Science.gov

Sample records for wrongful life

  1. The possibility of compensation for damages in cases of wrongful conception, wrongful birth and wrongful life. An Estonian perspective.

    PubMed

    Sõritsa, Dina; Lahe, Janno

    2014-04-01

    While case law in cases of wrongful conception, wrongful birth and wrongful life is completely missing in Estonia, this article is aimed at providing possible solutions under Estonian law to some of the legally complex problems that these cases contain. Through the analysis of Estonian, German and U.S. legal literature and case law, the article is mainly focused on proposing some solutions to the legal problems concerning compensable damage, but also explains the Estonian legal framework of the contractual and delictual basis for compensation for the damages. The application of several grounds for the possibility of limiting the compensation in the afore-mentioned cases are analysed.

  2. The concept of wrongful life in the law.

    PubMed

    Kasper, A S

    1983-01-01

    In the history of the law the concept of wrongful life is not new, but it has become of interest recently due to changing social attitudes and advances in contraceptive and genetic technologies. This discussion tries to assess the effects of wrongful life as a legal concept on the rights of childbearing women and their offspring. An unborn child had no rights under common law, which held that a fetus in utero had no existence separate from its mother. Consequently, a child had no right of action for personal harm brought upon it by another person. On occasion early courts disagreed with this view, but the majority of courts maintained that a child had no existence as a human being during gestation. The effect that this concept of common law would have on current abortion laws would be to make it considerably easier to argue for a woman's right to choose an abortion. The notion of wrongful life initially appeared in cases of illegitimate births. In Zepeda v. Zepeda, 1963, and Williams v. State of New York, 1966, the plaintiffs maintained that the children's births and existence were wrongful because they were unintended and illegitimate. In Williams the court ruled that birth under 1 set of circumstances and not another is not a recoverable injury. These cases failed to meet the requirements of tort law, and the court rejected the notion of children finding legal recourse for being born to a poor family or being born to a less desired race or class. A series of cases followed in which recovery for physical injury or birth deformities were claimed by parents for themselves and their children. In June 1980 a California appeals court reversed the decision of a lower court, addressing the fundamental principles of wrongful life as a legal concept. In Curlender v. Bio-Science Laboratories an infant brought suit alleging that the laboratories failed to correctly inform her parents of their status as carriers of Tay-Sachs disease during the mother's pregnancy. The infant

  3. VENUS: Hypothetical life found at ``a wrong place''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksanfomality, Leonid

    The position of the hypothetical habitability zone in extrasolar planetary system was considered by many authors. Approximately 1/4 of exoplanets orbit their stars at very low orbits, which leads to high temperatures of their surface (if any), up to 800 K or more. Some of them should have the physical conditions close to those of Venus. Is there any possibility that the life forms can exist at quite different environment than “normal”, Earth-like physical settings? Namely the planet Venus could be the natural laboratory for studies of this type, having the dense, hot (735 K) oxygenless CO2 - atmosphere and high, 9.2 MPa, pressure at the surface. It should be recalled that the only existing data of actual close in TV-observations of Venus’ surface are the results of a series of missions of the Russian VENERA landers which took place the 1970s and 80s, working in the atmosphere and on the surface of Venus. No other results of this kind were obtained since. A re-examination of images of Venusian surface returned from the VENERA landers has been undertaken using a modern processing technique, with a view to detect any possible signs of life under the specific conditions on Venus. This speculative identification rests on two characteristics of these features: (a) their somewhat suggestive morphology and (b) their temporal appearance and behavior (present, than absent on subsequent images of the same area; or changing appearances). The re-exemination has identified previously unreported features that may correspond to hypothetical life forms on Venus’ surface. A new analysis and comparison of the content of the sequence of panoramas of the Venusian surface made in 2013, allowed the author to detect some new interesting objects displayed on the panoramas that hypothetically may be related to fauna and flora of the planet. Some of the objects found were described in a dozen of papers (2012, 2013). There are also found and listed in the report images of objects with

  4. Abandoning the common law: medical negligence, genetic tests and wrongful life in the Australian High Court.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas; Jefferys, Susannah

    2007-05-01

    The Australian High Court recently found that the common law could allow parents to claim tortious damages when medical negligence was proven to have led to the birth of an unplanned, but healthy, baby (Cattanach v Melchior (2003) 215 CLR 1). In Harriton v Stephens (2006) 80 ALJR 791; [2006] HCA 15 and Waller v James; Waller v Hoolahan (2006) 80 ALJR 846; [2006] HCA 16 the High Court in a six-to-one decision (Kirby J dissenting) decided that no such claim could be made by a child when medical negligence in failing to order an in utero genetic test caused the child severe disability. In an era when almost all pregnancies will soon require patented fetal genetic tests as part of the professional standard of care, the High Court, by barring so-called "wrongful life" (better termed "wrongful suffering") claims, may have created a partial immunity from suit for their corporate manufacturers and the doctors who administer them. What lessons can be learnt from this case about how the Australian High Court is, or should be, approaching medical negligence cases and its role as guardian of the Australian common law?

  5. The "Radioactive Dice" Experiment: Why Is the "Half-Life" Slightly Wrong?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Arthur; Hart, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The "radioactive dice" experiment is a commonly used classroom analogue to model the decay of radioactive nuclei. However, the value of the half-life obtained from this experiment differs significantly from that calculated for real nuclei decaying exponentially with the same decay constant. This article attempts to explain the discrepancy and…

  6. Neither Right nor Wrong: How a Teacher Integrates Her Personal and Professional Life with Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunten, Bridget A.

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the importance of recognizing and appreciating the ways that a teacher integrates her personal and professional life with an English-only policy. Much can be learned from the ways in which she negotiates social forces and integrates them into her individual reality while making sense of the restrictive language policy.…

  7. The physician's breach of the duty to inform the parent of deformities and abnormalities in the foetus: "wrongful life" actions, a new frontier of medical responsibility.

    PubMed

    Frati, Paola; Gulino, Matteo; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Zaami, Simona; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2014-07-01

    A recent decision of the Italian Highest Court for the first time legitimized wrongful life suits. The Court stated the following principles: (a) the contract between the mother and the doctor has also protective effects in favour of third parties (father, siblings and the disabled child) who have the right to be compensated; (b) the right to compensation is neither based on the right not to be born nor on the right to be born healthy, but rather it is based on the breach of duty of care which coincides with the child's disabled status; (c) siblings may suffer the reduced availability of their parents; (d) the doctor is held responsible for not providing full information to the mother about the foetal deformity. The Supreme Court once again emphasized the importance of information on the matter of very personal choices, such as termination of pregnancy in case of foetal malformations. In the present case, the gynaecologist breached the duty to inform, especially after the patient requested diagnostic tests designed to highlight any foetal malformations and informed the doctor of the possibility of an eventual subsequent termination of pregnancy if foetal malformations were found.

  8. Late-life decline in well-being across adulthood in Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States: Something is seriously wrong at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Mayraz, Guy; Hidajat, Mira; Lindenberger, Ulman; Wagner, Gert G; Schupp, Jürgen

    2010-06-01

    Throughout adulthood and old age, levels of well-being appear to remain relatively stable. However, evidence is emerging that late in life well-being declines considerably. Using long-term longitudinal data of deceased participants in national samples from Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States, we examined how long this period lasts. In all 3 nations and across the adult age range, well-being was relatively stable over age but declined rapidly with impending death. Articulating notions of terminal decline associated with impending death, we identified prototypical transition points in each study between 3 and 5 years prior to death, after which normative rates of decline steepened by a factor of 3 or more. The findings suggest that mortality-related mechanisms drive late-life changes in well-being and highlight the need for further refinement of psychological concepts about how and when late-life declines in psychosocial functioning prototypically begin. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Wrong but seminal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeman, Jeffrey I.; Cantrill, Stuart

    2016-03-01

    Publishing the wrong interpretation of experimental data can result in an immediate horde of chemists feeding on the error like vultures. On rare occasions, this phenomenon can open up an entire new field of science -- and the structure of ferrocene is a case in point.

  10. Wrong Signs in Regression Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGee, Holly

    1999-01-01

    When using parametric cost estimation, it is important to note the possibility of the regression coefficients having the wrong sign. A wrong sign is defined as a sign on the regression coefficient opposite to the researcher's intuition and experience. Some possible causes for the wrong sign discussed in this paper are a small range of x's, leverage points, missing variables, multicollinearity, and computational error. Additionally, techniques for determining the cause of the wrong sign are given.

  11. What's wrong with strategy?

    PubMed

    Campbell, A; Alexander, M

    1997-01-01

    Why is it that successful strategies are rarely developed as a result of formal planning processes? What is wrong with the way most companies go about developing strategy? Andrew Campbell and Marcus Alexander take a common sense look at why the planning frameworks managers use so often yield disappointing results. Companies often fail to distinguish between purpose (what an organization exists to do) and constraints (what an organization must do in order to survive), the authors say. Many executives mistakenly believe, for example, that satisfying stakeholders is an objective that drives thinking about strategy. In fact, it's a constraint, not an objective. Companies that don't win the loyalty of stakeholders will go out of business. Strategy is not about plans but about insights, the authors add. Strategy development is the process of discovering and understanding insights and should not be confused with planning, which is about turning insights into action. Furthermore, because executives develop most of their insights while actually doing the real work of running a business, it is important for companies not to separate strategy development from implementation. Is there a better way? The answer is not new planning processes or more effort. Instead, managers must understand two fundamental points: the benefit of having a well-articulated, stable purpose and the importance of discovering, understanding, documenting, and exploiting insights about how to create value.

  12. Laue: right or wrong?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Timir

    2015-03-01

    In 1912, Laue spots were discovered in x-ray scattering ‘photograms’ of crystals, which were amongst the most consequential experimental findings of the 20th century. Inter alia, spots established the x-ray waves and crystal lattice; plus, for the first time ever, revealed atoms as real physical objects. Laue, a protégé of Planck and a wave-optics expert, had theoretically predicted these spots, and promptly won the Physics Nobel Prize for 1914. The prize did not come easy: executing his experimentum cruces, over the judgments of Sommerfeld and Wien, required force of will and a certain amount of diplomacy. Besides, his explanation for missing spots and x-ray diffraction were proven wrong by Moseley, Darwin and the two Braggs. Traditionally, Laue’s three-dimensional diffraction model is reconciled with Bragg’s reflection formula by Ewald’s construction using reciprocal lattice space. Laue had overlooked that his fundamental equations violate Euclidean length invariance. This article shows that implementation of invariance consolidates Laue’s system of three (multi-parameter) equations into a single formula containing one integer, one angle and two distances; plus validating Bragg’s conjecture of reflection. This new derivation demonstrates that the mechanism of Laue spots is akin to the anti reflection coating the colour-plays in soap bubbles and oil slicks—reflection and interference not diffraction. Yet, Laue stimulated countless breakthroughs: Nobel Prizes and scientific innovations, with an enduring legacy of inspiration a century later.

  13. Deprivations, futures and the wrongness of killing.

    PubMed

    Marquis, D

    2001-12-01

    In my essay, Why abortion is immoral, I criticised discussions of the morality of abortion in which the crucial issue is whether fetuses are human beings or whether fetuses are persons. Both argument strategies are inadequate because they rely on indefensible assumptions. Why should being a human being or being a person make a moral difference? I argued that the correct account of the morality of abortion should be based upon a defensible account of why killing children and adults is wrong. I claimed that what makes killing us wrong is that our premature deaths deprive us of our futures of value, that is, the goods of life we would have experienced had we survived. This account of the wrongness of killing explains why killing is one of the worst of crimes and how killing greatly harms the victim. It coheres with the attitudes of those with cancer or HIV facing premature death. It explains why we believe it is wrong to kill infants (as personhood theories do not). It does not entail that it wrongs a human being to end her life if she is in persistent vegetative state or if her future must consist only of unbearable physical suffering and she wants to die (as sanctity of human life theories do not). This account of the wrongness of killing implies (with some defensible additional assumptions) that abortion is immoral because we were fetuses once and we know those fetuses had futures of value. Mark Brown claims that this potential future of value account is unsound because it implies that we have welfare rights to what we need to stay alive that most people would reject. I argue that Brown is incorrect in two ways: a welfare right to what we need to stay alive is not directly implied by my account and, in addition, most of us do believe that dependent human beings have substantial welfare rights to what they need to stay alive. Brown argues that depriving us of a future of value of which we have mental representations both is a better explanation of the wrongness of

  14. Sex and age trends in Australia's suicide rate over the last decade: Something is still seriously wrong with men in middle and late life.

    PubMed

    Burns, Richard A

    2016-11-30

    Despite significant investment in mental health and suicide intervention strategies in Australia, the extent of change in suicide rates over the last decade is unclear. This paper analyses sex and age trajectories in suicide rates over the last decade in Australia. Age Standardized Suicide Rates from 2004 to 2013 were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics and reflect rates of suicide per 100,000 within age and sex cohorts. Age-related suicide rates were consistent over the last decade. For both males and females, there were increases in mid-life suicide rates before declining around 55-65 years of age. However, rates of suicide in men increased in late-life with rates for those aged 70-79 comparable with those in mid-life. Rates amongst men aged 85+ were consistently the highest rates over the decade. Positively, there was decline in suicide rates among younger men aged 20-34 years. However, more consistently, for both sexes across most age cohorts, there were either increases or no change in suicide rate. Apart from declines in younger-adult males, analysis of age-standardized suicide rates indicate no improvement in suicide rates. High suicide rates amongst middle-aged and older males remain a significant public health issue that needs to be addressed.

  15. ‘You learn to live with all the things that are wrong with you’: gender and the experience of multiple chronic conditions in later life

    PubMed Central

    CLARKE, LAURA HURD; BENNETT, ERICA

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how older adults experience the physical and social realities of having multiple chronic conditions in later life. Drawing on data from in-depth interviews with 16 men and 19 women aged 73+ who had between three and 14 chronic conditions, we address the following research questions: (a) What is it like to have multiple chronic conditions in later life? (b) How do older men and women ‘learn to live’ with the physical and social realities of multiple morbidities? (c) How are older adults’ experiences of illness influenced by age and gender norms? Our participants experienced their physical symptoms and the concomitant limitations to their activities to be a source of personal disruption. However, they normalised their illnesses and made social comparisons in order to achieve a sense of biographical flow in distinctly gendered ways. Forthright in their frustration over their loss of autonomy and physicality but resigned and stoic, the men’s stories reflected masculine norms of control, invulnerability, physical prowess, self-reliance and toughness. The women were dismayed by their bodies’ altered appearances and concerned about how their illnesses might affect their significant others, thereby responding to feminine norms of selflessness, sensitivity to others and nurturance. We discuss the findings in relation to the competing concepts of biographical disruption and biographical flow, as well as successful ageing discourses. PMID:24976658

  16. What's Really Wrong with Ethnography?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banfield, Grant

    2004-01-01

    In asking the provocative question: "What's wrong with ethnography?" Hammersley draws attention to what he sees as the conceptual and methodological confusion arising from two competing strands of practice: "naive realism" and "relativism". As a solution, he offers "subtle realism" to steer a path through and beyond the confusion. This paper…

  17. Moral Status and the Wrongness of Paternalism

    PubMed Central

    Birks, David

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I consider the view that paternalism is wrong when it demeans or diminishes the paternalizee’s moral status (the Moral Status Argument). I argue that we should reject the Moral Status Argument because it is both too narrow and too broad. It is too narrow because it cannot account for the wrongness of some of the most objectionable paternalistic interventions, namely strong paternalistic interventions. It is too broad because it is unable to distinguish between wrongful paternalistic acts that are plausibly considered more wrong than other wrongful paternalistic acts. PMID:25075133

  18. What if physics is wrong?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Zhoudunming

    2011-11-01

    Physics, an experiment-based science, seems to be the most appropriate subject in how to explain the inner workings of the world. We respect physics because it is based on facts that are perceived by our observations. However, what if we are not seeing the entire truth we seek? What if our observations are founded on sandy foundations? As humans, we desire to know what the truth is. Rene Descartes, a mathematician, philosopher, and physicist asked this question: what is the absolute truth in our universe? I want to solve the same puzzle. Many people believe that physics will reveal the truth of our universe. But, what if physics is wrong?

  19. Righting wrongs and reforming rights.

    PubMed

    Ivey, Laurie C

    2014-03-01

    Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights."

  20. Prevention of wrong-site and wrong-patient surgical errors.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Surgical errors recorded between 2002 and 2008 in a US medical liability insurance database have been analysed. Twenty-five wrong-patient procedures were recorded, resulting in 5 serious adverse events: three unnecessary prostatectomies were performed after prostate biopsy samples were mislabelled; vitrectomy was performed on the wrong patient in an ophthalmology department after confusion between two patients with identical names; and a child scheduled for adenoidectomy received a tympanic drain. There were also 107 wrong-site procedures, with one death resulting from implantation of a pleural drain on the wrong side. Another 38 patients experienced significant harm: 5 patients had surgery on the wrong vertebrae; 4 had chest tubes placed on the wrong side; 4 underwent vascular surgery at the wrong site; and 4 underwent resection of the wrong segment of the intestine. In addition, there were: 4 organ resection errors; 6 wrong-site or wrong-sided limb surgeries; 2 wrong-sided ovariectomies; 2 wrong-sided eye operations; 2 wrong-sided craniotomies; 2 wrong-sided ureteric procedures; 1 wrong-sided maxillofacial operation; and 2 radiation therapy field errors. Most errors were due to poor communication, incorrect diagnosis, or failure to implement a final set of preoperative checks. Other studies conducted in the United Kingdom and the United States have provided similar results, while data are lacking in France. The World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist is an effective way of preventing such errors but its adoption by healthcare professionals is variable. In practice, surgical errors involving the wrong patient or wrong body site are preventable. Final pre-operative checks must be applied methodically and systematically.This includes asking the patient to confirm his/her identity and the intended site of the operation. Healthcare staff must be aware of these measures.

  1. How Justice System Officials View Wrongful Convictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brad; Zalman, Marvin; Kiger, Angie

    2011-01-01

    The wrongful conviction of factually innocent people is a growing concern within the United States. Reforms generated by this concern are predicated in part on the views of justice system participants. The authors surveyed judges, police officials, prosecutors, and defense lawyers in Michigan regarding their views of why wrongful convictions…

  2. An Optimizing Weight For Wrong Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlon, Thomas F.

    This study empirically determined the optimizing weight to be applied to the Wrongs Total Score in scoring rubrics of the general form = R - kW, where S is the Score, R the Rights Total, k the weight and W the Wrongs Total, if reliability is to be maximized. As is well known, the traditional formula score rests on a theoretical framework which is…

  3. 19 CFR 112.47 - Wrongful presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wrongful presentation. 112.47 Section 112.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.47 Wrongful presentation. If...

  4. The ultimate challenge: prove B. F. Skinner wrong.

    PubMed

    Chance, Paul

    2007-01-01

    For much of his career, B. F. Skinner displayed the optimism that is often attributed to behaviorists. With time, however, he became less and less sanguine about the power of behavior science to solve the major problems facing humanity. Near the end of his life he concluded that a fair consideration of principles revealed by the scientific analysis of behavior leads to pessimism about our species. In this article I discuss the case for Skinner's pessimism and suggest that the ultimate challenge for behavior analysts today is to prove Skinner wrong.

  5. The Ultimate Challenge: Prove B. F. Skinner Wrong

    PubMed Central

    Chance, Paul

    2007-01-01

    For much of his career, B. F. Skinner displayed the optimism that is often attributed to behaviorists. With time, however, he became less and less sanguine about the power of behavior science to solve the major problems facing humanity. Near the end of his life he concluded that a fair consideration of principles revealed by the scientific analysis of behavior leads to pessimism about our species. In this article I discuss the case for Skinner's pessimism and suggest that the ultimate challenge for behavior analysts today is to prove Skinner wrong. PMID:22478494

  6. Wrong turns and dead ends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Len

    2013-12-01

    In his book Brilliant Blunders, Mario Livio offers a detailed and fascinating examination of major errors made by five great scientists - Charles Darwin, Linus Pauling, Lord Kelvin, Fred Hoyle and Albert Einstein - as they sought to understand the evolution of life on Earth, the evolution of the Earth itself and the evolution of the universe as a whole.

  7. 'Total disability' and the wrongness of killing.

    PubMed

    Omelianchuk, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Walter Sinnott-Armstrong and Franklin G Miller recently argued that the wrongness of killing is best explained by the harm that comes to the victim, and that 'total disability' best explains the nature of this harm. Hence, killing patients who are already totally disabled is not wrong. I maintain that their notion of total disability is ambiguous and that they beg the question with respect to whether there are abilities left over that remain relevant for the goods of personhood and human worth. If these goods remain, then something more is lost in death than in 'total disability,' and their explanation of what makes killing wrong comes up short. But if total disability is equivalent with death, then their argument is an interesting one.

  8. We're Assigning the Wrong Freud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shusterman, Noah

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author, a lecturer in Temple University's intellectual-heritage program, explains why colleges are teaching undergraduates the wrong Freud. Though the book "Civilization and Its Discontents" (1930), which most professors use, is Freud's most consistent and most convincing attempt to apply psychoanalytic theory to society as a…

  9. What Do You Mean...It's Wrong?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Brian, Ed.

    A collection of seven essays on errors in second language learning focuses on secondary school instruction in the United Kingdom. The essays address three questions that a foreign language learner might ask the teacher, including: What do you mean, it's wrong?; What do I have to do to make it better?; and Why should I get it right anyway? The…

  10. Are the Textbook Writers Wrong about Capacitors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, A. P.

    1993-01-01

    Refutes a recent article which stated that the standard textbook treatment of two capacitors in series is wrong. States that the calculated capacitance is correct if measured immediately after a dc voltage is applied and that perhaps the effect is due to the choice of materials making up the capacitor. (MVL)

  11. In search of the missing subject: narrative identity and posthumous wronging.

    PubMed

    Masterton, Malin; Hansson, Mats G; Höglund, Anna T

    2010-12-01

    With the advanced methods of analysing old biological material, it is pressing to discuss what should be allowed to be done with human remains, particularly for well documented historical individuals. We argue that Queen Christina of Sweden, who challenged the traditional gender roles, has an interest in maintaining her privacy when there are continued attempts to reveal her 'true' gender. In the long-running philosophical debate on posthumous wronging, the fundamental question is: Who is wronged? Our aim is to find this 'missing subject' using narrative theory. Narrative identity emphasises the fact that no person is alone in knowing or telling their life story. People's lives are entangled and parts of the life story of a deceased person can remain in the living realm. Since the narrative identity of a person does not necessarily end upon their death, and this narrative continues to relate directly to the person who once existed, it is the narrative subject that can continue to be posthumously wronged. Queen Christina can no longer maintain her own identity, but we maintain it by our research into her life. We propose three duties relevant for posthumous wronging: the duty of truthfulness, the duty of recognition and the duty to respect privacy.

  12. Statutory Compensation for the Wrongly Imprisoned.

    PubMed

    Simms, Tina

    2016-04-01

    This article provides an overview of the unique challenges faced by men and women who have been wrongly convicted, imprisoned, and subsequently exonerated, and discusses the relevance of social work to exoneration. The ways in which exonerees can seek compensation are described, and state compensation statutes are examined, delineating monetary and reentry support provisions. Currently, 30 states and the District of Columbia have compensation statutes. Monetary and reentry support provisions vary greatly by state, with few providing both. The wrongly imprisoned experience the same effects of incarceration as other prisoners; their psychological trauma, however, is exacerbated by the fact that they are innocent. Furthermore, upon release, exonerees have fewer reentry supports available to them compared with prisoners released on parole. This article supports the position that the state has a responsibility to provide adequate compensation, monetarily and servicewise, to the wrongly imprisoned, and that compensation by statutory means should be standard in every state. This article also highlights how social workers are uniquely qualified to provide immediate and long-term social and mental health services to exonerees, as well as to advocate for comprehensive exoneree compensation through state statutes.

  13. What's Wrong with Early Medieval Medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Horden, Peregrine

    2011-01-01

    The medical writings of early medieval western Europe c. 700 – c. 1000 have often been derided for their disorganised appearance, poor Latin, nebulous conceptual framework, admixtures of magic and folklore, and general lack of those positive features that historians attribute to ancient or later medieval medicine. This paper attempts to rescue the period from its negative image. It examines a number of superficially bizarre writings so as to place them in an intellectual and sociological context, and to suggest that the presumed contrast between them and their ancient and later medieval counterparts has been wrongly drawn.

  14. Measurement and Analysis: What Can and Does Go Wrong?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-14

    Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 Measurement and Analysis: What Can and Does Go Wrong? Maureen Brown Dennis R. Goldenson University of North Carolina...00-00-2004 to 00-00-2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Measurement and Analysis: What Can and Does Go Wrong? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...have a good appreciation about what can go wrong in the way organizations handle, or don’t handle, measurement • Still, the problem may be more

  15. Strategies for Correcting Students' Wrong Responses. Technical Report No. 354.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Linda A.

    Following a review of empirical research on teacher feedback to students' wrong responses, this paper describes a paradigm for use with direct instruction materials, applying the feedback model to comprehension tasks from traditional reading and science textbooks. The next section details a classification system for wrong responses grouped into…

  16. Wrongful Conviction: Perceptions of Criminal Justice Professionals Regarding the Frequency of Wrongful Conviction and the Extent of System Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Robert J.; Frank, James

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on a sample of 798 Ohio criminal justice professionals (police, prosecutors, defense attorneys, judges), the authors examine respondents' perceptions regarding the frequency of system errors (i.e., professional error and misconduct suggested by previous research to be associated with wrongful conviction), and wrongful felony conviction.…

  17. Wrongness, Responsibility, and Conscientious Refusals in Health Care.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Alida

    2017-04-03

    In this article, I address what kinds of claims are of the right kind to ground conscientious refusals. Specifically, I investigate what conceptions of moral responsibility and moral wrongness can be permissibly presumed by conscientious objectors. I argue that we must permit HCPs to come to their own subjective conclusions about what they take to be morally wrong and what they take themselves to be morally responsible for. However, these subjective assessments of wrongness and responsibility must be constrained in several important ways: they cannot involve empirical falsehoods, objectionably discriminatory attitudes, or unreasonable normative beliefs. I argue that the sources of these constraints are the basic epistemic, relational, and normative competencies needed to function as a minimally decent health-care professional. Finally, I consider practical implications for my framework, and argue that it shows us that the objection raised by the plaintiffs in Zubik v. Burwell is of the wrong sort.

  18. Receiving right/wrong feedback: consequences for learning.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Lisa K; Huelser, Barbie J; Johnson, Aaron; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2010-04-01

    Prior work suggests that receiving feedback that one's response was correct or incorrect (right/wrong feedback) does not help learners, as compared to not receiving any feedback at all (Pashler, Cepeda, Wixted, & Rohrer, 2005). In three experiments we examined the generality of this conclusion. Right/wrong feedback did not aid error correction, regardless of whether participants learned facts embedded in prose (Experiment 1) or translations of foreign vocabulary (Experiment 2). While right/wrong feedback did not improve the overall retention of correct answers (Experiments 1 and 2), it facilitated retention of low-confidence correct answers (Experiment 3). Reviewing the original materials was very useful to learners, but this benefit was similar after receiving either right/wrong feedback or no feedback (Experiments 1 and 2). Overall, right/wrong feedback conveys some information to the learner, but is not nearly as useful as being told the correct answer or having the chance to review the to-be-learned materials.

  19. Teaching Right from Wrong: The Moral Education of Today's Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGiacomo, James J.

    For moral education to be effective, it must take into account the cultural, philosophical, and religious factors that influence moral development. The way growing children think and feel about right and wrong depends to a great extent on society's dominant culture, as expressed through mass communication media. These media promote values,…

  20. When Rewards Go Wrong: A Tale of Five Motivational Misdirects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Piers; MacDonnell, Rhiannon

    2012-01-01

    At the heart of most performance management systems is a reward program. However, even when we are doing everything else right, rewards can go wrong. Here, we explore five ways that external incentives can damage performance, from destroying altruistic behavior to distracting people from the task. Fortunately, most of these downfalls are…

  1. Wrongful birth and the politics of reproduction: West German and English law considered.

    PubMed

    Shaw, J

    1990-01-01

    This article considers the law relating to compensation in tort and contract for failed sterilizations and failed abortions leading to the birth of an unplanned but healthy child in the Federal Republic of Germany and England. It uses a policy-based analysis which takes the social construction of gender as a significant factor in judicial decision making. It criticizes existing literature for failing to take into account gender divisions in society and points to ways in which both the framework within which wrongful birth cases are discussed generally and the limitations which have been placed on recovery specifically reflect gender stereotyped notions of female and male behaviour and sexuality. I conclude that there are three main areas of concern in the wrongful birth cases: a) the inadequate recognition which the law accords to women's work in the home when awarding damages for maintenance of the unplanned child to majority; b) the awarding damages exercised by the politics of abortion, which can lead to undue restrictions on recovery; and c) the difficulties which the law experiences when attempting to conceptualize an interference in a woman's procreative autonomy in the same terms as an interference in a typically 'male' sphere of life, such as professional autonomy. Thus there is an urgent need to reconsider the categories of the law of obligations such as 'damage' and 'compensation', which are central to the principle of individual responsibility for harm caused, in order to reveal their gendered content and differential effects.

  2. Why Was Kelvin's Estimate of the Earth's Age Wrong?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovatt, Ian; Syed, M. Qasim

    2014-05-01

    This is a companion to our previous paper in which we give a published example, based primarily on Perry's work, of a graph of ln y versus t when y is an exponential function of t. This work led us to the idea that Lord Kelvin's (William Thomson's) estimate of the Earth's age was wrong not because he did not account for radioactivity, as is commonly believed,4 but because he used the wrong model for Earth's heat loss. We feel this idea is worth spreading. To this end (following England et al.), we examine two questions, the first about the radioactivity part and the second about Perry's alternate model for Earth's heat loss.

  3. Inclusive /b decays to wrong sign charmed mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DELPHI Collaboration; Abdallah, J.; Abreu, P.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alderweireld, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P. P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.-D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J. E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.-H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Berntzon, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P. S. L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J. M.; Bugge, L.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, N.; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S. U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M. J.; Crawley, B.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; da Silva, T.; da Silva, W.; della Ricca, G.; de Angelis, A.; de Boer, W.; de Clercq, C.; de Lotto, B.; de Maria, N.; de Min, A.; de Paula, L.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M. C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, Ph.; Gazis, E.; Geralis, T.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Hansen, J.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Herr, H.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.-O.; Holt, P. J.; Houlden, M. A.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, J. N.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, E. K.; Johansson, P. D.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, F.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B. P.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B. T.; Kjaer, N. J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, F.; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez, J. M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.-C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; Mc Nulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Meyer, W. T.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moenig, K.; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J. P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M. E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Rames, J.; Ramler, L.; Read, A.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Rosenberg, E.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Schwanda, C.; Segar, A.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A. C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, J.; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tomaradze, A.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.-L.; Tyapkin, I. A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; van Dam, P.; van Eldik, J.; van Lysebetten, A.; van Remortel, N.; van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verbeure, F.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A. J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zimin, N. I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zupan, M.

    2003-05-01

    The production of wrong sign charmed mesons b-->D(s)X, D(s)=(D0,D+,Ds), is studied using the data collected by the DELPHI experiment in the years 1994 and 1995. Charmed mesons in /Z-->bb¯ events are exclusively reconstructed by searching for the decays D0-->K-π+, D+-->K-π+π+ and Ds+-->φπ+-->K+K-π+. The wrong sign contribution is extracted by using two discriminant variables: the charge of the /b-quark at decay time, estimated from the charges of identified particles, and the momentum of the charmed meson in the rest frame of the /b-hadron. The inclusive branching fractions of /b-hadrons into wrong sign charm mesons are measured to be: B(b-->D0X)+B(b-->D-X)=(9.3+/-1.7(stat)+/-1.3(syst)+/-0.4(B))%, B(b-->Ds-X)=(10.1+/-1.0(stat)+/-0.6(syst)+/-2.8(B))% where the first error is statistical, the second and third errors are systematic.

  4. Inclusive b decays to wrong sign charmed mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, J.; Abreu, P.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alderweireld, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P. P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.-D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J. E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.-H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Berntzon, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P. S. L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J. M.; Bugge, L.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, N.; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S. U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M. J.; Crawley, B.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; da Silva, T.; da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; de Angelis, A.; de Boer, W.; de Clercq, C.; de Lotto, B.; de Maria, N.; de Min, A.; de Paula, L.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M. C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, Ph.; Gazis, E.; Geralis, T.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Hansen, J.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Herr, H.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.-O.; Holt, P. J.; Houlden, M. A.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, J. N.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, E. K.; Johansson, P. D.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, F.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B. P.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B. T.; Kjaer, N. J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, F.; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez, J. M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.-C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; Mc Nulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Meyer, W. T.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moenig, K.; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J. P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M. E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Rames, J.; Ramler, L.; Read, A.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Rosenberg, E.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Schwanda, C.; Segar, A.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A. C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, J.; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tomaradze, A.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.-L.; Tyapkin, I. A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; van Dam, P.; van Eldik, J.; van Lysebetten, A.; van Remortel, N.; van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verbeure, F.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A. J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zimin, N. I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zupan, M.; Delphi Collaboration

    2003-05-01

    The production of wrong sign charmed mesons b→overlineD(s)X, D(s)=(D0,D+,Ds), is studied using the data collected by the DELPHI experiment in the years 1994 and 1995. Charmed mesons in Z→bb¯ events are exclusively reconstructed by searching for the decays D0→K-π+, D+→K-π+π+ and Ds+→φπ+→K+K-π+. The wrong sign contribution is extracted by using two discriminant variables: the charge of the b-quark at decay time, estimated from the charges of identified particles, and the momentum of the charmed meson in the rest frame of the b-hadron. The inclusive branching fractions of b-hadrons into wrong sign charm mesons are measured to be: B(b→overlineD0X)+B(b→D-X)=(9.3±1.7(stat)±1.3(syst)±0.4(B))%, B(b→Ds-X)=(10.1±1.0(stat)±0.6(syst)±2.8(B))% where the first error is statistical, the second and third errors are systematic.

  5. Psychopaths know right from wrong but don’t care

    PubMed Central

    Tonnaer, Franca; Hauser, Marc D.

    2010-01-01

    Adult psychopaths have deficits in emotional processing and inhibitory control, engage in morally inappropriate behavior, and generally fail to distinguish moral from conventional violations. These observations, together with a dominant tradition in the discipline which sees emotional processes as causally necessary for moral judgment, have led to the conclusion that psychopaths lack an understanding of moral rights and wrongs. We test an alternative explanation: psychopaths have normal understanding of right and wrong, but abnormal regulation of morally appropriate behavior. We presented psychopaths with moral dilemmas, contrasting their judgments with age- and sex-matched (i) healthy subjects and (ii) non-psychopathic, delinquents. Subjects in each group judged cases of personal harms (i.e. requiring physical contact) as less permissible than impersonal harms, even though both types of harms led to utilitarian gains. Importantly, however, psychopaths’ pattern of judgments on different dilemmas was the same as those of the other subjects. These results force a rejection of the strong hypothesis that emotional processes are causally necessary for judgments of moral dilemmas, suggesting instead that psychopaths understand the distinction between right and wrong, but do not care about such knowledge, or the consequences that ensue from their morally inappropriate behavior. PMID:20053752

  6. Moral value transfer from regulatory fit: what feels right is right and what feels wrong is wrong.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Christopher J; Higgins, E Tory; Luger, Lindsay

    2003-03-01

    People experience regulatory fit (E. T. Higgins, 2000) when the strategic manner of their goal pursuit suits their regulatory orientation, and this regulatory fit feels right. Fit violation feels wrong. Four studies tested the proposal that experiences of fit can transfer to moral evaluations. The authors examined transfer of feeling wrong from fit violation by having participants in a promotion or prevention focus recall transgressions of commission or omission (Studies 1 and 2). Both studies found that when the type of transgression was a fit violation, participants expressed more guilt. Studies 3 and 4 examined transfer of feeling right from regulatory fit. Participants evaluated conflict resolutions (Study 3) and public policies (Study 4) as more right when the means pursued had fit.

  7. Estrogens in the wrong place at the wrong time: Fetal BPA exposure and mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Paulose, Tessie; Speroni, Lucia; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M

    2015-07-01

    Iatrogenic gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) induced alterations of the genital tract and predisposed individuals to develop clear cell carcinoma of the vagina as well as breast cancer later in life. Gestational exposure of rodents to a related compound, the xenoestrogen bisphenol-A (BPA) increases the propensity to develop mammary cancer during adulthood, long after cessation of exposure. Exposure to BPA during gestation induces morphological alterations in both the stroma and the epithelium of the fetal mammary gland at 18 days of age. We postulate that the primary target of BPA is the fetal stroma, the only mammary tissue expressing estrogen receptors during fetal life. BPA would then alter the reciprocal stroma-epithelial interactions that mediate mammogenesis. In addition to this direct effect on the mammary gland, BPA is postulated to affect the hypothalamus and thus in turn affect the regulation of mammotropic hormones at puberty and beyond.

  8. The causal cognition of wrong doing: incest, intentionality, and morality

    PubMed Central

    Astuti, Rita; Bloch, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    The paper concerns the role of intentionality in reasoning about wrong doing. Anthropologists have claimed that, in certain non-Western societies, people ignore whether an act of wrong doing is committed intentionally or accidentally. To examine this proposition, we look at the case of Madagascar. We start by analyzing how Malagasy people respond to incest, and we find that in this case they do not seem to take intentionality into account: catastrophic consequences follow even if those who commit incest are not aware that they are related as kin; punishment befalls on innocent people; and the whole community is responsible for repairing the damage. However, by looking at how people reason about other types of wrong doing, we show that the role of intentionality is well understood, and that in fact this is so even in the case of incest. We therefore argue that, when people contemplate incest and its consequences, they simultaneously consider two quite different issues: the issue of intentionality and blame, and the much more troubling and dumbfounding issue of what society would be like if incest were to be permitted. This entails such a fundamental attack on kinship and on the very basis of society that issues of intentionality and blame become irrelevant. Using the insights we derive from this Malagasy case study, we re-examine the results of Haidt’s psychological experiment on moral dumbfoundedness, which uses a story about incest between siblings as one of its test scenarios. We suggest that the dumbfoundedness that was documented among North American students may be explained by the same kind of complexity that we found in Madagascar. In light of this, we discuss the methodological limitations of experimental protocols, which are unable to grasp multiple levels of response. We also note the limitations of anthropological methods and the benefits of closer cross-disciplinary collaboration. PMID:25741304

  9. Inculcating Quality Concepts in the US Air Force: Right Music, Wrong Step

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    CONCEPTS IN THE US AIR FORCE: RIGHT MUSIC , WRONG STEP Acceslon For NTIS CRA&J DTIC TAB Unannounced fJ by Justification Barbara A. Kucharczyk By. Lieutenant...TITLE: Inculcating Quality Concepts in the US Air Force: Right Music , Wrong Step AUTHOR: Barbara A. Kucharczyk, Lieutenant Colonel, USAF In its...perceived attitudinal backlash.4 While basic quality concepts are certainly the right music , many Air Force members are dancing the wrong step. Why? This

  10. But he knew it was wrong: evaluating adolescent culpability.

    PubMed

    Ash, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatric evaluators of adolescent defendants are often asked to address open-ended questions that affect what court an adolescent will be tried in and what sentence he might receive. Such questions often involve the extent to which the adolescent should be considered less culpable than an adult who has committed a similar offense. Assessing partial or diminished culpability in an adolescent is difficult because the concept of partial culpability is complex, assessment methods are inexact, and the implications for legal disposition are often not clear. This article suggests 10 factors a forensic evaluator may wish to consider in reaching opinions about an adolescent's culpability: appreciation of wrongfulness, ability to conform to law, developmental course of aggression and impulsivity, psychosocial immaturity (including time sense, susceptibility to peer pressure, risk-taking, and ability to empathize), environmental circumstances, peer group norms, out-of-character action, incomplete personality development, mental illness, and reactive attitudes toward the offense.

  11. What Was Wrong with Eugenics? Conflicting Narratives and Disputed Interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Diane B.

    2012-11-01

    Although it is often taken for granted that eugenics is odious, exactly what makes it so is far from obvious. The existence of considerable interpretative flexibility is evident in the disparate policy lessons for contemporary reproductive genetics (or "reprogenetics") that have been derived from essentially the same set of historical facts. In this paper, I will show how different—indeed, diametrically-opposed—morals have been drawn from the history of eugenics and link these contrasting messages both to different underlying conceptions of what constitutes the central wrong of eugenics and differing degrees of enthusiasm for reprogenetic technologies. I will then argue that, for several reasons, the history of eugenics simply cannot provide the kind of direct guidance that many participants in current debates would like. Although the history does have implications for policy, the insights to be gleaned are both subtle and indirect.

  12. Oh No! I Got the Wrong Sign! What Should I Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Peter E.

    2005-01-01

    Getting a "wrong" sign in empirical work is a common phenomenon. Remarkably, econometrics textbooks provide very little information to practitioners on how this problem can arise. The author exposits a long list of ways in which a wrong sign can occur and how it might be corrected.

  13. 7 CFR 1.51 - Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission. 1.51 Section 1.51 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Claims § 1.51 Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission. (a) Authority of the...

  14. 7 CFR 1.51 - Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission. 1.51 Section 1.51 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Claims § 1.51 Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission. (a) Authority of the...

  15. 7 CFR 1.51 - Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission. 1.51 Section 1.51 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Claims § 1.51 Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission. (a) Authority of the...

