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Sample records for x-linked inherited disorder

  1. A Simulation of X-Linked Inheritance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo

    1997-01-01

    Describes how to lead students through a classroom-based simulation to teach a variety of concepts such as X-linked traits, sex determination, and sex anomalies. The simulation utilizes inexpensive materials such as plastic eggs that twist apart to represent human eggs and sperm. (AIM)

  2. Paternal inheritance of classic X-linked bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Burkhard S; Kurzbuch, Katrin; Chang, Bernard S; Pauli, Elisabeth; Hamer, Hajo M; Winkler, Jürgen; Hehr, Ute

    2013-06-01

    Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) is a developmental disorder of the central nervous system, characterized by heterotopic nodules of gray matter resulting from disturbed neuronal migration. The most common form of bilateral PNH is X-linked dominant inherited, caused by mutations in the Filamin A gene (FLNA) and associated with a wide variety of other clinical findings including congenital heart disease. The typical patient with FLNA-associated PNH is female and presents with difficult to treat seizures. In contrast, hemizygous FLNA loss of function mutations in males are reported to be perinatally lethal. In X-linked dominant traits like FLNA-associated PNH the causal mutation is commonly inherited from the mother. Here, we present an exceptional family with paternal transmission of classic bilateral FLNA-associated PNH from a mildly affected father with somatic and germline mosaicism for a c.5686G>A FLNA splice mutation to both daughters with strikingly variable clinical manifestation and PNH extent in cerebral MR imaging. Our observations emphasize the importance to consider in genetic counseling and risk assessment the rare genetic constellation of paternal transmission for families with X-linked dominant inherited FLNA-associated PNH. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Non-syndromic posterior lenticonus a cause of childhood cataract: evidence for X-linked inheritance.

    PubMed

    Russell-Eggitt, I M

    2000-12-01

    When an X-linked pedigree of posterior lenticonus with cataract was identified further evidence for X-linked inheritance of this condition was sought. Forty-three cases of posterior lenticonus were identified from a database of 354 children with cataract. Two children with the X-linked syndromes of Lowe and Nance-Horan and 3 children with Fanconi syndrome have been excluded from further analysis. None of the children was deaf. None of the non-syndromic cases had microcornea. There were 38 cases of non-syndromic posterior lenticonus (approximately 11%). There were 15 children from 13 pedigrees and 23 apparently sporadic cases. Of the 106 cases on the database with unilateral cataract 15 had posterior lenticonus (approximately 14%). Eleven of 13 pedigrees were compatible with X-linked inheritance or autosomal dominant inheritance with variable expression. However, in 2 pedigrees there was father to son transmission. Posterior lenticonus is a common cause of unilateral infantile cataract, but is thought to be a rare cause of bilateral cataracts. This study suggests that posterior lenticonus is responsible for a significant proportion of childhood cataracts (approximately 14% of unilateral and approximately 9% of bilateral cases). Posterior lenticonus is generally thought to occur as a sporadic condition. This study demonstrates that there is a family history of early-onset cataract in a significant number of bilateral cases (approximately 58%).

  4. Malformations among 289,365 Births Attributed to Mutations with Autosomal Dominant and Recessive and X-Linked Inheritance.

    PubMed

    Toufaily, M Hassan; Westgate, Marie-Noel; Nasri, Hanah; Holmes, Lewis B

    2018-01-01

    The number of malformations attributed to mutations with autosomal or X-linked patterns of inheritance has increased steadily since the cataloging began in the 1960s. These diagnoses have been based primarily on the pattern of phenotypic features among close relatives. A malformations surveillance program conducted in consecutive pregnancies can identify both known and "new" hereditary disorders. The Active Malformations Surveillance Program was carried out among 289,365 births over 41 years (1972-2012) at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston. The findings recorded by examining pediatricians and all consultants were reviewed by study clinicians to establish the most likely diagnoses. The findings in laboratory testing in the newborn period were reviewed, as well. One hundred ninety-six (0.06%) infants among 289,365 births had a malformation or malformation syndrome that was attributed to Mendelian inheritance. A total of 133 (68%) of the hereditary malformations were attributed to autosomal dominant inheritance, with 94 (71%) attributed to apparent spontaneous mutations. Forty-six (23%) were attributed to mutations with autosomal recessive inheritance, 17 associated with consanguinity. Seventeen (9%) were attributed to X-linked inheritance. Fifteen novel familial phenotypes were identified. The family histories showed that most (53 to 71%) of the affected infants were born, as a surprise, to healthy, unaffected parents. It is important for clinicians to discuss with surprised healthy parents how they can have an infant with an hereditary condition. Future studies, using DNA samples from consecutive populations of infants with malformations and whole genome sequencing, will identify many more mutations in loci associated with mendelizing phenotypes. Birth Defects Research 110:92-97, 2018.© 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked sideroblastic anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions X-linked sideroblastic anemia X-linked sideroblastic anemia Printable PDF Open All Close ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description X-linked sideroblastic anemia is an inherited disorder that ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome Alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome Printable PDF Open All ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome is an inherited disorder ...

  7. Simultaneous Occurence of an Autosomal Dominant Inherited MSX1 Mutation and an X-linked Recessive Inherited EDA Mutation in One Chinese Family with Non-syndromic Oligodontia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao Xia; Wong, Sing Wai; Han, Dong; Feng, Hai Lan

    2015-01-01

    To describe the simultaneous occurence of an autosomal dominant inherited MSX1 mutation and an X-linked recessive inherited EDA mutation in one Chinese family with nonsyndromic oligodontia. Clinical data of characteristics of tooth agenesis were collected. MSX1 and EDA gene mutations were detected in a Chinese family of non-syndromic oligodontia. Mild hypodontia in the parents and severe oligodontia in the son was recorded. A novel missense heterozygous mutation c.517C>A (p.Arg173Ser) was detected in the MSX1 gene in the boy and the father. A homozygous missense mutation c.1001G>A (p.Arg334His) was detected in the EDA gene in the boy and the same mutant occurred heterozygously in the mother. Simultaneous occurence of two different gene mutations with different inheritence patterns, which both caused oligodontia, which occurred in one subject and in one family, was reported.

  8. X-linked hypophosphataemia: a homologous disorder in humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Tenenhouse, H S

    1999-02-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemia is an inherited disorder of phosphate (Pi) homeostasis characterized by growth retardation, rickets and osteomalacia, hypophosphataemia, and aberrant renal Pi reabsorption and vitamin D metabolism. Studies in murine Hyp and Gy homologues have identified a specific defect in Na+-Pi cotransport at the brush border membrane, abnormal regulation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D) synthesis and degradation, and an intrinsic defect in bone mineralization. The mutant gene has been identified in XLH patients, by positional cloning, and in Hyp and Gy mice, and was designated PHEX/Phex to signify a PHosphate-regulating gene with homology to Endopeptidases on the X chromosome. PHEX/Phex is expressed in bones and teeth but not in kidney and efforts are under way to elucidate how loss of PHEX/Phex function elicits the mutant phenotype. Based on its homology to endopeptidases, it is postulated that PHEX/Phex is involved in the activation or inactivation of a peptide hormone(s) which plays a key role in the regulation of bone mineralization, renal Pi handling and vitamin D metabolism.

  9. A previously unreported, dominantly inherited syndrome of shortness of stature, ear malformations, and hip dislocation: the coxoauricular syndrome--autosomal or X-linked male-lethal.

    PubMed

    Duca, D; Pană, I; Ciovirnache, M; Simionesu, L; Ispas, I; Maxililian, C

    1981-01-01

    We reported an apparently previously undescribed syndrome, designated the coxoauricular syndrome, in a mother and her 3 daughters, all of whom shared in variable manner shortness of stature, minor vertebral and pelvic changes, dislocated hip(s), and microtia with corresponding hearing loss. The oldest daughter had coincidental Ullrich-Turner syndrome with 46, Xdel(X)(q 13) chromosome constitution. Inheritance of the trait in this family is dominant, either autosomal or X-linked, with hemizygote lethality.

  10. Inherited metabolic disorders in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wasant, Pornswan; Svasti, Jisnuson; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Liammongkolkul, Somporn

    2002-08-01

    The study of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) in Thailand is in its infancy. The majority are clinically diagnosed since there are only a handful of clinicians and scientists with expertise in inherited metabolic disorders, shortage of well-equipped laboratory facilities and lack of governmental financial support. Genetic metabolic disorders are usually not considered a priority due to prevalence of infectious diseases and congenital infections. From a retrospective study at the Medical Genetics Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Siriraj Hospital; estimated pediatrics patients with suspected IEM were approximately 2-3 per cent of the total pediatric admissions of over 5,000 annually. After more than 10 years of research and accumulated clinical experiences, a genetic metabolic center is being established in collaboration with expert laboratories both in Bangkok (Chulabhorn Research Institute) and abroad (Japan and the United States). Numerous inherited metabolic disorders were identified--carbohydrate, amino acids, organic acids, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, peroxisomal, mucopolysaccharidoses etc. This report includes the establishment of genetic metabolic center in Thailand, research and pilot studies in newborn screening in Thailand and a multicenter study from 5 institutions (Children's National Center, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Pramongkutklao Hospital, Ramathibodi and Siriraj Hospitals). Inherited metabolic disorders reported are fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency, phenylketonuria, homocystinuria, nonketotic hyperglycinemia, urea cycle defect (arginino succinate lyase deficiency, argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency), Menkes disease, propionic acidemia and mucopolysaccharidoses (Hurler, Hurler-Scheie).

  11. X-linked cataract and Nance-Horan syndrome are allelic disorders.

    PubMed

    Coccia, Margherita; Brooks, Simon P; Webb, Tom R; Christodoulou, Katja; Wozniak, Izabella O; Murday, Victoria; Balicki, Martha; Yee, Harris A; Wangensteen, Teresia; Riise, Ruth; Saggar, Anand K; Park, Soo-Mi; Kanuga, Naheed; Francis, Peter J; Maher, Eamonn R; Moore, Anthony T; Russell-Eggitt, Isabelle M; Hardcastle, Alison J

    2009-07-15

    Nance-Horan syndrome (NHS) is an X-linked developmental disorder characterized by congenital cataract, dental anomalies, facial dysmorphism and, in some cases, mental retardation. Protein truncation mutations in a novel gene (NHS) have been identified in patients with this syndrome. We previously mapped X-linked congenital cataract (CXN) in one family to an interval on chromosome Xp22.13 which encompasses the NHS locus; however, no mutations were identified in the NHS gene. In this study, we show that NHS and X-linked cataract are allelic diseases. Two CXN families, which were negative for mutations in the NHS gene, were further analysed using array comparative genomic hybridization. CXN was found to be caused by novel copy number variations: a complex duplication-triplication re-arrangement and an intragenic deletion, predicted to result in altered transcriptional regulation of the NHS gene. Furthermore, we also describe the clinical and molecular analysis of seven families diagnosed with NHS, identifying four novel protein truncation mutations and a novel large deletion encompassing the majority of the NHS gene, all leading to no functional protein. We therefore show that different mechanisms, aberrant transcription of the NHS gene or no functional NHS protein, lead to different diseases. Our data highlight the importance of copy number variation and non-recurrent re-arrangements leading to different severity of disease and describe the potential mechanisms involved.

  12. X-linked cataract and Nance-Horan syndrome are allelic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Coccia, Margherita; Brooks, Simon P.; Webb, Tom R.; Christodoulou, Katja; Wozniak, Izabella O.; Murday, Victoria; Balicki, Martha; Yee, Harris A.; Wangensteen, Teresia; Riise, Ruth; Saggar, Anand K.; Park, Soo-Mi; Kanuga, Naheed; Francis, Peter J.; Maher, Eamonn R.; Moore, Anthony T.; Russell-Eggitt, Isabelle M.; Hardcastle, Alison J.

    2009-01-01

    Nance-Horan syndrome (NHS) is an X-linked developmental disorder characterized by congenital cataract, dental anomalies, facial dysmorphism and, in some cases, mental retardation. Protein truncation mutations in a novel gene (NHS) have been identified in patients with this syndrome. We previously mapped X-linked congenital cataract (CXN) in one family to an interval on chromosome Xp22.13 which encompasses the NHS locus; however, no mutations were identified in the NHS gene. In this study, we show that NHS and X-linked cataract are allelic diseases. Two CXN families, which were negative for mutations in the NHS gene, were further analysed using array comparative genomic hybridization. CXN was found to be caused by novel copy number variations: a complex duplication–triplication re-arrangement and an intragenic deletion, predicted to result in altered transcriptional regulation of the NHS gene. Furthermore, we also describe the clinical and molecular analysis of seven families diagnosed with NHS, identifying four novel protein truncation mutations and a novel large deletion encompassing the majority of the NHS gene, all leading to no functional protein. We therefore show that different mechanisms, aberrant transcription of the NHS gene or no functional NHS protein, lead to different diseases. Our data highlight the importance of copy number variation and non-recurrent re-arrangements leading to different severity of disease and describe the potential mechanisms involved. PMID:19414485

  13. Inherited Disorders of Bilirubin Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Naureen; Weinberger, Barry I; Hegyi, Thomas; Aleksunes, Lauren M

    2016-01-01

    Inherited disorders of hyperbilirubinemia may be caused by increased bilirubin production or decreased bilirubin clearance. Reduced hepatic bilirubin clearance can be due to defective 1) unconjugated bilirubin uptake and intrahepatic storage, 2) conjugation of glucuronic acid to bilirubin (e.g. Gilbert syndrome, Crigler-Najjar syndrome, Lucey-Driscoll syndrome, breast milk jaundice), 3) bilirubin excretion into bile (Dubin-Johnson syndrome), or 4) conjugated bilirubin re-uptake (Rotor syndrome). In this review, the molecular mechanisms and clinical manifestations of these conditions are described, as well as current approaches to diagnosis and therapy. PMID:26595536

  14. Localisation of the gene for X-linked reticulate pigmentary disorder with systemic manifestations (PDR), previously known as X-linked cutaneous amyloidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Gedeon, A.K.; Mulley, J.C.; Kozman, H.

    1994-08-01

    X-linked reticulate pigmentary disorder (PDR), previously reported as X-linked cutaneous amyloidosis (MIM No. 301220), is characterized by brown pigmentation of the skin which follows the lines of Blaschko in females but appears as reticulate sheets in males. Males may suffer severe gastrointestinal disorders in infancy with failure to thrive and early death. Nowadays symptomatic treatment allows survival and other manifestations may appear such as corneal dystrophy with severe photophobia or chronic respiratory disease. Amyloid deposition in the skin may be no more than an age-dependent secondary manifestation. The PDR gene was localized by linkage analysis to Xp21-p22. The background geneticmore » map is Xpter-DXS996-22.5-DXS207-3.3-DXS999-3.3-DXS365-14.2-DXS989-4.1-3`DMD-3.5-DXS997-1.0-STR44-9.3-DYSI-2.3-DXS1068-11.0-DXS228 with distances between markers given in cM. Recombinants detected with DXS999 distally and DXS228 proximally, define the limits to the localization. Linkage was found with several markers within this interval. Peak lod scores of 3.21 at {theta} = 0.0 were obtained between PDR and DXS989 and between PDR and 5`DYSI within the dystrophin locus. 29 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  15. JS-X syndrome: A multiple congenital malformation with vocal cord paralysis, ear deformity, hearing loss, shoulder musculature underdevelopment, and X-linked recessive inheritance.

    PubMed

    Hoeve, Hans L J; Brooks, Alice S; Smit, Liesbeth S

    2015-07-01

    We report on a family with a not earlier described multiple congenital malformation. Several male family members suffer from laryngeal obstruction caused by bilateral vocal cord paralysis, outer and middle ear deformity with conductive and sensorineural hearing loss, facial dysmorphisms, and underdeveloped shoulder musculature. The affected female members only have middle ear deformity and hearing loss. The pedigree is suggestive of an X-linked recessive inheritance pattern. SNP-array revealed a deletion and duplication on Xq28 in the affected family members. A possible aetiology is a neurocristopathy with most symptoms expressed in structures derived from branchial arches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Renal involvement in the immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) disorder.

    PubMed

    Sheikine, Yuri; Woda, Craig B; Lee, Pui Y; Chatila, Talal A; Keles, Sevgi; Charbonnier, Louis-Marie; Schmidt, Birgitta; Rosen, Seymour; Rodig, Nancy M

    2015-07-01

    Immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) disorder is an autoimmune disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) transcription factor. These mutations affect the normal function of circulating regulatory T cells. IPEX is characterized by profound immune dysregulation leading to dermatitis, enteropathy, multiple endocrinopathies and failure to thrive. Different forms of renal injury have also been noted in these patients but these have been described to a very limited extent. Three patients with IPEX with characteristic renal findings and mutations in FOXP3, including one novel mutation, are described. Case presentations are followed by a review of the renal manifestations noted in IPEX and the range of therapeutic options for this disorder. We recommend that IPEX be considered in the differential diagnosis of young children who present with signs of immune dysregulation with a concomitant renal biopsy demonstrating immune complex deposition in a membranous-like pattern and/or interstitial nephritis.

  17. Mutations in apoptosis-inducing factor cause X-linked recessive auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Liang; Guan, Jing; Ealy, Megan; Zhang, Qiujing; Wang, Dayong; Wang, Hongyang; Zhao, Yali; Shen, Zhirong; Campbell, Colleen A; Wang, Fengchao; Yang, Ju; Sun, Wei; Lan, Lan; Ding, Dalian; Xie, Linyi; Qi, Yue; Lou, Xin; Huang, Xusheng; Shi, Qiang; Chang, Suhua; Xiong, Wenping; Yin, Zifang; Yu, Ning; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jing; Salvi, Richard J; Petit, Christine; Smith, Richard J H; Wang, Qiuju

    2015-01-01

    Background Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) is a form of hearing loss in which auditory signal transmission from the inner ear to the auditory nerve and brain stem is distorted, giving rise to speech perception difficulties beyond that expected for the observed degree of hearing loss. For many cases of ANSD, the underlying molecular pathology and the site of lesion remain unclear. The X-linked form of the condition, AUNX1, has been mapped to Xq23-q27.3, although the causative gene has yet to be identified. Methods We performed whole-exome sequencing on DNA samples from the AUNX1 family and another small phenotypically similar but unrelated ANSD family. Results We identified two missense mutations in AIFM1 in these families: c.1352G>A (p.R451Q) in the AUNX1 family and c.1030C>T (p.L344F) in the second ANSD family. Mutation screening in a large cohort of 3 additional unrelated families and 93 sporadic cases with ANSD identified 9 more missense mutations in AIFM1. Bioinformatics analysis and expression studies support this gene as being causative of ANSD. Conclusions Variants in AIFM1 gene are a common cause of familial and sporadic ANSD and provide insight into the expanded spectrum of AIFM1-associated diseases. The finding of cochlear nerve hypoplasia in some patients was AIFM1-related ANSD implies that MRI may be of value in localising the site of lesion and suggests that cochlea implantation in these patients may have limited success. PMID:25986071

  18. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked thrombocytopenia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions X-linked thrombocytopenia X-linked thrombocytopenia Printable PDF Open All Close All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description X-linked thrombocytopenia is a bleeding disorder that primarily ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions X-linked SCID X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency Printable PDF Open All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is an inherited ...

  20. Primer in Genetics and Genomics, Article 4-Inheritance Patterns.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Lisa B; Chiatti, Beth Desaretz

    2017-07-01

    Since the completion of the Human Genome Project, much has been uncovered about inheritance of various illnesses and disorders. There are two main types of inheritance: Mendelian and non-Mendelian. Mendelian inheritance includes autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked, and Y-linked inheritance. Non-Mendelian inheritance includes mitochondrial and multifactorial inheritance. Nurses must understand the types of inheritance in order to identify red flags that may indicate the possibility of a hereditary disorder in a patient or family.

  1. Severe manifestations in carrier females in X linked retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed Central

    Souied, E; Segues, B; Ghazi, I; Rozet, J M; Chatelin, S; Gerber, S; Perrault, I; Michel-Awad, A; Briard, M L; Plessis, G; Dufier, J L; Munnich, A; Kaplan, J

    1997-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of progressive hereditary disorders of the retina in which various modes of inheritance have been described. Here, we report on X linked RP in nine families with constant and severe expression in carrier females. In our series, however, the phenotype was milder and delayed in carrier females compared to hemizygous males. This form of X linked RP could be regarded therefore as partially dominant. The disease gene maps to chromosome Xp2.1 in the genetic interval encompassing the RP3 locus (Zmax=13.71 at the DXS1100 locus). Single strand conformation polymorphism and direct sequence analysis of the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR) gene, which accounts for RP3, failed to detect any mutation in our families. Future advances in the identification of X linked RP genes will hopefully help to elucidate the molecular basis of this X linked dominant RP. Images PMID:9350809

  2. Craniofacioskeletal Syndrome: An X-Linked Dominant Disorder With Early Lethality in Males

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Roger E.; Brasington, Cam K.; Skinner, Cindy; Simensen, Richard J.; Spence, J. Edward; Kesler, Shelli; Reiss, Allan L.; Schwartz, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    A syndrome with multisystem manifestations has been observed in three generations of a Caucasian family. The findings in seven females provide a composite clinical picture of microcephaly, short stature, small retroverted ears, full tip of the nose overhanging the columella, short philtrum, thin upper lip, soft tissue excrescences at the angle of the mouth, small mandible, small hands and feet with brachydactyly, finger V clinodactyly, flat feet, an excessive number of fingerprint arches, and mild impairment of cognitive function. Two males were more severely affected and died in the initial months of life. They showed intrauterine growth retardation, broad cranium with wide sutures and fontanelles, cardiac defects, small hands and feet with abnormal digital creases and small nails, and genital abnormalities. The affected males had low serum calcium in the neonatal period. Serum calcium, phosphorous, and parathormone levels in the females were normal. Radiographs showed cortical thickening of the long bones, underdevelopment of the frontal sinuses, narrow pelvis and hypoplasia of the middle phalanx of finger five. MRI of the brain showed slightly reduced brain volumes and an extra gyrus of the superior temporal region. X-inactivation studies showed near complete skewing in two affected females, but were not informative in three others. X-linkage as the mode of inheritance is proposed on the basis of different severity in males/females, complete skewing of X-inactivation in informative females, and a lod score (1.5) suggestive of linkage to markers in Xq26-q27. PMID:17853486

  3. Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) and IPEX-related disorders: an evolving web of heritable autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Verbsky, James W; Chatila, Talal A

    2013-12-01

    To summarize recent progress in our understanding of immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) and IPEX-related disorders. A number of Mendelian disorders of immune dysregulation and autoimmunity have been noted to result from defects in T regulatory cell, development and function. The best characterized of these is IPEX, resulting from mutations affecting FOXP3. A number of other gene defects that affect T regulatory cell function also give rise to IPEX-related phenotypes, including loss-of-function mutations in CD25, STAT5b and ITCH. Recent progress includes the identification of gain-of-function mutations in STAT1 as a cause of an IPEX-like disease, emerging FOXP3 genotype/phenotype relationships in IPEX, and the elucidation of a role for the microbiota in the immune dysregulation associated with regulatory T cell deficiency. An expanding spectrum of genetic defects that compromise T regulatory cell function underlies human disorders of immune dysregulation and autoimmunity. Collectively, these disorders offer novel insights into pathways of peripheral tolerance and their disruption in autoimmunity.

  4. A novel X-linked disorder with developmental delay and autistic features.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Namik; Colak, Dilek; Albakheet, Albandary; Al-Owain, Mohammad; Abu-Dheim, Nada; Al-Younes, Banan; Al-Zahrani, Jawaher; Mukaddes, Nahit M; Dervent, Aysin; Al-Dosari, Naji; Al-Odaib, Ali; Kayaalp, Inci V; Al-Sayed, Moeenaladin; Al-Hassnan, Zuhair; Nester, Michael J; Al-Dosari, Mohammad; Al-Dhalaan, Hesham; Chedrawi, Aziza; Gunoz, Hulya; Karakas, Bedri; Sakati, Nadia; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Gascon, Generaso G; Ozand, Pinar T

    2012-04-01

    Genomic duplications that lead to autism and other human diseases are interesting pathological lesions since the underlying mechanism almost certainly involves dosage sensitive genes. We aim to understand a novel genomic disorder with profound phenotypic consequences, most notably global developmental delay, autism, psychosis, and anorexia nervosa. We evaluated the affected individuals, all maternally related, using childhood autism rating scale (CARS) and Vineland Adaptive scales, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) brain, electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), muscle biopsy, high-resolution molecular karyotype arrays, Giemsa banding (G-banding) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing, X-chromosome inactivation study, global gene expression analysis on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblasts, and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We have identified a novel Xq12-q13.3 duplication in an extended family. Clinically normal mothers were completely skewed in favor of the normal chromosome X. Global transcriptional profiling of affected individuals and controls revealed significant alterations of genes and pathways in a pattern consistent with previous microarray studies of autism spectrum disorder patients. Moreover, expression analysis revealed copy number-dependent increased messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in affected patients compared to control individuals. A subset of differentially expressed genes was validated using qRT-PCR. Xq12-q13.3 duplication is a novel global developmental delay and autism-predisposing chromosomal aberration; pathogenesis of which may be mediated by increased dosage of genes contained in the duplication, including NLGN3, OPHN1, AR, EFNB1, TAF1, GJB1, and MED12. Copyright © 2011 American Neurological Association.

  5. β-Propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration: a new X-linked dominant disorder with brain iron accumulation.

    PubMed

    Hayflick, Susan J; Kruer, Michael C; Gregory, Allison; Haack, Tobias B; Kurian, Manju A; Houlden, Henry H; Anderson, James; Boddaert, Nathalie; Sanford, Lynn; Harik, Sami I; Dandu, Vasuki H; Nardocci, Nardo; Zorzi, Giovanna; Dunaway, Todd; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Skinner, Steven; Holden, Kenton R; Frucht, Steven; Hanspal, Era; Schrander-Stumpel, Connie; Mignot, Cyril; Héron, Delphine; Saunders, Dawn E; Kaminska, Margaret; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Lascelles, Karine; Cuno, Stephan M; Meyer, Esther; Garavaglia, Barbara; Bhatia, Kailash; de Silva, Rajith; Crisp, Sarah; Lunt, Peter; Carey, Martyn; Hardy, John; Meitinger, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; Hogarth, Penelope

    2013-06-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders with high iron in the basal ganglia encompass an expanding collection of single gene disorders collectively known as neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. These disorders can largely be distinguished from one another by their associated clinical and neuroimaging features. The aim of this study was to define the phenotype that is associated with mutations in WDR45, a new causative gene for neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation located on the X chromosome. The study subjects consisted of WDR45 mutation-positive individuals identified after screening a large international cohort of patients with idiopathic neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. Their records were reviewed, including longitudinal clinical, laboratory and imaging data. Twenty-three mutation-positive subjects were identified (20 females). The natural history of their disease was remarkably uniform: global developmental delay in childhood and further regression in early adulthood with progressive dystonia, parkinsonism and dementia. Common early comorbidities included seizures, spasticity and disordered sleep. The symptoms of parkinsonism improved with l-DOPA; however, nearly all patients experienced early motor fluctuations that quickly progressed to disabling dyskinesias, warranting discontinuation of l-DOPA. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed iron in the substantia nigra and globus pallidus, with a 'halo' of T1 hyperintense signal in the substantia nigra. All patients harboured de novo mutations in WDR45, encoding a beta-propeller protein postulated to play a role in autophagy. Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration, the only X-linked disorder of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, is associated with de novo mutations in WDR45 and is recognizable by a unique combination of clinical, natural history and neuroimaging features.

  6. Gene correction of induced pluripotent stem cells derived from a murine model of X-linked chronic granulomatous disorder.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sayandip; Thrasher, Adrian J

    2014-01-01

    Gene therapy presents an attractive alternative to allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for treating patients suffering from primary immunodeficiency disorder (PID). The conceptual advantage of gene correcting a patient's autologous HSCs lies in minimizing or completely avoiding immunological complications arising from allogeneic transplantation while conferring the same benefits of immune reconstitution upon long-term engraftment. Clinical trials targeting X-linked chronic granulomatous disorder (X-CGD) have shown promising results in this context. However, long-term clinical benefits in these patients have been limited by issues of poor engraftment of gene-transduced cells coupled with transgene silencing and vector induced clonal proliferation. Novel vectors incorporating safety features such as self-inactivating (SIN) mutations in the long terminal repeats (LTRs) along with synthetic promoters driving lineage-restricted sustainable expression of the gp91phox transgene are expected to resolve the current pitfalls and require rigorous preclinical testing. In this chapter, we have outlined a protocol in which X-CGD mouse model derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been utilized to develop a platform for investigating the efficacy and safety profiles of novel vectors prior to clinical evaluation.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita Printable PDF Open All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita is a disorder that ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked congenital stationary night blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions X-linked congenital stationary night blindness X-linked congenital stationary night blindness Printable PDF Open ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description X-linked congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata 1

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata 1 X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata 1 Printable PDF Open All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata 1 is a disorder of ...

  10. [Inherited metabolic disorders in pediatric emergency services].

    PubMed

    Molina Gutiérrez, M A; López López, R; Morais López, A; Bueno Barriocanal, M; Martínez Ojinaga Nodal, E; Alcolea Sánchez, A M; García García, S

    2015-06-01

    Advances in the early diagnosis and treatment have led to improved survival, and a better quality of life for patients with inherited metabolic disorders (IMD). They can go to the Pediatric Emergency Services (PES) for reasons unrelated to their disease. The purpose of this study was to review the characteristics of visitors to the PES of these patients in a tertiary hospital. A retrospective observational study was conducted on all visits from patients with IMD to the PES of Hospital Infantil La Paz over the years 2011 and 2012. IMD type, complaint, duration of symptoms, need for hospitalization, and presence of metabolic decompensation was recorded. A total of 107 visits were analyzed, with the most frequent reason being for consultation of respiratory processes (30.8%). When the consultation was for vomiting, patients with protein-related disorders were those who delayed less in going to PES. One third of visitors were admitted, half of them due to metabolic decompensation of the underlying pathology. Patients with IMD came to PES for many different reasons, which in some cases were the cause or consequence of an acute metabolic decompensation that led to hospitalization. Being diseases with low prevalence, it would be useful to have diagnostic and therapeutic protocols in order to provide optimal care. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-invasive fetal sex determination by maternal plasma sequencing and application in X-linked disorder counseling.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Chunlei; Li, Xuchao; Chen, Shengpei; Ge, Huijuan; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Fang; Jiang, Hui; Jiang, Fuman; Zhang, Hongyun; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xiuqing

    2014-12-01

    To develop a fetal sex determination method based on maternal plasma sequencing (MPS), assess its performance and potential use in X-linked disorder counseling. 900 cases of MPS data from a previous study were reviewed, in which 100 and 800 cases were used as training and validation set, respectively. The percentage of uniquely mapped sequencing reads on Y chromosome was calculated and used to classify male and female cases. Eight pregnant women who are carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) mutations were recruited, whose plasma were subjected to multiplex sequencing and fetal sex determination analysis. In the training set, a sensitivity of 96% and false positive rate of 0% for male cases detection were reached in our method. The blinded validation results showed 421 in 423 male cases and 374 in 377 female cases were successfully identified, revealing sensitivity and specificity of 99.53% and 99.20% for fetal sex determination, at as early as 12 gestational weeks. Fetal sex for all eight DMD genetic counseling cases were correctly identified, which were confirmed by amniocentesis. Based on MPS, high accuracy of non-invasive fetal sex determination can be achieved. This method can potentially be used for prenatal genetic counseling.

  12. Identification of rare X-linked neuroligin variants by massively parallel sequencing in males with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Karyn Meltz; Ramachandran, Dhanya; Patel, Viren C; Shetty, Amol C; Cutler, David J; Zwick, Michael E

    2012-09-28

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is highly heritable, but the genetic risk factors for it remain largely unknown. Although structural variants with large effect sizes may explain up to 15% ASD, genome-wide association studies have failed to uncover common single nucleotide variants with large effects on phenotype. The focus within ASD genetics is now shifting to the examination of rare sequence variants of modest effect, which is most often achieved via exome selection and sequencing. This strategy has indeed identified some rare candidate variants; however, the approach does not capture the full spectrum of genetic variation that might contribute to the phenotype. We surveyed two loci with known rare variants that contribute to ASD, the X-linked neuroligin genes by performing massively parallel Illumina sequencing of the coding and noncoding regions from these genes in males from families with multiplex autism. We annotated all variant sites and functionally tested a subset to identify other rare mutations contributing to ASD susceptibility. We found seven rare variants at evolutionary conserved sites in our study population. Functional analyses of the three 3' UTR variants did not show statistically significant effects on the expression of NLGN3 and NLGN4X. In addition, we identified two NLGN3 intronic variants located within conserved transcription factor binding sites that could potentially affect gene regulation. These data demonstrate the power of massively parallel, targeted sequencing studies of affected individuals for identifying rare, potentially disease-contributing variation. However, they also point out the challenges and limitations of current methods of direct functional testing of rare variants and the difficulties of identifying alleles with modest effects.

  13. Identification of rare X-linked neuroligin variants by massively parallel sequencing in males with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is highly heritable, but the genetic risk factors for it remain largely unknown. Although structural variants with large effect sizes may explain up to 15% ASD, genome-wide association studies have failed to uncover common single nucleotide variants with large effects on phenotype. The focus within ASD genetics is now shifting to the examination of rare sequence variants of modest effect, which is most often achieved via exome selection and sequencing. This strategy has indeed identified some rare candidate variants; however, the approach does not capture the full spectrum of genetic variation that might contribute to the phenotype. Methods We surveyed two loci with known rare variants that contribute to ASD, the X-linked neuroligin genes by performing massively parallel Illumina sequencing of the coding and noncoding regions from these genes in males from families with multiplex autism. We annotated all variant sites and functionally tested a subset to identify other rare mutations contributing to ASD susceptibility. Results We found seven rare variants at evolutionary conserved sites in our study population. Functional analyses of the three 3’ UTR variants did not show statistically significant effects on the expression of NLGN3 and NLGN4X. In addition, we identified two NLGN3 intronic variants located within conserved transcription factor binding sites that could potentially affect gene regulation. Conclusions These data demonstrate the power of massively parallel, targeted sequencing studies of affected individuals for identifying rare, potentially disease-contributing variation. However, they also point out the challenges and limitations of current methods of direct functional testing of rare variants and the difficulties of identifying alleles with modest effects. PMID:23020841

  14. Novel syndrome of cataracts, retinitis pigmentosa, late onset deafness and sperm abnormalities: a new Usher syndrome subtype with X-linked inheritance?

    PubMed

    Malekpour, Mahdi; Shahidi, Arash; Khorsandi Ashtiani, Mohammad Taghi; Motasaddi Zarandy, Masoud

    2007-07-15

    Tissues of the auditory, ocular and reproductive systems have some similarities in their protein families and structures. Consequently, syndromes comprising these systems are described. Hearing loss alone is a component of more than 400 known syndromes and is a common nonsyndromic congenital disorder. Here we describe a syndrome in five brothers with the distinctive presentation of late-onset progressive hearing loss, cataracts, retinitis pigmentosa, sperm motility and shape problems in a family from the Kurdish population in Iran. The clinical findings of these patients are presented in detail and compared to the classical Usher syndromes. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  15. Contemporary Medical and Surgical Management of X-linked Hypophosphatemic Rickets.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Melinda S; Grunseich, Karl; Carpenter, Thomas O

    2015-07-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemia is an inheritable disorder of renal phosphate wasting that clinically manifests with rachitic bone pathology. X-linked hypophosphatemia is frequently misdiagnosed and mismanaged. Optimized medical therapy is the cornerstone of treatment. Even with ideal medical management, progressive bony deformity may develop in some children and adults. Medical treatment is paramount to the success of orthopaedic surgical procedures in both children and adults with X-linked hypophosphatemia. Successful correction of complex, multiapical bone deformities found in patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia is possible with careful surgical planning and exacting surgical technique. Multiple methods of deformity correction are used, including acute and gradual correction. Treatment of some pediatric bony deformity with guided growth techniques may be possible. Copyright 2015 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

  16. Molecular genetics of inherited eye disorders.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, I M; Sasi, R

    1994-10-01

    In the past 10 y, there have been considerable advances in the mapping, isolation, and characterization of many genes for important ocular conditions: retinitis pigmentosa, Norrie disease, Waardenburg syndrome, choroideremia, aniridia, retinoblastoma, and others. The candidate gene approach has now supplemented classical linkage studies and positional cloning in the investigation of ocular disorders. Developmentally expressed genes and animal models have provided insights as to the etiology of other disorders. With this knowledge at hand, genetic counselling for heritable eye diseases has been greatly improved.

