolas; Bertrand, Cédric

    2018-03-07

    Five plant extracts traditionally used in organic and biodynamic farming for pest control and antifungal (downy mildew) disease management were selected after a farmer survey and analyzed for their chemical composition in LC-PDA-MS-MS and using adapted analytical method from food chemistry for determination of class of component (e.g., protein, sugar, lipids…). Their antifungal activity against Penicillium expansum, Botrytis cinerea, Botrytis allii, brown rot causing agents (Monilinia laxa and Monilinia fructigena), and grape downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) was examined in vitro. White willow (Salix alba) and absinthe (Artemisia absinthium) ethanolic extracts were found to be the most effective in particular against Plasmopara viticola, with a total inhibition of spores germination when applied at 1000 mg/L. These extracts also showed a relatively low toxicity during preliminary ecotoxicological assays on Daphnia pulex. Extract from the bark of white willow contained some flavonoids, especially flavanones (eriodyctiol and derivates) and flavanols (catechins and derivates), as major compounds, whereas absinthe extract was rich in O-methylated flavanols and hydroxycinnamic acids. Thujone content in this extract was also determined by external calibration in GC-MS analysis, and its value was 0.004% dry extract.

  13. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

    2012-01-01

    This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (巴西蘑菇 bā xī mó gū; Agaricus blazei, 雲芝 yún zhī; Coriolus versicolor, 靈芝 líng zhī; Ganoderma lucidum, 香蕈 xiāng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, 牛樟芝 niú zhāng zhī; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps (冬蟲夏草 dōng chóng xià cǎo), pomegranate (石榴 shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea (綠茶 lǜ chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic (大蒜 dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric (薑黃 jiāng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (青蒿 qīng hāo; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

  14. Consequences of pre-inoculation with native arbuscular mycorrhizae on root colonization and survival of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush) seedlings after transplanting

    Treesearch

    Bill Eugene Davidson

    2015-01-01

    Inoculation of seedlings with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is a common practice aimed at improving seedling establishment. The success of this practice largely depends on the ability of the inoculum to multiply and colonize the growing root system after transplanting. These events were investigated in Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush...

  15. Forecasting of the selected features of Poaceae (R. Br.) Barnh., Artemisia L. and Ambrosia L. pollen season in Szczecin, north-western Poland, using Gumbel's distribution.

    PubMed

    Puc, Małgorzata; Wolski, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    The allergenic pollen content of the atmosphere varies according to climate, biogeography and vegetation. Minimisation of the pollen allergy symptoms is related to the possibility of avoidance of large doses of the allergen. Measurements performed in Szczecin over a period of 13 years (2000-2012 inclusive) permitted prediction of theoretical maximum concentrations of pollen grains and their probability for the pollen season of Poaceae, Artemisia and Ambrosia. Moreover, the probabilities were determined of a given date as the beginning of the pollen season, the date of the maximum pollen count, Seasonal Pollen Index value and the number of days with pollen count above threshold values. Aerobiological monitoring was conducted using a Hirst volumetric trap (Lanzoni VPPS). Linear trend with determination coefficient (R(2)) was calculated. Model for long-term forecasting was performed by the method based on Gumbel's distribution. A statistically significant negative correlation was determined between the duration of pollen season of Poaceae and Artemisia and the Seasonal Pollen Index value. Seasonal, total pollen counts of Artemisia and Ambrosia showed a strong and statistically significant decreasing tendency. On the basis of Gumbel's distribution, a model was proposed for Szczecin, allowing prediction of the probabilities of the maximum pollen count values that can appear once in e.g. 5, 10 or 100 years. Short pollen seasons are characterised by a higher intensity of pollination than long ones. Prediction of the maximum pollen count values, dates of the pollen season beginning, and the number of days with pollen count above the threshold, on the basis of Gumbel's distribution, is expected to lead to improvement in the prophylaxis and therapy of persons allergic to pollen.

  16. Antiasthmic effect of fermented Artemisia princeps in asthmic mice induced by ovalbumin.

    PubMed

    Bae, Eun-Ah; Min, Sung-Won; Lee, Bomi; Kim, Nam-Jae; Baek, Nam-In; Han, Eun-Joo; Chung, Hae-Gon; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2007-09-01

    Artemisia princeps Pampanini (AP) was fermented with Bifidobacterium infantis K-525 and its antiasthmic effect investigated. AP and fermented AP (FAP) reduced the IgE level in the blood of ovalbumin-induced asthmic mice. Moreover, FAP reduced the IgE, proinflammatory cytokine IL-6, and IL-4 levels in the trachea, as well as in the lung of the experimental asthmic mice, whereas AP only reduced the IgE and IL-6 levels in the lungs. Nonetheless, AP and FAP both inhibited the mRNA expression of IL-6 and TNF-alpha in IgE-induced RBL-2H3 cells. The in vivo antiasthmic effect of FAP was more potent than that of AP. Therefore, these findings suggest that the enhanced antiasthmic effect of AP after bifidus fermentation was possibly due to the regulation of the proinflammatory cytokine biosynthesis of IL-6 and TNF-alpha.

  17. Lactic acid bacteria increase antiallergic effect of Artemisia princeps pampanini SS-1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Shin, Yong-Wook; Bae, Eun-Ah; Lee, Bomi; Min, Sungwon; Baek, Nam-In; Chung, Hae-Gon; Kim, Nam-Jae; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2006-09-01

    Artemisia princeps Pampanini, which is called Ssajuarissuk in Korean (SS-1), was fermented with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction-inhibitory activity was investigated. Of these fermented agents, SS-1 extract fermented with Bifidobacterium infantis K-525 (F-SS-1) most effectively inhibited the release of P-hexosamindase from RBL-2H3 cells induced IgE. In IgE-induced RBL-2H3 cells, F-SS-1 inhibited proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha mRNA expression. Oral administration of SS-1 and F-SS-1 to mice inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction induced by IgE and scratching behaviors induced by compound 48/80. The inhibitory activity of F-SS-1 against scratching behaviors was more effective than that of SS-1. These findings suggest that the fermentation of SS-1 with LAB can increase its antiallergic activity.

  18. Changes in vegetation structure in seeded nesting cover in the prairie pothole region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.; Barker, W.T.

    1982-01-01

    needing special management attention on public lands are leafy spurge (Euphorbia podperae), wormwood (Artemisia absinthium), Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense), musk thistle (Carduus nutans), and plumeless thistle (Carduus acanthoides). Sites disturbed by mammal diggings or those skipped during planting operations became revegetated mostly with species other than those of seeded nesting cover.Successfully established stands on good sites provided substantial food and cover for wildlife for at least 6 years and retained stand composition for at least 10 years. Further study will be necessary to determine longevity of these stands. Except for mandatory noxious weed control, no management treatments of seeded nesting cover were necessary before the seventh growing season, at which time some stands needed renovation. The primary goals for management of seeded nesting cover should be stand quality and longevity. Guidelines to these goals are suggested.

  19. Isolation and quantitative analysis of peroxynitrite scavengers from Artemisia princeps var. orientalis.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Agung; Lee, Kang Ro; Alam, Md Badrul; Choi, Jae Sue; Park, Hee-Juhn

    2010-05-01

    Young and mature Artemisia princeps var. orientalis (APO, Compositae) are used as a health food and a medicinal plant, respectively, in Korea. Here, we identified the in vitro potent peroxynitrite (ONOO(-))-scavenging effect (IC(50), 0.26 microg/mL) of the components from the EtOAc fraction. Octadecylsilane column chromatography on the EtOAc fraction yielded two caffeoylquinic acid compounds, 3,5-di-O-caffeoyl-muco-quinic acid (1) and methyl 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinate (2) by NMR spectroscopic data, which have not been reported before from APO. The IC(50) values of compounds 1 and 2 were 0.18 +/- 0.01 microg/mL and 0.12 +/- 0.00 microg/mL, respectively, lower than that of the positive control (L-penicillamine). HPLC data indicated that young APO (1: 30.3 mg/g dried weight, 2: 27.7 mg/g) contained considerably higher quantities of the two caffeoylquinic acids than mature APO (1: 1.77 mg/g dried weight, 2: 4.10 mg/g).

  20. Streptomyces artemisiae MCCB 248 isolated from Arctic fjord sediments has unique PKS and NRPS biosynthetic genes and produces potential new anticancer natural products.

    PubMed

    Dhaneesha, M; Benjamin Naman, C; Krishnan, K P; Sinha, Rupesh Kumar; Jayesh, P; Joseph, Valsamma; Bright Singh, I S; Gerwick, William H; Sajeevan, T P

    2017-05-01

    After screening marine actinomycetes isolated from sediment samples collected from the Arctic fjord Kongsfjorden for potential anticancer activity, an isolate identified as Streptomyces artemisiae MCCB 248 exhibited promising results against the NCI-H460 human lung cancer cell line. H460 cells treated with the ethyl acetate extract of strain MCCB 248 and stained with Hoechst 33342 showed clear signs of apoptosis, including shrinkage of the cell nucleus, DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation. Further to this treated cells showed indications of early apoptotic cell death, including a significant proportion of Annexin V positive staining and evidence of DNA damage as observed in the TUNEL assay. Amplified PKS 1 and NRPS genes involved in secondary metabolite production showed only 82% similarity to known biosynthetic genes of Streptomyces, indicating the likely production of a novel secondary metabolite in this extract. Additionally, chemical dereplication efforts using LC-MS/MS molecular networking suggested the presence of a series of undescribed tetraene polyols. Taken together, these results revealed that this Arctic S. artemisiae strain MCCB 248 is a promising candidate for natural products drug discovery and genome mining for potential anticancer agents.

  1. [Extraction of artemisinin and synthesis of its derivates artesunate and artemether].

    PubMed

    Chekem, L; Wierucki, S

    2006-12-01

    Artemisinin is extracted from Artemisia annua, a shrub also known as sweet wormwood that was used in traditional medicine in Asia for more than 1500 years. Recent studies in numerous malarious zones have demonstrated the effectiveness of artemisinin and have reported no evidence of the resistance now associated with almost all other antimalarials on the market. Despite its remarkable activity, artermisinin is not accessible to many patients due to high cost. This situation confronts all players in the fight against malaria with the urgent need to develop a simple process to produce massive supplies of artemisinin and its derivative at an affordable price. The purpose of the study described here was to develop a simple, cost-effective method that could be used by all professionals to extract artemisinin and transform it into artesunate or artemether. Artemisinin was extracted with dichloromethane and purified on the basis of variations in polarity and in the hydrophile/lipophile balance of solvents. Transformation into artesunate was a two-step process involving reduction to dihydroartemisinin using diisobutylaluminium hydride (DIBAL) followed by esterification using succinic anhydride. Artemether was obtained from dihydroartemisinin using boron trifluoride. Extraction using dichloromethane presents several advantages. Since dichloromethane is not explosive it can be safely transported and used for extraction on farms where Artemisia annua is grown. Evaporation and recovery of dichloromethane is relatively easy so that it can be re-used. These advantages result in a significant decrease in purchasing and shipping costs. Extraction on the farm eliminates the expense and facilities that would otherwise be required to transport and store leaves at the laboratory (250 kg of leaves yield 4 to 5 kg of raw artemisinin extract that yields approximately 1 kg of pure artemisinin). The low-cost process described here is feasible for any pharmaceutical laboratory including

  2. Analysis of Lutein in Mugwort (Artemisia princeps Pamp.) Paste and Evaluation of Manufacturing Processes.

    PubMed

    Komuro, Marina; Shimizu, Naoki; Onuma, Ryo; Otoki, Yurika; Ito, Junya; Kato, Shunji; Higuchi, Ohki; Sudo, Keiichi; Suzuki, Seiichiro; Miyazawa, Teruo; Eitsuka, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka

    2017-11-01

    Lutein, a type of xanthophyll, possesses antioxidative properties that contribute to the prevention of various diseases. Preliminary screening has shown that Japanese mugwort (Artemisia princeps Pamp.) contains high amounts of lutein. In this study, we evaluated the lutein concentration in a processed mugwort product (mugwort paste). By using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with visible light detection or mass spectrometry, the lutein concentration in mugwort paste was determined as 38 mg/100 g dry weight, which indicates that mugwort is a potentially valuable natural food source of lutein. We also investigated the effects of the manufacturing process and found that the lutein content was significantly increased by the boiling and dehydrating processes during the production of mugwort paste. Mugwort paste that is rich in lutein may therefore serve as an effective nutraceutical.

  3. Development of monacolin K-enriched ganghwayakssuk (Artemisia princeps Pamp.) by fermentation with Monascus pilosus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Sub; Lee, Inhyung

    2012-07-01

    Monacolin K-enriched ganghwayakssuk (Artemisia princeps Pamp.) was developed by fermentation with Monascus sp. Among the 15 Monascus spp. isolated previously from Monascus fermentation products, Monascus pilosus KMU108 produced 2,219 mg/kg of monacolin K during ganghwayakssuk fermentation with no detectable citrinin. The optimum concentrations of ganghwayakssuk and glucose determined from the response surface methodology (RSM) design were 2.2% and 3.8%, respectively. By applying these conditions, the monacolin K productivity was increased to 3,007 mg/kg after 15 days of fermentation. On the other hand, other characteristics such as the total content of flavonoids and phenolic compounds, and the antioxidant activity were relatively unchanged. Therefore, Monascusfermented ganghwayakssuk is an excellent biomaterial for the development of functional foods because of its high level of monacolin K, known to lower cholesterol levels.

  4. Penile Erection Induced by Scoparone from Artemisia capillaris through the Nitric Oxide-Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bo Ram; Kim, Hye Kyung; Park, Jong Kwan

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relaxant effect of scoparone from Artemisia capillaris on rabbit penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (PCCSM) and to elucidate the mechanism of action of scoparone for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). PCCSM that had been precontracted with phenylephrine was treated with 3 Artemisia herbs (A. princeps, A. capillaris, and A. iwayomogi) and 3 fractions (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol) with different concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/mL). Four components (esculetin, scopoletin, capillarisin, and scoparone) isolated from A. capillaris were also evaluated. The PCCSM was preincubated with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) and 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). Cyclic nucleotides in the perfusate were measured by a radioimmunoassay. The interactions of scoparone with udenafil and rolipram were also evaluated. A. capillaris extract relaxed PCCSM in a concentration-dependent manner. Scoparone had the highest relaxant effect on PCCSM among the 4 components (esculetin, scopoletin, capillarisin, and scoparone) isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction. The application of scoparone on PCCSM pretreated with L-NAME and ODQ led to significantly less relaxation. Scoparone also increased the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels in the perfusate in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, scoparone enhanced udenafil- and rolipram-induced relaxation of the PCCSM. Scoparone relaxed the PCCSM mainly by activating the nitric oxide-cGMP signaling pathway, and it may be a new promising treatment for ED patients who do not completely respond to udenafil. Copyright © 2017 Korean Society for Sexual Medicine and Andrology

  5. Penile Erection Induced by Scoparone from Artemisia capillaris through the Nitric Oxide-Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to evaluate the relaxant effect of scoparone from Artemisia capillaris on rabbit penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (PCCSM) and to elucidate the mechanism of action of scoparone for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). Materials and Methods PCCSM that had been precontracted with phenylephrine was treated with 3 Artemisia herbs (A. princeps, A. capillaris, and A. iwayomogi) and 3 fractions (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol) with different concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/mL). Four components (esculetin, scopoletin, capillarisin, and scoparone) isolated from A. capillaris were also evaluated. The PCCSM was preincubated with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) and 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). Cyclic nucleotides in the perfusate were measured by a radioimmunoassay. The interactions of scoparone with udenafil and rolipram were also evaluated. Results A. capillaris extract relaxed PCCSM in a concentration-dependent manner. Scoparone had the highest relaxant effect on PCCSM among the 4 components (esculetin, scopoletin, capillarisin, and scoparone) isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction. The application of scoparone on PCCSM pretreated with L-NAME and ODQ led to significantly less relaxation. Scoparone also increased the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels in the perfusate in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, scoparone enhanced udenafil- and rolipram-induced relaxation of the PCCSM. Conclusions Scoparone relaxed the PCCSM mainly by activating the nitric oxide-cGMP signaling pathway, and it may be a new promising treatment for ED patients who do not completely respond to udenafil. PMID:29164835

  6. Mycorrhizal colonization and plant growth affected by aqueous extract of Artemisia princeps var. orientalis and two phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Yun, K W; Choi, S K

    2002-02-01

    The effects of an aqueous extract of Artemisia princeps var. orientalis and two phenolic compounds on mycorrhizal colonization and plant growth have been investigated. Greenhouse studies showed that the inhibitory effect of the extract on mycorrhizal colonization and plant growth increased in proportion to the concentration of the extract. When the mycorrhizal test plants were treated with an increasing concentration of phenolic compounds, the mycorrhizal colonization in roots of the test plant and the plant growth were decreased. There were strong indications that mycorrhizal fungi mitigated the inhibitory influence of shoot extract of A. princeps var. orientalis and phenolic compounds.

  7. Comparative Phytochemical Analysis of Essential Oils from Different Biological Parts of Artemisia herba alba and Their Cytotoxic Effect on Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tilaoui, Mounir; Ait Mouse, Hassan; Jaafari, Abdeslam; Zyad, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Carrying out the chemical composition and antiproliferative effects against cancer cells from different biological parts of Artemisia herba alba. Methods Essential oils were studied by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and their antitumoral activity was tested against P815 mastocytoma and BSR kidney carcinoma cell lines; also, in order to evaluate the effect on normal human cells, oils were tested against peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMCs. Results Essential oils from leaves and aerial parts (mixture of capitulum and leaves) were mainly composed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes 39.89% and 46.15% respectively; capitulum oil contained essentially monoterpenes (22.86%) and monocyclic monoterpenes (21.48%); esters constituted the major fraction (62.8%) of stem oil. Essential oils of different biological parts studied demonstrated a differential antiproliferative activity against P815 and BSR cancer cells; P815 cells are the most sensitive to the cytotoxic effect. Leaves and capitulum essential oils are more active than aerial parts. Interestingly, no cytotoxic effect of these essential oils was observed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Conclusion Our results showed that the chemical composition variability of essential oils depends on the nature of botanical parts of Artemisia herba alba. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the differential cytotoxic effect depends not only on the essential oils concentration, but also on the target cells and the botanical parts of essential oils used. PMID:26196123

  8. Comparative Phytochemical Analysis of Essential Oils from Different Biological Parts of Artemisia herba alba and Their Cytotoxic Effect on Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Tilaoui, Mounir; Ait Mouse, Hassan; Jaafari, Abdeslam; Zyad, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Carrying out the chemical composition and antiproliferative effects against cancer cells from different biological parts of Artemisia herba alba. Essential oils were studied by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and their antitumoral activity was tested against P815 mastocytoma and BSR kidney carcinoma cell lines; also, in order to evaluate the effect on normal human cells, oils were tested against peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMCs. Essential oils from leaves and aerial parts (mixture of capitulum and leaves) were mainly composed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes 39.89% and 46.15% respectively; capitulum oil contained essentially monoterpenes (22.86%) and monocyclic monoterpenes (21.48%); esters constituted the major fraction (62.8%) of stem oil. Essential oils of different biological parts studied demonstrated a differential antiproliferative activity against P815 and BSR cancer cells; P815 cells are the most sensitive to the cytotoxic effect. Leaves and capitulum essential oils are more active than aerial parts. Interestingly, no cytotoxic effect of these essential oils was observed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Our results showed that the chemical composition variability of essential oils depends on the nature of botanical parts of Artemisia herba alba. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the differential cytotoxic effect depends not only on the essential oils concentration, but also on the target cells and the botanical parts of essential oils used.

  9. Anti-complementary neutral polysaccharides from leaves of Artemisia princeps.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Q C; Kiyohara, H; Yamada, H

    1994-01-01

    The three anti-complementary neutral polysaccharides, IA-1, IB-1 and IC-1, were purified from the leaves of Artemisia princeps by anion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration and affinity chromatography. The order of the anti-complementary activity was IA-1 > IB-1 > IC-1. The polysaccharides appeared to be homogeneous from the results of gel filtration, HPLC and electrophoresis. The M(r)s of IA-1 IB-1 and IC-1 were estimated to be 56,000, 16,000, and 7000, respectively, by HPLC. IA-1 consisted mainly of arabinose (Ara), galactose (Gal) and glucose (Glc) in molar ratios of 1.8:1.0:0.9, whereas IB-1 and IC-1 were composed mainly of Ara, mannose (Man), Gal and Glc in molar ratios of 3.5:0.8:1.0:0.8 and 2.3:3.5:1.0:3.2, respectively. Methylation analysis, 13C NMR and enzymic digestion suggested that IA-1 mainly contained alpha-L-(1-->3,5)-arabinan, beta-D-(1-->6)-linked Gal and beta-D-(1-->3)-linked Glc. IB-1 also consisted mainly of alpha-L-(1-->3,5)-arabinan and beta-D-(1-->6)-linked Gal, whereas IC-1 was composed mainly of beta-D-(1-->4)- linked Glc and alpha- or beta-D-(1-->4)-linked Man.

  10. Use of Model-Based Nutrient Feeding for Improved Production of Artemisinin by Hairy Roots of Artemisia Annua in a Modified Stirred Tank Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Patra, Nivedita; Srivastava, Ashok K

    2015-09-01

    Artemisinin has been indicated to be a potent drug for the cure of malaria. Batch growth and artemisinin production kinetics of hairy root cultures of Artemisia annua were studied under shake flask conditions which resulted in accumulation of 12.49 g/L biomass and 0.27 mg/g artemisinin. Using the kinetic data, a mathematical model was identified to understand and optimize the system behavior. The developed model was then extrapolated to design nutrient feeding strategies during fed-batch cultivation for enhanced production of artemisinin. In one of the fed-batch cultivation, sucrose (37 g/L) feeding was done at a constant feed rate of 0.1 L/day during 10-15 days, which led to improved artemisinin accumulation of 0.77 mg/g. The second strategy of fed-batch hairy root cultivation involved maintenance of pseudo-steady state sucrose concentration (20.8 g/L) during 10-15 days which resulted in artemisinin accumulation of 0.99 mg/g. Fed-batch cultivation (with the maintenance of pseudo-steady state of substrate) of Artemisia annua hairy roots was, thereafter, implemented in bioreactor cultivation, which featured artemisinin accumulation of 1.0 mg/g artemisinin in 16 days of cultivation. This is the highest reported artemisinin yield by hairy root cultivation in a bioreactor.

  11. Artemisia argyi attenuates airway inflammation in ovalbumin-induced asthmatic animals.

    PubMed

    Shin, Na-Rae; Ryu, Hyung-Won; Ko, Je-Won; Park, Sung-Hyeuk; Yuk, Heung-Joo; Kim, Ha-Jung; Kim, Jong-Choon; Jeong, Seong-Hun; Shin, In-Sik

    2017-09-14

    Artemisia argyi is a traditional herbal medicine in Korea and commonly called as mugwort. It is traditionally used as food source and tea to control abdominal pain, dysmenorrhea, uterine hemorrhage, and inflammation. We investigated the effects of A. argyi (TOTAL) and dehydromatricarin A (DA), its active component on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma. The animals were sensitized on day 0 and 14 by intraperitoneal injection of OVA with aluminum hydroxide. On day 21, 22 and 23 after the initial sensitization, the animals received an airway challenge with OVA for 1h using an ultrasonic nebulizer. TOTAL (50 and 100mg/kg) or DA (10 and 20mg/kg) were administered to mice by oral gavage once daily from day 18-23. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was measured 24h after final OVA challenge. TOTAL and DA treated animals reduced inflammatory cell counts, cytokines and AHR in asthmatic animals, which was accompanied with inflammatory cell accumulation and mucus hypersecretion. Furthermore, TOTAL and DA significantly declined Erk phosphorylation and the expression of MMP-9 in asthmatic animals. In conclusion, we indicate that Total and DA suppress allergic inflammatory responses caused by OVA challenge. It was considered that A. argyi has a potential for treating allergic asthma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Artemisia princeps var orientalis induces apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Sarath, Vasiraju J; So, Chang-Sok; Won, Young Doo; Gollapudi, Sastry

    2007-01-01

    Dried leaves of Artemisia princeps var orientalis are used in the Eastern practice of moxibustion to improve general health. The ability of A. princeps smoke and water extracts to induce apoptosis was evaluated in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells in vitro. Tumor cells were cultured with a smoke or water extract (1.5-50% v/v) for 72 h, and cytotoxicity and apoptosis were determined by MTT and TUNEL assays, respectively. Activation of caspases, changes in membrane potential, and BCL-2 expression were determined by flow cytometry. Both preparations inhibited the growth of breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent- manner. Induction of apoptosis was associated with activation of caspases 3, 8 and 9, depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential and down-regulation of BCL-2 expression. Furthermore, A. princeps smoke exerted synergistic cytotoxicity with doxorubicin. The data suggest that A. princeps smoke and water soluble extracts induce apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway and may represent a novel adjuvant for the treatment of breast cancer.

  13. Detecting the differences in responses of stomatal conductance to moisture stresses between deciduous shrubs and Artemisia subshrubs.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiong; Yu, Mei; Zhou, Chan

    2013-01-01

    Shrubs and subshrubs can tolerate wider ranges of moisture stresses in both soil and air than other plant life forms, and thus represent greater nonlinearity and uncertainty in ecosystem physiology. The objectives of this paper are to model shrub/subshrub stomatal conductance by synthesizing the field leaf gas exchanges data of 24 species in China, in order to detect the differences between deciduous shrubs and Artemisia subshrubs in their responses of stomatal conductance to changes in the moisture stresses. We revised a model of stomatal conductance by incorporating the tradeoff between xylem hydraulic efficiency and cavitation loss risk. We then fit the model at the three hierarchical levels: global (pooling all data as a single group), three functional groups (deciduous non-legume shrubs, deciduous legume shrubs, and subshrubs in Artemisia genus), and individual observations (species × sites). Bayesian inference with Markov Chain Monte Carlo method was applied to obtain the model parameters at the three levels. We found that the model at the level of functional groups is a significant improvement over that at the global level, indicating the significant differences in the stomatal behavior among the three functional groups. The differences in tolerance and sensitivities to changes in moisture stresses are the most evident between the shrubs and the subshrubs: The two shrub groups can tolerate much higher soil water stress than the subshrubs. The analysis at the observation level is also a significant improvement over that at the functional group level, indicating great variations within each group. Our analysis offered a clue for the equivocal issue of shrub encroachment into grasslands: While the invasion by the shrubs may be irreversible, the dominance of subshrubs, due to their lower resistance and tolerance to moisture stresses, may be put down by appropriate grassland management.

  14. Detecting the Differences in Responses of Stomatal Conductance to Moisture Stresses between Deciduous Shrubs and Artemisia Subshrubs

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qiong; Yu, Mei; Zhou, Chan

    2013-01-01

    Shrubs and subshrubs can tolerate wider ranges of moisture stresses in both soil and air than other plant life forms, and thus represent greater nonlinearity and uncertainty in ecosystem physiology. The objectives of this paper are to model shrub/subshrub stomatal conductance by synthesizing the field leaf gas exchanges data of 24 species in China, in order to detect the differences between deciduous shrubs and Artemisia subshrubs in their responses of stomatal conductance to changes in the moisture stresses. We revised a model of stomatal conductance by incorporating the tradeoff between xylem hydraulic efficiency and cavitation loss risk. We then fit the model at the three hierarchical levels: global (pooling all data as a single group), three functional groups (deciduous non-legume shrubs, deciduous legume shrubs, and subshrubs in Artemisia genus), and individual observations (species × sites). Bayesian inference with Markov Chain Monte Carlo method was applied to obtain the model parameters at the three levels. We found that the model at the level of functional groups is a significant improvement over that at the global level, indicating the significant differences in the stomatal behavior among the three functional groups. The differences in tolerance and sensitivities to changes in moisture stresses are the most evident between the shrubs and the subshrubs: The two shrub groups can tolerate much higher soil water stress than the subshrubs. The analysis at the observation level is also a significant improvement over that at the functional group level, indicating great variations within each group. Our analysis offered a clue for the equivocal issue of shrub encroachment into grasslands: While the invasion by the shrubs may be irreversible, the dominance of subshrubs, due to their lower resistance and tolerance to moisture stresses, may be put down by appropriate grassland management. PMID:24386351

  15. Soil moisture control of sap-flow response to biophysical factors in a desert-shrub species, Artemisia ordosica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Tianshan; Qian, Duo; Jia, Xin; Bai, Yujie; Tian, Yun; Bourque, Charles P.-A.; Ma, Jingyong; Feng, Wei; Wu, Bin; Peltola, Heli

    2017-10-01

    The current understanding of acclimation processes in desert-shrub species to drought stress in dryland ecosystems is still incomplete. In this study, we measured sap flow in Artemisia ordosica and associated environmental variables throughout the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014 (May-September period of each year) to better understand the environmental controls on the temporal dynamics of sap flow. We found that the occurrence of drought in the dry year of 2013 during the leaf-expansion and leaf-expanded periods caused sap flow per leaf area (Js) to decline significantly, resulting in transpiration being 34 % lower in 2013 than in 2014. Sap flow per leaf area correlated positively with radiation (Rs), air temperature (T), and water vapor pressure deficit (VPD) when volumetric soil water content (VWC) was greater than 0.10 m3 m-3. Diurnal Js was generally ahead of Rs by as much as 6 hours. This time lag, however, decreased with increasing VWC. The relative response of Js to the environmental variables (i.e., Rs, T, and VPD) varied with VWC, Js being more strongly controlled by plant-physiological processes during periods of dryness indicated by a low decoupling coefficient and low sensitivity to the environmental variables. According to this study, soil moisture is shown to control sap-flow (and, therefore, plant-transpiration) response in Artemisia ordosica to diurnal variations in biophysical factors. This species escaped (acclimated to) water limitations by invoking a water-conservation strategy with the regulation of stomatal conductance and advancement of Js peaking time, manifesting in a hysteresis effect. The findings of this study add to the knowledge of acclimation processes in desert-shrub species under drought-associated stress. This knowledge is essential in modeling desert-shrub-ecosystem functioning under changing climatic conditions.

  16. Identification of caffeoylquinic acid derivatives as natural protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors from Artemisia princeps.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Sasaki, Tatsunori; Li, Wei; Nagata, Kazuya; Higai, Koji; Feng, Feng; Wang, Jian; Cheng, Maosheng; Koike, Kazuo

    2018-04-15

    Considerable attention has been paid to protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors as a potential therapy for diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Ten caffeoylquinic acid derivatives (1-10) from leaves of Artemisia princeps Pamp. (Asteraceae) were identified as natural PTP1B inhibitors. Among them, chlorogenic acid (3) showed the most potent inhibitory activity (IC 50 11.1 μM). Compound 3 was demonstrated to be a noncompetitive inhibitor by a kinetic analysis. Molecular docking simulation suggested that compound 3 bound to the allosteric site of PTP1B. Furthermore, compound 3 showed remarkable selectivity against four homologous PTPs. According to these findings, compound 3 might be potentially valuable for further drug development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An evidence-based approach to the evaluation of ethnoveterinary medicines against strongyle nematodes of equids.

    PubMed

    Peachey, L E; Pinchbeck, G L; Matthews, J B; Burden, F A; Mulugeta, G; Scantlebury, C E; Hodgkinson, J E

    2015-05-30

    Cyathostomins are the most important gastrointestinal nematode infecting equids. Their effective control is currently under threat due to widespread resistance to the broad spectrum anthelmintics licenced for use in equids. In response to similar resistance issues in other helminths, there has been increasing interest in alternative control strategies, such as bioactive plant compounds derived from traditional ethnoveterinary treatments. This study used an evidence-based approach to evaluate the potential use of plant extracts from the UK and Ethiopia to treat cyathostomins. Plants were shortlisted based on findings from a literature review and additionally, in Ethiopia, the results of a participatory rural appraisal (PRA) in the Oromia region of the country. Systematic selection criteria were applied to both groups to identify five Ethiopian and four UK plants for in vitro screening. These included Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile, Cucumis prophetarum L., Rumex abyssinicus Jacq., Vernonia amygdalina Delile. and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal from Ethiopia and Allium sativum L. (garlic), Artemisia absinthium L., Chenopodium album L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (ginger) from the UK. Plant material was collected, dried and milled prior to hydro-alcoholic extraction. Crude extracts were dissolved in distilled water (dH2O) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), serially diluted and screened for anthelmintic activity in the larval migration inhibition test (LMIT) and the egg hatch test (EHT). Repeated measures ANOVA was used to identify extracts that had a significant effect on larval migration and/or egg hatch, compared to non-treated controls. The median effective concentration (EC-50) for each extract was calculated using PROBIT analysis. Of the Ethiopian extracts A. nilotica, R. abyssinicus and C. prophetarum showed significant anthelmintic activity. Their lowest EC-50 values were 0.18 (confidence interval (CI): 0.1-0.3), 1.1 (CI 0.2-2.2) and 1.1 (CI 0.9-1.4)mg

  18. Pharmacokinetics of artemisinin delivered by oral consumption of Artemisia annua dried leaves in healthy vs. Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Weathers, Pamela J; Elfawal, Mostafa A; Towler, Melissa J; Acquaah-Mensah, George K; Rich, Stephen M

    2014-05-14

    The Chinese have used Artemisia annua as a tea infusion to treat fever for >2000 years. The active component is artemisinin. Previously we showed that when compared to mice fed an equal amount of pure artemisinin, a single oral dose of dried leaves of Artemisia annua (pACT) delivered to Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice reduced parasitemia at least fivefold. Dried leaves also delivered >40 times more artemisinin in the blood with no toxicity. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of artemisinin delivered from dried plant material has not been adequately studied. Healthy and Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice were oral gavaged with pACT to deliver a 100 mg kg(-1) body weight dose of artemisinin. Concentrations of serum artemisinin and one of its liver metabolites, deoxyartemisinin, were measured over two hours by GCMS. The first order elimination rate constant for artemisinin in pACT-treated healthy mice was estimated to be 0.80 h(-1) with an elimination half-life (T½) of 51.6 min. The first order absorption rate constant was estimated at 1.39 h(-1). Cmax and Tmax were 4.33 mg L(-1) and 60 min, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) was 299.5 mg min L(-1). In contrast, the AUC for pACT-treated infected mice was significantly greater at 435.6 mg min L(-1). Metabolism of artemisinin to deoxyartemisinin was suppressed in infected mice over the period of observation. Serum levels of artemisinin in the infected mice continued to rise over the 120 min of the study period, and as a result, the T½ was not determined; the Cmax and Tmax were estimated at ≥6.64 mgL(-1) and ≥120 min, respectively. Groups of healthy mice were also fed either artemisinin or artemisinin mixed in mouse chow. When compared at 60 min, artemisinin was undetectable in the serum of mice fed 100 mg AN kg(-1) body weight. When plant material was present either as mouse chow or Artemisia annua pACT, artemisinin levels in the serum rose to 2.44 and 4.32 mg L(-1), respectively, indicating that the presence of

  19. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils from Artemisia herba-alba Asso., Pelargonium capitatum × radens and Laurus nobilis L.

    PubMed Central

    Rafiq, Ragina; Hayek, Saeed A.; Anyanwu, Ugochukwu; Hardy, Bonita I.; Giddings, Valerie L.; Ibrahim, Salam A.; Tahergorabi, Reza; Kang, Hye Won

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils are natural antimicrobials that have the potential to provide a safer alternative to synthetic antimicrobials currently used in the food industry. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from white wormwood, rose-scented geranium and bay laurel against Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on fresh produce and to examine consumer acceptability of fresh produce treated with these essential oils. Our results showed that essential oil derived from rose-scented geranium exhibited the most effective antimicrobial activity at the same and similar minimum inhibition concentration levels (0.4%, v/v and 0.4% and 0.5%, v/v) respectively against Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7. All three essential oils showed antioxidant properties, with the highest activity occurring in bay laurel essential oil. In a sensory test, tomatoes, cantaloupe and spinach sprayed with 0.4% rose-scented geranium essential oil received higher scores by panelists. In conclusion, rose-scented geranium essential oil could be developed into a natural antimicrobial to prevent contamination of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fresh produce, plus this oil would provide additional health benefits due to the antioxidant properties of its residue. PMID:28231123

  20. ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF WYOMING BIG SAGEBRUSH (ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA SSP. WYOMINGENSIS) VARIES SPATIALLY AND IS NOT RELATED TO THE PRESENCE OF A SAGEBRUSH DIETARY SPECIALIST

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Xinzhu; Lam, Lisa; Gehlken, Kristina; Ulappa, Amy C.; Rachlow, Janet L.; Forbey, Jennifer Sorensen

    2015-01-01

    Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) in North America is an abundant native plant species that is ecologically and evolutionarily adapted to have a diverse array of biologically active chemicals. Several of these chemicals, specifically polyphenols, have antioxidant activity that may act as biomarkers of biotic or abiotic stress. This study investigated the spatial variation of antioxidant capacity, as well as the relationship between a mammalian herbivore and antioxidant capacity in Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis). We quantified and compared total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of leaf extracts from sagebrush plants from different spatial scales and at different levels of browsing by a specialist mammalian herbivore, the pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis). We found that antioxidant capacity of sagebrush extracts was positively correlated with total polyphenol content. Antioxidant capacity varied spatially within and among plants. Antioxidant capacity in sagebrush was not related to either browsing intensity or duration of association with rabbits. We propose that the patterns of antioxidant capacity observed in sagebrush may be a result of spatial variation in abiotic stress experienced by sagebrush. Antioxidants could therefore provide a biomarker of environmental stress for sagebrush that could aid in management and conservation of this plant in the threatened sagebrush steppe. PMID:26582971

  1. An Extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. Promotes Psychological Resilience in a Mouse Model of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Fernández, Adelaida Esteban; Tiano, Simoni; Huang, Jing; Floyd, Elizabeth; Poulev, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Stress-induced peripheral inflammation contributes to depression-like behaviors in both human and experimental models. PMI 5011, a botanical extract of Artemisia dracunculus L., was previously shown to have multiple bioactivities, including anti-inflammatory activity. In this work, using a repeated social defeat stress (RSDS) model of depression, we demonstrate that oral administration of the botanical extract PMI 5011 promotes resilience to RSDS-mediated depression-like phenotypes. We also show that the behavioral improvements are associated with attenuation of stress-mediated induction of inflammatory cytokines in the periphery and alteration of synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Our studies provide experimental evidence that botanical extracts such as PMI 5011, which target pathological mechanisms (i.e., peripheral inflammation) not addressed by currently available antidepressants, could be further developed as novel therapeutics for the treatment of stress disorders and anxiety in humans. PMID:29861834

  2. Isolation, synthesis and anti-hepatitis B virus evaluation of p-hydroxyacetophenone derivatives from Artemisia capillaris.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Geng, Chang-An; Chen, Hao; Ma, Yun-Bao; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Cao, Tuan-Wu; He, Kang; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Chen, Ji-Jun

    2015-04-01

    p-Hydroxyacetophenone (p-HAP), as a main hepatoprotective and choleretic constituent of Artemisia capillaris, was revealed with anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) effects in recent investigation. In addition to p-HAP, four derivatives of p-HAP were also isolated from A. capillaris by various chromatographic methods. Subsequent structural modification on p-HAP and its glycoside led to the synthesis of 28 additional derivatives, of which 13 compounds showed activity inhibiting hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) secretion; and 18 compounds possessed inhibition on HBV DNA replication. The primary structure-activity relationships (SARs) suggested that the conjugated derivatives of p-HAP glycoside and substituted cinnamic acids (2a-2i) obviously enhanced the activity against HBV DNA replication with IC50 values ranged from 5.8 to 74.4 μM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ameliorative effects of Artemisia argyi Folium extract on 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like lesions in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hyoung-Min; Kim, Seung-Ju; Kim, Jong-Sik; Kim, Bum Hoi; Lee, Hai Woong; Lee, Yong Tae; Kang, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia argyi Folium has been used to treat skin diseases, including eczema and dermatitis, in South Korean medicine. The present study investigated the curative effects of Artemisia argyi Folium extract (AAFE) on 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in a BALB/c mouse model. Briefly, the dorsal skin of the BALB/c mice was sensitized three times with DNCB, whereas the ears were challenged twice. Repeated treatment with DNCB induced AD-like lesions. The effects of AAFE on AD-like lesions were evaluated by clinical observation, histopathological analysis, immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were performed. Treatment with AAFE reduced AD-like lesions, as determined by clinical observation, histopathological analysis, and detection of the serum levels of histamine, immunoglobulin E and cytokines. With regards to its mechanism of action, AAFE inhibited the phosphorylation of Lck/yes-related novel tyrosine kinase (Lyn), spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and IκBα, which have essential roles in the production of various cytokines in lymph nodes. The suppressive activity of AAFE may be due to the inhibition of a series of immunopathological events, including the release of proinflammatory cytokines. The results of the present study strongly suggest that AAFE exerts an anti-AD effect by inhibiting the Lyn, Syk, MAPKs, PI3K/Akt and IκBα pathways. Therefore, AAFE may be considered an effective herbal remedy for the treatment of AD. PMID:27571702

  4. Artemisia leaf extract induces apoptosis in human endometriotic cells through regulation of the p38 and NFκB pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Jung, Seung-Hyun; Yang, Yeong-In; Ahn, Ji-Hye; Cho, Jin-Gyeong; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Baek, Nam-In; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2013-02-13

    Artemisia leaves have long been used for the treatment of gynecological disorders, including infertility and dysmenorrhea, which can be commonly caused by endometriosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Artemisia princeps extract (APE) on the cell growth and apoptosis of human endometriotic cells. MTT assays and FACS analysis using PI and Annexin staining were performed to study cell viability, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. We also explored the mechanism of APE-induced effects by evaluating the activation of caspases, Akt, p38, and NFκB. The expressions of XIAP, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL were measured by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. APE significantly inhibited the cell viability of 11Z and 12Z human endometriotic epithelial cells. Interestingly, endometriotic cells were more sensitive to APE treatment than immortalized endometrial cells (HES). Treatment with APE induced apoptosis of 11Z cells in a time-dependent manner, as shown by accumulation of sub G1 and apoptotic cell populations. In addition, treatment with APE stimulated the activation of caspase -3, -8, and -9 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, p38 was activated by APE treatment, and the p38 inhibitor SB203580 markedly inhibited APE-induced cell death in 11Z cells. Moreover, treatment with APE suppressed the activation of NFκB and the expressions of anti-apoptotic factors such as XIAP, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL. These results indicate that APE is a potential anti-endometriotic agent, acting to induce apoptosis of endometrial cells through the modulation of the p38 and NFκB pathways. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation and characterization of allelopathic volatiles from mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Barney, Jacob N; Hay, Anthony G; Weston, Leslie A

    2005-02-01

    Several volatile allelochemicals were identified and characterized from fresh leaf tissue of three distinct populations of the invasive perennial weed, mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris). A unique bioassay was used to demonstrate the release of volatile allelochemicals from leaf tissues. Leaf volatiles were trapped and analyzed via gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Some of the components identified were terpenes, including camphor, eucalyptol, alpha-pinene, and beta-pinene. Those commercially available were tested individually to determine their phytotoxicity. Concentrations of detectable volatiles differed in both absolute and relative proportions among the mugwort populations. The three mugwort populations consisted of a taller, highly branched population (ITH-1); a shorter, lesser-branched population (ITH-2) (both grown from rhizome fragments from managed landscapes); and a population grown from seed with lobed leaves (VT). Considerable interspecific variation existed in leaf morphology and leaf surface chemistry. Bioassays revealed that none of the individual monoterpenes could account for the observed phytotoxicity imparted by total leaf volatiles, suggesting a synergistic effect or activity of a component not tested. Despite inability to detect a single dominant phytotoxic compound, decreases in total terpene concentration with increase in leaf age correlated with decreases in phytotoxicity. The presence of bioactive terpenoids in leaf surface chemistry of younger mugwort tissue suggests a potential role for terpenoids in mugwort establishment and proliferation in introduced habitats.

  6. Extract of Artemisia lavandulaefolia Inhibits In Vitro Angiogenesis in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Eui-Yeun; Han, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Yung-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis is important processes for tumor growth and metastasis. Anti-angiogenesis target therapy has recently been known to be new anti-cancer therapeutic strategies. Natural products such as traditional medicine comprise a major source of angiogenesis inhibitors. Artemisia lavandulaefolia has been known to use in the traditional medical practices. However, its molecular mechanism on the tumor protection and therapy was not clearly elucidated. In this study, we investigated the possibility that extract of A. lavandulaefolia inhibits in vitro angiogenesis. Therefore, we examined the effect of extract of A. lavandulaefolia on the vascular network formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that the treatment of A. lavandulaefolia extract suppressed the tube formation of HUVECs without any influence on the viability of HUVECs. In addition, extract of A. lavandulaefolia inhibited the migration and invasion of HUVECs. These results suggest that extract of A. lavandulaefolia could be act for an angiogenic inhibitor. PMID:25574458

  7. In vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Jaceosidin from Artemisia princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Jung; Han, Jong-Min; Jin, Yue-Yan; Baek, Nam-In; Bang, Myun-Ho; Chung, Hae-Gon; Choi, Myung-Sook; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Sok, Dai-Eun; Jeong, Tae-Sook

    2008-04-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) plays a key role in the inflammatory processes of atherosclerosis. Jaceosidin isolated from the methanolic extracts of the aerial parts of Artemisia princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal was tested for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Jaceosidin inhibited the Cu(2+)-mediated LDL oxidation with IC(50) values of 10.2 microM in the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay as well as the macrophage-mediated LDL oxidation. The antioxidant activities of jaceosidin were exhibited in the conjugated diene production, relative electrophoretic mobility, and apoB-100 fragmentation on copper-mediated LDL oxidation. Jaceosidin also inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) concerning in regulation of NF-kappaB signaling. And jaceosidin inhibited nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) activity, nitric oxide (NO) production, and suppressed expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 macrophages.

