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Sample records for wrinkled skin treatments

  1. Platelet-Rich Plasma with Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor for Treatment of Wrinkles and Depressed Areas of the Skin.

    PubMed

    Kamakura, Tatsuro; Kataoka, Jiro; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Teramachi, Hideaki; Mihara, Hisayuki; Miyata, Kazuhiro; Ooi, Kouichi; Sasaki, Naomi; Kobayashi, Miyuki; Ito, Kouhei

    2015-11-01

    There are several treatments for wrinkles and depressed areas of the face, hands, and body. Hyaluronic acid is effective, but only for 6 months to 1 year. Autologous fat grafting may cause damage during tissue harvest. In this study, patients were injected with platelet-rich plasma plus basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Platelet-rich plasma was prepared by collecting blood and extracting platelets using double centrifugation. Basic fibroblast growth factor diluted with normal saline was added to platelet-rich plasma. There were 2005 patients who received platelet-rich plasma plus bFGF therapy. Of the 2005 patients treated, 1889 were female and 116 were male patients; patients had a mean age of 48.2 years. Treated areas inlcuded 1461 nasolabial folds, 437 marionette lines, 1413 nasojugal grooves, 148 supraorbital grooves, 253 midcheek grooves, 304 foreheads, 49 temples, and 282 glabellae. Results on the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale indicated that the level of patient satisfaction was 97.3 percent and the level of investigator satisfaction was 98.4 percent. The period for the therapy's effectiveness to become apparent was an average of 65.4 days. Platelet-rich plasma plus bFGF therapy resulted in an improved grade on the Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale. Improvement was 0.55 for a Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale grade of 2, 1.13 for a Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale grade of 3, 1.82 for a Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale grade of 4, and 2.23 for a Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale grade of 5. Platelet-rich plasma plus bFGF is effective in treating wrinkles and depressed areas of the skin of the face and body. The study revealed that platelet-rich plasma plus bFGF is an innovative therapy that causes minimal complications. Therapeutic, IV.

  2. Quantification of skin wrinkles using low coherence interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jung-Taek; Kim, Beop-Min; Son, Sang-Ryoon; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Dong-Yoon; Kim, Youn-Soo

    2004-07-01

    We measure the skin wrinkle topology by means of low coherence interferometry (LCI), which forms the basis of the optical coherence tomography (OCT). The skin topology obtained using LCI and corresponding 2-D fast Fourier transform allow quantification of skin wrinkles. It took approximately 2 minutes to obtain 2.1 mm x 2.1 mm topological image with 4 um and 16 um resolutions in axial and transverse directions, respectively. Measurement examples show the particular case of skin contour change after-wrinkle cosmeceutical treatments and atopic dermatitis

  3. We need wrinkle on the skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sungsook; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-11-01

    Wrinkle formation on the skin is an unwelcome guest to everybody. But if we truly understand how wrinkles can contribute to important biological functions, then we readily admit the wrinkles positively. In this study, we show how the wrinkles are advantageous and useful in many systems. In a plant system for example, by forming line patterned wrinkles the hydrogels covering on the seed surface contribute to delay the dehydration against varying water supply environments. Inspired by this plant hydrogel, it is experimentally and theoretically investigated how lined wrinkles are useful to conserve water inside while protect the individual from drying-out. This study would contribute to a variety of humidity-sensitive system development including artificial skin, humidity-actuated sensors and the like.

  4. Treatment of Acne Scars and Wrinkles in Asian Patients Using Carbon-Dioxide Fractional Laser Resurfacing: Its Effects on Skin Biophysical Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Young Ji; Lee, Yu Na; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong

    2013-01-01

    Background Although ablative fractional resurfacing is known to be effective against photoaging and acne scars, studies on its efficacy, safety and changes in the skin characteristics of Asians are limited. Objective The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of carbon dioxide fractional laser (CO2FL) in Koreans treated for wrinkles and acne scars, and to define the changes in skin characteristics during recovery period. Methods We administered one session of CO2FL on 10 acne scar patients and 14 wrinkles patients with skin types IV and V. The surveillance of efficacy and side effects along with the measurement of biophysical properties was carried out before 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after treatment. Results Using a non-invasive method, skin barrier damage, erythema and bronzing of skin during the recovery period were assessed, and all of the items eventually returned to the pre-treatment level. Skin elasticity was measured in the wrinkle group, and the statistically significant effect was sustained throughout the next three months. The outcome of treatment was found to be better than 'moderate improvement' in both the acne scar and wrinkle groups. Further, there were no serious side effects three months post-procedure. Conclusion CO2 FL is thought to be an effective and safe method for treating moderate to severe acne scars and wrinkles in Asians. PMID:24371392

  5. Treatment of acne scars and wrinkles in asian patients using carbon-dioxide fractional laser resurfacing: its effects on skin biophysical profiles.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Young Ji; Lee, Yu Na; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong

    2013-11-01

    Although ablative fractional resurfacing is known to be effective against photoaging and acne scars, studies on its efficacy, safety and changes in the skin characteristics of Asians are limited. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of carbon dioxide fractional laser (CO2FL) in Koreans treated for wrinkles and acne scars, and to define the changes in skin characteristics during recovery period. We administered one session of CO2FL on 10 acne scar patients and 14 wrinkles patients with skin types IV and V. The surveillance of efficacy and side effects along with the measurement of biophysical properties was carried out before 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after treatment. Using a non-invasive method, skin barrier damage, erythema and bronzing of skin during the recovery period were assessed, and all of the items eventually returned to the pre-treatment level. Skin elasticity was measured in the wrinkle group, and the statistically significant effect was sustained throughout the next three months. The outcome of treatment was found to be better than 'moderate improvement' in both the acne scar and wrinkle groups. Further, there were no serious side effects three months post-procedure. CO2 FL is thought to be an effective and safe method for treating moderate to severe acne scars and wrinkles in Asians.

  6. A Fractional Bipolar Radiofrequency Device Combined with a Bipolar Radiofrequency and Infrared Light Treatment for Improvement in Facial Wrinkles and Overall Skin Tone and Texture.

    PubMed

    Gold, Alan H; Pozner, Jason; Weiss, Robert

    2016-10-01

    A variety of techniques and energy-based technologies are currently utilized for the treatment of facial wrinkles. Fractional bipolar radiofrequency treatment and treatment with bipolar radiofrequency combined with infrared light have both been reported to be safe and effective for the non-invasive treatment of wrinkles and overall facial rejuvenation. A multicenter, prospective clinical trial evaluated a protocol of treatment with a device incorporating bipolar radiofrequency and infrared light followed by treatment with a fractional bipolar radiofrequency device for facial wrinkle reduction and improvement in the overall appearance of aged facial skin. Fifty-six patients with mild to moderate facial wrinkles received three full-face treatments (forehead, nose, cheeks, periorbital, and perioral areas) at 4 to 6 week intervals and were evaluated at 12 and 24 weeks after the last treatment. Clinical photographs at baseline and follow-ups were assessed by both the investigators and patients using the Global Aesthetic Improvement scale. Treatment safety was evaluated. Study participants also completed a satisfaction and improvement questionnaire. Fitzpatrick Wrinkling and Elastosis Score was decreased significantly at three months (P < .01; paired t test) and at six months (P < .001; paired t test) after the final treatment. Investigators' assessments of overall improvement in facial appearance, demonstrated 88% improvement at 12 weeks and 82% at 24 weeks after the final treatment. Subject evaluations were similar, consistently reporting improvement in wrinkles and overall facial skin appearance throughout the study, and high a degree of satisfaction with their final results. Subjects tolerated the procedures well, with only transient mild to moderate erythema and edema occurring in most patients, and without complications. A combined protocol of bipolar radiofrequency and infrared light treatment followed by fractionated bipolar radiofrequency treatment results in

  7. Efficacy and safety of fractional CO2 laser versus fractional Er:YAG laser in the treatment of facial skin wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Robati, Reza M; Asadi, Elmira

    2017-02-01

    Ablative fractional lasers were introduced for treating facial rhytides. Few studies have compared fractional CO 2 and Er:YAG lasers on cutaneous photodamages by a split trial. The aim of the present study was to compare these modalities in a randomized controlled double-blind split-face design with multiple sessions and larger sample size compared to previous studies done before. Forty patients with facial wrinkles were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to receive three monthly treatments on each side of the face, one with a fractional CO 2 and one with a fractional Er:YAG laser. The evaluations included investigating clinical outcome determined by two independent dermatologists not enrolled in the treatment along with measuring skin biomechanical property of cheeks using a sensitive biometrologic device with the assessment of cutaneous resonance running time (CRRT). Moreover, possible side effects and patients' satisfaction have been recorded at baseline, 1 month after each treatment, and 3 months after the last treatment session. Clinical assessment showed both modalities significantly reduce facial wrinkles (p value < 0.05), with no appreciable difference between two lasers. Mean CRRT values also decreased significantly after the laser treatment compared to the baseline in both laser groups. There was no serious long-standing adverse effect after both laser treatments, but the discomfort was more pronounced by the participants after CO 2 laser treatment. According to the present study, both fractional CO 2 and fractional Er:YAG lasers show considerable clinical improvement of facial skin wrinkles with no serious adverse effects, but post-treatment discomfort seems to be lower with Er:YAG laser.

  8. Protective effects of skin permeable epidermal and fibroblast growth factor against ultraviolet-induced skin damage and human skin wrinkles.

    PubMed

    An, Jae Jin; Eum, Won Sik; Kwon, Hyuck Se; Koh, Jae Sook; Lee, Soo Yun; Baek, Ji Hwoon; Cho, Yong-Jun; Kim, Dae Won; Han, Kyu Huyng; Park, Jinseu; Jang, Sang Ho; Choi, Soo Young

    2013-12-01

    Epidermal and fibroblast growth factor (EGF and FGF1) proteins play an important role in the regeneration and proliferation of skin cells. EGF and FGF1 have considerable potential as possible therapeutic or cosmetic agents for the treatment of skin damage including wrinkles. Using protein transduction domains (PTD), we investigated whether PTD-EGF and FGF1 transduced into skin cells and tissue. Transduced proteins showed protective effects in a UV-induced skin damage model as well as against skin wrinkles. Transduced PTD-EGF and FGF1 proteins were detected by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. The effects of PTD-EGF and FGF1 were examined by WST assay, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and skin wrinkle parameters. The PTD-EGF and FGF1 increased cell proliferation and collagen type 1 alpha 1 protein accumulation in skin tissue. Also, PTD-EGF and FGF1 inhibited UV-induced skin damage. Furthermore, topical application of PTD-EGF and FGF1 contained ampoules which were considered to improve the wrinkle parameters of human skin. These results show that PTD-EGF and FGF1 can be a potential therapeutic or cosmetic agent for skin damaged and injury including wrinkles and aging. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Novel multi-source phase-controlled radiofrequency technology for non-ablative and micro-ablative treatment of wrinkles, lax skin and acne scars.

    PubMed

    Elman, Monica; Harth, Yoram

    2011-01-01

    The basic properties of lasers and pulsed light sources limit their ability to deliver high energy to the dermis and subcutaneous tissues without excessive damage to the epidermis. Radiofrequency was shown to penetrate deeper than optical light sources independent of skin color. The early RF-based devices used single source bipolar RF, which is safe but limited in use due to the superficial flow of energy between the two bipolar electrodes. Another type of single source RF employs a single electrode (monopolar) in which the RF energy flows from one electrode on the surface of the skin through the entire body to a plate under the body. Although more effective than bipolar, this devices require intense active cooling of the skin and may be associated with considerable pain and other systemic and local safety concerns. Latest generation of RF technology developed by EndyMed Medical Ltd. (Caesarea, Israel) utilizes simultaneously six or more phase controlled RF generators (3DEEP technology). The multiple electrical fields created by the multiple sources "repel" or "attract" each other, leading to the precise 3 dimensional delivery of RF energy to the dermal and sub-dermal targets minimizing the energy flow through the epidermis without the need for active cooling. Confocal microscopy of the skin has shown that 6 treatment sessions of Multisource RF technology improve skin structure features. The skin after treatment had longer and narrower dermal papilla and denser and finer collagen fiber typical to younger skin as compared to pre treatment skin. Ultrasound of the skin showed after 6 treatment sessions reduction of 10 percent in the thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer. Non ablative facial clinical studies showed a significant reduction of wrinkles after treatment further reduced at 3 months follow-up. Body treatment studies showed a circumference reduction of 2.9 cm immediately after 6 treatments, and 2 cm at 12 months after the end of treatment, proving long term

  10. Novel multi-source phase-controlled radiofrequency technology for non-ablative and micro-ablative treatment of wrinkles, lax skin and acne scars

    PubMed Central

    Elman, Monica; Harth, Yoram

    2011-01-01

    The basic properties of lasers and pulsed light sources limit their ability to deliver high energy to the dermis and subcutaneous tissues without excessive damage to the epidermis. Radiofrequency was shown to penetrate deeper than optical light sources independent of skin color. The early RF-based devices used single source bipolar RF, which is safe but limited in use due to the superficial flow of energy between the two bipolar electrodes. Another type of single source RF employs a single electrode (monopolar) in which the RF energy flows from one electrode on the surface of the skin through the entire body to a plate under the body. Although more effective than bipolar, this devices require intense active cooling of the skin and may be associated with considerable pain and other systemic and local safety concerns. Latest generation of RF technology developed by EndyMed Medical Ltd. (Caesarea, Israel) utilizes simultaneously six or more phase controlled RF generators (3DEEP technology). The multiple electrical fields created by the multiple sources “repel” or “attract” each other, leading to the precise 3 dimensional delivery of RF energy to the dermal and sub-dermal targets minimizing the energy flow through the epidermis without the need for active cooling. Confocal microscopy of the skin has shown that 6 treatment sessions of Multisource RF technology improve skin structure features. The skin after treatment had longer and narrower dermal papilla and denser and finer collagen fiber typical to younger skin as compared to pre treatment skin. Ultrasound of the skin showed after 6 treatment sessions reduction of 10 percent in the thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer. Non ablative facial clinical studies showed a significant reduction of wrinkles after treatment further reduced at 3 months follow-up. Body treatment studies showed a circumference reduction of 2.9 cm immediately after 6 treatments, and 2 cm at 12 months after the end of treatment, proving

  11. Wrinkles

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Skin disorders associated with photodamage from ultraviolet light include wrinkles, hyperpigmentation, tactile roughness, and telangiectasia, and are more common in people with white compared with other skin types. Wrinkles are also associated with ageing, hormonal status, smoking, and intercurrent disease. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of interventions to prevent and treat skin wrinkles? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 20 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: alpha and beta hydroxyl acids, carbon dioxide laser, chemical peel, dermabrasion, facelifts, isotretinoin, natural cartilage polysaccharides (oral or topical), retinyl esters, sunscreens, tazarotene, tretinoin, variable pulse erbium:YAG laser, and vitamin C or E (topical). PMID:19445782

  12. Wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Manríquez, Juan Jorge; Majerson Gringberg, Daniela; Nicklas Diaz, Claudia

    2008-12-16

    Skin disorders associated with photodamage from ultraviolet light include wrinkles, hyperpigmentation, tactile roughness, and telangiectasia, and are more common in people with white compared with other skin types. Wrinkles are also associated with aging, hormonal status, smoking, and intercurrent disease. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of interventions to prevent and treat skin wrinkles? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 20 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: carbon dioxide laser, chemical peel, dermabrasion, facelifts, glycolic acid, isotretinoin, lactic acid, natural cartilage polysaccharides (oral or topical), retinyl esters, sunscreens, tazarotene, tretinoin, variable pulse erbium:YAG laser, and vitamin C or E (topical).

  13. Longitudinal study of skin aging: from microrelief to wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Bazin, Roland; Lévêque, Jean Luc

    2011-05-01

    To study the changes in skin microrelief and periocular wrinkles during the aging process. Replicas of the crow's feet area of volunteers were recorded in 1987 and 2008 and observed comparatively. Characteristic features were quantified by image analysis. Observation shows that some microrelief features disappear and even merge with wrinkles that become more marked. Some primary lines also tend to merge to form thin new wrinkles. Quantitative data support these observations: the size of small and medium objects of skin relief decreases with age while large objects are becoming larger. Over 21 years, in the group studied, the total area of the detected objects remains quite constant. Only the distribution between small and large detected objects (microrelief features and wrinkles, respectively) is modified. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Multisource radiofrequency for fractional skin resurfacing-significant reduction of wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Serge; Rousseaux, Isabelle; Cartier, Hugues

    2013-04-01

    Skin roughness, color change, wrinkles and skin laxity are the main characteristics of aging skin. Dermatologists and plastic surgeons look for a treatment that will provide both epidermal resurfacing for the improvement of skin roughness and deep volumetric heating that will trigger collagen remodeling in the dermis to reduce wrinkles and skin laxity. These goals should be achieved with minimal pain and downtime. The study included 10 subjects (Fitzpatrick's skin type 2-3) with Fitzpatrick wrinkle and elastosis scale of 5-8 (average 7.3). Treatment was done with the Fractional skin resurfacing handpiece of the EndyMed PRO multisource radiofrequency system (EndyMed Ltd, Cesarea, Israel). Treatment was repeated each month up to a total of three treatment sessions. Patients photographs were graded according to accepted scales by a board certified dermatologists. Patients' pain and satisfaction were scored using dedicated questionnaires. Doctors' satisfaction was also evaluated. Post treatment skin erythema was noted in all treated patients, lasting up to 10 hours. Fifty six percent of patients reported no pain after treatment, and the rest (44%) reported minimal pain. All patients showed significant reduction in the Fitzpatrick wrinkle score. Average Fitzpatrick wrinkle score was 7.3 at baseline, 4.9 at 1 month after the first treatment, 4.2 at 1 month after the second treatment, and 4.1 at 1 month after the third treatment. The score was similar at 3 months after the third treatment with a score of 4.1. When asked at the end of three treatment sessions, all patients answered they will recommend the treatment to their friends (66% "definitely yes" and 33% "yes"). When asked the same question 3 months after the end of treatment, all patients (100%) answered "definitely yes".

  15. Improvement in skin wrinkles using a preparation containing human growth factors and hyaluronic acid serum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Do Hyun; Oh, In Young; Koo, Kyo Tan; Suk, Jang Mi; Jung, Sang Wook; Park, Jin Oh; Kim, Beom Joon; Choi, Yoo Mi

    2015-02-01

    Skin aging is accompanied by wrinkle formation. At some sites, such as the periorbital skin, this is a relatively early phenomenon. We evaluated the anti-wrinkle effect of a preparation containing human growth factor and hyaluronic acid serum on periorbital wrinkles (crow's feet). In total, 23 Korean women (age range: 39-59 years), who were not pregnant, nursing, or undergoing any concurrent therapy, were enrolled in this study. All the patients completed an 8-week trial of twice-daily application of human growth factor and hyaluronic acid serum on the entire face. Efficacy was based on a global photodamage score, photographs, and image analysis using replicas and visiometer analysis every 4 weeks. The standard wrinkle and roughness parameters used in assessing skin by visiometer were calculated and statistically analyzed. Periorbital wrinkles were significantly improved after treatment, with improvements noted both by physician's assessment and visiometer analysis. Topical application of human growth factor and hyaluronic acid was beneficial in reducing periorbital wrinkles.

  16. How much related to skin wrinkles between facial and body site? Age-related changes in skin wrinkle on the knee assessed by skin bioengineering techniques.

    PubMed

    Yoo, M A; Seo, Y K; Shin, M K; Koh, J S

    2016-02-01

    Skin aging has been focused the wrinkle on the face than on the body, so most studies have been studied the change in Crow's feet for ages. Only little is known about the age-dependent changes of wrinkles on body sites. The aim of this study was to establish new grading criteria for severity of wrinkles on knees and to investigate the relationship of wrinkle severity with age- and site-dependent. The skin on the knee of 38 healthy Korean female volunteers, divided into two groups young and old, were photographed. Standard photograph for body wrinkle was established (grade 0~7), and then visual assessment, skin wrinkle, and skin elasticity were evaluated on Crow's feet and the knee. We examined for any significant differences and the correlation of skin aging parameters with age and two different sites. Skin wrinkle severity with standard photograph and wrinkle parameters (Ra, Rmax, Rz, and Rv) had a significantly positive correlation with age-dependent on the knee (P < 0.001). Also, skin elastic parameters (R2, R5, R6, R7, and Q1) showed a significant negative correlation with age on the knee (P < 0.001). Skin wrinkle severity with standard photograph was highly correlated with all skin wrinkle parameters and skin elastic parameters (R2, R5, R7, and Q1) on the knee (P < 0.001). In addition, all the skin aging parameters on the knee were significantly correlated with Crow's feet (P < 0.01). Skin aging on the knee had the same tendency as the Crow's feet. This study has shown the new grading criteria of wrinkles on the knee. Skin wrinkle and elasticity on the knee are age-dependent related and aging on the knee is highly related to Crow's feet. Those parameters are using a quantitative method to evaluate body aging. Also, the knee is considered that it could be a suitable site to evaluate body aging. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The amelioration effect of tranexamic acid in wrinkles induced by skin dryness.

    PubMed

    Hiramoto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Daijiro; Takahashi, Yumi; Mafune, Eiichi

    2016-05-01

    Tranexamic acid (trans-4-aminomethylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid) is a medical amino acid widely used as an anti-inflammatory and a whitening agent. This study examined the effect of tranexamic acid administration in wrinkle formation following skin dryness. We administered tranexamic acid (750mg/kg/day) orally for 20 consecutive days to Naruto Research Institute Otsuka Atrichia (NOA) mice, which naturally develop skin dryness. In these NOA mice, deterioration of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), generation of wrinkles, decrease of collagen type I, and increases in mast cell proliferation and tryptase and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1) release were observed. However, these symptoms were improved by tranexamic acid treatment. Moreover, the increase in the β-endorphin level in the blood and the expression of μ-opioid receptor on the surface of fibroblasts increased by tranexamic acid treatment. In addition, when the fibroblasts induced by tranexamic acid treatment were removed, the amelioration effect by tranexamic acid treatment was halved. On the other hand, tranexamic acid treated NOA mice and mast cell removal in tranexamic acid treated NOA mice did not result in changes in the wrinkle amelioration effect. Additionally, the amelioration effect of mast cell deficient NOA mice was half that of tranexamic acid treated NOA mice. These results indicate that tranexamic acid decreased the proliferation of mast cells and increases the proliferation of fibroblasts, subsequently improving wrinkles caused by skin dryness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The underlying structure of skin wrinkles: a hyperspectral approach to crows feet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puccetti, G.

    2017-02-01

    Skin wrinkles are visually perceived by consumers but they are also known to possess an underlying structure not apparent at the surface of the skin. This underlying structure can be brought out by polarized hyperspectral imaging. Wrinkle patterns of eye crow's feet are used as example to show a deeper existing pattern and their characterization versus age on a group of volunteers. The skin inhomogeneity changes within each layer of the skin and can be observed in the shorter wavelength region of the spectrum, about 450nm to 500nm which are well suited to image skin surface inhomogeneities within the central and deep epidermis. Imaging in the 550nm range can serve as a larger scale topology reference because of its deeper penetration into the upper dermis. This serves to bring out the underlying wrinkle pattern as imprinted by collagen anisotropies around deep folds but unapparent to the eye yet. The approach has potential applications in evaluating the internal skin patterns non visible to the eye by mapping their spectral dispersion. This method has thus potentials to evaluate the extent of subsurface structures such as acne and other scars and thereby the efficacy of treatments.

  19. Oral intake of specific bioactive collagen peptides reduces skin wrinkles and increases dermal matrix synthesis.

    PubMed

    Proksch, E; Schunck, M; Zague, V; Segger, D; Degwert, J; Oesser, S

    2014-01-01

    Dietary consumption of food supplements has been found to modulate skin functions and can therefore be useful in the treatment of skin aging. However, there is only a limited number of clinical studies supporting these claims. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the effectiveness of the specific bioactive collagen peptide (BCP) VERISOL® on eye wrinkle formation and stimulation of procollagen I, elastin and fibrillin biosynthesis in the skin was assessed. A hundred and fourteen women aged 45-65 years were randomized to receive 2.5 g of BCP or placebo, once daily for 8 weeks, with 57 subjects being allocated to each treatment group. Skin wrinkles were objectively measured in all subjects, before starting the treatment, after 4 and 8 weeks as well as 4 weeks after the last intake (4-week regression phase). A subgroup was established for suction blister biopsies analyzing procollagen I, elastin and fibrillin at the beginning of the treatment and after 8 weeks of intake. The ingestion of the specific BCP used in this study promoted a statistically significant reduction of eye wrinkle volume (p < 0.05) in comparison to the placebo group after 4 and 8 weeks (20%) of intake. Moreover a positive long-lasting effect was observed 4 weeks after the last BCP administration (p < 0.05). Additionally, after 8 weeks of intake a statistically significantly higher content of procollagen type I (65%) and elastin (18%) in the BCP-treated volunteers compared to the placebo-treated patients was detected. For fibrillin, a 6% increase could be determined after BCP treatment compared to the placebo, but this effect failed to reach the level of statistical significance. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the oral intake of specific bioactive collagen peptides (Verisol®) reduced skin wrinkles and had positive effects on dermal matrix synthesis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Patient satisfaction and efficacy of accent radiofrequency for facial skin wrinkle reduction

    PubMed Central

    Jaffary, Fariba; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Zarkoob, Hajar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Radiofrequency (RF) is a new technique to treat facial wrinkles. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Accent RF in wrinkle reduction of different areas of the face. Materials and Methods: Patients with mild to severe facial wrinkles were treated with Accent using RF energies of 35-145 W. The average energy used in this study was 83.11 W. Patients received four subsequent weekly RF sessions. Wrinkle improvement was rated by two physicians comparing 6-month post treatment photographs with pretreatment photos. Moreover, patient satisfaction was assessed at 1 and 6 months after the last session of the treatment. Results: A total of 45 women participated in this study. In terms of patient satisfaction one month after the last treatment, 8.9% of the patients declared their dissatisfaction, 53.3% were somehow satisfied, 33.3% were satisfied, and 4.4% were very satisfied. At 6 months, patient satisfaction was as follows: 4.4% dissatisfied, 31.1% somehow satisfied, 46.7% satisfied, and 17.8% very satisfied. Patient satisfaction 6 months after the last treatment was significantly higher than 1 month post treatment (P = 0.006). At 6 months, patient satisfaction was not more than 75% in any treatment areas of the face. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that Accent RF may be considered as a possible effective option for facial skin rejuvenation although its efficacy and safety needs to be evaluated further in randomized controlled trials. PMID:24523783

  1. Biological Mechanisms Underlying the Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Formation of Skin Wrinkling and Sagging I: Reduced Skin Elasticity, Highly Associated with Enhanced Dermal Elastase Activity, Triggers Wrinkling and Sagging

    PubMed Central

    Imokawa, Genji; Ishida, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    The repetitive exposure of skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) preferentially elicits wrinkling while ultraviolet A (UVA) predominantly elicits sagging. In chronically UVB or UVA-exposed rat skin there is a similar tortuous deformation of elastic fibers together with decreased skin elasticity, whose magnitudes are greater in UVB-exposed skin than in UVA-exposed skin. Comparison of skin elasticity with the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the dermis of ovariectomized rats after UVB or UVA irradiation demonstrates that skin elasticity is more significantly decreased in ovariectomized rats than in sham-operated rats, which is accompanied by a reciprocal increase in elastase activity but not in the activities of collagenases I or IV. Clinical studies using animal skin and human facial skin demonstrated that topical treatment with a specific inhibitor or an inhibitory extract of skin fibroblast-derived elastase distinctly attenuates UVB and sunlight-induced formation of wrinkling. Our results strongly indicated that the upregulated activity of skin fibroblast-derived elastase plays a pivotal role in wrinkling and/or sagging of the skin via the impairment of elastic fiber configuration and the subsequent loss of skin elasticity. PMID:25856675

  2. Wrinkles

    MedlinePlus

    ... spots ). It also increases the chances of getting skin cancer. Exposure to cigarette smoke can also make the ... elastic tissue. In: Patterson JW, ed. Weedon's Skin Pathology . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2016: ...

  3. New finding that might explain why the skin wrinkles more on various parts of the face.

    PubMed

    Tamatsu, Yuichi; Tsukahara, Kazue; Sugawara, Yasushi; Shimada, Kazuyuki

    2015-09-01

    The mechanism of formation of facial wrinkles has not been fully clarified due to the existence of many distinct influential factors. To clarify the relationship between facial wrinkles and structures in the skin, especially sebaceous glands, image analysis was performed on the forehead and lateral canthus regions of cadaveric skin specimens; 58 male and female donated cadavers (age range at death 20s - 90 s) were included in the study. Specimens were obtained from forehead and lateral canthus region after measuring wrinkle depth. Then tissue slices were prepared to observe the sebaceous gland and its density was measured and analyzed in relation to wrinkle depth, retinacula cutis density, dermal thickness, and solar elastosis degree. A correlation was found between sebaceous gland density and wrinkle depth in forehead specimens with a lower retinacula cutis density. Wrinkles were shallower in specimens with a higher sebaceous gland density. However, no such correlation was found in lateral canthus wrinkles, presumably due to the lack of sebaceous glands in that region. In addition, specimens with a higher sebaceous gland density tended to have a thicker dermis and/or less solar elastosis. Sebaceous gland density seems to be one of the multiple factors that prevent wrinkle deepening, and that is why wrinkles are deeper in the lateral canthus area than in the forehead. Functional studies will elucidate the mechanism of wrinkle formation in the future. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The beneficial effects of honeybee-venom serum on facial wrinkles in humans

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang Mi; Hong, In Phyo; Woo, Soon Ok; Chun, Sung Nam; Park, Kwan Kyu; Nicholls, Young Mee; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2015-01-01

    Facial wrinkles are an undesirable outcome caused by extrinsic photodamage and intrinsic aging processes. Currently, no effective strategies are known to prevent facial wrinkles. We assessed the beneficial effects of bee-venom serum on the clinical signs of aging skin. Our results show that bee-venom serum treatment clinically improved facial wrinkles by decreasing total wrinkle area, total wrinkle count, and average wrinkle depth. Therefore, bee-venom serum may be effective for the improvement of skin wrinkles. PMID:26491274

  5. Long pulsed dye laser treatment of facial wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Tay, Yong-Kwang; Khoo, Boo-Peng; Tan, Eileen; Kwok, Colin

    2004-11-01

    The flashlamp pulsed dye laser has been used in the treatment of rhytids. To evaluate the efficacy of the long pulsed dye laser in the treatment of mild to moderate wrinkles in Asian patients. Wrinkles on one half of the face in 10 subjects were treated with the long pulsed dye laser (595 nm, 10 mm spot size, 10 ms, 7 J/cm2, 40 ms spray, 40 ms delay, single-pass, 30% overlap) with the other side serving as a control. A total of three treatments were given at 2 monthly intervals. The following sites were treated: periorbital area, six patients; forehead, two patients; cheek, two patients. No preoperative anesthesia or postoperative treatment were used. Clinical photographs were taken before and after each treatment, and analysis was undertaken through photographic evaluation by non-treating physicians. At 2 months after the last treatment, the clinical improvement of rhytids was noted in all patients compared with baseline. Four subjects had mild improvement (< or = 25%), five had moderate improvement (26-50%) and one had marked improvement (51-75%). The periorbital area was more responsive to treatment compared with the other sites. No clinical changes were noted in the control areas. No adverse effects were reported except for transient mild erythema in two patients which lasted for up to an hour. Nine patients were somewhat satisfied with the treatment and one was highly satisfied. All wanted the other half of the face to be treated. Treatment with a non-ablative 595 nm flashlamp pulsed dye laser can lead to mild to moderate clinical improvement in class I-II rhytids with minimal to no side effects in patients with darker skin types.

  6. Protein Expression Level of Skin Wrinkle-Related Factors in Hairless Mice Fed Hyaluronic Acid.

    PubMed

    Yun, Min-Kyu; Lee, Sung-Jin; Song, Hye-Jin; Yu, Heui-Jong; Rha, Chan Su; Kim, Dae-Ok; Choe, Soo-Young; Sohn, Johann

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the wrinkle improving effect of hyaluronic acid intakes. Wrinkles were induced by exposing the skin of hairless mice to ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation for 14 weeks. Hyaluronic acid was administered to the mice for 14 weeks including 4 weeks before experiments. Skin tissue was assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to determine protein expression of wrinkle-related markers. The group supplemented with high concentrations of hyaluronic acid appeared significantly better than control group for collagen, matrix metalloproteinase 1, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 assay. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and hyaluronic acid synthase 2 (HAS-2) were not shown to be significantly different. In conclusion, hyaluronic acid administration regulated expression levels of proteins associated with skin integrity, and improved the wrinkle level in skin subjected to UVB irradiation.

  7. SKIN WRINKLES AND RIGIDITY IN EARLY POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN VARY BY RACE/ETHNICITY: BASELINE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SKIN ANCILLARY STUDY OF THE KEEPS TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Erin; Pal, Lubna; Altun, Tugba; Madankumar, Rajeevi; Freeman, Ruth; Amin, Hussein; Harman, Mitch; Santoro, Nanette; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To characterize skin wrinkles and rigidity in recently menopausal women. Design Baseline assessment of participants prior to randomization to study drug. Setting Multicenter trial, university medical centers. Patients Recently menopausal participants enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Interventions Skin wrinkles were assessed at 11 locations on the face and neck using the Lemperle wrinkle scale. Skin rigidity was assessed at the forehead and cheek using a durometer. Outcome Skin wrinkles and rigidity were compared among race/ethnic groups. Skin wrinkles and rigidity were correlated with age, time since menopause, weight, and BMI. Results In early menopausal women, wrinkles, but not skin rigidity, vary significantly among races (p=0.0003), where Black women have the lowest wrinkle scores. In White women, chronological age was significantly correlated with worsening skin wrinkles, but not with rigidity(p<0.001). Skin rigidity correlated with increasing length of time since menopause, however only in the White subgroup (p<0.01). In the combined study group, increasing weight was associated with less skin wrinkling (p<0.05). Conclusions Skin characteristics of recently menopausal women are not well studied. Ethnic differences in skin characteristics are widely accepted, but poorly described. In recently menopausal women not using hormone therapy (HT), significant racial differences in skin wrinkling and rigidity exist. Continued study of the KEEPS population will provide evidence of the effects of HT on the skin aging process in early menopausal women. PMID:20971461

  8. Skin wrinkles and rigidity in early postmenopausal women vary by race/ethnicity: baseline characteristics of the skin ancillary study of the KEEPS trial.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Erin; Pal, Lubna; Altun, Tugba; Madankumar, Rajeevi; Freeman, Ruth; Amin, Hussein; Harman, Mitch; Santoro, Nanette; Taylor, Hugh S

    2011-02-01

    To characterize skin wrinkles and rigidity in recently menopausal women. Baseline assessment of participants before randomization to study drug. Multicenter trial, university medical centers. Recently menopausal participants enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Skin wrinkles were assessed at 11 locations on the face and neck using the Lemperle wrinkle scale. Skin rigidity was assessed at the forehead and cheek using a durometer. Skin wrinkles and rigidity were compared among race/ethnic groups. Skin wrinkles and rigidity were correlated with age, time since menopause, weight, and body mass index (BMI). In early menopausal women, wrinkles, but not skin rigidity, vary significantly among races, where black women have the lowest wrinkle scores. In white women, chronological age was significantly correlated with worsening skin wrinkles, but not with rigidity. Skin rigidity correlated with increasing length of time since menopause, however, only in the white subgroup. In the combined study group, increasing weight was associated with less skin wrinkling. Skin characteristics of recently menopausal women are not well studied. Ethnic differences in skin characteristics are widely accepted, but poorly described. In recently menopausal women not using hormone therapy (HT), significant racial differences in skin wrinkling and rigidity exist. Continued study of the KEEPS population will provide evidence of the effects of HT on the skin aging process in early menopausal women. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of the regional environment on the skin properties and the early wrinkles in young Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Kim, E J; Han, J Y; Lee, H K; He, Q Q; Cho, J C; Wei, L; Wang, X; Li, L; Wei, L; Liang, H; Gao, X; Kim, B J; Nam, G W

    2014-11-01

    There are ethnic differences in the skin characteristics, also the skin is susceptible to be influenced by the external environment such as UV radiation and the climates. It can be shown that the skin in same race or twins varies by the environment. This study was designed to investigate the skin characteristics and the early wrinkles of young Chinese women from four different regions, and to identify the correlation among the wrinkles, the other skin characteristics, and environmental conditions. A total of 441 healthy Chinese women aged between 20 and 35 years participated in the study: 110 from Beijing, 110 from Shanghai, 111 from Wuhan, and 110 from Guangzhou. The skin hydration, sebum contents, TEWL, pH, elasticity, and wrinkles were measured on the crow's feet area. There were regional differences in the skin characteristics and the wrinkles. Beijing women had dry skin and more wrinkles, but Guangzhou women had high sebum contents, low pH, and less wrinkles (P < 0.01). Shanghai women's TEWL and Wuhan's women's skin elasticity were higher compared with that of women from other regions. The wrinkles' form (area, depth, and length) was different from region to region. Beijing women's wrinkles were deep and large, but Guangzhou women's wrinkles were shallow and small. The skin physical parameters that influenced the wrinkles were low sebum content and hydration, high TEWL, and pH (P < 0.05). In the Chinese women aged 20-35 years, the skin was influenced by the climates, so they had regionally a different skin. The skin hydration, sebum contents, TEWL, and pH can affect the early wrinkle formation than skin elasticity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Ingestion of an Oral Hyaluronan Solution Improves Skin Hydration, Wrinkle Reduction, Elasticity, and Skin Roughness: Results of a Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Göllner, Imke; Voss, Werner; von Hehn, Ulrike; Kammerer, Susanne

    2017-10-01

    Intake of oral supplements with the aim of a cutaneous antiaging effect are increasingly common. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a promising candidate, as it is the key factor for preserving tissue hydration. In our practice study, we evaluated the effect of an oral HA preparation diluted in a cascade-fermented organic whole food concentrate supplemented with biotin, vitamin C, copper, and zinc (Regulatpro Hyaluron) on skin moisture content, elasticity, skin roughness, and wrinkle depths. Twenty female subjects with healthy skin in the age group of 45 to 60 years took the product once daily for 40 days. Different skin parameters were objectively assessed before the first intake, after 20 and after 40 days. Intake of the HA solution led to a significant increase in skin elasticity, skin hydration, and to a significant decrease in skin roughness and wrinkle depths. The supplement was well tolerated; no side effects were noted throughout the study.

  11. Ingestion of an Oral Hyaluronan Solution Improves Skin Hydration, Wrinkle Reduction, Elasticity, and Skin Roughness: Results of a Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Göllner, Imke; Voss, Werner; von Hehn, Ulrike; Kammerer, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Intake of oral supplements with the aim of a cutaneous antiaging effect are increasingly common. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a promising candidate, as it is the key factor for preserving tissue hydration. In our practice study, we evaluated the effect of an oral HA preparation diluted in a cascade-fermented organic whole food concentrate supplemented with biotin, vitamin C, copper, and zinc (Regulatpro Hyaluron) on skin moisture content, elasticity, skin roughness, and wrinkle depths. Twenty female subjects with healthy skin in the age group of 45 to 60 years took the product once daily for 40 days. Different skin parameters were objectively assessed before the first intake, after 20 and after 40 days. Intake of the HA solution led to a significant increase in skin elasticity, skin hydration, and to a significant decrease in skin roughness and wrinkle depths. The supplement was well tolerated; no side effects were noted throughout the study. PMID:29228816

  12. Effects of hormones on skin wrinkles and rigidity vary by race/ethnicity: four-year follow-up from the ancillary skin study of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study.

    PubMed

    Owen, Carter M; Pal, Lubna; Mumford, Sunni L; Freeman, Ruth; Isaac, Barbara; McDonald, Linda; Santoro, Nanette; Taylor, Hugh S; Wolff, Erin F

    2016-10-01

    To measure skin wrinkles and rigidity in menopausal women of varying race/ethnicity with or without hormone therapy (HT) for up to four years. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Academic medical centers. Women (42-58 years of age) within 36 months of last menstrual period and enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Treatment with 0.45 mg oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE), transdermal E 2 (50 μg/d) with micronized P (200 mg daily), or placebo for 4 years. Skin wrinkles were assessed at 11 locations on the face and neck, and skin rigidity was assessed at the forehead and cheek at baseline and yearly for 4 years. Neither total wrinkle score nor total rigidity score was significantly different at baseline or over the 4-year follow-up among patients randomized to CEE, E 2 , or placebo. Skin wrinkle and rigidity scores were primarily affected by race/ethnicity, with scores being significantly different between races for almost all of the wrinkle parameters and for all of the rigidity measures. There was no association between race and response to HT for total wrinkle or rigidity scores. Black women had the lowest wrinkle scores compared with white women across all 4 years. In general, skin rigidity decreased in all groups over time, but black women had significantly reduced total facial rigidity compared with white women after 4 years. Race is the strongest predictor of the advancement of skin aging in the 4 years following menopause. HT does not appear to affect skin wrinkles or rigidity at most facial locations. NCT00154180. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Photodynamic therapy using a new formulation of 5-aminolevulinic acid for wrinkles in Asian skin: A randomized controlled split face study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun Tae; Kim, Jun Hwan; Shim, Joonho; Lee, Jong Hee; Lee, Dong Youn; Lee, Joo Heung; Yang, Jun Mo

    2015-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with intense pulsed light (IPL) was proven effective for photorejuvenation. Recently, a new formulation of 0.5% 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) liposomal spray has been available. We designed a randomized split face study to evaluate usefulness and safety of IPL-PDT using a liposomal spray for periorbital wrinkles in Asians. Patients received three treatments every 3 weeks. The half of the face was treated with IPL-PDT and the other half with long pulsed Nd:YAG laser (LPNY). Skin fluorescence was measured using a spectrophotometer for the guidance of PDT treatment. Wrinkle score was marked by two-blinded independent dermatologists. One patient dropped out due to 3-d lasting erythema on PDT side. The difference of mean reduction in lower and lateral periorbital wrinkle score on PDT side between the first and the last visit was statistically significant (p = 0.008 and p = 0.001, respectively). Lateral periorbital wrinkles treated with PDT showed better results than LPNY-treated sides. Twenty-five percent of patients reported good to excellent outcomes. This study demonstrated that PDT with a liposomal spray provided modest wrinkle reduction without serious adverse effect and it might be a promising treatment modality for wrinkle treatment in Asians.

  14. The influences of skin visco-elasticity, hydration level and aging on the formation of wrinkles: a comprehensive and objective approach.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Woo; Kwon, Soon Hyo; Huh, Chang Hun; Park, Kyoung Chan; Youn, Sang Woong

    2013-02-01

    Various skin parameters including skin visco-elasticity and hydration level affect the formation of wrinkles. The aim of this study was to investigate the comprehensive and objective relationship between age, skin visco-elasticity, hydration level, and the occurrence of wrinkles using bioengineering equipments for the first time. A total number of 97 healthy women were included in this study. Age, Fitzpatrick skin type, skin mechanical parameters obtained with Cutometer(R0~R9), hydration level measured with Corneometer, as well as wrinkle parameters (SEsm, SEr, SEsc, and SEw) assessed with Visioscan, were analyzed with the Pearson's correlation test. The skin fluidity (R6) increased while the elastic recovery ratio (R7) decreased with the age. The wrinkle parameter (SEw) also increased with the age. The higher skin hysteresis values (R4 and R9) coincided with the higher SEw values. Skin hydration significantly lowered the hysteresis (R9), the wrinkles (SEw), and the depth of wrinkle furrows (R3mr). The elderly have less elastic skin and more wrinkles. Skin hysteresis most closely related with the degree of wrinkles. Drier skin showed more wrinkles and deeper furrows, with wider intervals. On the basis of these objective findings, we propose several skin parameters associated with wrinkles, and hypothesize the mechanism of wrinkle generation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Oral Supplementation with Cocoa Extract Reduces UVB-Induced Wrinkles in Hairless Mouse Skin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Eun; Song, Dasom; Kim, Junil; Choi, Jina; Kim, Jong Rhan; Yoon, Hyun-Sun; Bae, Jung-Soo; Han, Mira; Lee, Sein; Hong, Ji Sun; Song, Dayoung; Kim, Seong-Jin; Son, Myoung-Jin; Choi, Sang-Woon; Chung, Jin Ho; Kim, Tae-Aug; Lee, Ki Won

    2016-05-01

    Cacao beans contain various bioactive phytochemicals that could modify the pathogeneses of certain diseases. Here, we report that oral administration of cacao powder (CP) attenuates UVB-induced skin wrinkling by the regulation of genes involved in dermal matrix production and maintenance. Transcriptome analysis revealed that 788 genes are down- or upregulated in the CP supplemented group, compared with the UVB-irradiated mouse skin controls. Among the differentially expressed genes, cathepsin G and serpin B6c play important roles in UVB-induced skin wrinkle formation. Gene regulatory network analysis also identified several candidate regulators responsible for the protective effects of CP supplementation against UVB-induced skin damage. CP also elicited antiwrinkle effects via inhibition of UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinases-1 expression in both the human skin equivalent model and human dermal fibroblasts. Inhibition of UVB-induced activator protein-1 via CP supplementation is likely to affect the expression of matrix metalloproteinases-1. CP supplementation also downregulates the expression of cathepsin G in human dermal fibroblasts. 5-(3',4'-Dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone, a major in vivo metabolite of CP, showed effects similar to CP supplementation. These results suggest that cacao extract may offer a protective effect against photoaging by inhibiting the breakdown of dermal matrix, which leads to an overall reduction in wrinkle formation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhanced high-energy protocol using a fractional bipolar radiofrequency device combined with bipolar radiofrequency and infrared light for improving facial skin appearance and wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Gold, Michael H; Biesman, Brian S; Taylor, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Fractional bipolar radiofrequency treatment and treatment with bipolar radiofrequency combined with infrared light have been shown in previous trials to safely and effectively improve the appearance of facial wrinkles. To evaluate a high-energy protocol with combined bipolar radiofrequency and infrared light energies for improvement in photoaged facial skin. Seventy-two patients presenting with mild to moderate facial wrinkles underwent a single full-face treatment (n=54) or two treatments (n=18) at 6-week intervals. Independent blinded assessment and investigator assessment were performed, using the Fitzpatrick Wrinkle and Elastosis Scale (0-9) and the Global Aesthetic Improvement scale. Patients also completed a self-assessment questionnaire concerning satisfaction with the treatment. All patients achieved some degree of improvement in their wrinkles and skin appearance, following a single treatment or two treatments with the enhanced-energy protocol. Blinded evaluation demonstrated 71% and 70% of the patients showing improvement of one unit or greater on the Fitzpatrick Scale, at the 12-week and 24-week follow-ups post-treatment, respectively. Similar results were reported by investigators. Under the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale, investigators observed 87%, 91% and 81% of patients showing improvement at the 6-, 12-, and 24-week post-treatment end, respectively. Patients tolerated the treatments well and were satisfied with the clinical results. The enhanced-energy treatment protocol, with fractional bipolar radiofrequency treatment and treatment with bipolar radiofrequency combined with infrared light applications, yields significant improvement of skin texture, wrinkling, and overall appearance following a single treatment. The results appear gradually over time and are maintained for at least 6 months' post-treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Evaluation of a combined laser-radio frequency device (Polaris WR) for the nonablative treatment of facial wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Kulick, Michael

    2005-06-01

    Nonablative wrinkle reduction or skin tightening is desired by individuals who, ideally, hope to have the skin improvement associated with chemical or laser ablative techniques but without the undesirable recovery process. Electro-optical synergy (ELOS) technology that combines radio frequency (RF) and diode laser energy (900 nm) was used to treat 15 patients in this IRB sanctioned study. Energy settings were based on the depth of wrinkles (the greater the depth and concentration of wrinkles, the higher the RF setting) and ranged from 50-100 J/cm2 RF and 15 J/cm2 for the optical, laser component. Patients received three full-face treatments, and results were evaluated by comparison of standardized photographs and patient questionnaire given prior to each treatment and one month after the third treatment. The primary investigator and three other "blinded" physicians evaluated these photographs using Fitzpatrick's wrinkle classification to assess the improvement, if any, between the initial and final visit. Eight patients completed the study. Explanation for the exclusion of the remaining six patients were: one decided to have surgery, two felt the treatment was too painful, and three moved out of the area. Following treatment, all patients had mild swelling (resolved <48 hours) and skin hyperemia (resolved <24 hours). Results observed one month after the last treatment in eight patients demonstrated an average of 25% reduction in skin wrinkles (range 14%-32%). There were no adverse side effects. The major concern of the patients was the discomfort associated with the treatment. As part of an FDA investigation to assess efficacy, long-term follow-up was not a part of this study protocol.

  18. Adenosine-loaded dissolving microneedle patches to improve skin wrinkles, dermal density, elasticity and hydration.

    PubMed

    Kang, G; Tu, T N T; Kim, S; Yang, H; Jang, M; Jo, D; Ryu, J; Baek, J; Jung, H

    2018-04-01

    Although dissolving microneedle patches have been widely studied in the cosmetics field, no comparisons have been drawn with the topical applications available for routine use. In this study, two wrinkle-improving products, adenosine-loaded dissolving microneedle patches and an adenosine cream, were evaluated for efficacy, with respect to skin wrinkling, dermal density, elasticity, and hydration, and safety in a clinical test on the crow's feet area. Clinical efficacy and safety tests were performed for 10 weeks on 22 female subjects with wrinkles around their eyes. The adenosine-loaded dissolving microneedle patch was applied once every 3 days, in the evening, for 8 weeks to the designated crow's feet area. The adenosine cream was applied two times per day, in the morning and evening, for 8 weeks to the other crow's feet area. Skin wrinkling, dermal density, elasticity, and hydration were measured by using PRIMOS ® premium, Dermascan ® C, Cutometer ® MPA580, and Corneometer ® CM 825, respectively. In addition, subjective skin irritation was evaluated by self-observation, and objective skin irritation was assessed through expert interviews. The adenosine-loaded dissolving microneedle patches had a similar or better efficacy than the adenosine cream. Both groups showed statistically significant efficacy for almost all parameters (P < 0.05). The dissolving microneedle patches had a long-lasting effect on the average wrinkle depth (P < 0.05), only showed efficacy in dermal density (P < 0.05), had an early improving effect on elasticity (P < 0.05), and demonstrated better hydration efficacy (P < 0.001). No adverse effects were observed in either group during the test period. In the clinical efficacy test of four skin-improvement parameters, adenosine-loaded dissolving microneedle patches showed the same or better effect than the adenosine cream, although the weekly adenosine dose was 140 times lower. The dissolving microneedle patches caused no

  19. The significance of orbital anatomy and periocular wrinkling when performing laser skin resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Trelles, M A; Pardo, L; Benedetto, A V; García-Solana, L; Torrens, J

    2000-03-01

    Knowledge of orbital anatomy and the interaction of muscle contractions, gravitational forces and photoagingis fundamental in understanding the limitations of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser skin resurfacing when rejuvenating the skin of the periocular area. Laser resurfacing does not change the mimetic behavior of the facial muscles nor does it influence gravitational forces. When resurfacing periocular tissue, the creation of scleral show and ectropion are a potential consequence when there is an over zealous attempt at improving the sagging malar fat pad and eyelid laxity by performing an excess amount of laser passes at the lateral portion of the lower eyelid. This results in an inadvertent widening of the palpebral fissure due to the lateral pull of the Orbicularis oculi. Retrospectively, 85 patients were studied, who had undergone periorbital resurfacing with a CO2 laser using anew treatment approach. The Sharplan 40C CO2 Feather Touchlaser was programmed with a circular scanning pattern and used just for the shoulders of the wrinkles. A final laser pass was performed with the same program over the entire lower eyelid skin surface, excluding the outer lateral portion (e.g. a truncated triangle-like area),corresponding to the lateral canthus. Only a single laser pass was delivered to the lateral canthal triangle to avoid widening the lateral opening of the eyelid, which might lead to the potential complications of scleral show and ectropion. When the area of the crows' feet is to be treated, three passes on the skin of this entire lateral orbital surface are completed by moving laterally and upward toward the hairline. Patients examined on days 1, 7, 15, 30, 60, and one year after laser resurfacing showed good results. At two months after treatment, the clinical improvement was rated by the patient and physician as being "very good" in 81 of the 85 patients reviewed. These patients underwent laser resurfacing without complications. The proposed technique of

  20. Non-invasive therapy of wrinkles and lax skin using a novel multisource phase-controlled radio frequency system.

    PubMed

    Elman, Monica; Vider, Itzhak; Harth, Yoram; Gottfried, Varda; Shemer, Avner

    2010-04-01

    Abstract The last few years have shown an increased demand for non-invasive skin tightening to improve body contour. Since light (lasers or intense pulsed light sources) has a limited ability to penetrate deep into the tissue, radio frequency (RF) modalities were introduced for the reduction of lax skin to achieve skin tightening and body circumference reduction. This study presents the use of the novel 3DEEP technology for body contouring. 3DEEP is a next generation RF technology that provides targeted heating to deeper skin layers without pain or other local or systemic side effects associated with the use of the earlier generation RF systems available today. The study included 30 treatment areas on 23 healthy volunteers at two sites. The treatment protocol included four weekly and two bi-weekly (n= 6) treatments on different body areas. Results were evaluated by standardized photography and by circumference measurements at the treatment area, and were compared to changes in body weight. Significant improvement could be observed in wrinkles and skin laxity, and in the appearance of stretch marks and cellulite. Some changes appeared as early as after a single treatment. Circumference changes of up to 4.3 cm were measured.

  1. The effectiveness of a standardized rose hip powder, containing seeds and shells of Rosa canina, on cell longevity, skin wrinkles, moisture, and elasticity.

    PubMed

    Phetcharat, L; Wongsuphasawat, K; Winther, K

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of a rose hip powder (Hyben Vital(®)) made from seeds and shells on cell senescence, skin wrinkling, and aging. A total of 34 healthy subjects, aged 35-65 years, with wrinkles on the face (crow's-feet) were subjected to a randomized and double-blinded clinical study of the effects of the rose hip powder, as compared to astaxanthin, a well-known remedy against wrinkles. During the 8-week study, half of the participants ingested the standardized rose hip product, while the other half ingested astaxanthin. Objective measurements of facial wrinkles, skin moisture, and elasticity were made by using Visioscan, Corneometer, and Cutometer at the beginning of the study, after 4 weeks, and after 8 weeks. Evaluation of participant satisfaction of both supplements was assessed using questionnaires. In addition, the effect of the rose hip preparation on cell longevity was measured in terms of leakage of hemoglobin through red cell membranes (hemolytic index) in blood samples kept in a blood bank for 5 weeks. Significance of all values was attained with P≤0.05. In the double-blinded study, the rose hip group showed statistically significant improvements in crow's-feet wrinkles (P<0.05), skin moisture (P<0.05), and elasticity (P<0.05) after 8 weeks of treatment. A similar improvement was observed for astaxanthin, with P-values 0.05, 0.001, and 0.05. Likewise, both groups expressed equal satisfaction with the results obtained in their self-assessment. The rose hip powder further resulted in increased cell longevity of erythrocyte cells during storage for 5 weeks in a blood bank. Results suggest that intake of the standardized rose hip powder (Hyben Vital(®)) improves aging-induced skin conditions. The apparent stabilizing effects of the rose hip product on cell membranes of stored erythrocyte cells observed in this study may contribute to improve the cell longevity and obstructing skin aging.

  2. Wrinkle Creams: Your Guide to Younger Looking Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dermatology. 2012;11:220. Chien AL, et al. Photoaging. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 21, ... Accessed April 21, 2016. Antoniou C, et al. Photoaging: Prevention and topical treatments. American Journal of Clinical ...

  3. Potential for tyndalized Lactobacillus acidophilus as an effective component in moisturizing skin and anti-wrinkle products.

    PubMed

    Im, A-Rang; Kim, Hui Seong; Hyun, Jin Won; Chae, Sungwook

    2016-08-01

    It is widely accepted that ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces skin damage. In the present study, a UVB-induced hairless mouse model of skin photoaging was developed to determine whether tyndalized Lactobacillus acidophilus was able to significantly enhance the repair of photodamaged skin. To evaluate the effects of tyndalized L. acidophilus on UVB-induced skin-wrinkle formation in vivo , HR-1 hairless male mice were exposed to UVB radiation and orally administered tyndalized L. acidophilus . Compared with the control group, the UVB irradiation mice displayed a significant increase in transepidermal water loss and a reduction in skin hydration. In mice with UVB-induced photodamage, the effacement of the fine wrinkles by tyndalized L. acidophilus was correlated with dermal collagen synthesis, accompanied by histological changes. Furthermore, western blotting was performed to investigate the protein expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Notably, orally administered tyndalized L. acidophilus reduced the expression levels of MMP-1 and MMP-9. Based upon the aforementioned results, it was determined that tyndalized L. acidophilus effectively inhibited the wrinkle formation induced by UVB irradiation, and that this may be attributed to the downregulation of MMPs. Therefore, tyndalized L. acidophilus may be considered a potential agent for preventing skin photoaging and wrinkle formation.

  4. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril maleate) accelerates recovery of mouse skin from UVB-induced wrinkles

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura-Hachiya, Yuko; Arai, Koji Y.; Ozeki, Rieko

    Highlights: •Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) increases in UVB-irradiated skin. •Administration of an ACE inhibitor improved UVB-induced skin wrinkle. •ACE inhibitor improved UVB-induced epidermal hypertrophy. •ACE inhibitor improved transepidermal water loss in the UVB-irradiated skin. -- Abstract: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and angiotensin II signaling regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue remodeling, as well as blood pressure, while in skin, angiotensin II signaling is involved in wound healing, inflammation, and pathological scar formation. Therefore, we hypothesized that angiotensin II is also involved in photoaging of skin. In this study, we examined the effect of enalapril maleate, an ACE inhibitor, on recoverymore » of wrinkled skin of hairless mice exposed to long-term UVB irradiation. Immunohistochemical observation revealed that expression of ACE, angiotensin II, and angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) receptors in the skin was increased after UVB irradiation (3 times/week at increasing intensities for 8 weeks). Administration of enalapril maleate (5 times/week for 6 weeks, starting 1 week after 10-week irradiation) accelerated recovery from UVB-induced wrinkles, epidermal hyperplasia and epidermal barrier dysfunction, as compared with the vehicle control. Our results indicate that ACE and angiotensin II activity are involved in skin photoaging, and suggest that ACE inhibitor such as enalapril maleate may have potential for improvement of photoaged skin.« less

  5. Efficacy of long pulse Nd:YAG laser versus fractional Er:YAG laser in the treatment of hand wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Robati, Reza M; Asadi, Elmira; Shafiee, Anoosh; Namazi, Nastaran; Talebi, Atefeh

    2018-04-01

    There are different modalities for hand rejuvenation. Fractional Er:YAG laser and long pulse Nd:YAG laser were introduced for treating hand wrinkles. We plan to compare fractional Er:YAG laser and long pulse Nd:YAG laser in a randomized controlled double-blind design with multiple sessions and larger sample size in comparison with previous studies. Thirty-three participants with hand wrinkles entered this study. They were randomly allocated to undergo three monthly laser treatments on each hand, one with a fractional Er:YAG laser and the other with a long pulse Nd:YAG laser. The evaluations included assessment of clinical improvement determined by two independent dermatologists not enrolled in the treatment along with measuring skin biomechanical property of hands using a sensitive biometrologic device with the assessment of cutaneous resonance running time (CRRT). Moreover, potential side effects and patients' satisfaction have been documented at baseline, 1 month after each treatment, and 3 months after the final treatment session. Clinical evaluation revealed both modalities significantly reduce hand wrinkles (p value < 0.05), with no significant difference between two lasers. Mean CRRT values also decreased significantly after the laser treatment compared to those of the baseline in both laser groups. There was no serious persistent side effect after both laser treatments. Both fractional Er:YAG and long pulse Nd:YAG lasers show substantial clinical improvement of hand skin wrinkles with no serious side effects. However, combination treatment by these lasers along with the other modalities such as fat transfer could lead to better outcomes in hand rejuvenation. IRCT2016032020468N4.

  6. The effectiveness of a standardized rose hip powder, containing seeds and shells of Rosa canina, on cell longevity, skin wrinkles, moisture, and elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Phetcharat, L; Wongsuphasawat, K; Winther, K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of a rose hip powder (Hyben Vital®) made from seeds and shells on cell senescence, skin wrinkling, and aging. Methods A total of 34 healthy subjects, aged 35–65 years, with wrinkles on the face (crow’s-feet) were subjected to a randomized and double-blinded clinical study of the effects of the rose hip powder, as compared to astaxanthin, a well-known remedy against wrinkles. During the 8-week study, half of the participants ingested the standardized rose hip product, while the other half ingested astaxanthin. Objective measurements of facial wrinkles, skin moisture, and elasticity were made by using Visioscan, Corneometer, and Cutometer at the beginning of the study, after 4 weeks, and after 8 weeks. Evaluation of participant satisfaction of both supplements was assessed using questionnaires. In addition, the effect of the rose hip preparation on cell longevity was measured in terms of leakage of hemoglobin through red cell membranes (hemolytic index) in blood samples kept in a blood bank for 5 weeks. Significance of all values was attained with P≤0.05. Results In the double-blinded study, the rose hip group showed statistically significant improvements in crow’s-feet wrinkles (P<0.05), skin moisture (P<0.05), and elasticity (P<0.05) after 8 weeks of treatment. A similar improvement was observed for astaxanthin, with P-values 0.05, 0.001, and 0.05. Likewise, both groups expressed equal satisfaction with the results obtained in their self-assessment. The rose hip powder further resulted in increased cell longevity of erythrocyte cells during storage for 5 weeks in a blood bank. Conclusion Results suggest that intake of the standardized rose hip powder (Hyben Vital®) improves aging-induced skin conditions. The apparent stabilizing effects of the rose hip product on cell membranes of stored erythrocyte cells observed in this study may contribute to improve the cell longevity and obstructing skin aging. PMID:26604725

  7. Nanoethosomal formulation of gammaoryzanol for skin-aging protection and wrinkle improvement: a histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Saman; Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Anoush, Behzad; Ranjkesh, Mohammadreza; Javadzadeh, Yousef; Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2017-07-01

    Free radical scavengers and antioxidants, with the main focus on enhanced targeting to the skin layers, can provide protection against skin ageing. The aim of the present study was to prepare nanoethosomal formulation of gammaoryzanol (GO), a water insoluble antioxidant, for its dermal delivery to prevent skin aging. Nanoethosomal formulation was prepared by a modified ethanol injection method and characterized by using laser light scattering, scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The effects of formulation parameters on nanoparticle size, encapsulation efficiency percent (EE%) and loading capacity percent (LC%) were investigated. Antioxidant activity of GO-loaded formulation was investigated in vitro using normal African green monkey kidney fibroblast cells (Vero). The effect of control and GO-loaded nanoethosomal formulation on superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of rat skin was also probed. Furthermore, the effect of GO-loaded nanoethosomes on skin wrinkle improvement was studied by dermoscopic and histological examination on healthy humans and UV-irradiated rats, respectively. The optimized nanoethosomal formulation showed promising characteristics including narrow size distribution 0.17 ± 0.02, mean diameter of 98.9 ± 0.05 nm, EE% of 97.12 ± 3.62%, LC% of 13.87 ± 1.36% and zeta potential value of -15.1 ± 0.9 mV. The XRD results confirmed uniform drug dispersion in the nanoethosomes structure. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant studies confirmed the superior antioxidant effect of GO-loaded nanoethosomal formulation compared with control groups (blank nanoethosomes and GO suspension). Nanoethosomes was a promising carrier for dermal delivery of GO and consequently had superior anti-aging effect.

  8. Fabrication of controlled hierarchical wrinkle structures on polydimethylsiloxane via one-step C4F8 plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Liming; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Chen, Haotian; Song, Yu; Guo, Hang; Zhang, Jinxin; Chen, Xuexian; Zhang, Haixia

    2018-01-01

    We report a simple method for fabricating two-dimensional and nested hierarchical wrinkle structures on polydimethylsiloxane surfaces via one-step C4F8 plasma treatment that innovatively combines two approaches to monolayer wrinkle structure fabrication. The wavelengths of the two dimensions of the wrinkle structures can be controlled by plasma treatment (radio frequency (RF) power and plasma treatment time) and stretching (stretching strain and axial stretching), respectively. We also analyze the different interactions between the two dimensions of wrinkle structures with different wavelengths and explain the phenomenon using Fourier waveform superposition. The character of the two dimensions and hierarchy is obvious when the wavelengths of the two wrinkles are different. In surface wetting tests, the hierarchical wrinkle shows great hydrophobicity and keeps the stretching property under 25%.

  9. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril maleate) accelerates recovery of mouse skin from UVB-induced wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Matsuura-Hachiya, Yuko; Arai, Koji Y; Ozeki, Rieko; Kikuta, Ayako; Nishiyama, Toshio

    2013-12-06

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and angiotensin II signaling regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue remodeling, as well as blood pressure, while in skin, angiotensin II signaling is involved in wound healing, inflammation, and pathological scar formation. Therefore, we hypothesized that angiotensin II is also involved in photoaging of skin. In this study, we examined the effect of enalapril maleate, an ACE inhibitor, on recovery of wrinkled skin of hairless mice exposed to long-term UVB irradiation. Immunohistochemical observation revealed that expression of ACE, angiotensin II, and angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) receptors in the skin was increased after UVB irradiation (3 times/week at increasing intensities for 8 weeks). Administration of enalapril maleate (5 times/week for 6 weeks, starting 1 week after 10-week irradiation) accelerated recovery from UVB-induced wrinkles, epidermal hyperplasia and epidermal barrier dysfunction, as compared with the vehicle control. Our results indicate that ACE and angiotensin II activity are involved in skin photoaging, and suggest that ACE inhibitor such as enalapril maleate may have potential for improvement of photoaged skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Non-ablative fractionated laser skin resurfacing for the treatment of aged neck skin.

    PubMed

    Bencini, Pier Luca; Tourlaki, Athanasia; Galimberti, Michela; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    Aging of the neck skin includes poikiloderma of Civatte, skin laxity and wrinkles. While the vascular alterations of poikiloderma of Civatte can be effectively treated with lasers or intense pulsed light, a successful treatment of dyschromia, skin laxity and wrinkles is still difficult to achieve. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of non-ablative fractional 1540 erbium glass laser for the treatment of aged neck skin, also by means of in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). A prospective study for neck resurfacing in 18 women with aged neck skin. Six laser treatments were performed in 4-week intervals with a 1540-nm erbium-glass fiber laser. By using a 6-point grading scale, the mean score (±SD; range) at baseline was 3.6 (±1.5; 1-6) for skin dyschromia, 2.9 (±1.4; 1-6) for laxity and 3.3 (±1.3; 1-5) for wrinkles. Three months after the last laser session, we found a significant clinical improvement of dyschromia (p = 0.0002; Wilcoxon test), and wrinkles (p = 0.0004; Wilcoxon test), with a mean (±SD) reduction of 2.5 (±1.0) and 1.9 (±1.1) points in the 6-point grading scale, respectively. No change was observed in laxity. These results were also supported by structural changes documented by RCM. Non-ablative fractional 1540 erbium glass laser was both safe and effective for the treatment of dyschromia and wrinkles, but not effective for the laxity of the neck skin.

  11. The Pelleve procedure: an effective method for facial wrinkle reduction and skin tightening.

    PubMed

    Stampar, Michael

    2011-05-01

    Devices using radiofrequency (RF) energy and electrical energy to deliver a controlled thermal injury to heat skin have proliferated within the nonablative skin treatment market since the introduction of Thermage in 2002. By delivering continuous monopolar RF energy, rather than pulsed heating, and repeatedly bringing the skin to therapeutic temperatures until maximal contraction is obtained, the Pelleve Procedure can give obvious cosmetic results confluently over all treated areas painlessly and with no downtime. In this article, the technique, mechanism of continuous RF heating, and apparent treatment requirements to produce these results are presented. Some controversies are also addressed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of efficacy of esthetic High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound system on Iranian skin for reducing the laxity and wrinkles of aging.