  16. 5 CFR 890.1020 - Determining length of debarment based on false, wrongful, or deceptive claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determining length of debarment based on false, wrongful, or deceptive claims. 890.1020 Section 890.1020 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF... Determining length of debarment based on false, wrongful, or deceptive claims. Debarments under 5 U.S.C....

  17. 5 CFR 890.1020 - Determining length of debarment based on false, wrongful, or deceptive claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determining length of debarment based on false, wrongful, or deceptive claims. 890.1020 Section 890.1020 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF... Determining length of debarment based on false, wrongful, or deceptive claims. Debarments under 5 U.S.C....

  18. 5 CFR 890.1020 - Determining length of debarment based on false, wrongful, or deceptive claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determining length of debarment based on false, wrongful, or deceptive claims. 890.1020 Section 890.1020 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF... Determining length of debarment based on false, wrongful, or deceptive claims. Debarments under 5 U.S.C....

  19. 5 CFR 890.1020 - Determining length of debarment based on false, wrongful, or deceptive claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determining length of debarment based on false, wrongful, or deceptive claims. 890.1020 Section 890.1020 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF... Determining length of debarment based on false, wrongful, or deceptive claims. Debarments under 5 U.S.C....

  20. 5 CFR 890.1020 - Determining length of debarment based on false, wrongful, or deceptive claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining length of debarment based on false, wrongful, or deceptive claims. 890.1020 Section 890.1020 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF... Determining length of debarment based on false, wrongful, or deceptive claims. Debarments under 5 U.S.C....

  1. Broadening the future of value account of the wrongness of killing.

    PubMed

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2015-11-01

    On Don Marquis's future of value account of the wrongness of killing, 'what makes it wrong to kill those individuals we all believe it is wrong to kill, is that killing them deprives them of their future of value'. Marquis has recently argued for a narrow interpretation of his future of value account of the wrongness of killing and against the broad interpretation that I had put forward in response to Carson Strong. In this article I argue that the narrow view is problematic because it violates some basic principles of equality and because it allows for some of the very killing that Marquis sets out to condemn; further, I argue that the chief reason why Marquis chooses the narrow view over the broad view-namely that the broad view would take the killing of some non-human animals to be also wrong-should rather be considered a welcome upshot of the broad view.

  2. Development of proportional reasoning: where young children go wrong.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Ty W; Levine, Susan C; Huttenlocher, Janellen

    2008-09-01

    Previous studies have found that children have difficulty solving proportional reasoning problems involving discrete units until 10 to 12 years of age, but can solve parallel problems involving continuous quantities by 6 years of age. The present studies examine where children go wrong in processing proportions that involve discrete quantities. A computerized proportional equivalence choice task was administered to kindergartners through 4th-graders in Study 1, and to 1st- and 3rd-graders in Study 2. Both studies involved 4 between-subjects conditions that were formed by pairing continuous and discrete target proportions with continuous and discrete choice alternatives. In Study 1, target and choice alternatives were presented simultaneously; in Study 2, target and choice alternatives were presented sequentially. In both studies, children performed significantly worse when both the target and choice alternatives were represented with discrete quantities than when either or both of the proportions involved continuous quantities. Taken together, these findings indicate that children go astray on proportional reasoning problems involving discrete units only when a numerical match is possible, suggesting that their difficulty is due to an overextension of numerical equivalence concepts to proportional equivalence problems.

  3. Meta-research: The art of getting it wrong.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2010-07-01

    Meta-analysis has major strengths, but sometimes it can often lead to wrong and misleading answers. In this SRSM presidential address, I discuss some case studies that exemplify these problems, including examples from meta-analyses of both clinical trials and observational associations. I also discuss issues of effect size estimation, bias (in particular significance-chasing biases), and credibility in meta-research. I examine the factors that affect the credibility of meta-analyses, including magnitude of effects, multiplicity of analyses, scale of data, flexibility of analyses, reporting, and conflicts of interest. Under the current circumstances, a survey of expert meta-analysts attending the SRSM meeting showed that most of them believe that the true effect is practically equally likely to lie within the 95% confidence interval of a meta-analysis or outside of it. Finally, I address the placement of meta-analysis in the wider current research agenda and make a plea for adoption of more prospective meta-designs. In many/most/all fields, all primary original research may be designed, executed, and interpreted as a prospective meta-analysis. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Unexpected Results are Usually Wrong, but Often Interesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, M.

    2014-12-01

    In climate modeling, an unexpected result is usually wrong, arising from some sort of mistake. Despite the fact that we all bemoan uncertainty in climate, the field is underlain by a robust, successful body of theory and any properly conducted modeling experiment is posed and conducted within that context. Consequently, if results from a complex climate model disagree with theory or from expectations from simpler models, much skepticism is in order. But, this exposes the fundamental tension of using complex, sophisticated models. If simple models and theory were perfect there would be no reason for complex models--the entire point of sophisticated models is to see if unexpected phenomena arise as emergent properties of the system. In this talk, I will step through some paleoclimate examples, drawn from my own work, of unexpected results that emerge from complex climate models arising from mistakes of two kinds. The first kind of mistake, is what I call a 'smart mistake'; it is an intentional incorporation of assumptions, boundary conditions, or physics that is in violation of theoretical or observational constraints. The second mistake, a 'dumb mistake', is just that, an unintentional violation. Analysis of such mistaken simulations provides some potentially novel and certainly interesting insights into what is possible and right in paleoclimate modeling by forcing the reexamination of well-held assumptions and theories.

  5. "Dry Eye" Is the Wrong Diagnosis for Millions.

    PubMed

    Korb, Donald R; Blackie, Caroline A

    2015-09-01

    The clinical perspective that dry eye is, at best, an incomplete diagnosis and the benefit of an etiology-based approach to dry eye are presented. To provide context for this perspective, the historical and current definition of dry eye is reviewed. The paradigm shift introduced by the Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD) Workshop, that MGD is likely the leading cause of dry eye, is discussed in combination with the advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of MGD. To facilitate discussion on the benefit of an etiology-based approach, a retrospective observational analysis was performed on deidentified data from eligible, fully consented, refractory dry eye patients, where conventional sequelae-based dry eye treatment had failed. In this refractory population, the diagnosis of MGD, which directed treatment to evacuating gland obstructions and rehabilitating gland function, was successful. The clinical perspective that "dry eye" is the wrong diagnosis for millions is provocative. However, the MGD-first approach has the potential to revolutionize the timing of diagnosis and the choice of frontline therapy in most patients with dry eye. Additionally, the ability to screen for MGD in its earliest stages, during routine care, expands the scope of clinical practice to include early intervention. For most patients, we are no longer constrained to delay diagnosis until the tear film has decompensated and the cascade of inflammation has ensued. We do not have to wait for our patients to tell us there is a problem.

  6. Supersymmetry with prejudice: Fitting the wrong model to LHC data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allanach, B. C.; Dolan, Matthew J.

    2012-09-01

    We critically examine interpretations of hypothetical supersymmetric LHC signals, fitting to alternative wrong models of supersymmetry breaking. The signals we consider are some of the most constraining on the sparticle spectrum: invariant mass distributions with edges and endpoints from the golden decay chain q˜→qχ20(→l˜±l∓q)→χ10l+l-q. We assume a constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model (CMSSM) point to be the ‘correct’ one, but fit the signals instead with minimal gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking models (mGMSB) with a neutralino quasistable lightest supersymmetric particle, minimal anomaly mediation and large volume string compactification models. Minimal anomaly mediation and large volume scenario can be unambiguously discriminated against the CMSSM for the assumed signal and 1fb-1 of LHC data at s=14TeV. However, mGMSB would not be discriminated on the basis of the kinematic endpoints alone. The best-fit point spectra of mGMSB and CMSSM look remarkably similar, making experimental discrimination at the LHC based on the edges or Higgs properties difficult. However, using rate information for the golden chain should provide the additional separation required.

  7. At least some errors are randomly generated (Freud was wrong)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellen, A. J.; Senders, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to expose something about human error generating mechanisms. In the context of the experiment, an error was made when a subject pressed the wrong key on a computer keyboard or pressed no key at all in the time allotted. These might be considered, respectively, errors of substitution and errors of omission. Each of seven subjects saw a sequence of three digital numbers, made an easily learned binary judgement about each, and was to press the appropriate one of two keys. Each session consisted of 1,000 presentations of randomly permuted, fixed numbers broken into 10 blocks of 100. One of two keys should have been pressed within one second of the onset of each stimulus. These data were subjected to statistical analyses in order to probe the nature of the error generating mechanisms. Goodness of fit tests for a Poisson distribution for the number of errors per 50 trial interval and for an exponential distribution of the length of the intervals between errors were carried out. There is evidence for an endogenous mechanism that may best be described as a random error generator. Furthermore, an item analysis of the number of errors produced per stimulus suggests the existence of a second mechanism operating on task driven factors producing exogenous errors. Some errors, at least, are the result of constant probability generating mechanisms with error rate idiosyncratically determined for each subject.

  8. Development of Proportional Reasoning: Where Young Children Go Wrong

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Ty W.; Levine, Susan C.; Huttenlocher, Janellen

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have found that children have difficulty solving proportional reasoning problems involving discrete units until 10- to 12-years of age, but can solve parallel problems involving continuous quantities by 6-years of age. The present studies examine where children go wrong in processing proportions that involve discrete quantities. A computerized proportional equivalence choice task was administered to kindergartners through fourth-graders in Study 1, and to first- and third-graders in Study 2. Both studies involved four between-subjects conditions that were formed by pairing continuous and discrete target proportions with continuous and discrete choice alternatives. In Study 1, target and choice alternatives were presented simultaneously and in Study 2 target and choice alternatives were presented sequentially. In both studies, children performed significantly worse when both the target and choice alternatives were represented with discrete quantities than when either or both of the proportions involved continuous quantities. Taken together, these findings indicate that children go astray on proportional reasoning problems involving discrete units only when a numerical match is possible, suggesting that their difficulty is due to an overextension of numerical equivalence concepts to proportional equivalence problems. PMID:18793078

  9. Do apes know that they could be wrong?

    PubMed

    Call, Josep

    2010-09-01

    When confronted with uncertain or incomplete information in decision-making situations, monkeys and apes opt for either escaping the situation or seeking additional information. These responses have been interpreted as evidence of metacognitive abilities. However, this interpretation has been challenged. On the one hand, studies using the information-seeking paradigm have been criticized because subjects may simply engage in a search for information routine (e.g., search until spot the reward) without any metacognitive involvement. On the other hand, studies using the escape response paradigm have been criticized because subjects may not recognize their own state of uncertainty but have learned to use the escape response in the presence of certain stimuli configurations that create uncertainty. The current study attempted to address these two criticisms by presenting great apes (seven gorillas, eight chimpanzees, four bonobos, seven orangutans) with a seeking information task whose basic procedure consisted of presenting two hollow tubes, baiting one of them and letting subjects choose. Conditions varied depending on whether subjects had visual access to the baiting, the cost associated with seeking information, the time interval between baiting and choosing, the food quality and the additional information offered regarding the food's location. Although subjects showed a high retrieval accuracy when they had witnessed the baiting, they were more likely to check inside the tube before choosing when high stakes were involved (Experiment 3) or after a longer period of time had elapsed between the baiting and the retrieval of the reward (Experiment 2). In contrast, providing subjects with indirect auditory information about the food's location or increasing the cost of checking reduced checking before choosing (Experiment 1). Taken together, these findings suggest that subjects knew that they could be wrong when choosing.

  10. The Ultimate Challenge: Prove B. F. Skinner Wrong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chance, Paul

    2007-01-01

    For much of his career, B. F. Skinner displayed the optimism that is often attributed to behaviorists. With time, however, he became less and less sanguine about the power of behavior science to solve the major problems facing humanity. Near the end of his life he concluded that a fair consideration of principles revealed by the scientific…

  11. Hannah Arendt's Fame Rests on the Wrong Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Russell

    2006-01-01

    A street is named after her. Back-to-back conferences celebrate her. New books champion her. Hannah Arendt has joined the small world of philosophical heroes. During her life, she received honorary degrees from Princeton, Smith, and other colleges and universities. Denmark awarded her its Sonning Prize for "commendable work that benefits European…

  12. Young Children's Moral Understanding: Learning about Right and Wrong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzzelli, Cary A.

    1992-01-01

    First, acknowledges Piaget's, Kohlberg's, and Freud's perspectives on moral development. Then reviews more recent research indicating that moral understanding emerges during the first few years of life through children's developing understanding of the standards and rules of their social world and their growing understanding of others' feelings.…

  13. Can Psychopathic Offenders Discern Moral Wrongs? A New Look at the Moral/Conventional Distinction

    PubMed Central

    Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2012-01-01

    A prominent view of psychopathic moral reasoning suggests that psychopathic individuals cannot properly distinguish between moral wrongs and other types of wrongs. The present study evaluated this view by examining the extent to which 109 incarcerated offenders with varying degrees of psychopathy could distinguish between moral and conventional transgressions relative to each other and to non-incarcerated healthy controls. Using a modified version of the classic Moral/Conventional Transgressions task (Nucci & Turiel, 1978) that employs a forced-choice format to minimize strategic responding, the present study found that total psychopathy score did not predict performance on the task. Task performance was explained by some individual sub-facets of psychopathy and by other variables unrelated to psychopathy, such as IQ. The authors conclude that, contrary to earlier claims, insufficient data exist to infer that psychopathic individuals cannot know what is morally wrong. PMID:21842959

  14. 'Wrong' bond interactions at inversion domain boundaries in GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambrecht, W. R. L.; Amador, C.; Segall, B.

    1992-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations of GaAs inversion-domain boundaries (IDBs) on different planes are reported. The resulting interface energies are analyzed in terms of the number of 'wrong' bonds (Ga-Ga and As-As) and their mutual compensation. The compensation energy varies roughly inversely proportionally to the distance between the wrong bonds. This favors local compensation in stoichiometric material. This automatically occurs for 110-plane planes or by chemical reconstruction for other planes. Ga-rich IDBs are predicted to have low energy in either Ga-rich or n-type material.

  15. 77 FR 60304 - Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance and Veterans' Group Life Insurance-Slayer's Rule Exclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... ] because of the death of a person whose life was insured under SGLI or VGLI (decedent) or payment of a SGLI... assisted the slayer in causing the death of the decedent. Additionally, this document contains an interim... person who has intentionally and wrongfully caused the death of another person'' if the benefits would...

  16. Giant Radio Jet Coming From Wrong Kind of Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Giant jets of subatomic particles moving at nearly the speed of light have been found coming from thousands of galaxies across the Universe, but always from elliptical galaxies or galaxies in the process of merging -- until now. Using the combined power of the Hubble Space Telescope, the Very Large Array (VLA) and the 8-meter Gemini-South Telescope, astronomers have discovered a huge jet coming from a spiral galaxy similar to our own Milky Way. Radio-optical view of galaxy Combined HST and VLA image of the galaxy 0313-192. Optical HST image shows the galaxy edge-on; VLA image, shown in red, reveals giant jet of speeding particles. For more images, see this link below. CREDIT: Keel, Ledlow & Owen; STScI,NRAO/AUI/NSF, NASA "We've always thought spirals were the wrong kind of galaxy to generate these huge jets, but now we're going to have to re-think some of our ideas on what produces these jets," said William Keel, a University of Alabama astronomer who led the research team. Keel worked with Michael Ledlow of Gemini Observatory and Frazer Owen of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The scientists reported their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Seattle, Washington. "Further study of this galaxy may provide unique insights on just what needs to happen in a galaxy to produce these powerful jets of particles," Keel said. In addition, Owen said, "The loose-knit nature of the cluster of galaxies in which this galaxy resides may play a part in allowing this particular spiral to produce jets." Astronomers believe such jets originate at the cores of galaxies, where supermassive black holes provide the tremendous gravitational energy to accelerate particles to nearly the speed of light. Magnetic fields twisted tightly by spinning disks of material being sucked into the black hole are presumed to narrow the speeding particles into thin jets, like a nozzle on a garden hose. Both elliptical and spiral galaxies are believed to harbor supermassive

  17. MCOs--you're using the wrong benefits!

    PubMed

    MacStravic, S

    1999-01-01

    If managed care organizations (MCOs) think of the benefits they offer and deliver in terms of narrow insurance coverage and limited payments for carefully circumscribed lists of health services, they miss the boat in marketing to consumers. Only by identifying, promising, delivering, and ensuring that consumers perceive core psychological benefits--a sense of security against catastrophic illness, assurance of access to necessary care, and the positive impacts on quality of life that health care can create--will MCOs realize the full potential of the real benefits consumers are after.

  18. What Is Wrong with Balance in Parkinson’s Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong-Ho; Kang, Yeo-Jeong; Horak, Fay Bahling

    2015-01-01

    Postural instability and resulting falls are major factors determining quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD). A better understanding of balance impairments would improve management of balance dysfunction and prevent falls in patients with PD. The effects of bradykinesia, rigidity, impaired proprioception, freezing of gait and attention on postural stability in patients with idiopathic PD have been well characterized in laboratory studies. The purpose of this review is to systematically summarize the types of balance impairments contributing to postural instability in people with PD. PMID:26413237

  19. 7 CFR 1.51 - Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission. 1.51 Section 1.51 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS... Department of Agriculture (USDA) may, subject to the provisions of the FTCA and DOJ regulations,...

  20. 7 CFR 1.51 - Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission. 1.51 Section 1.51 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS... Department of Agriculture (USDA) may, subject to the provisions of the FTCA and DOJ regulations,...

  1. Moving Past "Right" or "Wrong" toward a Continuum of Young Children's Semantic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    Vocabulary development is a critical goal for early childhood education. However, it is difficult for researchers and teachers to determine whether this goal is being met, given the limitations of current assessment tools. These tools tend to view word knowledge dichotomously--as right or wrong. A clear sense of children's depth of semantic…

  2. "Why Girls Go Wrong": Advising Female Teen Readers in the Early Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Jennifer Burek

    2007-01-01

    This article traces historical uses of the phrase "why girls go wrong" to provide a context for analysis of Progressive Era reading guidance for girls and then turns to actual girls' responses to reading. The historic context depicts the milieu in which young women and the advisors who sought to guide them lived and read as a time of intense…

  3. Children Do Not Follow the Rule "Ignorance Means Getting It Wrong"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Ori; Petrashek, Adam R.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments tested whether 4- and 5-year-olds follow the rule "ignorance means you get it wrong." Following this rule should lead children to infer that a character who is ignorant about some situation will also have a false belief about it. This rule should sometimes lead children into error because ignorance does not imply false belief. In…

  4. The Messenger May Be Wrong, but the Message May Be Right.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juel, Connie

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that abandoning controlled vocabulary texts on the assumption that reading is a psycholinguistic guessing game was wrong. Claims that the current emphasis on strategy instruction, scaffolded reading experiences, and the use of writing to foster letter-sounds may provide good outcomes for those teachers and children who dreaded reading…

  5. Dent–Wrong disease and other rare causes of the Fanconi syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Solano, Alejandro; Lew, Susie Q; Ing, Todd S.

    2014-01-01

    Dent–Wrong disease, an X-linked recessive disorder of the proximal tubules, presents with hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, renal insufficiency, low-molecular-weight proteinuria, rickets and/or osteomalacia. Dent and Friedman initially characterized the disorder in 1964 following studies of two patients with rickets who presented with hypercalciuria, hyperphosphaturia, proteinuria and aminoaciduria. Since then, extensive investigation identified two genetic mutations (CLCN5 and OCRL1) to be associated with Dent–Wrong disease. Clinical features supported by laboratory findings consistent with proximal tubule dysfunction help diagnose Dent–Wrong disease. Genetic analysis supports the diagnosis; however, these two genes can be normal in a small subset of patients. The differential diagnosis includes other forms of the Fanconi syndrome, which can be hereditary or acquired (e.g. those related to exposure to exogenous substances). Treatment is supportive with special attention to the prevention of nephrolithiasis and treatment of hypercalciuria. We review the rare forms of Fanconi syndrome with special attention to Dent–Wrong disease. PMID:25852908

  6. 40 CFR 2.211 - Safeguarding of business information; penalty for wrongful disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safeguarding of business information; penalty for wrongful disclosure. 2.211 Section 2.211 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Confidentiality of Business Information § 2.211 Safeguarding...

  7. Set the Wrong Tuition and You'll Pay a Price

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, David W.

    2006-01-01

    For all of the attention rising college costs continue to receive, it is striking how poorly informed many decision makers are when it comes to setting tuition and fees. And it's equally astounding that so many institutions are learning the consequences of pricing decisions undertaken solely by trial and error when a wrong judgment can affect…

  8. Eyewitness Testimony, False Confession, and Human Performance Technology: An Examination of Wrongful Convictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Terry L.

    2013-01-01

    Wrongful criminal convictions have come to the attention of the public and the criminal justice community in recent decades as a result of DNA evidence that has proven innocence after conviction. Research has suggested that as many as 3% to 5% of people currently imprisoned did not, in fact, commit the crimes for which they were convicted. A…

  9. 40 CFR 2.211 - Safeguarding of business information; penalty for wrongful disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safeguarding of business information... AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Confidentiality of Business Information § 2.211 Safeguarding of business information; penalty for wrongful disclosure. (a) No EPA officer or employee may disclose, or...

  10. Fatal wrong-way collisions on New Mexico's interstate highways, 1990-2004.

    PubMed

    Lathrop, Sarah L; Dick, Travis B; Nolte, Kurt B

    2010-03-01

    Medical examiner files from 1990 through 2004 were reviewed to identify fatalities caused by drivers traveling the wrong direction on interstate highways and identify risk factors and prevention strategies. Other fatal nonpedestrian interstate motor vehicle crashes served as a comparison group. Data abstracted included decedent demographics, driver/passenger status, seatbelt use, blood alcohol concentration, weather and light at time of occurrence and types of vehicles involved. Of 1171, 79 (6.7%) interstate motor vehicle fatalities were because of drivers traveling against the posted direction in 49 crashes, with one to five fatalities per crash. Wrong-way collisions were significantly more likely to occur during darkness (p < 0.0001) and involve legally intoxicated drivers (p < 0.0001). In 29/49 (60%) wrong-way crashes, alcohol was a factor. Prevention strategies aimed at reducing the incidence of driving while intoxicated, as well as improved lighting and signage at ramps, could help reduce the occurrence of fatal wrong-way collisions on interstates.

  11. "I Always Wanted to Be a Hero." Life without Parole

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Angela M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author recalls her face-to-face meeting with a prison inmate. Paul Jensen is currently serving a life sentence without parole in South Dakota for a crime committed at age 14. In January 1996, Paul was involved in a robbery that went tragically wrong and resulted in the shooting death of taxi cab driver Michael Hare. Three…

  12. The Personal Past as Inspiration: Authors Honor Their Life Experiences in Their Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghban, Marcia

    Ernest Hemingway was wrong. It is not necessary to leave home and go out and experience "Life" in capital letters to have "stuff" about which to write. The daughter of a kindergarten teacher, Louisa May Alcott wrote a book about her family life which became one of the most popular children's classics, "Little Women."…

  13. Parent Misidentification Leading to the Breastfeeding of the Wrong Baby in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Charles W; Marc-Aurele, Krishelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 2 month Final Diagnosis: 2 month old 32 weeks’ gestational age preterm infant Symptoms: Prematurity Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Accidental breastfeeding of the wrong baby Specialty: Pediatrics and Neonatology Objective: Diagnostic/therapeutic accidents Background: Because there are clear benefits to breast milk over formula for infants, the goal of the World Health Organization is to increase breastfeeding rates. As more women are breastfeeding and providing breast milk to newborns in hospitals, there is increased risk for administration error. Case Report: A hospitalized preterm infant was breastfed by the wrong mother when the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Nurse failed to properly identify the mother. An infectious disease workup done on the donor mother was negative, but the recipient infant was positive for cytomegalovirus (CMV). Since the donor mother who accidentally breastfed the wrong infant was CMV-negative, the baby in our case had likely been exposed to CMV from his biological mother. The attending physician apologized to all of the family members involved, but the father of one infant continued to express anger. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first case of accidental breastfeeding in a hospital setting to be described in the literature. Parental misidentification and a language barrier led to the error. An infectious disease workup did not find any evidence of disease transmission from this event. Increased attention to minimize breast milk errors is needed. Despite a long history of wet nursing, unregulated breast milk sharing and cross nursing is not recommended. Instead, if a mother cannot provide breast milk herself, pasteurized donor breast milk from breast milk banks is encouraged. PMID:27515898

  14. Overriding "doing wrong" and "not doing right": validation of the Dispositional Self-Control Scale (DSC).

    PubMed

    Ein-Gar, Danit; Sagiv, Lilach

    2014-01-01

    We present the Dispositional Self-Control (DSC) Scale, which reflects individuals' tendency to override 2 types of temptations, termed doing wrong and not doing right. We report a series of 5 studies designed to test the reliability and validity of the scale. As hypothesized, high DSC predicts distant future orientation and low DSC predicts deviant behaviors such as aggression, alcohol misuse, and aberrant driving. DSC also predicts task performance among resource-depleted participants. Taken together, these findings suggest that the DSC Scale could be a useful tool toward further understanding the role of personality in overcoming self-control challenges.

  15. Applying Fault Tree Analysis to the Prevention of Wrong Site Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Abecassis, Zachary A.; McElroy, Lisa M.; Patel, Ronak M.; Khorzad, Rebeca; Carroll, Charles; Mehrotra, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Wrong Site Surgery (WSS) is a rare event that occurs to hundreds of patients each year. Despite national implementation of the Universal Protocol over the past decade, development of effective interventions remains a challenge. We performed a systematic review of the literature reporting root causes of WSS, and used the results to perform a fault tree analysis in order to assess the reliability of the system in preventing (WSS) and identify high-priority targets for interventions aimed at reducing WSS. Process components where a single error could result in WSS were labeled with OR gates; process aspects reinforced by verification were labeled with AND gates. The overall redundancy of the system was evaluated based on prevalence of AND gates and OR gates. In total, 37 studies described risk factors for Wrong Site Surgery. The fault tree contains 35 faults, the majority of which fall into five main categories. Despite the Universal Protocol mandating patient verification, surgical site signing and a brief timeout, a large proportion of the process relies on human transcription and verification. Fault Tree Analysis provides a standardized perspective of errors or faults within the system of surgical scheduling and site confirmation. It can be adapted by institutions or specialties to lead to more targeted interventions to increase redundancy and reliability within the preoperative process. PMID:25277361

  16. Understanding and responding when things go wrong: key principles for primary care educators.

    PubMed

    McNab, Duncan; Bowie, Paul; Ross, Alastair; Morrison, Jill

    2016-07-01

    Learning from events with unwanted outcomes is an important part of workplace based education and providing evidence for medical appraisal and revalidation. It has been suggested that adopting a 'systems approach' could enhance learning and effective change. We believe the following key principles should be understood by all healthcare staff, especially those with a role in developing and delivering educational content for safety and improvement in primary care. When things go wrong, professional accountability involves accepting there has been a problem, apologising if necessary and committing to learn and change. This is easier in a 'Just Culture' where wilful disregard of safe practice is not tolerated but where decisions commensurate with training and experience do not result in blame and punishment. People usually attempt to achieve successful outcomes, but when things go wrong the contribution of hindsight and attribution bias as well as a lack of understanding of conditions and available information (local rationality) can lead to inappropriately blame 'human error'. System complexity makes reduction into component parts difficult; thus attempting to 'find-and-fix' malfunctioning components may not always be a valid approach. Finally, performance variability by staff is often needed to meet demands or cope with resource constraints. We believe understanding these core principles is a necessary precursor to adopting a 'systems approach' that can increase learning and reduce the damaging effects on morale when 'human error' is blamed. This may result in 'human error' becoming the starting point of an investigation and not the endpoint.

  17. When patients are harmed, but are not wronged: ethics, law, and history.

    PubMed

    Klaas, Paul B; Berge, Keith H; Klaas, Kelsey M; Klaas, James P; Larson, Annalise Noelle

    2014-09-01

    Iatrogenic injury-injury caused unintentionally by medical treatment-breaks the oldest and most famous rule of medical ethics: primum non nocere, or above all, do no harm. Medical malpractice law, however, focuses on whether an injury was caused by negligence, not on whether an injury was iatrogenic. Iatrogenic injury inflicted without negligence is a common pattern in medical malpractice lawsuits; it is likely the pattern of Jacobs v Cross (Minnesota, 1872), in which Dr W. W. Mayo testified as an expert witness. As a matter of law, the doctor defendants should win all those lawsuits, for iatrogenic injury inflicted without negligence is not a legal wrong in the United States and has not been considered a legal wrong for hundreds of years. However, the medical ethics applicable to doctors' duties to report incompetence in colleagues, including those who inflict excessive iatrogenic injury, have developed dramatically over time. In 1872, the ethical codes in the United States exhorted doctors not to criticize another doctor, even if incompetent. Today, doctors in the United States are ethically required to report an incompetent colleague.

  18. What could possibly go wrong? - A heuristic for predicting population health outcomes of interventions.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Alex

    2011-10-01

    Austin Bradford Hill offers a general heuristic for causal inference in epidemiology, but no general heuristic for prediction is available. This paper seeks to identify a heuristic for predicting the outcome of interventions on population health, informed by the moral context of such interventions. It is suggested that, where available, robust predictions should be preferred, where a robust prediction is one which, according to the best knowledge we are currently able to obtain, could not easily be wrong. To assess whether a prediction is robust, it is suggested that we ask why the predicted outcome will occur, rather than any other outcome. Firstly, if, according to our current knowledge, we cannot identify the likeliest ways that the other outcomes could occur, then the prediction is not robust. And secondly, if, according to our current knowledge, we can identify the likeliest other outcomes but we are unable to say why our predicted outcome will occur rather than these, then, again, our prediction is not robust. Otherwise, it is robust. The inaccurate but memorable short version of the heuristic is, "What could possibly go wrong?"

  19. The Reputational Consequences of Failed Replications and Wrongness Admission among Scientists

    PubMed Central

    Fetterman, Adam K.; Sassenberg, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Scientists are dedicating more attention to replication efforts. While the scientific utility of replications is unquestionable, the impact of failed replication efforts and the discussions surrounding them deserve more attention. Specifically, the debates about failed replications on social media have led to worry, in some scientists, regarding reputation. In order to gain data-informed insights into these issues, we collected data from 281 published scientists. We assessed whether scientists overestimate the negative reputational effects of a failed replication in a scenario-based study. Second, we assessed the reputational consequences of admitting wrongness (versus not) as an original scientist of an effect that has failed to replicate. Our data suggests that scientists overestimate the negative reputational impact of a hypothetical failed replication effort. We also show that admitting wrongness about a non-replicated finding is less harmful to one’s reputation than not admitting. Finally, we discovered a hint of evidence that feelings about the replication movement can be affected by whether replication efforts are aimed one’s own work versus the work of another. Given these findings, we then present potential ways forward in these discussions. PMID:26650842

  20. Judgments of moral responsibility and wrongness for intentional and accidental harm and purity violations.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Mary; Byrne, Ruth M J

    2017-01-31

    Two experiments examine whether people reason differently about intentional and accidental violations in the moral domains of harm and purity, by examining moral responsibility and wrongness judgments for violations that affect others or the self. The first experiment shows that intentional violations are judged to be worse than accidental ones, regardless of whether they are harm or purity violations-for example, Sam poisons his colleague versus Sam eats his dog, when participants judge how morally responsible was Sam for what he did, or how morally wrong was what Sam did. The second experiment shows that violations of others are judged to be worse than violations of the self, regardless of whether they are harm or purity violations, when their content and context is matched-for example, on a tropical holiday Sam orders poisonous starfruit for dinner for his friend, or for himself, versus on a tropical holiday Sam orders dog meat for dinner for his friend, or for himself. Moral reasoning is influenced by whether the violation was intentional or accidental, and whether its target was the self or another person, rather than by the moral domain, such as harm or purity.

  1. Eager feelings and vigilant reasons: Regulatory focus differences in judging moral wrongs

    PubMed Central

    Cornwell, James F. M.; Higgins, E. Tory

    2015-01-01

    For over a decade, moral psychologists have been actively researching the processes underlying moral judgments that are made intuitively without reference to an action’s concrete harms or injustice, such as the well-known case of non-procreative, consensual incest. We suggest that the reason some judge this scenario as wrong (using intuitive feelings) and others do not (using deliberative reasons) is due to an important motivational distinction. Consistent with this view, across seven studies, we demonstrate that negative judgments of such intuitive moral scenarios are more intense when processed in the promotion focus compared to the prevention focus, and that this is due to differences in whether eager (intuitive) versus vigilant (deliberative) means are employed in judging these moral wrongs. By examining various boundary conditions for this phenomenon and foundations for these judgments, we learn about the overall differences between promotion and prevention regarding how proscriptive judgments are processed, and begin to integrate these differences with existing theories in moral psychology. PMID:26726912

  2. The Reputational Consequences of Failed Replications and Wrongness Admission among Scientists.

    PubMed

    Fetterman, Adam K; Sassenberg, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Scientists are dedicating more attention to replication efforts. While the scientific utility of replications is unquestionable, the impact of failed replication efforts and the discussions surrounding them deserve more attention. Specifically, the debates about failed replications on social media have led to worry, in some scientists, regarding reputation. In order to gain data-informed insights into these issues, we collected data from 281 published scientists. We assessed whether scientists overestimate the negative reputational effects of a failed replication in a scenario-based study. Second, we assessed the reputational consequences of admitting wrongness (versus not) as an original scientist of an effect that has failed to replicate. Our data suggests that scientists overestimate the negative reputational impact of a hypothetical failed replication effort. We also show that admitting wrongness about a non-replicated finding is less harmful to one's reputation than not admitting. Finally, we discovered a hint of evidence that feelings about the replication movement can be affected by whether replication efforts are aimed one's own work versus the work of another. Given these findings, we then present potential ways forward in these discussions.

  3. Technology development life cycle processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, David Franklin

    2013-05-01

    This report and set of appendices are a collection of memoranda originally drafted in 2009 for the purpose of providing motivation and the necessary background material to support the definition and integration of engineering and management processes related to technology development. At the time there was interest and support to move from Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level One (ad hoc processes) to Level Three. As presented herein, the material begins with a survey of open literature perspectives on technology development life cycles, including published data on %E2%80%9Cwhat went wrong.%E2%80%9D The main thrust of the material presents a rational expose%CC%81 of a structured technology development life cycle that uses the scientific method as a framework, with further rigor added from adapting relevant portions of the systems engineering process. The material concludes with a discussion on the use of multiple measures to assess technology maturity, including consideration of the viewpoint of potential users.

  4. Reducing wrong patient selection errors: exploring the design space of user interface techniques.

    PubMed

    Sopan, Awalin; Plaisant, Catherine; Powsner, Seth; Shneiderman, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Wrong patient selection errors are a major issue for patient safety; from ordering medication to performing surgery, the stakes are high. Widespread adoption of Electronic Health Record (EHR) and Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) systems makes patient selection using a computer screen a frequent task for clinicians. Careful design of the user interface can help mitigate the problem by helping providers recall their patients' identities, accurately select their names, and spot errors before orders are submitted. We propose a catalog of twenty seven distinct user interface techniques, organized according to a task analysis. An associated video demonstrates eighteen of those techniques. EHR designers who consider a wider range of human-computer interaction techniques could reduce selection errors, but verification of efficacy is still needed.

  5. UF{sub 6} tiedowns for truck transport - right way/wrong way

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, F.W. Jr.

    1991-12-31

    Tiedown systems for truck transport of UF{sub 6} must be defined and controlled to assure the least risk for hauling the material over the highways. This paper and an associated poster display will present the current status of regulatory criteria for tiedowns, analyze the structural stresses involved in tiedowns for two major UF{sub 6} packaging systems, the 21PF series of overpacks and the 48 in. diameter shipping cylinders, and will present photographs showing some {open_quote}right ways{close_quotes} and some {open_quotes}wrong (or risky) ways{close_quotes} currently used for tiedown systems. Risky tiedown methods must be replaced with safer less risky methods to insure the safe transport of UF{sub 6}.

  6. Measurement of the wrong-sign decay D0→K+π-π+π-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, E.; Schwartz, A. J.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Asner, D. M.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Bakich, A. M.; Bala, A.; Bhardwaj, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Bonvicini, G.; Bozek, A.; Bračko, M.; Brodzicka, J.; Browder, T. E.; Chekelian, V.; Chen, A.; Chen, P.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Chistov, R.; Cho, I.-S.; Cho, K.; Chobanova, V.; Choi, Y.; Cinabro, D.; Dingfelder, J.; Doležal, Z.; Drásal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Eidelman, S.; Epifanov, D.; Esen, S.; Farhat, H.; Fast, J. E.; Feindt, M.; Ferber, T.; Frey, A.; Gaur, V.; Gabyshev, N.; Ganguly, S.; Gillard, R.; Goh, Y. M.; Golob, B.; Hara, T.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; Hoshi, Y.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hyun, H. J.; Iijima, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Iwashita, T.; Jaegle, I.; Julius, T.; Kah, D. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kato, E.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, H. O.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, K.; Klucar, J.; Ko, B. R.; Kodyš, P.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kronenbitter, B.; Kuhr, T.; Kumita, T.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lange, J. S.; Lee, S.-H.; Li, J.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Libby, J.; Liu, C.; Liu, Y.; Liventsev, D.; Lukin, P.; Matvienko, D.; Miyata, H.; Mizuk, R.; Mohanty, G. B.; Moll, A.; Mussa, R.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nayak, M.; Nedelkovska, E.; Ng, C.; Nisar, N. K.; Nishida, S.; Nitoh, O.; Ogawa, S.; Okuno, S.; Oswald, C.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Park, H.; Park, H. K.; Pedlar, T. K.; Pestotnik, R.; Petrič, M.; Piilonen, L. E.; Ritter, M.; Röhrken, M.; Rostomyan, A.; Ryu, S.; Sahoo, H.; Saito, T.; Sakai, Y.; Sandilya, S.; Santelj, L.; Sanuki, T.; Sato, Y.; Savinov, V.; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schwanda, C.; Semmler, D.; Senyo, K.; Seon, O.; Sevior, M. E.; Shapkin, M.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shiu, J.-G.; Shwartz, B.; Sibidanov, A.; Sohn, Y.-S.; Sokolov, A.; Solovieva, E.; Stanič, S.; Starič, M.; Steder, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tamponi, U.; Tatishvili, G.; Teramoto, Y.; Uchida, M.; Uehara, S.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Vahsen, S. E.; Van Hulse, C.; Varner, G.; Vorobyev, V.; Wagner, M. N.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.-Z.; Wang, P.; Watanabe, Y.; Williams, K. M.; Won, E.; Yamashita, Y.; Yashchenko, S.; Yusa, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.; Zupanc, A.

    2013-09-01

    A measurement of the rate for the “wrong-sign” decay D0→K+π-π+π- relative to that for the “right-sign” decay D0→K-π+π+π- is presented. Using 791fb-1 of data collected with the Belle detector, we obtain a branching fraction ratio of Rws=[0.324±0.008(stat)±0.007(sys)]%. Multiplying this ratio by the world average value for the branching fraction B(D0→K-π+π+π-) gives a branching fraction B(D0→K+π-π+π-)=(2.61±0.06-0.08+0.09)×10-4.

  7. Sequential drug verification errors resulting in wrong drug administration during caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Calderbank, S; Uncles, D R; Burns, N; Kariyawasam, H K C D; Allan, G D L

    2011-01-01

    An intravenous bolus of phentolamine was inadvertently given to a parturient during an emergency caesarean section following delivery of her infant when the intention had been to give an intravenous bolus of 5 IU Syntocinon. Root cause analysis identified a series of errors originating in the hospital pharmacy when one drug package was mistakenly issued in place of another. Subsequent checks failed to detect the original mistake. The final and most important check immediately before intravenous administration was also at fault. This case highlights a systems failure that permitted issue, transportation and administration of the wrong drug to a parturient. Robust measures to ensure avoidance of drug administration errors should be evaluated and introduced where possible.

  8. The 'nightmare' of wrong level in spine surgery: a critical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The recent article published in the Journal by Lindley and colleagues (Patient Saf. Surg. 2011, 5:33) reported the successful surgical treatment of a persistent thoracic pain following a T7-8 microdiscectomy, truly performed at the ‘level immediately above’. The wrong level in spine surgery is a multi-factorial matter and several strategies have been designed and adopted to try decreasing its occurrence. We think that three of these factors are crucial: global strategy, attention, precision in level identification; and the actors we identified are the surgeon, the assistant nurse and the (neuro)radiologist respectively. Basing upon our experience, the role of the radiologist pre- and intraoperatively and the importance of the assistant nurse are briefly described. PMID:22713236

  9. Numerical Dissipation and Wrong Propagation Speed of Discontinuities for Stiff Source Terms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Kotov, D. V.; Sjoegreen, B.

    2012-01-01

    In compressible turbulent combustion/nonequilibrium flows, the constructions of numerical schemes for (a) stable and accurate simulation of turbulence with strong shocks, and (b) obtaining correct propagation speed of discontinuities for stiff reacting terms on coarse grids share one important ingredient - minimization of numerical dissipation while maintaining numerical stability. Here coarse grids means standard mesh density requirement for accurate simulation of typical non-reacting flows. This dual requirement to achieve both numerical stability and accuracy with zero or minimal use of numerical dissipation is most often conflicting for existing schemes that were designed for non-reacting flows. The goal of this paper is to relate numerical dissipations that are inherited in a selected set of high order shock-capturing schemes with the onset of wrong propagation speed of discontinuities as a function of stiffness of the source term and the grid spacing.