  8. Facile preparation of bioactive seco-guaianolides and guaianolides from Artemisia gorgonum and evaluation of their phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Macías, Francisco A; Santana, Alejandro; Yamahata, Azusa; Varela, Rosa M; Fronczek, Frank R; Molinillo, José M G

    2012-11-26

    Commercially available santonin was used to synthesize seven sesquiterpene lactones using a facile strategy that involved a high-yielding photochemical reaction. Three natural products from Artemisia gorgonum were synthesized in good yields, and in the case of two compounds, absolute configurations were determined from X-ray quality crystals. The structures previously reported for these compounds were revised. Sesquiterpene lactones were tested using the etiolated wheat coleoptile bioassay, and the most active compounds were assayed in standard target species. seco-Guaianolide (4) showed higher phytotoxic activities than the known herbicide Logran. This high activity could be due to the presence of a cyclopentenedione ring. These results suggest that compound 4 should be involved in defense of A. gorgorum, displaying a wide range of activities that allow proposing them as new leads for development of a natural herbicide model with a seco-guaianolide skeleton.

  9. Natural regeneration processes in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nuttall (Asteraceae), is the dominant plant species of large portions of semiarid western North America. However, much of historical big sagebrush vegetation has been removed or modified. Thus, regeneration is recognized as an important component for land management. Limited knowledge about key regeneration processes, however, represents an obstacle to identifying successful management practices and to gaining greater insight into the consequences of increasing disturbance frequency and global change. Therefore, our objective is to synthesize knowledge about natural big sagebrush regeneration. We identified and characterized the controls of big sagebrush seed production, germination, and establishment. The largest knowledge gaps and associated research needs include quiescence and dormancy of embryos and seedlings; variation in seed production and germination percentages; wet-thermal time model of germination; responses to frost events (including freezing/thawing of soils), CO2 concentration, and nutrients in combination with water availability; suitability of microsite vs. site conditions; competitive ability as well as seedling growth responses; and differences among subspecies and ecoregions. Potential impacts of climate change on big sagebrush regeneration could include that temperature increases may not have a large direct influence on regeneration due to the broad temperature optimum for regeneration, whereas indirect effects could include selection for populations with less stringent seed dormancy. Drier conditions will have direct negative effects on germination and seedling survival and could also lead to lighter seeds, which lowers germination success further. The short seed dispersal distance of big sagebrush may limit its tracking of suitable climate; whereas, the low competitive ability of big sagebrush seedlings may limit successful competition with species that track climate. An improved understanding of the

  10. Spectrophotometry of Artemisia tridentata to quantitatively determine subspecies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, Bryce; Boyd, Alicia; Tobiasson, Tanner; Germino, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Ecological restoration is predicated on our abilities to discern plant taxa. Taxonomic identification is a first step in ensuring that plants are appropriately adapted to the site. An example of the need to identify taxonomic differences comes from big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata). This species is composed of three predominant subspecies occupying distinct environmental niches, but overlap and hybridization are common in ecotones. Restoration of A. tridentata largely occurs using wildland collected seed, but there is uncertainty in the identification of subspecies or mix of subspecies from seed collections. Laboratory techniques that can determine subspecies composition would be desirable to ensure that subspecies match the restoration site environment. In this study, we use spectrophotometry to quantify chemical differences in the water-soluble compound, coumarin. Ultraviolet (UV) absorbance of A. tridentata subsp. vaseyana showed distinct differences among A.t. tridentata and wyomingensis. No UV absorbance differences were detected between A.t. tridentata and wyomingensis. Analyses of samples from > 600 plants growing in two common gardens showed that UV absorbance was unaffected by environment. Moreover, plant tissues (leaves and seed chaff) explained only a small amount of the variance. UV fluorescence of water-eluted plant tissue has been used for many years to indicate A.t. vaseyana; however, interpretation has been subjective. Use of spectrophotometry to acquire UV absorbance provides empirical results that can be used in seed testing laboratories using the seed chaff present with the seed to certify A. tridentata subspecies composition. On the basis of our methods, UV absorbance values 3.1 would indicate either A.t. tridentata or wyomingensis. UV absorbance values between 2.7 and 3.1 would indicate a mixture of A.t. vaseyana and the other two subspecies.

  11. A comparison study on microwave-assisted extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharides with conventional method: Molecule structure and antioxidant activities evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junlong; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Xiaofang; Zhao, Baotang; Wu, Yiqian; Yao, Jian

    2009-12-01

    The conventional extraction methods for polysaccharides were time-consuming, laborious and energy-consuming. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed for the extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharides (ASP), which is a traditional Chinese food. The extracting parameters were optimized by Box-Behnken design. In microwave heating process, a decrease in molecular weight (M(w)) was detected in SEC-LLS measurement. A d(f) value of 2.85 indicated ASP using MAE exhibited as a sphere conformation of branched clusters in aqueous solution. Furthermore, it showed stronger antioxidant activities compared with hot water extraction. The data obtained showed that the molecular weights played a more important role in antioxidant activities.

  12. Ethanolic extract of Artemisia aucheri induces regression of aorta wall fatty streaks in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Asgary, S; Dinani, N Jafari; Madani, H; Mahzouni, P

    2008-05-01

    Artemisia aucheri is a native-growing plant which is widely used in Iranian traditional medicine. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of A. aucheri on regression of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twenty five rabbits were randomly divided into five groups of five each and treated 3-months as follows: 1: normal diet, 2: hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD), 3 and 4: HCD for 60 days and then normal diet and normal diet + A. aucheri (100 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)) respectively for an additional 30 days (regression period). In the regression period dietary use of A. aucheri in group 4 significantly decreased total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol, while HDL-cholesterol was significantly increased. The atherosclerotic area was significantly decreased in this group. Animals, which received only normal diet in the regression period showed no regression but rather progression of atherosclerosis. These findings suggest that A. aucheri may cause regression of atherosclerotic lesions.

  13. Flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from Artemisia annua L. inhibit inflammation in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yu-Jie; Guo, Yan; Yang, Qing

    Background: The aim of our experiments was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of casticin and chrysosplenol D, two flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. Methods: Topical inflammation was induced in ICR mice using croton oil. Mice were then treated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Cutaneous histological changes and edema were assessed. ICR mice were intragastrically administrated with casticin or chrysosplenol D followed by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mouse Raw264.7 macrophage cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Intracellular phosphorylation was detected, and migration was assessed by trans-well assay. HT-29/NFκB-luc cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D inmore » the presence or absence of LPS, and NF-κB activation was quantified. Results: In mice, administration of casticin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) and chrysosplenol D (1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) inhibited croton oil-induced ear edema (casticin: 29.39–64.95%; chrysosplenol D: 37.76–65.89%, all P < 0.05) in a manner similar to indomethacin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}; 55.63–84.58%). Casticin (0.07, 0.13 and 0.27 mmol/kg) and chrysosplenol D (0.07, 0.14 and 0.28 mmol/kg) protected against LPS-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in mice (all P < 0.05), in a manner similar to dexamethasone (0.03 mmol/kg). Casticin and chrysosplenol D suppressed LPS-induced release of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and MCP-1, inhibited cell migration, and reduced LPS-induced IκB and c-JUN phosphorylation in Raw264.7 cells. JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked the inhibitory effect of chrysosplenol D on cytokine release. Conclusions: The flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from A. annua L. inhibited inflammation in vitro and in vivo. - Highlights: • We report a new activity of the flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. • These flavonoids inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. • These flavonoids protect against LPS

  14. Allelopathic potential of Artemisia arborescens: isolation, identification and quantification of phytotoxic compounds through fractionation-guided bioassays.

    PubMed

    Araniti, Fabrizio; Lupini, Antonio; Sorgonà, Agostino; Conforti, Filomena; Marrelli, Mariangela; Statti, Giancarlo Antonio; Menichini, Francesco; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa

    2013-01-01

    The aerial part of Artemisia arborescens L. (Asteraceae) was extracted with water and methanol, and both extracts were fractionated using n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The potential phytotoxicity of both crude extracts and their fractions were assayed in vitro on seed germination and root growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), a sensitive species largely employed in the allelopathy studies. The inhibitory activities were analysed by dose-response curves and the ED 50 were estimated. Crude extracts strongly inhibited both germination and root growth processes. The fraction-bioassay indicated the following hierarchy of phytotoxicity for both physiological processes: ethyl acetate ≥ n-hexane > chloroform ≥ n-butanol. On the n-hexane fraction, GC-MS analyses were carried out to characterise and quantify some of the potential allelochemicals. Twenty-one compounds were identified and three of them, camphor, trans-caryophyllene and pulegone were quantified.

  15. A cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing sesquiterpenoid isolated from the aerial parts of Artemisia princeps PAMPANINI (Sajabalssuk).

    PubMed

    Bang, Myun-Ho; Han, Min-Woo; Song, Myoung-Chong; Cho, Jin-Gyeong; Chung, Hae-Gon; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Choi, Myung-Sook; Kim, Se-Young; Baek, Nam-In

    2008-08-01

    Repeated silica gel and octadecyl silica gel (ODS) column chromatography of the aerial parts of Artemisia princeps PAMPANINI (Sajabalssuk) led to the isolation of a new sesquiterpenoid, 3-((S)-2-methylbutyryloxy)-costu-1(10),4(5)-dien-12,6 alpha-olide (2), along with two previously reported sesquiterpenoids: 8 alpha-angeloyloxy-3beta,4 beta-epoxy-6 beta H,7 alpha H,8 beta H-guaia-1(10),11(13)-dien-12,6 alpha-olide (1, carlaolide B) and 3beta,4 beta-epoxy-8 alpha-isobutyryloxy-6 beta H,7 alpha H,8 beta H-guaia-1(10),11(13)-dien-12,6 alpha-olide (3, carlaolide A). The structure of compound 2 was elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis, including one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. Of the isolates, compound 2 exhibited potent cytotoxicity against human cervix adenocarcinoma cells and induced apoptosis.

  16. An Evidence-Based Review on Medicinal Plants Used as Insecticide and Insect Repellent in Traditional Iranian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Cheraghi Niroumand, Mina; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Karimpour Razkenari, Elahe; Amin, Gholamreza; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh; Shams-Ardekani, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Context Insects can be the cause of major ecological problems; they can transmit microbes and parasites that affect humans, and damage food crops, trees, and homes. The total economic cost of insect-related damage and disease is immeasurable. In traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), several medicinal plants have been identified as insecticides or insect repellents, but many of them are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to review the insecticidal or insect repellent activity of certain medicinal plants described in TIM. Evidence Acquisition Information about medicinal plants proposed as insecticides and insect repellents in the TIM was collected from the TIM literature, and searched in modern medical databases to find studies that confirmed their efficacy. Results Modern investigations have supported the claims of the insecticidal activity of several plants, including Allium sativum, Artemisia absinthium, Citrullus colocynthis, Laurus nobilis, Mentha pulegium, Myrtus communis, Nerium oleander, Ocimum basilicum, and Origanum majorana. However, in the cases of plants like Iris florentina and Malva sylvestris, there is not enough evidence in modern medicine to prove their effectiveness with regard to their insecticidal and insect repellent activities. Conclusions This study confirmed the Iranian traditional medicine claims of the insecticidal and insect repellent activity of certain plants. Further pharmacological and clinical studies are recommended to evaluate the overall efficacy and possible mechanisms underlying these herbs. PMID:27186389

  17. An Evidence-Based Review on Medicinal Plants Used as Insecticide and Insect Repellent in Traditional Iranian Medicine.

    PubMed

    Cheraghi Niroumand, Mina; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Karimpour Razkenari, Elahe; Amin, Gholamreza; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh; Shams-Ardekani, Mohammad Reza

    2016-02-01

    Insects can be the cause of major ecological problems; they can transmit microbes and parasites that affect humans, and damage food crops, trees, and homes. The total economic cost of insect-related damage and disease is immeasurable. In traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), several medicinal plants have been identified as insecticides or insect repellents, but many of them are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to review the insecticidal or insect repellent activity of certain medicinal plants described in TIM. Information about medicinal plants proposed as insecticides and insect repellents in the TIM was collected from the TIM literature, and searched in modern medical databases to find studies that confirmed their efficacy. Modern investigations have supported the claims of the insecticidal activity of several plants, including Allium sativum, Artemisia absinthium, Citrullus colocynthis, Laurus nobilis, Mentha pulegium, Myrtus communis, Nerium oleander, Ocimum basilicum, and Origanum majorana. However, in the cases of plants like Iris florentina and Malva sylvestris, there is not enough evidence in modern medicine to prove their effectiveness with regard to their insecticidal and insect repellent activities. This study confirmed the Iranian traditional medicine claims of the insecticidal and insect repellent activity of certain plants. Further pharmacological and clinical studies are recommended to evaluate the overall efficacy and possible mechanisms underlying these herbs.

  18. Structural characterization of anti-complementary polysaccharides from the leaves of Artemisia princeps.

    PubMed

    Yamada, H; Otsuka, Y; Omura, S

    1986-08-01

    Structural characterizations of the anti-complementary acidic heteroglycans, AAF IIb-2 and IIb-3, obtained from the leaves of Artemisia princeps pamp have been studied. AAF IIb-2 consists of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, galactose, glucose and uronic acids (glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid) in the molar ratio of 7.6:7.6:13.0:10.9:3.0:57.9, and AAF IIb-3 consists of the same sugars in the ratio of 3.9:2.6:24.7:19.7:2.6:46.5. Methylation analysis including carboxyl-reduction and also selective enzymolysis using EXO-alpha- L-arabinofuranosidase suggested that AAF IIb-3 has a main chain consisting of (1-->4)-linked galacturonic acid and (1-->2)-linked rhamnose mostly substituted at the O-4 position. AAF IIb-3 also contained arabino-3,6-galactan moiety and most of the arabinose was present as an alpha- L-furanosyl residue in the non-reducing terminals and highly branched side chains which mostly attached to the O-3 position of (1-->6)-linked galactopyranosyl residue. The basic structure of AAF IIb-2 is similar to that of AAF IIb-3, but IIb-3 has a higher arabinogalactan content than IIb-2.

  19. Red and Blue Light Promote the Accumulation of Artemisinin in Artemisia Annua L.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Sun, Wei; Shi, Yuhua; Wu, Lan; Zhang, Tianyuan; Xiang, Li

    2018-05-31

    Artemisinin, which has been isolated from Artemisia annua L., is the most effective antimalarial drug and has saved millions of lives. In addition, artemisinin and its derivatives have anti-tumor, anti-parasitic, anti-fibrosis, and anti-arrhythmic properties, which enhances the demand for these compounds. Improving the content of artemisinin in A. annua is therefore becoming an increasing research interest, as the chemical synthesis of this metabolite is not viable. Ultraviolet B and C irradiation have been reported to improve the artemisinin content in A. annua , but they are harmful to plant growth and development. Therefore, we screened other light sources to examine if they could promote artemisinin content without affecting plant growth and development. We found that red and blue light could enhance artemisinin accumulation by promoting the expression of the genes that were involved in artemisinin biosynthesis, such as amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP71AV1) genes. Thus, in addition to being the main light sources for photosynthesis, red and blue light play a key role in plant secondary metabolism, and optimizing the combination of these light might allow for the productionof artemisinin-rich A. annua .

  20. In vitro and in vivo immunostimulatory effects of hot water extracts from the leaves of Artemisia princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Seung-Jun; Rim, Hong-Kun; Shin, Ji-Sun; Jung, Ji-Yun; Heo, Jin-Sun; Kim, Jong-Bok; Lee, Myung-Suk; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2013-08-26

    Artemisia princeps Pampanini (Asteraceae) is used as a traditional medicine to immune function-related diseases, such as dysmenorrhea, inflammation, cancer, and ulcers. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the immunostimulatory effects of the hot water extract from the leaves of Artemisia princeps Pampanini (WAPP) in recombinant interferon-γ (rIFN-γ)-primed RAW 264.7 macrophages and in cyclophosphamide (20mg/kg, i.p.)-induced immunosuppressed Sprague-Dawley rats. RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated with WAPP and production and expressions of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were detected by immunoassay, western blot, qRT-PCR and reporter gene assay. In addition, in vivo immunomodulatory activity was studied by cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression in rats. In rIFN-γ-primed RAW 264.7 macrophages, pretreatment with WAPP increased the productions of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),and increased the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at the protein level and of iNOS and TNF-α at the mRNA level. Molecular data revealed that WAPP upregulated the transcriptional activity and translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by activating inhibitory kappa B-α (IκB-α) degradation and phosphorylation. Furthermore, WAPP upregulated the phosphorylations of p38 MAP kinase, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). In cycloheximide-induced immunosuppressed rats, pretreatment with WAPP (100, 200, or 400mg/kg, p.o.) increased the serum levels of albumin and globulin, and reduced immobility times. Our results suggest that upregulations of the expressions of iNOS and TNF-α via the activations of NF-κB and MAPK are responsible for the immunostimulatory effects of WAPP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Anti-scratching behavioral effect of the essential oil and phytol isolated from Artemisia princeps Pamp. in mice.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Kwon-Ryeol; Choi, Jong-Youl; Chung, Suna; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    The anti-scratching behavioral effect of the essential oil and phytol isolated from Artemisia princeps Pamp. (AP, family Asteraceae), which is widely used in traditional medicine for inflammatory diseases, was investigated IN VIVO. Treatment of mice with AP essential oil (APEO) and phytol inhibited histamine- and compound 48/80-induced scratching behaviors. The anti-scratching behavioral effects of APEO and phytol are in proportion to their vascular permeability-inhibitory effects. These agents also inhibited the level of allergic cytokines, IL-4, and TNF- α, and the activation of transcription factors, NF- κB and c-jun (AP-1), in histamine-treated skin tissues. Based on these results, APEO and phytol may improve scratching behavior in skin by inhibiting the expression of allergic cytokines via the regulation of NF- κB and AP-1 activation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Yeast Model Uncovers Dual Roles of Mitochondria in the Action of Artemisinin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Mo, Weike; Shen, Dan; Sun, Libo; Wang, Juan; Lu, Shan; Gitschier, Jane M; Zhou, Bing

    2005-01-01

    Artemisinins, derived from the wormwood herb Artemisia annua, are the most potent antimalarial drugs currently available. Despite extensive research, the exact mode of action of artemisinins has not been established. Here we use yeast, Saccharamyces cerevisiae, to probe the core working mechanism of this class of antimalarial agents. We demonstrate that artemisinin's inhibitory effect is mediated by disrupting the normal function of mitochondria through depolarizing their membrane potential. Moreover, in a genetic study, we identify the electron transport chain as an important player in artemisinin's action: Deletion of NDE1 or NDI1, which encode mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenases, confers resistance to artemisinin, whereas overexpression of NDE1 or NDI1 dramatically increases sensitivity to artemisinin. Mutations or environmental conditions that affect electron transport also alter host's sensitivity to artemisinin. Sensitivity is partially restored when the Plasmodium falciparum NDI1 ortholog is expressed in yeast ndi1 strain. Finally, we showed that artemisinin's inhibitory effect is mediated by reactive oxygen species. Our results demonstrate that artemisinin's effect is primarily mediated through disruption of membrane potential by its interaction with the electron transport chain, resulting in dysfunctional mitochondria. We propose a dual role of mitochondria played during the action of artemisinin: the electron transport chain stimulates artemisinin's effect, most likely by activating it, and the mitochondria are subsequently damaged by the locally generated free radicals. PMID:16170412

  3. Capillin, a major constituent of Artemisia capillaris Thunb. flower essential oil, induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway in human leukemia HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Yutaka; Asada, Keisuke; Satoh, Rei; Takada, Kimihiko; Kitajima, Junichi

    2015-05-15

    Natural products are one of the most important sources of drugs used in pharmaceutical therapeutics. Screening of several natural products in the search for novel anticancer agents against human leukemia HL-60 cells led us to identify potent apoptosis-inducing activity in the essential oil fraction from Artemisia capillaris Thunb. flower. The cytotoxic effects of extracts were assessed on human leukemia HL-60 cells by XTT assay. Induction of apoptosis was assessed by analysis of DNA fragmentation and nuclear morphological change. The plant name was checked with the plant list website (http://www.theplantlist.org). A purified compound from the essential oil fraction from Artemisia capillaris Thunb. flower that potently inhibited cell growth in human leukemia HL-60 cells was identified as capillin. The cytotoxic effect of capillin in cells was associated with apoptosis. When HL-60 cells were treated with 10(-6) M capillin for 6 h, characteristic features of apoptosis such as DNA fragmentation and nuclear fragmentation were observed. Moreover, activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was detected after treatment with capillin preceding the appearance of characteristic properties of apoptosis. Release of cytochrome c from mitochondria was also observed in HL-60 cells that had been treated with capillin. Capillin induces apoptosis in HL-60 cells via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which might be controlled through JNK signaling. Our results indicate that capillin may be a potentially useful anticancer drug that could enhance therapeutic efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhancing the growth, photosynthetic capacity and artemisinin content in Artemisia annua L. by irradiated sodium alginate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M. Masroor A.; Idrees, M.; Naeem, M.; Moinuddin; Hashmi, Nadeem; Varshney, Lalit

    2011-07-01

    Degrading the natural bioactive agents by ionizing radiation and then using them as growth promoting substances is a novel emerging technology to exploit the genetic potential of crops in terms of growth, yield and quality. Polysaccharides, such as sodium alginate, have proven to be wonderful growth promoting substances in their depolymerized form for various plants. The effect of depolymerized form of sodium alginate, produced by irradiating the latter by 60Co gamma rays, was studied on Artemisia annua L. with regard to growth attributes, physiological and biochemical parameters and artemisinin content. The study revealed that the irradiated sodium alginate (ISA), applied as leaf-sprays at a concentration of 20-120 mg L -1, improved the growth attributes, photosynthetic capability, enzyme activities and artemisinin content of the plant significantly. Application of ISA at 80 mg L -1 increased the values of the attributes studied to the maximum extent. The enhancement of leaf-artemisinin content was ascribed to the ISA-enhanced H 2O 2 content in the leaves.

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Three New Monoterpene Synthases from Artemisia annua

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Ju-Xin; Li, Jian-Xu; Fang, Xin; Wang, Ling-Jian; Hu, Wen-Li; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Yang, Chang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia annua, an annual herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, produces a wealth of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, including the well-known sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin, an active ingredient in the treatment for malaria. Here we report three new monoterpene synthases of A. annua. From a glandular trichome cDNA library, monoterpene synthases of AaTPS2, AaTPS5, and AaTPS6, were isolated and characterized. The recombinant proteins of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 produced multiple products with camphene and 1,8-cineole as major products, respectively, and AaTPS2 produced a single product, β-myrcene. Although both Mg2+ and Mn2+ were able to support their catalytic activities, altered product spectrum was observed in the presence of Mn2+ for AaTPS2 and AaTPS5. Analysis of extracts of aerial tissues and root of A. annua with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry detected more than 20 monoterpenes, of which the three enzymes constituted more than 1/3 of the total. Mechanical wounding induced the expression of all three monoterpene synthase genes, and transcript levels of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 were also elevated after treatments with phytohormones of methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and gibberellin, suggesting a role of these monoterpene synthases in plant–environment interactions. The three new monoterpene synthases reported here further our understanding of molecular basis of monoterpene biosynthesis and regulation in plant. PMID:27242840

  6. Global characterization of Artemisia annua glandular trichome transcriptome using 454 pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Yejun; Zhang, Qing; Qi, Yan; Guo, Dianjing

    2009-01-01

    Background Glandular trichomes produce a wide variety of commercially important secondary metabolites in many plant species. The most prominent anti-malarial drug artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone, is produced in glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua. However, only limited genomic information is currently available in this non-model plant species. Results We present a global characterization of A. annua glandular trichome transcriptome using 454 pyrosequencing. Sequencing runs using two normalized cDNA collections from glandular trichomes yielded 406,044 expressed sequence tags (average length = 210 nucleotides), which assembled into 42,678 contigs and 147,699 singletons. Performing a second sequencing run only increased the number of genes identified by ~30%, indicating that massively parallel pyrosequencing provides deep coverage of the A. annua trichome transcriptome. By BLAST search against the NCBI non-redundant protein database, putative functions were assigned to over 28,573 unigenes, including previously undescribed enzymes likely involved in sesquiterpene biosynthesis. Comparison with ESTs derived from trichome collections of other plant species revealed expressed genes in common functional categories across different plant species. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the expression of selected unigenes and novel transcripts in A. annua glandular trichomes. Conclusion The presence of contigs corresponding to enzymes for terpenoids and flavonoids biosynthesis suggests important metabolic activity in A. annua glandular trichomes. Our comprehensive survey of genes expressed in glandular trichome will facilitate new gene discovery and shed light on the regulatory mechanism of artemisinin metabolism and trichome function in A. annua. PMID:19818120

  7. [Revision to origin of northern Artemisia argyi in Compendium of Materia Medica (Bencao gangmu)].

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu-qi; Qiu, Le

    2014-12-01

    The origin of northern Artemisia argyi recorded in Compendium of Materia Medica(Bencao gangmu) is Fudao(Chinese characters) in Tangyin county, While there is only Fudao(Chinese characters) instead of Fudao(Chinese characters). Whether indeed Fudao(Chinese characters) is Fudao(Chinese characters)? By reviewing the genuine evolution of A. argyi, doing textual research on Fudao(Chinese characters) and combing with field survey data of national census of Chinese Materia Medica resources, this paper concluded that the word Fudao(Chinese characters) firstly emerged in Figure Canon of Chinese Materia Medica(Bencao tujing) of Susong in Song dynasty and was applied in later generations, but the implication was not clear, then emerged both Tangyin and Fudao(Chinese characters) in Compendium of Materia Medica(Bencao gangmu). The place Fudao(Chinese characters) is one of the graves of Bianque, that existed from Shang and Zhou dynasty and never changed until now, the A. argyi of Tangyin was famous from the grave of Bianque in Fudao(Chinese characters), which could infer that Lishizhen considered Fudao (Chinese characters) was Fudao(Chinese characters) indeed, and the origin of northern A. argyi was Fudao(Chinese characters) in Tangyin county.

  8. [Allelopathic effects of Artemisia frigida on three Poaceae plants seed germination and seedling growth].

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-feng; Wang, Jian; Xu, Wen-bo; Wang, Kun

    2010-07-01

    Aqueous extracts of Artemisia frigida leaf and stem and soils beneath A. frigida were used to test their allelopathic effects on the seed germination and seedling growth of three Poaceae plants (Leymus chinensis, Stipa krylovii, and Cleistogenes squarrosa) on Leymus chinensis grassland. The aqueous extracts of A. frigida leaf and stem decreased the seed germination index of test plants and prolonged their seed germination time, and inhibited the shoot growth of the three plants and the root growth of S. krylovii. The aqueous extracts at concentration > or = 0.075 g x ml(-1) presented a strong inhibition on the root growth of L. chinensis, while those at concentration < or = 0.05 g x ml(-1) had less effects. For the root growth of C. squarrosa, the aqueous extracts showed a "low-promotion and high-inhibition effect". Under the effects of A. frigida soil, the seedling growth of test plants was inhibited. The sensitivity of test plants to the allelopathic effects of A. frigida was in the order of S. krylovii > L. chinense > C. squarrosa, with a higher sensitivity of root growth than shoot growth.

  9. TLC-direct bioautography for determination of antibacterial activity of Artemisia adamsii essential oil.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Györgyi; Acs, Kamilla; Kocsis, Béla

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the chemical characterization of the essential oil of a Mongolian medicinal plant, Artemisia adamsii Besser, and the investigation of the antibacterial effect of its oil on different human pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and S. epidermidis). The chemical composition of the oil was established by GC and GC/MS. Direct bioautography was used for detecting the antibacterial activity of the essential oil. The result of GC experiments showed that a-thujone was the main component (64.4%) of the oil, while the amount of beta-thujone was 7.1%. 1,8-Cineole seemed to be the other relevant component (15.2%). The antibacterial activity of the A. adamsii essential oil against all three investigated bacteria was observed in the bioautographic system, but this effect was not proportional to the concentrations of a- or beta-thujone; therefore, from a microbiological aspect, thujone content does not determine the medicinal value of this oil. On the whole, the combination of TLC separation with biological detection is an appropriate method for evaluating multicomponent and hydrophobic plant extracts, for instance, essential oils, and it provides more reliable results than traditional microbiological methods (e.g., disc diffusion and agar plate techniques).

  10. The application of biotic elicitor on Artemisia annua L. to increase artemisinin content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwati, I.; Manohara, D.; Rohimatun; Nurhayati, H.

    2018-01-01

    Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) has been recommended by WHO as an alternative to treat malaria overcoming drug resistance. The secondary metabolic products in plants, including artemisinin, can be increased by utilizing biotic elicitor from fungi. The research was conducted in Gunung Putri Research Installation, Cipanas, West Java from 2010 to 2011. Phytophthora sp. from eggplant and Colletotrichum sp. from Artemisia annua were applied as biotic elicitor. The types of biotic elicitor applied to the plants were 1) the medium of potato dextrose broth were inoculated with fungi and harvested after 10 days (filtrate), 2) powdery mycelium of both fungi. There were 16 treatments: control negative, control positive (uninoculated medium) 1%, 2%, 3% (v/v)], Phytophthora sp. filtrate [1, 2% and 3% (v/v)], Colletotrichum sp. filtrate [1, 2% and 3% (v/v)], Phytophthora sp. mycelium [1%, 2% and 3% (w/v)], Colletotrichum sp mycelium [1%, 2% and 3% (w/v)]. The elicitor application increased plant production by 26.21% and artemisinin yield by 72% compared to control. Furthermore, the artemisinin production of the plants treated with medium inoculated with 2% filtrate of Phytophthora sp (FP2) (25.19 kg/ha) and 1% powdery mycelium of Colletotrichum sp (MC1) (26.42 kg/ha) were higher than control (K) (11.17 kg/ha).

  11. Comparison of antimalarial activity of Artemisia turanica extract with current drugs in vivo.

    PubMed

    Taherkhani, Mahboubeh; Rustaiyan, Abdolhossein; Nahrevanian, Hossein; Naeimi, Sabah; Taherkhani, Tofigh

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare antimalarial activity of Artemisia turanica Krasch as Iranian flora with current antimalarial drugs against Plasmodium berghei in vivo in mice. Air-dried aerial parts of Iranian flora A. turanica were collected from Khorasan, northeastern Iran, extracted with Et2O/MeOH/Petrol and defatted. Toxicity of herbal extracts was assessed on male NMRI mice, and their antimalarial efficacy was compared with antimalarial drugs [artemether, chloroquine and sulfadoxinepyrimethamine (Fansidar)] on infected P. berghei animals. All the groups were investigated for parasitaemia, body weight, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and anemia. The significance of differences was determined by Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) and Student's t-test using Graph Pad Prism software. The inhibitory effects of A. turanica extract on early decline of P. berghei parasitaemia highlights its antimalarial activity, however, this effect no longer can be observed in the late infection. This may be due to the metabolic process of A. turanica crude extract by mice and reduction of its concentration in the body. Crude extract of A. turanica represented its antisymptomatic effects by stabilization of body, liver and spleen weights. This study confirmed antimalarial effects of A. turanica extracts against murine malaria in vivo during early infection, however, there are more benefits on pathophysiological symptoms by this medication.

  12. Possible mechanism of the stimulatory effect of Artemisia leaf extract on the proliferation of cultured endothelial cells: involvement of basic fibroblast growth factor.

    PubMed

    Kaji, T; Kaga, K; Miezi, N; Hayashi, T; Ejiri, N; Sakuragawa, N

    1990-09-01

    To investigate the possible mechanism of the stimulatory effect of a hot water extract from Artemisia leaf (Artemisia princeps PANPANINI) (AFE) on the proliferation of endothelial cells, cells from bovine aorta were cultured for 72 h in RPMI1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum in the presence of 5 micrograms/ml AFE. The AFE treatment significantly increased the cell number after culture, while in the presence of 10 micrograms/ml unfractionated heparin, AFE conversely decreased it. This implied that AFE enhanced the cell growth promotion by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The accumulation of bFGF was significantly increased in the culture medium, in the low-affinity (glycosaminoglycans-binding) fraction, and in the cell extract fraction, but was unchanged in the high-affinity (receptor-binding) fraction. The contents of [35S]sulfate-labeled glycosaminoglycans in both cell layer and the medium were not increased by AFE treatment. The proliferation of A10 cells, an established cell line of smooth muscle cells from murine aorta, was not stimulated by AFE. A10 cells did not produce a significant amount of bFGF in the presence or absence of AFE. Thus, the production of bFGF was considered to be involved in AFE stimulation of cell proliferation. In conclusion, it was suggested that AFE stimulated endothelial cell proliferation by increasing the production of bFGF rather than by an increase in the number of bFGF receptors and the content of glycosaminoglycans in the cell layer. The enhanced reserve of bFGF in the low-affinity fraction of cell layer and in the medium would cause the AFE-stimulated proliferation of endothelial cells.

  13. In vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activity of Artemisia annua L. leaf powder and its potential usefulness in the treatment of uncomplicated cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Luz Estella; Vasquez, Daniel; Lutgen, Pierre; Vélez, Iván Darío; Restrepo, Adriana María; Ortiz, Isabel; Robledo, Sara María

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a tropical disease that affects millions of individuals worldwide. The current drugs for CL may be effective but have serious side effects; hence, alternatives are urgently needed. Although plant-derived materials are used for the treatment of various diseases in 80% of the global population, the validation of these products is essential. Gelatin capsules containing dried Artemisia annua leaf powder were recently developed as a new herbal formulation (totum) for the oral treatment of malaria and other parasitic diseases. Here, we aimed to determine the usefulness of A. annua gel capsules in CL. The antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of A. annua L. capsules was determined via in vitro and in vivo studies. Moreover, a preliminary evaluation of its therapeutic potential as antileishmanial treatment in humans was conducted in 2 patients with uncomplicated CL. Artemisia annua capsules showed moderate in vitro activity in amastigotes of Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis; no cytotoxicity in U-937 macrophages or genotoxicity in human lymphocytes was observed. Five of 6 (83.3%) hamsters treated with A. annua capsules (500mg/kg/day) for 30 days were cured, and the 2 examined patients were cured 45 days after initiation of treatment with 30g of A. annua capsules, without any adverse reactions. Both patients remained disease-free 26 and 24 months after treatment completion. Capsules of A. annua L. represent an effective treatment for uncomplicated CL, although further randomized controlled trials are needed to validate its efficacy and safety.

  14. Artemisia princeps extract promoted glucose uptake in cultured L6 muscle cells via glucose transporter 4 translocation.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Norio; Ueda, Manabu; Kawabata, Kyuichi; Sato, Takuya; Kawasaki, Kengo; Hashimoto, Takashi; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    Artemisia princeps is a familiar plant as a food substance and medicinal herb. In this study, we evaluated the effects of an ethanol extract of A. princeps (APE) on glucose uptake in differentiated L6 muscle cells. Treatment with APE elevated deoxyglucose uptake, and translocation of the insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane in L6 myotubes occurred. The PI3K inhibitor LY294002 attenuated glucose uptake induced by APE. Phosphorylation of the Ser(473) residue of Akt was not observed, but phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt (Thr(308)), and atypical PKC was. In addition, APE stimulated phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) at a level similar to 5'-amino-5-imidazolecarboxamide-riboside (AICAR). These results indicate that APE stimulates glucose uptake by inducing GLUT4 translocation, which is in part mediated by combination of the PI3K-dependent atypical PKC pathway and AMPK pathways.

  15. Role of mucilage in the germination of Artemisia sphaerocephala (Asteraceae) achenes exposed to osmotic stress and salinity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuejun; Dong, Ming; Huang, Zhenying

    2010-01-01

    Artemisia sphaerocephala (Asteraceae) is one of the pioneer species in moving and semi-stable sand dunes in the deserts of northwest China. The outer surface of A. sphaerocephala achenes contains a pectinaceous mucilage layer that can imbibe a large amount of water when wetted. We hypothesized that the mucilage can aid achene germination in heterogeneous environments. Germination of both intact achenes and those from which the mucilage had been removed (demucilaged) declined with increasing osmotic potential and NaCl concentration. However, the germination percentage of intact achenes was significantly higher than that of demucilaged achenes. The early seedling growth of intact achenes did not differ significantly from that of demucilaged achenes in either osmotic potential or NaCl solutions. Achene mucilage presumably plays an ecologically important role in the life cycle of A. sphaerocephala by aiding germination in osmotically- and saline-stressful habitats of the cold desert environment. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. GLANDULAR TRICHOME-SPECIFIC WRKY 1 promotes artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Chen, Minghui; Yan, Tingxiang; Shen, Qian; Lu, Xu; Pan, Qifang; Huang, Youran; Tang, Yueli; Fu, Xueqing; Liu, Meng; Jiang, Weimin; Lv, Zongyou; Shi, Pu; Ma, Ya-Nan; Hao, Xiaolong; Zhang, Lida; Li, Ling; Tang, Kexuan

    2017-04-01

    Artemisinin is a type of sesquiterpene lactone well known as an antimalarial drug, and is specifically produced in glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua. However, the regulatory network for the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway remains poorly understood. Exploration of trichome-specific transcription factors would facilitate the elucidation of regulatory mechanism of artemisinin biosynthesis. The WRKY transcription factor GLANDULAR TRICHOME-SPECIFIC WRKY 1 (AaGSW1) was cloned and analysed in A. annua. AaGSW1 exhibited similar expression patterns to the trichome-specific genes of the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway and AP2/ERF transcription factor AaORA. A β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining assay further demonstrated that AaGSW1 is a glandular trichome-specific transcription factor. AaGSW1 positively regulates CYP71AV1 and AaORA expression by directly binding to the W-box motifs in their promoters. Overexpression of AaGSW1 in A. annua significantly improves artemisinin and dihydroartemisinic acid contents; moreover, AaGSW1 can be directly regulated by AaMYC2 and AabZIP1, which are positive regulators of jasmonate (JA)- and abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated artemisinin biosynthetic pathways, respectively. These results demonstrate that AaGSW1 is a glandular trichome-specific WRKY transcription factor and a positive regulator in the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway. Moreover, we propose that two trifurcate feed-forward pathways involving AaGSW1, CYP71AV1 and AaMYC2/AabZIP1 function in the JA/ABA response in A. annua. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Overexpression of a type-I isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase of Artemisia annua in the cytosol leads to high arteannuin B production and artemisinin increase.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dongming; Li, Gui; Alejos-Gonzalez, Fatima; Zhu, Yue; Xue, Zhen; Wang, Aimin; Zhang, Hui; Li, Xing; Ye, Hechun; Wang, Hong; Liu, Benye; Xie, De-Yu

    2017-08-01

    We recently characterized a gene-terpene network that is associated with artemisinin biosynthesis in self-pollinated (SP) Artemisia annua, an effective antimalarial plant. We hypothesize that an alteration of gene expression in the network may improve the production of artemisinin and its precursors. In this study, we cloned an isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase (IPPI) cDNA, AaIPPI1, from Artemisia annua (Aa). The full-length cDNA encodes a type-I IPPI containing a plastid transit peptide (PTP) at its amino terminus. After the removal of the PTP, the recombinant truncated AaIPPI1 isomerized isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) to dimethyl allyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) and vice versa. The steady-state equilibrium ratio of IPP/DMAPP in the enzymatic reactions was approximately 1:7. The truncated AaIPPI1 was overexpressed in the cytosol of the SP A. annua variety. The leaves of transgenic plants produced approximately 4% arteannuin B (g g -1 , dry weight, dw) and 0.17-0.25% artemisinin (g g -1 , dw), the levels of which were significantly higher than those in the leaves of wild-type plants. In addition, transgenic plants showed an increase in artemisinic acid production of more than 1% (g g -1 , dw). In contrast, isoprene formation was significantly reduced in transgenic plants. These results provide evidence that overexpression of AaIPPI1 in the cytosol can lead to metabolic alterations of terpenoid biosynthesis, and show that these transgenic plants have the potential to yield high production levels of arteannuin B as a new precursor source for artemisinin. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Inhibitory effect of eupatilin and jaceosidin isolated from Artemisia princeps in IgE-induced hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Bae, Eun-Ah; Park, Eun-Kyung; Shin, Yong-Wook; Baek, Nam-In; Han, Eun-Joo; Chung, Hae-Gon; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2007-12-15

    To understand the antiallergic effect of Artemisia princeps (AP), which has been found to show inhibitory activity against degranulation and a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction, eupatilin and jaceosidin, as the active components, were isolated by degranulation-inhibitory activity-guided fractionation, with their antiallergic activity investigated. These isolated components potently inhibited the release of beta-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells induced by the IgE-antigen complex, with IC(50) values of 3.4 and 4.5muM, respectively. Eupatilin and jaceosidin potently inhibited the PCA reaction and scratching behaviors induced by IgE- antigen complex and compound 48/80, respectively. Orally administered jaceosidin more potently inhibited the PCA reaction than that of eupatilin, although the PCA reaction-inhibitory activity of intraperitoneally administered jaceosidin was nearly the same as that of eupatilin. Eupatilin and jaceosidin inhibited the gene expressions of TNF-alpha and IL-4 in RBL-2H3 cells stimulated by IgE-antigen complex. Eupatilin and jaceosidin inhibited the activation of NF-kB. Based on these findings, eupatilin and jaceosidin may be useful for protection from the PCA and itching reactions, which are IgE-mediated representative skin allergic diseases.

  19. RNAi down-regulation of cinnamate-4-hydroxylase increases artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ritesh; Vashisth, Divya; Misra, Amita; Akhtar, Md Qussen; Jalil, Syed Uzma; Shanker, Karuna; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Rout, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2016-05-25

    Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) converts trans-cinnamic acid (CA) to p-coumaric acid (COA) in the phenylpropanoid/lignin biosynthesis pathway. Earlier we reported increased expression of AaCYP71AV1 (an important gene of artemisinin biosynthesis pathway) caused by CA treatment in Artemisia annua. Hence, AaC4H gene was identified, cloned, characterized and silenced in A. annua with the assumption that the elevated internal CA due to knock down may increase the artemisinin yield. Accumulation of trans-cinnamic acid in the plant due to AaC4H knockdown was accompanied with the reduction of p-coumaric acid, total phenolics, anthocyanin, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities but increase in salicylic acid (SA) and artemisinin. Interestingly, feeding trans-cinnamic acid to the RNAi line increased the level of artemisinin along with benzoic (BA) and SA with no effect on the downstream metabolites p-coumaric acid, coniferylaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, whereas p-coumaric acid feeding increased the content of downstream coniferylaldehyde and sinapaldehyde with no effect on BA, SA, trans-cinnamic acid or artemisinin. SA is reported earlier to be inducing the artemisinin yield. This report demonstrates the link between the phenylpropanoid/lignin pathway with artemisinin pathway through SA, triggered by accumulation of trans-cinnamic acid because of the blockage at C4H.

  20. RNAi down-regulation of cinnamate-4-hydroxylase increases artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ritesh; Vashisth, Divya; Misra, Amita; Akhtar, Md Qussen; Jalil, Syed Uzma; Shanker, Karuna; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Rout, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) converts trans-cinnamic acid (CA) to p-coumaric acid (COA) in the phenylpropanoid/lignin biosynthesis pathway. Earlier we reported increased expression of AaCYP71AV1 (an important gene of artemisinin biosynthesis pathway) caused by CA treatment in Artemisia annua. Hence, AaC4H gene was identified, cloned, characterized and silenced in A. annua with the assumption that the elevated internal CA due to knock down may increase the artemisinin yield. Accumulation of trans-cinnamic acid in the plant due to AaC4H knockdown was accompanied with the reduction of p-coumaric acid, total phenolics, anthocyanin, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities but increase in salicylic acid (SA) and artemisinin. Interestingly, feeding trans-cinnamic acid to the RNAi line increased the level of artemisinin along with benzoic (BA) and SA with no effect on the downstream metabolites p-coumaric acid, coniferylaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, whereas p-coumaric acid feeding increased the content of downstream coniferylaldehyde and sinapaldehyde with no effect on BA, SA, trans-cinnamic acid or artemisinin. SA is reported earlier to be inducing the artemisinin yield. This report demonstrates the link between the phenylpropanoid/lignin pathway with artemisinin pathway through SA, triggered by accumulation of trans-cinnamic acid because of the blockage at C4H. PMID:27220407

  1. The memory-ameliorating effects of Artemisia princeps var. orientalis against cholinergic dysfunction in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaotong; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jong Min; Park, Se Jin; Cai, Mudan; Jang, Dae Sik; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Artemisia princeps var. orientalis (Compositae) is widely distributed in China, Japan and Korea and is known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. The ethyl acetate fraction of ethanolic extract of A. princeps var. orientalis (AEA) was found to inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity in a dose-dependent manner in vitro (IC(50) value: 541.4 ± 67.5 μg/ml). Therefore, we investigated the effects of AEA on scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment using the passive avoidance, the Y-maze, and the Morris water maze tasks in mice. AEA (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments in the passive avoidance and Y-maze tasks (p < 0.05). In the Morris water maze task, AEA (200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly shortened escape latencies in training trials and increased both swimming time spent in the target zone and probe crossing numbers during the probe trial as compared with scopolamine-treated mice (p < 0.05). Additionally, the ameliorating effect of AEA on scopolamine-induced memory impairment was antagonized by a subeffective dose of MK-801. These results suggest that AEA could be an effective treatment against cholinergic dysfunction and its effect is mediated by the enhancement of the cholinergic neurotransmitter system via NMDA receptor signaling or acetylcholinesterase inhibition.