    PubMed

    Saket, Parvaneh; Shobeihi, Shobeir; Mehrdadi, Soroush

    2017-09-01

    Ultrasound is a mechanical wave that transmitted in a straight line and it can be focused at frequencies of 1-7 MHz with a high degree of precision. An important aspect of HIFU is that damaging focal point is located several millimeters below the surface of the skin and tissue above and below the focal point remains unaffected. Due to absorption of this energy, temperature of tissue rises to more than 60°C and this stimulates the cells for collagen production and tissue rejuvenation. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound on Skin Laxity and wrinkles. The study involved 22 women aged 35-62 with skin type II-IV. HIFU device with three transducers was employed. Various focal depths with different energies were used in accordance with skin thickness. Improvement for seven regions of face and whole face were evaluated by two dermatologists and patients 3 months after treatment. All of the patients completed the study. Three months after treatment, there was a highly statistical improvement in skin laxity for all of the patients. Also, the average percentage of improvement by doctor's opinion and patients was 58% and 60%, respectively. The experimental data obtained from dermatologists and patients showed that HIFU appears to be a safe and effective modality for skin laxity treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Effects of a skin-massaging device on the ex-vivo expression of human dermis proteins and in-vivo facial wrinkles

    PubMed Central

    Caberlotto, Elisa; Ruiz, Laetitia; Miller, Zane; Poletti, Mickael; Tadlock, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical and geometrical cues influence cell behaviour. At the tissue level, almost all organs exhibit immediate mechanical responsiveness, in particular by increasing their stiffness in direct proportion to an applied mechanical stress. It was recently shown in cultured-cell models, in particular with fibroblasts, that the frequency of the applied stress is a fundamental stimulating parameter. However, the influence of the stimulus frequency at the tissue level has remained elusive. Using a device to deliver an oscillating torque that generates cyclic strain at different frequencies, we studied the effect(s) of mild skin massage in an ex vivo model and in vivo. Skin explants were maintained ex vivo for 10 days and massaged twice daily for one minute at various frequencies within the range of 65–85 Hz. Biopsies were analysed at D0, D5 and D10 and processed for immuno-histological staining specific to various dermal proteins. As compared to untreated skin explants, the massaging procedure clearly led to higher rates of expression, in particular for decorin, fibrillin, tropoelastin, and procollagen-1. The mechanical stimulus thus evoked an anti-aging response. Strikingly, the expression was found to depend on the stimulus frequency with maximum expression at 75Hz. We then tested whether this mechanical stimulus had an anti-aging effect in vivo. Twenty Caucasian women (aged 65-75y) applied a commercial anti-aging cream to the face and neck, followed by daily treatments using the anti-aging massage device for 8 weeks. A control group of twenty-two women, with similar ages to the first group, applied the cream alone. At W0, W4 and W8, a blinded evaluator assessed the global facial wrinkles, skin texture, lip area, cheek wrinkles, neck sagging and neck texture using a clinical grading scale. We found that combining the massaging device with a skin anti-aging formulation amplified the beneficial effects of the cream. PMID:28249037

  14. Effects of a skin-massaging device on the ex-vivo expression of human dermis proteins and in-vivo facial wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Caberlotto, Elisa; Ruiz, Laetitia; Miller, Zane; Poletti, Mickael; Tadlock, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical and geometrical cues influence cell behaviour. At the tissue level, almost all organs exhibit immediate mechanical responsiveness, in particular by increasing their stiffness in direct proportion to an applied mechanical stress. It was recently shown in cultured-cell models, in particular with fibroblasts, that the frequency of the applied stress is a fundamental stimulating parameter. However, the influence of the stimulus frequency at the tissue level has remained elusive. Using a device to deliver an oscillating torque that generates cyclic strain at different frequencies, we studied the effect(s) of mild skin massage in an ex vivo model and in vivo. Skin explants were maintained ex vivo for 10 days and massaged twice daily for one minute at various frequencies within the range of 65-85 Hz. Biopsies were analysed at D0, D5 and D10 and processed for immuno-histological staining specific to various dermal proteins. As compared to untreated skin explants, the massaging procedure clearly led to higher rates of expression, in particular for decorin, fibrillin, tropoelastin, and procollagen-1. The mechanical stimulus thus evoked an anti-aging response. Strikingly, the expression was found to depend on the stimulus frequency with maximum expression at 75Hz. We then tested whether this mechanical stimulus had an anti-aging effect in vivo. Twenty Caucasian women (aged 65-75y) applied a commercial anti-aging cream to the face and neck, followed by daily treatments using the anti-aging massage device for 8 weeks. A control group of twenty-two women, with similar ages to the first group, applied the cream alone. At W0, W4 and W8, a blinded evaluator assessed the global facial wrinkles, skin texture, lip area, cheek wrinkles, neck sagging and neck texture using a clinical grading scale. We found that combining the massaging device with a skin anti-aging formulation amplified the beneficial effects of the cream.

  15. Sex differences regarding the amelioration of wrinkles due to skin dryness by the administration of tranexamic acid.

    PubMed

    Hiramoto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Daijiro; Iizuka, Yasutaka; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko

    2016-10-01

    Tranexamic acid (trans-4-aminomethylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid) exerts an amelioration effect on wrinkle formation due to skin dryness. We examined the sex differences in this effect. We administered tranexamic acid (750mg/kg/day) orally for 20 consecutive days to male and female Naruto Research Institute Otsuka Atrichia (NOA) mice, which naturally develop skin dryness. In the treated female mice, the amelioration effect on the wrinkle score, deterioration of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), capacitance, and decrease in the expression of collagen type I was stronger than in the male treated mice. Furthermore, the level of β-endorphin in the plasma and the expression of β-endorphin, μ-opioid receptor, and macrophages in the dorsal skin increased after the administration of tranexamic acid, and this increase was higher in female mice than in males. In addition, the macrophage production was increased by the administration of tranexamic acid in the ovary but did not change after administration in the testes. A histological examination revealed that these macrophages produce the β-endorphin, clarifying the source of the elevated levels. The amelioration effect in the female treated mice was decreased by the administration of clophosome (a macrophage inhibitor) to a degree that did not markedly differ from the effect observed in the male treated mice. These results suggest that the amelioration effect on wrinkles is stronger in female NOA mice than in males and that β-endorphin produced by macrophages plays an important role in this sex difference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Skin aging and menopause : implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Raine-Fenning, Nicholas J; Brincat, Mark P; Muscat-Baron, Yves

    2003-01-01

    The skin is one of the largest organs of the body, which is significantly affected by the aging process and menopause. The significant changes sustained by the skin during the menopause are due to the effect sustained on the skin's individual components. The estrogen receptor has been detected on the cellular components of the skin. Accordingly, dermal cellular metabolism is influenced by the hypoestrogenoemic state of menopause leading to changes in the collagen content, alterations in the concentration of glycoaminoglycans and most importantly the water content. Consequently changes in these basic components leads to an alteration in function compatible with skin aging. Changes in the skin collagen leads to diminished elasticity and skin strength. Collagen content may be measured by various methods such as direct skin biopsy, skin blister assessment for collagen markers and skin thickness measurement. All these variables indicate a reduction in collagen content following menopause. This may be reversed with the administration of estrogen given both topically and systemically.A reduction in hydrophilic glycoaminglycans leads to a direct reduction in water content, which influences the skin turgor. These effects on glycoaminoglycans, due to the hypoestrogenia, have been clearly shown in animal studies and appeared to be rapidly reversed with the application of estrogens. The sum total of these basic effects on the skin leads to wrinkles, the skin condition typifying skin aging.Structures resident in the skin are likewise influenced by menopause. Changes to the cutaneous vascular reactivity are noted following menopause. Capillary blood flow velocity decreases significantly in postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal flushing is due to profound vasodilatation in the dermal papillae. Hair growth is also influenced by the hormonal milieu and consequently hair loss has been associated with the beginning of menopause. Treatments administered for menopause, in particular

  17. Tretinoin for the treatment of photodamaged skin.

    PubMed

    Ting, William

    2010-07-01

    Interest in and interventions for photodamaged skin have dramatically increased over the last few years. Although a number of topical therapies have been used for the treatment of photodamaged skin, many therapies remain unproven in efficacy, unapproved, or only supported with limited clinical evidence. Topical retinoids, particularly tretinoin, are the most extensively studied. They have been shown to attenuate and reverse the signs of photodamage, such as coarse wrinkling. In addition, the clinical changes achieved with tretinoin are accompanied by histologic evidence of benefit. The main drawbacks to retinoid use are local irritation and erythema that can limit utility in some patients. New retinoids and formulations specifically optimized to improve cutaneous tolerability have been introduced. Two case reports of patients using low-concentration tretinoin gel 0.05% for the treatment of photodamaged skin are discussed. Over a relatively short treatment period of 4 weeks, tretinoin gel 0.05% was shown to provide both chemoprevention and reversal of photodamage.

  18. A clinical study on the usefulness of autologous plasma filler in the treatment of nasolabial fold wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Jun; Kim, Han-Saem; Min, Joon Hong; Nam, Jae-Hui; Lee, Ga-Young; Kim, Won-Serk

    2017-06-01

    Recently, the efficacy of autologous plasma filler for the reduction of facial wrinkles has been demonstrated. The aim of our study is to validate the efficacy and safety of autologous plasma filler in treating nasolabial fold wrinkles. Twenty Korean patients with moderate-to-severe nasolabial fold wrinkles were enrolled. The patients were treated with one session of autologous plasma filler. The wrinkle improvement effects were evaluated at 1-week, 4-week, 8-week, and 12-week after the treatment. Three assessment methods were applied. First, two independent dermatologists assessed cosmetic results using a 5-point wrinkle assessment scale. Second, global aesthetic improvement score was used for assessment of the final cosmetic results. Third, patient satisfaction was surveyed. Also, the adverse effects associated to treatment were observed. Mean age of the patients was 44.5 years. The average 5-point wrinkle assessment scale score was significantly improved at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after treatment, comparing to before treatment (p < 0.01). The patients' average global aesthetic improvement score also indicated better cosmetic outcomes. The clinical improvement with sufficient patients' satisfaction and no significant adverse events demonstrated that novel autologous plasma filler could be considered as efficient and safety treatment option for nasolabial fold wrinkles.

  19. Oral intake of Boesenbergia pandurata extract improves skin hydration, gloss, and wrinkling: A randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Un; Chung, Hee Chul; Kim, Changhee; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2017-12-01

    Photoaging is a severe skin damage that occurs as a result of exposure to external elements, primarily ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Chronically, UV-irradiated skin exhibits the signs of sunburn and hyperpigmentation with the destruction of connective tissues. Previously, Boesenbergia pandurata (B. pandurata) and its active compound panduratin A showed antiphotoaging activities in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of B. pandurata intake on skin hydration, gloss, wrinkling, and elasticity. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to clinically evaluate the effect of B. pandurata ethanol extract (BPE) containing 8% of panduratin A on human skin hydration, gloss, wrinkling, and elasticity. Ninety-two subjects were randomly assigned to receive tablets containing either BPE or placebo for 12 weeks. The test group had significantly increased skin hydration and gloss and decreased wrinkling compared to the placebo group at 12 weeks. There was no significant difference in skin elasticity between the two groups; however, the increment rate in the test group was higher than that in the placebo group at 12 weeks. None of the subjects developed adverse symptoms during the study period. These results suggest that BPE can be used as a nutraceutical or nutricosmetic material for improving human skin hydration, gloss, and wrinkling. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Fractional non-ablative laser treatment at 1410 nm wavelength for periorbital wrinkles - reviscometrical and clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Augustyniak, Anna; Rotsztejn, Helena

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the research was to establish the influence of 1410-nm fractional non-ablative laser treatment on skin aging in the eye area. The reviscometer reference test is an objective method of estimating the flexibility of the skin. The photographic records were used as the auxiliary method of the therapy quality effectiveness. The study involved the group of 13 people (12 females and 1 male, aged 33-47 with prototype II and III according to the Fitzpatrick scale), who underwent two sessions of fractional non-ablative laser therapy (wavelength of 1410 nm) with a 2-week interval. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the quality of the treatment a reviscometer probe was used to measure the skin elasticity (Reviscometer RVM 600). The measurements were taken twice: directly before and two weeks after the treatment. Furthermore, to facilitate the clinical evaluation an anonymous photographical documentation was prepared. An improvement of the skin flexibility in the eye area was observed and the fact was confirmed by values obtained using the reviscometer probe (significant statistic differences: P < 0.0001) as well as clinical assessment based on photographical records. On the basis of the reviscometer measurements analysis and photographical records, 1410-nm fractional non-ablative laser treatment appears to be an efficient method contributing to the improvement of the skin flexibility of the eyes area as well as to the reduction of the number of wrinkles. The post-treatment observation proves that the method is well-tolerated in the sensitive eyes area and does not cause any significant side effects.

  1. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells reduce MMP-1 expression in UV-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts: therapeutic potential in skin wrinkling.

    PubMed

    Son, Woo-Chan; Yun, Jun-Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs) have been reported to have therapeutic benefit in skin. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of AdMSCs in UV-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) for therapeutic potential in skin wrinkling. UV irradiation, a model naturally mimic skin wrinkle formation, is known to increase matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), making MMP-1 a target for skin photoaging. Our findings identified that AdMSCs reduce MMP-1 level in UV-irradiated HDFs and increase type 1 procollagen in HDFs. A dose-dependent increase in type 1 procollagen was confirmed by AdMSC-conditioned medium. Importantly, our current findings showing the effects of AdMSCs on the induction of MMP-1 in UV-radiated HDFs and the expression of collagen in HDFs can provide an evidence of relationship between MMP-1 and procollagen production for the protection against wrinkle formation. Collectively, AdMSCs may contribute to anti-wrinkle effects in skin but further experiments are needed to identify the mechanism.

  2. Assessment of the efficacy of nonablative long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser treatment of wrinkles compared at 2, 4, and 6 months.

    PubMed

    Trelles, M A; Alvarez, X; Martín-Vázquez, M J; Trelles, O; Velez, M; Levy, J L; Allones, I

    2005-05-01

    Rhytides represent an aesthetic problem for a large percentage of the population. Many methods, both noninvasive and invasive, have been used for the treatment of wrinkles. Recently, the long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser has been shown to enhance dermal collagen synthesis without damaging the epidermis. The purpose of this preliminary study is to evaluate the use of the long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser in the nonablative treatment of periocular and perioral wrinkles. Ten patients with facial wrinkles were treated with the long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser, at a spot size of 5 mm in diameter, energy density of 13 J/cm2, exposure time per pulse of 300 microseconds, and a repetition rate of 7 Hz. All patients had a total of three treatments, once every 2 weeks. Subjective (patient satisfaction index [SI]) and objective (both physician- and computer program-based clinical index [CI]) assessments were performed before the first and third treatment sessions, and at 2, 4, and 6 months after the last treatment. At 6 months after the final treatment session, the patients' subjective SI was maintained at 40%, and had peaked at 50% 2 months after the final session. Physician assessment showed a CI of 40% at the 6-month assessment point and the computer program showed a 50% CI. The greatest level of effect with long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser nonablative skin rejuvenation for facial wrinkles was seen 2 months after the final treatment. Effects were still visible at the 6-month period, but showed a tendency to decrease. Maintenance treatments are required to achieve good patient satisfaction.

  3. Non-insulated smooth motion, micro-needles RF fractional treatment for wrinkle reduction and lifting of the lower face: International study.

    PubMed

    Gold, Michael; Taylor, Mark; Rothaus, Kenneth; Tanaka, Yohei

    2016-10-01

    Skin aging occurs through both intrinsic and extrinsic processes. Fractional radiofrequency (RF) with a microneedling array is the newest form of fractional therapy to be useful in treating aging skin. The current study utilized a noninsulated fractional RF microneedling system. This multicenter clinical trial saw 49 patients complete 3 monthly treatments with the new fractional RF microneedling treatments and be followed for 3 months following their last treatment. Pain during treatment was recorded as well as overall improvement using a GAIS scale. Adverse events were also noted. Forty-nine patients completed all of the treatments and follow-ups. Mild to moderate erythema were reported immediately after treatment which lasted up to 12 hours after the treatment. Pain, as measured on a 1-10 VAS, was noted to 4, on average. The average Fitzpatrick's wrinkle scale score at baseline was 5.04 ± 1.22, 1 month after 3 treatments 3.829 ± 1.69 and 3 months after 3 treatments 3.5 ± 1.66. These results are statistically highly significant (correlated T-test, P < 0.001). Improvement was shown in 100% of patients while 65% of patients had significant improvement (GAIS levels 3-5). Significant skin tightening and skin lifting were also observed. No unusual adverse events were noted throughout the course of the study. This multicenter study showed significant wrinkle reduction, skin tightening, and lifting of the mid and lower face with the noninsulated fractional RF microneedling system. Lasers Surg. Med. 48:727-733, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Subsurface wrinkle removal by laser treatment in combination with dynamic cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paithankar, Dilip Y.; Hsia, James C.; Ross, E. V.

    2000-05-01

    Compared to traditional CO2 or Er:YAG laser resurfacing, sub-surface thermal injury to stimulate skin remodeling for the removal of wrinkles is attractive due to the lower morbidity associated with epidermal preservation. We have developed a technique that thermally damages dermal collagen while preserving the epidermis by a combination of infra-red laser irradiation and dynamic cooling of skin. Wound healing response to the thermal denaturation of collagen may trigger synthesis of fresh collagen and result in restoration of a more youthful appearance. The laser wavelength is chosen so as to thermally injure dermis in a narrow band at depths of 150 to 500 microns from the surface of the skin. The epidermis is preserved by a Candela dynamic cooling device (DCDTM) cryogen spray. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculations have been done to calculate the light distribution within tissue while taking into account light absorption and scattering. This light distribution has been used to calculate heat generation within tissue. Heat transfer calculations have been done while taking into consideration the cryogen cooling. The resulting temperature profiles have been used to suggest heating and cooling parameters. Freshly excised ex vivo pig skin was irradiated with laser and DCD at these heating and cooling parameters. Histological evaluation of the biopsies has shown that it is possible to spare the epidermis while thermally denaturing the dermal collagen. The modeling and histology results are discussed.

  5. Conditioned medium from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promotes skin moisturization and effacement of wrinkles in UVB-irradiated SKH-1 hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tae-Rin; Oh, Chang Taek; Choi, Eun Ja; Kim, Soon Re; Jang, Yu-Jin; Ko, Eun Jung; Yoo, Kwang Ho; Kim, Beom Joon

    2016-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising therapeutic agents for various diseases. To investigate the effects of conditioned medium from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-CdM) on pro-collagen production and wrinkle formation, we performed in vitro and in vivo experiments. We assessed the effects of MSC-CdM on proliferation and photo-aging in human dermal fibroblasts after UVB exposure using enzyme activity assays for collagen type I secretion and MMP-1. To determine the effect of topically applied MSC-CdM on wrinkle formation, MSC-CdM (1% and 10%) and vehicle (propylene glycol: ethanol, 7 : 3) were applied to the dorsal skin of UVB-irradiated hairless mice for 8 weeks. We examined the effects on wrinkle formation by assessing visual skin grading, replica, tape stripping, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and skin hydration measurement. We also examined histology of the lesions using hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's trichrome, and immunohistochemical staining. MSC-CdM markedly reduced UV-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression and increased pro-collagen synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that MSC-CdM induces repair of dermal damage and effacement of wrinkles on UVB-irradiated hairless mice through protective effect of hydration. These results support an anti-wrinkle effect of MSC-CdM that involves increased collagen synthesis and suggest that MSC-CdM might be a potential candidate for preventing UV-induced skin damage. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Odorous and Non-Fatal Skin Secretion of Adult Wrinkled Frog (Rana rugosa) Is Effective in Avoiding Predation by Snakes

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Yuri; Kasuya, Eiiti

    2013-01-01

    The roles played by nonfatal secretions of adult anurans in the avoidance of predation remain unknown. The adult Wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa) has warty skin with the odorous mucus secretion that is not fatal to the snake Elaphe quadrivirgata. We fed R. rugosa or Fejervarya limnocharis, which resembles R. rugosa in appearance and has mucus secretion, to snakes and compared the snakes’ responses to the frogs. Compared to F. limnocharis, R. rugosa was less frequently bitten or swallowed by snakes. The snakes that bit R. rugosa spat out the frogs and showed mouth opening (gaping) behavior, while the snakes that bit F. limnocharis did not show gaping behavior. We also compared the responses of the snakes to R. rugosa and F. limnocharis secretions. We coated palatable R. japonica with secretions from R. rugosa or F. limnocharis. The frogs coated by R. rugosa secretion were less frequently bitten or swallowed than those coated by F. limnocharis secretion. We concluded that compared to different frog species of similar sizes, the adult R. rugosa was less frequently preyed upon by, and that its skin secretion was effective in avoiding predation by snakes. PMID:24278410

  7. Odorous and non-fatal skin secretion of adult wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa) is effective in avoiding predation by snakes.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yuri; Kasuya, Eiiti

    2013-01-01

    The roles played by nonfatal secretions of adult anurans in the avoidance of predation remain unknown. The adult Wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa) has warty skin with the odorous mucus secretion that is not fatal to the snake Elaphe quadrivirgata. We fed R. rugosa or Fejervarya limnocharis, which resembles R. rugosa in appearance and has mucus secretion, to snakes and compared the snakes' responses to the frogs. Compared to F. limnocharis, R. rugosa was less frequently bitten or swallowed by snakes. The snakes that bit R. rugosa spat out the frogs and showed mouth opening (gaping) behavior, while the snakes that bit F. limnocharis did not show gaping behavior. We also compared the responses of the snakes to R. rugosa and F. limnocharis secretions. We coated palatable R. japonica with secretions from R. rugosa or F. limnocharis. The frogs coated by R. rugosa secretion were less frequently bitten or swallowed than those coated by F. limnocharis secretion. We concluded that compared to different frog species of similar sizes, the adult R. rugosa was less frequently preyed upon by, and that its skin secretion was effective in avoiding predation by snakes.

  8. Dietary Aloe Vera Supplementation Improves Facial Wrinkles and Elasticity and It Increases the Type I Procollagen Gene Expression in Human Skin in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Soyun; Lee, Serah; Lee, Min-Jung; Lee, Dong Hun; Won, Chong-Hyun; Kim, Sang Min

    2009-01-01

    Background No studies have yet been undertaken to determine the effect of aloe gel on the clinical signs and biochemical changes of aging skin. Objective We wanted to determine whether dietary aloe vera gel has anti-aging properties on the skin. Methods Thirty healthy female subjects over the age of 45 were recruited and they received 2 different doses (low-dose: 1,200 mg/d, high-dose: 3,600 mg/d) of aloe vera gel supplementation for 90 days. Their baseline status was used as a control. At baseline and at completion of the study, facial wrinkles were measured using a skin replica, and facial elasticity was measured by an in vivo suction skin elasticity meter. Skin samples were taken before and after aloe intake to compare the type I procollagen and matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) mRNA levels by performing real-time RT-PCR. Results After aloe gel intake, the facial wrinkles improved significantly (p<0.05) in both groups, and facial elasticity improved in the lower-dose group. In the photoprotected skin, the type I procollagen mRNA levels were increased in both groups, albeit without significance; the MMP-1 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in the higher-dose group. Type I procollagen immunostaining was substantially increased throughout the dermis in both groups. Conclusion Aloe gel significantly improves wrinkles and elasticity in photoaged human skin, with an increase in collagen production in the photoprotected skin and a decrease in the collagen-degrading MMP-1 gene expression. However, no dose-response relationship was found between the low-dose and high-dose groups. PMID:20548848

  9. Assessment of efficacy and safety of a fractionated bipolar radiofrequency device for the treatment of lower face wrinkles and laxity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yueqi; Zhang, Xuting; Lu, Zhong; Gold, Michael H

    2018-04-18

    Skin aging, as a natural course, is a gradual process. It can be classified as either intrinsic or photo-aging. In recent years, as the attention to lower face wrinkles and laxity has raised significantly, the demands to facial rejuvenation also increased, along with a variety of technologies coming into being. Fractional bipolar RF as a novel means of rejuvenation has been used in clinical practice, but questions remain in terms of its efficacy and safety. Considering a large population in our country and huge demands for skin tightening, we did this research to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fractional bipolar radiofrequency.

  10. Tannase-converted green tea catechins and their anti-wrinkle activity in humans.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yang-Hee; Jung, Eun Young; Shin, Kwang-Soon; Yu, Kwang-Won; Chang, Un Jae; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2013-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the anti-wrinkle effects of topical applications of green tea extract with high antioxidant activity by tannase treatment. Increases in gallic acid (GA), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), and (-)-epicatechin (EC) were observed in the green tea extract after tannase treatment. This study was performed to investigate the anti-wrinkle effects of topical applications of green tea extract exhibiting high antioxidant activity after tannase treatment. Subjects, randomly divided into two groups, received the application of either tannase-converted green tea extract (TGE) or normal green tea extract (NGE) on their crow's feet for 8 weeks. The anti-wrinkle effects were evaluated with two methods: (i) self-assessment; and (ii) average roughness of skin surface (R(a), R(z), and R(t) value) using skin replica and Skin-Visiometer SV 600. The scavenging abilities of TGE against radicals were significantly higher compared to NGE. The evaluation of skin wrinkle index values after 8 weeks of treatment showed that reductions of R(a), R(z), and R(t) values in the TGE group were significantly greater than in the NGE group, which indicated that tannase treatment improved the anti-wrinkle effects of green tea extract. According to the overall ratings for wrinkle treatment by applying the formulations, most of the TGE group (63.60%) reported marked or moderate improvement in wrinkles compared with only 36.30% of the NGE group. Tannase treatment can improve the antioxidant activity of green tea extract, conferring anti-wrinkle activities. These results suggest that TGE may have beneficial properties as an anti-wrinkle agent. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The anatomical basis for wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Pessa, Joel E; Nguyen, Hang; John, George B; Scherer, Philipp E

    2014-02-01

    Light and electron microscopy have not identified a distinct anatomical structure associated with either skin wrinkles or creases, and a histological difference between wrinkled and adjacent skin has not been identified. The authors investigate whether facial wrinkles are related to underlying lymphatic vessels and perilymphatic fat. Lymphatic vessels with a specialized tube of perilymphatic fat were identified beneath palmar creases. Sections of skin, adipose tissue, and muscle were harvested from each of 13 cadavers. Three sites were investigated: the transverse forehead crease, lateral orbicularis oculi wrinkle (crow's feet), and the nasojugal crease. The tissue was paraffin embedded and processed. Two-step indirect immunohistochemistry was performed, and images were examined using laser confocal microscopy. Measurements were taken with software. Every wrinkle examined was found above and within ±1 mm of a major lymphatic vessel and its surrounding tube of adipose tissue. The results satisfied our null hypothesis and were statistically significant. Lymphatic vessels were identified by positive immunofluorescence as well as histological criteria. These findings have been further validated by fluorochrome tracer studies. An anatomical basis for wrinkles was identified among the specimens studied. Lymphatic vessels, along with the surrounding distinct perilymphatic fat, traveled directly beneath wrinkles and creases. Lymphatic dysregulation leads to inflammation, scarring, and fibrosis, but inadvertent injection of these vessels can be avoided with anatomical knowledge.

  12. Biological Mechanisms Underlying the Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Formation of Skin Wrinkling and Sagging II: Over-Expression of Neprilysin Plays an Essential Role

    PubMed Central

    Imokawa, Genji; Nakajima, Hiroaki; Ishida, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies strongly indicated that the up-regulated activity of skin fibroblast-derived elastase plays a pivotal role in wrinkling and/or sagging of the skin via the impairment of elastic fiber configuration and the subsequent loss of skin elasticity. Fortunately, we succeeded in identifying human skin fibroblast-derived elastase as a previously known enzyme, neprilysin or neutral endopeptidase (NEP). We have also characterized epithelial-mesenchymal paracrine cytokine interactions between UVB-exposed-keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts and found that interleukin-1α and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulatory factor (GM-CSF) are intrinsic cytokines secreted by UVB-exposed keratinocytes that stimulate the expression of neprilysin by fibroblasts. On the other hand, direct UVA exposure of human fibroblasts significantly stimulates the secretion of IL-6 and also elicits a significant increase in the gene expression of matrix metallo-protease(MMP)-1 as well as neprilysin (to a lesser extent), which is followed by distinct increases in their protein and enzymatic activity levels. Direct UVA exposure of human keratinocytes also stimulates the secretion of IL-6, IL-8 and GM-CSF but not of IL-1 and endothelin-1. These findings suggest that GM-CSF secreted by UVA-exposed keratinocytes as well as IL-6 secreted by UVA-exposed dermal fibroblasts play important and additional roles in UVA-induced sagging and wrinkling by up-regulation of neprilysin and MMP-1, respectively, in dermal fibroblasts. PMID:25856676

  13. Clinical tolerance and efficacy of capryloyl salicylic acid peel compared to a glycolic acid peel in subjects with fine lines/wrinkles and hyperpigmented skin.

    PubMed

    Oresajo, Christian; Yatskayer, Margarita; Hansenne, Isabelle

    2008-12-01

    Several chemical agents are currently used to perform superficial peels of the face to reduce facial hyperpigmentation and fine lines/wrinkles. Some of the most commonly used agents are alpha hydroxyl acids, such as glycolic acid (GA), or beta hydroxy acid, such as salicylic acid. This study aims to compare the efficacy of GA to that of a novel derivative of salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid (LHA). In a split-face study, 50 female volunteers between the ages of 35 and 60 years with mild to moderate facial hyperpigmentation and fine lines/wrinkles were randomized and LHA or GA peel was applied to one side of the face. Increasing peel concentrations were applied (5-10% LHA or 20-50% GA) based on the tolerance level of the subjects and clinical observations of an expert dermatologist for 12 weeks at biweekly intervals. Of the 44 volunteers who completed the study, at 12 weeks 41% of LHA-treated and 30% of GA-treated subjects demonstrated significant reduction of fine lines/wrinkles compared to baseline. Forty-six percent of LHA-treated subjects and 34% of GA-treated subjects showed significant reduction of hyperpigmentation compared to baseline. LHA treatment was better than GA peels, although there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Five percent to 10% of LHA peel is generally safe and as effective as 20-50% GA peel in reducing facial hyperpigmentation and fine lines/wrinkles.

  14. A review of tazarotene in the treatment of photodamaged skin

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, Stephanie; Samuel, Miny; Griffiths, Christopher EM

    2008-01-01

    Chronic sun exposure leads to photodamage, which is characterized clinically by fine and coarse wrinkles, dyspigmentation, telangiectasia, laxity, roughness and a sallow appearance. Many treatments claim to reduce the signs of photodamage, however evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCT) to support these claims is limited. The use of topical retinoids, particularly tretinoin, isotretinoin and tazarotene, has been shown to significantly reduce signs of photodamage both clinically and histologically. Over recent years a number of RCTs, have affirmed that topical tazarotene is an effective and safe treatment for photodamaged skin. PMID:18488880

  15. Forehead wrinkles: a histological and immunohistochemical evaluation.

    PubMed

    El-Domyati, Moetaz; Medhat, Walid; Abdel-Wahab, Hossam M; Moftah, Noha H; Nasif, Ghada A; Hosam, Wael

    2014-09-01

    Wrinkles are associated with cutaneous aging especially on sun-exposed skin. Despite they are considered a major topic in cosmetic dermatology, very few reports have studied the specific histological and immunohistochemical changes characteristic for wrinkles. The study aims to evaluate the histological and immunohistochemical changes of static forehead wrinkles in relation to surrounding photoaged skin. Biopsy specimens were obtained from the forehead wrinkles of 20 volunteers of Glogau's class III-IV wrinkles. Using histological and immunostaining methods coupled with computerized morphometric analysis, measurement of epidermal thickness and quantitative evaluation of total elastin and tropoelastin as well as collagen types I, III, and VII were performed for skin biopsies. In the wrinkle site, there was statistically significant lower epidermal thickness (P = 0.001), elastin (P < 0.001), tropoelastin (P < 0.001), and collagen VII (P < 0.001) than the surrounding photoaged skin. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference between the wrinkle site and adjacent photoaged skin regarding collagen type I (P = 0.07) or III (P = 0.07). This study detected some histological and immunohistochemical differences in the wrinkle site when compared to adjacent photoaged skin. This may help in understanding the pathophysiology of facial wrinkling as well as its ideal way of management. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. P16INK4a Positive Cells in Human Skin Are Indicative of Local Elastic Fiber Morphology, Facial Wrinkling, and Perceived Age

    PubMed Central

    Waaijer, Mariëtte E. C.; Gunn, David A.; Adams, Peter D.; Pawlikowski, Jeff S.; Griffiths, Christopher E. M.; van Heemst, Diana; Slagboom, P. Eline; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Maier, Andrea B.

    2016-01-01

    Senescent cells are more prevalent in aged human skin compared to young, but evidence that senescent cells are linked to other biomarkers of aging is scarce. We counted cells positive for the tumor suppressor and senescence associated protein p16INK4a in sun-protected upper-inner arm skin biopsies from 178 participants (aged 45–81 years) of the Leiden Longevity Study. Local elastic fiber morphology, facial wrinkles, and perceived facial age were compared to tertiles of p16INK4a counts, while adjusting for chronological age and other potential confounders. The numbers of epidermal and dermal p16INK4a positive cells were significantly associated with age-associated elastic fiber morphologic characteristics, such as longer and a greater number of elastic fibers. The p16INK4a positive epidermal cells (identified as primarily melanocytes) were also significantly associated with more facial wrinkles and a higher perceived age. Participants in the lowest tertile of epidermal p16INK4a counts looked 3 years younger than those in the highest tertile, independently of chronological age and elastic fiber morphology. In conclusion, p16INK4a positive cell numbers in sun-protected human arm skin are indicative of both local elastic fiber morphology and the extent of aging visible in the face. PMID:26286607

  17. [Anti-wrinkle creams with hyaluronic acid: how effective are they?].

    PubMed

    Poetschke, Julian; Schwaiger, Hannah; Steckmeier, Stephanie; Ruzicka, Thomas; Gauglitz, Gerd G

    2016-05-25

    Anti-wrinkle creams containing hyaluronic-acid are often advertised as an efficacious option for the treatment of wrinkles and have even been presented as an option equal to some medical procedures in this regard. Evidence from conclusive and systematic research supporting those claims, however, is widely lacking. During this trial we examined whether the daily use of anti-wrinkle creams containing hyaluronic-acid has an influence on the depth of wrinkles as well as skin tightness and elasticity. We split up 20 patients into four groups, each of which were assigned an anti-wrinkle cream containing hyaluronic acid for daily use. Four different creams within different price ranges were chosen (Balea, Nivea, Lancôme, Chanel). Before and after the 3 month trial, wrinkle depth was assessed using the PRIMOS(pico) (GFMesstechnik, Teltow, Germany) and skin-tightness and elasticity were evaluated using the Cutometer MP580 (Courage+Khazaka, Cologne, Germany). Additionally, after the trial, questionnaire data on patient satisfaction with their individual product was collected. The depth of perioral and orbital wrinkles decreased significantly in all groups, with depth reduction ranging between 10% and 20%. Skin-tightness increased significantly in all groups, rising by 13 to 30%. Minimal significant changes in skin-elasticity could only be shown in individual groups. The regular use of hyaluronic-acid containing anti-wrinkle creams for over 3 months showed clear and positive effects on wrinkle-depth and skin-tightness. Due to the design of the study, however, no clear indication on the efficacy of hyaluronic acid could be shown.

  18. Wrinkling of solidifying polymeric coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Soumendra Kumar

    2005-07-01

    In coatings, wrinkles are viewed as defects or as desired features for low gloss, and texture. In either case, discovering the origin of wrinkles and the conditions that lead to their formation is important. This research examines what wrinkling requires and proposes a mechanism to explain the observations. All curing wrinkling coatings contain multi-functional reactants. Upon curing, all develop a depth-wise gradient in solidification that result in a cross-linked elastic skin atop a viscous bottom layer. It is hypothesized that compressive stress develops in the skin when liquid below diffuses up into the skin. High enough compressive stress buckles the skin to produce wrinkles. The hypothesis is substantiated by experimental and theoretical evidences. Effects of various application and compositional parameters on wrinkle size in a liquid-applied acrylic coating and a powder-applied epoxy coating were examined. All three components, namely resin, cross-linker and catalyst blocked with at least equimolar volatile blocker, proved to be required for wrinkling. The wrinkling phenomenon was modeled with a theory that accounts for gradient generation, cross-linking reaction and skinning; predictions compared well with observations. Two-layer non-curing coatings that have a stiff elastic layer atop a complaint elastic bottom layer wrinkled when the top layer is compressed. The top layer was compressed by either moisture absorption or differential thermal expansion. Experimental observations compared well with predictions from a theory based on force balance in multilayer systems subjected to differential contraction or expansion. A model based on the Flory-Rehner free energy of a constrained cross-linked gel was constructed that predicts the compressive stress generated in a coating when it absorbs solvent. Linear stability analysis predicts that when a compressed elastic layer is attached atop a viscous layer, it is always unstable to buckles whose wavelength exceeds a

  19. Skin Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... of skin biopsies: Shave biopsy : A sterile razor blade is used to “shave-off” the abnormal-looking ... the surface of the skin with a small blade. Electrodesiccation and curettage : The tumor is cut from ...

  20. Addressing Male Facial Skin Concerns: Clinical Efficacy of a Topical Skincare Treatment Product for Men.

    PubMed

    Makino, Elizabeth T; Jiang, Lily I; Tan, Priscilla; Cheng, Tsing; Mehta, Rahul C

    2018-03-01

    The growing male skincare market reflects the increased interest of men in addressing facial aging concerns and maintaining a healthy youthful appearance. Because of differences in skin structure and aging as well as in lifestyle and behavior, male facial skin presents unique challenges that may result in different priorities or treatment strategies compared to female skin. A clinical study was conducted to assess clinical efficacy and tolerability of a topical skincare treatment product that was developed to address several male facial skin concerns related to skin quality, skin aging, and shaving. The treatment product provided significant improvements in all clinical efficacy parameters including overall photodamage, tactile roughness, fine line/wrinkles, and coarse lines/wrinkles. Furthermore, significant improvements in erythema as well as dryness/scaling were observed. Subject self-assessment questionnaires showed that the treatment product was highly rated in both self-perceived efficacy as well as product attributes. Use of skincare treatment products that tackle specific male facial skin concerns could further optimize skin quality and support healthy and youthful looking skin in men.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(3):301-306.

    .

  1. Indications and limitations for the use of botulinum toxin for the treatment of facial wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Sarrabayrouse, Manuel A M

    2002-01-01

    Botulin toxin is a strong blocking agent which has shown great usefulness in a variety of neuromuscular disorders related to hypertonicity and spasticity. Since 1992 it has been used in the attenuation of facial wrinkles. In this article we describe the different applications in the upper third, middle third, and lower third of the face, as well as the platysmal bands of the neck. We emphasize the use of this procedure for the upper third of the face. Limits are indicated when it is used on the middle and lower parts of the face. The author has found excellent results in the attenuation of wrinkles of the neck region.

  2. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  3. A novel method for real-time skin impedance measurement during radiofrequency skin tightening treatments.

    PubMed

    Harth, Yoram; Lischinsky, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    The thermal effects of monopolar and bipolar radiofrequency (RF) have been proven to be beneficial in skin tightening. Nevertheless, these effects were frequently partial or unpredictable because of the uncontrolled nature of monopolar or unipolar RF and the superficial nature of energy flow for bipolar or tripolar configurations. One of the hypotheses for lack or predictability of efficacy of the first-generation RF therapy skin tightening systems is lack of adaptation of delivered power to differences in individual skin impedance. A novel multisource phase-controlled system was used (1 MHz, power range 0-65 W) for treatment and real-time skin impedance measurements in 24 patients (EndyMed PRO™; EndyMed, Cesarea, Israel). This system allows continuous real-time measurement of skin impedance delivering constant energy to the patient skin independent of changes in its impedance. More than 6000 unique skin impedance measurements on 22 patients showed an average session impedance range was 215-584 Ohm with an average of 369 Ohm (standard deviation of 49 Ohm). Analyzing individual pulses (total of 600 readings) showed a significant decrease in impedance during the pulse. These findings validate the expected differences in skin impedance between individual patients and in the same patients during the treatment pulse. Clinical study on 30 patients with facial skin aging using the device has shown high predictability of efficacy (86.7% of patients had good results or better at 3 months' follow-up [decrease of 2 or more grades in Fitzpatrick's wrinkle scale]). The real-time customization of energy according to skin impedance allows a significantly more accurate and safe method of nonablative skin tightening with more consistent and predictable results. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Clinical Assessment of a Novel Jasmonate Cosmeceutical, LR2412-Cx, for the Treatment of Skin Aging.

    PubMed

    Alexiades, Macrene

    2016-02-01

    The jasmonates are a novel class of plant-derived anti-aging compounds. Among these, LR2412-Cx (tetrahydrojasmonic acid, Visionnaire) has been demonstrated to reduce photoaging and the appearance of wrinkles, as well as to upregulate collagens, hyaluronic acid and fibrillin. To clinically study the cosmetic effects of a novel jasmonate complex LR2412-Cx in the treatment of visible skin aging. LR2412-Cx was evaluated in a 15-subject open-label prospective clinical trial for the treatment of fine wrinkle appearance, texture, and pores. Subjects were evaluated by an investigator at baseline, day 1, day 3, and week 6 with the Alexiades comprehensive grading scale of skin aging, and introducing a novel pore-grading scale and subject quality of life assessments. The mean (SEM) at baseline and at week 6 following twice-daily application were: for the appearance of wrinkles 2.91 (0.12) and 2.70 (0.10); for texture 2.91 (0.10) and 2.55 (0.10); and for pores 3.29 (0.08) and 2.46 (0.09), respectively. The differences in all 3 categories at all follow-up intervals were statistically significant (P<.005). The percentage improvement in investigator-assessed grades relative to baseline at day 1, day 3, and week 6 were: 2.3%, 4.9%, and 7.4% for the appearance of wrinkles, 5.7%, 9.4%, and 12.4% for texture, and 14.2%, 21.6% and 25.2% for pores, respectively. No significant untoward effects were reported. Visionnaire LR2412-Cx is a novel jasmonate-containing compound that is safe and effective for the cosmetic treatment of fine wrinkle appearance, texture, and pores of the facial skin.

  5. Platelet-Rich Plasma for the Treatment of Photodamage of the Skin of the Hands.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Ramírez, J O; Puebla-Mora, A G; González-Ojeda, A; García-Martínez, D; Cortés-Lares, J A; Márquez-Valdés, A R; Contreras-Hernández, G I; Bracamontes-Blanco, J; Saucedo Ortiz, J A; Fuentes-Orozco, C

    2017-10-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) provides growth factors that stimulate fibroblast activation and induce the synthesis of collagen and other components of the extracellular matrix. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of PRP in the treatment of photodamage of the skin of the hands. Experimental study enrolling persons with photoaged skin on the dorsum of the hands (Glogau photoaging scale, type III, or Fitzpatrick wrinkle classification, type II) were included between August 2012 and January 2013. A histological comparison was made of skin biopsies taken before and after the application of PRP to the skin of the dorsum of the hands. The mean (SD) age of the 18 women enrolled was 47.9 (4.3) years. Histological analysis showed an increase in the number of fibroblasts (P<.001), number of vessels (P<.001), and collagen density (P=.27). These changes produced significant improvements in the Fitzpatrick wrinkle and elastosis scale (P<.001) and in the Glogau photoaging scale (P=.01). PRP induced a reduction in the manifestations of skin aging, including an improvement in wrinkles and elastosis. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Noninvasive Skin Tightening Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive skin tightening has become one of the most common cosmetic aesthetic procedures being performed today. The use of radiofrequency devices for these procedures has been at the forefront of this trend for the past several years. Newer and more sophisticated radiofrequency devices are being brought to the market and presented here are the Venus Freeze and Venus Legacy. PMID:26155322

  7. Crack-Free, Soft Wrinkles Enable Switchable Anisotropic Wetting.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Dongjoon; Lee, Won-Kyu; Odom, Teri W

    2017-06-01

    Soft skin layers on elastomeric substrates are demonstrated to support mechano-responsive wrinkle patterns that do not exhibit cracking under applied strain. Soft fluoropolymer skin layers on pre-strained poly(dimethylsiloxane) slabs achieved crack-free surface wrinkling at high strain regimes not possible by using conventional stiff skin layers. A side-by-side comparison between the soft and hard skin layers after multiple cycles of stretching and releasing revealed that the soft skin layer enabled dynamic control over wrinkle topography without cracks or delamination. We systematically characterized the evolution of wrinkle wavelength, amplitude, and orientation as a function of tensile strain to resolve the crack-free structural transformation. We demonstrated that wrinkled surfaces can guide water spreading along wrinkle orientation, and hence switchable, anisotropic wetting was realized. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Wrinkles in Time

    Science.gov Websites

    Book: WRINKLES IN TIME Wrinkles in Time is a popular book on cosmology authored by George Smoot and (Spanish), Kachi (Korean), Mondadori (Italian), Haase (Danish), more in progress. "Wrinkles in Time -person account of the search for the primordial seeds of the universe. WRINKLES IN TIME By George Smoot

  9. Topical stabilized retinol treatment induces the expression of HAS genes and HA production in human skin in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Hwa; Wong, Heng-Kuan; Serrano, José; Randhawa, Manpreet; Kaur, Simarna; Southall, Michael D; Parsa, Ramine

    2017-05-01

    Skin Aging manifests primarily with wrinkles, dyspigmentations, texture changes, and loss of elasticity. During the skin aging process, there is a loss of moisture and elasticity in skin resulting in loss of firmness finally leading to skin sagging. The key molecule involved in skin moisture is hyaluronic acid (HA), which has a significant water-binding capacity. HA levels in skin decline with age resulting in decrease in skin moisture, which may contribute to loss of firmness. Clinical trials have shown that topically applied ROL effectively reduces wrinkles and helps retain youthful appearance. In the current study, ROL was shown to induce HA production and stimulates the gene expression of all three forms of hyaluronic acid synthases (HAS) in normal human epidermal keratinocytes monolayer cultures. Moreover, in human skin equivalent tissues and in human skin explants, topical treatment of tissues with a stabilized-ROL formulation significantly induced the gene expression of HAS mRNA concomitant with an increased HA production. Finally, in a vehicle-controlled human clinical study, histochemical analysis confirmed increased HA accumulation in the epidermis in ROL-treated human skin as compared to vehicle. These results show that ROL increases skin expression of HA, a significant contributing factor responsible for wrinkle formation and skin moisture, which decrease during aging. Taken together with the activity to increase collagen, elastin, and cell proliferation, these studies establish that retinol provides multi-functional activity for photodamaged skin.

  10. Ablative fractional carbon dioxide laser combined with intense pulsed light for the treatment of photoaging skin in Chinese population: A split-face study.

    PubMed

    Mei, Xue-Ling; Wang, Li

    2018-01-01

    Intense pulsed light (IPL) is effective for the treatment of lentigines, telangiectasia, and generalized erythema, but is less effective in the removal of skin wrinkles. Fractional laser is effective on skin wrinkles and textural irregularities, but can induce postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), especially in Asians. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of ablative fractional laser (AFL) in combination with IPL in the treatment of photoaging skin in Asians.This study included 28 Chinese women with Fitzpatrick skin type III and IV. The side of the face to be treated with IPL alone (3 times) or AFL in combination with IPL (2 IPL treatments and 1 AFL treatment) was randomly selected. Skin conditions including hydration, transepidermal water loss, elasticity, spots, ultraviolet spots, brown spots, wrinkle, texture, pore size and red areas, as well as adverse effects were evaluated before the treatment and at 30 days after the treatment.Compared with IPL treatment alone, AFL in combination with IPL significantly increased elasticity, decreased pore size, reduced skin wrinkles, and improved skin texture (P = .004, P = .039, P = .015, and P = .035, respectively). Both treatment protocols produced similar effects in relation to the improvement of photoaging-induced pigmentation. The combined therapy did not impair epidermal barrier function. No postoperative infection, hypopigmentation, or scarring occurred after IPL and AFL treatments. PIH occurred at 1 month after AFL treatment and disappeared at 30 days after completion of the combined therapy.AFL in combination with IPL is safe and effective for photoaging skin in Asians. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Safety, efficacy, and usage compliance of home-use device utilizing RF and light energies for treating periorbital wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Gold, Michael H; Biron, Julie; Levi, Liora; Sensing, Whitney

    2017-03-01

    The aging process is often associated with undesirable effects on facial skin such as skin redundancy, reduction of elasticity, and increased wrinkling. Radiofrequency (RF) and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are widely used, clinically proven technologies for skin rejuvenation. This study aimed to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and usage compliance of the home-use device, utilizing RF and LED energies, for self-treatment of periorbital wrinkles and improvement of skin appearance. Thirty-three subjects performed 21 treatment sessions every other day, over 6 weeks on the periorbital areas. In addition, two maintenance treatments were conducted 1 and 2 months following treatment end. Each subject served as his/her own control, comparing results before treatment, and 3 months following treatment end. Thirty subjects completed the study. A blinded, independent photographs assessment of three dermatologists demonstrated an average reduction of 1.49 Fitzpatrick scores (P < 0.001). Analysis revealed improvement (downgrade of at least 1 score) in almost all subjects. No unexpected adverse events were reported. Post-treatment erythema was seen in all subjects and disappeared within 1 h. In some subjects, post-treatment edema was detected and resolved within 24 h. High satisfaction with the device operation, ease of treatments, safety, and wrinkle reduction was reported. The Silk'n Home Skin Tightening (HST) device offers a safe and effective in-home noninvasive technique to improve the appearance of age-related periorbital wrinkles. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. [Treatment of wrinkles of the upper lip by emulsified fat or "Nanofat": Biological and clinical study about 4 cases].

    PubMed

    Mesguich Batel, F; Bertrand, B; Magalon, J; François, P; Velier, M; Veran, J; Mallet, S; Jouve, E; Sabatier, F; Casanova, D

    2018-02-01

    Emulsified fat injection showed its interest in aesthetic facial surgery. The adipose tissue harvested is mechanically emulsified and filtered. The suspension obtained is injected into the dermis through small diameter needles (27 to 30 gauges). The objective of our study was to evaluate the biological composition of emulsified fat and its clinical effectiveness in the treatment of peri-oral wrinkles in 4 patients aged 50 to 59 years. Each patient received an intradermal injection of emulsified fat in the peri-oral wrinkles prepared from abdominal fat under local anesthesia. The cell viability, stromal vascular fraction (FVS) composition in emulsified fat and the adipocyte differentiation capacity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were studied. The clinical results were evaluated by standardized photographs, 3D microphotography, confocal microscopy, and self-evaluation of patient satisfaction over a period of 4 months. The biological study of the emulsified fat found a lysis of all the adipocytes. The mean number of FVS cells was 126,330±2758 cells by cc of emulsified fat with preserved cell viability (85.1±6.84 %) and a good proportion of regeneratives cells (18.77±6.2 %). The clinical study found a tendency to decrease the volume of wrinkles on standardized photography and 3D microphotography no significative. Patients were satisfied with treatment with an average score of 7±1.15/10 to 4 months. Intradermal injection of emulsified fat seems to be an interesting treatment of face wrinkles. Our study has shown its safety, but additional studies seems necessary to confirm its clinical efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-ablative radiofrequency associated or not with low-level laser therapy on the treatment of facial wrinkles in adult women: A randomized single-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Thalita Rodrigues Christovam; Vassão, Patrícia Gabrielli; Venancio, Michele Garcia; Renno, Ana Cláudia Muniz; Aveiro, Mariana Chaves

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Non-ablative Radiofrequency (RF) associated or not with low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on aspect of facial wrinkles among adult women. Forty-six participants were randomized into three groups: Control Group (CG, n = 15), RF Group (RG, n = 16), and RF and LLLT Group (RLG, n = 15). Every participant was evaluated on baseline (T0), after eight weeks (T8) and eight weeks after the completion of treatment (follow-up). They were photographed in order to classify nasolabial folds and periorbital wrinkles (Modified Fitzpatrick Wrinkle Scale and Fitzpatrick Wrinkle Classification System, respectively) and improvement on appearance (Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale). Photograph analyses were performed by 3 blinded evaluators. Classification of nasolabial and periorbital wrinkles did not show any significant difference between groups. Aesthetic appearance indicated a significant improvement for nasolabial folds on the right side of face immediately after treatment (p = 0.018) and follow-up (p = 0.029) comparison. RG presented better results than CG on T8 (p = 0.041, ES = -0.49) and on follow-up (p = 0.041, ES = -0.49) and better than RLG on T8 (p = 0.041, ES = -0.49). RLG presented better results than CG on follow-up (p = 0.007, ES = -0.37). Nasolabial folds and periorbital wrinkles did not change throughout the study; however, some aesthetic improvement was observed. LLLT did not potentiate RF treatment.

  14. What Are Wrinkles?

    MedlinePlus

    ... re in the Sun Why Does Hair Turn Gray? Why Does My Skin Get Wrinkly in Water? Taking Care ... only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All ...

  15. Anti-wrinkle effects of Sargassum muticum ethyl acetate fraction on ultraviolet B-irradiated hairless mouse skin and mechanistic evaluation in the human HaCaT keratinocyte cell line

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae Hyoung; Piao, Mei Jing; Han, Xia; Kang, Kyoung Ah; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Yoon, Weon Jong; Ko, Mi Hee; Lee, Nam Ho; Lee, Mi Young; Chae, Sungwook; Hyun, Jin Won

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the photoprotective properties of the ethyl acetate fraction of Sargassum muticum (SME) against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin damage and photoaging in a mouse model. HR-1 strain hairless male mice were divided into three groups: An untreated control group, a UVB-irradiated vehicle group and a UVB-irradiated SME group. The UVB-irradiated mice in the SME group were orally administered with SME (100 mg/kg body weight in 0.1 ml water per day) and then exposed to radiation at a dose of 60–120 mJ/cm2. Wrinkle formation and skin damage were evaluated by analysis of skin replicas, epidermal thickness and collagen fiber integrity in the dermal connective tissue. The mechanism underlying the action of SME was also investigated in the human HaCaT keratinocyte cell line following exposure of the cells to UVB at a dose of 30 mJ/cm2. The protein expression levels and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), and the binding of activator protein-1 (AP-1) to the MMP-1 promoter were assessed in the HaCaT cells using western blot analysis, an MMP-1 fluorescent assay and a chromatin immune-precipitation assay, respectively. The results showed that the mean length and depth of the wrinkles in the UVB-exposed hairless mice were significantly improved by oral administration of SME, which also prevented the increase in epidermal thickness triggered by UVB irradiation. Furthermore, a marked increase in collagen bundle formation was observed in the UVB-treated mice with SME administration. SME pretreatment also significantly inhibited the UVB-induced upregulation in the expression and activity of MMP-1 in the cultured HaCaT keratinocytes, and the UVB-enhanced association of AP-1 with the MMP-1 promoter. These results suggested that SME may be useful as an anti-photoaging resource for the skin. PMID:27573915

  16. Evaluation of anti-wrinkle effects of a novel cosmetic containing retinol using the guideline of the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Akira; Konishi, Natsuko; Momma, Tomoyuki; Oiso, Naoki; Kawara, Shigeru

    2009-11-01

    Retinol is known to be effective in the treatment of sallowness, wrinkling, red blotchiness and hyperpigmented spots in aging skin. In this study, we have evaluated the anti-wrinkle effects of a new cosmetic containing retinol. An open study was performed in 30 healthy Japanese women who had wrinkles at the corners of the eyes. The tested lotion, Retin-OX+ (RoC SA, Colombes, France), was applied on wrinkles of one side of the face for 8 weeks, and not on the other site as a control. Anti-wrinkle effects were evaluated by two methods: (i) doctors' observation and photos based on the guideline of the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association; and (ii) the Robo Skin Analyzer. This lotion showed marked and moderate improvement in 34% of the subjects with a significant difference as compared with the control sites (P < 0.05). Moreover, the length and area decreased in the applied site more than the control site with a significant difference (P < 0.01). All the patients completed the study without significant adverse reactions. The tested lotion was well tolerated and may be an optional preparation for the treatment of wrinkles at the corner of the eyes.

  17. Two-treatment protocol for skin laxity using 90-Watt dynamic monopolar radiofrequency device with real-time impedance intelligence monitoring.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, David; Weiss, Robert; Weiss, Margaret; Mazur, Chris; Griffen, Charmaine

    2014-09-01

    Multiple devices are currently on the market that employ radiofrequency to non-invasively treat skin laxity and wrinkle reduction. The study device was a unique monopolar radiofrequency device FDA cleared for the treatment of wrinkles and rhytids. The delivery system allows constant monitoring of the real-time local skin impedance changes, which allows radiofrequency energy to be more uniformly dosed over an entire treatment area. The objective was to validate effectiveness of a modified treatment protocol for a unique monopolar radiofrequency device, which has been engineered with greater power and self-monitoring circuitry. Twenty-four female subjects received bilateral monopolar radiofrequency treatments to the mid and lower face from the sub malar region to the submentum. Subjects completed 1 and 3 month follow ups with digital imaging. Skin biopsies (on 4 subjects) and ultrasound measurements (on 12 subjects) were completed. Assessments demonstrated a reduction in skin laxity of 35%, a reduction in fine lines/wrinkles of 42%, and a reduction in the appearance of global photodamage of 33%. Expert photograding demonstrated 92% of subjects showing at least a mild improvement in skin laxity at three months post treatment. 50 MHz ultrasound measurements in 12 subjects showed an increase of 19% in skin density. Histology showed a marked increase in dermal collagen and elastin fibers in two subjects who demonstrated a clinically noticeable reduction in skin laxity and minimal changes in two subjects who demonstrated minimal clinical improvements. There were no significant adverse events reported. This modified radiofrequency device and treatment protocol was well tolerated and produced improvements in the appearance of skin laxity and overall anti-aging effects in the majority of subjects. Objective measurements including ultrasound and histology help explain the clinical outcome.

  18. [Compression treatment for burned skin].

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Fadhel; Lassoued, Mohamed A; Sahnoun, Mahdi; Sfar, Souad; Cheikhrouhou, Morched

    2012-02-01

    The regularity of a compressive knit is defined as its ability to perform its function in a burnt skin. This property is essential to avoid the phenomenon of rejection of the material or toxicity problems But: Make knits biocompatible with high burnet of human skin. We fabric knits of elastic material. To ensure good adhesion to the skin, we made elastic material, typically a tight loop knitted. The Length of yarn absorbed by stitch and the raw matter are changed with each sample. The physical properties of each sample are measured and compared. Surface modifications are made to these samples by impregnation of microcapsules based on jojoba oil. Knits are compressif, elastic in all directions, light, thin, comfortable, and washable for hygiene issues. In addition, the washing can find their compressive properties. The Jojoba Oil microcapsules hydrated the human burnet skin. This moisturizer is used to the firmness of the wound and it gives flexibility to the skin. Compressive Knits are biocompatible with burnet skin. The mixture of natural and synthetic fibers is irreplaceable in terms comfort and regularity.

  19. Clinical and histopathological results following TriPollar radiofrequency skin treatments.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Haim; Gat, Andrea

    2009-06-01

    Skin laxity, wrinkles and cellulite are common aesthetic problems associated with the aging process. These symptoms are due to the weakening and thinning of dermal connective tissue and the enlargement of hypodermal fat cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the TriPollar RF technology in reducing fat and collagen regeneration. Twelve healthy patients underwent weekly treatments on different body sites using the TriPollar technology. Treatment areas were photographed and measured and patient satisfaction was monitored. One abdominal patient consented to a series of TriPollar treatments prior to her scheduled abdominoplasty. A controlled histopathology analysis was performed on skin samples taken during the abdominoplasty procedure. Histopathological examination revealed marked differences between treated and non-treated abdominal skin areas. An increase of 49% in dermal thickness, focal thickening of collagen fibers and focal shrinkage of fat cells was shown following TriPollar treatments. Average patient satisfaction indicated clear satisfaction with the clinical results achieved. The TriPollar is a safe and effective non-invasive technology leading to skin tightening and body shaping. Histology results indicate changes at the dermal and fat layers following TriPollar treatments resulting in increased collagen regeneration and stimulated fat metabolism.

  20. Jasmine rice panicle: A safe and efficient natural ingredient for skin aging treatments.

    PubMed

    Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Lourith, Nattaya; Chaikul, Puxvadee

    2016-12-04

    While rice is one of the most important global staple food sources its extracts have found many uses as the bases of herbal remedies. Rice extracts contain high levels of phenolic compounds which are known to be bioactive, some of which show cutaneous benefits and activity towards skin disorders. This study highlights an assessment of the cellular activity and clinical efficacy of rice panicle extract, providing necessary information relevant to the development of new cosmetic products. Jasmine rice panicle extract was standardized, and the level of phenolics present was determined. In vitro anti-aging, and extract activity towards melanogenesis was conducted in B16F10 melanoma cells, and antioxidant activity was assessed in human skin fibroblast cell cultures. Topical product creams containing the extract were developed, and skin irritation testing using a single application closed patch test method was done using 20 Thai volunteers. Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy evaluation was undertaken in 24 volunteers over an 84d period, with the results monitored by Corneometer ® CM 825, Cutometer ® MPA 580, Mexameter ® MX 18 and Visioscan ® VC 98. Jasmine rice panicle extract was shown to have a high content of p-coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acids, and was not cytotoxic to the cell lines used in this study. Cells treated with extract suppressed melanogenesis via tyrosinase and TRP-2 inhibitory effects, which protect the cell from oxidative stress at doses of 0.1mg/ml or lower. The jasmine rice panicle preparations (0.1-0.2%) were safe (MII=0), and significantly (p<0.05) increased skin hydration levels relative to baseline. Skin lightening, and anti-wrinkle effects related to skin firmness and smoothness were observed, in addition to a reduction in skin wrinkling. Improvements in skin biophysics of both 0.1% and 0.2% extracts were showed to be comparable (p>0.05). Jasmine rice panicle extract having high levels of phenolics shows cutaneous benefits

  1. Operative treatment of functional facial skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Scheithauer, Marc Oliver; Rettinger, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    The skin is the principal interface between the body and the surrounding world and thus serves as a protective barrier against trauma, temperature extremes and radiation. With receptors for pressure, movement, heat and cold, it also acts as sensory organ and through sweat secretion plays a role in thermoregulation and electrolyte metabolism. Not all of these functions are relevant to facial skin, however, cosmetic aspects are of vital importance. Disorders primarily affect the protective skin function in defect and scar areas. For operative correction, the following principles should be applied: Minimization of scar development by adherence to indicated incision lines in the face, preferred use of local skin flaps for defect coverage in order to obtain optimal results regarding texture, complexion and sensitivity of skin, as well as consideration of aesthetic units. Recent developments in this field are tissue culture, occlusive dressings, and the use of growth factors. Age-related skin changes with impairment of cosmetic function are characterized by the development of creases and looseness of skin. Rejuvenation has become an important segment of skin surgery. For surface treatment, especially of creases and acne scars, various types of laser treatment are employed. Deeper lines can be filled with filler materials. The integration of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) into face lift procedures has lead to more viable and natural results. Due to protruding tissue, blepharoplasty of the upper lid is often carried out in combination with forehead lift and eyebrow lift procedures. The optimized use of growth factors and synthetic materials, which serve as a matrix, are aimed at skin replacement which mimics the quality and functions of skin as closely as possible. On the whole, however, the reconstruction of defect through local tissue transfer is still considered as the treatment of choice. PMID:22073066

  2. Oxygeneo®—A Unique Three-in-one Treatment of Exfoliation, Infusion, and Oxygenation via the Bohr Effect and TriPollar™ Radiofrequency for Skin Rejuvenation

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Deanna; Boonsiri, Metavee; Okawa, Joyce; Dekranes, Denise

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oxygenation of the skin has been shown to improve cell growth and cell biosynthesis, which can subsequently improve the skin’s appearance.1,2 However, the majority of skin oxygenation techniques are invasive.3,4 A noninvasive skin oxygenation treatment, also known as a carboxytherapy facial, with TriPollar® radiofrequency device has emerged called OxyGeneo™, which is provided by the geneO+™ skin care platform (Pollogen Ltd., Tel Aviv, Israel). Objective: This study addresses the clinical effectiveness of the aforementioned noninvasive skin oxygenation treatment on skin texture, fine lines/wrinkles, and skin pigmentation over an eight-week time period. Methods and materials: Ten patients with fine lines, wrinkles, hyperpigmentation, and rough skin texture received six weekly treatments over a two-month period. Five patients received NeoRevive™ and five received NeoBright™ topical infusions, with the selection made according to each individual’s skin conditions and type. These patients were evaluated using the VISIA complexion analysis system (Canfield Scientific, Inc., Parsippany, New Jersey) and patient and evaluator assessments and satisfaction surveys. Results: Each individual measurement varied by patient, but the change in value of each category that was assessed prior to treatment and post-treatment indicated an improvement. All patients in the study stated an improvement in overall skin appearance, skin texture, brightness, and shininess. Nine out of the 10 patients reported that their skin was softer and had a more youthful appearance after the treatments, and seven out of the 10 patients saw a minor improvement in fine lines and wrinkles. Lastly, five out of the 10 patients noticed an improvement in skin pigmentation. Conclusion: The results indicated the combination of the three-in-one OxyGeneo treatment of exfoliation, infusion and oxygenation using TriPolar radiofrequency prompted an improvement in skin texture and tone. This is

  3. The treatment of hypopigmentation after skin resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Fulton, James E; Rahimi, A David; Mansoor, Sohail; Helton, Peter; Shitabata, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Hypopigmentation has plagued all methods of skin resurfacing. Whether the physician uses chemical peels, dermabrasion or laser resurfacing hypopigmentation can develop. To examine the pathogenesis and treatment of hypopigmentation after resurfacing. Areas of hypopigmentation after skin resurfacing were blended in with laser-assisted chemabrasion (LACA). The process begins with preconditioning of the skin with vitamin A/glycolic skin conditioning lotions. Then the area is resurfaced with the LACA. This resurfacing usually requires three to four freeze-sand cycles to remove the areas of hypopigmentation associated with dermal fibrosis. The resurfaced skin is then occluded with a combination of polyethylene/silicone sheeting during the acute phase of wound healing. Ultraviolet photography and histologic examination were used to demonstrate the improvement in dermal fibrosis and hypopigmentation. The LACA improved areas of hypopigmentation in the 22 cases studied. Under occlusive wound dressings, the melanocytes migrated into the areas of hypopigmentation, and the wounds healed without extensive fibrosis. This produced a blending of skin color. It is possible with skin preconditioning, LACA, and occlusive wound healing to provide for a wound healing environment that blends in areas of hypopigmentation that have developed after previous skin resurfacing.

  4. Statics of wrinkling films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.

    1982-01-01

    An analytical investigation of the equilibrium of wrinkling films is conducted. Zak (1979) has shown that wrinkling occurs in connection with the instability of a smooth film having no resistance to bending in the case of compression. The governing equation for the equilibrium of a film with possible regions of wrinkling is considered. The introduction of fictitious stress reduces the governing equation to a form which formally coincides with the governing equation for a string. Equilibrium conditions in the case of an absence of external forces are explored, taking into account the stretching of a semispherical film, the torsion of a convex film of revolution, and stress singularities. A study is conducted of the equilibrium under conditions in which external forces normal to the surface of a film are present. Attention is also given to the equilibrium in a potential field.

  5. Wrinkles in reinforced membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Atsushi; Brau, Fabian; Roman, Benoît; Bico, José.

    2012-02-01

    We study, through model experiments, the buckling under tension of an elastic membrane reinforced with a more rigid strip or a fiber. In these systems, the compression of the rigid layer is induced through Poisson contraction as the membrane is stretched perpendicularly to the strip. Although strips always lead to out-of-plane wrinkles, we observe a transition from out-of-plane to in plane wrinkles beyond a critical strain in the case of fibers embedded into the elastic membranes. The same transition is also found when the membrane is reinforced with a wall of the same material depending on the aspect ratio of the wall. We describe through scaling laws the evolution of the morphology of the wrinkles and the different transitions as a function of material properties and stretching strain.

  6. Skin rash during treatment with generic itraconazole.

    PubMed

    De Vuono, Antonio; Palleria, Caterina; Scicchitano, Francesca; Squillace, Aida; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gallelli, Luca

    2014-04-01

    Generic drugs have the same active substance, the same pharmaceutical form, the same therapeutic indications and a similar bioequivalence with the reference medicinal product (branded). Although a similar efficacy is postulated, some cases of clinical inefficacy during treatment with generic formulations have been reported. In this case, we describe a woman with onychomycosis that developed a skin rash during treatment with a generic formulation of itraconazole. Drug administration and its re-challenge confirmed the association between itraconazole and skin rash. Both Naranjo probability scale and World Health Organization causality assessment scale documented a probable association between generic-itraconazole and skin rash. The switch from generic formulation to brand one induced an improvement of symptoms. Since we are unable to evaluate the role of each excipient in the development of skin rash, we cannot rule out their involvement. However, more data are necessary to better define the similarities or differences between branded and generic formulations.