  10. Why the Eurocontrol Safety Regulation Commission Policy on Safety Nets and Risk Assessment is Wrong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooker, Peter

    2004-05-01

    Current Eurocontrol Safety Regulation Commission (SRC) policy says that the Air Traffic Management (ATM) system (including safety minima) must be demonstrated through risk assessments to meet the Target Level of Safety (TLS) without needing to take safety nets (such as Short Term Conflict Alert) into account. This policy is wrong. The policy is invalid because it does not build rationally and consistently from ATM's firm foundations of TLS and hazard analysis. The policy is bad because it would tend to retard safety improvements. Safety net policy must rest on a clear and rational treatment of integrated ATM system safety defences. A new safety net policy, appropriate to safe ATM system improvements, is needed, which recognizes that safety nets are an integrated part of ATM system defences. The effects of safety nets in reducing deaths from mid-air collisions should be fully included in hazard analysis and safety audits in the context of the TLS for total system design.

  11. What If the Prenatal Diagnosis of a Lethal Anomaly Turns Out to Be Wrong?

    PubMed

    Kidszun, André; Linebarger, Jennifer; Walter, Jennifer K; Paul, Norbert W; Fruth, Anja; Mildenberger, Eva; Lantos, John D

    2016-05-01

    Advances in prenatal diagnosis create a unique set of clinical ethics dilemmas. Doctors routinely obtain genetic screening, radiologic images, and biophysical profiling. These allow more accurate diagnosis and prognosis than has ever before been possible. However, they also reveal a wider range of disease manifestations than were apparent when prenatal diagnosis was less sophisticated. Sometimes, the best estimates of prognosis turn out to be wrong. The infant's symptoms may be less severe or more severe than anticipated based on prenatal assessment. We present a case in which a prenatal diagnosis was made of severe osteogenesis imperfecta, leading to a decision to induce delivery at 31 weeks. On postnatal evaluation, the infant's disease did not appear to be as bad as had been anticipated. We discuss the ethical implications of such diagnostic and prognostic errors.

  12. 'Religious fanaticism' and wrongful confinement in Victorian England: the affair of Louisa Nottidge.

    PubMed

    Schwieso, J J

    1996-08-01

    Louisa Nottidge was kidnapped and committed to a private asylum in 1846 by her family because she had joined a millenarian sect of which they disapproved. After eighteen months the Commissioners in Lunacy were pressurised into ordering her release. Subsequently, she successfully sued her brother and brother-in-law for wrongful imprisonment. The judge's criticisms of the medical profession led to an acrimonious public debate about the nature of mental illness and its treatment, a debate that involved some of the leading 'mad doctors' of the day including Dr. John Conolly. The complex history of this case, frequently referred to in recent scholarly work, but never discussed in detail, is examined together with its implications for our understanding of Victorian psychiatry, and its attitude to mental illnesses involving religious matters.

  13. Numerical Dissipation and Wrong Propagation Speed of Discontinuities for Stiff Source Terms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Kotov, D. V.; Sjogreen, B.

    2011-01-01

    In compressible turbulent combustion/nonequilibrium flows, the constructions of numerical schemes for (a) stable and accurate simulation of turbulence with strong shocks, and (b) obtaining correct propagation speed of discontinuities for stiff reacting terms on coarse grids share one important ingredient - minimization of numerical dissipation while maintaining numerical stability. Here coarse grids means standard mesh density requirement for accurate simulation of typical non-reacting flows. This dual requirement to achieve both numerical stability and accuracy with zero or minimal use of numerical dissipation is most often conflicting for existing schemes that were designed for non-reacting flows. The goal of this paper is to relate numerical dissipations that are inherited in a selected set of high order shock-capturing schemes with the onset of wrong propagation speed of discontinuities for two representative stiff detonation wave problems.

  14. Reductions without Regret: Avoiding Wrong Turns, Roach Motels, and Box Canyons

    SciTech Connect

    Swegle, John A.; Tincher, Douglas J.

    2013-09-11

    This is the third of three papers (in addition to an introductory summary) aimed at providing a framework for evaluating future reductions or modifications of the U.S. nuclear force, first by considering previous instances in which nuclear-force capabilities were eliminated; second by looking forward into at least the foreseeable future at the features of global and regional deterrence (recognizing that new weapon systems currently projected will have expected lifetimes stretching beyond our ability to predict the future); and third by providing examples of past or possible undesirable outcomes in the shaping of the future nuclear force, as well as some closing thoughts for the future. In this paper, we provide one example each of our judgments on what constitutes a box canyon, a roach motel, and a wrong turn: Wrong Turn: The Reliable Replacement Warhead: Roach Motel: SRAM T vs the B61: and A Possible Box Canyon: A Low-Yield Version of the W76 SLBM Warhead. Recognizing that new nuclear missions or weapons are not demanded by current circumstances ₋ a development path that yields future capabilities similar to those of today, which are adequate if not always ideal, and a broader national-security strategy that supports nonproliferation and arms control by reducing the role for, and numbers, of nuclear weapons ₋ we briefly consider alternate, less desirable futures, and their possible effect on the complex problem of regional deterrence. In this regard, we discuss the issues posed by, and possible responses to, three example regional deterrence challenges: in-country defensive use of nuclear weapons by an adversary; reassurance of U.S. allies with limited strategic depth threatened by an emergent nuclear power; and extraterritorial, non-strategic offensive use of nuclear weapons by an adversary in support of limited military objectives against a U.S. ally.

  15. 27 CFR 70.227 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suspension of running of... Limitations § 70.227 Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party. The running of the period of limitations on collection after assessment prescribed in 26...

  16. 27 CFR 70.227 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of running of... Limitations § 70.227 Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party. The running of the period of limitations on collection after assessment prescribed in 26...

  17. [With the fourth sentence of the First Chamber on wrongful birth: is it possible to start talking about "jurisprudence"?].

    PubMed

    de Angel Yágüez, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    Chamber number 1 of the Spanish Supreme Court of Justice has announced its fourth wrongful birth case decision dated December 18, 2003. The issue is whether we can state that with these four rulings there is a genuine law of precedent, that is, reiterated doctrine of the Supreme Court of Justice on this matter (Article 1.6 of the Civil Code).

  18. Dystopian Schools: Recovering Dewey's Radical Aesthetics in an Age of Utopia-Gone-Wrong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heybach, Jessica A.; Sheffield, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we first suggest that contemporary school policies and practices represent a utopia-gone-wrong. In striving for an unattainable educational utopia--that is, all students will be proficient in math and reading by 2014--current polices and their resulting practices have brought a classic dystopian turn--the dehumanization of…

  19. Student Non-Completion of an Undergraduate Degree: Wrong Program Selection or Part of a Career Plan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, M.; Laven, G.; Burgess, T.

    2011-01-01

    Institution wide comparisons of students who leave university before completing their degree and students who complete their studies, have identified "wrong course selection" and a lack of vocational focus as common reasons for non-completion. It is not fully understood, though, whether these trends are constant across different…

  20. Malthus is still wrong: we can feed a world of 9-10 billion, but only by reducing food demand.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete

    2015-08-01

    In 1798, Thomas Robert Malthus published 'An essay on the principle of population' in which he concluded that: 'The power of population is so superior to the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man, that premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race.' Over the following century he was criticised for underestimating the potential for scientific and technological innovation to provide positive change. Since then, he has been proved wrong, with a number of papers published during the past few decades pointing out why he has been proved wrong so many times. In the present paper, I briefly review the main changes in food production in the past that have allowed us to continue to meet ever growing demand for food, and I examine the possibility of these same innovations delivering food security in the future. On the basis of recent studies, I conclude that technological innovation can no longer be relied upon to prove Malthus wrong as we strive to feed 9-10 billion people by 2050. Unless we are prepared to accept a wide range of significant, undesirable environmental consequences, technology alone cannot provide food security in 2050. Food demand, particularly the demand for livestock products, will need to be managed if we are to continue to prove Malthus wrong into the future.

  1. 38 CFR 14.605 - Suits against Department of Veterans Affairs employees arising out of a wrongful act or omission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... medical or dental care and treatment in or for the Veterans Health Administration, the employee shall... of Veterans Affairs employees arising out of a wrongful act or omission or based upon medical care and treatment furnished in or for the Veterans Health Administration. 14.605 Section 14.605...

  2. 38 CFR 14.605 - Suits against Department of Veterans Affairs employees arising out of a wrongful act or omission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... medical or dental care and treatment in or for the Veterans Health Administration, the employee shall... of Veterans Affairs employees arising out of a wrongful act or omission or based upon medical care and treatment furnished in or for the Veterans Health Administration. 14.605 Section 14.605...

  3. 38 CFR 14.605 - Suits against Department of Veterans Affairs employees arising out of a wrongful act or omission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... medical or dental care and treatment in or for the Veterans Health Administration, the employee shall... of Veterans Affairs employees arising out of a wrongful act or omission or based upon medical care and treatment furnished in or for the Veterans Health Administration. 14.605 Section 14.605...

  4. 27 CFR 70.227 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Suspension of running of... Limitations § 70.227 Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party. The running of the period of limitations on collection after assessment prescribed in 26...

  5. 27 CFR 70.227 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suspension of running of... Limitations § 70.227 Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party. The running of the period of limitations on collection after assessment prescribed in 26...

  6. 27 CFR 70.227 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suspension of running of... Limitations § 70.227 Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third party. The running of the period of limitations on collection after assessment prescribed in 26...

  7. 31 CFR 100.18 - Counterfeit notes to be marked; “redemption” of notes wrongfully so marked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Counterfeit notes to be marked; âredemptionâ of notes wrongfully so marked. 100.18 Section 100.18 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY...

  8. 31 CFR 100.18 - Counterfeit notes to be marked; “redemption” of notes wrongfully so marked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Counterfeit notes to be marked; âredemptionâ of notes wrongfully so marked. 100.18 Section 100.18 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY...

  9. Right and Wrong and Cultural Diversity: Replication of the 2002 NAS/Zogby Poll on Business Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlum, Marty; Mascaloinov, Sergei

    2004-01-01

    In April 2002, a NAS/Zogby poll found that only a quarter of sampled students perceived uniform standards of "right and wrong" and that most students felt that ethical behavior depends on cultural diversity. In this effort to replicate those findings in a larger sample of American college students, the authors obtained results that…

  10. Quantum entanglement: facts and fiction - how wrong was Einstein after all?

    PubMed

    Nordén, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Einstein was wrong with his 1927 Solvay Conference claim that quantum mechanics is incomplete and incapable of describing diffraction of single particles. However, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox of entangled pairs of particles remains lurking with its 'spooky action at a distance'. In molecules quantum entanglement can be viewed as basis of both chemical bonding and excitonic states. The latter are important in many biophysical contexts and involve coupling between subsystems in which virtual excitations lead to eigenstates of the total Hamiltonian, but not for the separate subsystems. The author questions whether atomic or photonic systems may be probed to prove that particles or photons may stay entangled over large distances and display the immediate communication with each other that so concerned Einstein. A dissociating hydrogen molecule is taken as a model of a zero-spin entangled system whose angular momenta are in principle possible to probe for this purpose. In practice, however, spins randomize as a result of interactions with surrounding fields and matter. Similarly, no experiment seems yet to provide unambiguous evidence of remaining entanglement between single photons at large separations in absence of mutual interaction, or about immediate (superluminal) communication. This forces us to reflect again on what Einstein really had in mind with the paradox, viz. a probabilistic interpretation of a wave function for an ensemble of identically prepared states, rather than as a statement about single particles. Such a prepared state of many particles would lack properties of quantum entanglement that make it so special, including the uncertainty upon which safe quantum communication is assumed to rest. An example is Zewail's experiment showing visible resonance in the dissociation of a coherently vibrating ensemble of NaI molecules apparently violating the uncertainty principle. Einstein was wrong about diffracting single photons where space-like anti

  11. [Xi yuan lu (Records for Washing Away of Wrong Cases) and justice tests in the Republic of China in the context of western knowledge].

    PubMed

    Long, Wei

    2014-09-01

    Xi yuan lu (Records for Washing Away of Wrong Cases) has become the important criterion and authority of the criminal justice tests in the proceedings of case and judicatory judgment, since it was issued royally and officially in the reign of Kangxi Emperor of the Qing Dynasty. However, the Xi yuan lu and its traditional tests was subjected to strong criticism after the introduction of modern science. Especially since the May 4(th) New Culture Movement, not only the theory in the Xi yuan lu had been met with incredulity and condemned sharply through western chemical tests by the intelligentsia, but also the traditional methods of justice tests based on the book was fully criticized. Though the Xi yuan lu has fallen down from the altar, the traditional methods in the book still were used in practice in China during 1930s--1940s because the scientific system of forensic medicine was not established yet. Xi yuan lu, though fallen yet not defeated, reveals its deep-rooted life. The modern fate of the Xi yuan lu was not only the direct result of different historical conversation in the different periods of modern time, but also a true picture of modern China.

  12. Persons and death: what's metaphysically wrong with our current statutory definition of death?

    PubMed

    Lizza, J P

    1993-08-01

    This paper challenges the recommendations of 1981 President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research that all jurisdictions in the United States should adopt the Uniform Determination of Death Act, which endorses a whole-brain, rather than a higher-brain, definition of death. I argue that the Commission was wrong to reject the "personhood argument" for the higher-brain definition on the grounds that there is no consensus among philosophers or the general population as to what constitutes "personhood". I claim that philosophers agree that some potential for cognitive function is necessary for personhood and that, when this is absent in cases of anencephaly and persistent vegetative state (PVS), the individual should be considered dead. I further argue that the lack of consensus among the general population is due in large measure to misunderstandings about the medical reality of PVS and beliefs influenced by feelings for a specific individual in PVS. I also examine and reject two tutorist arguments which have been used to support the Commission's position: that the higher-brain definition would threaten the severely senile and severely retarded, and that there are not currently adequate medical techniques for determining when all higher-brain activities have ceased.

  13. 'Wrong parents' and 'right parents': shared perspectives about citizen participation in policy implementation.

    PubMed

    Potter, Deborah Anne

    2010-06-01

    Government policies, both in Europe and the U.S., increasingly mandate that community-based citizens partner with professionals to plan and implement policy-relevant programs. In the U.S., parents of children with serious emotional disturbances may participate in Community Collaboratives which are charged with implementing children's mental health policy in local communities. This qualitative study examined three Community Collaboratives and identified organizational features associated with how the groups prioritized lay involvement, among other competing goals which they legitimately could pursue. Thirty-four key informants participated in in-depth interviews. Although the overall study identified several factors which permitted greater and lesser degrees of family involvement, this paper reports on one: the symbolic meaning shared by members about lay participation in their shared perspectives about "wrong parents" and "right parents." Furthermore, two alternate types of "right parents" identified a psychologized version of parents as consumers, and a civic vision of parents as partners. Results from this study are applicable to a wide array of lay-professional partnerships. This study suggests that in order to foster lay-professional partnerships in policy initiatives, lay participants must possess additional, civic-based skills, beyond those needed in the service delivery arena. Furthermore, organizational and professional change may be required to address professional dominance. Within mental health, lack of acceptance of nationally touted recovery-based models is a significant barrier. Finally, sociological implications of developing a civic-based framework for lay-professional partnerships are discussed.

  14. All age-depth models are wrong, but are getting better

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trachsel, Mathias; Chipperfield, Joseph D.; Telford, Richard J.

    2015-04-01

    Construction of accurate age-depth relationships and realistic assessment of their uncertainties is one of the fundamental prerequisites for comparing and correlating Late Quaternary stratigraphic proxy records. Four widely used age-depth modelling routines: i) clam, ii) OxCal, iii) Bacon, and iv) Bchron were tested using radiocarbon dates simulated from varved sediment stratigraphies. All methods produced average age-depth models that were close to the true varve age, but the uncertainty estimation differed considerably among models. Age uncertainties were underestimated by clam, whereas age uncertainties produced by Bchron were too large. Using OxCal and Bacon, setting of model specific parameters influenced the estimated uncertainties, which varied from too large to too small. Still, compared to the study by Telford et al. (2004), the use of Bayesian age-depth models greatly improved on the assessment of uncertainties of age-depth models. Reference: Telford et al. (2004), All age-depth models are wrong: but how badly? Quaternary Science Reviews, 23,1-5.

  15. Preparing Offspring for a Dangerous World: Potential Costs of Being Wrong

    PubMed Central

    Coslovsky, Michael; Richner, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive maternal responses to stressful environments before young are born can follow two non-exclusive pathways: either the mother reduces current investment in favor of future investment, or influences offspring growth and development in order to fit offspring phenotype to the stressful environment. Inducing such developmental cues, however, may be risky if the environment changes meanwhile, resulting in maladapted offspring. Here we test the effects of a predator-induced maternal effect in a predator-free postnatal environment. We manipulated perceived predation-risk for breeding female great tits by exposing them to stuffed models of either a predatory bird or a non-predatory control. Offspring were raised either in an environment matching the maternal one by exchanging whole broods within a maternal treatment group, or in a mismatching environment by exchanging broods among the maternal treatments. Offspring growth depended on the matching of the two environments. While for offspring originating from control treated mothers environmental mismatch did not significantly change growth, offspring of mothers under increased perceived predation risk grew faster and larger in matching conditions. Offspring of predator treated mothers fledged about one day later when growing under mismatching conditions. This suggests costs paid by the offspring if mothers predict environmental conditions wrongly. PMID:23144992

  16. "A Paradox Persists When the Paradigm Is Wrong": Pisacano Scholars' Reflections from the Inaugural Starfield Summit.

    PubMed

    Doohan, Noemi; Coutinho, Anastasia J; Lochner, Jennifer; Wohler, Diana; DeVoe, Jennifer

    The inaugural Starfield Summit was hosted in April 2016 by the Robert Graham Center for Policy Studies in Family Medicine and Primary Care with additional partners and sponsors, including the Pisacano Leadership Foundation (PLF). The Summit addressed critical topics in primary care and health care delivery, including payment, measurement, and team-based care. Invited participants included an interdisciplinary group of pediatricians, family physicians, internists, behaviorists, trainees, researchers, and advocates. Among the family physicians invited were both current and past PLF (Pisacano) scholars. After the Summit, a small group of current and past Pisacano scholars formed a writing group to reflect on and summarize key lessons and conclusions from the Summit. A Summit participant's statement, "a paradox persists when the paradigm is wrong," became a repeated theme regarding the paradox of primary care within the context of the health care system in the United States. The Summit energized participants to renew their commitment to Dr. Starfield's 4 C's of Primary Care (first contact access, continuity, comprehensiveness, and care coordination) and to the Quadruple Aim (quality, value, and patient and physician satisfaction) and to continue to explore how primary care can best shape the future of the nation's health care system.

  17. The Perception Gap: Recognizing and managing the risks that arise when we get risk wrong.

    PubMed

    Ropeik, David

    2012-05-01

    Many in the academic, science, and business communities are frustrated at how people perceive and respond to risk, lamenting that the lay public is sometimes more afraid of some threats than the evidence warrants, and less afraid of some dangers than the evidence warns. This is often ascribed to the alarmist way the news media cover risk-related subjects. That criticism is simplistic and unproductive, and ignores or dismisses the large body of research that finds that the perception of risk is not, and can never be, perfectly rational. Risk perception among members of the public, the media, and members of the academic, scientific, and business communities, is ultimately subjective. The gap between our fears and the evidence is not simply the product of alarmist media reporting. This 'Perception Gap' poses significant risks in and of itself, influencing the choices we make as individuals and as a society. The roots of the Perception Gap must be understood if we are to recognize the dangers that can arise when we sometimes get risk wrong, and in order that we may more wisely manage those risks as actively as we manage toxicological or food or other risks with which we are more familiar.

  18. Legislative responses to wrongful conviction: Do partisan principals and advocacy efforts influence state-level criminal justice policy?

    PubMed

    Kent, Stephanie L; Carmichael, Jason T

    2015-07-01

    The number of discovered wrongful criminal convictions (and resulting exonerations) has increased over the past decade. These cases erode public confidence in the criminal justice system and trust in the rule of law. Many states have adopted laws that aim to reduce system errors but no study has examined why some states appear more willing to provide due process protections against wrongful convictions than others. Findings from regression estimates suggest that states with a Republican controlled legislature or more Republican voters are less likely to pass these laws while the presence of advocacy organizations that are part of the 'innocence movement' make legislative change more likely. We thus identify important differences in the political and social context between U.S. states that influence the adoption of criminal justice policies.

  19. The Two-Wrongs model explains perception-action dissociations for illusions driven by distortions of the egocentric reference frame.

    PubMed

    Dassonville, Paul; Reed, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a dissociation of the effects of illusion on perception and action, with perception generally reported to be susceptible to illusions, while actions are seemingly immune. These findings have been interpreted to support Milner and Goodale's Two Visual Systems model, which proposes the existence of separate visual processing streams for perception and action. However, an alternative interpretation suggests that this type of behavioral dissociation will occur for any illusion that is caused by a distortion of the observer's egocentric reference frame, without requiring the existence of separate perception and action systems that are differently affected by the illusion. In this scenario, movements aimed at illusory targets will be accurate if they are guided within the same distorted reference frame used for target encoding, since the error of motor guidance will cancel with the error of encoding (hence, for actions, two wrongs do make a right). We further test this Two-Wrongs model by examining two illusions for which the hypothesis makes very different predictions: the rod-and-frame illusion (which affects perception but not actions) and the simultaneous-tilt illusion (which affects perception and actions equally). We demonstrate that the rod-and-frame illusion is caused by a distortion of the observer's egocentric reference frame suitable for the cancellation of errors predicted by the Two-Wrongs model. In contrast, the simultaneous-tilt illusion is caused by local interactions between stimulus elements within an undistorted reference frame, precluding the cancellation of errors associated with the Two-Wrongs model such that the illusion is reflected in both perception and actions. These results provide evidence for a class of illusions that lead to dissociations of perception and action through distortions of the observer's spatial reference frame, rather than through the actions of functionally separate visual processing streams.

  20. The Two-Wrongs model explains perception-action dissociations for illusions driven by distortions of the egocentric reference frame

    PubMed Central

    Dassonville, Paul; Reed, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a dissociation of the effects of illusion on perception and action, with perception generally reported to be susceptible to illusions, while actions are seemingly immune. These findings have been interpreted to support Milner and Goodale's Two Visual Systems model, which proposes the existence of separate visual processing streams for perception and action. However, an alternative interpretation suggests that this type of behavioral dissociation will occur for any illusion that is caused by a distortion of the observer's egocentric reference frame, without requiring the existence of separate perception and action systems that are differently affected by the illusion. In this scenario, movements aimed at illusory targets will be accurate if they are guided within the same distorted reference frame used for target encoding, since the error of motor guidance will cancel with the error of encoding (hence, for actions, two wrongs do make a right). We further test this Two-Wrongs model by examining two illusions for which the hypothesis makes very different predictions: the rod-and-frame illusion (which affects perception but not actions) and the simultaneous-tilt illusion (which affects perception and actions equally). We demonstrate that the rod-and-frame illusion is caused by a distortion of the observer's egocentric reference frame suitable for the cancellation of errors predicted by the Two-Wrongs model. In contrast, the simultaneous-tilt illusion is caused by local interactions between stimulus elements within an undistorted reference frame, precluding the cancellation of errors associated with the Two-Wrongs model such that the illusion is reflected in both perception and actions. These results provide evidence for a class of illusions that lead to dissociations of perception and action through distortions of the observer's spatial reference frame, rather than through the actions of functionally separate visual processing streams

  1. Don't Trust a Management Metric, Especially in Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2014-01-01

    Goodhart's law states that metrics do not work. Metrics become distorted when used and they deflect effort away from more important goals. These well-known and unavoidable problems occurred when the closure and system mass metrics were used to manage life support research. The intent of life support research should be to develop flyable, operable, reliable systems, not merely to increase life support system closure or to reduce its total mass. It would be better to design life support systems to meet the anticipated mission requirements and user needs. Substituting the metrics of closure and total mass for these goals seems to have led life support research to solve the wrong problems.

  2. Nuclear power is neither right nor wrong: the case for a tertium datur in the ethics of technology.

    PubMed

    Hillerbrand, Rafaela; Peterson, Martin

    2014-06-01

    The debate over the civilian use of nuclear power is highly polarised. We argue that a reasonable response to this deep disagreement is to maintain that advocates of both camps should modify their positions. According to the analysis we propose, nuclear power is neither entirely right nor entirely wrong, but rather right and wrong to some degree. We are aware that this non-binary analysis of nuclear power is controversial from a theoretical point of view. Utilitarians, Kantians, and other moral theorists make sharp, binary distinctions between right and wrong acts. However, an important argument speaking in favour of our non-binary analysis is that it better reflects our considered intuitions about the ethical trade-offs we face in discussions of nuclear power. The aim of this article is to make this argument sharp by explaining how it can be rendered compatible with, and supported by, the Capability Approach, which is quickly becoming one of the most influential frameworks for thinking about human development.

  3. Knowing right from wrong in mental arithmetic judgments: calibration of confidence predicts the development of accuracy.

    PubMed

    Rinne, Luke F; Mazzocco, Michèle M M

    2014-01-01

    Does knowing when mental arithmetic judgments are right--and when they are wrong--lead to more accurate judgments over time? We hypothesize that the successful detection of errors (and avoidance of false alarms) may contribute to the development of mental arithmetic performance. Insight into error detection abilities can be gained by examining the "calibration" of mental arithmetic judgments-that is, the alignment between confidence in judgments and the accuracy of those judgments. Calibration may be viewed as a measure of metacognitive monitoring ability. We conducted a developmental longitudinal investigation of the relationship between the calibration of children's mental arithmetic judgments and their performance on a mental arithmetic task. Annually between Grades 5 and 8, children completed a problem verification task in which they rapidly judged the accuracy of arithmetic expressions (e.g., 25 + 50 = 75) and rated their confidence in each judgment. Results showed that calibration was strongly related to concurrent mental arithmetic performance, that calibration continued to develop even as mental arithmetic accuracy approached ceiling, that poor calibration distinguished children with mathematics learning disability from both low and typically achieving children, and that better calibration in Grade 5 predicted larger gains in mental arithmetic accuracy between Grades 5 and 8. We propose that good calibration supports the implementation of cognitive control, leading to long-term improvement in mental arithmetic accuracy. Because mental arithmetic "fluency" is critical for higher-level mathematics competence, calibration of confidence in mental arithmetic judgments may represent a novel and important developmental predictor of future mathematics performance.

  4. Identifying and reducing potentially wrong immunoassay results even when plausible and "not-unreasonable".

    PubMed

    Ismail, Adel A A

    2014-01-01

    The primary role of the clinical laboratory is to report accurate results for diagnosis of disease and management of illnesses. This goal has, to a large extent been achieved for routine biochemical tests, but not for immunoassays which remained susceptible to interference from endogenous immunoglobulin antibodies, causing false, and clinically misleading results. Clinicians regard all abnormal results including false ones as "pathological" necessitating further investigations, or concluding iniquitous diagnosis. Even more seriously, "false-negative" results may wrongly exclude pathology, thus denying patients' necessary treatment. Analytical error rate in immunoassays is relatively high, ranging from 0.4% to 4.0%. Because analytical interference from endogenous antibodies is confined to individuals' sera, it can be inconspicuous, pernicious, sporadic, and insidious because it cannot be detected by internal or external quality assessment procedures. An approach based on Bayesian reasoning can enhance the robustness of clinical validation in highlighting potentially erroneous immunoassay results. When this rational clinical/statistical approach is followed by analytical affirmative follow-up tests, it can help identifying inaccurate and clinically misleading immunoassay data even when they appear plausible and "not-unreasonable." This chapter is largely based on peer reviewed articles associated with and related to this approach. The first section underlines (without mathematical equations) the dominance and misuse of conventional statistics and the underuse of Bayesian paradigm and shows that laboratorians are intuitively (albeit unwittingly) practicing Bayesians. Secondly, because interference from endogenous antibodies is method's dependent (with numerous formats and different reagents), it is almost impossible to accurately assess its incidence in all differently formulated immunoassays and for each analytes/biomarkers. However, reiterating the basic concepts

  5. What's wrong with executive compensation? A roundtable moderated by Charles Elson.

    PubMed

    Roiter, Eric; Clapman, Peter; Heard, Jamie; Bachelder, Joe; England, John; Lau, Greg; Woolard, Edgar S; Meyer, Pearl; Hall, Brian; Barnette, Hank; Batts, Warren; Veasey, E Norman

    2003-01-01

    The value that many superpaid CEO superstars supposedly created has largely disappeared, and the likelihood that it will be recovered anytime soon seems remote. On top of that, a good number of top executives treated their companies like ATMs, awarding themselves millions of dollars in corporate perks. It's hard to dispute the idea that executives were corrupted by the sums of money dangled in front of them. What's wrong with executive compensation, and what can we do about it? HBR and the University of Delaware's Center for Corporate Governance convened a round-table of compensation experts last October on the university's campus in Newark, Delaware. The 12 panelists, from CEOs to investors, from the professionals who advise them to a chief justice who rules on their disputes, provided an extraordinary diversity of viewpoints. The panelist began by debating ways to align the interests of the senior executives with the long-term interests of the company-weighing the relative benefits of stock options versus stock grants, for instance. But the discussion expanded to cover broader questions of corporate governance and company values. "The main reason compensation increases every year is that most boards want their CEO to be in the top half of the CEO peer group," said Ed Woolard,Jr., a former CEO of DuPont. And compensation lawyer Joe Bachelder pointed out the danger of structuring pay in such a way that it dampens risk taking among executives. It was a lively and wide-ranging discussion of one business's most pressing issues.

  6. Protecting raw data and psychological tests from wrongful disclosure: a primer on the law and other persuasive strategies.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Paul M

    2009-09-01

    Psychologists must advocate for more stringent legal protection of psychological test materials because using standardized tests is the most distinguishing and exclusive feature of psychological evaluation practice. With the rapid growth in forensic consulting, unrestrained discovery of raw data and psychological test materials during litigation erodes the reliability and validity of the test procedures. Dissemination of test materials reduces the interpretive value of the tests and promotes cheating, turning our best methods into junk science in the courtroom. This article proposes to reform the law and to revise the professional ethics of psychologists consistent with the strong public policy of test security as described by the U.S. Supreme Court in Detroit Edison v. NLRB (1979). Currently, federal courts and about 20 states protect psychological tests as a unique methodology, with some states enacting a psychologist nondisclosure privilege/duty to safeguard test materials from wrongful disclosure. The record management practices of psychologists vary considerably and are vulnerable to legal attack unless psychologists are aware of legal arguments to protect test materials from wrongful release. Although this article does not offer legal advice, it describes the most common records management problem confronting neuropsychologists and some practical solutions to the raw data problem. Best practice for protecting psychological tests requires the psychologist to understand the law and to assert the psychologist nondisclosure privilege. Other strategies are presented and evaluated. Organized psychology and the legal community should advocate for a uniform rule to protect the objectivity, fairness, and integrity psychological methods in litigation.

  7. Prove Them Wrong: Be There for Secondary Students with an Emotional or Behavioral Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solar, Ernest

    2011-01-01

    Students with an emotional or behavioral disability (EBD) are sometimes judged and feared based on their label before teachers even meet them. These students are different than other students that walk into a classroom, but they should never be feared. They have had more "loops" in their roller coaster ride of adolescent life than the average…

  8. What Did Stiglitz, Sen and Fitoussi Get Right and What Did They Get Wrong?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalos, Alex C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this critical assessment of the Stiglitz, Sen and Fitoussi Report was to provoke discussion and improvements in future developments of quality of life research undertaken by official statistical agencies. I would like to thank Jochen Jesinghaus and Andrea Saltelli for their helpful comments on earlier drafts of the paper.

  9. Evolution, reproduction and definition of life.

    PubMed

    Chodasewicz, Krzysztof

    2014-03-01

    Synthetic theory of evolution is a superior integrative biological theory. Therefore, there is nothing surprising about the fact that multiple attempts of defining life are based on this theory. One of them even has a status of NASA's working definition. According to this definition, 'life is a self-sustained chemical system capable of undergoing Darwinian evolution' Luisi (Orig Life Evol Bios 28:613-622, 1998); Cleland, Chyba (Orig Life Evol Bios 32:387-393, 2002). This definition is often considered as one of the more theoretically mature definitions of life. This Darwinian definition has nonetheless provoked a lot of criticism. One of the major arguments claims that this definition is wrong due to 'mule's problem'. Mules (and other infertile hybrids), despite being obviously living organisms, in the light of this definition are considered inanimate objects. It is strongly counterintuitive. The aim of this article was to demonstrate that this reasoning is false. In the later part of the text, I also discuss some other arguments against the Darwinian approach to defining life.

  10. Family Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... With Family and Friends > Family Life Request Permissions Family Life Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... your outlook on the future. Friends and adult family members The effects of cancer on your relationships ...

  11. 26 CFR 301.6503(f)-1 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third-party owner...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suspension of running of period of limitation... and Collection § 301.6503(f)-1 Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of... running of the period of limitations on collection after assessment prescribed in section 6502...

  12. 26 CFR 301.6503(f)-1 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third-party owner...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of running of period of limitation... and Collection § 301.6503(f)-1 Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of... running of the period of limitations on collection after assessment prescribed in section 6502...

  13. 26 CFR 301.6503(f)-1 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third-party owner...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suspension of running of period of limitation... and Collection § 301.6503(f)-1 Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of... running of the period of limitations on collection after assessment prescribed in section 6502...

  14. 26 CFR 301.6503(f)-1 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third-party owner...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suspension of running of period of limitation... and Collection § 301.6503(f)-1 Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of... running of the period of limitations on collection after assessment prescribed in section 6502...

  15. 26 CFR 301.6503(f)-1 - Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third-party owner...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suspension of running of period of limitation... and Collection § 301.6503(f)-1 Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of... running of the period of limitations on collection after assessment prescribed in section 6502...

  16. Relevance of basic research to clinical data: good answers, wrong questions!

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Holmes, Gregory L

    2008-01-01

    Do early seizures beget seizures later in life? Clinical data and experimental observations seem to answer that question differently, with a no and a yes, respectively, which may stem from an inadequate readout of what experimental data actually do tell us and a possible simplification of what clinical data indicate. Using specific experimental examples, it is possible to show that in the developing brain, seizures do produce long-lasting alterations of neuronal excitability, although ongoing seizures are not observed in adults. The findings suggest that the long-lasting changes in developmental programs and network activity that seizures induce do not necessarily lead to epilepsy, unless other events that remain to be identified occur.

  17. Chiroptical signatures of life and fundamental physics.

    PubMed

    Macdermott, Alexandra J

    2012-09-01

    This paper aims to inspire experimentalists to carry out proposed new chiroptical experiments springing from the theoretical study of the role of parity violation in the origin of biomolecular homochirality and to provide a brief update on the current status of calculations of the electroweak parity-violating energy difference (PVED) between enantiomers. If the PVED did select life's handedness, we would expect to find life on other planets consistently using the same hand as terrestrial biochemistry. Much more importantly, even finding the "wrong" hand (rather than a racemic mixture) on another planet could be the homochiral signature of life, and we discuss our proposal for chiroptical detection of life on extra-solar planets. The PVED may also have an exciting future as a "molecular footprint" of fundamental physics: comparison of calculated PVEDs with measured values could one day allow chemists to do "table-top particle physics" more cheaply with improved chiroptical techniques instead of ever larger particle accelerators. We discuss our proposed chiroptical method to measure the PVED by using molecular beams. To our knowledge, optical rotation has not yet been measured in molecular beams, but the rewards of doing so include a host of other "first ever" results in addition to measurement of the PVED.

  18. That note sounds wrong! Age-related effects in processing of musical expectation.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Andrea R; Zioga, Ioanna; Shankleman, Martin; Lindsen, Job; Pearce, Marcus T; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2017-04-01

    Part of musical understanding and enjoyment stems from the ability to accurately predict what note (or one of a small set of notes) is likely to follow after hearing the first part of a melody. Selective violation of expectations can add to aesthetic response but radical or frequent violations are likely to be disliked or not comprehended. In this study we investigated whether a lifetime of exposure to music among untrained older adults would enhance their reaction to unexpected endings of unfamiliar melodies. Older and younger adults listened to melodies that had expected or unexpected ending notes, according to Western music theory. Ratings of goodness-of-fit were similar in the groups, as was ERP response to the note onset (N1). However, in later time windows (P200 and Late Positive Component), the amplitude of a response to unexpected and expected endings was both larger in older adults, corresponding to greater sensitivity, and more widespread in locus, consistent with a dedifferentiation pattern. Lateralization patterns also differed. We conclude that older adults refine their understanding of this important aspect of music throughout life, with the ability supported by changing patterns of neural activity.

  19. Refusing artificial nutrition and hydration: does statutory law send the wrong message?

    PubMed

    Sieger, Carol E; Arnold, Jason F; Ahronheim, Judith C

    2002-03-01

    Ethical consensus and appellate court decisions view artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) as medical treatment that can be refused like other treatments. However, advance directive statutes may produce obstacles for refusal of ANH, as distinct from other life-sustaining treatments, in patients who lack capacity. This paper reviews state statutes and appellate case law regarding medical decision making for patients who lack decisional capacity. Twenty states (39%) have one or more explicit statutory provisions delineating a separate and more stringent standard for ANH refusal. These standards include higher evidentiary standard; requirement for specific preauthorization, qualifying medical conditions, second medical opinion, or judicial review; refusal not permitted; refusal not permitted if death would result from "starvation" or "dehydration"; and previous law with higher standard applies to old documents. In 11 of these states and in eight others, statutory law contains language that could be misinterpreted, implying, but not rising to, an explicitly higher standard. Four appellate decisions departed from the judicial consensus that ANH can be refused like other treatments, but subsequent court decisions or legislative enactments reduced or eliminated their impact. Legislators and the courts should ask whether higher standards for ANH refusal are appropriate in light of case law authority that ANH should not be treated differently and in light of statutory language that preserves those common law rights. These higher standards may make it more difficult in certain states to refuse ANH for patients who lack capacity or place a burden on good practice by making providers fearful of the law.

  20. The Difference between Right and Wrong: Accuracy of Older and Younger Adults’ Story Recall

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Danielle K.; Alea, Nicole; Bluck, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Sharing stories is an important social activity in everyday life. This study used fine-grained content analysis to investigate the accuracy of recall of two central story elements: the gist and detail of socially-relevant stories. Younger (M age = 28.06) and older (M age = 75.03) American men and women (N = 63) recalled fictional stories that were coded for (i) accuracy of overall gist and specific gist categories and (ii) accuracy of overall detail and specific detail categories. Findings showed no age group differences in accuracy of overall gist or detail, but differences emerged for specific categories. Older adults more accurately recalled the gist of when the event occurred whereas younger adults more accurately recalled the gist of why the event occurred. These differences were related to episodic memory ability and education. For accuracy in recalling details, there were some age differences, but gender differences were more robust. Overall, women remembered details of these social stories more accurately than men, particularly time and perceptual details. Women were also more likely to accurately remember the gist of when the event occurred. The discussion focuses on how accurate recall of socially-relevant stories is not clearly age-dependent but is related to person characteristics such as gender and episodic memory ability/education. PMID:26404344

  1. The evolution of human adiposity and obesity: where did it all go wrong?

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Jonathan C. K.

    2012-01-01

    Because obesity is associated with diverse chronic diseases, little attention has been directed to the multiple beneficial functions of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue not only provides energy for growth, reproduction and immune function, but also secretes and receives diverse signaling molecules that coordinate energy allocation between these functions in response to ecological conditions. Importantly, many relevant ecological cues act on growth and physique, with adiposity responding as a counterbalancing risk management strategy. The large number of individual alleles associated with adipose tissue illustrates its integration with diverse metabolic pathways. However, phenotypic variation in age, sex, ethnicity and social status is further associated with different strategies for storing and using energy. Adiposity therefore represents a key means of phenotypic flexibility within and across generations, enabling a coherent life-history strategy in the face of ecological stochasticity. The sensitivity of numerous metabolic pathways to ecological cues makes our species vulnerable to manipulative globalized economic forces. The aim of this article is to understand how human adipose tissue biology interacts with modern environmental pressures to generate excess weight gain and obesity. The disease component of obesity might lie not in adipose tissue itself, but in its perturbation by our modern industrialized niche. Efforts to combat obesity could be more effective if they prioritized ‘external’ environmental change rather than attempting to manipulate ‘internal’ biology through pharmaceutical or behavioral means. PMID:22915021

  2. What Went Wrong (and Right) in my Research for Undergraduates Program this Summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalbotten, D. M.; Geraghty Ward, E. M.; Berthelote, A. R.; Ito, E.; Myrbo, A.; Drake, C.; Howes, T.; Woods, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Research Experience for Undergraduates Site on Sustainable Land and Water Resources (NSF GEO-055346) is a complicated affair (like many REUs) with research teams on site on two different Native American reservations (the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Reservation, Minnesota, and the Flathead Indian Reservation of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, Montana), mentors from 2 universities and 2 reservations, and diverse participants from across the country. Students are diverse in ethnicity, academic majors, institution type, age, and life situation, with many nontraditional students as participants. While this all adds up to an interesting and exciting program, it is not without challenges. Herein the program directors discuss some of the particular challenges faced this summer, feedback the outside evaluation specialist received from participants and mentors, and ways the program's mentor team might respond in the future. This discussion will include a look at how systemic changes to an REU can lead to positive change, including a review of the recruiting and application process, communication between and among mentors and participants, the team structure of the REU, and supports in place to lead to participant success. Also included will be a discussion of how the relationship between the Native American reservations and the academic institutions was developed and how we continue to evolve based on annual feedback from all participants.