  2. An Ethanol Extract of Artemisia iwayomogi Activates PPARδ Leading to Activation of Fatty Acid Oxidation in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Si Young; Jeong, Hyun Woo; Sohn, Jong Hee; Seo, Dae-Bang; Kim, Wan Gi; Lee, Sang-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Although Artemisia iwayomogi (AI) has been shown to improve the lipid metabolism, its mode of action is poorly understood. In this study, a 95% ethanol extract of AI (95EEAI) was identified as a potent ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorδ (PPARδ) using ligand binding analysis and cell-based reporter assay. In cultured primary human skeletal muscle cells, treatment of 95EEAI increased expression of two important PPARδ-regulated genes, carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 (CPT1) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4 (PDK4), and several genes acting in lipid efflux and energy expenditure. Furthermore, 95EEAI stimulated fatty acid oxidation in a PPARδ-dependent manner. High-fat diet-induced obese mice model further indicated that administration of 95EEAI attenuated diet-induced obesity through the activation of fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. These results suggest that a 95% ethanol extract of AI may have a role as a new functional food material for the prevention and/or treatment of hyperlipidermia and obesity. PMID:22479450

  3. Gastroprotective effects of the isopropanol extract of Artemisia princeps and its gastroretentive floating tablets on gastric mucosal injury.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo-Il; Park, Sang-Wook; Lim, Jhong-Jae; Sohn, Se-Il; Shin, Ji-Su; Park, Sang Cheol; Jang, Young Pyo; Chung, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Hong-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2017-12-20

    In this study, we investigated the gastroprotective effect of an isopropanol extract from the aerial parts of Artemisia princeps (IPAP) and developed a gastroretentive floating tablet of IPAP (IPAP-FR) for maximized local gastroprotective effects. Pre-treatment with IPAP ameliorated the gastric mucosal hemorrhagic lesions in ethanol/HCl- or indomethacin- treated rats. IPAP decreased mucosal hemorrhage of gastric ulcers induced by ethanol or indomethacin plus pyloric ligation in rats. The optimized floating tablet, IPAP-FR, floated on medium surface with more sustained eupatilin release compared to the non-floating control tablet. X-ray photographs in beagle dogs showed that IPAPFR was retained for > 2 h in the stomach. In the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer rat model, the gastric hemorrhagic lesion was improved more substantially with IPAP-FR compared to the non-floating control tablet. Based on these data, our data suggest that IPAP-FR has an improved therapeutic potential for the treatment of gastric ulcer.

  4. Fumigant and repellent activities of essential oil extracted from Artemisia dubia and its main compounds against two stored product pests.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun-Yu; Guo, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Du, Shu-Shan; Zhang, Ji

    2018-05-01

    The major chemical constituents of the essential oil extracted from Artemisia dubia wall. ex Bess. (Family: Asteraceae) were found as terpinolene (19.02%), limonene (17.40%), 2,5-etheno[4.2.2]propella-3,7,9-triene (11.29%), isoelemicin (11.05%) and p-cymene-8-ol (5.93%). Terpinolene and limonene were separated as main components from the essential oil. The essential oil showed fumigant toxicity against Tribolium castaneum and Liposcelis bostrychophila with LC 50 values of 49.54 and 0.74 mg/L, respectively. The essential oil and isolated compounds of A. dubia showed repellency activities against both insects. Terpinolene and limonene showed the fumigant toxicity against T. castaneum. Terpinolene showed obvious fumigant toxicity against L. bostrychophila. The results indicated that the essential oil of A. dubia had potential to be developed into natural insecticides for controlling stored product pests.

  5. Isoprenoid drugs, biofuels, and chemicals--artemisinin, farnesene, and beyond.

    PubMed

    George, Kevin W; Alonso-Gutierrez, Jorge; Keasling, Jay D; Lee, Taek Soon

    2015-01-01

    Isoprenoids have been identified and used as natural pharmaceuticals, fragrances, solvents, and, more recently, advanced biofuels. Although isoprenoids are most commonly found in plants, researchers have successfully engineered both the eukaryotic and prokaryotic isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways to produce these valuable chemicals in microorganisms at high yields. The microbial synthesis of the precursor to artemisinin--an important antimalarial drug produced from the sweet wormwood Artemisia annua--serves as perhaps the most successful example of this approach. Through advances in synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, microbial-derived semisynthetic artemisinin may soon replace plant-derived artemisinin as the primary source of this valuable pharmaceutical. The richness and diversity of isoprenoid structures also make them ideal candidates for advanced biofuels that may act as "drop-in" replacements for gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. Indeed, the sesquiterpenes farnesene and bisabolene, monoterpenes pinene and limonene, and hemiterpenes isopentenol and isopentanol have been evaluated as fuels or fuel precursors. As in the artemisinin project, these isoprenoids have been produced microbially through synthetic biology and metabolic engineering efforts. Here, we provide a brief review of the numerous isoprenoid compounds that have found use as pharmaceuticals, flavors, commodity chemicals, and, most importantly, advanced biofuels. In each case, we highlight the metabolic engineering strategies that were used to produce these compounds successfully in microbial hosts. In addition, we present a current outlook on microbial isoprenoid production, with an eye towards the many challenges that must be addressed to achieve higher yields and industrial-scale production.

  6. Bioactive constituents of Chinese natural medicines. I. New sesquiterpene ketones with vasorelaxant effect from Chinese moxa, the processed leaves of Artemisia argyi Levl. et Vant.: moxartenone and moxartenolide.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, M; Shimada, H; Matsuda, H; Yamahara, J; Murakami, N

    1996-09-01

    Two new sesquiterpene ketones, moxartenone and moxartenolide, and three octadecadienoic acids were isolated from Chinese moxa, the processed leaves of Artemisia argyi LEVL. et VANT., together with two sesquiterpenes, five triterpenes, two phenyl propanoids and three polyoxyflavones. The chemical structures of new sesquiterpenes, moxartenone, moxartenolide, and octadecadienoic acids were determined on the basis of chemical and physiochemical evidence. Moxartenolide was found to inhibit the contractions induced by a high concentration of K+, by norepinephrine, and by serotonin in isolated aortic strips of rat, while moxartenone showed little activity.

  7. Determination of chemical constituents of leaf and stem essential oils of Artemisia monosperma from central Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Merajuddin; Mousa, Ahmad A; Syamasundar, Kodakandla V; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z

    2012-08-01

    The leaf and stem essential oils of Artemisia monosperma from the desert region of central Saudi Arabia were analysed by gas chromatography-based techniques (GC-FID, GC-MS, Co-GC, LRI determination, database and literature search) using polar as well as non-polar columns, which resulted in the identification of 130 components, of which 81 were common to both oils. In the leaf oil 120 compounds were identified, while 91 were identified in the stem oil accounting for 98.4% and 99.7% of the oil composition, respectively. The major constituents of the leaf oil were beta-pinene (50.3%), a-terpinolene (10.0%), limonene (5.4%) and a-pinene (4.6%), while the major constituents of the stem oil were beta-pinene (36.7%), a-terpinolene (6.4%), limonene (4.8%), beta-maaliene (3.7%), shyobunone (3.2%) and a-pinene (3.1%). The two oils showed an important qualitative similarity. However, some specific constituents (39 in the leaf oil and 10 in the stem oil) allow differentiation of the two essential oils.

  8. Standardized flavonoid-rich fraction of Artemisia princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal induces apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway in human cervical cancer HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Ju, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Heon-Woo; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Choi, Jung-Hye; Cho, Jin-Gyeong; Baek, Nam-In; Chung, Hae-Gon; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2012-05-07

    Artemisia princeps Pampanini is widely used in Eastern traditional medicine for the treatment of circulatory disorders, such as, dysmenorrhea, hematuria, hemorrhoids, and inflammation, and is also used to treat chronic conditions, such as, cancers, ulcers, and digestive disorders. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of a standardized flavonoid-rich fraction of Artemisia princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal (FRAP) on the induction of apoptosis and the molecular mechanism involved in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Human cervical cancer HeLa cells were treated with FRAP and apoptosis was detected by cell morphologic observation, annexin-V-PI staning and western blot analysis on the expression of protein associated with cell death. FRAP led to the cleavages of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in HeLa cells. Caspase-3 inhibitor (z-DEVD-fmk), caspase-8 inhibitor (z-IETD-fmk), caspase-9 inhibitor (z-LEHD), and broad caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) significantly suppressed the FRAP-induced accumulation of annexin V positive cells. Furthermore, it was found that FRAP caused a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol. Furthermore, the overexpression of Bcl-xL significantly prevented FRAP-induced apoptosis, MMP changes, and the activations of caspase-3, -8, and -9. Interestingly, pretreatment with caspase-8 inhibitor significantly reduced the FRAP-induced activation of caspase-3 but not that of caspase-9, whereas the caspase-3 inhibitor, z-DEVD-fmk, markedly attenuated the FRAP-induced activation of caspase-8. In BALB/c(nu/nu) mice bearing a HeLa xenograft, FRAP dosed at 25 or 50mg/kg significantly inhibited tumor growth. Our results indicate caspase-mediated activation of the mitochondrial death pathway plays a critical role in the FRAP-induced apoptosis of HeLa cells and that FRAP inhibits the in vivo tumor growth of HeLa xenograft mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier

  9. Dietary Intervention of Artemisia and Green Tea Extracts to Rejuvenate Helicobacter pylori-Associated Chronic Atrophic Gastritis and to Prevent Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Migyeong; Park, Jong-Min; Han, Young-Min; Kangwan, Napapan; Kwon, Sang-Oh; Kim, Bok-Nam; Kim, Won-Hee; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2016-02-01

    As nonmicrobial dietary approach is capable of controlling Helicobacter pylori infection, we evaluated the efficacy of long-term dietary administration of Artemisia and/or green tea extracts on H. pylori-initiated, high-salt-promoted chronic atrophic gastritis and gastric tumorigenesis mouse model. Helicobacter pylori-infected and high-salt-diet-administered C57BL/6 mice were administered with Artemisia extracts (MP group) and/or green tea extracts (GT group) for 36 weeks in addition to the control group (ES group, gastroprotective drug, ecabet sodium 30 mg/kg, diet pellet). Gross and pathological gastric lesions were evaluated after 24 and 36 weeks, respectively, and their underlying molecular changes were measured in gastric homogenates. Detailed mechanisms were further evaluated in in vitro cell models. The erythematous and nodular changes and mucosal ulcerative and erosive lesions were noted in the control group at 24 weeks. MP, GT, MPGT, and ES groups all showed significantly ameliorated pathologic lesion compared to the control group (p < .05). After the 36 weeks, scattered nodular masses with some central ulcers and thin gastric surface were noted in the control stomach, whereas no tumorous lesion and milder atrophic changes were observed in all MP, GT, and MPGT groups except ES group (p < .05). On molecular analysis, increased expressions of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, lipid peroxide, and activated STAT3 relevant to H. pylori infection were significantly decreased with MPGT administration (p < .01), whereas HSP70 was significantly increased. PGDH expressions, core tumor suppressor involved in carcinogenesis, were significantly decreased with H. pylori infection (p < .05), but significantly increased in MPGT group (p < .05). Increased mucosal apoptotic index noted in the control group was significantly decreased with MP and/or GT along with significantly preserved gastric gastroprotective mediators (p < .01) such as mucins, HSP27, and HSP70. H. pylori-induced serum

  10. Determination of five active compounds in Artemisia princeps and A. capillaris based on UPLC-DAD and discrimination of two species with multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Heejung; Lee, Dong Young; Jeon, Minji; Suh, Youngbae; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2014-05-01

    Five active compounds, chlorogenic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, jaceosidin, and eupatilin, in Artemisia princeps (Compositae) were simultaneously determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography connected to diode array detector. The morphological resemblance between A. princeps and A. capillaris makes it difficult to properly identify species properly. It occasionally leads to misuse or misapplication in Korean traditional medicine. In the study, the discrimination between A. princeps and A. capillaris was optimally performed by the developed validation method, which resulted in definitely a difference between two species. Also, it was developed the most reliable markers contributing to the discrimination of two species by the multivariate analysis methods, such as a principal component analysis and a partial least squares discrimination analysis.

  11. Cytotoxic Properties of Three Isolated Coumarin-hemiterpene Ether Derivatives from Artemisia armeniaca Lam.

    PubMed

    Mojarrab, Mahdi; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Delazar, Abbas; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Considering multiple reports on cytotoxic activity of the Artemisia genus and its phytochemicals, in the current study A. armeniaca Lam. and the three components isolated from the plant were subjected to cytotoxic studies. Analytical fractionation of A. armeniaca aerial parts for the first time was directed to the isolation of 7-hydroxy-8-(4-hydroxy-3-methylbutoxy) comarin (armenin), 8-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methylbutoxy) comarin (isoarmenin) and deoxylacarol. Cytotoxicity assessed with alamalBlue® assay and apoptosis was detected by PI staining and western blot analysis of Bax and PARP proteins. Extracts and all compounds exhibited cytotoxic activity against apoptosis-proficient HL-60 and apoptosis-resistant K562 cells, with the lowest cytotoxic activity on J774 cell line as non-malignant cell. Armenin as the most potent component decreased the viability of cell with IC50 of 22.5 and 71.1 µM for K562 and HL-60 cells respectively and selected for further mechanistic study. Armenin increased the sub-G1 peak in flow cytometry histogram of HL-60 and K562 treated cells and increase in the amount of Bax protein and the cleavage of PARP in comparison with the control after treatment for 48 h in K562 treated cells verified the apoptotic activity of the armenin. Taken together, according to the finding of this study armenin was introduced as a novel cytotoxic compound with apoptotic activity, which is encouraging for further mechanistic and clinical studies.

  12. Long-term Treatment with Oriental Medicinal Herb Artemisia princeps Alters Neuroplasticity in a Rat Model of Ovarian Hormone Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Bum; Kwon, Byeong-Jae; Cho, Hyun-Ji; Kim, Ji-Won; Chon, Jeong-Woo; Do, Moon-Ho; Park, Sang-Yong; Kim, Sun-Yeou; Maeng, Sung-Ho; Park, Yoo-Kyoung; Park, Ji-Ho

    2015-03-01

    Artemisia princeps (AP) is a flowering perennial used as a traditional medicine and dietary supplement across East Asia. No study has yet assessed its effects on synaptic plasticity in hippocampus and much less in a model of ovarian hormone deficiency. We examined the influence of chronic oral AP ethanol extract treatment in ovariectomized rats on the induction of long-term depression in a representative synapse (CA3-CA1) of the hippocampus. Ovariectomized rats demonstrated lower trabecular mean bone mineral densities than sham, validating the establishment of pathology. Against this background of pathology, AP-treated ovariectomized rats exhibited attenuated long-term depression (LTD) in CA1 relative to water-treated controls as measured by increased field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSP) activation averages over the post-stimulation period. While pathological significance of long-term depression (LTD) in ovariectomized rats is conflicting, that AP treatment significantly affected its induction offers justification for further study of its influences on plasticity and its related disorders.

  13. Long-term Treatment with Oriental Medicinal Herb Artemisia princeps Alters Neuroplasticity in a Rat Model of Ovarian Hormone Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Bum; Kwon, Byeong-Jae; Cho, Hyun-Ji; Kim, Ji-Won; Chon, Jeong-Woo; Do, Moon-Ho; Park, Sang-Yong; Kim, Sun-Yeou; Maeng, Sung-Ho; Park, Yoo-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia princeps (AP) is a flowering perennial used as a traditional medicine and dietary supplement across East Asia. No study has yet assessed its effects on synaptic plasticity in hippocampus and much less in a model of ovarian hormone deficiency. We examined the influence of chronic oral AP ethanol extract treatment in ovariectomized rats on the induction of long-term depression in a representative synapse (CA3-CA1) of the hippocampus. Ovariectomized rats demonstrated lower trabecular mean bone mineral densities than sham, validating the establishment of pathology. Against this background of pathology, AP-treated ovariectomized rats exhibited attenuated long-term depression (LTD) in CA1 relative to water-treated controls as measured by increased field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSP) activation averages over the post-stimulation period. While pathological significance of long-term depression (LTD) in ovariectomized rats is conflicting, that AP treatment significantly affected its induction offers justification for further study of its influences on plasticity and its related disorders. PMID:25792871

  14. Artemisia Extract Suppresses NLRP3 and AIM2 Inflammasome Activation by Inhibition of ASC Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Su-Bin; Koppula, Sushruta; In, Eun-Jung; Sun, Xiao; Kim, Young-Kyu; Kim, Myong-Ki; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kang, Tae-Bong

    2018-01-01

    Artemisia princeps var. orientalis (Asteraceae, A. princeps ) is a well-known traditional medicinal herb used for treating various inflammatory disorders in Korea, Japan, China, and other Asian countries. In the present study, we investigated the effects of A. princeps extract (APO) on interleukin- (IL-) 1 β regulation and inflammasome activation in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and monosodium urate- (MSU-) induced peritonitis mouse model in vivo . The APO treatment to BMDMs primed with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) attenuated the NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome activation induced by danger signals, such as ATP, nigericin, silica crystals, and poly (dA:dT), respectively. Mechanistic study revealed that APO suppressed the ASC oligomerization and speck formation, which are required for inflammasome activation. APO treatment also reduced the ASC phosphorylation induced by the combination of LPS and a tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor. In vivo evaluation revealed that intraperitoneal administration of APO reduced IL-1 β levels, significantly ( p < 0.05) and dose dependently, in the MSU-induced peritonitis mouse model. In conclusion, our study is the first to report that the extract of A. princeps inhibits inflammasome activation through the modulation of ASC phosphorylation. Therefore, APO might be developed as therapeutic potential in the treatment of inflammasome-mediated inflammatory disorders, such as gouty arthritis.

  15. Artemisia Extract Suppresses NLRP3 and AIM2 Inflammasome Activation by Inhibition of ASC Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Su-Bin; Koppula, Sushruta; In, Eun-Jung; Sun, Xiao; Kim, Young-Kyu

    2018-01-01

    Artemisia princeps var. orientalis (Asteraceae, A. princeps) is a well-known traditional medicinal herb used for treating various inflammatory disorders in Korea, Japan, China, and other Asian countries. In the present study, we investigated the effects of A. princeps extract (APO) on interleukin- (IL-) 1β regulation and inflammasome activation in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and monosodium urate- (MSU-) induced peritonitis mouse model in vivo. The APO treatment to BMDMs primed with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) attenuated the NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome activation induced by danger signals, such as ATP, nigericin, silica crystals, and poly (dA:dT), respectively. Mechanistic study revealed that APO suppressed the ASC oligomerization and speck formation, which are required for inflammasome activation. APO treatment also reduced the ASC phosphorylation induced by the combination of LPS and a tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor. In vivo evaluation revealed that intraperitoneal administration of APO reduced IL-1β levels, significantly (p < 0.05) and dose dependently, in the MSU-induced peritonitis mouse model. In conclusion, our study is the first to report that the extract of A. princeps inhibits inflammasome activation through the modulation of ASC phosphorylation. Therefore, APO might be developed as therapeutic potential in the treatment of inflammasome-mediated inflammatory disorders, such as gouty arthritis. PMID:29686531

  16. [Ecosystem carbon exchange in Artemisia ordosica shrubland of Ordos Plateau in two different precipitation years].

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Dong, Ting-Ting; Wang, Yu-Qing; Yan, Zhi-Jian; Baoyin, Tao-ge-tao; Wang, Hui; Dai, Ya-Ting

    2014-08-01

    Characteristics of ecosystem carbon exchange and its impact factors in Artemisia ordosica shrubland in 2011 (low precipitation) and 2012 (high precipitation), Ordos Plateau, were studied using eddy covariance methods. The results showed that the diurnal dynamics of ecosystem carbon exchange could be expressed as single-peak and double-peak curves in the two different precipitation years. In 2011, three carbon absorption peaks and three carbon release peaks of ecosystem carbon exchange presented in the growing season. In 2012, four carbon absorption peaks and one carbon release peak appeared in the growing season. The A. ordosica shrubland was a net carbon sink from June to September and a carbon source in October in 2011. In 2012, A. ordosica shrubland was a net carbon sink in the whole growing season. The amount of carbon fixed by A. ordosica shrubland in the growing season in 2012 was 268.90 mg CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1) higher than that in 2011. The ecosystem carbon exchange of A. ordosica shrubland was controlled by PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) on the day scale, and affected by both abiotic (precipitation and soil water content) and biotic (aboveground net primary, productivity) factors on the growing season scale.

  17. In vitro antimicrobial activity on clinical microbial strains and antioxidant properties of Artemisia parviflora

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Artemisia parviflora leaf extracts were evaluated for potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Antimicrobial susceptibility assay was performed against ten standard reference bacterial strains. Antioxidant activity was analyzed using the ferric thiocyanate and 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content were compared. Phytochemical analyses were performed to identify the major bioactive constitution of the plant extract. Results Hexane, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of A. parviflora leaves exhibited good activity against the microorganisms tested. The n-hexane extract of A. parviflora showed high inhibition of the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri. Methanol extract showed strong radical scavenging and antioxidant activity, other extracts showed moderate antioxidant activity. The major derivatives present in the extracts are of terpenes, steroids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins and volatile oil. Conclusions The results obtained with n-hexane extract were particularly significant as it strongly inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa, E. coli and S. flexneri. The major constituent of the n-hexane extract was identified as terpenes. Strong antioxidant activity could be observed with all the individual extracts. The antimicrobial and antioxidant property of the extracts were attributed to the secondary metabolites, terpenes and phenolic compounds present in A. parviflora and could be of considerable interest in the development of new drugs. PMID:23171441

  18. Effects of ethanol extract of Artemisia annua L. against monogenean parasites of Heterobranchus longifilis.

    PubMed

    Ekanem, Albert P; Brisibe, Ebiamadon Andi

    2010-04-01

    Ethanol extract of Artemisia annua was effective in the dislodgement and mortality of monogenean parasites of juvenile Heterobranchus longifilis at concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 mg/l. Five hundred 1-week-old juvenile fish were stocked in hapa in earthen pond for 7 days to accumulate parasites. The approximate number of parasites per fish was confirmed by counting the number of parasites attached to body surfaces and the gills with a stereo-microscope before being exposed to the extract under in vivo conditions. The bioactivity of the extract was conducted in plastic Petri dishes with three replications and controls. The results obtained from A. annua extract were matched against those produced by pure artemisinin and artesunate powder, respectively, under similar experimental conditions. There was a faster effect of pure artemisinin crystals on the parasites as compared to A. annua extract and artesunate. Coagulation of parasite cells was observed with artemisinin treatment, whereas parasites were merely dislodged from their attachment organs and killed some hours later in the same concentration of A. annua. There were positive correlations between the number of parasites dislodged/killed and the concentration of A. annua extract, artemisinin, and artesunate powder, respectively, as well as the duration of exposure of affected fish to the substances. This led to the conclusion that A. annua contains substances that are effective against helminthes parasites of H. longifilis.

  19. Cytotoxic, anti-cancer, and anti-microbial effects of different extracts obtained from Artemisia rupestris.

    PubMed

    Nokerbek, Shamshabanu; Sakipova, Zuriyadda; Chalupová, Marta; Nejezchlebová, Marcela; Hošek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Artemisia rupestris is a part of traditional Kazakh folk medicine. Extracts obtained from this plant are used to treat various diseases, including cancer. This study evaluates the anti-microbial, cytotoxic, and anti-cancer effects of different extracts of the plant. Different extraction techniques were used and the resultant activities were compared. Extracts of A. rupestris were prepared from the flowers plus the leaves and from the stems. The antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus was quantified. Cell lines L1210 and THP-1 were used to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of these extracts in vitro. The anti-cancer effect was tested using L1210-induced tumorgenesis in mouse model. The aqueous extract of stems was the most active against C. albicans, whereas the methanolic extract of flowers plus leaves especially inhibited the growth of S. aureus. The aqueous extracts were found to be non-cytotoxic for both cell lines, whereas the lipophilic extracts showed cytotoxic effects. The extract obtained from flowers plus leaves was more cytotoxic than that from stems. The tested extracts showed no anti-cancer potential. The results obtained testify to the relatively safe consumption of aqueous extracts of A. rupestris, but lipophilic extracts showed toxic effects and their consumption should be considered more carefully.Key words: L1210 cell line THP-1 cell line microwave-assisted extraction ultrasonic-assisted extraction Candida albicans Staphylococcus aureus.

  20. In vitro immunomodulatory potential of Artemisia indica Willd. in chicken lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Ruwali, Pushpa; Ambwani, Tanuj Kumar; Gautam, Pankaj

    2018-01-01

    Evaluation of the in vitro immunomodulatory potential of Artemisia indica Willd. methanolic extract in chicken lymphocyte culture system through lymphocyte (B and T cells) proliferation assay, after standardizing the maximum non-cytotoxic dose (MNCD) in chicken lymphocytes. Fresh aerial parts of A. indica Willd. (family: Asteraceae) specimens were collected (altitude 1560 m), gotten authenticated, processed, dried, and Soxhlet extracted to yield methanolic extract (AME). Chicken splenocytes were isolated from spleens collected from healthy birds; lymphocytes were separated by density gradient centrifugation, percentage cell viability determined and final cell count adjusted to 10 7 cells/ml in RPMI-1640 medium. MNCD of AME in chicken lymphocytes was determined through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y1)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide dye reduction assay. Immunomodulatory potential of AME was evaluated through lymphocytes proliferation or B and T cells blastogenesis assay in the presence of appropriate mitogens, namely, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and concanavalin A (Con A), respectively. Maximum concentration of AME exhibiting 100% cell viability (MNCD) was 200 μg/ml and was selected for further in vitro analysis. The in vitro exposure of chicken lymphocytes to 200 µg/ml dose of AME, resulted in significant (p<0.05) upregulation of 11.76% in B cell proliferation in the presence of B cell mitogen (LPS) and a significant (p<0.05) increase of 12.018% T cells proliferation in the presence of the mitogen (Con A), as compared to the control. The significant upregulation in the proliferation of two major cell types modulating the immune system is an indication of the immunostimulatory potential of the plant. It would be worthwhile to further evaluate A. indica on relevant immunomodulatory aspects, especially the in vivo studies in a poultry system.

  1. First record and description of juvenile stages of Longidorus artemisiae Rubtsova, Chizhov & Subbotin, 1999 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in Poland and new data on L. juglandicola Lišková, Robbins & Brown, 1997 based on topotype specimens from Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Kornobis, Franciszek Wojciech; Renčo, Marek; Filipiak, Anna

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the first geographical record of the needle nematode Longidorus artemisiae Rubtsova, Chizhov & Subbotin, 1999 outside Russia. This species was found in Poland near the city of Skierniewice in association with nettle (Urtica dioica L.). Morphometric and morphological data are provided, including the first description of juveniles of this species. Nematodes of the Polish population differ from the type-population in Russia in possessing a thicker body (lower 'a' index) in both sexes; males having a longer body and longer spicules; different sex ratio (1:2 in Polish population vs 1:1 in the type-population) and somewhat less expanded lips. Molecularly, the Polish population was characterised by sequencing D2-D3 28S rDNA and ITS1 markers. Additionally, new data on these two markers are provided for another species, Longidorus juglandicola Lišková, Robbins & Brown, 1997, obtained from topotype specimens from Slovakia. Surprisingly, despite the high morphological similarity of these two species, analysis of their phylogenetic position did not show close phylogenetic relation and several other species (less similar in general morphology) appeared more closely related to both L. artemisiae and L. juglandicola.

  2. Prolonged exposure to salt stress affects specialized metabolites-artemisinin and essential oil accumulation in Artemisia annua L.: metabolic acclimation in preferential favour of enhanced terpenoid accumulation accompanying vegetative to reproductive phase transition.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ritesh Kumar; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Srivastava, Avadesh K; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2017-01-01

    Artemisia annua accumulates substantial quantities of unique and highly useful antimalarial sesquiternoid artemisinin and related phytomolecules as well as its characteristic essential oil in its glandular trichomes. The phytomolecules are mainly produced in its leaves and inflorescences. Artemisia annua plants were grown under NaCl salinity (50, 100 and 200 mM) stress conditions imposed throughout the entire life cycle of the plant. Results revealed that specialized metabolites like artemisinin, arteannuin-B, artemisinic acid + dihydroartemisinic acid and essential oil accumulation were positively modulated by NaCl salinity stress. Interestingly, total content of monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids of essential oil was induced by NaCl salinity treatment, contrary to previous observations. Production of camphor, the major essential oil constituent was induced under the influence of treatment. The metabolic acclimation and manifestations specific to terpenoid pathway are analysed vis-a-vis vegetative to reproductive periods and control of the modulation. WRKY and CYP71AV1 play a key role in mediating the responses through metabolism in glandular trichomes. The distinctness of the salinity induced responses is discussed in light of differential mechanism of adaptation to abiotic stresses and their impact on terpenoid-specific metabolic adjustments in A. annua. Results provide potential indications of possible adaptation of A. annua under saline conditions for agrarian techno-economic benefaction.

  3. Effects of Artemisia annua extracts on sporulation of Eimeria oocysts.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, Ahmadreza; Razavi, Seyyed Mostafa; Asasi, Keramat; Goudarzi, Majid Torabi

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effect of different Artemisia annua extracts on sporulation rate of mixed oocysts of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria necatrix, and Eimeria tenella. Three types of A. annua extracts including petroleum ether (PE), ethanol 96° (E), and water (W) extracts were prepared. Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide derived from the A. annua analysis of each extract was done by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). Fresh fecal samples containing three Eimeria species were floated and counted, and the oocysts were transferred into 50 tubes, each containing 10(5) oocysts per milliliter. Five tubes were control. Each of the other 45 tubes contained one of three doses (1 part per thousand (ppt), 2 ppt, and 5 ppt) and one of three extracts (PE, E, and W extracts) with five replications. The tubes were incubated for 48 h at 25-29 °C and aerated. Sporulation inhibition assay was used to evaluate the activity of extracts. The results showed that the E and PE extracts inhibit sporulation in 2 and 5 ppt concentrations, but the W extract stimulates it in all concentrations. The proportions of oocyst inhibition relative to control were 31 % (5 ppt) and 29 % (2 ppt) for PE and 34 % (5 ppt) and 46 % (2 ppt) for E extract. Furthermore, many oocysts in PE and E groups were wrinkled and contained abnormal sporocysts. The proportions of sporulation stimulation relative to control were 22 % (5 ppt), 24 % (2 ppt), and 27 % (1 ppt) in W extract. Our study is the first to demonstrate that all types of A. annua extracts do not necessarily have a similar activity, and the interaction of all contents and their relative concentrations is an important factor for sporulation stimulation or inhibition. It seems, some parts of unmetabolized excreted PE and E extracts could inhibit oocyst sporulation and eventually affect infection transmission.

  4. Selective activation of heparin cofactor II by a sulfated polysaccharide isolated from the leaves of Artemisia princeps.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Y; Hayashi, T; Hayashi, T; Niiya, K; Sakuragawa, N

    1995-10-01

    While checking anticoagulant activities in crude fractions from Wakan-Yakus (traditional herbal drugs), we detected antithrombin activity in the polysaccharide fraction of the leaves of Artemisia princeps Pamp. A sulfated polysaccharide purified from the crude fractions by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and gel filtration on Sepharose 6B potentiated the heparin cofactor II (HC II)-dependent antithrombin activity but not the antithrombin activity of antithrombin III (AT III). The polysaccharide enhanced the HC II-thrombin reaction more than 6000-fold. The apparent second-order rate constant of thrombin inhibition by HC II increased from 3.8 x 10(4) (in the absence of the polysaccharide) to 2.5 x 10(8) M-1 min-1 in the presence of 25-125 micrograms/ml of the polysaccharide. In human plasma, the polysaccharide accelerated the formation of thrombin-HC II complex. The stimulating effect on HC II-dependent antithrombin activity was almost totally abolished by treatment with chondroitinase AC I, heparinase or heparitinase, while chondroitinase ABC or chondroitinase AC II had little or no effect. These results suggest that the polysaccharide is a glycosaminoglycan-like material with properties that are quite distinct from heparin or dermatan sulfate.

  5. Artemisia scoparia extract attenuates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in diet-induced obesity mice by enhancing hepatic insulin and AMPK signaling independently of FGF21 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhong Q.; Zhang, Xian H.; Yu, Yongmei; Tipton, Russell C.; Raskin, Ilya; Ribnicky, David; Johnson, William; Cefalu, William T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease which has no standard treatment. In this regard, we sought to evaluate the effects of extracts of Artemisia santolinaefolia (SANT) and Artemisia scoparia (SCO) on hepatic lipid deposition and cellular signaling in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) animal model. Materials/Methods DIO C57/B6J mice were randomly divided into three groups, i.e. HFD, SANT and SCO. Both extracts were incorporated into HFD at a concentration of 0.5% (w/w). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and FGF21 concentrations were measured. Results At the end of the 4-week intervention, liver tissues were collected for analysis of insulin, AMPK, and FGF21 signaling. SANT and SCO supplementation significantly increased plasma adiponectin levels when compared with the HFD mice (P < 0.001). Fasting insulin levels were significantly lower in the SCO than HFD mice, but not in SANT group. Hepatic H&E staining showed fewer lipid droplets in the SCO group than in the other two groups. Cellular signaling data demonstrated that SCO significantly increased liver IRS-2 content, phosphorylation of IRS-1, IR β, Akt1 and Akt2, AMPK α1 and AMPK activity and significantly reduced PTP 1B abundance when compared with the HFD group. SCO also significantly decreased fatty acid synthase (FAS), HMG-CoA Reductase (HMGR), and Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c), but not Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-1) when compared with HFD group. Neither SANT nor SCO significantly altered plasma FGF21 concentrations and liver FGF21 signaling. Conclusion This study suggests that SCO may attenuate liver lipid accumulation in DIO mice. Contributing mechanisms were postulated to include promotion of adiponectin expression, inhibition of hepatic lipogenesis, and/or enhanced insulin and AMPK signaling independent of FGF21 pathway. PMID:23702383

  6. Green Synthesis and Catalytic Activity of Gold Nanoparticles Synthesized by Artemisia capillaris Water Extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Soo Hyeon; Ahn, Eun-Young; Park, Youmie

    2016-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles were synthesized using a water extract of Artemisia capillaris (AC-AuNPs) under different extract concentrations, and their catalytic activity was evaluated in a 4-nitrophenol reduction reaction in the presence of sodium borohydride. The AC-AuNPs showed violet or wine colors with characteristic surface plasmon resonance bands at 534 543 nm that were dependent on the extract concentration. Spherical nanoparticles with an average size of 16.88 ± 5.47 29.93 ± 9.80 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy. A blue shift in the maximum surface plasmon resonance was observed with increasing extract concentration. The face-centered cubic structure of AC-AuNPs was confirmed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis. Based on phytochemical screening and Fourier transform infrared spectra, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and amino acids present in the extract contributed to the reduction of Au ions to AC-AuNPs. The average size of the AC-AuNPs decreased as the extract concentration during the synthesis was increased. Higher 4-nitrophenol reduction reaction rate constants were observed for smaller sizes. The extract in the AC-AuNPs was removed by centrifugation to investigate the effect of the extract in the reduction reaction. Interestingly, the removal of extracts greatly enhanced their catalytic activity by up to 50.4 %. The proposed experimental method, which uses simple centrifugation, can be applied to other metallic nanoparticles that are green synthesized with plant extracts to enhance their catalytic activity.

  7. Antimutagens in gaiyou (Artemisia argyi levl. et vant.).

    PubMed

    Nakasugi, T; Nakashima, M; Komai, K

    2000-08-01

    Antimutagens from gaiyou (Artemisia argyi Levl. et Vant., Compositae) were examined. The methanol extract prepared from aerial parts of this plant strongly reduced the mutagenicity of 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2), when Salmonella typhimurium TA98 was used in the presence of the rat liver microsomal fraction. The antimutagens were purified chromatographically while monitoring the antimutagenic activity against Trp-P-2 with a modified Ames test employing a plate method. This purification resulted in the isolation of four strong antimutagens, 5,7-dihydroxy-6,3',4'-trimethoxyflavone (eupatilin), 5, 7,4'-trihydroxy-6,3'-dimethoxyflavone (jaceosidin), 5,7, 4'-trihydroxyflavone (apigenin) and 5,7, 4'-trihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone (chrysoeriol) from the methanol extract. These antimutagenic flavones exhibited strong antimutagenic activity against not only Trp-P-2 but also against other heterocyclic amines, such as 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4, 3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3, 8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeA(alpha)C) in S. typhimurium TA98. In contrast, they did not exhibit antimutagenic activity against benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO), 2-aminofluorene (2-AF), 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF) or furylfuramide (AF-2) in S. typhimurium TA98, or B[a]P, 4-NQO, 2-NF, AF-2, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) or sodium azide (SA) in Salmonella typhimurium TA100, whereas they decreased the mutagenicity caused by aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) and 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) in both of these tester strains. Regarding the structure-activity relationship, the tested flavones had distinct differences in the intensities of their antimutagenic activities according to the differences of their substitution patterns. Namely, the intensity of antimutagenic activities against Trp-P-2 decreased in

  8. Antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and wound healing effects of Artemisia campestris aqueous extract in rat.

    PubMed

    Ghlissi, Zohra; Sayari, Nadhim; Kallel, Rim; Bougatef, Ali; Sahnoun, Zouheir

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated some biological properties of Artemisia campestris aqueous extract (ACAE) as well its global chemical compositions. Twenty four rats were excised on the posterior neck skin area and divided into 4 groups, treated respectively with: sterile saline, glycerol, CICAFLORA and ACAE. The wound closure rate, histopathology evolution and the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in skin tissue were evaluated. Anti-inflammatory activity was studied by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. Animals were divided into 3 groups pre-treated respectively with sterile saline, acetylsalicylic acid (AA) and ACAE. The antibacterial activity was tested against six bacteria and the antioxidant activity was estimated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power and β-carotene activities. Our results demonstrated a significant improvement in wound healing progression and in oxidative stress damage in the wounds tissues of ACAE-treated rats, compared to control. ACAE-treated rats revealed also a significant inhibition of carrageenan-induced hind paws edema as confirmed by the histological analysis. In addition to the antioxidant activity, ACAE showed considerable antibacterial activities. ACAE exhibited important wound healing effect probably due to the anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of its phytochemical contents. Therefore, this study confirms its popular use and highlights its promise in the development of new drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. To what extent are medicinal plants shared between country home gardens and urban ones? A case study from Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Violeta; Kujawska, Monika; Hilgert, Norma Ines; Pochettino, María Lelia

    2016-09-01

    Context Worldwide ethnobotanical research has shown the importance of home gardens as sources of medicinal plants. These resources are worthy of further study in the Argentinean Atlantic Forest due to the richness of medicinal flora and their importance for local people. Objective We studied richness, composition, cultural importance and medicinal uses of plants in home gardens of rural, semirural and urban areas in the Iguazú Department (Misiones, Argentina). Our hypothesis claims that people living in different environments have a similar array of medicinal plants in their gardens and they use them in a similar way. Materials and methods The analysis was based on 76 interviews and plant inventories of home gardens. During guided walks in gardens, voucher specimens were collected. To analyse composition, Simpson similarity index was applied and a new index was proposed to measure culturally salient species. Results All the environments had similar species composition with species differing in less than 30% of them. The most culturally salient taxa were Mentha spicata L. (Lamiaceae), in rural, Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae), in semirural, and Aloe maculata All. (Xanthorrhoeaceae), in urban areas. The body systems treated with medicinal plants were similar across study sites. Discussion The results suggest a "core repertoire" of medicinal plants and a widespread exchange of plants among local population. The cultural importance index informs us about plant adaptability, based on the efficacy and the versatility of medicinal resources. Conclusion In this changing context where mobility and migrations constitute everyday life, medicinal plants in home gardens are part of local healthcare sovereignty.

  10. Traditional Persian topical medications for gastrointestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tafti, Laleh Dehghani; Shariatpanahi, Seyyed Mahyar; Damghani, Mahmoud Mahdavi; Javadi, Behjat

    2017-01-01

    Drug delivery across the skin is used for several millennia to ease gastrointestinal (GI) ailments in Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM). TPM topical remedies are generally being applied on the stomach, lower abdomen, lower back and liver to alleviate GI illnesses such as dyspepsia, gastritis, GI ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal worms and infections. The aim of the present study is to survey the topical GI remedies and plant species used as ingredients for these remedies in TPM. In addition, pharmacological activities of the mentioned plants have been discussed. For this, we searched major TPM textbooks to find plants used to cure GI problems in topical use. Additionally, scientific databases were searched to obtain pharmacological data supporting the use of TPM plants in GI diseases. Rosa × damascena, Pistacia lentiscus, Malus domestica, Olea europaea and Artemisia absinthium are among the most frequently mentioned ingredients of TPM remedies. β-asarone, amygdalin, boswellic acids, guggulsterone, crocin, crocetin, isomasticadienolic acid, and cyclotides are the most important phytochemicals present in TPM plants with GI-protective activities. Pharmacological studies demonstrated GI activities for TPM plants supporting their extensive traditional use. These plants play pivotal role in alleviating GI disorders through exhibiting numerous activities including antispasmodic, anti-ulcer, anti-secretory, anti-colitis, anti-diarrheal, antibacterial and anthelmintic properties. Several mechanisms underlie these activities including the alleviation of oxidative stress, exhibiting cytoprotective activity, down-regulation of the inflammatory cytokines, suppression of the cellular signaling pathways of inflammatory responses, improving re-epithelialization and angiogenesis, down-regulation of anti-angiogenic factors, blocking activity of acetylcholine, etc. PMID:28392893

  11. Use of Artemisia annua as a natural coccidiostat in free-range broilers and its effects on infection dynamics and performance.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Gustavo F; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig M; Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Ferreira, Jorge F S; Hermansen, John E

    2012-05-25

    This work investigated the preventive effect of Artemisia annua L. dried leaves supplied as a botanical coccidiostat to two broiler genotypes reared in a Danish free-range system in a factorial experiment (two genotypes and ± supplement of dried A. annua leaves). The genotypes White Bresse L40, a pure slow-growing line, and Kosmos 8 Ross, a hybrid genotype with medium growing characteristics, were used. Broilers were raised indoor until 29-days-old and kept free of parasites. Twelve groups of 30 randomly selected broilers were placed in the range forming three replicates for each treatment combination. The paddocks were cultivated with a mix of grass and clover. A separate group of broilers was naturally infected with Eimeria spp. oocysts and five animals nominated as "seeders" were introduced to the above mentioned 12 groups, 10 days after its formation, with each group consisting of 35 animals per plot. This infection strategy was meant to imitate the transmission pathway observed at farm level. Ten individual birds from each of the 12 groups, in total 120 animals of mixed sex, were monitored twice weekly for 30 days for oocysts excretion. PCR of pooled faecal samples, oocyst morphology and localization upon necropsy were used to identify the Eimeria species involved in the infection. In general, broilers from both genotypes in the range coped well with a coccidia infection caused by Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima as no clinical symptoms, or deaths, were reported during the experiment. In general, broilers supplemented with A. annua dried leaves showed a significantly (p<0.05) reduced number of excreted oocysts during the infection with no interaction to genotype. Females generally had a significantly higher shedding of oocysts than males (p<0.05). The overall body weight gain and the daily weight gain when infection was subdued showed a three-way interaction among genotype, sex and treatment - accounted mainly for the fact that Kosmos females responded

  12. Stress-gradient hypothesis explains susceptibility to Bromus tectorum invasion and community stability in North America's semi-arid Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisner, Michael D.; Doescher, Paul S.; Pyke, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Results/Conclusions: Cattle herbivory, a novel disturbance and selective force, was a significant component of two overlapping stress gradients most strongly associated with observed shifts in interactions. Facilitation and competition were strongest and most frequent at the highest and lowest stress levels along both gradients, respectively. Contrasting ecological optima among native and non-native beneficiaries led to strikingly different patterns of interactions. The four native bunchgrasses with the strongest competitive response abilities exhibited the strongest facilitation at their upper limits of stress tolerance, while the two non-natives exhibited the strongest competition at the highest stress levels, which coincided with their maximum abundance. Artemisia facilitation enhanced stability at intermediate stress levels by providing a refuge for native bunchgrasses, which in turn reduced the magnitude of B. tectorum invasion. However, facilitation was a destabilizing force at the highest stress levels when native bunchgrasses became obligate beneficiaries dependent on facilitation for their persistence. B. tectorum dominated these communities, and the next fire may convert them to annual grasslands.