  7. Skin rash during treatment with generic itraconazole

    PubMed Central

    De Vuono, Antonio; Palleria, Caterina; Scicchitano, Francesca; Squillace, Aida; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gallelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Generic drugs have the same active substance, the same pharmaceutical form, the same therapeutic indications and a similar bioequivalence with the reference medicinal product (branded). Although a similar efficacy is postulated, some cases of clinical inefficacy during treatment with generic formulations have been reported. In this case, we describe a woman with onychomycosis that developed a skin rash during treatment with a generic formulation of itraconazole. Drug administration and its re-challenge confirmed the association between itraconazole and skin rash. Both Naranjo probability scale and World Health Organization causality assessment scale documented a probable association between generic-itraconazole and skin rash. The switch from generic formulation to brand one induced an improvement of symptoms. Since we are unable to evaluate the role of each excipient in the development of skin rash, we cannot rule out their involvement. However, more data are necessary to better define the similarities or differences between branded and generic formulations. PMID:24799820

  8. Home-use TriPollar RF device for facial skin tightening: Clinical study results.

    PubMed

    Beilin, Ghislaine

    2011-04-01

    Professional, non-invasive, anti-aging treatments based on radio-frequency (RF) technologies are popular for skin tightening and improvement of wrinkles. A new home-use RF device for facial treatments has recently been developed based on TriPollar™ technology. To evaluate the STOP™ home-use device for facial skin tightening using objective and subjective methods. Twenty-three female subjects used the STOP at home for a period of 6 weeks followed by a maintenance period of 6 weeks. Facial skin characteristics were objectively evaluated at baseline and at the end of the treatment and maintenance periods using a three-dimensional imaging system. Additionally, facial wrinkles were classified and subjects scored their satisfaction and sensations. Following STOP treatment, a statistically significant reduction of perioral and periorbital wrinkles was achieved in 90% and 95% of the patients, respectively, with an average periorbital wrinkle reduction of 41%. This objective result correlated well with the periorbital wrinkle classification result of 40%. All patients were satisfied to extremely satisfied with the treatments and all reported moderate to excellent visible results. The clinical study demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the STOP home-use device for facial skin tightening. Treatment can maintain a tighter and suppler skin with improvement of fine lines and wrinkles.

  9. Results of fractional ablative facial skin resurfacing with the erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser 1 week and 2 months after one single treatment in 30 patients.

    PubMed

    Trelles, Mario A; Mordon, Serge; Velez, Mariano; Urdiales, Fernando; Levy, Jean Luc

    2009-03-01

    The erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Er:YAG) laser has recently been used in the fractional resurfacing of photo-aged skin. Our study evaluated the results after one single session of fractional resurfacing with Er:YAG. Thirty women participated in the study, with an average age of 46 years, skin types from II to IV, and wrinkle grades I to III. The 2,940 nm Er:YAG system used (Pixel, Alma Laser, Israel) had variable pulse durations (1 ms to 2 ms) and energy densities (800 mJ/cm(2) to 1,400 mJ/cm(2)) which, together with the number of passes (four to eight), were selected as a function of wrinkle severity. All patients received only one treatment. Postoperative side effects were evaluated. The number of wrinkles was documented with clinical photography and was scored. Histological assessment was carried out on two patients before and 2 months after treatment. All patients completed the study. Of the patients, 93% reported good or very good improvement of the degree of their wrinkles, with a satisfaction index of 83%. Pain was not a problem during treatment, and there were no side effects except for in one phototype IV patient, who had hyperpigmentation. Histology 2 months after the single treatment demonstrated younger morphology of both the epidermis and dermis, with improvement of the pretreatment typical elastotic appearance. At the parameters used in our study, only one treatment session of Er:YAG laser could achieve effective skin rejuvenation, with effects recognized in both the dermis and, more importantly, the epidermis. This regimen offers an interesting alternative to the conventional approach of multi-session fractional resurfacing.

  10. Anti-wrinkle effects of Sargassum muticum ethyl acetate fraction on ultraviolet B-irradiated hairless mouse skin and mechanistic evaluation in the human HaCaT keratinocyte cell line.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae Hyoung; Piao, Mei Jing; Han, Xia; Kang, Kyoung Ah; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Yoon, Weon Jong; Ko, Mi Hee; Lee, Nam Ho; Lee, Mi Young; Chae, Sungwook; Hyun, Jin Won

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigated the photoprotective properties of the ethyl acetate fraction of Sargassum muticum (SME) against ultraviolet B (UVB)‑induced skin damage and photoaging in a mouse model. HR‑1 strain hairless male mice were divided into three groups: An untreated control group, a UVB‑irradiated vehicle group and a UVB‑irradiated SME group. The UVB‑irradiated mice in the SME group were orally administered with SME (100 mg/kg body weight in 0.1 ml water per day) and then exposed to radiation at a dose of 60‑120 mJ/cm2. Wrinkle formation and skin damage were evaluated by analysis of skin replicas, epidermal thickness and collagen fiber integrity in the dermal connective tissue. The mechanism underlying the action of SME was also investigated in the human HaCaT keratinocyte cell line following exposure of the cells to UVB at a dose of 30 mJ/cm2. The protein expression levels and activity of matrix metalloproteinase‑1 (MMP‑1), and the binding of activator protein‑1 (AP‑1) to the MMP‑1 promoter were assessed in the HaCaT cells using western blot analysis, an MMP‑1 fluorescent assay and a chromatin immune‑precipitation assay, respectively. The results showed that the mean length and depth of the wrinkles in the UVB‑exposed hairless mice were significantly improved by oral administration of SME, which also prevented the increase in epidermal thickness triggered by UVB irradiation. Furthermore, a marked increase in collagen bundle formation was observed in the UVB‑treated mice with SME administration. SME pretreatment also significantly inhibited the UVB‑induced upregulation in the expression and activity of MMP‑1 in the cultured HaCaT keratinocytes, and the UVB‑enhanced association of AP‑1 with the MMP‑1 promoter. These results suggested that SME may be useful as an anti-photoaging resource for the skin.

  11. Oily Skin: A review of Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most common dermatologic concerns is oily skin, and the demand for effective treatment options is ever apparent. This review article addresses numerous topical treatment options such as retinoids, olumacostat glasaretil, and various cosmeceutical agents. several systemic and procedural techniques that incorporate isotretinoin, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, botulinum toxin, photodynamic therapy, and lasers are reviewed as well. Each treatment option is analyzed in terms of the proposed mechanism of action, efficacy reported in the literature, and potential adverse effects. PMID:28979664

  12. Protective effect of Fucoxanthin against UVB-induced skin photoaging in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Urikura, Itaru; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Hirata, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Fucoxanthin, a major carotenoid in brown algae, has various beneficial effects. In this study, we evaluated the effect of topical fucoxanthin on UVB-induced skin photoaging in hairless mice. The dorsal skins were treated topically with a 0.001% fucoxanthin solution 2 h each time before UVB irradiation (5 times a week) for 10 weeks. The formation of wrinkles in UVB-irradiated skin treated with vehicle alone significantly increased, as compared with the non-irradiated control. Treatment with fucoxanthin tended to suppress UVB-induced wrinkle formation, but there was no significant difference between wrinkle formation in the control group and the fucoxanthin treatment group. However, topical treatment with fucoxanthin significantly lessened UVB-induced epidermal hypertrophy, VEGF, and MMP-13 expression in the epidermis and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the skin. These results indicate that topical treatment with fucoxanthin prevents skin photoaging in UVB-irradiated hairless mice, possibly via antioxidant and antiangiogenic effects.

  13. Assessment of the efficacy and safety of single platelet-rich plasma injection on different types and grades of facial wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Elnehrawy, Naema Y; Ibrahim, Zeinab A; Eltoukhy, Azza M; Nagy, Hala M

    2017-03-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is considered as a growing modality for tissue regeneration and a developing research area for clinicians and researchers. PRP injection treatment provides supraphysiological concentrations of growth factors that may help in accelerated tissue remodeling and regeneration. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of single autologous PRP intradermal injection for treatment of facial wrinkles and for facial rejuvenation. A total of 20 subjects with different types of facial wrinkles were included in this study. All subjects received single PRP intradermal injection and were clinically assessed before and after treatment for a period of 8 weeks using Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale (WSRS), Skin Homogeneity and Texture (SHnT) Scale, Physician Assessment Scale, and Subject Satisfaction Scale. The mean value of WSRS reduced from 2.90 ± 0.91 before treatment to 2.10 ± 0.79 after 8 weeks of treatment. The most significant results were with younger subjects that have mild and moderate wrinkles of the nasolabial folds (NLFs). Fourteen of seventeen subjects with NLFs showed more than 25% improvement in their appearance. Side effects of PRP treatment were minimal to mild and with excellent tolerability. Single PRP intradermal injection is well tolerated and capable of rejuvenating the face and producing a significant correction of wrinkles especially the NLFs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Skin cancer treatment options for nonmelanoma skin cancers include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. Treatment choice depends on the cell type and extent of disease. Get detailed treatment information in this summary for clinicians.

  15. Wrinkle structures—a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porada, Hubertus; Bouougri, El Hafid

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, a variety of so-called 'wrinkle structures' is reviewed in an attempt to help distinguish between crinkly decorations arising from physical processes that acted on siliciclastic bedding surfaces, and true microbially induced 'wrinkle structures'. Two types of small-scale, microbially induced sedimentary structures are prominent due to their distinct geometry and mode of occurrence: (1) 'elephant skin' textures, characterized by reticulate patterns of sharp-crested ridges forming mm- to cm-scale polygons, occurring on argillite or argillaceous veneers above fine-grained sandstone and likely reflecting growth structures of microbial, mats (2) 'Kinneyia' structures, characterized by mm-scale flat-topped, winding ridges and intervening troughs and pits, sometimes resembling small-scale interference ripples. 'Kinneyia' structures usually occur on upper surfaces of siltstone/sandstone beds, themselves frequently event deposits, and are thought to have formed beneath microbial mats. Additionally, more linear variations of mat growth structures, partly resembling small-scale 'α-petees' may be developed. Finally, some wrinkly structures resulting from tractional mat deformation or mat slumping are occasionally preserved. These may appear as arcuate belts of non-penetrative, small-scale folds or as wrinkled bulges on otherwise flat surfaces. 'Wrinkle structures' as indicators for the former presence of mats gain in importance if other mat-related structures are additionally observed in the same clastic succession, e.g. 'sand chips' (sandy intraclasts) or spindle-shaped or sinuously curved to circular sand cracks, frequently combined in networks. Furthermore, appropriate lithologies and facies are required. For instance, if compared with the distribution of modern cohesive microbial mats, laminated siltstone/argillite with intercalated siltstone/sandstone beds representing event deposits in tidal flat successions would be compatible with microbial mat

  16. An evaluation method for nanoscale wrinkle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. P.; Wang, C. G.; Zhang, L. M.; Tan, H. F.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a spectrum-based wrinkling analysis method via two-dimensional Fourier transformation is proposed aiming to solve the difficulty of nanoscale wrinkle evaluation. It evaluates the wrinkle characteristics including wrinkling wavelength and direction simply using a single wrinkling image. Based on this method, the evaluation results of nanoscale wrinkle characteristics show agreement with the open experimental results within an error of 6%. It is also verified to be appropriate for the macro wrinkle evaluation without scale limitations. The spectrum-based wrinkling analysis is an effective method for nanoscale evaluation, which contributes to reveal the mechanism of nanoscale wrinkling.

  17. Clinical Evaluation of a 4% Hydroquinone + 1% Retinol Treatment Regimen for Improving Melasma and Photodamage in Fitzpatrick Skin Types III-VI.

    PubMed

    Rendon, Marta I; Barkovic, Sylvia

    2016-11-01

    The bene ts of monotherapy with hydroquinone for melasma and retinoids for photodamaged skin is well established. Here we report results of a hydroquinone skincare regimen designed for melasma treatment combined with a cosmetic retinol cream on subjects presenting with both melasma and facial photodamage in a 24-week study. Improvement in melasma and photodamage ef cacy pa- rameters of melasma pigmentation intensity and melasma area and severity index (MASI), as well as overall photodamage and mottled hyperpigmentation were found by week 4, the rst post-baseline time point. By week 8 signi cant improvements were also found in melasma disease severity assessment, tactile roughness, ne wrinkles, crepiness, actinic lentigines, and laxity. By week 18 signi cant reduction in coarse wrinkles was evident. Bene ts persisted through the study end on the panel of 31 subjects, with over 3⁄4 of par- ticipants demonstrating improvements in 10 of the 11 graded attributes. For the remaining attribute, coarse wrinkling, approximately 50% of the panel showed improvement. The regimen produced an average of "marked improvement" in melasma severity (51-75% improvement). Results of tolerance evaluations documented overall treatment mildness for a majority of the study participants. Subject questionnaires concur with high ratings of the study regimen for tolerability, ef cacy perception, product aesthetics and overall treat- ment satisfaction in subjects of Fitzpatrick Skin Type III-VI classi cation with melasma and photodamage in mild-to-moderate severity. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1435-1441..

  18. The Efficacy, Longevity, and Safety of Combined Radiofrequency Treatment and Hyaluronic Acid Filler for Skin Rejuvenation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyuk; Park, Kui Young; Choi, Sun Young; Koh, Hyun-Ju; Park, Sun-Young; Park, Won-Seok; Bae, Il-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent advances in hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers and radiofrequency (RF) devices have been made in the context of skin rejuvenation and cosmetic surgery. Moreover, combination regimens with both techniques are currently being developed. Objective The present study was designed to examine the clinical and histologic effects of a new needle that incorporates an RF device for HA injections. Methods A new intradermal needle RF device (INNOfill; Pacific Pharma, Korea) was assessed in the present study. In the animal arm, procollagen production was measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the filler volume was quantified by incorporating a dye with filler, and the filler distribution was assessed through the changes in tissue structure. In the human arm, the efficacy of the combination regimen was assessed by using the wrinkle severity rating scale (WSRS). Results In the animal study, RF treatment increased procollagen production in a time-dependent fashion. The total volume was significantly increased with the RF treatment when compared with the filler injections alone, and lasted for up to 7 weeks after treatment. Additionally, the filler distribution was reduced in animals treated with RF when compared with the untreated group. In the human study, the nasolabial folds of subjects treated with RF before filler injections exhibited a significantly greater change in the WSRS score from baseline when compared with the nasolabial folds treated with filler injections alone. Conclusion A new device incorporating RF treatment before HA filler injection may represent a biocompatible and long-lasting advance in skin rejuvenation. PMID:25143672

  19. Medicinal plants used in treatment of inflammatory skin diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Skin is an organ providing contact with the environment and protecting the human body from unfavourable external factors. Skin inflammation, reflected adversely in its functioning and appearance, also unfavourably affects the psyche, the condition of which is important during treatment of chronic skin diseases. The use of plants in treatment of inflammatory skin diseases results from their influence on different stages of inflammation. The paper presents results of the study regarding the anti-inflammatory activity of the plant raw material related to its influence on skin. The mechanism of action, therapeutic indications and side effects of medicinal plants used for treatment of inflammatory diseases of the skin are described. PMID:24278070

  20. (Z)-5-(2,4-Dihydroxybenzylidene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione Prevents UVB-Induced Melanogenesis and Wrinkle Formation through Suppressing Oxidative Stress in HRM-2 Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bonggi; Moon, Kyoung Mi; Kim, Seong Jin; Kim, So Hee; Kim, Dae Hyun; An, Hye Jin; Jeong, Ji Won; Kim, Ye Ra; Son, Sujin; Kim, Min Jo; Chung, Ki Wung; Lee, Eun Kyeong; Chun, Pusoon; Ha, Young Mi; Kim, Min-Sun; Mo, Sang Hyun; Moon, Hyung Ryong; Chung, Hae Young

    2016-01-01

    Background. Uncontrolled melanogenesis and wrinkle formation are an indication of photoaging. Our previous studies demonstrated that (Z)-5-(2,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione (MHY498) inhibited tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis in vitro. Objective. To examine in vivo effects of MHY498 as an antiaging compound on UVB-induced melanogenesis and wrinkle formation, we topically applied MHY498 on dorsal skin of HRM-2 hairless mice. Methods. Using histological analysis, we evaluated effects of MHY498 on melanogenesis and wrinkle formation after UVB exposure. In addition, related molecular signaling pathways were examined using western blotting, fluorometric assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. MHY498 suppressed UVB-induced melanogenesis by inhibiting phosphorylation of CREB and translocation of MITF protein into the nucleus, which are key factors for tyrosinase expression. Consistently, tyrosinase protein levels were notably reduced in the dorsal skin of the hairless mice by MHY498 treatment. Furthermore, MHY498 inhibited UVB-induced wrinkle formation and collagen fiber destruction by increasing type 1 procollagen concentration and decreasing protein expression levels of MMPs, which play an essential role in collagen fiber degradation. As a mechanism, MHY498 notably ameliorated UVB-induced oxidative stress and NF-κB activation in the dermal skin of the hairless mice. Conclusion. Our study suggests that MHY498 can be used as a therapeutic or cosmetic agent for preventing uncontrolled melanogenesis and wrinkle formation. PMID:27242917

  1. An Open Label Clinical Trial of a Peptide Treatment Serum and Supporting Regimen Designed to Improve the Appearance of Aging Facial Skin.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana; Kononov, Tatiana; Fox, Theresa

    2016-09-01

    A 14-week single-center clinical usage study was conducted to test the efficacy of a peptide treatment serum and supporting skincare regimen in 29 women with mild to moderately photodamaged facial skin. The peptide treatment serum contained gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and various peptides with neurotransmitter inhibiting and cell signaling properties. It was hypothesized that the peptide treatment serum would ameliorate eye and facial expression lines including crow's feet and forehead lines. The efficacy of the supporting skincare regimen was also evaluated. An expert investigator examined the subjects at rest and at maximum smile. Additionally, the subjects completed self-assessment questionnaires. At week 14, the expert investigator found a statistically significant improvement in facial lines, facial wrinkles, eye lines, and eye wrinkles at rest when compared to baseline results. The expert investigator also found statistically significant improvement at week 14 in facial lines, eye lines, and eye wrinkles when compared to baseline results at maximum smile. In addition, there was continued highly statistically significant improvement in smoothness, softness, firmness, radiance, luminosity, and overall appearance at rest when compared to baseline results at the 14-week time point. The test regimen was well perceived by the subjects for efficacy and product attributes. The products were well tolerated with no adverse events.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(9):1100-1106.

  2. Mechanics of fluid flow over compliant wrinkled polymeric surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raayai, Shabnam; McKinley, Gareth; Boyce, Mary

    2014-03-01

    Skin friction coefficients (based on frontal area) of sharks and dolphins are lower than birds, fish and swimming beetles. By either exploiting flow-induced changes in their flexible skin or microscale textures, dolphins and sharks can change the structure of the fluid flow around them and thus reduce viscous drag forces on their bodies. Inspired by this ability, investigators have tried using compliant walls and riblet-like textures as drag reduction methods in aircraft and marine industries and have been able to achieve reductions up to 19%. Here we investigate flow-structure interaction and wrinkling of soft polymer surfaces that can emulate shark riblets and dolphin's flexible skin. Wrinkling arises spontaneously as the result of mismatched deformation of a thin stiff coating bound to a thick soft elastic substrate. Wrinkles can be fabricated by controlling the ratio of the stiffness of the coating and substrate, the applied displacement and the thickness of the coating. In this work we will examine the evolution in the kinematic structures associated with steady viscous flow over the polymer wrinkled surfaces and in particular compare the skin friction with corresponding results for flow over non-textured and rigid surfaces.

  3. Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the most common types of skin cancer. Find out about risk factors, symptoms, tests to diagnose, prognosis, staging, and treatment for skin cancer.

  4. Controlling morphology in swelling-induced wrinkled surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breid, Derek Ronald

    Wrinkles represent a pathway towards the spontaneous generation of ordered surface microstructure for applications in numerous fields. Examples of highly complex ordered wrinkle structures abound in Nature, but the ability to harness this potential for advanced material applications remains limited. This work focuses on understanding the relationship between the patterns on a wrinkled surface and the experimental conditions under which they form. Because wrinkles form in response to applied stresses, particular attention is given to the nature of the stresses in a wrinkling surface. The fundamental insight gained was then utilized to account for observed wrinkle formation phenomena within more complex geometric and kinetic settings. In order to carefully control and measure the applied stresses on a wrinkling film, a swelling-based system was developed using poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), surface-oxidized with a UV-ozone treatment. The swelling of the oxidized surface upon exposure to an ethanol vapor atmosphere was characterized using beam-bending experiments, allowing quantitative measurements of the applied stress. The wrinkle morphologies were characterized as a function of the overstress, defined as the ratio of the applied swelling stress to the critical buckling stress of the material. A transition in the dominant morphology of the wrinkled surfaces from dimple patterns to ridge patterns was observed at an overstress value of ˜2. The pattern dependence of wrinkles on the ratio of the principal stresses was examined by fabricating samples with a gradient prestress. When swollen, these samples exhibited a smooth morphological transition from non-equibiaxial to equibiaxial patterns, with prestrains as low as 2.5% exhibiting non-equibiaxial characteristics. This transition was seen both in samples with low and high overstresses. To explore the impact of these stress states in more complex geometries, wrinkling hemispherical surfaces with radii of curvature

  5. Facesheet Wrinkling in Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ley, Robert P.; Lin, Weichuan; Mbanefo, Uy

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a concise summary of the state-of-the-art for the analysis of the facesheet wrinkling mode of failure in sandwich structures. This document is not an exhaustive review of the published research related to facesheet wrinkling. Instead, a smaller number of key papers are reviewed in order to provide designers and analysts with a working understanding of the state-of-the-art. Designers and analysts should use this survey to guide their judgement when deciding which one of a wide variety of available facesheet wrinkling design formulas is applicable to a specific design problem.

  6. A randomized, controlled comparative study of the wrinkle reduction benefits of a cosmetic niacinamide/peptide/retinyl propionate product regimen vs. a prescription 0.02% tretinoin product regimen.

    PubMed

    Fu, J J J; Hillebrand, G G; Raleigh, P; Li, J; Marmor, M J; Bertucci, V; Grimes, P E; Mandy, S H; Perez, M I; Weinkle, S H; Kaczvinsky, J R

    2010-03-01

    Tretinoin is considered the benchmark prescription topical therapy for improving fine facial wrinkles, but skin tolerance issues can affect patient compliance. In contrast, cosmetic antiwrinkle products are well tolerated but are generally presumed to be less efficacious than tretinoin. To compare the efficacy of a cosmetic moisturizer regimen vs. a prescription regimen with 0.02% tretinoin for improving the appearance of facial wrinkles. An 8-week, randomized, parallel-group study was conducted in 196 women with moderate to moderately severe periorbital wrinkles. Following 2 weeks washout, subjects on the cosmetic regimen (n = 99) used a sun protection factor (SPF) 30 moisturizing lotion containing 5% niacinamide, peptides and antioxidants, a moisturizing cream containing niacinamide and peptides, and a targeted wrinkle product containing niacinamide, peptides and 0.3% retinyl propionate. Subjects on the prescription regimen (n = 97) used 0.02% tretinoin plus moisturizing SPF 30 sunscreen. Subject cohorts (n = 25) continued treatment for an additional 16 weeks. Changes in facial wrinkling were assessed by both expert grading and image analysis of digital images of subjects' faces and by self-assessment questionnaire. Product tolerance was assessed via clinical erythema and dryness grading, subject self-assessment, and determinations of skin barrier integrity (transepidermal water loss) and stratum corneum protein changes. The cosmetic regimen significantly improved wrinkle appearance after 8 weeks relative to tretinoin, with comparable benefits after 24 weeks. The cosmetic regimen was significantly better tolerated than tretinoin through 8 weeks by all measures. An appropriately designed cosmetic regimen can improve facial wrinkle appearance comparably with the benchmark prescription treatment, with improved tolerability.

  7. A randomized, controlled comparative study of the wrinkle reduction benefits of a cosmetic niacinamide/peptide/retinyl propionate product regimen vs. a prescription 0·02% tretinoin product regimen

    PubMed Central

    Fu, JJJ; Hillebrand, GG; Raleigh, P; Li, J; Marmor, MJ; Bertucci, V; Grimes, PE; Mandy, SH; Perez, MI; Weinkle, SH; Kaczvinsky, JR

    2010-01-01

    Background Tretinoin is considered the benchmark prescription topical therapy for improving fine facial wrinkles, but skin tolerance issues can affect patient compliance. In contrast, cosmetic antiwrinkle products are well tolerated but are generally presumed to be less efficacious than tretinoin. Objectives To compare the efficacy of a cosmetic moisturizer regimen vs. a prescription regimen with 0·02% tretinoin for improving the appearance of facial wrinkles. Methods An 8-week, randomized, parallel-group study was conducted in 196 women with moderate to moderately severe periorbital wrinkles. Following 2 weeks washout, subjects on the cosmetic regimen (n=99) used a sun protection factor (SPF) 30 moisturizing lotion containing 5% niacinamide, peptides and antioxidants, a moisturizing cream containing niacinamide and peptides, and a targeted wrinkle product containing niacinamide, peptides and 0·3% retinyl propionate. Subjects on the prescription regimen (n=97) used 0·02% tretinoin plus moisturizing SPF 30 sunscreen. Subject cohorts (n=25) continued treatment for an additional 16 weeks. Changes in facial wrinkling were assessed by both expert grading and image analysis of digital images of subjects’ faces and by self-assessment questionnaire. Product tolerance was assessed via clinical erythema and dryness grading, subject self-assessment, and determinations of skin barrier integrity (transepidermal water loss) and stratum corneum protein changes. Results The cosmetic regimen significantly improved wrinkle appearance after 8 weeks relative to tretinoin, with comparable benefits after 24 weeks. The cosmetic regimen was significantly better tolerated than tretinoin through 8 weeks by all measures. Conclusions An appropriately designed cosmetic regimen can improve facial wrinkle appearance comparably with the benchmark prescription treatment, with improved tolerability. PMID:20374604

  8. Universal Method for Creating Hierarchical Wrinkles on Thin-Film Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jung, Woo-Bin; Cho, Kyeong Min; Lee, Won-Kyu; Odom, Teri W; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2018-01-10

    One of the most interesting topics in physical science and materials science is the creation of complex wrinkled structures on thin-film surfaces because of their several advantages of high surface area, localized strain, and stress tolerance. In this study, a significant step was taken toward solving limitations imposed by the fabrication of previous artificial wrinkles. A universal method for preparing hierarchical three-dimensional wrinkle structures of thin films on a multiple scale (e.g., nanometers to micrometers) by sequential wrinkling with different skin layers was developed. Notably, this method was not limited to specific materials, and it was applicable to fabricating hierarchical wrinkles on all of the thin-film surfaces tested thus far, including those of metals, two-dimensional and one-dimensional materials, and polymers. The hierarchical wrinkles with multiscale structures were prepared by sequential wrinkling, in which a sacrificial layer was used as the additional skin layer between sequences. For example, a hierarchical MoS 2 wrinkle exhibited highly enhanced catalytic behavior because of the superaerophobicity and effective surface area, which are related to topological effects. As the developed method can be adopted to a majority of thin films, it is thought to be a universal method for enhancing the physical properties of various materials.

  9. Wrinkle motifs in thin films

    PubMed Central

    Budrikis, Zoe; Sellerio, Alessandro L.; Bertalan, Zsolt; Zapperi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    On length scales from nanometres to metres, partial adhesion of thin films with substrates generates a fascinating variety of patterns, such as ‘telephone cord’ buckles, wrinkles, and labyrinth domains. Although these patterns are part of everyday experience and are important in industry, they are not completely understood. Here, we report simulation studies of a previously-overlooked phenomenon in which pairs of wrinkles form avoiding pairs, focusing on the case of graphene over patterned substrates. By nucleating and growing wrinkles in a controlled way, we characterize how their morphology is determined by stress fields in the sheet and friction with the substrate. Our simulations uncover the generic behaviour of avoiding wrinkle pairs that should be valid at all scales. PMID:25758174

  10. Treatment Options for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of skin biopsies: Shave biopsy : A sterile razor blade is used to “shave-off” the abnormal-looking ... the surface of the skin with a small blade. Electrodesiccation and curettage : The tumor is cut from ...

  11. Ironing Out the Wrinkles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    This is a Calibration Archival proposal to develop, implement, and test enhancements to the pipeline wavelength scales of STIS echelle spectra, to take full advantage of the extremely high performance of which the instrument is capable. The motivation is a recent extensive investigation--The Deep Lamp Project--which identified systematic wavelength distortions in all 44 primary and secondary settings of the four STIS echelle modes: E140M, E140H, E230M, and E230H. The method was to process deep exposures of the onboard Pt/Cr-Ne calibration source as if they were science images, and measure deviations of the lamp lines from their laboratory wavelengths. An approach has been developed to correct the distortions post facto, but it would be preferable to implement a more robust dispersion model in the pipeline itself. The proposed study will examine a more extensive set of WAVECALs than in the exploratory Deep Lamp effort, and will benefit from a new laboratory line list specifically for the STIS lamps. Ironing out the wrinkles in the STIS wavelength scales will impact many diverse science investigations, especially the Legacy Archival project "StarCAT."

  12. Oral hyaluronan relieves wrinkles: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study over a 12-week period

    PubMed Central

    Oe, Mariko; Sakai, Seigo; Yoshida, Hideto; Okado, Nao; Kaneda, Haruna; Masuda, Yasunobu; Urushibata, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    Background Hyaluronan (HA) has critical moisturizing property and high water retention capacity especially for human skin. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of oral intake of HA. Methods The mean molecular weight (MW) of HA is 2 k and 300 k. Sixty Japanese male and female subjects aged 22–59 years who presented with crow’s feet wrinkles were randomly assigned to the HA 2 k or HA 300 k at 120 mg/day or the placebo group. The subjects were administered HA at a rate of 120 mg/day or a placebo for 12 weeks. The skin wrinkles were evaluated by image analysis of skin wrinkle replicas, and their skin condition was evaluated using a questionnaire survey. Results During the study period, the HA groups showed better level of the whole sulcus volume ratio, wrinkle area ratio, and wrinkle volume ratio than the placebo group. After 8 weeks of ingestion, the HA 300 k group showed significantly diminished wrinkles compared with the placebo group. Skin luster and suppleness significantly improved after 12 weeks in all groups compared with the baseline. Conclusion The results suggest that oral HA (both HA 2 k and HA 300 k) inhibits skin wrinkles and improves skin condition. PMID:28761365

  13. Oral hyaluronan relieves wrinkles: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study over a 12-week period.

    PubMed

    Oe, Mariko; Sakai, Seigo; Yoshida, Hideto; Okado, Nao; Kaneda, Haruna; Masuda, Yasunobu; Urushibata, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) has critical moisturizing property and high water retention capacity especially for human skin. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of oral intake of HA. The mean molecular weight (MW) of HA is 2 k and 300 k. Sixty Japanese male and female subjects aged 22-59 years who presented with crow's feet wrinkles were randomly assigned to the HA 2 k or HA 300 k at 120 mg/day or the placebo group. The subjects were administered HA at a rate of 120 mg/day or a placebo for 12 weeks. The skin wrinkles were evaluated by image analysis of skin wrinkle replicas, and their skin condition was evaluated using a questionnaire survey. During the study period, the HA groups showed better level of the whole sulcus volume ratio, wrinkle area ratio, and wrinkle volume ratio than the placebo group. After 8 weeks of ingestion, the HA 300 k group showed significantly diminished wrinkles compared with the placebo group. Skin luster and suppleness significantly improved after 12 weeks in all groups compared with the baseline. The results suggest that oral HA (both HA 2 k and HA 300 k) inhibits skin wrinkles and improves skin condition.

  14. The Inhibitory Effects of Anti-Oxidants on Ultraviolet-Induced Up-Regulation of the Wrinkling-Inducing Enzyme Neutral Endopeptidase in Human Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Hiroaki; Terazawa, Shuko; Niwano, Takao; Yamamoto, Yorihiro; Imokawa, Genji

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported that the over-expression of skin fibroblast-derived neutral endopeptidase (NEP) plays a pivotal role in impairing the three-dimensional architecture of dermal elastic fibers during the biological mechanism of ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin wrinkling. In that process, a UVB-associated epithelial-mesenchymal cytokine interaction as well as a direct UVA-induced cellular stimulation are associated with the up-regulation of NEP in human fibroblasts. In this study, we characterized the mode of action of ubiquinol10 which may abrogate the up-regulation of NEP by dermal fibroblasts, resulting in a reported in vivo anti-wrinkling action, and compared that with 3 other anti-oxidants, astaxanthin (AX), riboflavin (RF) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN). Post-irradiation treatment with all 4 of those anti-oxidants elicited an interrupting effect on the UVB-associated epithelial-mesenchymal cytokine interaction leading to the up-regulation of NEP in human fibroblasts but with different modes of action. While AX mainly served as an inhibitor of the secretion of wrinkle-inducing cytokines, such as interleukin-1α (IL-1α) and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulatory factor (GM-CSF) in UVB-exposed epidermal keratinocytes, ubiquinol10, RF and FMN predominantly interrupted the IL-1α and GM-CSF-stimulated expression of NEP in dermal fibroblasts. On the other hand, as for the UVA-associated mechanism, similar to the abrogating effects reported for AX and FMN, ubiquinol10 but not RF had the potential to abrogate the increased expression of NEP and matrix-metalloproteinase-1 in UVA-exposed human fibroblasts. Our findings strongly support the in vivo anti-wrinkling effects of ubiquinol10 and AX on human and animal skin and provide convincing proof of the UV-induced wrinkling mechanism that essentially focuses on the over-expression of NEP by dermal fibroblasts as an intrinsic causative factor. PMID:27648570

  15. UV treatments on the physicochemical properties of tilapia skin and pig skin gelatin.

    PubMed

    Wu, C K; Tsai, J S; Chen, Z Y; Sung, W C

    2015-06-01

    Tilapia skin gelatin, pig skin gelatin, and their mousse premixes were exposed to UV irradiation for 103, 206, and 309 kJ/cm(2). All samples after 309 kJ/cm(2) exposure exhibited a significant increase in gel strength, gel forming ability as well as viscosity of solutions. It was shown that UV treatment could also improve the pig skin gelatin foam stability and foam formation ability compared to those of tilapia skin gelatin. Nevertheless, the panelists gave the lowest scores to mousse made with 309 kJ/cm(2) UV-irradiated premix mousse pig skin gelatin. Tilapia skin gelatin could be used as a substitute ingredient for premix mousse made from pig skin gelatin. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Metabolic changes in psoriatic skin under topical corticosteroid treatment.

    PubMed

    Sitter, Beathe; Johnsson, Margareta Karin; Halgunset, Jostein; Bathen, Tone Frost

    2013-08-14

    MR spectroscopy of intact biopsies can provide a metabolic snapshot of the investigated tissue. The aim of the present study was to explore the metabolic pattern of uninvolved skin, psoriatic skin and corticosteroid treated psoriatic skin. The three types of skin biopsy samples were excised from patients with psoriasis (N = 10). Lesions were evaluated clinically, and tissue biopsies were excised and analyzed by one-dimensional 1H MR spectroscopy. Relative levels were calculated for nine tissue metabolites. Subsequently, relative amounts of epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue were scored by histopathological evaluation of HES stained sections. Seven out of 10 patients experienced at least 40% reduction in clinical score after corticosteroid treatment. Tissue biopsies from psoriatic skin contained lower levels of the metabolites myo-inositol and glucose, and higher levels of choline and taurine compared to uninvolved skin. In corticosteroid treated psoriatic skin, tissue levels of glucose, myo-inositol, GPC and glycine were increased, whereas choline was reduced, in patients with good therapeutic effect. These tissue levels are becoming more similar to metabolite levels in uninvolved skin. This MR method demonstrates that metabolism in psoriatic skin becomes similar to that of uninvolved skin after effective corticosteroid treatment. MR profiling of skin lesions reflect metabolic alterations related to pathogenesis and treatment effects.

  17. Home-based wrinkle reduction using a novel handheld multisource phase-controlled radiofrequency device.

    PubMed

    Shemer, Avner; Levy, Hanna; Sadick, Neil S; Harth, Yoram; Dorizas, Andrew S

    2014-11-01

    In the last decade, energy-based aesthetic treatments, using light, radiofrequency (RF), and ultrasound, have gained scientific acceptance as safe and efficacious for non-invasive treatment for aesthetic skin disorders. The phase-controlled multisource radiofrequency technology (3DEEP™), which is based on the simultaneous use of multiple RF generators, was proven to allow significant pigment-independent dermal heating without pain or the need of epidermal cooling. This study was performed in order to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new handheld device delivering multisource radiofrequency to the skin for wrinkle reduction and skin tightening in the home setting. A total of 69 participants (age 54.3 years ± 8.09; age range 37-72 years) were enrolled in the study after meeting all inclusion/exclusion criteria (100%) and providing informed consent. Participants were provided with the tested device together with a user manual and treatment diary, to perform independent treatments at home for 4 weeks. The tested device, (Newa™, EndyMed Medical, Cesarea, Israel) emits 12 W of 1Mhz, RF energy through six electrodes arranged in a linear fashion. Independent control of RF polarity through each one of the 6 electrodes allows significant reduction of energy flow through the epidermis with increased dermal penetration. Participants were instructed to perform at least 5 treatments a week, for one month. Four follow-up visits were scheduled (once a week) during the period of independent treatments at home, following 4 weeks of home treatments, 1 month follow-up visit (1 month after treatment end) and at 3 months follow-up (3 months following treatment end). Analysis of pre-and post treatment images was conducted by three uninvolved physicians experienced with the Fitzpatrick Wrinkle and Elastosis Scale. Fitzpatrick Wrinkle and Elastosis score of each time point (4 weeks following home use treatments; 1 month follow-up, 3 months follow-up) was compared to baseline

  18. Detection and inpainting of facial wrinkles using texture orientation fields and Markov random field modeling.

    PubMed

    Batool, Nazre; Chellappa, Rama

    2014-09-01

    Facial retouching is widely used in media and entertainment industry. Professional software usually require a minimum level of user expertise to achieve the desirable results. In this paper, we present an algorithm to detect facial wrinkles/imperfection. We believe that any such algorithm would be amenable to facial retouching applications. The detection of wrinkles/imperfections can allow these skin features to be processed differently than the surrounding skin without much user interaction. For detection, Gabor filter responses along with texture orientation field are used as image features. A bimodal Gaussian mixture model (GMM) represents distributions of Gabor features of normal skin versus skin imperfections. Then, a Markov random field model is used to incorporate the spatial relationships among neighboring pixels for their GMM distributions and texture orientations. An expectation-maximization algorithm then classifies skin versus skin wrinkles/imperfections. Once detected automatically, wrinkles/imperfections are removed completely instead of being blended or blurred. We propose an exemplar-based constrained texture synthesis algorithm to inpaint irregularly shaped gaps left by the removal of detected wrinkles/imperfections. We present results conducted on images downloaded from the Internet to show the efficacy of our algorithms.

  19. Anti-wrinkle effects of a tuna heart H2O fraction on Hs27 human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Min; Jung, Hee-Jin; Choi, Jae-Sue; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    With the increase in life expectancy, there is also growing interest in anti-aging treatments and technologies. The development of anti-aging functional drugs for the skin, and foods from natural sources, may offer solutions to this global matter. Aging involves structural, functional and biochemical changes that occur throughout cells and bodily tissues; the amount of hormones secreted from of all human organs, including the skin, decreases over time. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genes (MMP-1 and -8) play an important role in the aging of skin fibroblasts. For example, an increased MMP expression causes accelerated aging and the degradation of skin elasticity-related genes. In the present study, we examined the anti-wrinkle effects of tuna heart extract which are mediated through the inhibition of MMPs in skin cells. Generally, tuna contains high concentrations of selenium and antioxidants, which serve to remove free radicals, and is known to delay skin and body aging. In addition, unsaturated fatty acids in tuna help to maintain the natural glossy look of skin, and increase skin elasticity, providing moisture for dry skin. A recent study confirmed the various bio-effects of boiled tuna extract and muscle. However, bioactivity studies using tuna heart are limited. Thus, in the present study, we obtained extracts and fractions of tuna heart, and examined their effects on Hs27 human fibroblast proliferation using an MTS assay. In addition, we measured procollagen type 1 levels and elastase activity, and performed β-galactosidase staining. We then measured the expression levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and MMP-related genes by western blot analysis and RT-PCR. Our results revealed that tuna heart extract decreased MMP expression by upregulating tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and decreasing elastase activity, thus exerting anti-aging and anti-wrinkle effects by increasing collagen synthesis and promoting skin fibroblast

  20. Treatment of sulphur mustard skin injury.

    PubMed

    Jenner, John; Graham, Stuart J

    2013-12-05

    Since its first use in 1917, sulphur mustard (SM) has been used virtually exclusively as a weapon of war.SM is a volatile liquid that damages any tissue it contacts as a vapour or liquid. SM primarily damages the skin, eyes and lungs producing massive inflammation culminating in the characteristic blistering of the skin which classifies SM as a vesicant. Several mechanisms of action at the cellular level have been proposed for SM, but none has ever been convincingly linked to the production of blisters or vesication. First aid for those contaminated with liquid SM consists of the rapid removal (within a few minutes) of liquid from the surface of the skin, as once penetrated into the stratum corneum it is very difficult to remove. In the absence of a mechanistically based specific therapy, SM skin injury is normally treated in a similar way to thermal and chemical burns, which it resembles pathologically. Effective therapy consist of treating the inflammation and where necessary removal of the dead eschar to facilitate healing. Post surgical care comprises the use of one of a number of available dressings used in thermal burn care and antibiotic creams should infection be present.

  1. [Study of skin retraction applied to the treatment of skin tumors. Mapping of the human body].

    PubMed

    Dumas, P; Benatar, M; Cardot-Leccia, N; Lebreton, E; Chignon-Sicard, B

    2012-04-01

    Skin, the main organ of the human body, is equipped with own biomechanical characteristics, highly variable depending on intra-individual factors (location, weight status, dermatological diseases…) and interindividual (age, sex…). Despite some recent cutometric studies, our review of the literature shows that there is no currently reliable analytical model representing the biomechanical behavior of the skin. Yet, this is a central issue in dermatology surgery, especially in the treatment of skin tumors, for the proper observance of surgical margins. We studied prospectively on 75 resection specimens (about 71 patient(s)), for the treatment of skin lesions tumor suspicious or known malignant or benign. Room dimensions were measured before and 5 minutes after excision, leading us to calculate a ratio of retraction of the skin surface. This retraction was correlated with age, gender, tumor type, and anatomic location of the site of excision. The power of retraction of the skin varies significantly by region of the body. It is maximum in the upper limb (hand excluded) and in the cervical region. At the cephalic region, skin of the ear and periorbital skin have capacities of important early retraction. Unlike the lower limb (foot excluded), the back skin of the nose and face appear to be a minimum of shrinkage. Age also seems to change on that capacity shrinkage, sex would have no influence. Our study confirms the variations in the ability of skin retraction based on a number of factors. In dermato-oncology, that power retraction could cause significant differences between clinical surgical margins and final pathologist margins. We believe it must be taken into account by the couple surgeon-pathologist, especially in the context of invasive and/or recurrent tumors. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  2. Instrumental evaluation of anti-aging effects of cosmetic formulations containing palmitoyl peptides, Silybum marianum seed oil, vitamin E and other functional ingredients on aged human skin.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Hyung Jin; Jung, Ho Jung; Schrammek-Drusios, Med Christine; Lee, Sung Nae; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Kwon, Seung Bin; An, In-Sook; An, Sungkwan; Ahn, Kyu Joong

    2016-08-01

    Anti-aging cosmetics are widely used for improving signs of aged skin such as skin wrinkles, decreased elasticity, low dermal density and yellow skin tone. The present study evaluated the effects of cosmetic formulations, eye cream and facial cream, containing palmitoyl peptides, Silybum marianum ( S. marianum ) seed oil, vitamin E and other functional ingredients on the improvement of facial wrinkles, elasticity, dermal density and skin tone after 4 weeks period of application on aged human skin. Healthy volunteers (n=20) with aged skin were recruited to apply the test materials facially twice per day for 4 weeks. Skin wrinkles, elasticity, dermal density and skin tone were measured instrumentally for assessing the improvement of skin aging. All the measurements were conducted prior to the application of test materials and at 2 and 4 weeks of treatment. Crow's feet wrinkles were decreased 5.97% after 2 weeks of test material application and 14.07% after 4 weeks of application in comparison of pre-application. Skin elasticity was increased 6.81% after 2 weeks and 8.79% after 4 weeks. Dermal density was increased 16.74% after 2 weeks and 27.63% after 4 weeks. With the L* value indicating skin brightness and the a* value indicating erythema (redness), the results showed that brightness was increased 1.70% after 2 weeks and 2.14% after 4 weeks, and erythema was decreased 10.45% after 2 weeks and 22.39% after 4 weeks. Hence, the test materials appear to exert some degree of anti-aging effects on aged human skin. There were no abnormal skin responses from the participants during the trial period. We conclude that the facial and eye cream containing palmitoyl peptides and S. marianum seed oil, vitamin E and other ingredients have effects on the improvement of facial wrinkles, elasticity, dermal density and skin tone.

  3. Comparison of Validated Assessment Scales and 3D digital fringe projection method to assess lifetime development of wrinkles in men.

    PubMed

    Luebberding, Stefanie; Krueger, Nils; Kerscher, Martina

    2014-02-01

    The assessment of wrinkle severity is an important evaluation criterion to determine the efficacy of aesthetic treatments. Aim of the present study was to compare Validated Assessment Scales (VAS) and 3D fringe projection (PRIMOS(®) ) for the evaluation of facial wrinkles in men and to determine standard values for each level of the VAS. 150 male subjects (20 to 70 years) were selected following strict criteria. Wrinkle severity at periorbital, glabella and forehead lines was evaluated using the 3D fringe projection and 5-point photonumeric VAS. The results of both methods were matched by determining quantitative values for each level of the clinical rating scale. High average correlation with age was found for VAS, Wd, maxWd, lWd, Wv, aWa and pWa. With a Wd of 60 to 70μm crow's feet and forehead lines are pronounced first, whereas glabella lines develop in subject's mid-forties, by an Wd of 180μm. Wrinkle severity increases at all locations every 10 years of age by one level of the VAS. This increase corresponds to an increase of Wd about 100 μm at glabella and forehead lines, and about 50 μm at crow's feet. The presented reference values for the Validated Assessment Scale are an important step towards an optimized assessment of skin aging and aesthetic dermatological treatments. The data helps to combine the precession of a biophysical measurement with the practical relevance of a clinical rating. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Safety and Efficacy of a 1550nm/1927nm Dual Wavelength Laser for the Treatment of Photodamaged Skin.

    PubMed

    Narurkar, Vic A; Alster, Tina S; Bernstein, Eric F; Lin, Tina J; Loncaric, Anya

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fractional photothermolysis (FP) is a popular treatment option for photodamaged skin and addresses shortcomings of ablative skin resurfacing and nonablative dermal remodeling. Previous studies have demonstrated that FP using the 1550nm wavelength has led to improvement of ultrastructural changes and clinical effects associated with photodamaged skin in the deeper dermal structures, while treatment with the 1927nm wavelength has shown clinical effects in the superficial dermis. Both wavelengths produce precise microscopic treatment zones (MTZs) in the skin. The two wavelengths used in combination may optimize the delivery of fractional nonablative resurfacing intended for dermal and epidermal coagulation of photodamage skin.

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a 1550/1927 Laser System (Fraxel Dual, Solta), using both 1550nm and 1927nm wavelengths in combination for treatment of facial and non-facial photodamage.

    METHODS: Prospective, multi-center, post-market study in subjects with clinically identifiable photodamage (N=35) (Fitzpatrick skin types I-IV). Both 1550nm and 1927nm wavelengths were used at each treatment visit. Investigator assessment of the affected area(s) occurred at one week, one month and 3 months after a series of up to four treatments. Severity of adverse events (AEs) were assessed using a 4-point scale (where 0=none and 3=marked). Assessments included erythema, edema, hyperkeratosis, hyper- and hypo-pigmentation, scarring, itchiness, dryness, and flaking. Severity of photoaging, fine and coarse wrinkling, mottled hyperpigmentation, sallowness, and tactile roughness at baseline was assessed using the same scale. Investigators and subjects assessed overall appearance of photodamage and pigmentation based on a 5-point quartile improvement scale at all follow-up visits (where 0=no improvement and 4=very significant improvement [76%-100%]).

    RESULTS: There was a positive treatment effect at all study

  5. Skin condition measurement by using multispectral imaging system (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Geunho; Kim, Sungchul; Kim, Jae Gwan

    2017-02-01

    There are a number of commercially available low level light therapy (LLLT) devices in a market, and face whitening or wrinkle reduction is one of targets in LLLT. The facial improvement could be known simply by visual observation of face, but it cannot provide either quantitative data or recognize a subtle change. Clinical diagnostic instruments such as mexameter can provide a quantitative data, but it costs too high for home users. Therefore, we designed a low cost multi-spectral imaging device by adding additional LEDs (470nm, 640nm, white LED, 905nm) to a commercial USB microscope which has two LEDs (395nm, 940nm) as light sources. Among various LLLT skin treatments, we focused on getting melanin and wrinkle information. For melanin index measurements, multi-spectral images of nevus were acquired and melanin index values from color image (conventional method) and from multi-spectral images were compared. The results showed that multi-spectral analysis of melanin index can visualize nevus with a different depth and concentration. A cross section of wrinkle on skin resembles a wedge which can be a source of high frequency components when the skin image is Fourier transformed into a spatial frequency domain map. In that case, the entropy value of the spatial frequency map can represent the frequency distribution which is related with the amount and thickness of wrinkle. Entropy values from multi-spectral images can potentially separate the percentage of thin and shallow wrinkle from thick and deep wrinkle. From the results, we found that this low cost multi-spectral imaging system could be beneficial for home users of LLLT by providing the treatment efficacy in a quantitative way.

  6. Microplasma effect on skin scaffold for melanoma cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Zulaika; Zaaba, S. K.; Mustaffa, M. T.; Mohamad, C. W. S. R.; Zakaria, A.

    2017-03-01

    An atmospheric plasma system using Helium gas was developed. The effect of helium plasma treatment on skin scaffold surface was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The changes of skin scaffold surfaces before and after helium plasma treatment was recorded. The surface of skin scaffold changed with the prolonged of helium plasma treatment time. The depth of helium plasma penetration was studied using methylene blue dye staining method. The methylene blue will detect the presence or absence of an oxygen that was induced from plasma excitation. The presence of the oxygen indicated on the depth of helium plasma penetration. Results showed plasma are able to penetrate 4mm of skin scaffold after 1200 seconds of exposure.

  7. A Single-Center, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of the Effectiveness of ANT1 Soybean Extract Cream on Skin Recovery After Nd: YAG Laser Treatment.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Meng-Chien; Wu, Yi-Chia; Huang, Shu-Hung; Kuo, Yur-Ren; Lee, Su-Shin

    2018-02-01

    Nd:YAG laser has been used extensively for its versatility in treating many common aesthetic problems, but numerous adverse effects are often complained by recipients of Nd:YAG laser. This study introduces the ANT1 soybean extract cream, which was formulated to alleviate adverse effects after laser therapy. This study explores whether ANT1 enhances the repair mechanism of the postlaser skin, decreases laser-induced complication, and shortens recovery time. The study also aims to pinpoint the ANT1 concentration that is most effective in improving the skin condition after Nd-YAG laser therapy. This study was a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients eligible for the study were Asian women, aged 25 to 40 years, who were free of dermatological diseases and allergic reaction. There were a total of 45 subjects. Each subject received a session of Nd-YAG laser therapy every 2 weeks, totaling 3 sessions. Facial skin assessment was achieved via VISIA complexion analysis. VISIA complexion analysis quantitatively assessed the skin condition and tracked the recovery progress of each subject at baseline, immediately after all 3 laser sessions, and a week after the final laser treatment. Skin condition was evaluated by VISIA complexion analysis. Skin condition was recorded in aspects of pigmented spots, wrinkles, texture, pores, and red area. After Nd-YAG laser therapy, postlaser inflammation was observed in all subjects. Throughout the laser sessions and the outpatient follow-up clinic, the adverse effects of laser therapy, such as redness, spots, wrinkles, pores, and textures, decreased with the use of ANT1 cream. There has been a marked effect in wrinkle reduction in the patients who received a higher concentration of ANT1 cream (P ≤ 0.05). Statistically significant improvement in spots and pores is also seen (P ≤ 0.05). Through this study, the results suggest that the application of ANT1 soybean extract cream ameliorates the

  8. Fractionated laser skin resurfacing treatment complications: a review.

    PubMed

    Metelitsa, Andrei I; Alster, Tina S

    2010-03-01

    Fractional photothermolysis represents a new modality of laser skin resurfacing that was developed to provide a successful clinical response while minimizing postoperative recovery and limiting treatment complications. To review all of the reported complications that develop as a result of fractional ablative and nonablative laser skin resurfacing. A literature review was based on a MEDLINE search (1998-2009) for English-language articles related to laser treatment complications and fractional skin resurfacing. Articles presenting the highest level of evidence and the most recent reports were preferentially selected. Complications with fractional laser skin resurfacing represent a full spectrum of severity and can be longlasting. In general, a greater likelihood of developing post-treatment complications is seen in sensitive cutaneous areas and in patients with intrinsically darker skin phototypes or predisposing medical risk factors. Although the overall rate of complications associated with fractional laser skin resurfacing is much lower than with traditional ablative techniques, recent reports suggest that serious complications can develop. An appreciation of all of the complications associated with fractional laser skin resurfacing is important, especially given that many of them can be potentially prevented. The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters.

  9. Template-guided highly aligned, nano-scale wrinkle structure on a large-area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jongcheon; Kim, Pilnam

    This study presents a novel technique to induce aligned, nano-scale wrinkle on a polysiloxane-based UV curable resin. There have been studies on generating randomized sub-micron wrinkle using oxygen plasma treatment which causes equibiaxial compressive stress on the film surface. Few works have been reported on how to control the surface wrinkle orientation. Currently available approaches for regulating the wrinkle pattern typically require polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based bilayer system under uniaxial stress condition which hampers various technological applications. Here, we demonstrate a method to generate aligned wrinkle with UV curable polymers. Highly regular array of nanoscale wrinkles were formed by elastic buckling of bilayered UV curable resin, resulting from a combination of confinement effect and anchor-guided propagation of structure. The wrinkle tends to align uniformly lateral to the template pattern as the resin filled in the pattern forms more convex meniscus. The wavelength of the wrinkle was controlled by UV exposure time yielding as small as 170nm. From our results, we suggest the confinement provided by the template pattern may have affected the direction of thin film's expansion yielding unidirectional compressive stress. This work was supported by Samsung Research Funding Center of Samsung Electronics under Project Number SRFC-IT1402-02.

  10. ``The Princess and the Pea'' at the Nanoscale: Wrinkling and Delamination of Graphene on Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Mahito; Pierre-Louis, Olivier; Huang, Jia; Fuhrer, Michael S.; Einstein, Theodore L.; Cullen, William G.

    2012-10-01

    Thin membranes exhibit complex responses to external forces or geometrical constraints. A familiar example is the wrinkling, exhibited by human skin, plant leaves, and fabrics, that results from the relative ease of bending versus stretching. Here, we study the wrinkling of graphene, the thinnest and stiffest known membrane, deposited on a silica substrate decorated with silica nanoparticles. At small nanoparticle density, monolayer graphene adheres to the substrate, detached only in small regions around the nanoparticles. With increasing nanoparticle density, we observe the formation of wrinkles which connect nanoparticles. Above a critical nanoparticle density, the wrinkles form a percolating network through the sample. As the graphene membrane is made thicker, global delamination from the substrate is observed. The observations can be well understood within a continuum-elastic model and have important implications for strain-engineering the electronic properties of graphene.

  11. A systematic review of dermal fillers for age-related lines and wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Lana P; Cooter, Rodney D; Mutimer, Keith L; Graham, John C; Maddern, Guy J

    2011-01-01

    Dermal fillers are gaining popularity for rapid aesthetic improvement. Long-term efficacy and safety have not been well documented. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the safety and efficacy of injectable dermal fillers compared with other facial augmentation techniques for the management of age-related lines and wrinkles. Studies including patients receiving injectable semi-permanent or permanent dermal fillers for age-related lines and wrinkles were included in this review. Efficacy outcomes (including changes in skin thickness and patient satisfaction) and safety outcomes (including mortality, lumps and infections) were examined. Three randomized control trials and six case series were included. Permanent and semi-permanent dermal fillers improved subjective ratings of appearance and resulted in higher patient satisfaction than temporary fillers. Long-term efficacy appeared good in the few studies that reported it. Short-term safety appeared favourable. Lumps were reported in all but one study but received little follow-up. Long-term safety data were limited. The treatment of age-related lines and wrinkles with permanent and semi-permanent dermal fillers is more efficacious compared with temporary fillers in those studies that compared them. Case series evidence suggests that these fillers achieve their objective, which is to decrease the visible effects of age-related changes. These fillers appear at least as safe as temporary fillers in the short term in those studies that compared them. Long-term safety could not be determined. © 2010 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2010 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  12. [Skin cancer screening and treatment costs : Utilisation of the skin cancer screening and skin cancer treatment costs in organ transplant recipients].

    PubMed

    Jäckel, D; Schlothauer, N I; Zeeb, H; Wagner, G; Sachse, M M

    2018-04-12

    Organ transplant recipients have an up to 250-times higher risk to develop skin cancer. This article evaluated the utilisation of skin cancer screening and the treatment costs for skin cancer in organ transplant recipients. Patients of the health insurance AOK Bremen/Bremerhaven had been identified and the need for skin cancer prevention trainings was derived. The number of organ transplant recipients (ICD code Z94.0-4) with and without any history of skin cancer (ICD code C43/C44), the utilisation of dermatologic health care services, and the costs for treatments with the diagnosis Z94.0-4 with and without C43/C44 were evaluated. The analyses were carried out for the period from 2009-2014 by using the accounting systems of the AOK. Between 2009 and 2014, 231 organ transplant recipients had been recorded. By mid-2014, 20% of these insured persons developed skin cancer and the mean incidence was 2.76% per year. On average, 43% of these patients were seen by a dermatologist at least once a year, whereby only 15% of the organ transplant recipients participated in the annual skin cancer screening. In 29% of the patients without any history of skin cancer, a skin examination was never performed by a dermatologist or a general practitioner. In all, 17 inpatient cases of organ transplant recipients with the primary diagnosis C43/C44 were analyzed. This resulted in total costs of 54,707 € (on average about 3200 € per case). The increased incidence of skin cancer and the associated treatment costs indicate the need for skin cancer prevention training.

  13. Pathogenesis and treatment of skin lesions caused by sulfur mustard.

    PubMed

    Poursaleh, Zohreh; Ghanei, Mostafa; Babamahmoodi, Farhang; Izadi, Morteza; Harandi, Ali Amini; Emadi, Seyed Emad; Taghavi, Nez'hat-o-Sadat; Sayad-Nouri, Seyede Somaye; Emadi, Seyed Naser

    2012-09-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) exposure intensely causes lesions that range in severity from mild erythema to blister formation and necrosis. This review will discuss acute and long-term skin consequences due to exposure to SM and different kinds of medical prophylaxis and therapeutics against SM-induced skin lesions. Literature survey of medical case reports, clinical studies, and original articles was performed using PubMed, Medline, and the Cochrane Database (1917-2011 March). Key words included sulfur mustard, skin, toxicity, pathogenesis, cancer, treatment. SM-induced damage to the skin is characterized by edema, inflammation, and cell death mainly of the basal keratinocyte layer, with varying immunological and pathological changes in the acute phase. Also, xerosis, hypo or hyper pigmentation, scars, and rarely, skin cancers are long-term cutaneous effects. So far,the combination therapy of topical drugs and oral antihistamines, also iodine and antitumor necrosis factor alpha antibodies, are effective remedies in the treatment of skin lesions. The requirement for preparedness in the dermatological community concerning SM exposure is underlined. Novel treatments for prevention and therapeutics against SM toxicity and carcinogenicity are reviewed.

  14. A study of facial wrinkles improvement effect of veratric acid from cauliflower mushroom through photo-protective mechanisms against UVB irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Eun; Park, Ji-Eun; Jung, Eunsun; Ryu, Jahyun; Kim, Youn Joon; Youm, Jong-Kyung; Kang, Seunghyun

    2016-04-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is a primary cause of premature skin aging that is closely associated with the degradation of collagens caused by up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) or a decrease in collagen synthesis. The phenolic veratric acid (VA, 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid) is one of the major benzoic acid derivatives from fruits, vegetables and medicinal mushrooms. VA has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and photo-protective effects. In this study, anti-photoaging effects were investigated through the photo-protective mechanisms of VA against UV irradiation in human dermal fibroblasts and the reconstructed human epidermal model. We used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, hematoxylin and eosin staining (H&E) and immunohistochemistry assays. Finally, we further investigated the clinical effects of VA on facial wrinkle improvements in humans. Our results demonstrate that VA attenuated the expression of MMPs, increased cell proliferation, type Ι procollagen, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, and filaggrin against UV radiation; however, has no effect on improvement expressions of elastic fiber. In addition, treatment with cream containing VA improved facial wrinkles in a clinical trial. These findings indicate that VA improves wrinkle formation by modulating MMPs, collagens and epidermal layer integrity, suggesting its potential use in UV-induced premature skin aging.

  15. Keloid Skin Flap Retention and Resurfacing in Facial Keloid Treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu; Liang, Weizhong; Song, Kexin; Wang, Youbin

    2018-02-01

    Facial keloids commonly occur in young patients. Multiple keloid masses often converge into a large lesion on the face, representing a significant obstacle to keloid mass excision and reconstruction. We describe a new surgical method that excises the keloid mass and resurfaces the wound by saving the keloid skin as a skin flap during facial keloid treatment. Forty-five patients with facial keloids were treated in our department between January 2013 and January 2016. Multiple incisions were made along the facial esthetic line on the keloid mass. The keloid skin was dissected and elevated as a skin flap with one or two pedicles. The scar tissue in the keloid was then removed through the incision. The wound was covered with the preserved keloid skin flap and closed without tension. Radiotherapy and hyperbaric oxygen were applied after surgery. Patients underwent follow-up examinations 6 and 12 months after surgery. Of the 45 total patients, 32 patients were cured and seven patients were partially cured. The efficacy rate was 88.9%, and 38 patients (84.4%) were satisfied with the esthetic result. We describe an efficacious and esthetically satisfactory surgical method for managing facial keloids by preserving the keloid skin as a skin flap. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  16. [Severe apparent life-threatening event during "skin-to-skin": treatment with hypothermia].

    PubMed

    Marin, N; Valverde, E; Cabañas, F

    2013-10-01

    'Skin-to-skin' in healthy newborn infants is currently routine practice in Spanish maternity wards. This practice has shown benefits in increasing the duration of breast-feeding and maternal bonding behaviour with no significant adverse events. Early sudden deaths and severe apparent life-threatening events (ALTE) during the first 24 hours of life are infrequent, but well recognised. Risk factors during 'skin to skin' have been established. These events can lead to high neonatal morbidity and mortality. Hypothermia is now the standard of care for moderate to severe hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and has shown to reduce mortality and neurological morbidity in children with hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Although there are no clinical trials that evaluate hypothermia after a severe ALTE, neonates who suffer it should be considered for this treatment. We present a case of a healthy newborn who had an ALTE during skin-to-skin with his mother and was treated with hypothermia. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Nanotechnology for the treatment of melanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Naves, Lucas B; Dhand, Chetna; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Rajamani, Lakshminarayanan; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Almeida, Luis

    2017-05-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer and has very high rates of mortality. An early stage melanoma can be surgically removed, with a survival rate of 99%. This literature review intends to elucidate the possibilities to treat melanoma skin cancer using hybrid nanofibers developed by advanced electrospinning process. In this review we have shown that the enhanced permeability and retention is the basis for using nanotechnology, aiming topical drug delivery. The importance of the detection of skin cancer in the early stages is directly related to non-metastatic effects and survival rates of melanoma cells. Inhibitors of protein kinase are already available in the market for melanoma treatment and are approved by the FDA; these agents are cobimetinib, dabrafenib, ipilimumab, nivolumab, trametinib, and vemurafenib. We also report a case study involving two different approaches for targeting melanoma skin cancer therapy, namely, magnetic-based core-shell particles and electrospun mats.

  18. Skin rejuvenating effects of chemical peeling: a study in photoaged hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Sung Hyup; Kim, Hong Jig; Kim, Si Yong; Kim, You Chan; Choi, Gwang Seong; Shin, Jeong Hyun

    2011-09-01

    Chemical peeling is a dermatologic treatment for skin aging. However, the mechanism by which the chemical peel achieves its results is not clear. We investigated the effects of chemical peeling and the mechanism of wrinkle reduction in photoaged hairless mice skin. After inducing photoaged skin in hairless mice by repetitive ultraviolet-B irradiation applied over 14 weeks, we applied trichloroacetic acid (TCA) 30%, TCA 50%, and phenol on areas of the same size on the backs of the mice. Punch biopsies were obtained 7, 14, 28, and 60 days after the procedure for histologic and immunohistochemical analyses. Histologic examination showed an increase in dermal thickness, collagen fibers, and elastic fibers in the dermis of intervention groups compared with control groups. These increases were maintained significantly for 60 days. This study demonstrates that chemical peeling reduces wrinkles and regenerates skin by increasing dermal thickness and the amount of collagen and elastic fibers in photoaged skin. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  19. Chitosan treatment for skin ulcers associated with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Escárcega-Galaz, Ana Aglahe; Cruz-Mercado, José Luis De La; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Sánchez-Machado, Dalia Isabel; Brito-Zurita, Olga Rosa; Ornelas-Aguirre, José Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Infections, ulcerations, gangrene and, in severe cases, extremity amputation, are common complications among diabetic subjects. Various biomaterials have been utilized for the treatment of these lesions. Chitosan is an amino sugar with a low risk of toxicity and immune response. In this study, we evaluated chitosan topical gel and film treatments for subjects with diabetic ulcerations and wounds associated with diabetes mellitus. In a pre-experimental design, we described the result of chitosan gel and film treatment for wounds and skin ulcers among patients with long-standing diabetes mellitus. We studied 8 diabetic patients with wounds and skin ulcers (long duration and Wagner degree 1-2). Initially, most lesions had some degree of infection, tissue damage and ulceration. At the end of the treatment (topical chitosan) period, the infections were cured. All patients experienced a significant improvement in the initial injury and developed granulation tissue and a healthy skin cover. This report represents one of the few published clinical experience regarding the chitosan for the treatment of skin lesions among diabetic subjects. These results are relevant and promising for the treatment of this disease.

  20. Accidental sodium hypochlorite-induced skin injury during endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Serper, Ahmet; Ozbek, Murat; Calt, Semra

    2004-03-01

    A case of accidental skin injury caused by leakage of sodium hypochlorite solution from the rubber dam during root canal preparation is reported. After placement of a rubber dam and initiation of root canal treatment, the patient complained of a burning sensation with sodium hypochlorite irrigation. The complaints were ignored by the practitioner, and a skin rash developed on and around the patient's chin, followed by scab formation. The patient required medical treatment with topical Hamamelis virginiana extract for 2 weeks, with full recovery.

  1. Wrinkle Ridges and Pit Craters

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-19

    Tectonic stresses highly modified this area of Ganges Catena, north of Valles Marineris. The long, skinny ridges (called "wrinkle ridges") are evidence of compressional stresses in Mars' crust that created a crack (fault) where one side was pushed on top of the other side, also known as a thrust fault. As shown by cross-cutting relationships, however, extensional stresses have more recently pulled the crust of Mars apart in this region. (HiRISE imaged this area in 2-by-2 binning mode, so a pixel represents a 50 x 50 square centimeter.) http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21112

  2. Myricetin suppresses UVB-induced wrinkle formation and MMP-9 expression by inhibiting Raf

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Keun; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Ho Young; Oh, Mi Hyun; Byun, Sanguine; Lim, Sung Hwan; Heo, Yong-Seok; Kang, Nam Joo; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2010-01-01

    Chronic exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) light causes skin photoaging. Many studies have shown that naturally occurring phytochemicals have anti-photoaging effects, but their direct target molecule(s) and mechanism(s) remain unclear. We found that myricetin, a major flavonoid in berries and red wine, inhibited wrinkle formation in mouse skin induced by chronic UVB irradiation (0.18 J/cm2, 3 days/wk for 15 wk). Myricetin treatment reduced UVB-induced epidermal thickening of mouse skin and also suppressed UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) protein expression and enzyme activity. Myricetin appeared to exert its anti-aging effects by suppressing UVB-induced Raf kinase activity and subsequent attenuation of UVB-induced phosphorylation of MEK and ERK in mouse skin. In vitro and in vivo pull-down assays revealed that myricetin bound with Raf in an ATP-noncompetitive manner. Overall, these results indicate that myricetin exerts potent anti-photoaging activity by regulating MMP-9 expression through the suppression of Raf kinase activity. PMID:20093107

  3. Wrinkling instabilities in soft bilayered systems

    PubMed Central

    Budday, Silvia; Andres, Sebastian; Walter, Bastian

    2017-01-01

    Wrinkling phenomena control the surface morphology of many technical and biological systems. While primary wrinkling has been extensively studied, experimentally, analytically and computationally, higher-order instabilities remain insufficiently understood, especially in systems with stiffness contrasts well below 100. Here, we use the model system of an elastomeric bilayer to experimentally characterize primary and secondary wrinkling at moderate stiffness contrasts. We systematically vary the film thickness and substrate prestretch to explore which parameters modulate the emergence of secondary instabilities, including period-doubling, period-tripling and wrinkle-to-fold transitions. Our experiments suggest that period-doubling is the favourable secondary instability mode and that period-tripling can emerge under disturbed boundary conditions. High substrate prestretch can suppress period-doubling and primary wrinkles immediately transform into folds. We combine analytical models with computational simulations to predict the onset of primary wrinkling, the post-buckling behaviour, secondary bifurcations and the wrinkle-to-fold transition. Understanding the mechanisms of pattern selection and identifying the critical control parameters of wrinkling will allow us to fabricate smart surfaces with tunable properties and to control undesired surface patterns like in the asthmatic airway. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Patterning through instabilities in complex media: theory and applications.’ PMID:28373385

  4. Differential growth of wrinkled biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espeso, D. R.; Carpio, A.; Einarsson, B.