  3. Tell me what's wrong with me: a discourse analysis approach to the concept of patient autonomy.

    PubMed Central

    Nessa, J; Malterud, K

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patient autonomy has gradually replaced physician paternalism as an ethical ideal. However, in a medical context, the principle of individual autonomy has different meanings. More knowledge is needed about what is and should be an appropriate understanding of the concept of patient autonomy in clinical practice. AIM: To challenge the traditional concept of patient autonomy by applying a discourse analysis to the issue. METHOD: A qualitative case study approach with material from one consultation. The discourse is interpreted according to pragmatic and text-linguistic principles and provides the basis of a theoretical discussion of different concepts of patient autonomy. RESULTS: The consultation transcript illustrates how the patient's wishes can be respected in real life. The patient, her husband and the doctor are all involved in the discourse dynamics, governed by the subject matter, namely her mental illness. CONCLUSION: We suggest a dynamic and dialogue-based conception of autonomy as adequate for clinical purposes. These perspectives, based on mutual understanding, take communication between patient and doctor as their starting point. According to this approach, autonomy requires a genuine dialogue, an interpersonal mode of being which we choose to call "authentic interaction". PMID:9873980

  4. Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on various aspects of mammal family life ranging from ways different species are born to how different mammals are raised. Learning activities include making butter from cream, creating birth announcements for mammals, and playing a password game on family life. (ML)

  5. Life sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Day, L.

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

  6. Embryonic life and human life.

    PubMed

    Shea, M C

    1985-12-01

    A new human life comes into being not when there is mere cellular life in a human embryo, but when the newly developing body organs and systems begin to function as a whole, the author argues. This is symmetrical with the dealth of an existing human life, which occurs when its organs and systems have permanently ceased to function as a whole. Thus a new human life cannot begin until the development of a functioning brain which has begun to co-ordinate and organise the activities of the body as a whole.

  7. Defining life.

    PubMed

    Benner, Steven A

    2010-12-01

    Any definition is intricately connected to a theory that gives it meaning. Accordingly, this article discusses various definitions of life held in the astrobiology community by considering their connected "theories of life." These include certain "list" definitions and a popular definition that holds that life is a "self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution." We then act as "anthropologists," studying what scientists do to determine which definition-theories of life they constructively hold as they design missions to seek non-terran life. We also look at how constructive beliefs about biosignatures change as observational data accumulate. And we consider how a definition centered on Darwinian evolution might itself be forced to change as supra-Darwinian species emerge, including in our descendents, and consider the chances of our encountering supra-Darwinian species in our exploration of the Cosmos. Last, we ask what chemical structures might support Darwinian evolution universally; these structures might be universal biosignatures.

  8. To Set Up Norms for Drug Safety and Inspection: To Guarantee Administrative Sufficiency and Avoid Regulators from Being Wrongly Punished.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Qingsheng; Dong, Zuojun; Shao, Mingli

    2015-09-01

    Currently, as there is no systematic norm or standard for drug safety and inspection, it cannot be judged whether the regulatory authority or regulators have fulfilled their administrative responsibilities entirely or not, when a drug safety-related incident occurs. And there is a probability that some may even be wrongly punished. In this study, we have analyzed the risk of not having appropriate norms in place and also put forward recommendations for the government or the regulatory authorities to set up norms to be fulfilled for drug safety and inspection issues. This, on one hand, could provide a basic guideline for the regulatory authorities and regulators to improve their professional levels and administrative acumen and on the other hand, it could also provide a baseline for society to judge whether the regulatory authorities and regulators have fulfilled their responsibilities correctly and thereby also help prevent regulators from being mistakenly punished. This study proposes that a systematic and functional norm for drug safety and inspection could be set up relating to the determination of the responsibilities of regulatory authorities and scope of various inspections, number and frequency of inspections, number and qualifications of regulators, handling of inspection results, inspection records, and disciplinary codes for inspectors. This study also puts forward suggestions on who should be responsible for drafting the norms and what are the factors that need to be considered while formulating the norms.

  9. Parasitic folds with wrong vergence: How pre-existing geometrical asymmetries can be inherited during multilayer buckle folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frehner, Marcel; Schmid, Timothy

    2016-06-01

    Parasitic folds are typical structures in geological multilayer folds; they are characterized by a small wavelength and are situated within folds with larger wavelength. Parasitic folds exhibit a characteristic asymmetry (or vergence) reflecting their structural relationship to the larger-scale fold. Here we investigate if a pre-existing geometrical asymmetry (e.g., from sedimentary structures or folds from a previous tectonic event) can be inherited during buckle folding to form parasitic folds with wrong vergence. We conduct 2D finite-element simulations of multilayer folding using Newtonian materials. The applied model setup comprises a thin layer exhibiting the pre-existing geometrical asymmetry sandwiched between two thicker layers, all intercalated with a lower-viscosity matrix and subjected to layer-parallel shortening. When the two outer thick layers buckle and amplify, two processes work against the asymmetry: layer-perpendicular flattening between the two thick layers and the rotational component of flexural flow folding. Both processes promote de-amplification and unfolding of the pre-existing asymmetry. We discuss how the efficiency of de-amplification is controlled by the larger-scale fold amplification and conclude that pre-existing asymmetries that are open and/or exhibit low amplitude are prone to de-amplification and may disappear during buckling of the multilayer system. Large-amplitude and/or tight to isoclinal folds may be inherited and develop type 3 fold interference patterns.

  10. Personalization of health care in England: have the wrong lessons been drawn from the personal health budget pilots?

    PubMed

    Slasberg, Colin; Watson, Nick; Beresford, Peter; Schofield, Peter

    2014-07-01

    The Government has introduced personal health budgets in England's National Health Service (NHS). A three-year programme of pilots has shown that personal health budgets have improved outcomes and are generally cost-effective. They are seen as a key step toward creating a personalized service. However, the Government is attributing the success of the pilots to entirely the wrong factors. It believes that a process similar to the one introduced in social care - where it is called self-directed support - based on the person being given a sum of money 'up-front' with which to plan their own care - is responsible for the better outcomes. However, this is not supported by the evidence from the pilots which points to quite different factors being at play. The consequences are potentially very serious. The success of the pilots will not be repeated in roll out. Further, there is the potential to greatly weaken the service by creating confused process and practice, and additional dysfunctional bureaucracy. The practice and process implications from a correct reading of the reasons for success within the pilots centre on replacing the consumerist concepts underpinning self-directed support with what we have called 'flexibility through partnership'. This will require freeing up the resource base as cash and creating a policy framework to enable decisions about how much resource each person should get within a cash-limited budget that will almost certainly be less than would be required to meet all assessed need.

  11. Extraterrestrial Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    Extraterrestrial Intelligence is intelligent life that developed somewhere other than the earth. Such life has not yet been discovered. However, scientific research, including astronomy, biology, planetary science and studies of fossils here on earth have led many scientists to conclude that such life may exist on planets orbiting at least some of the hundreds of billions of stars in our Milky Way Galaxy. Today, some researchers are trying to find evidence for extraterrestrial intelligence. This effort is often called SETI, which stands for Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence. SETI researchers decided that looking for evidence of their technology might be the best way to discover other intelligent life in the Galaxy. They decided to use large radio telescopes to search the sky over a wide range of radio frequencies...

  12. Defining Life

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Any definition is intricately connected to a theory that gives it meaning. Accordingly, this article discusses various definitions of life held in the astrobiology community by considering their connected “theories of life.” These include certain “list” definitions and a popular definition that holds that life is a “self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution.” We then act as “anthropologists,” studying what scientists do to determine which definition-theories of life they constructively hold as they design missions to seek non-terran life. We also look at how constructive beliefs about biosignatures change as observational data accumulate. And we consider how a definition centered on Darwinian evolution might itself be forced to change as supra-Darwinian species emerge, including in our descendents, and consider the chances of our encountering supra-Darwinian species in our exploration of the Cosmos. Last, we ask what chemical structures might support Darwinian evolution universally; these structures might be universal biosignatures. Key Words: Evolution—Life—Life detection—Biosignatures. Astrobiology 10, 1021–1030. PMID:21162682

  13. 'Wrong-way-round ionization' and screening for doping substances in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography/orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Virus, E D; Sobolevsky, T G; Rodchenkov, G M

    2012-03-01

    To free analytical resources for new classes of doping substances, such as banned proteins, maximization of the number of compounds that can be determined with high sensitivity in a single run is highly urgent. This study demonstrates an application of 'wrong-way-round ionization' for the simultaneous detection of multiple classes of doping substances without the need to switch the polarity. A screening method for the detection of 137 compounds from various classes of prohibited substances (stimulants, diuretics, β(2)-agonists, β-blockers, antiestrogens, glucocorticosteroids and anabolic agents) has been developed. The method involves an enzymatic hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction and detection by liquid chromatography/orbitrap mass spectrometry with wrong-way-round ionization. Up to 64% of compounds had a 10-fold lower limit of detection (LOD) than the minimum required performance limit. To compare the efficiency of conventional ionization relative to wrong-way-round ionization of doping substances in + ESI, a fortified blank urine sample at the minimum required performance limit was analyzed using two ESI approaches. All compounds were detected with markedly better S/N in a high-pH mobile phase, with the exception of acetazolamide (minimal change in S/N, < 20%).The method was validated by spiking 10 different blank urine samples at five different concentrations. Validation parameters included the LOD, selectivity, ion suppression, extraction recovery and repeatability.

  14. What's Wrong with Plastic Trees?: Rationales for preserving rare natural environments involve economic, societal, and political factors.

    PubMed

    Krieger, M H

    1973-02-02

    choice about what matters, and then a financial and social investment in an effort to create significant experiences and environments, will become a policy alternative available to us. What's wrong with plastic trees? My guess is that there is very little wrong with them. Much more can be done with plastic trees and the like (50) to give most people the feeling that they are experiencing nature. We will have to realize that the way in which we experience nature is conditioned by our society-which more and more is seen to be receptive to responsible interventions. Bentham, the father of utilitarianism, was very concerned about the uses of the dead to the living and suggested (51): If a country gentleman have rows of trees leading to his dwelling, the autoicons [embalmed bodies in an upright position] of his family might alternate with the trees; copal varnish would protect the face from the effects of rain-caoutchouc [rubber] the habiliments.

  15. A buckling region in locust hindlegs contains resilin and absorbs energy when jumping or kicking goes wrong.

    PubMed

    Bayley, T G; Sutton, G P; Burrows, M

    2012-04-01

    If a hindleg of a locust slips during jumping, or misses its target during kicking, energy generated by the two extensor tibiae muscles is no longer expended in raising the body or striking a target. How, then, is the energy in a jump (4100-4800 μJ) or kick (1700 μJ) dissipated? A specialised buckling region found in the proximal hind-tibia where the bending moment is high, but not present in the other legs, buckled and allowed the distal part of the tibia to extend. In jumps when a hindleg slipped, it bent by a mean of 23±14 deg at a velocity of 13.4±9.5 deg ms(-1); in kicks that failed to contact a target it bent by 32±16 deg at a velocity of 32.9±9.5 deg ms(-1). It also buckled 8.5±4.0 deg at a rate of 0.063±0.005 deg ms(-1) when the tibia was prevented from flexing fully about the femur in preparation for both these movements. By experimentally buckling this region through 40 deg at velocities of 0.001-0.65 deg ms(-1), we showed that one hindleg could store about 870 μJ on bending, of which 210 μJ was dissipated back to the leg on release. A band of blue fluorescence was revealed at the buckling region under UV illumination that had the two key signatures of the elastic protein resilin. A group of campaniform sensilla 300 μm proximal to the buckling region responded to imposed buckling movements. The features of the buckling region show that it can act as a shock absorber as proposed previously when jumping and kicking movements go wrong.

  16. Native ESI Mass Spectrometry Can Help to Avoid Wrong Interpretations from Isothermal Titration Calorimetry in Difficult Situations.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Philippe; Da Veiga, Cyrielle; Ennifar, Eric; Bec, Guillaume; Guichard, Gilles; Burnouf, Dominique; Dumas, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    We studied by native ESI-MS the binding of various DNA-polymerase-derived peptides onto DNA-polymerase processivity rings from Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These homodimeric rings present two equivalent specific binding sites, which leads to successive formation during a titration experiment of singly- and doubly occupied rings. By using the ESI-MS free-ring spectrum as a ruler, we derived by robust linear regression the fractions of the different ring species at each step of a titration experiment. These results led to accurate Kd values (from 0.03 to 0.5 μM) along with the probability of peptide loss due to gas phase dissociation (GPD). We show that this good quality is due to the increased information content of a titration experiment with a homodimer. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) led with the same binding model to Kd(ITC) values systematically higher than their ESI-MS counterparts and, often, to poor fit of the ITC curves. A processing with two competing modes of binding on the same site requiring determination of two (Kd, ΔH) pairs greatly improved the fits and yielded a second Kd(ITC) close to Kd(ESI-MS). The striking features are: (1) ITC detected a minor binding mode (~20%) of 'low-affinity' that did not appear with ESI-MS; (2) the simplest processing of ITC data with only one (Kd, ΔH) pair led wrongly to the Kd of the low-affinity binding mode but to the ΔH of the high-affinity binding mode. Analogous misleading results might well exist in published data based on ITC experiments. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  17. Native ESI Mass Spectrometry Can Help to Avoid Wrong Interpretations from Isothermal Titration Calorimetry in Difficult Situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Philippe; Da Veiga, Cyrielle; Ennifar, Eric; Bec, Guillaume; Guichard, Gilles; Burnouf, Dominique; Dumas, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    We studied by native ESI-MS the binding of various DNA-polymerase-derived peptides onto DNA-polymerase processivity rings from Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These homodimeric rings present two equivalent specific binding sites, which leads to successive formation during a titration experiment of singly- and doubly occupied rings. By using the ESI-MS free-ring spectrum as a ruler, we derived by robust linear regression the fractions of the different ring species at each step of a titration experiment. These results led to accurate Kd values (from 0.03 to 0.5 μM) along with the probability of peptide loss due to gas phase dissociation (GPD). We show that this good quality is due to the increased information content of a titration experiment with a homodimer. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) led with the same binding model to Kd(ITC) values systematically higher than their ESI-MS counterparts and, often, to poor fit of the ITC curves. A processing with two competing modes of binding on the same site requiring determination of two (Kd, ΔH) pairs greatly improved the fits and yielded a second Kd(ITC) close to Kd(ESI-MS). The striking features are: (1) ITC detected a minor binding mode ( 20%) of `low-affinity' that did not appear with ESI-MS; (2) the simplest processing of ITC data with only one (Kd, ΔH) pair led wrongly to the Kd of the low-affinity binding mode but to the ΔH of the high-affinity binding mode. Analogous misleading results might well exist in published data based on ITC experiments.

  18. Lake Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This quarterly publication of the State Historical Society of Iowa features articles and activities for elementary school students. This summer issue focuses on the topic of lake life. The issue includes the following features: (1) "Where the Lakes Are Map"; (2) "Letter from the Lake"; (3) "Lake People"; (4)…

  19. Life sciences.

    PubMed

    Martin-Brennan, Cindy; Joshi, Jitendra

    2003-12-01

    Space life sciences research activities are reviewed for 2003. Many life sciences experiments were lost with the tragic loss of STS-107. Life sciences experiments continue to fly as small payloads to the International Space Station (ISS) via the Russian Progress vehicle. Health-related studies continue with the Martian Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE) aboard the Odyssey spacecraft, collecting data on the radiation environment in Mars orbit. NASA Ames increased nanotechnology research in all areas, including fundamental biology, bioastronautics, life support systems, and homeland security. Plant research efforts continued at NASA Kennedy, testing candidate crops for ISS. Research included plant growth studies at different light intensities, varying carbon dioxide concentrations, and different growth media. Education and outreach efforts included development of a NASA/USDA program called Space Agriculture in the Classroom. Canada sponsored a project called Tomatosphere, with classrooms across North America exposing seeds to simulated Mars environment for growth studies. NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research released an updated strategic research plan.

  20. Catching the Wrong Spedies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrero, Meghan E.; Lam, Keira

    2014-01-01

    Studies show that overall seafood consumption in the United States is rising (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 2012). Other research estimates that as much as 40% of the seafood caught worldwide is discarded, while countless sharks, whales, dolphins, birds, sea turtles, and other animals are unintentionally killed or injured by fishing gear…

  1. Is Something Wrong Here?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemek, Francis E.

    2000-01-01

    Notes how Western society fears and resists growing old, and points out that educators, along with the rest of society, have little to do with the elderly. Challenges literacy educators to include the elderly and foster connections between the new and the old, and the young and the old. Suggests reading the Foxfire books for inspiration. (SR)

  2. The wrong London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Hugh; Tong, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Your article "Optics pioneers scoop Nobel prize" (November 2009 pp6-7) incorrectly states that Charles Kao, who shared the 2009 Nobel Prize for Physics with Willard Boyle and George Smith, received his PhD from Imperial College London.

  3. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  4. Environmental rights and wrongs.

    PubMed

    Depledge, Michael H; Carlarne, Cinnamon P

    2008-02-15

    Once a fringe issue largely confined to elite scientific deliberation, global climate change now dominates academic, social, and political debate. What is unclear, however, is whether the upswing in attention to climate change has spawned the type of multidisciplinary debate necessary to create effective long-term solutions. Nowhere is this disjunction more apparent than at the intersection between climate change and human health. Despite progress on the part of the international community in negotiating legal instruments to address climate change, these instruments do not directly address links between climate change and human health. Consequently, few people have a thorough grasp of the likely adverse impacts of climate change on human health. In this article, we examine the links between environmental change-focusing primarily but not exclusively on climate change-and the concept of a human right to health.

  5. "Something Is Wrong Here."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Tim

    2002-01-01

    Describes how students in Denver, Colorado, confronted racial tracking at their high school. Over 1 year, they interviewed classmates, researched the issue, and developed a report, "On the Outside Looking In: Racial Tracking at Denver's East High School." The students discovered that in their 60-percent minority school, 75 percent of…

  6. Preparing to Be Wrong

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    diverse set of threats and greater uncertainty than in the past. They have called for adaptable or agile organizations and weapon systems to address...metrics can be quantitatively used to help leadership understand the costs and benefits of adaptable and non- adaptable weapon systems. Introduction...contingencies and threats. —President Obama, January 5, 2012 Background The imperative for U.S. forces to be adaptive to changing circumstances is driven by

  7. Where Bell Went Wrong

    SciTech Connect

    Nieuwenhuizen, Th. M.

    2009-03-10

    It is explained on a physical basis how absence of contextuality allows Bell inequalities to be violated, without bringing an implication on locality or realism. Hereto we connect first to the local realistic theory Stochastic Electrodynamics, and then put the argument more broadly. Thus even if Bell Inequality Violation is demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt, it will have no say on local realism.

  8. Where Bell Went Wrong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Th. M.

    2009-03-01

    It is explained on a physical basis how absence of contextuality allows Bell inequalities to be violated, without bringing an implication on locality or realism. Hereto we connect first to the local realistic theory Stochastic Electrodynamics, and then put the argument more broadly. Thus even if Bell Inequality Violation is demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt, it will have no say on local realism.

  9. Righting Civil Wrongs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrell, Dan S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The 1991 Civil Rights Act fills many gaps in existing employment laws, but its implications for higher education go beyond employment to admissions and students affairs. Trustees should direct administrators to review personnel policies and practices and liability insurance coverage in light of the new law. (Author/MSE)

  10. Cosmic life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, H.

    1980-01-01

    The existence and detection of extraterrestrial life are discussed. The evolution of life on earth is not considered possible if earth were 5% closer (runaway greenhouse effect) or 1% farther (runaway glaciation) from the sun, or if the sun were slightly more or less massive or hot. The Space Telescope and a possible interferometer search at infrared wavelengths, which offers a 100,000 times advantage over the visible in the ratio of planetary to stellar power, are proposed to help detect planetary systems about stars such as Barnard's star. The proposed NASA-Ames Project Cyclops, consisting of a 10 km phased array of 1026 dishes (perhaps on the back side of the moon), as well as a Soviet proposal to assemble 2 similar telescopes at the orbit of Saturn, would search in the radio frequency range for planets 100 light years or more distant.

  11. The rights and wrongs of blood-brain barrier permeability studies: a walk through 100 years of history

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Norman R.; Dreifuss, Jean-Jacques; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M.; Johansson, Pia A.; Habgood, Mark D.; Møllgård, Kjeld; Bauer, Hans-Christian

    2014-01-01

    Careful examination of relevant literature shows that many of the most cherished concepts of the blood-brain barrier are incorrect. These include an almost mythological belief in its immaturity that is unfortunately often equated with absence or at least leakiness in the embryo and fetus. The original concept of a blood-brain barrier is often attributed to Ehrlich; however, he did not accept that permeability of cerebral vessels was different from other organs. Goldmann is often credited with the first experiments showing dye (trypan blue) exclusion from the brain when injected systemically, but not when injected directly into it. Rarely cited are earlier experiments of Bouffard and of Franke who showed methylene blue and trypan red stained all tissues except the brain. The term “blood-brain barrier” “Blut-Hirnschranke” is often attributed to Lewandowsky, but it does not appear in his papers. The first person to use this term seems to be Stern in the early 1920s. Studies in embryos by Stern and colleagues, Weed and Wislocki showed results similar to those in adult animals. These were well-conducted experiments made a century ago, thus the persistence of a belief in barrier immaturity is puzzling. As discussed in this review, evidence for this belief, is of poor experimental quality, often misinterpreted and often not properly cited. The functional state of blood-brain barrier mechanisms in the fetus is an important biological phenomenon with implications for normal brain development. It is also important for clinicians to have proper evidence on which to advise pregnant women who may need to take medications for serious medical conditions. Beliefs in immaturity of the blood-brain barrier have held the field back for decades. Their history illustrates the importance of taking account of all the evidence and assessing its quality, rather than selecting papers that supports a preconceived notion or intuitive belief. This review attempts to right the wrongs

  12. The riddle of "life," a biologist's critical view.

    PubMed

    Penzlin, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    To approach the question of what life is, we first have to state that life exists exclusively as the "being-alive" of discrete spatio-temporal entities. The simplest "unit" that can legitimately be considered to be alive is an intact prokaryotic cell as a whole. In this review, I discuss critically various aspects of the nature and singularity of living beings from the biologist's point of view. In spite of the enormous richness of forms and performances in the biotic realm, there is a considerable uniformity in the chemical "machinery of life," which powers all organisms. Life represents a dynamic state; it is performance of a system of singular kind: "life-as-action" approach. All "life-as-things" hypotheses are wrong from the beginning. Life is conditioned by certain substances but not defined by them. Living systems are endowed with a power to maintain their inherent functional order (organization) permanently against disruptive influences. The term organization inherently involves the aspect of functionality, the teleonomic, purposeful cooperation of structural and functional elements. Structures in turn require information for their specification, and information presupposes a source. This source is constituted in living systems by the nucleic acids. Organisms are unique in having a capacity to use, maintain, and replicate internal information, which yields the basis for their specific organization in its perpetuation. The existence of a genome is a necessary condition for life and one of the absolute differences between living and non-living matter. Organization includes both what makes life possible and what is determined by it. It is not something "implanted" into the living beings but has its origin and capacity for maintenance within the system itself. It is the essence of life. The property of being alive we can consider as an emergent property of cells that corresponds to a certain level of self-maintained complex order or organization.

  13. The riddle of ``life,'' a biologist's critical view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penzlin, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    To approach the question of what life is, we first have to state that life exists exclusively as the “being-alive” of discrete spatio-temporal entities. The simplest “unit” that can legitimately be considered to be alive is an intact prokaryotic cell as a whole. In this review, I discuss critically various aspects of the nature and singularity of living beings from the biologist’s point of view. In spite of the enormous richness of forms and performances in the biotic realm, there is a considerable uniformity in the chemical “machinery of life,” which powers all organisms. Life represents a dynamic state; it is performance of a system of singular kind: “life-as-action” approach. All “life-as-things” hypotheses are wrong from the beginning. Life is conditioned by certain substances but not defined by them. Living systems are endowed with a power to maintain their inherent functional order (organization) permanently against disruptive influences. The term organization inherently involves the aspect of functionality, the teleonomic, purposeful cooperation of structural and functional elements. Structures in turn require information for their specification, and information presupposes a source. This source is constituted in living systems by the nucleic acids. Organisms are unique in having a capacity to use, maintain, and replicate internal information, which yields the basis for their specific organization in its perpetuation. The existence of a genome is a necessary condition for life and one of the absolute differences between living and non-living matter. Organization includes both what makes life possible and what is determined by it. It is not something “implanted” into the living beings but has its origin and capacity for maintenance within the system itself. It is the essence of life. The property of being alive we can consider as an emergent property of cells that corresponds to a certain level of self-maintained complex order or

  14. Abortion, metaphysics and morality: a review of Francis Beckwith's defending life: a moral and legal case against abortion choice.

    PubMed

    Nobis, Nathan

    2011-06-01

    In Defending Life: A Moral and Legal Case Against Abortion Choice (2007) and an earlier article in this journal, "Defending Abortion Philosophically"(2006), Francis Beckwith argues that fetuses are, from conception, prima facie wrong to kill. His arguments are based on what he calls a "metaphysics of the human person" known as "The Substance View." I argue that Beckwith's metaphysics does not support his abortion ethic: Moral, not metaphysical, claims that are part of this Substance View are the foundation of the argument, and Beckwith inadequately defends these moral claims. Thus, Beckwith's arguments do not provide strong support for what he calls the "pro-life" view of abortion.

  15. Stuttering as operant behavior: effects of the verbal stimuli wrong, right, and tree on the disfluency rates of school-age stutterers and nonstutterers.

    PubMed

    Daly, D A; Kimbarow, M L

    1978-09-01

    This study assessed the effects of the verbally presented stimuli wrong, right, and tree on the frequency of disfluencies during oral reading by 18 school-aged stutterers and 18 matched nonstutterers. No differences were found between the three stimulus words' effect on the disfluency rate of either subject group. Because decreases in the disfluency rates of stutterers were observed during the presentation of all three stimulus words, the data failed to support the operant model. A discussion of theoretical and experimental implications is given.

  16. Life lessons

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Reminiscing about his younger self: “I mean I can’t very well just 86 [in American slang, to “86” is to eject, remove, or discard someone or something, J.R.N.] this guy from my life. On the other hand, if through some as yet undeveloped technology I were to run into him today, how comfortable would I feel about lending him money, or for that matter even stepping down the street to have a beer and talk over old times?” ― Thomas Pynchon, Slow Learner PMID:26734084

  17. Life sciences.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Gregory K

    2002-12-01

    Space life sciences research activities are reviewed for the year. Highlights of animal studies were the first long-term flight of an animal enclosure module and an avian development facility on STS-108. Plant research efforts focused on a biomass production system for eventual use on the International Space Station (ISS), the PESTO experiment on ISS, and screening of several salad crop varieties for potential use in space. Health-related studies included the Martian Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE) on the Mars Odyssey mission, presentation of results from NASA's Biomolecular Physics and Chemistry Program, and research related to human liver cell function in space through an agreement with StelSys. In industry and academia, a memorandum of understanding was signed between NASA and the biotechnology industry to enhance communication between NASA and the industry, expand commercial biotechnology space research and development, and expand formal and informal education of industry and the public regarding biotechnology and space research. NASA selected Purdue University to lead an NSCORT for advanced life support research to develop technologies to enable long-duration planetary mission and sustain human space colonies.

  18. Embryonic viability, parental care and the pro-life thesis: a defence of Bovens.

    PubMed

    Surovell, Jonathan

    2014-04-01

    On the basis of three empirical assumptions about the rhythm method and the viability of embryos, Bovens concludes that the pro-life position regarding empbryos implies that it is prima facie wrong to use the rhythm method. Pruss objects to Bovens's philosophical presuppositions and Kennedy to his empirical premises. This essay defends two revised versions of Bovens's argument. These arguments revise Bovens's empirical assumptions in response to Kennedy and, in response to Pruss, supplement Bovens's argument with what I call 'the principle of parental care'.

  19. [Surgery on the wrong side: implication for the patient and the professional. Experience in a Major Ambulatory Surgery of the Foot Unit].

    PubMed

    Asunción Márquez, J; López Gutiérrez, A; Pérez Martínez, V; Poggio Cano, D; Combalia, A

    2012-01-01

    Surgery of the wrong side is a very uncommon complication in orthopaedic surgery, but with serious consequences for the patient, the surgeon and the health institution, having to put all the necessary measures in place to prevent this occurring. We have conducted a prospective study on the introduction of a protocol to prevent surgery of the wrong side in 101 patients operated on for any foot disease in the Major Surgery Ambulatory Unit, performing three independent controls to verify the side: by the patient, by the nurse and by the anaesthetist. We review the information available of the side in the medical records and their correlation with the side operated on. Almost a quarter of the patients, 24.8%, were not informed that they had to make a mark on the foot to be operated on. No mark was made by 18.4% of the patients informed to do so, with no relationship between age, gender, education level, to live alone or previous foot operations. There was a lack of noting the side in the documentation, with this omission being more frequent in the Orthopaedic and Traumatology and Anaesthesiology medical records. Nine cases of inconsistency in the surgical side were detected, all in patients who had previous surgery in any foot. Marking of the side has been incorporated as routine practice in foot surgery, being beneficial for the safety of the patient, and should become normal practice in all surgical areas in the near future.

  20. Life's Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2004-11-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  1. Life's Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2003-09-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  2. Automatic localization of vertebral levels in x-ray fluoroscopy using 3D-2D registration: a tool to reduce wrong-site surgery.

    PubMed

    Otake, Y; Schafer, S; Stayman, J W; Zbijewski, W; Kleinszig, G; Graumann, R; Khanna, A J; Siewerdsen, J H

    2012-09-07

    Surgical targeting of the incorrect vertebral level (wrong-level surgery) is among the more common wrong-site surgical errors, attributed primarily to the lack of uniquely identifiable radiographic landmarks in the mid-thoracic spine. The conventional localization method involves manual counting of vertebral bodies under fluoroscopy, is prone to human error and carries additional time and dose. We propose an image registration and visualization system (referred to as LevelCheck), for decision support in spine surgery by automatically labeling vertebral levels in fluoroscopy using a GPU-accelerated, intensity-based 3D-2D (namely CT-to-fluoroscopy) registration. A gradient information (GI) similarity metric and a CMA-ES optimizer were chosen due to their robustness and inherent suitability for parallelization. Simulation studies involved ten patient CT datasets from which 50 000 simulated fluoroscopic images were generated from C-arm poses selected to approximate the C-arm operator and positioning variability. Physical experiments used an anthropomorphic chest phantom imaged under real fluoroscopy. The registration accuracy was evaluated as the mean projection distance (mPD) between the estimated and true center of vertebral levels. Trials were defined as successful if the estimated position was within the projection of the vertebral body (namely mPD <5 mm). Simulation studies showed a success rate of 99.998% (1 failure in 50 000 trials) and computation time of 4.7 s on a midrange GPU. Analysis of failure modes identified cases of false local optima in the search space arising from longitudinal periodicity in vertebral structures. Physical experiments demonstrated the robustness of the algorithm against quantum noise and x-ray scatter. The ability to automatically localize target anatomy in fluoroscopy in near-real-time could be valuable in reducing the occurrence of wrong-site surgery while helping to reduce radiation exposure. The method is applicable beyond the

  3. Automatic localization of vertebral levels in x-ray fluoroscopy using 3D-2D registration: a tool to reduce wrong-site surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Y.; Schafer, S.; Stayman, J. W.; Zbijewski, W.; Kleinszig, G.; Graumann, R.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2012-09-01

    Surgical targeting of the incorrect vertebral level (wrong-level surgery) is among the more common wrong-site surgical errors, attributed primarily to the lack of uniquely identifiable radiographic landmarks in the mid-thoracic spine. The conventional localization method involves manual counting of vertebral bodies under fluoroscopy, is prone to human error and carries additional time and dose. We propose an image registration and visualization system (referred to as LevelCheck), for decision support in spine surgery by automatically labeling vertebral levels in fluoroscopy using a GPU-accelerated, intensity-based 3D-2D (namely CT-to-fluoroscopy) registration. A gradient information (GI) similarity metric and a CMA-ES optimizer were chosen due to their robustness and inherent suitability for parallelization. Simulation studies involved ten patient CT datasets from which 50 000 simulated fluoroscopic images were generated from C-arm poses selected to approximate the C-arm operator and positioning variability. Physical experiments used an anthropomorphic chest phantom imaged under real fluoroscopy. The registration accuracy was evaluated as the mean projection distance (mPD) between the estimated and true center of vertebral levels. Trials were defined as successful if the estimated position was within the projection of the vertebral body (namely mPD <5 mm). Simulation studies showed a success rate of 99.998% (1 failure in 50 000 trials) and computation time of 4.7 s on a midrange GPU. Analysis of failure modes identified cases of false local optima in the search space arising from longitudinal periodicity in vertebral structures. Physical experiments demonstrated the robustness of the algorithm against quantum noise and x-ray scatter. The ability to automatically localize target anatomy in fluoroscopy in near-real-time could be valuable in reducing the occurrence of wrong-site surgery while helping to reduce radiation exposure. The method is applicable beyond

  4. On Being in the Wrong Place: The Role of Children’s Conceptual Understanding and Ballgame Experience when Judging a Football Player’s Offside Position

    PubMed Central

    Lange-Küttner, Christiane; Bosco, Giorgia

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the role of children’s conceptual understanding and ballgame experience when judging whether a football player is in an offside position, or not. In the offside position, a player takes advantage of being behind the defence line of the opposing team and just waits for the ball to arrive in order to score a goal. We explained the offside rule to 7- and 9-year-old children with a Subbuteo setup. They produced drawings of an offside position until it was correct (drawing to criterion). Thereafter, children judged whether a designated player was in an offside position in a computerized task. Like adults, also children found it easier to judge when a player was in a wrong rather than a right place. Only when including frequency of ballgame practice in the analysis it was revealed that boys were better independently of age as they judged the offside position more systematically. PMID:27713857

  5. How Many Times Can You Be Wrong and Still Be Right? T. H. Morgan, Evolution, Chromosomes and the Origins of Modern Genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Garland E.

    2015-01-01

    Science textbooks and classes mostly emphasize what are considered by today's standards the "right" or "correct" interpretations of particular phenomena or processes. When "incorrect" ideas of the past are mentioned at all, it is simply to point out their errors, with little attention as to why the ideas were put forward in the first place, or ever gained a following. A strong case can be made, however, for presenting contrasting or even what are considered today "wrong" hypotheses as a way of not only emphasizing the dynamic nature of science (which is punctuated throughout by controversies and contrasting views), but also as a way of helping students better understand the details and workings of contemporary views. This article will illustrate these claims by examining the work of embryologist-turned-geneticist Thomas Hunt Morgan in the early decades of the twentieth century.

  6. Is the Good Life the Easy Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scollon, Christie Napa; King, Laura A.

    2004-01-01

    Three studies examined folk concepts of the good life. Participants rated the desirability and moral goodness of a life as a function of the happiness, meaning, and effort experienced. Happiness and meaning were solid predictors of the good life, replicating King and Napa (1998). Study 1 (N = 381) included wealth as an additional factor. Results…

  7. "And Now I'm Just Different, but There's Nothing Actually Wrong With Me": Asexual Marginalization and Resistance.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Kristina

    2016-09-15

    This article explores the relationship between contemporary asexual lives and compulsory sexuality, or the privileging of sexuality and the marginalizing of nonsexuality. Drawing on 30 in-depth interviews, I identify four ways the asexually identified individuals in this study saw themselves as affected by compulsory sexuality: pathologization, isolation, unwanted sex and relationship conflict, and the denial of epistemic authority. I also identify five ways these asexually identified individuals disrupted compulsory sexuality: adopting a language of difference and a capacity to describe asexuality; deemphasizing the importance of sexuality in human life; developing new types of nonsexual relationships; constituting asexuality as a sexual orientation or identity; and engaging in community building and outreach. I argue that some of these practices offer only a limited disruption of compulsory sexuality, but some of these practices pose a radical challenge to sexual norms by calling into question the widespread assumption that sexuality is a necessary part of human flourishing.

  8. Propranolol and the prevention of post-traumatic stress disorder: is it wrong to erase the "sting" of bad memories?

    PubMed

    Henry, Michael; Fishman, Jennifer R; Youngner, Stuart J

    2007-09-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health (Bethesda, MD) reports that approximately 5.2 million Americans experience post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) each year. PTSD can be severely debilitating and diminish quality of life for patients and those who care for them. Studies have indicated that propranolol, a beta-blocker, reduces consolidation of emotional memory. When administered immediately after a psychic trauma, it is efficacious as a prophylactic for PTSD. Use of such memory-altering drugs raises important ethical concerns, including some futuristic dystopias put forth by the President's Council on Bioethics. We think that adequate informed consent should facilitate ethical research using propranolol and, if it proves efficacious, routine treatment. Clinical evidence from studies should certainly continue to evaluate realistic concerns about possible ill effects of diminishing memory. If memory-attenuating drugs prove effective, we believe that the most immediate social concern is the over-medicalization of bad memories, and its subsequent exploitation by the pharmaceutical industry.

  9. Life is pretty meaningful.

    PubMed

    Heintzelman, Samantha J; King, Laura A

    2014-09-01

    The human experience of meaning in life is widely viewed as a cornerstone of well-being and a central human motivation. Self-reports of meaning in life relate to a host of important functional outcomes. Psychologists have portrayed meaning in life as simultaneously chronically lacking in human life as well as playing an important role in survival. Examining the growing literature on meaning in life, we address the question "How meaningful is life, in general?" We review possible answers from various psychological sources, some of which anticipate that meaning in life should be low and others that it should be high. Summaries of epidemiological data and research using two self-report measures of meaning in life suggest that life is pretty meaningful. Diverse samples rate themselves significantly above the midpoint on self-reports of meaning in life. We suggest that if meaning in life plays a role in adaptation, it must be commonplace, as our analysis suggests.

  10. A category theoretical argument against the possibility of artificial life: Robert Rosen's central proof revisited.

    PubMed

    Chu, Dominique; Ho, Weng Kin

    2006-01-01

    One of Robert Rosen's main contributions to the scientific community is summarized in his book Life itself. There Rosen presents a theoretical framework to define living systems; given this definition, he goes on to show that living systems are not realizable in computational universes. Despite being well known and often cited, Rosen's central proof has so far not been evaluated by the scientific community. In this article we review the essence of Rosen's ideas leading up to his rejection of the possibility of real artificial life in silico. We also evaluate his arguments and point out that some of Rosen's central notions are ill defined. The conclusion of this article is that Rosen's central proof is wrong.

  11. Health care professionals’ comprehension of the legal status of end-of-life practices in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Marcoux, Isabelle; Boivin, Antoine; Arsenault, Claude; Toupin, Mélanie; Youssef, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine health care professionals’ understanding of the current legal status of different end-of-life practices and their future legal status if medical aid in dying were legalized, and to identify factors associated with misunderstanding surrounding the current legal status. Design Cross-sectional survey using 6 clinical scenarios developed from a validated European questionnaire and from a validated classification of end-of-life practices. Setting Quebec. Participants Health care professionals (physicians and nurses). Main outcome measures Perceptions of the current legal status of the given scenarios and whether or not the practices would be authorized in the event that medical aid in dying were legalized. Results Among the respondents (n = 271, response rate 88.0%), more than 98% knew that the administration or prescription of lethal medication was currently illegal. However, 45.8% wrongly thought that it was not permitted to withdraw a potentially life-prolonging treatment at the patient’s request, and this misconception was more common among nurses and professionals who had received their diplomas longer ago. Only 39.5% believed that, in the event that medical aid in dying were legalized, the use of lethal medication would be permitted at the patient’s request, and 34.6% believed they would be able to give such medication to an incompetent patient upon a relative’s request. Conclusion Health care professionals knew which medical practices were illegal, but some wrongly believed that current permitted practices were not legal. There were various interpretations of what would or would not be allowed if medical aid in dying were legalized. Education on the clinical implications of end-of-life practice legislation should be promoted. PMID:26052600

  12. Social identity and stroke: 'they don't make me feel like, there's something wrong with me'.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sharon; Whitfield, Kyle

    2013-12-01

    Over 85% of the people survive stroke; and of those, over 80% are discharged to the community. However, the majority do not recover completely. Loss of identity is a commonly reported experience after stroke. Studies focus on the individual survivors' use of their own cognitive resources to adapt to change, rather than examining the effects of social interactions on stroke survivors' identities. Social relationships are the foundation upon which survivors rebuild skills to engage with the world, yet little is known about the ways in which families, friends and neighbours provide a context for the recreation of a sense of self and activities after stroke. This article draws on situational analysis grounded theory analysis of in-depth individual interviews with nine middle-aged survivors of stroke. In situational analysis, the original grounded theory methods proposed by Glaser and Strauss are used; however, the situational context, and how environments and relationships influence actions, is explicitly analysed. Our objective was to understand the ways in which family, social, and community resources might enhance stroke survivors' participation in personally meaningful activities over the long term. The qualitative accounts of these survivors reveal how social support helped them maintain or more importantly regain a position in society. Following any life-changing event, people's sense of self is fluid. A relevant social position entitles stroke survivors to become actively involved in setting their own goals and maintaining a positive identity. However, as these participants attested, stroke impaired their social position and resources to reject an imposed social position. It was difficult for these survivors to construct a valued social identity without the support of other people. Future studies should explore the consequences of social interactions with others and how social attitudes about stroke disability affects individual's activity options, professional

  13. Auguste Comte's Blunder: An Account of the First Century of Stellar Spectroscopy and How It Took One Hundred Years to Prove That Comte was Wrong!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearnshaw, John B.