  13. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Bias HAST System Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Furrer, III, Clint T; Sandoval, Paul Anthony

    2017-03-01

    High-reliability components for high-consequence systems require detailed testing of operation after having undergone highly accelerated stress testing (HAST) under unusual conditions of high-temperature and humidity. This paper describes the design and operation of a system called "Wormwood" that is a highly multiplexed temperature measurement system that is designed to operate under HAST conditions to allow measurement of the temperature as a function of time and position in a HAST chamber. HAST chambers have single-point temperature measurements that can be traceable to NIST standards. The objective of these "Wormwood" measurements is to verify the uniformity and stability of the remaining volumemore » of the HAST chamber with respect to the single traceable standard.« less

  14. Dried-leaf Artemisia annua: A practical malaria therapeutic for developing countries?

    PubMed Central

    Weathers, Pamela J; Towler, Melissa; Hassanali, Ahmed; Lutgen, Pierre; Engeu, Patrick Ogwang

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin from the plant Artemisia annua (A. annua) L, and used as artemisinin combination therapy (ACT), is the current best therapeutic for treating malaria, a disease that hits children and adults especially in developing countries. Traditionally, A. annua was used by the Chinese as a tea to treat “fever”. More recently, investigators have shown that tea infusions and oral consumption of the dried leaves of the plant have prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy. The presence of a complex matrix of chemicals within the leaves seems to enhance both the bioavailability and efficacy of artemisinin. Although about 1000-fold less potent than artemisinin in their antiplasmodial activity, these plant chemicals are mainly small molecules that include other artemisinic compounds, terpenes (mainly mono and sesqui), flavonoids, and polyphenolic acids. In addition, polysaccharide constituents of A. annua may enhance bioavailability of artemisinin. Rodent pharmacokinetics showed longer T1/2 and Tmax and greater Cmax and AUC in Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice treated with A. annua dried leaves than in healthy mice. Pharmacokinetics of deoxyartemisinin, a liver metabolite of artemisinin, was more inhibited in infected than in healthy mice. In healthy mice, artemisinin serum levels were > 40-fold greater in dried leaf fed mice than those fed with pure artemisinin. Human trial data showed that when delivered as dried leaves, 40-fold less artemisinin was required to obtain a therapeutic response compared to pure artemisinin. ACTs are still unaffordable for many malaria patients, and cost estimates for A. annua dried leaf tablet production are orders of magnitude less than for ACT, despite improvements in the production capacity. Considering that for > 2000 years this plant was used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of fever with no apparent appearance of artemisinin drug resistance, the evidence argues for inclusion of affordable A. annua dried leaf tablets into

  15. Modeling regeneration responses of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) to abiotic conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems dominated by big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nuttall (Asteraceae), which are the most widespread ecosystems in semiarid western North America, have been affected by land use practices and invasive species. Loss of big sagebrush and the decline of associated species, such as greater sage-grouse, are a concern to land managers and conservationists. However, big sagebrush regeneration remains difficult to achieve by restoration and reclamation efforts and there is no regeneration simulation model available. We present here the first process-based, daily time-step, simulation model to predict yearly big sagebrush regeneration including relevant germination and seedling responses to abiotic factors. We estimated values, uncertainty, and importance of 27 model parameters using a total of 1435 site-years of observation. Our model explained 74% of variability of number of years with successful regeneration at 46 sites. It also achieved 60% overall accuracy predicting yearly regeneration success/failure. Our results identify specific future research needed to improve our understanding of big sagebrush regeneration, including data at the subspecies level and improved parameter estimates for start of seed dispersal, modified wet thermal-time model of germination, and soil water potential influences. We found that relationships between big sagebrush regeneration and climate conditions were site specific, varying across the distribution of big sagebrush. This indicates that statistical models based on climate are unsuitable for understanding range-wide regeneration patterns or for assessing the potential consequences of changing climate on sagebrush regeneration and underscores the value of this process-based model. We used our model to predict potential regeneration across the range of sagebrush ecosystems in the western United States, which confirmed that seedling survival is a limiting factor, whereas germination is not. Our results also suggested that modeled

  16. De novo assembly and analysis of the Artemisia argyi transcriptome and identification of genes involved in terpenoid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miaomiao; Zhu, Jinhang; Wu, Shengbing; Wang, Chenkai; Guo, Xingyi; Wu, Jiawen; Zhou, Meiqi

    2018-04-11

    Artemisia argyi Lev. et Vant. (A. argyi) is widely utilized for moxibustion in Chinese medicine, and the mechanism underlying terpenoid biosynthesis in its leaves is suggested to play an important role in its medicinal use. However, the A. argyi transcriptome has not been sequenced. Herein, we performed RNA sequencing for A. argyi leaf, root and stem tissues to identify as many as possible of the transcribed genes. In total, 99,807 unigenes were assembled by analysing the expression profiles generated from the three tissue types, and 67,446 of those unigenes were annotated in public databases. We further performed differential gene expression analysis to compare leaf tissue with the other two tissue types and identified numerous genes that were specifically expressed or up-regulated in leaf tissue. Specifically, we identified multiple genes encoding significant enzymes or transcription factors related to terpenoid synthesis. This study serves as a valuable resource for transcriptome information, as many transcribed genes related to terpenoid biosynthesis were identified in the A. argyi transcriptome, providing a functional genomic basis for additional studies on molecular mechanisms underlying the medicinal use of A. argyi.

  17. Restoration of the fire-grazing interaction in Artemisia filifolia shrubland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, S.L.; Fuhlendorf, S.D.; Goad, C.L.; Davis, C.A.; Hickman, K.R.; Leslie, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of landscape heterogeneity are crucial to the maintenance of biodiversity in shrublands and grasslands, yet management practices in these ecosystems typically seek to homogenize landscapes. Furthermore, there is limited understanding of how the interaction of ecological processes, such as fire and grazing, affects patterns of heterogeneity at different spatial scales. We conducted research in Artemisia filifolia (Asteraceae) shrublands located in the southern Great Plains of North America to determine the effect of restoring the fire-grazing interaction on vegetation structure. Data were collected for 3years in replicated pastures grazed by cattle Bos taurus where the fire-grazing interaction had been restored (fire and grazing=treatment pastures) and in pastures that were grazed but remained unburned (grazing only, no fire=control pastures). The effect of the fire-grazing interaction on heterogeneity (variance) of vegetation structure was assessed at scales from 12??5m 2 to 609ha. Most measurements of vegetation structure within treatment pastures differed from control pastures for 1-3years after being burned but were thereafter similar to the values found in unburned control pastures. Treatment pastures were characterized by a lower amount of total heterogeneity and a lower amount of heterogeneity through time. Heterogeneity of vegetation structure tended to decrease as the scale of measurement increased in both treatment and control pastures. There was deviation from this trend, however, in the treatment pastures that exhibited much higher heterogeneity at the patch scale (mean patch size=202ha) of measurement, the scale at which patch fires were conducted. Synthesis and applications.Vegetation structure in A. filifolia shrublands of our study was readily altered by the fire-grazing interaction but also demonstrated substantial resilience to these effects. The fire-grazing interaction also changed the total amount of heterogeneity characterizing this

  18. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Artemisia annua callus for inhibiting stem-end bacteria in cut carnation flowers.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qian Hua; Zheng, Li Ping; Zhao, Pei Fei; Wang, Jian Wen

    2017-03-01

    A biological method for synthesising silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was developed using the callus extracts from Artemisia annua L. under sunlight at 25,000 lx. The AgNPs were characterised using transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The AgNPs were mostly spherical with the size of 2.1 to 45.2 nm (average 10.9 nm). Pulse treatments of AgNPs at 125, 250 and 500 mg/l for 1 h extended vase life of cut carnation ( Dianthus caryophyllus cv. Green Land) flowers. Four dominant bacteria strains Arthrobacter arilaitensis, Kocuria sp., Staphylococcus equorum and Microbacterium oxydans were isolated from the stem-ends of cut D. caryophyllus flowers. AgNP pulse inhibited significantly bacterial growth in vase solution and cut stem ends during all of the vase period. The bacteria related blockage in the stem-ends was significantly alleviated by AgNP pulse because of its higher antibacterial efficacy against the dominant bacteria. In addition, ethylene release of cut carnation flowers was inhibited in response to AgNP pulse. This is the first time that the biologically synthesised AgNPs could be applied as a promising preservative agent for cut carnation flowers.

  19. Optimization of artemisinin extraction from Artemisia annua L. with supercritical carbon dioxide + ethanol using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Ciftci, Ozan Nazim; Cahyadi, Jessica; Guigard, Selma E; Saldaña, Marleny D A

    2018-05-13

    Malaria is a high priority life-threatening public health concern in developing countries, and therefore there is a growing interest to obtain artemisinin for the production of artemisinin-based combination therapy products. In this study, artemisinin was extracted from the Artemisia annua L. plant using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2 ) modified with ethanol. Response surface methodology based on central composite rotatable design was employed to investigate and optimize the extraction conditions of pressure (9.9-30 MPa), temperature (33-67°C), and co-solvent (ethanol, 0-12.6 wt.%). Optimum SC-CO 2 extraction conditions were found to be 30 MPa and 33°C without ethanol. Under optimized conditions, the predicted artemisinin yield was 1.09% whereas the experimental value was 0.71 ± 0.07%. Soxhlet extraction with hexane resulted in higher artemisinin yields and there was no significant difference in the purity of the extracts obtained with SC-CO 2 and Soxhlet extractions. Results indicated that SC-CO 2 and SC-CO 2 +ethanol extraction is a promising alternative for the extraction of artemisinin to eliminate the use of organic solvents, such as hexane, and produce extracts that can be used for the production of antimalarial products. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Mode of complement activation by acidic heteroglycans from the leaves of Artemisia princeps PAMP.

    PubMed

    Yamada, H; Nagai, T; Cyong, J C; Otsuka, Y

    1991-08-01

    The mode of action of the anti-complementary acidic heteroglycans, AAF-IIb-2 and IIb-3 which consisted of rhamnogalacturonan core and arabinogalactan moieties, purified from the leaves of Artemisia princeps PAMP (Japanese name = Gaiyo) were investigated. The anti-complementary activities of AAF-IIb-2 and IIb-3 were reduced partially in the absence of Ca2+ ions. A marked consumption of C4 was observed to have occurred when serum was incubated with both polysaccharides in the presence of Ca2+ ions. AAF-IIb-2 showed more potent C4 consumption than IIb-3. After the incubation of the serum with AAF-IIb-2 in the absence of Ca2+ ions, a cleavage of C3 in the serum was detected by immunoelectrophoresis. AAF-IIb-2 showed more significant consumption of the complement than IIb-3 when rabbit erythrocytes were used in the assay system in the absence of Ca2+ ions. These results indicate that AAF-IIb-2 activates the complement via both the alternative and classical pathways, whereas IIb-3 mainly activates the complement via the classical pathway. The absorption of serum with Protein A-Sepharose results in a decrease of the activity of AAF-IIb-2 and IIb-3. However, the decrease of the activity was restored by the replacement of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) fraction after its recovery from the Protein A-Sepharose. These results suggest that IgG dependent mechanisms are both involved in the anti-complementary activity of AAF-IIb-2 and IIb-3.

  1. [Stability analysis of reference gene based on real-time PCR in Artemisia annua under cadmium treatment].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang-Yun; Mo, Ge; Wang, Sheng; Tang, Jin-Fu; Yue, Hong; Huang, Lu-Qi; Shao, Ai-Juan; Guo, Lan-Ping

    2014-03-01

    In this study, Actin, 18S rRNA, PAL, GAPDH and CPR of Artemisia annua were selected as candidate reference genes, and their gene-specific primers for real-time PCR were designed, then geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, Delta CT and RefFinder were used to evaluate their expression stability in the leaves of A. annua under treatment of different concentrations of Cd, with the purpose of finding a reliable reference gene to ensure the reliability of gene-expression analysis. The results showed that there were some significant differences among the candidate reference genes under different treatments and the order of expression stability of candidate reference gene was Actin > 18S rRNA > PAL > GAPDH > CPR. These results suggested that Actin, 18S rRNA and PAL could be used as ideal reference genes of gene expression analysis in A. annua and multiple internal control genes were adopted for results calibration. In addition, differences in expression stability of candidate reference genes in the leaves of A. annua under the same concentrations of Cd were observed, which suggested that the screening of candidate reference genes was needed even under the same treatment. To our best knowledge, this study for the first time provided the ideal reference genes under Cd treatment in the leaves of A. annua and offered reference for the gene expression analysis of A. annua under other conditions.

  2. Eupafolin, a flavonoid isolated from Artemisia princeps, induced apoptosis in human cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyung-Sook; Choi, Jung-Hye; Back, Nam-In; Choi, Myung-Sook; Kang, Eun-Kyung; Chung, Hae-Gon; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2010-09-01

    Although eupafolin, a flavone found in Artemisia princeps Pampanini, has been shown to inhibit the growth of several human cancer cells, its mode of action is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the pro-apoptotic activities of eupafolin in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. It was found that eupafolin induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, as evidenced by DNA fragmentation and the accumulation of positive cells for annexin V. In addition, eupafolin triggered the activations of caspases-3, -6, -7, -8, and -9 and the cleavages of their substrates, such as, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and lamin A/C. Furthermore, treatment with eupafolin resulted in a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)), increased the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol, and altered the expression levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family proteins. Interestingly, caspase-8, an initiator caspase, was activated after the loss of DeltaPsi(m) and the activations of caspases-3 and -9. Moreover, treatment with z-DEVD-fmk (a specific caspase-3 inhibitor) and the overexpression of Bcl-2 prevented eupafolin-stimulated caspase-8 activation. Altogether, these results suggest that the eupafolin-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells is mediated by caspase-dependent pathways, involving caspases-3, -9, and -8, which are initiated by the Bcl-2-dependent loss of DeltaPsi(m).

  3. How the Plant Temperature Links to the Air Temperature in the Desert Plant Artemisia ordosica.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming-Han; Ding, Guo-Dong; Gao, Guang-Lei; Sun, Bao-Ping; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Wan, Li; Wang, De-Ying; Gui, Zi-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Plant temperature (Tp) is an important indicator of plant health. To determine the dynamics of plant temperature and self-cooling ability of the plant, we measured Tp in Artemisia ordosica in July, in the Mu Us Desert of Northwest China. Related factors were also monitored to investigate their effects on Tp, including environmental factors, such as air temperature (Ta), relative humidity, wind speed; and physiological factors, such as leaf water potential, sap flow, and water content. The results indicate that: 1) Tp generally changes in conjunction with Ta mainly, and varies with height and among the plant organs. Tp in the young branches is most constant, while it is the most sensitive in the leaves. 2) Correlations between Tp and environmental factors show that Tp is affected mainly by Ta. 3) The self-cooling ability of the plant was effective by midday, with Tp being lower than Ta. 4) Increasing sap flow and leaf water potential showed that transpiration formed part of the mechanism that supported self-cooling. Increased in water conductance and specific heat at midday may be additional factors that contribute to plant cooling ability. Therefore, our results confirmed plant self-cooling ability. The response to high temperatures is regulated by both transpiration speed and an increase in stem water conductance. This study provides quantitative data for plant management in terms of temperature control. Moreover, our findings will assist species selection with taking plant temperature as an index.

  4. Artemisia annua mutant impaired in artemisinin synthesis demonstrates importance of nonenzymatic conversion in terpenoid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Czechowski, Tomasz; Larson, Tony R; Catania, Theresa M; Harvey, David; Brown, Geoffrey D; Graham, Ian A

    2016-12-27

    Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone produced by Artemisia annua glandular secretory trichomes, is the active ingredient in the most effective treatment for malaria currently available. We identified a mutation that disrupts the amorpha-4,11-diene C-12 oxidase (CYP71AV1) enzyme, responsible for a series of oxidation reactions in the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway. Detailed metabolic studies of cyp71av1-1 revealed that the consequence of blocking the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway is the redirection of sesquiterpene metabolism to a sesquiterpene epoxide, which we designate arteannuin X. This sesquiterpene approaches half the concentration observed for artemisinin in wild-type plants, demonstrating high-flux plasticity in A. annua glandular trichomes and their potential as factories for the production of novel alternate sesquiterpenes at commercially viable levels. Detailed metabolite profiling of leaf maturation time-series and precursor-feeding experiments revealed that nonenzymatic conversion steps are central to both artemisinin and arteannuin X biosynthesis. In particular, feeding studies using 13 C-labeled dihydroartemisinic acid (DHAA) provided strong evidence that the final steps in the synthesis of artemisinin are nonenzymatic in vivo. Our findings also suggest that the specialized subapical cavity of glandular secretory trichomes functions as a location for both the chemical conversion and the storage of phytotoxic compounds, including artemisinin. We conclude that metabolic engineering to produce high yields of novel secondary compounds such as sesquiterpenes is feasible in complex glandular trichomes. Such systems offer advantages over single-cell microbial hosts for production of toxic natural products.

  5. Efficacy of Compounds Isolated from the Essential Oil of Artemisia lavandulaefolia in Control of the Cigarette Beetle, Lasioderma serricorne.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Zou, Kexing; Zhang, Wenjuan; Guo, Shanshan; Liu, Hong; Sun, Jiansheng; Li, Jigang; Huang, Dongye; Wu, Yan; Du, Shushan; Borjigidai, Almaz

    2018-02-07

    To develop natural product resources to control cigarette beetles ( Lasioderma serricorne ), the essential oil from Artemisia lavandulaefolia (Compositae) was investigated. Oil was extracted by hydrodistillation of the above-ground portion of A. lavandulaefolia and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Extracted essential oil and three compounds isolated from the oil were then evaluated in laboratory assays to determine the fumigant, contact, and repellent efficacy against the stored-products' pest, L. serricorne . The bioactive constituents from the oil extracts were identified as chamazulene (40.4%), 1,8-cineole (16.0%), and β-caryophyllene (11.5%). In the insecticidal activity assay, the adults of L. serricorne were susceptible to fumigant action of the essential oil and 1,8-cineole, with LC 50 values of 31.81 and 5.18 mg/L air. The essential oil, 1,8-cineole, chamazulene, and β-caryophyllene exhibited contact toxicity with LD 50 values of 13.51, 15.58, 15.18 and 35.52 μg/adult, respectively. During the repellency test, the essential oil and chamazulene had repellency approximating the positive control. The results indicated that chamazulene was abundant in A. lavandulaefolia essential oil and was toxic to cigarette beetles.

  6. The Flavonoid Jaceosidin from Artemisia princeps Induces Apoptotic Cell Death and Inhibits the Akt Pathway in Oral Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Hyung Joon; Jeong, Seung-Hwa; Kim, Jiyeon; Jeong, Sung-Hee; Kim, Gyoo Cheon; Hwang, Dae-Seok; Kim, Uk-Kyu; Ryu, Mi Heon

    2018-01-01

    Jaceosidin is a single compound from the Japanese mugwort Artemisia princeps , which is used as a food and a traditional medicinal herb. A. princeps extracts and flavonoid components have been shown to have antihyperglycaemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Although the anticancer properties of these extracts were recently demonstrated, the related mechanisms have not been characterised. In this study, we investigated the effects of jaceosidin in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells and initially showed selective suppression of proliferation (IC 50 = 82.1  μ M in HSC-3 cells and 97.5  μ M in Ca9.22 cells) and accumulation of cells at the sub-G1 stage of the cell cycle. In addition, jaceosidin increased cleavage of caspase-9 and caspase-3 in OSCC cells, although caspase-8 was not detected. In further experiments, jaceosidin downregulated Akt phosphorylation and ectopic activation of Akt blocked the antiproliferative effects of jaceosidin. Finally, we showed that jaceosidin has no effects on HaCaT normal epithelial cell viability, indicating selective chemotherapeutic potential of jaceosidin and that tumour-specific downregulation of Akt increases apoptosis and inhibits growth in OSCC cells.

  7. The Flavonoid Jaceosidin from Artemisia princeps Induces Apoptotic Cell Death and Inhibits the Akt Pathway in Oral Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Hyung Joon; Jeong, Seung-Hwa; Kim, Jiyeon; Jeong, Sung-Hee; Kim, Gyoo Cheon; Hwang, Dae-Seok; Kim, Uk-Kyu

    2018-01-01

    Jaceosidin is a single compound from the Japanese mugwort Artemisia princeps, which is used as a food and a traditional medicinal herb. A. princeps extracts and flavonoid components have been shown to have antihyperglycaemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Although the anticancer properties of these extracts were recently demonstrated, the related mechanisms have not been characterised. In this study, we investigated the effects of jaceosidin in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells and initially showed selective suppression of proliferation (IC50 = 82.1 μM in HSC-3 cells and 97.5 μM in Ca9.22 cells) and accumulation of cells at the sub-G1 stage of the cell cycle. In addition, jaceosidin increased cleavage of caspase-9 and caspase-3 in OSCC cells, although caspase-8 was not detected. In further experiments, jaceosidin downregulated Akt phosphorylation and ectopic activation of Akt blocked the antiproliferative effects of jaceosidin. Finally, we showed that jaceosidin has no effects on HaCaT normal epithelial cell viability, indicating selective chemotherapeutic potential of jaceosidin and that tumour-specific downregulation of Akt increases apoptosis and inhibits growth in OSCC cells. PMID:29861773

  8. [Allelopathic effects of Artemisia sacrorum population in typical steppe based on niche theory].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Xie, Yong-Sheng; Cheng, Ji-Min; She, Xiao-Yan

    2012-03-01

    By using modified Levins niche width index and Pianka niche overlap index, this paper analyzed the ecological competition between constructive and dominant species in a typical steppe. The stem- and leaf extracts from the constructive species (Artemisia sacrorum) were utilized to study their allelopathic potential on the seed germination and plant growth of the dominant species (Stipa bungeana, Thymus mongolicus, S. grandis, and Leymus secalinus), and the ecological position of A. sacrorum in the steppe succession. In the steppe, S. bungeana had the widest niche width (0.99), followed by T. mongolicus (0.94), A. sacrorum (0.82), S. grandis (0.76), and L. secalinus (0.73). The niche overlap value between A. sacrorum and S. bungeana, S. bungeana and T. mongolicus, T. mongolicus and S. grandis, and A. sacrorum and T. mongolicus was 0.90, 0.95, 0.94, and 0.86, respectively. The allelopathic effects of A. sacrorum extracts varied with their concentration. For the seed germination, root growth, and shoot growth of the dominant species, A. sacrorum extracts showed a trend of promoting at low concentrations and inhibiting at high concentrations. The extracts of A. sacrorum had a stronger promotion effect on the root growth of S. bungeana than on that of T. mongolicus, but a stronger inhibition effect on the shoot growth of T. mongolicus than on that of S. bungeana. Methanol extracts had stronger allelopathic effects than aqueous extracts. The high niche overlap between A. sacrorum and S. bungeana, and T. mongolicus and S. grandis indicated that the steppe community would continue succession to S. bungeana, while A. sacrorum population was only an important transitional stage during the succession. The allelopathic effect of A. sacrorum played a driving role in the succession process.

  9. Extraction Optimization for Obtaining Artemisia capillaris Extract with High Anti-Inflammatory Activity in RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Mi; Jeong, Seung-Weon; Kim, Bum-Keun; Kim, Jong-Chan

    2015-01-01

    Plant extracts have been used as herbal medicines to treat a wide variety of human diseases. We used response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the Artemisia capillaris Thunb. extraction parameters (extraction temperature, extraction time, and ethanol concentration) for obtaining an extract with high anti-inflammatory activity at the cellular level. The optimum ranges for the extraction parameters were predicted by superimposing 4-dimensional response surface plots of the lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced PGE2 and NO production and by cytotoxicity of A. capillaris Thunb. extracts. The ranges of extraction conditions used for determining the optimal conditions were extraction temperatures of 57–65°C, ethanol concentrations of 45–57%, and extraction times of 5.5–6.8 h. On the basis of the results, a model with a central composite design was considered to be accurate and reliable for predicting the anti-inflammation activity of extracts at the cellular level. These approaches can provide a logical starting point for developing novel anti-inflammatory substances from natural products and will be helpful for the full utilization of A. capillaris Thunb. The crude extract obtained can be used in some A. capillaris Thunb.-related health care products. PMID:26075271

  10. Anti-inflammatory effect and modulation of cytochrome P450 activities by Artemisia annua tea infusions in human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Melillo de Magalhães, Pedro; Dupont, Isabelle; Hendrickx, Aurélie; Joly, Aurélie; Raas, Thomas; Dessy, Stéphanie; Sergent, Thérèse; Schneider, Yves-Jacques

    2012-09-15

    In an attempt to understand the beneficial health effects of Artemisia annua other than its anti-malaria properties, extracts from different cultivars prepared as tea infusions were investigated using Caco-2 cells on the intestinal inflammation and cytochrome P450 (CYP) activities. The characterisation of their phenolic compound (PC) profile revealed rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids as the main PCs. The extracts, assayed on Caco-2 cells at a plausible intestinal concentration, significantly decreased the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-8 and IL-6. This effect could be attributable at least to their content in rosmarinic acid, detected as a potent anti-inflammatory compound. The extracts also inhibited the activity of CYP3A4, whose expression was induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), and of CYP1A1, induced by benzo(a)pyrene. Our results highlight the advantage of drinking A. annua infusions for their potent anti-inflammatory effect, linked to PC content, which could synergise their antimalarial activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Repellent and insecticidal activities of essential oils from Artemisia princeps and Cinnamomum camphora and their effect on seed germination of wheat and broad bean.

    PubMed

    Liu, C H; Mishra, A K; Tan, R X; Tang, C; Yang, H; Shen, Y F

    2006-10-01

    Repellent and insecticidal activities of essential oils extracted from leaves of Artemisia princeps Pamp and seeds of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl. against storage pests Sitophillus oryzae L. and Bruchus rugimanus Bohem were investigated. Results showed that the two individual oils displayed good, but their mixture (1:1) exhibited much better repellent activities at concentrations from 250 to 1000 microg g(-1) and insecticidal actions at concentrations 1000 microg g(-1) against the test beetles S. oryzae and B. rugimanus. Oils from A. princeps and C. camphora applied individually were significantly toxic to seed germination of wheat at 500 microg ml(-1). However, no toxic effects were found when the two oils were mixed (1:1 w/w) at the same concentration. These observations indicated that the mixture of the two plant-derived oils had a synergic effect and could be used in the control of storage pests.

  12. Metabolic analysis of the increased adventitious rooting mutant of Artemisia annua reveals a role for the plant monoterpene borneol in adventitious root formation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Na; Liu, Shuoqian; Li, Juan; Xu, Wenwen; Yuan, Lin; Huang, Jianan; Liu, Zhonghua

    2014-08-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation is a critical process for plant clonal propagation. The role of plant secondary metabolites in AR formation is still poorly understood. Chemical and physical mutagenesis in combination with somatic variation were performed on Artemisia annua in order to obtain a mutant with changes in adventitious rooting and composition of plant secondary metabolites. Metabolic and morphological analyses of the iar (increased adventitious rooting) mutant coupled with in vitro assays were used to elucidate the relationship between plant secondary metabolites and AR formation. The only detected differences between the iar mutant and wild-type were rooting capacity and borneol/camphor content. Consistent with this, treatment with borneol in vitro promoted adventitious rooting in wild-type. The enhanced rooting did not continue upon removal of borneol. The iar mutant displayed no significant differences in AR formation upon treatment with camphor. Together, our results suggest that borneol promotes adventitious rooting whereas camphor has no effect on AR formation. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  13. Artemisia annua mutant impaired in artemisinin synthesis demonstrates importance of nonenzymatic conversion in terpenoid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Czechowski, Tomasz; Larson, Tony R.; Catania, Theresa M.; Harvey, David; Brown, Geoffrey D.; Graham, Ian A.

    2016-01-01

    Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone produced by Artemisia annua glandular secretory trichomes, is the active ingredient in the most effective treatment for malaria currently available. We identified a mutation that disrupts the amorpha-4,11-diene C-12 oxidase (CYP71AV1) enzyme, responsible for a series of oxidation reactions in the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway. Detailed metabolic studies of cyp71av1-1 revealed that the consequence of blocking the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway is the redirection of sesquiterpene metabolism to a sesquiterpene epoxide, which we designate arteannuin X. This sesquiterpene approaches half the concentration observed for artemisinin in wild-type plants, demonstrating high-flux plasticity in A. annua glandular trichomes and their potential as factories for the production of novel alternate sesquiterpenes at commercially viable levels. Detailed metabolite profiling of leaf maturation time-series and precursor-feeding experiments revealed that nonenzymatic conversion steps are central to both artemisinin and arteannuin X biosynthesis. In particular, feeding studies using 13C-labeled dihydroartemisinic acid (DHAA) provided strong evidence that the final steps in the synthesis of artemisinin are nonenzymatic in vivo. Our findings also suggest that the specialized subapical cavity of glandular secretory trichomes functions as a location for both the chemical conversion and the storage of phytotoxic compounds, including artemisinin. We conclude that metabolic engineering to produce high yields of novel secondary compounds such as sesquiterpenes is feasible in complex glandular trichomes. Such systems offer advantages over single-cell microbial hosts for production of toxic natural products. PMID:27930305

  14. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Artemisia selengensis Turcz and its antioxidant and anticancer activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Lu, He Dong; Muḥammad, Umair; Han, Jin Zhi; Wei, Zhao Hui; Lu, Zhao Xin; Bie, Xiao Mei; Lu, Feng Xia

    2016-02-01

    Artemisia selengensis Turcz (AST) is a perennial herb with therapeutic and economic applications in China. The effects of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) parameters upon extraction yield (EY%), antioxidant and antitumor activities of the polysaccharides extracts were studied by using a factorial design and response surface methodology. The optimal conditions determined were as: ultrasonic power 146 W, extraction time 14.5 min. and extraction temperature 60 °C. The average molecular weights of two homogeneous polysaccharides (APS1 and APS2) purified by DEAE cellulose-52 and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography were 125.4 and 184.1 kDa, respectively. Monosaccharide analysis showed that APS1 and APS2 were composed of five common monomers i.e., galactose, mannose, arabinose, xylose and rhamnose and one different monomer glucose and galacturonic acid respectively, with a most abundant part in molar % of APS1 and APS2 were glucose (83.01 %) and galacturonic acid (48.87 %) while least were xylose (0.80 %) and mannose (1.73 %) respectively. The antioxidant properties were determined by evaluating DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power which indicated both APS1 and APS2 showed strong scavenging activities and anticancer activities on HT-29, BGC823 and antitumor activity on HepG-2. As UAE improved the polysaccharides yield than CSE, meanwhile, no significant difference of polysaccharides chemical compositions. Therefore, the present study suggests that the consumption of AST leaves may beneficial for the treatment of many diseases.

  15. Water relations and photosynthesis along an elevation gradient for Artemisia tridentata during an historic drought.

    PubMed

    Reed, Charlotte C; Loik, Michael E

    2016-05-01

    Quantifying the variation in plant-water relations and photosynthesis over environmental gradients and during unique events can provide a better understanding of vegetation patterns in a future climate. We evaluated the hypotheses that photosynthesis and plant water potential would correspond to gradients in precipitation and soil moisture during a lengthy drought, and that experimental water additions would increase photosynthesis for the widespread evergreen shrub Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana. We quantified abiotic conditions and physiological characteristics for control and watered plants at 2135, 2315, and 2835 m near Mammoth Lakes, CA, USA, at the ecotone of the Sierra Nevada and Great Basin ecoregions. Snowfall, total precipitation, and soil moisture increased with elevation, but air temperature and soil N content did not. Plant water potential (Ψ), stomatal conductance (g s), maximum photosynthetic rate (A max), carboxylation rate (V cmax), and electron transport rate (J max) all significantly increased with elevations. Addition of water increased Ψ, g s, J max, and A max only at the lowest elevation; g s contributed about 30 % of the constraints on photosynthesis at the lowest elevation and 23 % at the other two elevations. The physiology of this foundational shrub species was quite resilient to this 1-in-1200 year drought. However, plant water potential and photosynthesis corresponded to differences in soil moisture across the gradient. Soil re-wetting in early summer increased water potential and photosynthesis at the lowest elevation. Effects on water relations and photosynthesis of this widespread, cold desert shrub species may be disproportionate at lower elevations as drought length increases in a future climate.

  16. Allohumibacter endophyticus gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the root of wild Artemisia princeps (mugwort).

    PubMed

    Ri Kim, Yu; Kim, Tae-Su; Han, Ji-Hye; Joung, Yochan; Park, Jisun; Kim, Seung Bum

    2016-04-01

    A novel actinobacterium designated strain MWE-A11T was isolated from the root of wild Artemisia princeps (mugwort). The isolate was aerobic, Gram-stain-positive and short rod-shaped, and the colonies were yellow and circular with entire margin. Strain MWE-A11T grew at 15-37 °C and pH 6.0-8.0. The predominant isoprenoid quinones were MK-11 and MK-10. The predominant fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C16:0, and the DNA G+C content was 68.8 mol%. The main polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified glycolipid. The peptidoglycan contained 2,4-diaminobutyric acid as the diagnostic diamino acid, and the acyl type was glycolyl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons indicated that strain MWE-A11T was affiliated with the family Microbacteriaceae, and was most closely related to the type strains of Humibacter antri (96.4% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Herbiconiux moechotypicola (96.3%), Leifsonia soli (96.3%), Leifsonia lichenia (96.2%), Leifsonia xyli subsp. cynodontis (96.1%), Microbacterium testaceum (96.0%) and Humibacter albus (96.0%). However, the combination of chemotaxonomic properties clearly distinguished strain MWE-A11T from the related taxa at genus level. Accordingly, Allohumibacter endophyticus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate a new member of the family Microbacteriaceae. The type strain of the type species is MWE-A11T (=JCM 19371T=KCTC 29232T).

  17. TRICHOME AND ARTEMISININ REGULATOR 1 Is Required for Trichome Development and Artemisinin Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hexin; Xiao, Ling; Gao, Shouhong; Li, Qing; Chen, Junfeng; Xiao, Ying; Ji, Qian; Chen, Ruibing; Chen, Wansheng; Zhang, Lei

    2015-09-01

    Trichomes, small protrusions on the surface of many plant species, can produce and store various secondary metabolic products. Artemisinin, the most famous and potent medicine for malaria, is synthesized, stored, and secreted by Artemisia annua trichomes. However, the molecular basis regulating the biosynthesis of artemisinin and the development of trichomes in A. annua remains poorly understood. Here, we report that an AP2 transcription factor, TRICHOME AND ARTEMISININ REGULATOR 1 (TAR1), plays crucial roles in regulating the development of trichomes and the biosynthesis of artemisinin in A. annua. TAR1, which encodes a protein specially located in the nucleus, is mainly expressed in young leaves, flower buds, and some trichomes. In TAR1-RNAi lines, the morphology of trichomes and the composition of cuticular wax were altered, and the artemisinin content was dramatically reduced, which could be significantly increased by TAR1 oeverexpression. Expression levels of several key genes that are involved in artemisinin biosynthesis were altered when TAR1 was silenced or overexpressed. By the electrophoretic mobility shift, yeast one-hybrid and transient transformation β-glucuronidase assays, we showed that ADS and CYP71AV1, two key genes in the biosynthesis pathway of artemisinin, are likely the direct targets of TAR1. Taken together, our results indicate that TAR1 is a key component of the molecular network regulating trichome development and artemisinin biosynthesis in A. annua. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Traditional medicine in Sakarya province (Turkey) and antimicrobial activities of selected species.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Ergin; Sariyar, Günay; Adsersen, Anne; Karakoc, Berna; Otük, Gülten; Oktayoglu, Ercan; Pirildar, Sevda

    2004-12-01

    Traditional medicine in North-West of Turkey (Sakarya province) were studied during a 2 months field study by interviewing local informants from several villages. Plant species used to treat infections were tested for antimicrobial activity. Information was collected for 46 plant species from 30 families and for 5 animal species. Twenty four of the plant species were cultivated. Most used families were Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Lamiaceae and Rosaceae and the most used plants were Artemisia absinthium, Equisetum telmateia, Lavandula stoechas, Melissa officinalis, Tussilago farfara and Urtica dioica. A total of 139 medicinal uses were obtained. Plants are used mainly for infectious diseases (18%), for neurological and psychological disorders (13.7%), cardiovascular disorders (13%), skin disorders (12.2%) and respiratory disorders (10.1%). Extracts were tested in vitro for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 65538, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 4352, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 1539, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans ATCC 10231, using microbroth dilution technique according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). This research showed that Arum maculatum, Datura stramonium, Geranium asphodeloides and Equisetum telmateia petroleum ether extracts had MIC values of 39.1 microg/ml, 78.1 microg/ml, 78.1 microg/ml and 39.1 microg/ml, respectively against Staphylococcus epidermidis. Datura stramonium petroleum ether extract had a MIC value of 39.1 microg/ml against Escherichia coli and Trachystemon orientalis ethanol extract had a MIC value of 39.1 microg/ml against Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial activity of Arum maculatum, Equisetum telmateia, Geranium asphodeloides, Plantago intermedia, Senecio vulgaris and Trachystemon orientalis has been reported here for the first time.

  19. Extraction, fractionation and re-fractionation of Artemisia nilagirica for anticancer activity and HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS determination.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Neha; Meena, Sanjeev; Shukla, Vijaya; Chaturvedi, Priyank; Kumar, Brijesh; Datta, Dipak; Arya, K R

    2018-03-01

    Medicinal plants used in traditional medicines are affordable, easily accessible, safer, less toxic and considered as a rich or efficient source of bioactive molecules for modern therapeutics. Artemisia nilagirica (AR) has a long history of use in Indian traditional medicine to combat a wide variety of diseases including cancer. Considering the vast potential of traditional healing plants to deliver safer, less toxic and efficient chemotherapeutics, we have examined anticancer activity of ethanolic extract, bioactive fractions and sub-fractions of AR against different human cancer cell lines along with their phytochemical analysis to understand the insights of novel anticancer activities for further preclinical studies. Fresh plant material of AR was procured from the wild, dried and ground. The grinded materials was extracted in ethanol (AR-01) and fractionated into butanol (AR-02), ethyl acetate (AR-03), hexane (AR-04) and water (AR-05). The cytotoxicity was evaluated against three different human cancer cell lines, i.e. colon (DLD-1), lung (A-549), and breast (MCF-7) using Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay along with non-cancerous VERO cells as control and doxorubicin (DOX) as positive control. As we observed strong cytotoxicity of AR-03 and AR-04 fractions against tested cells and marked cytotoxic effects particularly in colon cancer cell lines, we further re-fractionated, AR-03 into (AR-03A, AR-03B, AR-03C, AR-03D, AR-03E) and AR-04 into (AR-04A, AR-04B, AR-04C) sub-fractions by column chromatography and investigated against the same panel of cell lines in addition to one more colon cancer cell line (HT-29). Phytochemical analysis was performed through HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS fragmentation. Ethyl acetate (AR-03) and hexane (AR-04) fractions were found to be the most cytotoxic against all the tested cell lines. Further, AR-03E and AR-04A sub-fractions were found more specific cytotoxic selectively against DLD-1 cancer cell lines at 100µg/ml concentration. HPLC

  20. Eupatilin, isolated from Artemisia princeps Pampanini, enhances hepatic glucose metabolism and pancreatic beta-cell function in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Young-Jin; Jung, Un Ju; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Hye-Jin; Jeon, Seon-Min; Park, Yong Bok; Chung, Hae-Gon; Baek, Nam-In; Lee, Kyung Tae; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2008-10-01

    Eupatilin (5,7-dihydroxy-3',4',6-trimethoxyflavone) was isolated from Artemisia princeps to investigate the dose-response effects on blood glucose regulation and pancreatic beta-cell function in type 2 diabetic mice. Db/db mice were divided into control (eupatilin-free, AIN-76 standard diet), low-Eupa (0.005g/100g diet) and high-Eupa (0.02g/100g diet) groups. The supplementation of eupatilin for 6 weeks significantly lowered fasting blood glucose concentration while it increased hepatic glycogen content. In particular, high-Eupa reduced hemoglobin A(1c) and plasma glucagon levels along with a simultaneous increase in plasma insulin and adiponectin levels. The supplementation of eupatilin significantly lowered hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activities, while it increased glucokinase activity in the liver. The pancreatic insulin concentration was higher in the eupatilin-supplemented groups. Also the pancreatic insulin concentration of eupatilin groups was higher than the control group. These results suggest that eupatilin played the role of an antidiabetic functional component in A. princeps by enhancing hepatic and plasma glucose metabolism as well as by increasing insulin secretion in type 2 diabetic mice.

  1. A new irregular monoterpene acetate along with eight known compounds with antifungal potential from the aerial parts of Artemisia incisa Pamp (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mamoon Ur; Alamzeb, Muhammad; Ali, Saqib; Shah, Zafar Ali; Naz, Ishrat; Khan, Ashfaq Ahmad; Semaan, Dima; Khan, Mohammad Rafiullah

    2017-02-01

    A new compound named as santolinylol-3-acetate (4-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methylhexa-1,5-dien-3-yl acetate) (3), along with seven known compounds; linoleic acid (1), benzoic acid (2), santolinylol (4), ethyl-(E)-p-hydroxy cinnamate (5), scopoletin (6), esculetin (7) isofraxidin (8) and eupatorin (9), were isolated from the aerial parts (ethanolic extract) of endangered species: Artemisia incisa Pamp (Asteraceae). The compounds' structures were determined through modern spectroscopic techniques, and comparison of data (physicochemical constants) with the literature. The relative stereochemistry of santolinylol-3-acetate (3) was determined by comparing its data of NOESY, and specific rotation with its diol analogue; santolinylol (4), isolated from the same plant; A. incisa. The results of the antifungal activity showed that coumarins are as whole less active compounds. Compounds 3 (25 and 300 μg/mL), and 4 (12.5 and 300 μg/mL), showed good activities against Candida albicans, and Aspergillus flavus, respectively, which justifies A. incisa as a traditional medicine for curing the said fungal infections.

  2. Effect of isosecotanapartholide isolated from Artemisia princeps Pampanini on IL‑33 production and STAT‑1 activation in HaCaT keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang Taek; Jang, Yu-Jin; Kwon, Tae-Rin; Im, Songi; Kim, Soon Re; Seok, Joon; Kim, Gun-Yong; Kim, Young-Heui; Mun, Seog Kyun; Kim, Beom Joon

    2017-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anti‑inflammatory effect and mechanism of action of isosecotanapartholide (ISTP), isolated from Artemisia princeps Pampanini extract (APE). The effects of ISTP and APE on the proliferation of human keratinocytes following stimulation by tumor necrosis factor‑α/interferon‑γ were assessed. ISTP and APE downregulated the expression levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription‑1 (STAT‑1), and reduced interleukin‑33 (IL‑33) production. ISTP and APE inhibited the mRNA expression levels of thymus and activation‑regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) in a dose‑dependent manner. Western blot analysis demonstrated that ISTP and APE dose‑dependently inhibited protein expression levels of intercellular adhesion molecule‑1 and phosphorylation of STAT‑1. The results of the present study indicate that ISTP may inhibit TARC/CCL17 production in human epidermal keratinocytes via the STAT‑1 signaling pathway and may be associated with the inhibition of IL‑33 production. The current study indicated that ISTP is an active component in APE and may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders.