  17. PHENYLKETONURIA, AN INHERITED METABOLIC DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CENTERWALL, WILLARD R.; CENTERWALL, SIEGRIED A.

    ADDRESSED TO PUBLIC HEALTH WORKERS AND PHYSICIANS IN GENERAL PRACTICE, THE PAMPHLET INTRODUCES METHODS OF DETECTING AND MANAGING PHENYLKETONURIA, AN INHERITED METABOLIC DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION. INFORMATION, UPDATED FROM THE 1961 EDITION, IS INCLUDED ON THE INCIDENCE AND GENETICS, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND CLINICAL COURSE OF THE…

  18. A novel DCX missense mutation in a family with X-linked lissencephaly and subcortical band heterotopia syndrome inherited from a low-level somatic mosaic mother: Genetic and functional studies.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Meng-Han; Kuo, Pei-Wen; Myers, Candace T; Li, Shih-Wen; Lin, Wei-Che; Fu, Ting-Ying; Chang, Hsin-Yun; Mefford, Heather C; Chang, Yao-Chung; Tsai, Jin-Wu

    2016-09-01

    To study the genetics and functional alteration of a family with X-linked lissencephaly and subcortical band heterotopia. Five affected patients (one male with lissencephaly, four female with subcortical band heterotopia) and their relatives were studied. Sanger sequencing of DCX gene, allele specific PCR and molecular inversion probe technique were performed. Mutant and wild type of the gene products, namely doublecortin, were expressed in cells followed by immunostaining to explore the localization of doublecortin and microtubules in cells. In vitro microtubule-binding protein spin-down assay was performed to quantify the binding ability of doublecortin to microtubules. We identified a novel DCX mutation c.785A > G, p.Asp262Gly that segregated with the affected members of the family. Allele specific PCR and molecular inversion probe technique demonstrated that the asymptomatic female carrier had an 8% mutant allele fraction in DNA derived from peripheral leukocytes. This mother had 7 children, 4 of whom were affected and all four affected siblings carried the mutation. Functional study showed that the mutant doublecortin protein had a significant reduction of its ability to bind microtubules. Low level mosaicism could be a cause of inherited risk from asymptomatic parents for DCX related lissencephaly-subcortical band heterotopia spectrum. This is particularly important in terms of genetic counselling for recurrent risk of future pregnancies. The reduced binding affinity of mutant doublecortin may contribute to developmental malformation of the cerebral cortex. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mechanistic Insight into the Pathology of Polyalanine Expansion Disorders Revealed by a Mouse Model for X Linked Hypopituitarism

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, James; Piltz, Sandra; Rogers, Nicholas; McAninch, Dale; Rowley, Lynn; Thomas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Polyalanine expansions in transcription factors have been associated with eight distinct congenital human diseases. It is thought that in each case the polyalanine expansion causes misfolding of the protein that abrogates protein function. Misfolded proteins form aggregates when expressed in vitro; however, it is less clear whether aggregation is of relevance to these diseases in vivo. To investigate this issue, we used targeted mutagenesis of embryonic stem (ES) cells to generate mice with a polyalanine expansion mutation in Sox3 (Sox3-26ala) that is associated with X-linked Hypopituitarism (XH) in humans. By investigating both ES cells and chimeric mice, we show that endogenous polyalanine expanded SOX3 does not form protein aggregates in vivo but rather is present at dramatically reduced levels within the nucleus of mutant cells. Importantly, the residual mutant protein of chimeric embryos is able to rescue a block in gastrulation but is not sufficient for normal development of the hypothalamus, a region that is functionally compromised in Sox3 null embryos and individuals with XH. Together, these data provide the first definitive example of a disease-relevant PA mutant protein that is both nuclear and functional, thereby manifesting as a partial loss-of-function allele. PMID:23505376

  20. Identification of Four Novel Synonymous Substitutions in the X-Linked Genes Neuroligin 3 and Neuroligin 4X in Japanese Patients with Autistic Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Yanagi, Kumiko; Kaname, Tadashi; Wakui, Keiko; Hashimoto, Ohiko; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Naritomi, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the X-linked genes neuroligin 3 (NLGN3) and neuroligin 4X (NLGN4X) were first implicated in the pathogenesis of X-linked autism in Swedish families. However, reports of mutations in these genes in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients from various ethnic backgrounds present conflicting results regarding the etiology of ASD, possibly because of genetic heterogeneity and/or differences in their ethnic background. Additional mutation screening study on another ethnic background could help to clarify the relevance of the genes to ASD. We scanned the entire coding regions of NLGN3 and NLGN4X in 62 Japanese patients with ASD by polymerase chain reaction-high-resolution melting curve and direct sequencing analyses. Four synonymous substitutions, one in NLGN3 and three in NLGN4X, were identified in four of the 62 patients. These substitutions were not present in 278 control X-chromosomes from unrelated Japanese individuals and were not registered in the database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms build 132 or in the Japanese Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms database, indicating that they were novel and specific to ASD. Though further analysis is necessary to determine the physiological and clinical importance of such substitutions, the possibility of the relevance of both synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions with the etiology of ASD should be considered.

  1. Identification of Four Novel Synonymous Substitutions in the X-Linked Genes Neuroligin 3 and Neuroligin 4X in Japanese Patients with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yanagi, Kumiko; Kaname, Tadashi; Wakui, Keiko; Hashimoto, Ohiko; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Naritomi, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the X-linked genes neuroligin 3 (NLGN3) and neuroligin 4X (NLGN4X) were first implicated in the pathogenesis of X-linked autism in Swedish families. However, reports of mutations in these genes in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients from various ethnic backgrounds present conflicting results regarding the etiology of ASD, possibly because of genetic heterogeneity and/or differences in their ethnic background. Additional mutation screening study on another ethnic background could help to clarify the relevance of the genes to ASD. We scanned the entire coding regions of NLGN3 and NLGN4X in 62 Japanese patients with ASD by polymerase chain reaction-high-resolution melting curve and direct sequencing analyses. Four synonymous substitutions, one in NLGN3 and three in NLGN4X, were identified in four of the 62 patients. These substitutions were not present in 278 control X-chromosomes from unrelated Japanese individuals and were not registered in the database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms build 132 or in the Japanese Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms database, indicating that they were novel and specific to ASD. Though further analysis is necessary to determine the physiological and clinical importance of such substitutions, the possibility of the relevance of both synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions with the etiology of ASD should be considered. PMID:22934180

  2. Gynaecological and obstetric management of women with inherited bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Demers, Christine; Derzko, Christine; David, Michèle; Douglas, Joanne

    2006-10-01

    The prevalence of bleeding disorders, notably von Willebrand disease (vWD), among adult women with objectively documented menorrhagia is consistently reported to be 10% to 20% and is even higher in adolescents presenting with menorrhagia. This consensus document has been developed by a multidisciplinary committee consisting of an anesthesiologist, 2 hematologists, and an obstetrician/gynaecologist and has been endorsed by their relevant specialty bodies. It has been prepared with the express purpose of providing guidelines for both women with inherited bleeding disorders and for their caregivers regarding the gynaecological and obstetric management of these women, including appropriate anesthesia support where indicated. Diagnostic tools and specific medical and, where appropriate, surgical alternatives to management are reviewed and evidence-based recommendations presented. A MEDLINE search of the English literature between January 1975 and November 2003 was performed using the following key words: menorrhagia, uterine bleeding, pregnancy, von Willebrand, congenital bleeding disorder, desmopressin/DDAVP, tranexamic acid, oral contraceptives, medroxyprogesterone, therapy, hysterectomy, anesthesia, epidural, spinal. Recommendations from other society guidelines were reviewed. 1. Inherited bleeding disorders should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all patients presenting with menorrhagia (II-2B). The graphical scoring system presented is a validated tool which offers a simple yet practical method that can be used by patients to quantify their blood loss (II-2B). 2. Because underlying bleeding disorders are frequent in women with menorrhagia, physicians should consider performing a hemoglobin/hematocrit, platelet count, ferritin, PT (INR) and APTT in women with menorrhagia. In women who have a personal history of other bleeding or a family history of bleeding, further investigation should be considered, including a vWD workup (factor VIII, vWF antigen

  3. Gynaecological and obstetric management of women with inherited bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Demers, Christine; Derzko, Christine; David, Michèle; Douglas, Joanne

    2005-07-01

    The prevalence of bleeding disorders, notably von Willebrand disease (vWD), among adult women with objectively documented menorrhagia is consistently reported to be 10% to 20% and is even higher in adolescents presenting with menorrhagia. This consensus document has been developed by a multidisciplinary committee consisting of an anesthesiologist, 2 hematologists, and an obstetrician/gynaecologist and has been endorsed by their relevant specialty bodies. It has been prepared with the express purpose of providing guidelines for both women with inherited bleeding disorders and for their caregivers regarding the gynaecological and obstetric management of these women, including appropriate anesthesia support where indicated. Diagnostic tools and specific medical and, where appropriate, surgical alternatives to management are reviewed and evidence-based recommendations presented. A MEDLINE search of the English literature between January 1975 and November 2003 was performed using the following key words: menorrhagia, uterine bleeding, pregnancy, von Willebrand, congenital bleeding disorder, desmopressin/DDAVP, tranexamic acid, oral contraceptives, medroxyprogesterone, therapy, hysterectomy, anesthesia, epidural, spinal. Recommendations from other society guidelines were reviewed. 1. Inherited bleeding disorders should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all patients presenting with menorrhagia (II-2B). The graphical scoring system presented is a validated tool which offers a simple yet practical method that can be used by patients to quantify their blood loss (II-2B). 2. Because underlying bleeding disorders are frequent in women with menorrhagia, physicians should consider performing a hemoglobin/hematocrit, platelet count, ferritin, PT (INR) and APTT in women with menorrhagia. In women who have a personal history of other bleeding or a family history of bleeding, further investigation should be considered, including a vWD workup (factor VIII, vWF antigen

  4. [Gene Therapy for Inherited RETINAL AND OPTIC NERVE Disorders: Current Knowledge].

    PubMed

    Ďuďáková, Ľ; Kousal, B; Kolářová, H; Hlavatá, L; Lišková, P

    The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of current gene therapy clinical trials for monogenic and optic nerve disorders.The number of genes for which gene-based therapies are being developed is growing. At the time of writing this review gene-based clinical trials have been registered for Leber congenital amaurosis 2 (LCA2), retinitis pigmentosa 38, Usher syndrome 1B, Stargardt disease, choroideremia, achromatopsia, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and X-linked retinoschisis. Apart from RPE65 gene therapy for LCA2 and MT-ND4 for LHON which has reached phase III, all other trials are in investigation phase I and II, i.e. testing the efficacy and safety.Because of the relatively easy accessibility of the retina and its ease of visualization which allows monitoring of efficacy, gene-based therapies for inherited retinal disorders represent a very promising treatment option. With the development of novel therapeutic approaches, the importance of establishing not only clinical but also molecular genetic diagnosis is obvious.Key words: gene therapy, monogenic retinal diseases, optic nerve atrophy, mitochondrial disease.

  5. Mapping the x-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Skare, J.C.; Milunsky, A.; Byron, K.S.

    1987-04-01

    The X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is triggered by Epstein-Barr virus infection and results in fatal mononucleosis, immunodeficiency, and lymphoproliferative disorders. This study shows that the mutation responsible for X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is genetically linked to a restriction fragment length polymorphism detected with the DXS42 probe (from Xq24-q27). The most likely recombination frequency between the loci is 4%, and the associated logarithm of the odds is 5.26. Haplotype analysis using flanking restriction fragment length polymorphism markers indicates that the locus for X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is distal to probe DXS42 but proximal to probe DXS99 (from Xq26-q27). It is now possible to predictmore » which members of a family with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome are carrier females and to diagnose the syndrome prenatally.« less

  6. Inherited disorders of voltage-gated sodium channels

    PubMed Central

    George, Alfred L.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of inherited human disorders affecting skeletal muscle contraction, heart rhythm, and nervous system function have been traced to mutations in genes encoding voltage-gated sodium channels. Clinical severity among these conditions ranges from mild or even latent disease to life-threatening or incapacitating conditions. The sodium channelopathies were among the first recognized ion channel diseases and continue to attract widespread clinical and scientific interest. An expanding knowledge base has substantially advanced our understanding of structure-function and genotype-phenotype relationships for voltage-gated sodium channels and provided new insights into the pathophysiological basis for common diseases such as cardiac arrhythmias and epilepsy. PMID:16075039

  7. Identification of amphiphysin 1 as an endogenous substrate for CDKL5, a protein kinase associated with X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Mari; Katayama, Syouichi; Hatano, Naoya; Shigeri, Yasushi; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki; Kameshita, Isamu

    2013-07-15

    Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) is a Ser/Thr protein kinase predominantly expressed in brain and mutations of its gene are known to be associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as X-linked West syndrome and Rett syndrome. However, the physiological substrates of CDKL5 that are directly linked to these neurodevelopmental disorders are currently unknown. In this study, we explored endogenous substrates for CDKL5 in mouse brain extracts fractionated by a liquid-phase isoelectric focusing. In conjunction with CDKL5 phosphorylation assay, this approach detected a protein band with an apparent molecular mass of 120kDa that is remarkably phosphorylated by CDKL5. This 120-kDa protein was identified as amphiphysin 1 (Amph1) by LC-MS/MS analysis, and the site of phosphorylation by CDKL5 was determined to be Ser-293. The phosphorylation mimic mutants, Amph1(S293E) and Amph1(S293D), showed significantly reduced affinity for endophilin, a protein involved in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. Introduction of point mutations in the catalytic domain of CDKL5, which are disease-causing missense mutations found in Rett patients, resulted in the impairment of kinase activity toward Amph1. These results suggest that Amph1 is the cytoplasmic substrate for CDKL5 and that its phosphorylation may play crucial roles in the neuronal development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inherited platelet disorders: toward DNA-based diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lentaigne, Claire; Freson, Kathleen; Laffan, Michael A.; Turro, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Variations in platelet number, volume, and function are largely genetically controlled, and many loci associated with platelet traits have been identified by genome-wide association studies (GWASs).1 The genome also contains a large number of rare variants, of which a tiny fraction underlies the inherited diseases of humans. Research over the last 3 decades has led to the discovery of 51 genes harboring variants responsible for inherited platelet disorders (IPDs). However, the majority of patients with an IPD still do not receive a molecular diagnosis. Alongside the scientific interest, molecular or genetic diagnosis is important for patients. There is increasing recognition that a number of IPDs are associated with severe pathologies, including an increased risk of malignancy, and a definitive diagnosis can inform prognosis and care. In this review, we give an overview of these disorders grouped according to their effect on platelet biology and their clinical characteristics. We also discuss the challenge of identifying candidate genes and causal variants therein, how IPDs have been historically diagnosed, and how this is changing with the introduction of high-throughput sequencing. Finally, we describe how integration of large genomic, epigenomic, and phenotypic datasets, including whole genome sequencing data, GWASs, epigenomic profiling, protein–protein interaction networks, and standardized clinical phenotype coding, will drive the discovery of novel mechanisms of disease in the near future to improve patient diagnosis and management. PMID:27095789

  9. Inherited haemoglobin disorders: an increasing global health problem.

    PubMed Central

    Weatherall, D. J.; Clegg, J. B.

    2001-01-01

    Despite major advances in our understanding of the molecular pathology, pathophysiology, and control and management of the inherited disorders of haemoglobin, thousands of infants and children with these diseases are dying through lack of appropriate medical care. This problem will undoubtedly increase over the next 20 years because, as the result of a reduction in childhood mortality due to infection and malnutrition, more babies with haemoglobin disorders will survive to present for treatment. Although WHO and various voluntary agencies have tried to disseminate information about these diseases, they are rarely mentioned as being sufficiently important to be included in setting health care priorities for the future. It takes considerable time to establish expertise in developing programmes for the control and management of these conditions, and the lessons learned in developed countries will need to be transmitted to those countries in which they occur at a high frequency. PMID:11545326

  10. Placental sulfatase deficiency: maternal and fetal expression of steroid sulfatase deficiency and X-linked ichthyosis.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, K D; Carr, B R

    1986-07-01

    PSD-X-linked ichthyosis are manifestations of a similar disorder of an inborn error of metabolism characterized by a deficiency of steroid sulfatase. The decreased enzyme activity is due to the absence of the expression of enzyme (steroid sulfatase) protein. Affected individuals with this disorder are males (X-linked inheritance) with a frequency of 1/2000 to 1/6000 births. Homozygous females from cosanguineous marriages have been reported with this disorder. The diagnosis is suspected and confirmed by: Low estriol excretion; Negative DHEAS loading test Increased DHEAS in amnionic fluid; Normal DHEAS in cord plasma; Possible delayed or abnormal labor patterns; Decreased sulfatase activity in the placenta, fibroblast, erythrocytes, lymphocytes or leukocytes of affected individuals; Development of ichthyosis in male infants at 2 to 3 months of age.

  11. The central nervous system phenotype of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: a transient disorder of children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Al-Mateen, Majeed; Craig, Alexa Kanwit; Chance, Phillip F

    2014-03-01

    We describe 2 patients with X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 1 (CMTX1) disease and central nervous system manifestations and review 19 cases from the literature. Our first case had not been previously diagnosed with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and the second case, although known to have Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, was suspected of having CMTX1 after presentation with central nervous system manifestations. The most common central nervous system manifestations were transient and included dysarthria, ataxia, hemiparesis, and tetraparesis resembling periodic paralysis. Of the 21 patients, 19 presented at 21 years of age or younger, implicating CMTX1 with transient central nervous system manifestations as a disorder that predominantly affects children and adolescents. CMTX1 should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with transient central nervous system phenomena, including stroke-like episodes, tetraparesis suggestive of periodic paralysis, dysarthria, ataxia, or combinations of these deficits. Reversible, bilateral, nonenhancing white matter lesions and restricted diffusion on magnetic resonance imaging are characteristic features of the central nervous system phenotype of CMTX1.

  12. Disruption of RAB40AL function leads to Martin--Probst syndrome, a rare X-linked multisystem neurodevelopmental human disorder.

    PubMed

    Bedoyan, Jirair Krikor; Schaibley, Valerie M; Peng, Weiping; Bai, Yongsheng; Mondal, Kajari; Shetty, Amol C; Durham, Mark; Micucci, Joseph A; Dhiraaj, Arti; Skidmore, Jennifer M; Kaplan, Julie B; Skinner, Cindy; Schwartz, Charles E; Antonellis, Anthony; Zwick, Michael E; Cavalcoli, James D; Li, Jun Z; Martin, Donna M

    2012-05-01

    Martin--Probst syndrome (MPS) is a rare X-linked disorder characterised by deafness, cognitive impairment, short stature and distinct craniofacial dysmorphisms, among other features. The authors sought to identify the causative mutation for MPS. Massively parallel sequencing in two affected, related male subjects with MPS identified a RAB40AL (also called RLGP) missense mutation (chrX:102,079,078-102,079,079AC→GA p.D59G; hg18). RAB40AL encodes a small Ras-like GTPase protein with one suppressor of cytokine signalling box. The p.D59G variant is located in a highly conserved region of the GTPase domain between β-2 and β-3 strands. Using RT-PCR, the authors show that RAB40AL is expressed in human fetal and adult brain and kidney, and adult lung, heart, liver and skeletal muscle. RAB40AL appears to be a primate innovation, with no orthologues found in mouse, Xenopus or zebrafish. Western analysis and fluorescence microscopy of GFP-tagged RAB40AL constructs from transiently transfected COS7 cells show that the D59G missense change renders RAB40AL unstable and disrupts its cytoplasmic localisation. This is the first study to show that mutation of RAB40AL is associated with a human disorder. Identification of RAB40AL as the gene mutated in MPS allows for further investigations into the molecular mechanism(s) of RAB40AL and its roles in diverse processes such as cognition, hearing and skeletal development.

  13. Disruption of RAB40AL function leads to Martin–Probst syndrome, a rare X-linked multisystem neurodevelopmental human disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bedoyan, Jirair Krikor; Schaibley, Valerie M; Peng, Weiping; Bai, Yongsheng; Mondal, Kajari; Shetty, Amol C; Durham, Mark; Micucci, Joseph A; Dhiraaj, Arti; Skidmore, Jennifer M; Kaplan, Julie B; Skinner, Cindy; Schwartz, Charles E; Antonellis, Anthony; Zwick, Michael E; Cavalcoli, James D; Li, Jun Z

    2012-01-01

    Background and aim Martin–Probst syndrome (MPS) is a rare X-linked disorder characterised by deafness, cognitive impairment, short stature and distinct craniofacial dysmorphisms, among other features. The authors sought to identify the causative mutation for MPS. Methods and results Massively parallel sequencing in two affected, related male subjects with MPS identified a RAB40AL (also called RLGP) missense mutation (chrX:102,079,078-102,079,079AC→GA p.D59G; hg18). RAB40AL encodes a small Ras-like GTPase protein with one suppressor of cytokine signalling box. The p.D59G variant is located in a highly conserved region of the GTPase domain between β-2 and β-3 strands. Using RT-PCR, the authors show that RAB40AL is expressed in human fetal and adult brain and kidney, and adult lung, heart, liver and skeletal muscle. RAB40AL appears to be a primate innovation, with no orthologues found in mouse, Xenopus or zebrafish. Western analysis and fluorescence microscopy of GFP-tagged RAB40AL constructs from transiently transfected COS7 cells show that the D59G missense change renders RAB40AL unstable and disrupts its cytoplasmic localisation. Conclusions This is the first study to show that mutation of RAB40AL is associated with a human disorder. Identification of RAB40AL as the gene mutated in MPS allows for further investigations into the molecular mechanism(s) of RAB40AL and its roles in diverse processes such as cognition, hearing and skeletal development. PMID:22581972

  14. Exome Sequencing Identified a Splice Site Mutation in FHL1 that Causes Uruguay Syndrome, an X-Linked Disorder With Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy and Premature Cardiac Death.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yuan; Schoser, Benedikt; Rao, Aliz R; Quadrelli, Roberto; Vaglio, Alicia; Rupp, Verena; Beichler, Christine; Nelson, Stanley F; Schapacher-Tilp, Gudrun; Windpassinger, Christian; Wilcox, William R

    2016-04-01

    Previously, we reported a rare X-linked disorder, Uruguay syndrome in a single family. The main features are pugilistic facies, skeletal deformities, and muscular hypertrophy despite a lack of exercise and cardiac ventricular hypertrophy leading to premature death. An ≈19 Mb critical region on X chromosome was identified through identity-by-descent analysis of 3 affected males. Exome sequencing was conducted on one affected male to identify the disease-causing gene and variant. A splice site variant (c.502-2A>G) in the FHL1 gene was highly suspicious among other candidate genes and variants. FHL1A is the predominant isoform of FHL1 in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Sequencing cDNA showed the splice site variant led to skipping of exons 6 of the FHL1A isoform, equivalent to the FHL1C isoform. Targeted analysis showed that this splice site variant cosegregated with disease in the family. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis of muscle from the proband showed a significant decrease in protein expression of FHL1A. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of different isoforms of FHL1 demonstrated that the FHL1C is markedly increased. Mutations in the FHL1 gene have been reported in disorders with skeletal and cardiac myopathy but none has the skeletal or facial phenotype seen in patients with Uruguay syndrome. Our data suggest that a novel FHL1 splice site variant results in the absence of FHL1A and the abundance of FHL1C, which may contribute to the complex and severe phenotype. Mutation screening of the FHL1 gene should be considered for patients with uncharacterized myopathies and cardiomyopathies. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Pregnancy in inherited hypokalemic salt-losing renal tubular disorder.

    PubMed

    Mascetti, Laura; Bettinelli, Alberto; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Tagliabue, Alessandro; Syrén, Marie Lousie; Nordio, Francesco; Bianchetti, Mario G

    2011-02-01

    The management of inherited hypokalemia has improved and the issue of pregnancy has become important. Between 1992 and 2010, five Italian women with the clinical diagnosis of Gitelman syndrome gave birth to a total of six newborns. Pregnancy was uneventful in four women but was complicated by tiredness and tetanic seizures in the fifth woman. Drug management included potassium chloride in four cases and magnesium and amiloride in one case each. The six neonates were born at term (n=4) or near term (n=2), with a body weight that was appropriate for gestational age. The children, aged between 6 weeks and 18 years, were healthy and neurodevelopmentally and somatically normal at the last follow-up. Women with hypokalemia can become pregnant and the disorder may be managed without negative effect on the fetus.

  16. Inherited Paediatric Motor Neuron Disorders: Beyond Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio, Hugo; Mowat, David; Roscioli, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Paediatric motor neuron diseases encompass a group of neurodegenerative diseases characterised by the onset of muscle weakness and atrophy before the age of 18 years, attributable to motor neuron loss across various neuronal networks in the brain and spinal cord. While the genetic underpinnings are diverse, advances in next generation sequencing have transformed diagnostic paradigms. This has reinforced the clinical phenotyping and molecular genetic expertise required to navigate the complexities of such diagnoses. In turn, improved genetic technology and subsequent gene identification have enabled further insights into the mechanisms of motor neuron degeneration and how these diseases form part of a neurodegenerative disorder spectrum. Common pathophysiologies include abnormalities in axonal architecture and function, RNA processing, and protein quality control. This review incorporates an overview of the clinical manifestations, genetics, and pathophysiology of inherited paediatric motor neuron disorders beyond classic SMN1-related spinal muscular atrophy and describes recent advances in next generation sequencing and its clinical application. Specific disease-modifying treatment is becoming a clinical reality in some disorders of the motor neuron highlighting the importance of a timely and specific diagnosis. PMID:28634552

  17. Altered erythrocyte nucleotide patterns are characteristic of inherited disorders of purine or pyrimidine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Simmonds, H A; Fairbanks, L D; Morris, G S; Webster, D R; Harley, E H

    1988-02-15

    This paper compares erythrocyte nucleotide levels in patients with eight different inherited purine or pyrimidine enzyme defects identified amongst a variety of patients referred predominantly for investigation of severe neurological abnormalities, or immunodeficiency syndromes. Characteristic nucleotide patterns were identified only in the six disorders (four involving purine and two pyrimidine metabolism) where there was clinical evidence of cellular toxicity. They were frequently related to the accumulation of abnormal metabolites in body fluids. These erythrocyte studies have demonstrated the following. 1. ATP depletion is not an invariable feature of adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency, but the accumulation of the deoxyribonucleotides dATP, or dGTP, is diagnostic of ADA, or purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency, respectively. The early accumulation of dATP in foetal blood is a valuable aid to prenatal diagnosis of ADA deficiency. 2. GTP depletion appears to reflect the degree of CNS involvement in hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and PNP deficiency, as well as PP-ribose-P synthetase superactivity. Other diagnostic changes involving increased pyrimidine sugars and increased or decreased NAD levels, or ZTP in Lesch Nyhan erythrocytes, show no consistent correlation with the clinical manifestations. 3. These altered nucleotide levels afford a novel means for carrier detection of the X-linked defect associated with aberrant PP-ribose-P synthetase activity, where no other test is yet available. Measurement of erythrocyte nucleotide levels thus provides a simple and rapid aid to diagnosis and may sometimes be essential for determining prognosis, carrier detection, or monitoring therapy. These characteristic 'fingerprints' may give some insight into the mechanism by which the abnormal gene product produces disease. Such grossly altered nucleotide levels could also result in loss of erythrocyte flexibility, increased destruction and hence the

  18. Lamellar macular hole in X linked retinoschisis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinod; Goel, Neha

    2016-01-01

    X linked retinoschisis (XLRS) is the most common juvenile onset retinal degeneration. The disorder leads to poor vision in old age. Complications, however, can lead to earlier loss of vision in this condition. This report describes two patients of XLRS, who had presented with poor vision because of having had a lamellar macular hole at a young age. Lamellar macular holes are rare and have never been reported to cause early onset poor vision in XLRS. PMID:27170611

  19. Lamellar macular hole in X linked retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Goel, Neha

    2016-05-11

    X linked retinoschisis (XLRS) is the most common juvenile onset retinal degeneration. The disorder leads to poor vision in old age. Complications, however, can lead to earlier loss of vision in this condition. This report describes two patients of XLRS, who had presented with poor vision because of having had a lamellar macular hole at a young age. Lamellar macular holes are rare and have never been reported to cause early onset poor vision in XLRS. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  20. Status of Adults With X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia

    PubMed Central

    Winkelstein, Jerry A.; Conley, Mary Ellen; James, Cynthia; Howard, Vanessa; Boyle, John

    2010-01-01

    Since many children with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) can now be expected to reach adulthood, knowledge of the status of adults with XLA would be of importance to the patients, their families, and the physicians caring for these patients. We performed the current study in adults with XLA to examine the impact of XLA on their daily lives and quality of life, their educational and socioeconomic status, their knowledge of the inheritance of their disorder, and their reproductive attitudes. Physicians who had entered adult patients with XLA in a national registry were asked to pass on a survey instrument to their patients. The patients then filled out the survey instrument and returned it directly to the investigators. Adults with XLA were hospitalized more frequently and missed more work and/or school than did the general United States population. However, their quality of life was comparable to that of the general United States population. They achieved a higher level of education and had a higher income than did the general United States population. Their knowledge of the inheritance of their disease was excellent. Sixty percent of them would not exercise any reproductive planning options as a result of their disease. The results of the current study suggest that although the disease impacts the daily lives of adults with XLA, they still become productive members of society and excel in many areas. PMID:18794707

  1. X-linked congenital panhypopituitarism.

    PubMed

    Schimke, R N; Spaulding, J J; Hollowell, J G

    1971-05-01

    Two half brothers with panhypopituitary dwarfism are reported who have the same mother and different, unrelated fathers. The subject of hereditary panhypopituitarism is reviewed briefly. It is concluded that there are at least two forms of hereditary panhypopituitary dwarfism, one of which may be X-linked.

  2. Pathogenic variants in E3 ubiquitin ligase RLIM/RNF12 lead to a syndromic X-linked intellectual disability and behavior disorder.

    PubMed

    Frints, Suzanna G M; Ozanturk, Aysegul; Rodríguez Criado, Germán; Grasshoff, Ute; de Hoon, Bas; Field, Michael; Manouvrier-Hanu, Sylvie; E Hickey, Scott; Kammoun, Molka; Gripp, Karen W; Bauer, Claudia; Schroeder, Christopher; Toutain, Annick; Mihalic Mosher, Theresa; Kelly, Benjamin J; White, Peter; Dufke, Andreas; Rentmeester, Eveline; Moon, Sungjin; Koboldt, Daniel C; van Roozendaal, Kees E P; Hu, Hao; Haas, Stefan A; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Murray, Lucinda; Haan, Eric; Shaw, Marie; Carroll, Renee; Friend, Kathryn; Liebelt, Jan; Hobson, Lynne; De Rademaeker, Marjan; Geraedts, Joep; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Vermeesch, Joris; Raynaud, Martine; Riess, Olaf; Gribnau, Joost; Katsanis, Nicholas; Devriendt, Koen; Bauer, Peter; Gecz, Jozef; Golzio, Christelle; Gontan, Cristina; Kalscheuer, Vera M

    2018-05-04

    RLIM, also known as RNF12, is an X-linked E3 ubiquitin ligase acting as a negative regulator of LIM-domain containing transcription factors and participates in X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) in mice. We report the genetic and clinical findings of 84 individuals from nine unrelated families, eight of whom who have pathogenic variants in RLIM (RING finger LIM domain-interacting protein). A total of 40 affected males have X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) and variable behavioral anomalies with or without congenital malformations. In contrast, 44 heterozygous female carriers have normal cognition and behavior, but eight showed mild physical features. All RLIM variants identified are missense changes co-segregating with the phenotype and predicted to affect protein function. Eight of the nine altered amino acids are conserved and lie either within a domain essential for binding interacting proteins or in the C-terminal RING finger catalytic domain. In vitro experiments revealed that these amino acid changes in the RLIM RING finger impaired RLIM ubiquitin ligase activity. In vivo experiments in rlim mutant zebrafish showed that wild type RLIM rescued the zebrafish rlim phenotype, whereas the patient-specific missense RLIM variants failed to rescue the phenotype and thus represent likely severe loss-of-function mutations. In summary, we identified a spectrum of RLIM missense variants causing syndromic XLID and affecting the ubiquitin ligase activity of RLIM, suggesting that enzymatic activity of RLIM is required for normal development, cognition and behavior.

  3. [Importance of family examination in juvenile X-linked retinoschisis].

    PubMed

    Kłosowska-Zawadka, A; Bernardczyk-Meller, J; Gotz-Wieckowska, A; Krawczyński, M

    2005-12-01

    Congenital (juvenile) retinoschisis belongs to the group of hereditary vitreoretinopathies. This disorder is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern and its onset usually occurs in 5- to 10-year-old boys. Presenting clinical signs include decreased visual acuity due to maculopathy. The authors present a case of a 17-year-old boy with decreased visual acuity, hypermetropia, and bilateral retinoschisis with maculopathy upon fundus examination. In view of a 50% risk of the disorder occurring in the brothers of the affected male, they underwent full ophthalmological and electrophysiological examinations (until then asymptomatic). In one of them decreased visual acuity, mixed astigmatism, and maculopathy were present, without any changes of the peripheral retina. In the youngest brother decreased visual acuity, hypermetropia, and maculopathy were diagnosed. Genetic counseling and ophthalmological examination of family members at risk facilitated early recognition of the pathological changes in the siblings. Genetic counseling with pedigree analysis and genetic analysis, if possible, should be offered to all affected patients and family members.

  4. Coagulation disorders in pregnancy: acquired and inherited thrombophilias.

    PubMed

    Benedetto, Chiara; Marozio, Luca; Tavella, Anna Maria; Salton, Loredana; Grivon, Sara; Di Giampaolo, Francesca

    2010-09-01

    Both acquired and inherited thrombophilias are associated with an increased risk of pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism (VTE) as well as with adverse pregnancy outcome. However, the extension of attributable risk for each thrombophilia and outcome is still a question of debate. Thrombophilias have been investigated in connection with VTE and pregnancy complications such as: recurrent and nonrecurrent early pregnancy loss, late fetal death, placental abruption, fetal growth restriction, and preeclampsia. This review discusses the evidence of association between thrombophilias and pregnancy outcome together with issues as to clinical management and preventive strategies. © 2010 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplant for Inherited Metabolic Disorders

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-01-09

    Mucopolysaccharidosis; Hurler Syndrome; Hunter Syndrome; Maroteaux-Lamy Syndrome; Sly Syndrome; Alpha Mannosidosis; Fucosidosis; Aspartylglucosaminuria; Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD); Krabbe Disease; Metachromatic Leukodystrophy (MLD); Sphingolipidoses; Peroxisomal Disorders

  6. Inherited and acquired disorders of myelin: the underling myelin pathology

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Ian D.; Radcliff, Abigail B.

    2016-01-01

    Remyelination is a major therapeutic goal in human myelin disorders, serving to restore function to demyelinated axons and providing neuroprotection. The target disorders that might be amenable to the promotion of this repair process are diverse and increasing in number. They range primarily from those of genetic, inflammatory to toxic origin. In order to apply remyelinating strategies to these disorders, it is essential to know whether the myelin damage results from a primary attack on myelin or the oligodendrocyte or both, and whether indeed these lead to myelin breakdown and demyelination. In some disorders, myelin sheath abnormalities are prominent but demyelination does not occur. This review explores the range of human and animal disorders where myelin pathology exists and focusses on defining the myelin changes in each and their cause, to help define whether they are targets for myelin repair therapy. PMID:27068622

  7. X-linked dominant retinitis pigmentosa in an American family

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.E.; Daiger, S.P.; Blanton, S.H.