    2010-01-01

    In 1835 the French philosopher Auguste Comte predicted that we would never know anything about the chemical composition of stars. I will give a broad overview of the development of stellar spectroscopy, especially from about 1860. Developments in stellar spectroscopy segregated quite clearly into three main fields of endeavour: spectral classification, radial velocities and spectral analysis. After introducing the main players, I will concentrate mainly on spectral analysis, or how stellar spectroscopy one hundred years after Comte showed that quantitative information on the composition of stars was possible. The journey was quite arduous, as it required numerous developments in theoretical physics and in laboratory spectroscopy, which in turn allowed stellar spectral analysis successfully to be undertaken by the mid-20th century. The key developments in physics that first had to be understood were in quantum and atomic theory, ionization theory, the concept of the Planck function, local thermodynamic equilibrium, the first stellar model atmospheres, line formation theory, turbulence, collisional broadening of spectral lines and the theory of radiative transfer and of the curve of growth. My talk will emphasize these close links between stellar spectroscopy and theoretical physics. In addition laboratory physics was also an essential precursor, to measure line wavelengths and oscillator strengths. Comte may have been an influential philosopher of science in his time. Perhaps his one small transgression was not to have read the works of Joseph Fraunhofer, which in the early 19th century already contained the first small clues that Comte's assertion might be wrong.

  14. Auguste Comte's blunder: an account of the first century of stellar spectroscopy and how it took one hundred years to prove that Comte was wrong!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearnshaw, John

    2010-07-01

    In 1835 the French philosopher Auguste Comte predicted that we would never know anything about the chemical composition of stars. This paper gives a broad overview of the development of stellar spectroscopy, especially from about 1860. Developments in stellar spectroscopy segregated quite clearly into three main fields of endeavour: spectral classification, radial velocities and spectral analysis. This paper concentrates mainly on spectral analysis, or how stellar spectroscopy one hundred years after Comte showed that quantitative information on the composition of stars was possible. The journey was quite arduous, as it required numerous developments in theoretical physics and in laboratory spectroscopy, which in turn allowed stellar spectral analysis successfully to be undertaken by the mid-twentieth century. The key developments in physics that first had to be understood were in quantum and atomic theory, ionization theory, the concept of the Planck function, local thermodynamic equilibrium, the first stellar model atmospheres, line formation theory, turbulence, collisional broadening of spectral lines and the theory of radiative transfer and of the curve of growth. The close links between stellar spectroscopy and theoretical physics will be emphasized. In addition laboratory physics, to measure line wavelengths and oscillator strengths, was also an essential precursor to quantitative data on the chemical composition of stars. Comte may have been an influential philosopher of science in his time. Perhaps his one small transgression was not to have read the works of Joseph Fraunhofer, which in the early nineteenth century already contained the first small clues that Comte's assertion might be wrong.

  15. Defending definitions of life.

    PubMed

    Mix, Lucas John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, it has become unpopular to talk about definitions of life, under the assumption that attempts at a precise definition are counterproductive. Recent attempts have failed to meet strict philosophical criteria for definitions and have failed to reach consensus. I argue that provisional definitions are necessary for clear communications. Our current knowledge of biology justifies a number of universal claims about the category of life. Whether or not "life" represents a natural category, it maps to a number of important, observable processes. Given the importance of those processes and the extent of our knowledge, plural explicit definitions of life (and related categories) will be necessary for progress in astrobiology and origin-of-life studies as well as biology in general. I propose concrete categories related to, but not necessarily coextensive with, life for clear communication and hypothesis formation: Woese life, Darwin life, Haldane life.

  16. BOOK REVIEW: Carl Sagan: A Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakeways, Robin

    2000-01-01

    criticized at times for not following through his ideas. Perhaps he saw himself as the ideas man and preferred to leave the details to somebody else. Sometimes his ideas were wildly wrong, which is, perhaps, not surprising when working at the frontiers of science. One thing that surprised me was a suggestion by the author that his book The Dragons of Eden was `obviously written under the inspiration of marijuana'! It is easy and very tempting to criticize someone like Sagan after reading this book, which catalogues his many faults along with his many strengths. However, very few of us could attempt to accomplish even a tenth of what he accomplished in his lifetime. He had a health problem all through his life but nonetheless overcame all his personal and interpersonal problems to become the man that we all know, someone who made science, and especially astronomy, live for vast numbers of ordinary people. He aroused critical passions in many but, as Keay says, `In my years of research, I met not one person - not one - who knew Sagan closely and who strongly disliked him'. The book is an excellent read and gives a fascinating picture not only of the man but of science politics in the USA at the time.

  17. Life Among the Stars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Explores possibility of extra-terrestrial life, reviewing current hypotheses regarding where in space life would most likely occur. Discusses astrometry and spectroscopy as methods for determining stellar motions. Describes United States and Soviet projects for receiving stellar communications. Relates origin of life on earth to observed high…

  18. HIV Life Cycle

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Overview The HIV Life Cycle (Last updated 9/13/2016; last reviewed 9/8/2016) Key Points HIV gradually destroys the immune ... life cycle. What is the connection between the HIV life cycle and HIV medicines? Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ...

  19. Life Chances Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Margaret A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a life chances exercise that helps students identify the life chances that they and society value. Explains that students learn that the attainment of important life chances is related to the family into which one is born. Discusses John Rawls' social theory. Suggests that participants may need to consider alternative systems of economic…

  20. Education and Life's Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinkel, Anders; De Ruyter, Doret J.; Aviram, Aharon

    2016-01-01

    There are deep connections between education and the question of life's meaning, which derive, ultimately, from the fact that, for human beings, how to live--and therefore, how to raise one's children--is not a given but a question. One might see the meaning of life as constitutive of the meaning of education, and answers to the question of life's…

  1. Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Advanced Life Support (ALS) Systems are presented. The topics include: 1) Fundamental Need for Advanced Life Support; 2) ALS organization; 3) Requirements and Rationale; 4) Past Integrated tests; 5) The need for improvements in life support systems; 6) ALS approach to meet exploration goals; 7) ALS Projects showing promise to meet exploration goals; and 9) GRC involvement in ALS.

  2. Engaging with Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheatley, Margaret J.

    1997-01-01

    Explores an ancient world view rediscovered through modern science: the world is essentially cooperative and systems-seeking; relationships are a requirement for existence; life is a great experimenter; the processes of life are redundant and messy but ultimately self-organizing; and life supports uniqueness and is unpredictable. Relates these…

  3. “I Can't Find Anything Wrong: It Must Be a Pulmonary Embolism”: Diagnosing Suspected Pulmonary Embolism in Primary Care, a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Barais, Marie; Morio, Nathalie; Cuzon Breton, Amélie; Barraine, Pierre; Calvez, Amélie; Stolper, Erik; Van Royen, Paul; Liétard, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Background Before using any prediction rule oriented towards pulmonary embolism (PE), family physicians (FPs) should have some suspicion of this diagnosis. The diagnostic reasoning process leading to the suspicion of PE is not well described in primary care. Objective to explore the diagnostic reasoning of FPs when pulmonary embolism is suspected. Method Semi-structured qualitative interviews with 28 FPs. The regional hospital supplied data of all their cases of pulmonary embolism from June to November 2011. The patient's FP was identified where he/she had been the physician who had sent the patient to the emergency unit. The first consecutive 14 FPs who agreed to participate made up the first group. A second group was chosen using a purposeful sampling method. The topic guide focused on the circumstances leading to the suspicion of PE. A thematic analysis was performed, by three researchers, using a grounded theory coding paradigm. Results In the FPs' experience, the suspicion of pulmonary embolism arose out of four considerations: the absence of indicative clinical signs for diagnoses other than PE, a sudden change in the condition of the patient, a gut feeling that something was seriously wrong and an earlier failure to diagnose PE. The FPs interviewed did not use rules in their diagnostic process. Conclusion This study illustrated the diagnostic role of gut feelings in the specific context of suspected pulmonary embolism in primary care. The FPs used the sense of alarm as a tool to prevent the diagnostic error of missing a PE. The diagnostic accuracy of gut feelings has yet to be evaluated. PMID:24840333

  4. A life with prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Fine, David Roger

    2012-01-01

    The author gives an anecdotal account of his life with developmental prosopagnosia (DP). He was not formally diagnosed until the age of 53 and has evolved a complicated strategy for recognizing people based on non-facial physical features and context. He describes his experiences through infancy, school, university life and courtship, work and family life. He believes that he has lived a full and successful life despite DP but that some aspects of his social and work life were impaired by face-blindness. In his experience people react positively and helpfully if the consequences of DP are explained to them, and this improves social interactions and communications.

  5. Definition of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirk, Schulze-Makuch; Irwin, Louis N.

    The definition of life is a long-standing debate with no general scientific consensus to be expected any time soon. The underlying problem is that living systems use compounds that are abundant in the surrounding environment and processes that are not intrinsically different from reactions that occur abiologically. There does not appear to exist a single characteristic property that is both intrinsic and unique to life. Rather we have to argue that life meets certain standards, or that it qualifies by the collective presence of a certain set of characteristics. The threshold for meeting this standard sounds arbitrary, and may well be arbitrary in the sense that life presumably arose through a long sequence of "emergent events", each at a greater level of molecular complexity and order (Hazen 2002). If that notion is correct, any rigid distinction between life and non-life is a matter of subjective judgment. While our everyday experience with life on Earth makes the distinction between the living and non-living for the most part unambiguous, a consideration of life on other worlds, where conditions may be different, and/or where life may have evolved from its inorganic precedents to a lesser degree, requires us to formulate a more formal and objective definition for life. Before doing so, we will first address the limitations of commonplace assumptions about what constitutes life.

  6. To Copy: Right or Wrong?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Dan

    The Copyright Act of 1976, particularly the guidelines on fair use, did much to clarify the ambiguity of the 1909 Copyright Act in relation to new electronic media. Although some specific guidelines for teachers were included, it should be noted that microcomputers and disk drives were not yet widely available in 1976. Because experts were divided…

  7. Is Medical Student Writing Wrong?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisof, Kenneth B.; Moseley, James L.

    The prevalence of writing errors made by third-year medical students from the class of 1981 at a large midwestern medical school was studied. The papers of 253 students taking family medicine were evaluated for spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors. Four types of grammar errors and seven punctuation errors were analyzed, and each word…

  8. What's Wrong With Vocational Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Lowell L.

    1974-01-01

    Vocational education has problems at the national, State, and local levels. These problems cover such things as cooperative education, teacher education, recordkeeping, acceptance by business, the public and fellow educators, red tape, and beginning vocational education at too early an age. (BP)

  9. What's wrong with fear conditioning?

    PubMed

    Beckers, Tom; Krypotos, Angelos-Miltiadis; Boddez, Yannick; Effting, Marieke; Kindt, Merel

    2013-01-01

    Fear conditioning is one of the prime paradigms of behavioural neuroscience and a source of tremendous insight in the fundamentals of learning and memory and the psychology and neurobiology of emotion. It is also widely regarded as a model for the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders in a diathesis-stress model of psychopathology. Starting from the apparent paradox between the adaptive nature of fear conditioning and the dysfunctional nature of pathological anxiety, we present a critique of the human fear conditioning paradigm as an experimental model for psychopathology. We discuss the potential benefits of expanding the human fear conditioning paradigm by (1) including action tendencies as an important index of fear and (2) paying more attention to "weak" (i.e., ambiguous) rather than "strong" fear learning situations (Lissek et al., 2006), such as contained in selective learning procedures. We present preliminary data that illustrate these ideas and discuss the importance of response systems divergence in understanding individual differences in vulnerability for the development of pathological anxiety.

  10. What's Wrong with Privatising Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Harry

    2004-01-01

    Full privatisation of schools would involve states abstaining from providing, funding or regulating schools. I argue that full privatisation would, in most circumstances, worsen social injustice in schooling. I respond to James Tooley's critique of my own arguments for funding and regulation and markets. I argue that even his principle of…

  11. Solving the wrong hierarchy problem

    DOE PAGES

    Blinov, Nikita; Hook, Anson

    2016-06-29

    Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and Z2-symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or Z2 copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs massmore » by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop this idea in the context of a solution to the strong CP problem. Lastly, we show this mechanism postdicts the top Yukawa to be within 1σ of the currently measured value and predicts scalar color octets with masses in the range 9-200 TeV.« less

  12. What's wrong with evolutionary biology?

    PubMed

    Welch, John J

    2017-01-01

    There have been periodic claims that evolutionary biology needs urgent reform, and this article tries to account for the volume and persistence of this discontent. It is argued that a few inescapable properties of the field make it prone to criticisms of predictable kinds, whether or not the criticisms have any merit. For example, the variety of living things and the complexity of evolution make it easy to generate data that seem revolutionary (e.g. exceptions to well-established generalizations, or neglected factors in evolution), and lead to disappointment with existing explanatory frameworks (with their high levels of abstraction, and limited predictive power). It is then argued that special discontent stems from misunderstandings and dislike of one well-known but atypical research programme: the study of adaptive function, in the tradition of behavioural ecology. To achieve its goals, this research needs distinct tools, often including imaginary agency, and a partial description of the evolutionary process. This invites mistaken charges of narrowness and oversimplification (which come, not least, from researchers in other subfields), and these chime with anxieties about human agency and overall purpose. The article ends by discussing several ways in which calls to reform evolutionary biology actively hinder progress in the field.

  13. What's Wrong with "Aesthetic Education"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luca-Marshall, Judith B.

    1980-01-01

    The author considers definitions of "aesthetic," especially that offered by Woodrow Wilson in his essay on Adam Smith. Her major contention is that too much of aesthetic and other education is not very aesthetic, for it does not excite both senses and intellect nor develop the ability to generalize. (Author/SJL)

  14. What's Wrong with "Animal Rights"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Adrian R.

    1992-01-01

    School leaders must withstand the pressures of the animal rights movement to disrupt the science curriculum. It would be tragic if this movement succeeded in turning a large number of students against the legitimate use of animals and, ultimately, against biomedical research. (MLF)

  15. Capacity is the Wrong Paradigm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Florida Gainesville, FL 32611-6120 ABSTRACT At present, \\capacity" is the prevailing paradigm for covert channels. With respect to steganography ...INTRODUCTION Steganography is the art and science of sending a hidden message from Alice to Bob, so that an eavesdropper is not aware that this hidden...discussed a di erent new paradigm con- cerning steganography . The concern of that new paradigm was \\when is something discovered." We feel that both

  16. Overpopulation: Where Malthus Went Wrong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, John S.; Shaw, Jane S.; Stroup, Richard L.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the theories of 18th-century social scientist Thomas Malthus regarding population and his predictions of massive worldwide famine. Maintains that countries with a tradition of private property rights can sustain a dense population and food supply. Examines the relationship between low birth rate and economic prosperity. (MJP)

  17. Solving the wrong hierarchy problem

    SciTech Connect

    Blinov, Nikita; Hook, Anson

    2016-06-29

    Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and Z2-symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or Z2 copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop this idea in the context of a solution to the strong CP problem. Lastly, we show this mechanism postdicts the top Yukawa to be within 1σ of the currently measured value and predicts scalar color octets with masses in the range 9-200 TeV.

  18. What Are We Doing Wrong?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Kristen

    1998-01-01

    In an interview, the managing editor of a major publication in higher education explains what the media want to know about such issues as college and program rankings, affirmative action, college costs, crime on campus, and how colleges can communicate their positions better, make their messages more coherent, and influence the opinions of both…

  19. What's Wrong with that Kid?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausch, Denise M.

    2005-01-01

    Current brain research shows that there are observable differences in the brain functions of people with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and those without it. The ADHD brain demonstrates impaired functioning in certain specific areas (executive functions) that control memory, time awareness, motivation, and attention. No amount of…

  20. Wrong Turn on School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.; Petrilli, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    In the run-up to the 2000 presidential election, candidate George W. Bush and his advisors made a strategic decision to appropriate educational rhetoric generally associated with Democrats and the left. This decision helped Bush present himself as "different kind of Republican" and a "compassionate conservative" and to…

  1. Solving the wrong hierarchy problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinov, Nikita; Hook, Anson

    2016-06-01

    Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and Z_2 -symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or Z_2 copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop this idea in the context of a solution to the strong CP problem. We show this mechanism postdicts the top Yukawa to be within 1 σ of the currently measured value and predicts scalar color octets with masses in the range 9-200 TeV.

  2. Pro-Life Arguments Against Infanticide and Why they are Not Convincing.

    PubMed

    Räsänen, Joona

    2016-11-01

    Alberto Giubilini and Francesca Minerva's controversial article 'After-Birth Abortion: Why Should the Baby Live?' has received a lot of criticism since its publishing. Part of the recent criticism has been made by pro-life philosopher Christopher Kaczor, who argues against infanticide in his updated book 'Ethics of Abortion'. Kaczor makes four arguments to show where Giubilini and Minerva's argument for permitting infanticide goes wrong. In this article I argue that Kaczor's arguments, and some similar arguments presented by other philosophers, are mistaken and cannot show Giubilini and Minerva's view to be flawed. I claim that if one wants to reject the permissibility of infanticide, one must find better arguments for doing so.

  3. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  4. Life-history data.

    PubMed

    Vanhoutte, Bram; Nazroo, James

    2016-07-15

    Life-history data are quantitative, retrospective and autobiographical data collected through event-history calendars. By mimicking the structure of our memories, these instruments can gather reliable information on different dimensions of the lifecourse. Life-history data enable the duration, timing and ordering of events to be brought to the foreground of analysis. Extending the scope of lifecourse research, life-history data make it possible to examine the long-term effects of past policies with more precision and detail.

  5. Artificial life and Piaget.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Ulrich; Grobman, K H.

    2003-04-01

    Artificial life provides important theoretical and methodological tools for the investigation of Piaget's developmental theory. This new method uses artificial neural networks to simulate living phenomena in a computer. A recent study by Parisi and Schlesinger suggests that artificial life might reinvigorate the Piagetian framework. We contrast artificial life with traditional cognitivist approaches, discuss the role of innateness in development, and examine the relation between physiological and psychological explanations of intelligent behaviour.

  6. Origin of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Cleaves, H. J.

    2003-10-01

    Deciphering the origin of life requires some knowledge of the early planetary environment. Unfortunately, we lack definitive evidence of the atmospheric composition, surface temperature, oceanic pH, and other environmental conditions that may have been important for the appearance of the first living systems on Earth. The rock remnants of the early Archean are extremely scarce and most of the record has been lost. The first indications of life from carbon inclusions in rocks and the oldest fossil record are currently under debate but there is a consensus that life started during the first billion years after the Earth formed. Life as we know it is a chemical phenomenon. The chemistry that could have produced self-organizing systems is the central problem in the origin of life. There are several competing theories for how this chemistry may have arisen. In spite of their diversity, proposals for a prebiotic "soup", for the role of submarine hydrothermal vents, or for the extraterrestrial origin of organic compounds have as a common background assumption the idea that abiotic organic compounds were necessary for the emergence of life. It is possible that a combination of these sources - exogenous and endogenous - contributed building blocks for the origin of life on Earth. In this paper we provide a review of the main ideas on the origin of life from the astrobiological perspective and discuss the probability of life on extrasolar planets.

  7. WOWBugs: New Life for Life Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Robert W.; And Others

    This book of life science activities introduces a new experimental animal--the WOWBug, "Melittobia digitata"--that is commonly found in nature but has never before been used in the precollege classroom. It includes 20 activities and experiments for grades 5-12, that cover topics from basic orientation to ecological interactions, from physical…

  8. The need for a more nuanced conclusion than life is pretty meaningful.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Harris L

    2015-09-01

    Comments on the original article "Life is pretty meaningful," by S. J. Heintzelman and L. A. King (see record 2014-03265-001). Heintzelman and King explored meaning in life (MIL), which they acknowledged "remains, in some ways, a construct and experience shrouded in mystery" (p. 561). Unfortunately, they dealt with this complex topic in a very simplistic way. They claimed that "from an existentialist perspective, human life has no inherent meaning" (p. 568), but this is not true for all existentialists. They then implied that their data had somehow refuted this existentialist view, proving it false. In fact, nothing of the sort has been proven, as only a distorted straw existentialist position has been challenged by data of questionable worth for this task, and used to draw the trite conclusion that life is pretty meaningful-and the implication that existentialists must be wrong. This oversimplicity does great injustice not only to the many nuanced existentialist positions but also to the mystery of MIL.

  9. Thrust chamber life prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasper, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    The reusable life of the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) is influenced by the cyclic life of the regeneratively liquid cooled main combustion chamber (MCC). During an operational duty cycle the MCC liner is subjected to a large transient thermal gradient that imparts a high thermal cyclic strain to the liner hot gas wall. Life predictions of such chambers have usually been based on low cycle fatigue (LCF) evaluations. Hot-fire testing, however, has shown significant mid-channel wall deformation and thinning during accrued cyclic testing. This phenomenon is termed cyclic creep and appears to be significantly accelerated at elevated temperatures. An analytical method that models the cyclic creep phenomenon and its application to thrust chamber life prediction is presented. The chamber finite element geometry is updated periodically to account for accrued wall thinning and distortion. Failure is based on the tensile instability failure criterion. Cyclic life results for several chamber life enhancing coolant channel designs are compared to the typically used LCF analysis that neglects cyclic creep. The results show that the usable cyclic creep life is approximately 30 to 50% of the commonly used LCF life.

  10. Limited life item management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaglen, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    Plans are available for age-sensitive hardware management. Control plan identifies shelf life or age control requirements for materials considered age sensitive, use sensitive, or time service or shelf life controlled items, and describes methods of arriving at age controls through adherence to detailed specifications.

  11. Is Life Unique?

    PubMed Central

    Abel, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Is life physicochemically unique? No. Is life unique? Yes. Life manifests innumerable formalisms that cannot be generated or explained by physicodynamics alone. Life pursues thousands of biofunctional goals, not the least of which is staying alive. Neither physicodynamics, nor evolution, pursue goals. Life is largely directed by linear digital programming and by the Prescriptive Information (PI) instantiated particularly into physicodynamically indeterminate nucleotide sequencing. Epigenomic controls only compound the sophistication of these formalisms. Life employs representationalism through the use of symbol systems. Life manifests autonomy, homeostasis far from equilibrium in the harshest of environments, positive and negative feedback mechanisms, prevention and correction of its own errors, and organization of its components into Sustained Functional Systems (SFS). Chance and necessity—heat agitation and the cause-and-effect determinism of nature’s orderliness—cannot spawn formalisms such as mathematics, language, symbol systems, coding, decoding, logic, organization (not to be confused with mere self-ordering), integration of circuits, computational success, and the pursuit of functionality. All of these characteristics of life are formal, not physical. PMID:25382119

  12. Life in the Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The belief that life exists in the universe is an optimism shared by many. With several manned missions expected to be carried out in the future, the possibility of discovering life in outer space will revolutionize the field of astrobiology. In this article, the author presents a summary of recent developments and discoveries made in the search…

  13. Life sciences report 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Highlighted here are the major research efforts of the NASA Life Sciences Division during the past year. Topics covered include remote health care delivery in space, space biomedical research, gravitational biology, biospherics (studying planet Earth), the NASA Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), exobiology, flight programs, international cooperation, and education programs.

  14. The Life of Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Cathie

    2010-01-01

    Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

  15. It's a Frog's Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Audrey L.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2003-01-01

    When a preschool teacher unexpectedly found tadpoles in the school's outdoor baby pool, she recognized an unusual opportunity for her students to study pond life up close. By following the tadpoles' development, students learned about frogs, life cycles, habitats. (Contains 1 resource.)

  16. Thermostabilized Shelf Life Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Catauro, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  17. Thermostable Shelf Life Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, M. H.; Antonini, D. K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  18. Empowering Students for Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the new Occupational & Life Skills (OLS) program at Bellevue Community College in Bellevue, Washington. The OLS-Venture program, as it is now called, grew out of a series of continuing education classes in personal finance, cooking, and related life skills for people with autism, obsessive-compulsive disorder and other…

  19. Planets and Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T., III; Baross, John

    2007-09-01

    Foreword; Preface; Contributors; Prologue; Part I. History: 1. History of astrobiological ideas W. T. Sullivan and D. Carney; 2. From exobiology to astrobiology S. J. Dick; Part II. The Physical Stage: 3. Formation of Earth-like habitable planets D. E. Brownlee and M. Kress; 4. Planetary atmospheres and life D. Catling and J. F. Kasting; Part III. The Origin of Life on Earth: 5. Does 'life' have a definition? C.E. Cleland and C. F. Chyba; 6. Origin of life: crucial issues R. Shapiro; 7. Origin of proteins and nucleic acids A. Ricardo and S. A. Benner; 8. The roots of metabolism G.D. Cody and J. H. Scott; 9. Origin of cellular life D. W. Deamer; Part IV. Life on Earth: 10. Evolution: a defining feature of life J. A. Baross; 11. Evolution of metabolism and early microbial communities J. A. Leigh, D. A. Stahl and J. T. Staley; 12. The earliest records of life on Earth R. Buick; 13. The origin and diversification of eukaryotes M. L. Sogin, D. J. Patterson and A. McArthur; 14. Limits of carbon life on Earth and elsewhere J. A. Baross, J. Huber and M. Schrenk; 15. Life in ice J. W. Deming and H. Eicken; 16. The evolution and diversification of life S. Awramik and K. J. McNamara; 17. Mass extinctions P. D. Ward; Part V. Potentially Habitable Worlds: 18. Mars B. M. Jakosky, F. Westall and A. Brack; 19. Europa C. F. Chyba and C. B. Phillips; 20. Titan J. I. Lunine and B. Rizk; 21. Extrasolar planets P. Butler; Part VI. Searching for Extraterrestrial Life: 22. How to search for life on other worlds C. P. McKay; 23. Instruments and strategies for detecting extraterrestrial life P. G. Conrad; 24. Societial and ethical concerns M. S. Race; 25. Planetary protection J. D. Rummel; 26. Searching for extraterrestrial intelligence J. C. Tarter; 27. Alien biochemistries P. D. Ward and S. A. Benner; Part VII. Future of the Field: 28. Disciplinary and educational opportunities L. Wells, J. Armstrong and J. Huber; Epilogue C. F. Chyba; Appendixes: A. Units and usages; B. Planetary

  20. Life in extreme environments.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, L J; Mancinelli, R L

    2001-02-22

    Each recent report of liquid water existing elsewhere in the Solar System has reverberated through the international press and excited the imagination of humankind. Why? Because in the past few decades we have come to realize that where there is liquid water on Earth, virtually no matter what the physical conditions, there is life. What we previously thought of as insurmountable physical and chemical barriers to life, we now see as yet another niche harbouring 'extremophiles'. This realization, coupled with new data on the survival of microbes in the space environment and modelling of the potential for transfer of life between celestial bodies, suggests that life could be more common than previously thought. Here we examine critically what it means to be an extremophile, and the implications of this for evolution, biotechnology and especially the search for life in the Universe.

  1. Life in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, John B.

    1992-01-01

    The scope of space life sciences and current research on the physiology of man in space are reviewed by examining Spacelab SLS-1. Milestones of space life sciences are discussed, with emphasis on the Skylab facility, the Space Shuttle program, and the Soviet Mir space station. Attention is given to the topic of the origins of life as it relates to space life sciences. The discovery of amino acids in meteorites and the question of whether the earth was seeded with life from space are discussed. A brief overview of efforts in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence is presented. Consideration is also given to the effects of gravity on cells, the effects of radiation, plant biology, CELSS, and the effects of gravity on humans.

  2. Origin of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Ashwini Kumar

    2008-10-01

    The evolution of life has been a big enigma despite rapid advancements in the field of astrobiology, microbiology and genetics in recent years. The answer to this puzzle is as mindboggling as the riddle relating to evolution of the universe itself. Despite the fact that panspermia has gained considerable support as a viable explanation for origin of life on the earth and elsewhere in the universe, the issue, however, remains far from a tangible solution. This paper examines the various prevailing hypotheses regarding origin of life-like abiogenesis, RNA world, iron-sulphur world and panspermia, and concludes that delivery of life-bearing organic molecules by the comets in the early epoch of the earth alone possibly was not responsible for kick-starting the process of evolution of life on our planet.

  3. Emergence of Life.

    PubMed

    Bassez, Marie-Paule

    2011-09-29

    Indeed, even if we know that many individual components are necessary for life to exist, we do not yet know what makes life emerge. One goal of this journal Life is to juxtapose articles with multidisciplinary approaches and perhaps to answer in the near future this question of the emergence of life. Different subjects and themes will be developed, starting of course with the multiple definitions of life and continuing with others such as: life diversity and universality; characteristics of living systems; thermodynamics with energy and entropy; kinetics and catalysis; water in its different physical states; circulation of sap and blood and its origin; the first blood pump and first heart; the first exchange of nutrients between cells, sap and blood; essential molecules of living systems; chirality; molecular asymmetry and its origin; formation of enantiomer excess and amplification; microscopic observations on a micrometer and sub-micrometer scales, at molecular and atomic levels; the first molecules at the origin of genetic information, viroids, circular RNA; regions of space or the area inside membranes and cells capable of initiating and maintaining life; phenomena at the origin of the emergence of life; molecules studied in the traditional field of chemistry and in the recent field of nanoscience governed by new laws; interaction between the individual molecules and components of living systems; interaction between living systems and the environment; transfer of information through generations; continuation of life from one generation to the next; prebiotic chemistry and prebiotic signatures on Earth, on Mars, on other planets; biosignatures of the first forms of life; fossils and pseudofossils dating 3.5 Ga ago and more recent ones; experimental fossilization; pluricellular eukaryotes dating 2.1 Ga ago; sudden increase in oxygen in the atmosphere around 2.0 to 2.5 Ga ago and its relation to geology; shell symmetry; aging with transformation of molecules, of

  4. Life on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potashko, Oleksandr

    Volcanoes engender life on heavenly bodies; they are pacemakers of life. All planets during their period of formation pass through volcanism hence - all planets and their satellites pass through the life. Tracks of life If we want to find tracks of life - most promising places are places with volcanic activity, current or past. In the case of just-in-time volcanic activity we have 100% probability to find a life. Therefore the most perspective “search for life” are Enceladus, Io and comets, further would be Venus, Jupiter’s satellites, Saturn’s satellites and first of all - Titan. Titan has atmosphere. It might be result of high volcanic activity - from one side, from other side atmosphere is a necessary condition development life from procaryota to eucaryota. Existence of a planet means that all its elements after hydrogen formed just there inside a planet. The forming of the elements leads to the formation of mineral and organic substances and further to the organic life. Development of the life depends upon many factors, e.g. the distance from star/s. The intensity of the processes of the element formation is inversely to the distance from the star. Therefore we may suppose that the intensity of the life in Mercury was very high. Hence we may detect tracks of life in Mercury, particularly near volcanoes. The distance from the star is only one parameter and now Titan looks very active - mainly due to interior reason. Its atmosphere compounds are analogous to comet tail compounds. Their collation may lead to interesting result as progress occurs at one of them. Volcanic activity is as a source of life origin as well a reason for a death of life. It depends upon the thickness of planet crust. In the case of small thickness of a crust the probability is high that volcanoes may destroy a life on a planet - like Noachian deluge. Destroying of the life under volcano influences doesn’t lead to full dead. As result we would have periodic Noachian deluge or

  5. Defining life or bringing biology to life.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa; Peretó, Juli; Moreno, Alvaro

    2010-04-01

    In the present, post-genomic times, systemic or holistic approaches to living phenomena are compulsory to overcome the limits of traditional strategies, such as the methodological reductionism of molecular biology. In this paper, we propose that theoretical and philosophical efforts to define life also contribute to those integrative approaches, providing a global theoretical framework that may help to deal with or interpret the huge amount of data being collected by current high-throughput technologies, in this so-called 'omics' revolution. We claim that two fundamental notions can capture the core of the living, (basic) autonomy and open-ended evolution, and that only the complementary combination of these two theoretical constructs offers an adequate solution to the problem of defining the nature of life in specific enough-but also encompassing enough-terms. This tentative solution should also illuminate, in its most elementary version, the leading steps towards living beings on Earth.

  6. Deciding about treatments that prolong life

    MedlinePlus

    Palliative care - treatments that prolong life; Palliative care - life support; End-of-life-treatments that prolong life; Ventilator - treatments that prolong life; Respirator - treatments that prolong life; Life-support - treatments ...

  7. Breathing fresh life into life science education.

    PubMed

    Martin, Cyrus

    2014-12-15

    In the US, higher education in the life sciences is being overhauled. There is now a move both to change the way we teach biology students, emphasizing more engaging approaches, and to clearly define what it is a student should know. And for advanced degrees, there is a push to prepare students for a range of possible career paths, not just the tenure track. Cyrus Martin reports.

  8. Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohn, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect…

  9. Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Although the Viking results may indicate that Mars has no life today, the possibility exists that Mars may hold the best record of the events that led to the origin of life. There is direct geomorphological evidence that in the past Mars had large amounts of liquid water on its surface. Atmospheric models would suggest that this early period of hydrological activity was due to the presence of a thick atmosphere and the resulting warmer temperatures. From a biological perspective the existence of liquid water, by itself motivates the question of the origin of life on Mars. From studies of the Earth's earliest biosphere we know that by 3.5 Gyr. ago, life had originated on Earth and reached a fair degree of biological sophistication. Surface activity and erosion on Earth make it difficult to trace the history of life before the 3.5 Gyr timeframe. If Mars did maintain a clement environment for longer than it took for life to originate on Earth, then the question of the origin of life on Mars follows naturally.

  10. End of life care.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ruth

    2012-01-26

    The combination of an ageing population and increasing numbers of prisoners means delivering end of life care in prisons is inevitable. To this end the National End of Life Programme has published a practical guide, aimed at health and social care workers, and prison staff. The guide outlines the six steps of the end of life care pathway in detail, from initiating discussions to care after death. It also includes case studies highlighting best practice. To read the guide, visit http://tinyurl.com/ndoflifeinprison.

  11. Potential alternate life biochemistries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konesky, Gregory

    2013-09-01

    While life on Earth continues to be discovered in unlikely environments, the underlying biochemistry is all very similar, based on the element carbon, and requiring liquid water. We consider alternate biochemistries based on elements other than carbon, including other group IVA elements, such as silicon and germanium, and solvents other than water. Terminal electron acceptors other than oxygen are also discussed. A fundamental issue is raised related to the detection of, and even the definition of life, whether it is carbon or non-carbon based. An extreme example of this issue would be in consideration of speculative life based on electrically charged dusty plasmas, which may have no physical body.

  12. Sleep and Sex: What Can Go Wrong? A Review of the Literature on Sleep Related Disorders and Abnormal Sexual Behaviors and Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Schenck, Carlos H.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mahowald, Mark W.

    2007-01-01

    stage 1 sleep/wakefulness in one case (with sex provoked by the bed partner). Confusional arousals (CAs) were diagnosed as the cause of “sleepsex” (“sexsomnia”) in 26 cases (with obstructive sleep apnea [OSA] comorbidity in 4 cases), and sleepwalking in 2 cases, totaling 90.3% (28/31) of cases being NREM sleep parasomnias. REM behavior disorder was the presumed cause in the other 3 cases. Bedtime clonazepam therapy was effective in 90% (9/10) of treated parasomnia cases; nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy was effective in controlling comorbid OSA and CAs in both treated cases. All five treated patients with sleep related sexual seizures responded to anticonvulsant therapy. The hypersexuality in KLS, which was twice as common in males compared to females, had no reported effective therapy. Conclusions: A broad range of sleep related disorders associated with abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences exists, with major clinical and forensic consequences. Citation: Schenck CH; Arnulf I; Mahowald MW et al. Sleep and sex: what can go wrong? A review of the literature on sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. SLEEP 2007;30(6):683-702. PMID:17580590

  13. Medicine's Life Inside the Body

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Medicine's Life Inside the Body Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page A Medicine's Life Inside the Body ... Work Computation Aids Drug Discovery This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  14. Life under alien skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dartnell, Lewis

    2012-04-01

    As the number of confirmed extrasolar planets increases, so does the likelihood that some of them will harbour life. Lewis Dartnell describes some preliminary - but increasingly well founded - efforts to predict what alien plants and animals might look like.

  15. First Day of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... Feelings Having a baby is a major, life-changing experience. Don't be surprised to find that ...

  16. Diversity of Life Possible

    NASA Video Gallery

    Planets are distinguished by two basic properties, their size and their orbit. The size determines if the planet can have a life-sustaining atmosphere. The orbit affects the surface temperature and...

  17. Regenerative Life Support Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleiner, G. N.; Thompson, C. D.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the development plan and design concept of the Regenerative Life Support Evaluation (RLSE) planned for flight testing in the European Space Agency Spacelab. The development plan encompasses the ongoing advanced life support subsystem and a systems integration effort to evolve concurrently subsystem concepts that perform their function and can be integrated with other subsystems in a flight demonstration of a regenerative life support system. The design concept for RLSE comprises water-electrolysis O2 generation, electrochemically depolarized CO2 removal, and Sabatier CO2 reduction for atmosphere regeneration, urine vapor-compression distillation, and wash-water hyperfiltration for waste-water recovery. The flight demonstration by RLSE is an important step in qualifying the regenerative concepts for life support in space stations.

  18. Fresh Water Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kestler, Carol Susan

    1991-01-01

    Describes methodology for a fresh water life study with elementary through college age students with suggestions for proper equipment, useful guides, and other materials. Proposes an activity for the collection and study of plankton. Includes background information.(MCO)

  19. Early Life Stages

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Childhood should be viewed as a sequence of lifestages, from birth through infancy and adolescence. When assessing early life risks, consideration is given to risks resulting from fetal exposure via the pregnant mother, as well as postnatal exposures.

  20. End of Life Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... difficult. But by deciding what end-of-life care best suits your needs when you are healthy, ... making choices about the following: The goals of care (for example, whether to use certain medicines during ...

  1. Is life supernatural?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Gilbert V.

    2015-09-01

    The big question of the origin of life is examined. The paradox created by Pasteur's resounding edict: Life only comes from life, pitted against the need for spontaneous generation is explored. This seemingly dead-end conundrum contrasts sharply with the great progress we have made in understanding the evolution of the species since Darwin's revolutionary insight. The conditions and sources of energy that might have promoted non-living molecules and compounds to cross the sharp line from inert to living are contemplated. Abiotic synthesis might help explain the origin, but still fails to explain the moment of vitalization. A different approach to discovering when the inert becomes alive is proposed. The need for, and a way to bring forth, a "Bio-Einstein" to solve this penultimate question of life's origin are presented.

  2. End of Life Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... this with your healthcare provider. End of Life Considerations There are situations that ill older adults may ... is not indicated. In some settings, however, the law may require that physicians offer the option of ...

  3. Life on moduli space?

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Stephen D. H.

    2009-10-15

    While the number of metastable landscape vacua in string theory is vast, the number of supermoduli vacua which lead to distinct low-energy physics is even larger, perhaps infinitely so. From the anthropic perspective it is therefore important to understand whether complex life is possible on moduli space - i.e., in low-energy effective theories with (1) exact supersymmetry and (2) some massless multiplets (moduli). Unless life is essentially impossible on moduli space as a consequence of these characteristics, anthropic reasoning in string theory suggests that the overwhelming majority of sentient beings would observe 1-2. We investigate whether 1 and 2 are by themselves automatically inimical to life and conclude, tentatively, that they are not. In particular, we describe moduli scenarios in which complex life seems possible.

  4. Life Options Rehabilitation Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... at our CE credit website . Free Life Options Materials Download our free print materials, research-based fact ... sheets are also available in Spanish! Vaccination Education Materials Easy-to-read patient education fact sheets will ...