  3. Anti-Plasmodial Polyvalent Interactions in Artemisia annua L. Aqueous Extract – Possible Synergistic and Resistance Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Suberu, John O.; Gorka, Alexander P.; Jacobs, Lauren; Roepe, Paul D.; Sullivan, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Artemisia annua hot water infusion (tea) has been used in in vitro experiments against P. falciparum malaria parasites to test potency relative to equivalent pure artemisinin. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometric analyses were employed to determine the metabolite profile of tea including the concentrations of artemisinin (47.5±0.8 mg L-1), dihydroartemisinic acid (70.0±0.3 mg L-1), arteannuin B (1.3±0.0 mg L-1), isovitexin (105.0±7.2 mg L-1) and a range of polyphenolic acids. The tea extract, purified compounds from the extract, and the combination of artemisinin with the purified compounds were tested against chloroquine sensitive and chloroquine resistant strains of P. falciparum using the DNA-intercalative SYBR Green I assay. The results of these in vitro tests and of isobologram analyses of combination effects showed mild to strong antagonistic interactions between artemisinin and the compounds (9-epi-artemisinin and artemisitene) extracted from A. annua with significant (IC50 <1 μM) anti-plasmodial activities for the combination range evaluated. Mono-caffeoylquinic acids, tri-caffeoylquinic acid, artemisinic acid and arteannuin B showed additive interaction while rosmarinic acid showed synergistic interaction with artemisinin in the chloroquine sensitive strain at a combination ratio of 1:3 (artemisinin to purified compound). In the chloroquine resistant parasite, using the same ratio, these compounds strongly antagonised artemisinin anti-plasmodial activity with the exception of arteannuin B, which was synergistic. This result would suggest a mechanism targeting parasite resistance defenses for arteannuin B’s potentiation of artemisinin. PMID:24244716

  4. Green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves extract of Artemisia vulgaris and their potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Tahir; Bilal, Muhammad; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Li, Chuanlong

    2017-10-01

    Biosynthesis of nanoparticles from plant extracts is receiving enormous interest due to their abundant availability and a broad spectrum of bioactive reducing metabolites. In this study, the reducing potential of Artemisia vulgaris leaves extract (AVLE) was investigated for synthesizing silver nanoparticles without the addition of any external reducing or capping agent. The appearance of blackish brown color evidenced the complete synthesis of nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscope (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. UV-vis absorption profile of the bio-reduced sample elucidated the main peak around 420nm, which correspond to the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. SEM and AFM analyses confirmed the morphology of the synthesized nanoparticles. Similarly, particles with a distinctive peak of silver were examined with EDX. The average diameter of silver nanoparticles was about 25nm from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). FTIR spectroscopy scrutinized the involvement of various functional groups during nanoparticle synthesis. The green synthesized nanoparticles presented effective antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria than AVLE alone. In-vitro antioxidant assays revealed that silver nanoparticles (AV-AgNPs) exhibited promising antioxidant properties. The nanoparticles also displayed a potent cytotoxic effect against HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines. In conclusion, the results supported the advantages of employing a bio-green approach for developing silver nanoparticles with antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activities in a simple and cost- competitive manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Artemisia asiatica Nakai Attenuates the Expression of Proinflammatory Mediators in Stimulated Macrophages Through Modulation of Nuclear Factor-κB and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Tang, Yujiao; Cha, Kwang-Suk; Choi, Heeri; Lee, Chun Bok; Yoon, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Sang Bae; Kim, Jong-Shik; Kim, Jong Moon; Han, Weon Cheol; Choi, Suck-Jun; Lee, Sangmin; Choi, Eun-Ju; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present study aimed to examine the anti-inflammatory effects and potential mechanism of action of Artemisia asiatica Nakai (A. asiatica Nakai) extract in activated murine macrophages. A. asiatica Nakai extract showed dose-dependent suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 activity. It also showed dose-dependent inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus and as an inhibitor of NF-κB-alpha phosphorylation. The extract's inhibitory effects were found to be mediated through NF-κB inhibition and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 in LPS-stimulated J774A.1 murine macrophages, suggesting a potential mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of A. asiatica Nakai. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the anti-inflammatory effects of A. asiatica Nakai on J774A.1 murine macrophages; these results may help develop functional foods possessing an anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:26061361

  6. Anti-inflammatory effects, nuclear magnetic resonance identification, and high-performance liquid chromatography isolation of the total flavonoids from Artemisia frigida.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinghu; Jin, Jinmei; Dai, Nayintai; Han, Narenchaoketu; Han, Jingjing; Bao, Baiyinmuqier

    2016-04-01

    The aerial parts of Artemisia frigida Willd. are used to treat joint swelling, renal heat, abnormal menstruation, and sore carbuncle. The anti-inflammatory effects of A. frigida have been well-known in folk medicine, suggesting that components extracted from A. frigida could potentially treat inflammatory disease. With the aim of discovering bioactive compounds, in this study, we extracted total flavonoids from the aerial parts of A. frigida and investigated their anti-inflammatory effects against inflammation induced by carrageenan and egg albumin in rats. At the doses studied, total flavonoids (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg) and some isolated compounds (30 mg/kg) showed significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects. According to the high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the total flavonoids from A. frigida, there are five major compounds, namely, 5-hydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxy-7-O-β-d-glucuronide (F1), 5-hydroxy-3',4',5'-trimethoxy-7-O-β-d-glucuronide (F2), 5,7,3'-trihydroxy-6,4'-dimethoxyflavone (F3), 5,3'-dihydroxy-6,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (F4), and 5,3'-dihydroxy-3,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone (F5), which may explain the anti-inflammatory activity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Seed distribution of four co-occurring grasses around Artemisia halodendron shrubs in a sandy habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng-Rui; Zhao, Wen-Zhi; Kang, Ling-Fen; Liu, Ji-Liang; Huang, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Qi

    2009-05-01

    In a natural population of the perennial semi-shrub Artemisia halodendron in a shifting sandy habitat in the Horqin Desert of eastern Inner Mongolia, six isolated adult A. halodendron individuals of similar canopy size were chosen as target plants. The density of seeds in the top 5 cm soil depth around shrubs was measured using transects aligned to the four main wind directions and at different distances from the shrub base on both the windward and leeward sides. The effects of shrub presence on seed distribution of four co-occurring grasses were examined by linking seed distribution to seed traits. Of the four species, Setaris viridis and Eragrostis pilosa had small but similar seed mass, while Chloris virgata and Aristida adscensionis had large but similar seed mass. The species were grouped into two cohorts: small-seeded vs. large-seeded cohorts, and shrub presence effects on seed distribution of both cohorts were examined. We found marked difference in the seed distribution pattern among species, especially between the small-seeded and large-seeded cohorts. The small-seeded cohort had significantly higher seed accumulation on the windward than the leeward sides in the most and least prevailing wind directions and much higher seed accumulation on the leeward than the windward sides in the second and third most prevailing wind directions, while opposite patterns occurred in the large-seeded cohort. Four species also showed marked variation in the seed distribution pattern among transects and between windward and leeward sides of each transect. This study provided further evidence that shrubs embedded in a matrix of herbaceous plants is a key cause of spatial heterogeneity in seed availability of herbaceous species. However, seed distribution responses to the presence of shrubs will vary with species as well as with wind direction, sampling position (windward vs. leeward sides of the shrub) and distance from the shrub.

  8. Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects of Different Extracts of Artemisia turanica Krasch. on K562 and HL-60 Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra; Sareban, Mahla; Gholami, Atefeh; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Mojarrab, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Artemisia is an important genus of Iranian flora. Cytotoxic activities for some species of the genus have already been reported. In this study, we have investigated the cytotoxic effects of n-hexane, CH2Cl2, EtOAc, EtOH, and EtOH/H2O (1 : 1) extracts of A. turanica Krasch. on two human leukemic cancer cell lines (K562 and HL-60) and J774 as normal cells using alamarBlue (resazurin) assay. PI staining of the fragmented DNA and western blot analysis were used to evaluate the possible apoptotic effect of the extract. The CH2Cl2 extract of A. turanica showed the most antiproliferative effect on cancer cells among all tested extracts with IC50 values of 69 and 104 μg/mL on K562 and HL-60 cells, respectively, whereas the normal cells were not affected significantly by this extract. Sub-G1 peak in the flow cytometry histogram of the cells treated with CH2Cl2 extract of A. turanica and cleavage of PARP protein confirmed the induction of apoptosis with CH2Cl2 extract. Taken together, the findings of the present work suggest the anticancer potential of CH2Cl2 extract of A. turanica on human leukemic cancer cell lines. PMID:24288497

  9. Protective effects of ethanol extracts of Artemisia asiatica Nakai ex Pamp. on ageing-induced deterioration in mouse oocyte quality.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyuk-Joon; You, Seung Yeop; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeon, Hong Bae; Oh, Jeong Su

    2017-08-01

    Following ovulation, oocytes undergo a time-dependent deterioration in quality referred to as post-ovulatory ageing. Although various factors influence the post-ovulatory ageing of oocytes, oxidative stress is a key factor involved in deterioration of oocyte quality. Artemisia asiatica Nakai ex Pamp. has been widely used in East Asia as a food ingredient and traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation, cancer, and microbial infections. Recent studies have shown that A. asiatica exhibits antioxidative effects. In this study, we investigated whether A. asiatica has the potential to attenuate deterioration in oocyte quality during post-ovulatory ageing. Freshly ovulated mouse oocytes were cultured with 0, 50, 100 or 200 μg/ml ethanol extracts of A. asiatica Nakai ex Pamp. After culture for up to 24 h, various ageing-induced oocyte abnormalities, including morphological changes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, apoptosis, chromosome and spindle defects, and mitochondrial aggregation were determined. Treatment of oocytes with A. asiatica extracts reduced ageing-induced morphological changes. Moreover, A. asiatica extracts decreased ROS generation and the onset of apoptosis by preventing elevation of the Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio during post-ovulatory ageing. Furthermore, A. asiatica extracts attenuated the ageing-induced abnormalities including spindle defects, chromosome misalignment and mitochondrial aggregation. Our results demonstrate that A. asiatica can relieve deterioration in oocyte quality and delay the onset of apoptosis during post-ovulatory ageing.

  10. Inhibition of Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.: A Novel Approach to Reduce Oxidative Browning in Plant Tissue Culture

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Andrew Maxwell Phineas; Saxena, Praveen Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative browning is a common and often severe problem in plant tissue culture systems caused by the accumulation and oxidation of phenolic compounds. The current study was conducted to investigate a novel preventative approach to address this problem by inhibiting the activity of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme (PAL), thereby reducing the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. This was accomplished by incorporating 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), a competitive PAL inhibitor, into culture media of Artemisia annua as a model system. Addition of AIP into culture media resulted in significant reductions in visual tissue browning, a reduction in total phenol content, as well as absorbance and autoflourescence of tissue extracts. Reduced tissue browning was accompanied with a significant increase in growth on cytokinin based medium. Microscopic observations demonstrated that phenolic compounds accumulated in discrete cells and that these cells were more prevalent in brown tissue. These cells were highly plasmolyzed and often ruptured during examination, demonstrating a mechanism in which phenolics are released into media in this system. These data indicate that inhibiting phenylpropanoid biosynthesis with AIP is an effective approach to reduce tissue browning in A. annua. Additional experiments with Ulmus americana and Acer saccharum indicate this approach is effective in many species and it could have a wide application in systems where oxidative browning restricts the development of biotechnologies. PMID:24116165

  11. Wind-dispersed seed deposition patterns and seedling recruitment of Artemisia halodendron in a moving sandy land.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-Rui; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Ai-Sheng; Zhao, Li-Ya; Kang, Ling-Fen; Chen, Wen

    2005-07-01

    Artemisia halodendron is a native sub-shrub that occurs mainly in moving and semi-fixed sandy lands in Inner Mongolia, China. Information on the spatial patterns of wind-dispersed seed deposition and seedling recruitment of A. halodendron inhabiting moving sandy lands is very limited. The aim of this study was to examine wind-dispersed seed deposition patterns and post-dispersal recruitment of A. halodendron seedlings. * The spatial patterns of wind-dispersed seed deposition and seedling recruitment of A. halodendron were examined by investigating the numbers of deposited seeds, emerged and surviving seedlings using sampling points at a range of distances from the parent plant in eight compass directions for two consecutive growing seasons. * Wind-dispersed seed deposition showed considerable variation between directions and years. Wind transported A. halodendron seeds only a few meters away from the parent plant in all eight directions. Seedling emergence and establishment also showed between-direction and between-year variability, but the spatial pattern of seedling distribution differed from that of seed deposition. Only a very small fraction (<1 %) of the deposited seeds emerged in the field and survived for long enough to be included in our seedling censuses at the end of the growing season. * The spatial variation in wind speed and frequency strongly affects the pattern of seed deposition, although the variation in seed deposition does not determine the spatial pattern of seedling recruitment. Seeds of A. halodendron are not dispersed very well by wind. The low probability of recruitment success for A. halodendron seedlings suggests that this species does not rely on seedling recruitment for its persistence and maintenance of population.

  12. Short-term effects of rainfall on CO2 fluxes above rangelands dominated by Artemisia, Bromus tectorum, and Agropyron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivans, S.; Saliendra, N. Z.; Johnson, D. A.

    2003-04-01

    The short-term effects of rainfall on carbon dioxide (CO_2) fluxes have not been well documented in rangelands of the Intermountain Region of the western USA. We used the Bowen ratio-energy balance technique to continuously measure CO_2 fluxes above three rangeland sites in Idaho and Utah dominated by: 1) Artemisia (sagebrush) near Malta, Idaho; 2) Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) near Malta, Idaho; and 3) Agropyron (crested wheatgrass) in Rush Valley, Utah. We examined CO_2 fluxes immediately before and after rainfall during periods of 10--19 July 2001 (Summer), 8--17 October 2001 (Autumn), and 16--30 May 2002 (Spring). On sunny days before rainfall during Spring, all three sites were sinks for CO_2. After rainfall in Spring, all three sites became sources of CO_2 for about two days and after that became CO_2 sinks again. During Summer and Autumn when water was limiting, sites were small sources of CO_2 and became larger sources for one day after rainfall. In all three seasons, daytime CO_2 fluxes decreased and nighttime CO_2 fluxes increased after rainfall, suggesting that rainfall stimulated belowground respiration at all three sites. Results from this study indicated that CO_2 fluxes above rangeland sites in the Intermountain West changed markedly after rainfall, especially during Spring when fluxes were highest. KEY WORDS: Bowen ratio-energy balance, Intermountain West, rangelands, sagebrush, cheatgrass, crested wheatgrass

  13. Search for constituents with neurotrophic factor-potentiating activity from the medicinal plants of paraguay and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Li, Yushan; Ohizumi, Yasushi

    2004-07-01

    20 medicinal plants of Paraguay and 3 medicinal plants of Thailand were examined on nerve growth factor (NGF)-potentiating activities in PC12D cells. The trail results demonstrated that the methanol extracts of four plants, Verbena littoralis, Scoparia dulcis, Artemisia absinthium and Garcinia xanthochymus, markedly enhanced the neurite outgrowth induced by NGF from PC12D cells. Furthermore, utilizing the bioactivity-guided separation we successfully isolated 32, 4 and 5 constituents from V. littoralis, S. dulcis and G. xanthochymus, respectively, including nine iridoid and iridoid glucosides (1-9), two dihydrochalcone dimers (10 and 11), two flavonoids and three flavonoid glycosides (12-16), two sterols (17 and 18), ten triterpenoids (19-28), five xanthones (29-33), one naphthoquinone (34), one benzenepropanamide (35), four phenylethanoid glycosides (36-39) and two other compounds (40 and 41). Among which, 15 compounds (1-4, 10-11, 14-18, 29-31 and 34) were new natural products. The results of pharmacological trails verified that littoralisone (1), gelsemiol (5), 7a-hydroxysemperoside aglucone (6), verbenachalcone (10), littorachalcone (11), stigmast-5-ene 3beta,7alpha,22alpha-triol (18), ursolic acid (19), 3beta-hydroxyurs-11-en-28,13beta-olide (24), oleanolic acid (25), 2alpha,3beta-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (26), 1,4,5,6-tetrahydroxy-7,8-di(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (29), 1,2,6-trihydroxy-5-methoxy-7-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (30), 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxy-4,7,8-tri(3-methyl-2-butenyl)xanthone (31), 12b-hydroxy-des-D-garcigerrin A (32), garciniaxanthone E (33) and (4R)-4,9-dihydroxy-8-methoxy-alpha-lapachone (34) elicited marked enhancement of NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12D cells. These substances may contribute to the basic study and the medicinal development for the neurodegenerative disorder.

  14. Comparative Antitussive Effects of Medicinal Plants and Their Constituents.

    PubMed

    Saadat, Saeideh; Shakeri, Farzaneh; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2018-01-15

    Context • The cough is a protective reflex, with 2 types, one being more sensitive to mechanical stimulation and the other to chemical stimulation, such as sulfur dioxide, ammonia, citric acid, and capsaicin. Some evidence is available that suppressant therapy is most effective when used for the short-term reduction of coughing. Today, use of herbal drugs is increasing all over the world for various ailments, including to provide antitussive activity. Objective • The study intended to review the antitussive effects of various extracts, some fractions, and some constituents of the studied medicinal plants. Design • Various databases, including the Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar, were searched for studies published between 1978 and 2015, using the keywords antitussive and cough and the names of various medicinal plants and their constituents. Setting • The study took place in the districts related to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Mashhad, Iran). Outcome Measures • The antitussive effects of medicinal plants and their constituents were normalized to 50 mg/kg and 1 mg/mL against various cough stimulants and compared. Results • The most potent antitussive effect was observed for Nigella sativa and Linum usitatissimum on coughs induced by sulfur dioxide. Artemisia absinthium showed a higher antitussive effect on cough induced by ammonia compared with the other studied medicinal plants. The antitussive effects of Cuminum cyminum and Glycyrrhiza glabra were more potent on cough induced by citric acid than other medicinal plants. Conclusions • These results suggest the therapeutic potential of the studied medicinal plants as antitussive therapies. However, only a few clinical studies have examined the antitussive effects of medicinal plants, and more clinical studies are needed. The underlying mechanisms of the antitussive effects of medicinal plants should be also examined in further studies.

  15. Molecular Farming in Artemisia annua, a Promising Approach to Improve Anti-malarial Drug Production

    PubMed Central

    Pulice, Giuseppe; Pelaz, Soraya; Matías-Hernández, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a parasite infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Even though progress has been made in prevention and treatment of the disease; an estimated 214 million cases of malaria occurred in 2015, resulting in 438,000 estimated deaths; most of them occurring in Africa among children under the age of five. This article aims to review the epidemiology, future risk factors and current treatments of malaria, with particular focus on the promising potential of molecular farming that uses metabolic engineering in plants as an effective anti-malarial solution. Malaria represents an example of how a health problem may, on one hand, influence the proper development of a country, due to its burden of the disease. On the other hand, it constitutes an opportunity for lucrative business of diverse stakeholders. In contrast, plant biofarming is proposed here as a sustainable, promising, alternative for the production, not only of natural herbal repellents for malaria prevention but also for the production of sustainable anti-malarial drugs, like artemisinin (AN), used for primary parasite infection treatments. AN, a sesquiterpene lactone, is a natural anti-malarial compound that can be found in Artemisia annua. However, the low concentration of AN in the plant makes this molecule relatively expensive and difficult to produce in order to meet the current worldwide demand of Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs), especially for economically disadvantaged people in developing countries. The biosynthetic pathway of AN, a process that takes place only in glandular secretory trichomes of A. annua, is relatively well elucidated. Significant efforts have been made using plant genetic engineering to increase production of this compound. These include diverse genetic manipulation approaches, such as studies on diverse transcription factors which have been shown to regulate the AN genetic pathway and other biological processes. Results look promising; however, further

  16. Challenges of establishing big sgebrush (Artemisia tridentata) in rangeland restoration: effects of herbicide, mowing, whole-community seeding, and sagebrush seed sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabec, Martha M.; Germino, Matthew J.; Shinneman, Douglas J.; Pilliod, David S.; McIlroy, Susan K.; Arkle, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The loss of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) on sites disturbed by fire has motivated restoration seeding and planting efforts. However, the resulting sagebrush establishment is often lower than desired, especially in dry areas. Sagebrush establishment may be increased by addressing factors such as seed source and condition or management of the plant community. We assessed initial establishment of seeded sagebrush and four populations of small outplants (from different geographies, climates, and cytotypes) and small sagebrush outplants in an early seral community where mowing, herbicide, and seeding of other native plants had been experimentally applied. No emergence of seeded sagebrush was detected. Mowing the site before planting seedlings led to greater initial survival probabilities for sagebrush outplants, except where seeding also occurred, and these effects were related to corresponding changes in bare soil exposure. Initial survival probabilities were > 30% greater for the local population of big sagebrush relative to populations imported to the site from typical seed transfer distances of ~320–800 km. Overcoming the high first-year mortality of outplanted or seeded sagebrush is one of the most challenging aspects of postfire restoration and rehabilitation, and further evaluation of the impacts of herb treatments and sagebrush seed sources across different site types and years is needed.

  17. The Achene Mucilage Hydrated in Desert Dew Assists Seed Cells in Maintaining DNA Integrity: Adaptive Strategy of Desert Plant Artemisia sphaerocephala

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuejun; Zhang, Wenhao; Dong, Ming; Boubriak, Ivan; Huang, Zhenying

    2011-01-01

    Despite proposed ecological importance of mucilage in seed dispersal, germination and seedling establishment, little is known about the role of mucilage in seed pre-germination processes. Here we investigated the role of mucilage in assisting achene cells to repair DNA damage during dew deposition in the desert. Artemisia sphaerocephala achenes were first treated γ-irradiation to induce DNA damage, and then they were repaired in situ in the desert dew. Dew deposition duration can be as long as 421 min in early mornings. Intact achenes absorbed more water than demucilaged achenes during dew deposition and also carried water for longer time following sunrise. After 4-d dew treatment, DNA damage of irradiated intact and demucilaged achenes was reduced to 24.38% and 46.84%, respectively. The irradiated intact achenes exhibited much higher DNA repair ratio than irradiated demucilaged achenes. Irradiated intact achenes showed an improved germination and decreased nonviable achenes after dew treatment, and significant differences in viability between the two types of achenes were detected after 1020 min of dew treatment. Achene mucilage presumably plays an ecologically important role in the life cycle of A. sphaerocephala by aiding DNA repair of achene cells in genomic-stressful habitats. PMID:21912689

  18. Enhanced artemisinin yield by expression of rol genes in Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Dilshad, Erum; Cusido, Rosa Maria; Palazon, Javier; Estrada, Karla Ramirez; Bonfill, Mercedes; Mirza, Bushra

    2015-10-29

    Despite of many advances in the treatment of malaria, it is still the fifth most prevalent disease worldwide and is one of the major causes of death in the developing countries which accounted for 584,000 deaths in 2013, as estimated by World Health Organization. Artemisinin from Artemisia annua is still one of the most effective treatments for malaria. Increasing the artemisinin content of A. annua plants by genetic engineering would improve the availability of this much-needed drug. In this regard, a high artemisinin-yielding hybrid of A. annua produced by the centre for novel agricultural products of the University of York, UK, was selected (artemisinin maximally 1.4 %). As rol genes are potential candidates of biochemical engineering, genetic transformation of A. annua with Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 harbouring vectors with rol B and rol C genes was carried out with the objective of enhancement of artemisinin content. Transgenic lines produced were analysed by the LC-MS for quantitative analysis of artemisinin and analogues. These high artemisinin yielding transgenics were also analysed by real time quantitative PCR to find the molecular dynamics of artemisinin enhancement. Genes of artemisinin biosynthetic pathway were studied including amorphadiene synthase (ADS), cytochrome P450, (CYP71AV1) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1). Trichome-specific fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1(TAFR1) is an enzyme involved in both trichome development and sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis and both processes are important for artemisinin biosynthesis. Thus, real time qPCR analysis of the TAFR1 gene was carried out, and trichome density was determined. Transgenics of rol B gene showed two- to ninefold (the decimal adds nothing in the abstract, please simplify to two- to ninefold) increase in artemisinin, 4-12-fold increase in artesunate and 1.2-3-fold increase in dihydroartemisinin. Whereas in the case of rol C gene transformants, a fourfold increase in artemisinin, four to

  19. Natural health products that inhibit angiogenesis: a potential source for investigational new agents to treat cancer—Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, S.M.; Yance, D.; Wong, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    An integrative approach for managing a patient with cancer should target the multiple biochemical and physiologic pathways that support tumour development and minimize normal-tissue toxicity. Angiogenesis is a key process in the promotion of cancer. Many natural health products that inhibit angiogenesis also manifest other anticancer activities. The present article focuses on products that have a high degree of anti-angiogenic activity, but it also describes some of the many other actions of these agents that can inhibit tumour progression and reduce the risk of metastasis. Natural health products target molecular pathways other than angiogenesis, including epidermal growth factor receptor, the HER2/neu gene, the cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme, the nuclear factor kappa-B transcription factor, the protein kinases, the Bcl-2 protein, and coagulation pathways. The herbs that are traditionally used for anticancer treatment and that are anti-angiogenic through multiple interdependent processes (including effects on gene expression, signal processing, and enzyme activities) include Artemisia annua (Chinese wormwood), Viscum album (European mistletoe), Curcuma longa (curcumin), Scutellaria baicalensis (Chinese skullcap), resveratrol and proanthocyanidin (grape seed extract), Magnolia officinalis (Chinese magnolia tree), Camellia sinensis (green tea), Ginkgo biloba, quercetin, Poria cocos, Zingiber officinalis (ginger), Panax ginseng, Rabdosia rubescens hora (Rabdosia), and Chinese destagnation herbs. Quality assurance of appropriate extracts is essential prior to embarking upon clinical trials. More data are required on dose–response, appropriate combinations, and potential toxicities. Given the multiple effects of these agents, their future use for cancer therapy probably lies in synergistic combinations. During active cancer therapy, they should generally be evaluated in combination with chemotherapy and radiation. In this role, they act as modifiers of biologic response or

  20. Artemisinin disrupts androgen responsiveness of human prostate cancer cells by stimulating the 26S proteasome-mediated degradation of the androgen receptor protein.

    PubMed

    Steely, Andrea M; Willoughby, Jamin A; Sundar, Shyam N; Aivaliotis, Vasiliki I; Firestone, Gary L

    2017-10-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) expression and activity is highly linked to the development and progression of prostate cancer and is a target of therapeutic strategies for this disease. We investigated whether the antimalarial drug artemisinin, which is a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the sweet wormwood plant Artemisia annua, could alter AR expression and responsiveness in cultured human prostate cancer cell lines. Artemisinin treatment induced the 26S proteasome-mediated degradation of the receptor protein, without altering AR transcript levels, in androgen-responsive LNCaP prostate cancer cells or PC-3 prostate cancer cells expressing exogenous wild-type AR. Furthermore, artemisinin stimulated AR ubiquitination and AR receptor interactions with the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 in LNCaP cells. The artemisinin-induced loss of AR protein prevented androgen-responsive cell proliferation and ablated total AR transcriptional activity. The serine/threonine protein kinase AKT-1 was shown to be highly associated with artemisinin-induced proteasome-mediated degradation of AR protein. Artemisinin treatment activated AKT-1 enzymatic activity, enhanced receptor association with AKT-1, and induced AR serine phosphorylation. Treatment of LNCaP cells with the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, which inhibits the PI3-kinase-dependent activation of AKT-1, prevented the artemisinin-induced AR degradation. Furthermore, in transfected receptor-negative PC-3 cells, artemisinin failed to stimulate the degradation of an altered receptor protein (S215A/S792A) with mutations in its two consensus AKT-1 serine phosphorylation sites. Taken together, our results indicate that artemisinin induces the degradation of AR protein and disrupts androgen responsiveness of human prostate cancer cells, suggesting that this natural compound represents a new potential therapeutic molecule that selectively targets AR levels.

  1. Anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of ethanol extract of Artemisia princeps in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Norio; Kanemoto, Yuki; Ueda, Manabu; Kawasaki, Kengo; Fukuda, Itsuko; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    Artemisia princeps is commonly used as a food ingredient and in traditional Asian medicine. In this study, we examined the effects of long-term administration of an ethanol extract of A. princeps (APE) on body weight, white adipose tissue, blood glucose, insulin, plasma and hepatic lipids, and adipocytokines in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet. Daily feeding of a 1% APE diet for 14 weeks normalized elevated body weight, white adipose tissue, and plasma glucose and insulin levels, and delayed impaired glucose tolerance in mice a fed high-fat diet. These events were not observed in mice fed a control diet containing 1% APE. Liver triglyceride and cholesterol levels were similar in mice fed a 1% APE-diet and those fed a control diet. In the high-fat diet groups, APE inhibited hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS) and suppressed the elevation of plasma leptin, but had no effect on adiponectin levels. These findings suggest that the regulation of leptin secretion by APE may inhibit FAS activity with subsequent suppression of triglyceride accumulation in the liver and adipose tissues. Inhibition of lipid accumulation can, in turn, lead to improvements in impaired glucose tolerance.

  2. Comparison of composition and antifungal activity of Artemisia argyi Lévl. et Vant inflorescence essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation and supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Wenqiang, Guan; Shufen, Li; Ruixiang, Yan; Yanfeng, Huang

    2006-09-01

    Essential oil of Artemisia argyi Lévl. et Vant inflorescence was obtained by supercritical CO(2) extraction and hydrodistillation. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to characterize its components and was also tested for antifungal activity. A total of 61 compounds were identified in the hydrodistilled oil. The major components were 1,8-cineole (4.46%), borneol (3.58%), terpinol (10.18%), spathulenol (10.03%), caryophyllene oxide (6.51%), juniper camphor (8.74%), Camazulene (2.05%), and camphor (3.49%). By using supercritical CO(2) at 50 degrees C and 10 MPa, the concentrations of previous main components were lower than oil obtained by hydrodistillation, while miscellaneous compounds were higher. The essential oil extracted by these two methods exhibited antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternate, two common storage pathogens of fruits and vegetables. The inhibition of B. cinerea and A. alternate were 93.3 and 84.7% for oil extracted by hydrodistillation when exposed to a concentration of 1,000 mg L(-1), while values of 70.8 and 60.5% were observed from oil extracted by supercritical CO(2).

  3. Galanthamine, an anticholinesterase drug, effects plant growth and development in Artemisia tridentate Nutt. via modulation of auxin and neutrotransmitter signaling.

    PubMed

    Turi, Christina E; Axwik, Katarina E; Smith, Anderson; Jones, A Maxwell P; Saxena, Praveen K; Murch, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    Galanthamine is a naturally occurring acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitor that has been well established as a drug for treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer disease, but the role of the compound in plant metabolism is not known. The current study was designed to investigate whether galanthamine could redirect morphogenesis of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. cultures by altering concentration of endogenous neurosignaling molecules acetylcholine (Ach), auxin (IAA), melatonin (Mel), and serotonin (5HT). Exposure of axenic A. tridentata cultures to 10 µM galanthamine decreased the concentration of endogenous Ach, IAA, MEL, and AchE, and altered plant growth in a manner reminiscent of 2-4D toxicity. Galanthamine itself demonstrated IAA activity in an oat coleotile elongation bioassay, 20 µM galanthamine showed no significant difference compared with 5 μM IAA or 5 μM 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Metabolomic analysis detected between 20,921 to 27,891 compounds in A. tridentata plantlets and showed greater commonality between control and 5 µM treatments. Furthermore, metabolomic analysis putatively identified coumarins scopoletin/isoscopoletin, and scopolin in A. tridentata leaf extracts and these metabolites linearly increased in response to galanthamine treatments. Overall, these data indicate that galanthamine is an allelopathic phytochemical and support the hypothesis that neurologically active compounds in plants help ensure plant survival and adaptation to environmental challenges.

  4. Cognitive Function of Artemisia argyi H. Fermented by Monascus purpureus under TMT-Induced Learning and Memory Deficits in ICR Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jin Yong; Lee, Du Sang; Park, Seon Kyeong; Ha, Jeong Su; Kim, Jong Min; Ha, Gi Jeong; Seo, Weon Taek

    2017-01-01

    The cognitive effect of Artemisia argyi H. under liquid-state fermentation by Monascus purpureus (AAFM), which has cellular antioxidant activity and neuronal cell viability, on trimethyltin- (TMT-) induced learning and memory impairment in Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice was confirmed. Tests were conducted to determine the neuroprotective effects against H2O2-induced oxidative stress, and the results showed that AAFM has protective effects through the repression of mitochondrial injury and cellular membrane damage against H2O2-induced neurotoxicity. In animal experiments, such as the Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze tests, AAFM also showed excellent ameliorating effects on TMT-induced cognitive dysfunction. After behavioral tests, brain tissues were extracted to assess damage to brain tissue. According to the experimental results, AAFM improved the cholinergic system by upregulating acetylcholine (ACh) contents and inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. AAFM effectively improved the decline of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) level and the increase of the oxidized glutathione (GSH) ratio and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA) production) caused by TMT-induced oxidative stress. The occurrence of mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis was also decreased compared with the TMT group. Finally, quinic acid derivatives were identified as the major phenolic compounds in AAFM using ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight (UPLC-Q-TOF) MS analysis. PMID:29081819

  5. Cognitive Function of Artemisia argyi H. Fermented by Monascus purpureus under TMT-Induced Learning and Memory Deficits in ICR Mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jin Yong; Lee, Du Sang; Park, Seon Kyeong; Ha, Jeong Su; Kim, Jong Min; Ha, Gi Jeong; Seo, Weon Taek; Heo, Ho Jin

    2017-01-01

    The cognitive effect of Artemisia argyi H. under liquid-state fermentation by Monascus purpureus (AAFM), which has cellular antioxidant activity and neuronal cell viability, on trimethyltin- (TMT-) induced learning and memory impairment in Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice was confirmed. Tests were conducted to determine the neuroprotective effects against H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress, and the results showed that AAFM has protective effects through the repression of mitochondrial injury and cellular membrane damage against H 2 O 2 -induced neurotoxicity. In animal experiments, such as the Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze tests, AAFM also showed excellent ameliorating effects on TMT-induced cognitive dysfunction. After behavioral tests, brain tissues were extracted to assess damage to brain tissue. According to the experimental results, AAFM improved the cholinergic system by upregulating acetylcholine (ACh) contents and inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. AAFM effectively improved the decline of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) level and the increase of the oxidized glutathione (GSH) ratio and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA) production) caused by TMT-induced oxidative stress. The occurrence of mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis was also decreased compared with the TMT group. Finally, quinic acid derivatives were identified as the major phenolic compounds in AAFM using ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight (UPLC-Q-TOF) MS analysis.

  6. Sulfated polysaccharide from the leaves of Artemisia Princeps activates heparin cofactor II independently of the Lys173 and Arg189 residues of heparin cofactor II.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, T; Hayakawa, Y; Hayashi, T; Sasaki, H; Sakuragawa, N

    1997-07-01

    A sulfated polysaccharide (AFE-HCD) purified from the leaves of Artemisia princeps Pamp selectively accelerated the rate of thrombin inhibition by heparin cofactor II (HCII). By using plasma derived HCII and bacterial expressed recombinant HCII molecules, the interaction between each HCII molecule and AFE-HCD was analyzed. AFE-HCD accelerated thrombin inhibition by plasma derived HCII or bacterial expressed wild type HCII to the same extent (IC50: 0.056 micrograms/ml for plasma derived HCII and 0.066 micrograms/ml for recombinant HCII under the experimental condition). The recombinant HCII (rHCII) molecule with Lys173-->Leu or Arg189-->His substitution, which is defective in interactions with heparin and dermatan sulfate, respectively, is activated by AFE-HCD to inhibit thrombin in a manner similar to wild type rHCII. These results suggested that activation of HCII was independent of its Lys173 or Arg189 residue. Although AFE-HCD is a selective activator of HCII like dermatan sulfate, the amino acid residue required for the activation of HCII was distinct form that of dermatan sulfate as well as heparin.

  7. Comparative analysis of the oil and supercritical CO(2) extract of Artemisia arborescens L. and Helichrysum splendidum (Thunb.) Less.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia

    2006-05-10

    Isolation of volatile concentrate from the dried leaves of Artemisia arborescens and of Helichrysum splendidum has been obtained by supercritical extraction with carbon dioxide. To obtain a pure volatile extract devoid of cuticular waxes, the extraction products were fractionated in two separators operating in series. A good extraction process was obtained operating at 90 bar and 50 degrees C in the extraction vessel, at 90 bar and at -5 degrees C in the first separator and at a pressure between 20 and 15 bar and temperatures in the range 10-20 degrees C in the second one. The composition of the volatile concentrate has been analyzed by GC/MS. The volatile concentrate of A. arborescens was found to contain: trans-thujone (13.96%), camphor (6.15%) and chamazulene (5.95%). The main constituents in the extract of H. splendidum were: germacrene D-4-ol (17.08%), germacrene D (9.04%), bicyclogermacrene (8.79%) and delta-cadinene (8.43%). A comparison with the oils obtained by hydrodistillation is also given. The differences observed between the composition of the SFE volatile concentrates and of the hydrodistilled (HD) oils were relevant. Indeed, the HD oils had a blue color whereas the volatile concentrates were pale yellow. The HD oil of H. splendidum had a blue color due to the presence of guaiazulene (0.42% vs 0%), whereas the coloration of HD oil of A. arborecens was due to the high concentration of chamazulene (26.64% vs 3.37%).

  8. Antimycobacterial activity of methanolic plant extract of Artemisia capillaris containing ursolic acid and hydroquinone against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Jyoti, Md Anirban; Nam, Kung-Woo; Jang, Woong Sik; Kim, Young-Hee; Kim, Su-Kyung; Lee, Byung-Eui; Song, Ho-Yeon

    2016-04-01

    In order to protect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection, novel drugs and new targets should be screened from the vast source of plants. We investigated the potentiality of the herbal plant of Artemisia capillaris extract (AC) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this study, we isolated ursolic acid and hydroquinone by bio-activity guided fractionation from the methanol extracts of AC, and tested the inhibitory effects against several strains of MTB. Anti-mycobacterial evaluation of these compounds was carried out using the MGIT™ 960 and resazurin assay. Mycobacterial morphological changes due to the treatment of these compounds were further evaluated by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Ursolic acid (UA) and hydroquinone (HQ) inhibited the growth of both susceptible and resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) values of both UA and HQ were 12.5 μg/ml against the susceptible strains of M. tuberculosis. Also both UA and HQ showed 12.5-25 μg/ml of MIC values against MDR/XDR MTB strains. However, against clinical strains of MTB, UA was found sensitive against those strains that are sensitive against both INH and RFP but resistant against those strains that are resistant to INH. On the other hand HQ was sensitive against all clinical strains. TEM image-analysis of the strain H37Ra after treatment with UA revealed cell wall lysis, whereas HQ-treated cells showed deformed cytoplasmic morphology. All these results indicate that AC extracts containing UA and HQ possess promising chemotherapeutic potency against MTB for future use. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigating Seed Longevity of Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The Intermountain West is dominated by big sagebrush communities (Artemisia tridentata subspecies) that provide habitat and forage for wildlife, prevent erosion, and are economically important to recreation and livestock industries. The two most prominent subspecies of big sagebrush in this region are Wyoming big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. wyomingensis) and mountain big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. vaseyana). Increased understanding of seed bank dynamics will assist with sustainable management and persistence of sagebrush communities. For example, mountain big sagebrush may be subjected to shorter fire return intervals and prescribed fire is a tool used often to rejuvenate stands and reduce tree (Juniperus sp. or Pinus sp.) encroachment into these communities. A persistent seed bank for mountain big sagebrush would be advantageous under these circumstances. Laboratory germination trials indicate that seed dormancy in big sagebrush may be habitat-specific, with collections from colder sites being more dormant. Our objective was to investigate seed longevity of both subspecies by evaluating viability of seeds in the field with a seed retrieval experiment and sampling for seeds in situ. We chose six study sites for each subspecies. These sites were dispersed across eastern Oregon, southern Idaho, northwestern Utah, and eastern Nevada. Ninety-six polyester mesh bags, each containing 100 seeds of a subspecies, were placed at each site during November 2006. Seed bags were placed in three locations: (1) at the soil surface above litter, (2) on the soil surface beneath litter, and (3) 3 cm below the soil surface to determine whether dormancy is affected by continued darkness or environmental conditions. Subsets of seeds were examined in April and November in both 2007 and 2008 to determine seed viability dynamics. Seed bank samples were taken at each site, separated into litter and soil fractions, and assessed for number of germinable seeds in a greenhouse. Community composition data

  10. Simultaneous determination three phytosterol compounds, campesterol, stigmasterol and daucosterol in Artemisia apiacea by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array ultraviolet/visible detector.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiwoo; Weon, Jin Bae; Yun, Bo-Ra; Eom, Min Rye; Ma, Choong Je

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia apiacea is a traditional herbal medicine using treatment of eczema and jaundice in Eastern Asia, including China, Korea, and Japan. An accurate and sensitive analysis method using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array ultraviolet/visible detector and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of three phytosterol compounds, campesterol, stigmasterol and daucosterol in A. apiacea was established. The analytes were separated on a Shiseido C18 column (5 μm, 4.6 mm I.D. ×250 mm) with gradient elution of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid and acetonitrile. The flow rate was 1 mL/min and detection wavelengths were set at 205 and 254 nm. Validation of the method was performed to demonstrate its linearity, precision and accuracy. The calibration curves showed good linearity (R (2) > 0.9994). The limits of detection and limits of quantification were within the ranges 0.55-7.07 μg/mL and 1.67-21.44 μg/mL, respectively. And, the relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precision were <2.93%. The recoveries were found to be in the range of 90.03-104.91%. The developed method has been successfully applied to the analysis for quality control of campesterol, stigmasterol and daucosterol in A. apiacea.

  11. Environmental Compliance Assessment and Management System Program (ECAMP). U.S. Air Force European Economic Community (EEC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    alboranensis Anthemis glabemrma Artemisia granatensis Artemisia laciniata Aster pyrenacus Aster sibiricus Centaurea heldreichii Centaurea horrida Centaurea...kalambakensi s Centaurea lactiflora Centaurea Iinaresii Centaurea megarensis Centaurea niederi Centaurea peucedanifolia Centaurea princeps Crepis...50 Table 448 (continued) COMIPOSrrAE Anthemis glaberrima (Rech. f.) Greuter Artemisia granatensis Boiss. Aster pyrenacus Desf. ex DC. Aster sorrentinil

  12. The response of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) to interannual climate variation changes across its range.

    PubMed

    Kleinhesselink, Andrew R; Adler, Peter B

    2018-05-01

    Understanding how annual climate variation affects population growth rates across a species' range may help us anticipate the effects of climate change on species distribution and abundance. We predict that populations in warmer or wetter parts of a species' range should respond negatively to periods of above average temperature or precipitation, respectively, whereas populations in colder or drier areas should respond positively to periods of above average temperature or precipitation. To test this, we estimated the population sensitivity of a common shrub species, big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), to annual climate variation across its range. Our analysis includes 8,175 observations of year-to-year change in sagebrush cover or production from 131 monitoring sites in western North America. We coupled these observations with seasonal weather data for each site and analyzed the effects of spring through fall temperatures and fall through spring accumulated precipitation on annual changes in sagebrush abundance. Sensitivity to annual temperature variation supported our hypothesis: years with above average temperatures were beneficial to sagebrush in colder locations and detrimental to sagebrush in hotter locations. In contrast, sensitivity to precipitation did not change significantly across the distribution of sagebrush. This pattern of responses suggests that regional abundance of this species may be more limited by temperature than by precipitation. We also found important differences in how the ecologically distinct subspecies of sagebrush responded to the effects of precipitation and temperature. Our model predicts that a short-term temperature increase could produce an increase in sagebrush cover at the cold edge of its range and a decrease in cover at the warm edge of its range. This prediction is qualitatively consistent with predictions from species distribution models for sagebrush based on spatial occurrence data, but it provides new mechanistic

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of Artemisia princeps in antigen-stimulated T cells and regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sung Ho; Jung, Eun Jung; Park, Youn Hee; Lim, Dong Gyun; Ko, Na Young; Choi, Wahn Soo; Her, Erk; Kim, Soo Hyun; Choi, Kang Duk; Bae, Jae Ho; Kim, Sun Hee; Kang, Chi Dug; Han, Duck Jong; Kim, Song Cheol

    2009-08-01

    The aim was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of Artemisia princeps extract on the activity of anti-CD3/CD28-stimulated CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells and antigen-expanded regulatory T cells. CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells were activated with coated anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 and cultured in the presence or absence of various concentrations of A. princeps extract. The cultures were pulsed on Day 6 with [(3)H]thymidine and, after harvesting the cells, [(3)H]thymidine incorporation was measured. For analysis of interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma secreted from CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells, culture supernatants were collected on Days 2 and 6. For the analysis of interleukin-10 secreted from the CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells and expanded regulatory T cells, supernatants were collected after 2 and 7 days, respectively. Cytokine levels were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Potential medicinal components of the A. princeps extract were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A. princeps (30 microg/ml) effectively suppressed proliferation of CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells that were stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 without causing cytotoxicity in spleen cells incubated under conditions lacking antigen stimulation. A. princeps inhibited production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma in anti-CD3/CD28-stimulated CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells. Also, the extract slightly increased production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 in these cells. In regulatory T cells expanded by anti-CD3/CD28, A. princeps increased production of interleukin-10 and Foxp3. The results suggest that A. princeps may be useful in the treatment of autoimmune diseases and organ transplantation rejection by inhibiting proliferation of inflammatory T cells, suppressing inflammatory processes in antigen-stimulated CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells and increasing activity of expanded regulatory T cells.

  14. Artemisia capillaris inhibits atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in Dermatophagoides farinae-sensitized Nc/Nga mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Artemisia capillaries Thunb. (AC) has been used to treat inflammatory and hepatic disorders such as hepatic injury, hepatic fibrosis and hepatitis. However, the efficacy of AC against atopic dermatitis (AD), an inflammatory disease, has not been examined. In the present study, AC was evaluated for anti-inflammatory and anti-AD effects using both in vitro and in vivo systems. Methods The contents of six compounds (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, isochlorogenic acid A, hyperoside, isoquercitrin and scoparone) in AC were simultaneously assayed using HPLC system. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of AC, NO production was measured in RAW264.7 cell stimulated with 1 μg/mL LPS. Histamine levels were assayed in MC/9 cells stimulated with 50 nM PMA and 1 μM A23187. To examine the role of AC in vivo, AC (10 mg/mouse/day) was topically applied for four weeks the back and ears of Dermatophagoides farinae-sensitized Nc/Nga mice. Protopic ointment (0.1% tacrolimus) was used as a positive control. Results The contents of the six components in AC range from 0.44 to 43.14 mg/g. Chlorogenic acid (21.06 ± 0.08 mg/g) and isochlorogenic acid A (43.14 ± 0.12 mg/g) were major components in AC. AC inhibited NO and histamine production in cells respectively. In D. farinae-sensitized Nc/Nga mice, the topical application of AC reduced dermatitis scores, hemorrhage, hypertrophy and hyperkeratosis of the epidermis in the dorsal skin and ear. The treatment of AC also reduced the plasma levels of histamine (1.5 fold) and IgE (1.4 fold). Conclusions Our results suggest that AC should be explored as a potential therapeutic agent to treat atopic dermatitis and analysis by HPLC will help to improve the quality of AC. PMID:24624888

  15. Protective effects of fractions from Artemisia biennis hydro-ethanolic extract against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Mojarrab, Mahdi; Mehrabi, Mehran; Ahmadi, Farahnaz; Hosseinzadeh, Leila

    2016-05-01

    This study was designed to indicate whether different fractions from Artemisia biennis hydroethanolic extract could provide cytoprotection against oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by doxorubicin (DOX) in rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12). Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Also, activation of caspase-3 and superoxide dismutase were evaluated by spectrophotometry. Detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were performed by flowcytometry. Treatment of PC12 cells with DOX reduced viability dose dependently. For evaluation of the effect of fractions (A-G) on DOX-induced cytotoxicity, PC12 cells were pretreated for 24 hr with the A. biennis fractions and then cells were treated with DOX. The fractions C and D increased PC12 cells viability significantly compared to DOX treated cells. Moreover, pretreatment with fractions C and D for 24 hr attenuated DOX-mediated apoptosis and the anti-apoptotic action of A. biennis fractions was partially dependent on inhibition of caspase 3 activity and also increasing the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Selected A. biennis fractions also suppressed the generation of ROS and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Taken together our observation indicated that subtoxic concentration of aforementioned fractions of A. biennis hydroetanolic extract has protective effect against apoptosis induced by DOX in PC12 cell. The results highlighted that fractions C and D may exert cytoprotective effects through their antioxidant actions.