    2015-02-01

    Biofilms are antibiotic-resistant bacterial aggregates that grow on moist surfaces and can trigger hospital-acquired infections. They provide a classical example in biology where the dynamics of cellular communities may be observed and studied. Gene expression regulates cell division and differentiation, which affect the biofilm architecture. Mechanical and chemical processes shape the resulting structure. We gain insight into the interplay between cellular and mechanical processes during biofilm development on air-agar interfaces by means of a hybrid model. Cellular behavior is governed by stochastic rules informed by a cascade of concentration fields for nutrients, waste, and autoinducers. Cellular differentiation and death alter the structure and the mechanical properties of the biofilm, which is deformed according to Föppl-Von Kármán equations informed by cellular processes and the interaction with the substratum. Stiffness gradients due to growth and swelling produce wrinkle branching. We are able to reproduce wrinkled structures often formed by biofilms on air-agar interfaces, as well as spatial distributions of differentiated cells commonly observed with B. subtilis.

  5. Regimes of wrinkling in pressurized elastic shells

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We consider the point indentation of a pressurized elastic shell. It has previously been shown that such a shell is subject to a wrinkling instability as the indentation depth is quasi-statically increased. Here we present detailed analysis of this wrinkling instability using a combination of analytical techniques and finite-element simulations. In particular, we study how the number of wrinkles observed at the onset of instability grows with increasing pressurization. We also study how, for fixed pressurization, the number of wrinkles changes both spatially and with increasing indentation depth beyond onset. This ‘Far from threshold’ analysis exploits the largeness of the wrinkle wavenumber that is observed at high pressurization and leads to quantitative differences with the standard ‘Near threshold’ stability analysis. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Patterning through instabilities in complex media: theory and applications.’ PMID:28373387

  6. Photopneumatic Technology in Acne Treatment and Skin Rejuvenation: Histological Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Omi, Tokuya

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: Recent reports indicate that a variety of light-based devices have been used for acne treatment and skin rejuvenation. A new technology combining intense pulsed light with negative pressure, photopneumatic technology, has recently attracted interest. The present study assessed acne treatment and skin rejuvenation with this novel approach Subjects and Methods: Acne, 450 nm tip. Five Japanese volunteers (1 male, 4 female; mean age 28.6 yr; skin type III) with mild to moderate/moderate active acne participated. The face was treated with 2 sessions, 2 weeks apart. Biopsies were obtained immediately after the first session and 1 week after the second session, and routinely processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Rejuvenation, profusion tip with topical preparation. In 5 Japanese volunteers (3 male, 2 female; mean age 37.6 yr, skin type III), the volar aspect of both forearms was treated with the 530 nm head at P6 (around 12 J/cm2). The left arm was then treated with a pre-infused profusion tip and vacuum only. Four sessions were given, 14-day intervals. Biopsies were taken from both arms 2 weeks after the 2nd session and 3 weeks after the 4th session. One-half of each biopsy was assessed with histo-and immunohistochemistry, and the other with TEM. Results Acne trial: A combination of physical extraction of comedones, mild photothermal damage of the follicle and damage to identified bacilli was noted post-treatment, with macroscopic improvement of the skin. Rejuvenation with profusion: Significant morphological and immunohistochemical differences were seen between the control and profusion-treated arms at the first assessment. These differences became less significant at the 2nd assessment. Conclusions Macroscopically and histologically, photopneumatic technology improved acne lesions, suggesting a synergistic effect between the components of the technology. In skin rejuvenation, the profusion therapy accelerated the regenerative

  7. Biofilm attachment reduction on bioinspired, dynamic, micro-wrinkling surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Alexander K.; Hong, Donggyoon; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-09-01

    Most bacteria live in multicellular communities known as biofilms that are adherent to surfaces in our environment, from sea beds to plumbing systems. Biofilms are often associated with clinical infections, nosocomial deaths and industrial damage such as bio-corrosion and clogging of pipes. As mature biofilms are extremely challenging to eradicate once formed, prevention is advantageous over treatment. However, conventional surface chemistry strategies are either generally transient, due to chemical masking, or toxic, as in the case of leaching marine antifouling paints. Inspired by the nonfouling skins of echinoderms and other marine organisms, which possess highly dynamic surface structures that mechanically frustrate bio-attachment, we have developed and tested a synthetic platform based on both uniaxial mechanical strain and buckling-induced elastomer microtopography. Bacterial biofilm attachment to the dynamic substrates was studied under an array of parameters, including strain amplitude and timescale (1-100 mm s-1), surface wrinkle length scale, bacterial species and cell geometry, and growth time. The optimal conditions for achieving up to ˜ 80% Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm reduction after 24 h growth and ˜ 60% reduction after 48 h were combinatorially elucidated to occur at 20% strain amplitude, a timescale of less than ˜ 5 min between strain cycles and a topography length scale corresponding to the cell dimension of ˜ 1 μm. Divergent effects on the attachment of P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli biofilms showed that the dynamic substrate also provides a new means of species-specific biofilm inhibition, or inversely, selection for a desired type of bacteria, without reliance on any toxic or transient surface chemical treatments.

  8. Modeling and analysis of cosmetic treatment effects on human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunderstaedt, Reinhart A.; Hopermann, Hermann; Hillemann, Thomas

    2000-10-01

    In view of treatment effects of cosmetics, quality management becomes more and more important. Due to the efficiency reasons it is desirable to quantify these effects and predict them as a function of time. For this, a mathematical model of the skin's surface (epidermis) is needed. Such a model cannot be worked out purely analytically. It can only be derived with the help of measurement data. The signals of interest as output of different measurement devices consist of two parts: noise of high (spatial) frequencies (stochastic signal) and periodic functions (deterministic signal) of low (spatial) frequencies. Both parts can be separated by correlation analysis. The paper introduces in addition to the Fourier Transform (FT) with the Wavelet Transform (WT), a brand new, highly sophisticated method with excellent properties for both modeling the skin's surface as well as evaluating treatment effects. Its main physical advantage is (in comparison to the FT) that local irregularities in the measurement signal (e.g. by scars) remain at their place and are not represented as mean square values as it is the case when applying the FT. The method has just now been installed in industry and will there be used in connection with a new in vivo measurement device for quality control of cosmetic products. As texture parameter for an integral description of the human skin the fractal dimension D is used which is appropriate for classification of different skin regions and treatment effects as well.

  9. Optical coherence tomography applied to tests of skin care products in humans--a case study.

    PubMed

    Vasquez-Pinto, L M C; Maldonado, E P; Raele, M P; Amaral, M M; de Freitas, A Z

    2015-02-01

    When evaluating skin care products for human skin, quantitative test methods need to be simple, precise and reliable. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), provides high-resolution sectional images of translucent materials to a depth of a few millimeters, a technique usually applied to medical measurements in ophthalmology and dermatology. This study aimed to demonstrate the application of OCT as the main technique for monitoring changes in skin topography during tests of a wrinkle-reduction product in humans. We used a commercial OCT apparatus to perform clinical examinations of skin roughness in treated and non-treated sites in the periorbital region of thirty human voluntaries who were using an anti-aging product commercially available: Natura Chronos® Flavonóides de Passiflora 45+ FPS15, from Natura Cosméticos, Brazil. Measurements were performed days 0, 7, 14 and 28 of treatment. Equipment and software allowed real-time recording of skin roughness parameters and wrinkle depths. The OCT measurements have allowed the monitoring of changes in skin roughness, which have shown reduction in treated sites around 10%. The obtained depth distributions also indicate reduction in the occurrence of wrinkles deeper than 170 μm. The verified results are consistent with those typically obtained after successful treatment with modern anti-aging products. By using the OCT technique, it was possible to quantify changes in skin roughness and in the distribution of depths of skin wrinkles, with adequate sensitivity. OCT imaging allows the direct visualization of the skin topography with resolution of micrometers, a reliable and interactive tool for clinical use. Therefore, for the first time, we demonstrated the use of OCT technique to verify the efficacy of cosmetic products in real time. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A review of blepharochalasis and other causes of the lax, wrinkled eyelid.

    PubMed

    Held, J L; Schneiderman, P

    1990-02-01

    Cosmetically unappealing lax, wrinkled eyelid skin may result from various processes including connective tissue diseases, natural aging, and blepharochalasis. Since the end-stage eyelid changes due to several different processes are similar, the presence or absence of prior chronic or recurrent eyelid edema is an important differentiating point. We review blepharochalasis and provide a logical approach to its differential diagnosis.

  11. Protein Innovations Advance Drug Treatments, Skin Care

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Dan Carter carefully layered the sheets of tracing paper on the light box. On each sheet were renderings of the atomic components of an essential human protein, one whose structure had long been a mystery. With each layer Carter laid down, a never-before-seen image became clearer. Carter joined NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center in 1985 and began exploring processes of protein crystal growth in space. By bouncing intense X-rays off the crystals, researchers can determine the electron densities around the thousands of atoms forming the protein molecules, unveiling their atomic structures. Cultivating crystals of sufficient quality on Earth was problematic; the microgravity conditions of space were far more accommodating. At the time, only a few hundred protein structures had been mapped, and the methods were time consuming and tedious. Carter hoped his work would help reveal the structure of human serum albumin, a major protein in the human circulatory system responsible for ferrying numerous small molecules in the blood. More was at stake than scientific curiosity. Albumin has a high affinity for most of the world s pharmaceuticals, Carter explains, and its interaction with drugs can change their safety and efficacy. When a medication enters the bloodstream a cancer chemotherapy drug, for example a majority of it can bind with albumin, leaving only a small percentage active for treatment. How a drug interacts with albumin can influence considerations like the necessary effective dosage, playing a significant role in the design and application of therapeutic measures. In spite of numerous difficulties, including having no access to microgravity following the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, the image Carter had hoped to see was finally clarifying. In 1988, his lab had acquired specialized X-ray and detection equipment a tipping point. Carter and his colleagues began to piece together albumin s portrait, the formation of its electron densities coalescing on

  12. Polycomponent mesotherapy formulations for the treatment of skin aging and improvement of skin quality

    PubMed Central

    Prikhnenko, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Skin aging can largely be attributed to dermal fibroblast dysfunction and a decrease in their biosynthetic activity. Regardless of the underlying causes, aging fibroblasts begin to produce elements of the extracellular matrix in amounts that are insufficient to maintain the youthful appearance of skin. The goal of mesopreparations is primarily to slow down and correct changes in skin due to aging. The rationale for developing complex polycomponent mesopreparations is based on the principle that aging skin needs to be supplied with the various substrates that are key to the adequate functioning of the fibroblast. The quintessential example of a polycomponent formulation – NCTF® (New Cellular Treatment Factor) – includes vitamins, minerals, amino acids, nucleotides, coenzymes and antioxidants, as well as hyaluronic acid, designed to help fibroblasts function more efficiently by providing a more optimal environment for biochemical processes and energy generation, as well as resisting the effects of oxidative stress. In vitro experiments suggest that there is a significant increase in the synthetic and prophylactic activity of fibroblasts with treated NCTF, and a significant increase in the ability of cells to resist oxidative stress. The current article looks at the rationale behind the development of polycomponent mesopreparations, using NCTF as an example. PMID:25897252

  13. Corneal lenticular wrinkling after automated lamellar keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Steinemann, T L; Denton, N C; Brown, M F

    1998-10-01

    To report complications of automated lamellar keratoplasty in two eyes of two patients. Case reports. Two eyes of two patients underwent automated lamellar keratoplasty for myopia. Both patients complained of visual distortion and glare in the postoperative eye. The postoperative eye of both patients showed evidence of wrinkling of the corneal lenticule accompanied by irregular astigmatism. Patient 1 showed persistent lenticular wrinkling and corneal scarring 2.5 years later. Patient 2 showed evidence of interface scar and overcorrection. The use of a microkeratome can be complicated by lenticular displacement and wrinkling, resulting in visual aberration for the patient.

  14. Radiofrequency for the treatment of skin laxity: mith or truth*

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Angélica Rodrigues; Soares, Viviane Pinheiro Campos; da Silva, Fernanda Souza; Moreira, Tatiane da Silva

    2015-01-01

    The nonablative radiofrequency is a procedure commonly used for the treatment of skin laxity from an increase in tissue temperature. The goal is to induce thermal damage to thus stimulate neocollagenesis in deep layers of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. However, many of these devices haven't been tested and their parameters are still not accepted by the scientific community. Because of this, it is necessary to review the literature regarding the physiological effects and parameters for application of radiofrequency and methodological quality and level of evidence of studies. A literature search was performed in MEDLINE, PEDro, SciELO, PubMed, LILACS and CAPES and experimental studies in humans, which used radiofrequency devices as treatment for facial or body laxity, were selected. The results showed that the main physiological effect is to stimulate collagen synthesis. There was no homogeneity between studies in relation to most of the parameters used and the methodological quality of studies and level of evidence for using radiofrequency are low. This fact complicates the determination of effective parameters for clinical use of this device in the treatment of skin laxity. The analyzed studies suggest that radiofrequency is effective, however the physiological mechanisms and the required parameters are not clear in the literature. PMID:26560216

  15. Development of paclitaxel-TyroSpheres for topical skin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kilfoyle, Brian E.; Sheihet, Larisa; Zhang, Zheng; Laohoo, Marissa; Kohn, Joachim; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B.

    2012-01-01

    A potential topical psoriasis therapy has been developed consisting of tyrosine-derived nanospheres (TyroSpheres) with encapsulated anti-proliferative paclitaxel. TyroSpheres provide enhancement of paclitaxel solubility (almost 4,000 times greater than PBS) by effective encapsulation and enable sustained, dose-controlled release over 72 hours under conditions mimicking skin permeation. TyroSpheres offer potential in the treatment of psoriasis, a disease resulting from over-proliferation of keratinocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis, by (a) enabling delivery of paclitaxel into the epidermis at concentrations >100 ng/cm2 of skin surface area and (b) enhancing the cytotoxicity of loaded paclitaxel to human keratinocytes (IC50 of paclitaxel-TyroSpheres was approximately 45% lower than that of free paclitaxel). TyroSpheres were incorporated into a gel-like viscous formulation to improve their flow characteristics with no impact on homogeneity, release or skin distribution of the payload. The findings reported here confirm that the TyroSpheres provide a platform for paclitaxel topical administration allowing skin drug localization and minimal systemic escape. PMID:22732474

  16. Delafloxacin for the treatment of respiratory and skin infections.

    PubMed

    Bassetti, Matteo; Della Siega, Paola; Pecori, Davide; Scarparo, Claudio; Righi, Elda

    2015-03-01

    There has been a striking increase in the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens in recent times. Delafloxacin is a novel, broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone with antimicrobial activity against resistant Gram-positive, Gram-negative and anaerobic organisms. It has the potential to treat a variety of infections including complicated skin and skin structure infections and respiratory tract infections. In this review, the authors report the microbiological spectrum of activity of delafloxacin as well as its pharmacokinetic characteristics. They also report the results of recent studies investigating its safety and efficacy. The profile of delafloxacin offers several advantages. Delafloxacin presents a broad spectrum of activity against pathogens involved in respiratory infections and complicated skin and skin structure infections (SSSIs), including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. It has also shown activity against Gram-negative pathogens, such as quinolone-susceptible and -resistant strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and quinolone-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The availability of an oral formulation supports its use in sequential therapy. The efficacy and tolerability of delafloxacin have been demonstrated in Phase II clinical trials in comparison with moxifloxacin for respiratory infections and linezolid and vancomycin in SSSIs. Compared with other quinolones such as moxifloxacin, delafloxacin showed comparable efficacy and a lower rate of adverse effects. The results of new Phase III studies are awaited to confirm delafloxacin's future applications in the treatment of SSSIs.

  17. Emerging treatment options for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections: focus on intravenous delafloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Righi, Elda; Carnelutti, Alessia; Vena, Antonio; Bassetti, Matteo

    2018-01-01

    The increase in hospitalization due to acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) caused by resistant pathogens supports the need for new treatment options. Antimicrobial options for ABSSSI that provide broad-spectrum coverage, including gram-negative pathogens and multidrug-resistant gram-positive bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are limited. Delafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone available as intravenous and oral formulations and is characterized by an increased efficacy in acidic environments and activity on bacterial biofilm. Delafloxacin displays enhanced in vitro activity against MRSA, and enterococci, while maintaining efficacy against gram-negative pathogens and anaerobes. Delafloxacin has been studied for the treatment of ABSSSI and respiratory infections. Phase III studies have demonstrated noninferiority of delafloxacin compared to vancomycin, linezolid, tigecycline, and the combination of vancomycin plus aztreonam in the treatment of ABSSSI. Due to its favorable pharmacokinetic characteristics, the wide spectrum of action, and the potential for sequential therapy, delafloxacin represents a promising option in the empirical and targeted treatment of ABSSSI, both in hospital- and in community-based care. PMID:29670380

  18. Emerging treatment options for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections: focus on intravenous delafloxacin.

    PubMed

    Righi, Elda; Carnelutti, Alessia; Vena, Antonio; Bassetti, Matteo

    2018-01-01

    The increase in hospitalization due to acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) caused by resistant pathogens supports the need for new treatment options. Antimicrobial options for ABSSSI that provide broad-spectrum coverage, including gram-negative pathogens and multidrug-resistant gram-positive bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are limited. Delafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone available as intravenous and oral formulations and is characterized by an increased efficacy in acidic environments and activity on bacterial biofilm. Delafloxacin displays enhanced in vitro activity against MRSA, and enterococci, while maintaining efficacy against gram-negative pathogens and anaerobes. Delafloxacin has been studied for the treatment of ABSSSI and respiratory infections. Phase III studies have demonstrated noninferiority of delafloxacin compared to vancomycin, linezolid, tigecycline, and the combination of vancomycin plus aztreonam in the treatment of ABSSSI. Due to its favorable pharmacokinetic characteristics, the wide spectrum of action, and the potential for sequential therapy, delafloxacin represents a promising option in the empirical and targeted treatment of ABSSSI, both in hospital- and in community-based care.

  19. Wrinkling Non-Spherical Particles and Its Application in Cell Attachment Promotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Minggan; Joung, Dehi; Hughes, Bethany; Waldman, Stephen D.; Kozinski, Janusz A.; Hwang, Dae Kun

    2016-07-01

    Surface wrinkled particles are ubiquitous in nature and present in different sizes and shapes, such as plant pollens and peppercorn seeds. These natural wrinkles provide the particles with advanced functions to survive and thrive in nature. In this work, by combining flow lithography and plasma treatment, we have developed a simple method that can rapidly create wrinkled non-spherical particles, mimicking the surface textures in nature. Due to the oxygen inhibition in flow lithography, the non-spherical particles synthesized in a microfluidic channel are covered by a partially cured polymer (PCP) layer. When exposed to plasma treatment, this PCP layer rapidly buckles, forming surface-wrinkled particles. We designed and fabricated various particles with desired shapes and sizes. The surfaces of these shapes were tuned to created wrinkle morphologies by controlling UV exposure time and the washing process. We further demonstrated that wrinkles on the particles significantly promoted cell attachment without any chemical modification, potentially providing a new route for cell attachment for various biomedical applications.

  20. Wrinkling of Stretched Films: Shear Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Report presents theoretical investigation on nonlinear shearing characteristics of wrinkling films under applied shear stress. Report helps explain force/deflection characteristic of in-planeboom and solar-array blanket structural combinations.

  1. Nanofibrillar cellulose wound dressing in skin graft donor site treatment.

    PubMed

    Hakkarainen, T; Koivuniemi, R; Kosonen, M; Escobedo-Lucea, C; Sanz-Garcia, A; Vuola, J; Valtonen, J; Tammela, P; Mäkitie, A; Luukko, K; Yliperttula, M; Kavola, H

    2016-12-28

    Although new therapeutic approaches for burn treatment have made progress, there is still need for better methods to enhance wound healing and recovery especially in severely burned patients. Nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) has gained attention due to its renewable nature, good biocompatibility and excellent physical properties that are of importance for a range of applications in pharmaceutical and biomedical fields. In the present study, we investigated the potential of a wood based NFC wound dressing in a clinical trial on burn patients. Previously, we have investigated NFC as a topical functionalized wound dressing that contributes to improve wound healing in mice. Wood based NFC wound dressing was tested in split-thickness skin graft donor site treatment for nine burn patients in clinical trials at Helsinki Burn Centre. NFC dressing was applied to split thickness skin graft donor sites. The dressing gradually dehydrated and attached to donor site during the first days. During the clinical trials, physical and mechanical properties of NFC wound dressing were optimized by changing its composition. From patient 5 forward, NFC dressing was compared to commercial lactocapromer dressing, Suprathel® (PMI Polymedics, Germany). Epithelialization of the NFC dressing-covered donor site was faster in comparison to Suprathel®. Healthy epithelialized skin was revealed under the detached NFC dressing. NFC dressing self-detached after 11-21days for patients 1-9, while Suprathel® self-detached after 16-28days for patients 5-9. In comparison studies with patients 5-9, NFC dressing self-detached on average 4days earlier compared with Suprathel®. Lower NFC content in the material was evaluated to influence the enhanced pliability of the dressing and attachment to the wound bed. No allergic reaction or inflammatory response to NFC was observed. NFC dressing did not cause more pain for patients than the traditional methods to treat the skin graft donor sites. Based on the

  2. Finite element analysis of wrinkling membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. K.; Hedgepeth, J. M.; Weingarten, V. I.; Das, P.; Kahyai, S.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a nonlinear numerical algorithm for the analysis of stresses and displacements in partly wrinkled flat membranes, and its implementation on the SAP VII finite-element code are described. A comparison of numerical results with exact solutions of two benchmark problems reveals excellent agreement, with good convergence of the required iterative procedure. An exact solution of a problem involving axisymmetric deformations of a partly wrinkled shallow curved membrane is also reported.

  3. Micro-fractional ablative skin resurfacing with two novel erbium laser systems.

    PubMed

    Dierickx, Christine C; Khatri, Khalil A; Tannous, Zeina S; Childs, James J; Cohen, Richard H; Erofeev, Andrei; Tabatadze, David; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V; Altshuler, Gregory B

    2008-02-01

    Fractional ablation offers the potential benefits of full-surface ablative skin resurfacing while minimizing adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety, damage profile, and efficacy of erbium fractional lasers. Histology from animal and human skin as well as clinical evaluations were conducted with erbium YAG (2,940 nm) and erbium YSGG (2,790 nm) fractional lasers varying pulse width, microbeam (microb) energy, number of passes, and stacking of pulses. Single-pulse treatment parameters from 1 to 12 mJ per 50-70 microm diameter microbeam and 0.25-5 milliseconds pulse widths produced microcolumns of ablation with border coagulation of up to 100 microm width and 450 microm depth. Stacking of pulses generated deeper microcolumns. Clinical observations and in vivo histology demonstrate rapid re-epithelization and limited adverse side effects. Facial treatments were performed in the periorbital and perioral areas using 1-8 passes of single and stacked pulses. Treatments were well-tolerated and subjects could resume their normal routine in 4 days. A statistically significant reduction in wrinkle scores at 3 months was observed for both periorbital and perioral wrinkles using blinded grading. For periorbital treatments of four passes or more, over 90% had > or =1 score wrinkle reduction (0-9 scale) and 42% had > or =2. For perioral wrinkles, over 50% had substantial improvements (> or =2). The clinical observations and histology findings demonstrate that micro-fractional ablative treatment with 2,790 and 2,940 nm erbium lasers resulted in safe and effective wrinkle reduction with minimal patient downtime. The depth and width of the ablated microcolumns and varying extent of surrounding coagulation can be controlled and used to design new treatment procedures targeted for specific indications and areas such as moderate to severe rhytides and photodamaged skin.

  4. Modeling economic implications of alternative treatment strategies for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.

    PubMed

    Revankar, Nikhil; Ward, Alexandra J; Pelligra, Christopher G; Kongnakorn, Thitima; Fan, Weihong; LaPensee, Kenneth T

    2014-10-01

    The economic implications from the US Medicare perspective of adopting alternative treatment strategies for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) are substantial. The objective of this study is to describe a modeling framework that explores the impact of decisions related to both the location of care and switching to different antibiotics at discharge. A discrete event simulation (DES) was developed to model the treatment pathway of each patient through various locations (emergency department [ED], inpatient, and outpatient) and the treatments prescribed (empiric antibiotic, switching to a different antibiotic at discharge, or a second antibiotic). Costs are reported in 2012 USD. The mean number of days on antibiotic in a cohort assigned to a full course of vancomycin was 11.2 days, with 64% of the treatment course being administered in the outpatient setting. Mean total costs per patient were $8671, with inpatient care accounting for 58% of the costs accrued. The majority of outpatient costs were associated with parenteral administration rather than drug acquisition or monitoring. Scenarios modifying the treatment pathway to increase the proportion of patients receiving the first dose in the ED, and then managing them in the outpatient setting or prescribing an oral antibiotic at discharge to avoid the cost associated with administering parenteral therapy, therefore have a major impact and lower the typical cost per patient by 11-20%. Since vancomycin is commonly used as empiric therapy in clinical practice, based on these analyses, a shift in treatment practice could result in substantial savings from the Medicare perspective. The choice of antibiotic and location of care influence the costs and resource use associated with the management of ABSSSIs. The DES framework presented here can provide insight into the potential economic implications of decisions that modify the treatment pathway.

  5. The effects of natural S-equol supplementation on skin aging in postmenopausal women: a pilot randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Ayuko; Ueno, Tomomi; Uchiyama, Shigeto; Aihara, Tomohiko; Miyake, Akira; Kondo, Sumio; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the natural S-equol supplement on skin aging in equol-nonproducing Japanese postmenopausal women. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial examined the use of the natural S-equol supplement for 12 weeks in 101 postmenopausal Japanese women who were equol nonproducers. They were randomly assigned to one of three groups: placebo (n = 34), 10 mg S-equol/day (EQL10; n = 34), or 30 mg S-equol/day (EQL30; n = 33). Skin parameters of crow's-feet wrinkles (area and depth), hydration, transepidermal water loss, and elasticity were measured at baseline and at monthly intervals during treatment. Vaginal cytology, endometrial thickness, and mammography were performed before and after treatment. Serum hormone concentrations were measured at the same time as skin parameters. The EQL10 and EQL30 groups showed significant reductions in wrinkle area compared with the placebo group (P < 0.05). There was a significant difference in wrinkle depth between the placebo group and the EQL30 group (P < 0.05). Other skin parameters did not show significant differences after the treatment in any group. There were no abnormal results in hormone status or gynecological examinations. Our data suggest that natural S-equol supplementation (EQL10 and EQL30) may have a beneficial effect on crow's-feet wrinkles in postmenopausal women without serious adverse events.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of telavancin versus vancomycin for treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections.

    PubMed

    Laohavaleeson, Somvadee; Barriere, Steven L; Nicolau, David P; Kuti, Joseph L

    2008-12-01

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of telavancin versus vancomycin for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs). Pharmacoeconomic analysis conducted from the hospital's perspective using data from the Assessment of Telavancin in Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections (ATLAS) phase III clinical trial. One hundred twenty-nine hospitals in the United States and internationally. A total of 1044 clinically evaluable patients who were hospitalized with a cSSSI during the ATLAS trial and who received at least one dose of telavancin or vancomycin in the hospital. Diagnosis-related group-specific hospital bed costs, antibiotic acquisition prices, and cost of vancomycin monitoring were applied to the resource utilization data collected during the ATLAS trial. Infection-related length of stay (LOS(ir)) and hospitalization costs (COST(ir)) were compared between the telavancin (514 patients) and vancomycin (530 patients) groups. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated for the total population and a subset of patients infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by using a 25,000-sample bootstrap analysis. During sensitivity analyses, the daily acquisition price for telavancin was increased from the equivalent to vancomycin ($13.44) to $50, $100, $150, or $200, and the rate of MRSA acquisition was varied between 30% and 75%. The median (interquartile range) LOS(ir) was 8 days (6-12 days) for both telavancin and vancomycin (p=0.742), and median (interquartile range) COST(ir) was $8118 ($6291-11,758) and $8185 ($6474-11,405), respectively (p=0.560). Similar findings were observed for the MRSA subset. Telavancin cost-effectiveness was greater for the MRSA population versus the total population. During bootstrap analyses of the MRSA population, the ICER for telavancin ranged from dominant (-$9560) to $27,889 as acquisition price was increased. Telavancin LOS(ir) and total COST(ir) were similar to

  7. Bacteria of Porcine Skin, Xenografts, and Treatment with Neomycin Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rodney F.; Evans, Barbara L.

    1972-01-01

    Homogenized 4-mm punch biopsies were taken from pigs and bacteriologically evaluated to determine the efficacy of surgical scrub procedures and the subsequent treatment of tissue with 0.5% neomycin sulfate-sodium bisulfite (neomycin-bisulfite) as a decontaminating agent. The majority of the lots of porcine skin taken directly from animals for xenografts in the treatment of burns contained viable bacteria at the time of grafting although scrubbing procedures substantially reduced the skin bacteria. The porcine bacteria consisted primarily of coagulase-negative staphylococci with most strains exhibiting caseinolytic and elastase activity. Staphylococci were the only abundant bacteria found in postscrub biopsies and in saline solutions used to wash the dermatome during its use. After an overnight exposure of grafting tissue soaked in neomycin-bisulfite, the spent neomycin-bisulfite solutions were tested for bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity by comparison to unused neomycin. All solutions tested were equal in bacteriostatic strength, but the bactericidal action of some spent solutions was decreased. Neomycin alone exerted a more lethal effect on sensitive bacteria than the neomycin-bisulfite solution. The desirability of having viable porcine skin for a xenograft necessitated using or discarding the tissue after storage in neomycin-bisulfite at 4 C for a maximum of 72 hr. Certain contaminating microorganisms were unaffected by antibiotic treatment, and the prolonged use of neomycin without bisulfite would have primarily eradicated only the porcine coagulase-negative staphylococci. Neither the presence of this group in grafting tissue nor their proteolytic activity had any observed adverse effect on xenografting success. Images PMID:4552886

  8. Genetically Modified Porcine Skin Grafts for Treatment of Severe Burn Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    TITLE: Genetically Modified Porcine Skin Grafts for Treatment of Severe Burn Injuries PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David H. Sachs, M.D...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Genetically Modified Porcine Skin Grafts for Treatment of 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Severe Burn Injuries 5b. GRANT NUMBER...DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Burns, skin grafts , genetic

  9. Nabumetone in the treatment of skin and soft tissue injury.

    PubMed

    Jenner, P N

    1987-10-30

    Nabumetone, a new nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, has been evaluated for the treatment of skin and soft tissue injury, including sports injury, in clinical trials involving nearly 1,000 patients. Its efficacy, safety, and tolerance in these patients is reviewed. The efficacy of nabumetone in the treatment of soft tissue injury has been demonstrated to be similar to that of soluble aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen. It was not possible in these studies to demonstrate a definite advantage over placebo, and the reasons for this are discussed along with some suggestions for future studies. There were no serious adverse experiences reported, and nabumetone was well tolerated and compared favorably with the other agents used, including placebo. It caused significantly fewer gastrointestinal side effects than soluble aspirin. Nabumetone is an appropriate choice of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of sports injury.

  10. New agents approved for treatment of acute staphylococcal skin infections

    PubMed Central

    Tatarkiewicz, Jan; Staniszewska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Vancomycin has been a predominant treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections for decades. However, growing reservations about its efficacy led to an urgent need for new antibiotics effective against MRSA and other drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. This review covers three new anti-MRSA antibiotics that have been recently approved by the FDA: dalbavancin, oritavancin, and tedizolid. The mechanism of action, indications, antibacterial activity profile, microbial resistance, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, interactions as well as available formulations and administration of each of these new antibiotics are described. Dalbavancin is a once-a-week, two-dose, long-acting intravenous bactericidal lipoglycopeptide antibiotic. Oritavancin, a lipoglycopeptide with bactericidal activity, was developed as a single-dose intravenous treatment for acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections (ABSSSI), which offers simplifying treatment of infections. Tedizolid is an oxazolidinone-class bacteriostatic once-daily agent, available for intravenous as well as oral use. Increased ability to overcome bacterial resistance is the main therapeutic advantage of the novel agents over existing antibiotics. PMID:27904526

  11. New agents approved for treatment of acute staphylococcal skin infections.

    PubMed

    Tatarkiewicz, Jan; Staniszewska, Anna; Bujalska-Zadrożny, Magdalena

    2016-12-01

    Vancomycin has been a predominant treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections for decades. However, growing reservations about its efficacy led to an urgent need for new antibiotics effective against MRSA and other drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. This review covers three new anti-MRSA antibiotics that have been recently approved by the FDA: dalbavancin, oritavancin, and tedizolid. The mechanism of action, indications, antibacterial activity profile, microbial resistance, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, interactions as well as available formulations and administration of each of these new antibiotics are described. Dalbavancin is a once-a-week, two-dose, long-acting intravenous bactericidal lipoglycopeptide antibiotic. Oritavancin, a lipoglycopeptide with bactericidal activity, was developed as a single-dose intravenous treatment for acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections (ABSSSI), which offers simplifying treatment of infections. Tedizolid is an oxazolidinone-class bacteriostatic once-daily agent, available for intravenous as well as oral use. Increased ability to overcome bacterial resistance is the main therapeutic advantage of the novel agents over existing antibiotics.

  12. Fractional carbon dioxide laser resurfacing of rhytides and photoaged skin--a prospective clinical study on patient expectation and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Elisabeth; Meierhöfer, Julia; Koller, Michael; Zeman, Florian; Groesser, Leopold; Karrer, Sigrid; Hohenleutner, Ulrich; Landthaler, Michael; Hohenleutner, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    Fractional CO2 -laser resurfacing is increasingly used for treating rhytides and photoaged skin because of its favorable benefit-risk ratio. A key outcome measure and treatment goal in aesthetic laser therapy is patient satisfaction. However, few data are available on patient-reported outcomes after fractional ablative skin-resurfacing. To compare patient expectations before and patient satisfaction after three fractional CO2 -laser treatments and to correlate objectively measured wrinkle reduction with patient satisfaction after treatment. We investigated patient expectation and satisfaction using a 14-item questionnaire in 24 female patients. We assessed the skin-related quality of life and patient satisfaction with skin appearance. We profilometrically measured wrinkle size in four facial areas before and three months after treatment and investigated correlations between wrinkle reduction and patient satisfaction. The high patient expectations before treatment (ceiling effect) were actually slightly exceeded. The average score of 14 items delineating patient satisfaction with laser treatment was higher (4.64 ± 0.82; n = 24) than the respective expectations before treatment (4.43 ± 0.88; n = 24). Skin-related quality of life and patient satisfaction with skin appearance had significantly improved after the last treatment. Patients dissatisfied with their skin appearance before treatment (mean 2.1 ± 1.5; evaluated on a scale ranging from 0-6) were satisfied (mean 5.1 ± 1.2) (P < 0.001) with skin appearance at the follow-up. Patient satisfaction with skin appearance was not correlated to the profilometrically measured reduction of wrinkle size of any facial area. Our results show high patient satisfaction with ablative fractional skin resurfacing, also regarding improved self-esteem and self-satisfaction despite high pre-treatment expectations. Skin-specific quality of life had significantly improved. Thus, this treatment modality

  13. Basal cell carcinoma-treatments for the commonest skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Berking, Carola; Hauschild, Axel; Kölbl, Oliver; Mast, Gerson; Gutzmer, Ralf

    2014-05-30

    With an incidence of 70 to over 800 new cases per 100 000 persons per year, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a very common disease, accounting for about 80% of all cases of non-melanoma skin cancer. It very rarely metastasizes. A variety of treatments are available for the different subtypes and stages of BCC. This review is based on pertinent literature retrieved by a selective search in the Medline database, as well as the American Cancer Society guidelines on BCC and the German guidelines on BCC and skin cancer prevention. The gold standard of treatment is surgical excision with histological control of excision margins, which has a 5-year recurrence rate of less than 3% on the face. For superficial BCC, approved medications such as imiquimod (total remission rate, 82-90%) and topical 5-fluorouracil (80%) are available, as is photodynamic therapy (71-87%). Other ablative methods (laser, cryosurgery) are applicable in some cases. Radiotherapy is an alternative treatment for invasive, inoperable BCC, with 5-year tumor control rates of 89-96%. Recently, drugs that inhibit an intracellular signaling pathway have become available for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic BCC. Phase I and II clinical trials revealed that vismodegib was associated with objective response rates of 30-55% and tumor control rates of 80-90%. This drug was approved on the basis of a non-randomized trial with no control arm. It has side effects ranging from muscle cramps (71%) and hair loss (65%) to taste disturbances (55%) and birth defects. The established, standard treatments are generally highly effective. Vismodegib is a newly approved treatment option for locally advanced BCC that is not amenable to either surgery or radiotherapy.

  14. Wrinkling crystallography on spherical surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Brojan, Miha; Terwagne, Denis; Lagrange, Romain; Reis, Pedro M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation on the crystallography of the dimpled patterns obtained through wrinkling of a curved elastic system. Our macroscopic samples comprise a thin hemispherical shell bound to an equally curved compliant substrate. Under compression, a crystalline pattern of dimples self-organizes on the surface of the shell. Stresses are relaxed by both out-of-surface buckling and the emergence of defects in the quasi-hexagonal pattern. Three-dimensional scanning is used to digitize the topography. Regarding the dimples as point-like packing units produces spherical Voronoi tessellations with cells that are polydisperse and distorted, away from their regular shapes. We analyze the structure of crystalline defects, as a function of system size. Disclinations are observed and, above a threshold value, dislocations proliferate rapidly with system size. Our samples exhibit striking similarities with other curved crystals of charged particles and colloids. Differences are also found and attributed to the far-from-equilibrium nature of our patterns due to the random and initially frozen material imperfections which act as nucleation points, the presence of a physical boundary which represents an additional source of stress, and the inability of dimples to rearrange during crystallization. Even if we do not have access to the exact form of the interdimple interaction, our experiments suggest a broader generality of previous results of curved crystallography and their robustness on the details of the interaction potential. Furthermore, our findings open the door to future studies on curved crystals far from equilibrium. PMID:25535355

  15. The clinical experience and efficacy of bipolar radiofrequency with fractional photothermolysis for aged Asian skin.

    PubMed

    Akita, Hirotaka; Sasaki, Ryosuke; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Negishi, Kei; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2014-10-01

    Bipolar radiofrequency (RF) technology is developed based on fractional thermolysis, and the literature concerning the efficacy of the rejuvenation and treatment of acne scars has been reported in Europe and the United States of America. Therefore, we examined bipolar RF treatment using fractional thermolysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the treatment of Asian photo-aging skin, particularly 'wrinkles' and 'sagging.' Ten Japanese women (mean age: 58.6, skin type III-IV) received three fractional bipolar RF treatments every 4-6 weeks. For the objective evaluation, we evaluated the improvement of the wrinkles on the forehead, lateral canthus (crow's feet) and lower eyelid, and the sagging of the nasolabial fold using digital photographs captured using Visia(™) . For the subjective evaluation, the participants were asked to describe the improvements observed in the wrinkles on the forehead, lateral canthus (crow's feet) and lower eyelid, and sagging nasolabial fold and to evaluate the level pain experienced using a 10-point VAS score. The objective evaluation in each category showed significant improvements in the wrinkles on the lateral canthus (crow's feet) and lower eyelid. As for the nasolabial fold, 60% of the subjects showed improvements, scoring from good to excellent (51-100% improvement), although there was a little improvement of the wrinkle on the forehead. Similar improvements were observed in the subjective evaluation. During each treatment, oedema and erythema were observed in all participants, but the oedema disappeared the following day in all cases. However, mild erythema persisted for an average of 3.1 days. Micro debris disappeared after an average of 5.2 days. The participants were satisfied, as we allowed them to apply make-up the next day. There were no other severe adverse reactions observed during the treatment. The 10-point VAS score was 3.8, and no participants dropped out due to discomfort. Little improvement was observed in

  16. Microbial shaping of sedimentary wrinkle structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, G.; Pruss, S. B.; Perron, J. T.; Bosak, T.

    2014-10-01

    Wrinkle structures on sandy bed surfaces were present in some of the earliest sedimentary environments, but are rare in modern environments. These enigmatic millimetre- to centimetre-scale ridges or pits are particularly common in sediments that harbour trace fossils and imprints of early animals, and appeared in the aftermath of some large mass extinctions. Wrinkle structures have been interpreted as possible remnants of microbial mats, but the formation mechanism and associated palaeoenvironmental and palaeoecological implications of these structures remain debated. Here we show that microbial aggregates can form wrinkle structures on a bed of bare sand in wave tank experiments. Waves with a small orbital amplitude at the bed surface do not move sand grains directly. However, they move millimetre-size, light microbial fragments and thereby produce linear sand ridges and rounded scour pits at the wavelengths observed in nature within hours. We conclude that wrinkle structures are morphological biosignatures that form at the sediment-water interface in wave-dominated environments, and not beneath microbial mats as previously thought. During early animal evolution, grazing by eukaryotic organisms may have temporarily increased the abundance of microbial fragments and thus the production of wrinkle structures.

  17. Dalbavancin for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections

    PubMed Central

    Ramdeen, Sheena; Boucher, Helen W

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) have increased in incidence and severity. The involvement of resistant organisms, particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, presents additional challenges. The lipoglycopeptide dalbavancin has a prolonged half-life, high protein binding, and excellent tissue levels which led to its development as a once-weekly treatment for ABSSSI. In the pivotal DISCOVER 1 and DISCOVER 2 trials, dalbavancin proved non-inferior to vancomycin followed by linezolid when used sequentially for ABSSSI, forming the basis for its recent approval in the US and Europe for ABSSSI. Areas covered A literature search of published pharmacologic and clinical data was conducted to review the chemistry, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of dalbavancin. We also discuss its development process, highlighting efficacy and safety data from pertinent clinical trials and the role it could play in the current clinical landscape. Expert opinion DISCOVER 1 and DISCOVER 2 demonstrated dalbavancin’s non-inferiority to vancomycin followed by linezolid for ABSSSI and confirmed its safety and tolerability. They were among the first trials to use new, early primary efficacy endpoints, and dalbavancin was among the first agents designated a Qualified Infectious Disease Product for expedited review. Dalbavancin may prove to be a valuable option for ABSSSI patients in whom conventional therapy is limited. PMID:26239321

  18. Multisource, Phase-controlled Radiofrequency for Treatment of Skin Laxity

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Moraga, Javier; Muñoz, Estefania; Cornejo Navarro, Paloma

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the correlation between degrees of clinical improvement and microscopic changes detected using confocal microscopy at the temperature gradients reached in patients treated for skin laxity with a phase-controlled, multisource radiofrequency system. Design and setting: Patients with skin laxity in the abdominal area were treated in six sessions with radiofrequency (the first 4 sessions were held at 2-week intervals and the 2 remaining sessions at 3-week intervals). Patients attended monitoring at 6, 9, and 12 months. Participants: 33 patients (all women). Measurements: The authors recorded the following: variations in weight, measurements of the contour of the treated area and control area, evaluation of clinical improvement by the clinician and by the patient, images taken using an infrared camera, temperature (before, immediately after, and 20 minutes after the procedure), and confocal microscopy images (before treatment and at 6, 9, and 12 months). The degree of clinical improvement was contrasted by two external observers (clinicians). The procedure was performed using a new phase-controlled, multipolar radiofrequency system. Results: The results reveal a greater degree of clinical improvement in patients with surface temperature increases greater than 11.5ºC at the end of the procedure and remaining greater than 4.5ºC 20 minutes later. These changes induced by radiofrequency were contrasted with the structural improvements observed at the dermal-epidermal junction using confocal microscopy. Changes are more intense and are statistically correlated with patients who show a greater degree of improvement and have higher temperature gradients at the end of the procedure and 20 minutes later. Conclusion: Monitoring and the use of parameters to evaluate end-point values in skin quality treatment by multisource, phased-controlled radiofrequency can help optimize aesthetic outcome. PMID:21278896

  19. Skin Cancer Awareness and Sun Protection Behavior Before and Following Treatment Among Skin Cancer-Treated Patients.

    PubMed

    Abedini, Robabeh; Nasimi, Maryam; Nourmohammad Pour, Pedram; Etesami, Ifa; Al-Asiri, Safa; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza

    2017-11-15

    There is little known about illness perception in patients with skin tumors. We conducted this study to investigate Iranian patients' understanding of skin tumors, and to evaluate their sun-protective behavior changes after treatment of skin cancer. Patients with a skin biopsy of basal cell carcinoma were asked to complete questionnaires. A total of 110 patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were mostly referred to our tumor clinic from rural areas. At the skin cancer perception investigation, 63% of patients did not consider their disease as a long-lasting situation. Besides, 45.4% of patients consider their illness as a serious condition which significantly affecting their lives. Our patients had a strong belief in treatment control (81%) and 81% of them also described worries about their skin cancer. The leading causes of skin cancer as assumed by patients were: history of skin cancer (37.4%), poor medical care in the past (36.4%), extreme sun exposure (31.5%), and lack of sun protection (27.5%). In regard to sun-protective behavior after treatment of skin cancer, 55.4% of patients showed no changes or even negative change in their sun-protective behavior, But 44.5% of the patients changed their sun-protective behavior in a positive way which was statically significant (P ≤ 0.001). Our study demonstrates how our patients with skin cancer perceive their disease and we need to educate our patients, considering diseases' aspects, causes and symptoms. This is of great value as dermatologists should be aware of patients' perceptions of their disease in order to improve patients' knowledge through educating more about different aspects of disease.

  20. Quantification of age-related facial wrinkles in men and women using a three-dimensional fringe projection method and validated assessment scales.

    PubMed

    Luebberding, Stefanie; Krueger, Nils; Kerscher, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Whereas the molecular mechanisms of skin aging are well understood, little information is available concerning the clinical onset and lifetime development of facial wrinkles. To perform the first systematic evaluation of the lifetime development of facial wrinkles and sex-specific differences using three-dimensional (3D) imaging and clinical rating. 200 men and women aged 20 to 70 were selected. Wrinkle severity of periorbital, glabellar, and forehead lines was evaluated using 3D imaging and validated assessment scales. Wrinkle severity was greater at all assessed locations with older age. In men, wrinkles manifested earlier and were more severe than in women. In women, periorbital lines were the first visible wrinkles, in contrast to the forehead lines in men. In both sexes, glabellar lines did not clinically manifest before the age of 40. The results of the present study confirm a progressive increase of crow's feet and forehead and glabellar lines in men and women. Although the development of facial wrinkles happens earlier and is more severe in men, perimenopause seems to particularly affect development in women. Clinical ratings and 3D measurements are suitable methods to assess facial wrinkle severity in men and women. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Dermatocosmetologic aspects of treatment of basal-cell skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geinitz, A. V.; Stranadko, Ye. F.; Yusupova, Zh. M.; Tkachenko, S. B.

    2005-08-01

    The obtained clinical findings demonstrate excellent results after surgical MSC treatment with the application of modem laser surgical technologies. All the operated patients were under oncologist"s control during 1.5-2.5 years. In 6 cases we observed topical recurrences which needed a repeated intervention. Thus, our experience of applying LPh for surgical treatment of basal-cell carcinomas of the head and neck dem- onstrate that in the analysed cases it is more reasonable to use two models of laser devices different in their physical parameters. These devices are used at different surgical stages so as to provide a precise effect in laser tumour va- porization within the borders of the healthy tissue, to make better vascular coagulation and laser smoothing of wound surface. Immediate, direct and long-term results of modern surgical lasers" application for treating skin BSC almost in all cases give good and excellent cosmetic effect after such intenventions.

  2. Clinical implementation of total skin electron irradiation treatment with a 6 MeV electron beam in high-dose total skin electron mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucero, J. F.; Rojas, J. I.

    2016-07-01

    Total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) is a special treatment technique offered by modern radiation oncology facilities, given for the treatment of mycosis fungoides, a rare skin disease, which is type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma [1]. During treatment the patient's entire skin is irradiated with a uniform dose. The aim of this work is to present implementation of total skin electron irradiation treatment using IAEA TRS-398 code of practice for absolute dosimetry and taking advantage of the use of radiochromic films.

  3. Simulation of Forming and Wrinkling of Textile Composite Reinforcements

    SciTech Connect

    Hamila, N.; Wang, P.; Vidal-Salle, E.

    Because of the very weak textile bending stiffness, wrinkles are frequent during composite reinforcement forming. The simulation of the shape of these wrinkles during the forming process permits to verify there is no wrinkle in the useful part of the preform. In this paper the role of tensions, in-plane shear and bending rigidities in wrinkling development are analyzed. In-plane shear plays a main role for onset of wrinkles in double-curved shape forming but wrinkling is a global phenomenon depending on all strains and stiffnesses and on boundary conditions. The bending stiffness mainly determines the shape of the wrinkles and amore » membrane approach it is not sufficient to simulate wrinkles.« less

  4. A Pilot Study of Skin Resurfacing Using the 2,790-nm Erbium:YSGG Laser System.

    PubMed

    Rhie, Jong Won; Shim, Jeong Su; Choi, Won Seok

    2015-01-01

    The erbium:yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er:YSGG) laser differs from other laser techniques by having a faster and higher cure rate. Since the Er:YSGG laser causes an appropriate proportion of ablation and coagulation, it has advantages over the conventional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser and the erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser, including heating tendencies and explosive vaporization. This research was conducted to explore the effects and safety of the Er:YSGG laser. Twenty patients participated in the pilot study of a resurfacing system using a 2,790-nm Er:YSGG laser. All patients received facial treatment by the 2,790-nm Er:YSGG laser system (Cutera) twice with a 4-week interval. Wrinkle reduction, reduction in pigment inhomogeneity, and improvement in tone and texture were measured. Study subjects included 15 women and five men. Re-epithelization occurred in all subjects 3 to 4 days after treatment, and wrinkle reduction, reduction in pigment inhomogeneity, and improvement in tone and texture within 6 months of treatment. The 2,790-nm YSGG laser technique had fewer complications and was effective in the improvement of scars, pores, wrinkles, and skin tone and color with one or two treatments. We expect this method to be effective for people with acne scars, pore scars, deep wrinkles, and uneven skin texture and color.

  5. A Pilot Study of Skin Resurfacing Using the 2,790-nm Erbium:YSGG Laser System

    PubMed Central

    Rhie, Jong Won; Choi, Won Seok

    2015-01-01

    Background The erbium:yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er:YSGG) laser differs from other laser techniques by having a faster and higher cure rate. Since the Er:YSGG laser causes an appropriate proportion of ablation and coagulation, it has advantages over the conventional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser and the erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser, including heating tendencies and explosive vaporization. This research was conducted to explore the effects and safety of the Er:YSGG laser. Methods Twenty patients participated in the pilot study of a resurfacing system using a 2,790-nm Er:YSGG laser. All patients received facial treatment by the 2,790-nm Er:YSGG laser system (Cutera) twice with a 4-week interval. Wrinkle reduction, reduction in pigment inhomogeneity, and improvement in tone and texture were measured. Results Study subjects included 15 women and five men. Re-epithelization occurred in all subjects 3 to 4 days after treatment, and wrinkle reduction, reduction in pigment inhomogeneity, and improvement in tone and texture within 6 months of treatment. Conclusions The 2,790-nm YSGG laser technique had fewer complications and was effective in the improvement of scars, pores, wrinkles, and skin tone and color with one or two treatments. We expect this method to be effective for people with acne scars, pore scars, deep wrinkles, and uneven skin texture and color. PMID:25606490

  6. Post-treatment skin reactions reported by cancer patients differ by race, not by treatment or expectations

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, J L; Bole, C; Hickok, J T; Figueroa-Moseley, C; Colman, L; Khanna, R C; Pentland, A P; Morrow, G R

    2007-01-01

    Cancer patients may experience skin problems while undergoing chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Frequency of skin reactions may be influenced by skin pigmentation and psychological factors. A Symptom Inventory completed by 656 cancer patients nationwide before and after chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy plus radiation therapy was analysed to determine if treatment type, race (Black vs White), and pretreatment expectations influenced post-treatment skin reactions. Subsequent analysis of a local Symptom Inventory completed weekly for 5 weeks by 308 patients receiving radiation therapy examined severity of reported skin reactions. Significantly more patients receiving radiation therapy had stronger expectations of skin problems (62%) than patients receiving chemotherapy (40%, P=0.001) or chemotherapy plus radiation therapy (45%, P=0.003). Overall, expectations did not correlate with patient reported post-treatment skin problems in white (r=0.014, P=0.781) or black (r=0.021, P=0.936) patients. Although no significant difference was found between black and white patients in their pretreatment expectations of skin problems (P=0.32), black patients (10 out of 18, 56%) reported more skin problems than white patients (90 out of 393, 23%, P=0.001). Similarly, the local study showed that significantly more black patients (1 out of 5, 20%) reported severe skin reactions at the treatment site than white patients (12 out of 161, 8%). A direct correlation was observed between severity of skin problems and pain at the treatment site (r=0.541, P<0.001). Total radiation exposure did not significantly correlate with the report of skin problems at the treatment site for white or black patients. Overall, black patients reported more severe post-treatment skin problems than white patients. Our results suggest that symptom management for post-treatment skin reactions in cancer patients receiving radiation treatment could differ depending on their racial background. PMID

  7. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks. (2...

  8. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks. (2...

  9. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks. (2...

  10. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks. (2...

  11. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks. (2...

  12. Enhanced full-face skin rejuvenation using synchronous intense pulsed optical and conducted bipolar radiofrequency energy (ELOS): introducing selective radiophotothermolysis.

    PubMed

    Sadick, Neil S; Alexiades-Armenakas, Macrene; Bitter, Patrick; Hruza, George; Mulholland, R Stephen

    2005-01-01

    The authors previously reported their experience achieving non-ablative skin enhancement with serial, full-face, intense pulsed light treatments in a large series of patients. A new method for skin renewal electro-optical synergy (ELOS), which combines intense pulsed optical energy and conducted bipolar radiofrequency (RF) energy into a single pulse, has been recently introduced. Intense pulsed optical energy and bipolar RF energy have been used in dermatologic surgery for many years; however, this study represents the therapeutic impact of the combined energies. The authors report their experience using an ELOS system (Aurora SR, Syneron, Yokneam, Israel) on 108 consecutive patients treated with a series of full-face procedures. Patients received 5 full-face treatments every 3 weeks. Each treatment consisted of 1 to 8 full-face and segmental passes. The number of passes, specific wavelength of pulsed optical energy, and RF energy were determined by the patient's skin type, dyschromia, wrinkle pathology, and presence of a tan. A total of 540 treatments were performed on 108 subjects. All patients had pre- and post-procedural photographs. Results were assessed by double-blinded physician photographic evaluation and patient satisfaction scales. Overall skin improvement was rated at 75.3%. Overall average wrinkle improvement was 41.2%, with an average Class 1 wrinkle improvement of 64.7%, Class 2 wrinkle improvement of 38.6%, and Class 3 wrinkle improvement of 20.4%. Improvement in skin laxity was rated at 62.9%. Skin texture was reported to improve 74.1%. Improvement in the appearance of pore size was rated at 65.1%. Average improvement in erythema and telangiectasia was 68.4%. Average improvement in hyperpigmentation and dyschromia was 79.3%. Overall patient satisfaction was 92%. The overall minor complication rate, including blistering, crusting, and stripping was 8.3%, and the major complication rate was less than 1%. One small, depressed nasal scar was observed

  13. An antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids and vitamins improves the biomechanical parameters of facial skin

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Diana; Townley, Joshua P; Barnes, Tanya M; Greive, Kerryn A

    2015-01-01

    Background The demand for antiaging products has dramatically increased in recent years, driven by an aging population seeking to maintain the appearance of youth. This study investigates the effects of an antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) in conjunction with vitamins B3, C, and E on the biomechanical parameters of facial skin. Methods Fifty two volunteers followed an antiaging skin care regimen comprising of cleanser, eye cream, day moisturizer, and night moisturizer for 21 days. Wrinkle depth (Ry) and skin roughness (Ra) were measured by skin surface profilometry of the crow’s feet area, and skin elasticity parameters R2 (gross elasticity), R5 (net elasticity), R6 (viscoelastic portion), and R7 (recovery after deformation) were determined for facial skin by cutometer, preapplication and after 7, 14, and 21 days. Volunteers also completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Results Compared to baseline, Ry and Ra significantly improved by 32.5% (P<0.0001) and 42.9% (P<0.0001), respectively, after 21 days of antiaging skin care treatment. These results were observed by the volunteers with 9 out of 10 discerning an improvement in skin texture and smoothness. Compared to baseline, R2 and R5 significantly increased by 15.2% (P<0.0001) and 12.5% (P=0.0449), respectively, while R6 significantly decreased by 17.7% (P<0.0001) after 21 days. R7 increased by 9.7% after 21 days compared to baseline but this was not significant over this time period. Conclusion An antiaging skin care system containing AHAs and vitamins significantly improves the biomechanical parameters of the skin including wrinkles and skin texture, as well as elasticity without significant adverse effects. PMID:25552908

  14. An antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids and vitamins improves the biomechanical parameters of facial skin.

    PubMed

    Tran, Diana; Townley, Joshua P; Barnes, Tanya M; Greive, Kerryn A

    2015-01-01

    The demand for antiaging products has dramatically increased in recent years, driven by an aging population seeking to maintain the appearance of youth. This study investigates the effects of an antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) in conjunction with vitamins B3, C, and E on the biomechanical parameters of facial skin. Fifty two volunteers followed an antiaging skin care regimen comprising of cleanser, eye cream, day moisturizer, and night moisturizer for 21 days. Wrinkle depth (Ry ) and skin roughness (Ra ) were measured by skin surface profilometry of the crow's feet area, and skin elasticity parameters R2 (gross elasticity), R5 (net elasticity), R6 (viscoelastic portion), and R7 (recovery after deformation) were determined for facial skin by cutometer, preapplication and after 7, 14, and 21 days. Volunteers also completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Compared to baseline, Ry and Ra significantly improved by 32.5% (P<0.0001) and 42.9% (P<0.0001), respectively, after 21 days of antiaging skin care treatment. These results were observed by the volunteers with 9 out of 10 discerning an improvement in skin texture and smoothness. Compared to baseline, R2 and R5 significantly increased by 15.2% (P<0.0001) and 12.5% (P=0.0449), respectively, while R6 significantly decreased by 17.7% (P<0.0001) after 21 days. R7 increased by 9.7% after 21 days compared to baseline but this was not significant over this time period. An antiaging skin care system containing AHAs and vitamins significantly improves the biomechanical parameters of the skin including wrinkles and skin texture, as well as elasticity without significant adverse effects.

  15. A new wrinkle on the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taber, Larry A.

    2018-05-01

    The folded structure of the human brain is a hallmark of our intelligence — an optimized packing of neurons into a confined space. Similar wrinkling in brain-on-a-chip experiments provides a way of understanding the physics of how this occurs.

  16. Quantifying Wrinkle Features of Thin Membrane Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Mindy B.; Iwasa, Takashi; Naton, M. C.

    2004-01-01

    For future micro-systems utilizing membrane based structures, quantified predictions of wrinkling behavior in terms of amplitude, angle and wavelength are needed to optimize the efficiency and integrity of such structures, as well as their associated control systems. For numerical analyses performed in the past, limitations on the accuracy of membrane distortion simulations have often been related to the assumptions made. This work demonstrates that critical assumptions include: effects of gravity, supposed initial or boundary conditions, and the type of element used to model the membrane. In this work, a 0.2 m x 02 m membrane is treated as a structural material with non-negligible bending stiffness. Finite element modeling is used to simulate wrinkling behavior due to a constant applied in-plane shear load. Membrane thickness, gravity effects, and initial imperfections with respect to flatness were varied in numerous nonlinear analysis cases. Significant findings include notable variations in wrinkle modes for thickness in the range of 50 microns to 1000 microns, which also depend on the presence of an applied gravity field. However, it is revealed that relationships between overall strain energy density and thickness for cases with differing initial conditions are independent of assumed initial conditions. In addition, analysis results indicate that the relationship between wrinkle amplitude scale (W/t) and structural scale (L/t) is independent of the nonlinear relationship between thickness and stiffness.

  17. Is It True That Smoking Causes Wrinkles?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the heat from burning cigarettes and the facial expressions you make when smoking — such as pursing your lips when inhaling and squinting your eyes to keep out smoke — may contribute to ... factors associated with facial wrinkling in men and women. Journal of Investigative ...

  18. Wrinkle Ridges and Young Fresh Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-06-04

    This NASA Mars Odyssey image is of the ridged plains of Lunae Planum in the northern hemisphere of Mars. Wrinkle ridges, a very common landform on Mars, Mercury, Venus, and the Moon, are found mostly along the eastern side of the image.

  19. New Wrinkles on Retirement: Program Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Robert P.; Thorson, James A.

    The program notes were prepared to accompany the television series "New Wrinkles on Retirement." The eight units in the series are: facing inflation, which covers the decreasing value of the dollar, transportation costs, medical expenses, cutting expenses, family budgeting, investments, and places to live; vigor regained, which covers exercise and…

  20. Clinical applications of CO2 laser resurfacing in the treatment of various pathologic skin disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giler, Shamai

    1997-12-01

    CO2 laser skin resurfacing devices are widely used in cosmetic surgery for the treatment of facial rhytides, acne scars and aging skin. This technique is also useful in the treatment of various benign and premalignant or multiple pathological skin conditions and disorders originating in the epidermal, dermal and skin appendages, vascular lesions, epidermal nevi, infected wounds and ulcers, and keloids. Various surgical techniques have been developed in our clinic using laser resurfacing in the treatment of more than 2,000 patients with various skin pathologic disorders. We describe our experience with the various techniques used. The precise depth control and ablation properties combined with the hemostatic and sterilizing effects of the CO2 laser beam, reduction of the possibility of bleeding, infection and damage to healthy tissues, make the CO2 laser resurfacing techniques the treatment of choice for cosmetic surgery and treatment of benign, premalignant and multiple pathologic skin conditions.

  1. Modeling and Analysis of Wrinkled Membranes: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, B.; Ding, H.; Lou, M.; Fang, H.; Broduer, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Thin-film membranes are basic elements of a variety of space inflatable/deployable structures. Wrinkling degrades the performance and reliability of these membrane structures, and hence has been a topic of continued interest. Wrinkling analysis of membranes for general geometry and arbitrary boundary conditions is quite challenging. The objective of this presentation is two-fold. Firstly, the existing models of wrinkled membranes and related numerical solution methods are reviewed. The important issues to be discussed are the capability of a membrane model to characterize taut, wrinkled and slack states of membranes in a consistent and physically reasonable manner; the ability of a wrinkling analysis method to predict the formation and growth of wrinkled regions, and to determine out-of-plane deformation and wrinkled waves; the convergence of a numerical solution method for wrinkling analysis; and the compatibility of a wrinkling analysis with general-purpose finite element codes. According to this review, several opening issues in modeling and analysis of wrinkled membranes that are to be addressed in future research are summarized, The second objective of this presentation is to discuss a newly developed membrane model of two viable parameters (2-VP model) and associated parametric finite element method (PFEM) for wrinkling analysis are introduced. The innovations and advantages of the proposed membrane model and PFEM-based wrinkling analysis are: (1) Via a unified stress-strain relation; the 2-VP model treat the taut, wrinkled, and slack states of membranes consistently; (2) The PFEM-based wrinkling analysis has guaranteed convergence; (3) The 2-VP model along with PFEM is capable of predicting membrane out-of-plane deformations; and (4) The PFEM can be integrated into any existing finite element code. Preliminary numerical examples are also included in this presentation to demonstrate the 2-VP model and PFEM-based wrinkling analysis approach.

  2. Controlling and prevention of surface wrinkling via size-dependent critical wrinkling strain.

    PubMed

    Han, Xue; Zhao, Yan; Cao, Yanping; Lu, Conghua

    2015-06-14

    Surface wrinkling may occur in a film-substrate system when the applied strain exceeds the critical value. However, the practically required strain for the onset of surface wrinkling can be different from the theoretically predicted value. Here we investigate the film size effect-dependent critical strain for the mechanical strain-induced surface wrinkling via a combination of experiments and theoretical analysis. In the poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based system fabricated by the smart combination of mechanical straining and selective O2 plasma (OP) exposure through Cu grids, the film size effect on the critical wrinkling strain is systematically studied by considering OP exposure duration, the mesh number and geometry of Cu grids. Meanwhile, a simple analytical solution revealing the film size effect is well established, which shows good consistency with the experimental results. This study provides an experimental and theoretical basis for finely tuning the critical wrinkling strain in a simple and quantitative manner, which can find a wide range of applications in such fields as microelectronic circuits and optical devices, where controlling and/or prevention of surface wrinkling are of great importance.

  3. Histopathology of laser skin resurfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Sharon L.; Baldwin, Bonnie; Chi, Eric; Ellard, Jeff; Schwartz, Jon A.

    1997-05-01

    Pulsed carbon-dioxide laser skin resurfacing is a purportedly 'non-thermal' procedure enjoying wide application as a cosmetic treatment for skin wrinkles. Treatment success has been based on clinical assessments of skin smoothness. Skin lesions (1 cm2) created by one, two or three superimposed carbon-dioxide laser passes were placed on the backs of 28 'fuzzy' Harlan Sprague Dawley rats. The variable laser irradiation parameters included measured energies ranging from 112 to 387/pulse with pulse widths of 65 and 125 microseconds and a repetition rate of 8 Hz. The square, flat laser beam measured 3 mm2 at the focal point. The lesions were collected from 0 to 10 days after treatment for qualitative and quantitative histopathology. Thermal damage and treatment effect tended to increase in severity and, to a lesser extent, depth with increased delivery parameters. In acute lesions, the vacuolated and fragmented, desiccated and thermally coagulated epidermis was partially removed exposing the underlying thermally coagulated dermal collagen and cells. Epidermal and dermal necrosis and slough occurred between 24 to 72 hours after treatment. Epithelial regeneration originated from the adnexa and the lesion edges. Dermal fibrous scar formation began at 5 days below the regenerated epidermis and became more prominent at 7 and 10 days.

  4. Incidence of malignant skin tumors in 14,140 patients after grenz-ray treatment for benign skin disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Lindeloef, B.E.; Eklund, G.

    1986-12-01

    During the years 1949 to 1975, 14,237 patients received therapeutic doses of grenz rays for the treatment of benign skin disorders such as chronic eczema, psoriasis, and warts. The records of 14,140 of these patients (99.3%) formed the basis for an epidemiologic study of the incidence of skin malignancies in this population. Information about the patients, diagnoses, doses, and sites of treatment was obtained from separate records. The follow-up time was 15 years on the average. We searched the Swedish Cancer Registry, Stockholm, for records reporting the incidence of malignant skin tumors in the study population (incidences of basal cellmore » carcinoma are not registered). The expected number of malignancies was calculated on the basis of age- and sex-standardized incidence data from the Swedish Cancer Registry. In 58 patients, a malignant skin tumor was diagnosed more than five years after grenz-ray therapy had first been administered. Nineteen patients had malignant melanomas, and 39 patients had other malignant skin tumors. The expected number of melanomas was 17.8, and that of other malignant skin tumors was 26.9. None of the patients with melanomas, and only eight of the patients with other malignant skin tumors, had received grenz-ray therapy at the site of the tumor. Six of these eight patients had also been exposed to other known carcinogens. Four hundred eighty-one patients had received an accumulated high dose of grenz rays (greater than or equal to 10 000 rad (greater than or equal to 100 Gy)) on one and the same area. No malignancies were found on those areas. Although we cannot exclude grenz-ray therapy as a risk factor in the development of nonmelanoma skin malignancies, this risk, if any, is small, if recommendations for therapy are followed.« less

  5. Wrinkling of flexoelectric nano-film/substrate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shengkai; Huang, Huaiwei; Liu, Yijie; Zhu, Zheng H.