    1994-09-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa is a genetically heterogeneous disease with autosomal dominant (adRP), autosomal recessive and X-linked forms. At least 3 forms of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa have been reported: RP2 which maps to Xp11.4-p 11.23, RP3 which maps to Xp21.1 and RP6, which maps to Xp21.3-p21.1. The X-linked forms of retinitis pigmentosa are generally considered to be recessive as female carriers are not affected or are much less affected than males. Here we report a five generation American family with X-linked retinitis pigmentosa in which both males and females are significantly affected. The disease locus in this family appears to be distinctmore » from RP2 and RP3. The American family (UTAD054) presents with early-onset retinitis pigmentosa. The family appeared to fit an autosomal dominant pattern; however, linkage testing excluded all known adRP loci. Absence of male-to-male transmission in the pedigree suggested the possibility of X-linked dominant inheritance. Thus we tested six microsatellite markers that map to Xp (DXS987, DXS989, DXS993, DXS999, DXS1003 and DXS1110). Of these, DXS989 showed tight linkage with one allele (199) showing a 100% concordance with disease status. The odds favoring an X-linked dominant mode of inheritance in this family, versus autosomal dominant, are 10{sup 5}:1. In addition, recombinations for DXS999, and dXS1110, the two markers flanking DXS989, were observed in affected individuals. These data map the disease locus in this family to a 9 mb region on the X chromosome between Xp22.11 and Xp21.41. In addition, the recombinant individuals exclude close linkage to RP2 and RP3. The observance of high penetrance in females indicates that this family has X-linked dominant retinitis pigmentosa. We suggest that this mode of inheritance should be considered in other families with dominant retinitis pigmentosa but an absence of male-to-male transmission.« less

  8. Ten-year study of postoperative complications following dental extractions in patients with inherited bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, J-T; Klein, K; Batstone, M

    2017-09-01

    Dental extractions challenge the body's haemostatic mechanism. Postoperative bleeding from dental extraction can be prolonged, or even life threatening in patients with inherited bleeding disorders. Pre- and postoperative clotting factor replacements or systemic desmopressin (ddAVP) have been advocated at our institution to prevent bleeding complications in these patients. This study aimed to assess the postoperative bleeding rate in patients with inherited bleeding disorders that underwent dental extractions at our institution between 2003 and 2012. Patients with inherited bleeding disorders such as haemophilia A, haemophilia B, and von Willebrand's disease were included. Retrospective chart review was conducted. The result showed 53 extraction events occurred in 45 patients over the 10-year period. Ten out of 53 extraction events (18.9%) had postoperative bleeding requiring further factor replacement or ddAVP. Postoperative bleeding in one patient with mild haemophilia A was complicated by the development of inhibitors. Type and severity of bleeding disorder, bone removal, and use of a local haemostatic agent did not have any significant effect on postoperative bleeding. Despite the use of perioperative factors and desmopressin, the postoperative bleeding rates remain high for patients with inherited bleeding disorders. More studies are required to assess the safety and effectiveness of using local haemostatic control to achieve haemostasis following extractions. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. X linked mental retardation: a clinical guide.

    PubMed

    Raymond, F L

    2006-03-01

    Mental retardation is more common in males than females in the population, assumed to be due to mutations on the X chromosome. The prevalence of the 24 genes identified to date is low and less common than expansions in FMR1, which cause Fragile X syndrome. Systematic screening of all other X linked genes in X linked families with mental retardation is currently not feasible in a clinical setting. The phenotypes of genes causing syndromic and non-syndromic mental retardation (NLGN3, NLGN4, RPS6KA3(RSK2), OPHN1, ATRX, SLC6A8, ARX, SYN1, AGTR2, MECP2, PQBP1, SMCX, and SLC16A2) are first discussed, as these may be the focus of more targeted mutation analysis. Secondly, the relative prevalence of genes causing only non-syndromic mental retardation (IL1RAPL1, TM4SF2, ZNF41, FTSJ1, DLG3, FACL4, PAK3, ARHGEF6, FMR2, and GDI) is summarised. Thirdly, the problem of recurrence risk where a molecular genetics diagnosis has not been made and what proportion of the male excess of mental retardation is due to monogenic disorders of the X chromosome are discussed.

  10. Insurance coverage of medical foods for treatment of inherited metabolic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Susan A.; Kenney, Mary Kay; Harris, Katharine B.; Singh, Rani H.; Cameron, Cynthia A.; Kraszewski, Jennifer N.; Levy-Fisch, Jill; Shuger, Jill F.; Greene, Carol L.; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A.; Boyle, Coleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Treatment of inherited metabolic disorders is accomplished by use of specialized diets employing medical foods and medically necessary supplements. Families seeking insurance coverage for these products express concern that coverage is often limited; the extent of this challenge is not well defined. Methods To learn about limitations in insurance coverage, parents of 305 children with inherited metabolic disorders completed a paper survey providing information about their use of medical foods, modified low-protein foods, prescribed dietary supplements, and medical feeding equipment and supplies for treatment of their child's disorder as well as details about payment sources for these products. Results Although nearly all children with inherited metabolic dis orders had medical coverage of some type, families paid “out of pocket” for all types of products. Uncovered spending was reported for 11% of families purchasing medical foods, 26% purchasing supplements, 33% of those needing medical feeding supplies, and 59% of families requiring modified low-protein foods. Forty-two percent of families using modified low-protein foods and 21% of families using medical foods reported additional treatment-related expenses of $100 or more per month for these products. Conclusion Costs of medical foods used to treat inherited metabolic disorders are not completely covered by insurance or other resources. PMID:23598714

  11. FINDbase: a relational database recording frequencies of genetic defects leading to inherited disorders worldwide.

    PubMed

    van Baal, Sjozef; Kaimakis, Polynikis; Phommarinh, Manyphong; Koumbi, Daphne; Cuppens, Harry; Riccardino, Francesca; Macek, Milan; Scriver, Charles R; Patrinos, George P

    2007-01-01

    Frequency of INherited Disorders database (FINDbase) (http://www.findbase.org) is a relational database, derived from the ETHNOS software, recording frequencies of causative mutations leading to inherited disorders worldwide. Database records include the population and ethnic group, the disorder name and the related gene, accompanied by links to any corresponding locus-specific mutation database, to the respective Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man entries and the mutation together with its frequency in that population. The initial information is derived from the published literature, locus-specific databases and genetic disease consortia. FINDbase offers a user-friendly query interface, providing instant access to the list and frequencies of the different mutations. Query outputs can be either in a table or graphical format, accompanied by reference(s) on the data source. Registered users from three different groups, namely administrator, national coordinator and curator, are responsible for database curation and/or data entry/correction online via a password-protected interface. Databaseaccess is free of charge and there are no registration requirements for data querying. FINDbase provides a simple, web-based system for population-based mutation data collection and retrieval and can serve not only as a valuable online tool for molecular genetic testing of inherited disorders but also as a non-profit model for sustainable database funding, in the form of a 'database-journal'.

  12. Detection of mild inherited disorders of blood coagulation: current options and personal recommendations.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Pasalic, Leonardo; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2015-08-01

    Although assessment of prior personal and familial bleeding history is an important aspect of the diagnosis of bleeding disorders, patients with mild inherited bleeding disorders are sometimes clinically asymptomatic until presented with a hemostatic challenge. However, bleeding may occur after incursion of trauma or surgery, so detection of these conditions reflects an important facet of clinical and laboratory practice. Mild bleeding disorders may be detected as a result of family studies or following identification of abnormal values in first-line screening tests such as activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, fibrinogen and global platelet function screen testing, such as the platelet function analyzer. Following determination of abnormal screening tests, subsequent investigation should follow a systematic approach that targets specific diagnostic tests, and including factor assays, full platelet function assays and more extensive specialized hemostasis testing. The current report provides a personal overview on inherited disorders of blood coagulation and their detection.

  13. No evidence for involvement of genetic variants in the X-linked neuroligin genes NLGN3 and NLGN4X in probands with autism spectrum disorder on high functioning level.

    PubMed

    Wermter, Anne-Kathrin; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Strauch, Konstantin; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Remschmidt, Helmut

    2008-06-05

    Several lines of evidence indicate a role of mutations in the two X-linked genes neuroligin 3 (NLGN3) and neuroligin 4 (NLGN4X) in the etiology of autistic spectrum disorders. To analyze whether genetic variants in the NLGN3 and NLGN4X genes occurs in patients with autistic disorders on high functioning level, we performed a mutation screen of both genes using SSCP in 107 probands with Asperger syndrome, high-functioning autism and atypical autism. We identified four polymorphisms (rs2290488, rs7049300, rs3747333, rs3747334) and one novel synonymous variant (A558) in the NLGN4X. The polymorphisms rs7049300, rs3747333, and rs3747334 did not cause any amino acid substitutions in the total of the eight detected carriers. A family-based association study for rs2290488 in 101 trios did not reveal association of this polymorphism with autistic disorders on high functioning level. We conclude that there is no evidence for an involvement of NLGN3 and NLGN4X genetic variants with autism spectrum disorder on high functioning level in our study group. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Bleeding risks associated with inheritance of the Quebec platelet disorder.

    PubMed

    McKay, Heather; Derome, Francine; Haq, M Anwar; Whittaker, Susan; Arnold, Emmy; Adam, Frédéric; Heddle, Nancy M; Rivard, Georges E; Hayward, Catherine P M

    2004-07-01

    Quebec platelet disorder (QPD) is an autosomal dominant bleeding disorder associated with increased urokinase-type plasminogen activator in platelets and alpha-granule protein degradation. To determine bleeding risks and common manifestations of QPD, a history questionnaire was developed and administered to 127 relatives in a family with QPD. Data entry was done blinded to affected and unaffected status, determined by assays for platelet urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) and fibrinogen degradation. Odds ratios (ORs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were determined for items queried. Summative bleeding scores for each individual were calculated using items with OR more than 1. Mean ages (34 years; range, 1-89 years) were similar for affected (n = 23) and unaffected (n = 104) family members. Affected individuals had higher mean bleeding scores (P <.0001) and a much higher likelihood (OR > 20) of having bleeding that led to lifestyle changes, bruises that spread lower or as large or larger than an orange or both, joint bleeds, bleeding longer than 24 hours after dental extractions or deep cuts, and received or been recommended other treatments (fibrinolytic inhibitors) for bleeding. Individuals with QPD and exposure(s) to hemostatic challenges had experienced excessive bleeding only when fibrinolytic inhibitors had not been used. These data illustrate that QPD is associated with increased risks of bleeding that can be modified by fibrinolytic inhibitors.

  15. Inherited Copper Transport Disorders: Biochemical Mechanisms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Hiroko; Fujisawa, Chie; Bhadhprasit, Wattanaporn

    2012-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace element required by all living organisms. Excess amounts of copper, however, results in cellular damage. Disruptions to normal copper homeostasis are hallmarks of three genetic disorders: Menkes disease, occipital horn syndrome, and Wilson’s disease. Menkes disease and occipital horn syndrome are characterized by copper deficiency. Typical features of Menkes disease result from low copper-dependent enzyme activity. Standard treatment involves parenteral administration of copper-histidine. If treatment is initiated before 2 months of age, neurodegeneration can be prevented, while delayed treatment is utterly ineffective. Thus, neonatal mass screening should be implemented. Meanwhile, connective tissue disorders cannot be improved by copper-histidine treatment. Combination therapy with copper-histidine injections and oral administration of disulfiram is being investigated. Occipital horn syndrome characterized by connective tissue abnormalities is the mildest form of Menkes disease. Treatment has not been conducted for this syndrome. Wilson’s disease is characterized by copper toxicity that typically affects the hepatic and nervous systems severely. Various other symptoms are observed as well, yet its early diagnosis is sometimes difficult. Chelating agents and zinc are effective treatments, but are inefficient in most patients with fulminant hepatic failure. In addition, some patients with neurological Wilson’s disease worsen or show poor response to chelating agents. Since early treatment is critical, a screening system for Wilson’s disease should be implemented in infants. Patients with Wilson’s disease may be at risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. Understanding the link between Wilson’s disease and hepatocellular carcinoma will be beneficial for disease treatment and prevention. PMID:21838703

  16. X linked exudative vitreoretinopathy: clinical features and genetic linkage analysis.

    PubMed

    Fullwood, P; Jones, J; Bundey, S; Dudgeon, J; Fielder, A R; Kilpatrick, M W

    1993-03-01

    A four generation family in which familial exudative vitreoretinopathy is inherited as an X linked condition is described. Essentially the condition is one of abnormal vascularisation and signs at birth are those of a retinopathy superficially resembling retinopathy of prematurity, retinal folds, or, in advanced cases, enophthalmos or even phthisis. Prognosis depends on the progression of the retinal changes. The family members, including seven affected males and five obligate carrier females, have been types for 20 DNA markers, and linkage analysis suggests a gene locus either at Xq21.3 or at Xp11. As the latter region includes the locus for the gene for Norrie disease, it is possible that this and X linked vitreoretinopathy are allelic. We can further speculate that the differences in severity of the clinical manifestations are dependent only upon the timing of the insult.

  17. Genotypic analysis of X-linked retinoschisis in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Lamey, Tina; Laurin, Sarina; Chelva, Enid; De Roach, John

    2010-01-01

    X-linked Retinoschisis is a leading cause of juvenile macular degeneration. Four Western Australian families affected by X-Linked Retinoschisis were analysed using DNA and clinical information from the Australian Inherited Retinal Disease (IRD) Register and DNA Bank. By direct sequencing of the RS1 gene, three genetic variants were identified; 52+1G > T, 289T > G and 416delA. 289T > G has not been previously reported and is likely to cause a substitution of a membrane binding residue (W92G) in the functional discoidin domain. All clinically diagnosed individuals showed typical electronegative ERGs. The 52+1G > T obligate carrier also recorded a bilaterally abnormal rod ERG and mildly abnormal photopic responses. mfERG trace arrays showed reduced response densities in the paramacular region extending futher temporally for each eye.

  18. Combined prevalence of inherited skeletal disorders in dog breeds in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Coopman, F; Broeckx, B; Verelst, E; Deforce, D; Saunders, J; Duchateau, L; Verhoeven, G

    2014-01-01

    Canine hip dysplasia (CHD), canine elbow dysplasia (CED), and humeral head osteochondrosis (HHOC) are inherited traits with uneven incidence in dog breeds. Knowledge of the combined prevalence of these three disorders is necessary to estimate the effect of the currently applied breeding strategies, in order to improve the genetic health of the population. Official screening results of the Belgian National Committee for Inherited Skeletal Disorders (NCSID) revealed that an average of 31.8% (CHD, CED, or both; n = 1273 dogs) and 47.2% (CHD, CED, HHOC, or a combination of these three diseases; n = 250 dogs) of dogs are mildly to severely affected by at least one skeletal disorder. According to the current breeding recommendations in some dog breeds in Belgium, these animals should be restricted (mild signs) or excluded (moderate to severe signs) from breeding. The introduction of genetic parameters, such as estimated breeding values, might create a better approach to gradually reduce the incidence of these complex inherited joint disorders, without compromising genetic population health.

  19. X-linked cardiomyopathy is heterogeneous

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.J.; Sillence, D.O.; Mulley, J.C.

    Two major loci of X-linked cardiomyopathy have been mapped by linkage analysis. The gene for X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy (XLCM) is mapped to the dystrophin locus at Xp21, while Barth syndrome has been localised to distal Xq28. XLCM usually presents in juvenile males with no skeletal disease but decreased dystrophin in cardiac muscle. Barth syndrome most often presents in infants and is characterized by skeletal myopathy, short stature and neutropenia in association with cardiomyopathy of variable severity. Prior to carrier or prenatal diagnosis in a family, delineation of the cardiomyopathy locus involved is essential. We report the linkage mapping of amore » large kindred in which several male infants have died with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. There is a family history of unexplained death of infant males less than 6 months old over 4 generations. Features of Barth syndrome such as short stature, skeletal myopathy and neutropenia have not been observed. Genotyping at 10 marker loci in Xq28 has revealed significant pairwise lod scores with the cardiomyopathy phenotype at DXS52 (Z=2.21 at {theta}=0.0), at markers p26 and p39 near DXS15 (Z=2.30 at {theta}=0.0) and at F8C (Z=2.24 at {theta}=0.0). A recombinant detected with DXS296 defines the proximal limit to the localization. No recombinants were detected at any of the loci distal to DXS296. The most distal marker in Xq28, DXS1108, is within 500 kb of the telomere. As the gene in this family is localized to Xq28, it is possible that this disorder is an allelic variant at the Barth syndrome locus.« less

  20. Mutational Survey of the PHEX Gene in Patients with X-linked Hypophosphatemic Rickets

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Traxler, Elizabeth A.; Estwick, Selina A.; Curry, Leah R.; Johnson, Michelle L.; Sorenson, Andrea H.; Imel, Erik A.; Econs, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) is a dominantly inherited disorder characterized by renal phosphate wasting, aberrant vitamin D metabolism, and abnormal bone mineralization. XLH is caused by inactivating mutations in PHEX (phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome). In this study, we sequenced the PHEX gene in subjects from 26 kindreds who were clinically diagnosed with XLH. Sequencing revealed 18 different mutations, of which thirteen have not been reported previously. In addition to deletions, splice site mutations, and missense and nonsense mutations, a rare point mutation in the 3’-untranslated region (3’-UTR) was identified as a novel cause of XLH. In summary, we identified a wide spectrum of mutations in the PHEX gene. Our data, in accord with those of others, indicate that there is no single predominant PHEX mutation responsible for XLH. PMID:18625346

  1. Connexin mutations in X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bergoffen, J.; Scherer, S.S.; Wang, S.

    1993-12-24

    X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX) is a form of hereditary neuropathy with demyelination. Recently, this disorder was mapped to chromosome Xq13.1. The gene for the gap junction protein connexin32 is located in the same chromosomal segment, which led to its consideration as a candidate gene for CMTX. With the use of Northern (RNA) blot and immunohistochemistry techniques, it was found that connexin32 is normally expressed in myelinated peripheral nerve. Direct sequencing of the connexin32 gene showed seven different mutations in affected persons from eight CMTX families. These findings, a demonstration of inherited defects in a gap junction protein, suggest that connexin32more » plays an important role in peripheral nerve.« less

  2. Digging for known genetic mutations underlying inherited bone and cartilage characteristics and disorders in the dog and cat.

    PubMed

    Haase, Bianca; Mazrier, Hamutal; Wade, Claire M

    2016-07-19

    Gene mapping projects for many traits in both dogs and cats have yielded new knowledge. Both researchers and the public alike have been fascinated by the inheritance of breed characteristic phenotypes and sporadic disorders. It has been proposed that selective breeding practices have on occasion generated alterations in structure that might be harmful. In this review, simply inherited disorders and characteristics affecting bone and cartilage for which a putative mutation is known are collected. A better understanding of the known inherited basis of skeletal conditions and disorders will assist veterinarians to improve their diagnoses and increase their effectiveness on advising clients on the prevention, management, prognosis and possible treatment of the conditions.

  3. Manifestations of X-linked congenital stationary night blindness in three daughters of an affected male: Demonstration of homozygosity

    SciTech Connect

    Bech-Hansen, N.T.; Pearce, W.G.

    1993-01-01

    X-linked congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB1) is a hereditary retinal disorder in which clinical features in affected males usually include myopia, nystagmus, and impaired visual acuity. Electroretinography demonstrates a marked reduction in b-wave amplitude. In the study of a large Mennonite family with CSNB1, three of five sisters in one sibship were found to have manifestations of CSNB1. All the sons of these three sisters were affected. Each of the two nonmanifesting sisters had at least one unaffected son. Analysis of Xp markers in the region Xp21.1-Xp11.22 showed that the two sisters who were unaffected had inherited the same maternalmore » X chromosome (i.e., M2). Two of the daughters who manifested with CSNB had inherited the other maternal X chromosome (M1). The third manifesting sister inherited a recombinant X chromosome with a crossover between TIMP and DXS255, which suggests that the CSNB1 locus lies proximal to TIMP. One of the affected daughters' sons had inherited the maternal M1 X chromosome, a finding consistent with that chromosome carrying a mutant CSNB gene; the other affected sons inherited the grandfather's X chromosome (i.e., P). Molecular analysis of DNA from three sisters with manifestations of CSNB is consistent with their being homozygous at the CSNB1 locus and with their mother being a carrier of CSNB1. 23 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  4. Autosomal-recessive and X-linked forms of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy in childhood.

    PubMed

    Ouvrier, Robert; Geevasingha, Nimeshan; Ryan, Monique M

    2007-08-01

    The hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies (HMSNs, Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies) are the most common degenerative disorders of the peripheral nervous system. In recent years a dramatic expansion has occurred in our understanding of the molecular basis and cell biology of the recessively inherited demyelinating and axonal neuropathies, with delineation of a number of new neuropathies. Mutations in some genes cause a wide variety of clinical, neurophysiologic, and pathologic phenotypes, rendering diagnosis difficult. The X-linked forms of HMSN represent at least 10%-15% of all HMSNs and have an expanded disease spectrum including demyelinating, intermediate, and axonal neuropathies, transient central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction, mental retardation, and hearing loss. This review presents an overview of the recessive and X-linked forms of HMSN observed in childhood, with particular reference to disease phenotype and neurophysiologic and pathologic abnormalities suggestive of specific diagnoses. These findings can be used by the clinician to formulate a differential diagnosis and guide targeted genetic testing.

  5. Apparent X-linked primary ciliary dyskinesia associated with retinitis pigmentosa and a hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Krawczyński, Maciej R; Dmeńska, Hanna; Witt, Michał

    2004-01-01

    Three brothers, one 10-year-old and a pair of 14-year-old dizygotic twins--expressed the classical, early-onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP) with typical ophthalmoscopic findings, night blindness, visual field constricted to 10 degrees and flat ERG response. All three brothers were also diagnosed with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and had recurrent respiratory infections, chronic sinusitis and bronchiectasis. In all of them, resection of the middle lobe of the right lung was performed. A similar clinical picture of coexisting RP and PCD was noted in the brother of the probands' mother. All probands displayed situs solitus. Consistent with the X-linked mode of RP inheritance, there were also three obligatory female carriers of the disorder in this family: the mother of the affected boys, her mother and a daughter of her brother. In all of them, retinitis pigmentosa "sine pigmento" was found with milder but clinically significant symptoms (mild night blindness, visual field constricted to 30 degrees, and scotopic and photopic ERG responses reduced to 30-60%). No extraocular symptoms were detected in any of the heterozygous female carriers. This family presents an example of two rare phenomena: X-linked dominant retinitis pigmentosa (with milder expression in females) and a rare combination of RP with recurrent respiratory infections due to PCD.

  6. Somatic and germline mosaicism for a mutation of the PHEX gene can lead to genetic transmission of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets that mimics an autosomal dominant trait.

    PubMed

    Goji, Katsumi; Ozaki, Kayo; Sadewa, Ahmad H; Nishio, Hisahide; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2006-02-01

    Familial hypophosphatemic rickets is usually transmitted as an X-linked dominant disorder (XLH), although autosomal dominant forms have also been observed. Genetic studies of these disorders have identified mutations in PHEX and FGF23 as the causes of X-linked dominant disorder and autosomal dominant forms, respectively. The objective of the study was to describe the molecular genetic findings in a family affected by hypophosphatemic rickets with presumed autosomal dominant inheritance. We studied a family in which the father and the elder of his two daughters, but not the second daughter, were affected by hypophosphatemic rickets. The pedigree interpretation of the family suggested that genetic transmission of the disorder occurred as an autosomal dominant trait. Direct nucleotide sequencing of FGF23 and PHEX revealed that the elder daughter was heterozygous for an R567X mutation in PHEX, rather than FGF23, suggesting that the genetic transmission occurred as an X-linked dominant trait. Unexpectedly, the father was heterozygous for this mutation. Single-nucleotide primer extension and denaturing HPLC analysis of the father using DNA from single hair roots revealed that he was a somatic mosaic for the mutation. Haplotype analysis confirmed that the father transmitted the genotypes for 18 markers on the X chromosome equally to his two daughters. The fact that the father transmitted the mutation to only one of his two daughters indicated that he was a germline mosaic for the mutation. Somatic and germline mosaicism for an X-linked dominant mutation in PHEX may mimic autosomal dominant inheritance.

  7. Phenotype-genotype correlations in X linked retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, J; Pelet, A; Martin, C; Delrieu, O; Aymé, S; Bonneau, D; Briard, M L; Hanauer, A; Larget-Piet, L; Lefrançois, P

    1992-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) represents a group of clinically heterogeneous retinal degenerations in which all modes of inheritance have been described. We have previously found two different clinical profiles in X linked RP as a function of age and mode of onset. The first clinical form has very early onset with severe myopia. The second form starts later with night blindness with mild myopia or none. At least two genes have been identified in X linked forms, namely RP2 (linked to DXS7, DXS255, and DXS14) and RP3 (linked to DXS84 and OTC) on the short arm of the X chromosome. In order to contribute to phenotype-genotype correlations in X linked RP, we tested the hypothesis that the two clinical profiles could be accounted for by the two different gene loci. The present study provides evidence for linkage of the clinical form with early myopia as the onset symptom with the RP2 gene (pairwise linkage to DXS255: Z = 3.13 at theta = 0), while the clinical form with later night blindness as the onset symptom is linked to the RP3 gene (pairwise linkage to OTC: Z = 4.16 at theta = 0). Images PMID:1357178

  8. High glucose intake and glycaemic level in critically ill neonates with inherited metabolic disorders of intoxication.

    PubMed

    Grimaud, Marion; de Lonlay, Pascale; Dupic, Laurent; Arnoux, Jean-Baptiste; Brassier, Anais; Hubert, Philippe; Lesage, Fabrice; Oualha, Mehdi

    2016-06-01

    To investigate glycaemic levels in critically ill neonates with inherited metabolic disorders of intoxication. Thirty-nine neonates with a median age of 7 days (0-24) were retrospectively included (urea cycle disorders (n = 18), maple syrup disease (n = 13), organic acidemias (n = 8)). Twenty-seven neonates were intubated, 21 were haemodialysed and 6 died. During the first 3 days, median total and peak blood glucose (BG) levels were 7.1 mmol/L (0.9-50) and 10 mmol/L (5.1-50), respectively. The median glucose intake rate was 11 mg/kg/min (2.7-15.9). Fifteen and 23 neonates exhibited severe hyperglycaemia (≥2 BG levels >12 mmol/L) and mild hyperglycaemia (≥2 BG levels >7 and ≤12 mmol/L), respectively. Glycaemic levels and number of hyperglycaemic neonates decreased over the first 3 days (p < 0.001) while total glucose intake rate was stable (p = 0.11). Enteral route of glucose intake was associated with a lower number of hyperglycaemic neonates (p = 0.04) and glycaemic level (p = 0.02). Hyperglycaemia is common in critically ill neonates receiving high glucose intake with inherited metabolic disorders of intoxication. Physicians should decrease the rate of total glucose intake and begin enteral feeding as quickly as possible in cases of persistent hyperglycaemia. • The risk of hyperglycaemia in the acute phase of critical illness is high. What is New: • Hyperglycaemia is common in the initial management of critically ill neonates with inherited metabolic disorders of intoxication receiving high glucose intake.

  9. [Inherited thrombocytopenias].

    PubMed

    Leverger, G; Petit, A; Fasola, S; Landman-Parker, J; Favier, R

    2010-08-01

    Secondary causes of thrombocytopenia as immunologic thrombopenia purpura, or ITP, are far more common than inherited causes, which even as a group, are rare. Nevertheless, diagnosis is important and progress made in uncovering the molecular basis of these disorders has contributed greatly to our knowledge of these diseases. Inherited thrombocytopenias are a heterogeneous group of disorders. Different criteria have been suggested to classify the forms, such as the inheritance mechanism and the platelet volume as well as the associated platelet dysfunctions or clinical abnormality. This paper describes the clinical and biological data, and current knowledge of the molecular findings of inherited thrombocytopenia, allowing a diagnostic approach to these diseases. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical and genetic features in autosomal recessive and X-linked Alport syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanyan; Sivakumar, Vanessa; Mohammad, Mardhiah; Colville, Deb; Storey, Helen; Flinter, Frances; Dagher, Hayat; Savige, Judy

    2014-03-01

    This study determined the family history and clinical features that suggested autosomal recessive rather than X-linked Alport syndrome. All patients had the diagnosis of Alport syndrome and the mode of inheritance confirmed by genetic testing, and underwent examination at a single centre. Patients comprised 9 males and 6 females with autosomal recessive Alport syndrome, and 18 males and 22 females with X-linked disease. Fourteen (93 %) individuals with autosomal recessive Alport syndrome developed early end-stage renal failure, all 15 had hearing loss, and most had lenticonus (12, 80 %), and a central (13, 87 %) or peripheral (13, 87 %) retinopathy. These features occurred as often as in males with X-linked disease. Females with autosomal recessive inheritance were less likely to have an affected family member in another generation (p = 0.01) than females with X-linked disease. They were more likely to have renal failure (p = 0.003), hearing loss (p = 0.02) and lenticonus (p < 0.001). Fifty percent had a central retinopathy compared with 18 % with X-linked disease (p = 0.14), but peripheral retinopathy prevalence was not different (p = 0.64). Nonsense mutations accounted for 67 % (8/12) of these disease-causing mutations. Autosomal recessive inheritance is increased in females with Alport syndrome and early onset renal failure, hearing loss, lenticonus, and, possibly, central retinopathy.

  11. [Preimplantation genetic diagnosis and monogenic inherited eye diseases].

    PubMed

    Hlavatá, L; Ďuďáková, Ľ; Trková, M; Soldátová, I; Skalická, P; Kousal, B; Lišková, P

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is an established application of genetic testing in the context of in vitro fertilization. PGD is an alternative method to prenatal diagnosis which aims to prevent the transmission of an inherited disorder to the progeny by implanting only embryos that do not carry genetic predisposition for a particular disease. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of eye disorders for which PGD has been carried out. The European literature search focused on best practices, ethical issues, risks and results of PGD for inherited eye disorders. PGD is performed for a number of ocular disorders; a prerequisite for its application is however, the knowledge of a disease-causing mutation(s). The main advantage of this method is that the couple is not exposed to a decision of whether or not to undergo an abortion. Qualified counselling must be provided prior to the PGD in order to completely understand the risk of disability in any child conceived, consequences of disease manifestation, and advantages as well as limitations of this method. In the group of non-syndromic eye diseases and diseases in which ocular findings dominate, PGD has been performed in European countries for aniridia, choroideremia, congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles, Leber congenital amaurosis, ocular albinism, retinitis pigmentosa, X-linked retinoschisis, Stargardt disease, blepharophimosis-ptosis-inverse epicanthus syndrome and retinoblastoma. Sexing for X-linked or mitochondrial diseases has been carried out for blue cone monochromatism, choroideremia, familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, macular dystrophy (not further specified), Norrie disease, X-linked congenital stationary night blindness, X-linked retinoschisis and nystagmus (not further specified). In recent years, there has been an increase in potential to use PGD. The spectrum of diseases for this method has widened to include severe inherited eye diseases

  12. Designing medical foods for inherited metabolic disorders: why intact protein is superior to amino acids.

    PubMed

    Ney, Denise Marie; Etzel, Mark Raymond

    2017-04-01

    Phenylketonuria and tyrosinemia are inherited metabolic disorders characterized by high blood levels of phenylalanine (Phe) or tyrosine (Tyr), due to mutations in genes affecting Phe and Tyr metabolism, respectively. The primary management is a lifelong diet restricted in protein from natural foods in combination with medical foods comprised mixtures of synthetic amino acids. Compliance is often poor after childhood leading to neuropsychological sequela. Glycomacropeptide, an intact 64 amino acid glycophosphopeptide isolated from cheese whey, provides a new paradigm for the management of phenylketonuria and tyrosinemia because glycomacropeptide contains no Phe and Tyr in its pure form, and is also a prebiotic. Medical foods made from glycomacropeptide have been used successfully for the management of phenylketonuria and tyrosinemia. Preclinical and clinical studies demonstrate that intact protein from glycomacropeptide provides a more acceptable and physiologic source of defined protein compared to amino acids in medical foods. For example, harmful gut bacteria were reduced, beneficial short chain fatty acids increased, renal workload decreased, protein utilization increased, and bone fragility decreased using intact protein versus amino acids. Advances in biotechnology will propel the transition from synthetic amino acids to intact proteins for the management of inherited metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Deconstructing Black Swans: An Introductory Approach to Inherited Metabolic Disorders in the Neonate.

    PubMed

    Mew, Nicholas Ah; Viall, Sarah; Kirmse, Brian; Chapman, Kimberly A

    2015-08-01

    Inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) are individually rare but collectively common disorders that frequently require rapid or urgent therapy. This article provides a generalized approach to IMDs, as well as some investigations and safe therapies that may be initiated pending the metabolic consult. An overview of the research supporting management strategies is provided. In addition, the newborn metabolic screen is reviewed. Caring for infants with IMDs can seem difficult because each of the types is rarely seen; however, collectively the management can be seen as similar. When an IMD is suspected, a metabolic specialist should be consulted for expert advice regarding appropriate laboratory investigations and management. Because rapid intervention of IMDs before the onset of symptoms may prevent future irreversible sequelae, each abnormal newborn screen must be addressed promptly. Management can be difficult. Research in this area is limited and can be difficult without multisite coordination since sample sizes of any significance are difficult to achieve.

  14. Gene Editing: A View Through the Prism of Inherited Metabolic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Davison, James

    2018-04-01

    Novel technological developments mean that gene editing - making deliberately targeted alterations in specific genes - is now a clinical reality. The inherited metabolic disorders, a group of clinically significant, monogenic disorders, provide a useful paradigm to explore some of the many ethical issues that arise from this technological capability. Fundamental questions about the significance of the genome, and of manipulating it by selection or editing, are reviewed, and a particular focus on the legislative process that has permitted the development of mitochondrial donation techniques is considered. Ultimately, decisions about what we should do with gene editing must be determined by reference to other non-genomic texts that determine what it is to be human - rather than simply to undertake gene editing because it can be done.

  15. Obstetric bleeding among women with inherited bleeding disorders: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Hawke, L; Grabell, J; Sim, W; Thibeault, L; Muir, E; Hopman, W; Smith, G; James, P

    2016-11-01

    Women with inherited bleeding disorders are at increased risk for bleeding complications during pregnancy and the postpartum period, particularly postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). This retrospective study evaluates pregnancy management through the Inherited Bleeding Disorders Clinic of Southeastern Ontario, the clinical factors associated with pregnancy-related abnormal bleeding and assesses tranexamic acid use in the postpartum treatment of bleeding disorder patients. A chart review of 62 pregnancies, from 33 women, evaluated patient characteristics (age, haemostatic factor levels) and delivery conditions (mode of delivery, postpartum treatment) in relation to abnormal postpartum bleeding. This cohort revealed increased risk of immediate PPH with increased age at delivery (mean age: 30.1 years with PPH, 26.5 years without PPH, P < 0.013), and birth by vaginal delivery (P < 0.042). Low von Willebrand factor (VWF) antigen or factor VIII (FVIII) in the third trimester was not associated with an increased risk of PPH; however, low VWF:RCo was associated with increased immediate PPH despite treatment with continuous factor infusion (P < 0.042). Women treated with tranexamic acid postpartum had less severe bleeding in the 6-week postpartum (P < 0.049) with no thrombotic complications. This study contributes to the growing body of work aimed at optimizing management of bleeding disorder patients through pregnancy and the postpartum period, showing patients are at a higher risk of PPH as they age. Risk factors such as low third trimester VWF:RCo have been identified. Treatment with tranexamic acid in the postpartum period is associated with a reduced incidence of abnormal postpartum bleeding. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A national register for surveillance of inherited disorders: beta thalassaemia in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed Central

    Modell, B.; Khan, M.; Darlison, M.; King, A.; Layton, M.; Old, J.; Petrou, M.; Varnavides, L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the value of a national register for surveillance of services for an inherited disorder. METHODS: Data from the United Kingdom Thalassaemia Register and the United Kingdom Register of Prenatal Diagnosis for Haemoglobin Disorders were combined in a database; these registers include all fetuses known to have been diagnosed with beta thalassaemia major, beta thalassaemia intermedia, or haemoglobin E/beta thalassaemia in the United Kingdom. Data were extracted to show outcomes (selective abortion or live birth) of all fetuses and the status of those born with a disorder (alive, dead, successful bone marrow transplant, or lost to follow-up) by parents' region of residence and ethnicity. FINDINGS: At the end of 1999 the register included 1074 patients, 807 of whom were alive and residing in the United Kingdom. A successful bone marrow transplant has been performed for 117 out of 581 (20%) patients born since 1975. Residents of Pakistani origin are now the main group at risk in the United Kingdom, replacing residents of Cypriot origin. This has led to a marked shift in the need for services from the south-east of England to the Midlands and the north of England. Despite the acceptability of prenatal diagnosis, the proportion of affected births remains 50% higher than would be expected, reflecting a widespread failure to deliver timely screening and counselling to carriers. Even though effective treatment is available the annual number of deaths is rising, indicating that better tolerated treatments are needed. CONCLUSION: A national diagnosis register is a powerful instrument for monitoring the treatment and prevention of inherited disorders and for highlighting correctable shortcomings. In view of the increasing possibilities for genetic screening there is a strong case for central funding for such databases within modern health services. PMID:11731807

  17. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy Printable PDF Open All Close ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy is a form of heart ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked myotubular myopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions X-linked myotubular myopathy X-linked myotubular myopathy Printable PDF Open All Close ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description X-linked myotubular myopathy is a condition that primarily ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia Printable PDF Open ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia (XLAG) is a ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia Printable PDF Open ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia is a rare ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked intellectual disability, Siderius type

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions X-linked intellectual disability, Siderius type X-linked intellectual disability, Siderius type Printable PDF Open ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description X-linked intellectual disability, Siderius type is a condition ...