  5. Life sciences recruitment objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, J. Richard

    1992-01-01

    The goals of the Life Sciences Division of the Office of Space Sciences and Application are to ensure the health, well being and productivity of humans in space and to acquire fundamental scientific knowledge in space life sciences. With these goals in mind Space Station Freedom represents substantial opportunities and significant challenges to the Life Sciences Division. For the first time it will be possible to replicate experimental data from a variety of simultaneously exposed species with appropriate controls and real-time analytical capabilities over extended periods of time. At the same time, a system for monitoring and ameliorating the physiological adaptations that occur in humans subjected to extended space flight must be evolved to provide the continuing operational support to the SSF crew. To meet its goals, and take advantage of the opportunities and overcome the challenges presented by Space Station Freedom, the Life Sciences Division is developing a suite of discipline-focused sequence. The research phase of the Life Sciences Space Station Freedom Program will commence with the utilization flights following the deployment of the U.S. laboratory module and achievement of Man Tended Capability. Investigators that want the Life Sciences Division to sponsor their experiment on SSF can do so in one of three ways: submitting a proposal in response to a NASA Research Announcement (NRA), submitting a proposal in response to an Announcement of Opportunity (AO), or submitting an unsolicited proposal. The scientific merit of all proposals will be evaluated by peer review panels. Proposals will also be evaluated based on relevance to NASA's missions and on the results of an Engineering and Cost Analyses. The Life Sciences Division expects that the majority of its funding opportunities will be announced through NRA's. It is anticipated that the first NRA will be released approximately three years before first element launch (currently scheduled for late 1995

  6. Life without water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, Lois M.; Crowe, John H.

    1989-01-01

    Anhydrobiosis, or life without water is commonly demonstrated by a number of plants and animals. These organisms have the capacity to loose all body water, remain dry for various periods, and then be revived by rehydration. While in the anhydrobiotic state, these organisms become highly resistant to several environmental stresses such as extremely low temperatures, elevated temperatures, ionizing radiation, and high vacuum. Since water is commonly thought to be essential for life, survival of anhydrobiotic organisms with an almost total loss of water is examined. A search of literature reveal that many anhydrobiotic organisms make large quantities of trehalose or other carbohydrates. Laboratory experiments have shown that trehalose is able to stabilize and preserve microsomes of sarcoplasmic reticulum and artificial liposomes. It was demonstrated that trehalose and other disaccharides can interact directly with phosopipid headgroups and maintain membranes in their native configuration by replacing water in the headgroup region. Recent studies show that trehalose is an effective stabilizer of proteins during drying and that it does so by direct interaction with groups on the protein. If life that is able to withstand environmental extremes has ever developed on Mars, it is expected that such life would have developed some protective compounds which can stabilize macromolecular structure in the absence of water and at cold temperatures. On Earth, that role appears to be filled by carbohydrates that can stabilize both membrane and protein stuctures during freezing and drying. By analog with terrestrial systems, such life forms might develop resistance either during some reproductive stage or at any time during adult existence. If the resistant form is a developmental stage, the life cycle of the organism must be completed with a reasonable time period relative to time when environmental conditions are favorable. This would suggest that simple organisms with a short

  7. A Quantum Origin of Life?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Paul C. W.

    The following sections are included: * Chemistry and Information * Q-life * The Problem of Decoherence * Life as the "Solution" of a Quantum Search Algorithm * Quantum Choreography * Acknowledgements * References

  8. Intelligent life in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    2003-04-01

    I shall present three arguments for the proposition that intelligent life is very rare in the universe. First, I shall summarize the consensus opinion of the founders of the modern synthesis (Simpson, Dobzhanski and Mayr) that the evolution of intelligent life is exceedingly improbable. Secondly, I shall develop the Fermi paradox: if they existed, they would be here. Thirdly, I shall show that if intelligent life were too common, it would use up all available resources and die out. But I shall show that the quantum mechanical principle of unitarity (actually a form of teleology!) requires intelligent life to survive to the end of time. Finally, I shall argue that, if the universe is indeed accelerating, then survival to the end of time requires that intelligent life, though rare, to have evolved several times in the visible universe. I shall argue that the acceleration is a consequence of the excess of matter over antimatter in the universe. I shall suggest experiments to test these claims.

  9. Practical Life: The Keystone of Life, Culture, and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramani, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Uma Ramani's characterization of practical life is philosophical and anthropological, suggesting that "human history is the story of the evolution of our practical life activities." Practical life is a collaborative activity that creates community and culture. One's adaptation to life through the daily work of ordering our environment…

  10. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  11. Life Satisfaction across Four Stages of Adult Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medley, Morris L.

    1980-01-01

    For men life satisfaction was related to age stage in a monotonic increasing fashion. Life satisfaction scores remained relatively constant across the age stages for women. Family life and standard of living were found to be significant determinants of life satisfaction, for both sexes at each stage of adulthood. (Author)

  12. Advanced life support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Summary reports on each of the eight tasks undertaken by this contract are given. Discussed here is an evaluation of a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), including modeling and analysis of Physical/Chemical Closed Loop Life Support (P/C CLLS); the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) evolution - Intermodule Ventilation study; advanced technologies interface requirements relative to ECLSS; an ECLSS resupply analysis; the ECLSS module addition relocation systems engineering analysis; an ECLSS cost/benefit analysis to identify rack-level interface requirements of the alternate technologies evaluated in the ventilation study, with a comparison of these with the rack level interface requirements for the baseline technologies; advanced instrumentation - technology database enhancement; and a clean room survey and assessment of various ECLSS evaluation options for different growth scenarios.

  13. Stress and life history.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Pat; Spencer, Karen A

    2014-05-19

    In his book on behavioural endocrinology, Randy Nelson describes 'stress' as a 'notoriously ethereal concept'. Yet, despite this lack of clarity, studies of the consequences of stress across different time scales, life history stages, taxa and levels of biological enquiry form a large part of modern biology and biomedicine. Organisms need to recognise and respond to environmental challenges. Being able to do so appropriately, and with minimal costs, is an important physiological attribute, with great adaptive value. The costs and benefits of different mechanisms that enable organisms to cope with unpredictable environmental changes can be manifest to different degrees at different life stages. Accordingly, the level of stress experienced in the environment can act as a strong selective pressure that drives the evolution of life histories.

  14. Life Out of Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, Gustaf

    2002-01-01

    Doctinary overlays on the definition of life can effectively be avoided by focusing discussion on microorganisms, their vital processes, and their genetic pedigree. To reach beyond these present and highly advanced forms of life and to inquire about its origin it is necessary to consider the requirements imposed by the environment. These requirements include geophysically and geochemically acceptable conjectures for the generation of source compounds, their concentration from dilute solution, and their selective combination into functional biomolecules. For vital function these macromolecules require programming in the form of specific sequence motifs. This critical programming constitutes the scientifically least understood process in the origin of life. Once this stage has been surpassed the laws of Darwinian evolution can operate in ways that are understood and experimentally demonstrated.

  15. Life sciences accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    From its inception, the main charter of Life Sciences has been to define biomedical requirements for the design and development of spacecraft systems and to participate in NASA's scientific exploration of the universe. The role of the Life Sciences Division is to: (1) assure the health, well being and productivity of all individuals who fly in space; (2) study the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the universe; and (3) to utilize the space environment as a tool for research in biology and medicine. The activities, programs, and accomplishments to date in the efforts to achieve these goals are detailed and the future challenges that face the division as it moves forward from the shuttle era to a permanent manned presence in space space station's are examined.

  16. Life in the Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Wainwright, N. R.; Grasby, S. E.; Harvey, R. P.

    2003-01-01

    The current Martian surface environment is extremely hostile to any known form of life. The combination of subfreezing temperature, low atmospheric pressure and high ultraviolet flux, combined with desiccated and possibly oxidizing soil, could destroy even the hardiest microorganisms. The Viking biology experiments are generally interpreted to indicate that the surface of Mars is currently devoid of life and organic molecules at the part-per-billion level. Speculation on the possibility of extant or preserved microbial life on Mars thus centers on refuges in some manner protected from the current surface environment, either in space or time. Terrestrial analogs include hydrothermal systems, lakes, caves and subsurface aquifers as well as more clement conditions in the distant past. We are examining the evidence for microbiology in Earth's glaciated polar regions as analogs to the polar caps of Mars. This research concerns the detection of microorganisms or their preserved remains at the surface and within polar glacial ice.

  17. Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation is planned to be a 10-15 minute "catalytic" focused presentation to be scheduled during one of the working sessions at the TIM. This presentation will focus on Advanced Life Support technologies key to future human Space Exploration as outlined in the Vision, and will include basic requirements, assessment of the state-of-the-art and gaps, and include specific technology metrics. The presentation will be technical in character, lean heavily on data in published ALS documents (such as the Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) but not provide specific technical details or build to information on any technology mentioned (thus the presentation will be benign from an export control and a new technology perspective). The topics presented will be focused on the following elements of Advanced Life Support: air revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control, habitation systems, food systems and bioregenerative life support.

  18. Habitats of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirk, Schulze-Makuch; Irwin, Louis N.

    There are four principal habitats in which life may exist - the surface of a planetary body, its subsurface, its atmosphere and space. From our own experience we know that life does exist on the surface of a planet, in its subsurface, and transiently at least in the atmosphere. Where it is present, it exists in a surprising diversity and in a variety of microhabitats, from deep caverns (Hose et al. 2000, Melim et al. 2001) to hydrothermal fluids and hot springs of various chemistries (Jannasch 1995, Rzonca and Schulze-Makuch 2002), to the frozen deserts of Antarctica (Friedmann 1982, Sun and Friedmann 1999). In this chapter we will elaborate on the principal habitats, the constraints they impose on life, and the possibilities they provide.

  19. Spacelab Life Sciences-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Jahns, Gary; Meylor, John; Hawes, Nikki; Fast, Tom N.; Zarow, Greg

    1995-01-01

    This report provides an historical overview of the Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) mission along with the resultant biomaintenance data and investigators' findings. Only the nonhuman elements, developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) researchers, are addressed herein. The STS-40 flight of SLS-1, in June 1991, was the first spacelab flown after 'return to orbit', it was also the first spacelab mission specifically designated as a Life Sciences Spacelab. The experiments performed provided baseline data for both hardware and rodents used in succeeding missions.

  20. Life among the axons.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Clay M

    2007-01-01

    A blink in history's eye has brought us an understanding of electricity, and with it a revolution in human life. From the frog leg twitch experiments of Galvani and the batteries of Volta, we have progressed to telegraphs, motors, telephones, computers, and the Internet. In the same period, the ubiquitous role of electricity in animal and plant life has become clear. A great milestone in this journey was the elucidation of electrical signaling by Hodgkin & Huxley in 1952. This chapter gives a personal account of a small part of this story, the transformation of the rather abstract electrical conductances of Hodgkin & Huxley into the more tangible gated ion channel.

  1. Fatigue life extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matejczyk, D. E.; Lin, J.

    1985-01-01

    Potential fatigue rejuvenation processes were carried out on fatigue-damaged material both with and without observable surface-connected fatigue cracks. The fatigue life of fatigue-damaged MAR-M246(Hf)(DS), a directionally solidified nickel-base superalloy used in turbine airfoils, was extended by reheat treatment. The fatigue life of fatigue-cracked Inconel 718, a wrought nickel-base superalloy used in a wide variety of advanced rocket engine components, was extended by electron-beam welding to close off the surface-connected crack, followed by hot isostatic pressing and reheat treatment.

  2. Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Viking biology experiments are examined. It is noted that the Viking missions did not find a terrestrial type of life at either of the two landing sites. This evidence may suggest that Mars is lifeless, but science demands a more rigorous proof; thus, it is still not known whether life exists on Mars. It is suggested that the Martian polar regions must be explored before a conclusive answer is possible; the permanent polar caps of Mars are frozen water and would act as a 'cold finger' of the planet to trap organic molecules.

  3. The planets and life.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    It is pointed out that planetary exploration is not simply a program designed to detect life on another planet. A planet similar to earth, such as Mars, when studied for evidence as to why life did not arise, may turn out to be scientifically more important than a planet which has already produced a living system. Of particular interest after Mars are Venus and Jupiter. Jupiter has a primitive atmosphere which may well be synthesizing organic molecules today. Speculations have been made concerning the possibility of a bio-zone in the upper atmosphere of Venus.

  4. Life in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-10-01

    Live Webcast from Europe's Leading Research Organisations Summary Is there life elsewhere in the Universe? Are we alone? These questions have always fascinated humanity and for more than 50 years, physicists, biologists, chemists, cosmologists, astronomers and other scientists have worked tirelessly to answer these fundamental questions. And now this November via webcast, all the world will have the opportunity to see and hear the latest news on extraterrestrial life from the most prestigious research centers and how for the past three months, European students have had the chance to jump into the scientists' shoes and explore these questions for themselves. The event is being sponsored by the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) , the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , in cooperation with the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). "Life in the Universe" is being mounted in collaboration with the Research Directorate-General of the European Commission for the European Week of Science and Technology in November 2001 . "Life in the Universe" competitions are already underway in 23 European countries to find the best projects from school students between 14 and 18. Two winning teams from each country will be invited to a final event at CERN in Geneva on 8-11 November 2001 to present their projects and discuss them with a panel of International Experts at a special three-day event. They will also compete for the "Super Prize" - a free visit to ESA's and ESO's research and technology facilities at Kourou and Paranal in South America. Students participating in the programme are encouraged to present their views on extraterrestrial life creatively. The only requirement is that the views be based upon scientific evidence. Many projects are being submitted just now - among them are scientific essays

  5. Reflexive Planning for Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Margaret A.; Kemp, Candace L.; French, Susan; Gafni, Amiram; Joshi, Anju; Rosenthal, Carolyn J.; Davies, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    Informed by Giddens' (1991) concept of "reflexive life" planning and the notion of later life as a time of increasing social and financial risk, this research explores the idea of "reflexive planning for later life". We utilize a conceptual model that incorporates three types of planning for later life: public protection, self-insurance, and…

  6. Life after the Principalship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Laurel

    2009-01-01

    Sixty-eight percent of people who are approaching retirement age report that they intend to work full time or part time after retirement, mostly because they want to. With today's life span stretching to 80 years and beyond, turning 60 is no longer an end-stage event. Instead, it is the beginning of a new developmental phase. This article…

  7. Biological Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session MP2 includes short reports on: (1) Crew Regenerative Life Support in Long Duration Space Missions; (2) Bioconversion Systems for Food and Water on Long Term Space Missions; (3) Novel Laboratory Approaches to Multi-purpose Aquatic Biogenerative Closed-Loop Food Production Systems; and (4) Artificial Neural Network Derived Plant Growth Models.

  8. Ionizing radiation and life.

    PubMed

    Dartnell, Lewis R

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a ubiquitous feature of the Cosmos, from exogenous cosmic rays (CR) to the intrinsic mineral radioactivity of a habitable world, and its influences on the emergence and persistence of life are wide-ranging and profound. Much attention has already been focused on the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation on organisms and the complex molecules of life, but ionizing radiation also performs many crucial functions in the generation of habitable planetary environments and the origins of life. This review surveys the role of CR and mineral radioactivity in star formation, generation of biogenic elements, and the synthesis of organic molecules and driving of prebiotic chemistry. Another major theme is the multiple layers of shielding of planetary surfaces from the flux of cosmic radiation and the various effects on a biosphere of violent but rare astrophysical events such as supernovae and gamma-ray bursts. The influences of CR can also be duplicitous, such as limiting the survival of surface life on Mars while potentially supporting a subsurface biosphere in the ocean of Europa. This review highlights the common thread that ionizing radiation forms between the disparate component disciplines of astrobiology.

  9. Quality of Life Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces. New Mexico Environmental Inst.

    Comments, speeches, and questions delivered at the Quality of Life Symposium are compiled in these proceedings. As an exploratory session, the conference objectives were to (1) become better informed about New Mexico--its resource base, the economy, social and cultural base, and the environment; and (2) to evaluate and discuss the role of New…

  10. Chemical Origins of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, J. Lawrence

    1972-01-01

    Reviews ideas and evidence bearing on the origin of life. Shows that evidence to support modifications of Oparin's theories of the origin of biological constituents from inorganic materials is accumulating, and that the necessary components are readily obtained from the simple gases found in the universe. (AL)

  11. Second Life, Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugeja, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    An article this author wrote about avatar harassment and assault in Second Life (SL) inspired a considerable response after it was published. Perhaps the most notable reply was from Linden Lab, the company that created the virtual-reality world. In his initial essay ("The Chronicle of Higher Education," September 14, 2007; "The Education Digest,"…

  12. Empowerment for Later Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.

    This monograph purports that American society limits the behavior of older individuals based on the arbitrary criterion of chronological age and proposes the concept of empowerment--gaining a sense of personal power or control over over's life--as the antidote for older persons who face devalued status as they age and the for the accompanying drop…

  13. Alien Life Imagined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brake, Mark

    2012-11-01

    1. Kosmos: aliens in ancient Greece; 2. The world turned upside down: Copernicanism and the voyages of discovery; 3. In Newton's train: pluralism and the system of the world; 4. Extraterrestrials in the early machine age; 5. After Darwin: the war of the worlds; 6. Einstein's sky: life in the new universe; 7. Ever since SETI: astrobiology in the space age; References; Index.

  14. Life Skills Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Sunny

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the San Francisco Sheriff's Department (SFSD) Life Skills for Prisoners Program. The program was designed to enhance and expand the Resolve to Stop the Violence Project, which had operated successfully for three years in the San Francisco County Jail as a restorative justice program. The mission of SFSD is to…

  15. Symposium: Student Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academic Questions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    To get an inside view of campus life today, the Intercollegiate Studies Institute (whose purpose is to foster in college students an appreciation of the values that sustain a free society) was approached and asked to supply a list of their Collegiate Network editors--students who are active on their campuses, interested in the issues facing higher…

  16. Learning from Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, David

    2009-01-01

    There is currently widespread interest in exploring the opportunities to develop learning that can be delivered in three-dimensional multiuser virtual environments (3-D MUVEs). In this paper, I argue for the need to conduct research into the emerging cultures of use in 3-D MUVEs, focussing on the example of Second Life. Drawing on social and…

  17. Life History and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2013-01-01

    This article uses the life history method to chronicle the challenges of a low-income, first-generation student en route to college. The paper addresses three questions: how Manuel navigates college and related topics such as roommates, family, and money; how he creates social networks; and how he works with adults such as teachers and…

  18. Two-dimensional life?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Duve, C.; Miller, S. L.

    1991-01-01

    A model [Wachtershauser, G. (1988) Microbiol. Rev. 52, 452-484], according to which life started in the form of a monomolecular layer of interacting anionic metabolites electrostatically bound to a positively charged surface, is examined critically. The model raises a number of thermodynamic and kinetic difficulties.

  19. Yawning throughout life.

    PubMed

    Giganti, F; Salzarulo, P

    2010-01-01

    Yawning is a behavior that begins in the first stages of life. It has not only been observed in infants and in newborns, but also in fetuses of 12-14 weeks' gestational age. Yawning frequency changes over the life span. In preterm infants, the number of yawns decreases between 31 and 40 weeks' postconceptional age, mainly during the day. In this period of life, yawning is an isolated behavior rarely occurring in bursts, and its frequency is quite low with respect to adults. The incidence of yawning seems to increase when children attend elementary school, whereas this is reduced in the elderly. Aged people yawn less than younger ones, mainly during morning and mid-afternoon. In adults, the time course of yawning is associated with the time course of sleepiness, except upon awakening when the high frequency of yawns is not associated with high sleepiness. In adults, yawning frequency increases in the early morning and in the late evening, whereas at the earliest stages of development (fetuses and preterm infants) yawning does not show diurnal variations. Yawning seems to be involved in the modulation of arousal process across the whole life span. In preterm infants, yawning is often followed by motor activation and it is more common during waking than sleep; in adults, yawning occurs mainly at sleep onset and upon awakening.

  20. Freedom Road: Colonial Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    While historical fiction by Jean Fritz as well as titles like Robert Lawson's "Ben and Me" (1939) or "Mr. Revere and I" (1954) and Esther Forbes's "Johnny Tremain" (1943) are widely known classics that bring this period to life, recent years have yielded a wealth of new offerings--many of which are accessible picture books or read-alouds. These…

  1. Bringing Scientists to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he brings scientists to life when he visits schools. Having retired from teaching Drama and Theatre Studies in Liverpool for more than thirty years, the author set up his one-man Theatre-in-Education company, Blindseer Productions, and now takes his portrayals of Darwin, Galileo and Einstein to schools…

  2. From Light to Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkowski, Paul G.

    2015-09-01

    The biogeochemical cycles of H, C, N, O and S are coupled via biologically catalyzed electron transfer (redox) reactions far from thermodynamic equilibrium. In this paper I examine the evolution of the structural motifs responsible for redox reactions (the biological "transistors") across the tree of life, and the photogeochemical reactions on minerals that ultimately came to be the driving force for these biological reactions.

  3. Graphic Life Map.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Patricia

    This is a prewriting activity for personal memoir or autobiographical writing. Grade 6-8 students brainstorm for important memories, create graphics or symbols for their most important memories, and construct a life map on tag board or construction paper, connecting drawings and captions of high and low points with a highway. During four 50-minute…

  4. It's a Salmon's Life!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, M. Jenice; Skochdopole, Laura Downey

    1998-01-01

    Describes an integrated science unit to help preservice teachers gain confidence in their abilities to learn and teach science. The teachers role played being salmon as they learned about the salmon's life cycle and the difficulties salmon encounter. The unit introduced the use of investigative activities that begin with questions and end with…

  5. Education for Interpersonal Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Higher education does not address the central challenges of daily interpersonal life--being a parent, spouse, friend, and offspring; dealing with change, loss, sickness, death. But education can instill "tacit knowing"--knowing in the bones, prior to conceptualization or verbalization. This knowing can be imparted by great literature. (MLW)

  6. The Business of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunski, Jonathan F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a learning game called The Business of Life that demonstrates the cellular processes of photosynthesis and respiration as business transactions. Incorporates the ideas that energy flows through ecosystems as well as through cells of individual organisms. Demonstrates the interdependence of living things and that processes at the cellular…

  7. Predicting service life margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, G. F.

    1971-01-01

    Margins are developed for equipment susceptible to malfunction due to excessive time or operation cycles, and for identifying limited life equipment so monitoring and replacing is accomplished before hardware failure. Method applies to hardware where design service is established and where reasonable expected usage prediction is made.

  8. Mosquito Life Cycle

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Knowing the stages of the mosquito's life will help you prevent mosquitoes around your home and help you choose the right pesticides for your needs, if you decide to use them. All mosquito species go through four distinct stages during their live cycle.

  9. Lungfish and Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the writings of Homer W. Smith, a physiologist who wrote novels, histories of religion, textbooks, and a book on the kidney for the general reader. Smith's writing skills remind students that biologists are as multidimensional as the rest of the population. Smith shows that all parts of life are interrelated as they enrich and shed light…

  10. LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Assessment, or LCA, is an environmental accounting and mangement approach that consider all the aspects of resource use and environmental releases associated with an industrial system from cradle-to-grave. Specifically, it is a holistic view of environmental interacti...

  11. How life shaped Earth.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2015-10-05

    Earth is much more complex than all the other solar system objects that we know. Thanks to its rich and diverse geology, our planet can offer habitats to a wide range of living species. Emerging insights suggest that this is not just a happy coincidence, but that life itself has in many ways helped to shape the planet.

  12. Investigations Into Life Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Dean Samuel

    This laboratory manual, containing 44 exercises, is intended to be used as part of an audio-tutorial approach to laboratory work in a life-science course for student nurses. Exercises include basic techniques of miscroscopy, microbiology, electrophysiology, routine biochemical analyses of blood and urine, and microscopic examination of prepared…

  13. Life in the Galaxy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, B. M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the origin of life on the basis of information about cosmic evolution, stellar alchemy, atmospheric histories, and rise and fall of civilizations. Indicates that man's contact with other civilizations in our galaxy may be made possible through studies of interstellar communication. (CC)

  14. Learning for Life Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varmecky, Jane Hyde

    2012-01-01

    Many adults return to formal learning situations to pursue lifelong learning goals because their lives are in transition from dealing with real-life problems such as divorce and re-marriage. The purpose of this study was to describe what couples learned that contributed to the success of their subsequent marriages and how they learned it. The…

  15. My father's life.

    PubMed Central

    Porth, R

    1995-01-01

    Medicine has many unsung heroes, and among them are physicians who spend their careers providing medical care in remote areas. In this article, Ronald Porth remembers the life of his father, Dr. Frank Porth, who for more than 30 years provided medical care on native reserves and in rural parts of the Prairies. Images p638-a p639-a PMID:7641162

  16. My father's life.

    PubMed

    Porth, R

    1995-09-01

    Medicine has many unsung heroes, and among them are physicians who spend their careers providing medical care in remote areas. In this article, Ronald Porth remembers the life of his father, Dr. Frank Porth, who for more than 30 years provided medical care on native reserves and in rural parts of the Prairies.

  17. The secret of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, David; Kirsebom, Oliver

    2013-02-01

    Life as we know it would not be possible were it not for a particular nuclear energy level of carbon-12 predicted 60 years ago by Fred Hoyle. But the true nature of this energy level remains one of the biggest unsolved questions in nuclear physics, say David Jenkins and Oliver Kirsebom.

  18. Spacelab Life Sciences-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-40, carrying Spacelab Life Sciences-1, was the first dedicated to study the human body in microgravity. Experiments regarding adaptation to space and readaptation to the world of gravity are discussed in this video. Spacelab is another precursor to long-term science aboard the space station.

  19. Chemicals in Everyday Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Raymond B.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the dependencies of people on chemicals in various aspects of life. Describes some of the natural and synthetic chemicals currently used in food production, clothing, shelter, travel and exploration, sports and recreation, ventilation, heating and cooling, communications, decoration, sanitation, and education. (TW)

  20. Advanced Cardiac Life Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document contains materials for an advanced college course in cardiac life support developed for the State of Iowa. The course syllabus lists the course title, hours, number, description, prerequisites, learning activities, instructional units, required text, six references, evaluation criteria, course objectives by units, course…

  1. Life Change Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, William M.; And Others

    The amount of life stress, as measured by the Schedule of Recent Experience (SRE), has been shown to be related to the onset of illness. This instrument was originally developed with a civilian population, and it became apparent that some questions were inappropriate when it was to be applied to a military population. Furthermore, it was believed…

  2. Life! Through Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Anne, Nancy

    This speech presents a review of research concerning the nature of play. Some of the formal characteristics of play are: (a) it is distinct from ordinary life in its "temporariness" and its limitless location; (b) there is an element of tension in play that leads to uncertainty concerning the outcome but at the same time provides the opportunity…

  3. Encaustic Still Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, Len

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art lesson used in an advanced high school art class where students used the encaustic painting technique by melting wax and combining various pigments. Explains that the students painted a still-life of flowers in the style of Vincent van Gogh. (CMK)

  4. Emotions in Everyday Life.

    PubMed

    Trampe, Debra; Quoidbach, Jordi; Taquet, Maxime

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+) and heterogeneous participants sample. People's everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people's emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1) connector emotions (e.g., joy), which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2) provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude), which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3) distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment), which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory.

  5. Coal Was Our Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Muriel; Williamson, Bill

    1994-01-01

    Interviews with former miners and their families in North East England about education and training needs uncovered gender, age, and cultural differences in reactions to changed circumstances and view of the future. Better opportunities for education, training, and employment are needed to rebuild the fabric of community life. (SK)

  6. Second Life as Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guder, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    In terms of exploring the status of Second Life (SL) usage in libraries, it would be useful to not only look at how and why the virtual world is being used but also how SL compares to successfully implemented innovations of the past. Comparing and contrasting the characteristics of previously accepted innovations with those of SL will help…

  7. Learning for Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robotham, Dan

    2011-01-01

    People working in the field of education know well the positive effects adult and community learning can have on mental health and wellbeing. Participating in adult and community learning can help to widen social networks and improve life and employment chances; it makes for better general health; and can strengthen the learner's self-confidence,…

  8. Hypotheses, Limits, Models and Life

    PubMed Central

    Bains, William

    2014-01-01

    Life is launching a new section, called Hypotheses in the Life Sciences. The new Section will complement the other sections of Life, providing a feedstock of ideas whose tests can be published in the wider Life family, and elsewhere. We will consider hypotheses that are supported by real world, rigorous evidence, by clear arguments, and which provide a potential solution to a genuine gap in our understanding of any aspect of the life sciences. PMID:25551680

  9. [Patents on life? No patent on life!].

    PubMed

    van Raden, L

    1998-03-01

    Inventions related to living material are in principle patentable as well as inventions in the "classical" fields of technology as long as they are new, industrially applicable and involve an inventive step. A patent gives to its owner for a limited period of time the exclusive right to prevent others from using his patented new technical know-how. Starting point of patent protection in the field of genetic engineering is a genetic information or a genetically induced characteristic of an organism; there is no such thing as a "Patent on Life". As far as inventions relate to genetically modified organisms, patents give to their owners no additional property rights that might exclude the applicability e.g. of the laws on animal protection. Intellectual property like any other property is subject to the limits set up by law. It is neither scientifically correct nor does it help in finding a solution for the conflict within society to shift the--undoubtedly necessary--discussion about research and application in the field of genetic engineering to a discussion about patent law.

  10. Life Sciences Accomplishments 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnell, Mary Lou (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Life and Biomedical Sciences and Applications Division (LBSAD) serves the Nation's life sciences community by managing all aspects of U.S. space-related life sciences research and technology development. The activities of the Division are integral components of the Nation's overall biological sciences and biomedical research efforts. However, NASA's life sciences activities are unique, in that space flight affords the opportunity to study and characterize basic biological mechanisms in ways not possible on Earth. By utilizing access to space as a research tool, NASA advances fundamental knowledge of the way in which weightlessness, radiation, and other aspects of the space-flight environment interact with biological processes. This knowledge is applied to procedures and technologies that enable humans to live and work in and explore space and contributes to the health and well-being of people on Earth. The activities of the Division are guided by the following three goals: Goal 1) Use microgravity and other unique aspects of the space environment to enhance our understanding of fundamental biological processes. Goal 2) Develop the scientific and technological foundations for supporting exploration by enabling productive human presence in space for extended periods. Goal 3) Apply our unique mission personnel, facilities, and technology to improve education, the quality of life on Earth, and U.S. competitiveness. The Division pursues these goals with integrated ground and flight programs involving the participation of NASA field centers, industry, and universities, as well as interactions with other national agencies and NASA's international partners. The published work of Division-sponsored researchers is a record of completed research in pursuit of these goals. During 1993, the LBSAD instituted significant changes in its experiment solicitation and peer review processes. For the first time, a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) was released requesting

  11. Starship Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2009-01-01

    The design and mass cost of a starship and its life support system are investigated. The mission plan for a multi generational interstellar voyage to colonize a new planet is used to describe the starship design, including the crew habitat, accommodations, and life support. Only current technology is assumed. Highly reliable life support systems can be provided with reasonably small additional mass, suggesting that they can support long duration missions. Bioregenerative life support, growing crop plants that provide food, water, and oxygen, has been thought to need less mass than providing stored food for long duration missions. The large initial mass of hydroponics systems is paid for over time by saving the mass of stored food. However, the yearly logistics mass required to support a bioregenerative system exceeds the mass of food solids it produces, so that supplying stored dehydrated food always requires less mass than bioregenerative food production. A mixed system that grows about half the food and supplies the other half dehydrated has advantages that allow it to breakeven with stored dehydrated food in about 66 years. However, moderate increases in the hydroponics system mass to achieve high reliability, such as adding spares that double the system mass and replacing the initial system every 100 years, increase the mass cost of bioregenerative life support. In this case, the high reliability half food growing, half food supplying system does not breakeven for 389 years. An even higher reliability half and half system, with three times original system mass and replacing the system every 50 years, never breaks even. Growing food for starship life support requires more mass than providing dehydrated food, even for multigeneration voyages of hundreds of years. The benefits of growing some food may justify the added mass cost. Much more efficient recycling food production is wanted but may not be possible. A single multigenerational interstellar voyage to

  12. News CERN Celebration: CERN marks 20 years of the Web Workshops: Physics Teachers' Day aired live on Web Teacher Programme: Physics Teachers at CERN 2009 leaves attendees thirsty for more GIREP: Registration open for GIREP '09 Science and Creationism: Telegraph headline leads readers down wrong path Recruitment: Is recession proving to be good news for science teaching? Forthcoming Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    CERN Celebration: CERN marks 20 years of the Web Workshops: Physics Teachers' Day aired live on Web Teacher Programme: Physics Teachers at CERN 2009 leaves attendees thirsty for more GIREP: Registration open for GIREP '09 Science and Creationism: Telegraph headline leads readers down wrong path Recruitment: Is recession proving to be good news for science teaching? Forthcoming Events

  13. End of life issues.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Nigel

    2008-05-01

    Despite advances in cancer survival rates, end of life care remains a vital aspect of cancer management. The use of integrated care pathways can facilitate effective care of dying patients in a generalist setting. However, it remains important that staff are able to recognise the onset of the dying process, not only in order to make symptom control provision, but also that appropriate communication can occur with patients and those close to them. This allows the exercise of choice over place and style of care. The key symptoms at the end of life are restlessness, agitation, breathlessness, pain and noisy respiration from retained airway secretions. Ethical tensions arise from the assumptions that the use of opioids and sedatives hastens dying, but this is contradicted by available evidence.

  14. Bioenergetics and Life's Origins

    PubMed Central

    Deamer, David; Weber, Arthur L.

    2010-01-01

    Bioenergetics is central to our understanding of living systems, yet has attracted relatively little attention in origins of life research. This article focuses on energy resources available to drive primitive metabolism and the synthesis of polymers that could be incorporated into molecular systems having properties associated with the living state. The compartmented systems are referred to as protocells, each different from all the rest and representing a kind of natural experiment. The origin of life was marked when a rare few protocells happened to have the ability to capture energy from the environment to initiate catalyzed heterotrophic growth directed by heritable genetic information in the polymers. This article examines potential sources of energy available to protocells, and mechanisms by which the energy could be used to drive polymer synthesis. PMID:20182625

  15. End of Life Decisions for Sealed Radioactive Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, Kathryn H.

    2016-02-29

    Sealed radioactive sources are encountered in a wide variety of settings – from household smoke detectors and instrument check sources, through fixed industrial gauges, industrial radiography and well logging sources, to irradiators and medical teletherapy devices. In general, the higher the level of activity in the sealed source, the stricter the regulatory control that is applied to its use, control and ultimate disposition. Lower levels of attention and oversight can and do lead to sources ending up in the wrong place – as orphan sources in uncontrolled storage, disposed in a sanitary landfill, melted down in metal recycling operations and incorporated into consumer products, or handled by an unsuspecting member of the public. There are a range of issues that contribute to the problem of improper disposal of sealed sources, and, in particular, to disused source disposal. General licensed sources and devices are particularly at risk of being disposed incorrectly. Higher activity general licensed sources, although required to be registered with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or Agreement State, receive limited regulatory oversight and are not tracked on a national scale. Users frequently do not consider the full life-cycle costs when procuring sources or devices and discover that they cannot afford to package, transport and dispose of their sources properly. The NRC requirements for decommissioning funding plans and financial assurance are not adequate to cover sealed source transport and disposal costs fully. While there are regulatory limits for storage of disused sources, enforcement is limited and there is no financial incentive for owners to dispose of the sources. In some cases, the lack of availability of approved Department of Transportation (DOT) Type B shipping casks also presents a barrier to sealed source disposal. The report of the Disused Sources Working Group does an excellent job of framing these issues. This article reviews both the

  16. The right to life

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Kenneth M

    1981-01-01

    For much of human history the idea of a right to life has not seemed self-evident. The credibility of the idea appears to depend on a particular kind of intuition concerning the nature of the world. In this paper, the kind of intuition involved is related to the idea of a covenant, illustrated by that of marriage. The paper concludes by suggesting that talk about responsibilities may be more fruitful than talk about rights. PMID:7277408

  17. Life detection systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitz, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    Some promising newer approaches for detecting microorganisms are discussed, giving particular attention to the integration of different methods into a single instrument. Life detection methods may be divided into biological, chemical, and cytological methods. Biological methods are based on the biological properties of assimilation, metabolism, and growth. Devices for the detection of organic materials are considered, taking into account an instrument which volatilizes, separates, and analyzes a sample sequentially. Other instrumental systems described make use of a microscope and the cytochemical staining principle.

  18. Life's expanding realm.

    PubMed

    Knoll, A

    1994-06-01

    Geologic sediments from the Nullagine Range in Australia are used to illustrate the early existence of microbial communities in the oceans. These communities survived in oxygen-free environments. Some microbes, particularly cyanobacteria, developed the ability to synthesize energy from light, which led to the evolution of creatures with oxygen-dependent metabolism. Only recently has geologic evidence been discovered that supports the theory that animals developed only when there was enough oxygen in the atmosphere to support higher forms of life.

  19. Life's expanding realm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, A.

    1994-01-01

    Geologic sediments from the Nullagine Range in Australia are used to illustrate the early existence of microbial communities in the oceans. These communities survived in oxygen-free environments. Some microbes, particularly cyanobacteria, developed the ability to synthesize energy from light, which led to the evolution of creatures with oxygen-dependent metabolism. Only recently has geologic evidence been discovered that supports the theory that animals developed only when there was enough oxygen in the atmosphere to support higher forms of life.

  20. Exploration Life Support Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, B. Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project is now developing new technologies for the Vision for Space Exploration announced in 2004. ELS project development work is organized around the three major vehicles of the Exploration Program. The first vehicle is the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). The ELS project will develop prototype hardware for this short duration orbital and trans-lunar vehicle s mission. The second vehicle is for sortie landings on the moon. Life support technology hardware for lunar surface access vehicles will include upgrades of existing CEV equipment and technologies to maximize commonality between the two vehicles as well as new technologies needed for the harsher thermal environments of the moon and the new element of dust. The third vehicle will be a longer duration lunar outpost. Crew stays of 180 days are planned for the lunar outpost. To minimize the need for consumables needed for resupply, a new set of hardware developments and processes better suited for long duration life support will be used. The water loop will be almost completely closed. The air revitalization will be partially closed. The outpost mission will have the continuous environment of 1/6th gravity making the separations of fluids and gases easier than the zero gravity for the CEV and orbital phases of lunar lander vehicles. This presentation will describe the planned technologies that are expected to be developed and considerations for how those technologies will be developed and demonstrated by the ELS project for these major program vehicles.

  1. Obstetric life support.

    PubMed

    Puck, Andrea Lorraine; Oakeson, Ann Marie; Morales-Clark, Ana; Druzin, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    The death of a woman during pregnancy is devastating. Although the incidence of maternal cardiac arrest is increasing, it continues to be a comparatively rare event. Obstetric healthcare providers may go through their entire career without participating in a maternal cardiac resuscitation. Concern has been raised that when an arrest does occur in the obstetric unit, providers who are trained in life support skills at 2-year intervals are ill equipped to provide the best possible care. The quality of resuscitation skills provided during cardiopulmonary arrest of inpatients often may be poor, and knowledge of critical steps to be followed during resuscitation may not be retained after life support training. The Obstetric Life Support (ObLS) training program is a method of obstetric nursing and medical staff training that is relevant, comprehensive, and cost-effective. It takes into consideration both the care needs of the obstetric patient and the adult learning needs of providers. The ObLS program brings obstetric nurses, obstetricians, and anesthesiologists together in multidisciplinary team training that is crucial to developing efficient emergency response.

  2. Welding for life

    SciTech Connect

    Stiebler, T.J.; Nugent, R.M.; Wilson, R.P.

    1994-12-31

    State of the Art Welding Techniques are being utilized to extend the life of major steam turbine components, as well as other traditional types of repairs. The development of a temper bead welding technique has allowed Houston Lighting and Power (HL and P) to perform innovative weld repairs. Nozzle vanes are weld repaired without removing the nozzle blocks from the case; repair life has also been doubled. A new two wire Gas Tungsten ARC Welding (GTAW) machine has produced high deposition rates while maintaining excellent mechanical properties. This results in faster turn-around time and with an improved weld repair. Development of a weld wire specification has also been instrumental in achieving additional component life by increasing the resistance to fatigue, especially in the heat affected zone. All these factors work together to enhance the weld repairs. Tensile strengths of 140,000 PSI with good ductility have been achieved. This paper will discuss their experiences with several repairs and recap the results of some studies and tests performed during the technique development stages. Major repairs include; weld repair of cases, nozzle blocks, nozzle boxes, stationary blade repair, forced draft fan shaft buildup, weld repair of turbine shrouds, blades, tennons and journals.

  3. Informal science education: lifelong, life-wide, life-deep.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Kalie; Falk, John H; Bell, James

    2014-11-01

    Informal Science Education: Lifelong, Life-Wide, Life-Deep Informal science education cultivates diverse opportunities for lifelong learning outside of formal K-16 classroom settings, from museums to online media, often with the help of practicing scientists.

  4. [Qualities of life and happiness].

    PubMed

    Veenhoven, R

    2011-03-01

    The phrase 'quality of life' is actually misleading. The designation suggests that the issue has to do with 1 quality, whereas in fact more qualities of life are indicated. Four of these qualities are: 1. the 'livability' of the surroundings, 2. the 'life-abilities' of the individual, 3. the 'utility of life' and 4. the subjective 'satisfaction' with a person's own life. The various qualities cannot meaningfully be collected together in an index. The most comprehensive measure of quality of life is how long and happily a person lives. The relationship between that and oral health has still hardly been studied.

  5. Navy Quality of Life Survey: Shipboard Life Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    ballpoint , or felt tip pens . Erase cleanly and completely any changes you make. Make black marks that fill in the entire circle. Do NOT make stray marks on...population. Results are presented for shipboard life overall and specific and grouped aspects of shipboard life. Of the 15 domains, the Shipboard Life...April 2002, with data collection closing in August 2002. This survey focused on overall perceptions of QOL in the Navy and QOL in 15 specific life

  6. All about Animal Life Cycles. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    While watching the development from tadpole to frog, caterpillar to butterfly, and pup to wolf, children learn about the life cycles of animals, the different stages of development, and the average life spans of a variety of creatures. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education Standards for Life Science: characteristics…

  7. Business and life in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The life support systems in the machine called the Space Shuttle is discussed and later about life support systems in a little cocoon that is far smaller than the shuttle; the more common term is a space suit.

  8. The Life of Roger Langdon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langdon, Roger; Langdon, Ellen

    2010-11-01

    Preface H. Clifton Lambert; 1. 'Why was I born?'; 2. Childhood's days; 3. Starting in life; 4. My secret departure; 5. Life in Jersey; 6. Return and marriage; 7. Scientific achievements; 8. Closing years; Appendices.

  9. End of Life (Hospice Care)

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle End of life Hospice care might be an option if you or a loved one has ... 28, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/end-of-life/in-depth/hospice-care/art- ...

  10. Space shuttle and life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    During the 1980's, some 200 Spacelab missions will be flown on space shuttle in earth-orbit. Within these 200 missions, it is planned that at least 20 will be dedicated to life sciences research, projects which are yet to be outlined by the life sciences community. Objectives of the Life Sciences Shuttle/Spacelab Payloads Program are presented. Also discussed are major space life sciences programs including space medicine and physiology, clinical medicine, life support technology, and a variety of space biology topics. The shuttle, spacelab, and other life sciences payload carriers are described. Concepts for carry-on experiment packages, mini-labs, shared and dedicated spacelabs, as well as common operational research equipment (CORE) are reviewed. Current NASA planning and development includes Spacelab Mission Simulations, an Announcement of Planning Opportunity for Life Sciences, and a forthcoming Announcement of Opportunity for Flight Experiments which will together assist in forging a Life Science Program in space.