    2018-02-01

    The study of wrinkling mechanisms essentially helps to establish stable and controllable performance in electronic products. To gain some basic understanding of the wrinkling process in flexoelectric dielectrics, this paper models the wrinkling of nano-film/substrate systems, typically seen in stretchable electronics, subjected to substrate prestrain and voltage loading on electrodes. Flexoelectricity is considered through the constitutive equations proposed by Shen and Hu, and Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is applied to formulate the expressions of wrinkling wavelength and amplitude through the Ritz method. The effects of flexoelectricity, surface parameters, prestrain, applied voltage, structural scale etc on wrinkling behaviors, including wrinkling deformation and the wrinkling critical condition, are discussed. Results reveal that the action of both flexoelectric and surface effects is significant over only a small scale range, with film thickness less than 10 nm. Alongside these issues, the fundamental difference between flexoelectric and piezoelectric effects on wrinkling behaviors is highlighted. Piezoelectricity may act as a promoter or suppressor of wrinkling initiation and amplitude, depending on the applied voltage, while flexoelectricity not only reduces the critical prestrain or voltage required for wrinkling, but also decreases the wrinkling wavelength and amplitude.

  6. Treatment of photoaged skin with topical tretinoin increases epidermal-dermal anchoring fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley, D.T.; Briggaman, R.A.; Zelickson, A.S.

    Topical 0.1% tretinoin or vehicle control was applied daily to the forearm skin of six caucasian adults for 4 months. Two-millimeter punch biopsy specimens were obtained from treatment sites at the beginning and end of the study period for electron microscopy. Anchoring fibrils within the epidermal-dermal junction of skin treatment sites were quantitated by blinded, standardized, computer-assisted morphometry. After 4 months of continual daily treatment, skin sites that received topical tretinoin showed double the anchoring fibril density compared with vehicle control sites. The possible mechanism by which topical tretinoin increases anchoring fibrils in skin include the drug's property of inhibitingmore » collagenase, a dermal enzyme that degrades anchoring fibril collagen. The authors speculate that increased numbers of collagenous anchoring fibrils within the papillary dermis of human skin is one of the connective-tissue correlates of the clinical improvement observed in photoaged skin after treatment with topical tretinoin.« less

  7. Zeaxanthin-based dietary supplement and topical serum improve hydration and reduce wrinkle count in female subjects.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Steve; Frank, Emily; Gierhart, Dennis; Simpson, Paula; Frumento, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Dietary modification, through supplementation and elimination diets, has become an area of interest to help slow skin aging, reduce symptom severity or prevent reoccurrence of certain dermatologic conditions [Clinical Dermatology vol. 31 (2013) 677-700]. Free radical components (reactive oxygen species or ROS) or lipid peroxide (LPO) is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of accelerated skin aging when prolonged oxidative stress occurs. The use of antioxidant-related therapies such as nutraceuticals is of particular interest in restoring skin homeostasis. Antioxidant carotenoid zeaxanthin is concentrated in the eye and skin tissue and believed to decrease the formation of ROS associated with UV light exposure. With zeaxanthin, phytoceramides, and botanical extracts an oral and topical test product (with zeaxanthin, algae extracts, peptides, hyaluronate) have been developed to improve the appearance and condition of skin when used as directed. Subjects were divided into three groups: two tests (skin formula 1 - oral product alone (ZO-1), skin formula 2- oral product with topical product (ZO-2 + ZT)), and one placebo control. The study consisted of a washout visit, baseline (randomization), week two (2), week four (4), week six (6), week eight (8), and week twelve (12). Key parameters measured were as follows: fine lines, deep lines, total wrinkles, wrinkle severity, radiance/skin color (L, a*, b*), discolorations, and skin pigment homogeneity. Thirty-one subjects completed the twelve-week study; no adverse events were recorded during the study. Statistically significant improvements from baseline mean hydration score were observed in active groups at weeks 2, 6, and 8. A statistically significant difference was observed between mean differences from baseline scores for total wrinkle count at week 4 for the combination active groups compared to placebo. A statistically significant difference from baseline scores for fine lines count was also observed at

  8. Gallic acid regulates skin photoaging in UVB-exposed fibroblast and hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eunson; Park, Sang-Yong; Lee, Hyun Ji; Lee, Tae Youp; Sun, Zheng-Wang; Yi, Tae Hoo

    2014-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the primary factor in skin photoaging, which is characterized by wrinkle formation, dryness, and thickening. The mechanisms underlying skin photoaging are closely associated with degradation of collagen via upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, which is induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Gallic acid (GA), a phenolic compound, possesses a variety of biological activities including antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. We investigated the protective effects of GA against photoaging caused by UVB irradiation using normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) in vitro and hairless mice in vivo. The production levels of ROS, interlukin-6, and MMP-1 were significantly suppressed, and type I procollagen expression was stimulated in UVB-irradiated and GA-treated NHDFs. GA treatment inhibited the activity of transcription factor activation protein 1. The effects of GA following topical application and dietary administration were examined by measuring wrinkle formation, histological modification, protein expression, and physiological changes such as stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, and erythema index. We found that GA decreased dryness, skin thickness, and wrinkle formation via negative modulation of MMP-1 secretion and positive regulation of elastin, type I procollagen, and transforming growth factor-β1. Our data indicate that GA is a potential candidate for the prevention of UVB-induced premature skin aging. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Topical treatment with pterostilbene, a natural phytoalexin, effectively protects hairless mice against UVB radiation-induced skin damage and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sirerol, J Antoni; Feddi, Fatima; Mena, Salvador; Rodriguez, María L; Sirera, Paula; Aupí, Miguel; Pérez, Salvador; Asensi, Miguel; Ortega, Angel; Estrela, José M

    2015-08-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate in the SKH-1 hairless mouse model the effect of pterostilbene (Pter), a natural dimethoxy analog of resveratrol (Resv), against procarcinogenic ultraviolet B radiation (UVB)-induced skin damage. Pter prevented acute UVB (360 mJ/cm(2))-induced increase in skin fold, thickness, and redness, as well as photoaging-associated skin wrinkling and hyperplasia. Pter, but not Resv, effectively prevented chronic UVB (180 mJ/cm(2), three doses/week for 6 months)-induced skin carcinogenesis (90% of Pter-treated mice did not develop skin carcinomas, whereas a large number of tumors were observed in all controls). This anticarcinogenic effect was associated with (a) maintenance of skin antioxidant defenses (i.e., glutathione (GSH) levels, catalase, superoxide, and GSH peroxidase activities) close to control values (untreated mice) and (b) an inhibition of UVB-induced oxidative damage (using as biomarkers 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, protein carbonyls, and isoprostanes). The molecular mechanism underlying the photoprotective effect elicited by Pter was further evaluated using HaCaT immortalized human keratinocytes and was shown to involve potential modulation of the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Wrinkling and Folding on Patched Elastic Surfaces: Modulation of the Chemistry and Pattern Size of Microwrinkled Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nogales, Aurora; Del Campo, Adolfo; Ezquerra, Tiberio A; Rodriguez-Hernández, Juan

    2017-06-14

    An unconventional strategy is proposed that takes advantage of localized high-deformation areas, referred to as folded wrinkles, to produce microstructured elastic surfaces with precisely controlled pattern dimensions and chemical distribution. For that purpose, elastic PDMS substrates were prestretched to a different extent and oxidized in particular areas using a mask. When the stretching was removed, the PDMS substrate exhibited out-of-plane deformations that largely depend on the applied prestretching. Prestretchings below 100% lead to affine deformations in which the treated areas are buckled. On the contrary, prestretchings above ε >100% prior to surface treatment induce the formation of folded wrinkles on those micrometer-size ultraviolet-ozone (UVO) treated areas upon relaxation. As a result, dual periodic wrinkles were formed due to the alternation of highly deformed (folded) and low deformed (buckled) areas. Our strategy is based on the surface treatment at precise positions upon prestretching of the elastic substrate (PDMS). Additionally, this approach can be used to template the formation of wrinkled surfaces by alternating lines of folded wrinkles (valleys) and low-deformed areas (hills). This effect allowed us to precisely tune the shape and distribution of the UVO exposed areas by varying the prestretching direction. Moreover, the wrinkle characteristics, including period and amplitude, exhibit a direct relation to the dimensions of the patterns present in the mask.

  11. The Wrinkling of a Twisted Ribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, Robert V.; O'Brien, Ethan

    2018-02-01

    Recent experiments by Chopin and Kudrolli (Phys Rev Lett 111:174302, 2013) showed that a thin elastic ribbon, when twisted into a helicoid, may wrinkle in the center. We study this from the perspective of elastic energy minimization, building on recent work by Chopin et al. (J Elast 119(1-2):137-189, 2015) in which they derive a modified von Kármán functional and solve the relaxed problem. Our main contribution is to show matching upper and lower bounds for the minimum energy in the small-thickness limit. Along the way, we show that the displacements must be small where we expect that the ribbon is helicoidal, and we estimate the wavelength of the wrinkles.

  12. Highly Stretchable Electrodes on Wrinkled Polydimethylsiloxane Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jun; Guo, Hao; Zhao, Miaomiao; Yang, Jiangtao; Tsoukalas, Dimitris; Zhang, Binzhen; Liu, Jun; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Wendong

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a fabrication technology of Ag wrinkled electrodes with application in highly stretchable wireless sensors. Ag wrinkled thin films that were formed by vacuum deposition on top of pre-strained and relaxed polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates which have been treated using an O2 plasma and a surface chemical functionalization process can reach a strain limit up to 200%, while surface adhesion area can reach 95%. The electrical characteristics of components such as resistors, inductors and capacitors made from such Ag conductors have remained stable under stretching exhibiting low temperature and humidity coefficients. This technology was then demonstrated for wireless wearable electronics using compatible processing with established micro/nano fabrication technology. PMID:26585636

  13. Microbial shaping of wrinkle structures in siliciclastic deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosak, T.; Mariotti, G.; Pruss, S. B.; Perron, J.; O'Grady, M.

    2013-12-01

    Wrinkle structures are millimeter- to centimeter-scale elongated or reticulate sedimentary structures that resemble symmetric ripples. Sharp-crested and flat-topped wrinkle structures up to 1 cm wide occur on numerous bedding planes in the Neoproterozoic and Cambrian, as well as in some Archean and Phanerozoic siliciclastic deposits. Because similar, but unlithified structures occur in some modern, microbially-colonized sands, wrinkle structures are typically interpreted as microbially induced sedimentary structures. However, it is unclear if physical processes, such as the motion of suspended sand grains, can produce similar features in sand even before microbial colonization. We introduced mat fragments to the surface of silica sand in wave tanks and generated sharp-crested, flat-topped and pitted wrinkle structures. The abrasion of the sandy surface by rolling, low density, millimeter-size fragments of microbial mats produces wrinkle structures at extremely weak orbital velocities that cannot move sand grains in the absence of light particles. Wrinkle structures form in a few hours and can become colonized by microbial mats within weeks. Thus, wrinkle structures are patterns formed by microbially mediated sand motion at low orbital velocities in the absence of bioturbation. Once formed, wrinkle structures can be colonized and stabilized by microbial mats, but the shape of these mats does not dictate the shape of wrinkle structures. These experiments bolster the interpretation of wrinkle structures as morphological signatures of organic particles and early life in Archean and Proterozoic siliciclastic deposits.

  14. Wrinkle-Free Hydroforming of Wire Mesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fadness, J.

    1986-01-01

    Plastic films lubricate workpiece so it deforms smoothly. Thin layers of plastic below top die and above bottom die ensure wire screen slides as shaped by hydroforming. Plastic layers are 0.0043 in. (0.11 m) thick. Preformed to contours of dies and final workpiece. New method of hydroforming fine-wire-mesh heat-shield screens eliminates wrinkles and marks. Prevents screen from being damaged and pores from becoming blocked.

  15. Wrinkles, folds, and plasticity in granular rafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jambon-Puillet, Etienne; Josserand, Christophe; Protière, Suzie

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the mechanical response of a compressed monolayer of large and dense particles at a liquid-fluid interface: a granular raft. Upon compression, rafts first wrinkle; then, as the confinement increases, the deformation localizes in a unique fold. This characteristic buckling pattern is usually associated with floating elastic sheets, and as a result, particle laden interfaces are often modeled as such. Here, we push this analogy to its limits by comparing quantitative measurements of the raft morphology to a theoretical continuous elastic model of the interface. We show that, although powerful to describe the wrinkle wavelength, the wrinkle-to-fold transition, and the fold shape, this elastic description does not capture the finer details of the experiment. We describe an unpredicted secondary wavelength, a compression discrepancy with the model, and a hysteretic behavior during compression cycles, all of which are a signature of the intrinsic discrete and frictional nature of granular rafts. It suggests also that these composite materials exhibit both plastic transition and jamming dynamics.

  16. Wrinkle-to-fold transition in soft layers under equi-biaxial strain: A weakly nonlinear analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarletta, P.

    2014-12-01

    Soft materials can experience a mechanical instability when subjected to a finite compression, developing wrinkles which may eventually evolve into folds or creases. The possibility to control the wrinkling network morphology has recently found several applications in many developing fields, such as scaffolds for biomaterials, stretchable electronics and surface micro-fabrication. Albeit much is known of the pattern initiation at the linear stability order, the nonlinear effects driving the pattern selection in soft materials are still unknown. This work aims at investigating the nature of the elastic bifurcation undertaken by a growing soft layer subjected to a equi-biaxial strain. Considering a skin effect at the free surface, the instability thresholds are found to be controlled by a characteristic length, defined by the ratio between capillary energy and bulk elasticity. For the first time, a weakly nonlinear analysis of the wrinkling instability is performed here using the multiple-scale perturbation method applied to the incremental theory in finite elasticity. The Ginzburg-Landau equations are derived for different superposing linear modes. This study proves that a subcritical pitchfork bifurcation drives the observed wrinkle-to-fold transition in swelling gels experiments, favoring the emergence of hexagonal creased patterns, albeit quasi-hexagonal patterns might later emerge because of an expected symmetry break. Moreover, if the surface energy is somewhat comparable to the bulk elastic energy, it has the same stabilizing effect as for fluid instabilities, driving the formation of stable wrinkles, as observed in elastic bi-layered materials.

  17. The efficacy of Pistacia Terebinthus soap in the treatment of cetuximab-induced skin toxicity.

    PubMed

    Tastekin, Didem; Tambas, Makbule; Kilic, Kemal; Erturk, Kayhan; Arslan, Deniz

    2014-12-01

    This open-labeled phase II, efficacy-finding study evaluated the efficiency and safety of Pistacia terebinthus soap in metastatic colorectal cancer patients who developed cetuximab induced skin toxicity. Patients who received cetuximab plus chemotherapy and developed Grade 2 or 3 skin toxicity were treated twice daily with a soap made of oil extracted from Pistacia terebinthus. During treatment, no topical or oral antibiotics, corticosteroids or other moisturizers were used. Patients were examined 1 week later and their photographs were taken. Fifteen mCRC patients who developed skin toxicity while receiving first-line CTX in combination with chemotherapy were included into the study. Eight patients were male and the median age was 58 (25-70). Sixty percent of the patients (n:9) had Grade 3 skin toxicity. Complete response rates in patients with Grade 2 and Grade 3 skin toxicities were 100 and 33%, respectively. In the remaining patients with Grade 3 toxicity the skin toxicity regressed to Grade 1. The objective response rate was 100%, and no delay, dose reduction or discontinuation of CTX treatment due to skin toxicity was necessary. Skin toxicity reoccurred in all patients when patients stopped administering the soap and therefore they used it throughout the cetuximab treatment. Pistacia terebinthus soap seemed to be used safely and effectively in the treatment of skin toxicity induced by Cetuximab.

  18. Genetic polymorphisms and skin aging: the identification of population genotypic groups holds potential for personalized treatments.

    PubMed

    Naval, Jordi; Alonso, Vicente; Herranz, Miquel Angel

    2014-01-01

    Skin changes are among the most visible signs of aging. Skin properties such as hydration, elasticity, and antioxidant capacity play a key role in the skin aging process. Skin aging is a complex process influenced by heritable and environmental factors. Recent studies on twins have revealed that up to 60% of the skin aging variation between individuals can be attributed to genetic factors, while the remaining 40% is due to non-genetic factors. Recent advances in genomics and bioinformatics approaches have led to the association of certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to skin properties. Our aim was to classify individuals based on an ensemble of multiple polymorphisms associated with certain properties of the skin for providing personalized skin care and anti-aging therapies. We identified the key proteins and SNPs associated with certain properties of the skin that contribute to skin aging. We selected a set of 13 SNPs in gene coding for these proteins which are potentially associated with skin aging. Finally, we classified a sample of 120 female volunteers into ten clusters exhibiting different skin properties according to their genotypic signature. This is the first study that describes the actual frequency of genetic polymorphisms and their distribution in clusters involved in skin aging in a Caucasian population. Individuals can be divided into genetic clusters defined by genotypic variables. These genotypic variables are linked with polymorphisms in one or more genes associated with certain properties of the skin that contribute to a person's perceived age. Therefore, by using this classification, it is possible to characterize human skin care and anti-aging needs on the basis of an individual's genetic signature, thus opening the door to personalized treatments addressed at specific populations. This is part of an ongoing effort towards personalized anti-aging therapies combining genetic signatures with environmental and life style evaluations.

  19. Genetic polymorphisms and skin aging: the identification of population genotypic groups holds potential for personalized treatments

    PubMed Central

    Naval, Jordi; Alonso, Vicente; Herranz, Miquel Angel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Skin changes are among the most visible signs of aging. Skin properties such as hydration, elasticity, and antioxidant capacity play a key role in the skin aging process. Skin aging is a complex process influenced by heritable and environmental factors. Recent studies on twins have revealed that up to 60% of the skin aging variation between individuals can be attributed to genetic factors, while the remaining 40% is due to non-genetic factors. Recent advances in genomics and bioinformatics approaches have led to the association of certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to skin properties. Our aim was to classify individuals based on an ensemble of multiple polymorphisms associated with certain properties of the skin for providing personalized skin care and anti-aging therapies. Methods and results We identified the key proteins and SNPs associated with certain properties of the skin that contribute to skin aging. We selected a set of 13 SNPs in gene coding for these proteins which are potentially associated with skin aging. Finally, we classified a sample of 120 female volunteers into ten clusters exhibiting different skin properties according to their genotypic signature. Conclusion This is the first study that describes the actual frequency of genetic polymorphisms and their distribution in clusters involved in skin aging in a Caucasian population. Individuals can be divided into genetic clusters defined by genotypic variables. These genotypic variables are linked with polymorphisms in one or more genes associated with certain properties of the skin that contribute to a person’s perceived age. Therefore, by using this classification, it is possible to characterize human skin care and anti-aging needs on the basis of an individual’s genetic signature, thus opening the door to personalized treatments addressed at specific populations. This is part of an ongoing effort towards personalized anti-aging therapies combining genetic signatures

  20. Competitive concurrence of surface wrinkling and dewetting of liquid crystalline polymer films on non-wettable substrates.

    PubMed

    Song, Sung E; Choi, Gwan H; Yi, Gi-Ra; Yoo, Pil J

    2017-11-01

    Polymeric thin films coated on non-wettable substrates undergo film-instabilities, which are usually manifested as surface deformation in the form of dewetting or wrinkling. The former takes place in fluidic films, whereas the latter occurs in solid films. Therefore, there have rarely been reports of systems involving simultaneous deformations of dewetting and wrinkling. In this study, we propose polymeric thin films of liquid crystalline (LC) mesogens prepared on a non-wettable Si substrate and apply a treatment of plasma irradiation to form a thin polymerized layer at the surface. The resulting compressive stress generated in the surface region drives the formation of wrinkles, while at the same time, dipolar attraction between LC molecules induces competitive cohesive dewetting. Intriguing surface structures were obtained whereby dewetting-like hole arrays are nested inside the randomly propagated wrinkles. The structural features are readily controlled by the degree of surface cross-linking, hydrophilicity of the substrates, and the LC film thickness. In particular, dewetting of LC mesogens is observed to be restricted to occur at the trough regions of wrinkles, exhibiting the typical behavior of geometrically confined dewetting. Finally, wrinkling-dewetting mixed structures are separated from the substrate in the form of free standing films to demonstrate the potential applicability as membranes.

  1. An ecological study of skin biopsies and skin cancer treatment procedures in the United States Medicare population, 2000 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Wang, David M; Morgan, Frederick C; Besaw, Robert J; Schmults, Chrysalyne D

    2018-01-01

    Analyses of skin cancer procedures adjusted for population changes are needed. To describe trends in skin cancer-related biopsies and procedures in Medicare beneficiaries. An ecological study of Medicare claims for skin biopsies and skin cancer procedures in 2000 to 2015. Biopsies increased 142%, and skin cancer procedures increased 56%. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) utilization increased on the head/neck, hands/feet, and genitalia (increasing from 11% to 27% of all treatment procedures) but was low on the trunk/extremities (increasing from 1% to 4%). Adjusted for increased Medicare enrollment (+36%) between 2000 and 2015, the number of biopsies and MMS procedures performed per 1000 beneficiaries increased (from 56 to 99 and from 5 to 15, respectively), whereas the number of excisions and destructions changed minimally (from 18 to 16 and from 19 to 18, respectively). Growth in biopsies and MMS procedures slowed between each time period studied: 4.3 additional biopsies per year and 0.9 additional MMS procedures per year per 1000 beneficiaries between 2000 and 2007, 2.2 and 0.5 more between 2008 and 2011, and 0.5 and 0.3 more between 2012 and 2015, respectively. Medicare claims-level data do not provide patient-level or nonsurgical treatment information. The increased number of skin cancer procedures performed was largely the result of Medicare population growth over time. MMS utilization increased primarily on high- and medium-risk and functionally and cosmetically significant locations where tissue sparing and maximizing cure are critical. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) a possible target for the treatment of skin disease.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Maddalena; Patruno, Cataldo

    2018-07-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor expressed in all skin cells type. It responds to exogenous and endogenous chemicals by inducing/repressing the expression of several genes with toxic or protective effects in a wide range of species and tissues. In healthy skin, AhR signalling contributes to keratinocytes differentiation, skin barrier function, skin pigmentation, and mediates oxidative stress. In the last years, some studies have shown that AhR seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of some skin diseases, even if the currently available data are contradictory. Indeed, while the blocking the AhR signalling activity could prevent or treat skin cancer, the AhR activation seems to be advantageous for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. Therefore, for its multifaceted role in skin diseases, AhR seems to be an attractive therapeutic target. Indeed, recently some molecules have been identified for the prevention of skin cancer and the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Estrogens and aging skin.

    PubMed

    Thornton, M Julie

    2013-04-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity. Its protective function becomes compromised and aging is associated with impaired wound healing, hair loss, pigmentary changes and skin cancer.   Skin aging can be significantly delayed by the administration of estrogen. This paper reviews estrogen effects on human skin and the mechanisms by which estrogens can alleviate the changes due to aging. The relevance of estrogen replacement, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and phytoestrogens as therapies for diminishing skin aging is highlighted. Understanding estrogen signaling in skin will provide a basis for interventions in aging pathologies.

  4. Clinical implementation of total skin electron irradiation treatment with a 6 MeV electron beam in high-dose total skin electron mode

    SciTech Connect

    Lucero, J. F., E-mail: fernando.lucero@hoperadiotherapy.com.gt; Hope International, Guatemala; Rojas, J. I., E-mail: isaac.rojas@siglo21.cr

    Total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) is a special treatment technique offered by modern radiation oncology facilities, given for the treatment of mycosis fungoides, a rare skin disease, which is type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma [1]. During treatment the patient’s entire skin is irradiated with a uniform dose. The aim of this work is to present implementation of total skin electron irradiation treatment using IAEA TRS-398 code of practice for absolute dosimetry and taking advantage of the use of radiochromic films.

  5. The effect of CO2 laser treatment on skin tissue.

    PubMed

    Baleg, Sana Mohammed Anayb; Bidin, Noriah; Suan, Lau Pik; Ahmad, Muhammad Fakarruddin Sidi; Krishnan, Ganesan; Johari, Abd Rahman; Hamid, Asma

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of multiple pulses on the depth of injury caused by CO2 laser in an in vivo rat model. A 10 600-nm CO2 laser was applied to rat skin, with one side of the rat dorsal skin being exposed, leaving the other side as a control. All of the various laser pulses tested led to gradual loss of epidermal thickness as well as a dramatic increase in thermal damage depth. Collagen coagulation was most effective with ten pulses of CO2 laser, while the strength of irradiated skin tissue increased as the influence of the laser increased. Fundamental laser-skin interaction effects were studied using a CO2 laser. The photodamaged areas obtained from laser interaction were recorded via couple charge device video camera and analyzed via ImageJ software. Photodamage induced by CO2 laser is due to photothermal effects, which involve burning and vaporizing mechanisms to ablate the epidermis layer. The burning area literally expands and penetrates deep into the dermis layer, subsequently causing collagen coagulation. This fundamental study shows in detail the effect of CO2 laser interaction with skin. The CO2 attributed severe burning, producing deep coagulation, and induced strength to treated skin. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Rejuvenation of Gene Expression Pattern of Aged Human Skin by Broadband Light Treatment: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Anne Lynn S; Bitter, Patrick H; Qu, Kun; Lin, Meihong; Rapicavoli, Nicole A; Chang, Howard Y

    2013-01-01

    Studies in model organisms suggest that aged cells can be functionally rejuvenated, but whether this concept applies to human skin is unclear. Here we apply 3′-end sequencing for expression quantification (“3-seq”) to discover the gene expression program associated with human photoaging and intrinsic skin aging (collectively termed “skin aging”), and the impact of broadband light (BBL) treatment. We find that skin aging was associated with a significantly altered expression level of 2,265 coding and noncoding RNAs, of which 1,293 became “rejuvenated” after BBL treatment; i.e., they became more similar to their expression level in youthful skin. Rejuvenated genes (RGs) included several known key regulators of organismal longevity and their proximal long noncoding RNAs. Skin aging is not associated with systematic changes in 3′-end mRNA processing. Hence, BBL treatment can restore gene expression pattern of photoaged and intrinsically aged human skin to resemble young skin. In addition, our data reveal, to our knowledge, a previously unreported set of targets that may lead to new insights into the human skin aging process. PMID:22931923

  7. In vivo animal histology and clinical evaluation of multisource fractional radiofrequency skin resurfacing (FSR) applicator.

    PubMed

    Sadick, Neil S; Sato, Masaki; Palmisano, Diana; Frank, Ido; Cohen, Hila; Harth, Yoram

    2011-10-01

    Acne scars are one of the most difficult disorders to treat in dermatology. The optimal treatment system will provide minimal downtime resurfacing for the epidermis and non-ablative deep volumetric heating for collagen remodeling in the dermis. A novel therapy system (EndyMed Ltd., Cesarea, Israel) uses phase-controlled multi-source radiofrequency (RF) to provide simultaneous one pulse microfractional resurfacing with simultaneous volumetric skin tightening. The study included 26 subjects (Fitzpatrick's skin type 2-5) with moderate to severe wrinkles and 4 subjects with depressed acne scars. Treatment was repeated each month up to a total of three treatment sessions. Patients' photographs were graded according to accepted scales by two uninvolved blinded evaluators. Significant reduction in the depth of wrinkles and acne scars was noted 4 weeks after therapy with further improvement at the 3-month follow-up. Our data show the histological impact and clinical beneficial effects of simultaneous RF fractional microablation and volumetric deep dermal heating for the treatment of wrinkles and acne scars.

  8. Combination of microneedle radiofrequency (RF), fractional RF skin resurfacing and multi-source non-ablative skin tightening for minimal-downtime, full-face skin rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Haim; Kaplan, Lilach

    2016-12-01

    In the recent years, there is a growth in demand for radiofrequency (RF)-based procedures to improve skin texture, laxity and contour. The new generation of systems allow non-invasive and fractional resurfacing treatments on one platform. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new treatment protocol using a multisource RF, combining 3 different modalities in each patient: [1] non-ablative RF skin tightening, [2] fractional skin resurfacing, and [3] microneedling RF for non-ablative coagulation and collagen remodelling. 14 subjects were enrolled in this study using EndyMed PRO ™ platform. Each patient had 8 non-ablative treatments and 4 fractional treatments (fractional skin resurfacing and Intensif). The global aesthetic score was used to evaluate improvement. All patients had improvement in skin appearance. About 43% had excellent or very good improvement above 50%, 18% had good improvement between 25 and 50%, and the rest 39% had a mild improvement of < 25%. Downtime was minimal and no adverse effect was reported. Our data show significant improvement of skin texture, skin laxity and wrinkle reduction achieved using RF treatment platform.

  9. Retinaldehyde/hyaluronic acid fragments: a synergistic association for the management of skin aging.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Andres; Leon-Dorantes, Gladys; Pons-Guiraud, Annick; Di Pietro, Anonio; Asensi, Santiago Vidal; Walkiewicz-Cyraska, Barbara; Litvik, Radek; Turlier, Virginie; Mery, Sophie; Merial-Kieny, Christelle

    2011-06-01

    Retinaldehyde (RAL) was proven effective in treating photodamaged skin. Topical treatments with specific intermediate-size hyaluronate fragments (HAFi, 50-400 kDa) have been shown to stimulate keratinocytes proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia. The aim of this open, multicentric, international study was to assess the efficacy of the combination RAL-HAFi in the correction of skin photoaging. Either RAL 0.05%-HAFi 0.5% (Eluage® cream; group 1) or RAL 0.05%-HAFi 1% (Eluage® antiwrinkle concentrate; group 2) or both products (group 3) were applied daily to the 1462 subjects during 90 days. Overall photoaging severity was evaluated in the three groups by the dermatologists at D0, D30, and D90 based on the Larnier's scale. Wrinkles and/or furrows and clinical signs of aging were evaluated using a 4-point scale. The skin microrelief of the crow's feet, evaluated by optical profilometry, was performed in subjects from group 3. The 3-month application significantly improved overall photoaging through decrease of the Larnier's score in the three groups (P<0.001). At D90, significant improvement of wrinkles was shown in groups 2 and 3 [forehead wrinkles (-19% and -10%, respectively, P<0.001), nasolabial folds (-20% and -16%, P<0.001), crow's feet (-27% in the two groups, P<0.001), and perioral wrinkles (-34% and -23%, P<0.001)]. Clinical signs of photoaging on the entire face improved significantly in groups 1 and 3 [elasticity (-32% and -33%, respectively, P<0.001), hyperpigmentation (-34% and -31%, P<0.001), and ptosis (-18% and -22%; P<0.001)]. Results were confirmed using an optical profilometry technique. Products were very well tolerated. This clinical study showed the efficacy and value of the RAL-HAFi combination in the management of aging skin in a large cohort of patients. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Interventions for photodamaged skin.

    PubMed

    Samuel, M; Brooke, R C C; Hollis, S; Griffiths, C E M

    2005-01-25

    Photodamage describes skin changes such as fine and coarse wrinkles, roughness, freckles and pigmentation changes that occur as a result of prolonged exposure to the sun. Many treatments are available to reverse the damage, but it is unclear which work and at what cost in terms of unwanted side effects. To assess the effects of topically applied treatments, tablet treatments, laser and surgical procedures for photodamaged skin. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, Issue 1 2002, MEDLINE (1966-June 2002), EMBASE (1974-June 2002), Health Periodicals (1976-June 2002). We checked references of articles and communicated with authors and the pharmaceutical industry. Randomised controlled trials which compared drug or surgical interventions with no treatment, placebo or another drug, in adults with mild, moderate or severe photodamage of the face or forearms. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Thirty studies of variable quality were included. Eight trials showed that topical tretinoin cream, in concentrations of 0.02% or higher, was superior to placebo for participants with mild to severe photodamage on the face and forearms (although losses to follow-up were relatively high in most studies). For example, the relative risk of improvement for 0.05% tretinoin cream, compared to placebo (three studies), at 24 weeks, was 1.73 (95% confidence interval 1.39 to 2.14). This effect was not seen for 0.001% topical tretinoin (one study) or 0.01% (three studies). A dose-response relationship was evident for both effectiveness and skin irritation. One small within-patient study showed benefit from topical ascorbic acid compared with placebo. Tazarotene (0.01% to 0.1%) and isotretinoin (0.1%) both showed significant improvement over placebo for moderate photodamage (one study each). There is limited evidence (one trial), to show that the effectiveness of 0.05% tretinoin, is equivalent to the

  11. Human fetal skin fibroblasts: Extremely potent and allogenic candidates for treatment of diabetic wounds.

    PubMed

    Larijani, Bagher; Ghahari, Aziz; Warnock, Garth L; Aghayan, Hamid Reza; Goodarzi, Parisa; Falahzadeh, Khadijeh; Arjmand, Babak

    2015-06-01

    The number of patients with diabetes has been expected around 300 million by 2025 and 366 million by 2030 by WHO. On the other hand, diabetic wounds as one of the common complications of diabetes represent major health challenges. Recently, wound care biological products have been proposed for treatment of chronic wounds such as the diabetic wound. Accordingly, tissue-engineered skin substitutes have demonstrated promising effects. Some of these products have used adult skin and neonatal foreskin fibroblasts to produce a tissue-engineered skin substitute. Although adult skin and neonatal foreskin fibroblasts have demonstrated promising effects, but fetal skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes have depicted some unique and considerable properties over adult and neonatal skin cells for instance, skin regeneration with no inflammation and scar formation, low immunogenicity, more VEGF-A secretion than their adult counterparts, immunomodulatory effect by the expression of Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase, more resistance to oxidative and physical stresses, etc. On the other hand fetal dermal cells with intrinsic IDO-dependent immunosuppressive activity have introduced them as an allogeneic alternative for treatment of chronic wounds. Therefore, based on the mentioned advantages they are ideal skin substitutes. Accordingly, we suggest that using these cells alone or in combination with biocompatible scaffolds for treatment of different types of ulcers such as diabetic wounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Improving lip wrinkles: lipstick-related image analysis.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jong-Seong; Park, Sun-Gyoo; Kwak, Taek-Jong; Chang, Min-Youl; Park, Moon-Eok; Choi, Khee-Hwan; Sung, Kyung-Hye; Shin, Hyun-Jong; Lee, Cheon-Koo; Kang, Yun-Seok; Yoon, Moung-Seok; Rang, Moon-Jeong; Kim, Seong-Jin

    2005-08-01

    The appearance of lip wrinkles is problematic if it is adversely influenced by lipstick make-up causing incomplete color tone, spread phenomenon and pigment remnants. It is mandatory to develop an objective assessment method for lip wrinkle status by which the potential of wrinkle-improving products to lips can be screened. The present study is aimed at finding out the useful parameters from the image analysis of lip wrinkles that is affected by lipstick application. The digital photograph image of lips before and after lipstick application was assessed from 20 female volunteers. Color tone was measured by Hue, Saturation and Intensity parameters, and time-related pigment spread was calculated by the area over vermilion border by image-analysis software (Image-Pro). The efficacy of wrinkle-improving lipstick containing asiaticoside was evaluated from 50 women by using subjective and objective methods including image analysis in a double-blind placebo-controlled fashion. The color tone and spread phenomenon after lipstick make-up were remarkably affected by lip wrinkles. The level of standard deviation by saturation value of image-analysis software was revealed as a good parameter for lip wrinkles. By using the lipstick containing asiaticoside for 8 weeks, the change of visual grading scores and replica analysis indicated the wrinkle-improving effect. As the depth and number of wrinkles were reduced, the lipstick make-up appearance by image analysis also improved significantly. The lip wrinkle pattern together with lipstick make-up can be evaluated by the image-analysis system in addition to traditional assessment methods. Thus, this evaluation system is expected to test the efficacy of wrinkle-reducing lipstick that was not described in previous dermatologic clinical studies.

  13. Bicellar systems as vehicle for the treatment of impaired skin.

    PubMed

    Rubio, L; Alonso, C; Rodríguez, G; Cócera, M; Barbosa-Barros, L; Coderch, L; de la Maza, A; Parra, J L; López, O

    2014-02-01

    This study assesses the potential usefulness of bicellar systems to retard the penetration of drugs into damaged skin. The active compound used in this study was diclofenac diethylamine (DDEA). Initially, physicochemical characterisation of the DDEA bicellar systems was performed at different temperatures by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Subsequently, in vitro percutaneous absorption of bicellar systems into in vitro damaged skin was studied. SAXS results indicated a slight decrease in the width of their bilayers with increasing temperature, with no apparent stacking in those systems. WAXS patterns were compatible with an orthorhombic lateral packing of the nanoaggregates. The thermogram obtained by DSC indicated a decrease in gel-to-liquid crystalline transition temperature (Tm) when the drug was included into bicellar systems. A retardation effect for DDEA was detected by in vitro percutaneous absorption studies when DDEA was vehiculised in the bicellar systems with respect to an aqueous solution of the drug. It seems that the use of bicellar systems as a vehicle for topical application of DDEA on skin with an impaired barrier function may inhibit the penetration of DDEA to the systemic level. Such systems may consequently repair stratum corneum barrier function to some extent. The use of these systems could be considered a new alternative strategy to treat topically pathological skin with different drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular Signatures in Skin Associated with Clinical Improvement During Mycophenolate Treatment in Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hinchcliff, Monique; Huang, Chiang-Ching; Wood, Tammara A.; Mahoney, J. Matthew; Martyanov, Viktor; Bhattacharyya, Swati; Tamaki, Zenshiro; Lee, Jungwha; Carns, Mary; Podlusky, Sofia; Sirajuddin, Arlene; Shah, Sanjiv J; Chang, Rowland W.; Lafyatis, Robert; Varga, John; Whitfield, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneity in systemic sclerosis/SSc confounds clinical trials. We previously identified ‘intrinsic’ gene expression subsets by analysis of SSc skin. Here we test the hypotheses that skin gene expression signatures including intrinsic subset are associated with skin score/MRSS improvement during mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) treatment. Gene expression and intrinsic subset assignment were measured in 12 SSc patients’ biopsies and ten controls at baseline, and from serial biopsies of one cyclophosphamide-treated patient, and nine MMF-treated patients. Gene expression changes during treatment were determined using paired t-tests corrected for multiple hypothesis testing. MRSS improved in four of seven MMF-treated patients classified as the inflammatory intrinsic subset. Three patients without MRSS improvement were classified as normal-like or fibroproliferative intrinsic subsets. 321 genes (FDR <5%) were differentially expressed at baseline between patients with and without MRSS improvement during treatment. Expression of 571 genes (FDR <10%) changed between pre- and post-MMF treatment biopsies for patients demonstrating MRSS improvement. Gene expression changes in skin are only seen in patients with MRSS improvement. Baseline gene expression in skin, including intrinsic subset assignment, may identify SSc patients whose MRSS will improve during MMF treatment, suggesting that gene expression in skin may allow targeted treatment in SSc. PMID:23677167

  15. Sesamol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for treatment of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Geetha, T; Kapila, Meenakshi; Prakash, Om; Deol, Parneet Kaur; Kakkar, Vandita; Kaur, Indu Pal

    2015-02-01

    Abstract Role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skin carcinogenesis is well documented. Natural molecules, like sesamol, with marked antioxidant potential can be useful in combating skin cancers. In vitro antiproliferative (using MTT assay) and DNA fragmentation studies in HL 60 cell lines, confirmed the apoptotic nature of sesamol. However, it showed a significant flux across the mice skin upon topical application, such that its local availability in skin is limited. Former is attributed mainly to its properties like small size, low molecular weight (138.28), and a sufficient lipid and water solubility (log P 1.29; solubility 38.8 mg/ml). To achieve its maximum epicutaneous delivery, packaging it into a suitable carrier system is thus indicated. Sesamol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (S-SLN) were thus prepared with particle size of 127.9 nm (PI: 0.256) and entrapment efficiency of 88.21%. Topical application of S-SLN in a cream base indicated significant retention in the skin with minimal flux across skin as confirmed by the in-vivo skin retention and ex-vivo skin permeation studies. In vivo anticancer studies performed on TPA-induced and benzo(a)pyrene initiated tumour production (ROS mediated) in mouse epidermis showed the normalization (in histology studies) of skin cancers post their induction, upon treatment with S-SLN.

  16. Gender-dependent differences in degree of facial wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Kazue; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Osanai, Osamu; Kawada, Hiromitsu; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to reveal gender-dependent differences in the degree of facial wrinkles. Subjects comprised 173 Japanese men and women, divided into four groups according to age. Photographs were taken from nine facial regions and used to classify the intensity of wrinkles into five grades. In addition, replicas were taken from five facial sites and used to measure surface roughness. Data were compared between men and women within each age group. In all age groups, men showed increased forehead wrinkles compared with women. In contrast, no gender-dependent differences were found in upper eyelid wrinkles. Other facial wrinkles were greater in men than in women in all except the oldest group (age, 65-75 years), in which wrinkles in women were greater than or equal to those in men. Our results showed that gender-dependent differences exist in the degree of facial wrinkles. In general, men tend to have more severe wrinkles than women. This tendency disappeared or was reversed in some regions of the face and in individuals more than 60 years old. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Consequences of using escharotic agents as primary treatment for nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Shana; Goldman, Glenn D

    2002-12-01

    The use of escharotic or caustic pastes to treat skin cancer is based on the centuries-old observation that selected minerals and plant extracts may be used to destroy certain skin lesions. Zinc chloride and Sanguinaria canadensis (bloodroot) are 2 agents that are used as part of the Mohs chemosurgery fixed-tissue technique. The use of escharotics without surgery has been discredited by allopathic medicine but persists and is promoted among alternative practitioners. Patients may now purchase "herbal supplements" for the primary self-treatment of skin cancer, and physicians will see patients who elect this therapy for their skin cancers. We reviewed the history of escharotic use for skin disease and performed an Internet search for the availability and current use of escharotics. Our search located numerous agents for purchase via the Internet that are advertised as highly successful treatments for skin cancer. We report 4 cases from our practice in which escharotic agents were used by patients to treat basal cell carcinomas in lieu of the recommended conventional treatment. One patient had a complete clinical response, but had a residual tumor on follow-up biopsy. A second patient successfully eradicated all tumors, but severe scarring ensued. A third patient disagreed with us regarding his care and was lost to follow-up. One patient presented with a nasal basal cell carcinoma that "healed" for several years following treatment elsewhere with an escharotic agent but recurred deeply and required an extensive resection. The lesion has since metastasized. Escharotic agents are available as herbal supplements and are being used by patients for the treatment of skin cancer. The efficacy of these agents is unproven and their content is unregulated. Serious consequences may result from their use. Conventional medicine has an excellent track record in treating skin cancer. Physicians should recommend against the use of escharotic agents for skin cancer, and the Food and

  18. Effects of a turmeric extract (Curcuma longa) on chronic ultraviolet B irradiation-induced skin damage in melanin-possessing hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Maho; Kimura, Yoshiyuki

    2009-12-01

    Turmeric (the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L., Zingiberacease) is widely used as a dietary pigment and spice, and has been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation, skin wounds and hepatic disorders in Ayurvedic, Unani and Chinese medicine. Although the topical application or oral administration of turmeric is used to improve skin trouble, there is no evidence to support this effect. The aim of this study was to clarify whether turmeric prevents chronic ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated skin damage. We examined the effects of a turmeric extract on skin damage including changes in skin thickness and elasticity, pigmentation and wrinkling caused by long-term, low-dose ultraviolet B irradiation in melanin-possessing hairless mice. The extract (at 300 or 1000 mg/kg, twice daily) prevented an increase in skin thickness and a reduction in skin elasticity induced by chronic UVB exposure. It also prevented the formation of wrinkles and melanin (at 1000 mg/kg, twice daily) as well as increases in the diameter and length of skin blood vessels and in the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Prevention of UVB-induced skin aging by turmeric may be due to the inhibition of increases in MMP-2 expression caused by chronic irradiation.

  19. Achieving high aspect ratio wrinkles by modifying material network stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Yan; McCarthy, Thomas J; Crosby, Alfred J

    2017-06-07

    Wrinkle aspect ratio, or the amplitude divided by the wavelength, is hindered by strain localization transitions when an increasing global compressive stress is applied to synthetic material systems. However, many examples from living organisms show extremely high aspect ratios, such as gut villi and flower petals. We use three experimental approaches to demonstrate that these high aspect ratio structures can be achieved by modifying the network stress in the wrinkle substrate. We modify the wrinkle stress and effectively delay the strain localization transition, such as folding, to larger aspect ratios by using a zero-stress initial wavy substrate, creating a secondary network with post-curing, or using chemical stress relaxation materials. A wrinkle aspect ratio as high as 0.85, almost three times higher than common values of synthetic wrinkles, is achieved, and a quantitative framework is presented to provide understanding the different strategies and predictions for future investigations.

  20. The interactive bending wrinkling behaviour of inflated beams

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y. P.; Tan, H. F.; Wadee, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    A model is proposed based on a Fourier series method to analyse the interactive bending wrinkling behaviour of inflated beams. The whole wrinkling evolution is tracked and divided into three stages by identifying the bifurcations of the equilibrium path. The critical wrinkling and failure moments of the inflated beam can then be predicted. The global–local interactive buckling pattern is elucidated by the proposed theoretical model and also verified by non-contact experimental tests. The effects of geometric parameters, internal pressure and boundary conditions on the buckling of inflated beams are investigated finally. The results reveal that the interactive buckling characteristics of an inflated beam under bending are more sensitive to the dimensions of the structure and boundary conditions. We find that for beams which are simply supported at both ends or clamped and simply supported, boundary conditions may prevent the wrinkling formation. The results provide significant support for our understanding of the bending wrinkling behaviour of inflated beams. PMID:27713665

  1. Swelling-induced wrinkling in layered gel beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardinocchi, P.; Puntel, E.

    2017-11-01

    Gels are widely employed in smart mechanical devices and biomedical applications. Swelling-induced bending actuation can be obtained by means of a simple bilayer gel beam. We show that this system can also exhibit wrinkling patterns of potential interest for structural morphing and sensing. We study swelling-induced wrinkling at the extrados of a bilayer gel beam with the softer layer on top. The bent configuration at finite strain is recovered first and, starting from it, a linear perturbation analysis is performed. We delimit the zone corresponding to wrinkling modes in a parameter plane encompassing a mechanical stiffness ratio and a geometric top layer to total height ratio. Interestingly, we observe that surface instability precedes and envelopes wrinkling modes of finite wavelength. Finally, we discuss the effect of changes in stiffness and of the Flory-Huggins parameters χ on the size of the wrinkling domain.

  2. Functional electrospun fibers for the treatment of human skin wounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Windbergs, Maike

    2017-10-01

    Wounds are trauma induced defects of the human skin involving a multitude of endogenous biochemical events and cellular reactions of the immune system. The healing process is extremely complex and affected by the patient's physiological conditions, potential implications like infectious pathogens and inflammation as well as external factors. Due to increasing incidence of chronic wounds and proceeding resistance of infection pathogens, there is a strong need for effective therapeutic wound care. In this context, electrospun fibers with diameters in the nano- to micrometer range gain increasing interest. While resembling the structure of the native human extracellular matrix, such fiber mats provide physical and mechanical protection (including protection against bacterial invasion). At the same time, the fibers allow for gas exchange and prevent occlusion of the wound bed, thus facilitating wound healing. In addition, drugs can be incorporated within such fiber mats and their release can be adjusted by the material and dimensions of the individual fibers. The review gives a comprehensive overview about the current state of electrospun fibers for therapeutic application on skin wounds. Different materials as well as fabrication techniques are introduced including approaches for incorporation of drugs into or drug attachment onto the fiber surface. Against the background of wound pathophysiology and established therapy approaches, the therapeutic potential of electrospun fiber systems is discussed. A specific focus is set on interactions of fibers with skin cells/tissues as well as wound pathogens and strategies to modify and control them as key aspects for developing effective wound therapeutics. Further, advantages and limitations of controlled drug delivery from fiber mats to skin wounds are discussed and a future perspective is provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prototype tactile feedback system for examination by skin touch.

    PubMed

    Lee, O; Lee, K; Oh, C; Kim, K; Kim, M

    2014-08-01

    Diagnosis of conditions such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, in the case of induration, involves palpating the infected area via hands and then selecting a ratings score. However, the score is determined based on the tester's experience and standards, making it subjective. To provide tactile feedback on the skin, we developed a prototype tactile feedback system to simulate skin wrinkles with PHANToM OMNI. To provide the user with tactile feedback on skin wrinkles, a visual and haptic Augmented Reality system was developed. First, a pair of stereo skin images obtained by a stereo camera generates a disparity map of skin wrinkles. Second, the generated disparity map is sent to an implemented tactile rendering algorithm that computes a reaction force according to the user's interaction with the skin image. We first obtained a stereo image of skin wrinkles from the in vivo stereo imaging system, which has a baseline of 50.8 μm, and obtained the disparity map with a graph cuts algorithm. The left image is displayed on the monitor to enable the user to recognize the location visually. The disparity map of the skin wrinkle image sends skin wrinkle information as a tactile response to the user through a haptic device. We successfully developed a tactile feedback system for virtual skin wrinkle simulation by means of a commercialized haptic device that provides the user with a single point of contact to feel the surface roughness of a virtual skin sample. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Treatment of Skin Inflammation with Benzoxaborole Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Selectivity, Cellular Activity, and Effect on Cytokines Associated with Skin Inflammation and Skin Architecture Changes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chen; Virtucio, Charlotte; Zemska, Olga; Baltazar, Grober; Zhou, Yasheen; Baia, Diogo; Jones-Iatauro, Shannon; Sexton, Holly; Martin, Shamra; Dee, Joshua; Mak, Yvonne; Meewan, Maliwan; Rock, Fernando; Akama, Tsutomu; Jarnagin, Kurt

    2016-09-01

    Psoriasis and atopic dermatitis are skin diseases affecting millions of patients. Here, we characterize benzoxaborole phosphodiesterase (PDE)-4 inhibitors, a new topical class that has demonstrated therapeutic benefit for psoriasis and atopic dermatitis in phase 2 or phase 3 studies. Crisaborole [AN2728, 4-((1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydrobenzo[c][1,2]oxaborol-5-yl)oxy)benzonitrile], compd2 [2-ethoxy-6-((1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydrobenzo[c][1,2]oxaborol-5-yl)oxy)nicotinonitrile], compd3 [6-((1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydrobenzo[c][1,2]oxaborol-5-yl)oxy)-2-(2-isopropoxyethoxy)nicotinonitrile], and compd4 [5-chloro-6-((1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydrobenzo[c][1,2]oxaborol-5-yl)oxy)-2-((4-oxopentyl)oxy)nicotinonitrile] are potent PDE4 inhibitors with similar affinity for PDE4 isoforms and equivalent inhibition on the catalytic domain and the full-length enzyme. These benzoxaboroles are less active on other PDE isozymes. Compd4 binds to the catalytic domain of PDE4B2 with the oxaborole group chelating the catalytic bimetal and overlapping with the phosphate in cAMP during substrate hydrolysis, and the interaction extends into the adenine pocket. In cell culture, benzoxaborole PDE4 inhibitors suppress the release of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-23, IL-17, interferon-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-22, and these cytokines contribute to the pathologic changes in skin structure and barrier functions as well as immune dysregulation in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Treatment with compd3 or N(6),2'-O-dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate increases cAMP response element binding protein phosphorylation in human monocytes and decreases extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in human T cells; these changes lead to reduced cytokine production and are among the mechanisms by which compd3 blocks cytokine release. Topical compd3 penetrates the skin and suppresses phorbol myristate acetate-induced IL-13, IL-22, IL-17F, and IL-23 transcription and calcipotriol-induced thymic stromal

  5. Skin Photoaging and the Role of Antioxidants in Its Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Pandel, Ruža; Poljšak, Borut

    2013-01-01

    Photoaging of the skin depends primarily on the degree of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and on an amount of melanin in the skin (skin phototype). In addition to direct or indirect DNA damage, UVR activates cell surface receptors of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the skin, which leads to a breakdown of collagen in the extracellular matrix and a shutdown of new collagen synthesis. It is hypothesized that dermal collagen breakdown is followed by imperfect repair that yields a deficit in the structural integrity of the skin, formation of a solar scar, and ultimately clinically visible skin atrophy and wrinkles. Many studies confirmed that acute exposure of human skin to UVR leads to oxidation of cellular biomolecules that could be prevented by prior antioxidant treatment and to depletion of endogenous antioxidants. Skin has a network of all major endogenous enzymatic and nonenzymatic protective antioxidants, but their role in protecting cells against oxidative damage generated by UV radiation has not been elucidated. It seems that skin's antioxidative defence is also influenced by vitamins and nutritive factors and that combination of different antioxidants simultaneously provides synergistic effect. PMID:24159392

  6. Multicenter clinical trial of a home-use nonablative fractional laser device for wrinkle reduction.

    PubMed

    Leyden, James; Stephens, Thomas J; Herndon, James H

    2012-11-01

    Until now, nonablative fractional treatments could only be delivered in an office setting by trained professionals. The goal of this work was to perform clinical testing of a nonablative fractional laser device designed for home-use. This multicenter trial consisted of two clinical studies with slightly varying treatment protocols in which subjects performed at-home treatments of periorbital wrinkles using a handheld nonablative fractional laser. Both studies included an active treatment phase (daily treatments) and a maintenance phase (twice-weekly treatments). In all, 36 subjects were followed up for as long as 5 months after completion of the maintenance phase and 90 subjects were followed up until the completion of the maintenance phase. Evaluations included in-person investigator assessment, independent blinded review of high-resolution images using the Fitzpatrick Wrinkle Scale, and subject self-assessment. All 124 subjects who completed the study were able to use the device following written instructions for use. Treatments were well tolerated with good protocol compliance. Independent blinded evaluations by a panel of physicians showed Fitzpatrick Wrinkle Scale score improvement by one or more grades in 90% of subjects at the completion of the active phase and in 79% of subjects at the completion of the maintenance phase. The most prevalent side effect was transient posttreatment erythema. Lack of a control group and single-blinded study groups were limitations. Safety testing with self-applications by users demonstrated the utility of the device for home use. Independent blinded review of clinical images confirmed the device's proficiency for improving periorbital wrinkles. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A study on plastic wrinkling in thin-walled tube bending via an energy-based wrinkling prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H; Yang, H; Zhan, M

    2009-04-01

    Thin-walled tube bending is an advanced technology for producing precision bent tube parts in aerospace, aviation and automobiles, etc. With increasing demands of bending tubes with a larger tube diameter and a smaller bending radius, wrinkling instability is a critical issue to be solved urgently for improving the bending limit and forming quality in this process. In this study, by using the energy principle, combined with analytical and finite element (FE) numerical methods, an energy-based wrinkling prediction model for thin-walled tube bending is developed. A segment shell model is proposed to consider the critical wrinkling region, which captures the deformation features of the tube bending process. The dissipation energy created by the reaction forces at the tube-dies interface for restraining the compressive instability is also included in the prediction model, which can be numerically calculated via FE simulation. The validation of the model is performed and its physical significance is evaluated from various aspects. Then the plastic wrinkling behaviors in thin-walled tube bending are addressed. From the energy viewpoint, the effect of the basic parameters including the geometrical and material parameters on the onset of wrinkling is identified. In particular, the influence of multi-tools constraints such as clearance and friction at various interfaces on the wrinkling instability is obtained. The study provides instructive understanding of the plastic wrinkling instability and the model may be suitable for the wrinkling prediction of a doubly-curved shell in the complex forming process with contact conditions.

  8. TD-1792 versus Vancomycin for Treatment of Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections

    PubMed Central

    Potgieter, Peter D.; Li, Yu-Ping; Barriere, Steven L.; Churukian, Allan; Kingsley, Jeff; Corey, G. Ralph

    2012-01-01

    TD-1792 is a first-in-class glycopeptide-cephalosporin heterodimer that exhibits bactericidal activity against Gram-positive pathogens. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, active-control, phase II trial in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections caused by suspected or confirmed Gram-positive organisms. Patients 18 to 65 years old were randomized to receive 7 to 14 days of either TD-1792 (2 mg/kg of body weight intravenously [i.v.] every 24 h [q24h]) or vancomycin (1 g i.v. q12h, with dosage regimens adjusted per site-specific procedures). A total of 197 patients were randomized and received at least one dose of study medication. Rates of clinical success at the test-of-cure evaluation were similar in all analysis populations. Among 170 clinically evaluable patients, cure rates were 91.7% and 90.7% in the TD-1792 and vancomycin groups, respectively (95% confidence interval [CI] of −7.9 to 9.7 for the difference). In microbiologically evaluable patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at baseline (n = 75), cure rates were 94.7% in the TD-1792 group and 91.9% in the vancomycin group. Microbiological eradication of Gram-positive pathogens (n = 126) was achieved in 93.7% and 92.1% of patients in the TD-1792 and vancomycin groups, respectively. Seven patients were discontinued from study medication due to an adverse event (AE): 2 and 5 in the TD-1792 and vancomycin groups, respectively. AEs were of similar types and severities between the two groups, other than pruritus, which was more common in patients who received vancomycin. No patients in the TD-1792 group experienced a serious AE. This study supports further clinical development of TD-1792 in patients with Gram-positive infection. PMID:22869571

  9. An Analysis of Laser Therapy for the Treatment of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer.

    PubMed

    Soleymani, Teo; Abrouk, Michael; Kelly, Kristen M

    2017-05-01

    Skin cancer remains the most prevalent type of cancer in the United States, and its burden on the health care system remains substantial. Standard treatments such as cryosurgery, electrodessication and curettage, topical and photodynamic therapies, and surgical excision including Mohs micrographic surgery are not without inherent morbidity, including risk of bleeding, infection, and scar. Lasers may be an alternative for treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer, and this paper reviews this therapeutic option. A comprehensive search in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and PUBMED databases was performed to identify relevant literature investigating the role of laser therapy in the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. New literature regarding laser treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer is emerging, demonstrating promising clinical outcomes. The greatest efficacy has been seen with vascular-selective and ablative lasers in the treatment of basal cell carcinomas. Some success has been reported for laser treatment of squamous cell carcinoma, but data are less convincing. In summary, laser therapy offers an alternative treatment option for nonmelanoma skin cancer; however, its clinical efficacy is variable and, at this time, remains less than currently accepted standards of care. Further studies are needed to optimize parameters, determine maximum efficacy, and provide long-term follow-up.

  10. Systematic review of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the treatment of radiation-induced skin necrosis.

    PubMed

    Borab, Zachary; Mirmanesh, Michael D; Gantz, Madeleine; Cusano, Alessandro; Pu, Lee L Q

    2017-04-01

    Every year, 1.2 million cancer patients receive radiation therapy in the United States. Late radiation tissue injury occurs in an estimated 5-15% of these patients. Tissue injury can include skin necrosis, which can lead to chronic nonhealing wounds. Despite many treatments available to help heal skin necrosis such as hyperbaric oxygen therapy, no clinical guidelines exist and evidence is lacking. The purpose of this review is to identify and comprehensively summarize studies published to date to evaluate the effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the treatment of radiation-induced skin necrosis. Adhering to PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review of currently published articles was performed, evaluating the use of hyperbaric oxygen to treat skin necrosis. Eight articles were identified, including one observational cohort, five case series, and two case reports. The articles describe changes in symptoms and alteration in wound healing of radiation-induced skin necrosis after treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is a safe intervention with promising outcomes; however, additional evidence is needed to endorse its application as a relevant therapy in the treatment of radiation-induced skin necrosis. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Significant skin burns may occur with the use of a water balloon in HIFU treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Robert; Collin, Jamie; Wu, Feng; Coussios, Constantin; Leslie, Tom; Cranston, David

    2012-10-01

    HIFU is a minimally-invasive therapy suitable for treating selected intra-abdominal tumors. Treatment is safe although skin burns may occur due to pre-focal heating. HIFU treatment of a renal transplant tumor located in the left lower abdomen was undertaken in our centre. Treatment was performed prone, requiring displacement of the abdominal wall away from the treatment field using a water balloon, constructed of natural rubber latex and filled with degassed water. Intra-operatively, ultrasound imaging and physical examination of the skin directly over the focal region was normal. Immediately post-operative, a full-thickness skin burn was evident at the periphery of the balloon location, outside the expected HIFU path. Three possibilities may account for this complication. Firstly, the water balloon may have acted as a lens, focusing the HIFU to a neo-focus off axis. Secondly, air bubbles may have been entrapped between the balloon and the skin, causing heating at the interface. Finally, heating of the isolated water within the balloon may have been sufficient to cause burning. In this case, the placement of a water balloon caused a significant skin burn. Care should be taken in their use as burns, situated off axis, may occur even if the overlying skin appears normal.

  12. The effect of surface treatment on the microstructure of the skin of concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadowski, Łukasz; Stefaniuk, Damian

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to better understand the heterogeneity and microstructural properties of the skin of concrete. The microstructural evaluation of the skin of concrete was performed using X-ray micro computed tomography (micro-CT). The concrete surface was treated using four methods, due to which different surfaces were obtained, i.e. a raw surface, a surface formed after contact with formwork, a grinded surface and also a shotblasted surface. The results of the pore structure obtained from the micro-CT images were used to assess the influence of selected surface treatment method on the nature of the skin of concrete. It was shown that the thickness and unique nature of the skin of concrete differ for various surface treatment methods.

  13. Fractional ablative carbon dioxide laser resurfacing for skin rejuvenation and acne scars in Asians.

    PubMed

    Chan, Nicola P Y; Ho, Stephanie G Y; Yeung, Chi K; Shek, Samantha Y N; Chan, Henry H

    2010-11-01

    Ablative fractional resurfacing (AFR) is a new modality for photorejuvenation and acne scars which combines carbon dioxide (CO₂) laser ablation with fractional photothermolysis. The objective is to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of a new fractional CO₂ ablative device (Fraxel Re:pair) for skin rejuvenation and acne scars in Asians. Nine patients underwent one full-face treatment. The energy levels ranged from 30-70 mJ with coverage between 30% and 45%. Improvement in skin texture, laxity, wrinkles, enlarged pores, overall pigmentation irregularity, and adverse effects were assessed up to 6 months post-treatment. Standardized photographs using the Canfield Visia CR system® were assessed by two independent observers. Subjective improvement was assessed by patient questionnaires. Nine Chinese patients (skin types III and IV, mean age 44.8) were included. Statistically significant improvements were seen for skin texture, skin laxity, wrinkles, enlarged pores, and acne scars. The post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation rate was 55.5% and 11.1% at 1 and 6 months post-treatment, respectively. Eighty-six percent of patients were overall satisfied to very satisfied with the treatment. Ablative fractional CO₂ laser resurfacing was overall safe and effective for skin rejuvenation and acne scars in Asians. However, in view of the high post-inflammatory rate and the statistically significant but only mild to moderate improvement after a single treatment as observed in this study, there is a need to review the current role of fractional ablative CO₂ laser treatment as compared to fractional non-ablative for skin rejuvenation and acne scar treatment in Asians. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. A systematic review of comparative studies of CO2 and erbium:YAG lasers in resurfacing facial rhytides (wrinkles).

    PubMed

    Chen, Kee-Hsin; Tam, Ka-Wai; Chen, I-Fan; Huang, Shihping Kevin; Tzeng, Pei-Chuan; Wang, Hsian-Jenn; Chen, Chiehfeng Cliff

    2017-08-01

    Laser resurfacing is used to minimize wrinkles, solar scars and sequelae of acne. Purpose of the systematic review was to compare resurfacing outcomes of CO 2 laser and erbium: yttrium aluminium garnet (erb:YAG) laser therapies. Medline, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and Google Scholar databases were searched until 9 April 2015 using the following terms: laser, carbon dioxide/CO 2 , facial wrinkles, rhytides and erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet/erbium:YAG/Er:YAG. Two-armed controlled split faced studies that compared CO 2 laser and erbium:YAG laser in patients with mild-to-moderate facial wrinkles or rhytides were included. The pooled data in this study and findings of other studies support the greater efficacy with the CO 2 laser in improving facial wrinkles, but the erb:YAG laser was associated with a better complication profile compared with the CO 2 laser. Except one case of hypopigmentation, other complications (i.e., erythema, hyperpigmentation and crusting) and their rates were reported by studies examining both lasers. In general, the CO 2 laser appeared to be more efficacious then the erb:YAG laser in treating facial wrinkles. Both lasers treatments were well tolerated.

  15. Habit Reversal as a Treatment for Chronic Skin Picking: A Pilot Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teng, Ellen J.; Woods, Douglas W.; Twohig, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of habit reversal (HR) to a wait-list control as a treatment for chronic skin picking in adults. Twenty-five adults with a chronic skin-picking problem were randomly assigned to a wait-list control or HR group. At pretreatment, posttreatment, and a 3-month follow-up, self-reported skin…

  16. Skin whitening and anti-corrugation activities of glycoprotein fractions from liquid extracts of boiled sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Jung; Park, So Yun; Hong, Sun-Mee; Kwon, Eun-Hye; Lee, Taek-Kyun

    2016-10-01

    To determine skin whitening and wrinkle improvement efficacy, glycoprotein fractions were extracted from liquid extracts of boiled sea cucumber and their effects on tyrosine and elastase inhibitory activities were assayed. Fractions above and below 50 kDa (>50 kDa and <50 kDa) were extracted via a series of steps involving: boiling, filtering, desalting and freeze drying. Cytotoxicity, skin whitening and wrinkle-removing effects of boiled liquid were determined. Our MTT data showed that neither glycoprotein fraction of boiled liquid induces cellular cytotoxicity up to a concentration of 10 mg/mL treatment of the mouse melanoma cell line, B16F10, with 10 mg/mL >50 kDa enhanced tyrosinase and elastase inhibitory activities by 50.84% and 28.78%, respectively. Correlations of the >50 kDa concentration with tyrosinase inhibitory (R2 = 0.968) and elastase inhibitory (R2 = 0.983) efficacy were significant. >50 kDa glycoprotein fraction isolated from liquid extracts of boiled sea cucumber, which can serve as a functional cosmetic ingredient for whitening and wrinkle improvement of skin. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Non-leaky modes and bandgaps of surface acoustic waves in wrinkled stiff-film/compliant-substrate bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guo-Yang; Xu, Guoqiang; Zheng, Yang; Cao, Yanping

    2018-03-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have found a wide variety of technical applications, including SAW filters, SAW resonators, microfluidic actuators, biosensors, flow measurement devices, and seismic wave shields. Stretchable/flexible electronic devices, such as sensory skins for robotics, structural health monitors, and wearable communication devices, have received considerable attention across different disciplines. Flexible SAW devices are essential building blocks for these applications, wherein piezoelectric films may need to be integrated with the compliant substrates. When piezoelectric films are much stiffer than soft substrates, SAWs are usually leaky and the devices incorporating them suffer from acoustic losses. In this study, the propagation of SAWs in a wrinkled bilayer system is investigated, and our analysis shows that non-leaky modes can be achieved by engineering stress patterns through surface wrinkles in the system. Our analysis also uncovers intriguing bandgaps (BGs) related to the SAWs in a wrinkled bilayer system; these are caused by periodic deformation patterns, which indicate that diverse wrinkling patterns could be used as metasurfaces for controlling the propagation of SAWs.

  18. Tretinoin cyclodextrin complex (RA/CyD) causes less irritation with an equal antiwrinkle effect compared with conventional tretinoin: clinical and histologic studies of photoaged skin.

    PubMed

    Miura, Tomoe; Takada, Akiyoshi; Ooe, Masahiko

    2012-08-01

    Topical tretinoin [all-trans-retinoic acid (RA)] currently is widely used to treat photoaged skin. However, undesirable side effects such as erythema, irritation, and scaling are unavoidable and limit the use of tretinoin. To address these issues, the authors developed the tretinoin cyclodextrin complex (RA/CyD), which is tretinoin encapsulated by cyclodextrin. Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides commonly used in food additives and fabric fresheners. This study aimed to evaluate the antiwrinkle effect of RA/CyD and alleviation of the side effects compared with RA treatment alone. In this study, 12 photoaged patients completed an 8 week study using RA and RA/CyD in a double-blind manner. Before and after the treatment, the patients' evaluations, wrinkle scores, skin elasticity, and wrinkle area measurement using skin replica were evaluated. Three men were recruited for histologic analysis. The patients reported that undesirable irritant reactions were more moderate with RA/CyD than with RA. In the assessment of wrinkle scores, skin elasticity, and wrinkle area measurement, RA/CyD demonstrated an antiwrinkle effect statistically equal to that of RA. In histology, both RA/CyD and RA demonstrated epidermal hyperplasia. In immunohistochemistry, inflammation induced by RA/CyD was more moderate than that induced by RA. The findings show that RA and RA/CyD result in the equivalent clinical improvement for patients with photoaging. The use of RA/CyD overcomes the drawbacks of RA while possessing equal effect. It is expected that CyD will broaden tretinoin treatment. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors at www.springer.com/00266.