  2. Consensus recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of inherited methylation disorders.

    PubMed

    Barić, Ivo; Staufner, Christian; Augoustides-Savvopoulou, Persephone; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Dobbelaere, Dries; Grünert, Sarah C; Opladen, Thomas; Petković Ramadža, Danijela; Rakić, Bojana; Wedell, Anna; Blom, Henk J

    2017-01-01

    Inherited methylation disorders are a group of rarely reported, probably largely underdiagnosed disorders affecting transmethylation processes in the metabolic pathway between methionine and homocysteine. These are methionine adenosyltransferase I/III, glycine N-methyltransferase, S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and adenosine kinase deficiencies. This paper provides the first consensus recommendations for the diagnosis and management of methylation disorders. Following search of the literature and evaluation according to the SIGN-methodology of all reported patients with methylation defects, graded recommendations are provided in a structured way comprising diagnosis (clinical presentation, biochemical abnormalities, differential diagnosis, newborn screening, prenatal diagnosis), therapy and follow-up. Methylation disorders predominantly affect the liver, central nervous system and muscles, but clinical presentation can vary considerably between and within disorders. Although isolated hypermethioninemia is the biochemical hallmark of this group of disorders, it is not always present, especially in early infancy. Plasma S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine are key metabolites for the biochemical clarification of isolated hypermethioninemia. Mild hyperhomocysteinemia can be present in all methylation disorders. Methylation disorders do not qualify as primary targets of newborn screening. A low-methionine diet can be beneficial in patients with methionine adenosyltransferase I/III deficiency if plasma methionine concentrations exceed 800 μmol/L. There is some evidence that this diet may also be beneficial in patients with S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and adenosine kinase deficiencies. S-adenosylmethionine supplementation may be useful in patients with methionine adenosyltransferase I/III deficiency. Recommendations given in this article are based on general principles and in practice should be adjusted individually according to patient's age

  3. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), a knowledgebase of human genes and genetic disorders.

    PubMed

    Hamosh, Ada; Scott, Alan F; Amberger, Joanna S; Bocchini, Carol A; McKusick, Victor A

    2005-01-01

    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a comprehensive, authoritative and timely knowledgebase of human genes and genetic disorders compiled to support human genetics research and education and the practice of clinical genetics. Started by Dr Victor A. McKusick as the definitive reference Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim/) is now distributed electronically by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, where it is integrated with the Entrez suite of databases. Derived from the biomedical literature, OMIM is written and edited at Johns Hopkins University with input from scientists and physicians around the world. Each OMIM entry has a full-text summary of a genetically determined phenotype and/or gene and has numerous links to other genetic databases such as DNA and protein sequence, PubMed references, general and locus-specific mutation databases, HUGO nomenclature, MapViewer, GeneTests, patient support groups and many others. OMIM is an easy and straightforward portal to the burgeoning information in human genetics.

  4. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), a knowledgebase of human genes and genetic disorders.

    PubMed

    Hamosh, Ada; Scott, Alan F; Amberger, Joanna; Bocchini, Carol; Valle, David; McKusick, Victor A

    2002-01-01

    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a comprehensive, authoritative and timely knowledgebase of human genes and genetic disorders compiled to support research and education in human genomics and the practice of clinical genetics. Started by Dr Victor A. McKusick as the definitive reference Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim) is now distributed electronically by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), where it is integrated with the Entrez suite of databases. Derived from the biomedical literature, OMIM is written and edited at Johns Hopkins University with input from scientists and physicians around the world. Each OMIM entry has a full-text summary of a genetically determined phenotype and/or gene and has numerous links to other genetic databases such as DNA and protein sequence, PubMed references, general and locus-specific mutation databases, approved gene nomenclature, and the highly detailed mapviewer, as well as patient support groups and many others. OMIM is an easy and straightforward portal to the burgeoning information in human genetics.

  5. [Gene therapy for inherited retinal dystrophies].

    PubMed

    Côco, Monique; Han, Sang Won; Sallum, Juliana Maria Ferraz

    2009-01-01

    The inherited retinal dystrophies comprise a large number of disorders characterized by a slow and progressive retinal degeneration. They are the result of mutations in genes that express in either the photoreceptor cells or the retinal pigment epithelium. The mode of inheritance can be autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X linked recessive, digenic or mitochondrial DNA inherited. At the moment, there is no treatment for these conditions and the patients can expect a progressive loss of vision. Accurate genetic counseling and support for rehabilitation are indicated. Research into the molecular and genetic basis of disease is continually expanding and improving the prospects for rational treatments. In this way, gene therapy, defined as the introduction of exogenous genetic material into human cells for therapeutic purposes, may ultimately offer the greatest treatment for the inherited retinal dystrophies. The eye is an attractive target for gene therapy because of its accessibility, immune privilege and translucent media. A number of retinal diseases affecting the eye have known gene defects. Besides, there is a well characterized animal model for many of these conditions. Proposals for clinical trials of gene therapy for inherited retinal degenerations owing to defects in the gene RPE65, have recently received ethical approval and the obtained preliminary results brought large prospects in the improvement on patient's quality of life.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked agammaglobulinemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sep;104(3):221-30. Citation on PubMed Smith CIE, Berglöf A. X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia. 2001 Apr ... Bean LJH, Bird TD, Ledbetter N, Mefford HC, Smith RJH, Stephens K, editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): ...

  7. Metabolism and insulin signaling in common metabolic disorders and inherited insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Højlund, Kurt

    2014-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes, obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are common metabolic disorders which are observed with increasing prevalences, and which are caused by a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors, including increased calorie intake and physical inactivity. These metabolic disorders are all characterized by reduced plasma adiponectin and insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. Quantitatively skeletal muscle is the major site of insulin resistance. Both low plasma adiponectin and insulin resistance contribute to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In several studies, we have investigated insulin action on glucose and lipid metabolism, and at the molecular level, insulin signaling to glucose transport and glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle from healthy individuals and in obesity, PCOS and type 2 diabetes. Moreover, we have described a novel syndrome characterized by postprandial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia and insulin resistance. This syndrome is caused by a mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of the insulin receptor gene (INSR). We have studied individuals with this mutation as a model of inherited insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes, obesity and PCOS are characterized by pronounced defects in the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, in particular glycogen synthesis and to a lesser extent glucose oxidation, and the ability of insulin to suppress lipid oxidation. In inherited insulin resistance, however, only insulin action on glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis is impaired. This suggests that the defects in glucose and lipid oxidation in the common metabolic disorders are secondary to other factors. In young women with PCOS, the degree of insulin resistance was similar to that seen in middle-aged patients with type 2 diabetes. This supports the hypothesis of an unique pathogenesis of insulin resistance in PCOS. Insulin in physiological concentrations stimulates glucose uptake in human skeletal

  8. Lipid metabolism in myelinating glial cells: lessons from human inherited disorders and mouse models.

    PubMed

    Chrast, Roman; Saher, Gesine; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Verheijen, Mark H G

    2011-03-01

    The integrity of central and peripheral nervous system myelin is affected in numerous lipid metabolism disorders. This vulnerability was so far mostly attributed to the extraordinarily high level of lipid synthesis that is required for the formation of myelin, and to the relative autonomy in lipid synthesis of myelinating glial cells because of blood barriers shielding the nervous system from circulating lipids. Recent insights from analysis of inherited lipid disorders, especially those with prevailing lipid depletion and from mouse models with glia-specific disruption of lipid metabolism, shed new light on this issue. The particular lipid composition of myelin, the transport of lipid-associated myelin proteins, and the necessity for timely assembly of the myelin sheath all contribute to the observed vulnerability of myelin to perturbed lipid metabolism. Furthermore, the uptake of external lipids may also play a role in the formation of myelin membranes. In addition to an improved understanding of basic myelin biology, these data provide a foundation for future therapeutic interventions aiming at preserving glial cell integrity in metabolic disorders.

  9. Lipid metabolism in myelinating glial cells: lessons from human inherited disorders and mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Chrast, Roman; Saher, Gesine; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Verheijen, Mark H. G.

    2011-01-01

    The integrity of central and peripheral nervous system myelin is affected in numerous lipid metabolism disorders. This vulnerability was so far mostly attributed to the extraordinarily high level of lipid synthesis that is required for the formation of myelin, and to the relative autonomy in lipid synthesis of myelinating glial cells because of blood barriers shielding the nervous system from circulating lipids. Recent insights from analysis of inherited lipid disorders, especially those with prevailing lipid depletion and from mouse models with glia-specific disruption of lipid metabolism, shed new light on this issue. The particular lipid composition of myelin, the transport of lipid-associated myelin proteins, and the necessity for timely assembly of the myelin sheath all contribute to the observed vulnerability of myelin to perturbed lipid metabolism. Furthermore, the uptake of external lipids may also play a role in the formation of myelin membranes. In addition to an improved understanding of basic myelin biology, these data provide a foundation for future therapeutic interventions aiming at preserving glial cell integrity in metabolic disorders. PMID:21062955

  10. Good laboratory practices for biochemical genetic testing and newborn screening for inherited metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    2012-04-06

    Biochemical genetic testing and newborn screening are essential laboratory services for the screening, detection, diagnosis, and monitoring of inborn errors of metabolism or inherited metabolic disorders. Under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA) regulations, laboratory testing is categorized on the basis of the level of testing complexity as either waived (i.e., from routine regulatory oversight) or nonwaived testing (which includes tests of moderate and high complexity). Laboratories that perform biochemical genetic testing are required by CLIA regulations to meet the general quality systems requirements for nonwaived testing and the personnel requirements for high-complexity testing. Laboratories that perform public health newborn screening are subject to the same CLIA regulations and applicable state requirements. As the number of inherited metabolic diseases that are included in state-based newborn screening programs continues to increase, ensuring the quality of performance and delivery of testing services remains a continuous challenge not only for public health laboratories and other newborn screening facilities but also for biochemical genetic testing laboratories. To help ensure the quality of laboratory testing, CDC collaborated with the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the Food and Drug Administration, the Health Resources and Services Administration, and the National Institutes of Health to develop guidelines for laboratories to meet CLIA requirements and apply additional quality assurance measures for these areas of genetic testing. This report provides recommendations for good laboratory practices that were developed based on recommendations from the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee, with additional input from the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Genetics, Health, and Society; the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children; and representatives of newborn

  11. The experience of girls and young women with inherited bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Khair, K; Holland, M; Pollard, D

    2013-09-01

    Haemophilia carriers and women with inherited bleeding disorders (IBD) experience menorrhagia, bleed following dentistry, surgery, injury or childbirth. Symptoms are easily treated leading to full and active lives. Nevertheless, some girls and women suffer with abnormal bleeding for many years before diagnosis. We explored the experiences of girls and young women (aged 9-34 years) with IBD by means of focus groups which consisted of moderated discussion addressing specific aspects of bleeding, management and coping strategies. Subsequently, these issues were explored further though a paper-based questionnaire distributed via five specialist haemophilia centres in the UK. The study suggested that young women with IBD who are managed at haemophilia centres receive appropriate care and feel well supported. Although the clinic-based literature available to these women is "fit for purpose", it does not fully address the perceived needs specifically regarding sex, menorrhagia, conception and childbirth, the Pill, tattoos/piercings and so on, leading many to turn to other information sources. Most of those who responded to our survey are confident in their lives, able to manage their IBD and take pragmatic views towards the inherited nature of their condition. But there is a substantial subgroup of women who experience stigmatization, isolation and bullying and express concerns relating to fertility and conception. Overall, this cohort would benefit from opportunities for mutual support. This could be via Internet-based social networking and may be of particular value to those who are unable to seek help from traditional medical services due to religious or other cultural barriers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Epidemiology of ocular disorders presumed to be inherited in three small Italian dog breeds in Italy.

    PubMed

    Guandalini, Adolfo; Di Girolamo, Nicola; Corvi, Roberta; Santillo, Daniele; Andreani, Valentina; Pinzo, Barbara

    2017-12-28

    To describe the prevalence and the types of eye disorders that are known or presumed to be inherited (KP-HED) in three small Italian dog breeds. Three small Italian dog breeds: Maltese, Bolognese, and Italian Greyhound. All dogs of the breeds selected for this prospective observational study that underwent a complete ophthalmic examination between 1994 and 2015 were included. General and proportional KP-HED prevalence with 95% confidence intervals were reported. Three hundred and six of 462 dogs were affected by at least one KP-HED (66.2%; 95% CI: 61.8%-70.4%). In the entire population, the five most common KP-HED were cataract (n = 122; rate on the total number of KP-HED: 31.4%), entropion (n = 56; 14.4%), keratoconjunctivitis sicca (n = 33; 8.5%), retinal dysplasia (n = 24; 6.2%), and persistent pupillary membrane (iris to iris) (n = 21; 5.4%). The most common KP-HED in each breed were cataracts in the Maltese (35.1%) and in the Bolognese (24.2%), and presentation of vitreous in the anterior chamber in the Italian Greyhound (46.7%). Clinicians should be aware of KP-HED that commonly affect three small Italian dog breeds. Breed standards should be reconsidered, and breeding programs should be directed at limiting such disorders. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  13. Biotin deprivation impairs mitochondrial structure and function and has implications for inherited metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Ruiz, Estefanía; Díaz-Ruiz, Rodrigo; Hernández-Vázquez, Alaín de J; Ibarra-González, Isabel; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Rembao, Daniel; Ortega-Cuéllar, Daniel; Viollet, Benoit; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Corella, José Ahmed; Velázquez-Arellano, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Certain inborn errors of metabolism result from deficiencies in biotin containing enzymes. These disorders are mimicked by dietary absence or insufficiency of biotin, ATP deficit being a major effect,whose responsible mechanisms have not been thoroughly studied. Here we show that in rats and cultured cells it is the result of reduced TCA cycle flow, partly due to deficient anaplerotic biotin-dependent pyruvate carboxylase. This is accompanied by diminished flow through the electron transport chain, augmented by deficient cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) activity with decreased cytochromes and reduced oxidative phosphorylation. There was also severe mitochondrial damage accompanied by decrease of mitochondria, associated with toxic levels of propionyl CoA as shown by carnitine supplementation studies, which explains the apparently paradoxical mitochondrial diminution in the face of the energy sensor AMPK activation, known to induce mitochondria biogenesis. This idea was supported by experiments on AMPK knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). The multifactorial ATP deficit also provides a plausible basis for the cardiomyopathy in patients with propionic acidemia, and other diseases.Additionally, systemic inflammation concomitant to the toxic state might explain our findings of enhanced IL-6, STAT3 and HIF-1α, associated with an increase of mitophagic BNIP3 and PINK proteins, which may further increase mitophagy. Together our results imply core mechanisms of energy deficit in several inherited metabolic disorders.

  14. Vascular and connective tissue anomalies associated with X-linked periventricular heterotopia due to mutations in Filamin A

    PubMed Central

    Reinstein, Eyal; Frentz, Sophia; Morgan, Tim; García-Miñaúr, Sixto; Leventer, Richard J; McGillivray, George; Pariani, Mitchel; van der Steen, Anthony; Pope, Michael; Holder-Espinasse, Muriel; Scott, Richard; Thompson, Elizabeth M; Robertson, Terry; Coppin, Brian; Siegel, Robert; Bret Zurita, Montserrat; Rodríguez, Jose I; Morales, Carmen; Rodrigues, Yuri; Arcas, Joaquín; Saggar, Anand; Horton, Margaret; Zackai, Elaine; Graham, John M; Rimoin, David L; Robertson, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    Mutations conferring loss of function at the FLNA (encoding filamin A) locus lead to X-linked periventricular nodular heterotopia (XL-PH), with seizures constituting the most common clinical manifestation of this disorder in female heterozygotes. Vascular dilatation (mainly the aorta), joint hypermobility and variable skin findings are also associated anomalies, with some reports suggesting that this might represents a separate syndrome allelic to XL-PH, termed as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome-periventricular heterotopia variant (EDS-PH). Here, we report a cohort of 11 males and females with both hypomorphic and null mutations in FLNA that manifest a wide spectrum of connective tissue and vascular anomalies. The spectrum of cutaneous defects was broader than previously described and is inconsistent with a specific type of EDS. We also extend the range of vascular anomalies associated with XL-PH to included peripheral arterial dilatation and atresia. Based on these observations, we suggest that there is little molecular or clinical justification for considering EDS-PH as a separate entity from XL-PH, but instead propose that there is a spectrum of vascular and connective tissues anomalies associated with this condition for which all individuals with loss-of-function mutations in FLNA should be evaluated. In addition, since some patients with XL-PH can present primarily with a joint hypermobility syndrome, we propose that screening for cardiovascular manifestations should be offered to those patients when there are associated seizures or an X-linked pattern of inheritance. PMID:23032111

  15. Use of topical dorzolamide for patients with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis: case report.

    PubMed

    Bastos, André Luís Carvalho de Moura; Freitas, Bruno de Paula; Villas Boas, Oscar; Ramiro, Alexandre Campelo

    2008-01-01

    X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) is a recessively inherited vitreoretinal degeneration characterized by macular pathology and splitting of the neuroretinal layers that is associated with alterations in the XLRS1 gene. There have been no therapeutic interventions known to be effective for patients with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis, but some studies are trying to determine the importance of dorzolamide for the treatment of foveal lesions in this disease. The authors, using optical coherence tomography, describe findings in a patient with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis, before and after a topical use of dorzolamide. Besides the improvement in his visual acuity, further studies are required to elucidate the real prevalence of nonresponse to dorzolamide and the frequency with which there may be a recurrence of foveal cystic changes during continued treatment.

  16. Epidemiology of ocular disorders presumed to be inherited in three large Italian dog breeds in Italy.

    PubMed

    Guandalini, Adolfo; Di Girolamo, Nicola; Santillo, Daniele; Andreani, Valentina; Corvi, Roberta; Bandini, Marina; Peruccio, Claudio

    2017-09-01

    To describe the epidemiology and the types of eye disorders that are presumed to be inherited (PIED) in three large Italian dog breeds. Three large Italian dog breeds: Neapolitan Mastiff (FCI code: 197), Maremma Sheepdog (FCI code: 201), and Italian Corso dog (FCI code: 343). All dogs that underwent a complete ophthalmic examination between 1992 and 2012 were included in this prospective observational study. The prevalence of eye disorders with 95% confidence intervals was reported for presumed healthy dogs and for dogs referred to a veterinary center for an ophthalmic consultation. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression techniques were used to generate odds ratios. Of 605 dogs examined during the study period, 351 dogs were affected by at least one PIED (58%; 95% CI: 54-62%). The prevalence of PIED was significantly lower in dogs presented for ophthalmic examination (53.8%) as compared to presumed healthy dogs (62.2%)(OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.02-1.9; P = 0.037). Also after multivariate adjustment for the period of observation, the odds of Neapolitan Mastiff (92.1%; OR: 21.4; 95% CI: 11.1-41.4) and of Cane Corso (57.7%; OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.7-3.6) suffering a PIED were greater than the Maremma Sheepdog (35.4%). The most common PIED in each breed were entropion (24.3% of all the PIED) in the Neapolitan Mastiff, ectropion (36.6%) in the Corso dog, and cataract (27.9%) in the Maremma Sheepdog. Clinicians should be aware that three large Italian dog breeds frequently suffer PIED. Breed standards should be reconsidered, and breeding programs should be directed at limiting such disorders. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  17. Identification of a novel PHEX mutation in a Chinese family with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets using exome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lamei; Wu, Song; Xu, Hongbo; Xiao, Jingjing; Yang, Zhijian; Xia, Hong; Liu, An; Hu, Pengzhi; Lu, Anjie; Chen, Yulan; Xu, Fengping; Deng, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Familial hypophosphatemic rickets (HR), the most common inherited form of rickets, is a group of inherited renal phosphate wasting disorders characterized by growth retardation, rickets with bone deformities, osteomalacia, poor dental development, and hypophosphatemia. The purpose of this study was to identify the genetic defect responsible for familial HR in a four-generation Chinese Han pedigree by exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing. Clinical features include skeletal deformities, teeth abnormalities, hearing impairments and variable serum phosphate level in patients of this family. A novel deletion mutation, c.1553delT (p.F518Sfs*4), was identified in the X-linked phosphate regulating endopeptidase homolog gene (PHEX). The mutation is predicted to result in prematurely truncated and loss-of-function PHEX protein. Our data suggest that exome sequencing is a powerful tool to discover mutation(s) in HR, a disorder with genetic and clinical heterogeneity. The findings may also provide new insights into the cause and diagnosis of HR, and have implications for genetic counseling and clinical management.

  18. A CLINICIAN'S GUIDE TO X-LINKED HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Thomas O.; Imel, Erik A.; Holm, Ingrid A.; Jan de Beur, Suzanne M.; Insogna, Karl L.

    2011-01-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is the prototypic disorder of renal phosphate wasting, and the most common form of heritable rickets. Physicians, patients, and XLH support groups have all expressed concerns about the dearth of information about this disease and the lack of treatment guidelines which frequently lead to missed diagnoses or mismanagement. This perspective addresses the recommendation by conferees for the dissemination of concise and accessible treatment guidelines for clinicians arising from the “Advances in Rare Bone Diseases Scientific Conference,” held at the National Institutes of Health in October 2008. We briefly review the clinical and pathophysiologic features of the disorder, and offer this guide in response to the conference recommendation, base on our collective accumulated experience in the management of this complex disorder. PMID:21538511

  19. Novel Missense Mutation A789V in IQSEC2 Underlies X-Linked Intellectual Disability in the MRX78 Family

    PubMed Central

    Kalscheuer, Vera M.; James, Victoria M.; Himelright, Miranda L.; Long, Philip; Oegema, Renske; Jensen, Corinna; Bienek, Melanie; Hu, Hao; Haas, Stefan A.; Topf, Maya; Hoogeboom, A. Jeannette M.; Harvey, Kirsten; Walikonis, Randall; Harvey, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Disease gene discovery in neurodevelopmental disorders, including X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) has recently been accelerated by next-generation DNA sequencing approaches. To date, more than 100 human X chromosome genes involved in neuronal signaling pathways and networks implicated in cognitive function have been identified. Despite these advances, the mutations underlying disease in a large number of XLID families remained unresolved. We report the resolution of MRX78, a large family with six affected males and seven affected females, showing X-linked inheritance. Although a previous linkage study had mapped the locus to the short arm of chromosome X (Xp11.4-p11.23), this region contained too many candidate genes to be analyzed using conventional approaches. However, our X-chromosome exome resequencing, bioinformatics analysis and inheritance testing revealed a missense mutation (c.C2366T, p.A789V) in IQSEC2, encoding a neuronal GDP-GTP exchange factor for Arf family GTPases (ArfGEF) previously implicated in XLID. Molecular modeling of IQSEC2 revealed that the A789V substitution results in the insertion of a larger side-chain into a hydrophobic pocket in the catalytic Sec7 domain of IQSEC2. The A789V change is predicted to result in numerous clashes with adjacent amino acids and disruption of local folding of the Sec7 domain. Consistent with this finding, functional assays revealed that recombinant IQSEC2A789V was not able to catalyze GDP-GTP exchange on Arf6 as efficiently as wild-type IQSEC2. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the A789V mutation in IQSEC2 is the underlying cause of XLID in the MRX78 family. PMID:26793055

  20. Perioperative Physiotherapy for Total Ankle Replacement in Patients with Inherited Bleeding Disorders: Outline of an Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Kotela, Andrzej; Wilk-Frańczuk, Magdalena; Jaczewska, Joanna; Żbikowski, Piotr; Łęgosz, Paweł; Ambroziak, Paweł; Kotela, Ireneusz

    2017-01-27

    The treatment of end-stage hemophilic arthropathy of the ankle joint remains a controversial problem, and total ankle replacement (TAR) is considered to be a valuable management option. Physiotherapy continues to be an extremely important part of TAR and has a tremendous impact on the outcomes of this procedure. Given the lack of data on the latter, this study details a protocol of perioperative physiotherapy in TAR in patients with inherited bleeding disorders (IBD). The protocol outlined in this paper was devised via consultations within an interdisciplinary group, the authors' own experiences with TAR in hemophilic and non-hemophilic patients, previous reports on this issue in the literature, and patient opinions. Our working group followed the criteria of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. The algorithm includes 4 physiotherapy phases with specified time frames, aims, interventions, and examples of exercises for each phase. We emphasize the importance of preoperative rehabilitation, and recommend introducing intensive physiotherapy immediately after the surgery, with regard to the wound protection and avoiding full weight-bearing in the first weeks. The intensity of physiotherapy should be adjusted individually depending on individual patient progress. This study details a rehabilitation protocol for TAR in patients with IBDs, which can be equally applicable to clinicians and researchers. Further scientific studies are required to investigate the beneficial effect of different protocols as well as to clarify the effectiveness of various frequencies, durations, and intensities of selected interventions.

  1. Revision Knee Arthroplasty in Patients with Inherited Bleeding Disorders: A Single-Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kotela, Andrzej; Wilk-Frańczuk, Magdalena; Żbikowski, Piotr; Łęgosz, Paweł; Ambroziak, Paweł; Kotela, Ireneusz

    2017-01-01

    Background The results of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with inherited bleeding disorders (IBDs) are poorer when compared with those in the general population, with a notably higher risk of complications and higher revision rates. Thus, revision procedures are becoming a growing concern in this group of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of revision TKA in patients with IBD. Material/Methods A retrospective cohort study with longitudinal assessment of hemophilia patients scheduled for revision TKA between January 2010 and September 2015 was performed. The clinical status of the patients was assessed based on the Knee Society Score, and the Numeric Rating Scale was used to assess knee pain severity and patient satisfaction with the surgery. Radiological examination, post-operative complications, and reinterventions were recorded and analyzed. Results Very good results were obtained in all patients treated for aseptic loosening of the implant. However, inferior results were found in cases with infection. All patients operated on for aseptic loosening required only single-stage TKA, whereas patients with infection underwent multiple interventions. Complications were observed only in cases with infection. Conclusions Our study clearly outlined the differences in results based on failure mode, with far inferior results obtained in cases with infection. Given the lack of data in this area as well as the high specificity of this population, further high-quality studies are needed. PMID:28068306

  2. High prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with inherited connective tissue disorders

    PubMed Central

    Abonia, J. Pablo; Wen, Ting; Stucke, Emily M.; Grotjan, Tommie; Griffith, Molly S.; Kemme, Katherine A.; Collins, Margaret H.; Putnam, Philip E.; Franciosi, James P.; von Tiehl, Karl F.; Tinkle, Brad T.; Marsolo, Keith A.; Martin, Lisa J.; Ware, Stephanie M.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging chronic inflammatory disease mediated by immune hypersensitization to multiple foods and strongly associated with atopy and esophageal remodeling. Objective We provide clinical and molecular evidence indicating a high prevalence of EoE in patients with inherited connective tissue disorders (CTDs). Methods We examined the rate of EoE among patients with CTDs and subsequently analyzed esophageal mRNA transcript profiles in patients with EoE with or without CTD features. Results We report a cohort of 42 patients with EoE with a CTD-like syndrome, representing 0.8% of patients with CTDs and 1.3% of patients with EoE within our hospital-wide electronic medical record database and our EoE research registry, respectively. An 8-fold risk of EoE in patients with CTDs (relative risk, 8.1; 95% confidence limit, 5.1-12.9; χ21 = 112.0; P < 10−3) was present compared with the general population. Esophageal transcript profiling identified a distinct subset of genes, including COL8A2, in patients with EoE and CTDs. Conclusion There is a remarkable association of EoE with CTDs and evidence for a differential expression of genes involved in connective tissue repair in this cohort. Thus, we propose stratification of patients with EoE and CTDs into a subset referred to as EoE-CTD. PMID:23608731

  3. MULTIMODAL IMAGING OF MOSAIC RETINOPATHY IN CARRIERS OF HEREDITARY X-LINKED RECESSIVE DISEASES.

    PubMed

    Wu, An-Lun; Wang, Jung-Pan; Tseng, Yun-Ju; Liu, Laura; Kang, Yu-Chuan; Chen, Kuan-Jen; Chao, An-Ning; Yeh, Lung-Kun; Chen, Tun-Lu; Hwang, Yih-Shiou; Wu, Wei-Chi; Lai, Chi-Chun; Wang, Nan-Kai

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the clinical features in carriers of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa, X-linked ocular albinism, and choroideremia (CHM) using multimodal imaging and to assess their diagnostic value in these three mosaic retinopathies. We prospectively examined 14 carriers of 3 X-linked recessive disorders (X-linked retinitis pigmentosa, X-linked ocular albinism, and CHM). Details of abnormalities of retinal morphology were evaluated using fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. In six X-linked retinitis pigmentosa carriers, fundus appearance varied from unremarkable to the presence of tapetal-like reflex and pigmentary changes. On FAF imaging, all carriers exhibited a bright radial reflex against a dark background. By spectral domain optical coherence tomography, loss of the ellipsoid zone in the macula was observed in 3 carriers (50%). Regarding the retinal laminar architecture, 4 carriers (66.7%) showed thinning of the outer nuclear layer and a dentate appearance of the outer plexiform layer. All five X-linked ocular albinism carriers showed a characteristic mud-splatter patterned fundus, dark radial streaks against a bright background on FAF imaging, and a normal-appearing retinal structure by spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging. Two of the 3 CHM carriers (66.7%) showed a diffuse moth-eaten appearance of the fundus, and all 3 showed irregular hyper-FAF and hypo-FAF spots throughout the affected area. In the CHM carriers, the structural changes observed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging were variable. Our findings in an Asian cohort suggest that FAF imaging is a practical diagnostic test for differentiating X-linked retinitis pigmentosa, X-linked ocular albinism, and CHM carriers. Wide-field FAF is an easy and helpful adjunct to testing for the correct diagnosis and identification of lyonization in carriers of these three mosaic retinopathies.

  4. Diagnosis of rare inherited glyoxalate metabolic disorders through in-situ analysis of renal stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, D. E.; Grohe, B.; Hoppe, B.; Beck, B. B.; Tessadri, R.

    2012-04-01

    The primary hyperoxalurias type I - III constitute rare autosomal-recessive inherited disorders of the human glyoxylate metabolism. By mechanisms that are ill understood progressive nephrocalcinosis and recurrent urolithiasis (kidney stone formation) often starting in early childhood, along with their secondary complications results in loss of nephron mass which progresses to end-stage renal failure over time. In the most frequent form, end-stage renal failure (ESRF) is the rule and combined liver/kidney transplantation respectively pre-emptive liver transplantation are the only causative treatment today. Hence, this contributes significantly to healthcare costs and early diagnosis is extremely important for a positive outcome for the patient. We are developing a stone-based diagnostic method by in-detail multi-methods investigation of the crystalline moiety in concert with urine and stone proteomics. Stone analysis will allow faster analysis at low-impact for the patients in the early stages of the disease. First results from combined spectroscopic (Raman, FTIR)and geochemical micro-analyses (Electron Microprobe and Laser Ablation ICP-MS) are presented here that show significant differences between stones from hyperoxaluria patients and those formed by patients without this disorder (idiopathic stones). Major differences exist in chemistry as well as in morphology and phase composition of the stones. Ca/P ratios and Mg contents differentiate between oxalate-stones from hyperoxaluria patients and idiopathic stones. Results show that also within the different subtypes of primary hyperoxaluria significant differences can be found in stone composition. These imply differences in stone formation which could be exploited for new therapeutic pathways. Furthermore, the results provide important feedback for suspected but yet unconfirmed cases of primary hyperoxaluria when used in concert with the genetic methods routinely applied.

  5. Role of prostaglandins in the pathogenesis of X-linked hypophosphatemia.

    PubMed

    Baum, Michel; Syal, Ashu; Quigley, Raymond; Seikaly, Mouin

    2006-08-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemia is an X-linked dominant disorder resulting from a mutation in the PHEX gene. PHEX stands for phosphate-regulating gene with endopeptidase activity, which is located on the X chromosome. Patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia have hypophosphatemia due to renal phosphate wasting and low or inappropriately normal levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The renal phosphate wasting is not intrinsic to the kidney but likely due to an increase in serum levels of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), and perhaps other phosphate-wasting peptides previously known as phosphatonins. Patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia have short stature, rickets, bone pain and dental abscesses. Current therapy is oral phosphate and vitamin D which effectively treats the rickets and bone pain but does not adequately improve short stature. In this review, we describe recent observations using Hyp mice; mice with the same mutation as patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia. We have recently found that Hyp mice have abnormal renal prostaglandin production, which may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Administration of FGF-23 in vivo results in phosphaturia and an increase in prostaglandin excretion, and FGF-23 increases proximal tubule prostaglandin production in vitro. In Hyp mice, indomethacin improves the phosphate transport defect in vitro and in vivo. Whether indomethacin has the same effect in patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia is unknown.

  6. Prevalence of inherited disorders among mixed-breed and purebred dogs: 27,254 cases (1995-2010).

    PubMed

    Bellumori, Thomas P; Famula, Thomas R; Bannasch, Danika L; Belanger, Janelle M; Oberbauer, Anita M

    2013-06-01

    To determine the proportion of mixed-breed and purebred dogs with common genetic disorders. Case-control study. 27,254 dogs with an inherited disorder. Electronic medical records were reviewed for 24 genetic disorders: hemangiosarcoma, lymphoma, mast cell tumor, osteosarcoma, aortic stenosis, dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, mitral valve dysplasia, patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect, hyperadrenocorticism, hypoadrenocorticism, hypothyroidism, elbow dysplasia, hip dysplasia, intervertebral disk disease, patellar luxation, ruptured cranial cruciate ligament, atopy or allergic dermatitis, bloat, cataracts, epilepsy, lens luxation, and portosystemic shunt. For each disorder, healthy controls matched for age, body weight, and sex to each affected dog were identified. Genetic disorders differed in expression. No differences in expression of 13 genetic disorders were detected between purebred dogs and mixed-breed dogs (ie, hip dysplasia, hypo- and hyperadrenocorticism, cancers, lens luxation, and patellar luxation). Purebred dogs were more likely to have 10 genetic disorders, including dilated cardiomyopathy, elbow dysplasia, cataracts, and hypothyroidism. Mixed-breed dogs had a greater probability of ruptured cranial cruciate ligament. Prevalence of genetic disorders in both populations was related to the specific disorder. Recently derived breeds or those from similar lineages appeared to be more susceptible to certain disorders that affect all closely related purebred dogs, whereas disorders with equal prevalence in the 2 populations suggested that those disorders represented more ancient mutations that are widely spread through the dog population. Results provided insight on how breeding practices may reduce prevalence of a disorder.

  7. Familial epilepsy in Algeria: Clinical features and inheritance profiles.

    PubMed

    Chentouf, Amina; Dahdouh, Aïcha; Guipponi, Michel; Oubaiche, Mohand Laïd; Chaouch, Malika; Hamamy, Hanan; Antonarakis, Stylianos E

    2015-09-01

    To document the clinical characteristics and inheritance pattern of epilepsy in multigeneration Algerian families. Affected members from extended families with familial epilepsy were assessed at the University Hospital of Oran in Algeria. Available medical records, neurological examination, electroencephalography and imaging data were reviewed. The epilepsy type was classified according to the criteria of the International League Against Epilepsy and modes of inheritance were deduced from pedigree analysis. The study population included 40 probands; 23 male (57.5%) and 17 female subjects (42.5%). The mean age of seizure onset was 9.5 ± 6.1 years. According to seizure onset, 16 patients (40%) had focal seizures and 20 (50%) had generalized seizures. Seizure control was achieved for two patients (5%) for 10 years, while 28 (70%) were seizure-free for 3 months. Eleven patients (27.5%) had prior febrile seizures, 12 were diagnosed with psychiatric disorders and four families had syndromic epilepsy. The consanguinity rate among parents of affected was 50% with phenotypic concordance observed in 25 families (62.5%). Pedigree analysis suggested autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance with or without reduced penetrance in 18 families (45%), probable autosomal recessive (AR) inheritance in 14 families (35%), and an X-linked recessive inheritance in one family. This study reveals large Algerian families with multigenerational inheritance of epilepsy. Molecular testing such as exome sequencing would clarify the genetic basis of epilepsy in some of our families. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. X-linked juvenile retinoschisis in females and response to carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ali, Syed; Seth, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    A 63 year old woman was referred to the retina clinic after her vision failed to improve in her left eye after cataract surgery. X-linked retinoschisis was diagnosed in the patient after her retina exam revealed an area of retinoschisis and a foveal cyst. The OCT confirmed the macular cyst and the ERG showed loss of B waves. The florescein angiogram showed no significant perifoveal leakage. Her foveal cyst resolved after treatment with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. The patient's son was examined and his ophthalmologic exam, ERG and imaging findings were consistent with X-linked retinoschisis. However, his bilateral foveal cysts did not respond to treatment with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. X-linked retinoschisis is a very rare disease in women due to its X-linked recessive inheritance and the foveal cysts associated with it can respond to carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.