  16. Galanthamine, an anti-cholinesterase drug, effects plant growth and development in Artemisia tridentata Nutt. via modulation of auxin and neurotransmitter signaling.

    PubMed

    Turi, Christina E; Axwik, Katarina E; Smith, Anderson; Jones, A Maxwell P; Saxena, Praveen K; Murch, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    Galanthamine is a naturally occurring acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitor that has been well established as a drug for treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer disease, but the role of the compound in plant metabolism is not known. The current study was designed to investigate whether galanthamine could redirect morphogenesis of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. cultures by altering concentration of endogenous neurosignaling molecules acetylcholine (Ach), auxin (IAA), melatonin (Mel), and serotonin (5HT). Exposure of axenic A. tridentata cultures to 10 µM galanthamine decreased the concentration of endogenous Ach, IAA, MEL, and AchE, and altered plant growth in a manner reminiscent of 2-4D toxicity. Galanthamine itself demonstrated IAA activity in an oat coleoptile elongation bioassay, 20 µM galanthamine showed no significant difference compared with 5 μM IAA or 5 μM 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Metabolomic analysis detected between 20,921 to 27,891 compounds in A. tridentata plantlets and showed greater commonality between control and 5 µM treatments. Furthermore, metabolomic analysis putatively identified coumarins scopoletin/isoscopoletin, and scopolin in A. tridentata leaf extracts and these metabolites linearly increased in response to galanthamine treatments. Overall, these data indicate that galanthamine is an allelopathic phytochemical and support the hypothesis that neurologically active compounds in plants help ensure plant survival and adaptation to environmental challenges.

  17. Studies on the Expression of Sesquiterpene Synthases Using Promoter-β-Glucuronidase Fusions in Transgenic Artemisia annua L

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongzhen; Han, Junli; Kanagarajan, Selvaraju; Lundgren, Anneli; Brodelius, Peter E.

    2013-01-01

    In order to better understand the influence of sesquiterpene synthases on artemisinin yield in Artemisia annua, the expression of some sesquiterpene synthases has been studied using transgenic plants expressing promoter-GUS fusions. The cloned promoter sequences were 923, 1182 and 1510 bp for β-caryophyllene (CPS), epi-cedrol (ECS) and β-farnesene (FS) synthase, respectively. Prediction of cis-acting regulatory elements showed that the promoters are involved in complex regulation of expression. Transgenic A. annua plants carrying promoter-GUS fusions were studied to elucidate the expression pattern of the three sesquiterpene synthases and compared to the previously studied promoter of amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS), a key enzyme of artemisinin biosynthesis. The CPS and ECS promoters were active in T-shaped trichomes of leaves and stems, basal bracts of flower buds and also in some florets cells but not in glandular secretory trichome while FS promoter activity was only observed in leaf cells and trichomes of transgenic shoots. ADS, CPS, ECS and FS transcripts were induced by wounding in a time depended manner. The four sesquiterpene synthases may be involved in responsiveness of A. annua to herbivory. Methyl jasmonate treatment triggered activation of the promoters of all four sesquiterpene synthases in a time depended manner. Southern blot result showed that the GUS gene was inserted into genomic DNA of transgenic lines as a single copy or two copies. The relative amounts of CPS and ECS as well as germacrene A synthase (GAS) transcripts are much lower than that of ADS transcript. Consequently, down-regulation of the expression of the CPS, ECS or GAS gene may not improve artemsinin yield. However, blocking the expression of FS may have effects on artemisinin production. PMID:24278301

  18. Antidiabetic Effects of Aqueous Infusions of Artemisia herba-alba and Ajuga iva in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Boudjelal, Amel; Siracusa, Laura; Henchiri, Cherifa; Sarri, Madani; Abderrahim, Benkhaled; Baali, Faiza; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    The aqueous infusions of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Ajuga iva Schreber, prepared in accordance with the traditional procedure used in the local folk medicine, have been analysed for their composition and content of phytochemical constituents and examined for their antidiabetic effectiveness in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of A. herba-alba and A. iva infusions was studied in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats, which were randomly divided into nine groups, each group consisting of six animals. The drug preparations (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg b. w.) of each plant were given orally to the rats of each group twice daily for 15 days. Compositional analysis of the aqueous infusions revealed the presence of several polyphenols as main components. A. herba-alba infusion was characterised by mono- and di-cinnamoylquinic acids, with 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid being the main compound, followed by 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Vicenin-2 (apigenin 6,8-di-C-glucoside) appeared to be the most abundant among flavonoids. On the other hand, A. iva showed the exclusive presence of flavonoids, with the flavanone naringin present in relatively high levels together with several apigenin (flavone) derivatives. Oral administration of 300 mg/kg b. w. of the aqueous infusions of A. herba-alba and A. iva exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose content, showing a much more efficient antidiabetic activity compared to glibenclamide, the oral hypoglycaemic agent used as a positive control in this study. These results suggest that A. herba-alba and A. iva possess significant antidiabetic activity, as they were able to improve the biochemical damage in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Antilipogenic and hypolipidemic effects of ethanol extracts from two variants of Artemisia princeps Pampanini in obese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Jung, Un Ju; Baek, Nam-In; Chung, Hae-Gon; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Lee, Kyung Tae; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of the ethanol extract of two variants of Artemisia princeps Pampanini, Sajabalssuk (SB) and Sajuarissuk (SS), on lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic animals. Male C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice were divided into control, SB ethanol extract (SBE) (0.171 g/100 g of diet), SS ethanol extract (SSE) (0.154 g/100 g of diet), and rosiglitazone (RG) (0.005 g/100 g of diet) groups. Supplementation of SBE and SSE significantly lowered the plasma levels of free fatty acid, triglyceride, and total cholesterol compared to the control group. The hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol contents and hepatic lipid droplets accumulation were also significantly lower in the SBE- and SSE-supplemented db/db mice than in the control or RG-supplemented db/db mice. Reductions of hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol contents in the SBE and SSE groups were related to the suppression of hepatic lipogenic enzyme activities, fatty acid synthesis (fatty acid synthase and malic enzyme), triglyceride synthesis (phosphatidate phosphohydrolase), and cholesterol synthesis (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase) and esterification (acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase). The RG supplement lowered plasma and hepatic lipid levels compared to the control group. However, RG significantly increased the white and brown adipose tissue weight and epididymal adipocyte size, whereas SBE and SSE lowered the brown adipose tissue weight and epididymal adipocyte size compared to the RG group. Together, these data suggest that supplementation of SBE and SSE partly improves lipid dysregulation and fatty liver in db/db mice by suppressing hepatic lipogenic enzyme activities.

  20. Dose-response study of sajabalssuk ethanol extract from Artemisia princeps Pampanini on blood glucose in subjects with impaired fasting glucose or mild type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji-Young; Shin, Su-Kyung; Jeon, Seon-Min; Baek, Nam-In; Chung, Hae-Gon; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Lee, Kyung Tae; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2011-01-01

    Previously we reported that an ethanol extract from Artemisia princeps Pampanini lowered blood glucose in db/db mice. Here we report a preliminary study in which the blood glucose-lowering effects of two different doses of sajabalssuk ethanol extract (SBE), containing eupatilin and jaseocidin, were examined in hyperglycemic subjects with fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels of 100-150 mg/dL. Subjects were randomized into four groups: negative control (2,000 mg of lactose /day), positive control (1,140 mg of pinitol/day), low-dose SBE (2,000 mg of SBE/day), and high-dose SBE (4,000 mg of SBE/day). After 8 weeks of supplementation, FBG and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were significantly lowered in low-and high-dose SBE groups compared to the baseline values; high-dose SBE also resulted in significantly lower plasma free fatty acid levels and systolic blood pressure. This study demonstrated that supplementation of 2 g or 4 g of SBE daily can significantly reduce blood glucose in hyperglycemic subjects, although high-dose SBE seemed to be more effective than low-dose SBE for lowering plasma free fatty acid level and systolic blood pressure.

  1. C-Kit expression in the gallbladder of guinea pig with chronic calculous cholecystitis and the effect of Artemisia capillaris Thunb on interstitial cells of Cajal.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hua; Wang, Fang; Wang, Changmiao

    2016-07-01

    To study the c-Kit expression in the gallbladder of cholesterol lithogenic guinea pig model and the effect of Artemisia capillaris Thunb on interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). A total of 45 guinea pigs were randomly assigned into three groups: the control group (guinea pigs fed a standard diet, normal group); the model group (guinea pigs fed a cholesterol gallstone-inducing diet); and the Chinese medicine group (guinea pigs fed the cholesterol gallstone-inducing diet and treated with A. capillaris through intragastric administration, therapy group). Each group had 15 guinea pigs. The gallbladders of the guinea pigs were harvested after 8 weeks. C-Kit expression was detected using an immunohistochemistry staining, real-time PCR, and Western blot analyses. The effect of A. capillaris on ICCs was evaluated by muscle strip contraction experiments. C-Kit expression significantly decreased in the gallbladder of model group, but increased in the Chinese medicine group. The Contractility of guinea pig gallbladder muscle strip significantly improved in the Chinese medicine group. Our results indicated that A. capillaris improves gallbladder impairment by up-regulating c-Kit expression, and it also can improve the contractile response of in vitro guinea pig gallbladder muscle strips.

  2. Range 74 Target Complexes, Environmental Assessment, Nevada Test and Training Range, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    Sagebrush-Grass Community The sagebrush-grass community (Photograph 3-3) is primarily dominated by big sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata), but other...sagebrush species, such as black sagebrush ( Artemisia nova) can also be dominant. This community is often located in areas with greater...Sagebrush-Grass Community The sagebrush-grass community is primarily dominated by big sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata), but other sagebrush species

  3. Identifying key climate and environmental factors affecting rates of post-fire big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) recovery in the northern Columbia Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shinneman, Douglas; McIlroy, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Sagebrush steppe of North America is considered highly imperilled, in part owing to increased fire frequency. Sagebrush ecosystems support numerous species, and it is important to understand those factors that affect rates of post-fire sagebrush recovery. We explored recovery of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp.wyomingensis) and basin big sagebrush (A. tridentata ssp. tridentata) communities following fire in the northern Columbia Basin (Washington, USA). We sampled plots across 16 fires that burned in big sagebrush communities from 5 to 28 years ago, and also sampled nearby unburned locations. Mixed-effects models demonstrated that density of large–mature big sagebrush plants and percentage cover of big sagebrush were higher with time since fire and in plots with more precipitation during the winter immediately following fire, but were lower when precipitation the next winter was higher than average, especially on soils with higher available water supply, and with greater post-fire mortality of mature big sagebrush plants. Bunchgrass cover 5 to 28 years after fire was predicted to be lower with higher cover of both shrubs and non-native herbaceous species, and only slightly higher with time. Post-fire recovery of big sagebrush in the northern Columbia Basin is a slow process that may require several decades on average, but faster recovery rates may occur under specific site and climate conditions.

  4. Simultaneous determination three phytosterol compounds, campesterol, stigmasterol and daucosterol in Artemisia apiacea by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array ultraviolet/visible detector

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiwoo; Weon, Jin Bae; Yun, Bo-Ra; Eom, Min Rye; Ma, Choong Je

    2015-01-01

    Background: Artemisia apiacea is a traditional herbal medicine using treatment of eczema and jaundice in Eastern Asia, including China, Korea, and Japan. Objective: An accurate and sensitive analysis method using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array ultraviolet/visible detector and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of three phytosterol compounds, campesterol, stigmasterol and daucosterol in A. apiacea was established. Materials and Methods: The analytes were separated on a Shiseido C18 column (5 μm, 4.6 mm I.D. ×250 mm) with gradient elution of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid and acetonitrile. The flow rate was 1 mL/min and detection wavelengths were set at 205 and 254 nm. Results: Validation of the method was performed to demonstrate its linearity, precision and accuracy. The calibration curves showed good linearity (R2 > 0.9994). The limits of detection and limits of quantification were within the ranges 0.55–7.07 μg/mL and 1.67–21.44 μg/mL, respectively. And, the relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precision were <2.93%. The recoveries were found to be in the range of 90.03–104.91%. Conclusion: The developed method has been successfully applied to the analysis for quality control of campesterol, stigmasterol and daucosterol in A. apiacea. PMID:25829768

  5. Rice Cakes Containing Dietary Fiber Supplemented with or without Artemisia Annua and Gynura Procumbens Merr. Alleviated the Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Na Rae; Yoon, Sun; Lee, Seung-Min

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether the consumption of Korean rice cakes enriched with dietary fiber with or without polyphenol rich plants might decrease the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Rice cakes were manufactured using fructooligosaccharides, resistant starch, and psyllium as sources of dietary fibers with and without polyphenol rich Artemisia annua and Gynura procumbens Merr. (RC+FP and RC+F, respectively), and prepared in three forms (songpyeon, seolgidduk, and chaldduk). Ninety subjects with at least one MetS risk factor were recruited for 6 weeks of dietary intervention. Sixty subjects were finally included for the analysis. Compared to the initial values, RC+FP group had decreased levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), HOMA-IR and blood pressure after 6 weeks, whereas RC+F group didn't have significant changes in them. Regarding the improvement of individual MetS risk factors, RC+FP group showed significant reduction in FBG and blood pressures but RC+F group only had reduction in systolic blood pressure. After the intervention, a reduction in the number of MetS risk factors was greatert in the RC+FP group than in the RC+F group. In conclusion, Dietary fiber enriched rice cakes with or without polyphenols decreased the number and/or the levels of MetS risk factors. Polyphenol rich plant components may provide additional health benefits in controlling FBG and blood pressure.

  6. Rice Cakes Containing Dietary Fiber Supplemented with or without Artemisia Annua and Gynura Procumbens Merr. Alleviated the Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether the consumption of Korean rice cakes enriched with dietary fiber with or without polyphenol rich plants might decrease the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Rice cakes were manufactured using fructooligosaccharides, resistant starch, and psyllium as sources of dietary fibers with and without polyphenol rich Artemisia annua and Gynura procumbens Merr. (RC+FP and RC+F, respectively), and prepared in three forms (songpyeon, seolgidduk, and chaldduk). Ninety subjects with at least one MetS risk factor were recruited for 6 weeks of dietary intervention. Sixty subjects were finally included for the analysis. Compared to the initial values, RC+FP group had decreased levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), HOMA-IR and blood pressure after 6 weeks, whereas RC+F group didn't have significant changes in them. Regarding the improvement of individual MetS risk factors, RC+FP group showed significant reduction in FBG and blood pressures but RC+F group only had reduction in systolic blood pressure. After the intervention, a reduction in the number of MetS risk factors was greatert in the RC+FP group than in the RC+F group. In conclusion, Dietary fiber enriched rice cakes with or without polyphenols decreased the number and/or the levels of MetS risk factors. Polyphenol rich plant components may provide additional health benefits in controlling FBG and blood pressure. PMID:27152297

  7. Archaeological Test Excavations. Phase II Testing at the Hagerman National Fish Hatchery, Hagerman Valley, Idaho,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    horizons, a surface horizon or hori- zons not significantly darkened by humus , and absence of deep, wide cracks . . . the Aridisols have no "available...constituents or the frequencies of the various species present, as opposed to an area like the Hagerman locale which is characterized by a complex... species along with the Agropyron, stiff sagebrush (Artemisia rigida), threetip sagebrush (Artemisia tripartita) or low sagebrush (Artemisia arbuscula

  8. Simulated Digestion of Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua Consumed as a Treatment (pACT) for Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Weathers, Pamela J.; Jordan, Nikole; Lasin, Praphapan; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological Relevance Artemisinin (AN) is produced by Artemisia annua, a medicinal herb long used as a tea infusion in traditional Chinese medicine to treat fever; it is also the key ingredient in current artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) effective in treating malaria. Recently we showed that dried leaves from the whole plant A. annua that produces artemisinin and contains artemisinin-synergistic flavonoids seems to be more effective and less costly than ACT oral malaria therapy; however little is known about how digestion affects release of artemisinin and flavonoids from dried leaves. Material and Methods In the current study we used a simulated digestion system to determine how artemisinin and flavonoids are released prior to absorption into the bloodstream. Various delivery methods and staple foods were combined with dried leaves for digestion in order to investigate their impact on the bioavailability of artemisinin and flavonoids. Digestate was recovered at the end of the oral, gastric, and intestinal stages, separated into solid and liquid fractions, and extracted for measurement of artemisinin and total flavonoids. Results Compared to unencapsulated digested dried leaves, addition of sucrose, various cooking oils, and rice did not reduce the amount of artemisinin released in the intestinal liquid fraction, but the amount of released flavonoids nearly doubled. When dried leaves were encapsulated into either hydroxymethylcellulose or gelatin capsules, there was >50% decrease in released artemisinin but no change in released flavonoids. In the presence of millet or corn meal, the amount of released artemisinin declined, but there was no change in released flavonoids. Use of a mutant A. annua lacking artemisinin showed that the plant matrix is critical in determining how artemisinin is affected during the digestion process. Conclusions This study provides evidence showing how both artemisinin and flavonoids are affected by digestion and

  9. Artemisia scoparia Enhances Adipocyte Development and Endocrine Function In Vitro and Enhances Insulin Action In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Allison J.; Fuller, Scott; Fedorcenco, Veaceslav; Beyl, Robbie; Burris, Thomas P.; Mynatt, Randall; Ribnicky, David M.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Failure of adipocytes to expand during periods of energy excess can result in undesirable metabolic consequences such as ectopic fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Blinded screening studies have indicated that Artemisia scoparia (SCO) extracts can enhance adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in cultured adipocytes. The present study tested the hypothesis that SCO treatment modulates fat cell development and function in vitro and insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue in vivo. Methods In vitro experiments utilized a Gal4-PPARγ ligand binding domain (LBD) fusion protein-luciferase reporter assay to examine PPARγ activation. To investigate the ability of SCO to modulate adipogenesis and mature fat cell function in 3T3-L1 cells, neutral lipid accumulation, gene expression, and protein secretion were measured by Oil Red O staining, qRT-PCR, and immunoblotting, respectively. For the in vivo experiments, diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD containing 1% w/w SCO for four weeks. Body weight and composition, food intake, and fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured. Phospho-activation and expression of insulin-sensitizing proteins in epididymal adipose tissue (eWAT) were measured by immunoblotting. Results Ethanolic extracts of A. scoparia significantly activated the PPARγ LBD and enhanced lipid accumulation in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. SCO increased the transcription of several PPARγ target genes in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells and rescued the negative effects of tumor necrosis factor α on production and secretion of adiponectin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in fully differentiated fat cells. DIO mice treated with SCO had elevated adiponectin levels and increased phosphorylation of AMPKα in eWAT when compared to control mice. In SCO-treated mice, these changes were also associated with decreased fasting insulin and glucose levels. Conclusion SCO has metabolically beneficial

  10. Protective effects of fractions from Artemisia biennis hydro-ethanolic extract against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Mojarrab, Mahdi; Mehrabi, Mehran; Ahmadi, Farahnaz; Hosseinzadeh, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): This study was designed to indicate whether different fractions from Artemisia biennis hydroethanolic extract could provide cytoprotection against oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by doxorubicin (DOX) in rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12). Material and Methods: Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Also, activation of caspase-3 and superoxide dismutase were evaluated by spectrophotometry. Detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were performed by flowcytometry. Results: Treatment of PC12 cells with DOX reduced viability dose dependently. For evaluation of the effect of fractions (A-G) on DOX-induced cytotoxicity, PC12 cells were pretreated for 24 hr with the A. biennis fractions and then cells were treated with DOX. The fractions C and D increased PC12 cells viability significantly compared to DOX treated cells. Moreover, pretreatment with fractions C and D for 24 hr attenuated DOX-mediated apoptosis and the anti-apoptotic action of A. biennis fractions was partially dependent on inhibition of caspase 3 activity and also increasing the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Selected A. biennis fractions also suppressed the generation of ROS and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Conclusion: Taken together our observation indicated that subtoxic concentration of aforementioned fractions of A. biennis hydroetanolic extract has protective effect against apoptosis induced by DOX in PC12 cell. The results highlighted that fractions C and D may exert cytoprotective effects through their antioxidant actions. PMID:27403257

  11. The ethanol extract from Artemisia princeps Pampanini induces p53-mediated G1 phase arrest in A172 human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Young; Lee, Kyung-Won; Lee, Heon-Woo; Cho, Young-Wuk; Baek, Nam-In; Chung, Hae-Gon; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Choi, Myung-Sook; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2008-06-01

    In the present study, the antiproliferative effects of the ethanol extract of Artemisia princeps Pampanini (EAPP) and the mechanism involved were investigated. Of the various cancer cells examined, human neuroblastoma A172 cells were most sensitive to EAPP, and their proliferation was dose- and time-dependently inhibited by EAPP. DNA flow cytometry analysis indicated that EAPP notably induced the G(1) phase arrest in A172 cells. Of the G(1) phase cycle-related proteins examined, the expressions of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, CDK4, and CDK6 and of cyclin D(1), D(2), and D(3) were found to be markedly reduced by EAPP, whereas cyclin E was unaffected. Moreover, the protein and mRNA levels of the CDK inhibitors p16(INK4a), p21(CIP1/WAF1), and p27(KIP1) were increased, and the activities of CDK2, CDK4, and CDK6 were reduced. Furthermore, the expressions of E2F-1 and of phosphorylated pRb were also decreased, and the protein levels of p53 and pp53 (Ser15) were increased. Up-regulation of p21(CIP1/WAF1) was found to be mediated by a p53-dependent pathway in EAPP-induced G(1)-arrested A172 cells. When these data are taken together, the EAPP was found to potently inhibit the proliferation of human neuroblastoma A172 cells via G(1) phase cell cycle arrest.

  12. Photo-catalytic, anti-bacterial, and anti-cancer properties of phyto-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Artemisia tournefortiana Rchb extract.

    PubMed

    Baghbani-Arani, Fahimeh; Movagharnia, Rabee; Sharifian, Alireza; Salehi, Soheil; Shandiz, Seyed Ataollah Sadat

    2017-08-01

    Metal nanoparticles have largely been investigated due to their potential medicinal activities. This study demonstrates the biological properties of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by using Artemisia tournefortiana Rchb ethanol extract. Instrumentations such as ultraviolet-visible spectra analysis, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to reveal the synthesized AgNPs. Microscopic results showed that the particles were mostly spherical in shape, having an average diameter of 22.89±14.82nm. The antibacterial activity of the phyto-fabricated AgNPs was investigated by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The in vitro cytotoxicity effect was investigated against normal human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and human colon adenocarcinoma cancer (HT29) cells. The apoptotic cells were identified by annexin V/PI FITC staining, and morphological assessment. The expressions of Bax and Bcl2 were evaluated by quantitative real time PCR method. The phyto-synthesized AgNPs have shown increased cell apoptosis and demonstrated dose-dependent cytotoxicity in HT29 cancer cells. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity of the phyto-synthesized AgNPs was evaluated by degradation of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 under UV light exposure and these fabricated Ag nanoparticles demonstrated efficacy in degrading the dye within 60min. Overall, the present results highlighted the antibacterial and anticancer properties of fabricated AgNPs, suggesting that phyto-synthesized silver nanoparticles could possess potent anti-pathogenic bacteria and anti-colon cancer activities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Changes in key constituents of clonally propagated Artemisia annua L. during preparation of compressed leaf tablets for possible therapeutic use

    PubMed Central

    Weathers, Pamela J.; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua L., long used as a tea infusion in traditional Chinese medicine, produces artemisinin. Although artemisinin is currently used as artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) against malaria, oral consumption of dried leaves from the plant showed efficacy and will be less costly than ACT. Many compounds in the plant have some antimalarial activity. Unknown, however, is how these plant components change as leaves are processed into tablets for oral consumption. Here we compared extracts from fresh and dried leaf biomass with compressed leaf tablets of A. annua. Using GC-MS, nineteen endogenous compounds, including artemisinin and several of its pathway metabolites, nine flavonoids, three monoterpenes, a coumarin, and two phenolic acids, were identified and quantified from solvent extracts to determine how levels of these compounds changed during processing. Results showed that compared to dried leaves, artemisinin, arteannuin B, artemisinic acid, chlorogenic acid, scopoletin, chrysoplenetin, and quercetin increased or remained stable with powdering and compression into tablets. Dihydroartemisinic acid, monoterpenes, and chrysoplenol-D decreased with tablet formation. Five target compounds were not detectable in any of the extracts of this cultivar. In contrast to the individually measured aglycone flavonoids, using the AlCl3 method, total flavonoids increased nearly fivefold during the tablet formation. To our knowledge this is the first study documenting changes that occurred in processing dried leaves of A. annua into tablets. These results will improve our understanding of the potential use of not only this medicinal herb, but also others to afford better quality control of intact plant material for therapeutic use. PMID:25228784

  14. Study of two-stage ohmic hydro-extraction of essential oil from Artemisia aucheri Boiss.: Antioxidant and antimicrobial characteristics.

    PubMed

    Mojtahed Zadeh Asl, Rozita; Niakousari, Mehrdad; Hashemi Gahruie, Hadi; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin

    2018-05-01

    The effect of two-stage ohmic-assisted hydrodistillation (TSOH) on the extraction and characteristics of essential oils (EOs) from the Artemisia aucheri Boiss. was studied, and the results were compared to conventional hydrodistillation (HD). According to the results, the yield of EOs obtained through TSOH was almost 30% higher than those extracted by HD in nearly one-quarter of a time used by the HD. Scanning electron micrographs of A. aucheri leaves showed almost complete eruption of EO glands and their surrounding area in TSOH extraction method, hence achieving higher yield. The components of the EOs obtained through TSOH were only slightly different from those of HD. GC/MS analysis indicated some differences in the quantity of the main components, too. The main components of EOs were identified as Thymol, Linalool, Geraniol, Camphor, and 1, 8-Cineole, Davana ether and Cis-Davanone. Thymol (~17%) and Cis-Davanone (~23%) were the highest quantity in the EOs extracted from TSOH and HD, respectively. The variation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the EOs may be attributed to these differences in the percentage of the main components. The radical scavenging activity of the EOs obtained by TSOH was almost twice that of HD. Based on antimicrobial activity assays, the EOs were efficient against S. aureus (a Gram-positive), E. coli (a Gram-negative), and S. cerevisiae (yeast). However, the efficacy was higher in gram-positive than gram-negative bacteria and yeast. The results indicate TSOH has a potential to produce EOs from herbal plants at a faster rate, higher yield, being probably more efficient in terms of energy although having similar antimicrobial and antioxidant efficacy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Neuroprotective effect of caffeoylquinic acids from Artemisia princeps Pampanini against oxidative stress-induced toxicity in PC-12 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Gil; Lee, Hyungjae; Nam, Tae Gyu; Eom, Seok Hyun; Heo, Ho Jin; Lee, Chang Yong; Kim, Dae-Ok

    2011-03-01

    Phenolics in dry Artemisia princeps Pampanini, an herbal plant traditionally consumed as food ingredients in Korea was extracted, fractionated, and quantified as well as evaluated for its neuroprotection for PC-12 cells. Whole extract had 5,852 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g of total phenolics and 6,274 mg and 9,698 mg vitamin C equivalents/100 g of antioxidant capacities assayed by DPPH and ABTS radicals, respectively. The fraction extracted with n-butanol had the highest levels of total phenolics and antioxidant capacity than the other fractions (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water). Using a reversed-phase HPLC system, caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) and its derivatives such as 3-CQA, 4-CQA, 5-CQA, 1,5-diCQA, 3,4-diCQA, 3,5-diCQA, and 4,5-diCQA were isolated and quantified. The whole extract and its n-butanol fraction yielded 3,5-diCQA with the highest amount, which consisted of approximately 36.8% and 33.5%, respectively. The whole extract, the n-butanol fraction, and 3,5-diCQA showed neuroprotective effect on PC-12 cells under the insult of amyloid ß peptide in a dose-dependent manner. Treatments of the whole extract and the n-butanol fraction for PC-12 cells under oxidative stress increased approximately 1.6 and 2.4 times higher cell viability, compared with the control without treatments. For PC-12 cells treated with 3,5-diCQA, intracellular oxidative stress decreased by 51.3% and cell viability increased up to 2.8 times compared to the control with oxidative insult of amyloid ß peptide only. These results indicate that phenolics from A. princeps Pampanini alleviated the oxidative stress and enhanced the viability of PC-12 cells, suggesting that it may be applied as a dietary antineurodegenerative agent in functional foods.

  16. Artemisinin and Artemisia annua leaves alleviate Eimeria tenella infection by facilitating apoptosis of host cells and suppressing inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Jiao, JinYing; Yang, YunQiao; Liu, MingJiang; Li, JinGui; Cui, Yi; Yin, ShaoJie; Tao, JianPing

    2018-04-30

    Evasion strategies of intracellular parasites by hijacking cellular pathways, are necessary to ensure successful survival and replication. Eimeria tenella (E. tenella) has the ability to circumvent apoptosis of infected cells through increased expression of the transcriptional factor NF-κB and the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-x L during the development of second generation schizonts. Artemisinin (ART) and its original plant, the dried leaves of Artemisia annua (LAA) have been shown to be effective against avian coccidiosis, however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We showed that E. tenella infection promoted the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and inhibited the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and cleaved caspase-3 at 60 h post infection (PI), with a higher ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax. Nevertheless, the expression trends of Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 were reversed at 120 h and 192 h PI. ART treatment significantly abrogated Bcl-2 expression, whereas it promoted the expression levels of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 at the three time points above. Additionally, ART remarkably suppressed the increased mRNA expressions of NF-κB and interleukin-17A in ceca during infection by E. tenella. Compared with the ART treatment, LAA treatment exerted more improvements in clinical symptoms, promoting apoptosis and suppressing inflammatory response. These alterations caused by ART and LAA treatments were consistent with the reduced clinical diarrhea and pathological improvements in chicken ceca. Collectively, these results indicate that the inhibitory effects of ART or LAA on E. tenella infection may work through facilitating the apoptosis of infected host cells and inhibiting the inflammatory response. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Synergistic effects of Artemisia iwayomogi and Curcuma longa radix on high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Seol, In-Chan; Im, Hwi-Jin; Cho, Jung-Hyo; Son, Chang-Gue

    2015-09-15

    The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi and Curcuma longa radix are both used to treat hyperlipidemia in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine. To evaluate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of the 30% ethanol extracts of A. iwayomogi (AI), C. longa (CL), and the mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE), using a high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia model. Six of seven groups of C57BL/6N male mice (i.e., not including the naïve group) were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Of these six groups, five (i.e., not including the control group) were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with AI (100mg/kg), CL (100mg/kg), ACE (50 or 100mg/kg), or Lipitor (20mg/kg). Serum lipid profiles, obesity-related markers, hepatic steatosis, hepatic gene expression, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. AI, CL, and ACE were associated with significant effects on serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol [TC] and triglyceride), body, liver and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress biomarkers. ACE at 100mg/kg was associated with significantly greater improvements in serum TC and triglyceride, hepatic triglyceride, epididymal adipocyte size, and oxidative stress biomarkers, compared with AI and CL. AI, CL and ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expression (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, fatty acid synthase, sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha). ACE exhibits anti-hyperlipidemia properties and is associated with partially synergistic effects compared with AI or CL alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biomass Production of Hairy Roots of Artemisia annua and Arachis hypogaea in a Scaled-Up Mist Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, Ganapathy; Liu, Chunzhao; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Hairy roots have the potential to produce a variety of valuable small and large molecules. The mist reactor is a gas phase bioreactor that has shown promise for low-cost culture of hairy roots. Using a newer, disposable culture bag, mist reactor performance was studied with two species, Artemisia annua L. and Arachis hypogaea (peanut), at scales from 1 to 20 L. Both species of hairy roots when grown at 1 L in the mist reactor showed growth rates that surpassed that in shake flasks. From the information gleaned at 1 L, Arachis was scaled further to 4 and then 20 L. Misting duty cycle, culture medium flow rate, and timing of when flow rate was increased were varied. In a mist reactor increasing the misting cycle or increasing the medium flow rate are the two alternatives for increased delivery of liquid nutrients to the root bed. Longer misting cycles beyond 2–3 min were generally deemed detrimental to growth. On the other hand, increasing the medium flow rate to the sonic nozzle especially during the exponential phase of root growth (weeks 2–3) was the most important factor for increasing growth rates and biomass yields in the 20 L reactors. A. hypogaea growth in 1 L reactors was μ = 0.173 day−1 with biomass yield of 12.75 g DWL−1. This exceeded that in shake flasks at μ = 0.166 day−1 and 11.10 g DWL−1. Best growth rate and biomass yield at 20 L was μ = 0.147 and 7.77 g DWL−1, which was mainly achieved when medium flow rate delivery was increased. The mist deposition model was further evaluated using this newer reactor design and when the apparent thickness of roots (+hairs) was taken into account, the empirical data correlated with model predictions. Together these results establish the most important conditions to explore for future optimization of the mist bioreactor for culture of hairy roots. PMID:20687140

  19. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of key genes involved in flavonoid biosynthetic pathway and identification of a flavonol synthase from Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Liu, L; Tang, Y; Xiong, S; Long, J; Liu, Z; Tian, N

    2017-07-01

    The regulatory mechanism of flavonoids, which synergise anti-malarial and anti-cancer compounds in Artemisia annua, is still unclear. In this study, an anthocyanidin-accumulating mutant callus was induced from A. annua and comparative transcriptomic analysis of wild-type and mutant calli performed, based on the next-generation Illumina/Solexa sequencing platform and de novo assembly. A total of 82,393 unigenes were obtained and 34,764 unigenes were annotated in the public database. Among these, 87 unigenes were assigned to 14 structural genes involved in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway and 37 unigenes were assigned to 17 structural genes related to metabolism of flavonoids. More than 30 unigenes were assigned to regulatory genes, including R2R3-MYB, bHLH and WD40, which might regulate flavonoid biosynthesis. A further 29 unigenes encoding flavonoid biosynthetic enzymes or transcription factors were up-regulated in the mutant, while 19 unigenes were down-regulated, compared with the wild type. Expression levels of nine genes involved in the flavonoid pathway were compared using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and results were consistent with comparative transcriptomic analysis. Finally, a putative flavonol synthase gene (AaFLS1) was identified from enzyme assay in vitro and in vivo through heterogeneous expression, and confirmed comparative transcriptomic analysis of wild-type and mutant callus. The present work has provided important target genes for the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis in A. annua. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. Cloning and Functional Characterization of a β-Pinene Synthase from Artemisia annua That Shows a Circadian Pattern of Expression1

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shan; Xu, Ran; Jia, Jun-Wei; Pang, Jihai; Matsuda, Seiichi P.T.; Chen, Xiao-Ya

    2002-01-01

    Artemisia annua plants produce a broad range of volatile compounds, including monoterpenes, which contribute to the characteristic fragrance of this medicinal species. A cDNA clone, QH6, contained an open reading frame encoding a 582-amino acid protein that showed high sequence identity to plant monoterpene synthases. The prokaryotically expressed QH6 fusion protein converted geranyl diphosphate to (−)-β-pinene and (−)-α-pinene in a 94:6 ratio. QH6 was predominantly expressed in juvenile leaves 2 weeks postsprouting. QH6 transcript levels were transiently reduced following mechanical wounding or fungal elicitor treatment, suggesting that this gene is not directly involved in defense reaction induced by either of these treatments. Under a photoperiod of 12 h/12 h (light/dark), the abundance of QH6 transcripts fluctuated in a diurnal pattern that ebbed around 3 h before daybreak (9th h in the dark phase) and peaked after 9 h in light (9th h in the light phase). The contents of (−)-β-pinene in juvenile leaves and in emitted volatiles also varied in a diurnal rhythm, correlating strongly with mRNA accumulation. When A. annua was entrained by constant light or constant dark conditions, QH6 transcript accumulation continued to fluctuate with circadian rhythms. Under constant light, advanced cycles of fluctuation of QH6 transcript levels were observed, and under constant dark, the cycle was delayed. However, the original diurnal pattern could be regained when the plants were returned to the normal light/dark (12 h/12 h) photoperiod. This is the first report that monoterpene biosynthesis is transcriptionally regulated in a circadian pattern. PMID:12226526

  1. A basic leucine zipper transcription factor, AabZIP1, connects abscisic acid signaling with artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fangyuan; Fu, Xueqing; Lv, Zongyou; Lu, Xu; Shen, Qian; Zhang, Ling; Zhu, Mengmeng; Wang, Guofeng; Sun, Xiaofen; Liao, Zhihua; Tang, Kexuan

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin is a sesquiterpenoid especially synthesized in the Chinese herbal plant, Artemisia annua, which is widely used in the treatment of malaria. Artemisinin accumulation can be enhanced by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. However, it is not known how ABA signaling regulates artemisinin biosynthesis. A global expression profile and phylogenetic analysis as well as the dual-LUC screening revealed that a basic leucine zipper family transcription factor from A. annua (namely AabZIP1) was involved in ABA signaling to regulate artemisinin biosynthesis. AabZIP1 had a higher expression level in the inflorescences than in other tissues; ABA treatment, drought, and salt stress strongly induced the expression of AabZIP1. Yeast one-hybrid assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that AabZIP1 bound to the ABA-responsive elements (ABRE) in the promoter regions of the amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) gene and CYP71AV1, which are two key structural genes of the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway. A mutagenesis assay showed that the C1 domain in the N-terminus of AabZIP1 was important for its transactivation activity. Furthermore, the activation of ADS and CYP71AV1 promoters by AabZIP1 was enhanced by ABA treatment in transient dual-LUC analysis. The AabZIP1 variant with C1 domain deletion lost the ability to activate ADS and CYP71AV1 promoters regardless of ABA treatment. Notably, overexpression of AabZIP1 in A. annua resulted in significantly increased accumulation of artemisinin. Our results indicate that ABA promotes artemisinin biosynthesis, likely through 1 activation of ADS and CYP71AV1 expression by AabZIP in A. annua. Meanwhile, our findings reveal the potential value of AabZIP1 in genetic engineering of artemisinin production. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Synergistic induction of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)- and all-trans-retinoic acid-induced differentiation of HL-60 leukemia cells by yomogin, a sesquiterpene lactone from Artemisia princeps.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Tae Sung

    2002-10-01

    Many anti-inflammatory agents are known to significantly enhance the terminal differentiation of some cancer cells such as leukemia cells. In this study, the effect of yomogin, a eudesmane sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Artemisia princeps with anti-inflammatory activity, was investigated in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. Yomogin by itself induced small increases in cell differentiation, with less than 19 % of the cells attaining a differentiated phenotype. Importantly, yomogin synergistically enhanced differentiation of HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent manner when combined with either 5 nM 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25-(OH)(2) D(3)] or 50 nM all- trans retinoic acid (all- trans RA). Cytofluorometric analysis and morphologic studies indicated that the combinations of yomogin and 1,25-(OH)(2) D(3) stimulated differentiation to monocytes whereas the combinations of yomogin and all- trans RA stimulated differentiation to granulocytes. These results suggest that yomogin may be useful in combination with 1,25-(OH)(2) D(3) or all- trans-RA in the differentiation therapy for myeloid leukemias. Abbreviations. 1,25-(OH)(2) D(3) :1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) FITC:fluorescein isothiocyanate NBT:nitroblue tetrazolium RA:retinoic acid PE:phytoerythrin

  3. The anti-diabetic effects of ethanol extract from two variants of Artemisia princeps Pampanini in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Jung, U J; Baek, N-I; Chung, H-G; Bang, M-H; Yoo, J-S; Jeong, T S; Lee, K-T; Kang, Y J; Lee, M K; Kim, H J; Yeo, J Y; Choi, M S

    2007-10-01

    The anti-diabetic effects of two variants of Artemisia princeps Pampanini, sajabalssuk (SB) and sajuarissuk (SS), were investigated in type 2 diabetic animal using their ethanol extracts. Male C57BL/KsJ-db/db (db/db) mice were divided into control, SB ethanol extract (SBE), SS ethanol extract (SSE), or rosiglitazone (RG) groups and their age-matched littermates (db/+) were used. Supplementation of the SBE (0.171 g/100g diet), SSE (0.154 g/100g diet), and RG (0.005 g/100g diet) improved glucose and insulin tolerance and significantly lowered blood glycosylated hemoglobin levels, as compared to the control group. Plasma insulin, C-peptide and glucagon levels in db/db mice were higher in the db/+ mice, however these values were significantly lowered by SBE, SSE or RG-supplement. Hepatic GK activity was significantly lower in the db/db mice than in the db/+ mice, while hepatic G6Pase activity was vice versa. Supplementation of SBE, SSE and RG reversed these hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities. In addition, SBE and SSE markedly increased the hepatic glycogen content and muscle ratio as compared to the control group, but they did not alter the food intake, body weight and plasma leptin level. The RG group, however, showed a significant increase in the food intake, body weight and plasma leptin. These results suggest that SBE and SSE exert an anti-diabetic effect in type 2 diabetic mice.

  4. Antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of aqueous extract of Artemisia campestris L. from Eastern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Dib, Ikram; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Wauters, Jean Noel; Assaidi, Asmae; Mekhfi, Hassane; Aziz, Mohammed; Bnouham, Mohammed; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Frederich, Michel; Ziyyat, Abderrahim

    2017-07-12

    Artemisia campestris L. (Asteraceae) has many traditional uses, among which treatment of diabetes and hypertension. This study was conducted in order to confirm the antihypertensive and hypotensive effects of A. campestris L. aqueous extract (AcAE) and to explore the underlying mechanism of action of its vasorelaxant effect, besides the acute toxicity. Also, the chemical composition of AcAE was investigated. the chemical content of AcAE was determined by using HPLC and NMR techniques. The antihypertensive effect was assessed indirectly by tail-cuff method on L-NAME induced hypertensive rats, while the hypotensive action was monitored intravenously by invasive method on normotensive rats. The vasorelaxant effect and vascular mechanism of action were studied in the presence of antagonists and blockers on aorta isolated from normotensive rats. On the other side, the acute toxicity was studied by oral feeding of extract to the mice. The global phytochemical profile of AcAE reveals the presence of several polyphenols as main components. A. campestris L. infusion was characterized by mono- and di-cinnamoyl compounds, with 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic (isochlorogenic A) acid being the main compound, followed by 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid. Vicenin-2 (apigenin 6,8-di-C-glucoside) appeared to be the most abundant compound among flavonoids. The daily treatment with AcAE at 150mg/kg/day prevented the installation of hypertension on L-NAME hypertensive rats, and reduced SBP from 172mmHg up to 144mmHg. At the dose 40mg/kg, AcAE provoked reduction of systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP), without affecting the heart rate. Also, AcAE (10 -2 -2mg/ml) relaxed the precontracted aorta by 95.8±1.3%. The denudation and preincubation of aorta with atropine, calmidazolium, L-NAME, hydroxycobalamin, ODQ, 8-RP-Br-PET-cGMP, thapsigargin and verapamil attenuated the vasorelaxant response, while the pre-treatment with 4-AP, TEA, glibenclamide and BaCl 2 did not

  5. Extraction mechanism of ultrasound assisted extraction and its effect on higher yielding and purity of artemisinin crystals from Artemisia annua L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Chemat, Smain; Aissa, Abdallah; Boumechhour, Abdenour; Arous, Omar; Ait-Amar, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    This study proposes an ultrasound-horn system for the extraction of a natural active compound "artemisinin" from Artemisia annua L. leaves as an alternative to hot maceration technique. Ultrasound leaching improves artemisinin recovery at all temperatures where only ten minutes is required to recover 70% (4.42mgg -1 ) compared to 60min of conventional hot leaching for the same yield. For instance, ultrasound treatment at 30°C produced a higher yield than the one obtained by conventional maceration at 40°C. Kinetic study suggests that the extraction pattern can be assimilated, during the first ten minutes, to a first order steady state, from which activation energy calculations revealed that each gram of artemisinin required 7.38kJ in ultrasound versus 10.3kJ in the conventional system. Modeling results indicate the presence of two extraction stages, a faster stage with a diffusion coefficient of 19×10 -5 cm 2 min -1 for ultrasound technique at 40°C, seven times higher than the conventional one; and a second deceleration stage similar for both techniques with diffusion coefficient ranging from 1.7 to 3.1×10 -5 cm 2 min -1 . It is noted that the efficient ultrasound extraction potential implies extraction of higher amount of co-metabolites so low artemisinin crystal purity is engendered but a combination with a purification step using activated charcoal and celite adsorbents produced crystals with comparable purity for conventional and ultrasound samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Realities and myths of the Teresken Syndrome--an evaluation of the exploitation of dwarf shrub resources in the Eastern Pamirs of Tajikistan.