  19. Coupling of wrinkled laminar flames with gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedat, Benoit; Kostiuk, Larry W.; Cheng, Robert K.

    1995-01-01

    The overall objective of our research is to understand flame-gravity coupling processes in laminar and low turbulent Reynolds number, Re(sub l), premixed flames (i.e. wrinkled- laminar flames). The approach we have developed is to compare the flowfields and mean flame properties under different gravitational orientations. Key to our study is the investigation of microgravity (mu g) flames. These mu g experiments provide vital information to reconcile the differences between flames in normal gravity (+g, flame pointing upward) and reverse gravity (-g, flame pointing downwards). Traditionally, gravity effects are assumed to be insignificant or circumvented in the laboratory, therefore, not much is available in the literature on the behavior of -g flames.

  20. Confined, Oriented, and Electrically Anisotropic Graphene Wrinkles on Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shikai; Gao, Enlai; Wang, Yanlei; Sen, Soumyo; Sreenivasan, Sreeprasad Theruvakkattil; Behura, Sanjay; Král, Petr; Xu, Zhiping; Berry, Vikas

    2016-09-27

    Curvature-induced dipole moment and orbital rehybridization in graphene wrinkles modify its electrical properties and induces transport anisotropy. Current wrinkling processes are based on contraction of the entire substrate and do not produce confined or directed wrinkles. Here we show that selective desiccation of a bacterium under impermeable and flexible graphene via a flap-valve operation produces axially aligned graphene wrinkles of wavelength 32.4-34.3 nm, consistent with modified Föppl-von Kármán mechanics (confinement ∼0.7 × 4 μm(2)). Further, an electrophoretically oriented bacterial device with confined wrinkles aligned with van der Pauw electrodes was fabricated and exhibited an anisotropic transport barrier (ΔE = 1.69 meV). Theoretical models were developed to describe the wrinkle formation mechanism. The results obtained show bio-induced production of confined, well-oriented, and electrically anisotropic graphene wrinkles, which can be applied in electronics, bioelectromechanics, and strain patterning.

  1. Membrane wrinkling patterns and control with SMA and SMPC actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Mingyu; Li, Yunliang; Tan, Huifeng; Zhou, Limin

    2009-07-01

    Wrinkling is a main factor affecting the performance of the membrane structures and is always considered to be a failure as it can cause dramatic decrease of shape accuracy. The study of membrane wrinkling control has the analytical and experimental meanings. In this paper, a feasible membrane shape control method is presented. An expression of wrinkle wavelength using stress extremum principle is established based on the tension field theory and the Von Karman large deflection formula which verifies the generation and evolution reason of membrane wrinkles. The control mechanism for membrane wrinkles is developed using shape memory alloy (SMA) and shape memory polymer composite (SMPC) actuators which are attached to the boundaries of the membrane for producing contraction/expansion forces to adjust the shape of the membrane. The whole control process is monitored by photogrammetric technique. Numerical simulations are also conducted using ANSYS finite element software with the nonlinear post-buckling analytical method. Both the experimental and numerical results show that the amplitudes of wrinkles are effectively controlled by SMA and SMPC actuators. The method introduced in this paper provides the foundation for shape control of the membrane wrinkling and is important to the future work on vibration control of space membrane structures.

  2. Theoretical review of the treatment of pigmented lesions in Asian skin

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Samantha Y.; Chan, Henry H.L.; Groff, William F.; Imagawa, Kotaro; Akamatsu, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Asian skin has a higher epidermal melanin content, making it more likely to develop adverse pigmentary reactions following laser surgery. The nanosecond lasers are the gold standard for the treatment of pigmented lesions, but the risk of complications, such as post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, is increased in dark-skinned patients. Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) or long-pulsed lasers are available for treating superficial pigmented lesions, and fewer complications are seen when using these devices compared to the nanosecond lasers. Nanosecond lasers are essential in the treatment of dermal melanosis. Recently, picosecond lasers have been investigated. Picosecond lasers will also play an important role in the treatment of pigmented lesions. PMID:27853342

  3. Acoustic radiation from weakly wrinkled premixed flames

    SciTech Connect

    Lieuwen, Tim; Mohan, Sripathi; Rajaram, Rajesh

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a theoretical analysis of acoustic radiation from weakly wrinkled (i.e., u'/S{sub L}<1) premixed flames. Specifically, it determines the transfer function relating the spectrum of the acoustic pressure oscillations, P'({omega}), to that of the turbulent velocity fluctuations in the approach flow, U'({omega}). In the weakly wrinkled limit, this transfer function is local in frequency space; i.e., velocity fluctuations at a frequency {omega} distort the flame and generate sound at the same frequency. This transfer function primarily depends upon the flame Strouhal number St (based on mean flow velocity and flame length) and the correlation length, {lambda}, of themore » flow fluctuations. For cases where the ratio of the correlation length and duct radius {lambda}/a>>1, the acoustic pressure and turbulent velocity power spectra are related by P'({omega})-{omega}{sup 2}U'({omega}) and P'({omega})-U'({omega}) for St<<1 and St>>1, respectively. For cases where {lambda}/a<<1, the transfer functions take the form P'({omega})-{omega}{sup 2}({lambda}/a){sup 2}U'({omega}) and P'({omega})-{omega}{sup 2}({lambda}/a){sup 2}({psi}-{delta}ln({lambda}/a))U'({omega}) for St<<1 and St>>1, respectively, where (PS) and {delta} are constants. The latter result demonstrates that this transfer function does not exhibit a simple power law relationship in the high frequency region of the spectra. The simultaneous dependence of this pressure-velocity transfer function upon the Strouhal number and correlation length suggests a mechanism for the experimentally observed maximum in acoustic spectra and provides some insight into the controversy in the literature over how this peak should scale with the flame Strouhal number.« less

  4. [Efficacy of Topical Agents for Symptomatic Treatment of Rotigotine Patch-Induced Skin Disorders].

    PubMed

    Yasutaka, Yuki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Shibaguchi, Hirotomo; Kiyomi, Fumiaki; Hara, Koyomi; Ogata, Kentaro; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Kamimura, Hidetoshi

    2017-09-01

    Since the effect of a percutaneous absorption-type dopamine agonist (DA) preparation, rotigotine patch, stably persists by once-a-day application, this dosage form is appropriate for Parkinson's disease patients showing levodopa induced wearing off phenomenon. On the other hand, skin disorders, mainly application site reaction, are characteristic problems associated with use of the patch. In this study, to clarify the influence of a topical agent used to prevent or treat rotigotine patch-induced skin disorder on continuation of the patch application, patients who started rotigotine patch application at our hospital were retrospectively surveyed. The one-year continuation rate of rotigotine patch application was 37.3% (53 of 142 cases). It was insufficient to prevent skin disorders, only by the pre-treatment of a moisturizing agent alone. Regarding the effective rate of topical agents used to treat skin disorders, that of very strong-class steroids was 89.5%, being significantly higher than those of weak steroids, moisturizing agents, and antihistamines. It was suggested that for countermeasures against rotigotine patch-induced skin disorders, treatment with very strong-class steroids for external use early after development of skin disorders is more effective than preventive treatment with topical agents regardless of the type. (Received March 30, 2017; Accepted May 16, 2017; Published September 1, 2017).

  5. Laser treatment of medical skin disease in women.

    PubMed

    LaRosa, C; Chiaravalloti, A; Jinna, S; Berger, W; Finch, J

    2017-09-01

    Laser treatment is a relatively new and increasingly popular modality for the treatment of many dermatologic conditions. A number of conditions that predominantly occur in women and that have a paucity of effective treatments include rosacea, connective tissue disease, melasma, nevus of Ota, lichen sclerosus (LS), notalgia paresthetica and macular amyloidosis, and syringomas. Laser therapy is an important option for the treatment of patients with these conditions. This article will review the body of literature that exists for the laser treatment of women with these medical conditions.

  6. The use of optical coherence tomography to analyze the efficacy of skin care products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irani, Sarosh; Turani, Zahra; Fotouhi, Audrey; Daveluy, Steven; Mehregan, Darius; Chen, Wei; Gelovani, Juri; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we assess the applicability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for non-invasive imaging of skin morphology for the assessment of efficacy of cosmetic skin wrinkle-reduction products in humans. Evaluation of skin care products for reduction of facial wrinkles is largely limited to photographic (non-quantitative) comparison of skin surface texture before and after either single or prolonged application of skin care product. OCT could be a technique for monitoring changes in cross-sectional skin morphology. An optical attenuation coefficient analysis is also carried out to quantitatively study the changes in different layers of the skin.

  7. Flavanone silibinin treatment attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced toxic effects in mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Anil K.; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha

    Currently, there is no effective antidote to prevent skin injuries by sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), which are vesicating agents with potential relevance to chemical warfare, terrorist attacks, or industrial/laboratory accidents. Our earlier report has demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in reversing monofunctional alkylating SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced toxic effects in mouse skin. To translate this effect to a bifunctional alkylating vesicant, herein, efficacy studies were carried out with NM. Topical application of silibinin (1 or 2 mg) 30 min after NM exposure on the dorsal skin of male SKH-1 hairless mice significantlymore » decreased NM-induced toxic lesions at 24, 72 or 120 h post-exposure. Specifically, silibinin treatment resulted in dose-dependent reduction of NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, dead and denuded epidermis, parakeratosis and microvesication. Higher silibinin dose also caused a 79% and 51%reversal in NM-induced increases in myeloperoxidase activity and COX-2 levels, respectively. Furthermore, silibinin completely prevented NM-induced H2A.X phosphorylation, indicating reversal of DNA damage which could be an oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by high levels of 8-oxodG in NM-exposed mouse skin that was significantly reversed by silibinin. Together, these findings suggest that attenuation of NM-induced skin injury by silibinin is due to its effects on the pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation, vesication and oxidative stress. In conclusion, results presented here support the optimization of silibinin as an effective treatment of skin injury by vesicants. - Highlights: • Silibinin treatment attenuated nitrogen mustard (NM)-induced skin injury. • Silibinin affects pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation and vesication. • The efficacy of silibinin could also be associated with oxidative stress. • These results support testing and

  8. Treatment of skin injuries induced by sulfur mustard with calmodulin antagonists, using the pig model.

    PubMed

    Kadar, T; Fishbeine, E; Meshulam, Y; Sahar, R; Chapman, S; Liani, H; Barness, I; Amir, A

    2000-12-01

    Sulfur mustard (HD) is a potent cutaneous vesicant that penetrates rapidly through the skin, causing prolonged injuries and leading to severe incapacitation. Although there has been long and intensive efforts to find a treatment for HD skin lesions, no effective treatment is available for HD-induced skin injuries. Recently, ointments containing calmodulin antagonists were found to be effective in preventing skin injuries induced by HD in hairless mice. The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of topical treatments with calmodulin antagonists against HD skin lesions in the pig model. The pig is used as a preferred animal model for human skin in many studies, including vesicants. Neat HD, either in liquid form (0.2-1 microl droplets) or as vapour, was applied to the back skin of female pigs (a cross Large White & Landrace, 10-12 kg) for various exposure durations. Evaluation was based on quantitative analysis of the degree of erythema and area of the lesions, as well as histological evaluation. Calmodulin antagonists (10% pentamide, 1% trifluoperazine, 2% thioridazine) and anaesthetics (20% lidocaine and 3% benoxinate) were dissolved in pluronic F-127 base according to Kim et al. (Eur. J. Pharmacol. 1996; 313: 107-114) or in saline, and were applied either topically as ointments or by intradermal injection, as early as 5 min post-exposure (twice a day for at least 3 days). The results demonstrated that topically applied pluronic base ointments containing lidocaine or pentamide produce beneficial effects when applied immediately after short-term HD exposure to pig skin.

  9. Clinical and pharmacokinetic drug evaluation of delafloxacin for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.

    PubMed

    Bassetti, Matteo; Pecori, Davide; Cojutti, Piergiorgio; Righi, Elda; Pea, Federico

    2017-11-01

    In the era of multi-drug resistant pathogens, the adequate treatment of skin and skin structure infections remains a challenge for clinicians. Delafloxacin, with its broad spectrum against Gram-positive, Gram-negative and anaerobic organisms, represents a new therapeutic option in this setting, especially when coverage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is required in the empirical or targeted approach. Areas covered: In this drug evaluation, the Authors have reviewed the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of delafloxacin. In addition, recent data on clinical efficacy and safety from clinical trials have been included. Expert opinion: Delafloxacin represents an attractive therapeutic option due to a broad antimicrobial and favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile. Several in vitro studies have demonstrated the low potential for resistance selection if used in empirical regimens. Delafloxacin is a promising candidate for the treatment of Gram-positive infections, especially if co-infection with other pathogens is suspected. This is because of the very low MIC of the agent for Gram-positive (including MRSA) and anaerobic bacteria and because of the wide spectrum of activity against Gram-negative organisms. For these interesting microbiological and PK/PD characteristics we expect future uses of this drug in other indications such as diabetic foot infection, osteomyelitis, prosthetic joint infections, abdominal infections and central nervous system infections.

  10. The Effect in Topical Use of Lycogen(TM) via Sonophoresis for Anti-aging on Facial Skin.

    PubMed

    Hsin-Ti, Lai; Wen-Sheng, Liu; Yi-Chia, Wu; Ya-Wei, Lai; Wen, Zhi-Hong; David, Wang Hui-Min; Su-Shin, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Anti-aging skin care is a growing popular topic in cosmetic and aesthetic fields, and skin care rather then makeup tips draw more attention nowadays. The phenomenon of skin aging includes thinning of skin losses of elasticity and moisture, pigmented spot formation, and wrinkle development. Along with growth in age, the decreased rates of epithelium renewal and cellular recovery as well as the reduced contents of elastin, collagen, and glycosaminoglycans all contribute to creases or folds of skin. Available strategies for wrinkle treatments include topical use of skin care products with anti-aging contents, dermabrasion, laser, Botox injection, fillers injection, and facelift. Though all of these above options can provide different degrees of improvement in facial wrinkles, the cost-effect, pain of intervention therapy, and necessity of repetitive treatment may impact on choices made. Topical use of anti-aging skin products is the most convenient and cheap way to achieve skin anti-aging effect. Lycogen(TM) is an antioxidant, which can prevent the downregulation of pro-collagen I, intracellular accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and achieve the aim of skin rejuvenation. Twenty-six female patients were included in our study with ages between 30 and 45. They were randomly assigned to two groups: the vehicle control group and the experimental group. Patients in the control group applied a skin care product without Lycogen(TM)to the face via sonophoresis after facial cleanser use in the morning and at night. The experimental group applied a Lycogen(TM) -containing skin care product via sonophoresis in the same time schedule. We evaluated results, including pigmented spots, wrinkles, texture, pores, and red area by VISIA on weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 respectively. In the aspect of pigmented spots, the experimental group showed significant difference in comparison with the vehicle control group on weeks 2, 6, 8, and 10. For wrinkles, the experimental group had

  11. Extracellular Matrix Modulation: Optimizing Skin Care and Rejuvenation Procedures.

    PubMed

    Widgerow, Alan D; Fabi, Sabrina G; Palestine, Roberta F; Rivkin, Alexander; Ortiz, Arisa; Bucay, Vivian W; Chiu, Annie; Naga, Lina; Emer, Jason; Chasan, Paul E

    2016-04-01

    Normal aging and photoaging of the skin are chronic processes that progress gradually. The extracellular matrix (ECM), constituting over 70% of the skin, is the central hub for repair and regeneration of the skin. As such, the ECM is the area where changes related to photodamage are most evident. Degradation of the ECM with fragmentation of proteins significantly affects cross talk and signaling between cells, the matrix, and its constituents. The accumulation of collagen fragments, amorphous elastin agglutinations, and abnormal cross-linkages between the collagen fragments impedes the ECM from its normal repair and regenerative capacity, which manifests as wrinkled, non-elastic skin. Similar to how the chronic wound healing process requires wound bed preparation before therapeutic intervention, treatment of chronic aging of the skin would likely benefit from a "skin bed preparation" to optimize the outcome of rejuvenation procedures and skin maintenance programs. This involves introducing agents that can combat stress-induced oxidation, proteasome dysfunction, and non-enzymatic cross linkages involved in glycation end products, to collectively modulate this damaged ECM, and upregulate neocollagenesis and elastin production. Agents of particular interest are matrikines, peptides originating from the fragmentation of matrix proteins that exhibit a wide range of biological activities. Peptides of this type (tripeptide and hexapeptide) are incorporated in ALASTIN™ Skin Nectar with TriHex™ technology (ALASTIN Skincare, Inc., Carlsbad, CA), which is designed to target ECM modulation with a goal of optimizing results following invasive and non-invasive dermal rejuvenating procedures.

  12. Effects of early combinatorial treatment of autologous split-thickness skin grafts in red duroc pig model using pulsed dye laser and fractional CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J Kevin; Blackstone, Britani N; DeBruler, Danielle M; Kim, Jayne Y; Baumann, Molly E; McFarland, Kevin L; Imeokparia, Folasade O; Supp, Dorothy M; Powell, Heather M

    2018-01-01

    The use of pulsed dye laser (PDL) and fractional CO 2 (FX CO 2 ) laser therapy to treat and/or prevent scarring following burn injury is becoming more widespread with a number of studies reporting reduction in scar erythema and pruritus following treatment with lasers. While the majority of studies report positive outcomes following PDL or FX CO 2 therapy, a number of studies have reported no benefit or worsening of the scar following treatment. The objective of this study was to directly compare the efficacy of PDL, FX CO 2 , and PDL + FX CO 2 laser therapy in reducing scarring post burn injury and autografting in a standardized animal model. Eight female red Duroc pigs (FRDP) received 4 standardized, 1 in. x 1 in. third degree burns that were excised and autografted. Wound sites were treated with PDL, FX CO 2 , or both at 4, 8, and 12 weeks post grafting. Grafts receiving no laser therapy served as controls. Scar appearance, morphology, size, and erythema were assessed and punch biopsies collected at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16. At week 16, additional tissue was collected for biomechanical analyses and markers for inflammatory cytokines, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, re-epithelialization, pigmentation, and angiogenesis were quantified at all time points using qRT-PCR. Treatment with PDL, FX CO 2 , or PDL + FX CO 2 resulted in significantly less contraction versus skin graft only controls with no statistically significant difference among laser therapy groups. Scars treated with both PDL and FX CO 2 were visually more erythematous than other groups with a significant increase in redness between two and three standard deviations above normal skin redness. Scars treated with FX CO 2 were visually smoother and contained significantly fewer wrinkles. In addition, hyperpigmentation was significantly reduced in scars treated with FX CO 2 . The use of fractional carbon dioxide or pulsed dye laser therapy within 1 month of autografting significantly reduced scar

  13. Drag reduction using wrinkled surfaces in high Reynolds number laminar boundary layer flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raayai-Ardakani, Shabnam; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2017-09-01

    Inspired by the design of the ribbed structure of shark skin, passive drag reduction methods using stream-wise riblet surfaces have previously been developed and tested over a wide range of flow conditions. Such textures aligned in the flow direction have been shown to be able to reduce skin friction drag by 4%-8%. Here, we explore the effects of periodic sinusoidal riblet surfaces aligned in the flow direction (also known as a "wrinkled" texture) on the evolution of a laminar boundary layer flow. Using numerical analysis with the open source Computational Fluid Dynamics solver OpenFOAM, boundary layer flow over sinusoidal wrinkled plates with a range of wavelength to plate length ratios ( λ / L ), aspect ratios ( 2 A / λ ), and inlet velocities are examined. It is shown that in the laminar boundary layer regime, the riblets are able to retard the viscous flow inside the grooves creating a cushion of stagnant fluid that the high-speed fluid above can partially slide over, thus reducing the shear stress inside the grooves and the total integrated viscous drag force on the plate. Additionally, we explore how the boundary layer thickness, local average shear stress distribution, and total drag force on the wrinkled plate vary with the aspect ratio of the riblets as well as the length of the plate. We show that riblets with an aspect ratio of close to unity lead to the highest reduction in the total drag, and that because of the interplay between the local stress distribution on the plate and stream-wise evolution of the boundary layer the plate has to exceed a critical length to give a net decrease in the total drag force.

  14. Common skin cancers in the United States: a practical guide for diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Leber, K; Perron, V D; Sinni-McKeehen, B

    1999-06-01

    Cutaneous malignancies are the most common cancers found in the primary care setting. It is imperative that all primary care providers become competent in evaluating skin lesions. Actinic keratoses are the most common premalignant lesions. These rough scaly plaques are the direct result of ultraviolet and other carcinogenic exposure. Actinic keratoses may be the first clinical sign to alert primary care practitioners of severe solar dermatitis and herald the development of skin cancer. Treatment is cryotherapy or topical chemotherapeutic agents such as 5-fluorouracil. Basal and squamous cell carcinomas are the most common nonmelanoma skin cancers. The primary cause is cumulative exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun, although other factors exist. Treatment is generally surgical excision performed by a practitioner skilled in this type of procedure contingent on tumor type, size, location, aggressiveness, and other factors. Other common treatments include electrodesiccation and curettage and cryotherapy. The incidence of malignant melanoma is the fastest rising cancer in the United States. Early detection and prevention are the mainstays of a good outcome. Depth of the lesion is the primary determinant in staging and prognosis, although other factors are also important. As the incidence of skin cancer increases, primary care practitioners play an integral role in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of skin cancer. The importance of early detection and appropriate referral by primary care providers will become even more crucial in the prognosis of afflicted patients.

  15. A comparative study of the effects of retinol and retinoic acid on histological, molecular, and clinical properties of human skin.

    PubMed

    Kong, Rong; Cui, Yilei; Fisher, Gary J; Wang, Xiaojuan; Chen, Yinbei; Schneider, Louise M; Majmudar, Gopa

    2016-03-01

    All-trans retinol, a precursor of retinoic acid, is an effective anti-aging treatment widely used in skin care products. In comparison, topical retinoic acid is believed to provide even greater anti-aging effects; however, there is limited research directly comparing the effects of retinol and retinoic acid on skin. In this study, we compare the effects of retinol and retinoic acid on skin structure and expression of skin function-related genes and proteins. We also examine the effect of retinol treatment on skin appearance. Skin histology was examined by H&E staining and in vivo confocal microscopy. Expression levels of skin genes and proteins were analyzed using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The efficacy of a retinol formulation in improving skin appearance was assessed using digital image-based wrinkle analysis. Four weeks of retinoic acid and retinol treatments both increased epidermal thickness, and upregulated genes for collagen type 1 (COL1A1), and collagen type 3 (COL3A1) with corresponding increases in procollagen I and procollagen III protein expression. Facial image analysis showed a significant reduction in facial wrinkles following 12 weeks of retinol application. The results of this study demonstrate that topical application of retinol significantly affects both cellular and molecular properties of the epidermis and dermis, as shown by skin biopsy and noninvasive imaging analyses. Although the magnitude tends to be smaller, retinol induces similar changes in skin histology, and gene and protein expression as compared to retinoic acid application. These results were confirmed by the significant facial anti-aging effect observed in the retinol efficacy clinical study. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Hydrogel increases localized transport regions and skin permeability during low frequency ultrasound treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Tatiana Aparecida; Ramos, Danielle Nishida; Lopez, Renata F. V.

    2017-03-01

    Low frequency ultrasound (LFU) enhances skin permeability via the formation of heterogeneous localized transport regions (LTRs). In this work, hydrogels with different zeta potentials were used as the coupling medium for LFU to investigate their contribution to LTR patterns and to the skin penetration of two model drugs, calcein and doxorubicin (DOX). When hydrogels were used, LTRs covering at least a 3-fold greater skin area were observed compared to those resulting from traditional LFU treatment and sodium lauryl sulfate. More LTRs resulted in an enhancement of calcein skin permeation. The zeta potential of the hydrogels affected the skin penetration of the positively charged DOX; the cationic coupling medium decreased the DOX recovered from the viable epidermis by 2.8-fold, whereas the anionic coupling medium increased the DOX accumulation in the stratum corneum by 4.4-fold. Therefore, LFU/hydrogel treatment increases LTRs areas and can target ionized drugs to specific skin layers depending on the zeta potential of the coupling medium.

  17. Longitudinal evaluation of the skin microbiome and association with microenvironment and treatment in canine atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Charles W.; Morris, Daniel O.; Rankin, Shelley C.; Cain, Christine L.; Misic, Ana M.; Houser, Timothy; Mauldin, Elizabeth A.; Grice, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Host-microbe interactions may play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD), a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disorder characterized by universal colonization with Staphylococcus. To examine the relationship between epidermal barrier function and the cutaneous microbiota in AD, this study employed a spontaneous model of canine AD (cAD). In a cohort of 14 dogs with cAD, the skin microbiota was longitudinally evaluated with parallel assessment of skin barrier function at disease flare, during antimicrobial therapy and posttherapy. Sequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene revealed decreased bacterial diversity and increased proportions of Staphylococcus (S. pseudintermedius in particular) and Corynebacterium in comparison to a cohort of healthy control dogs (n=16). Treatment restored bacterial diversity with decreased Staphylococcus proportions, concurrent with decreased cAD severity. Skin barrier function, as measured by corneometry, pH, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) also normalized with treatment. Bacterial diversity correlated with TEWL and pH, but not corneometry. These findings provide insights into the relationship between the cutaneous microbiome and skin barrier function in AD, the impact of antimicrobial therapy on the skin microbiome, and highlight the utility of cAD as a spontaneous non-rodent model of AD. PMID:26854488

  18. Determining the mechanical properties of rat skin with digital image speckle correlation.

    PubMed

    Guan, E; Smilow, Sarah; Rafailovich, Miriam; Sokolov, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the mechanical properties of skin has numerous implications in surgical repair, dermal disorders and the diagnosis and treatment of trauma to the skin. Investigation of facial wrinkle formation, as well as research in the areas of skin aging and cosmetic product assessment can also benefit from alternative methodologies for the measurement of mechanical properties. A noncontact, noninvasive technique, digital image speckle correlation (DISC), has been successfully introduced to measure the deformation field of a skin sample loaded by a material test machine. With the force information obtained from the loading device, the mechanical properties of the skin, such as Young's modulus, linear limitation and material strength, can be calculated using elastic or viscoelastic theory. The DISC method was used to measure the deformation of neonatal rat skin, with and without a glycerin-fruit-oil-based cream under uniaxial tension. Deformation to failure procedure of newborn rat skin was recorded and analyzed. Single skin layer failures were observed and located by finding the strain concentration. Young's moduli of freshly excised rat skin, cream-processed rat skin and unprocessed rat skin, 24 h after excision, were found with tensile tests to be 1.6, 1.4 and 0.7 MPa, respectively. Our results have shown that DISC provides a novel technique for numerous applications in dermatology and reconstructive surgeries. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Anti-Aging Effects of the Hanwoo Leg Bone, Foot and Tail Infusions (HLI, HFI and HTI) on Skin Fibroblast.

    PubMed

    Seol, Ja Young; Yoon, Ji Young; Jeong, Hee Sun; Joo, Nami; Choi, Soon Young

    2016-01-01

    Many researchers revealed that collagen contribute to maintaining the skin's elasticity and inhibit wrinkling of skin. Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) bone (leg bone, foot and tail) infusion contains the various inorganic materials, collagen and chondroitin sulfate. All of this, a large quantity of collagen is included in Hanwoo infusion. Therefore, this study emphasized on the effects of collagen in the Hanwoo bone infusion. For the first time, Hanwoo bone infusions were directly added to the media of Human Dermal Fibroblast (NHDF-c) to test anti-aging effects. First, it was identified that growth rate of skin fibroblast was increased. Furthermore, the Hanwoo bone infusion increased a 50% of fibroblast collagen synthesis. Also, suppression of skin fibroblast aging was confirmed by treatment Hanwoo bone infusion. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effects of infusion made from Hanwoo leg bone, foot and tail on anti-aging, wrinkle inhibiting and skin fibroblast elasticity maintaining. Therefore, this study identified that traditional infusion has effects that are good for skin elasticity.

  20. Edge wrinkling of a soft ridge with gradient thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yan; Shao, Zhi-Chun; Li, Guo-Yang; Zheng, Yang; Zhang, Wan-Yu; Li, Bo; Cao, Yanping; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the edge wrinkling of a soft ridge with gradient thickness under axial compression. Our experiments show that the wrinkling wavelength undergoes a considerable increase with increasing load. Simple scaling laws are derived based on an upper-bound analysis to predict the critical buckling conditions and the evolution of wrinkling wavelength during the post-buckling stage, and the results show good accordance with our finite element simulations and experiments. We also report a pattern transformation triggered by the edge wrinkling of soft ridge arrays. The results and method not only help understand the correlation between the growth and form observed in some natural systems but also inspire a strategy to fabricate advanced functional surfaces.

  1. Martian Wrinkle Ridge Topography: Evidence for Subsurface Faults from MOLA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Anderson, F. S.; Zuber, M. T.

    2000-01-01

    Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) profiles across wrinkle ridges are characterized by plains surfaces at different elevations on either side that appear best explained by subsurface thrust faults that underlie the ridges and produce the offset.

  2. Wrinkle ridges, stress domains, and kinematics of venusian plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgill, George E.

    1993-01-01

    Wrinkle ridges are nearly ubiquitous landforms on the plains of Venus. By analogy with similar structures on other planets, venusian wrinkle ridges are inferred to trend normal to the direction of maximum principal compression in the crust, an inference that is verified by geometrical relationships with positive and negative relief features on Venus. Because plains are the dominant terrain on Venus, wrinkle ridges provide an excellent opportunity to determine the orientations of shallow crustal principal stress trajectories over most of the planet. In most places there are two or more sets of wrinkle ridges, and commonly one of these persists over a large area, defining a regional stress domain. Intersection relationships indicate that these domains differ in age.

  3. Hydrostatic and Flow Measurements on Wrinkled Membrane Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozsun, Ozgur; Ekinci, Kamil

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we investigate structural properties of wrinkled silicon nitride (SiN) membranes, under both hydrostatic perturbations and flow conditions, through surface profile measurements. Rectangular SiN membranes with linear dimensions of 15 mm × 1 . 5 mm × 1 μ m are fabricated on a 500 - μ m-thick silicon substrate using standard lithography techniques. These thin, initially flat, tension-dominated membranes are wrinkled by bending the silicon substrate. The wrinkled membranes are subsequently incorporated as walls into rectangular micro-channels, which allow both hydrostatic and flow measurements. The structural response of the wrinkles to hydrostatic pressure provides a measure of the various energy scales in the problem. Flow experiments show that the elastic properties and the structural undulations on a compliant membrane completely dominate the flow, possibly providing drag reduction. These measurements pave the way for building and using compliant walls for drag reduction in micro-channels.

  4. Redox-Switchable Surface Wrinkling on Polyaniline Film.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jixun; Zong, Chuanyong; Han, Xue; Ji, Haipeng; Wang, Juanjuan; Yang, Xiu; Lu, Conghua

    2016-04-01

    Here the redox-driven switch between the wrinkled and dewrinkled states on poly-aniline (PANI) film is reported. This switch is derived from the reversible transition in different intrinsic redox states of polyaniline (e.g., between emeraldine salt (ES) and leucoemeraldine base (LEB) or between ES and pernigraniline base (PB)) that are involved in the redox reaction, coupled with the corresponding volume expansion/shrinkage. Interestingly, the as-wrinkled ES film becomes deswollen and dewrinkled when reduced to the LEB state or oxidized to the PB state. Conversely, oxidation of the LEB film or reduction of the PB film into the swollen ES film leads to the reoccurrence of surface wrinkling. Furthermore, the reducibility of the dewrinkled LEB film and the oxidizability of the dewrinkled PB film are well utilized respectively to yield various wrinkled PANI-based composite films. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Generation of diffraction-free optical beams using wrinkled membranes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ran; Yi, Hui; Hu, Xiao; Chen, Leng; Shi, Guangsha; Wang, Weimin; Yang, Tian

    2013-01-01

    Wrinkling has become a well developed bottom-up technique to make artificial surface textures in about the last decade. However, application of the optical properties of long range ordered wrinkles has been limited to one dimensional gratings to date. We report the demonstration of macroscopic optical focusing using wrinkled membranes, in which concentric wrinkle rings on a gold-PDMS bilayer membrane convert collimated illuminations to diffraction-free focused beams. Beam diameters of 300–400 μm have been observed in the visible range, which are dominantly limited by the eccentricity of the current devices. Based upon agreement between theoretical and experimental results on eccentricity effects, we predict a decrease of the beam diameter to no more than around 50 μm, if eccentricity is eliminated. PMID:24072139

  6. Early treatment using fractional CO2 laser before skin suture during scar revision surgery in Asians.

    PubMed

    Du, Feiya; Yu, Yusheng; Zhou, Zhiqin; Wang, Liujia; Zheng, Shusen

    2018-04-01

    Fractional CO 2 laser is one of the most effective treatment options used to resurface scars. However, most previous studies have been performed on mature scars at least 2 months after surgery. Recent studies have emphasized the importance of early treatment to reduce scar formation. In the present study, we described our experience with fractional CO 2 laser intervention before skin suture during scar revision surgery in Asians, and found the treatment was safe and effective.

  7. Voltage-controlled surface wrinkling of elastomeric coatings.

    PubMed

    van den Ende, Daan; Kamminga, Jan-Dirk; Boersma, Arjen; Andritsch, Thomas; Steeneken, Peter G

    2013-07-05

    Wrinkling of elastomeric coatings by an electric field is reported. The associated changes in the coating's optical properties yield switchable mirrors and windows. The field Ec needed to induce wrinkling is a factor of 4.4 lower than the theoretically predicted value, which is attributed to space-charge injection. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Global survey of lunar wrinkle ridge formation times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Z.; Michael, G. G.; Di, K.; Liu, J.

    2017-11-01

    Wrinkle ridges are a common feature of the lunar maria and record subsequent contraction of mare infill. Constraining the timing of wrinkle ridge formation from crater counts is challenging because they have limited areal extent and it is difficult to determine whether superposed craters post-date ridge formation or have alternatively been uplifted by the deformation. Some wrinkle ridges do allow determination to be made. This is possible where a ridge shows a sufficiently steep boundary or scarp that can be identified as deforming an intersecting crater or the crater obliterates the relief of the ridge. Such boundaries constitute only a small fraction of lunar wrinkle ridge structures yet they are sufficiently numerous to enable us to obtain statistically significant crater counts over systems of structurally related wrinkle ridges. We carried out a global mapping of mare wrinkle ridges, identifying appropriate boundaries for crater identification, and mapping superposed craters. Selected groups of ridges were analyzed using the buffered crater counting method. We found that, except for the ridges in mare Tranquilitatis, the ridge groups formed with average ages between 3.5 and 3.1 Ga ago, or 100-650 Ma after the oldest observable erupted basalts where they are located. We interpret these results to suggest that local stresses from loading by basalt fill are the principal agent responsible for the formation of lunar wrinkle ridges, as others have proposed. We find a markedly longer interval before wrinkle ridge formation in Tranquilitatis which likely indicates a different mechanism of stress accumulation at this site.

  9. Shrink-film configurable multiscale wrinkles for functional alignment of human embryonic stem cells and their cardiac derivatives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Aaron; Lieu, Deborah K; Freschauf, Lauren; Lew, Valerie; Sharma, Himanshu; Wang, Jiaxian; Nguyen, Diep; Karakikes, Ioannis; Hajjar, Roger J; Gopinathan, Ajay; Botvinick, Elliot; Fowlkes, Charless C; Li, Ronald A; Khine, Michelle

    2011-12-22

    A biomimetic substrate for cell-culture is fabricated by plasma treatment of a prestressed thermoplastic shrink film to create tunable multiscaled alignment "wrinkles". Using this substrate, the functional alignment of human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes is demonstrated. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Ceftaroline fosamil in the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.

    PubMed

    Lodise, Thomas P; Low, Donald E

    2012-07-30

    Ceftaroline fosamil is a cephalosporin antibacterial approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). After intravenous administration, ceftaroline fosamil is rapidly converted to its bioactive metabolite, ceftaroline. Ceftaroline has broad-spectrum in vitro activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including contemporary resistant Gram-positive phenotypes, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Because of its unique spectrum of activity, the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) designated ceftaroline as a member of a new subclass of β-lactam antimicrobials, cephalosporins with anti-MRSA activity. The activity of ceftaroline against S. aureus extends to heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate, vancomycin-intermediate, vancomycin-resistant and daptomycin-nonsusceptible isolates. Ceftaroline has low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for all tested species of streptococci, and has potent activity against S. pneumoniae isolates with varying degrees of penicillin resistance. The activity of ceftaroline is limited against Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium and against anaerobes such as Bacteroides fragilis. The in vitro activity of ceftaroline includes many Gram-negative pathogens, but does not extend to bacteria that produce extended-spectrum β-lactamases, class B metallo-β-lactamases or AmpC cephalosporinases, or to most nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli. Ceftaroline fosamil has been studied for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in phase III randomized, double-blind, international, multicentre noninferiority clinical trials. Two identical trials (CANVAS 1 and CANVAS 2) compared the efficacy of ceftaroline fosamil with that of

  11. Noninvasive treatment of keloid using customized Re-188 skin patch.

    PubMed

    Bhusari, Priya; Shukla, Jaya; Kumar, Munish; Vatsa, Rakhee; Chhabra, Anupriya; Palarwar, Kanchan; Rathore, Yogesh; De, Dipanker; Kumaran, Sendhil; Handa, Sanjeev; Mittal, B R

    2017-09-01

    Keloids are developed as fibrotic scar at the site of surgery or trauma and often enlarge beyond the original scar margins. Re-188 colloid coated customized patch was superficially fixed onto the lesion for 3 hrs. The same patch was reapplied on the lesion on third day for 3 hrs. The patients were followed up at 1, 3,6 and 12 months post treatment. The size and elevation of the keloid lesion was reduced after treatment. The total radiation dose from the patch (day-1 and day-3) was 100 Gy/mCi of Re-188. The radioactive patch treatment of keloids is noninvasive, painless and safe with prolonged outcome. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Constitutive Modeling of Thin Films with Randon Material Wrinkles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphey, Thomas W.; Mikulas, Martin M.

    2001-01-01

    Material wrinkles drastically alter the structural constitutive properties of thin films. Normally linear elastic materials, when wrinkled, become highly nonlinear and initially inelastic. Stiffness' reduced by 99% and negative Poisson's ratios are typically observed. This paper presents an effective continuum constitutive model for the elastic effects of material wrinkles in thin films. The model considers general two-dimensional stress and strain states (simultaneous bi-axial and shear stress/strain) and neglects out of plane bending. The constitutive model is derived from a traditional mechanics analysis of an idealized physical model of random material wrinkles. Model parameters are the directly measurable wrinkle characteristics of amplitude and wavelength. For these reasons, the equations are mechanistic and deterministic. The model is compared with bi-axial tensile test data for wrinkled Kaptong(Registered Trademark) HN and is shown to deterministically predict strain as a function of stress with an average RMS error of 22%. On average, fitting the model to test data yields an RMS error of 1.2%

  13. Stretching-induced wrinkling in plastic-rubber composites.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junyu; Damle, Sameer; Maiti, Spandan; Velankar, Sachin S

    2017-01-25

    We examine the mechanics of three-layer composite films composed of an elastomeric layer sandwiched between two thin surface layers of plastic. Upon stretching and releasing such composite films, they develop a highly wrinkled surface texture. The mechanism for this texturing is that during stretching, the plastic layers yield and stretch irreversibly whereas the elastomer stretches reversibly. Thus upon releasing, the plastic layers buckle due to compressive stress imposed by the elastomer. Experiments are conducted using SEPS elastomer and 50 micron thick LLDPE plastic films. Stretching and releasing the composites to 2-5 times their original length induces buckles with wavelength on the order of 200 microns, and the wavelength decreases as the stretching increases. FEM simulations reveal that plastic deformation is involved at all stages during this process: (1) during stretching, the plastic layer yields in tension; (2) during recovery, the plastic layer first yields in-plane in compression and then buckles; (3) post-buckling, plastic hinges are formed at high-curvature regions. Homogeneous wrinkles are predicted only within a finite window of material properties: if the yield stress is too low, the plastic layers yield in-plane, without wrinkling, whereas if the yield stress is too high, non-homogeneous wrinkles are predicted. This approach to realizing highly wrinkled textures offers several advantages, most importantly the fact that high aspect ratio wrinkles (amplitude to wavelength ratios exceeding 0.4) can be realized.

  14. The efficacy of facial skin cancer treatment with high-energy pulsed neodymium and Nd:YAG lasers.

    PubMed

    Moskalik, Konstantin; Kozlov, Alexander; Demin, Eugeny; Boiko, Ernest

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the curative and cosmetic efficacy of treatment for facial skin cancer using neodymium laser irradiation. Due to the complex anatomy of the area, therapy for facial skin cancer is difficult. Laser irradiation was used for the treatment of 3461 patients with 3624 facial skin cancer lesions of stages T(1-2)N(0)M(0:) 3346 basal cell skin cancers, 188 limited basal cell skin cancer recurrences, and 90 squamous cell skin cancers. Pulsed neodymium (Nd) and Nd:YAG lasers were used as the energy sources. The patients were followed-up from 3 mo to 5 y or more. Patients with basal cell skin cancer treated by irradiation with the Nd laser developed recurrences in 1.8% of cases, and patients treated with the Nd:YAG laser had a recurrence rate of 2.5%. Recurrences following treatment for basal cell skin cancer, and those of squamous cell skin cancer, after irradiation with the Nd laser appeared in 3.7% and 4.4% of patients, respectively. Overall, the frequency of facial skin cancer recurrences after treatment with laser irradiation was 2.1% of all the irradiated tumors. Neodymium laser irradiation is an effective method to treat facial skin cancer of stages T(1-2)N(0)M(0), and results in acceptable cosmetic results.

  15. Histological study of subcutaneous fat at NIR laser treatment of the rat skin in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanina, I. Y.; Svenskaya, Yu. I.; Navolokin, N. A.; Matveeva, O. V.; Bucharskaya, A. B.; Maslyakova, G. N.; Gorin, D. A.; Sukhorukov, G. B.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this work is to quantify impact of in vivo photochemical treatment using indocyanine green (ICG) or encapsulated ICG and NIR laser irradiation through skin of rat with obesity by the follow up tissue sampling and histochemistry. After 1 hour elapsed since 1-min light exposure samples of rat skin with subcutaneous tissue of thickness of 1.5-2.5 mm were taken by surgery from rats within marked 4-zones of the skin site. For hematoxylin-eosin histological examination of excised tissue samples, fixation was carried out by 10%-formaldehyde solution. For ICG and encapsulated ICG subcutaneous injection and subsequent 1-min diode laser irradiation with power density of 8 W/cm2, different necrotic regions with lipolysis of subcutaneous fat were observed. The obtained data can be used for safe layer-by-layer laser treatment of obesity and cellulite.

  16. Anti-Wrinkle Effect of Magnesium Lithospermate B from Salvia miltiorrhiza BUNGE: Inhibition of MMPs via NF-kB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yu Ri; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, So Ra; An, Hye Jin; Lee, Eun Kyeong; Tanaka, Takashi; Kim, Nam Deuk; Yokozawa, Takako; Park, Jin Nam; Chung, Hae Young

    2014-01-01

    Skin is in direct contact with the environment and therefore undergoes aging as a consequence of environmentally induce damage. Wrinkle formation is a striking feature of intrinsic and photo-induced skin aging, which are both associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory response. The present study was undertaken to identify the mechanisms responsible for the anti-wrinkle effects of MLB, and thus, we investigated whether magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) from Salvia miltiorrhiza BUNGE associated with wrinkle formation caused by intrinsic and extrinsic skin aging using Sprague-Dawley rats aged 5 and 20 months and ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated human skin fibroblasts cells, respectively. The results obtained showed that the oral administration of MLB significantly upregulated the level of type I procollagen and downregulated the activities and expressions of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) in rat skin. In fibroblasts, MLB suppressed the transactivation of nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) and activator protein 1(AP-1), which are the two transcription factors responsible for MMP expression, by suppressing oxidative stress and the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Our results show that the antioxidant effect of MLB is due to the direct scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its inhibitory effects on NF-kB-dependent inflammation genes, such as, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. MLB was found to reverse both age- and UVB-related reductions in skin procollagen levels by suppressing the expressions and activities of NF-kB and AP-1-dependent MMPs by modulating ROS generation and the MAPK signaling pathway. We suggest that MLB potentially has anti-wrinkle and anti-skin aging effects. PMID:25099178

  17. Measurement and effects of MOSKIN detectors on skin dose during high energy radiotherapy treatment.

    PubMed

    Alnawaf, Hani; Butson, Martin; Yu, Peter K N

    2012-09-01

    During in vivo dosimetry for megavoltage X-ray beams, detectors such as diodes, Thermo luminescent dosimeters (TLD's) and MOSFET devices are placed on the patient's skin. This of course will affect the skin dose delivered during that fraction of the treatment. Whilst the overall impact on increasing skin dose would be minimal, little has been quantified concerning the level of increase in absorbed dose, in vivo dosimeters produce when placed in the beams path. To this extent, measurements have been made and analysis performed on dose changes caused by MOSKIN, MOSFET, skin dose detectors. Maximum increases in skin dose were measured as 15 % for 6 MV X-rays and 10 % for 10 MV X-rays at the active crystal of the MOSKIN device which is the thickest part of the detector. This is compared to 32 and 26 % for a standard 1 mm thick LiF TLD at 10 × 10 cm(2) field size for 6 and 10 MV X-rays respectively. Radiochromic film, EBT2 has been shown to provide a high resolution 2 dimensional map of skin dose from these detectors and measures the effects of in vivo dosimeters used for radiotherapy dose assessment.

  18. A new formulation containing calixarene molecules as an emergency treatment of uranium skin contamination.

    PubMed

    Spagnul, Aurélie; Bouvier-Capely, Céline; Phan, Guillaume; Rebière, François; Fattal, Elias

    2010-09-01

    Cutaneous contamination represents the second highest contamination pathway in the nuclear industry. Despite that the entry of actinides such as uranium into the body through intact or wounded skin can induce a high internal exposure, no specific emergency treatment for cutaneous contamination exists. In the present work, an innovative formulation dedicated to uranium skin decontamination was developed. The galenic form consists in an oil-in-water nanoemulsion, which contains a tricarboxylic calixarene known for its high uranium affinity and selectivity. The physicochemical characterization of this topical form revealed that calixarene molecules are located at the surface of the dispersed oil droplets of the nanoemulsion, being thus potentially available for uranium chelation. It was demonstrated in preliminary in vitro experiments by using an adapted ultrafiltration method that the calixarene nanoemulsion was able to extract and retain more than 80% of uranium from an aqueous uranyl nitrate contamination solution. First ex vivo experiments carried out in Franz diffusion cells on pig ear skin explants during 24 h showed that the immediate application of the calixarene nanoemulsion on a skin contaminated by a uranyl nitrate solution allowed a uranium transcutaneous diffusion decrease of about 98% through intact and excoriated skins. The calixarene nanoemulsion developed in this study thus seems to be an efficient emergency system for uranium skin decontamination.

  19. Wrinkle ridges of Arcadia Planitia, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    Wrinkle ridges of Arcadia Planitia were examined to determine their morphology, spatial distribution, and the amount of crustal shortening and strain they accommodate. Ridges trend generally northward, but their orientation and distribution are strongly controlled by the relief of the underlying hobby material. Ridges begin or end at inselbergs of older terrain and are associated with buried craters. Arcadia Planitia ridges have an average width of 3425 m and accommodate an average folding shortening of 3 m and a faulting shortening of 55 m; mean total shortening is 57 m. Three east-west transects were constructed at 20 deg 25 deg and 28 deg N to estimate regional shortening and strain. Average total shortening across the transects is about 900 m, corresponding to a regional compressive strain of 0.06 percent. The total shortening and compression across Arcadia Planitia are less than in Lungae Planum. Faults associated with the Arcadia ridges are inferred to have a westward dip compared with an eastward dip for Lungae Planum ridges. The general levels of compression and symmetric orientation of the ridges suggest a regionally organized stress system.

  20. Application of photo-magnetic therapy for treatment of skin radiation damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Simonova-Pushkar, L I; Gertman, V Z; Bilogurova, L V

    2014-09-01

    To improve methods of prevention and treatment of local radiation injury to the skin using the photomagnetic therapy. Materials and methods. Study was conducted on 60 male Wistar rats with 180-200 g bodyweight. The femoral area right hind limb of rats was locally irradiated by X-ray unit at a dose of 80.0 Gy. Exposed animals were divided into 2 groups: control and experimental. The rats of the experimental group received 2 courses of photo-magnetic therapy on the irradiated skin. The observations were carried out for 60 days. Methods - clinical, histological and statistical. Results. Local irradiation of rat skin causes the development of radiation ulcers in 60-70 % of the animals with the destruction of the structure in all layers of the skin. Spontaneous healing of radiation ulcer lasts at least two months with no complete skin recovery. Photo-magnetic therapy applied immediately after irradiation resulted in two-folddecrease of frequency of radiation ulcer incidence, accelerated the complete healing for 3 weeks and to ameliorated their progress. Histological examination showed that the photo-magnetic therapy reduced the extent of damage to all layers of the skin with restoration of epidermis and dermis structure and reduced the degree of inflammatory and destructive processes in the dermis. Conclusions. Photo-magnetic therapy produces a significant positive treatment effect by significantly reducing the inflammatory and destructive processes in all layers of the skin, stimulates the blood flow recovery in damaged tissue both with fibroblast proliferation and synthesis activation of native collagen fibers and other components of connective tissue, so almost a month accelerates ulcer healing radiation. L. I. Simonova-Pushkar, V. Z. Gertman, L. V. Bilogurova.

  1. Superficial Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Minni, John; Herold, David

    2015-01-01

    Superficial radiation therapy has become more widely available to dermatologists. With the advent of more portable machines, it has become more convenient for dermatology practices to employ in an office-based setting. The goal of this paper is to provide a deeper insight into the role of superficial radiation therapy in dermatology practice and to review the current literature surrounding its use in the treatment of both basal and squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:26705443

  2. Proof of concept of a new autologous skin substitute for the treatment of deep wounds in dogs.

    PubMed

    Ramió-Lluch, L; Cerrato, S; Brazis, P; Rabanal, R M; Fondevila, D; Puigdemont, A

    2017-12-01

    Autologous skin grafts are effective for the repair of large skin wounds, but the availability of large amounts of skin is often limited. Through bioengineering, several autologous skin substitutes have been developed for use in human clinical practice. However, few skin substitutes are available for use in animals. The aim of this study was to develop and assess an engineered autologous skin substitute for the treatment of deep wounds in veterinary medicine. Canine keratinocytes and fibroblasts were isolated after double enzyme digestion from 8mm punch biopsies from four healthy Beagle dogs. Skin substitutes were constructed on a fibrin-based matrix and grafting capacity was assessed by xenografting in six athymic mice. Bioengineered autologous skin was assessed clinically in two dogs with large deep skin wounds. The canine skin construct was ready for use within 12-14days after the initial biopsy specimens were obtained. Grafting capacity in this model was confirmed by successful grafting of the construct in athymic mice. In both dogs, grafts were established and permanent epithelialisation occurred. Histological studies confirmed successful grafting. This full thickness skin substitute developed for the management of large skin defects in dogs appears to be a safe and useful tool for clinical veterinary practice. Further studies are needed to validate its efficacy for the treatment of deep wounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Skin necrosis during long-term fluindione treatment revealing protein C deficiency].

    PubMed

    Merklen-Djafri, C; Mazurier, I; Samama, M-M; Alhenc-Gelas, M; Tortel, M-C; Cribier, B; Roth, B; Batard, M-L

    2012-03-01

    Cutaneous necrosis is a rare complication of vitamin K antagonist therapy. It presents as cutaneous hemorrhagic necrosis and usually occurs at the start of treatment. We describe an atypical case of recurrent skin necrosis after two years of treatment with fluindione. A 70-year old woman with a history of venous thromboembolism and obesity presented with a large haemorrhagic necrosis of the abdominal wall. She had been treated with fluindione for two years. Genetic protein C deficiency was discovered. Resumption of vitamin K antagonist therapy was followed by recurrence of skin necrosis despite concomitant administration of heparin. Treatment with vitamin K antagonists could not be continued. This observation is unusual due to the late onset of skin necrosis. The condition usually begins shortly after initiation of vitamin K antagonist therapy, generally between the third and the sixth day of treatment. It is due to a transient hypercoagulable state in patients with protein C deficiency or, in rare cases, protein S deficiency. This late-onset skin necrosis, occurring many years after initiation of anticoagulant therapy, may be explained by a sudden worsening of pre-existing protein C deficiency due to infectious and iatrogenic factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of sex-related changes in skin topography and structure using innovative skin testing equipment.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowska, M; Mielcarek, A; Nowak, I

    2018-04-29

    Evaluation of skin condition on the basis of parametrization and objective measurements of the parameters has become obligatory. The aim of this study was to assess sex-related changes in skin topography and structure using the skin testing equipment. The study was carried out on the group of 40 volunteers (20 females and 20 males) of the mean age 24 ± 3 years. The skin parameters were measured using 3 devices: Visioscan ®  VC 98 (skin topography), Visioline ® VL 650 (skin macro relief) and Ultrascan UC22 (ultrasound imaging of the skin). All measurements were performed on the inner part of the left forearm. The skin parameters measured revealed significant differences in skin surface and structure between females and males. The skin of all women subjects was more homogenous in its structure with the presence of more abundant superficial skin lines and wrinkles in comparison to male skin. The higher number of skin furrows in the skin of women is in agreement with literature reports claiming that men's skin has lower number of wrinkles which are deeper and more pronounced. Ultrasound imaging of the skin indicated greater thickness and lower density of the dermis of men subjects compared to those of females. Non-invasive methods of skin testing using new and advanced equipment have provided a possibility of objective parametrization and evaluation of sex-related changes in skin topography and structure. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Controlling nested wrinkle morphology through the boundary effect on narrow-band thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hanyang; Shi, Tielin; Liao, Guanglan; Xia, Qi

    2017-07-01

    We describe the formation of nested wrinkles created by the thermal mismatch between a narrow-band thin film and a compliant substrate. When a film is described as "narrow-band", it literally means that the film band width is much shorter than its length; more precisely, it means that the width is comparable with the wavelength of the wrinkles. A silicon mask was used during film sputtering to create narrow-band films on poly (dimethylsiloxane) substrate, thus creating regular boundaries to steer local stresses and control wrinkle morphology. Disordered nano-scale wrinkles were found nested within highly ordered micro-scale sinusoidal wrinkles. The formation of nested wrinkles was explained through the amplitude and wavelength saturation of nano-scale wrinkles. The disordered morphology of nano-scale wrinkles and the highly ordered morphology of micro-scale wrinkles were explained by using the boundary effect.

  6. Wrinkles and creases in the bending, unbending and eversion of soft sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigaeva, Taisiya; Mangan, Robert; Vergori, Luigi; Destrade, Michel; Sudak, Les

    2018-04-01

    We study what is clearly one of the most common modes of deformation found in nature, science and engineering, namely the large elastic bending of curved structures, as well as its inverse, unbending, which can be brought beyond complete straightening to turn into eversion. We find that the suggested mathematical solution to these problems always exists and is unique when the solid is modelled as a homogeneous, isotropic, incompressible hyperelastic material with a strain-energy satisfying the strong ellipticity condition. We also provide explicit asymptotic solutions for thin sectors. When the deformations are severe enough, the compressed side of the elastic material may buckle and wrinkles could then develop. We analyse, in detail, the onset of this instability for the Mooney-Rivlin strain energy, which covers the cases of the neo-Hookean model in exact nonlinear elasticity and of third-order elastic materials in weakly nonlinear elasticity. In particular, the associated theoretical and numerical treatment allows us to predict the number and wavelength of the wrinkles. Guided by experimental observations, we finally look at the development of creases, which we simulate through advanced finite-element computations. In some cases, the linearized analysis allows us to predict correctly the number and the wavelength of the creases, which turn out to occur only a few per cent of strain earlier than the wrinkles.

  7. Wrinkled, wavelength-tunable graphene-based surface topographies for directing cell alignment and morphology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongying; Tonderys, Daniel; Leggett, Susan E.; Williams, Evelyn Kendall; Kiani, Mehrdad T.; Steinberg, Ruben Spitz; Qiu, Yang; Wong, Ian Y.; Hurt, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Textured surfaces with periodic topographical features and long-range order are highly attractive for directing cell-material interactions. They mimic physiological environments more accurately than planar surfaces and can fundamentally alter cell alignment, shape, gene expression, and cellular assembly into superstructures or microtissues. Here we demonstrate for the first time that wrinkled graphene-based surfaces are suitable as textured cell attachment substrates, and that engineered wrinkling can dramatically alter cell alignment and morphology. The wrinkled surfaces are fabricated by graphene oxide wet deposition onto pre-stretched elastomers followed by relaxation and mild thermal treatment to stabilize the films in cell culture medium. Multilayer graphene oxide films form periodic, delaminated buckle textures whose wavelengths and amplitudes can be systematically tuned by variation in the wet deposition process. Human and murine fibroblasts attach to these textured films and remain viable, while developing pronounced alignment and elongation relative to those on planar graphene controls. Compared to lithographic patterning of nanogratings, this method has advantages in the simplicity and scalability of fabrication, as well as the opportunity to couple the use of topographic cues with the unique conductive, adsorptive, or barrier properties of graphene materials for functional biomedical devices. PMID:25848137

  8. Resveratrol-Enriched Rice Attenuates UVB-ROS-Induced Skin Aging via Downregulation of Inflammatory Cascades.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Lalita; Lee, Taek Hwan; Wahedi, Hussain Mustatab; Baek, So-Hyeon; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2017-01-01

    The skin is the outermost protective barrier between the internal and external environments in humans. Chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a major cause of skin aging. UVB radiation penetrates the skin and induces ROS production that activates three major skin aging cascades: matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 1-mediated aging; MAPK-AP-1/NF- κ B-TNF- α /IL-6, iNOS, and COX-2-mediated inflammation-induced aging; and p53-Bax-cleaved caspase-3-cytochrome C-mediated apoptosis-induced aging. These mechanisms are collectively responsible for the wrinkling and photoaging characteristic of UVB-induced skin aging. There is an urgent requirement for a treatment that not only controls these pathways to prevent skin aging but also avoids the adverse effects often encountered when applying bioactive compounds in concentrated doses. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of genetically modified normal edible rice (NR) that produces the antiaging compound resveratrol (R) as a treatment for skin aging. This resveratrol-enriched rice (RR) overcomes the drawbacks of R and enhances its antiaging potential by controlling the abovementioned three major pathways of skin aging. RR does not exhibit the toxicity of R alone and promisingly downregulates the pathways underlying UVB-ROS-induced skin aging. These findings advocate the use of RR as a nutraceutical for antiaging purposes.

  9. Resveratrol-Enriched Rice Attenuates UVB-ROS-Induced Skin Aging via Downregulation of Inflammatory Cascades

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taek Hwan; Wahedi, Hussain Mustatab; Baek, So-Hyeon

    2017-01-01

    The skin is the outermost protective barrier between the internal and external environments in humans. Chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a major cause of skin aging. UVB radiation penetrates the skin and induces ROS production that activates three major skin aging cascades: matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 1-mediated aging; MAPK-AP-1/NF-κB-TNF-α/IL-6, iNOS, and COX-2-mediated inflammation-induced aging; and p53-Bax-cleaved caspase-3-cytochrome C-mediated apoptosis-induced aging. These mechanisms are collectively responsible for the wrinkling and photoaging characteristic of UVB-induced skin aging. There is an urgent requirement for a treatment that not only controls these pathways to prevent skin aging but also avoids the adverse effects often encountered when applying bioactive compounds in concentrated doses. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of genetically modified normal edible rice (NR) that produces the antiaging compound resveratrol (R) as a treatment for skin aging. This resveratrol-enriched rice (RR) overcomes the drawbacks of R and enhances its antiaging potential by controlling the abovementioned three major pathways of skin aging. RR does not exhibit the toxicity of R alone and promisingly downregulates the pathways underlying UVB-ROS-induced skin aging. These findings advocate the use of RR as a nutraceutical for antiaging purposes. PMID:28900534

  10. Fluorescence Guided PDT for Optimization of Skin Cancer Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Kate; Moriyama, Lilian; Inada, Natalia; Kurachi, Cristina; Salvio, Ana; Leite, Everson; Menezes, Priscila; Bagnato, Vanderlei

    2015-04-01

    The photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an alternative technique that can be indicated for superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC), Bowen’s disease and actinic keratosis with high efficiency. The objective of this study is to present the importance of fluorescence imaging for PDT guidance and monitoring in real time. Confirming that the lesion is well prepared and the photosensitizer shows a homogenous distribution, the outcome after few PDT sessions will be positive and the recurrence should be lower. Our proposition in this study is use the widefield fluorescence imaging to evaluate the PDT protocol in situ and in real time for each lesion. This evaluation procedure is performed in two steps: first with the monitoring of the production of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) induced by methyl aminolevulinate (MAL), an derivative of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and second with the detection of PpIX photobleaching after illumination. The fluorescence images provide information correlated with distinct clinical features and with the treatment outcome. Eight BCC lesions are presented and discussed in this study. Different fluorescence patterns of PpIX production and photobleaching could be correlated with the treatment response. The presented results show the potential of using widefield fluorescence imaging as a guidance tool to customized PDT.

  11. Multimodal evaluation of ultra-short laser pulses treatment for skin burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Santos, Moises Oliveira Dos; Latrive, Anne; De Castro, Pedro Arthur Augusto; De Rossi, Wagner; Zorn, Telma Maria Tenorio; Samad, Ricardo Elgul; Freitas, Anderson Zanardi; Cesar, Carlos Lenz; Junior, Nilson Dias Vieira; Zezell, Denise Maria

    2017-03-01

    Thousands of people die every year from burn injuries. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of high intensity femtosecond lasers as an auxiliary treatment of skin burns. We used an in vivo animal model and monitored the healing process using 4 different imaging modalities: histology, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), Second Harmonic Generation (SHG), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. 3 dorsal areas of 20 anesthetized Wistar rats were burned by water vapor exposure and subsequently treated either by classical surgical debridement, by laser ablation, or left without treatment. Skin burn tissues were non-invasively characterized by OCT images and biopsied for further histopathology analysis, SHG imaging and FTIR spectroscopy at 3, 5, 7 and 14 days after burn. The laser protocol was found as efficient as the classical treatment for promoting the healing process. The study concludes to the validation of femtosecond ultra-short pulses laser treatment for skinburns, with the advantage of minimizing operatory trauma.

  12. Elderly patients are at increased risk for treatment failure in outpatient management of purulent skin infections.

    PubMed

    Haran, John P; Wilsterman, Eric; Zeoli, Tyler; Beaudoin, Francesca L; Tjia, Jennifer; Hibberd, Patricia L

    2017-02-01

    Current Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) guidelines for the management of purulent skin or soft tissue infections do not account for patient age in treatment recommendations. The study objective was to determine if age was associated with outpatient treatment failure for purulent skin infection after adjusting for IDSA treatment guidelines. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study of adult patients treated for a purulent skin infection and discharged home from four emergency departments between April and September 2014. Patients were followed for one month to assess for treatment failure (defined as need for a change in antibiotics, surgical intervention, or hospitalization). We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the role of patient age on treatment failure adjusting for demographic variables (gender, race), comorbidities and severity of infection. A total of 467 patients met inclusion criteria (mean age 37.9years [SD 14.0], 48.2% of whom were women). Overall, 12.4% failed initial therapy. Patients 65years and older (n=35) were almost 4 times more likely to fail initial ED therapy in follow-up compared with younger patients (adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) 3.87, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.24-12.10). After adjustment, for every 10years of advancing age there was a 43% increased odds of failing initial treatment (OR 1.43 95% CI 1.09-1.88). Elderly patients with purulent skin infections, whose providers followed the 2014 IDSA guidelines, were more likely to fail initial treatment than younger patients. This study suggests that there is a need to re-evaluate treatment guidelines in elderly patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sagging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Varicose Veins Sclerotherapy for Varicose Veins Back Hair Transplants Laser Treatments for Pre-Cancerous ... Skin Sagging skin in the lower face and neck is a natural part of the aging process. Why treat sagging ...

  14. Ablative skin resurfacing with a novel microablative CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Gotkin, Robert H; Sarnoff, Deborah S; Cannarozzo, Giovanni; Sadick, Neil S; Alexiades-Armenakas, Macrene

    2009-02-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser skin resurfacing has been a mainstay of facial rejuvenation since its introduction in the mid 1990s. Recently, a new generation of fractional or microablative CO2 lasers has been introduced to the marketplace. According to the concept of fractional photothermolysis, these lasers ablate only a fraction of the epidermal and dermal architecture in the treatment area. An array of microscopic thermal wounds is created that ablates the epidermis and dermis within very tiny zones; adjacent to these areas, the epidermis and dermis are spared. This microablative process of laser skin resurfacing has proven safe and effective not only for facial rejuvenation, but elsewhere on the body as well. It is capable of improving wrinkles, acne scars, and other types of atrophic scars and benign pigmented lesions associated with elastotic, sun-damaged skin. Because of the areas of spared epidermis and dermis inherent in a procedure that employs fractional photothermolysis, healing is more rapid compared to fully ablative CO2 laser skin resurfacing and downtime is proportionately reduced. A series of 32 consecutive patients underwent a single laser resurfacing procedure with the a new microablative CO2 laser. All patients were followed for a minimum of 6 months and were asked to complete patient satisfaction questionnaires; a 6 month postoperative photographic evaluation by an independent physician, not involved in the treatment, was also performed. Both sets of data were graded and reported on a quartile scale. Results demonstrated greater than 50% improvement in almost all patients with those undergoing treatment for wrinkles, epidermal pigment or solar elastosis deriving the greatest change for the better (>75%).

  15. A single-blinded randomised controlled study to determine the efficacy of Omnilux Revive facial treatment in skin rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Jaideep; Birch, Jan; Whitehurst, Colin; Lanigan, Sean W

    2005-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of Omnilux Revive facial treatment in skin rejuvenation, twenty-three volunteers received randomised 20 min treatments three times a week for three weeks to one half of their face, with the untreated side acting as control. Regular assessments were carried out, focusing on parameters of subject satisfaction, photographic assessments, skin elasticity (Cutometer) and skin hydration (Corneometer CM825). Ninety-one percent of the volunteers reported visible changes to their skin. Blinded photographic evaluation reported a clinical response in 59% of the subjects. Objective analysis failed to show statistically significant changes in skin hydration or elasticity. The Omnilux Revive LED lamp is a safe alternative non-ablative skin rejuvenation treatment.