  9. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in children on La Réunion Island: a new inherited disorder?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is very rare in children. Only a few small series have been published, with little information about long-term progression. The objective of our study was to describe the clinical, radiological and pathological features, and the long-term course of PAP in a cohort of 34 children from La Réunion Island. Methods Data were retrospectively collected from medical files. Radiological and pathological elements were reviewed by two pediatric radiologists and three pathologists, respectively. Results Thirteen cases were familial and 32/34 (94%) cases were family connected. Disease onset occurred in the first six months of life in 82% of the patients. Thoracic computed tomography scans showed the typical “crazy-paving” pattern in 94% of cases. Respiratory disease was associated with a liver disorder, with the detection of liver enlargement at diagnosis in 56% of cases. The course of the disease was characterized by frequent progression to chronic respiratory insufficiency, accompanied by the appearance of cholesterol granulomas and pulmonary fibrosis. Overall prognosis was poor, with a mortality of 59% and an overall five-year survival rate from birth of 64%. Whole-lung lavages were performed in 21 patients, with no significant effect on survival. Liver disease progressed to cirrhosis in 18% of children, with no severe complication. Conclusions PAP in children from la Réunion Island is characterized by an early onset, associated liver involvement, poor prognosis and frequent progression to lung fibrosis, despite whole-lung lavages treatment. The geographic clustering of patients and the detection of many familial links between most of the cases strongly suggest a genetic etiology, with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. PMID:24927752

  10. The impact of visual media to encourage low protein cooking in inherited metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Evans, S; Daly, A; Hopkins, V; Davies, P; MacDonald, A

    2009-10-01

    The use of educational visual aids is one way to help children with inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) understand and develop a positive attitude towards their low protein diet. However, it is difficult to establish their effectiveness in the clinical setting. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of a low protein recipe book and accompanying DVD for children with IMD. One hundred and five children (53% female; median age = 6-8 years) with IMD on low protein diets were each given a low protein recipe book and DVD. After 6 months, children and carers were posted a questionnaire asking whether they used these resources; identifying any change in frequency of low protein cooking; and the outcome when preparing recipes. One hundred and two questionnaires were returned, representing 105 patients. Seventy percent (n = 71) of questionnaires were from carers. Ninety-three percent (n = 66) of carers acknowledged receipt of the resource; one-third (n = 22) had not watched the DVD and 23% (n = 15) had not opened the recipe book; 55% (n = 36) had tried the recipes; and 71% (n = 47) said the recipe book and/or DVD motivated them to try new recipes. Children were more likely to have watched the DVD (75%; n = 21/28) and read the recipe book (86%; n = 24/28) than carers. Although a helpful educational tool, just over one-half of respondents had used the resource. Identifying visual media that, by itself, will motivate most families of children with IMD to prepare low protein recipes may be unrealistic. The combined approach of visual aids and 'hands-on' practical experience, such as low protein cooking workshops and individual counselling, may be more beneficial.

  11. Old diseases and contemporary crisis. Inherited blood disorders in the Sultanate of Oman.

    PubMed

    Beaudevin, Claire

    2013-01-01

    This contribution draws on ethnographic research conducted in Oman on inherited blood disorders (IBD). By interpreting results from population genomics studies that trace mutation processes over centuries of human activities, lay-representations of IBD often consider them historical evidence. The perceived spread of IBD in Oman may thus provide unusual historical depth in a country where past conflicts have been erased from historiography and representations of time are politically prescribed. Through the notions of crisis and diversification, this contribution shows how IBD's chronicity challenges the healthcare system and became a national issue, politically labelled as urgent. The paper casts light on several aspects of contemporary Omani society: it first addresses the dynamics of disease taxonomies - although biomedically described in the early twentieth century, IBD were not individualized within local nosologies until the 1970s. Secondly, it shows how biomedical knowledge about IBD led to diversification within the healthcare system, through the introduction of clinical genetics, genomics, and community genetics. Thirdly, it attempts to broach modalities of the biopower exerted by the Omani regime over its citizens: IBD are targeted by various public health measures that jeopardize patients' autonomy by aiming to control their bodies through their matrimonial behaviour. In addition, two aspects of the intersections between Omani social hierarchy and IBD are noteworthy: the creation of a patients' association that constitutes a potential disturbance of the social order; and the way IBD mutations traced by genomics are considered direct historical documents that challenge representations of the recently crafted 'Omanity' in a context of regional concern regarding national identities' durability.

  12. X-linked agammaglobulinemia in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Trakultivakorn, Muthita; Ochs, Hans D

    2006-03-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by a failure to generate immunoglobulins of all isotypes due to the absence of mature B cells and plasma cells, secondary to mutations in the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) gene. We report six patients with XLA, confirmed by mutation analysis, from northern Thailand. The mean age of onset was 2.5 years and the mean age at diagnosis was 7.3 years. All patients had a history of otitis media, pneumonia and arthritis at the time of diagnosis, five patients had developed bronchiectasis and 3 patients septicemia. Other infections reported included sinusitis (5/6), pericarditis (1/6), meningitis (1/6) and pyoderma (1/6). Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated on multiple occasions. One patient died of sepsis at the age of 16 years. These observations demonstrate that early diagnosis and treatment can improve prognosis and quality of life.

  13. Evidence for Phex haploinsufficiency in murine X-linked hypophosphatemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Du, L; Ecarot, B

    1999-04-01

    Mutations in the PHEX gene (phosphate-regulating gene with homology to endopeptidases on the X-chromosome) are responsible for X-linked hypophosphatemia (HYP). We previously reported the full-length coding sequence of murine Phex cDNA and provided evidence of Phex expression in bone and tooth. Here, we report the cloning of the entire 3.5-kb 3'UTR of the Phex gene, yielding a total of 6248 bp for the Phex transcript. Southern blot and RT-PCR analyses revealed that the 3' end of the coding sequence and the 3'UTR of the Phex gene, spanning exons 16 to 22, are deleted in Hyp, the mouse model for HYP. Northern blot analysis of bone revealed lack of expression of stable Phex mRNA from the mutant allele and expression of Phex transcripts from the wild-type allele in Hyp heterozygous females. Expression of the Phex protein in heterozygotes was confirmed by Western analysis with antibodies raised against a COOH-terminal peptide of the mouse Phex protein. Taken together, these results indicate that the dominant pattern of Hyp inheritance in mice is due to Phex haploinsufficiency.

  14. Canine models of inherited bleeding disorders in the development of coagulation assays, novel protein replacement and gene therapies.

    PubMed

    Nichols, T C; Hough, C; Agersø, H; Ezban, M; Lillicrap, D

    2016-05-01

    Animal models of inherited bleeding disorders are important for understanding disease pathophysiology and are required for preclinical assessment of safety prior to testing of novel therapeutics in human and veterinary medicine. Experiments in these animals represent important translational research aimed at developing safer and better treatments, such as plasma-derived and recombinant protein replacement therapies, gene therapies and immune tolerance protocols for antidrug inhibitory antibodies. Ideally, testing is done in animals with the analogous human disease to provide essential safety information, estimates of the correct starting dose and dose response (pharmacokinetics) and measures of efficacy (pharmacodynamics) that guide the design of human trials. For nearly seven decades, canine models of hemophilia, von Willebrand disease and other inherited bleeding disorders have not only informed our understanding of the natural history and pathophysiology of these disorders but also guided the development of novel therapeutics for use in humans and dogs. This has been especially important for the development of gene therapy, in which unique toxicities such as insertional mutagenesis, germ line gene transfer and viral toxicities must be assessed. There are several issues regarding comparative medicine in these species that have a bearing on these studies, including immune reactions to xenoproteins, varied metabolism or clearance of wild-type and modified proteins, and unique tissue tropism of viral vectors. This review focuses on the results of studies that have been performed in dogs with inherited bleeding disorders that closely mirror the human condition to develop safe and effective protein and gene-based therapies that benefit both species. © 2016 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  15. X-linked intellectual disability update 2017.

    PubMed

    Neri, Giovanni; Schwartz, Charles E; Lubs, Herbert A; Stevenson, Roger E

    2018-04-25

    The X-chromosome comprises only about 5% of the human genome but accounts for about 15% of the genes currently known to be associated with intellectual disability. The early progress in identifying the X-linked intellectual disability (XLID)-associated genes through linkage analysis and candidate gene sequencing has been accelerated with the use of high-throughput technologies. In the 10 years since the last update, the number of genes associated with XLID has increased by 96% from 72 to 141 and duplications of all 141 XLID genes have been described, primarily through the application of high-resolution microarrays and next generation sequencing. The progress in identifying genetic and genomic alterations associated with XLID has not been matched with insights that improve the clinician's ability to form differential diagnoses, that bring into view the possibility of curative therapies for patients, or that inform scientists of the impact of the genetic alterations on cell organization and function. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Gastrointestinal Manifestations in X-linked Agammaglobulinemia

    PubMed Central

    Barmettler, Sara; Otani, Iris M.; Minhas, Jasmit; Abraham, Roshini S.; Chang, Yenhui; Dorsey, Morna J.; Ballas, Zuhair K.; Bonilla, Francisco A.; Ochs, Hans D.; Walter, Jolan E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose X-linked agammaglobulinemia is a primary humoral immunodeficiency characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia and increased susceptibility to infection. Although there is increased awareness of autoimmune and inflammatory complications in XLA, the spectrum of gastrointestinal manifestations has not previously been fully explored. Methods We present a case report of a family with two affected patients with XLA. Given the gastrointestinal involvement of the grandfather in this family, we performed a retrospective descriptive analysis of XLA patients with reported diagnoses of GI manifestations and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or enteritis registered at the USIDNet, a national registry of primary immunodeficiencies. Results In this cohort of patients with XLA, we found that up to 35% had concurrent gastrointestinal manifestations, and 10% had reported diagnoses of IBD or enteritis. The most commonly reported mutations were missense, which have been associated with a less severe XLA phenotype in the literature. The severity of symptoms were wide-ranging, and management strategies were diverse and mainly experimental. Conclusions Patients with XLA may require close monitoring with particular attention for GI manifestations including IBD and infectious enteritis. Further studies are needed to improve diagnosis and management of GI conditions in XLA patients. PMID:28236219

  17. Inherited Disorders as a Risk Factor and Predictor of Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Pediatric Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullrich, Nicole J.

    2008-01-01

    Each year in the United States, an average of one to two children per 10,000 develop cancer. The etiology of most childhood cancer remains largely unknown but is likely attributable to random or induced genetic aberrations in somatic tissue. However, a subset of children develops cancer in the setting of an underlying inheritable condition…

  18. How the Kennel Club is tackling inherited disorders in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Jeff

    2011-08-01

    Health screening of potential canine breeding stock can provide invaluable information to allow breeders to select against inherited diseases in their breeding programmes. This review details the screening programmes that are currently available to UK dog breeders and evaluates their impact as selective tools for dog breeders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Traditional Chinese medicine inheritance system analysis of professor Ding Yuanqing in treating tic disorder medication based on experience].

    PubMed

    Sun, Lu-yan; Li, Qing-peng; Zhao, Li-li; Ding, Yuan-qing

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, the incidence of tic disorders has increased, and it is not uncommon for the patients to treat the disease. The pathogenesis and pathogenesis of Western medicine are not yet clear, the clinical commonly used western medicine has many adverse reactions, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research is increasingly valued. Based on the software of TCM inheritance assistant system, this paper discusses Ding Yuanqing's experience in treating tic disorder with Professor. Collect yuan Qing Ding professor in treating tic disorder of medical records by association rules Apriori algorithm, complex system entropy clustering without supervision and data mining method, carries on the analysis to the selected 800 prescriptions, to determine the frequency of use of prescription drugs, the association rules between the drug and digging out the 12 core combination and the first six new prescription, medication transferred to the liver and extinguish wind, cooling blood and relieving convulsion, Qingxin soothe the nerves, with the card cut, flexible application, strict compatibility.

  20. Anthropometric characteristics of X-linked hypophosphatemia.

    PubMed

    Pronicka, Ewa; Popowska, Ewa; Rowińska, Elzbieta; Arasimowicz, Elzbieta; Syczewska, Małgorzata; Jurkiewicz, Dorota; Lebiedowski, Michał

    2004-04-15

    An anthropometric study was undertaken to assess head proportions of patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH). Fourteen morphometric parameters of the head were measured and 10 cephalic indices calculated in 82 affected persons (57 females and 25 males) from 55 unrelated families with XLH, and compared with the results obtained in the group of their healthy relatives (37 females and 33 males), as well as with general population control values. Normalized values (SD, z-score) were analyzed statistically. The group of healthy relatives, both males and females, differed significantly from Polish population control values in most of the normalized variables measured, making population control values useless as a control group for the analyzed XLH group. Intrafamilial values of cephalic parameters in healthy relatives of the XLH patients were finally applied for statistical analysis. Generally patients with XLH showed highly statistically significant increase in head length (males 0.95 +/- 1.07 vs. -0.37 +/- 1.02, females 0.57 +/- 1.59 vs. -0.06 +/- 1.15), significant decrease in occipital breadth (males -0.56 +/- 1.27 vs. 0.70 +/- 1.28, females -0.59 +/- 1.7 vs. 0.13 +/- 1.1) and several milder anomalies of craniofacial proportions. Mean cephalic index was significantly lower in XLH patients when compared with the healthy relatives (males -0.909 vs. 0.278 P < 0.0001, females -0.705 vs. 0.381 P = 0.007). The cephalic changes were found both in XLH children and XLH adults and were more pronounced in affected males than in females. There were no differences between offspring born by hypophosphatemic and normophosphatemic mothers. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Mutations in X-linked PORCN, a putative regulator of Wnt signaling, cause focal dermal hypoplasia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Focal dermal hypoplasia is an X-linked dominant disorder characterized by patchy hypoplastic skin and digital, ocular, and dental malformations. We used array comparative genomic hybridization to identify a 219-kb deletion in Xp11.23 in two affected females. We sequenced genes in this region and fou...

  2. New mutations of DAX-1 genes in two Japanese patients with X-linked congenital adrenal hypoplasia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

    SciTech Connect

    Yanase, Toshihiko; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Oba, Koichi

    Congenital adrenal hypoplasia, an X-linked disorder, is characterized by primary adrenal insufficiency and frequent association with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The X-chromosome gene DAX-1 has been most recently identified and shown to be responsible for this disorder. We analyzed the DAX-1 genes of two unrelated Japanese patients with congenital adrenal hypoplasia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism by using PCR amplification of genomic DNA and its complete exonic sequencing. In a family containing several affected individuals, the proband male patient had a stop codon (TGA) in place of tryptophan (TGG) at amino acid position 171. As expected, his mother was a heterozygous carrier for themore » mutation, whereas his father and unaffected brother did not carry this mutation. In another male patient with noncontributory family history, sequencing revealed a 1-bp (T) deletion at amino acid position 280, leading to a frame shift and, subsequently a premature stop codon at amino acid position 371. The presence of this mutation in the patients` genome was further confirmed by digestion of genomic PCR product with MspI created by this mutation. Family studies using MspI digestion of genomic PCR products revealed that neither parent of this individual carried the mutation. These results clearly indicate that congenital adrenal hypoplasia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism result from not only inherited but also de novo mutation in the DAX-1 gene. 31 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  3. Three novel PHEX gene mutations in four Chinese families with X-linked dominant hypophosphatemic rickets

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Qing-lin; Xu, Jia; Metabolic Bone Disease and Genetic Research Unit, Department of Osteoporosis and Bone Diseases, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai 200233

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In our study, all of the patients were of Han Chinese ethnicity, which were rarely reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identified three novel PHEX gene mutations in four unrelated families with XLH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found that the relationship between the phenotype and genotype of the PHEX gene was not invariant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found that two PHEX gene sites, p.534 and p.731, were conserved. -- Abstract: Background: X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), the most common form of inherited rickets, is a dominant disorder that is characterized by renal phosphate wasting with hypophosphatemia, abnormal bone mineralization, short stature, and rachitic manifestations. The related genemore » with inactivating mutations associated with XLH has been identified as PHEX, which is a phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome. In this study, a variety of PHEX mutations were identified in four Chinese families with XLH. Methods: We investigated four unrelated Chinese families who exhibited typical features of XLH by using PCR to analyze mutations that were then sequenced. The laboratory and radiological investigations were conducted simultaneously. Results: Three novel mutations were found in these four families: one frameshift mutation, c.2033dupT in exon 20, resulting in p.T679H; one nonsense mutation, c.1294A > T in exon 11, resulting in p.K432X; and one missense mutation, c.2192T > C in exon 22, resulting in p.F731S. Conclusions: We found that the PHEX gene mutations were responsible for XLH in these Chinese families. Our findings are useful for understanding the genetic basis of Chinese patients with XLH.« less

  4. Evaluation of pharmacological induction of fatty acid beta-oxidation in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, M C; Zhang, H P; Smith, K D

    2001-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is an inherited neurometabolic disorder associated with elevated levels of saturated unbranched very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA; C > 22:0) in plasma and tissues, and reduced VLCFA beta-oxidation in fibroblasts, white blood cells, and amniocytes from X-ALD patients. The X-ALD gene (ABCD1) at Xq28 encodes the adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP) that is related to the peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette (ABCD) transmembrane half-transporter proteins. The function of ALDP is unknown and its role in VLCFA accumulation unresolved. Previously, our laboratory has shown that sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA) treatment of X-ALD fibroblasts results in increased peroxisomal VLCFA beta-oxidation activity and increased expression of the X-ALD-related protein, ALDRP, encoded by the ABCD2 gene. In this study, the effect of various pharmacological agents on VLCFA beta-oxidation in ALD mouse fibroblasts is tested. 4PBA, styrylacetate and benzyloxyacetate (structurally related to 4PBA), and trichostatin A (functionally related to 4PBA) increase both VLCFA (peroxisomal) and long-chain fatty acid [LCFA (peroxisomal and mitochondrial)] beta-oxidation. Isobutyrate, zaprinast, hydroxyurea, and 5-azacytidine had no effect on VLCFA or LCFA beta-oxidation. Lovastatin had no effect on fatty acid beta-oxidation under normal tissue culture conditions but did result in an increase in both VLCFA and LCFA beta-oxidation when ALD mouse fibroblasts were cultured in the absence of cholesterol. The effect of trichostatin A on peroxisomal VLCFA beta-oxidation is shown to be independent of an increase in ALDRP expression, suggesting that correction of the biochemical abnormality in X-ALD is not dependent on pharmacological induction of a redundant gene (ABCD2). These studies contribute to a better understanding of the role of ALDP in VLCFA accumulation and may lead to the development of more effective pharmacological therapies. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  5. X-linked acrogigantism syndrome: clinical profile and therapeutic responses.

    PubMed

    Beckers, Albert; Lodish, Maya Beth; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Rostomyan, Liliya; Lee, Misu; Faucz, Fabio R; Yuan, Bo; Choong, Catherine S; Caberg, Jean-Hubert; Verrua, Elisa; Naves, Luciana Ansaneli; Cheetham, Tim D; Young, Jacques; Lysy, Philippe A; Petrossians, Patrick; Cotterill, Andrew; Shah, Nalini Samir; Metzger, Daniel; Castermans, Emilie; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Villa, Chiara; Strebkova, Natalia; Mazerkina, Nadia; Gaillard, Stéphan; Barra, Gustavo Barcelos; Casulari, Luis Augusto; Neggers, Sebastian J; Salvatori, Roberto; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie-Lise; Zacharin, Margaret; Santamaria, Beatriz Lecumberri; Zacharieva, Sabina; Lim, Ee Mun; Mantovani, Giovanna; Zatelli, Maria Chaira; Collins, Michael T; Bonneville, Jean-François; Quezado, Martha; Chittiboina, Prashant; Oldfield, Edward H; Bours, Vincent; Liu, Pengfei; W de Herder, Wouter; Pellegata, Natalia; Lupski, James R; Daly, Adrian F; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2015-06-01

    X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) is a new syndrome of pituitary gigantism, caused by microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3, encompassing the gene GPR101, which is highly upregulated in pituitary tumors. We conducted this study to explore the clinical, radiological, and hormonal phenotype and responses to therapy in patients with X-LAG syndrome. The study included 18 patients (13 sporadic) with X-LAG and microduplication of chromosome Xq26.3. All sporadic cases had unique duplications and the inheritance pattern in two families was dominant, with all Xq26.3 duplication carriers being affected. Patients began to grow rapidly as early as 2-3 months of age (median 12 months). At diagnosis (median delay 27 months), patients had a median height and weight standard deviation scores (SDS) of >+3.9 SDS. Apart from the increased overall body size, the children had acromegalic symptoms including acral enlargement and facial coarsening. More than a third of cases had increased appetite. Patients had marked hypersecretion of GH/IGF1 and usually prolactin, due to a pituitary macroadenoma or hyperplasia. Primary neurosurgical control was achieved with extensive anterior pituitary resection, but postoperative hypopituitarism was frequent. Control with somatostatin analogs was not readily achieved despite moderate to high levels of expression of somatostatin receptor subtype-2 in tumor tissue. Postoperative use of adjuvant pegvisomant resulted in control of IGF1 in all five cases where it was employed. X-LAG is a new infant-onset gigantism syndrome that has a severe clinical phenotype leading to challenging disease management. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  6. Genotype-phenotype variations in five Spanish families with Norrie disease or X-linked FEVR.

    PubMed

    Riveiro-Alvarez, Rosa; Trujillo-Tiebas, Maria José; Gimenez-Pardo, Ascension; Garcia-Hoyos, Maria; Cantalapiedra, Diego; Lorda-Sanchez, Isabel; Rodriguez de Alba, Marta; Ramos, Carmen; Ayuso, Carmen

    2005-09-02

    Norrie disease (OMIM 310600) is a rare X-linked disorder characterized by congenital blindness in males. Approximately 40 to 50% of the cases develop deafness and mental retardation. X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (XL-FEVR) is a hereditary ocular disorder characterized by a failure of peripheral retinal vascularization. Both X-linked disorders are due to mutations in the NDP gene, which encodes a 133 amino acid protein called Norrin, but autosomal recessive (AR) and autosomal dominant (AD) forms of FEVR have also been described. In this study, we report the molecular findings and the related phenotype in five Spanish families affected with Norrie disease or XL-FEVR due to mutations of the NDP gene. The study was conducted in 45 subjects from five Spanish families. These families were clinically diagnosed with Norrie disease or similar conditions. The three exons of the NDP gene were analyzed by automatic DNA sequencing. Haplotype analyses were also performed. Two new nonsense mutations, apart from other mutations previously described in the NDP gene, were found in those patients affected with ND or X-linked FEVR. An important genotype-phenotype variation was found in relation to the different mutations of the NDP gene. In fact, the same mutation may be responsible for different phenotypes. We speculate that there might be other molecular factors that interact in the retina with Norrin, which contribute to the resultant phenotypes.

  7. Transcription map of Xq27: candidates for several X-linked diseases.

    PubMed

    Zucchi, I; Jones, J; Affer, M; Montagna, C; Redolfi, E; Susani, L; Vezzoni, P; Parvari, R; Schlessinger, D; Whyte, M P; Mumm, S

    1999-04-15

    Human Xq27 contains candidate regions for several disorders, yet is predicted to be a gene-poor cytogenetic band. We have developed a transcription map for the entire cytogenetic band to facilitate the identification of the relatively small number of expected candidate genes. Two approaches were taken to identify genes: (1) a group of 64 unique STSs that were generated during the physical mapping of the region were used in RT-PCR with RNA from human adult and fetal brain and (2) ESTs that have been broadly mapped to this region of the chromosome were finely mapped using a high-resolution yeast artificial chromosome contig. This combined approach identified four distinct regions of transcriptional activity within the Xq27 band. Among them is a region at the centromeric boundary that contains candidate regions for several rare developmental disorders (X-linked recessive hypoparathyroidism, thoracoabdominal syndrome, albinism-deafness syndrome, and Borjeson-Forssman-Lehman syndrome). Two transcriptionally active regions were identified in the center of Xq27 and include candidate regions for X-linked mental retardation syndrome 6, X-linked progressive cone dystrophy, X-linked retinitis pigmentosa 24, and a prostate cancer susceptibility locus. The fourth region of transcriptional activity encompasses the FMR1 (FRAXA) and FMR2 (FRAXE) genes. The analysis thus suggests clustered transcription in Xq27 and provides candidates for several heritable disorders for which the causative genes have not yet been found. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism

    MedlinePlus

    ... X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism syndrome (XDP): clinical and molecular genetic analysis. Brain Pathol. 1992 Oct;2(4):287-95. Review. Citation on PubMed Kaji R, Goto S, Tamiya G, Ando S, Makino S, Lee LV. Molecular dissection and anatomical basis of dystonia: X-linked ...

  9. Inherited disorders in the Afrikaner population of southern Africa. Part II. Skeletal, dermal and haematological conditions; the Afrikaners of Gamkaskloof; demographic considerations.

    PubMed

    Botha, M C; Beighton, P

    1983-10-15

    In addition to the genetic conditions reviewed in Part I of this article, sclerosteosis, spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, lipoid proteinosis, keratolytic winter erythema and various haematological disorders also occur in high frequency in the Afrikaner community. The recognition of the presence of these serious inherited disorders is important in differential diagnosis and is fundamental to the establishment of public health programmes for amelioration and prevention.

  10. Suspected X-linked facial dysmorphia and growth retardation in related Labrador retriever puppies.

    PubMed

    Dierks, C; Hoffmann, H; Heinrich, F; Hellige, M; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Distl, O

    2017-02-01

    Seven male Labrador retriever puppies from four different litters were identified with a brachycephalic-like face and skull, associated with low birth weight, severe growth retardation, and reduced abilities to crawl and suckle, which were not compatible with survival. Excessive doming of the cranium, brachygnathia superior and inferior, and an abnormally opened fontanelle were found in all affected puppies by computed tomography and at post-mortem examination. Pedigree analysis supported an X-linked recessive mode of inheritance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mapping of the X-linked cataract (Xcat) mutation, the gene implicated in the Nance Horan syndrome, on the mouse X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Stambolian, D; Favor, J; Silvers, W; Avner, P; Chapman, V; Zhou, E

    1994-07-15

    The Xcat mutation in the mouse, an X-linked inherited disorder, is characterized by the congenital onset of cataracts. The cataracts have morphologies similar to those of cataracts found in the human Nance Horan (X-linked cataract dental) syndrome, suggesting that Xcat is an animal model for Nance Horan. The Xcat mutation provides an opportunity to investigate, at the molecular level, the pathogenesis of cataract. As a first step to cloning the Xcat gene, we report the localization of the Xcat mutation with respect to known molecular markers on the mouse X chromosome. Back-cross progeny carrying the Xcat mutation were obtained from an interspecific cross. Genomic DNA from each mouse was subjected to Southern and PCR analysis to identify restriction fragment length polymorphisms and simple sequence length polymorphisms, respectively. Our results refine the location of Xcat to a 2-cM region, eliminate several genes from consideration as the Xcat mutation, identify molecular probes tightly linked with Xcat, and suggest candidate genes responsible for the Xcat phenotype.

  12. Inherited defects in pedigree dogs. Part 1: disorders related to breed standards.

    PubMed

    Asher, Lucy; Diesel, Gillian; Summers, Jennifer F; McGreevy, Paul D; Collins, Lisa M

    2009-12-01

    The United Kingdom pedigree-dog industry has faced criticism because certain aspects of dog conformation stipulated in the UK Kennel Club breed standards have a detrimental impact on dog welfare. A review of conformation-related disorders was carried out in the top 50 UK Kennel Club registered breeds using systematic searches of existing information. A novel index to score severity of disorders along a single scale was also developed and used to conduct statistical analyses to determine the factors affecting reported breed predisposition to defects. According to the literature searched, each of the top 50 breeds was found to have at least one aspect of its conformation predisposing it to a disorder; and 84 disorders were either directly or indirectly associated with conformation. The Miniature poodle, Bulldog, Pug and Basset hound had most associations with conformation-related disorders. Further research on prevalence and severity is required to assess the impact of different disorders on the welfare of affected breeds.

  13. Breast milk feeding in infants with inherited metabolic disorders other than phenylketonuria - a 10-year single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Pichler, Karin; Michel, Miriam; Zlamy, Manuela; Scholl-Buergi, Sabine; Ralser, Elisabeth; Jörg-Streller, Monika; Karall, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Published data on breast milk feeding in infants suffering from inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) other than phenylketonuria (PKU) are limited and described outcome is variable. We aimed to evaluate retrospectively whether breastfeeding and/or breast milk feeding are feasible in infants with IMDs including organic acidemias, fatty acid oxidation disorders, urea cycle disorders, aminoacidopathies or disorders of galactose metabolism. Data on breastfeeding and breast milk feeding as well as monitoring and neurological outcome were collected retrospectively from our database of patients with the mentioned IMD, who were followed in our metabolic center within the last 10 years. Twenty patients were included in the study, who were either breast fed on demand or received expressed breast milk. All the infants were evaluated clinically and biochemically at 2-4-week intervals, with weight gain as the leading parameter to determine metabolic control. Good metabolic control and adequate neurological development were achieved in all patients but one, who experienced the only metabolic crisis observed within the study period. Breast milk feeding with close clinical and biochemical monitoring is feasible in most IMD and should be considered as it offers nutritional and immunological benefits.

  14. Use of biological fluids for the rapid diagnosis of potentially lethal inherited disorders of human purine and pyrimidine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Morris, G S; Simmonds, H A; Davies, P M

    1986-06-01

    Inherited purine and pyrimidine disorders may be associated with serious, sometimes life-threatening consequences. Early and accurate diagnosis is essential. Difficulties encountered when using existing high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods led to the development of an improved method based on prior fractionation of urine. The advantages are as follows. 1. Production of fingerprints demonstrating altered urinary excretion patterns characteristic of any one of ten different disorders, in 30 minutes. 2. Positive identification and quantification by comparison with established methods (using conventional chromatography, electrophoresis and UV spectrophotometry) in addition to specific retention times and characteristic UV absorbance ratios at two separate wavelengths (245 and 280 nm) by HPLC. 3. Direct analysis of all the purines and pyrimidines normally found in human body fluids as well as identification of abnormal compounds. 4. Short time between successive analyses while maintaining excellent resolution between compounds of interest and column longevity. 5. Improved separation of the different adenine-based compounds encountered in some disorders, plus demonstration of potential interference by dietary or drug metabolites. 6. Applicability to the monitoring of therapy involving a variety of different purine and pyrimidine analogues. Particular attention should be paid to sample preparation. Plasma profiles will confirm the diagnosis in some, but not all, of these disorders.

  15. An Ethyl-Nitrosourea-Induced Point Mutation in Phex Causes Exon Skipping, X-Linked Hypophosphatemia, and Rickets

    PubMed Central

    Carpinelli, Marina R.; Wicks, Ian P.; Sims, Natalie A.; O’Donnell, Kristy; Hanzinikolas, Katherine; Burt, Rachel; Foote, Simon J.; Bahlo, Melanie; Alexander, Warren S.; Hilton, Douglas J.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the clinical, genetic, biochemical, and molecular characterization of a mouse that arose in the first generation (G1) of a random mutagenesis screen with the chemical mutagen ethyl-nitrosourea. The mouse was observed to have skeletal abnormalities inherited with an X-linked dominant pattern of inheritance. The causative mutation, named Skeletal abnormality 1 (Ska1), was shown to be a single base pair mutation in a splice donor site immediately following exon 8 of the Phex (phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases located on the X-chromosome) gene. This point mutation caused skipping of exon 8 from Phex mRNA, hypophosphatemia, and features of rickets. This experimentally induced phenotype mirrors the human condition X-linked hypophosphatemia; directly confirms the role of Phex in phosphate homeostasis, normal skeletal development, and rickets; and illustrates the power of mutagenesis in exploring animal models of human disease. PMID:12414538

  16. An ethyl-nitrosourea-induced point mutation in phex causes exon skipping, x-linked hypophosphatemia, and rickets.

    PubMed

    Carpinelli, Marina R; Wicks, Ian P; Sims, Natalie A; O'Donnell, Kristy; Hanzinikolas, Katherine; Burt, Rachel; Foote, Simon J; Bahlo, Melanie; Alexander, Warren S; Hilton, Douglas J

    2002-11-01

    We describe the clinical, genetic, biochemical, and molecular characterization of a mouse that arose in the first generation (G(1)) of a random mutagenesis screen with the chemical mutagen ethyl-nitrosourea. The mouse was observed to have skeletal abnormalities inherited with an X-linked dominant pattern of inheritance. The causative mutation, named Skeletal abnormality 1 (Ska1), was shown to be a single base pair mutation in a splice donor site immediately following exon 8 of the Phex (phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases located on the X-chromosome) gene. This point mutation caused skipping of exon 8 from Phex mRNA, hypophosphatemia, and features of rickets. This experimentally induced phenotype mirrors the human condition X-linked hypophosphatemia; directly confirms the role of Phex in phosphate homeostasis, normal skeletal development, and rickets; and illustrates the power of mutagenesis in exploring animal models of human disease.

  17. Hepatitis A and B immunization for individuals with inherited bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Steele, M; Cochrane, A; Wakefield, C; Stain, A-M; Ling, S; Blanchette, V; Gold, R; Ford-Jones, L

    2009-03-01

    Hepatitis A and B vaccines are highly effective tools that can greatly reduce infection risk in the bleeding disorder population. Although hepatitis A and B immunization for individuals with bleeding disorders is universally recommended, various advisory bodies often differ with respect to many practical aspects of vaccination. To review the published literature and guidelines and form a practical, comprehensive and consistent approach to hepatitis A and B immunization for individuals with bleeding disorders. We reviewed published immunization guidelines from North American immunization advisory bodies and published statements from North American and international haemophilia advisory bodies. A search of the MEDLINE database was performed to find original published literature pertaining to hepatitis A or B immunization of patients with haemophilia or bleeding disorder patients that provided supporting or refuting evidence for advisory body guidelines. Various advisory bodies' immunization guidelines regarding individuals with bleeding disorders have contradictory statements and often did not clarify issues (e.g. post vaccination surveillance). Published literature addressing immunization in bleeding disorder patients is sparse and mostly examines route of vaccine administration, complications and corresponding antibody response. Although the risk of hepatitis A and B infection is low, the use of simple measures such as vaccination is reasonable and advocated by haemophilia advisory bodies. Following our review of the available literature and North American guidelines, we have developed comprehensive and practical recommendations addressing hepatitis A and B immunization for the bleeding disorder population that may be applicable in Bleeding Disorder clinics.

  18. Novel Phenotypic and Genotypic Findings in X-Linked Retinoschisis

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Stephen H.; Vaclavik, Veronika; Bird, Alan C.; Robson, Anthony G.; Holder, Graham E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe atypical phenotypes associated with the retinoschisis (X-linked, juvenile) 1 mutation (RS1). Methods Seven patients with multiple fine white dots at the macula and reduced visual acuity were evaluated. Six patients underwent pattern and full-field electroretinography (ERG). On-off ERG, optical coherence tomography, and fundus autofluorescence imaging were performed in some patients. Mutational screening of RS1 was prompted by the ERG findings. Results Fine white dots resembling drusenlike deposits and sometimes associated with retinal pigment epithelial abnormalities were present in the maculae. An electronegative bright-flash ERG configuration was present in all patients tested, and abnormal pattern ERG findings confirmed macular dysfunction. A parafoveal ring of high-density autofluorescence was present in 3 eyes; 1 patient showed high-density foci concordant with the white dots. Optical coherence tomography did not show foveal schisis in 3 of 4 eyes. All patients carried mutations in RS1, including 1 with a novel 206T→C mutation in exon 4. Conclusions Multiple fine white dots at the macula may be the initial fundus feature in RS1 mutation. Electrophysiologic findings suggest dysfunction after phototransduction and enable focused mutational screening. Autofluorescence imaging results suggest early retinal pigment epithelium involvement; a parafoveal ring of high-density autofluorescence has not previously been described in this disorder. PMID:17296904

  19. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked lymphoproliferative disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... infects most humans. In some people it causes infectious mononucleosis (commonly known as "mono"). Normally, after initial infection, ... severe susceptibility to EBV infection severe susceptibility to infectious mononucleosis X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome XLP Related Information How ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked cardiac valvular dysplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (endocarditis), abnormal blood clots, or sudden death. X-linked ... Johns Hopkins Medicine: Mitral Valve Prolapse MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Endocarditis MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Mitral Valve Prolapse General Information from ...