    PubMed

    Kraudzun, Tobias; Vanselow, Kim André; Samimi, Cyrus

    2014-01-01

    In the Eastern Pamirs extensive livestock herding is the predominant land use option and dwarf shrubs - teresken (Krascheninnikovia ceratoides) and to a lesser extent wormwood (Artemisia spp.) - are an important source of thermal energy and are crucial forage plants, particularly in winter. For the post-Soviet period, many papers and reports suggest rapidly increasing exploitation rates with sometimes alarming figures for degradation. Conventional knowledge about the Pamirs pinpoints the frightening and irreversible extraction of teresken as a dwindling resource causing land degradation - termed the 'Teresken Syndrome'. However, these publications are based on limited empirical evidence. This paper discusses the socio-economic role of dwarf shrubs as fuel and forage - today and in the past - and provides an overview of the extent of dwarf shrub distribution and degraded areas. Although our observations confirm extensive dwarf shrub exploitation, general assumptions of severe desertification as a result of dwarf shrub extraction do not yield reliable scenarios. The effects of harvesting on the vegetation cover vary widely depending on extraction practices and yields of different dwarf shrub-dominated formations. Furthermore, considerable and increasing shares of energy needs are satisfied by animal manure and imported coal. On the other hand, for low-income households harvesting dwarf shrubs is an important and reliable option to ensure both their own household energy supply and an income source. We argue that the term 'Teresken Syndrome', which was introduced after the emergency replacement of Soviet coal supplies by dwarf shrubs in the 1990s, is not appropriate anymore to describe the current use of natural resources in the Eastern Pamirs. However, under the current economic circumstances the nexus remains that the Pamir people are caught in the dilemma of using dwarf shrubs as energy and as forage resource. However, the observed negotiation practices concerning

  7. 78 FR 48925 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Violence and Virtue...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8417] Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Violence and Virtue: Artemisia Gentileschi's Judith Slaying Holofernes'' SUMMARY: Notice is... object to be included in the exhibition ``Violence and Virtue: Artemisia Gentileschi's Judith Slaying...

  8. SciTech Connect

    Halvorson, J.J.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Smith, J.L.

    Artemisia tridentata is a prominent shrub of cool deserts that affects the soil in which it grows. We sampled adjacent burned and unburned sites to see if resource islands persisted in locations where shrubs had been removed by fire. The concentrations of soil variables near the location of burned Artemisia tridentata were smaller than under live Artemisia tridentata and did not vary as much with distance away from the plant axis. However, the patterns of soil variables in these remnant resource islands were still substantial. Significantly higher concentrations of total N and soil microbial C, and significantly higher electrical conductivitymore » were observed at the location of a burned Artemisia tridentata stem than at distances further away. The differences between burned and unburned soil were greatest in samples collected near the plant. In contrast, samples of burned or unburned soil were not distinguishable from each other at locations greater than about 50 cm away from a live Artemisia tridentata axis or a burned stump indicating that the resource island effect was most affected by removal of the plant and not by the fire.« less

  9. Dietary enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. supplementation alleviates liver oxidative injury of broilers reared under high ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jingfei; He, Jintian; Bai, Kaiwen; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2017-09-01

    Heat stress induced by high ambient temperature is a major concern in commercial broiler production. To evaluate the effects of dietary enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. (EA) supplementation on growth performance and liver oxidative injury of broilers reared under heat stress, a total of 320 22-day-old male broilers were randomly allotted into five groups with eight replicates of eight birds each. Broilers in the control group were housed at 22 ± 1 °C and fed the basal diet. Broilers in the HS, HS-EA1, HS-EA2, and HS-EA3 groups were fed basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.75, 1.00, and 1.25 g/kg EA, respectively, and reared under cyclic high temperature (34 ± 1 °C for 8 h/day and 22 ± 1 °C for 16 h/day). Broilers fed EA diets had higher final body weight, average daily body weight gain, and average daily feed intake, as well as liver concentration of reduced glutathione, activities of antioxidant enzymes, abilities to inhibit hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical (HS-EA2 and HS-EA3), and lower liver concentrations of reactive oxygen metabolites, malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyl (HS-EA1, HS-EA2, and HS-EA3) than HS group ( P < 0.05). EA treatment downregulated the mRNA levels of heat shock proteins 70 and 90, upregulated the mRNA levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (HS-EA1, HS-EA2, and HS-EA3) and heme oxygenase 1 (HS-EA2 and HS-EA3) in liver of heat-treated broilers ( P < 0.05). In conclusion, EA alleviated heat stress-induced growth depression and liver oxidative injury in broilers, possibly through improving the antioxidant capacity and regulating the pertinent mRNA expression. The appropriate inclusion level of EA in broiler diet is 1.00-1.25 g/kg.

  10. Effect of leaf digestion and artemisinin solubility for use in oral consumption of dried Artemisia annua leaves to treat malaria.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Matthew R; Weathers, Pamela J

    2016-08-22

    Artemisia annua L. produces the antimalarial sesquiterpene lactone, artemisinin (AN), and was traditionally used by the Chinese to treat fever, which was often caused by malaria. To measure effects of plant-based and dietary components on release of artemisinin and flavonoids from A. annua dried leaves (DLA) after simulated digestion. Simulated digestion was performed on DLA in four types of capsules, or in conjunction with protein, and protein-based foods: dry milk, casein, bovine serum albumin, peanuts, peanut butter, Plumpy'nut(®), and A. annua essential oils. Artemisinin and total flavonoids were measured in the liquid phase of the intestinal stage of digestion. After simulated digestion, peanuts and Plumpy'nut(®) lowered AN and flavonoids, respectively, recovered from the liquid digestate fraction. None of the compositions of the tested capsules altered AN or flavonoid release. Surprisingly, bovine serum albumin (BSA) increased both AN and flavonoids recovered from liquid simulated digestate fractions while casein had no effect. AN delivered as DLA was about 4 times more soluble in digestates than AN delivered as pure drug. Addition of a volume of essential oil equivalent to that found in a high essential oil producing A. annua cultivar also significantly increased AN solubility in simulated digestates. These results indicate encapsulating DLA may provide a way to mask the taste of A. annua without altering bioavailability. Similarly, many peanut-based products can be used to mask the flavor with appropriate dosing. Finally, the essential oil fraction of A. annua contributes to the increased AN solubility in DLA after simulated digestion. Our results suggest that use of DLA in the treatment of malaria and other artemisinin-susceptible diseases should be further tested in animals and humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of repellent and insecticidal constituents of the essential oil of Artemisia rupestris L. aerial parts against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin Chao; Li, Yin Ping; Li, He Qin; Deng, Zhi Wei; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Zhi Long; Du, Shu Shan

    2013-09-03

    The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and insecticidal and repellent activity of the essential oil of Artemisia rupestris L. aerial parts against the booklice Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel and isolation of insecticidal and repellent constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rupestris was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 30 components of the essential oil of A. rupestris was identified and the principal compounds in the essential oil were α-terpinyl acetate (37.18%), spathulenol (10.65%), α-terpineol (10.09%), and linalool (7.56%), followed by 4-terpineol (3.92%) and patchoulol (3.05%). Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the four active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as α-terpineol, α-terpinyl acetate, 4-terpineol and linalool. The essential oil of A. rupestris exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila with LD₅₀ value of 414.48 µg/cm². α-Terpinyl acetate (LD₅₀ = 92.59 µg/cm²) exhibited stronger contact toxicity against booklice than α-terpineol (LD₅₀ = 140.30 µg/cm²), 4-terpineol (LD₅₀ = 211.35 µg/cm²), and linalool (LD5₅₀ = 393.16 µg/cm²). The essential oil of A. rupestris (LC₅₀ = 6.67 mg/L air) also possessed fumigant toxicity against L. bostrychophila while the four constituents, 4-terpineol, α-terpineol, α-terpinyl acetate and linalool had LC₅₀ values of 0.34, 1.12, 1.26 and 1.96 mg/L air, respectively. α-Terpinol and α-terpinyl acetate showed strong repellency against L. bostrychophila, while linalool and 4-terpinol exhibited weak repellency. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. rupestris aerial parts and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural insecticides or fumigants as well as repellents for control of insects in stored grains.

  12. Artemisia dracunculus L. polyphenols complexed to soy protein show enhanced bioavailability and hypoglycemic activity in C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Ribnicky, D.M.; Roopchand, D.E.; Poulev, A; Kuhn, P.; Oren, A.; Cefalu, W.T.; Raskin, I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Scientifically-validated food-based interventions are a practical means of addressing the epidemic of metabolic syndrome. An ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. (PMI-5011) containing bioactive polyphenols, such as 2′, 4′–dihydroxy-4-methoxydihydrochalcone (DMC-2), improved insulin resistance in vitro and in vivo. Plant polyphenols are concentrated and stabilized when complexed to protein-rich matrices, such as soy protein isolate (SPI), which act as effective food-based delivery vehicles. In this study we compared bioaccessibility, bioavailability and efficacy of polyphenols extracted from A. dracunculus and delivered as PMI-5011 (ethanolic extract alone), formulated with the non-food excipient Gelucire®, (5011- Gelucire), or sorbed to SPI (5011-Nutrasorb®). Materials and Methods PMI-5011, 5011-Gelucire or 5011-Nutrasorb each containing 162 μg of DMC-2 was delivered to the TNO Intestinal Model-1 (TIM-1) of the human upper gastrointestinal tract to compare the effect of delivery vehicle on DMC-2 bioaccessibility. C57BL6/J mice were orally administered 5011-Nutrasorb or PMI-5011 to compare effects of polyphenol-protein complexation on acute hypoglycemic activity and bioavailability of DMC-2 in serum. Results At 500 mg/kg, 5011-Nutrasorb and PMI-5011 had similar hypoglycemic activity in high fat diet-induced diabetes mouse model despite the fact that 5011-Nutrasorb delivered 15-times less DMC-2 (40 μg/kg vs. 600 μg/kg). This can be partially explained by 8 times greater DMC-2 absorption into serum from 5011-Nutrasorb than from PMI-5011. TIM-1 experiments confirmed higher total bioaccessibility of DMC-2 in vitro when delivered in 5011-Nutrasorb (50.2 %) or Gelucire-5011 (44.4 %) compared to PMI-5011 (27.1 %) (p = 0.08). Conclusion Complexation with soy protein makes anti-diabetic A. dracunculus polyphenols more bioavailable and bioaccessible. PMID:24985105

  13. Seeding considerations in restoring big sagebrush habitat

    Treesearch

    Scott M. Lambert

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes methods of managing or seeding to restore big sagebrush communities for wildlife habitat. The focus is on three big sagebrush subspecies, Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis), basin big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata), and mountain...

  14. Effects of foliage litter of a pioneer shrub (Artemisia halodendron) on germination from the soil seedbank in a semi-arid sandy grassland in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yongqing; Zhao, Xueyong; Li, Yuqiang; Wang, Tao

    2017-11-01

    Vegetation recovery during succession is an important process for ecological restoration of the soil, especially in degraded sandy land. However, the driving mechanisms, such as how a pioneer species competes with other species, is uncertain. In China's Horqin Sandy Land, Artemisia halodendron is an important shrub that is common on semi-fixed dunes, where it replaces Agriophyllum squarrosum during succession, and is an important indicator species of the second stage of dune stabilization. However, how it outcompetes other species is still unclear. In this study, we conducted a seed bank germination experiment using soil from the native habitats of A. halodendron on semi-fixed dunes. We covered the soil with foliage litter of A. halodendron at a range of concentrations. Seed germination and seedling growth were strongly affected by the foliage litter. Seed germination and seedling growth were not harmed by a low concentration (≤50 g m -2 ) of the foliage litter but severely inhibited by high concentrations (≥100 g m -2 ). Strong allelopathy, indicated by decreased germination, increased seedling loss, and decreased plant biomass, appeared during the later stages of germination (after about 20 days of incubation). Our results suggest that as a pioneer shrub during the vegetation succession that occurs during dune stabilization, A. halodendron outcompeted other species through the allelopathic effect of its foliage litter. This helps to explain the patchy distribution and heterogeneity of vegetation communities in the Horqin Sandy Land.

  15. Sagebrush systematics and distribution

    Treesearch

    E. Durant McArthur

    2000-01-01

    In this paper on sagebrush systematics and distribution, it is appropriate to begin by defining a few terms. Sagebrush, under my definition, are woody North American Artemisia of the subgenus Tridentatae. Tridentatae are one of four subgenera in Artemisia. Tridentatae or true...

  16. Spatial Pattern and Population Structure of Artemisia ordosica Shrub in a Desert Grassland under Enclosure, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiankang; Zhang, Kebin

    2018-05-09

    Enclosure is an effective practice for restoring and rehabilitating the degraded grassland ecosystem caused by overgrazing. Shrub species, which are dominant in most desert grasslands in arid and semiarid regions, have some beneficial ecological functions for grassland restoration. However, how the population structure and spatial pattern of the Artemisia ordosica shrub changes in a grassland ecosystem under enclosed practice is not well understood. This study, conducted in the Mu Us desert in northwest China, was designed to measure the A. ordosica population according to the chronosequence of enclosure (enclosure periods ranged from 5 years, 10 years, 15 years, and 25 years), contrasting this with an adjacent continuously grazed grassland. The results showed that the enclosed grasslands had a higher number of individuals of different age classes (seedling, adult, aging, and dead group) and greater population coverage, but shrubs had significant lower ( p < 0.05) crown diameter and height in comparison with those in continuously grazed grassland. Further, enclosed grasslands had a significantly higher ( p < 0.05) Shannon-Wiener index (H) and Evenness index (E), but a significantly lower ( p < 0.05) Richness index (R) than continuously grazed grassland. The crown of A. ordosica showed a significant linear positive correlation with height in all plots across succession, indicating that it was feasible to analyze the age structure by crown. The crown-class distribution structure of the A. ordosica population approximated a Gaussian distribution model in all survey plots. Within the population, seedling and adult groups exhibited aggregated spatial distribution at small scales, while aging and dead A. ordosica groups showed random distribution at almost all scales in different plots. The seedling A. ordosica group showed a positive correlation with adults at small scales in all plots except in 10 years of enclosure. However, it showed independent correlation with

  17. The activity of the artemisinic aldehyde Δ11(13) reductase promoter is important for artemisinin yield in different chemotypes of Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ke; Monfared, Sajad Rashidi; Monafared, Rashidi Sajad; Wang, Hongzhen; Lundgren, Anneli; Brodelius, Peter E

    2015-07-01

    The artemisinic aldehyde double bond reductase (DBR2) plays an important role in the biosynthesis of the antimalarial artemisinin in Artemisia annua. Artemisinic aldehyde is reduced into dihydroartemisinic aldehyde by DBR2. Artemisinic aldehyde can also be oxidized by amorpha-4,11-diene 12-hydroxylase and/or aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 to artemisinic acid, a precursor of arteannuin B. In order to better understand the effects of DBR2 expression on the flow of artemisinic aldehyde into either artemisinin or arteannuin B, we determined the content of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde, artemisinin, artemisinic acid and arteannuin B content of A. annua varieties sorted into two chemotypes. The high artemisinin producers (HAPs), which includes the '2/39', 'Chongqing' and 'Anamed' varieties, produce more artemisinin than arteannuin B; the low artemisinin producers (LAPs), which include the 'Meise', 'Iran#8', 'Iran#14', 'Iran#24' and 'Iran#47' varieties, produce more arteannuin B than artemisinin. Quantitative PCR showed that the relative expression of DBR2 was significantly higher in the HAP varieties. We cloned and sequenced the promoter of the DBR2 gene from varieties of both the LAP and the HAP groups. There were deletions/insertions in the region just upstream of the ATG start codon in the LAP varities, which might be the reason for the different promoter activities of the HAP and LAP varieties. The relevance of promoter variation, DBR2 expression levels and artemisinin biosynthesis capabilities are discussed and a selection method for HAP varieties with a DNA marker is suggested. Furthermore, putative cis-acting regulatory elements differ between the HAP and LAP varieties.

  18. SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, M.M.; Eissenstat, D.M.; Richards, J.H.

    Two species of Agropyron grass differed strikingly in their capacity to compete for phosphate in soil interspaces shared with a common competitor, the sagebrush Artemisia tridentata. Of the total phosphorus-32 and -33 absorbed by Artemisia, 86% was from the interspace shared with Agropyron spicatum and only 14% from that shared with Agropyron desertorum. Actively absorbing mycorrhizal roots of Agropyron and Artemisia were present in both interspaces, where competition for the labeled phosphate occurred. The results have important implications about the way in which plants compete for resources below ground in both natural plant communities and agricultural intercropping systems.

  19. In vivo gastric residence and gastroprotective effect of floating gastroretentive tablet of DA-9601, an extract of Artemisia asiatica, in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Soo; Cha, Kwang Ho; Kang, Seung Yeob; Won, Donghan; Jang, Sun Woo; Son, Miwon; Son, Moon Ho; Choi, Ho Jung; Lee, Young Won; Kang, Myung Joo

    2016-01-01

    DA-9601, an extract of Artemisia asiatica containing eupatilin and jaceosidin as active compounds, has been prescribed to treat gastritis in Asia. In recent times, sustained-release, floating gastroretentive (GR) tablets of DA-9601 are available on the market. In the present study, the physical properties and in vitro drug release profile, in vivo gastric residence time, and gastroprotective effect of GR tablet were compared to those of immediate release (IR) tablets of DA-9601. In vitro buoyancy behavior (floating lag time and duration) and release profile of eupatilin were assessed in acidic medium. The in vivo intragastric behaviors of the barium sulfate-loaded IR and GR tablets were evaluated in beagle dogs by radiographic studies. Local gastroprotective effect was compared in an experimentally induced gastric lesion in beagle dogs after oral administration of IR (three times per day) or GR (twice daily) tablets for 15 days. Upon contact with gastric juice, a low-density floating tablet (apparent density of 0.93 g/cm(3)) was buoyant on the medium and was upheld for 14 hours, providing sustained drug release profile, whereas the IR tablet disintegrated within 10 minutes, showing complete drug release within 2 hours. In vivo radiographic studies showed that the GR tablet was retained for >4 hours in the stomach. Both DA-9601 formulations remarkably alleviated gastric mucosal injury compared to placebo group, when observed by gastric endoscopy. Twice-daily GR tablets exhibited a prolonged gastric residence time and a remarkable mucosal restoration effect in animal models. Therefore, the GR system of DA-9601 could be a substitute dosage form for the treatment of gastritis, while reducing the dosing frequency and thus improving patient compliance.

  20. Effect of Artemisia dracunculus Administration on Glycemic Control, Insulin Sensitivity, and Insulin Secretion in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Del Villar, Miriam; Puebla-Pérez, Ana M; Sánchez-Peña, María J; González-Ortiz, Luis J; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza; González-Ortiz, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of Artemisia dracunculus on glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in 24 patients with diagnosis of IGT. Before and after the intervention, glucose and insulin levels were measured every 30 min for 2 h after a 75-g dextrose load, along with glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1C) and lipid profile. Twelve patients received A. dracunculus (1000 mg) before breakfast and dinner for 90 days; the remaining 12 patients received placebo. Area under the curve (AUC) of glucose and insulin, total insulin secretion, first phase of insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity were calculated. Wilcoxon signed-rank, Mann-Whitney U, and chi-square tests were used for statistical analyses. The institutional ethics committee approved the protocol. After A. dracunculus administration, there were significant decreases in systolic blood pressure (SBP; 120.0 ± 11.3 vs. 113.0 ± 11.2 mmHg, P < .05), A1C (5.8 ± 0.3 vs. 5.6% ± 0.4%, P < .05), AUC of insulin (56,136.0 ± 27,426.0 vs. 44,472.0 ± 23,370.0 pmol/L, P < .05), and total insulin secretion (0.45 ± 0.23 vs. 0.35 ± 0.18, P < .05), with a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (1.3 ± 0.3 vs. 1.4 ± 0.3 mmol/L, P < .05). There were no significant differences after placebo administration. A. dracunculus administration for 90 days in patients with IGT significantly decreased SBP, A1C, AUC of insulin, and total insulin secretion with a significant increase in HDL-C levels.

  1. Transcriptome Analysis of Genes Associated with the Artemisinin Biosynthesis by Jasmonic Acid Treatment under the Light in Artemisia annua

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xiaolong; Zhong, Yijun; Fu, Xueqing; Lv, Zongyou; Shen, Qian; Yan, Tingxiang; Shi, Pu; Ma, Yanan; Chen, Minghui; Lv, Xueying; Wu, Zhangkuanyu; Zhao, Jingya; Sun, Xiaofen; Li, Ling; Tang, Kexuan

    2017-01-01

    Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide extracted from a traditional Chinese medicinal plant Artemisia annua. Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are recommended as the best treatment of malaria by the World Health Organization (WHO). Both the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) and light promote artemisinin biosynthesis in A. annua. Interestingly, we found that the increase of artemisinin biosynthesis by JA was dependent on light. However, the relationship between the two signal pathways mediated by JA and light remains unclear. Here, we collected the A. annua seedlings of 24 h continuous light (Light), 24 h dark treatment (Dark), 4 h MeJA treatment under the continuous light conditions (Light-MeJA-4h) and 4 h MeJA treatment under the dark conditions (Dark-MeJA-4h) and performed the transcriptome sequencing using Illumina HiSeq 4000 System. A total of 266.7 million clean data were produced and assembled into 185,653 unigenes, with an average length of 537 bp. Among them, 59,490 unigenes were annotated and classified based on the public information. Differential expression analyses were performed between Light and Dark, Light and Light-MeJA-4h, Dark and Dark-MeJA-4h, Light-MeJA-4h, and Dark-MeJA-4h, respectively. Furthermore, transcription factor (TF) analysis revealed that 1588 TFs were identified and divided into 55 TF families, with 284 TFs down-regulated in the Dark relative to Light and 96 TFs up-regulated in the Light-MeJA-4h relative to Light. 8 TFs were selected as candidates for regulating the artemisinin biosynthesis and one of them was validated to be involved in artemisinin transcriptional regulation by Dual-Luciferase (Dual-LUC) assay. The transcriptome data shown in our study offered a comprehensive transcriptional expression pattern influenced by the MeJA and light in A. annua seedling, which will serve as a valuable resource for further studies on transcriptional regulation mechanisms underlying artemisinin biosynthesis. PMID

  2. Methyl jasmonate counteracts boron toxicity by preventing oxidative stress and regulating antioxidant enzyme activities and artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Idrees, Mohd; Naeem, M; Moinuddin; Hashmi, Nadeem

    2011-07-01

    Boron is an essential plant micronutrient, but it is phytotoxic if present in excessive amounts in soil for certain plants such as Artemisia annua L. that contains artemisinin (an important antimalarial drug) in its areal parts. Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone with an endoperoxide bridge. It is quite expensive compound because the only commercial source available is A. annua and the compound present in the plant is in very low concentration. Since A. annua is a major source of the antimalarial drug and B stress is a deadly threat to its cultivation, the present research was conducted to determine whether the exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) could combat the ill effects of excessive B present in the soil. According to the results obtained, the B toxicity induced oxidative stress and reduced the stem height as well as fresh and dry masses of the plant remarkably. The excessive amounts of soil B also lowered the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO(2) concentration and total chlorophyll content in the leaves. In contrast, the foliar application of MeJA enhanced the growth and photosynthetic efficiency both in the stressed and non-stressed plants. The excessive B levels also increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Endogenous H(2)O(2) and O(2)(-) levels were also high in the stressed plants. However, the MeJA application to the stressed plants reduced the amount of lipid peroxidation and stimulated the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes, enhancing the content and yield of artemisinin as well. Thus, it was concluded that MeJA might be utilized in mitigating the B toxicity and improving the content and yield of artemisinin in A. annua plant.

  3. Antioxidant and anticancer activity of Artemisia princeps var. orientalis extract in HepG2 and Hep3B hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate antioxidant and the anticancerigen activity of a methanol extract from Artemisia princeps var. orientalis (APME), a well-known traditional herbal medicine in Asia, in hepatocellular cancer cells. To evaluate the antioxidant activity of APME, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase were investigated in HepG2 cells exposed to APME (5, 100, and 200 µg/mL) for 72 h. Then, to evaluate the anticancer activity of APME, we investigated the proliferation and apoptosis induction of HepG2 and Hep3B cells exposed to APME (1-200 µg/mL) for 24, 48, and 72 h. APME dose-dependently reduced the generation of ROS in the presence of H2O2 compared with control cells. Furthermore, it increased catalase and SOD activity. Moreover, APME inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but at concentrations lower than 100 µg/mL, the inhibition was less dose-dependent than time-dependent. HepG2 and Hep3B cells exposed to 5, 100, and 200 µg/mL APME for 72 h underwent cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Exposure to APME resulted in a significant increase in the number of cells in G1 phase and a decrease in the G2/M phase cell population. In addition, APME induced P53 expression of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and played a role in the downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax in both HepG2 and Hep3B cells. These results indicate the potential role of APME as an antioxidant and anticancerigen agent in hepatocarcinoma cell lines.

  4. Antioxidant and anticancer activity of Artemisia princeps var. orientalis extract in HepG2 and Hep3B hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun-Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate antioxidant and the anticancerigen activity of a methanol extract from Artemisia princeps var. orientalis (APME), a well-known traditional herbal medicine in Asia, in hepatocellular cancer cells. Methods To evaluate the antioxidant activity of APME, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase were investigated in HepG2 cells exposed to APME (5, 100, and 200 µg/mL) for 72 h. Then, to evaluate the anticancer activity of APME, we investigated the proliferation and apoptosis induction of HepG2 and Hep3B cells exposed to APME (1-200 µg/mL) for 24, 48, and 72 h. Results APME dose-dependently reduced the generation of ROS in the presence of H2O2 compared with control cells. Furthermore, it increased catalase and SOD activity. Moreover, APME inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but at concentrations lower than 100 µg/mL, the inhibition was less dose-dependent than time-dependent. HepG2 and Hep3B cells exposed to 5, 100, and 200 µg/mL APME for 72 h underwent cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Exposure to APME resulted in a significant increase in the number of cells in G1 phase and a decrease in the G2/M phase cell population. In addition, APME induced P53 expression of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and played a role in the downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax in both HepG2 and Hep3B cells. Conclusions These results indicate the potential role of APME as an antioxidant and anticancerigen agent in hepatocarcinoma cell lines. PMID:24255577

  5. Big sagebrush response to one-way and two-way chaining in Southeastern Utah

    Treesearch

    John A. Fairchild; James N. Davis; Jack D. Brotherson

    2005-01-01

    A decadent, mixed stand of Wyoming big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis, and mountain big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata vaseyana, located north of Cisco, Utah, was subjected to one-way and two-way chaining treatments in November 1987. The effect of the treatments on plant community characteristics and shrub vigor was...

  6. Sagebrush identification, ecology, and palatability relative to sage-grouse

    Treesearch

    Roger Rosentreter

    2005-01-01

    Basic identification keys and comparison tables for 23 low and big sagebrush (Artemisia) taxa are presented. Differences in sagebrush ecology, soil temperature regimes, geographic range, palatability, mineralogy, and chemistry are discussed. Coumarin, a chemical produced in the glands of some Artemisia species, causes UV-light fluorescence of the...

  7. Essential oil composition and biological activity from Artemisia caerulescens subsp. densiflora (Viv.) Gamisans ex Kerguélen & Lambinon (Asteraceae), an endemic species in the habitat of La Maddalena Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Ornano, Luigi; Venditti, Alessandro; Ballero, Mauro; Sanna, Cinzia; Donno, Yuri; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Vitali, Luca A; Petrelli, Dezemona; Tirillini, Bruno; Papa, Fabrizio; Maggi, Filippo; Bianco, Armanodoriano

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the composition of the essential oil obtained from a population of Artemisia caerulescens subsp. densiflora growing in Razzoli, an island in the La Maddalena Archipelago (Sardinia, Italy). A. caerulescens sups. densiflora Viv. (Asteraceae), a wild herb, seldom studied in the Mediterranean, represents one of the many rare endemic species growing in North Sardinia. The essential oil composition was analysed by means of GC/MS analysis, which showed davana ethers as the major volatile components, accounting together for 17.5%, followed by (E)-nerolidol (4.5%), β-oplopenone (3.3%), cis-sabinene hydrate (5.2%) and terpinen-4-ol (4.7%). The oil was tested for antioxidant activity by means of DPPH test, inhibition of lipid oxidation test and hypochlorous acid test, which showed a quite interesting scavenger capacity. For the first time, we reported the cytotoxic activity of the essential oil of A. caerulescens subsp. densiflora, against three human tumour cell lines (A375, MDA-MB231 and HCT116), with IC50 values in the range 5.20-7.61 μg/mL, which deserved further studies to support its use as chemopreventive agent. Finally, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil, displayed on a panel of human pathogens, was very low.

  8. Chemical composition, antimicromicrobial activity and insecticidal activity against the lesser mealworm Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Link) and Artemisia dracunculus L. essential oils.

    PubMed

    Szczepanik, Maryla; Walczak, Maciej; Zawitowska, Beata; Michalska-Sionkowska, Marta; Szumny, Antoni; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław; Brzezinska, Maria Swiontek

    2018-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) from Artemisia dracunculus L. and Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum were obtained and the qualitative and quantitative chemical composition of the extracts was investigated. The insecticidal activity of EOs against the larval stages of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) was studied. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of these oils against pathogens transmitted by this pest was also investigated. The obtained results indicate the possibility of using Greek oregano EO with a high content of carvacrol as a feed additive in poultry nutrition. The use of the Greek oregano oil at 1% (w/w) dose showed stronger reduction of body weight gain of stage IV larvae. Their body mass was only 10.92% of the control. Moreover, EOs from O. vulgare strongly inhibited the growth of tested bacterial strains as well as Candida albicans. Greek oregano EO may be a good alternative to antibiotic growth promoters and coccidiostats whose use in feeding farm animals has been prohibited since January 2006 under European Union directives. The introduction of O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum EO into the premises of farm and poultry houses may help to improve sanitary conditions and control of the lesser mealworm inhabiting these buildings. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. CO2 flux response to precipitation events in Juniperus osteosperma and Artemisia tridentata ecosystems using eddy covariance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivans, S.; Hipps, L. E.

    2003-04-01

    Eddy covariance measurements were used to determine the seasonal changes of net CO_2 flux, and the response to intermittent precipitation events in juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) and sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) plant communities in a semi-arid region in the Great Basin of the United States over the entire growing seasons of 2001 and 2002. The net CO_2 fluxes were negative or downward in each community during the spring when soil water availability was largest. During this time, rain events resulted in large increases of net CO_2 uptake in juniper within 24 hours after the rain. The relative increases were larger in the dry spring of 2001 compared to the wetter conditions of 2002. Response of sage to rain events in the spring was smaller in magnitude. During the dry periods of summer and early fall net CO_2 flux was upward at each site in both years. In these periods the respiration of soil and vegetation apparently exceeded any assimilation by the plants. During these dry periods increases in CO_2 efflux were observed at both sites following rain events, presumably as a result of increases in soil respiration. The response of CO_2 fluxes to these events lasted generally 2 to 3 days. During late fall and early winter, no significant changes in CO_2 fluxes were observed at either site in response to rainfall because of significantly lower temperatures and plant dormancy in the year 2001. However in 2002, because of warmer weather, rainfall events triggered a temporary change in the flux direction at both sites from CO_2 efflux to CO_2 uptake, suggesting that the plants were actively photosynthesizing. Energy balance closure values for both sites ranged from 0.75--0.80 in the moist conditions of spring, and increased to 0.80--0.85 in the dry conditions of summer and fall. It is not yet clear why energy balance closure is dependent upon the relative sizes of sensible and latent heat fluxes. The issue of whether or not to force closure by adding to the fluxes

  10. In vivo gastric residence and gastroprotective effect of floating gastroretentive tablet of DA-9601, an extract of Artemisia asiatica, in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Soo; Cha, Kwang Ho; Kang, Seung Yeob; Won, Donghan; Jang, Sun Woo; Son, Miwon; Son, Moon Ho; Choi, Ho Jung; Lee, Young Won; Kang, Myung Joo

    2016-01-01

    Objective DA-9601, an extract of Artemisia asiatica containing eupatilin and jaceosidin as active compounds, has been prescribed to treat gastritis in Asia. In recent times, sustained-release, floating gastroretentive (GR) tablets of DA-9601 are available on the market. In the present study, the physical properties and in vitro drug release profile, in vivo gastric residence time, and gastroprotective effect of GR tablet were compared to those of immediate release (IR) tablets of DA-9601. Method In vitro buoyancy behavior (floating lag time and duration) and release profile of eupatilin were assessed in acidic medium. The in vivo intragastric behaviors of the barium sulfate-loaded IR and GR tablets were evaluated in beagle dogs by radiographic studies. Local gastroprotective effect was compared in an experimentally induced gastric lesion in beagle dogs after oral administration of IR (three times per day) or GR (twice daily) tablets for 15 days. Results Upon contact with gastric juice, a low-density floating tablet (apparent density of 0.93 g/cm3) was buoyant on the medium and was upheld for 14 hours, providing sustained drug release profile, whereas the IR tablet disintegrated within 10 minutes, showing complete drug release within 2 hours. In vivo radiographic studies showed that the GR tablet was retained for >4 hours in the stomach. Both DA-9601 formulations remarkably alleviated gastric mucosal injury compared to placebo group, when observed by gastric endoscopy. Conclusion Twice-daily GR tablets exhibited a prolonged gastric residence time and a remarkable mucosal restoration effect in animal models. Therefore, the GR system of DA-9601 could be a substitute dosage form for the treatment of gastritis, while reducing the dosing frequency and thus improving patient compliance. PMID:27354765

  11. The role of sexual vs. asexual recruitment of Artemisia wudanica in transition zone habitats between inter-dune lowlands and active dunes in Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongcui; Alberto, Busso Carlos; Jiang, Deming; Ala, Musa; Li, Xuehua; Zhou, Quanlai; Lin, Jixiang; Ren, Guohua; Jia, Lian

    2016-04-01

    Artemisia wudanica is an endemic, perennial, pioneering psammophyte species in the sand dune ecosystems of western Horqin Sand Land in northern China. However, no studies have addressed how sexual and asexual reproduction modes of A. wudanica perform at the transitional zones between active dune inter-dune lowlands and active dunes. In early spring, quadrats were randomly set up in the study area to monitor surviving seedling and/or ramet density and frequency coming from sexual/asexual reproduction of A. wudanica. Iron sticks were inserted near each quadrat to determine wind erosion intensity (WE). Additionally, soil samples were collected nearby each quadrat to test for soil moisture (SM), organic matter (OM) and pH. Surviving seedlings of A. wudanica showed an inverse response in comparison with ramets to SM, OM and WE. Soil moisture showed the most positive effect, and WE the negative effect, on surviving, sexual reproduction seedlings. Contrarily, WE had the most positive effect, and SM the negative effect, on asexual reproduction ramets. This suggests that increases in SM and decreases in WE should benefit recruitment of A. wudanica seedlings. On the contrary, ramets coming from asexual reproduction showed a different response to environmental factors in transition zone habitats. While SM was not a key constraint for the survival of seedlings, they showed a better, positive response to wind erosion environments. Overall, various study environmental parameters could be improved to foster A. wudanica invasion and settlement in the plant community through different reproductive modes, thereby promoting vegetation restoration and rehabilitation.

  12. Jaceosidin, isolated from dietary mugwort (Artemisia princeps), induces G2/M cell cycle arrest by inactivating cdc25C-cdc2 via ATM-Chk1/2 activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Gyu; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Ahn, Ji-Hye; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Baek, Nam-In; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2013-05-01

    Jaceosidin, a flavonoid derived from Artemisia princeps (Japanese mugwort), has been shown to inhibit the growth of several human cancer cells, However, the exact mechanism for the cytotoxic effect of jaceosidin is not completely understood. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the antiproliferative effect of jaceosidin in human endometrial cancer cells. We demonstrated that jaceosidin is a more potent inhibitor of cell growth than cisplatin in human endometrial cancer cells. In contrast, jaceosidin-induced cytotoxicity in normal endometrial cells was lower than that observed for cisplatin. Jaceosidin induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and modulated the levels of cyclin B and p-Cdc2 in Hec1A cells. Knockdown of p21 using specific siRNAs partially abrogated jaceosidin-induced cell growth inhibition. Additional mechanistic studies revealed that jaceosidin treatment resulted in an increase in phosphorylation of Cdc25C and ATM-Chk1/2. Ku55933, an ATM inhibitor, reversed jaceosidin-induced cell growth inhibition, in part. Moreover, jaceosidin treatment resulted in phosphorylation of ERK, and pretreatment with the ERK inhibitor, PD98059, attenuated cell growth inhibition by jaceosidin. These data suggest that jaceosidin, isolated from Japanese mugwort, modulates the ERK/ATM/Chk1/2 pathway, leading to inactivation of the Cdc2-cyclin B1 complex, followed by G2/M cell cycle arrest in endometrial cancer cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Deceleration efficiencies of shrub windbreaks in a wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoxu; Zou, Xueyong; Zhou, Na; Zhang, Chunlai; Shi, Sha

    2015-03-01

    Artemisia and Salix are dominant shrub species for windbreaks in arid areas of China, and they show similar features to shrubs in other arid areas of the world. We compared the mean velocity fields and shelter effects of two shrub windbreaks with different layouts. For a single plant of Artemisia, the higher the free airflow velocity is, the more the wind velocity around two sides of the plant increases. The velocity gradient around a single plant of Salix is smaller than that around an Artemisia plant due to the difference in the plant shapes. Seven new velocity zones in the horizontal direction appear when airflow passes through an Artemisia windbreak, including four deceleration zones and three acceleration zones. The mean velocity field that is affected by a Salix windbreak can be divided into a deceleration zone in the front, an acceleration zone above, a vortex zone behind and a restoration zone downwind of the vortex zone. Shelter effects of the shrub windbreaks vary with the wind velocity and are influenced by the construct of the windbreaks. Shrub windbreaks that have a complex construction have better shelter effects than simple ones. The shelter effects of plant windbreaks are also influenced by the growth features of the plants. Considering the plant characteristics and the shelter effects of Salix and Artemisia windbreaks, it is optimal to plant these two windbreaks together in a sand-control system. This research is intended to be useful for sand movement control in arid areas.

  14. Antibacterial activity of Artemisia asiatica essential oil against some common respiratory infection causing bacterial strains and its mechanism of action in Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiehui; Qian, Chao; Xu, Hongjie; Huang, Yanjie

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of the current study was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia asiatica together with investigating the antibacterial effects it exerts on several common respiratory infection causing bacteria including Haemophilus influenzae. Its mechanism of action was studied using various state-of-the-art assays like scanning electron microscopy, DNA, RNA and protein leakage assays, growth curve assays etc. The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of A. asiatica by supercritical CO 2 fluid extraction technology. Chemical composition of essential oils was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity was evaluated against 6 bacteria by the paper disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericide concentration (MBC) values of the essential oil were estimated by agar dilution method. The antibacterial mechanism was evaluated by growth curve, the integrity of cell membrane and scanning electronmicroscope (SEM). Gas chromatographic analysis of the A. asiatica essential oil led to the identification of 16 chemical constituents accounting for 97.2% of the total oil composition. The major components were found to be Piperitone, (z)-davanone, p-cymene and 1, 8-cineole. The essential oil showed maximum growth inhibition against Haemophilus influenzae with a zone of inhibition of 24.5 mm and MIC/MBC values of 1.9/4.5 mg/mL respectively. Bacteria treated with the essential oil led to a rapid decrease in the number of viable cells. On adding the essential oil of A. asiatica to the bacterial culture, the constituents of the bacterial cell got released into the medium and this cell constituent release increased with increasing doses of the essential oil. SEM showed that the bacterial cells treated with the essential oil showed damaged cell wall, deformed cell morphology and shrunken cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Anti-inflammatory and acetylcholinesterase activity of extract, fractions and five compounds isolated from the leaves and twigs of Artemisia annua growing in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Chougouo, Rosine D K; Nguekeu, Yves M M; Dzoyem, Jean P; Awouafack, Maurice D; Kouamouo, Jonas; Tane, Pierre; McGaw, Lyndy J; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-01-01

    Natural products, including those derived from higher plants have, over the years, contributed greatly to the development of modern therapeutic drugs. Due to the medicinal importance in traditional practice and the diversified biology and chemistry of the constituents from Artemisia spp., the genus has been receiving growing attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of the ethanol extract, four fractions (F1-F4) and five compounds namely artemisinin (1), scopoletin (2), chrysosplenetin (3), eupatin (4) and 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside of sitosterol (5) isolated from A. annua to modulate the activity of anticholinesterase (AchE) and the production of nitric oxide (NO) in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. At the lowest concentration tested (6.25 µg/mL), the crude extract and fraction F2 had the highest NO inhibitory activity (72.39 and 71.00 % inhibition respectively) without significant toxicity on the viability of macrophage cells (93.86 and 79.87 % of cell viability respectively). The crude extract inhibited AchE activity by 71.83 % (at 1 mg/mL) with an IC50 value of 87.43 µg/mL while F2 and F4 were the most active fractions (IC50 values of 36.75 and 28.82 µg/mL). Artemisinin (1) and chrysosplenetin (3) had the highest AChE activity with 71.67 and 80.00 % inhibition (at 0.1 mg/mL) and IC50 values of 29.34 and 27.14 µg/mL, respectively. Our results validate the traditional use of A. annua and could help to support the usefulness of this plant in the treatment of inflammatory and neurological disorders especially where nitric oxide and a cholinesterase are involved.

  16. Analysis of morphological and molecular composition changes in allergenic Artemisia vulgaris L. pollen under traffic pollution using SEM and FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Depciuch, J; Kasprzyk, I; Roga, E; Parlinska-Wojtan, M

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, pollen allergy becomes an increasing problem for human population. Common mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) is one of the major allergenic plants in Europe. In this study, the influence of air pollution caused by traffic on the structure and chemical composition of common mugwort pollen was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and curve-fitting analysis of amide I profile was applied to assess the morphological and structural changes of mugwort pollen grains collected from sites with different vehicle pollution levels. Microscopic observations support the conclusion, that the higher the car traffic, the smaller the pollen grains. The obtained results clearly show that air pollution had an impact on different maximum absorbance values of individual functional groups composing the chemical structure of pollen. Moreover, air pollution induced structural changes in macromolecules of mugwort pollen. In pollen collected from the unpolluted site, the content of sporopollenin (850 cm -1 ) was the highest, whereas polysaccharide concentration (1032 cm -1 ) was the lowest. Significant differences were observed in lipids. Pollen collected from the site with heavy traffic had the lowest content of lipids at 1709, 2071, and 2930 cm -1 . The largest differences were observed in the spectra regions corresponding to proteins. In pollen collected from unpolluted site, the highest level of β-sheet (1600 cm -1 ) and α-helix (1650 cm -1 ) was detected. The structural changes in proteins, observed in the second derivative of the FTIR spectrum and in the curve-fitting analysis of amide I profile, could be caused inter alia by air pollutants. Alterations in protein structure and in their content in the pollen may increase the sensitization and subsequent risk of allergy in predisposed people. The obtained results suggest that the changes in chemical composition of pollen may be a good indicator of air quality and

  17. Metabolic Profiling of Liver Tissue in Diabetic Mice Treated with Artemisia Capillaris and Alisma Rhizome Using LC-MS and CE-MS.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yumi; Lee, In-Seung; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Park, Jiyoung; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Bang, Eunjung; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Na, Yun-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia Capillaris (AC) and Alisma Rhizome (AR) are natural products for the treatment of liver disorders in oriental medicine clinics. Here, we report metabolomic changes in the evaluation of the treatment effects of AC and AR on fatty livers in diabetic mice, along with a proposition of the underlying metabolic pathway. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic metabolites extracted from mouse livers were analyzed using HPLC-QTOF and CE-QTOF, respectively, to generate metabolic profiles. Statistical analysis of the metabolites by PLS-DA and OPLA-DA fairly discriminated between the diabetic, and the AC- and AR-treated mice groups. Various PEs mostly contributed to the discrimination of the diabetic mice from the normal mice, and besides, DG (18:1/16:0), TG (16:1/16:1/20:1), PE (21:0/20:5), and PA (18:0/21:0) were also associated with discrimination by s-plot. Nevertheless, the effects of AC and AR treatment were indistinct with respect to lipid metabolites. Of the 97 polar metabolites extracted from the CE-MS data, 40 compounds related to amino acid, central carbon, lipid, purine, and pyrimidine metabolism, with [Formula: see text] values less than 0.05, were shown to contribute to liver dysregulation. Following treatment with AC and AR, the metabolites belonging to purine metabolism preferentially recovered to the metabolic state of the normal mice. The AMP/ATP ratio of cellular energy homeostasis in AR-treated mice was more apparently increased ([Formula: see text]) than that of AC-treated mice. On the other hand, amino acids, which showed the main alterations in diabetic mice, did not return to the normal levels upon treatment with AR or AC. In terms of metabolomics, AR was a more effective natural product in the treatment of liver dysfunction than AC. These results may provide putative biomarkers for the prognosis of fatty liver disorder following treatment with AC and AR extracts.