  11. "Control Your Diabetes. For Life."

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Control Your Diabetes. For Life." Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents For information about "Control Your Diabetes. For Life" campaign, visit www.YourDiabetesInfo. ...

  12. Preparing for life in space.

    PubMed

    Dasch, P

    1997-01-01

    The third team to inhabit the Advanced Life Support Test Chamber at the Johnson Space Center participated in an interview about life in the test chamber and program goals. Questions examine the air and water systems; human factors such as life in confinement, privacy, health, and training; and exercise. The test chamber is used to test life support systems for the International Space Station, lunar bases, and manned missions to Mars.

  13. Boiler-turbine life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Natzkov, S.; Nikolov, M.

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  14. Life on Europa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shylaja, B. S.

    1997-06-01

    The notion of life has always fascinated curious minds. From prehistoric days, fancy voyages to other colonies and visits from non-earthly beings have been creatively imagined. Apart from science fictions, the last few centuries saw many observational investigations of "cities of Moon", "colonies of Mars" and so on. However, the sophisticated tools of the modern era quickly put a full stop to these developments revealing that the other planets are not hospitable, and infact hostile for a life form like ours to exist there. That explains why in the last few decades the efforts shifted to observing the satellites of large planets. The anxiety grew with the knowledge of their atmospheric structure, chemical composition and volcanic activity. Detection of water, albeit frozen, was a welcome surprise. The flyby of Voyager and Pioneer provided ample evidence for the presence of water, one of the most important ingredients for the germination of the seed of life. The detection of the fossil of a microorganism on a stone believed to have fallen from Mars, boosted the scientists zeal to pursue the research, although the date for life on Mars (more than 3 billion years ago) is not very convincing. Last year, many scientists, from different branches like astrophysics, geology, oceanography, biology and astrogeology discussed the possibilities of life elsewhere in the universe. The focal point was not Mars, but Europa, one of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter. Their studies based on Voyager images supported the possibility of liquid water beneath the frozen sheets of ice. However, heat is also an essential parameter. Europa, being at a distance five times the sun-earth separation can have only 1/25th the warmth of the earth. Then, where does it get the necessary warmth from? There are other important sources of heat in many of these satellites that lie concealed from our view. They are the volcanoes. If present, can these keep the water warm below the ice sheets? The unmanned

  15. Actinides and Life's Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Zachary

    2007-12-01

    There are growing indications that life began in a radioactive beach environment. A geologic framework for the origin or support of life in a Hadean heavy mineral placer beach has been developed, based on the unique chemical properties of the lower-electronic actinides, which act as nuclear fissile and fertile fuels, radiolytic energy sources, oligomer catalysts, and coordinating ions (along with mineralogically associated lanthanides) for prototypical prebiotic homonuclear and dinuclear metalloenzymes. A four-factor nuclear reactor model was constructed to estimate how much uranium would have been required to initiate a sustainable fission reaction within a placer beach sand 4.3 billion years ago. It was calculated that about 1-8 weight percent of the sand would have to have been uraninite, depending on the weight percent, uranium enrichment, and quantity of neutron poisons present within the remaining placer minerals. Radiolysis experiments were conducted with various solvents with the use of uranium- and thorium-rich minerals (metatorbernite and monazite, respectively) as proxies for radioactive beach sand in contact with different carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen reactants. Radiation bombardment ranged in duration of exposure from 3 weeks to 6 months. Low levels of acetonitrile (estimated to be on the order of parts per billion in concentration) were conclusively identified in 2 setups and tentatively indicated in a 3rd by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These low levels have been interpreted within the context of a Hadean placer beach prebiotic framework to demonstrate the promise of investigating natural nuclear reactors as power production sites that might have assisted the origins of life on young rocky planets with a sufficiently differentiated crust/mantle structure. Future investigations are recommended to better quantify the complex relationships between energy release, radioactive grain size, fissionability, reactant phase, phosphorus

  16. Actinides and Life's Origins.

    PubMed

    Adam, Zachary

    2007-12-01

    There are growing indications that life began in a radioactive beach environment. A geologic framework for the origin or support of life in a Hadean heavy mineral placer beach has been developed, based on the unique chemical properties of the lower-electronic actinides, which act as nuclear fissile and fertile fuels, radiolytic energy sources, oligomer catalysts, and coordinating ions (along with mineralogically associated lanthanides) for prototypical prebiotic homonuclear and dinuclear metalloenzymes. A four-factor nuclear reactor model was constructed to estimate how much uranium would have been required to initiate a sustainable fission reaction within a placer beach sand 4.3 billion years ago. It was calculated that about 1-8 weight percent of the sand would have to have been uraninite, depending on the weight percent, uranium enrichment, and quantity of neutron poisons present within the remaining placer minerals. Radiolysis experiments were conducted with various solvents with the use of uraniumand thorium-rich minerals (metatorbernite and monazite, respectively) as proxies for radioactive beach sand in contact with different carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen reactants. Radiation bombardment ranged in duration of exposure from 3 weeks to 6 months. Low levels of acetonitrile (estimated to be on the order of parts per billion in concentration) were conclusively identified in 2 setups and tentatively indicated in a 3(rd) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These low levels have been interpreted within the context of a Hadean placer beach prebiotic framework to demonstrate the promise of investigating natural nuclear reactors as power production sites that might have assisted the origins of life on young rocky planets with a sufficiently differentiated crust/mantle structure. Future investigations are recommended to better quantify the complex relationships between energy release, radioactive grain size, fissionability, reactant phase, phosphorus

  17. Educators Get a "Second Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    For educators who think real life does not offer enough opportunities to practice their profession, there is Second Life, an Internet-based virtual environment that counts thousands of educators among its enthusiasts. Second Life bears a passing resemblance to an online game, with users represented by digitally drawn characters, called avatars,…

  18. End of Life: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Mary Ann; Shadden, Barbara B.

    2012-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) provide services to patients confronting the end of life (EOL) in a variety of settings. Instead of targeting improvement of health or sustaining life, EOL services focus primarily on quality of life. Although SLPs may not consider themselves core members of the health care team providing EOL services, the…

  19. Space Biology: Patterns of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Frank B.

    1971-01-01

    Present knowledge about Mars is compared with past beliefs about the planet. Biological experiments that indicate life may exist on Mars are interpreted. Life patterns or biological features that might be postulated for extraterrestrial life are presented at the molecular, cellular, organism, and ecosystem levels. (DS)

  20. The Early Years: "Life" Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Talking about death as part of a life cycle is often ignored or spoken about in hushed tones in early childhood. Books with "life cycle" in the title often do not include the death of the living organism in the information about the cycle. The concept of a complete life cycle does not appear in "A Framework for K-12 Science…

  1. Geography of European Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of studies analyze life satisfaction at individual and/or country level. This study contributes with analysis of life satisfaction at the (sub-national) province level across multiple countries. The purpose of this study is to call attention to spatial aspects of life satisfaction. Literature does not discuss the fact that life…

  2. Effect of Individual Component Life Distribution on Engine Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Soditus, Sherry M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of individual engine component life distributions on engine life prediction was determined. A Weibull-based life and reliability analysis of the NASA Energy Efficient Engine was conducted. The engine s life at a 95 and 99.9 percent probability of survival was determined based upon the engine manufacturer s original life calculations and assumed values of each of the component s cumulative life distributions as represented by a Weibull slope. The lives of the high-pressure turbine (HPT) disks and blades were also evaluated individually and as a system in a similar manner. Knowing the statistical cumulative distribution of each engine component with reasonable engineering certainty is a condition precedent to predicting the life and reliability of an entire engine. The life of a system at a given reliability will be less than the lowest-lived component in the system at the same reliability (probability of survival). Where Weibull slopes of all the engine components are equal, the Weibull slope had a minimal effect on engine L(sub 0.1) life prediction. However, at a probability of survival of 95 percent (L(sub 5) life), life decreased with increasing Weibull slope.

  3. Life-Threatening Dermatoses

    PubMed Central

    Cram, David L.

    1973-01-01

    Four life-threatening dermatoses—Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, Kaposi's varicelliform eruption and purpura fulminans—are unique in their abrupt onset and rapid progress to death, but prompt diagnosis and proper therapy can often cure the condition or prevent undesirable sequelae. Since two of the four conditions can follow the use of a variety of drugs and all may be secondary to an infectious agent, any physician may encounter them in practice and should be aware of their seriousness. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12. PMID:4701711

  4. Life care planning.

    PubMed

    Katz, Richard T; Delaney, Gail A

    2002-05-01

    Physicians may be asked to help plan long-term needs of patients with catastrophic injury. It is crucial to know the life expectancy and be intimately familiar with the needs of the disabled person for whom one is planning. This article uses two diagnostic groups as models to illustrate the process: one a spinal cord injured adult and the other a child with cerebral palsy and mental retardation. We provide examples of some of the specific types of needs for these two groups of individuals.

  5. Astrophysics of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Reid, I. Neill; Sparks, William B.

    2011-03-01

    1. A voyage from dark clouds to the early Earth P. Ehrenfreund, S. B. Charnley and O. Botta; 2. Galactic environment of the Sun and stars: interstellar and interplanetary material P. C. Frisch, H. R. Muller, G. P. Zank and C. Lopate; 3. Transits R. L. Gilliland; 4. Planet migration E. W. Thommes and J. J. Lissauer; 5. Organic synthesis in space S. A. Sandford; 6. The Vegetation Red Edge Spectroscopic Feature as a surface biomarker S. Seager and E. B. Ford; 7. Search for extra-solar planets through gravitational microlensing K. C. Sahu; 8. The galactic habitable zone G. Gonzalez; 9. Cosmology and life M. Livio.

  6. Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-11

    This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

  7. Life raft stabilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radnofsky, M. I.; Barnett, J. H., Jr.; Harrison, F. L.; Marak, R. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An improved life raft stabilizer for reducing rocking and substantially precluding capsizing is discussed. The stabilizer may be removably attached to the raft and is defined by flexible side walls which extend a considerable depth downwardly to one another in the water. The side walls, in conjunction with the floor of the raft, form a ballast enclosure. A weight is placed in the bottom of the enclosure and water port means are provided in the walls. Placement of the stabilizer in the water allows the weighted bottom to sink, producing submerged deployment thereof and permitting water to enter the enclosure through the port means, thus forming a ballast for the raft.

  8. Zebra mussel life history

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    The success of introduced zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) and Dreissena bugensis Andrusova) can be related in large parttot a life history that is unlike that of the indigenous freshwater fauna and yet is conserved with marine bivalves. Following external fertilization and embryological development, there is a brief trochophore stage. With the development of a velum and the secretion of a D-shaped larval shell, the larva becomes a D-shaped veliger, which is the first recognizable planktonic larva. Later, the secretion of a second larval shell leads to the last obligate free-swimming veliger stage known as the veliconcha. The last larval stage known as the pediveliger, however, can both swim using its velum or crawl using its fully-functional foot. Pediveligers actively select substrates on which they {open_quotes}settle{close_quotes} by secreting byssal threads and undergo metamorphosis to become plantigrade mussels. The secretion of the adult shell and concomitant changes in growth axis leads to the heteromyariant or mussel-like shape, which is convergent with marine mussels. Like a number of other bivalves, zebra mussels produce byssal threads as adults, but these attachments may be broken enabling their translocation to new areas. The recognition and examination of these life history traits will lead to a better understanding of zebra mussel biology.

  9. Creativity in later life.

    PubMed

    Price, K A; Tinker, A M

    2014-08-01

    The ageing population presents significant challenges for the provision of social and health services. Strategies are needed to enable older people to cope within a society ill prepared for the impacts of these demographic changes. The ability to be creative may be one such strategy. This review outlines the relevant literature and examines current public health policy related to creativity in old age with the aim of highlighting some important issues. As well as looking at the benefits and negative aspects of creative activity in later life they are considered in the context of the theory of "successful ageing". Creative activity plays an important role in the lives of older people promoting social interaction, providing cognitive stimulation and giving a sense of self-worth. Furthermore, it is shown to be useful as a tool in the multi-disciplinary treatment of health problems common in later life such as depression and dementia. There are a number of initiatives to encourage older people to participate in creative activities such as arts-based projects which may range from visual arts to dance to music to intergenerational initiatives. However, participation shows geographical variation and often the responsibility of provision falls to voluntary organisations. Overall, the literature presented suggests that creative activity could be a useful tool for individuals and society. However, further research is needed to establish the key factors which contribute to patterns of improved health and well-being, as well as to explore ways to improve access to services.

  10. Lifing of Engine Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The successful development of advanced aerospace engines depends greatly on the capabilities of high performance materials and structures. Advanced materials, such as nickel based single crystal alloys, metal foam, advanced copper alloys, and ceramics matrix composites, have been engineered to provide higher engine temperature and stress capabilities. Thermal barrier coatings have been developed to improve component durability and fuel efficiency, by reducing the substrate hot wall metal temperature and protecting against oxidation and blanching. However, these coatings are prone to oxidation and delamination failures. In order to implement the use of these materials in advanced engines, it is necessary to understand and model the evolution of damage of the metal substrate as well as the coating under actual engine conditions. The models and the understanding of material behavior are utilized in the development of a life prediction methodology for hot section components. The research activities were focused on determining the stress and strain fields in an engine environment under combined thermo-mechanical loads to develop life prediction methodologies consistent with the observed damage formation of the coating and the substrates.

  11. Life from the core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doglioni, Carlo; Coleman, Max; Pignatti, Johannes; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz

    2010-05-01

    Life on Earth is the result of the chaotic combination of several independent chemical and physical parameters. One of them is the shield from ionizing radiation exerted by the atmosphere and the Earth's magnetic field. We hypothesise that the first few billion years of the Earth's history, dominated by bacteria, were characterized by stronger ionizing radiation. Bacteria can survive under such conditions better than any other organism. During the Archean and early Proterozoic the shield could have been weaker, allowing the development of only a limited number of species, more resistant to the external radiation. The Cambrian explosion of life could have been enhanced by the gradual growth of the solid inner core, which was not existent possibly before 1 Ga. The cooling of the Earth generated the solidification of the iron alloy in the center of the planet. As an hypothesis, before the crystallization of the core, the turbulence in the liquid core could have resulted in a lower or different magnetic field from the one we know today, being absent the relative rotation between inner and external core.

  12. LATENT LIFE OF ARTERIES.

    PubMed

    Carrel, A

    1910-07-23

    When a segment of artery, killed by heat, formalin or glycerin is transplanted, it undergoes a rapid degeneration. Its muscle fibers disappear while the tissue of the host reacts by building a new wall of connective tissue. When the transplanted vessel has been preserved in a condition of latent life, no degeneration of the wall occurs, or the wall undergoes only partial degeneration. The muscle fibers can keep their normal appearance, even for a long time after the operation. It is, therefore, demonstrated that arteries can be preserved outside of the body in a condition of unmanifested actual life. The best method of preservation consists of placing the vessels, immersed in vaselin, in an ice box, the temperature of which is slightly above the freezing point. From a surgical standpoint, the transplantation of preserved vessels can be used with some safety. When the arteries were kept in defibrinated blood or vaselin and in cold storage, the proportion of positive results was 75 and 80 per cent., and this can probably be increased.

  13. Venus: Water and Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditkof, J. F.

    2013-05-01

    Amphiboles that contain the hydroxide ion form only in the presence of water and this fact has become the way for scientists to prove that Venus was once a water world. Though, tremolite is considered the main mineral to look for, it requires life that is analogous to the ancient life here on Earth for it to form. Dolomite is the main ingredient for the formation of this low grade metamorphic mineral and without it would be very difficult for tremolite to form, unless there is another process that is unknown to science. Venus is known to have extensive volcanic features (over 1600 confirmed shield volcanoes dot its surface) and with little erosion taking place; a mineral that is associated with volcanism and forms only in the presence of water should be regarded as the main goal. Hornblende can form via volcanism or a metamorphic process but requires water for initial formation. The European Space Agency is currently trying to determine whether or not the continents on Venus' surface are made of granite, as they argue granite requires water for formation. Either way, computer models suggest that any oceans that formed on the surface would have lasted at best 2 billion years, as the surface is estimated to be only 800 million years old, any hornblende that would have formed is more than likely going to be deep underground. To find this mineral, as well as others, it would require a mission that has the ability to drill into the surface, as the easiest place to do this would be on the mountain peaks in the Northern Hemisphere on the Ishtar Terra continent. Through the process of uplift, any remaining hornblende may have been exposed or very near exposed to the surface. Do to the amount of fluorine in the atmosphere and the interaction between this and the lithosphere, the hydroxyl ions may have been replaced with fluorine turning the hornblende into the more stable fluoro-hornblende. To further add to the mystery of Venus is the unusual atmospheric composition. The

  14. Surfing Second Life: What Does Second Life Have to Do with Real-Life Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oishi, Lindsay

    2007-01-01

    Second Life's unstructured atmosphere and wide-open spaces where student creativity can grow and flourish are two of the reasons Pepperdine University Professor Bill Moseley integrated the program into his curriculum. In this article, the author discusses how Second Life works and its challenges. Second Life is often described as a 3-D version of…

  15. The essence of life purpose.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Pamela J

    2009-01-01

    Life purpose is an important thread of critical care nursing. However, no consensus exists for a definition of life purpose. In addition, ambiguity prevails regarding the manner in which life purpose is incorporated into nursing practice and research. Therefore, through a conceptual synthesis process, this article aims to clarify the essence of life purpose with relevance to health and critical care nursing today. The outcome of the conceptual synthesis is an operational definition to be used in future nursing research. Information was obtained from a literature search of scholarly articles using (1) searches of electronic databases of literature about life purpose and (2) research studies addressing conceptual, substantive, and methodological domains. Topics consisted of the philosophical underpinnings of life purpose, its attributes, definitions, and theoretical frameworks, along with differences in theories and empirical support. Finally, emerging from this process, the article culminates with a proposed conceptual definition of life purpose, which may be applied broadly to older adults in various critical care settings.

  16. The Role of Bundle Sheath Extensions and Life Form in Stomatal Responses to Leaf Water Status1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Thomas N.; Sack, Lawren; Gilbert, Matthew E.

    2011-01-01

    Bundle sheath extensions (BSEs) are key features of leaf structure with currently little-understood functions. To test the hypothesis that BSEs reduce the hydraulic resistance from the bundle sheath to the epidermis (rbe) and thereby accelerate hydropassive stomatal movements, we compared stomatal responses with reduced humidity and leaf excision among 20 species with heterobaric or homobaric leaves and herbaceous or woody life forms. We hypothesized that low rbe due to the presence of BSEs would increase the rate of stomatal opening (V) during transient wrong-way responses, but more so during wrong-way responses to excision (Ve) than humidity (Vh), thus increasing the ratio of Ve to Vh. We predicted the same trends for herbaceous relative to woody species given greater hydraulic resistance in woody species. We found that Ve, Vh, and their ratio were 2.3 to 4.4 times greater in heterobaric than homobaric leaves and 2.0 to 3.1 times greater in herbaceous than woody species. To assess possible causes for these differences, we simulated these experiments in a dynamic compartment/resistance model, which predicted larger Ve and Ve/Vh in leaves with smaller rbe. These results support the hypothesis that BSEs reduce rbe. Comparison of our data and simulations suggested that rbe is approximately 4 to 16 times larger in homobaric than heterobaric leaves. Our study provides new evidence that variations in the distribution of hydraulic resistance within the leaf and plant are central to understanding dynamic stomatal responses to water status and their ecological correlates and that BSEs play several key roles in the functional ecology of heterobaric leaves. PMID:21459977

  17. Web life: Foldit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-07-01

    So what is the site about? Like the popular SETI@home program, which uses the downtime of home computers to sift radio-telescope data for evidence of alien life, Foldit draws on the idle hours of several thousand data-crunchers for help in solving scientific puzzles. But there is a twist. For a start, Foldit is all about biophysics. The project's goal is to understand how proteins - the chains of amino acids that drive processes inside living cells - fold themselves into a myriad of different shapes. But the most striking difference is that Foldit's protein-folding operators are actual human beings, and the datasets they are sifting are disguised as an amazingly addictive computer game.

  18. Fossil life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, M. R.

    1989-01-01

    Three major problems beset paleontologists searching for morphological evidence of life on early Earth: selecting a prospective site; finding biogenic structures; and distinguishing biogenic from abiogenic structures. The same problems arise on Mars. Terrestrial experience suggests that, with the techniques that can be employed remotely, ancient springs, including hot springs, are more prospective than lake deposits. If, on the other hand, the search is for chemical evidence, the strategy can be very different, and lake deposits are attractive targets. Lakes and springs frequenly occur in close proximity, and therefore a strategy that combines the two would seem to maximize the chance of success. The strategy for a search for stromatolite on Mars is discussed.

  19. Game of Life Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Eduardo R.; Kirke, Alexis

    At the time when the first author was post-graduate student, in the evenings he used to entertain himself with the equipment in the electronic music studio at the University of York until dawn. It must have been around three o'clock in the morning of a rather cold winter night in the late 1980s, when he connected his Atari 1040ST computer to a synthesizer to test the first prototype of a system, which he was developing for his thesis. The system, named CAMUS (short for Cellular Automata Music), implemented a method that he invented to render music from the behaviour of the Game of Life (GoL) cellular automata (CA).

  20. Negative Entropy of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2015-10-01

    We modify Newtonian gravity to probabilistic quantum mechanical gravity to derive strong coupling. If this approach is valid, we should be able to extend it to the physical body (life) as follows. Using Boltzmann equation, we get the entropy of the universe (137) as if its reciprocal, the fine structure constant (ALPHA), is the hidden candidate representing the negative entropy of the universe which is indicative of the binary information as its basis (http://www.arXiv.org/pdf/physics0210040v5). Since ALPHA relates to cosmology, it must relate to molecular biology too, with the binary system as the fundamental source of information for the nucleotides of the DNA as implicit in the book by the author: ``Quantum Consciousness - The Road to Reality.'' We debate claims of anthropic principle based on the negligible variation of ALPHA and throw light on thermodynamics. We question constancy of G in multiple ways.

  1. Life after Introductory Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, B.; Hameed, S.

    2000-12-01

    Beginning astronomy is a popular class for undergraduates, and a fair percentage of these students would take another nontechnical class in this field if one were available. What other courses exist for students to take after introductory astronomy? At NMSU we offer three classes that enroll large numbers of juniors/seniors who are nonscience majors. These classes are (1) Into the Final Frontier: the Human Exploration of Space, (2) The Search for Life in the Universe, (3) and Revolutionary Ideas in Science. Curricula for these classes, teaching strategies, and course materials will be provided in this poster presentation for those wishing to offer similar classes at their institutions. Some of th work presented in this poster was support by the NSF and NASA

  2. Late-life attachment.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Mélanie; Rahioui, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Old age is likely to cause a crisis in one's life because of the vulnerabilities it brings up, acting as stressful elements disrupting the elder's feeling of security. It leads to the activation of what is called his attachment system, consisting in attachment styles and interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. To recover a higher sense of safety, the elder would refer to his attachment figures, that is to say closed people paying attention to him, showing towards him availability and consideration. However older adults particularly see their tolerance threshold lowered, regarding an accumulation of losses (true or symbolic) and stressful events within their lifetime. In a psychological and organic exhaustion phenomenon, the risk is to wear out the interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. These are as much vulnerabilities that may increase psychiatric decompensation, including depression. To resolve the tension of this period and to found a necessary secure feeling, the elder will have to redesign the attachment links previously settled and proceed to adjustments to this new context. The need of relational closeness comes back in the elders' attachment behaviour, counting on attachment figures not only to help their loneliness or dependency, but essentially to support them in a narcissist and affective way. That is why attachment theory enlightens the late life period, such as the new challenges older adults have to face. Many studies recognize its value in understanding the transition to old age, but without proposing conceptualization. We aim first to focus on attachment conception to say how much it is relevant with elderly, and then to describe specific terms of attachment within this population in order to better understand those patients. To finish, we must think about new therapeutic proposals taking into consideration the attachment perspective for a better understanding of old age transition.

  3. Life and space.

    PubMed

    Imshenetsky, A A

    1964-01-01

    The studies dealing with the detection of life on planets and in space will have two periods. The first period will be associated with the application of automatical devices, which will detect living creatures, whereas the second, more late, period will be concerned with the investigations provided by man himself. In these studies one should proceed from the idea of life on the Earth, and, consequently, look for living creatures containing no water, no carbon dioxide, etc. only after obtaining negative results in searching for creatures similar to those living on the Earth. The whole course of "chemical evolution" on the Earth proves the necessity of the detection on other planets of heterotrophic microorganisms at first, and only afterwards to look for specialized forms, i.e. chemo- and photoautotrophs. It is usually underestimated that as a result of adaptation to certain ecological conditions existing on planets living creatures may appear, which will distinctly differ in their biological properties from terrestrial forms. At present there is no faultless investigation which is able to prove to existence of cosmobionts in meteorites. The appropriate experiments convince us that soil bacteria. may penetrate into the central parts of meteorites, which have been lying in the ground. Samplings at high altitudes with the aid of aerostats or the rockets are difficult to provide because of the possibility of pollution of samples by terrestrial microbes. It is therefore necessary to elaborate special devices and new methods for sampling. The most perfect instrument for the detection of microorganisms will be a device, which will record the multiplication rate of microbes in the liquid media simultaneously by means of different methods: manometry, nephelometry, potentiometry and the determination of radioactive carbon dioxide which is extracted during the breakdown of organic substances.

  4. Life on other worlds : the twentieth century extraterrestrial life debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    1998-12-01

    List of illustrations; List of tables; Acknowledgements; Introduction; 1. From the physical world to the biological universe: Democritus to Lowell; 2. Life in the solar system; 3. Solar systems beyond; 4. Extraterrestrials in literature and the arts: the role of imagination; 5. The UFO controversy and the extraterrestrial hypothesis; 6. The origin and evolution of life in the extraterrestrial context; 7. SETI: the search for extraterrestrial intelligence; 8. The meaning of life; 9. Summary and conclusion: the biological universe; Select bibliographical essay; Index.

  5. The value of life and the value of life extension.

    PubMed

    Horrobin, Steven

    2006-05-01

    Recent developments in aging research have added new urgency to the bioethical debate concerning life and death issues, the value of life, and the reasonable limits of medicine. This paper analyzes the basic structures of the liberal and conservative components of this debate, showing that there has hitherto been inadequate analysis on both sides concerning the nature and implications of the value of life, as well as, and as distinct from the value of life extension. Classic concepts of the intrinsic or extrinsic value of life are argued to be tangential or actually irrelevant to the value of life's continuance and so to the value of life extension. An analysis of personhood is proposed which focuses explicitly upon the value of life extension to persons. This analysis shows that persons may only intelligibly be understood as processes, for whom life extension is an inalienable and fundamental value. It is further proposed that, properly understood, such an analysis may significantly narrow the liberal/conservative divide in bioethics.

  6. Origins and Evolution of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargaud, Muriel; López-García, Purificación; Martin, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    Part I. What Is Life?: 1. Problems raised by a definition of life M. Morange; 2. Some remarks about uses of cosmological anthropic 'principles' D. Lambert; 3. Minimal cell: the biologist point of view C. Brochier-Armanet; 4. Minimal cell: the computer scientist point of view H. Bersini; 5. Origins of life: computing and simulation approaches B. Billoud; Part II. Astronomical and Geophysical Context of the Emergence of Life: 6. Organic molecules in interstellar medium C. Ceccarelli and C. Cernicharo; 7. Cosmochemical evolution and the origin of life: insights from meteorites S. Pizzarello; 8. Astronomical constraints on the emergence of life M. Gounelle and T. Montmerle; 9. Formation of habitable planets J. Chambers; 10. The concept of galactic habitable zone N. Prantzos; 11. The young Sun and its influence on planetary atmospheres M. Güdel and J. Kasting; 12. Climates of the Earth G. Ramstein; Part III. Role of Water in the Emergence of Life: 13. Liquid water: a necessary condition to all forms of life K. Bartik, G. Bruylants, E. Locci and J. Reisse; 14. The role of water in the formation and evolution of planets T. Encrenaz; 15. Water on Mars J. P. Bibring; Part IV. From Non-Living Systems to Life: 16. Energetic constraints on prebiotic pathways: application to the emergence of translation R. Pascal and L. Boiteau; 17. Comparative genomics and early cell evolution A. Lazcano; 18. Origin and evolution of metabolisms J. Peretó; Part V. Mechanisms for Life Evolution: 19. Molecular phylogeny: inferring the patterns of evolution E. Douzery; 20. Horizontal gene transfer: mechanisms and evolutionary consequences D. Moreira; 21. The role of symbiosis in eukaryotic evolution A. Latorre, A. Durbán, A. Moya and J. Peretó; Part VI. Life in Extreme Conditions: 22. Life in extreme conditions: Deinococcus radiodurans, an organism able to survive prolonged desiccation and high doses of ionising radiation S. Sommer and M. Toueille; 23. Molecular effects of UV and ionizing

  7. D0-D¯0 mixing sensitivity estimation at Belle II in wrong-sign decays D0 → K+π‑π0 via time-dependent amplitude analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Long-Ke; Chen, Ye-Qi; Yan, Wen-Biao; Zhang, Zi-Ping

    2017-02-01

    The sensitivity of the D0-D¯0 mixing parameters x and y is estimated in the wrong-sign decay D0 → K+π‑π0 by time-dependent amplitude analysis. The resolution of the D0 lifetime is essential in time-dependent Dalitz analyses. The Belle II detector, which aims to collect a total integrated luminosity of 50 ab‑1 of data, has σ = 140 fs in Monte Carlo studies, a factor of two improvement over that of Belle and BaBar, so the produced Dalitz signal Monte Carlo samples are smeared with this resolution. Then a time-dependent Dalitz plot fitting is performed on these smeared samples, and the sensitivity of D0-D¯0 mixing parameters are σx = 0.057% and σy = 0.049%. These are about an order of magnitude improvement on current experimental results, without considering background effects. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11475164, 11475169, 11675166)

  8. Life sciences payloads for Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Life Sciences Program for utilization of the Shuttle in the 1980's is presented. Requirements for life sciences research experiments in space flight are discussed along with study results of designs to meet these requirements. The span of life sciences interests in biomedicine, biology, man system integration, bioinstrumentation and life support/protective systems is described with a listing of the research areas encompassed in these descriptions. This is followed by a description of the approach used to derive from the life sciences disciplines, the research functions and instrumentation required for an orbital research program. Space Shuttle design options for life sciences experiments are identified and described. Details are presented for Spacelab laboratories for dedicated missions, mini-labs with carry on characteristics and carry on experiments for shared payload missions and free flying satellites to be deployed and retrieved by the Shuttle.

  9. Halophilic life on Mars ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan-Lotter, Helga; Fendrihan, Sergiu; Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer, Marion; Holzinger, Anita; Polacsek, Tatjana K.; Legat, Andrea; Grösbacher, Michael; Weigl, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Background: The search for extraterrestrial life has been declared as a goal for the 21th century by several space agencies. Potential candidates are microorganisms on or in the surface of moons and planets, such as Mars. Extremely halophilic archaea (haloarchaea) are of astrobiological interest since viable strains have been isolated from million years old salt deposits (1) and halite has been found in Martian meteorites and in surface pools. Therefore, haloarchaeal responses to simulated and real space conditions were explored. Immuno assays for a potential Life Marker Chip experiment were developed with antisera against the universal enzyme ATP synthase. Methods: The focus of these studies was on the application of fluorescent probes since they provide strong signals, and detection devices are suitable for miniaturization. Viability of haloarchaeal strains (Halococcus dombrowskii and Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1) was probed with the LIVE/DEAD BacLight™ kit and the BacLight™ Bacterial Membrane Potential kit. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) in the DNA, following exposure to simulated and real space conditions (UV irradiation from 200 - 400 nm; 18 months exposure on the International Space Station [ISS] within the ADAPT experiment by Dr. P. Rettberg), were detected with fluorescent Alexa-Fluor-488-coupled antibodies. Immuno assays with antisera against the A-ATPase subunits from Halorubrum saccharovorum were carried out with the highly sensitive Immun-Star ™ WesternC ™ chemiluminescent kit (Bio-Rad). Results: Using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight™ kit, the D37 (dose of 37% survival) for Hcc. dombrowskii and Hbt. salinarum NRC-1, following exposure to UV (200-400 nm) was about 400 kJ/m2, when cells were embedded in halite and about 1 kJ/m2, when cells were in liquid cultures. Fluorescent staining indicated a slightly higher cellular activity than that which was derived from the determination of colony forming units. Assessment of viability with the Bac

  10. The search for alien life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, M.

    Life on Earth relies exclusively on the complex coordination among DNA, RNA, proteins, and an encompassing cell membrane. This level of complexity has been amenable to new molecular techniques with extreme specificity and sensitivity, enabling spectacular advances in cell biology and microbial ecology. Armed with molecular techniques, the last few decades of research have revealed the surprising extent of life on our own planet, expanding the habitable range of salinity, pressure, temperature, and radiation of our world. Given the relatively recent discoveries about life on Earth, how then can we expect to look for alien life that may use completely different sets of molecules for structure and activity? Astrobiology has taken on the challenge of developing the intellectual basis, target identification, instrument capabilities, and operational procedures for the search for life elsewhere. The research aims to develop general principles of how life maintains itself, how life interacts with its environment, and how the signatures of life may be preserved and recognized. The approach has been to move from the laboratory, to the environment, to robotic exploration of planetary analogs. To date, generic evidence for life can be perceived through life's creation and utilization of disequilibria, multiple uses of a relatively few sets of molecules, a preference for chiral compounds, and a predilection for lighter isotopes. It is through application of life detection instrumentation in environmental extremes that we hope to develop a catalogue of generic biosignatures, robust instrumentation capable of revealing the unexpected, and effective exploration strategies for robotic platforms in the search for signs of life. In 2009, Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars may be the first beneficiaries of this approach.

  11. Life and Death Decision Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    LIFE SMOKING: CANCER, EMPHYSEMA, SHORTENED LIFE BATHING: FALLING, ELECTROCUTION CONTRACEPTION: DEATH , ILLNESS PREGNANCY: DEATH , ILLNESS ABORTION ...economic effect is the one with the highest probability of causing my death . -13- EXPECTED NET SYSTEM DESIGN BENEFIT TO ME DEATH DEATH (r A(excluding death ...0-AO81 424 STANFORD UNIV CALIF DEPT OF ENGtNEERING-ECONOM!C SYSTEMS F/6 12/1 LIFE ANDI DEATH DECISION ANALYSIS.CU) DEC 79 R A HOWARD N0OOIN-79-C-0036

  12. Life extending control: A concept paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Merrill, Walter C.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of Life Extending Control is defined. Life is defined in terms of mechanical fatigue life. A brief description is given of the current approach to life prediction using a local, cyclic, stress-strain approach for a critical system component. An alternative approach to life prediction based on a continuous functional relationship to component performance is proposed.Base on cyclic life prediction an approach to Life Extending Control, called the Life Management Approach is proposed. A second approach, also based on cyclic life prediction, called the Implicit Approach, is presented. Assuming the existence of the alternative functional life prediction approach, two additional concepts for Life Extending Control are presented.

  13. How Mathematics Describes Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teklu, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    The circle of life is something we have all heard of from somewhere, but we don't usually try to calculate it. For some time we have been working on analyzing a predator-prey model to better understand how mathematics can describe life, in particular the interaction between two different species. The model we are analyzing is called the Holling-Tanner model, and it cannot be solved analytically. The Holling-Tanner model is a very common model in population dynamics because it is a simple descriptor of how predators and prey interact. The model is a system of two differential equations. The model is not specific to any particular set of species and so it can describe predator-prey species ranging from lions and zebras to white blood cells and infections. One thing all these systems have in common are critical points. A critical point is a value for both populations that keeps both populations constant. It is important because at this point the differential equations are equal to zero. For this model there are two critical points, a predator free critical point and a coexistence critical point. Most of the analysis we did is on the coexistence critical point because the predator free critical point is always unstable and frankly less interesting than the coexistence critical point. What we did is consider two regimes for the differential equations, large B and small B. B, A, and C are parameters in the differential equations that control the system where B measures how responsive the predators are to change in the population, A represents predation of the prey, and C represents the satiation point of the prey population. For the large B case we were able to approximate the system of differential equations by a single scalar equation. For the small B case we were able to predict the limit cycle. The limit cycle is a process of the predator and prey populations growing and shrinking periodically. This model has a limit cycle in the regime of small B, that we solved for

  14. Water and Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Christopher P.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Mars appears to be cold dry and dead world. However there is good evidence that early in its history it had liquid water, more active volcanism, and a thicker atmosphere. Mars had this earth-like environment over three and a half billion years ago, during the same time that life appeared on Earth. The main question in the exploration of Mars then is the search for a independent origin of life on that planet. Ecosystems in cold, dry locations on Earth - such as the Antarctic - provide examples of how life on Mars might have survived and where to look for fossils. Although the Viking results may indicate that Mars has no life today, there is direct geomorphological evidence that, in the past, Mars had large amounts of liquid water on its surface - possibly due to a thicker atmosphere. From a biological perspective the existence of liquid water, by itself motivates the question of the origin of life on Mars. One of the martian meteorites dates back to this early period and may contain evidence consistent with life. From studies of the Earth's earliest biosphere we know that by 3.5 Gyr. ago, life had originated on Earth and reached a fair degree of biological sophistication. Surface activity and erosion on Earth make it difficult to trace the history of life before the 3.5 Gyr timeframe. Ecosystems in cold, dry locations on Earth - such as the Antarctic - provide examples of how life on Mars might have survived and where to look for fossils.

  15. Experience and Life History. Roskilde University Life History Project Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salling Olesen, Henning

    The Life History Project at Denmark's Roskilde University is a 5-year research project that was initiated in 1998 to examine learning and participation in adult and continuing education from a life history perspective. The project was designed to build on a broad range of qualitative interview studies and case studies into learning processes. The…

  16. Life Development Intervention for Athletes: Life Skills through Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danish, Steven J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes sport psychology and model for practice consistent with training of counseling psychologists as teachers of life skills. Examines role that sport plays in society and its importance for development of identity and personal competence. Delineates life development intervention (LDI) and psychoeducational model for practice of sport…

  17. Globalization and Life History Research: Fragments of a Life Foretold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to understand, by way of a life history of one low-income working-class youth, how globalization impacts the working class in a developing nation. The concept of globalization and the method of life history seem diametrically opposed. Globalization is an idea about large social forces that impact the economic and material…

  18. The Language of Life

    PubMed Central

    Palmenberg, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Science is our best current approximation of the way things work. You cannot do science unless you believe there is a discernable truth inherent to the arrangement of our tangible world. The problem is, we in our given time, never know where exactly the asymptote lies or how far we are from it. My curiosity about the natural world is innate, but fate has variously gifted me with outstanding personal opportunities to indulge that curiosity through the study of viruses. As a woman of the boomer generation, professional paths were not always open-door, and to a certain extent, still aren’t. Whether such points should now be viewed as obstacles or stepping stones is a matter of perspective. RNA viruses and the multiple, seminal mentors who taught me their secrets, have defined my career. Some of their stories are told here as they dovetail with mine. If there is any unity to this, it would be a pursuit of the language of life, or sequence analysis, as taught to us by natural selection. The intent here is not a legacy but an example. Science is a beautiful fate. PMID:27741404

  19. Photonics for life.

    PubMed

    Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Bassi, Andrea; Comelli, Daniela; Cova, Sergio; Farina, Andrea; Ghioni, Massimo; Rech, Ivan; Pifferi, Antonio; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Taroni, Paola; Torricelli, Alessandro; Tosi, Alberto; Valentini, Gianluca; Zappa, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Light is strictly connected with life, and its presence is fundamental for any living environment. Thus, many biological mechanisms are related to light interaction or can be evaluated through processes involving energy exchange with photons. Optics has always been a precious tool to evaluate molecular and cellular mechanisms, but the discovery of lasers opened new pathways of interactions of light with biological matter, pushing an impressive development for both therapeutic and diagnostic applications in biomedicine. The use of light in different fields has become so widespread that the word photonics has been utilized to identify all the applications related to processes where the light is involved. The photonics area covers a wide range of wavelengths spanning from soft X-rays to mid-infrared and includes all devices related to photons as light sources, optical fibers and light guides, detectors, and all the related electronic equipment. The recent use of photons in the field of telecommunications has pushed the technology toward low-cost, compact, and efficient devices, making them available for many other applications, including those related to biology and medicine where these requirements are of particular relevance. Moreover, basic sciences such as physics, chemistry, mathematics, and electronics have recognized the interdisciplinary need of biomedical science and are translating the most advanced researches into these fields. The Politecnico school has pioneered many of them,and this article reviews the state of the art of biomedical research at the Politecnico in the field internationally known as biophotonics.

  20. Self Righting Life Raft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Givens Buoy Raft was designed and manufactured for inventor Jim Givens of Givens Marine Survival Co. Inc., by RPR Industries, Inc. The Raft consists of a canopied topside and an underwater hemispheric ballast chamber. It has a heavy ballast stabilization system, adopted from NASA technology, which negates the capsizing problem. A "flapper valve" admits large amounts of water to the hemisphere chamber providing ballast to keep the center of gravity constant; stabilization system compensates for changes in wave angle and weight shifting of raft occupants. Mr. Givens has an exclusive patent license for use of the NASA technology. Produced in various sizes, capacities range from six to 20 persons. Raft is housed in a canister, available in several configurations. A pull on a line triggers the automatic inflation process, which takes 12 seconds. The raft has been credited with saving 230 lives in the last five years. It has found wide acceptance with operators of fishing boats, pleasure craft and other vessels. The Coast Guard is purchasing the rafts for use on its rescue helicopters and the Navy has a development program to adapt the system. The Coast Guard last year announced a proposed amendment of its regulations that would require large ballast chambers on inflatable life rafts.