  1. X-linked mental retardation associated with macro-orchidism.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, G; Eastman, C; Casey, J; McLeay, A; Procopis, P; Turner, B

    1975-01-01

    Two families are described with an X-linked form of mental retardation in whom the affected males were found to have bilateral enlargement of the testes. No conclusive evidence of any endocrinological disturbance was found. Images PMID:1240971

  2. Inherited metabolic disorders presenting as acute liver failure in newborns and young children: King's College Hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Robert; Hadzic, Nedim; Gissen, Paul; Dhawan, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) in children is a rare condition that is often fatal without liver transplantation. The diagnostic work-up is complex, and the etiology is unidentified in up to half of patients, making decisions like therapeutic transplantation extremely difficult. We collected clinical, laboratory, and outcome data on all patients under 5 years of age who were admitted between January 2001 and December 2011 to King's College Hospital with ALF secondary to an inherited metabolic disease (IMD), a common cause of pediatric acute liver failure. Thirty-six of 127 children with ALF had a metabolic etiology: galactosemia (17); mitochondrial respiratory chain disorder (MRCD, 7); ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency (4); tyrosinemia type 1 (4); Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC, 3); and congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1b (1). Seven children died: MRCD (4) and NPC (3). Four children were transplanted: OTC deficiency (1) and MRCD (3). Fifteen of 25 children followed up showed evidence of developmental delay. IMD is the most common group of disorders in this age group; indeterminate cases may yet include undiagnosed metabolic disorders; the overall survival rate is good but largely depends on diagnosis, while developmental outcome of the surviving patients is less favorable. • Up to half of children with ALF may be undiagnosed. • IMD is a common cause of pediatric acute liver failure. What is New: • Initial diagnostic clues may be gathered from the child's age and laboratory parameters. • Survival of children with IMD-related ALF is good, but developmental outcome is less favorable. • In the future, novel sequencing methods will aid in the diagnosis of disorders in which therapeutic decisions depend upon.

  3. A natural history study of X-linked myotubular myopathy.

    PubMed

    Amburgey, Kimberly; Tsuchiya, Etsuko; de Chastonay, Sabine; Glueck, Michael; Alverez, Rachel; Nguyen, Cam-Tu; Rutkowski, Anne; Hornyak, Joseph; Beggs, Alan H; Dowling, James J

    2017-09-26

    To define the natural history of X-linked myotubular myopathy (MTM). We performed a cross-sectional study that included an online survey (n = 35) and a prospective, 1-year longitudinal investigation using a phone survey (n = 33). We ascertained data from 50 male patients with MTM and performed longitudinal assessments on 33 affected individuals. Consistent with existing knowledge, we found that MTM is a disorder associated with extensive morbidities, including wheelchair (86.7% nonambulant) and ventilator (75% requiring >16 hours of support) dependence. However, unlike previous reports and despite the high burden of disease, mortality was lower than anticipated (approximate rate 10%/y). Seventy-six percent of patients with MTM enrolled (mean age 10 years 11 months) were alive at the end of the study. Nearly all deaths in the study were associated with respiratory failure. In addition, the disease course was more stable than expected, with few adverse events reported during the prospective survey. Few non-muscle-related morbidities were identified, although an unexpectedly high incidence of learning disability (43%) was noted. Conversely, MTM was associated with substantial burdens on patient and caregiver daily living, reflected by missed days of school and lost workdays. MTM is one of the most severe neuromuscular disorders, with affected individuals requiring extensive mechanical interventions for survival. However, among study participants, the disease course was more stable than predicted, with more individuals surviving infancy and early childhood. These data reflect the disease burden of MTM but offer hope in terms of future therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  4. A natural history study of X-linked myotubular myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Amburgey, Kimberly; Tsuchiya, Etsuko; de Chastonay, Sabine; Glueck, Michael; Alverez, Rachel; Nguyen, Cam-Tu; Rutkowski, Anne; Hornyak, Joseph; Beggs, Alan H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To define the natural history of X-linked myotubular myopathy (MTM). Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study that included an online survey (n = 35) and a prospective, 1-year longitudinal investigation using a phone survey (n = 33). Results: We ascertained data from 50 male patients with MTM and performed longitudinal assessments on 33 affected individuals. Consistent with existing knowledge, we found that MTM is a disorder associated with extensive morbidities, including wheelchair (86.7% nonambulant) and ventilator (75% requiring >16 hours of support) dependence. However, unlike previous reports and despite the high burden of disease, mortality was lower than anticipated (approximate rate 10%/y). Seventy-six percent of patients with MTM enrolled (mean age 10 years 11 months) were alive at the end of the study. Nearly all deaths in the study were associated with respiratory failure. In addition, the disease course was more stable than expected, with few adverse events reported during the prospective survey. Few non–muscle-related morbidities were identified, although an unexpectedly high incidence of learning disability (43%) was noted. Conversely, MTM was associated with substantial burdens on patient and caregiver daily living, reflected by missed days of school and lost workdays. Conclusions: MTM is one of the most severe neuromuscular disorders, with affected individuals requiring extensive mechanical interventions for survival. However, among study participants, the disease course was more stable than predicted, with more individuals surviving infancy and early childhood. These data reflect the disease burden of MTM but offer hope in terms of future therapeutic intervention. PMID:28842446

  5. The Coffin-Lowry syndrome: an inherited faciodigital mental retardation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Temtamy, S A; Miller, J D; Hussels-Maumenee, I

    1975-05-01

    Eight patients in three families had mental retardation, characteristic facies and hands, and skeletal changes; the clinical features suggested to us that they had a syndrome previously thought to represent two entities described by Lowry and associates and by Coffin and associates, respectively. New findings include skeletal, orodental, and dermatoglyphic abnormalities and histopathologic changes suggesting that the syndrome is a heritable disorder of connective tissue. Severe expression in males and transmission through mildly affected females suggest X-linked or sex-influenced autosomal dominant inheritance.

  6. Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes or Inherited Disorders of Neuromuscular Transmission: Recent Discoveries and Open Questions

    PubMed Central

    Nicole, Sophie; Azuma, Yoshiteru; Bauché, Stéphanie; Eymard, Bruno; Lochmüller, Hanns; Slater, Clarke

    2017-01-01

    Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) form a heterogeneous group of rare diseases characterized by fatigable muscle weakness. They are genetically-inherited and caused by defective synaptic transmission at the cholinergic neuromuscular junction (NMJ). The number of genes known to cause CMS when mutated is currently 30, and the relationship between fatigable muscle weakness and defective functions is quite well-understood for many of them. However, some of the most recent discoveries in individuals with CMS challenge our knowledge of the NMJ, where the basis of the pathology has mostly been investigated in animal models. Frontier forms between CMS and congenital myopathy, which have been genetically and clinically identified, underline the poorly understood interplay between the synaptic and extrasynaptic molecules in the neuromuscular system. In addition, precise electrophysiological and histopathological investigations of individuals with CMS suggest an important role of NMJ plasticity in the response to CMS pathogenesis. While efficient drug-based treatments are already available to improve neuromuscular transmission for most forms of CMS, others, as well as neurological and muscular comorbidities, remain resistant. Taken together, the available pathological data point to physiological issues which remain to be understood in order to achieve precision medicine with efficient therapeutics for all individuals suffering from CMS. PMID:29125502

  7. Gene therapy for inherited muscle diseases: where genetics meets rehabilitation medicine.

    PubMed

    Braun, Robynne; Wang, Zejing; Mack, David L; Childers, Martin K

    2014-11-01

    The development of clinical vectors to correct genetic mutations that cause inherited myopathies and related disorders of skeletal muscle is advancing at an impressive rate. Adeno-associated virus vectors are attractive for clinical use because (1) adeno-associated viruses do not cause human disease and (2) these vectors are able to persist for years. New vectors are now becoming available as gene therapy delivery tools, and recent preclinical experiments have demonstrated the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of gene therapy with adeno-associated virus for long-term correction of muscle pathology and weakness in myotubularin-deficient canine and murine disease models. In this review, recent advances in the application of gene therapies to treat inherited muscle disorders are presented, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy and x-linked myotubular myopathy. Potential areas for therapeutic synergies between rehabilitation medicine and genetics are also discussed.

  8. Unique plasma metabolomic signatures of individuals with inherited disorders of long-chain fatty acid oxidation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blood and urine acylcarnitine profiles are commonly used to diagnose long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders (FAOD: i.e., long-chain hydroxy-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase [LCHAD] and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 [CPT2] deficiency), but the global metabolic impact of long-chain FAOD has not been repor...

  9. Compassionate Use of Triheptanoin (C7) for Inherited Disorders of Energy Metabolism

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-02

    Very Long-chain acylCoA Dehydrogenase (VLCAD) Deficiency; Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Deficiencies (CPT1, CPT2); Mitochondrial Trifunctional Protein Deficiency; Long-chain Hydroxyacyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency; Glycogen Storage Disorders; Pyruvate Carboxylase Deficiency Disease; ACYL-CoA DEHYDROGENASE FAMILY, MEMBER 9, DEFICIENCY of; Barth Syndrome

  10. Inherited liver shunts in dogs elucidate pathways regulating embryonic development and clinical disorders of the portal vein.

    PubMed

    van Steenbeek, Frank G; van den Bossche, Lindsay; Leegwater, Peter A J; Rothuizen, Jan

    2012-02-01

    Congenital disorders of the hepatic portal vasculature are rare in man but occur frequently in certain dog breeds. In dogs, there are two main subtypes: intrahepatic portosystemic shunts, which are considered to stem from defective closure of the embryonic ductus venosus, and extrahepatic shunts, which connect the splanchnic vascular system with the vena cava or vena azygos. Both subtypes result in nearly complete bypass of the liver by the portal blood flow. In both subtypes the development of the smaller branches of the portal vein tree in the liver is impaired and terminal branches delivering portal blood to the liver lobules are often lacking. The clinical signs are due to poor liver growth, development, and function. Patency of the ductus venosus seems to be a digenic trait in Irish wolfhounds, whereas Cairn terriers with extrahepatic portosystemic shunts display a more complex inheritance. The genes involved in these disorders cannot be identified with the sporadic human cases, but in dogs, the genome-wide study of the extrahepatic form is at an advanced stage. The canine disease may lead to the identification of novel genes and pathways cooperating in growth and development of the hepatic portal vein tree. The same pathways likely regulate the development of the vascular system of regenerating livers during liver diseases such as hepatitis and cirrhosis. Therefore, the identification of these molecular pathways may provide a basis for future proregenerative intervention.

  11. Review and evaluation of the methodological quality of the existing guidelines and recommendations for inherited neurometabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Cassis, Linda; Cortès-Saladelafont, Elisenda; Molero-Luis, Marta; Yubero, Delia; González, Maria Julieta; Ormazábal, Aida; Fons, Carme; Jou, Cristina; Sierra, Cristina; Castejon Ponce, Esperanza; Ramos, Federico; Armstrong, Judith; O'Callaghan, M Mar; Casado, Mercedes; Montero, Raquel; Meavilla-Olivas, Silvia; Artuch, Rafael; Barić, Ivo; Bartoloni, Franco; Bellettato, Cinzia Maria; Bonifazi, Fedele; Ceci, Adriana; Cvitanović-Šojat, Ljerka; Dali, Christine I; D'Avanzo, Francesca; Fumic, Ksenija; Giannuzzi, Viviana; Lampe, Christina; Scarpa, Maurizio; Garcia-Cazorla, Ángels

    2015-12-30

    Inherited neurometabolic disorders (iNMDs) represent a group of almost seven hundred rare diseases whose common manifestations are clinical neurologic or cognitive symptoms that can appear at any time, in the first months/years of age or even later in adulthood. Early diagnosis and timely treatments are often pivotal for the favorable course of the disease. Thus, the elaboration of new evidence-based recommendations for iNMD diagnosis and management is increasingly requested by health care professionals and patients, even though the methodological quality of existing guidelines is largely unclear. InNerMeD-I-Network is the first European network on iNMDs that was created with the aim of sharing and increasing validated information about diagnosis and management of neurometabolic disorders. One of the goals of the project was to determine the number and the methodological quality of existing guidelines and recommendations for iNMDs. We performed a systematic search on PubMed, the National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC), the Guidelines International Network (G-I-N), the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) to identify all the published guidelines and recommendations for iNMDs from January 2000 to June 2015. The methodological quality of the selected documents was determined using the AGREE II instrument, an appraisal tool composed of 6 domains covering 23 key items. A total of 55 records met the inclusion criteria, 11 % were about groups of disorders, whereas the majority encompassed only one disorder. Lysosomal disorders, and in particular Fabry, Gaucher disease and mucopolysaccharidoses where the most studied. The overall methodological quality of the recommendation was acceptable and increased over time, with 25 % of the identified guidelines strongly recommended by the appraisers, 64 % recommended, and 11 % not recommended. However, heterogeneity in the obtained scores for each domain

  12. Assessing the impact of breeding strategies on inherited disorders and genetic diversity in dogs.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Grégoire; Rognon, Xavier

    2012-12-01

    In the context of management of genetic diversity and control of genetic disorders within dog breeds, a method is proposed for assessing the impact of different breeding strategies that takes into account the genealogical information specific to a given breed. Two types of strategies were investigated: (1) eradication of an identified monogenic recessive disorder, taking into account three different mating limitations and various initial allele frequencies; and (2) control of the population sire effect by limiting the number of offspring per reproducer. The method was tested on four dog breeds: Braque Saint Germain, Berger des Pyrénées, Coton de Tulear and Epagneul Breton. Breeding policies, such as the removal of all carriers from the reproduction pool, may have a range of effects on genetic diversity, depending on the breed and the frequency of deleterious alleles. Limiting the number of offspring per reproducer may also have a positive impact on genetic diversity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hypertension is a characteristic complication of X-linked hypophosphatemia.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoshie; Takagi, Masaki; Takeda, Ryojun; Miyai, Kentaro; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2017-03-31

    X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is a group of rare disorders caused by defective proximal tubular reabsorption of phosphate. Mutations in the PHEX gene are responsible for the majority of cases. There are very few reports of long-term complications of XLH other than skeletal and dental diseases. The aim of this study was to identify the phenotypic presentation of XLH during adulthood including complications other than skeletal and dental diseases. The clinical and biochemical phenotype of 22 adult patients with a PHEX gene mutation were examined retrospectively from their medical records. 6 patients had hypertension. The average age of hypertension onset was 29.0 years. Secondary hyperparathyroidism preceded the development of hypertension in 5 patients. 1 patient developed tertiary hyperparathyroidism. 15 patients had nephrocalcinosis. 2 patients had chronic renal dysfunction. Patients with hypertension had a significantly lower eGFR (p=0.010) compared to patients without hypertension. No significant difference was found in any other parameters. To examine the genotype-phenotype correlation, 10 adult males were chosen for analysis. No significant genotype-phenotype correlation analysis was revealed in any of the complications. However, there was a possibility that the age at nephrocalcinosis onset was younger in the non-missense mutation group than in the missense mutation group (p=0.063). This study corroborated the view that early-onset hypertension could be one of the characteristic complications seen in XLH patients. Considering the limited number of our patients, further study is necessary to address a potential cause of hypertension. XLH patients require careful lifelong treatment.

  14. Recombinant activated factor VII for bleeding in patients without inherited bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Selin, S; Tejani, A

    2006-03-01

    (1) Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) is licensed in Canada for the prevention and treatment of bleeding in hemophiliacs, but it is increasingly used to control bleeding in non-hemophilic patients during surgery, or during treatment for severe trauma or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). (2) In one clinical trial, there was a significant reduction in mortality among patients with ICH treated with rFVIIa. In another trial, administration of rFVIIa significantly reduced the number of trauma patients needing massive blood transfusions although there was no significant difference in mortality. (3) Adequately powered randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify the efficacy and safety of rFVIIa for non-bleeding disorder indications. Phase III trials in ICH and trauma are underway. (4) There is potential for non-hemophilic use, particularly if clinical efficacy and cost effectiveness are established.

  15. [X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: a report of three cases. The importance of early diagnosis].

    PubMed

    López Úbeda, Marta; de Arriba Muñoz, Antonio; Ferrer Lozano, Marta; Labarta Aizpún, José I; García Jiménez, María C

    2017-10-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is the most common peroxisomal disorder. This disease is caused by a defect in the ABCD1 gen. Saturated very long chain fatty acids are accumulated in serum, adrenal cortex and central nervous system white matter. The clinical spectrum is characterized by progressive neurological dysfunction and adrenal insufficiency with a devastating prognosis. We report a first case of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy with fatal evolution which identified two asymptomatic family members and established a preventive treatment. Although there is no definitive cure, we stress the importance of family study and evaluation of the individual in situation of risk to establish an early preventive treatment and to give in each particular situation suitable professional advice. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  16. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in heterozygous female patients: women are not just carriers.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Charles Marques; Simão, Gustavo Novelino; Santos, Antonio Carlos; Marques, Wilson

    2012-07-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a recessive X-linked disorder associated with marked phenotypic variability. Female carriers are commonly thought to be normal or only mildly affected, but their disease still needs to be better described and systematized. To review and systematize the clinical features of heterozygous women followed in a Neurogenetics Clinic. We reviewed the clinical, biochemical, and neuroradiological data of all women known to have X-ADL. The nine women identified were classified into three groups: with severe and aggressive diseases; with slowly progressive, spastic paraplegia; and with mildly decreased vibratory sensation, brisk reflexes, and no complaints. Many of these women did not have a known family history of X-ALD. Heterozygous women with X-ADL have a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from mild to severe phenotypes.

  17. Patulous Subarachnoid Space of the Optic Nerve Associated with X-Linked Hypophosphatemic Rickets.

    PubMed

    Galvez-Ruiz, Alberto; Chaudhry, Imtiaz

    2013-01-01

    Although the deficiency forms are the most common manifestations of rickets, there are other forms of rickets that are resistant to vitamin D. Of these, the most common is X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets. Rickets represents a group of multiple cranial bone disorders-craniosynostosis and the presence of Chari I malformation being the most notable-that explain the increase in intracranial pressure. We present a 4-year-old patient with an unusual association of X-linked hypophosphataemic rickets, bilateral proptosis, and prominent bilateral widening of the optic nerve sheaths. Although the association between intracranial hypertension and rickets is known, to the best of our knowledge, such a prominent distention of the subarachnoid space of the optic nerve without papilloedema has not been previously described.

  18. Vitreoretinal surgery without schisis cavity excision for the management of juvenile X linked retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    García-Arumí, J; Corcóstegui, I A; Navarro, R; Zapata, M A; Berrocal, M H

    2008-11-01

    Juvenile X linked retinoschisis (XLRS) is a congenital X linked recessive retinal disorder characterised by cystic maculopathy and peripheral schisis. This study presents the case of an 8-month-old boy with a documented positive family history of XLRS, with a large retinoschisis cavity affecting the macula, first in the left eye and 1 year later in the right eye. The patient underwent pars plana vitrectomy in both eyes using 23-G instruments, posterior hyaloid dissection, a small retinotomy, fluid drainage with a 42-G cannula, infrared diode laser and silicone oil as internal tamponade. The anatomical and functional outcomes at 3 years following the first surgery are described. To the authors' knowledge, there is no previously reported experience with this technique in patients with XLRS.

  19. X-linked juvenile retinoschisis in a consanguineous family: phenotypic variability and report of a homozygous female patient.

    PubMed

    Gliem, Martin; Holz, Frank G; Stöhr, Heidi; Weber, Bernhard H F; Charbel Issa, Peter

    2014-12-01

    To describe the phenotypic variability in a consanguineous family with genetically confirmed X-linked retinoschisis. Five patients, including one homozygous female, were characterized by clinical examination, optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence, mapping of macular pigment optical density, electroretinography, and DNA testing. The 36-year-old male index patient showed a ring of enhanced autofluorescence and outer retinal atrophy on optical coherence tomography. Electroretinography testing revealed a reduced a/b ratio. His mother presented with a central atrophic retina with markedly reduced autofluorescence signal and a surrounding ring of enhanced autofluorescence. The 40-year-old brother of the index patient and his 2 sons showed characteristic signs for X-linked retinoschisis, including retinal schisis and a reduced a/b ratio. Genetic testing revealed a c.293C>A mutation in the RS1 gene in all affected family members while the mother of the index patient was homozygous for this mutation. X-linked retinoschisis can present with a wide phenotypic variability. Here, detailed family history and genetic testing established the diagnosis of X-linked retinoschisis despite striking differences in phenotypic presentation in affected subjects, homozygosity of one affected female, and seemingly dominant inheritance in three subsequent generations because of multiple consanguinity.

  20. Germline loss-of-function mutations in LZTR1 predispose to an inherited disorder of multiple schwannomas

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowski, Arkadiusz; Xie, Jing; Liu, Ying F; Poplawski, Andrzej B; Gomes, Alicia R; Madanecki, Piotr; Fu, Chuanhua; Crowley, Michael R; Crossman, David K; Armstrong, Linlea; Babovic-Vuksanovic, Dusica; Bergner, Amanda; Blakeley, Jaishri O; Blumenthal, Andrea L; Daniels, Molly S; Feit, Howard; Gardner, Kathy; Hurst, Stephanie; Kobelka, Christine; Lee, Chung; Nagy, Rebecca; Rauen, Katherine A; Slopis, John M; Suwannarat, Pim; Westman, Judith A; Zanko, Andrea; Korf, Bruce R; Messiaen, Ludwine M

    2015-01-01

    Constitutional SMARCB1 mutations at 22q11.23 have been found in ~50% of familial and <10% of sporadic schwannomatosis cases1. We sequenced highly conserved regions along 22q from eight individuals with schwannomatosis whose schwannomas involved somatic loss of one copy of 22q, encompassing SMARCB1 and NF2, with a different somatic mutation of the other NF2 allele in every schwannoma but no mutation of the remaining SMARCB1 allele in blood and tumor samples. LZTR1 germline mutations were identified in seven of the eight cases. LZTR1 sequencing in 12 further cases with the same molecular signature identified 9 additional germline mutations. Loss of heterozygosity with retention of an LZTR1 mutation was present in all 25 schwannomas studied. Mutations segregated with disease in all available affected first-degree relatives, although four asymptomatic parents also carried an LZTR1 mutation. Our findings identify LZTR1 as a gene predisposing to an autosomal dominant inherited disorder of multiple schwannomas in ~80% of 22q-related schwannomatosis cases lacking mutation in SMARCB1. PMID:24362817

  1. Unique plasma metabolomic signatures of individuals with inherited disorders of long-chain fatty acid oxidation

    PubMed Central

    McCoin, Colin S.; Piccolo, Brian D.; Knotts, Trina A.; Matern, Dietrich; Vockley, Jerry; Gillingham, Melanie B.; Adams, Sean H.

    2016-01-01

    Blood and urine acylcarnitine profiles are commonly used to diagnose long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders (FAOD: i.e., long-chain hydroxy-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase [LCHAD] and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 [CPT2] deficiency), but the global metabolic impact of long-chain FAOD has not been reported. We utilized untargeted metabolomics to characterize plasma metabolites in 12 overnight-fasted individuals with FAOD (10 LCHAD, 2 CPT2) and 11 healthy age-, sex-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls, with the caveat that individuals with FAOD consume a low-fat diet supplemented with medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) while matched controls consume a typical American diet. 832 metabolites were identified in plasma, and partial least squared-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) identified 114 non-acylcarnitine variables that discriminated FAOD subjects and controls. FAOD individuals had significantly higher triglycerides and lower specific phosphatidylethanolamines, ceramides and sphingomyelins. Differences in phosphatidylcholines were also found but the directionality differed by species. Further, there were few differences in non-lipid metabolites indicating the metabolic impact of FAOD specifically on lipid pathways. This analysis provides evidence that LCHAD/CPT2 deficiency significantly alters complex lipid pathway flux. This metabolic signature may provide powerful clinical tools capable of confirming or diagnosing FAOD, even in subjects with a mild phenotype, and provide clues regarding the biochemical and metabolic impact of FAOD that could be relevant to the etiology of FAOD symptoms. PMID:26907176

  2. The incidence, risk and functional outcomes of intracranial haemorrhage in children with inherited bleeding disorders at one haemophilia center.

    PubMed

    Bladen, M; Main, E; Khair, K; Hubert, N; Koutoumanou, E; Liesner, R

    2016-07-01

    Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is the most serious bleeding event for patients with inherited bleeding disorders (IBD). The risks and long-term consequences remain unknown. This single-centre service evaluation aimed to identify the incidence, risks and long-term outcomes following ICH in patients with IBD. The IBD database and medical notes between 1987 and 2013 were reviewed. Children without apparent neurological deficit following ICH completed standardized assessments and supplementary information sheets. ICH was confirmed in 38/1111 children with IBD. The overall risk of ICH amongst children with IBD was 3.4% (95% CI: 2.5, 4.7%). However, 27/38 had an ICH in the first year of life, 18 of which were in the neonatal period. In children with IBD who had an ICH, the risks of ICH in the neonatal period or first year of life were 18/38 (47%) (95% CI: 32, 63%) and 27/38 (71%) (95% CI: 55, 83%) respectively. Mortality risk from ICH in children with an IBD was 5/38 (13%) (95% CI: 5.8, 27.3 %). Ten of 32 survivors had known neurological sequelae including motor disorder deficits (MDD) while 22 had no documented evidence of neurological impairment or MDD. Re-evaluation was possible in 17/22 children, 8 of whom demonstrated evidence of MDD. After re-evaluation, the risk of significant neurological MDD from ICH increased from 31% CI (95% CI: 18, 49%) to 56% CI (95% CI: 39, 72%). Risks and consequences of ICH in IBD were highest within the neonatal period and first year of life. MDD after ICH was not reliably identified in early life and ongoing monitoring in the first decade of life will facilitate educational support or physical rehabilitation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Definition of an organisational model for the prevention and reduction of health and social impacts of inherited bleeding disorders

    PubMed Central

    Calizzani, Gabriele; Menichini, Ivana; Candura, Fabio; Lanzoni, Monica; Profili, Samantha; Tamburrini, Maria Rita; Fortino, Antonio; Vaglio, Stefania; Marano, Giuseppe; Facco, Giuseppina; Oliovecchio, Emily; Franchini, Massimo; Coppola, Antonio; Arcieri, Romano; Bon, Cinzia; Saia, Mario; Nuti, Sabina; Morfini, Massimo; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M.; Di Minno, Giovanni; Grazzini, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Due to the increase in life expectancy, patients with haemophilia and other inherited bleeding disorders are experiencing age-related comorbidities that present new challenges. In order to meet current and emerging needs, a model for healthcare pathways was developed through a project funded by the Italian Ministry of Health. The project aimed to prevent or reduce the social-health burden of the disease and its complications. Material and methods The National Blood Centre appointed a panel of experts comprising clinicians, patients, National and Regional Health Authority representatives. Following an analysis of the scientific and regulatory references, the panel drafted a technical proposal containing recommendations for Regional Health Authorities, which has been formally submitted to the Ministry of Health. Finally, a set of indicators to monitor haemophilia care provision has been defined. Results In the technical document, the panel of experts proposed the adoption of health policy recommendations summarised in areas, such as: multidisciplinary integrated approach for optimal healthcare provision; networking and protocols for emergency care; home therapy; registries/databases; replacement therapy supply and distribution; recruitment and training of experts in bleeding disorders. The recommendations became the content of proposal of agreement between the Government and the Regions. Monitoring and evaluation of haemophilia care through the set of established indicators was partially performed due to limited available data. Conclusions The project provided recommendations for the clinical and organisational management of patient with haemophilia. A particular concern was given to those areas that play a critical role in the comorbidities and complications prevention. Recommendations are expected to harmonise healthcare care delivery across regional networks and building the foundation for the national haemophilia network. PMID:24922299

  4. Definition of an organisational model for the prevention and reduction of health and social impacts of inherited bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Calizzani, Gabriele; Menichini, Ivana; Candura, Fabio; Lanzoni, Monica; Profili, Samantha; Tamburrini, Maria Rita; Fortino, Antonio; Vaglio, Stefania; Marano, Giuseppe; Facco, Giuseppina; Oliovecchio, Emily; Franchini, Massimo; Coppola, Antonio; Arcieri, Romano; Bon, Cinzia; Saia, Mario; Nuti, Sabina; Morfini, Massimo; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M; Di Minno, Giovanni; Grazzini, Giuliano

    2014-04-01

    Due to the increase in life expectancy, patients with haemophilia and other inherited bleeding disorders are experiencing age-related comorbidities that present new challenges. In order to meet current and emerging needs, a model for healthcare pathways was developed through a project funded by the Italian Ministry of Health. The project aimed to prevent or reduce the social-health burden of the disease and its complications. The National Blood Centre appointed a panel of experts comprising clinicians, patients, National and Regional Health Authority representatives. Following an analysis of the scientific and regulatory references, the panel drafted a technical proposal containing recommendations for Regional Health Authorities, which has been formally submitted to the Ministry of Health. Finally, a set of indicators to monitor haemophilia care provision has been defined. In the technical document, the panel of experts proposed the adoption of health policy recommendations summarised in areas, such as: multidisciplinary integrated approach for optimal healthcare provision; networking and protocols for emergency care; home therapy; registries/databases; replacement therapy supply and distribution; recruitment and training of experts in bleeding disorders. The recommendations became the content of proposal of agreement between the Government and the Regions. Monitoring and evaluation of haemophilia care through the set of established indicators was partially performed due to limited available data. The project provided recommendations for the clinical and organisational management of patient with haemophilia. A particular concern was given to those areas that play a critical role in the comorbidities and complications prevention. Recommendations are expected to harmonise healthcare care delivery across regional networks and building the foundation for the national haemophilia network.

  5. Molecular characterization of a novel X-linked syndrome involving developmental delay and deafness.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Michael S; de Silva, Michelle G; Tan, Tiong Yang; Rose, Elizabeth; Nishimura, Carla; Tolmachova, Tanya; Hulett, Joanne M; White, Susan M; Silver, Jeremy; Bahlo, Melanie; Smith, Richard J H; Dahl, Hans-Henrik M

    2007-11-01

    X-linked syndromes associated with developmental delay and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) have been characterized at the molecular level, including Mohr-Tranebjaerg syndrome and Norrie disease. In this study we report on a novel X-linked recessive, congenital syndrome in a family with developmental delay and SNHL that maps to a locus associated with mental retardation (MR) for which no causative gene has been identified. The X-linked recessive inheritance and congenital nature of the syndrome was confirmed by detailed clinical investigation and the family history. Linkage mapping of the X-chromosome was conducted to ascertain the disease locus and candidate genes were screened by direct sequencing and STRP analysis. The recessive syndrome was mapped to Xp11.3-q21.32 and a deletion was identified in a regulatory region upstream of the POU3F4 gene in affected family members. Since mutations in POU3F4 cause deafness at the DFN3 locus, the deletion is the likely cause of the SNHL in this family. The choroideremia (CHM) gene was also screened and a novel missense change was identified. The alteration changes the serine residue at position 89 in the Rab escort 1 protein (REP-1) to a cysteine (S89C). Prenylation of Rab proteins was investigated in patients and the location of REP-1 expression in the brain determined. However, subsequent analysis revealed that this change in CHM was polymorphic having no effect on REP-1 function. Although the causative gene at the MR locus in this family has not been identified, there are a number of genes involved in syndromic and nonsyndromic forms of MR that are potential candidates. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda

    MedlinePlus

    ... Educational Resources (6 links) Cincinnati Children's Hospital: Coxa Vera Disease InfoSearch: Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda X-linked Johns ... Free article on PubMed Central Savarirayan R, Thompson E, Gécz J. Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda (SEDL, MIM #313400). ...

  7. Severe mental deficiency, proportionate dwarfism, and delayed sexual maturation. A distinct inherited syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cantú, J M; Sánchez-Corona, J; García-Cruz, D; Fragoso, R

    1980-01-01

    Two 46,XY brothers were found to have a previously undescribed syndrome characterized by severe mental deficiency, proportionate dwarfism, and delayed sexual development. A recessive mode of inheritance, either autosomal or X-linked, is assumed.

  8. A major X-linked locus affects kidney function in mice

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, Magalie S.; Savage, Holly S.; Stearns, Timothy M.; Cario, Clinton L.; Walsh, Kenneth A.; Paigen, Beverly; Berndt, Annerose

    2012-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a common disease with increasing prevalence in the western population. One common reason for chronic kidney failure is diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy and hyperglycemia are characteristics of the mouse inbred strain KK/HlJ, which is predominantly used as a model for metabolic syndrome due to its inherited glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. We used KK/HlJ, an albuminuria-sensitive strain, and C57BL/6J, an albuminuria-resistant strain, to perform a quantitative trait locus (QTL) cross to identify the genetic basis for chronic kidney failure. Albumin-creatinine-ratio (ACR) was measured in 130 F2 male offspring. One significant QTL was identified on chromosome (Chr) X and four suggestive QTLs were found on Chrs 6, 7, 12, and 13. Narrowing of the QTL region was focused on the X-linked QTL and performed by incorporating genotype and expression analyses for genes located in the region. From the 485 genes identified in the X-linked QTL region, a few candidate genes were identified using a combination of bioinformatic evidence based on genomic comparison of the parental strains and known function in urine homeostasis. Finally, this study demonstrates the significance of the X chromosome in the genetic determination of albuminuria. PMID:23011808

  9. Misdiagnosis of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa in a choroideremia patient with heavily pigmented fundi.

    PubMed

    Nanda, A; Salvetti, A P; Martinez-Fernandez de la Camara, C; MacLaren, R E

    2018-06-01

    Inherited retinal diseases are thought to be the leading cause of sight loss in the working age population. Mutations found in the RPGR and CHM genes cause retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and choroideremia, respectively. In the first instance, an X-linked family history of visual field loss commonly raises the suspicion of one of these two genes. In choroideremia, the classic description of a white fundal reflex secondary to the widespread chorioretinal degeneration was made over a hundred years ago in Caucasians. But, it is not so obvious in heavily pigmented fundi. Hence, the clinical diagnosis of CHM in non-Caucasian patients may be challenging in the first stages of the disease. Here we report a case of a Southeast Asian gentleman who has a family history of X-linked retinal degeneration and was found to have a confirmed in-frame deletion of 12 DNA nucleotides in exon 15 of the RPGR gene. Later in life, however, his fundal appearance showed unusual areas of circular pigment hypertrophy and clumping. He was therefore tested for carrying a disease-causing mutation in the CHM gene and a null mutation was found. Since gene therapy trials are ongoing for both of these conditions, it has now become critically important to establish the correct genetic diagnosis in order to recruit suitable candidates. Moreover, this case demonstrates the necessity to remain vigilant in the interpretation of genetic results which are inconsistent with clinical features.

  10. X linked neonatal centronuclear/myotubular myopathy: evidence for linkage to Xq28 DNA marker loci.

    PubMed

    Thomas, N S; Williams, H; Cole, G; Roberts, K; Clarke, A; Liechti-Gallati, S; Braga, S; Gerber, A; Meier, C; Moser, H

    1990-05-01

    We have studied the inheritance of several polymorphic Xq27/28 DNA marker loci in two three generation families with the X linked neonatal lethal form of centronuclear/myotubular myopathy (XL MTM). We found complete linkage of XLMTM to all four informative Xq28 markers analysed, with GCP/RCP (Z = 3.876, theta = 0.00), with DXS15 (Z = 3.737, theta = 0.00), with DXS52 (Z = 2.709, theta = 0.00), and with F8C (Z = 1.020, theta = 0.00). In the absence of any observable recombination, we are unable to sublocalise the XLMTM locus further within the Xq28 region. This evidence for an Xq28 localisation may allow us to carry out useful genetic counselling within such families.