  16. Validity, Reliability, and Feasibility of Durometer Measurements of Scleroderma Skin Disease in a Multicenter Treatment Trial

    PubMed Central

    MERKEL, PETER A.; SILLIMAN, NANCY P.; DENTON, CHRISTOPHER P.; FURST, DANIEL E.; KHANNA, DINESH; EMERY, PAUL; HSU, VIVIEN M.; STREISAND, JAMES B.; POLISSON, RICHARD P.; ÅKESSON, ANITA; COPPOCK, JOHN; van den HOOGEN, FRANK; HERRICK, ARIANE; MAYES, MAUREEN D.; VEALE, DOUGLAS; SEIBOLD, JAMES R.; BLACK, CAROL M.; KORN, JOSEPH H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the validity, reliability, and feasibility of durometer measurements of skin hardness as an outcome measure in clinical trials of scleroderma. Methods Skin hardness was measured during a multicenter treatment trial for scleroderma using handheld digital durometers with a continuous scale. Skin thickness was measured by modified Rodnan skin score (MRSS). Other outcome data collected included the Scleroderma Health Assessment Questionnaire. In a reliability exercise in advance of the trial, 9 investigators examined the same 5 scleroderma patients by MRSS and durometry. Results Forty-three patients with early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis were studied at 11 international centers (mean age 49 years [range 24–76], median disease duration 6.4 months [range 0.3–23], and median baseline MRSS 22 [range 11–38]). The reliability of durometer measurements was excellent, with high interobserver intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) (0.82–0.92), and each result was greater than the corresponding skin site ICCs for MRSS (0.54–0.85). Baseline durometer scores correlated well with MRSS (r = 0.69, P < 0.0001), patient self-assessments of skin disease (r = 0.69, P < 0.0001), and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) disability scores (r = 0.34, P = 0.03). Change in durometer scores correlated with change in MRSS (r = 0.70, P < 0.0001), change in patient self-assessments of skin disease (r = 0.52, P = 0.003), and change in HAQ disability scores (r = 0.42, P = 0.017). The effect size was greater for durometry than for MRSS or patient self-assessment. Conclusion Durometer measurements of skin hardness in patients with scleroderma are reliable, simple, accurate, demonstrate good sensitivity to change compared with traditional skin scoring, and reflect patients' self-assessments of their disease. Durometer measurements are valid, objective, and scalable, and should be considered for use as a complementary outcome measure to skin scoring in

  17. Far-infrared suppresses skin photoaging in ultraviolet B-exposed fibroblasts and hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Hui-Wen; Chen, Cheng-Hsien; Chen, Yi-Jie; Hsu, Yung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) induces skin photoaging, which is characterized by thickening, wrinkling, pigmentation, and dryness. Collagen, which is one of the main building blocks of human skin, is regulated by collagen synthesis and collagen breakdown. Autophagy was found to block the epidermal hyperproliferative response to UVB and may play a crucial role in preventing skin photoaging. In the present study, we investigated whether far-infrared (FIR) therapy can inhibit skin photoaging via UVB irradiation in NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts and SKH-1 hairless mice. We found that FIR treatment significantly increased procollagen type I through the induction of the TGF-β/Smad axis. Furthermore, UVB significantly enhanced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and MMP-9. FIR inhibited UVB-induced MMP-1 and MMP-9. Treatment with FIR reversed UVB-decreased type I collagen. In addition, FIR induced autophagy by inhibiting the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. In UVB-induced skin photoaging in a hairless mouse model, FIR treatment resulted in decreased skin thickness in UVB irradiated mice and inhibited the degradation of collagen fibers. Moreover, FIR can increase procollagen type I via the inhibition of MMP-9 and induction of TGF-β in skin tissues. Therefore, our study provides evidence for the beneficial effects of FIR exposure in a model of skin photoaging. PMID:28301572

  18. Far-infrared suppresses skin photoaging in ultraviolet B-exposed fibroblasts and hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hui-Wen; Chen, Cheng-Hsien; Chen, Yi-Jie; Hsu, Yung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) induces skin photoaging, which is characterized by thickening, wrinkling, pigmentation, and dryness. Collagen, which is one of the main building blocks of human skin, is regulated by collagen synthesis and collagen breakdown. Autophagy was found to block the epidermal hyperproliferative response to UVB and may play a crucial role in preventing skin photoaging. In the present study, we investigated whether far-infrared (FIR) therapy can inhibit skin photoaging via UVB irradiation in NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts and SKH-1 hairless mice. We found that FIR treatment significantly increased procollagen type I through the induction of the TGF-β/Smad axis. Furthermore, UVB significantly enhanced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and MMP-9. FIR inhibited UVB-induced MMP-1 and MMP-9. Treatment with FIR reversed UVB-decreased type I collagen. In addition, FIR induced autophagy by inhibiting the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. In UVB-induced skin photoaging in a hairless mouse model, FIR treatment resulted in decreased skin thickness in UVB irradiated mice and inhibited the degradation of collagen fibers. Moreover, FIR can increase procollagen type I via the inhibition of MMP-9 and induction of TGF-β in skin tissues. Therefore, our study provides evidence for the beneficial effects of FIR exposure in a model of skin photoaging.

  19. Treatment of hospitalized patients with complicated gram-positive skin and skin structure infections: two randomized, multicentre studies of quinupristin/dalfopristin versus cefazolin, oxacillin or vancomycin. Synercid Skin and Skin Structure Infection Group.

    PubMed

    Nichols, R L; Graham, D R; Barriere, S L; Rodgers, A; Wilson, S E; Zervos, M; Dunn, D L; Kreter, B

    1999-08-01

    Quinupristin/dalfopristin (Synercid), the first injectable streptogramin antibiotic available for the treatment of complicated gram-positive skin and skin structure infections, was compared with standard comparators (cefazolin, oxacillin or vancomycin) in one USA and one international trial. These two randomized, open-label trials of virtually identical design enrolled a total of 893 patients (450 quinupristin/dalfopristin, 443 comparator). The majority of patients had erysipelas, traumatic wound infection or clean surgical wound infection. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated pathogen in both treatment groups and polymicrobial infection was more common in the quinupristin/dalfopristin group than in the comparator group. The clinical success rate (cure plus improvement) in the clinically evaluable population was equivalent between the two treatment groups (68.2% quinupristin/dalfopristin, 70.7% comparator; 95% CI, -10.1, 5.1) despite a shorter mean duration of treatment for quinupristin/dalfopristin patients. In the bacteriologically evaluable population, by-patient and by-pathogen bacteriological eradication rates were somewhat lower for quinupristin/dalfopristin (65.8% and 66.6%, respectively) than for the comparator regimens (72.7% and 77.7%, respectively). The lower bacteriological response rates in the quinupristin/dalfopristin group were, in part, due to a higher rate of polymicrobial infections and a higher incidence of patients classified as clinical failure, a category which included premature discontinuation of treatment because of local venous adverse events. The bacteriological eradication rate for quinupristin/dalfopristin was higher in monomicrobial infections than in polymicrobial infections (72.6% versus 63.3%, respectively), whereas the corresponding rate for the comparator regimens was lower for monomicrobial infections than polymicrobial infections (70.8% versus 83.1%). This finding was not unexpected, since the spectrum of

  20. Concise Review: Tissue-Engineered Skin and Nerve Regeneration in Burn Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Blais, Mathieu; Parenteau-Bareil, Rémi; Cadau, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Burns not only destroy the barrier function of the skin but also alter the perceptions of pain, temperature, and touch. Different strategies have been developed over the years to cover deep and extensive burns with the ultimate goal of regenerating the barrier function of the epidermis while recovering an acceptable aesthetic aspect. However, patients often complain about a loss of skin sensation and even cutaneous chronic pain. Cutaneous nerve regeneration can occur from the nerve endings of the wound bed, but it is often compromised by scar formation or anarchic wound healing. Restoration of pain, temperature, and touch perceptions should now be a major challenge to solve in order to improve patients' quality of life. In addition, the cutaneous nerve network has been recently highlighted to play an important role in epidermal homeostasis and may be essential at least in the early phase of wound healing through the induction of neurogenic inflammation. Although the nerve regeneration process was studied largely in the context of nerve transections, very few studies have been aimed at developing strategies to improve it in the context of cutaneous wound healing. In this concise review, we provide a description of the characteristics of and current treatments for extensive burns, including tissue-engineered skin approaches to improve cutaneous nerve regeneration, and describe prospective uses for autologous skin-derived adult stem cells to enhance recovery of the skin's sense of touch. PMID:23734060

  1. More than skin deep? Potential nicotinamide treatment applications in chronic kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Bostom, Andrew G; Merhi, Basma; Walker, Joanna; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Non-melanoma cutaneous carcinomas, or skin cancers, predominantly squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), are the most common malignancies occurring in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Squamous cell carcinoma risk is dramatically elevated in KTRs, occurring at rates of up 45-250 times those reported in general populations. New non-melanoma skin cancers in KTRs with a prior non-melanoma skin cancer also develop at 3-times the rate reported in non-KTRs with the same clinical history. The unique aggressiveness of SCCs in KTRs increases patient morbidity, due to the high rate of new lesions requiring treatment, frequently surgical excision. Oral nicotinamide shows promise in the chemoprevention of the especially aggressive non-melanoma skin cancers which occur in KTRs. This benefit might be conferred via its inhibition of sirtuin enzymatic pathways. Nicotinamide’s concurrent hypophosphatemic effect may also partially ameliorate the disturbed calcium-phosphorus homeostasis in these patients-a putative risk factor for mortality, and graft failure. Conceivably, a phase 3 trial of nicotinamide for the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancers in KTRs, lasting at least 12-mo, could also incorporate imaging and laboratory measures which assess nicotinamide’s impact on subclinical cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease risk, and progression. PMID:28058215

  2. [The skin substitute center--a need in the treatment of patients with severe burns].

    PubMed

    Pieptu, D; Luchian, S

    1999-01-01

    The treatment of the severe burned patient has two main dimensions acting in an interdependent manner. First it is the life keeping and the second is skin resurfacing in a fair period of time. The failure of one of these two components leads to the patient's death. In the absence of the autografts the skin resurfacing has to be made by permanent skin substitutes--cultured epithelium, dermal equivalents or reconstructed skin, developed by a special unit, a Skin Substitute Center. The paper is setting the utility of such a center in our area, and the possible developing directions. It is our firm opinion that in case of failure to develop such a center, despite all the financial efforts directed toward the infrastructure of a modern Burn Unit affiliated to an University Accident Hospital, all the surgical experience cumulated during the past 13 years by a very motivated team, good quality results are still to be expected. Any patient with a deep second degree burn on more than 50% TBSA will be a potentially victim as in early 60s.

  3. Anti-Fouling Double-Skinned Forward Osmosis Membrane with Zwitterionic Brush for Oily Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ong, Chi Siang; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lau, Woei Jye; Goh, Pei Sean; Lai, Gwo Sung; Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi; Ong, Yue Seong

    2017-07-31

    Despite its attractive features for energy saving separation, the performance of forward osmosis (FO) has been restricted by internal concentration polarization and fast fouling propensity that occur in the membrane sublayer. These problems have significantly affected the membrane performance when treating highly contaminated oily wastewater. In this study, a novel double-skinned FO membrane with excellent anti-fouling properties has been developed for emulsified oil-water treatment. The double-skinned FO membrane comprises a fully porous sublayer sandwiched between a highly dense polyamide (PA) layer for salt rejection and a fairly loose dense bottom zwitterionic layer for emulsified oil particle removal. The top dense PA layer was synthesized via interfacial polymerization meanwhile the bottom layer was made up of a zwitterionic polyelectrolyte brush - (poly(3-(N-2-methacryloxyethyl-N,N-dimethyl) ammonatopropanesultone), abbreviated as PMAPS layer. The resultant double-skinned membrane exhibited a high water flux of 13.7 ± 0.3 L/m 2 .h and reverse salt transport of 1.6 ± 0.2 g/m 2 .h under FO mode using 2 M NaCl as the draw solution and emulsified oily solution as the feed. The double-skinned membrane outperforms the single-skinned membrane with much lower fouling propensity for emulsified oil-water separation.

  4. Emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage in the treatment of facial skin conditions: personal experience and review.

    PubMed

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies highlighting the psychological benefits of medical treatment for dermatological skin conditions have demonstrated a clear role for medical therapy in psychological health. Skin conditions, particularly those that are overtly visible, such as those located on the face, neck, and hands, often have a profound effect on the daily functioning of those affected. The literature documents significant emotional benefits using medical therapy in conditions such as acne, psoriasis, vitiligo, and rosacea, but there is little evidence documenting similar results with the use of cosmetic camouflage. Here we present a review highlighting the practical use of cosmetic camouflage makeup in patients with facial skin conditions and review its implications for psychological health. A search of the Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify articles documenting the emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage. Cosmetic camouflage provides a significant emotional benefit for patients with facial skin conditions, and this is substantiated by a literature review and personal experience. More clinical studies are needed to assess and validate the findings reported here. Patients with visible skin conditions have increased rates of depression, anxiety, and decreased self-esteem. It is prudent for us to consider therapies that can offer rapid and dramatic results, such as cosmetic camouflage.

  5. Emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage in the treatment of facial skin conditions: personal experience and review

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies highlighting the psychological benefits of medical treatment for dermatological skin conditions have demonstrated a clear role for medical therapy in psychological health. Skin conditions, particularly those that are overtly visible, such as those located on the face, neck, and hands, often have a profound effect on the daily functioning of those affected. The literature documents significant emotional benefits using medical therapy in conditions such as acne, psoriasis, vitiligo, and rosacea, but there is little evidence documenting similar results with the use of cosmetic camouflage. Here we present a review highlighting the practical use of cosmetic camouflage makeup in patients with facial skin conditions and review its implications for psychological health. Methods A search of the Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify articles documenting the emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage. Results Cosmetic camouflage provides a significant emotional benefit for patients with facial skin conditions, and this is substantiated by a literature review and personal experience. More clinical studies are needed to assess and validate the findings reported here. Conclusion Patients with visible skin conditions have increased rates of depression, anxiety, and decreased self-esteem. It is prudent for us to consider therapies that can offer rapid and dramatic results, such as cosmetic camouflage. PMID:23152694

  6. Flavanone silibinin treatment attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced toxic effects in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anil K; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Kumar, Dileep; Orlicky, David J; Agarwal, Chapla; White, Carl W; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2015-05-15

    Currently, there is no effective antidote to prevent skin injuries by sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), which are vesicating agents with potential relevance to chemical warfare, terrorist attacks, or industrial/laboratory accidents. Our earlier report has demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in reversing monofunctional alkylating SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced toxic effects in mouse skin. To translate this effect to a bifunctional alkylating vesicant, herein, efficacy studies were carried out with NM. Topical application of silibinin (1 or 2mg) 30 min after NM exposure on the dorsal skin of male SKH-1 hairless mice significantly decreased NM-induced toxic lesions at 24, 72 or 120 h post-exposure. Specifically, silibinin treatment resulted in dose-dependent reduction of NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, dead and denuded epidermis, parakeratosis and microvesication. Higher silibinin dose also caused a 79% and 51%reversal in NM-induced increases in myeloperoxidase activity and COX-2 levels, respectively. Furthermore, silibinin completely prevented NM-induced H2A.X phosphorylation, indicating reversal of DNA damage which could be an oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by high levels of 8-oxodG in NM-exposed mouse skin that was significantly reversed by silibinin. Together, these findings suggest that attenuation of NM-induced skin injury by silibinin is due to its effects on the pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation, vesication and oxidative stress. In conclusion, results presented here support the optimization of silibinin as an effective treatment of skin injury by vesicants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Skin tightening.

    PubMed

    Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Kammer, Jenna N

    2011-01-01

    Skin tightening describes the treatment of skin laxity via radiofrequency (RF), ultrasound, or light-based devices. Skin laxity on the face is manifested by progressive loss of skin elasticity, loosening of the connective tissue framework, and deepening of skin folds. This results in prominence of submandibular and submental tissues. Genetic factors (chronological aging) and extrinsic factors (ultraviolet radiation) both contribute to skin laxity. There are many RF, ultrasound, and light-based devices directed at treating skin laxity. All of these devices target and heat the dermis to induce collagen contraction. Heating of the dermis causes collagen denaturation and immediate collagen contraction in addition to long-term collagen remodeling. Via RF, light, or ultrasound, these skin tightening devices deliver heat to the dermis to create new collagen and induce skin tightening. This chapter will provide an overview of the various skin tightening devices. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. American cutaneous leishmaniasis: use of a skin test as a predictor of relapse after treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Passos, V. M.; Barreto, S. M.; Romanha, A. J.; Krettli, A. U.; Volpini, A. C.; Lima e Costa, M. F.

    2000-01-01

    While relapses following clinical cure of American cutaneous leishmaniasis are frequent, no test has been described until now to predict such relapses. A cohort of 318 American cutaneous leishmaniasis patients was followed up for two years after treatment with meglumine antimoniate, during which time 32 relapses occurred, 30 in the first year and two in the second (accumulated risk: 10.5%). No association was found between these relapses and the parasite-specific antibody response before and after treatment, or between the relapses and stratification by sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. However when Leishmania was used as antigen, patients with a negative skin test at the time of diagnosis presented a 3.4-fold higher risk (hazard risk = 3.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-7.0) of American cutaneous leishmaniasis relapse, compared with patients with a positive response. This result shows that the skin test can be a predictor of American cutaneous leishmaniasis relapse after treatment. PMID:10994280

  9. Combining platelet-rich plasma and tissue-engineered skin in the treatment of large skin wound.

    PubMed

    Han, Tong; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Ya Qin

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the study was to observe the effects of tissue-engineered skin in combination with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and other preparations on the repair of large skin wound on nude mice.We first prepared PRP from venous blood by density-gradient centrifugation. Large skin wounds were created surgically on the dorsal part of nude mice. The wounds were then treated with either artificial skin, tissue-engineered skin, tissue-engineered skin combined with basic fibroblast growth factor, tissue-engineered skin combined with epidermal growth factor, or tissue-engineered skin combined with PRP. Tissue specimens were collected at different time intervals after surgery. Hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff staining and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess the rate of wound healing.Macroscopic observations, hematoxylin-eosin/periodic acid-Schiff staining, and immunohistochemistry revealed that the wounds treated with tissue-engineered skin in combination with PRP showed the most satisfactory wound recovery, among the 5 groups.

  10. Critical thickness ratio for buckled and wrinkled fruits and vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Hui-Hui; Liu, Yang

    2014-11-01

    This work aims at establishing the geometrical constraint for buckled and wrinkled shapes by modeling a fruit/vegetable with exocarp and sarcocarp as a hyperelastic layer-substrate structure subjected to uniaxial compression. A careful analysis on the derived bifurcation condition leads to the finding of a critical thickness ratio which separates the buckling and wrinkling modes, and remarkably, which is independent of the material stiffnesses. More specifically, it is found that if the thickness ratio is smaller than this critical value a fruit/vegetable should be in a buckled shape (under a sufficient stress); if a fruit/vegetable is in a wrinkled shape the thickness ratio is always larger than this critical value. To verify the theoretical prediction, we consider four types of buckled fruits/vegetables and four types of wrinkled fruits/vegetables with three samples in each type. The geometrical parameters for the 24 samples are measured and it is found that indeed all the data fall into the theoretically predicted buckling or wrinkling domains.

  11. Near-infrared light-responsive dynamic wrinkle patterns.

    PubMed

    Li, Fudong; Hou, Honghao; Yin, Jie; Jiang, Xuesong

    2018-04-01

    Dynamic micro/nanopatterns provide an effective approach for on-demand tuning of surface properties to realize a smart surface. We report a simple yet versatile strategy for the fabrication of near-infrared (NIR) light-responsive dynamic wrinkles by using a carbon nanotube (CNT)-containing poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomer as the substrate for the bilayer systems, with various functional polymers serving as the top stiff layers. The high photon-to-thermal energy conversion of CNT leads to the NIR-controlled thermal expansion of the elastic CNT-PDMS substrate, resulting in dynamic regulation of the applied strain (ε) of the bilayer system by the NIR on/off cycle to obtain a reversible wrinkle pattern. The switchable surface topological structures can transfer between the wrinkled state and the wrinkle-free state within tens of seconds via NIR irradiation. As a proof-of-concept application, this type of NIR-driven dynamic wrinkle pattern was used in smart displays, dynamic gratings, and light control electronics.

  12. Near-infrared light–responsive dynamic wrinkle patterns

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Honghao; Yin, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Dynamic micro/nanopatterns provide an effective approach for on-demand tuning of surface properties to realize a smart surface. We report a simple yet versatile strategy for the fabrication of near-infrared (NIR) light–responsive dynamic wrinkles by using a carbon nanotube (CNT)–containing poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomer as the substrate for the bilayer systems, with various functional polymers serving as the top stiff layers. The high photon-to-thermal energy conversion of CNT leads to the NIR-controlled thermal expansion of the elastic CNT-PDMS substrate, resulting in dynamic regulation of the applied strain (ε) of the bilayer system by the NIR on/off cycle to obtain a reversible wrinkle pattern. The switchable surface topological structures can transfer between the wrinkled state and the wrinkle-free state within tens of seconds via NIR irradiation. As a proof-of-concept application, this type of NIR-driven dynamic wrinkle pattern was used in smart displays, dynamic gratings, and light control electronics. PMID:29740615

  13. Efficacy, Safety, and Subject Satisfaction of a Specified Skin Care Regimen to Cleanse, Medicate, Moisturize, and Protect the Skin of Patients Under Treatment for Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Del Rosso, James Q.; Gold, Michael; Rueda, Maria José; Brandt, Staci; Winkelman, Warren J.

    2015-01-01

    Optimal management of acne vulgaris requires incorporation of several components including patient education, selection of a rational therapeutic regimen, dedicated adherence with the program by the patient, and integration of proper skin care. Unfortunately, the latter component is often overlooked or not emphasized strongly enough to the patient. Proper skin care may reduce potential irritation that can be associated with topical acne medications and prevents the patient from unknowingly using skin care products that can actually sabotage their treatment. This article reviews the effectiveness, skin tolerability, safety, and patient satisfaction of an open label study in which a specified skin care regimen is used in combination with topical therapy. The study was designed to mirror “real world” management of facial acne vulgaris clinical practice. The skin care regimen used in this study included a brand foam wash and a brand moisturizer with SPF 30 photoprotection, both of which contain ingredients that are included to provide benefits for acne-prone and acne-affected skin. PMID:25610521

  14. Wrinkle and roughness measurement by the Antera 3D and its application for evaluation of cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Messaraa, C; Metois, A; Walsh, M; Hurley, S; Doyle, L; Mansfield, A; O'Connor, C; Mavon, A

    2018-01-24

    Skin topographic measurements are of paramount importance in the field of dermo-cosmetic evaluation. The aim of this study was to investigate how the Antera 3D, a multi-purpose handheld camera, correlates with other topographic techniques and changes in skin topography following the use of a cosmetic product. Skin topographic measurements were collected on 26 female volunteers aged 45-70 years with the Antera 3D, the DermaTOP and image analysis on parallel-polarized pictures. Different filters for analysis from the Antera 3D were investigated for repeatability, correlations with other imaging techniques and ability to detect improvements of skin topography following application of a serum. Most of Antera 3D parameters were found to be strongly correlated with the DermaTOP parameters. No association was found between the Antera 3D parameters and measurements on parallel-polarized photographs. The measurements repeatability was comparable among the different filters for analysis, with the exception of wrinkle max depth and roughness Rt. Following a single application of a tightening serum, both Antera 3D wrinkles and texture parameters were able to record significant improvements, with the best improvements observed with the large filter. The Antera 3D demonstrated its relevance for cosmetic product evaluation. We also provide recommendations for the analysis based on our findings. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Surface applicator calibration and commissioning of an electronic brachytherapy system for nonmelanoma skin cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Rong, Yi; Welsh, James S

    2010-10-01

    The Xoft Axxent x-ray source has been used for treating nonmelanoma skin cancer since the surface applicators became clinically available in 2009. The authors report comprehensive calibration procedures for the electronic brachytherapy (eBx) system with the surface applicators. The Xoft miniature tube (model S700) generates 50 kVp low-energy x rays. The new surface applicators are available in four sizes of 10, 20, 35, and 50 mm in diameter. The authors' tests include measurements of dose rate, air-gap factor, output stability, depth dose verification, beam flatness and symmetry, and treatment planning with patient specific cutout factors. The TG-61 in-air method was used as a guideline for acquiring nominal dose-rate output at the skin surface. A soft x-ray parallel-plate chamber (PTW T34013) and electrometer was used for the output commissioning. GafChromic EBT films were used for testing the properties of the treatment fields with the skin applicators. Solid water slabs were used to verify the depth dose and cutout factors. Patients with basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma were treated with eBx using a calibrated Xoft system with the low-energy x-ray source and the skin applicators. The average nominal dose-rate output at the skin surface for the 35 mm applicator is 1.35 Gy/min with +/- 5% variation for 16 sources. The dose-rate output and stability (within +/- 5% variation) were also measured for the remaining three applicators. For the same source, the output variation is within 2%. The effective source-surface distance was calculated based on the air-gap measurements for four applicator sizes. The field flatness and symmetry are well within 5%. Percentage depth dose in water was provided by factory measurements and can be verified using solid water slabs. Treatment duration was calculated based on the nominal dose rate, the prescription fraction size, the depth dose percentage, and the cutout factor. The output factor needs to be measured for each case with

  16. Recent advances in the prevention and treatment of skin cancer using photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baozhong; He, Yu-Ying

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a noninvasive procedure that involves a photosensitizing drug and its subsequent activation by light to produce reactive oxygen species that specifically destroy target cells. Recently, PDT has been widely used in treating non-melanoma skin malignancies, the most common cancer in the USA, with superior cosmetic outcomes compared with conventional therapies. The topical ‘photosensitizers’ commonly used are 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and its esterified derivative methyl 5-aminolevulinate, which are precursors of the endogenous photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX. After treatment with ALA or methyl 5-aminolevulinate, protoporphyrin IX preferentially accumulates in the lesion area of various skin diseases, which allows not only PDT treatment but also fluorescence diagnosis with ALA-induced porphyrins. Susceptible lesions include various forms of non-melanoma skin cancer such as actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The most recent and promising developments in PDT include the discovery of new photosensitizers, the exploitation of new drug delivery systems and the combination of other modalities, which will all contribute to increasing PDT therapeutic efficacy and improving outcome. This article summarizes the main principles of PDT and its current clinical use in the management of non-melanoma skin cancers, as well as recent developments and possible future research directions. PMID:21080805

  17. Retinoids in the treatment of skin aging: an overview of clinical efficacy and safety

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Siddharth; Date, Abhijit; Patravale, Vandana; Korting, Hans Christian; Roeder, Alexander; Weindl, Günther

    2006-01-01

    Aging of skin is an intricate biological process consisting of two types. While intrinsic or chronological aging is an inevitable process, photoaging involves the premature aging of skin occurring due to cumulative exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Chronological and photoaging both have clinically differentiable manifestations. Various natural and synthetic retinoids have been explored for the treatment of aging and many of them have shown histological and clinical improvement, but most of the studies have been carried out in patients presenting with photoaged skin. Amongst the retinoids, tretinoin possibly is the most potent and certainly the most widely investigated retinoid for photoaging therapy. Although retinoids show promise in the treatment of skin aging, irritant reactions such as burning, scaling or dermatitis associated with retinoid therapy limit their acceptance by patients. This problem is more prominent with tretinoin and tazarotene whereas other retinoids mainly represented by retinaldehyde and retinol are considerably less irritating. In order to minimize these side effects, various novel drug delivery systems have been developed. In particular, nanoparticles have shown a good potential in improving the stability, tolerability and efficacy of retinoids like tretinoin and retinol. However, more elaborate clinical studies are required to confirm their advantage in the delivery of topical retinoids. PMID:18046911

  18. Antimicrobial activities of some selected traditional Ethiopian medicinal plants used in the treatment of skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Tadeg, Hailu; Mohammed, Endris; Asres, Kaleab; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige

    2005-08-22

    Hydroalcoholic extracts of eight species of medicinal plants, namely, Acokanthera schimperi (Apocynaceae), Calpurnia aurea (Leguminosae), Kalanchoe petitiana (Crassulaceae), Lippia adoensis (Verbenaceae), Malva parviflora (Malvaceae), Olinia rochetiana (Oliniaceae), Phytolacca dodecandra (Phytolaccaceae) and Verbascum sinaiticum (Scrophulariaceae), traditionally used in the treatment of various skin disorders were screened for antimicrobial activity against different strains of bacteria and fungi which are known to cause different types of skin infections. The tests were carried out using agar well diffusion method at three concentration levels (100, 50 and 25mg/ml) of the crude extracts. The MICs of the crude extracts of Lippia adoensis and Olinia rochetiana were determined by agar dilution method. Furthermore, the powdered leaves of Lippia adoensis and Olinia rochetiana were fractionated into different solvents of wide ranging polarity and the resulting fractions were screened for antimicrobial activity against the same organisms. Of all the plants tested, Lippia adoensis and Olinia rochetiana were found to be the most active species against bacterial and fungal strains, respectively. In addition, almost all species of plants were found to have activity on at least one microbial strain. The antimicrobial activity profile also showed that Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes were the most susceptible bacterial and fungal strains, respectively. The results indicate the potential of these herbal drugs in treating microbial infections of the skin, thus, justifying their claimed uses in the treatment of various skin disorders, the majority of which are of infectious origin.

  19. Prolonged treatment of fair-skinned mice with topical forskolin causes persistent tanning and UV protection.

    PubMed

    Spry, Malinda L; Vanover, Jillian C; Scott, Timothy; Abona-Ama, Osama; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke; D'Orazio, John A

    2009-04-01

    We previously reported that topical application of forskolin to the skin of fair-skinned MC1R-defective mice with epidermal melanocytes resulted in accumulation of eumelanin in the epidermis and was highly protective against UV-mediated cutaneous injury. In this report, we describe the long-term effects of chronic topical forskolin treatment in this animal model. Forskolin-induced eumelanin production persisted through 3 months of daily applications, and forskolin-induced eumelanin remained protective against UV damage as assessed by minimal erythematous dose (MED). No obvious toxic changes were noted in the skin or overall health of animals exposed to prolonged forskolin therapy. Body weights were maintained throughout the course of topical forskolin application. Topical application of forskolin was associated with an increase in the number of melanocytes in the epidermis and thickening of the epidermis due, at least in part, to an accumulation of nucleated keratinocytes. Together, these data suggest in this animal model, short-term topical regular application of forskolin promotes eumelanin induction and that over time, topical forskolin treatment is associated with persistent melanization, epidermal cell accumulation, and skin thickening.

  20. Combination of microneedling and glycolic acid peels for the treatment of acne scars in dark skin.

    PubMed

    Sharad, Jaishree

    2011-12-01

      Acne scars can cause emotional and psychosocial disturbance to the patient. Various modalities have been used for the treatment of acne scars like punch excision, subcision, peels, microdermabrasion, unfractionated and fractioned lasers. The latest in the treatment armamentarium is microneedling. Acne scars commonly coexist with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. A combination of microneedling and glycolic acid (GA) peels was found to give excellent results in the treatment of such scars. The aim was to study the efficacy of a combination of microneedling with glycolic peel for the treatment of acne scars in pigmented skin.   Thirty patients in the age group of 20-40 years with atrophic box type or rolling scars with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation were chosen for the study. Two groups were made. The first group comprised of 30 patients in whom only microneedling was performed once in 6 weeks for five sessions. In the second group of 30 patients, a combination of microneedling and 35% GA peels was carried out. Patients from both groups were evaluated on the basis of Echelle d'Evaluation clinique des Cicatrices d'acné classification.   Based on the objective scoring and its statistical analysis, there was significant improvement in superficial and moderately deep scars (grade 1-3). There was also improvement in skin texture, reduction in postacne pigmentation in the second group.   Microneedling is a simple, inexpensive office procedure with no downtime. It is safe in Indian skin (skin types III-IV). The combined sequential treatment with GA peel caused a significant improvement in the acne scars without increasing morbidity. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Improvement of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) skin tumors during long-term treatment with oral sirolimus.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Neera; Wang, Ji-an; Li, Shaowei; Cowen, Edward W; Haughey, Mary; Moss, Joel; Darling, Thomas N

    2015-11-01

    Oral mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitors have been shown to reduce visceral tumor volume in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). We sought to evaluate the cutaneous response to oral sirolimus in patients with TSC and an indication for systemic treatment, including long-term effects. A retrospective analysis of 14 adult patients with TSC prescribed sirolimus to treat lymphangioleiomyomatosis was performed. Serial photographs of angiofibromas, shagreen patches, and ungual fibromas taken before, during, and after the treatment period were blinded, then assessed using the Physician Global Assessment of Clinical Condition (PGA). Microscopic and molecular studies were performed on skin tumors harvested before and during treatment. Sirolimus significantly improved angiofibromas (median treatment duration 12 months; median PGA score 4.5 [range 1.5-5]; Wilcoxon signed rank test, P = .018) and shagreen patches (median treatment duration 10 months; median PGA score 4.5 [range 3.5-5]; Wilcoxon signed rank test, P = .039), whereas ungual fibromas improved in some patients (median treatment duration 6.5 months; median PGA score 4.66 [range 2.75-5]; Wilcoxon signed rank test, P = .109). Clinical, immunohistochemical, or molecular evidence of resistance was not observed (range 5-64 months of treatment). This was a retrospective analysis limited to adult women with lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Oral sirolimus is an effective long-term therapy for TSC skin tumors, particularly angiofibromas, in patients for whom systemic treatment is indicated. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Wrinkling reduction of membrane structure by trimming edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mingjun; Huang, Jin; Liu, Mingyue

    2017-05-01

    Thin membranes have negligible bending stiffness, compressive stresses inevitably lead to wrinkling. Therefore, it is important to keep the surface of membrane structures flat in order to guarantee high precision. Edge-trimming is an effective method to passively diminish wrinkles, however a key difficulty in this process is the determination of the optimal trimming level. In this paper, regular polygonal membrane structures subjected to equal radial forces were analyzed, and a new stress field distribution model for arc-edge square membrane structure was proposed to predict the optimal trimming level. This model is simple and applicable to any polygonal membrane structures. Comparison among the results of the finite element analysis, and the experimental and analytical results showed that the proposed model accurately described the stress field distribution and guaranteed that there are no wrinkles appear inside the effective inscribed circle region for the optimal trimming level.

  3. Compressive strain in Lunae Planum-shortening across wrinkle ridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.

    1991-01-01

    Wrinkle ridges have long been considered to be structural or structurally controlled features. Most, but not all, recent studies have converged on a model in which wrinkle ridges are structural features formed under compressive stress; the deformation being accommodated by faulting and folding. Given that wrinkle ridges are compressive tectonic features, an analysis of the associated shortening and strain provides important quantitative information about local and regional deformation. Lunae Planum is dominated by north-south trending ridges extending from Kasei Valles in the north to Valles Marineris in the south. To quantify the morphometric character, a photoclinometric study was undertaken for ridges on Lunae Planum using the Davis and Soderblom. More than 25 ridges were examined between long. 57 and 80 deg, lat. 5 to 25 deg N. For each ridge, several profiles were obtained along its length. Ridge width, total relief, and elevation offset were measured for each ridge. Analyses are given.

  4. Acute bacterial skin infections in pediatric medicine: current issues in presentation and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, James

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial skin and skin structure infections commonly encountered in children include impetigo, folliculitis, furunculosis, carbuncles, wound infections, abscesses, cellulitis, erysipelas, scarlet fever, acute paronychia, and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. If diagnosed early and treated appropriately, these infections are almost always curable, but some have the potential to cause serious complications such as septicemia, nephritis, carditis and arthritis if diagnosis is delayed and/or treatment is inadequate. During the initial evaluation, it is important to determine whether the infection is superficial or deep, and whether it is localized or spreading. Prompt treatment is essential if the infection appears to be spreading, as the sequelae can be life threatening. Once the proper diagnosis is made, the next important step is selecting the most appropriate therapy. In children presenting with mild or moderately severe bacterial skin and skin structure infections and not requiring inpatient management or urgent operative débridement, prompt provision of oral antimicrobial therapy avoids the risk of worsening infection or hospitalization. Empiric antimicrobial therapy should be directed at the most likely pathogens, (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes), although some infections (e.g. subcutaneous abscesses and cellulitis following animal or human bites) may have a polymicrobial origin. In choosing the appropriate antimicrobial therapy, one must take into account the resistance profile of the target pathogen, the agent's antibacterial profile and intrinsic activity against the target pathogen, and its pharmacokinetic properties (including absorption, elimination, and extent of tissue penetration). Other factors to consider include tolerability of the drug, convenience of the dosing regimen, and acceptability and palatability of the oral formulation administered. Any treatment plan for bacterial skin and skin structure infections should aim

  5. Prevention and treatment of skin lesions associated with non-invasive mechanical ventilation. Recommendations of experts.

    PubMed

    Raurell-Torredà, M; Romero-Collado, A; Rodríguez-Palma, M; Farrés-Tarafa, M; Martí, J D; Hurtado-Pardos, B; Peñarrubia-San Florencio, L; Saez-Paredes, P; Esquinas, A M

    In the last two decades, non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) has been consolidated as an initial strategy for the management of respiratory failure in critical adult and paediatric patients. To identify risk factors and preventive strategies to reduce the incidence of skin lesions associated with clinical devices (LESADIC) related to NIV, as well as the most effective treatment for injuries that cannot be avoided. Review in the MEDLINE, CINAHL and Cochrane databases of studies published in the last 10years to reach consensus through an expert panel. Knowledge about how to measure correct mask size and protection of the skin with foam or hydrocolloids dressings are factors related to the incidence of LESADIC, as it conditions the degree of pressure-friction and shear that the interface exerts on the skin. The interface that causes fewer LESADIC and is better tolerated is the face mask. When there are injuries, the first thing is to remove the interface that causes pressure on damaged skin, recommending a Helmet ® hood as an alternative, treating the infection, managing the exudate and stimulating perilesional skin. The mask of choice is the facial, always using foam or hydrocolloid dressings on the nasal bridge. Evaluate the condition of the skin under the interface and harness every 4hours (recommended) and 11hours (maximum). Evaluate the rotation strategy of the interface at 24hours if the NIV is still needed on an ongoing basis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Topical treatments for fungal infections of the skin and nails of the foot.

    PubMed

    Crawford, F; Hollis, S

    2007-07-18

    Fungal infections of the feet normally occur in the outermost layer of the skin (epidermis). The skin between the toes is a frequent site of infection which can cause pain and itchiness. Fungal infections of the nail (onychomycosis) can affect the entire nail plate. To assess the effects of topical treatments in successfully treating (rate of treatment failure) fungal infections of the skin of the feet and toenails and in preventing recurrence. We searched the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register (January 2005), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2005), MEDLINE and EMBASE (from inception to January 2005). We screened the Science Citation Index, BIOSIS, CAB - Health and Healthstar, CINAHL DARE, NHS Economic Evaluation Database and EconLit (March 2005). Bibliographies were searched. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using participants who had mycologically diagnosed fungal infections of the skin and nails of the foot. Two authors independently summarised the included trials and appraised their quality of reporting using a structured data extraction tool. Of the 144 identified papers, 67 trials met the inclusion criteria. Placebo-controlled trials yielded the following pooled risk ratios (RR) of treatment failure for skin infections: allylamines RR 0.33 (95% CI 0.24 to 0.44); azoles RR 0.30 (95% CI 0.20 to 0.45); ciclopiroxolamine RR 0.27 (95% CI 0.11 to 0.66); tolnaftate RR 0.19 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.44); butenafine RR 0.33 (95% CI 0.24 to 0.45); undecanoates RR 0.29 (95% CI 0.12 - 0.70). Meta-analysis of 11 trials comparing allylamines and azoles showed a risk ratio of treatment failure RR 0.63 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.94) in favour of allylamines. Evidence for the management of topical treatments for infections of the toenails is sparser. There is some evidence that ciclopiroxolamine and butenafine are both effective but they both need to be applied daily for prolonged periods (at least 1 year). The 6 trials of nail

  7. Evaluation of efficacy and tolerance of a nighttime topical antioxidant containing resveratrol, baicalin, and vitamin e for treatment of mild to moderately photodamaged skin.

    PubMed

    Farris, Patricia; Yatskayer, Margarita; Chen, Nannan; Krol, Yevgeniy; Oresajo, Christian

    2014-12-01

    Resveratrol is an effective anti-aging molecule with diverse biologic activity. It functions as a dual antioxidant that can neutralize free radicals and increase intrinsic antioxidant capacity. Additionally resveratrol increases mitochondrial biogenesis and has anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-cancer activity. In this paper we will focus on the use of topically applied resveratrol using a proprietary blend containing 1% resveratrol, 0.5% baicalin, and 1% vitamin E. This stabilized high concentration formulation demonstrates percutaneous absorption and alterations in gene expression such as hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA), and collagen 3 (COL3A1). Clinical assessment showed a statistically significant improvement in fine lines and wrinkles, skin firmness, skin elasticity, skin laxity, hyperpigmentation, radiance, and skin roughness over baseline in 12 weeks. Ultrasound measurements in the periorbital area showed an average improvement of 18.9% in dermal thickness suggesting significant dermal remodeling. These studies confirm that topical resveratrol, baicalin, and vitamin E are valuable ingredient that can be used for skin rejuvenation.

  8. Natural Arctium lappa fruit extract improves the clinical signs of aging skin.

    PubMed

    Knott, Anja; Reuschlein, Katja; Mielke, Heiko; Wensorra, Ursula; Mummert, Christopher; Koop, Urte; Kausch, Martina; Kolbe, Ludger; Peters, Nils; Stäb, Franz; Wenck, Horst; Gallinat, Stefan

    2008-12-01

    Subclinical, chronic tissue inflammation involving the generation of cytokines (e.g., interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) might contribute to the cutaneous aging process. This study aims to screen for an active ingredient with anti-inflammatory (i.e., reduction of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and matrix-stimulating efficacy which improves the clinical signs of skin aging in vivo. In vitro studies with pure Arctiin were performed investigating the inhibition of cytokine induction and stimulation of collagen neo-synthesis. In vivo home-in-use studies using an Arctium lappa fruit extract-containing formulation were carried out to determine procollagen and hyaluronan synthesis, hyaluronan synthase-2 gene expression, and reduction of wrinkle volume after treatment. In vitro studies on human dermal fibroblasts and monocyte-derived dendritic cells supplemented with pure Arctiin showed relative to untreated control cells a stimulation of collagen synthesis and a decrease in interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentration, respectively. In addition, topical in vivo application of an A. lappa fruit extract-containing formulation for 12 weeks significantly stimulated procollagen synthesis and increased hyaluronan synthase-2 expression as well as hyaluronan levels compared to vehicle-treated control areas. Similarly, after a 4-week treatment with an A. lappa fruit extract-containing formulation, wrinkle volume in the crow's feet area was significantly reduced as compared to treatment with the vehicle. Our data show that topical treatment with a natural A. lappa fruit extract significantly improves the metabolism of the dermal extracellular matrix and leads to a visible wrinkle reduction in vivo. In conclusion, A. lappa fruit extract represents a targeted means to regenerate dermal structures and, thus, offers an effective treatment option for mature skin.

  9. Use of micro-focused ultrasound with visualization to lift and tighten lax knee skin (1.).

    PubMed

    Gold, Michael H; Sensing, Whitney; Biron, Julie

    2014-10-01

    Public interest in noninvasive, aesthetic treatments for the rejuvenation of appearance continues to grow. The following prospective, open-label, nonrandomized trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of micro-focused ultrasound with visualization (MFU-V) for achieving lift and tightening of lax skin above the knee. Healthy adult women (N = 30) with mild- to moderate bilateral skin laxity above the knees were enrolled. MFU-V was applied to a grid of eight 25 mm(2) squares above each knee. MFU-V was first applied using a 4 MHz, 4.5 mm transducer followed by a 7 MHz, 3.0 mm transducer. Approximately 320 treatment lines applied to each knee [corrected]. The primary efficacy endpoint was lifting and tightening of lax skin above the knee as determined by the principle investigator using the Physician Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale (PGAIS). Among 28 evaluable subjects, 24 subjects (86%) showed improved lifting and tightening of knee skin laxity at 90- and 180-day follow-up visits. Three subjects showed no change and the appearance of one subject worsened. There were no adverse events or evidence of skin injury. Similar to its safety and efficacy for tightening facial skin and reducing wrinkles, MFU-V is an effective, noninvasive method for reducing skin laxity and improving the appearance of skin above the knee. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01708434.

  10. Application of double-layered skin phantoms for optical flow imaging during laser tattoo treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byeong-il; Song, Woosub; Kim, Hyejin; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2016-05-01

    The feasible application of double-layered skin phantoms was evaluated to identify artificial blood flow with a Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) system for laser tattoo treatments. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to fabricate the artificial phantoms with flow channels embedded. A double-integrating sphere system with an inverse adding-doubling method quantified both the absorption and the reduced scattering coefficients for epidermis and dermis phantoms. Both OCT and caliper measurements confirmed the double-layered phantom structure (epidermis = 136 ± 17 µm vs. dermis = 3.0 ± 0.1 mm). The DOCT method demonstrated that high flow rates were associated with high image contrast, visualizing the position and the shape of the flow channel. Application of the channel-embedded skin phantoms in conjunction with DOCT can be a reliable technique to assess dynamic variations in the blood flow during and after laser tattoo treatments.

  11. Sulfur mustard skin lesions: A systematic review on pathomechanisms, treatment options and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Rose, Dorothee; Schmidt, Annette; Brandenburger, Matthias; Sturmheit, Tabea; Zille, Marietta; Boltze, Johannes

    2018-09-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare, which has been used for one hundred years. However, its exact pathomechanisms are still incompletely understood and there is no specific therapy available so far. In this systematic review, studies published between January 2000 and July 2017 involving pathomechanisms and experimental treatments of SM-induced skin lesions were analyzed to summarize current knowledge on SM pathology, to provide an overview on novel treatment options, and to identify promising targets for future research to more effectively counter SM effects. We suggest that future studies should focus on (I) systemic effects of SM intoxication due to its distribution throughout the body, (II) removal of SM depots that continuously release active compound contributing to chronic skin damage, and (III) therapeutic options that counteract the pleiotropic effects of SM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN SURGICAL SKIN PLANING

    PubMed Central

    Ayres, Samuel; Wilson, J. Walter; Luikart, Ralph

    1958-01-01

    In surgical skin planing steel wire brushes have been largely replaced by the less hazardous diamond chip burs or “fraises” and serrated steel wheels. In addition to acne pits and wrinkling, multiple actinic (senile) keratoses are an important indication for planing. Planing provides a nonscarring method for the treatment of existing keratoses, as well as a prophylaxis against skin cancer by replacing the sun-damaged, precancerous epidermis with new epidermal cells derived from the cutaneous adnexa (pilosebaceous and sweat gland units). There are clinical landmarks indicating the depth of planing which can serve as a guide to the operator and can be correlated with microscopic findings. The results of experiments on the comparative effects of refrigerants on animal and human skin indicate that human facial skin can tolerate considerable freezing with ethyl chloride or dichlorotetrafluoroethane (Freon 114) but that mixtures containing large proportions of the much colder dichlorodifluoromethane (Freon 12) may be undesirable. Refreezing an area of the skin in order to perform a more adequate planing is not considered hazardous. The regeneration of the skin following planing has three components: Epidermal, adnexal and dermal. The cells of the epidermis and the adnexa are equipotential. A knowledge of the anatomy of the acne pit enables the operator to decide which pits can be benefited by planing and which should be excised before planing. The successful treatment of acne pits of the face by planing in patients having keloids elsewhere on the body is reported. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:13500217

  13. Wrinkling pattern evolution of cylindrical biological tissues with differential growth.

    PubMed

    Jia, Fei; Li, Bo; Cao, Yan-Ping; Xie, Wei-Hua; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional surface wrinkling of soft cylindrical tissues induced by differential growth is explored. Differential volumetric growth can cause their morphological stability, leading to the formation of hexagonal and labyrinth wrinkles. During postbuckling, multiple bifurcations and morphological transitions may occur as a consequence of continuous growth in the surface layer. The physical mechanisms underpinning the morphological evolution are examined from the viewpoint of energy. Surface curvature is found to play a regulatory role in the pattern evolution. This study may not only help understand the morphogenesis of soft biological tissues, but also inspire novel routes for creating desired surface patterns of soft materials.

  14. Mucosal wrinkling in animal antra induced by volumetric growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Cao, Yan-Ping; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Yu, Shou-Wen

    2011-04-01

    Surface wrinkling of animal mucosas is crucial for the biological functions of some tissues, and the change in their surface patterns is a phenotypic characteristic of certain diseases. Here we develop a biomechanical model to study the relationship between morphogenesis and volumetric growth, either physiological or pathological, of mucosas. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations are performed to unravel the critical characteristics of mucosal wrinkling in a spherical antrum. It is shown that the thicknesses and elastic moduli of mucosal and submucosal layers dictate the surface buckling morphology. The results hold clinical relevance for such diseases as inflammation and gastritis.

  15. Evidence-based Danish guidelines for the treatment of Malassezia-related skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Hald, Marianne; Arendrup, Maiken C; Svejgaard, Else L; Lindskov, Rune; Foged, Erik K; Saunte, Ditte Marie L

    2015-01-01

    Internationally approved guidelines for the diagnosis and management of Malassezia-related skin diseases are lacking. Therefore, a panel of experts consisting of dermatologists and a microbiologist under the auspices of the Danish Society of Dermatology undertook a data review and compiled guidelines for the diagnostic procedures and management of pityriasis versicolor, seborrhoeic dermatitis and Malassezia folliculitis. Main recommendations in most cases of pityriasis versicolor and seborrhoeic dermatitis include topical treatment which has been shown to be sufficient. As first choice, treatment should be based on topical antifungal medication. A short course of topical corticosteroid or topical calcineurin inhibitors has an anti-inflammatory effect in seborrhoeic dermatitis. Systemic antifungal therapy may be indicated for widespread lesions or lesions refractory to topical treatment. Maintenance therapy is often necessary to prevent relapses. In the treatment of Malassezia folliculitis systemic antifungal treatment is probably more effective than topical treatment but a combination may be favourable.

  16. The Cutaneous Microbiome and Aspects of Skin Antimicrobial Defense System Resist Acute Treatment with Topical Skin Cleansers.

    PubMed

    Two, Aimee M; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Kotol, Paul F; Arvanitidou, Evangelia; Du-Thumm, Laurence; Hata, Tissa R; Gallo, Richard L

    2016-10-01

    The human skin microbiome has been suggested to play an essential role in maintaining health by contributing to innate defense of the skin. These observations have inspired speculation that the use of common skin washing techniques may be detrimental to the epidermal antibacterial defense system by altering the microbiome. In this study, several common skin cleansers were used to wash human forearms and the short-term effect on the abundance of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 and the abundance and diversity of bacterial DNA was measured. Despite small but significant decreases in the amount of LL-37 on the skin surface shortly after washing, no significant change in the bacterial community was detected. Furthermore, Group A Streptococcus did not survive better on the skin after washing. In contrast, the addition of antimicrobial compounds such as benzalkonium chloride or triclocarban to soap before washing decreased the growth of Group A Streptococcus applied after rinse. These results support prior studies that hand washing techniques in the health care setting are beneficial and should be continued. Additional research is necessary to better understand the effects of chronic washing and the potential impact of skin care products on the development of dysbiosis in some individuals. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Short- and long-term clinical skin effects of testosterone treatment in trans men.

    PubMed

    Wierckx, Katrien; Van de Peer, Fleur; Verhaeghe, Evelien; Dedecker, David; Van Caenegem, Eva; Toye, Kaatje; Kaufman, Jean Marc; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge concerning the effects of testosterone (T) therapy on the skin of trans men (female-to-male transsexuals) is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short- and long-term clinical effects of T treatment on the skin of trans men. We conducted a prospective intervention study in 20 hormone naive trans men and a cross-sectional study in 50 trans men with an average of 10 years on T therapy. Acne lesions were assessed using the Gradual Acne Grading Scale, hair patterns using the Ferriman and Gallwey classification (F&G), and androgenetic alopecia using the Norwood Hamilton Scale. T treatment increased facial and body hair growth. The F&G score increased progressively from a median value of 0.5 at baseline to a value of 12 after 12 months of T administration. After long-term T treatment, all but one trans man achieved an F&G score indicative of hirsutism in women, with a median value of 24. Only one trans man acquired mild frontotemporal hair loss during the first year of T treatment, whereas 32.7% of trans men had mild frontotemporal hair loss and 31% had moderate to severe androgenetic alopecia after long-term T therapy. The presence and severity of acne increased during the first year of T therapy, and peaked at 6 months. After long-term T treatment, most participants had no or mild acne lesions (93.9%). Dermatological outcome was not demonstrably related to individual serum T or dihydrotestosterone levels. T treatment increased facial and body hair in a time-dependent manner. The prevalence and severity of acne in the majority of trans men peaked 6 months after beginning T therapy. Severe skin problems were absent after short- and long-term T treatment. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Impact of daily cooling treatment on skin inflammation in patients with chronic venous disease.

    PubMed

    Kelechi, Teresa J; Mueller, Martina; King, Dana E; Madisetti, Mohan; Prentice, Margie

    2015-05-01

    People with chronic venous disease are at high risk for developing venous leg ulcers. Inflammation is posited as a pathological factor for this chronic condition as evidenced by persistently elevated skin temperature. As part of a larger trial to test the effects of a cooling regimen on leg ulcer prevention, the objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate the first 30 days of intense daily cooling. Compared to a placebo control cuff, a gel cuff applied to the most severely affected lower leg skin for 30 min daily showed no statistically significant differences between temperatures taken in the home at baseline compared to those measured at the 1 month follow up visit. There were also no differences in temperatures noted between the two groups, although the temperatures in the treatment group were lower 30 min after treatment, an indication of adherence. There was no discernable decrease or increase in temperature at a given time point during the 30 day treatment period compared to the control group. It may be better to have patients monitor skin temperature on a daily basis and then apply the cuff as necessary, rather than requiring daily cooling based on baseline measurement. This "prn" approach may provide a sufficient cooling milieu to prevent escalation of inflammation and thwart ulcer occurrence or recurrence. Clinical trials registration #NCT01509599. Copyright © 2015 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Topical PDT in the Treatment of Benign Skin Diseases: Principles and New Applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miri; Jung, Haw Young; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2015-09-25

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses a photosensitizer, light energy, and molecular oxygen to cause cell damage. Cells exposed to the photosensitizer are susceptible to destruction upon light absorption because excitation of the photosensitizing agents leads to the production of reactive oxygen species and, subsequently, direct cytotoxicity. Using the intrinsic cellular heme biosynthetic pathway, topical PDT selectively targets abnormal cells, while preserving normal surrounding tissues. This selective cytotoxic effect is the basis for the use of PDT in antitumor treatment. Clinically, PDT is a widely used therapeutic regimen for oncologic skin conditions such as actinic keratosis, squamous cell carcinoma in situ, and basal cell carcinoma. PDT has been shown, under certain circumstances, to stimulate the immune system and produce antibacterial, and/or regenerative effects while protecting cell viability. Thus, it may be useful for treating benign skin conditions. An increasing number of studies support the idea that PDT may be effective for treating acne vulgaris and several other inflammatory/infective skin diseases, including psoriasis, rosacea, viral warts, and aging-related changes. This review provides an overview of the clinical investigations of PDT and discusses each of the essential aspects of the sequence: its mechanism of action, common photosensitizers, light sources, and clinical applications in dermatology. Of the numerous clinical trials of PDT in dermatology, this review focuses on those studies that have reported remarkable therapeutic benefits following topical PDT for benign skin conditions such as acne vulgaris, viral warts, and photorejuvenation without causing severe side effects.

  20. Wearable glass beads for in vivo dosimetry of total skin electron irradiation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabankema, S. K.; Jafari, S. M.; Peet, S. C.; Binny, D.; Sylvander, S. R.; Crowe, S. B.

    2017-11-01

    Glass beads have recently been proposed for use as radiation therapy dosimeters. Glass beads have a number of characteristics that make them suitable for in vivo skin dose measurements, including an ability to be worn on a string, and therefore avoid possible patient discomfort that may result from the use of adhesives. In this study, their use for in vivo dose measurements in total skin electron irradiation treatments has been tested. First, the dosimetric properties of cylindrical beads with a 3 mm diameter were characterised using electron fields produced by a linear accelerator. The mean individual bead reproducibility was demonstrated to be within 3%; and a batch variation of 7% was observed. The beads were shown to have a linear dose response, and both dose rate and beam energy independence, within the measurement uncertainty. Phantom measurements were then performed for a total skin electron irradiation beam arrangement, and results compared against optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters at five anatomical sites. For a majority of measurement locations, agreement within 3% was observed between the two dosimetry techniques, demonstrating the feasibility of glass beads as in vivo dosimeters for total skin electron irradiation; though further investigation may be needed to minimise uncertainty in results.

  1. Effect of Sub- and Super-critical Water Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of Porcine Skin

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Super- and sub-critical water treatments have been of interest as novel methods for protein hydrolysis. In the present study, we studied the effect of sub-critical water (Sub-H2O, 300℃, 80 bar) treatment as well as super-critical water (Super-H2O, 400℃, 280 bar) treatment on the physicochemical properties of porcine skin (PS), which has abundant collagen. Porcine skin was subjected to pre-thermal treatment by immersion in water at 70℃, and then treated with sub- or super-critical water. Physicochemical properties of the hydrolysates, such as molecular weight distribution, free amino acid content, amino acid profile, pH, color, and water content were determined. For the molecular weight distribution analysis, 1 kDa hydrolyzed porcine skin (H-PS) was produced by Super-H2O or Sub-H2O treatment. The free amino acid content was 57.18 mM and 30.13 mM after Sub-H2O and Super-H2O treatment, respectively. Determination of amino acid profile revealed that the content of Glu (22.5%) and Pro (30%) was higher after Super-H2O treatment than after Sub-H2O treatment, whereas the content of Gly (28%) and Ala (13.1%) was higher after Sub-H2O treatment. Super-H2O or Sub-H2O treatment affected the pH of PS, which changed from 7.29 (Raw) to 9.22 (after Sub-H2O treatment) and 9.49 (after Super-H2O treatment). Taken together, these results showed that Sub-H2O treatment was slightly more effective for hydrolysis than Super-H2O was. However, both Sub-H2O and Super-H2O treatments were effective processing methods for hydrolysis of PS collagen in a short time and can be regarded as a green chemistry technology. PMID:26761798

  2. Effect of Sub- and Super-critical Water Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of Porcine Skin.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yeon-Ji; Kim, Jae-Hyeong; Jung, Kyung-Hun; Min, Sang-Gi; Chun, Ji-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Super- and sub-critical water treatments have been of interest as novel methods for protein hydrolysis. In the present study, we studied the effect of sub-critical water (Sub-H2O, 300℃, 80 bar) treatment as well as super-critical water (Super-H2O, 400℃, 280 bar) treatment on the physicochemical properties of porcine skin (PS), which has abundant collagen. Porcine skin was subjected to pre-thermal treatment by immersion in water at 70℃, and then treated with sub- or super-critical water. Physicochemical properties of the hydrolysates, such as molecular weight distribution, free amino acid content, amino acid profile, pH, color, and water content were determined. For the molecular weight distribution analysis, 1 kDa hydrolyzed porcine skin (H-PS) was produced by Super-H2O or Sub-H2O treatment. The free amino acid content was 57.18 mM and 30.13 mM after Sub-H2O and Super-H2O treatment, respectively. Determination of amino acid profile revealed that the content of Glu (22.5%) and Pro (30%) was higher after Super-H2O treatment than after Sub-H2O treatment, whereas the content of Gly (28%) and Ala (13.1%) was higher after Sub-H2O treatment. Super-H2O or Sub-H2O treatment affected the pH of PS, which changed from 7.29 (Raw) to 9.22 (after Sub-H2O treatment) and 9.49 (after Super-H2O treatment). Taken together, these results showed that Sub-H2O treatment was slightly more effective for hydrolysis than Super-H2O was. However, both Sub-H2O and Super-H2O treatments were effective processing methods for hydrolysis of PS collagen in a short time and can be regarded as a green chemistry technology.

  3. Early skin toxicity predicts better outcomes, and early tumor shrinkage predicts better response after cetuximab treatment in advanced colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kogawa, T; Doi, A; Shimokawa, M; Fouad, T M; Osuga, T; Tamura, F; Mizushima, T; Kimura, T; Abe, S; Ihara, H; Kukitsu, T; Sumiyoshi, T; Yoshizaki, N; Hirayama, M; Sasaki, T; Kawarada, Y; Kitashiro, S; Okushiba, S; Kondo, H; Tsuji, Y

    2015-03-01

    Cetuximab-containing treatments for metastatic colorectal cancer have been shown to have higher overall response rates and longer progression-free and overall survival than other systemic therapies. Cetuximab-related manifestations, including severe skin toxicity and early tumor shrinkage, have been shown to be predictors of response to cetuximab. We hypothesized that early skin toxicity is a predictor of response and better outcomes in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. We retrospectively evaluated 62 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma who had unresectable tumors and were treated with cetuximab in our institution. Skin toxicity grade was evaluated on each treatment day. Tumor size was evaluated using computed tomography prior to treatment and 4-8 weeks after the start of treatment with cetuximab.Patients with early tumor shrinkage after starting treatment with cetuximab had a significantly higher overall response rate (P = 0.0001). Patients with early skin toxicity showed significantly longer overall survival (P = 0.0305), and patients with higher skin toxicity grades had longer progression-free survival (P = 0.0168).We have shown that early tumor shrinkage, early onset of skin toxicity, and high skin toxicity grade are predictors of treatment efficacy and/or outcome in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma treated with cetuximab.

  4. Topical effectiveness of a cosmetic skincare treatment for acne-prone skin: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Bartenjev, Igor; Oremović, Lenka; Rogl Butina, Mirjam; Sjerobabski Masnec, Ines; Bouloc, Anne; Voda, Karmen; Šitum, Mirna

    2011-06-01

    Physiological acne is a milder form of clinical acne and is very frequent in adult women (18 years of age and older). Acne therapy is usually unnecessary in such cases, and so appropriate cosmetic treatments are sought. To determine the effectiveness of a topical cosmetic hydrating skincare treatment for adult acne-prone skin (Normaderm, Vichy, France) against the clinical signs of physiological acne: few inflammatory and retentional lesions, uneven (grainy) skin relief, dilated pores, and occasional and/or local hyperseborrhea. Within the study, the tested product's keratolytic, antimicrobial, and antiseborrheic properties, and its overall ability to improve the clinical signs of physiological acne present in adult subjects were evaluated through objective and clinical evaluation methods by the investigators and through self-evaluation questionnaires by the subjects themselves. The study group was composed of 50 adult women between 18 and 35 years of age with combination or oily acne-prone skin, who were chosen according to previously defined inclusion criteria. They applied the product tested twice daily on thoroughly cleansed skin for a period of 2 months. The results were evaluated after 30 (±2) and 60 (±2) days. The number of inflammatory and retentional lesions on the forehead, cheeks, and chin decreased after 60 days of use (an average of 30.7% and 70.7%, respectively). The level of sebum secretion on the forehead decreased by 33.4% and the level of skin scaling decreased by 38.5% after 60 days of use. The moisture content in the horny layer on the forehead, cheeks, and chin increased by an average 39.7%. The decrease in pore size and content after 60 days of use was very noticeable. The subjects evaluated all the studied characteristics of the product tested very positively, with results already showing after 30 days of use. The results of the study confirm that the product tested is suitable for the cosmetic care of adult acne-prone skin, either as an

  5. Treatment of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin by Electrodesiccation and Curettage

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, George S.; Jackson, Robert

    1964-01-01

    Results of treatment of 108 squamous cell carcinomas of the skin are analyzed. Fiftyone were successfully treated by the technique of electrodesiccation and curettage. There were two treatment failures by this method. Large squamous cell cancers showing histologically a marked degree of anaplasia and/or invasion are not suitable for this technique. Small squamous cell carcinomas, well differentiated, with minimal invasion, occurring on the exposed areas, in elderly and infirm patients can be treated successfully by electrodesiccation and curettage. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:14123665

  6. Interleukin-17 inhibitors. A new era in treatment of psoriasis and other skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Wasilewska, Agnieszka; Winiarska, Marta; Olszewska, Małgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2016-08-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease caused by the excessive secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Available therapeutic options include biologic drugs such as tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors and interleukin 12/23 (IL-12/23) inhibitors. The recent discovery of IL-17, which contributes to development of psoriasis, opened new possibilities for further treatment modalities. Currently, one anti-IL17 biological agent is approved for the treatment - a fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A (secukinumab). Further clinical trials, including a humanized IgG4 specific for IL-17 (ixekizumab) and a fully human antibody that targets the IL-17 receptor A (brodalumab).

  7. Daily baseline skin care in the prevention, treatment, and supportive care of skin toxicity in oncology patients: recommendations from a multinational expert panel

    PubMed Central

    Bensadoun, René-Jean; Humbert, Phillipe; Krutman, Jean; Luger, Thomas; Triller, Raoul; Rougier, André; Seite, Sophie; Dreno, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Skin reactions due to radiotherapy and chemotherapy are a significant problem for an important number of cancer patients. While effective for treating cancer, they disturb cutaneous barrier function, causing a reaction soon after initiation of treatment that impacts patient quality of life. Managing these symptoms with cosmetics and nonpharmaceutical skin care products for camouflage or personal hygiene may be important for increasing patient self-esteem. However, inappropriate product choice or use could worsen side effects. Although recommendations exist for the pharmaceutical treatment of skin reactions, there are no recommendations for the choice or use of dermatologic skin care products for oncology patients. The present guidelines were developed by a board of European experts in dermatology and oncology to provide cancer care professionals with guidance for the appropriate use of non-pharmaceutical, dermocosmetic skin care management of cutaneous toxicities associated with radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy, including epidermal growth factor inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. The experts hope that these recommendations will improve the management of cutaneous side effects and hence quality of life for oncology patients. PMID:24353440

  8. Chimeric Human Skin Substitute Tissue: A Novel Treatment Option for the Delivery of Autologous Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Cathy A; Allen-Hoffmann, B Lynn

    2012-04-01

    For patients suffering from catastrophic burns, few treatment options are available. Chimeric coculture of patient-derived autologous cells with a "carrier" cell source of allogeneic keratinocytes has been proposed as a means to address the complex clinical problem of severe skin loss. Currently, autologous keratinocytes are harvested, cultured, and expanded to form graftable epidermal sheets. However, epidermal sheets are thin, are extremely fragile, and do not possess barrier function, which only develops as skin stratifies and matures. Grafting is typically delayed for up to 4 weeks to propagate a sufficient quantity of the patient's cells for application to wound sites. Fully stratified chimeric bioengineered skin substitutes could not only provide immediate wound coverage and restore barrier function, but would simultaneously deliver autologous keratinocytes to wounds. The ideal allogeneic cell source for this application would be an abundant supply of clinically evaluated, nontumorigenic, pathogen-free, human keratinocytes. To evaluate this potential cell-based therapy, mixed populations of a green fluorescent protein-labeled neonatal human keratinocyte cell line (NIKS) and unlabeled primary keratinocytes were used to model the allogeneic and autologous components of chimeric monolayer and organotypic cultures. Relatively few autologous keratinocytes may be required to produce fully stratified chimeric skin substitute tissue substantially composed of autologous keratinocyte-derived regions. The need for few autologous cells interspersed within an allogeneic "carrier" cell population may decrease cell expansion time, reducing the time to patient application. This study provides proof of concept for utilizing NIKS keratinocytes as the allogeneic carrier for the generation of bioengineered chimeric skin substitute tissues capable of providing immediate wound coverage while simultaneously supplying autologous human cells for tissue regeneration.

  9. Prototypical model for tensional wrinkling in thin sheets

    PubMed Central

    Davidovitch, Benny; Schroll, Robert D.; Vella, Dominic; Adda-Bedia, Mokhtar; Cerda, Enrique A.

    2011-01-01

    The buckling and wrinkling of thin films has recently seen a surge of interest among physicists, biologists, mathematicians, and engineers. This activity has been triggered by the growing interest in developing technologies at ever-decreasing scales and the resulting necessity to control the mechanics of tiny structures, as well as by the realization that morphogenetic processes, such as the tissue-shaping instabilities occurring in animal epithelia or plant leaves, often emerge from mechanical instabilities of cell sheets. Although the most basic buckling instability of uniaxially compressed plates was understood by Euler more than two centuries ago, recent experiments on nanometrically thin (ultrathin) films have shown significant deviations from predictions of standard buckling theory. Motivated by this puzzle, we introduce here a theoretical model that allows for a systematic analysis of wrinkling in sheets far from their instability threshold. We focus on the simplest extension of Euler buckling that exhibits wrinkles of finite length—a sheet under axisymmetric tensile loads. The first study of this geometry, which is attributed to Lamé, allows us to construct a phase diagram that demonstrates the dramatic variation of wrinkling patterns from near-threshold to far-from-threshold conditions. Theoretical arguments and comparison to experiments show that the thinner the sheet is, the smaller is the compressive load above which the far-from-threshold regime emerges. This observation emphasizes the relevance of our analysis for nanomechanics applications. PMID:22042841

  10. A new gene that controls seed coat wrinkling in soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed coat wrinkling is a major factor affecting the germinability of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed produced in high-temperature environments, such as in the early soybean production system (ESPS) of the midsouthern United States. Exposure of seed to high temperatures, coupled with alternatin...