  18. Antibacterial activity and mode of action of the Artemisia capillaris essential oil and its constituents against respiratory tract infection-causing pathogens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang; Hu, Dong-Hui; Feng, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Inhalation therapy using essential oils has been used to treat acute and chronic sinusitis and bronchitis. The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia capillaris, and evaluate the antibacterial effects of the essential oil and its main components, against common clinically relevant respiratory bacterial pathogens. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography‑mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 25 chemical constituents, the main constituents being: α‑pinene, β‑pinene, limonene, 1,8‑cineole, piperitone, β‑caryophyllene and capillin. The antibacterial activities of the essential oil, and its major constituents, were evaluated against Streptococcus pyogenes, methicillin‑resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), MRSA (clinical strain), methicillin‑gentamicin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MGRSA), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Escherichia coli. The essential oil and its constituents exhibited a broad spectrum and variable degree of antibacterial activity against the various strains. The essential oil was observed to be much more potent, as compared with any of its major chemical constituents, exhibiting low minimum inhibitory and bacteriocidal concentration values against all of the bacterial strains. The essential oil was most active against S. pyogenes, MRSA (clinical strain), S. pneumoniae, K. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and E. coli. Piperitone and capillin were the most potent growth inhibitors, among the major chemical constituents. Furthermore, the essential oil of A. capillaris induced significant and dose‑dependent morphological changes in the S. aureus bacterial strain, killing >90% of the bacteria when administered at a higher dose; as determined by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the essential oil induced a significant leakage of potassium and phosphate ions from the S. aureus bacterial cultures. These results indicate that

  19. Mosquito larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, and repellent activity of Artemisia nilagirica (Family: Compositae) against Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy

    2012-12-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. The aim of the present study, to evaluate the larvicidal, pupicidal, repellent, and adulticidal activities of methanol crude extract of Artemisia nilagirica were assayed for their toxicity against two important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The fresh leaves of A. nilagirica were washed thoroughly in tap water and shade dried at room temperature (28 ± 2 °C) for 5-8 days. The air-dried materials were powdered separately using commercial electrical blender. From the plants, 500 g powdered was macerated with 1.5 L organic solvents of methanol sequentially for a period of 72 h each and filtered. The larval and pupal mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure; no mortality was observed in the control group. The first- to fourth-instar larvae and pupae of A. stephensi had values of LC(50) = 272.50, 311.40, 361.51, 442.51, and 477.23 ppm, and the LC(90) = 590.07, 688.81, 789.34, 901.59, and 959.30 ppm; the A. aegypti had values of LC(50) = 300.84, 338.79, 394.69, 470.74, and 542.11 ppm, and the LC(90) = 646.67, 726.07, 805.49, 892.01, and 991.29 ppm, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of plant extract of A. nilagirica plants at five different concentrations of 50, 150, 250, 350, and 450 ppm were applied on skin of fore arm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, the plant crude extract gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. The adult mortality was found in methanol extract of A. nilagirica, with the LC(50) and LC(90) values of 205.78 and 459.51 ppm for A. stephensi, and 242.52 and 523.73 ppm for A. aegypti

  20. Chemopreventive effects of standardized ethanol extract from the aerial parts of Artemisia princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal via NF-κB inactivation on colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyung-Sook; Choi, Hye-Eun; Shin, Ji-Sun; Cho, Eu-Jin; Cho, Young-Wuk; Choi, Jung-Hye; Baek, Nam-In; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is an underlying risk factor of colon cancer, and NF-κB plays a critical role in the development of inflammation-associated colon cancer in an AOM/DSS mouse model. The aim of this study was to determine whether the standardized ethanol extract obtained from the aerial parts of Artemisia princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal (EAPP) is effective at preventing inflammation-associated colon cancer, and if so, to identify the signaling pathways involved. In the present study, protective efficacy of EAPP on tumor formation and the infiltrations of monocytes and macrophages in colons of an AOM/DSS mouse model were evaluated. It was found that colitis and tumor burdens showed statistically meaningful improvements after EAPP administration. Furthermore, these improvements were accompanied by a reduction in NF-κB activity and in the levels of NF-κB-dependent pro-survival proteins, that is, survivin, cFLIP, XIAP, and Bcl-2. In vitro, EAPP significantly reduced NF-κB activation and the levels of IL-1β and IL-8 mRNA and pro-survival proteins in HT-29 and HCT-116 colon cancer cells. Furthermore, EAPP caused caspase-dependent apoptosis. Based on these results, the authors suggest EAPP suppresses inflammatory responses and induces apoptosis partly via NF-κB inactivation, and that EAPP could be useful for the prevention of colitis-associated tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Phytotherapy in medieval Serbian medicine according to the pharmacological manuscripts of the Chilandar Medical Codex (15-16th centuries).

    PubMed

    Jarić, Snežana; Mitrović, Miroslava; Djurdjević, Lola; Kostić, Olga; Gajić, Gordana; Pavlović, Dragana; Pavlović, Pavle

    2011-09-01

    The Chilandar Medical Codex is the most significant and best preserved medieval Serbian manuscript and collects together documents on European medical science from the 12th to 15th centuries. It represents the best-known and most complete example of a large collection of medical manuscripts from the Salerno-Montpellier school, written in the vernacular - something which does not exist among the majority of European nations. This paper presents the section of the Codex that deals with phytotherapy, which is contained within the pharmacological manuscripts. An analysis of their contents shows that out of a total of 167 recorded substances, 135 are of plant origin (81%), 13 animal origin (7.7%) and 19 inorganic (11.3%). The recorded plant species are categorised into 63 families, of which the most frequent are: Apiaceae (8.1%), Lamiaceae (8.1%), Asteraceae (5.9%), Rosaceae (5.9%) and Fabaceae (4.4%). All possible plant parts were used in treatments: the whole plant (6%), underground parts (13.7% - root, rhizome, bulb) and aerial parts (80.3% - stem, leaf, flower, buds, fruit, seeds). Of the plants quoted, the following are mentioned most frequently: Vitis sp. (120), Rosa canina (55), Olea europaea (45), Pistacia lentiscus (25), Saccharum officinarum (23), Artemisia absinthium (16) and Foeniculum vulgare (15). The contents of the pharmacological manuscripts of the Chilandar Medical Codex point to the sound contemporary knowledge of the diversity of plant species, their origins, habitat types, the levels of their healing powers, and when and how to gather them and prepare them, as well as the recommended dose for the treatment of specific illnesses. As these manuscripts contain not only common, lay terms for the plants, but also scientific, botanical ones, we can consider them the precursor to Serbian botany. Based on its contents and the way in which they are presented, it can be viewed not only as the first Serbian pharmacopeia, but first Slavic pharmacopeia, too

  2. Ethnobotanical and phytomedical knowledge in the North-Western Ligurian Alps.

    PubMed

    Cornara, Laura; La Rocca, Arianna; Terrizzano, Luca; Dente, Fulvio; Mariotti, Mauro Giorgio

    2014-08-08

    The ethnobotany of European alpine regions is much diversified and scarcely investigated. These regions retain a well-developed heritage culture and botanical traditional knowledge, favored by the isolated montane location. We carried out a study of therapeutic and traditional uses of native plants of a poorly explored area of the Western Italian Alps in the Ligurian region (NW Italy). The area has been the object of human activities since prehistoric ages, and an obliged crossroad for people moving across Provence, Liguria and Piemonte. The investigation was conducted in the upper Tanarello and Arroscia Valleys by using semi-structured, open interviews. Data were summarized by different indices--Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC), Cultural Value Index (CV), Ethnobotanicity Index (EI) and Informant Consensus Factor (Fic). A group of 65 informants were interviewed, yielding an inventory of 199 botanical taxa from 64 families, and a total of 2661 citations. A total of 13 categories of use were found, of which the most frequent ones were medicinal and food. In addition, 12 main medicinal subcategories were recorded. Botanicals were mainly used to treat digestive system, respiratory system, and the skin. A relevant role was played by plants with digestive and remineralizing properties. On the basis of quantitative analysis (RFC and CV indices) among the 30 most relevant plants are included rare and/or protected species, such as Achillea ligustica, Arnica montana, Gentiana ligustica, Gentiana lutea, and Achillea erba-rotta. An exhaustive prospect of the ethnobotanical knowledge in North-Western Ligurian Alps has been achieved through the recording of a large number of data. About 50% of the recorded uses have survived in the area. A great traditional importance is retained by species such as Artemisia absinthium, Lavandula angustifolia and Arnica montana which were formerly cultivated and marketed for their therapeutic virtues. A substantial role is also attributable

  3. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for reproductive problems.

    PubMed

    Lans, Cheryl

    2007-03-15

    Throughout history women have tried to control or enhance their fertility using herbal remedies, with various levels of societal support. Caribbean folk medicine has been influenced by European folk medicine, either through the early Spanish and French settlers or through the continuous immigration of Spanish-speaking peoples from Venezuela. Some folk uses are ancient and were documented by Galen and Pliny the Elder. Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad (Paramin, Talparo, Sangre Grande, Mayaro, Carapichaima, Kernahan, Newlands, Todd's Road, Arima, Guayaguayare, Santa Cruz, Port of Spain and Siparia) and one in Tobago (Mason Hall). Snowball sampling was used because there was no other means of identifying respondents and to cover the entire islands. The validation of the remedies was conducted with a non-experimental method. Plants are used for specific problems of both genders. Clusea rosea, Urena sinuata and Catharanthus roseus are used for unspecified male problems. Richeria grandis and Parinari campestris are used for erectile dysfunction. Ageratum conyzoides, Scoparia dulcis, Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita maxima, Gomphrena globosa and Justicia pectoralis are used for prostate problems. The following plants are used for childbirth and infertility: Mimosa pudica, Ruta graveolens, Abelmoschus moschatus, Chamaesyce hirta, Cola nitida, Ambrosia cumanenesis, Pilea microphylla, Eryngium foetidum, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Coleus aromaticus, Laportea aestuans and Vetiveria zizanioides. The following plants are used for menstrual pain and unspecified female complaints: Achyranthes indica, Artemisia absinthium, Brownea latifolia, Eleutherine bulbosa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Eupatorium macrophyllum, Justicia secunda, Parthenium hysterophorus, Wedelia trilobata, Abelmoschus moschatus

  4. Dual Bioactivities of Essential Oil Extracted from the Leaves of Artemisia argyi as an Antimelanogenic versus Antioxidant Agent and Chemical Composition Analysis by GC/MS

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Chang, Long-Zen; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at investigating the antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of essential oil when extracted from the leaves of Artemisia argyi, then analyzing the chemical composition of the essential oil. The inhibitory effect of the essential oil on melanogenesis was evaluated by a mushroom tyrosinase activity assay and B16F10 melanoma cell model. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was assayed by spectrophotometric analysis, and the volatile chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results revealed that the essential oil significantly inhibits mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 19.16 mg/mL), down-regulates B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and decreases the amount of melanin content in a dose-dependent pattern. Furthermore, the essential oil significantly scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline- 6-sulphonic acid) ABTS radicals, showed an apparent reduction power as compared with metal-ion chelating activities. The chemicals constituents in the essential oil are ether (23.66%), alcohols (16.72%), sesquiterpenes (15.21%), esters (11.78%), monoterpenes (11.63%), ketones (6.09%), aromatic compounds (5.01%), and account for a 90.10% analysis of its chemical composition. It is predicted that eucalyptol and the other constituents, except for alcohols, in the essential oil may contribute to its antioxidant activities. The results indicated that essential oil extracted from A. argyi leaves decreased melanin production in B16F10 cells and showed potent antioxidant activity. The essential oil can thereby be applied as an inhibitor of melanogenesis and could also act as a natural antioxidant in skin care products. PMID:23203088

  5. Dual bioactivities of essential oil extracted from the leaves of Artemisia argyi as an antimelanogenic versus antioxidant agent and chemical composition analysis by GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Chang, Long-Zen; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2012-11-12

    The study was aimed at investigating the antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of essential oil when extracted from the leaves of Artemisia argyi, then analyzing the chemical composition of the essential oil. The inhibitory effect of the essential oil on melanogenesis was evaluated by a mushroom tyrosinase activity assay and B16F10 melanoma cell model. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was assayed by spectrophotometric analysis, and the volatile chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results revealed that the essential oil significantly inhibits mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC(50) = 19.16 mg/mL), down-regulates B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and decreases the amount of melanin content in a dose-dependent pattern. Furthermore, the essential oil significantly scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) ABTS radicals, showed an apparent reduction power as compared with metal-ion chelating activities. The chemicals constituents in the essential oil are ether (23.66%), alcohols (16.72%), sesquiterpenes (15.21%), esters (11.78%), monoterpenes (11.63%), ketones (6.09%), aromatic compounds (5.01%), and account for a 90.10% analysis of its chemical composition. It is predicted that eucalyptol and the other constituents, except for alcohols, in the essential oil may contribute to its antioxidant activities. The results indicated that essential oil extracted from A. argyi leaves decreased melanin production in B16F10 cells and showed potent antioxidant activity. The essential oil can thereby be applied as an inhibitor of melanogenesis and could also act as a natural antioxidant in skin care products.

  6. Vegetation Resources of Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Adams County, Colorado

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    BE I Verbesina encelioides Cow-pen Daisy AF N 1’anthium strumarium Cocklebur AF A-4 Native/ Family/Species Common Name Life Form2 Introduced 3... strumarium Cocklebur Compositae SEMI-SHRUBS OR HALF-SHRUBS Artemisia dracunculus Green Sage Compositae Artomisia frigida Fringed Sagewort Compositae SHRUBS...Speedwell, Scrophulariaceae Xanthlum strumarium Cocklebur Coupos itae SEMI-SHRUBS OR HALF-SHRUBS Artemisia trigida. Fringed Sagewort Compositae ,.a

  7. Effect of dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus-fermented Artemisia princeps on growth performance, meat lipid peroxidation, and intestinal microflora in Hy-line Brown male chickens.

    PubMed

    Kim, C H; Kim, G-B; Chang, M B; Bae, G S; Paik, I K; Kil, D Y

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus-fermented Artemisia princeps (LFA) on growth performance, meat lipid peroxidation, and intestinal microflora in Hy-line Brown male chickens. A total of six hundred twenty-four 1-d-old Hy-Line Brown male chicks were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments with 4 replicated pens consisting of 52 chicks. The control diet was formulated to be adequate in energy and nutrients. Two additional diets were prepared by adding 2.5 or 5.0 g/kg of LFA to the control diet. The experimental diets were fed on an ad libitum basis to the birds during 7 wk. Body weight gain and feed intake were recorded at 2 and 7 wk. At the end of the experiment, 2 birds from each treatment were killed by cervical dislocation and the samples for ileal content, breast, and thigh meat were collected for the determination of meat lipid peroxidation and microbial population. Results indicated that increasing inclusion level of LFA in diets improved BW gain (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) and tended to improve feed efficiency (linear and quadratic, P < 0.10) of birds during 0 to 7 wk. Feeding the diets containing increasing amounts of LFA to birds reduced (quadratic, P < 0.05) thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) values in breast and thigh meat during 15 d of storage. The concentrations of Lactobacillus spp. in the ileal content of birds increased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05), but those of Salmonella spp. tended to be decreased (quadratic, P < 0.10) as inclusion level of LFA in diets increased. These results suggest that dietary LFA may be used as a functional ingredient to improve growth performance, meat lipid stability, and intestinal health of birds.

  8. Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel aerial part extract and assessment of their antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial properties

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Soheil; Shandiz, Seyed Ataollah Sadat; Ghanbar, Farinaz; Darvish, Mohammad Raouf; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Mirzaie, Amir; Jafari, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    A rapid phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using an extract from the aerial parts of Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel was investigated in this study. The synthesized AgNPs using A. marschalliana extract was analyzed by UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and further characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, zeta potential, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Characteristic absorption bands of AgNPs were found near 430 nm in the UV–vis spectrum. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis of AgNPs in the energy range 2–4 keV confirmed the silver signal due to surface plasmon resonance. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy results revealed that the AgNPs were mostly spherical with an average size ranging from 5 nm to 50 nm. The zeta potential value of −31 mV confirmed the stability of the AgNPs. AgNPs produced using the aqueous A. marschalliana extract might serve as a potent in vitro antioxidant, as revealed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl assay. The present study demonstrates the anticancer properties of phytosynthesized AgNPs against human gastric carcinoma AGS cells. AgNPs exerted a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the viability of cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used for the investigation of Bax and Bcl-2 gene expression in cancer and normal cell lines. Our findings show that the mRNA levels of pro-apoptotic Bax gene expression were significantly upregulated, while the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was declined in cells treated with AgNPs compared to normal cells. In addition, flow cytometric analysis showed that the number of early and late apoptotic AGS cells was significantly enhanced following treatment with AgNPs as compared to untreated cells. In addition, the AgNPs showed strong antibacterial properties against tested pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus

  9. The use of plants in prospecting for gold: A brief overview with a selected bibliography and topic index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erdman, J.A.; Olson, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The focal point of this report is a bibliography of 133 references and an associated topic index - both of which could be useful to geochemists attempting to locate new Au deposits. Fifty of these references originated in the Soviet Union, where most of the initial work on biogeochemical exploration for Au had been done. The 15 topics in the index range from agriculture (Au in crop plants) to silver. As an introduction to the bibliography, we have briefly described some examples of applications and difficulties in using plants. These examples are drawn from the literature and from field experience. Because of the generally low Au concentrations found in plants, the analysis of plant tissue is critical to the successful application of the biogeochemical method of prospecting. Neuron activation analysis is the most widely used method to detect Au in plants, due largely to its sensitivity; levels in the parts per billion range are easily attained. Two general types of sampling media are used in prospecting for Au: humus and living plants. Humus has been widely used in Canada, but the sampling of plants has increased there and elsewhere in recent years. Our use of douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) at a Au-bearing stockwork in Idaho is a prime example. A maximum Au concentration of 14 ??g/g (ppm) was detected in the wood ash of this coniferous tree, well above the normal concentration of ??? 0.15 ??g/g. Among shrubs that might be useful in Au prospecting, we recommend sagebrush or wormwood (genus Artemisia), because it is extremely responsive to concealed mineralization. It has been used extensively in the Soviet Union and could be used in areas of the western United States where disseminated Au occurrences might be located. Among the problems one may encounter in using plants for Au prospecting are: (1) physiological barriers, by which many plant species simply do not absorb Au at detectable levels; (2) misconceptions of soil-plant correlations; (3) localization of

  10. Induction of multiple pleiotropic drug resistance genes in yeast engineered to produce an increased level of anti-malarial drug precursor, artemisinic acid.

    PubMed

    Ro, Dae-Kyun; Ouellet, Mario; Paradise, Eric M; Burd, Helcio; Eng, Diana; Paddon, Chris J; Newman, Jack D; Keasling, Jay D

    2008-11-04

    Due to the global occurrence of multi-drug-resistant malarial parasites (Plasmodium falciparum), the anti-malarial drug most effective against malaria is artemisinin, a natural product (sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide) extracted from sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua). However, artemisinin is in short supply and unaffordable to most malaria patients. Artemisinin can be semi-synthesized from its precursor artemisinic acid, which can be synthesized from simple sugars using microorganisms genetically engineered with genes from A. annua. In order to develop an industrially competent yeast strain, detailed analyses of microbial physiology and development of gene expression strategies are required. Three plant genes coding for amorphadiene synthase, amorphadiene oxidase (AMO or CYP71AV1), and cytochrome P450 reductase, which in concert divert carbon flux from farnesyl diphosphate to artemisinic acid, were expressed from a single plasmid. The artemisinic acid production in the engineered yeast reached 250 microg mL(-1) in shake-flask cultures and 1 g L(-1) in bio-reactors with the use of Leu2d selection marker and appropriate medium formulation. When plasmid stability was measured, the yeast strain synthesizing amorphadiene alone maintained the plasmid in 84% of the cells, whereas the yeast strain synthesizing artemisinic acid showed poor plasmid stability. Inactivation of AMO by a point-mutation restored the high plasmid stability, indicating that the low plasmid stability is not caused by production of the AMO protein but by artemisinic acid synthesis or accumulation. Semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR and quantitative real time-PCR consistently showed that pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) genes, belonging to the family of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter, were massively induced in the yeast strain producing artemisinic acid, relative to the yeast strain producing the hydrocarbon amorphadiene alone. Global transcriptional analysis by yeast

  11. Evaluation of enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. on growth performance, meat quality, and oxidative stability of breast and thigh muscles in broilers.

    PubMed

    Wan, X L; Song, Z H; Niu, Y; Cheng, K; Zhang, J F; Ahmad, H; Zhang, L L; Wang, T

    2017-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of including enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. (EA) in broiler diets on growth performance, meat quality, and oxidative stability of breast and thigh muscles. A total of 256 one-d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allotted into four groups with eight replicates of eight birds each. Broilers in the four groups were offered basal diet supplemented with 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 g/kg EA during the 42-d experiment, respectively. The ADG, ADFI, and feed/gain ratio (F:G) were measured at 42 d of age. Breast and thigh muscle samples from eight birds per treatment were obtained at 42 d to determine meat quality, free radical scavenging activity, and lipid peroxidation. All treatment groups had similar ADG, ADFI, and F:G during the 42 d experiment (P > 0.05). Drip loss at 24 h and shearing force of breast muscle were linearly (P < 0.05) and quadratically (P < 0.05) decreased by EA addition. The drip loss at 24 h and 48 h, cooking loss and shearing force of thigh muscle followed the same fashion. The supplementation of EA quadratically increased 2, 2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) (P = 0.004) and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (P = 0.035) free radical scavenging activities in breast muscle, and linearly (P < 0.05) and quadratically (P < 0.05) increased ABTS and DPPH scavenging activities of thigh muscle. Increasing levels of EA linearly (P < 0.05) or quadratically (P < 0.05) or both decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in breast and thigh muscle samples during 15 d of storage at 4°C. The results indicated that EA supplementation improved meat quality and oxidative stability of breast and thigh muscles in broilers. The inclusion level of 1.0 g/kg EA in broiler diet was recommended. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. The effect of Artemisia annua on broiler performance, on intestinal microbiota and on the course of a Clostridium perfringens infection applying a necrotic enteritis disease model.

    PubMed

    Engberg, Ricarda Margarete; Grevsen, Kai; Ivarsen, Elise; Fretté, Xavier; Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Højberg, Ole; Jensen, Bent Borg; Canibe, Nuria

    2012-01-01

    The aerial parts of the plant Artemisia annua contain essential oils having antimicrobial properties against Clostridium perfringens Type A, the causal agent for necrotic enteritis in broilers. In two experiments, the influence of increasing dietary concentrations of dried A. annua leaves (0, 5, 10 and 20 g/kg) and n-hexane extract from fresh A. annua leaves (0, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) on broiler performance was investigated. Dried plant material decreased feed intake and body weight in a dose-dependent manner, and 10 and 20 g/kg diet tended to improve the feed conversion ratio. The n-hexane extract also reduced feed intake, but broiler weight tended to decrease only at the highest dietary concentration. The feed conversion ratio tended to improve when birds received 250 and 500 mg/kg n-hexane extract. In a third experiment, a necrotic enteritis disease model was applied to investigate the effect of the dietary addition of dried A. annua leaves (10 g/kg on top) or n-hexane extract of A. annua (250 mg/kg) on the severity of the disease in broilers. The addition of n-hexane extract reduced the intestinal C. perfringens numbers and the severity of the disease-related small intestinal lesions. Over the infection period from day 17 to day 27, birds supplemented with the n-hexane extract gained more weight than both the challenged control birds and birds receiving dried plant material. The results indicate that n-hexane extracts derived from A. annua can modulate the course of necrotic enteritis and compensate to a certain extent for the disease-associated weight losses.

  13. Powdery mildew of Chrysanthemum × morifolium: phylogeny and taxonomy in the context of Golovinomyces species on Asteraceae hosts.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Michael; Braun, Uwe; Götz, Monika; Meeboon, Jamjan; Takamatsu, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    The taxonomic history of the common powdery mildew of Chrysanthemum × morifolium (chrysanthemum, florist's daisy), originally described in Germany as Oidium chrysanthemi, is discussed. The position of O. chrysanthemi was investigated on the basis of morphological traits and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Based on the results of this study, this species, which is closely related to Golovinomyces artemisae, was reassessed and reallocated to Golovinomyces. The phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic reassessment of the chrysanthemum powdery mildew is supplemented by a morphological description, a summary of its worldwide distribution data, and a brief discussion of the introduction of this fungus to North America. G. chrysanthemi differs from true G. artemisiae in that it has much longer conidiophores, is not constricted at the base, and has much larger and most importantly longer conidia. The close affinity of Golovinomyces to Artemisia and Chrysanthemum species signifies a coevolutionary event between the powdery mildews concerned and their host species in the subtribe Artemisiinae (Asteraceae tribe Anthemideae). This conclusion is fully supported by the current phylogeny and taxonomy of the host plant genera and the coevolution that occurred with the host and pathogen. The following powdery mildew species, which are associated with hosts belonging to the tribe Anthemideae of the Asteraceae, are epitypified: Alphitomorpha depressa β artemisiae (≡ Alphitomorpha artemisiae), Erysiphe artemisiae, and Oidium chrysanthemi. Erysiphe macrocarpa is neotypified. Their sequences were retrieved from the epitype collections and have been added to the phylogenetic tree. Golovinomyces orontii, an additional powdery mildew species on Chrysanthemum ×morifolium, is reported. This species is rarely found as a spontaneous infection and was obtained from inoculation experiments.

  14. Characterization, antibacterial, total antioxidant, scavenging, reducing power and ion chelating activities of green synthesized silver, copper and titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Artemisia haussknechtii leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Mehran; Karimi, Naser

    2017-12-12

    Recently, major problem related to pathogenic bacteria is augmentation of antibiotic resistance which has been changed treatment and recovery of millions of infectious patients. The present study reports an eco-friendly, rapid and easy method for synthesis of silver (Ag), copper (Cu) and titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles (NPs) using Artemisia haussknechtii leaf aqueous extract with antibacterial activities against multi-drug resistance (MDR) bacteria species. Three different concentrations (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 M) of AgNO 3 , CuSO 4 and TiO (OH) 2 were investigated for obtaining optimum NPs green synthesis. Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content of leaf extract and total antioxidant activity (DPPH) assay were determined as radical scavenging methods. UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used due to NPs characterization. The size average of the Ag, Cu and TiO 2 NPs obtained were respectively 10.69 ± 5.55, 35.36 ± 44.4 and 92.58 ± 56.98 nm. In the case of antibacterial assay, disc diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, bacterial growth and morphology of four MDR species Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12258, Serratia marcescens ATTC13880 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 were evaluated. Results of this study demonstrated that A. haussknechtii leaf extract with various groups of phytochemicals such as phenols and flavonoids had suitable ability in green synthesis of Ag, Cu and TiO 2 NPs. Also, Ag and Cu NPs had more antibacterial activities compared to TiO 2 NPs.

  15. Chemical composition and biological activities of Artemisia judaica essential oil from southern desert of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abu-Darwish, M S; Cabral, C; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Cruz, M T; Zulfiqar, Ali; Khan, I A; Efferth, T; Salgueiro, L

    2016-09-15

    Artemisia judaica L. (Arabic name: Beithran), is a medicinal and aromatic plant growing in the valley bottoms of desert areas, particularly in the southern desert of Jordan nearest to the Jordan-Saudi Arabia borders and in Wadi Araba in the Southern Badia. In Jordan, A. judaica is widely used in traditional medicine being recommended by aboriginal Bedouins in the North Badia region of Jordan as calmative. Furthermore, it is used for the treatment of stomach ache, heart diseases, sexual weakness, diabetes, gastro-intestinal disorders and external wounding. Additionally, other folk medicines of the Arabic region commonly use this aromatic plant for the treatment of inflammatory-related diseases, for instance fungal infections, diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer and arthritis. Considering the traditional medicinal uses and the lack of scientific studies addressing the cellular and molecular mechanisms behind A. judaica claimed activities, the present study was designed to validate some of the traditional uses ascribed to this species, specifically the antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities of A. judaica essential oil at doses devoid of cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. Chemical analysis of A. judaica essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation from aerial parts was carried out by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antifungal activity (minimal inhibitory concentrations and minimal lethal concentrations) was evaluated against yeasts, dermatophyte and Aspergillus strains. In order to deeply explore the mechanisms behind the anti-fungal effect of the essential oil, the germ tube inhibition assay and the biofilms formation assay were evaluated using Candida albicans. The assessment of cell viability was accomplished using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in both hepatocytes and macrophages. Furthermore, the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of A. judaica oil was evaluated by

  16. Consequences of inoculation with native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for root colonization and survival of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis seedlings after transplanting.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Bill E; Novak, Stephen J; Serpe, Marcelo D

    2016-08-01

    In arid environments, the propagule density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may limit the extent of the plant-AMF symbiosis. Inoculation of seedlings with AMF could alleviate this problem, but the success of this practice largely depends on the ability of the inoculum to multiply and colonize the growing root system after transplanting. These phenomena were investigated in Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush) seedlings inoculated with native AMF. Seedlings were first grown in a greenhouse in soil without AMF (non-inoculated seedlings) or with AMF (inoculated seedlings). In spring and fall, 3-month-old seedlings were transplanted outdoors to 24-L pots containing soil from a sagebrush habitat (spring and fall mesocosm experiments) or to a recently burned sagebrush habitat (spring and fall field experiments). Five or 8 months after transplanting, colonization was about twofold higher in inoculated than non-inoculated seedlings, except for the spring field experiment. In the mesocosm experiments, inoculation increased survival during the summer by 24 % (p = 0.011). In the field experiments, increased AMF colonization was associated with increases in survival during cold and dry periods; 1 year after transplanting, survival of inoculated seedlings was 27 % higher than that of non-inoculated ones (p < 0.001). To investigate possible mechanisms by which AMF increased survival, we analyzed water use efficiency (WUE) based on foliar (13)C/(12)C isotope ratios (δ (13)C). A positive correlation between AMF colonization and δ (13)C values was observed in the spring mesocosm experiment. In contrast, inoculation did not affect the δ (13)C values of fall transplanted seedlings that were collected the subsequent spring. The effectiveness of AMF inoculation on enhancing colonization and reducing seedling mortality varied among the different experiments, but average effects were estimated by meta-analyses. Several months after

  17. Si-Accumulation In Artemisia annua Glandular Trichomes Increases Artemisinin Concentration, but Does Not Interfere In the Impairment of Toxoplasma gondii Growth

    PubMed Central

    Rostkowska, Cristina; Mota, Caroline M.; Oliveira, Taísa C.; Santiago, Fernanda M.; Oliveira, Lilian A.; Korndörfer, Gaspar H.; Lana, Regina M. Q.; Rossi, Monica L.; Nogueira, Neusa L.; Simonnet, Xavier; Mineo, Tiago W. P.; Silva, Deise A.O.; Mineo, José R.

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia annua is used as a source of artemisinin, a potent therapeutic agent used for the treatment of infectious diseases, chiefly malaria. However, the low concentration (from 0.01 to 1.4% of dried leaf matter) of artemisinin in the plant obtained with the traditional cropping system makes it a relatively expensive drug, especially in developing countries. Considering that artemisinin and silicon (Si) are both stored in A. annua glandular trichomes, and that Si accumulation has never been investigated, this study aimed to look into Si effects on A. annua trichome artemisinin concentration, and whether leaf infusion from Si-treated A. annua plants is able to control Toxoplasma gondii growth. T. gondii is the etiologic agent of toxoplasmosis, a zoonotic parasitic disease whose traditional treatment shows significant side effects. The experimental design consisted of A. annua seedlings randomly planted in soil treated with different doses of calcium/magnesium silicate (0, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 kg ha-1). Analysis of foliar macronutrients showed significant increases of nitrogen content only at the highest dose of silicate. Foliar micronutrients, Si concentrations, and plant height were not affected by any of the silicate doses. However, the dose of 400 kg ha-1 of silicate increased the trichome size, which in turn raised artemisinin concentration in leaves and the infusion. In contrast, the 800 and 1600 kg ha-1 doses dramatically decreased artemisinin concentration. HeLa cell treatment with the infusion of A. annua grown in soil treated with 400 kg ha-1 of silicate decreased parasite proliferation in a dose-dependent manner when the treatment was carried out after or along with T. gondii infection. However, this effect was similar to A. annua grown in soil without silicate treatment. Thus, it can be concluded that, even though Si applied to the soil at 400 kg ha-1 has a positive effect on the A. annua glandular trichome size and the artemisinin concentration

  18. Artemisia dracunculus Extracts Obtained by Organic Solvents and Supercritical CO2 Produce Cytotoxic and Antitumor Effects in Mice with L5178Y Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Salcedo, Martha Hilda; Delgado-Saucedo, Jorge Ivan; Siordia-Sánchez, Victor Hugo; González-Ortiz, Luis J; Castillo-Herrera, Gustavo Adolfo; Puebla-Pérez, Ana M

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the cytotoxic and antitumor effects of nine leaf extracts from Artemisia dracunculus (Tarragon). Five extracts were obtained using different organic solvents and four by supercritical CO 2 . The cytotoxic effects were expressed as IC 50 in 100, 80, 80, 100, and 80 μg/mL by respective solvents: hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, and acetonitrile in L5178Y lymphoma cells. For supercritical CO 2 extract A, IC 50 was 100 μg/mL; for extracts C and D, IC 50 was 150 μg/mL. The antitumor activity was assessed through a tumor growth inhibition test that measured ascites fluid volume and tumor cell counts of BALB/c mice (2 × 10 4 cells L5178Y i.p.). Twenty-four hours after inoculation, mice were treated with 100 mg/kg of acetonitrile extract or extract SF-A daily for 15 days in independent groups of five mice, using two administration routes. We observed tumor evolution with and without treatment. Without treatment, tumor evolution was 17,969 × 10 6  ± 5485 L5178Y cells in 2.6 mL ascites volume, whereas the orally treated acetonitrile extract group showed 0.1 × 10 6  ± 0.07 L5178Y cells (P < .05). The oral SF-A group showed 12.9 × 10 6  ± 243 L5178Y cells, and intraperitoneal (i.p.)-treated SF-A group showed 0.1 × 10 6  ± 0.05 L5178Y cells (P < .05) without any ascites volume development. The acetonitrile extract contains abundant polyphenols and possibly a flavone with antioxidant activity. The SF-A contains abundant alkamides. Both extracts are complexes and the identity of the compounds responsible for observed antitumor activity remains unknown.

  19. Artemisia princeps Pamp. Essential oil and its constituents eucalyptol and α-terpineol ameliorate bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis in mice by inhibiting bacterial growth and NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Hien-Trung; Lee, In-Ah; Hyun, Yang-Jin; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the inhibitory effects of Artemisia princeps Pamp. (family Asteraceae) essential oil (APEO) and its main constituents against bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis, their antimicrobial activities against Gardnerella vaginalis and Candida albicans in vitro and their anti-inflammatory effects against G. vaginalis-induced vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis were examined in mice. APEO and its constituents eucalyptol and α-terpineol were found to inhibit microbe growths. α-Terpineol most potently inhibited the growths of G. vaginalis and C. albicans with MIC values of 0.06 and 0.125 % (v/v), respectively. The antimicrobial activity of α-terpineol was found to be comparable to that of clotrimazole. Intravaginal treatment with APEO, eucalyptol, or α-terpineol significantly decreased viable G. vaginalis and C. albicans numbers in the vaginal cavity and myeloperoxidase activity in mouse vaginal tissues compared with controls. These agents also inhibited the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1 β, IL-6, TNF- α), COX-2, iNOS, and the activation of NF- κB and increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. In addition, they inhibited the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines and the activation of NF- κB in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peritoneal macrophages, and α-terpineol most potently inhibited the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines and NF- κB activation. Based on these findings, APEO and its constituents, particularly α-terpineol, ameliorate bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis by inhibiting the growths of vaginal pathogens and the activation of NF- κB. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. An ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. regulates gene expression of ubiquitin-proteasome system enzymes in skeletal muscle: potential role in the treatment of sarcopenic obesity.

    PubMed

    Kirk-Ballard, Heather; Kilroy, Gail; Day, Britton C; Wang, Zhong Q; Ribnicky, David M; Cefalu, William T; Floyd, Z Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is linked to insulin resistance, a primary component of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The problem of obesity-related insulin resistance is compounded when age-related skeletal muscle loss, called sarcopenia, occurs with obesity. Skeletal muscle loss results from elevated levels of protein degradation and prevention of obesity-related sarcopenic muscle loss will depend on strategies that target pathways involved in protein degradation. An extract from Artemisia dracunculus, termed PMI 5011, improves insulin signaling and increases skeletal muscle myofiber size in a rodent model of obesity-related insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of PMI 5011 on the ubiquitin-proteasome system, a central regulator of muscle protein degradation. Gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis skeletal muscle was obtained from KK-A(y) obese diabetic mice fed a control or 1% (w/w) PMI 5011-supplemented diet. Regulation of genes encoding enzymes of the ubiquitin-proteasome system was determined using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Although MuRF-1 ubiquitin ligase gene expression is consistently down-regulated in skeletal muscle, atrogin-1, Fbxo40, and Traf6 expression is differentially regulated by PMI 5011. Genes encoding other enzymes of the ubiquitin-proteasome system ranging from ubiquitin to ubiquitin-specific proteases are also regulated by PMI 5011. Additionally, expression of the gene encoding the microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain 3 (LC3), a ubiquitin-like protein pivotal to autophagy-mediated protein degradation, is down-regulated by PMI 5011 in the vastus lateralis. PMI 5011 alters the gene expression of ubiquitin-proteasome system enzymes that are essential regulators of skeletal muscle mass. This suggests that PMI 5011 has therapeutic potential in the treatment of obesity-linked sarcopenia by regulating ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated protein degradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc

  1. Investigation of the component in Artemisia annua L. leading to enhanced antiplasmodial potency of artemisinin via regulation of its metabolism.

    PubMed

    Cai, Tian-Yu; Zhang, Yun-Rui; Ji, Jian-Bo; Xing, Jie

    2017-07-31

    The chemical matrix of the herb Artemisia annua L. (A. annua), from which artemisinin (QHS) is isolated, can enhance both the bioavailability and efficacy of QHS. However, the exact mechanism of this synergism remains unknown. The biotransformation of QHS and potential "enzyme inhibitors" in plant matrix could be of great importance in understanding the improved efficacy of QHS in A. annua, which has been limited to the synergism with flavonoid components. To investigate the component in A. annua extracts (MAE) leading to enhanced antiplasmodial potency of QHS via regulation of its metabolism. The efficacy of QHS in combination with the synergistic component was also evaluated. The total MAE extract and its three MAE fractions (MAE-I eluted using 3% methanol, MAE-II eluted using 50% methanol and MAE-III eluted using 85% methanol) were obtained from dry plant materials and prepared after lyophilization. The pharmacokinetic profiles of QHS and its major phase I metabolite monohydroxylated artemisinin (QHS-M) were investigated in healthy rats after a single oral administration of QHS in each MAE extract. Major components isolated from the target MAE fraction were evaluated for their enzyme inhibition. The antimalarial activity of QHS in combination with the potential synergistic component against Plasmodium falciparum was studied in vivo (murine Plasmodium yoelii). The recrudescence and survival time of infected mice were also recorded after drug treatment. Compared to pure QHS, a 2-fold increase in QHS exposure (AUC and C max ) was found in healthy rats after a single oral dose of QHS in the total MAE extract or its fraction MAE-III. In addition, metabolic biotransformation of QHS to the metabolite QHS-M (mediated by CYP3A) was inhibited by MAE or MAE-III. Among nine major components isolated from MAE-III (five sesquiterpenenes, three flavonoids and one phenolic acid), only arteannuin B (AB) showed an inhibition of CYP3A4 (IC 50 1.2μM). The synergism between QHS and

  2. Effects of dietary supplementation of Artemisia argyi aqueous extract on antioxidant indexes of small intestine in broilers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fei; Shi, Binlin; Sun, Dengsheng; Chen, Hongyan; Tong, Manman; Zhang, Pengfei; Guo, Xiaoyu; Yan, Sumei

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Artemisia argyi aqueous extract (AAE) on antioxidant indexes in the small intestine. A total of 192 Arbor Acre broiler chickens (one-day-old) were randomly divided into 4 treatments with 6 replicates of 8 chickens. These 4 diets were formulated by adding 0, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg AAE to the basal diet. The results showed as follows: 1) compared with the control, the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in ileum for the 2,000 mg/kg treatment group was significantly increased at 21 days of age ( P  < 0.05); the T-AOC levels in jejunum and ileum were significantly increased in broilers supplemented with 500 mg/kg AAE at 42 days of age ( P  < 0.05), and the T-AOC levels in jejunum and ileum were significantly improved in 1,000 mg/kg treatment group ( P  < 0.01). 2) At 21 days of age, supplementation of 500 mg/kg AAE significantly increased the catalase (CAT) activity of small intestine, and the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity of jejunum was improved ( P  < 0.01), meanwhile, the GSH-Px activity of duodenum and the total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity of duodenum and jejunum were significantly higher than those of the control group ( P  < 0.05); supplementation of 1,000 mg/kg AAE significantly increased the CAT activity of duodenum and ileum and the GSH-Px activity of duodenum and jejunum ( P  < 0.05), and the ileum GSH-Px activity was significantly increased ( P  < 0.01); supplementation of 2,000 mg/kg AAE significantly increased the CAT activity of duodenum and ileum ( P  < 0.05). At 42 days of age, supplementation of 500 mg/kg AAE significantly increased the GSH-Px activity of ileum and the T-SOD activity of duodenum ( P  < 0.05), meanwhile, the T-SOD activity of jejunum was significantly increased ( P  < 0.01); supplementation of 1,000 mg/kg AAE significantly increased the CAT activity of jejunum and the T-SOD activity of ileum ( P  < 0.01), and the GSH

  3. [A comparative evaluation of the biological action of allergens and allergoids prepared from plant pollen by the double radial immunodiffusion method].

    PubMed

    Lavrenchik, E I; Korytina, O L

    1989-09-01

    Antisera to allergens and allergoids prepared from timothy, orchard grass, birch and wormwood pollen have been obtained and used in the double radial immunodiffusion test. The preparations of the allergoid row have been found capable of inducing immune response in laboratory animals (rabbits). Both forms of pollen preparations, allergens and allergoids, have been shown to possess common antigenic determinants reacting with antibodies present in antisera to allergens and allergoids. The absence of identity in the ratio of manifestations of gel precipitation reactions for allergoid with respect to the initial forms of allergens of individual pollen preparation has been noted.

  4. Youyou Tu: significance of winning the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenxiu; Liu, Yue

    2016-02-01

    Youyou Tu, a female scientist at the China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Beijing, is the first Chinese winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Based on the study of recipes which had been used for thousands of years to treat fever, Tu's group discovered that the plant artemesia annua, sweet wormwood, showed substantial inhibition of rodent malaria parasites. Her achievement and experience have inspired other researchers and emphasized the development of traditional Chinese medicine. Her award has led to a heated discussion about scientific research investment, fair treatment of research staff, and intellectual property right (IPR) protection in China.

  5. The influence of a residual group in low-molecular-weight allergoids of Artemisia vulgaris pollen on their allergenicity, IgE- and IgG-binding properties.

    PubMed

    Cirković, T; Gavrović-Jankulović, M; Prisić, S; Jankov, R M; Burazer, L; Vucković, O; Sporcić, Z; Paranos, S

    2002-11-01

    Reaction of epsilon-amino groups of lysine with potassium cyanate, maleic, or succinic anhydride leads to allergoids of low molecular weight. No study has been performed to compare their properties and investigate the influence of a residual group on allergenicity and human IgE- and IgG-binding of these derivatives. Allergoids of a pollen extract of Artemisia vulgaris were obtained by means of potassium cyanate, and succinic and maleic anhydride. Biochemical properties were investigated by determination of amino groups, enzyme activity, isoelectric focusing IEF and SDS-PAGE. IgE- and IgG-binding was determined using immunoblots and ELISA inhibition. Allergenicity was investigated by skin prick tests (SPT) on a group of 52 patients, of which 6 were control subjects, 30 were patients with no previous immunotherapy (IT), and 16 were patients undergoing immunotherapy. The same degree of amino-group modification (more than 85%), residual enzyme activity (less then 15%), IEF, and SDS-PAGE pattern were noted. In the immunoblots of IgE-binding, there was more pronounced reduction in the succinyl and maleyl derivatives than in the carbamyl one. IgG-binding was less affected by carbamylation than by acid anhydride modification. The SPT showed that the succinylated derivative had the most reduced allergenicity (98% showed a reduced wheal diameter when tested with the succinyl derivative, 87% with the maleyl allergoid, and 83% with the carbamyl allergoid). The most significant difference among allergoids could be seen in the group of patients with high skin reactivity (83% of patients showed no reaction to the succinyl derivative when compared to the value of 28% for the carbamyl derivative or 22% for the maleyl derivative). According to our results, all three modification procedures yielded allergoids with a similar extent of modification. No single biochemical parameter investigated in the study could predict the degree of reduced allergenicity in vivo. The most reduced

  6. Archaeological Investigations at the North Cove, Site Harlan County Lake, Harlan County, Nebraska: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Carya 0.3 0.0 0.2 59 Table 6 - Continued Sample 1 2 3 NAP Taxa Artemisia 2.4 3.3 3.1 Ambrosia 2.1 2.7 2.1 Iva type 0.3 0.8 0.7 Eupatorium type 1.7...Populus and the relatively high overall percentage of NAP, especially Artemisia , Ambrosia, Poaceae and Cyperaceae, in the North Cove spring deposits are...or white footed mouse) 1 .03 Zapus princeps (western jumping mouse) -1.03 total: 30 100.00 *Minimlum number of individuals 68 TABLE 10 Identified

  7. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for reproductive problems

    PubMed Central

    Lans, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Background Throughout history women have tried to control or enhance their fertility using herbal remedies, with various levels of societal support. Caribbean folk medicine has been influenced by European folk medicine, either through the early Spanish and French settlers or through the continuous immigration of Spanish-speaking peoples from Venezuela. Some folk uses are ancient and were documented by Galen and Pliny the Elder. Methods Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad (Paramin, Talparo, Sangre Grande, Mayaro, Carapichaima, Kernahan, Newlands, Todd's Road, Arima, Guayaguayare, Santa Cruz, Port of Spain and Siparia) and one in Tobago (Mason Hall). Snowball sampling was used because there was no other means of identifying respondents and to cover the entire islands. The validation of the remedies was conducted with a non-experimental method. Results Plants are used for specific problems