  11. Impaired plasticity of macrophages in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Weinhofer, Isabelle; Zierfuss, Bettina; Hametner, Simon; Wagner, Magdalena; Popitsch, Niko; Machacek, Christian; Bartolini, Barbara; Zlabinger, Gerhard; Ohradanova-Repic, Anna; Stockinger, Hannes; Köhler, Wolfgang; Höftberger, Romana; Regelsberger, Günther; Forss-Petter, Sonja; Lassmann, Hans; Berger, Johannes

    2018-05-30

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is caused by ATP-binding cassette transporter D1 (ABCD1) mutations and manifests by default as slowly progressive spinal cord axonopathy with associated demyelination (adrenomyloneuropathy). In 60% of male cases, however, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy converts to devastating cerebral inflammation and demyelination (cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy) with infiltrating blood-derived monocytes and macrophages and cytotoxic T cells that can only be stopped by allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation or gene therapy at an early stage of the disease. Recently, we identified monocytes/macrophages but not T cells to be severely affected metabolically by ABCD1 deficiency. Here we found by whole transcriptome analysis that, although monocytes of patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy have normal capacity for macrophage differentiation and phagocytosis, they are pro-inflammatory skewed also in patients with adrenomyloneuropathy in the absence of cerebral inflammation. Following lipopolysaccharide activation, the ingestion of myelin debris, normally triggering anti-inflammatory polarization, did not fully reverse the pro-inflammatory status of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy macrophages. Immunohistochemistry on post-mortem cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy lesions reflected the activation pattern by prominent presence of enlarged lipid-laden macrophages strongly positive for the pro-inflammatory marker co-stimulatory molecule CD86. Comparative analyses of lesions with matching macrophage density in cases of cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy and acute multiple sclerosis showed a similar extent of pro-inflammatory activation but a striking reduction of anti-inflammatory mannose receptor (CD206) and haemoglobin-haptoglobin receptor (CD163) expression on cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy macrophages. Accordingly, ABCD1-deficiency leads to an impaired plasticity of macrophages that is reflected in incomplete establishment of anti-inflammatory responses

  12. Congenital Disorders of Platelet Function and Number.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ruchika; Perez Botero, Juliana; Jobe, Shawn M

    2018-06-01

    Mucocutaneous bleeding symptoms and/or persistent thrombocytopenia occur in individuals with congenital disorders of platelet function and number. Apart from bleeding, these disorders are often associated with additional hematologic and clinical manifestations, including auditory, immunologic, and oncologic disease. Autosomal recessive, dominant, and X-linked inheritance patterns have been demonstrated. Precise delineation of the molecular cause of the platelet disorder can aid the pediatrician in the detection and prevention of specific disorder-associated manifestations and guide appropriate treatment and anticipatory care for the patient and family. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mutations of the X-linked genes encoding neuroligins NLGN3 and NLGN4 are associated with autism

    PubMed Central

    Jamain, Stéphane; Quach, Hélène; Betancur, Catalina; Råstam, Maria; Colineaux, Catherine; Gillberg, I Carina; Söderström, Henrik; Giros, Bruno; Leboyer, Marion; Gillberg, Christopher; Bourgeron, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Many studies have supported a genetic aetiology for autism. Here we report mutations in two X-linked genes, neuroligins NLGN3 and NLGN4, in siblings with autism spectrum disorders. These mutations affect cell adhesion molecules localised at the synapse and suggest that a defect of synaptogenesis may predispose to autism. PMID:12669065

  14. Mutations of the X-linked genes encoding neuroligins NLGN3 and NLGN4 are associated with autism.

    PubMed

    Jamain, Stéphane; Quach, Hélène; Betancur, Catalina; Råstam, Maria; Colineaux, Catherine; Gillberg, I Carina; Soderstrom, Henrik; Giros, Bruno; Leboyer, Marion; Gillberg, Christopher; Bourgeron, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    Many studies have supported a genetic etiology for autism. Here we report mutations in two X-linked genes encoding neuroligins NLGN3 and NLGN4 in siblings with autism-spectrum disorders. These mutations affect cell-adhesion molecules localized at the synapse and suggest that a defect of synaptogenesis may predispose to autism.

  15. Mutational studies in X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX)

    SciTech Connect

    Cherryson, A.K.; Yeung, L.; Kennerson, M.L.

    1994-09-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, also known as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN), is a heterogeneous group of slowly progressive disorders of the peripheral nerve. X-linked CMT (CMTX) is characterized by slow motor nerve conduction velocities in affected males and the presence of mildly affected or normal carrier females with intermediate or normal nerve conduction velocities. CMTX, which has an incidence of 3.1 per 100,000 and accounts for approximately 10% of CMT cases, has been mapped to Xq13. One of the genes lying in this region, connexin 32, has been found to contain alterations in individuals affected with X-linked CMT. We havemore » identified our X-linked families from dominant type 1 CMT families using the clinical criteria given above. These families were screened for point mutations in connexin 32. We have identified three missense mutations, a G{r_arrow}A transition at amino acid 35 (valine to methionine), a C{r_arrow}G transition at amino acid 158 (proline to alanine) and a T{r_arrow}A transition at amino acid 182 (serine to threonine). Another family showed a 18 bp deletion, which removed the amino acid 111 to 116 inclusive (histidine, glycine, aspartic acid, proline, leucine, histidine).« less

  16. Fibroblast growth factor 23 in oncogenic osteomalacia and X-linked hypophosphatemia.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Kenneth B; Zahradnik, Richard; Larsson, Tobias; White, Kenneth E; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu; Imanishi, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Hampson, Geeta; Koshiyama, Hiroyuki; Ljunggren, Osten; Oba, Koichi; Yang, In Myung; Miyauchi, Akimitsu; Econs, Michael J; Lavigne, Jeffrey; Jüppner, Harald

    2003-04-24

    Mutations in fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) cause autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets. Clinical and laboratory findings in this disorder are similar to those in oncogenic osteomalacia, in which tumors abundantly express FGF-23 messenger RNA, and to those in X-linked hypophosphatemia, which is caused by inactivating mutations in a phosphate-regulating endopeptidase called PHEX. Recombinant FGF-23 induces phosphaturia and hypophosphatemia in vivo, suggesting that it has a role in phosphate regulation. To determine whether FGF-23 circulates in healthy persons and whether it is elevated in those with oncogenic osteomalacia or X-linked hypophosphatemia, an immunometric assay was developed to measure it. Using affinity-purified, polyclonal antibodies against [Tyr223]FGF-23(206-222)amide and [Tyr224]FGF-23(225-244)amide, we developed a two-site enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that detects equivalently recombinant human FGF-23, the mutant form in which glutamine is substituted for arginine at position 179 (R179Q), and synthetic human FGF-23(207-244)amide. Plasma or serum samples from 147 healthy adults (mean [+/-SD] age, 48.4+/-19.6 years) and 26 healthy children (mean age, 10.9+/-5.5 years) and from 17 patients with oncogenic osteomalacia (mean age, 43.0+/-13.3 years) and 21 patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia (mean age, 34.9+/-17.2 years) were studied. Mean FGF-23 concentrations in the healthy adults and children were 55+/-50 and 69+/-36 reference units (RU) per milliliter, respectively. Four patients with oncogenic osteomalacia had concentrations ranging from 426 to 7970 RU per milliliter, which normalized after tumor resection. FGF-23 concentrations were 481+/-528 RU per milliliter in those with suspected oncogenic osteomalacia and 353+/-510 RU per milliliter (range, 31 to 2335) in those with X-linked hypophosphatemia. FGF-23 is readily detectable in the plasma or serum of healthy persons and can be markedly elevated in those with oncogenic

  17. Genetic studies in a patient with X-linked retinoschisis coexisting with developmental delay and sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Sudha, Dhandayuthapani; Patric, Irene Rosita Pia; Ganapathy, Aparna; Agarwal, Smitha; Krishna, Shuba; Neriyanuri, Srividya; Sripriya, Sarangapani; Sen, Parveen; Chidambaram, Subbulakshmi; Arunachalam, Jayamuruga Pandian

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we present a juvenile retinoschisis patient with developmental delay, sensorineural hearing loss, and reduced axial tone. X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) is a retinal dystrophy, most often not associated with systemic anomalies and also not showing any locus heterogeneity. Therefore it was of interest to understand the genetic basis of the condition in this patient. RS1 gene screening for XLRS was performed by Sanger sequencing. Whole genome SNP 6.0 array analysis was carried out to investigate gross chromosomal aberrations that could result in systemic phenotype. In addition, targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) was employed to determine any possible involvement of X-linked syndromic and non-syndromic mental retardation genes. This NGS panel consisted of 550 genes implicated in several other rare inherited diseases. RS1 gene screening revealed a pathogenic hemizygous splice site mutation (c.78+1G>T), inherited from the mother. SNP 6.0 array analysis did not indicate any significant chromosomal aberrations that could be disease-associated. Targeted resequencing did not identify any mutations in the X-linked mental retardation genes. However, variations in three other genes (NSD1, LARGE, and POLG) were detected, which were all inherited from the patient's unaffected father. Taken together, RS1 mutation was found to segregate with retinoschisis phenotype while none of the other identified variations were co-segregating with the systemic defects. Hereby, we infer that the multisystemic defects harbored by the patient are a rare coexistence of XLRS, developmental delay, sensorineural hearing loss, and reduced axial tone reported for the first time in the literature.

  18. X-Linked Retinoschisis: Phenotypic Variability in a Chinese Family

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yangyan; Liu, Xiao; Tang, Luosheng; Wang, Xia; Coursy, Terry; Guo, Xiaojian; Li, Zhuo

    2016-01-01

    X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS), a leading cause of juvenile macular degeneration, is characterized by a spoke-wheel pattern in the macular region of the retina and splitting of the neurosensory retina. Our study is to describe the clinical characteristics of a four generations of this family (a total of 18 members)with X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) and detected a novel mutations of c.3G > A (p.M1?) in the initiation codon of the RS1 gene. by direct sequencing.Identification of this mutation in this family provides evidence about potential genetic or environmental factors on its phenotypic variance, as patients presented with different phenotypes regardless of having the same mutation. Importantly, OCT has proven vital for XLRS diagnosis in children. PMID:26823236

  19. The multifocal electroretinogram in X-linked juvenile retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shizhou; Wu, Dezheng; Jiang, Futian; Luo, Guangwei; Liang, Jiongji; Wen, Feng; Yu, Minzhong; Long, Shixian; Wu, Lezheng

    2003-05-01

    To measure and compare the multifocal electroretinography in normal control and X-linked juvenile retinoschisis, 13 cases (13 right eyes) of normal control and nine cases (17 eyes) of X-linked juvenile retinoschisis were measured with VERIS Science 4.0. Four cases (eight eyes) out of the nine retinoschisis cases were tested with Ganzfeld ERG at the same day. The results showed statistically significant difference of average response densities and latencies in six ring retinal regions between the normal control and retinoschisis. The trace array and 3-D topography of multifocal ERG showed multi-area amplitude decrease with absence or reduction of central peak amplitude in patients with retinoschisis. The P1/N1 ratio of multifocal ERG average response densities in six ring retinal regions was different from the b/a ratio of Ganzfeld ERG. The multifocal ERG and Ganzfeld ERG each had its advantage in the diagnosis of retinoschisis.

  20. X-Linked Retinoschisis: Phenotypic Variability in a Chinese Family.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yangyan; Liu, Xiao; Tang, Luosheng; Wang, Xia; Coursey, Terry G; Coursy, Terry; Guo, Xiaojian; Li, Zhuo

    2016-01-29

    X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS), a leading cause of juvenile macular degeneration, is characterized by a spoke-wheel pattern in the macular region of the retina and splitting of the neurosensory retina. Our study is to describe the clinical characteristics of a four generations of this family (a total of 18 members)with X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) and detected a novel mutations of c.3G > A (p.M1?) in the initiation codon of the RS1 gene. by direct sequencing.Identification of this mutation in this family provides evidence about potential genetic or environmental factors on its phenotypic variance, as patients presented with different phenotypes regardless of having the same mutation. Importantly, OCT has proven vital for XLRS diagnosis in children.

  1. A family study of congenital X linked sideroblastic anaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, J; May, A; Geddes, D; Jacobs, A

    1990-01-01

    We report on the cytogenetic findings in a family study of pyridoxine responsive, X linked sideroblastic anaemia. An increase in the number of X chromosomes was observed in a small proportion of metaphases prepared from five female members, but these findings did not strictly correlate with the carrier status of the condition. No consistent cytogenetic abnormality could be identified or associated with this rare familial condition. The diagnosis and counselling of carriers of this condition is discussed. Images PMID:2308152

  2. Macular hole in juvenile X-linked retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    Al-Swaina, Nayef; Nowilaty, Sawsan R

    2013-10-01

    An 18 year-old male with no antecedent of trauma, systemic syndrome or myopia was referred for surgical treatment of a full thickness macular hole in the left eye. A more careful inspection revealed discrete foveal cystic changes in the fellow eye and subtle peripheral depigmented retinal pigment epithelial changes in both eyes. A spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scan confirmed, in addition to the full thickness macular hole in the left eye, microcystic spaces in the nuclear layers of both retinae. The diagnosis of X-linked retinoschisis was confirmed with a full field electroretinogram displaying the typical negative ERG. Macular holes are uncommon in the young and those complicating X-linked retinoschisis are rare. This report highlights the importance of investigating the presence of a macular hole in a young patient and illustrates the clinical and SD-OCT clues beyond the foveal center which led to the correct diagnosis of X-linked juvenile retinoschisis.

  3. Linkage and candidate gene analysis of X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Shastry, B S; Hejtmancik, J F; Plager, D A; Hartzer, M K; Trese, M T

    1995-05-20

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a hereditary eye disorder characterized by avascularity of the peripheral retina, retinal exudates, tractional detachment, and retinal folds. The disorder is most commonly transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, but X-linked transmission also occurs. To initiate the process of identifying the gene responsible for the X-linked disorder, linkage analysis has been performed with three previously unreported three- or four-generation families. Two-point analysis showed linkage to MAOA (Zmax = 2.1, theta max = 0) and DXS228 (Zmax = 0.5, theta max = 0.11), and this was further confirmed by multipoint analysis with these same markers (Zmax = 2.81 at MAOA), which both lie near the gene causing Norrie disease. Molecular genetic analysis further reveals a missense mutation (R121W) in the third exon of the Norrie's disease gene that perfectly cosegregates with the disease through three generations in one family. This mutation was not detected in the unaffected family members and six normal unrelated controls, suggesting that it is likely to be the pathogenic mutation. Additionally, a polymorphic missense mutation (H127R) was detected in a severely affected patient.

  4. X-linked juvenile retinoschisis: mutations at the retinoschisis and Norrie disease gene loci?

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, M; Rossi, F; Trese, M T; Shastry, B S

    2001-01-01

    Juvenile retinoschisis (RS) and Norrie disease (ND) are X-linked recessive retinal disorders. Both disorders, in the majority of cases, are monogenic and are caused by mutations in the RS and ND genes, respectively. Here we report the identification of a family in which mutations in both the RS and ND genes are segregating with RS pathology. Although the mutations identified in this report were not functionally characterized with regard to their pathogenicity, it is likely that both of them are involved in RS pathology in the family analyzed. This suggests the complexity and digenic nature of monogenic human disorders in some cases. If this proves to be a widespread problem, it will complicate the strategies used to identify the genes involved in diseases and to develop methods for intervention.

  5. X-linked dominant cone-rod degeneration: Linkage mapping of a new locus for retinitis pigmentosa (RP15) to Xp22.13-p22.11

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.E.; Sullivan, L.S.; Daiger, S.P.

    1995-07-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa is the name given to a heterogeneous group of hereditary retinal degenerations characterized by progressive visual field loss, pigmentary changes of the retina, abnormal electroretinograms, and, frequently, night blindness. In this study, we investigated a family with dominant cone-rod degeneration, a variant form of retinitis pigmentosa. We used microsatellite markers to test for linkage to the disease locus and exluded all mapped autosomal loci. However, a marker from the short arm of the X chromosome, DXS989, showed 0% recombination to the disease locus, with a maximum lod (log-odds) score of 3.3. On the basis of this marker, themore » odds favoring X-linked dominant versus autosomal dominant inheritance are > 10{sup 5}:1. Haplotype analysis using an additional nine microsatellite markers places the disease locus in the Xp22.13-p22.11 region and excludes other X-linked disease loci causing retinal degeneration. The clinical expression of the retinal degeneration is consistent with X-linked dominant inheritance with milder, variable effects of Lyonization affecting expression in females. On the basis of these data we propose that this family has a novel form of dominant, X-linked cone-rod degeneration with the gene symbol {open_quotes}RP15{close_quotes}. 17 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.« less

  6. X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa 2 Is a Novel Maternal-Effect Gene Required for Left-Right Asymmetry in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Desvignes, Thomas; Nguyen, Thaovi; Chesnel, Franck; Bouleau, Aurélien; Fauvel, Christian; Bobe, Julien

    2015-08-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa 2 (RP2) gene is responsible for up to 20% of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa, a severe heterogeneous genetic disorder resulting in progressive retinal degeneration in humans. In vertebrates, several bodies of evidence have clearly established the role of Rp2 protein in cilia genesis and/or function. Unexpectedly, some observations in zebrafish have suggested the oocyte-predominant expression of the rp2 gene, a typical feature of maternal-effect genes. In the present study, we investigate the maternal inheritance of rp2 gene products in zebrafish eggs in order to address whether rp2 could be a novel maternal-effect gene required for normal development. Although both rp2 mRNA and corresponding protein are expressed during oogenesis, rp2 mRNA is maternally inherited, in contrast to Rp2 protein. A knockdown of the protein transcribed from both rp2 maternal and zygotic mRNA results in delayed epiboly and severe developmental defects, including eye malformations, that were not observed when only the protein from zygotic origin was knocked down. Moreover, the knockdown of maternal and zygotic Rp2 revealed a high incidence of left-right asymmetry establishment defects compared to only zygotic knockdown. Here we show that rp2 is a novel maternal-effect gene exclusively expressed in oocytes within the zebrafish ovary and demonstrate that maternal rp2 mRNA is essential for successful embryonic development and thus contributes to egg developmental competence. Our observations also reveal that Rp2 protein translated from maternal mRNA is important to allow normal heart loop formation, thus providing evidence of a direct maternal contribution to left-right asymmetry establishment. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  7. Dominantly inherited syndrome of microcephaly and cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Halal, F

    1983-05-01

    Two sisters and their mother had a syndrome of microcephaly, cleft palate, and variable anomalies such as unusual facial appearance, hypotelorism, abnormal retinal pigmentation, maxillary hypoplasia, goiter, camptodactyly, mild mental retardation, and abnormal dermatoglyphics. This is an evidently dominantly inherited trait, either autosomal or X-linked.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions IPEX syndrome Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome primarily affects males and is ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked hyper IgM syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions X-linked hyper IgM syndrome X-linked hyper IgM syndrome Printable PDF Open All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description X-linked hyper IgM syndrome is a condition that ...

  10. A Mutation in the Rett Syndrome Gene, MECP2, Causes X-Linked Mental Retardation and Progressive Spasticity in Males

    PubMed Central

    Meloni, Ilaria; Bruttini, Mirella; Longo, Ilaria; Mari, Francesca; Rizzolio, Flavio; D’Adamo, Patrizia; Denvriendt, Koenraad; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Toniolo, Daniela; Renieri, Alessandra

    2000-01-01

    Heterozygous mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene cause Rett syndrome, a severe neurodevelopmental disorder of young females. Only one male presenting an MECP2 mutation has been reported; he survived only to age 1 year, suggesting that mutations in MECP2 are male lethal. Here we report a three-generation family in which two affected males showed severe mental retardation and progressive spasticity, previously mapped in Xq27.2-qter. Two obligate carrier females showed either normal or borderline intelligence, simulating an X-linked recessive trait. The two males and the two obligate carrier females presented a mutation in the MECP2 gene, demonstrating that, in males, MECP2 can be responsible for severe mental retardation associated with neurological disorders. PMID:10986043

  11. New domains of neural cell-adhesion molecule L1 implicated in X-linked hydrocephalus and MASA syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Jouet, M.; Kenwick, S.; Moncla, A.

    1995-06-01

    The neural cell-adhesion molecule L1 is involved in intercellular recognition and neuronal migration in the CNS. Recently, we have shown that mutations in the gene encoding L1 are responsible for three related disorders; X-linked hydrocephalus, MASA (mental retardation, aphasia, shuffling gait, and adducted thumbs) syndrome, and spastic paraplegia type I (SPG1). These three disorders represent a clinical spectrum that varies not only between families but sometimes also within families. To date, 14 independent L1 mutations have been reported and shown to be disease causing. Here we report nine novel L1 mutations in X-linked hydrocephalus and MASA-syndrome families, including the firstmore » examples of mutations affecting the fibronectin type III domains of the molecule. They are discussed in relation both to phenotypes and to the insights that they provide into L1 function. 39 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  12. A family with X-linked optic atrophy linked to the OPA2 locus Xp11.4-Xp11.2.

    PubMed

    Katz, Bradley J; Zhao, Yu; Warner, Judith E A; Tong, Zongzhong; Yang, Zhenglin; Zhang, Kang

    2006-10-15

    Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) is the most common inherited optic atrophy. Clinical features of ADOA include a slowly progressive bilateral loss of visual acuity, constriction of peripheral visual fields, central scotomas, and color vision abnormalities. Although ADOA is the most commonly inherited optic atrophy, autosomal recessive, X-linked, mitochondrial, and sporadic forms have also been reported. Four families with X-linked optic atrophy (XLOA) were previously described. One family was subsequently linked to Xp11.4-Xp11.2 (OPA2). This investigation studied one multi-generation family with an apparently X-linked form of optic atrophy and compared their clinical characteristics with those of the previously described families, and determined whether this family was linked to the same genetic locus. Fifteen individuals in a three-generation Idaho family underwent complete eye examination, color vision testing, automated perimetry, and fundus photography. Polymorphic markers were used to genotype each individual and to determine linkage. Visual acuities ranged from 20/30 to 20/100. All affected subjects had significant optic nerve pallor. Obligate female carriers were clinically unaffected. Preliminary linkage analysis (LOD score = 1.8) revealed that the disease gene localized to the OPA2 locus on Xp11.4-Xp11.2. Four forms of inherited optic neuropathy, ADOA, autosomal recessive optic atrophy (Costeff Syndrome), Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease with optic atrophy, are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Future identification of the XLOA gene will reveal whether this form of optic atrophy is also associated with a mitochondrial defect. Identification of the XLOA gene will advance our understanding of the inherited optic neuropathies and perhaps suggest treatments for these diseases. An improved understanding of inherited optic neuropathies may in turn advance our understanding of acquired optic nerve diseases, such

  13. Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome: an X-linked encephalo-tropho-schisis syndrome. 1988.

    PubMed

    Neri, G; Marini, R; Cappa, M; Borrelli, P; Opitz, J M

    2013-11-01

    The following paper by Professor GiovanniNeri and colleagues was originally published in 1988, American Journal of Medical Genetics 30:287–299. This paper represented a seminal work at the time of publication as it not only reported a new family with a disorder that had been called the “gigantism-dysplasia syndrome”, but also suggested naming the condition the Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome. This eponym has clearly stood “the test of time”, and that designation is now widely accepted. This paper is graciously republished by Wiley-Blackwell in the Special Festschrift issue honoring Professor Neri. We report on another family with the so-called "gigantism-dysplasia syndrome", an X-linked condition characterized by pre-and postnatal overgrowth, characteristic face with apparent coarseness, dysplastic changes in several tissues, and mild intellectual impairment. This condition has been called the Golabi-Rosen syndrome; however, we agree that is the same entity as that described, in a milder form, by Simpson et al. in 1975 and by Behmel et al. in 1984. Therefore, we suggest that this entity be designated the Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome. The manifestations in affected individuals suggest that this condition represents an X-linked encephalo-tropho-schisis syndrome. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. X-chromosomal inactivation directly influences the phenotypic manifestation of X-linked protoporphyria

    PubMed Central

    Brancaleoni, V.; Balwani, M.; Granata, F.; Graziadei, G.; Missineo, P.; Fiorentino, V.; Fustinoni, S.; Cappellini, M.D.; Naik, H.; Desnick, R.J.; Di Pierro, E.

    2015-01-01

    X-linked protoporphyria (XLP), a rare erythropoietic porphyria, results from terminal exon gain-of-function mutations in the ALAS2 gene causing increased ALAS2 activity and markedly increased erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels. Patients present with severe cutaneous photosensitivity and may develop liver dysfunction. XLP was originally reported as X-linked dominant with 100% penetrance in males and females. We characterized 11 heterozygous females from six unrelated XLP families and show markedly varying phenotypic and biochemical heterogeneity, reflecting the degree of X-chromsomal inactivation of the mutant gene. ALAS2 sequencing identified the specific mutation and confirmed heterozygosity among the females. Clinical history, plasma and erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels were determined. Methylation assays of the androgen receptor and zinc-finger MYM type 3 short tandem repeat polymorphisms estimated each heterozygotes X-chromosomal inactivation pattern. Heterozygotes with equal or increased skewing, favoring expression of the wild-type allele had no clinical symptoms and only slightly increased erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentrations and/or frequency of protoporphyrin-containing peripheral blood fluorocytes. When the wild-type allele was preferentially inactivated, heterozygous females manifested the disease phenotype and had both higher erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels and circulating fluorocytes. These findings confirm that the previous dominant classification of XLP is inappropriate and genetically misleading, as the disorder is more appropriately designated XLP. PMID:25615817

  15. Linkage localization of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bergoffen, J.; Trofatter, J.; Haines, J.L.

    1993-02-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), also known as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, is a heterogeneous group of slowly progressive, degenerative disorders of peripheral nerve. X-linked CMT (CMTX) (McKusick 302800), a subdivision of type I, or demyelinating, CMT is an X-linked dominant condition with variable penetrance. Previous linkage analysis using RFLPs demonstrated linkage to markers on the proximal long and short arms of the X chromosome, with the more likely localization on the proximal long arm of the X chromosome. Available variable simple-sequence repeats (VSSRs) broaden the possibilities for linkage analysis. This paper presents new linkage data and recombination analysis derived frommore » work with four VSSR markers - AR, PGKP1, DXS453, and DXYS1X - in addition to analysis using RFLP markers described elsewhere. These studies localize the CMTX gene to the proximal Xq segment between PGKP1 (Xq11.2-12) and DXS72 (Xq21.1), with a combined maximum multipoint lod score of 15.3 at DXS453 ([theta] = 0). 32 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  16. BTKbase, mutation database for X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA).

    PubMed Central

    Vihinen, M; Brandau, O; Brandén, L J; Kwan, S P; Lappalainen, I; Lester, T; Noordzij, J G; Ochs, H D; Ollila, J; Pienaar, S M; Riikonen, P; Saha, B K; Smith, C I

    1998-01-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is an immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the gene coding for Bruton's agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase (BTK). A database (BTKbase) of BTK mutations has been compiled and the recent update lists 463 mutation entries from 406 unrelated families showing 303 unique molecular events. In addition to mutations, the database also lists variants or polymorphisms. Each patient is given a unique patient identity number (PIN). Information is included regarding the phenotype including symptoms. Mutations in all the five domains of BTK have been noticed to cause the disease, the most common event being missense mutations. The mutations appear almost uniformly throughout the molecule and frequently affect CpG sites that code for arginine residues. The putative structural implications of all the missense mutations are given in the database. The improved version of the registry having a number of new features is available at http://www. helsinki.fi/science/signal/btkbase.html PMID:9399844

  17. Burosumab Therapy in Children with X-Linked Hypophosphatemia.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Thomas O; Whyte, Michael P; Imel, Erik A; Boot, Annemieke M; Högler, Wolfgang; Linglart, Agnès; Padidela, Raja; Van't Hoff, William; Mao, Meng; Chen, Chao-Yin; Skrinar, Alison; Kakkis, Emil; San Martin, Javier; Portale, Anthony A

    2018-05-24

    X-linked hypophosphatemia is characterized by increased secretion of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), which leads to hypophosphatemia and consequently rickets, osteomalacia, and skeletal deformities. We investigated burosumab, a monoclonal antibody that targets FGF-23, in patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia. In an open-label, phase 2 trial, we randomly assigned 52 children with X-linked hypophosphatemia, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive subcutaneous burosumab either every 2 weeks or every 4 weeks; the dose was adjusted to achieve a serum phosphorus level at the low end of the normal range. The primary end point was the change from baseline to weeks 40 and 64 in the Thacher rickets severity total score (ranging from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating greater disease severity). In addition, the Radiographic Global Impression of Change was used to evaluate rachitic changes from baseline to week 40 and to week 64. Additional end points were changes in pharmacodynamic markers, linear growth, physical ability, and patient-reported outcomes and the incidence of adverse events. The mean Thacher rickets severity total score decreased from 1.9 at baseline to 0.8 at week 40 with every-2-week dosing and from 1.7 at baseline to 1.1 at week 40 with every-4-week dosing (P<0.001 for both comparisons); these improvements persisted at week 64. The mean serum phosphorus level increased after the first dose in both groups, and more than half the patients in both groups had levels within the normal range (3.2 to 6.1 mg per deciliter [1.0 to 2.0 mmol per liter]) by week 6. Stable serum phosphorus levels were maintained through week 64 with every-2-week dosing. Renal tubular phosphate reabsorption increased from baseline in both groups, with an overall mean increase of 0.98 mg per deciliter (0.32 mmol per liter). The mean dose of burosumab at week 40 was 0.98 mg per kilogram of body weight with every-2-week dosing and 1.50 mg per kilogram with every-4-week dosing. Across both

  18. Prenatal Correction of X-Linked Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Holm; Faschingbauer, Florian; Schuepbach-Mallepell, Sonia; Körber, Iris; Wohlfart, Sigrun; Dick, Angela; Wahlbuhl, Mandy; Kowalczyk-Quintas, Christine; Vigolo, Michele; Kirby, Neil; Tannert, Corinna; Rompel, Oliver; Rascher, Wolfgang; Beckmann, Matthias W; Schneider, Pascal

    2018-04-26

    Genetic deficiency of ectodysplasin A (EDA) causes X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED), in which the development of sweat glands is irreversibly impaired, an condition that can lead to life-threatening hyperthermia. We observed normal development of mouse fetuses with Eda mutations after they had been exposed in utero to a recombinant protein that includes the receptor-binding domain of EDA. We administered this protein intraamniotically to two affected human twins at gestational weeks 26 and 31 and to a single affected human fetus at gestational week 26; the infants, born in week 33 (twins) and week 39 (singleton), were able to sweat normally, and XLHED-related illness had not developed by 14 to 22 months of age. (Funded by Edimer Pharmaceuticals and others.).

  19. Chiari malformation, syringomyelia and bulbar palsy in X linked hypophosphataemia

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Laura; Wordsworth, Paul

    2015-01-01

    X linked hypophosphataemia (XLH) is a rare condition with numerous musculoskeletal complications. It may mimic other more familiar conditions, such as vitamin D deficiency, ankylosing spondylitis or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. We describe two cases with Chiari type 1 malformations and syringomyelia, neither of which is well recognised in XLH. The first presented late with the additional complications of spinal cord compression, pseudofracture, renal stones and gross femoroacetabular impingement requiring hip replacement. The second also had bulbar palsy; the first case to be described in this condition, to the best of our knowledge. We wish to raise awareness of the important neurological complications of syringomyelia, Chiari malformation, spinal cord compression and bulbar palsy when treating these patients. We also wish to draw attention to the utility of family history and genetic testing when making the diagnosis of this rare but potentially treatable condition. PMID:26561226

  20. Chiari malformation, syringomyelia and bulbar palsy in X linked hypophosphataemia.

    PubMed

    Watts, Laura; Wordsworth, Paul

    2015-11-11

    X linked hypophosphataemia (XLH) is a rare condition with numerous musculoskeletal complications. It may mimic other more familiar conditions, such as vitamin D deficiency, ankylosing spondylitis or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. We describe two cases with Chiari type 1 malformations and syringomyelia, neither of which is well recognised in XLH. The first presented late with the additional complications of spinal cord compression, pseudofracture, renal stones and gross femoroacetabular impingement requiring hip replacement. The second also had bulbar palsy; the first case to be described in this condition, to the best of our knowledge. We wish to raise awareness of the important neurological complications of syringomyelia, Chiari malformation, spinal cord compression and bulbar palsy when treating these patients. We also wish to draw attention to the utility of family history and genetic testing when making the diagnosis of this rare but potentially treatable condition. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. Indocyanine green angiography of juvenile X-linked retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    Souied, Eric H; Goritsa, Anna; Querques, Giuseppe; Coscas, Gabriel; Soubrane, Gisele

    2005-09-01

    In juvenile X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS), fluorescein angiography is usually unremarkable and contributes poorly to the diagnosis. However, indocyanine green (ICG) angiography features in eyes that are affected with XLRS were not yet described. Retrospective observational case series. A complete ophthalmologic examination that included ICG angiography was performed on three unrelated male patients (six eyes) who were 15, 22, and 48 years old. A distinct hyperfluorescent stellate pattern in the macular area that was associated with radial lines of hypofluorescence that were centered on the foveola was observed on the early phase of ICG examination (six of six eyes). This feature disappeared on the late phase of ICG examination. On these six XLRS eyes, early phases of ICG examination revealed an unusual radial aspect on the macula. This finding suggests that ICG angiography may be useful for the diagnosis of XLRS.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features as Surrogate Markers of X-Linked Hypophosphatemic Rickets Activity.

    PubMed

    Lempicki, Marta; Rothenbuhler, Anya; Merzoug, Valérie; Franchi-Abella, Stéphanie; Chaussain, Catherine; Adamsbaum, Catherine; Linglart, Agnès

    2017-01-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) is the most common form of inheritable rickets. Rickets treatment is monitored by assessing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, clinical features, and radiographs. Our objectives were to describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of XLH and to assess correlations with disease activity. Twenty-seven XLH patients (median age 9.2 years) were included in this prospective single-center observational study. XLH activity was assessed using height, leg bowing, dental abscess history, and serum ALP levels. We looked for correlations between MRI features and markers of disease activity. On MRI, the median maximum width of the physis was 5.6 mm (range 4.8-7.8; normal <1.5), being >1.5 mm in all of the patients. The appearance of the zone of provisional calcification was abnormal on 21 MRI images (78%), Harris lines were present on 24 (89%), and bone marrow signal abnormalities were present on 16 (59%). ALP levels correlated with the maximum physeal widening and with the transverse extent of the widening. MRI of the knee provides precise rickets patterns that are correlated with ALP, an established biochemical marker of the disease, avoiding X-ray exposure and providing surrogate quantitative markers of disease activity. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Leaky phenotype of X-linked agammaglobulinaemia in a Japanese family

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, H; Kawamoto, N; Asano, T; Mabuchi, Y; Horikoshi, H; Teramoto, T; JIN-RONG; Matsui, E; Kondo, M; Fukao, T; Kasahara, K; Kondo, N

    2005-01-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA) is an inherited immunodeficiency that is caused by a block in early B-cell differentiation. Whereas early B precursors in the bone marrow are present in substantial numbers, XLA-affected individuals have dramatically reduced numbers of circulating mature B cells, plasma cells and immunoglobulins of all isotypes. We report on a Japanese family with 3 XLA patients, in whom the serum immunoglobulin levels and number of B cells showed a significant difference among them in spite of harbouring the same splice donor site mutation in the BTK gene. We developed concise method for detection of this mutation, which is helpful for discovering the carrier. Patient 2 showed a significant serum immunoglobulin levels of all isotypes, including allergen-specific IgE. Expression of a normal and truncated size BTK gene was detected in patient 2′s peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Expression of BTK protein was also detected in some B cells. These results suggest that the leaky phenotype in patient 2 was caused in part by the expression of a normal BTK gene transcript. The increased frequency of infection with age expanded the number of B cells with normal BTK gene expression and produced the serum immunoglobulin, including IgE. PMID:15932514

  4. Clinical and molecular characterization of females affected by X-linked retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    Staffieri, Sandra E; Rose, Loreto; Chang, Andrew; De Roach, John N; McLaren, Terri L; Mackey, David A; Hewitt, Alex W; Lamey, Tina M

    2015-01-01

    X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) is a leading cause of juvenile macular degeneration associated with mutations in the RS1 gene. XLRS has a variable expressivity in males and shows no clinical phenotype in carrier females. Clinical and molecular characterization of male and female individuals affected with XLRS in a consanguineous family. Consanguineous Eastern European-Australian family Four clinically affected and nine unaffected family members were genetically and clinically characterized. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) analysis was conducted by the Australian Inherited Retinal Disease Register and DNA Bank. Clinical and molecular characterization of the causative mutation in a consanguineous family with XLRS. By direct sequencing of the RS1 gene, one pathogenic variant, NM_000330.3: c.304C > T, p. R102W, was identified in all clinically diagnosed individuals analysed. The two females were homozygous for the variant, and the males were hemizygous. Clinical and genetic characterization of affected homozygous females in XLRS affords the rare opportunity to explore the molecular mechanisms of XLRS and the manifestation of these mutations as disease in humans. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  5. Four-Year Placebo-Controlled Trial of Docosahexaenoic Acid in X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa (DHAX Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Dennis R.; Hughbanks-Wheaton, Dianna K.; Pearson, N. Shirlene; Fish, Gary E.; Spencer, Rand; Takacs, Alison; Klein, Martin; Locke, Kirsten G.; Birch, David G.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE X-linked retinitis pigmentosa is a severe inherited retinal degenerative disease with a frequency of 1 in 100 000 persons. Because no cure is available for this orphan disease and treatment options are limited, slowing of disease progression would be a meaningful outcome. OBJECTIVE To determine whether high-dose docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, slows progression of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa measured by cone electroretinography (ERG). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A 4-year, single-site, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked phase 2 clinical trial at a research center specializing in medical retina. Seventy-eight male patients diagnosed as having X-linked retinitis pigmentosa were randomized to DHA or placebo. Data were omitted for 2 patients with non–X-linked retinitis pigmentosa and 16 patients who were unable to follow protocol during the first year. The remaining participants were tested annually and composed a modified intent-to-treat cohort (DHA group, n = 33; placebo group, n = 27). INTERVENTIONS All participants received a multivitamin and were randomly assigned to oral DHA (30 mg/kg/d) or placebo. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was the rate of loss of cone ERG function. Secondary outcomes were rod and maximal ERG amplitudes and cone ERG implicit times. Capsule counts and red blood cell DHA levels were assessed to monitor adherence. RESULTS Average (6-month to 4-year) red blood cell DHA levels were 4-fold higher in the DHA group than in the placebo group (P < .001). There was no difference between the DHA and placebo groups in the rate of cone ERG functional loss (0.028 vs 0.022 log µV/y, respectively; P = .30). No group differences were evident for change in rod ERG (P = .27), maximal ERG (P = .65), or cone implicit time (no change over 4 years). The rate of cone loss (ie, event rate) was markedly reduced compared with rates in previous studies. No severe treatment-emergent adverse

  6. Application of carrier testing to genetic counseling for X-linked agammaglobulinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.C.; Nachtman, R.G.; Belmont, J.W.