  11. Random lasing action in a polydimethylsiloxane wrinkle induced disordered structure

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Zhenhua; Wu, Leilei; Zhu, Shu

    This paper presents a chip-scale random lasing action utilizing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wrinkles with random periods as disordered medium. Nanoscale wrinkles with long range disorder structures are formed on the oxidized surface of a PDMS slab and confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Light multiply scattered at each PDMS wrinkle-dye interfaces is optically amplified in the presence of pump gain. The shift of laser emission wavelength when pumping at different regions indicates the randomness of the winkle period. In addition, a relatively low threshold of about 27 μJ/mm{sup 2} is realized, which is comparable with traditional optofluidic dye laser. This is due tomore » the unique sinusoidal Bragg-grating-like random structure. Contrast to conventional microfluidic dye laser that inevitably requires the accurate design and implementation of microcavity to provide optical feedback, the convenience in both fabrication and operation makes PDMS wrinkle based random laser a promising underlying element in lab-on-a-chip systems and integrated microfluidic networks.« less

  12. The Effects of Gravity on Wrinkled Laminar Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, Larry W.; Zhou, Liming; Cheng, Robert K.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of gravity are significant to the dynamics of idealized unconfined open premixed flames. Moderate to low turbulence Reynolds number flames, i.e., wrinkled laminar flames, of various unconfined geometries have been used extensively for investigating fundamental processes of turbulent flame propagation and to validate theoretical models. Without the wall constraints, the flames are free to expand and interact with surrounding ambient air. The flow field in which the flame exists is determined by a coupling of burner geometry, flame orientation and the gravity field. These complex interactions raise serious questions regarding the validity of comparing the experimental data of open flames with current theoretical and numerical models that do not include the effects of gravity nor effects of the larger aerodynamic flowfield. Therefore, studies of wrinkled laminar flame in microgravity are needed for a better understanding of the role of gravity on flame characteristics such as the orientation, mean aerodynamics stretch, flame wrinkle size and burning rate. Our approach to characterize and quantify turbulent flame structures under microgravity is to exploit qualitative and quantitative flow visualization techniques coupled with video recording and computer controlled image analysis technologies. The experiments will be carried out in the 2.2 second drop tower at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The longest time scales of typical wrinkled laminar flames in the geometries considered here are in the order of 10 msec. Hence, the duration of the drop is sufficient to obtain the amount of statistical data necessary for characterize turbulent flame structures.

  13. Wrinkling of reinforced plates subjected to shear stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seydel, Edgar

    1931-01-01

    An analysis is made here of the problem of long plates with transverse stiffeners subject to shear. A typical example would be a long Wagner beam. The shear stress is calculated at which the web wrinkles and shear stress becomes a maximum. The equation is solved for both a condition of free support and rigidity of support on the edges.

  14. Reversible and irreversible wrinkling in tube hydroforming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Aty, Ali Abd; Ahmed, Tauseef; Farooq, Ahmed

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this research is to analyzeandoptimize the hydroforming process parameters in order to achieve a sound bulged tube without failure. Theoretical constitutive model is formulated to develop a working diagram including process window, which represents the optimize region to carry out the hydroforming process and predict the type of tube failure during the process accurately. The model is applied into different bulging ratios for low carbon steel (C1010). From this study, it is concluded that the tubes with bulging ratios up to 50% and 70% are successfully formed without defects. The tubes with bulging ratio of 90% are successfully formed by hydroforming with optimized the loading path (axial feed versus internal pressure) within the process window. The working diagram is modified due to different types of formation of wrinkling during the hydroforming process. The formation of wrinkles with increasing axial feed can be useful in terms of the achievement of higher bulging ratio and/or less thinning and this type of wrinkles can be overcome through the internal pressure in the later stage of the hydroforming process. On the other hand, the formation of wrinkles may be harmful, if it cannot be reversed.

  15. Oil-in-oil-emulsions with enhanced substantivity for the treatment of chronic skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Lunter, Dominique Jasmin; Rottke, Michael; Daniels, Rolf

    2014-05-01

    The therapy of chronic skin diseases often requires several applications of creams or ointments per day. This is inconvenient to the patients and frequently leads to poor acceptance and compliance. We therefore developed oil-in-oil-emulsions that deliver the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) to the skin over a prolonged period of time. In this study, we compare the permeation of the API from a conventional formulation to its permeation from an oil-in-oil-emulsion under infinite and finite dosing. Furthermore, we evaluate the substantivity of the formulations. Our results show that the permeation from oil-in-oil-emulsions is constant over a prolonged time and that the emulsions show significantly higher substantivity than conventional formulations. Because of that, the treatment intervals can be extended substantially and compliance can be increased. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  16. Development of an Image Colorimeter for Noncontact Skin Color Measurement and Application to the Dermatological Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Makio; Chen, Yu; Miyazaki, Michio; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Miyakawa, Michio; Hata, Mieko

    The skin is unique as an organ that is highly accessible to direct visual inspection with light. Visual inspection of cutaneous morphology is the mainstay of clinical dermatology, but relies heavily on subjective assessment by the skilled dermatologists. We present an imaging colorimeter of non-contact skin color measuring system and some experimented results using such instrument. The system is comprised by a video camera, light source, a real-time image processing board, magneto optics disk and personal computer which controls the entire system. The CIE-L*a*b* uniform color space is used. This system is used for monitoring of some clinical diagnosis. The instrument is non-contact, easy to operate, and has a high precision unlike the conventional colorimeters. This instrument is useful for clinical diagnoses, monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of treatment.

  17. Wound-Healing Peptides for Treatment of Chronic Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Other Infected Skin Injuries.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ana; Teixeira, Cátia; Ferraz, Ricardo; Prudêncio, Cristina; Gomes, Paula

    2017-10-18

    As the incidence of diabetes continues to increase in the western world, the prevalence of chronic wounds related to this condition continues to be a major focus of wound care research. Additionally, over 50% of chronic wounds exhibit signs and symptoms that are consistent with localized bacterial biofilms underlying severe infections that contribute to tissue destruction, delayed wound-healing and other serious complications. Most current biomedical approaches for advanced wound care aim at providing antimicrobial protection to the open wound together with a matrix scaffold (often collagen-based) to boost reestablishment of the skin tissue. Therefore, the present review is focused on the efforts that have been made over the past years to find peptides possessing wound-healing properties, towards the development of new and effective wound care treatments for diabetic foot ulcers and other skin and soft tissue infections.

  18. The impact of skin decontamination on the time window for effective treatment of percutaneous VX exposure.

    PubMed

    Joosen, M J A; van den Berg, R M; de Jong, A L; van der Schans, M J; Noort, D; Langenberg, J P

    2017-04-01

    The main goal of the present study was to obtain insight into depot formation and penetration following percutaneous VX poisoning, in order to identify an appropriate decontamination window that can enhance or support medical countermeasures. The study was executed in two phases, using the hairless guinea pig as an animal model. In the first phase the effect of various decontamination regimens on levels of free VX in skin and plasma were studied as well as on blood cholinesterase levels. Animals were exposed to 0.5 mg/kg VX and were not decontaminated (control), decontaminated with RSDL once at 15 or 90 min after exposure or three times at 15, 25 and 35 (10-min interval) or 15, 45 and 75 min after exposure (30-min interval). There was no significant effect of any of the decontamination regimens on the 6-h survival rate of the animals. However, all animals that had been decontaminated 15 min after exposure, showed a survival rate of more than 90%, compared to 50-60% in animals that were not decontaminated or decontaminated at 90 min after exposure. In the second phase of the study, hairless guinea pigs were exposed to 1 mg/kg VX on the shoulder, followed either by decontamination with RSDL (10 min interval), conventional treatment on indication of clinical signs or a combination thereof. It appeared that a thorough, repeated decontamination alone could not save the majority of the animals. A 100% survival rate was observed in the group that received a combination of decontamination and treatment. In conclusion, the effects of VX exposure could be influenced by various RSDL decontamination regimens. The results in freely moving animals showed that skin decontamination, although not fully effective in removing all VX from the skin and skin depot is crucial to support pharmacological intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-term periodic anthelmintic treatments are associated with increased allergen skin reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Endara, P; Vaca, M; Chico, M E; Erazo, S; Oviedo, G; Quinzo, I; Rodriguez, A; Lovato, R; Moncayo, A-L; Barreto, M L; Rodrigues, L C; Cooper, P J

    2010-01-01

    Background The low prevalence of allergic disease in the rural tropics has been attributed to the protective effects of chronic helminth infections. There is concern that treatment-based control programmes for these parasites may lead to an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. Objective We measured the impact of 15–17 years of anthelmintic treatment with ivermectin on the prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity and allergic symptoms in school-age children. Methods The prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity, exercise-induced bronchospasm and allergic symptoms was compared between school-age children living in communities that had received community-based treatments with ivermectin (for onchocerciasis control) for a period of 15–17 years with those living in geographically adjacent communities that had received no ivermectin. Results The prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity was double in children living in treated communities compared with those in untreated communities (16.7% vs. 8.7%, adjusted OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.50–2.94, P<0.0001), and the effect was mediated partly by a reduced prevalence of Trichuris trichiura among treated children. Ivermectin treatments were associated with an increased prevalence of recent eczema symptoms (adjusted OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.05–4.78, P=0.04) but not symptoms of asthma or rhino-conjunctivitis. The effect on eczema symptoms was not associated with reductions in geohelminth infections. Conclusion Long-term periodic treatments with ivermectin were associated with an increased prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity. There was some evidence that treatment was associated with an increased prevalence of recent eczema symptoms but not those of asthma or rhino-conjunctivitis. Cite this as: P. Endara, M. Vaca, M. E. Chico, S. Erazo, G. Oviedo, I. Quinzo, A. Rodriguez R. Lovato, A.-L. Moncayo, M. L. Barreto, L. C. Rodrigues and P. J. Cooper, Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 2010 (40) 1669–1677. PMID

  20. Comparison of atmospheric microplasma and plasma jet irradiation for increasing of skin permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, K.; Tran, N. A.; Hayashida, K.; Blajan, M.

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric plasma is attracting interest for medical applications such as sterilization, treatment of cancer cells and blood coagulation. Application of atmospheric plasma in dermatology has potential as a novel tool for wound healing, skin rejuvenation and treatment of wrinkles. In this study, we investigated the enhancement of percutaneous absorption of dye as alternative agents of transdermal drugs. Hypodermic needles are often the only way to deliver large-molecule drugs into the dermis, although a safe transdermal drug delivery method that does not require needles would be desirable. We therefore explored the feasibility of using atmospheric microplasma irradiation to enhance percutaneous absorption of drugs, as an alternative delivery method to conventional hypodermic needles. Pig skin was used as a biological sample, exposed to atmospheric microplasma, and analyzed by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A tape stripping test, a representative method for evaluating skin barrier performance, was also conducted for comparison. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured and compared with and without atmospheric microplasma irradiation, to quantify water evaporation from the inner body through the skin barrier. The results show that the stratum corneum, the outermost skin layer, could be chemically and physically modified by atmospheric microplasma irradiation. Physical damage to the skin by microplasma irradiation and an atmospheric plasma jet was also assessed by observing the skin surface. The results suggest that atmospheric microplasma has the potential to enhance percutaneous absorption.

  1. Anti-Wrinkle and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Active Garlic Components and the Inhibition of MMPs via NF-κB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Ra; Jung, Yu Ri; An, Hye Jin; Kim, Dae Hyun; Jang, Eun Ji; Choi, Yeon Ja; Moon, Kyoung Mi; Park, Min Hi; Park, Chan Hum; Chung, Ki Wung; Bae, Ha Ram; Choi, Yung Whan; Kim, Nam Deuk; Chung, Hae Young

    2013-01-01

    Skin aging is a multisystem degenerative process caused by several factors, such as, UV irradiation, stress, and smoke. Furthermore, wrinkle formation is a striking feature of photoaging and is associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory response. In the present study, we investigated whether caffeic acid, S-allyl cysteine, and uracil, which were isolated from garlic, modulate UVB-induced wrinkle formation and effect the expression of matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) and NF-κB signaling. The results obtained showed that all three compounds significantly inhibited the degradation of type І procollagen and the expressions of MMPs in vivo and attenuated the histological collagen fiber disorder and oxidative stress in vivo. Furthermore, caffeic acid and S-allyl cysteine were found to decrease oxidative stress and inflammation by modulating the activities of NF-κB and AP-1, and uracil exhibited an indirect anti-oxidant effect by suppressing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expressions levels and downregulating transcriptional factors. These results suggest that the anti-wrinkle effects of caffeic acid, S-allyl cysteine, and uracil are due to anti-oxidant and/or anti-inflammatory effects. Summarizing, caffeic acid, S-allyl cysteine, and uracil inhibited UVB-induced wrinkle formation by modulating MMP via NF-κB signaling. PMID:24066081

  2. Plasma skin resurfacing: personal experience and long-term results.

    PubMed

    Bentkover, Stuart H

    2012-05-01

    This article presents a comprehensive clinical approach to plasma resurfacing for skin regeneration. Plasma technology, preoperative protocols, resurfacing technique, postoperative care, clinical outcomes, evidence-based results, and appropriate candidates for this procedure are discussed. Specific penetration depth and specific laser energy measurements are provided. Nitrogen plasma skin regeneration is a skin-resurfacing technique that offers excellent improvement of mild to moderate skin wrinkles and overall skin rejuvenation. It also provides excellent improvement in uniformity of skin color and texture in patients with hyperpigmentation with Fitzpatrick skin types 1 through 4. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel technique for preventing skin pressure sores using a rubber tube during surgical treatment of mandibular condyle fractures.

    PubMed

    Kawase-Koga, Yoko; Mori, Yoshiyuki; Hoshi, Kazuhito; Takato, Tsuyoshi

    2013-11-01

    Craniofacial surgery occasionally results in sores and necrosis of the facial skin because of pressure from surgical instruments. During surgical treatment of mandibular condylar process fractures, the main mandibular fragment is routinely retracted downward using a wire to achieve a satisfactory anatomic reduction. This procedure may injure the facial skin. This potential complication is easily overlooked by medical staff, but it is easily preventable. We herein describe a method of using a rubber tube to avoid causing pressure sores of the facial skin during surgical treatment of mandibular condylar process fractures.

  4. Is the skin a sanctuary for breast cancer cells during treatment with anti-HER2 antibodies?

    PubMed

    Graziano, Vincenzo; Scognamiglio, Maria Teresa; Zilli, Marinella; Giampietro, Jamara; Vici, Patrizia; Natoli, Clara; Grassadonia, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of skin metastases is a common event in patients affected by advanced breast cancer, usually associated with systemic disease progression. Here we describe 2 cases of diffuse cutaneous metastases from HER2-overexpressing breast cancer occurring despite a dramatic response in liver and bone, respectively, during treatment with anti-HER2 antibodies Trastuzumab and Pertuzumab. We discuss the reasons for this discrepancy and suggest a possible implication of impaired immune response in the skin. Future research should provide strategies to overcome the induction of immune privilege in the skin in order to avoid discontinuation of effective treatments.

  5. Doxepin cream vs betamethasone cream for treatment of chronic skin lesions due to sulfur mustard.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Yunes; Davoudi, Seyyed Masoud; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Amiri, Mojtaba

    2011-01-01

    Oral doxepin was shown to reduce chronic pruritus due to sulfur mustard. The present study compared the effects of topical doxepin 5% with betamethasone 1% for the treatment of pruritus in veterans exposed to sulfur mustard. This investigator-blinded, randomized, clinical trial was conducted in an outpatient dermatology clinic. Seventy-five men who were exposed to sulfur mustard 23 to 28 years ago during the Iran-Iraq war who complained of pruritus were randomized to receive doxepin cream 5% (n = 40) or betamethasone cream 0.1% (n = 35) twice a day for 6 weeks. Pruritus severity and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) were evaluated before and after each treatment. Both groups showed significant improvement regarding pruritus (P < .05), burning sensation, skin dryness (P < .001), and skin scaling (P < 0.05). The lesions of all regions significantly reduced after treatments (P < .05), except those on the head, face, and genitalia. Pruritus, visual analog scores, and DLQI significantly decreased (P < .01, P < .01, and P < .001, respectively) in doxepin- and betamethasone-treated groups, and there was no difference between groups. All DLQI subscores decreased after both type of treatments (P < .01). Equal efficacy of doxepin cream and betamethasone suggest that doxepin is a potential alternative to control pruritus caused by sulfur mustard in exposed veterans.

  6. Thermographic mapping of the skin surface in biometric evaluation of cellulite treatment effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Wilczyński, S; Koprowski, R; Deda, A; Janiczek, M; Kuleczka, N; Błońska-Fajfrowska, B

    2017-02-01

    Cellulite is one of the worst tolerated aesthetic imperfections. Edema that accompanies cellulite causes disorders of blood flow what may be observed as changes in the skin surface temperature. The aim of this paper was to develop a new method based on the analysis and processing of thermal images of the skin for biometric evaluation of severity of cellulite and monitoring its treatment. The observations of the treatment effects were conducted on 10 females (33.4 ± 6.4 years). Thermal images of the volunteers' thighs were captured before starting the therapy (T 0 ). In the following stages: T 1 , T 2 , and T 3 , thermal images were captured 2 weeks after the first, second and third Alidya treatment administration, respectively. Profiled algorithms were developed to determine the mean Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) contrast in the acquired thermograms. The mean GLCM contrast for the phase T 0 was 70.91, and for the stages T 1 , T 2 , and T 3 : 57.78, 41.80, and 38.53, respectively. The use of proposed method (GLCM contrast) enables biometric evaluation of the effectiveness of cellulite treatment. Traditionally used parameters of infrared analysis such as local points of the maximum and minimum temperature or the median temperatures are not useful in thermal, biometric evaluation of anti-cellulite preparations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Bioreactor Yields Extracts for Skin Cream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Johnson Space Flight Center researchers created a unique rotating-wall bioreactor that simulates microgravity conditions, spurring innovations in drug development and medical research. Renuèll Int'l Inc., based in Aventure, Florida, licensed the technology and used it to produce a healing skin care product, RE`JUVEL. In a Food and Drug Administration test, RE`JUVEL substantially increased skin moisture and elasticity while reducing dark blotches and wrinkles.

  8. Mycophenolate Mofetil Treatment of Systemic Sclerosis Reduces Myeloid Cell Numbers and Attenuates the Inflammatory Gene Signature in Skin.

    PubMed

    Hinchcliff, Monique; Toledo, Diana M; Taroni, Jaclyn N; Wood, Tammara A; Franks, Jennifer M; Ball, Michael S; Hoffmann, Aileen; Amin, Sapna M; Tan, Ainah U; Tom, Kevin; Nesbeth, Yolanda; Lee, Jungwha; Ma, Madeleine; Aren, Kathleen; Carns, Mary A; Pioli, Patricia A; Whitfield, Michael L

    2018-01-31

    Fewer than half of patients with systemic sclerosis demonstrate modified Rodnan skin score improvement during mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) treatment. To understand the molecular basis for this observation, we extended our prior studies and characterized molecular and cellular changes in skin biopsies from subjects with systemic sclerosis treated with MMF. Eleven subjects completed ≥24 months of MMF therapy. Two distinct skin gene expression trajectories were observed across six of these subjects. Three of the six subjects showed attenuation of the inflammatory signature by 24 months, paralleling reductions in CCL2 mRNA expression in skin and reduced numbers of macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells in skin biopsies. MMF cessation at 24 months resulted in an increased inflammatory score, increased CCL2 mRNA and protein levels, modified Rodnan skin score rebound, and increased numbers of skin myeloid cells in these subjects. In contrast, three other subjects remained on MMF >24 months and showed a persistent decrease in inflammatory score, decreasing or stable modified Rodnan skin score, CCL2 mRNA reductions, sera CCL2 protein levels trending downward, reduction in monocyte migration, and no increase in skin myeloid cell numbers. These data summarize molecular changes during MMF therapy that suggest reduction of innate immune cell numbers, possibly by attenuating expression of chemokines, including CCL2. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. SU-G-TeP1-13: Reclined Total Skin Electron Treatment Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, D; Gerbi, B

    Purpose: The purpose is to describe a new reclined technique for treatment of weakened patients that require total skin electron irradiation. Methods: This technique is a modification of a previously published reclined technique differing in that all six patient positions are treated with the gantry angled 60° from vertically down. The patient is located at a treatment distance of 330 cm SSD along the CA of the beam. The 3/8′ thick Lexan beam spoiler is placed 25 cm from the most proximal surface of the patient for all patient treatment positions. To produce a flat, uniform field of ∼190 cmmore » length, the patient was moved longitudinally by an experimentally determined distance. Kodak EDR2 and EBT3 Radiochromic film were placed around the periphery of the phantom, and OSLs were placed every 30° around the phantom periphery to determine output and surface dose uniformity. A piece of Kodak EDR2 was sandwiched between the two slabs of the 30 cm diameter phantom to determine beam penetration. Results: Field uniformity shifting the patient ±75 cm was ±5% over a treatment span of 190 cm. The dose variation around the periphery of the 30 cm diameter phantom varied by <±5% with the maximum values observed at the 0°-300°, 60° locations with the minimum values at the 30°-330°, 60° locations. Results obtained using Kodak EDR2, EBT3 Radiochromic film, and OSLs agreed to within ±5%. Conclusion: This technique provides a very efficient and convenient means by which to treat the entire skin surface of patients incapable of standing for treatment. It provides a treatment field that is both large and uniform enough for adults along with a convenient way to treat four of the six patient treatment positions. The beam spoiler lies to the side of the patient allowing easy access for patient positioning.« less

  10. Development and evaluation of 5-fluorouracil loaded chitin nanogels for treatment of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Sabitha, M; Sanoj Rejinold, N; Nair, Amrita; Lakshmanan, Vinoth-Kumar; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2013-01-02

    This study focuses on development and evaluation of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) loaded chitin nanogels (FCNGs). It formed good, stable aqueous dispersion with spherical particles in 120-140 nm size range and showed pH responsive swelling and drug release. The FCNGs showed toxicity on melanoma (A375) in a concentration range of 0.4-2.0mg/mL, but less toxicity toward human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells by MTT assay. Confocal analysis revealed uptake of FCNGs by both cells. From skin permeation experiments, FCNGs showed almost same steady state flux as that of control 5-FU but the retention in the deeper layers of skin was found to be 4-5 times more from FCNGs. Histopathological evaluation revealed loosening of the horny layer of epidermis by interaction of cationically charged chitin, with no observed signs of inflammation and so FCNGs can be a good option for treatment of skin cancers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcer Using Matriderm In Comparison with a Skin Graft

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyojin; Yeo, Hyeonjung; Jeong, Hoijoon; Son, Daegu; Han, Kihwan

    2013-01-01

    Background For patients with neuropathy, vasculopathy, and impairment of wound healing, treatment of a diabetic foot ulcer poses many challenges. A large number of dermal analogues have been invented in an effort to overcome these challenges. Matriderm, a dermal analogue, is made from bovine collagen and elastin. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the effectiveness of Matriderm for treatment of diabetic foot ulcers, in comparison with skin grafting. Methods Sixty patients with diabetic foot ulcer were included in this prospective study. The average age of the patients, who had type II diabetes mellitus, was 58 years old. The patients were allocated to an experimental or control group with their consents. The patients were selected with their consent for inclusion in an experimental group and a control group. Patients in the experimental group received a Matriderm appliance and a split-thickness skin graft, while those in the control group received only a split-thickness skin graft. Results A shorter hospitalization period (7.52 weeks) was observed in the experimental group than in the control group (9.22 weeks), and a shorter period of time (8.61 weeks) was required for complete healing, compared with the control group (12.94 weeks), with statistical significance (P<0.05). A higher elasticity ratio of the affected side to the non-affected side was observed in the experimental group, compared with the control group (P<0.01). Conclusions Matriderm enables effective healing and improves elasticity in treatment of patients with diabetic foot ulcer. PMID:23898439

  12. Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance consensus clinical treatment plans for juvenile dermatomyositis with skin predominant disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Susan; Kahn, Philip; Robinson, Angela B; Lang, Bianca; Shulman, Andrew; Oberle, Edward J; Schikler, Kenneth; Curran, Megan Lea; Barillas-Arias, Lilliana; Spencer, Charles H; Rider, Lisa G; Huber, Adam M

    2017-01-11

    Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is the most common form of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies in children. A subset of children have the rash of JDM without significant weakness, and the optimal treatments for these children are unknown. The goal of this study was to describe the development of consensus clinical treatment plans (CTPs) for children with JDM who have active skin rashes, without significant muscle involvement, referred to as skin predominant JDM in this manuscript. The Children's Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) is a North American consortium of pediatric rheumatology health care providers. CARRA members collaborated to determine consensus on typical treatments for JDM patients with skin findings without significant weakness, to develop CTPs for this subgroup of patients. We used a combination of Delphi surveys and nominal group consensus meetings to develop these CTPs. Consensus was reached on patient characteristics and outcome assessment, and CTPs were developed and finalized for patients with skin predominant JDM. Treatment option A included hydroxychloroquine alone, Treatment option B included hydroxychloroquine and methotrexate, and Treatment option C included hydroxychloroquine, methotrexate and corticosteroids. Three CTPs were developed for use in children with skin predominant JDM, which reflect typical treatment approaches. These are not considered to be specific recommendations or standard of care. Using the CARRA network and prospective data collection, we will be able to apply statistical methods in the future to allow comparisons of JDM patients following these consensus treatment plans.

  13. [Chinese classical formulas Ephedra associated prescriptions for treatment of skin diseases].

    PubMed

    Fan, Yi-Ping; Xiong, Xing-Jiang

    2018-06-01

    Chinese classical formulas, firstly recorded in Shanghan Zabing Lun by Zhang Zhongjing in the Han dynasty, have been widely used by traditional Chinese medicine physicians for thousands of years due to its good compatibility, strict structures, significant clinical efficacy and less adverse effects. Ephedra associated prescriptions, widely used in the treatment of skin diseases, are famous representative prescriptions in Chinese classical formulas. The commonly used Ephedra associated prescriptions include Mahuang Lianqiao Chixiaodou decoction, Maxing Shigan decoction, Maxing Yigan decoction, Mahuang decoction, Mahuang Jiazhu decoction, Guizhi Mahuang Geban decoction, and Guizhi Eryue Biyi decoction. Skin allergy is an allergic reaction, manifested as erythema, papules, and itching. It has been identified that Guizhi Mahuang Geban decoction (1/2 Guizhi decoction + 1/2 Mahuang decoction) is effective in dispersing wind and cold, relieving exterior syndrome and dredging the collaterals, so it can be used to treat skin allergy caused by pathogenic wind-cold. Guizhi Eryue Biyi decoction (1/4 Guizhi decoction + 1/8 Yuebi decoction) is effective in dispersing wind and cold, relieving exterior syndrome and clearing heat, so it is mainly used for the syndrome of wind-cold tightening superficies and heat transformed from wind-cold. Additionally, Mahuang Lianqiao Chixiaodou decoction can relieve exterior syndrome, clear heat and remove dampness, mainly for the dampness and heat depression in the muscle surface. It is found that Guizhi Mahuang Geban decoction and Guizhi Eryue Biyi decoction have certain efficacy for skin allergies, while Mahuang Lianqiao Chixiaodou decoction has significant efficacy for urticaria, acute and chronic eczema, etc. It has been identified that if the conditions of Ephedra associated prescriptions are well mastered by traditional Chinese medicine physicians, they could be widely applied to treat exogenous diseases and miscellaneous diseases

  14. Potential of IL-1, IL-18 and Inflammasome Inhibition for the Treatment of Inflammatory Skin Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fenini, Gabriele; Contassot, Emmanuel; French, Lars E.

    2017-01-01

    In 2002, intracellular protein complexes known as the inflammasomes were discovered and were shown to have a crucial role in the sensing of intracellular pathogen- and danger-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and DAMPs). Activation of the inflammasomes results in the processing and subsequent secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Several autoinflammatory disorders such as cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes and Familial Mediterranean Fever have been associated with mutations of genes encoding inflammasome components. Moreover, the importance of IL-1 has been reported for an increasing number of autoinflammatory skin diseases including but not limited to deficiency of IL-1 receptor antagonist, mevalonate kinase deficiency and PAPA syndrome. Recent findings have revealed that excessive IL-1 release induced by harmful stimuli likely contributes to the pathogenesis of common dermatological diseases such as acne vulgaris or seborrheic dermatitis. A key pathogenic feature of these diseases is IL-1β-induced neutrophil recruitment to the skin. IL-1β blockade may therefore represent a promising therapeutic approach. Several case reports and clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of IL-1 inhibition in the treatment of these skin disorders. Next to the recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) Anakinra and the soluble decoy Rilonacept, the anti-IL-1α monoclonal antibody MABp1 and anti-IL-1β Canakinumab but also Gevokizumab, LY2189102 and P2D7KK, offer valid alternatives to target IL-1. Although less thoroughly investigated, an involvement of IL-18 in the development of cutaneous inflammatory disorders is also suspected. The present review describes the role of IL-1 in diseases with skin involvement and gives an overview of the relevant studies discussing the therapeutic potential of modulating the secretion and activity of IL-1 and IL-18 in such diseases. PMID:28588486

  15. Benefits of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) in skin photodamage: clinical response and histological assessment.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Ley, B; Cuevast, J; Alonso-Castro, L; Calvo, M I; Ríos-Buceta, L; Orive, G; Anitua, E; Jaén, P

    2015-01-01

    Skin ageing is characterized by small and fine wrinkles, roughness, laxity, and pigmentation as a result of epidermal thinning, collagen degradation, dermal atrophy, and fewer fibroblasts. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) is an autologous plasma preparation enriched in proteins obtained from patient's own blood aimed at accelerating tissue repair and regeneration. To evaluate the benefits of PRGF in skin photodamage, 10 healthy volunteers were treated with three consecutive intradermal injections of PRGF in the facial area. Clinical outcomes and histological analysis were performed. A statistically significant increase in the epidermis and papillary dermis thickness was seen after PRGF treatment (p < 0.001). Skin thickening was observed in all patients studied, being more intense in the group of patients with photodamage (p < 0.001). After PRGF treatment, a reduction of the average area fraction of solar elastosis was observed in patients with clinical and histological signs of skin photodamage (p < 0.05).No changeswere observed in the number of CD31, XIIIa factor, cKit, CD10, nor p53-positive cells. The improvement score after PRGF use was 0.75 (9/12) for the group of patients with signs of skin photodamage. Intradermal PRGF infiltration appears to be an effective treatment for the photodamaged skin. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The skin aging index: a new approach for documenting anti-aging products or procedures.

    PubMed

    Nkengne, Alex; Roure, Romain; Rossi, Ana Beatriz; Bertin, Christiane

    2013-08-01

    The overall appearance of an aged skin is characterized by a combination of several attributes such as wrinkles, brown spots and sagging. Our objective was to develop and validate a statistical framework to assess the overall anti-ageing benefits of products/procedures. Different skin attributes were evaluated by a clinical grader and combined using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The Skin Ageing Index was defined as the normalized projection of the clinical grading values on the first PCA axis. Several Skin Indexes were built by grouping specific parameters related to a skin condition such as overall ageing, wrinkles and sagging. The method was validated following two steps. Firstly, a clinical study was performed on 173 Caucasian women and the correlation between the Skin Indexes and the volunteers' real and perceived age was estimated. Secondly, a double-blinded placebo-controlled randomized study was performed on 87 Caucasian women to assess the efficacy of an anti-wrinkle cream containing retinol, hyaluronic acid and dihydroxymethylchromone. Facial wrinkles were clinically evaluated and a Wrinkle Index was built. All indexes were highly correlated with the real and the perceived age (0.57 ≤ Pearson R ≤ 0.92, P-value ≤ 0.05). Finally, the Wrinkle Index provides documented evidence that the tested product significantly reduced the appearance of wrinkles versus the placebo and the baseline assessment (-23.53% after 4 weeks, -27.83% after 8 weeks). Skin ageing Indexes capture information relevant to the visual transformation of facial skin with age, while providing documented product benefits. These tools may enable a simpler and more consistent comparison of anti-ageing products/procedures. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Chemical Peeling with a Modified Phenol Formula for the Treatment of Facial Freckles on Asian Skin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hua-Feng; Lu, Hai-Shan; Sun, Le-Qi; Ping, Wei-Dong; Mao, Dong-Sheng; Li, Dan

    2018-04-01

    Chemical peeling is an efficient method for the treatment of pigment disorders. For freckles, medium-depth to deep peeling using a phenol solution is one of the most effective chemical peels, and modifications of facial skin can be observed up to 20 years after peeling. However, applying phenol to the skin may cause serious side effects. Phenol peeling has been rarely used in Asia due to its tendency to cause permanent pigmentary changes and hypertrophic scars. In total, 896 Chinese inpatients with facial freckles were enrolled in this study. The phenol formula was modified with crystalline phenol, dyclonine, camphor, anhydrous alcohol and glycerin and adjusted to a concentration of 73.6-90.0%. The entire peeling treatment was divided into two procedures performed separately on 2 days. All patients exhibited 26% or greater improvement, and 99.66% of patients exhibited 51% or greater improvement (good and excellent). Scarring and systemic complications were not observed in any patient. The modified phenol formula is very effective and safe for the treatment of facial freckles in Asian patients. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  18. New Perspectives in the Pharmacological Treatment of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer.

    PubMed

    Savoia, Paola; Cremona, Ottavio; Fava, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers are the most common malignancy in humans, with a basal/squamous cell carcinoma incidence ratio of 4:1 in immunocompetent patients. Basal cell carcinoma rarely metastasizes but commonly causes significant local tissue destruction and disfigurement, whereas squamous cell carcinoma is associated with a substantial risk of recurrence and metastasis; the prognosis in metastatic patients is poor. Surgical approaches give a cure rate greater than 90% if appropriately applied, on the basis of the characteristics of the primary tumors and of the patients, but in selected cases, medical treatment (5-fluorouracil, imiquimod, diclofenac and, more recently, ingenol mebutate) is preferable to invasive procedures and provides a good chance of cure, with generally excellent cosmetic outcomes. In case of advanced and metastatic non-melanoma skin cancer, newly developed molecularly targeted therapy represents a reasonably promising alternative to classical cytostatics. In particular, the monoclonal antibody cetuximab, directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor, is effective and well-tolerated in squamous cell carcinoma patients. Moreover, the recent identification of mutations in the Hedgehog signaling pathway in basal cell carcinoma lead to the development of the smoothened Hedgehog pathway inhibitor vismodegib, that was recently approved for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic basal cell carcinoma. In this review we provide an overview of the molecular pathways involved in NMSC pathogenesis, focusing on the mechanisms of action, indications, efficacy, side effects and contraindications of new medical treatments that specifically tackle molecular targets of these pathways.

  19. Topical photodynamic therapy with 5-ALA in the treatment of arsenic-induced skin tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karrer, Sigrid; Szeimies, Rolf-Markus; Landthaler, Michael

    1995-03-01

    A case of a 62-year-old woman suffering from psoriasis who was treated orally with arsenic 25 years ago is reported. The cumulative dose of arsenic trioxide was 800 mg. Since 10 years ago arsenic keratoses, basal cell carcinomas, Bowen's disease and invasive squamous cell carcinomas mainly on her hands and feet have developed, skin changes were clearly a sequence of arsenic therapy. Control of disease was poor, her right little finger had to be amputated. Topical photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid was performed on her right hand. Clinical and histological examinations 6 months after treatment showed an excellent cosmetic result with no signs of tumor residue.

  20. The allergy and immunology specialist: what is the role in the treatment of skin disease?

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, Ernest N

    2004-10-01

    The practice of medicine transcends our neat borders of demarcation between the myriad of medical specialties and medical disciplines. There are no two specialties in which this clinical interface is more blurred than the clinical interface between allergy and dermatology. With a background in both dermatology and allergy, I address where the specialty of allergy/ immunology is heading, as we navigate the coastal waters separating my two primary disciplines. I also discuss the tools traditionally used only in dermatology, which are now being used increasing by a vanguard of allergists to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of allergic skin disease.

  1. Single-dose oritavancin in the treatment of acute bacterial skin infections.

    PubMed

    Corey, G Ralph; Kabler, Heidi; Mehra, Purvi; Gupta, Sandeep; Overcash, J Scott; Porwal, Ashwin; Giordano, Philip; Lucasti, Christopher; Perez, Antonio; Good, Samantha; Jiang, Hai; Moeck, Greg; O'Riordan, William

    2014-06-05

    Oritavancin is a lipoglycopeptide with bactericidal activity against gram-positive bacteria. Its concentration-dependent activity and prolonged half-life allow for single-dose treatment. We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial in which adults with acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections received either a single intravenous dose of 1200 mg of oritavancin or a regimen of intravenous vancomycin twice daily for 7 to 10 days. Three efficacy end points were tested for noninferiority. The primary composite end point was defined as cessation of spreading or reduction in lesion size, absence of fever, and no need for administration of a rescue antibiotic 48 to 72 hours after administration of oritavancin. Secondary end points were clinical cure 7 to 14 days after the end of treatment, as determined by a study investigator, and a reduction in lesion size of 20% or more 48 to 72 hours after administration of oritavancin. The modified intention-to-treat population comprised 475 patients who received oritavancin and 479 patients who received vancomycin. All three efficacy end points met the prespecified noninferiority margin of 10 percentage points for oritavancin versus vancomycin: primary end point, 82.3% versus 78.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] for the difference, -1.6 to 8.4 percentage points); investigator-assessed clinical cure, 79.6% versus 80.0% (95% CI for the difference, -5.5 to 4.7 percentage points); and proportion of patients with a reduction in lesion area of 20% or more, 86.9% versus 82.9% (95% CI for the difference, -0.5 to 8.6 percentage points). Efficacy outcomes measured according to type of pathogen, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, were similar in the two treatment groups. The overall frequency of adverse events was also similar, although nausea was more common among those treated with oritavancin. A single dose of oritavancin was noninferior to twice-daily vancomycin administered for 7 to 10 days for the treatment

  2. RADIATION HAZARD IN THE TREATMENT OF SKIN DISEASES WITH THORIUM X

    SciTech Connect

    Wiskemann, A.; Janssen, U.

    Possible hazards, particularly to the dermatologist and his assistants, in the use of local applications of thorium X (Ra/sup 224/) in salves and ointments for the treatment of skin diseases, such as psoriasis, nevus flammeus, and lichen ruber verrucosus, were assessed. The decay scheme of thorium X through its daughter products (thoron and thorium A, B, C, C', C", and D), the half lives of the products, and their emission characteristics are discussed. Studies in rats showed that topically applied ointment containing thorium X leads to measurable blood levels of radioactivity and deposition of daughter products in various tissues, includingmore » gonads. Radioautographs of rat lung and ovary demonstrated alpha -particle tracks in various tissue constituents. In humans receiving skin treatments with 1000 units thorium X (70 mu C/cm/sup 3/) the blood dose reached 2 rem, from which it was estimated that the whole-body dose would be approximates 3 rem/yr. In the treatment of a number of patients with a total of 30000 units thorium X, it was calculated that the whole-body to the person giving the treatment would be approximates 15 mr, although at chest level as much as 473 mr would be received. However, this is only 1/4 to 1/7 the permissible weekly gamma dose. Use of film dosimeters by persons applying treatments showed that the permissible dose was not being exceeded. Measurements of the radiation dose received by the personnel showed that it is mostly from inhalation of air in the treatment room. (TCO)« less

  3. Thread Embedding Acupuncture Inhibits Ultraviolet B Irradiation-Induced Skin Photoaging in Hairless Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon-Jung; Kim, Ha-Neui; Shin, Mi-Sook; Choi, Byung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Thread embedding acupuncture (TEA) is an acupuncture treatment applied to many diseases in Korean medical clinics because of its therapeutic effects by continuous stimulation to tissues. It has recently been used to enhance facial skin appearance and antiaging, but data from evidence-based medicine are limited. To investigate whether TEA therapy can inhibit skin photoaging by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation, we performed analyses for histology, histopathology, in situ zymography and western blot analysis in HR-1 hairless mice. TEA treatment resulted in decreased wrinkle formation and skin thickness (Epidermis; P = 0.001 versus UV) in UVB irradiated mice and also inhibited degradation of collagen fibers (P = 0.010 versus normal) by inhibiting proteolytic activity of gelatinase matrix-metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Western blot data showed that activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) induced by UVB (P = 0.002 versus normal group) was significantly inhibited by TEA treatment (P = 0.005 versus UV) with subsequent alleviation of MMP-9 activation (P = 0.048 versus UV). These results suggest that TEA treatment can have anti-photoaging effects on UVB-induced skin damage by maintenance of collagen density through regulation of expression of MMP-9 and related JNK signaling. Therefore, TEA therapy may have potential roles as an alternative treatment for protection against skin damage from aging.

  4. Thread Embedding Acupuncture Inhibits Ultraviolet B Irradiation-Induced Skin Photoaging in Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon-Jung; Kim, Ha-Neui; Shin, Mi-Sook; Choi, Byung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Thread embedding acupuncture (TEA) is an acupuncture treatment applied to many diseases in Korean medical clinics because of its therapeutic effects by continuous stimulation to tissues. It has recently been used to enhance facial skin appearance and antiaging, but data from evidence-based medicine are limited. To investigate whether TEA therapy can inhibit skin photoaging by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation, we performed analyses for histology, histopathology, in situ zymography and western blot analysis in HR-1 hairless mice. TEA treatment resulted in decreased wrinkle formation and skin thickness (Epidermis; P = 0.001 versus UV) in UVB irradiated mice and also inhibited degradation of collagen fibers (P = 0.010 versus normal) by inhibiting proteolytic activity of gelatinase matrix-metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Western blot data showed that activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) induced by UVB (P = 0.002 versus normal group) was significantly inhibited by TEA treatment (P = 0.005 versus UV) with subsequent alleviation of MMP-9 activation (P = 0.048 versus UV). These results suggest that TEA treatment can have anti-photoaging effects on UVB-induced skin damage by maintenance of collagen density through regulation of expression of MMP-9 and related JNK signaling. Therefore, TEA therapy may have potential roles as an alternative treatment for protection against skin damage from aging. PMID:26185518

  5. Reduction of facial wrinkles by hydrolyzed water-soluble egg membrane associated with reduction of free radical stress and support of matrix production by dermal fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Gitte S; Shah, Bijal; Holtz, Robert; Patel, Ashok; Lo, Donald C

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of water-soluble egg membrane (WSEM) on wrinkle reduction in a clinical pilot study and to elucidate specific mechanisms of action using primary human immune and dermal cell-based bioassays. Methods To evaluate the effects of topical application of WSEM (8%) on human skin, an open-label 8-week study was performed involving 20 healthy females between the age of 45 years and 65 years. High-resolution photography and digital analysis were used to evaluate the wrinkle depth in the facial skin areas beside the eye (crow’s feet). WSEM was tested for total antioxidant capacity and effects on the formation of reactive oxygen species by human polymorphonuclear cells. Human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) were used for quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of the antioxidant response element genes Nqo1, Gclm, Gclc, and Hmox1. Evaluation of effects on human primary dermal fibroblasts in vitro included cellular viability and production of the matrix components collagen and elastin. Results Topical use of a WSEM-containing facial cream for 8 weeks resulted in a significant reduction of wrinkle depth (P<0.05). WSEM contained antioxidants and reduced the formation of reactive oxygen species by inflammatory cells in vitro. Despite lack of a quantifiable effect on Nrf2, WSEM induced the gene expression of downstream Nqo1, Gclm, Gclc, and Hmox1 in human keratinocytes. Human dermal fibroblasts treated with WSEM produced more collagen and elastin than untreated cells or cells treated with dbcAMP control. The increase in collagen production was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion The topical use of WSEM on facial skin significantly reduced the wrinkle depth. The underlying mechanisms of this effect may be related to protection from free radical damage at the cellular level and induction of several antioxidant response elements, combined with stimulation of human dermal fibroblasts to secrete high levels of

  6. Biomarkers of skin toxicity induced by anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody treatment in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Akiko; Hashimoto, Hironobu; Takahashi, Naoki; Yamada, Yasuhide

    2016-01-14

    Skin toxicity is a common symptom of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody treatment and is also a predictive marker of its efficacy in colorectal cancer patients. However, severe skin disorders induced by such antibodies negatively impact on the quality of life of patients and decreases drug compliance during treatment. If we can predict the high-risk group susceptible to severe skin toxicity before treatment, we can undertake the early management of any arising skin disorders and formulate a more accurate prognosis for anti-EGFR antibody treatment. Previous studies have identified molecular markers of skin toxicity induced by anti-EGFR antibody, such as EGFR polymorphisms, the expression of inflammatory chemokines and serum levels of EGFR ligands. A clinical trial was undertaken involving the escalation of cetuximab doses, guided by the grade of skin toxicity observed, such as no or low-grade, in metastatic colorectal cancer (the EVEREST study). The dose escalation of cetuximab was confirmed by a safety profile and had the tendency to achieve a higher response rate in KRAS wild-type patients. A large, prospective randomized trial is now ongoing (EVEREST 2) and the results of this trial may contribute to personalized medicine in KRAS wild-type colorectal cancer patients.

  7. Biomarkers of skin toxicity induced by anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody treatment in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Akiko; Hashimoto, Hironobu; Takahashi, Naoki; Yamada, Yasuhide

    2016-01-01

    Skin toxicity is a common symptom of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody treatment and is also a predictive marker of its efficacy in colorectal cancer patients. However, severe skin disorders induced by such antibodies negatively impact on the quality of life of patients and decreases drug compliance during treatment. If we can predict the high-risk group susceptible to severe skin toxicity before treatment, we can undertake the early management of any arising skin disorders and formulate a more accurate prognosis for anti-EGFR antibody treatment. Previous studies have identified molecular markers of skin toxicity induced by anti-EGFR antibody, such as EGFR polymorphisms, the expression of inflammatory chemokines and serum levels of EGFR ligands. A clinical trial was undertaken involving the escalation of cetuximab doses, guided by the grade of skin toxicity observed, such as no or low-grade, in metastatic colorectal cancer (the EVEREST study). The dose escalation of cetuximab was confirmed by a safety profile and had the tendency to achieve a higher response rate in KRAS wild-type patients. A large, prospective randomized trial is now ongoing (EVEREST 2) and the results of this trial may contribute to personalized medicine in KRAS wild-type colorectal cancer patients. PMID:26811634

  8. Evaluation of a new topical skin protectant (RD1433) for the prevention and treatment of incontinence-associated dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matar, Hazem; Larner, Joanne; Viegas, Vanessa; Kansagra, Sneha; Atkinson, Karen L; Shetage, Satyajit; Skamarauskas, John T; Theivendran, Baveetharan; Goldman, Virginia S; Chilcott, Robert P

    2017-09-01

    Context Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) is a type of moisture-associated dermatitis caused by repeated skin exposure to urine or stool. A product that could mitigate such symptoms would have a significant impact on cost of care and patients' quality of life. Objective This study compared the clinical efficacy of RD1433 and a comparator product (Vaseline®) in preventing and treating experimental IAD skin lesions. Materials and methods For the "prevention" part of the study, skin sites in eight human volunteers were treated daily for 5 d with either RD1433 or Vaseline® immediately prior to synthetic urine exposure. In the "treatment" part, exposure to synthetic urine was substituted for Vaseline® or RD1433 application on the first 2 d to promote the development of skin lesions prior to the application of the products from day three. Product efficacy was quantified by visual scoring and an array of biophysical instruments. Results Both RD1433 and Vaseline® significantly reduced lesion progression when applied as a prophylactic. When applied as a treatment (following establishment of skin lesions), RD1433 demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in several measures of skin function whereas there was no statistically significant improvement following treatment with Vaseline®. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that RD1433 may be superior to Vaseline® in the prevention and treatment of experimental IAD lesions. Clearly, further work is required to establish the efficacy of RD1433 with patients in a clinical environment.

  9. Immunosuppressive macrolides of the type FK 506: a novel class of topical agents for treatment of skin diseases?

    PubMed

    Meingassner, J G; Stütz, A

    1992-06-01

    The immunosuppressive macrolide antibiotics FK 506 and rapamycin were tested for topical activity in experimental allergic contact dermatitis of farm pigs. This species was used because pig skin, in comparison to rodent skin, resembles human skin more closely. For comparison, cyclosporine A (CyA), which is orally but not topically active in patients with skin disease, dexamethasone, and clobetasol propionate were used. Treatment was performed twice, 30 min and 6 h after elicitation of challenge reaction. Topical application of 0.4 to 0.04% FK 506 caused a pronounced inhibition of inflammatory skin reactions of hypersensitivity to dinitrofluorobenzene. The treatment response was similar to the activity of 0.13% clobetasole. Dexamethasone (1.2%) was less active than clobetasol. In contrast, rapamycin and CyA were inactive at concentrations of 1.2 and 10%, respectively. Because the pig data on corticosteroids and cyclosporine A are in agreement with clinical findings, these studies indicate that immunosuppressive macrolides of the type FK 506 may be useful drugs for the topical treatment of human skin diseases that respond to local corticosteroids and oral treatment with cyclosporine A.

  10. The Potential of Plant Phenolics in Prevention and Therapy of Skin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Działo, Magdalena; Mierziak, Justyna; Korzun, Urszula; Preisner, Marta; Szopa, Jan; Kulma, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds constitute a group of secondary metabolites which have important functions in plants. Besides the beneficial effects on the plant host, phenolic metabolites (polyphenols) exhibit a series of biological properties that influence the human in a health-promoting manner. Evidence suggests that people can benefit from plant phenolics obtained either by the diet or through skin application, because they can alleviate symptoms and inhibit the development of various skin disorders. Due to their natural origin and low toxicity, phenolic compounds are a promising tool in eliminating the causes and effects of skin aging, skin diseases, and skin damage, including wounds and burns. Polyphenols also act protectively and help prevent or attenuate the progression of certain skin disorders, both embarrassing minor problems (e.g., wrinkles, acne) or serious, potentially life-threatening diseases such as cancer. This paper reviews the latest reports on the potential therapy of skin disorders through treatment with phenolic compounds, considering mostly a single specific compound or a combination of compounds in a plant extract. PMID:26901191

  11. The Potential of Plant Phenolics in Prevention and Therapy of Skin Disorders.

    PubMed

    Działo, Magdalena; Mierziak, Justyna; Korzun, Urszula; Preisner, Marta; Szopa, Jan; Kulma, Anna

    2016-02-18

    Phenolic compounds constitute a group of secondary metabolites which have important functions in plants. Besides the beneficial effects on the plant host, phenolic metabolites (polyphenols) exhibit a series of biological properties that influence the human in a health-promoting manner. Evidence suggests that people can benefit from plant phenolics obtained either by the diet or through skin application, because they can alleviate symptoms and inhibit the development of various skin disorders. Due to their natural origin and low toxicity, phenolic compounds are a promising tool in eliminating the causes and effects of skin aging, skin diseases, and skin damage, including wounds and burns. Polyphenols also act protectively and help prevent or attenuate the progression of certain skin disorders, both embarrassing minor problems (e.g., wrinkles, acne) or serious, potentially life-threatening diseases such as cancer. This paper reviews the latest reports on the potential therapy of skin disorders through treatment with phenolic compounds, considering mostly a single specific compound or a combination of compounds in a plant extract.

  12. CFD Analysis of an Installation Used to Measure the Skin-Friction Penalty of Acoustic Treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalart, Philippe R.; Garbaruk, Andrey; Howerton, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    There is a drive to devise acoustic treatments with reduced skin-friction and therefore fuel-burn penalty for engine nacelles on commercial airplanes. The studies have been experimental, and the effects on skin-friction are deduced from measurements of the pressure drop along a duct. We conduct a detailed CFD analysis of the installation, for two purposes. The first is to predict the effects of the finite size of the rig, including its near-square cross-section and the moderate length of the treated patch; this introduces transient and blockage effects, which have not been included so far in the analysis. In addition, the flow is compressible, so that even with homogeneous surface conditions, it is not homogeneous in the streamwise direction. The second purpose is to extract an effective sand-grain roughness size for a particular liner, which in turn can be used in a CFD analysis of the aircraft, leading to actual predictions of the effect of acoustic treatments on fuel burn in service. The study is entirely based on classical turbulence models, with an appropriate modification for effective roughness effects, rather than directly modeling the liners.

  13. Combined Treatments with Photodynamic Therapy for Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lucena, Silvia Rocío; Salazar, Nerea; Gracia-Cazaña, Tamara; Zamarrón, Alicia; González, Salvador; Juarranz, Ángeles; Gilaberte, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common form of cancer in the Caucasian population. Among NMSC types, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has the highest incidence and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is less common although it can metastasize, accounting for the majority of NMSC-related deaths. Treatment options for NMSC include both surgical and non-surgical modalities. Even though surgical approaches are most commonly used to treat these lesions, Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) has the advantage of being a non-invasive option, and capable of field treatment, providing optimum cosmetic outcomes. Numerous clinical research studies have shown the efficacy of PDT for treating pre-malignant and malignant NMSC. However, resistant or recurrent tumors appear and sometimes become more aggressive. In this sense, the enhancement of PDT effectiveness by combining it with other therapeutic modalities has become an interesting field in NMSC research. Depending on the characteristics and the type of tumor, PDT can be applied in combination with immunomodulatory (Imiquimod) and chemotherapeutic (5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, diclofenac, or ingenol mebutate) agents, inhibitors of some molecules implicated in the carcinogenic process (COX2 or MAPK), surgical techniques, or even radiotherapy. These new strategies open the way to a wider improvement of the prevention and eradication of skin cancer. PMID:26516853

  14. Combined Treatments with Photodynamic Therapy for Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Silvia Rocío; Salazar, Nerea; Gracia-Cazaña, Tamara; Zamarrón, Alicia; González, Salvador; Juarranz, Ángeles; Gilaberte, Yolanda

    2015-10-28

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common form of cancer in the Caucasian population. Among NMSC types, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has the highest incidence and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is less common although it can metastasize, accounting for the majority of NMSC-related deaths. Treatment options for NMSC include both surgical and non-surgical modalities. Even though surgical approaches are most commonly used to treat these lesions, Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) has the advantage of being a non-invasive option, and capable of field treatment, providing optimum cosmetic outcomes. Numerous clinical research studies have shown the efficacy of PDT for treating pre-malignant and malignant NMSC. However, resistant or recurrent tumors appear and sometimes become more aggressive. In this sense, the enhancement of PDT effectiveness by combining it with other therapeutic modalities has become an interesting field in NMSC research. Depending on the characteristics and the type of tumor, PDT can be applied in combination with immunomodulatory (Imiquimod) and chemotherapeutic (5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, diclofenac, or ingenol mebutate) agents, inhibitors of some molecules implicated in the carcinogenic process (COX2 or MAPK), surgical techniques, or even radiotherapy. These new strategies open the way to a wider improvement of the prevention and eradication of skin cancer.

  15. Chronic Pruritus in the Absence of Skin Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Manuel P; Kremer, Andreas E; Mettang, Thomas; Ständer, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    Chronic pruritus arises not only from dermatoses, but also, in up to half of cases, from extracutaneous origins. A multitude of systemic, neurological, psychiatric, and somatoform conditions are associated with pruritus in the absence of skin disease. Moreover, pruritus is a frequently observed side effect of many drugs. It is therefore difficult for physicians to make a correct diagnosis. Chronic pruritus patients frequently present to the dermatologist with skin lesions secondary to a long-lasting scratching behavior, such as lichenification and prurigo nodularis. A structured clinical history and physical examination are essential in order to evaluate the pruritus, along with systematic, medical history-adapted laboratory and radiological tests carried out according to the differential diagnosis. For therapeutic reasons, a symptomatic therapy should be promptly initiated parallel to the diagnostic procedures. Once the underlying factor(s) leading to the pruritus are identified, a targeted therapy should be implemented. Importantly, the treatment of accompanying disorders such as sleep disturbances or mental symptoms should be taken into consideration. Even after successful treatment of the underlying cause, pruritus may persist, likely due to chronicity processes including peripheral and central sensitization or impaired inhibition at spinal level. A vast arsenal of topical and systemic agents targeting these pathophysiological mechanisms has been used to deter further chronicity. The therapeutic options currently available are, however, still insufficient for many patients. Thus, future studies aiming to unveil the complex mechanisms underlying chronic pruritus and develop new therapeutic agents are urgently needed.

  16. Pharmacokinetic drug evaluation of tedizolid for the treatment of skin infections.

    PubMed

    McBride, Darrell; Krekel, Tamara; Hsueh, Kevin; Durkin, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    Tedizolid is indicated for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). Although tedizolid shares many similar properties with linezolid, another oxazolidinone used to treat ABSSSI, the two antibiotics have several key differences. Areas covered: This review provides a detailed summary of the overall pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, and safety of tedizolid for the treatment of ABSSSI. Expert opinion: Compared to other antibiotics used for ABSSSI, tedizolid has several advantages. Tedizolid has a long half-life, allowing for once daily dosing. Tedizolid also has broad spectrum of activity against Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Coagulase-negative Staphylococci, and Enterococci - including isolates demonstrating resistance to linezolid. It is available in both oral and intravenous formulations, and, has outstanding oral bioavailability, allowing for oral-step down therapy. There is also some evidence that, tedizolid has fewer significant interactions with serotonin reuptake inhibitors or monoamine oxidase inhibitors than linezolid. Finally, thrombocytopenia may occur less often with tedizolid than linezolid. However, these benefits must be weighed against the financial cost of tedizolid and the availability of alternative antibiotic choices.

  17. Disintegration of the self and the regeneration of 'psychic skin' in the treatment of traumatized refugees.

    PubMed

    Luci, Monica

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a tentative understanding of the characteristics of the extreme traumas, elsewhere called 'complex PTSD', that some refugees and asylum-seekers bring into therapy. It suggests that these kinds of traumas suffered during adulthood may involve a disintegration of the self and a loss of 'psychic skin'. This conceptualization is derived from the treatment of a refugee who survived multiple extreme traumas and with whom efforts were made in therapy to identify a complex methodology making use of supplementary therapeutic tools in addition to individual psychotherapy. The case demonstrates how the disintegration of self implies not only a deep somato-psychic dissociation, but also a loss of intrapsychic and interpersonal space. In the treatment this was worked through via repetition of the victim-aggressor dynamics at multiple levels. In the end, the therapeutic context was structured like a set of concentric layers, creating a 'bandage' over the patient's wounds whilst his 'psychic skin' was able to regenerate. The conditions triggered by extreme traumas in refugees challenge some of the cornerstones of individual psychoanalytic technique, as well as the idea that individual therapy may be thought of as existing in an environmental vacuum. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  18. Wrinkling of graphene membranes supported by silica nanoparticles on substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Mahito; Cullen, William; Fuhrer, Michael; Einstein, Theodore; Department of Physics, University of Maryland Team

    2011-03-01

    The challenging endeavor of modulating the morphology of graphene via a patterned substrate to produce a controlled deformation has great potential importance for strain engineering the electronic properties of graphene. An essential step in this direction is to understand the response of graphene to substrate features of known geometry. Here we employ silica nanoparticles with a diameter of 10-100 nm to uniformly decorate Si O2 and mica substrates before depositing graphene, to promote nanoscale modulation of graphene geometry. The morphology of graphene on this modified substrate is then characterized by atomic force spectroscopy. We find that graphene on the substrate is locally raised by the supporting nanoparticles, and wrinkling propagates radially from the protrusions to form a ridge network which links the protrusions. We discuss the dependence of the wrinkled morphology on nanoparticle diameter and graphene thickness in terms of graphene elasticity and adhesion energy. Supported by NSF-MRSEC, Grant DMR 05-20471

  19. Simulating Thin Sheets: Buckling, Wrinkling, Folding and Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Roman; Stoop, Norbert; Wittel, Falk K.; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2014-03-01

    Numerical simulations of thin sheets undergoing large deformations are computationally challenging. Depending on the scenario, they may spontaneously buckle, wrinkle, fold, or crumple. Nature's thin tissues often experience significant anisotropic growth, which can act as the driving force for such instabilities. We use a recently developed finite element model to simulate the rich variety of nonlinear responses of Kirchhoff-Love sheets. The model uses subdivision surface shape functions in order to guarantee convergence of the method, and to allow a finite element description of anisotropically growing sheets in the classical Rayleigh-Ritz formalism. We illustrate the great potential in this approach by simulating the inflation of airbags, the buckling of a stretched cylinder, as well as the formation and scaling of wrinkles at free boundaries of growing sheets. Finally, we compare the folding of spatially confined sheets subject to growth and shrinking confinement to find that the two processes are equivalent.

  20. Wrinkles enhance the diffuse reflection from the dragonfly Rhyothemis resplendens

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, M. R.; Orr, A. G.; Vukusic, P.

    2015-01-01

    The dorsal surfaces of the hindwings of the dragonfly Rhyothemis resplendens (Odonata: Libellulidae) reflect a deep blue from the multilayer structure in its wing membrane. The layers within this structure are not flat, but distinctly ‘wrinkled’, with a thickness of several hundred nanometres and interwrinkle crest distances of 5 µm and greater. A comparison between the backscattered light from R. resplendens and a similar, but un-‘wrinkled’ multilayer in the damselfly Matronoides cyaneipennis (Odonata: Calopterygidae) shows that the angle over which incident light is backscattered is increased by the wrinkling in the R. resplendens structure. Whereas the reflection from the flat multilayer of M. cyaneipennis is effectively specular, the reflection from the wrinkled R. resplendens multilayer spans 1.47 steradians (equivalent to ±40° for all azimuthal angles). This property enhances the visibility of the static wing over a broader angle range than is normally associated with a smooth multilayer, thereby markedly increasing its conspicuousness. PMID:25540236

  1. Noninvasive measurement of advanced glycation end-products in the facial skin: New data for skin aging studies.

    PubMed

    Qu, Di; Venzon, Dawna; Murray, Mary; Depauw, Mathew

    Using skin autofluorescence (SAF) as a marker of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) has been extensively studied in the last decade since the introduction of the noninvasive in vivo measurement technique. Data have shown the level of skin AGEs increases with chronological age in healthy human beings, and this increase is substantially higher in age-matched diabetic patients. In skin research, glycation with the accompanying accumulation of skin AGEs has been regarded as one of the primary skin aging mechanisms that contribute to skin wrinkling and the loss of skin elasticity. To date, the totality of SAF data reported in literature has been obtained from measurements on the arm, and noninvasive measurement of facial skin AGE accumulation would add great value to skin aging research. In this study, we report the levels of facial and forearm skin AGEs in 239 men and women of 21-65 year of age. Significantly lower levels of AGEs were detected in the facial skin than in the forearm skin from the young Caucasian groups, and the difference was much larger for men than for women. The rate of change in skin AGE level over age was found to be about 50% higher in men than in women, which further highlights the gender difference. A statistically significant correlation between the levels of skin AGE and facial wrinkling was also observed. The facial skin AGE data may provide new insight into skin aging research.

  2. Fracture characterization of inhomogeneous wrinkled metallic films deposited on soft substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishida, Hiroshi; Ishizaka, Satoshi; Nagakura, Takumi; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yonezu, Akio

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the fracture properties of wrinkled metallic films on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft substrate. In particular, the crack density of the wrinkled film during tensile deformation was examined. In order to achieve better deformability of metallic thin films, a method to fabricate a wrinkled thin film on a PDMS soft substrate was first established. The copper (Cu) nano-film fabricated in this study possessed a wrinkled geometry, which plays a critical role in determining the extent of large elastic deformation. To create the wrinkled structure, wet-etching with a polymeric sacrificial layer was used. A sacrificial layer was first deposited onto a silicone rubber sheet. During the curing process of the layer, a compressive strain was applied such that the hardened surface layer buckled, and a wrinkled form was obtained. Subsequently, a PDMS solution was used to cover the layer in order to form a wrinkled PDMS substrate. Finally, the Cu film was deposited onto the wrinkled PDMS, such that the wrinkled Cu film on a soft PDMS substrate was fabricated. The use of uni-axial tensile tests resulted in film crack generation at the stress concentration zone in the wrinkled structure of the films. When the tensile loading was increased, the number of cracks increased. It was found that the increase in crack density was strongly related to the inhomogeneous nature of the wrinkled structure. Such a trend in crack density was investigated using FEM (finite element method) computations, such that this study established a simple mechanical model that may be used to predict the increase in crack density during tensile deformation. This model was verified through several experiments using various wrinkle patterns. The proposed mechanical model may be useful to predict the crack density of a wrinkled metallic film subject to tensile loading.

  3. Survey on skin aging status and related influential factors in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-na; Fang, Hong; Zhu, Wei-fang

    2009-01-01

    To investigate cutaneous aging patterns of residents in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, and their contributing factors. Eight hundred and forty-eight Hangzhou residents received the survey between March 2004 and September 2004. Facial wrinkling first occurred at 21 years of age and skin elasticity began to lose at 22 years of age. In middle-aged and old people, facial wrinkling and looseness escalated with the increase of ultraviolet (UV)-exposure time, indicating the accelerating effect of a higher accumulative dose of UV radiation on skin aging. Only Fitzpatrick types II, III and IV were found in the skin phototypes of residents in Hangzhou area, and Fitzpatrick type II seemed to be much more subject to severe wrinkling, elasticity destruction and skin tumors than types III and IV. The oily skin was more protected against wrinkling and facial looseness than dry skin. However, as to concomitant cutaneous diseases, no difference was found among different skin types. Age, solar-exposure time, Fitzpatrick type and skin type are the associated forces in promoting skin aging, and emotional factor seems to be another independent risk factor. The age of 49 years and 2 h/d of solar-exposure time seem to be the turning points responsible for dramatic changes of cutaneous appearance in the process of skin aging in Southeast China.

  4. Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance Consensus Clinical Treatment Plans for Juvenile Dermatomyositis with Persistent Skin Rash.

    PubMed

    Huber, Adam M; Kim, Susan; Reed, Ann M; Carrasco, Ruy; Feldman, Brian M; Hong, Sandy D; Kahn, Philip; Rahimi, Homaira; Robinson, Angela Byun; Vehe, Richard K; Weiss, Jennifer E; Spencer, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is the most common form of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy in children. While outcomes are generally thought to be good, persistence of skin rash is a common problem. The goal of this study was to describe the development of clinical treatment plans (CTP) for children with JDM characterized by persistent skin rash despite complete resolution of muscle involvement. The Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance, a North American consortium of pediatric rheumatologists and other healthcare providers, used a combination of Delphi surveys and nominal group consensus meetings to develop CTP that reflected consensus on typical treatments for patients with JDM with persistent skin rash. Consensus was reached on patient characteristics and outcome assessment. Patients should have previously received corticosteroids and methotrexate (MTX). Three consensus treatment plans were developed. Plan A added intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) if it was not already being used. Plan B added mycophenolate mofetil, while Plan C added cyclosporine. Continuation of previous treatments, including corticosteroids, MTX, and IVIG, was permitted in plans B and C. Three consensus CTP were developed for use in children with JDM and persistent skin rash despite complete resolution of muscle disease. These CTP reflect typical treatment approaches and are not to be considered treatment recommendations or standard of care. Using prospective data collection and statistical methods to account for nonrandom treatment assignment, it is expected that these CTP will be used to allow treatment comparisons, and ultimately determine the best treatment for these patients.

  5. Impact of systemic alitretinoin treatment on skin barrier gene and protein expression in patients with chronic hand eczema.

    PubMed

    Kumari, V; Timm, K; Kühl, A A; Heine, G; Worm, M

    2016-12-01

    Chronic hand eczema (CHE) is a common inflammatory skin disease that affects approximately 10% of the population. Systemic alitretinoin has been shown to be effective in patients with CHE who are refractory to topical corticosteroids. To analyse the impact of alitretinoin on the skin barrier genes and protein expression in the skin lesions of patients with CHE. Fifteen patients with CHE were treated with 30 mg daily of alitretinoin for up to 27 weeks. Disease severity was assessed using a clinical score. Skin biopsies from all the patients were evaluated before and after therapy for the expression of Ki-67, various skin barrier genes and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. After alitretinoin application, an improvement in the clinical severity of CHE was observed in the majority of patients. Analysis of skin biopsies before treatment showed a significant increase in Ki-67-positive cells in the suprabasal layer and a dysregulated expression of various skin barrier genes, such as claudin 1, loricrin, filaggrin and cytokeratin 10, which were normalized after treatment. TSLP was significantly upregulated in patients with CHE and also normalized after alitretinoin treatment and negatively correlated with filaggrin. Our data indicate that the expression of barrier genes and proteins was normalized following treatment with alitretinoin in patients with CHE. The change in expression levels of these genes correlated with the clinical efficacy, suggesting that alitretinoin exhibits a disease-modifying activity. TSLP is upregulated in CHE and seems to counteract filaggrin expression in the skin. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Histopathology of normal skin and melanomas after nanosecond pulsed electric field treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinhua; James Swanson, R; Kolb, Juergen F; Nuccitelli, Richard; Schoenbach, Karl H

    2009-12-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) can affect the intracellular structures of cells in vitro. This study shows the direct effects of nsPEFs on tumor growth, tumor volume, and histological characteristics of normal skin and B16-F10 melanoma in SKH-1 mice. A melanoma model was set up by injecting B16-F10 into female SKH-1 mice. After a 100-pulse treatment with an nsPEF (40-kV/cm field strength; 300-ns duration; 30-ns rise time; 2-Hz repetition rate), tumor growth and histology were studied using transillumination, light microscopy with hematoxylin and eosin stain and transmission electron