  1. Power in everyday life

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    How does power manifest itself in everyday life? Using experience-sampling methodology, we investigated the prevalence, sources, and correlates of power in people’s natural environments. Participants experienced power-relevant situations regularly, though not frequently. High power was not restricted to a limited few: almost half of the sample reported experiencing high-power positions. Positional power and subjective feelings of power were strongly related but had unique relations with several individual difference measures and independent effects on participants’ affect, cognition, and interpersonal relations. Subjective feelings of power resulted more from within-participant situational fluctuation, such as the social roles participants held at different times, than from stable differences between people. Our data supported some theoretical predictions about power’s effects on affect, cognition, and interpersonal relations, but qualified others, particularly highlighting the role of responsibility in power’s effects. Although the power literature has focused on high power, we found stronger effects of low power than high power. PMID:27551069

  2. 46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life jackets. 180.71 Section 180.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket... life jackets equal to at least 10% of the number of persons permitted on board must be provided,...

  3. 46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life jackets. 180.71 Section 180.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket... life jackets equal to at least 10% of the number of persons permitted on board must be provided,...

  4. 46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Life jackets. 180.71 Section 180.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket... life jackets equal to at least 10% of the number of persons permitted on board must be provided,...

  5. 46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Life jackets. 180.71 Section 180.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket... life jackets equal to at least 10% of the number of persons permitted on board must be provided,...

  6. 46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Life jackets. 180.71 Section 180.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket... life jackets equal to at least 10% of the number of persons permitted on board must be provided,...

  7. Extraterrestrial Life: Life on Mars - Then and Now

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, Gustaf; Mojzsis, Stephen

    1996-01-01

    The recent claim to have identified possible signs of ancient life on Mars has been widely publicized and discussed. The authors conceded that none of the half-dozen pieces of evidence adduced in their paper individually provided strong support for extraterrestrial life, though they argued that the pieces added up to a case worth considering. Most - perhaps all - of the observed phenomena have counterparts in the inorganic world, so even the combination does not make a compelling case that there was ever life on Mars. Nevertheless, the importance of the problem has justified bringing the results to general attention. The paper has focussed interest on the origin and possible ubiquity of life, and on how we can design techniques capable of giving a more definitive answer to the question of whether there is, or has ever been, life elsewhere in the Universe.

  8. Defining Life: Synthesis and Conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-04-01

    The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. §1 defends that the recognition of “life” has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. §2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. §3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about “life”. The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (§4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. §5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers to two conditions

  9. A slow life history is related to a negative attitude towards cousin marriages: a study in three ethnic groups in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Buunk, Abraham P; Hoben, Ashley D

    2013-06-24

    Little is known about current attitudes towards cousin marriages. Using data from a rural population in the Mexican state of Oaxaca, the present research examined how life history was related to attitudes towards cousin marriages in various ethnic groups. Participants were 205 parents from three ethnic groups. i.e., Mestizos (people of mixed descent, n = 103), indigenous Mixtecs (n = 65), and Blacks (n = 35). Nearly all men in this study were farm workers or fishermen. Participants reported more negative than positive attitudes towards cousin marriage, and women reported more negative attitudes than did men. The main objection against marrying a cousin was that it is wrong for religious reasons, whereas the risk of genetic defects was considered relatively unimportant. Cousin marriage was not considered to contribute to the quality and unity of marriage and the family. The three ethnic groups did not differ in their attitude towards cousin marriages. However, a slower life history was related to a more negative attitude towards cousin marriages, especially among Blacks, less so among Mixtecs, and not at all among Mestizos. In addition, and independent of the effect of life history, with increasing levels of parental control over mate choice, the attitude towards cousin marriage was more positive, but among men the attitude was more negative the more religious they were. The results are discussed in the context of theorizing on life history theory and the benefits and costs of cousin marriages.

  10. Serpentinization and Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley; 2003/2005 Science Teams, D. S.

    2005-12-01

    The serendipitous discovery of the Lost City Hydrothermal Field at 30N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge significantly changed our views about where and how life is sustained on our planet. Investigation of this site shows that it is like no other yet discovered, hosting carbonate chimneys that tower up to 60 m above the seafloor. The field rests on 1-2 my old crust, at a water depth of 800 m and is underlain by variably deformed and altered peridotite with lesser gabbro. An intense interdisciplinary field program in 2003 and a follow-on investigation in 2005 show that geological, biological, and chemical processes are strongly intertwined at this site. Serpentinization reactions in the subsurface produce pH 9-11, 40- 91° C fluids enriched in methane, hydrogen, and other hydrocarbons. Mixing of the high pH fluids with seawater forms nearly monomineralic towers of calcite, aragonite, and brucite. In contrast to the rich diversity of microorganisms typically found in black smoker environments, the warm, porous interiors of the chimneys are dominated by a single phylotype of organisms related to Methanosarcinales, which may be capable of both methane oxidation and production. Other microbes, including an organism related to an anaerobic methane-oxidizing phylotytpe (ANME-1) are present in moderate temperature environments such as the flanges (40° C to 70° C), where there is sustained mixing of pure vent fluids and seawater. They are also present in cool carbonate vein environments (<40° C) that cut the serpentinite bedrock. Bacterial colonies grow on the outside of diffusely venting chimneys where they form white to light grey filamentous strands several centimeters in length. Based on 16S rDNA clone libraries there is a relatively high diversity of organisms in these zones that include Eubacteria as well as Archaea. In contrast to the dense macrofaunal assemblages that typify most known high-temperature vent environments, the biomass at Lost City is much smaller. The

  11. Charting Ingredients for Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Spectrum Charts Light from a Faraway Galaxy

    This graph, or spectrum, charts light from a faraway galaxy located 10 billion light years from Earth. It tracks mid-infrared light from an extremely luminous galaxy when the universe was only 1/4 of its current age.

    Spectra are created when an instrument called a spectrograph spreads light out into its basic parts, like a prism turning sunlight into a rainbow. They reveal the signatures, or 'fingerprints,' of molecules that make up a galaxy and contribute to its light.

    Spitzer's infrared spectrometer identified characteristic fingerprints of complex organic molecules called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, illustrated in the artist's concept in the inset. These large molecules comprised of carbon and hydrogen, are considered among the building blocks of life.

    Scientists determined it took 10 billion years for photons from this galaxy to reach Spitzer's infrared eyes. These complex carbon and hydrogen molecules are from a young galaxy which is undergoing intense star formation, at the time the universe was only 3.5 billion years old.

    These distant galaxies with enormous amounts of gas being converted into young stars are some of the most luminous objects in the sky. Enshrouded by dust, they are only faint, inconspicuous little dots in optical images. They are as bright as 10 trillion suns put together and 10 times brighter than starburst galaxies seen in our local universe.

    This prompts a fascinating question as to what physical process is driving such enormous energy production in these galaxies when the universe is so young.

    These data were taken by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph in August and September 2004.

  12. Life Cycle of Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper left of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). This true-color picture was taken on March 5, 1999 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

  13. Life Cycle Assessment for Biofuels

    EPA Science Inventory

    A presentation based on life cycle assessment (LCA) for biofuels is given. The presentation focuses on energy and biofuels, interesting environmental aspects of biofuels, and how to do a life cycle assessment with some examples related to biofuel systems. The stages of a (biofuel...

  14. Ethical Issues in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botterbusch, Hope R.; Talab, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    There are many unethical and illegal behaviors that take place in Second Life. This article offers several scenarios which represent some of these behaviors, including copyright infringement. It is hoped that the reader will understand how copyright infringement fits in with other unethical behaviors in Second Life. (Contains 20 resources.)

  15. Learning for Life and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakeley, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The publication of "Learning Through Life," the main report of the Inquiry into the Future for Lifelong Learning, has been welcomed across the trade union movement. It offers a useful and useable framework for discussing the learning needs of people through the different stages of life and makes compelling suggestions about how to adjust…

  16. Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

  17. Reducing Life-Cycle Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roodvoets, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Presents factors to consider when determining roofing life-cycle costs, explaining that costs do not tell the whole story; discussing components that should go into the decision (cost, maintenance, energy use, and environmental costs); and concluding that important elements in reducing life-cycle costs include energy savings through increased…

  18. Second Thoughts about Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugeja, Micheal J.

    2007-01-01

    Most people have at least secondhand knowledge about Second Life, a virtual-reality world created by Linden Lab, in which avatars (digital characters) lease "islands" for real-life purposes--to sell products, conduct classes, do research, hold conferences, and even recruit for admissions. About nine million avatars reportedly interact on this…

  19. Psychological Aspects of Life Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swensen, Clifford H.

    1992-01-01

    Results of research directly and indirectly applicable to life support indicate that patients and intimates suffer less psychological distress if those who have close positive relationship with patient maintain emotional closeness to patient and participate in making decisions concerning life support. Suggests that people feel less distress if…

  20. Roots: The Life Space Pioneers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Adrienne Brant

    2008-01-01

    Traditional approaches to education and youth work were transformed by two psychologists who came to the United States as Hitler rose to power. Practical theorist Kurt Lewin challenged mechanistic ideas of behavior by studying children in their natural "life space." Theory practitioner Fritz Redl applied life space concepts to work with…

  1. The Life Narrative at Midlife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdams, Dan P.

    2014-01-01

    In a remarkably prescient chapter, Bertram Cohler (1982) reimagined the problems and the potentialities of psychological development across the life course as a distinctively human challenge in life narration. This chapter situates Cohler's original vision within the intellectual and scientific matrix of the late 1970s, wherein psychologists…

  2. Life Style Assessment: So What!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubry, William E.

    The construct life style was used by Alfred Adler to describe the characteristic way in which individuals act and think. Followers of his theories are now collecting evidence to support or validate his contentions. The assessment of client life styles serves: (1) to make the client aware of his misconceptions, (2) as a reference point for therapy,…

  3. Designing Shafts For Long Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, Stuart H.

    1988-01-01

    Improved method developed for choosing sizes of power-transmitting shafts for limited or unlimited service lives under variety of operating conditions. Stress versus fatigue life of proposed shaft design plotted, modified to account for expected operating conditions and used to calculate shaft diameter required for given fatigue life. If diameter of shaft represented by plot equals or exceeds required diameter, shaft considered adequate.

  4. Custom Orthotics Changed My Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holeton, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The narrator relates his life's downward spiral and miraculous rebound from severe foot problems using animated bullet points, images, charts, and graphs. "Custom Orthotics Changed My Life" is a work of presentation fiction, or slideshow fiction, in the form of a video with an original soundtrack. The music was composed by David Kettler, a…

  5. Improving turbine blade fatigue life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buddenbohm, H. W.

    1988-01-01

    Turbine airfoil design, materials, and cooling system management are variables which, when optimized, can contribute to longer turbine component lives. These advancements have been identified as redesign techniques to improve the turbine fatigue life of the SSME High Pressure Fuel Turbopump. This paper discusses the general program approach toward improving turbine fatigue life.

  6. A "Second Life" for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the 3D virtual world known as Second Life and its potential as a learning platform. In the last few years, many colleges, universities, and libraries have established resources in what has become the preeminent multiuser virtual environment. Today, more than 100 Second Life "regions" are used for educational…

  7. Proper Installation Improves Carpet Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogan, Ralph

    1998-01-01

    Explains how proper carpet installation can add to carpet life; includes tips to consider before signing a carpet-installation purchasing agreement that can make the new carpet a better investment. Topics cover how color selection lengthens appearance life, the need for moisture testing, the importance of carpet seams in the purchasing process,…

  8. Second Thoughts about Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugeja, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Most people have at least secondhand knowledge about Second Life, a virtual-reality world created by Linden Lab, in which avatars (digital characters) lease "islands" for real-life purposes--to sell products, conduct classes, do research, hold conferences, and even recruit for admissions. About nine million avatars reportedly interact on this…

  9. Life sciences and Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Rummel, John D.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Teeter, Ron

    1990-01-01

    The major life science considerations for Mars exploration missions are discussed. Radiation protection and countermeasures for zero gravity are discussed. Considerations of crew psychological health considerations and life support systems are addressed. Scientific opportunities presented by manned Mars missions are examined.

  10. Loss and Transcendence Life Themes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weenolsen, Patricia

    Psychologists have often observed an underlying pattern or theme in the accounts that individuals give of their lives. To test a humanistic-existential approach to human development, 48 women were interviewed with the Loss and Transcendence (L/T) Life History Form. The L/T Life Theme is expressed in two ways: the expanded version includes the…

  11. Wild Beasts of Still Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Debra

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a project with a transformative approach to color theory and still life. Students' use of an arbitrary color scheme can open their eyes, push their creativity and produce exciting paintings. Ordinary still-life objects will be transformed into dramatic, vibrant visuals. The Fauve style of painting is a great art history…

  12. Family Life Education: Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuccaro, Mary; And Others

    Designed to serve as a model and resource for teachers setting up family life education programs at the secondary level, this family life education curriculum guide presents a specific ten-session model for programs at both the high school and junior high school levels. While both programs attempt to provide a broad overview of the areas commonly…

  13. How life affects the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The impact of life on the atmosphere is examined through a discussion of the budgets of important atmospheric constituents and the processes that control their concentrations. Life profoundly influences oxygen and a number of minor atmospheric constituents, but many important gases, including those with the greatest effect on global climate, appear to be little altered by biological processes, at least in the steady state.

  14. Enjoyment and the Good Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Cheryl; Henderson, Karla

    2003-01-01

    Presents information to update parks and recreation professionals about what recent research says in regard to enjoyment and the good life, noting what applications this research has for practitioners. The article focuses on: the good life and leisure services; happiness, subjective well-being, and intrinsic motivation; leisure, happiness, and…

  15. Life Cycle of a Pencil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeske, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Explains a project called "Life Cycle of a Pencil" which was developed by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Describes the life cycle of a pencil in stages starting from the first stage of design to the sixth stage of product disposal. (YDS)

  16. Real Life and the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Praagh, Shauna

    2013-01-01

    The choices teachers make about both form and content in designing their courses shape students' perceptions of the connection between "real life" and the "classroom." The choice to begin a first-year law course with stories told by residential school survivors provides an example of how to bring "real life" into the…

  17. Extraterrestrial life in the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that life exists elsewhere in the universe, even in our own planetary system, has intrigued scientists, philosophers, and theologians for centuries. The spaceflight programs of NASA have provided much new information about our planetary neighbors and have put to rest some speculations about the existence of life on those planets or their satellites. However, there are still undetermined questions about the possibility of some form of life existing in the far distant past in our planetary system. Beyond our planetary system, the astronomical quest for scientific clues about life continues, largely via the radio telescope. Thus far there is no conclusive evidence. Here, some of the recent findings about our planetary neighbors are reviewed and the question about life elsewhere in the universe is addressed.

  18. The evolution of complex life.

    PubMed

    Billingham, J

    1989-01-01

    In considering the probabilities that intelligent life might exist elsewhere in the Universe, it is important to ask questions about the factors governing the emergence of complex living organisms in the context of evolutionary biology, planetary environments and events in space. Two important problems arise. First, what can be learned about the general laws governing the evolution of complex life anywhere in space by studying its history on the Earth? Second, how is the evolution of complex life affected by events in space? To address these problems, a series of Science Workshops on the Evolution of Complex Life was held at the Ames Research Center. Included in this paper are highlights of those workshops, with particular emphasis on the first question, namely the evolution of complex extraterrestrial life.

  19. Life: past, present and future.

    PubMed Central

    Nealson, K H; Conrad, P G

    1999-01-01

    Molecular methods of taxonomy and phylogeny have changed the way in which life on earth is viewed; they have allowed us to transition from a eukaryote-centric (five-kingdoms) view of the planet to one that is peculiarly prokarote-centric, containing three kingdoms, two of which are prokaryotic unicells. These prokaryotes are distinguished from their eukaryotic counterparts by their toughness, tenacity and metabolic diversity. Realization of these features has, in many ways, changed the way we feel about life on earth, about the nature of life past and about the possibility of finding life elsewhere. In essence, the limits of life on this planet have expanded to such a degree that our thoughts of both past and future life have been altered. The abilities of prokaryotes to withstand many extreme conditions has led to the term extremophiles, used to describe the organisms that thrive under conditions thought just a few years ago, to be inconsistent with life. Perhaps the most extensive adaptation to extreme conditions, however, is represented by the ability of many bacteria to survive nutrient conditions not compatible with eukaryotic life. Prokaryotes have evolved to use nearly every redox couple that is in abundance on earth, filling the metabolic niches left behind by the oxygen-using, carbon-eating eukaryotes. This metabolic plasticity leads to a common feature in physically stratified environments of layered microbial communities, chemical indicators of the metabolic diversity of the prokaryotes. Such 'metabolic extremophily' forms a backdrop by which we can view the energy flow of life on this planet, think about what the evolutionary past of the planet might have been, and plan ways to look for life elsewhere, using the knowledge of energy flow on earth. PMID:10670014

  20. Life: past, present and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealson, K. H.; Conrad, P. G.

    1999-01-01

    Molecular methods of taxonomy and phylogeny have changed the way in which life on earth is viewed; they have allowed us to transition from a eukaryote-centric (five-kingdoms) view of the planet to one that is peculiarly prokarote-centric, containing three kingdoms, two of which are prokaryotic unicells. These prokaryotes are distinguished from their eukaryotic counterparts by their toughness, tenacity and metabolic diversity. Realization of these features has, in many ways, changed the way we feel about life on earth, about the nature of life past and about the possibility of finding life elsewhere. In essence, the limits of life on this planet have expanded to such a degree that our thoughts of both past and future life have been altered. The abilities of prokaryotes to withstand many extreme conditions has led to the term extremophiles, used to describe the organisms that thrive under conditions thought just a few years ago, to be inconsistent with life. Perhaps the most extensive adaptation to extreme conditions, however, is represented by the ability of many bacteria to survive nutrient conditions not compatible with eukaryotic life. Prokaryotes have evolved to use nearly every redox couple that is in abundance on earth, filling the metabolic niches left behind by the oxygen-using, carbon-eating eukaryotes. This metabolic plasticity leads to a common feature in physically stratified environments of layered microbial communities, chemical indicators of the metabolic diversity of the prokaryotes. Such 'metabolic extremophily' forms a backdrop by which we can view the energy flow of life on this planet, think about what the evolutionary past of the planet might have been, and plan ways to look for life elsewhere, using the knowledge of energy flow on earth.

  1. Life: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Nealson, K H; Conrad, P G

    1999-12-29

    Molecular methods of taxonomy and phylogeny have changed the way in which life on earth is viewed; they have allowed us to transition from a eukaryote-centric (five-kingdoms) view of the planet to one that is peculiarly prokarote-centric, containing three kingdoms, two of which are prokaryotic unicells. These prokaryotes are distinguished from their eukaryotic counterparts by their toughness, tenacity and metabolic diversity. Realization of these features has, in many ways, changed the way we feel about life on earth, about the nature of life past and about the possibility of finding life elsewhere. In essence, the limits of life on this planet have expanded to such a degree that our thoughts of both past and future life have been altered. The abilities of prokaryotes to withstand many extreme conditions has led to the term extremophiles, used to describe the organisms that thrive under conditions thought just a few years ago, to be inconsistent with life. Perhaps the most extensive adaptation to extreme conditions, however, is represented by the ability of many bacteria to survive nutrient conditions not compatible with eukaryotic life. Prokaryotes have evolved to use nearly every redox couple that is in abundance on earth, filling the metabolic niches left behind by the oxygen-using, carbon-eating eukaryotes. This metabolic plasticity leads to a common feature in physically stratified environments of layered microbial communities, chemical indicators of the metabolic diversity of the prokaryotes. Such 'metabolic extremophily' forms a backdrop by which we can view the energy flow of life on this planet, think about what the evolutionary past of the planet might have been, and plan ways to look for life elsewhere, using the knowledge of energy flow on earth.

  2. End of life decisions at the beginning of life.

    PubMed

    Snyder, R D

    1996-01-01

    Modern neonatal intensive care technology enhances the ability to maintain vulnerable newborns. In some circumstances survival may be insufficient justification for care. "End of life" strategies, originally applicable to adults, are being considered for newborns. Unresolved ethical issues in the care of these newborns involve multiple considerations. Concern occurs regarding patient-centered beneficence, non-maleficence, distributive justice, futility, legal rights of infants, and autonomy. The benefits to a newborn of treatment may fail to overcome the burdens of subsequent life. Under what circumstances a newborn loses the right to have life prolonged becomes a difficult ethical issue. With time and debate the proper response will become implemented.

  3. Assessing the Life Science Knowledge of Students and Teachers Represented by the K–8 National Science Standards

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Philip M.; Coyle, Harold; Smith, Nancy Cook; Miller, Jaimie; Mintzes, Joel; Tanner, Kimberly; Murray, John

    2013-01-01

    We report on the development of an item test bank and associated instruments based on the National Research Council (NRC) K–8 life sciences content standards. Utilizing hundreds of studies in the science education research literature on student misconceptions, we constructed 476 unique multiple-choice items that measure the degree to which test takers hold either a misconception or an accepted scientific view. Tested nationally with 30,594 students, following their study of life science, and their 353 teachers, these items reveal a range of interesting results, particularly student difficulties in mastering the NRC standards. Teachers also answered test items and demonstrated a high level of subject matter knowledge reflecting the standards of the grade level at which they teach, but exhibiting few misconceptions of their own. In addition, teachers predicted the difficulty of each item for their students and which of the wrong answers would be the most popular. Teachers were found to generally overestimate their own students’ performance and to have a high level of awareness of the particular misconceptions that their students hold on the K–4 standards, but a low level of awareness of misconceptions related to the 5–8 standards. PMID:24006402

  4. Assessing the life science knowledge of students and teachers represented by the K-8 national science standards.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Philip M; Coyle, Harold; Smith, Nancy Cook; Miller, Jaimie; Mintzes, Joel; Tanner, Kimberly; Murray, John

    2013-01-01

    We report on the development of an item test bank and associated instruments based on the National Research Council (NRC) K-8 life sciences content standards. Utilizing hundreds of studies in the science education research literature on student misconceptions, we constructed 476 unique multiple-choice items that measure the degree to which test takers hold either a misconception or an accepted scientific view. Tested nationally with 30,594 students, following their study of life science, and their 353 teachers, these items reveal a range of interesting results, particularly student difficulties in mastering the NRC standards. Teachers also answered test items and demonstrated a high level of subject matter knowledge reflecting the standards of the grade level at which they teach, but exhibiting few misconceptions of their own. In addition, teachers predicted the difficulty of each item for their students and which of the wrong answers would be the most popular. Teachers were found to generally overestimate their own students' performance and to have a high level of awareness of the particular misconceptions that their students hold on the K-4 standards, but a low level of awareness of misconceptions related to the 5-8 standards.

  5. It's a wonderful life: is it possible to say that a severely disabled child has been harmed by the mere fact of being born?

    PubMed

    Perry, Ronen

    2007-11-01

    "It's a Wonderful Life," the title of Frank Capra's classic 1946 movie, seems to encapsulate a fundamental all-American conviction. Unsurprisingly, several courts and jurists have applied the movie-title maxim as the ultimate retort to one of the most intriguing questions in modern tort discourse: Is it possible to say that a severely disabled child has been harmed by the mere fact of being born? Wrongful life claimants answer in the affirmative, whereas Capra's aphorism makes a compelling counter-argument. In my opinion, the contrasting views represent equally legitimate subjective beliefs rather than objective truths, so neither may ever prevail. Without a satisfactory solution from conventional wisdom, the life-as-injury debate may be the Gordian knot of tort law. The purpose of this Article is to cut, rather than untie, the knot: Allow the child to recover without challenging or validating the deep-seated perception of life. Part I shows that hostility to liability in tort for wrongful life is almost universal, crossing lands and seas. Part II argues that this demurral is ultimately rooted in the absence of one of the central components of the cause of action. A tort action must fail because of the inability--both logical and practical--to establish "harm" under the traditional definition of this term. Part III opines that because the Gordian knot of tort law cannot be untied, it must be cut altogether. We must replace the traditional tort framework, which gives rise to an insoluble problem, with a more promising contractual framework inspired by the celebrated case of Hawkins v. McGee. In my view, the child may base an action on the claim that the defendant promised the parents that the child would be born without a certain defect and that the promise went unfulfilled. In formal terms, the child is an intended third party beneficiary of the contract between the parents and the consultant in which the latter warranted birth without a particular disability. The

  6. NASA Now: Life Science: Human Life Support on the ISS

    NASA Video Gallery

    The environmental and thermal operating systems, or ETHOS, monitors the life support system and the cooling system on the International Space Station. Find out from ETHOS operator Tess Caswell abou...

  7. NASA Now: Life Science: Portable Life Support System

    NASA Video Gallery

    Spacesuit engineer Antja Chambers discusses the Portable Life Support System, a backpack the astronauts wear during spacewalks. It provides oxygen for the astronauts, protects them from the harsh c...

  8. End of Life Decisions for Sealed Radioactive Sources.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Kathryn H

    2016-02-01

    Sealed radioactive sources are encountered in a wide variety of settings-from household smoke detectors and instrument check sources through fixed industrial gauges, industrial radiography, and well logging sources, to irradiators and medical teletherapy devices. In general, the higher the level of activity in the sealed source, the stricter the regulatory control that is applied to its use, control, and ultimate disposition. Lower levels of attention and oversight can and do lead to sources ending up in the wrong place--as orphan sources in uncontrolled storage, disposed in a sanitary landfill, melted down in metal recycling operations and incorporated into consumer products, or handled by an unsuspecting member of the public. There is a range of issues that contribute to the problem of improper disposal of sealed sources and, in particular, to disused source disposal. Generally licensed sources and devices are particularly at risk of being disposed incorrectly. Higher activity generally licensed sources, although required to be registered with the (NRC) or an Agreement State, receive limited regulatory oversight and are not tracked on a national scale. Users frequently do not consider the full life-cycle costs when procuring sources or devices and discover that they cannot afford and/or are unwilling to pay the associated costs to package, transport and dispose of their sources properly. The NRC requirements for decommissioning funding plans and financial assurance are not adequate to cover sealed source transport and disposal costs fully. While there are regulatory limits for storage of disused sources, enforcement is limited, and there are only limited financial incentives in a small number of states for owners to dispose of the sources. In some cases, the lack of availability of approved Type B shipping casks presents an additional barrier to sealed source disposal. The report of the Disused Sources Working Group does an excellent job of framing these issues

  9. Life as a cosmic imperative?

    PubMed

    de Duve, Christian

    2011-02-13

    The origin of life on Earth may be divided into two stages separated by the first appearance of replicable molecules, most probably of RNA. The first stage depended exclusively on chemistry. The second stage likewise involved chemistry, but with the additional participation of selection, a necessary concomitant of inevitable replication accidents. Consideration of these two processes suggests that the origin of life may have been close to obligatory under the physical-chemical conditions that prevailed at the site of its birth. Thus, an extrasolar planet in which those conditions were replicated appears as a probable site for the appearance of extra-terrestrial life.

  10. Prospects for life span extension.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Felipe; Hadley, Evan; Suzman, Richard; Hodes, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Life expectancy has increased dramatically in the United States and in much of the world in recent years and decades. The factors underlying this increase are incompletely understood and are undoubtedly complex. A question that drives current research is whether life expectancy can be further extended using current knowledge of modifiable risk factors. A still more challenging research focus is on the possibility that life expectancy might be further increased through knowledge gained from studies of the basic biology of aging and its genetic and environmental modifiers.

  11. Lubricant effects on bearing life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1986-01-01

    Lubricant considerations for rolling-element bearings have within the last two decades taken on added importance in the design and operation of mechanical systems. The phenomenon which limits the useful life of bearings is rolling-element or surface pitting fatigue. The elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness which separates the ball or roller surface from those of the raceways of the bearing directly affects bearing life. Chemical additives added to the lubricant can also significantly affect bearings life and reliability. The interaction of these physical and chemical effects is important to the design engineer and user of these systems. Design methods and lubricant selection for rolling-element bearings are presented and discussed.

  12. Maritime vessel obsolescence, life cycle cost and design service life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinu, O.; Ilie, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    Maritime vessels have long service life and great costs of building, manning, operating, maintaining and repairing throughout their life. Major actions are needed to repair, renovate, sometime built or even replace those scrapped when technology or demand changes determine obsolescence. It is regarded as a concern throughout vessel's entire life cycle and reflects changes in expectation regarding performances in functioning, safety and environmental effects. While service live may differ from physical lives, expectations about physical lives is the main factors that determines design service life. Performance and failure are illustrated conceptually and represented in a simplified form considering the evolution of vessels parameters during its service life. In the proposed methodology an accumulated vessel lifecycle cost is analyzed and obsolescence is characterized from ship's design, performances, maintenance and management parameters point of view. Romanian ports feeding Black Sea are investigated in order to provide comprehensive information on: number and types of vessels, transport capacity and life cycle length. Recommendations are to be made in order to insure a best practice in lifecycle management in order to reduce costs.

  13. Potential Habitats for Exotic Life Within the Life Supporting Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Johannes J.; Firneis, Maria G.; Hitzenberger, Regina

    2010-05-01

    Questions like "Are we alone in the universe?", "How unique is Earth as a planet?" or "How unique is water-based life in the universe?" still are nowhere near of being answered. In recent years, discussions on these topics are more and more influenced by questions whether water is really the only possible solvent, or which conditions are necessary for life to evolve in planetary habitats. A change in our present geocentric mindset on the existence of life is required, in order to address these new questions [see also 1]. In May 2009 a new research platform at the University of Vienna was initiated in order to contribute to the solution of these questions. One task is to find essential biomarkers relevant to the problem of the detection of exotic life. In this context exotic life means: life, which is not necessarily based on a double bond between carbon and oxygen (C=O) and not on water as the only possible solvent. At present little is known about metabolistic systems, which are not based on C=O or on metabolisms which are operative in alternative solvents and a high effort of future laboratory work is necessary to open this window for looking for exotic life. To address the whole spectrum of life the concept of a general life supporting zone is introduced in order to extend the classical habitable zone (which is based on liquid water on a planetary surface, [2]). The life supporting zone of a planetary system is composed of different single "habitable zones" for the liquid phases of specific solvents and composites between water and other solvents. Besides exoplanetary systems which seem to be the most promising place for exotic life in our present understanding, some potential places could also exist within our Solar System and habitats like the subsurface of Enceladus, liquid ethane/methane lakes on Titan or habitable niches in the Venus atmosphere will also be taken into account. A preliminary list of appropriate solvents and their abundances in the Solar

  14. 46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket must be provided for each...

  15. 46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket must be provided for each...

  16. 46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket must be provided for each...

  17. 46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket must be provided for each...

  18. 46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket must be provided for each...

  19. Quality of Life: Perspectives and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalock, Robert L., Ed.

    The book deals with the concept of quality of life for persons with mental retardation and developmental disabilities. Part I, "Quality of Life: Personal Perspectives," contains "A Dream for Myself" (Connie Martinez); "Reflections on My Quality of Life: Then and Now" (Nancy Ward); "Quality of Life versus Quality of Life Judgments: A Parent's…

  20. Preserving Dignity in Later Life.

    PubMed

    São José, José Manuel

    2016-09-01

    This article examines how elders who receive social care in the community experience loss of dignity and how they preserve their dignity. Qualitative research revealed that loss of dignity is a major concern for these elders and that they preserve their dignity differently, ranging from actively engaging with life to detaching themselves from life. We conclude that, in later life, preserving dignity while receiving social care differs from preserving dignity in the context of health care, especially health care provided in institutional settings. Furthermore, preserving dignity in later life, while receiving social care, is a complex process, depending not only on performing activities and individual action and responsibility, but also on other actions, some of them involving a certain inactivity/passivity, and interactions with others, especially caregivers. This article offers some insights to developing better policies and care practices for promoting dignity in the context of community-based social care.

  1. Life as a planetary phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Owen, T

    1985-01-01

    The success of recent spacecraft from the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. has given us a wealth of new data about the planets in our solar system. We can now develop a much better rationale for the reasons that abundant life is only found on our planet. Mars, smaller and more distant from the Sun, may nevertheless hold clues to the early development of Earth's atmosphere. The origin of life on Mars early in that planet's history cannot be ruled out. Titan offers a contemporary example of extremely primitive conditions, where chemical reactions resembling those that preceded the development of life on Earth may be occurring today. Venus and Jupiter illustrate the need for a planet to be the right size and the right distance from the sun if chemical evolution leading to the origin of life is to occur.

  2. Let's Teach Life Insurance Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Larry D.

    1973-01-01

    The author presents arguments for teaching life insurance concepts as part of the business education curriculum. He also presents specific facts, "knowledges," understandings, and concepts as part of the learning process. (AG)

  3. Life expectancy of kibbutz members.

    PubMed

    Leviatan, U; Cohen, J; Jaffe-Katz, A

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented demonstrating that the life expectancy (LE) of kibbutz members--both men and women--is higher than that of the overall Jewish population in Israel. Closer inspection of the death rates at various ages reveals that, from age thirty, those of kibbutz women are lower than those of the Jewish population. Although those of kibbutz men are actually higher until age forty-nine, nevertheless the LE of kibbutz members (based on death rates) surpasses that of Jews in Israel. These data add to and support other research findings illustrating the more positive mental health and well-being found among kibbutz members than among other comparative populations. Similarly, the factors contributing to kibbutz members' life expectancy evolve from this quality of life, especially as this quality of life affects old age.

  4. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Cancer.gov

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  5. Is There Life on Mars?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Bruce C.; Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    1998-01-01

    Presents a conflict scenario for a case study on whether there is evidence of past life on Mars. Includes details about the use of this case study in developing an interdisciplinary approach to scientific ethics. (DDR)

  6. The Preparation for Life Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakes, Richard D.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews "The Preparation for Life Curriculum" (Wilcox, Dunn, Lavercombe and Burn, 1984), which is a case study of a British career education curriculum development project in four secondary schools. (JDH)

  7. Life in Tropical Rain Forests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the diversity of rain forest life, the adaptations of rain forest plants and animals, and ways these organisms interact. Includes activities on canopy critters with a copyable sheet, rain forest revue, design a plant, and jungle sleuths. (RT)

  8. Anxiety disorders in late life.

    PubMed Central

    Flint, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and treatment of anxiety disorders in late life. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic and comorbidity data are derived from well designed random-sample community surveys. There are virtually no controlled data specific to treatment of anxiety in the elderly. Guidelines for treating anxiety disorders in late life, therefore, must be extrapolated from results of randomized controlled trials conducted in younger patients. MAIN MESSAGE: Generalized anxiety disorder and agoraphobia account for most cases of anxiety disorder in late life. Late-onset generalized anxiety is usually associated with depressive illness and, in this situation, the primary pharmacologic treatment is antidepressant medication. Most elderly people with agoraphobia do not give a history of panic attacks; exposure therapy is the preferred treatment for agoraphobia without panic. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians need to make more use of antidepressant medication and behavioural therapy and less use of benzodiazepines in treating anxiety disorders in late life. PMID:10587775

  9. Life After a Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Life After a Heart Attack Many people survive heart attacks and live active, ... a few weeks. Anxiety and Depression After a Heart Attack After a heart attack, many people worry about ...

  10. Bio-regenerative life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, Robert D.; Wydeven, Theodore, Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The basis for and the potential uses of bio-regenerative life support are examined. Bio-regenerative life support systems are an alternative to physical-chemical regeneration techniques for use when resupply of a crew in space is expensive, or when the logistics of resupply are difficult. Many of the scientific studies required for bio-regenerative life support systems have been completed and preliminary development of some components will begin within the next 12 to 18 months. The focus of the work that lies ahead will be efficient power and mass use, long-term system stability, component function, systems integration, and extensive testing in the space environment. Because of the advantages of bio-regeneration, it is anticipated that human life support for long-term space missions will evolve to include increasingly large amounts of biologically-based regeneration.

  11. Lunar Base Life Support Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic simulation of the lunar outpost habitat life support was undertaken to investigate the impact of life support failures and to investigate responses. Some preparatory static analysis for the Lunar Outpost life support model, an earlier version of the model, and an investigation into the impact of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) were reported previously. (Jones, 2008-01-2184, 2008-01-2017) The earlier model was modified to include possible resupply delays, power failures, recycling system failures, and atmosphere and other material storage failures. Most failures impact the lunar outpost water balance and can be mitigated by reducing water usage. Food solids, nitrogen can be obtained only by resupply from Earth. The most time urgent failure is a lass of carbon dioxide removal capability. Life support failures might be survivable if effective operational solutions are provided in the system design.

  12. Genetics & the Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Joseph D.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the contribution made to the quality of human life by the study of genetics. Presents a description of the current status of genetics education. Suggests changes in genetics education necessary to keep up with new developments. (39 references) (CW)

  13. Life Support Systems Microbial Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monserrate C.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the current microbial challenges of environmental control and life support systems. The contents include: 1) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) What is it?; 2) A Look Inside the International Space Station (ISS); 3) The Complexity of a Water Recycling System; 4) ISS Microbiology Acceptability Limits; 5) Overview of Current Microbial Challenges; 6) In a Perfect World What we Would like to Have; and 7) The Future.

  14. Microbial genomes: Blueprints for life

    SciTech Connect

    Relman, David A.; Strauss, Evelyn

    2000-12-31

    Complete microbial genome sequences hold the promise of profound new insights into microbial pathogenesis, evolution, diagnostics, and therapeutics. From these insights will come a new foundation for understanding the evolution of single-celled life, as well as the evolution of more complex life forms. This report is an in-depth analysis of scientific issues that provides recommendations and will be widely disseminated to the scientific community, federal agencies, industry and the public.

  15. Artifact & artifice: views on life.

    PubMed

    Dorin, Alan

    2003-01-01

    The views of some artists on what constitutes life are explored, with the aim of challenging those within the artificial life research community to rethink and perhaps expand their own views about the term and its meaningful application. The focus is on the musical works of Steve Reich and the paintings of Wassily Kandinsky. The role of the observer in determining when it is appropriate to label a thing as living is also discussed.

  16. Equipment life cycle costs minimised.

    PubMed

    Kuligowski, Sharon

    2004-11-01

    With the cost of energy now a major component of building operating costs, NHS Trust managers increasingly focus on estimating total life cycle costs of equipment such as boiler room and heat, steam and incineration plant. "Life cycle costing" is a broad term and encompasses a wide range of techniques that take into account both initial and future costs as well as the savings of an investment over a period of time.

  17. Boundaries of life: estimating the life span of the biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, S.; Bounama, C.; von Bloh, W.

    We present a minimal model for the global carbon cycle of the Earth containing the reservoirs mantle ocean floor continental crust continental biosphere and the Kerogen as well as the aggregated reservoir ocean and atmosphere and obtain reasonable values for the present distribution of carbon in the surface reservoirs of the Earth The Earth system model for the long-term carbon cycle is specified by introducing three different types of biosphere prokaryotes eucaryotes and complex multicellular life They are characterized by different global temperature tolerance windows prokaryotes 2oC 100oC eucaryotes 5oC 45oC complex multicellular life 0oC 30oC From the Archaean to the future there always exists a prokaryotic biosphere 2 Gyr ago eucaryotic life first appears because the global surface temperature reaches the tolerance window for eucaryotes The emergence of complex multicellular life is connected with an explosive increase in biomass and a strong decrease in Cambrian global surface temperature at about 0 54 Gyr ago In the long-term future the three types of biosphere will die out in reverse sequence of their appearance For realistic values of the biotic enhancement of weathering there is no bistability in the future solutions for complex life Therefore complex organisms will not extinct by an implosion in comparison to the Cambrian explosion Eucaryotes and complex life become extinct because of too high surface temperatures in the future The ultimate life span of the biosphere is defined by the extinction of procaryotes in about 1 6 Gyr

  18. Photovoltaics: Life-cycle Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis V. M.; Kim, H.C.

    2009-10-02

    Life-cycle analysis is an invaluable tool for investigating the environmental profile of a product or technology from cradle to grave. Such life-cycle analyses of energy technologies are essential, especially as material and energy flows are often interwoven, and divergent emissions into the environment may occur at different life-cycle-stages. This approach is well exemplified by our description of material and energy flows in four commercial PV technologies, i.e., mono-crystalline silicon, multi-crystalline silicon, ribbon-silicon, and cadmium telluride. The same life-cycle approach is applied to the balance of system that supports flat, fixed PV modules during operation. We also discuss the life-cycle environmental metrics for a concentration PV system with a tracker and lenses to capture more sunlight per cell area than the flat, fixed system but requires large auxiliary components. Select life-cycle risk indicators for PV, i.e., fatalities, injures, and maximum consequences are evaluated in a comparative context with other electricity-generation pathways.

  19. What's Wrong with Youth Service? Occasional Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halperin, Samuel

    The resurgence of national interest in youth service is due, in large part, to the national organizations that have grown so vigorously in recent years. Some explanations for the almost sudden reappearance of youth service as a nationwide issue are: (1) many Americans are fed up with narcissism, personal gratification, and me-centered pursuits;…

  20. Joe Knew There Was Something Wrong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coval, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a poem about Joe Cytrynbaum. The poem brings together all the many facets of Joe's personality into a crystal-clear image of the beautiful, smart, and magnanimous individual Joe's family, friends, students, and colleagues all knew him to be.