    Bruton X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a phenotypically recessive genetic disorder of B lymphocyte development. Female carriers of XLA, although asymptomatic, have a characteristic B cell lineage-specific skewing of the pattern of X inactivation. Skewing apparently results from defective growth and maturation of B cell precursors bearing a mutant active X chromosome. In this study, carrier status was tested in 58 women from 22 families referred with a history of agammaglobulinemia. Primary carrier analysis to examine patterns of X inactivation in CD19[sup +] peripheral blood cells (B lymphocytes) was conducted using quantitative PCR at the androgen-receptor locus. Obligate carriers of XLAmore » demonstrated >95% skewing of X inactivation in peripheral blood CD19[sup +] cells but not in CD19[sup [minus

  7. A mutation in the Norrie disease gene (NDP) associated with X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z Y; Battinelli, E M; Fielder, A; Bundey, S; Sims, K; Breakefield, X O; Craig, I W

    1993-10-01

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a hereditary disorder characterized by an abnormality of the peripheral retina. Both autosomal dominant (adFEVR) and X-linked (XLFEVR) forms have been described, but the biochemical defect(s) underlying the symptoms are unknown. Molecular analysis of the Norrie gene locus (NDP) in a four generation FEVR family (shown previously to exhibit linkage to the X-chromosome markers DXS228 and MAOA (Xp11.4-p11.3)) reveals a missense mutation in the highly conserved region of the NDP gene, which caused a neutral amino acid substitution (Leu124Phe), was detected in all of the affected males, but not in the unaffected family members, nor in normal controls. The observations suggest that phenotypes of both XLFEVR and Norrie disease can result from mutations in the same gene.

  8. Subcortical laminar heterotopia and lissencephaly in two families: a single X linked dominant gene.

    PubMed Central

    Pinard, J M; Motte, J; Chiron, C; Brian, R; Andermann, E; Dulac, O

    1994-01-01

    Neuronal migration disorders can now be recognised by MRI. This paper reports two families in which the mothers had subcortical laminar heterotopia and four of their children had either similar heterotopia (two girls) or severe pachygyria or lissencephaly (two boys). Laminar heterotopia was more evident on MRI T2 weighted images. The patients had mild to severe epilepsy and mental retardation depending on the extent of cortical abnormalities. In these families, subcortical laminar heterotopia, pachygyria, and lissencephaly seem to share the same X linked or autosomal dominant gene. No chromosomal abnormalities, especially of chromosome 17, could be identified. For appropriate genetic counselling of the family of a child with lissencephaly or subcortical laminar heterotopia, MRI should be performed in parents or siblings with mental retardation or epilepsy. Images PMID:8057113

  9. X-linked adult-onset adrenoleukodystrophy: Psychiatric and neurological manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Daniah; Alleyne, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Adult-onset adrenoleukodystrophy is a rare x-linked inborn error of metabolism occurring predominantly in males with onset in early 30s. Here, we report a 34-year-old male with first signs of disease in early 20s manifesting as a pure psychiatric disorder. Prior to onset of neurological symptoms, this patient demonstrated a schizophrenia and bipolar-like presentation. The disease progressed over the next 10–13 years and his memory and motor problems became evident around the age of 33 years. Subsequently, diagnostic testing showed the typical magnetic resonance imaging and lab findings for adult-onset adrenoleukodystrophy. This case highlights adult-onset adrenoleukodystrophy which may present as a pure psychiatric disturbance in early adulthood and briefly discusses the prolonged time between the onset of psychiatric symptoms and the onset of neurological disease. PMID:29201369

  10. X-linked adult-onset adrenoleukodystrophy: Psychiatric and neurological manifestations.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Daniah; Alleyne, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Adult-onset adrenoleukodystrophy is a rare x-linked inborn error of metabolism occurring predominantly in males with onset in early 30s. Here, we report a 34-year-old male with first signs of disease in early 20s manifesting as a pure psychiatric disorder. Prior to onset of neurological symptoms, this patient demonstrated a schizophrenia and bipolar-like presentation. The disease progressed over the next 10-13 years and his memory and motor problems became evident around the age of 33 years. Subsequently, diagnostic testing showed the typical magnetic resonance imaging and lab findings for adult-onset adrenoleukodystrophy. This case highlights adult-onset adrenoleukodystrophy which may present as a pure psychiatric disturbance in early adulthood and briefly discusses the prolonged time between the onset of psychiatric symptoms and the onset of neurological disease.

  11. Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase: From X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia Toward Targeted Therapy for B-Cell Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Ponader, Sabine; Burger, Jan A.

    2014-01-01

    Discovery of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) mutations as the cause for X-linked agammaglobulinemia was a milestone in understanding the genetic basis of primary immunodeficiencies. Since then, studies have highlighted the critical role of this enzyme in B-cell development and function, and particularly in B-cell receptor signaling. Because its deletion affects mostly B cells, BTK has become an attractive therapeutic target in autoimmune disorders and B-cell malignancies. Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) is the most advanced BTK inhibitor in clinical testing, with ongoing phase III clinical trials in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and mantle-cell lymphoma. In this article, we discuss key discoveries related to BTK and clinically relevant aspects of BTK inhibitors, and we provide an outlook into clinical development and open questions regarding BTK inhibitor therapy. PMID:24778403

  12. X-linked recessive panhypopituitarism associated with a regional duplication in Xq25-q26.

    PubMed Central

    Lagerström-Fermér, M; Sundvall, M; Johnsen, E; Warne, G L; Forrest, S M; Zajac, J D; Rickards, A; Ravine, D; Landegren, U; Pettersson, U

    1997-01-01

    We present a linkage analysis and a clinical update on a previously reported family with X-linked recessive panhypopituitarism, now in its fourth generation. Affected members exhibit variable degrees of hypopituitarism and mental retardation. The markers DXS737 and DXS1187 in the q25-q26 region of the X chromosome showed evidence for linkage with a peak LOD score (Zmax) of 4.12 at zero recombination fraction (theta(max) = 0). An apparent extra copy of the marker DXS102, observed in the region of the disease gene in affected males and heterozygous carrier females, suggests that a segment including this marker is duplicated. The gene causing this disorder appears to code for a dosage-sensitive protein central to development of the pituitary. Images Figure 2 PMID:9106538

  13. Inherited hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Jackson, I M

    1976-03-01

    Familial hypothyroidism results from both thyroidal and extrathyroidal dysfunction. Specific intrathyroidal abnormalities in thyroid hormone synthesis causing goitrous hypothyroidism are iodide trap defect, organification defect, "coupling" defect, iodoprotein defect, and dehalogenase defect. The diagnostic studies for each are outlined utilizing radioiodine(131I) studies. Other causes of cretinism include failure of the thyroid gland to respond to TSH and lack of pituitary TSH (or hypothalamic TRH). The syndrome of peripheral resistance to thyroid hormone is discussed. The diagnosis of inherited hypothyrodism rests on an adequate family history and measurement of both T4 and TSH levels which can be determined in cord blood or peripheral blood from the infant. The importance of early treatment of hypothyroidism in the neonatal period to prevent brain damage is emphasized. The rec:nt discovery of the importance of reverse T3 (RT3) in fetal thyroid metabolism is described, and the possibility of amniocentesis as an aid in prenatal diagnosis is considered. The place of intrauterine administration of thyroid hormone to the fetus at risk from hypothyroidism is uncertain at this time and requires carefully controlled studies and long-term follow-up.

  14. Maxillary distraction osteogenesis for treatment of cleft lip and palate in a patient with X-linked agammaglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yutaka; Mishimagi, Takashi; Katsuki, Yuko; Harada, Kiyoshi

    2014-07-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a congenital immune deficiency disorder caused by abnormal antibody production. It is a rare disease with an estimated frequency of 1 in 379,000 that has X-linked recessive heredity and develops only in males. The clinical problems include bacterial infection such as otitis media, sinusitis, and bronchitis. In recent years it has become possible to diagnose XLA in the early stage and intravenous immunoglobulin replacement therapy has permitted survival to adulthood. However, there have been no reports of oral surgery in patients with XLA. Here, we describe a case in which immunoglobulin replacement therapy given pre- and postoperatively was used to control infection in oral surgery and maxillary distraction osteogenesis performed for improving occlusion and appearance of a cleft lip and palate in a patient with XLA. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. X-inactivation patterns in female Leber`s hereditary optic neuropathy patients do not support a strong X-linked determinant

    SciTech Connect

    Pegoraro, E.; Hoffman, E.P.; Carelli, V.

    1996-02-02

    Leber`s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) accounts for about 3% of the cases of blindness in young adult males. The underlying mitochondrial pathogenesis of LHON has been well studied, with specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations of structural genes described and well characterized. However, enigmatic aspects of the disease are not explained by mutation data, such as the higher proportion of affected males, the later onset of the disease in females, and the presence of unaffected individuals with a high proportion of mutant mtDNA. A hypothesis which has been put forward to explain the unusual disease expression is a dual model ofmore » mtDNA and X-linked nuclear gene inheritance. If a nuclear X-linked modifier gene influences the expression of the mitochondrial-linked mutant gene then the affected females should be either homozygous for the nuclear determinant, or if heterozygous, lyonization should favor the mutant X. In order to determine if an X-linked gene predisposes to LHON phenotype we studied X-inactivation patterns in 35 females with known mtDNA mutations from 10 LHON pedigrees. Our results do not support a strong X-linked determinant in LHON cause: 2 of the 10 (20%) manifesting carriers showed skewing of X-inactivation, as did 3 of the 25 (12%) nonmanifesting carriers. 39 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.« less

  16. X-linked dominant protoporphyria: The first reported Japanese case.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Yukiko; Kokunai, Yasuhito; Tanizaki, Hideaki; Akasaka, Eijiro; Nakano, Hajime; Moriwaki, Shinichi

    2016-04-01

    A 12-year-old boy with photosensitivity since 3 years of age presented with small concavities on both cheeks, the nasal root and the dorsal surface of both hands. According to the clinical features, erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) was suspected. Urine and blood samples were tested for porphyrin derivatives, which revealed a markedly elevated level of erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) and a diagnosis of EPP was made. The patient's mother had no photosensitivity, however, lesions appearing slightly as small scars were found on the dorsum of her right hand; his elder sister and father showed no rash. The EP levels were elevated in samples from his mother and mildly elevated in those from his elder sister and father. To obtain a definitive diagnosis, genetic analyses were performed using samples from all family members, which revealed no mutations in the ferrochelatase-encoding gene (FECH), which is responsible for EPP. Instead, a pathological mutation of the 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase-encoding gene (ALAS2) was identified in samples from the patient, his mother and his elder sister, confirming a definitive diagnosis of X-linked dominant protoporphyria (XLDPP). This is the first Japanese family reported to have XLDPP, demonstrating evidence of the condition in Japan. In addition, because XLDPP is very similar to EPP in its clinical aspects and laboratory findings, a genetic analysis is required for the differential diagnosis. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  17. Heterogeneity analysis in 40 X-linked retinitis pigmentosa families

    SciTech Connect

    Teague, P.W.; Aldred, M.A.; Dempster, M.

    1994-07-01

    Analysis of genetic heterogeneity in 40 kindreds with X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP), with 20 polymorphic markers, showed that significant heterogeneity is present (P=.001) and that 56% of kindreds are of RP3 type and that 26% are of RP2 type. The location of the RP3 locus was found to be 0.4 cM distal to OTC in the Xp21.1 region, and that of the RP2 locus was 6.5 cM proximal to DXS7 in Xp11.2-p11.3. Bayesian probabilities of linkage to RP2, RP3, or to neither locus were calculated. This showed that 20 of 40 kindreds could be assigned to one or the othermore » locus, with a probability >.70 (14 kindreds with RP3 and 6 kindreds with RP2 disease). A further three kindreds were found to be unlinked to either locus, with a probability >.8. The remaining 17 kindreds could not be classified unambiguously. This highlights the difficulty of classifying families in the presence of genetic heterogeneity, where two loci are separated by an estimated 16 cM. 34 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.« less

  18. [Gene mutation analysis of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets].

    PubMed

    Song, Ying; Ma, Hong-Wei; Li, Fang; Hu, Man; Ren, Shuang; Yu, Ya-Fen; Zhao, Gui-Jie

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the frequency and type of PHEX gene mutations in children with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), the possible presence of mutational hot spots, and the relationship between genotype and clinical phenotype. Clinical data of 10 children with XLH was retrospectively reviewed. The relationship between gene mutation type and severity of XLH was evaluated. PHEX gene mutations were detected in all 10 children with XLH, including 6 cases of missense mutation, 2 cases of splice site mutation, 1 case of frameshift mutation, and 1 case of nonsense mutation. Two new mutations, c.2048T>C and IVS14+1delAG, were found. The type of PHEX gene mutation was not associated with the degree of short stature and leg deformity (P=0.571 and 0.467), and the mutation site was also not associated with the degree of short stature and leg deformity (P=0.400 and 1.000). Missense mutation is the most common type of PHEX gene mutation in children with XLH, and c.2048T>C and IVS14+1delAG are two new PHEX gene mutations. The type and site of PHEX gene mutation are not associated with the severity of XLH.

  19. Juvenile X-linked retinoschisis responsive to intravitreal corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Waseem H; Browne, Andrew W; Singh, Rishi P

    2017-04-01

    To report the case of an adult male with X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) who presented with cystoid macular edema (CME) that responded consistently to treatment with intravitreal steroids. A 39 year old male with unilateral presentation of CME after repair of a retinal detachment secondary to XLRS responded initially to an injection of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA). Central subfield thickness on OCT was reduced. Three months later, the CME recurred and he was unresponsive to topical treatment so repeat IVTA was given, and the CME once again was reduced dramatically. After the next recurrence, intravitreal dexamethasone implant treatment was initiated and successful at treating recurrences in 3 month intervals for 5 additional injections. Finally, an intravitreal fluocinolone acetonide implant was surgically placed with control of CME. Corticosteroids have never been reported to be effective in CME related to XLRS. Here, we document a case of a man who successfully had decrease of intraretinal fluid and schisis with treatment of intravitreal corticosteroids as demonstrated by spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

  20. Multifocal ERG findings in carriers of X-linked retinoschisis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Linda S.; Seiple, William; Szlyk, Janet P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether retinal dysfunction in obligate carriers of X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) could be observed in local electroretinographic responses obtained with the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG). Methods Nine obligate carriers of XLRS (mean age, 46.2 years) were examined for the study. Examination of each carrier included an ocular examination and mfERG testing. For the mfERG, we used a 103-scaled hexagonal stimulus array that subtended a retinal area of approximately 40° in diameter. The amplitudes and implicit times in each location for the mfERG were compared with the corresponding values determined for a group of 34 normally-sighted, age-similar control subjects. Results Mapping of 103 local electroretinographic response amplitudes and implicit times within a central 40° area with the mfERG showed regions of reduced mfERG amplitudes and delayed implicit times in two of nine carriers. Conclusions The mfERG demonstrated areas of retinal dysfunction in two carriers of XLRS. When present, retinal dysfunction was evident in the presence of a normal-appearing fundus. Multifocal ERG testing can be useful for identifying some carriers of XLRS. PMID:17180613

  1. Inherit Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giarratano, Joseph C.; Jenks, K. C.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research was to begin development of a unique educational tool targeted at educating and inspiring young people 12-16 years old about NASA and the Space Program. Since these young people are the future engineers, scientists and space pioneers, the nurturing of their enthusiasm and interest is of critical importance to the Nation. This summer the basic infrastructure of the tool was developed in the context of an educational game paradigm. The game paradigm has achieved remarkable success in maintaining the interest of young people in a self-paced, student-directed learning environment. This type of environment encourages student exploration and curiosity which are exactly the traits that future space pioneers need to develop to prepare for the unexpected. The Inherit Space Educational Tool is an open-ended learning environment consisting of a finite-state machine classic adventure game paradigm. As the young person explores this world, different obstacles must be overcome. Rewards will be offered such as using the flight simulator to fly around and explore Titan. This simulator was modeled on conventional Earth flight simulators but has been considerably enhanced to add texture mapping of Titan's atmosphere utilizing the latest information from the NASA Galileo Space Probe. Additional scenery was added to provide color VGA graphics of a futuristic research station on Titan as well as an interesting story to keep the youngster's attention. This summer the game infrastructure has been developed as well as the Titan Flight Simulator. A number of other enhancements are planned.

  2. Characterization of 4 New Mutations in the CYBB Gene in 10 Iranian Families With X-linked Chronic Granulomatous Disease.

    PubMed

    Teimourian, Shahram; Sazgara, Faezeh; de Boer, Martin; van Leeuwen, Karin; Roos, Dirk; Lashkary, Sharzad; Chavoshzadeh, Zahra; Nabavi, Mohammad; Bemanian, Mohammad Hassan; Isaian, Anna

    2018-04-26

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disease of the innate immune system that results from defects in 1 of the 5 subunits of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase complex and leads to life-threatening infections with granuloma formation. During 3 years of study, we recognized 10 male patients with X-linked CGD from a tertiary referral center for immune deficiencies in Iran. The CGD patients were diagnosed according to clinical features and biochemical tests, including nitroblue tetrazolium and dihydrorhodamine-1, 2, 3 tests, performed on patients and their mothers. In all patients, Western blot analysis showed a gp91 phenotype. Mutation screening by single strand conformation polymorphism and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis of the CYBB gene encoding gp91, followed by sequencing, showed 9 different mutations, 4 of them novel as far as we know.

  3. X-linked retinitis pigmentosa: Report of a large kindred with loss of central vision and preserved peripheral function

    SciTech Connect

    Shastry, B.S.; Trese, M.T.

    1995-11-20

    X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) is the most severe form of the inherited forms of retinitis pigmentosa and is clinically variable and genetically heterogeneous. It affects one in 20,000 live births. The affected individuals manifest degeneration of the peripheral retina during the first two decades of life on the basis of night blindness. Central vision usually is preserved until age 50, when the disease advances, affecting central vision and ultimately leading to complete loss of sight. Linkage analysis has shown two loci with a possibility of a third locus on the human X chromosome. The genetic abnormality that causes XLRP ismore » not known at present. Here we describe a large kindred which manifests central loss of field with the preservation of peripheral vision. 5 refs., 1 fig.« less

  4. Gigantism: X-linked acrogigantism and GPR101 mutations.

    PubMed

    Iacovazzo, Donato; Korbonits, Márta

    X-linked acrogigantism (XLAG) is a recently identified condition of early-onset GH excess resulting from the germline or somatic duplication of the GPR101 gene on chromosome Xq26.3. Thirty patients have been formally reported so far. The disease affects mostly females, occurs usually sporadically, and is characterised by early onset and marked overgrowth. Most patients present with concomitant hyperprolactinaemia. Histopathology shows pituitary hyperplasia or pituitary adenoma with or without associated hyperplasia. XLAG-related pituitary adenomas present peculiar histopathological features that should contribute to raise the suspicion of this rare condition. Treatment is frequently challenging and multi-modal. While females present with germline mutations, the sporadic male patients reported so far were somatic mosaics with variable levels of mosaicism, although no differences in the clinical phenotype were observed between patients with germline or somatic duplication. The GPR101 gene encodes an orphan G protein-coupled receptor normally expressed in the central nervous system, and at particularly high levels in the hypothalamus. While the physiological function and the endogenous ligand of GPR101 are unknown, the high expression of GPR101 in the arcuate nucleus and the occurrence of increased circulating GHRH levels in some patients with XLAG, suggest that increased hypothalamic GHRH secretion could play a role in the pathogenesis of this condition. In this review, we summarise the published evidence on XLAG and GPR101 and discuss the results of recent studies that have investigated the potential role of GPR101 variants in the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. OMIM.org: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM®), an online catalog of human genes and genetic disorders.

    PubMed

    Amberger, Joanna S; Bocchini, Carol A; Schiettecatte, François; Scott, Alan F; Hamosh, Ada

    2015-01-01

    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM(®), is a comprehensive, authoritative and timely research resource of curated descriptions of human genes and phenotypes and the relationships between them. The new official website for OMIM, OMIM.org (http://omim.org), was launched in January 2011. OMIM is based on the published peer-reviewed biomedical literature and is used by overlapping and diverse communities of clinicians, molecular biologists and genome scientists, as well as by students and teachers of these disciplines. Genes and phenotypes are described in separate entries and are given unique, stable six-digit identifiers (MIM numbers). OMIM entries have a structured free-text format that provides the flexibility necessary to describe the complex and nuanced relationships between genes and genetic phenotypes in an efficient manner. OMIM also has a derivative table of genes and genetic phenotypes, the Morbid Map. OMIM.org has enhanced search capabilities such as genome coordinate searching and thesaurus-enhanced search term options. Phenotypic series have been created to facilitate viewing genetic heterogeneity of phenotypes. Clinical synopsis features are enhanced with UMLS, Human Phenotype Ontology and Elements of Morphology terms and image links. All OMIM data are available for FTP download and through an API. MIMmatch is a novel outreach feature to disseminate updates and encourage collaboration. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. OMIM.org: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM®), an online catalog of human genes and genetic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Amberger, Joanna S.; Bocchini, Carol A.; Schiettecatte, François; Scott, Alan F.; Hamosh, Ada

    2015-01-01

    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM®, is a comprehensive, authoritative and timely research resource of curated descriptions of human genes and phenotypes and the relationships between them. The new official website for OMIM, OMIM.org (http://omim.org), was launched in January 2011. OMIM is based on the published peer-reviewed biomedical literature and is used by overlapping and diverse communities of clinicians, molecular biologists and genome scientists, as well as by students and teachers of these disciplines. Genes and phenotypes are described in separate entries and are given unique, stable six-digit identifiers (MIM numbers). OMIM entries have a structured free-text format that provides the flexibility necessary to describe the complex and nuanced relationships between genes and genetic phenotypes in an efficient manner. OMIM also has a derivative table of genes and genetic phenotypes, the Morbid Map. OMIM.org has enhanced search capabilities such as genome coordinate searching and thesaurus-enhanced search term options. Phenotypic series have been created to facilitate viewing genetic heterogeneity of phenotypes. Clinical synopsis features are enhanced with UMLS, Human Phenotype Ontology and Elements of Morphology terms and image links. All OMIM data are available for FTP download and through an API. MIMmatch is a novel outreach feature to disseminate updates and encourage collaboration. PMID:25428349

  7. The Moroccan Genetic Disease Database (MGDD): a database for DNA variations related to inherited disorders and disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Charoute, Hicham; Nahili, Halima; Abidi, Omar; Gabi, Khalid; Rouba, Hassan; Fakiri, Malika; Barakat, Abdelhamid

    2014-03-01

    National and ethnic mutation databases provide comprehensive information about genetic variations reported in a population or an ethnic group. In this paper, we present the Moroccan Genetic Disease Database (MGDD), a catalogue of genetic data related to diseases identified in the Moroccan population. We used the PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases to identify available articles published until April 2013. The Database is designed and implemented on a three-tier model using Mysql relational database and the PHP programming language. To date, the database contains 425 mutations and 208 polymorphisms found in 301 genes and 259 diseases. Most Mendelian diseases in the Moroccan population follow autosomal recessive mode of inheritance (74.17%) and affect endocrine, nutritional and metabolic physiology. The MGDD database provides reference information for researchers, clinicians and health professionals through a user-friendly Web interface. Its content should be useful to improve researches in human molecular genetics, disease diagnoses and design of association studies. MGDD can be publicly accessed at http://mgdd.pasteur.ma.

  8. CD40 agonist antibody mediated improvement of chronic Cryptosporidium infection in patients with X-linked hyper IgM syndrome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (XHM) is a combined immune deficiency disorder caused by mutations in CD40 ligand. We tested CP-870,893, a human CD40 agonist monoclonal antibody, in the treatment of two XHM patients with biliary Cryptosporidiosis. CP-870,893 activated B cells and APCs in vitro, restori...

  9. Alport syndrome: impact of digenic inheritance in patients management.

    PubMed

    Fallerini, C; Baldassarri, M; Trevisson, E; Morbidoni, V; La Manna, A; Lazzarin, R; Pasini, A; Barbano, G; Pinciaroli, A R; Garosi, G; Frullanti, E; Pinto, A M; Mencarelli, M A; Mari, F; Renieri, A; Ariani, F

    2017-07-01

    Alport syndrome (ATS) is a genetically heterogeneous nephropathy with considerable phenotypic variability and different transmission patterns, including monogenic (X-linked/autosomal) and digenic inheritance (DI). Here we present a new series of families with DI and we discuss the consequences for genetic counseling and risk assessment. Out of five families harboring variants in more than one COL4 gene detected by next generation sequencing (NGS), minigene-splicing assay allowed us to identify four as true digenic. Two families showed COL4A3/A4 mutations in cis, mimicking an autosomal dominant inheritance with a more severe phenotype and one showed COL4A3/A4 mutations in trans, mimicking an autosomal recessive inheritance with a less severe phenotype. In a fourth family, a de novo mutation (COL4A5) combined with an inherited mutation (COL4A3) triggered a more severe phenotype. A fifth family, predicted digenic on the basis of silico tools, rather showed monogenic X-linked inheritance due to a hypomorphic mutation, in accordance with a milder phenotype. In conclusion, this study highlights the impact of DI in ATS and explains the associated atypical presentations. More complex inheritance should be therefore considered when reviewing prognosis and recurrence risks. On the other side, these findings emphasize the importance to accompany NGS with splicing assays in order to avoid erroneous identification of at risk members. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. X-Linked Glomerulopathy Due to COL4A5 Founder Variant.

    PubMed

    Barua, Moumita; John, Rohan; Stella, Lorenzo; Li, Weili; Roslin, Nicole M; Sharif, Bedra; Hack, Saidah; Lajoie-Starkell, Ginette; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Becknell, Brian; Wuttke, Matthias; Köttgen, Anna; Cattran, Daniel; Paterson, Andrew D; Pei, York

    2018-03-01

    Alport syndrome is a rare hereditary disorder caused by rare variants in 1 of 3 genes encoding for type IV collagen. Rare variants in COL4A5 on chromosome Xq22 cause X-linked Alport syndrome, which accounts for ∼80% of the cases. Alport syndrome has a variable clinical presentation, including progressive kidney failure, hearing loss, and ocular defects. Exome sequencing performed in 2 affected related males with an undefined X-linked glomerulopathy characterized by global and segmental glomerulosclerosis, mesangial hypercellularity, and vague basement membrane immune complex deposition revealed a COL4A5 sequence variant, a substitution of a thymine by a guanine at nucleotide 665 (c.T665G; rs281874761) of the coding DNA predicted to lead to a cysteine to phenylalanine substitution at amino acid 222, which was not seen in databases cataloguing natural human genetic variation, including dbSNP138, 1000 Genomes Project release version 01-11-2004, Exome Sequencing Project 21-06-2014, or ExAC 01-11-2014. Review of the literature identified 2 additional families with the same COL4A5 variant leading to similar atypical histopathologic features, suggesting a unique pathologic mechanism initiated by this specific rare variant. Homology modeling suggests that the substitution alters the structural and dynamic properties of the type IV collagen trimer. Genetic analysis comparing members of the 3 families indicated a distant relationship with a shared haplotype, implying a founder effect. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Combination of a Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplant With Umbilical Cord Blood for Cerebral X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hua; Jiang, Min-Yan; Liu, Sha; Cai, Yan-Na; Liang, Cui-Li; Liu, Li

    2015-08-01

    Childhood cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects central nervous system myelin and the adrenal cortex. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the best available curative therapy if performed during the early stages of disease. Only 30% of patients who might benefit from a hematopoietic stem cell transplant will have a full human leukocyte antigen-matched donor, which is considered to be the best choice. We present a 5-year-old boy with cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy whose brain magnetic resonance imaging severity score was 7 and who needed an immediate transplantation without an available full human leukocyte antigen-matched donor. We combined haploidentical and umbilical cord blood sources for transplantation and saw encouraging results. After transplantation, the patient showed neurological stability for 6 months and the level of very long chain fatty acids had decreased. By 1 year, the patient appeared to gradually develop cognition, motor, and visual disturbances resulting from possible mix chimerism. Transplantation of haploidentical stem cells combined with the infusion of umbilical cord blood is a novel approach for treating cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. It is critical to monitor posttransplant chimerism and carry out antirejection therapy timely for a beneficial clinical outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Structure/Psychophysical Relationships in X-Linked Retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Lea D; Wang, Yi-Zhong; Klein, Martin; Pennesi, Mark E; Jayasundera, Thiran; Birch, David G

    2016-02-01

    To compare structural properties from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) and psychophysical measures from a subset of patients enrolled in a larger multicenter natural history study of X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS). A subset of males (n = 24) participating in a larger natural history study of XLRS underwent high-resolution SDOCT. Total retina (TR) thickness and outer segment (OS) thickness were measured manually. Shape discrimination hyperacuity (SDH) and contour integration perimetry (CIP) were performed on an iPad with the myVisionTrack application. Sensitivity was measured with fundus-guided perimetry (4-2 threshold testing strategy; 10-2 grid, spot size 3, 68 points). Correlation was determined with Pearson's r correlation. Values are presented as the mean ± SD. Mean macular OS thickness was less in XLRS patients (17.2 ± 8.1 μm) than in controls (37.1 ± 5.7 μm; P < 0.0001) but mean TR thickness was comparable (P = 0.5884). For patients, total sensitivity was lower (13.2 ± 6.6 dB) than for controls (24.2 ± 2.4 dB; P = 0.0008) and had a strong correlation with photoreceptor OS (R(2) = 0.55, P = 0.0001) and a weak correlation with TR thickness (R(2) = 0.22, P = 0.0158). The XLRS subjects had a logMAR best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 0.5 ± 0.3 that was associated with OS (R(2) = 0.79, P < 0.0001) but not TR thickness (R(2) = 0.01, P = 0.6166). Shape DH and CIP inner ring correlated with OS (R(2) = 0.33, P = 0.0085 and R(2) = 0.47, P = 0.0001, respectively) but not TR thickness (R(2) = 0.0004, P = 0.93; R(2) = 0.0043, P = 0.75, respectively). When considered from a single visit, OS thickness within the macula is more closely associated with macular function than TR thickness within the macula in patients with XLRS.

  13. Visual Function in Carriers of X-linked Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Comander, Jason; Weigel-DiFranco, Carol; Sandberg, Michael A.; Berson, Eliot L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the frequency and severity of visual function loss in female carriers of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP). Design Case series. Participants XLRP carriers with cross-sectional data (n = 242) and longitudinal data (n = 34, median follow-up: 16 years, follow-up range: 3–37 years). Half of the carriers were from RPGR- or RP2-genotyped families. Methods Retrospective medical records review. Main Outcome Measures Visual acuities, visual field areas, final dark adaptation thresholds, and full-field ERGs to 0.5 Hz and 30 Hz flashes. Results In genotyped families, 40% of carriers showed a baseline abnormality on at least one of the three psychophysical tests. There was a wide range of function among carriers; for example 3 of 121 (2%) of genotyped carriers were legally blind due to poor visual acuity, some as young as 35 years of age. Visual fields were less affected than visual acuity. In all carriers, the average ERG amplitude to 30 Hz flashes was about 50% of normal, and the average exponential rate of amplitude loss over time was half that of XLRP males (3.7%/year vs 7.4%/year, respectively). Among obligate carriers with affected fathers and/or sons, 53 of 55 (96%) had abnormal baseline ERGs. Some carriers who initially had completely normal fundi in both eyes went on to develop moderately decreased vision, though not legal blindness. Among carriers with RPGR mutations, those with mutations in ORF15, compared to those in exons 1–14, had worse final dark adaptation thresholds and lower 0.5 Hz and 30 Hz ERG amplitudes. Conclusions Most carriers of XLRP had mildly or moderately reduced visual function but rarely became legally blind. In most cases, obligate carriers could be identified by ERG testing. Carriers of RPGR ORF15 mutations tended to have worse visual function than carriers of RPGR exon 1–14 mutations. Since XLRP carrier ERG amplitudes and decay rates over time were on average half of those of affected males, these observations were

  14. Lentiviral hematopoietic cell gene therapy for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Cartier, Nathalie; Hacein-Bey-Abina, Salima; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; Bougnères, Pierre; Schmidt, Manfred; Kalle, Christof Von; Fischer, Alain; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Aubourg, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a severe genetic demyelinating disease caused by a deficiency in ALD protein, an adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter encoded by the ABCD1 gene. When performed at an early stage of the disease, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) can arrest the progression of cerebral demyelinating lesions. To overcome the limitations of allogeneic HCT, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy strategy aiming to perform autologous transplantation of lentivirally corrected cells was developed. We demonstrated the preclinical feasibility of HSC gene therapy for ALD based on the correction of CD34+ cells from X-ALD patients using an HIV1-derived lentiviral vector. These results prompted us to initiate an HSC gene therapy trial in two X-ALD patients who had developed progressive cerebral demyelination, were candidates for allogeneic HCT, but had no HLA-matched donors or cord blood. Autologous CD34+ cells were purified from the peripheral blood after G-CSF stimulation, genetically corrected ex vivo with a lentiviral vector encoding wild-type ABCD1 cDNA, and then reinfused into the patients after they had received full myeloablative conditioning. Over 3 years of follow-up, the hematopoiesis remained polyclonal in the two patients treated with 7-14% of granulocytes, monocytes, and T and B lymphocytes expressing the lentivirally encoded ALD protein. There was no evidence of clonal dominance or skewing based on the retrieval of lentiviral insertion repertoire in different hematopoietic lineages by deep sequencing. Cerebral demyelination was arrested 14 and 16months, respectively, in the two treated patients, without further progression up to the last follow-up, a clinical outcome that is comparable to that observed after allogeneic HCT. Longer follow-up of these two treated patients and HSC gene therapy performed in additional ALD patients are however needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of lentiviral HSC

  15. Structure/Psychophysical Relationships in X-Linked Retinoschisis

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Lea D.; Wang, Yi-Zhong; Klein, Martin; Pennesi, Mark E.; Jayasundera, Thiran; Birch, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare structural properties from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) and psychophysical measures from a subset of patients enrolled in a larger multicenter natural history study of X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS). Methods A subset of males (n = 24) participating in a larger natural history study of XLRS underwent high-resolution SDOCT. Total retina (TR) thickness and outer segment (OS) thickness were measured manually. Shape discrimination hyperacuity (SDH) and contour integration perimetry (CIP) were performed on an iPad with the myVisionTrack application. Sensitivity was measured with fundus-guided perimetry (4-2 threshold testing strategy; 10-2 grid, spot size 3, 68 points). Correlation was determined with Pearson's r correlation. Values are presented as the mean ± SD. Results Mean macular OS thickness was less in XLRS patients (17.2 ± 8.1 μm) than in controls (37.1 ± 5.7 μm; P < 0.0001) but mean TR thickness was comparable (P = 0.5884). For patients, total sensitivity was lower (13.2 ± 6.6 dB) than for controls (24.2 ± 2.4 dB; P = 0.0008) and had a strong correlation with photoreceptor OS (R2 = 0.55, P = 0.0001) and a weak correlation with TR thickness (R2 = 0.22, P = 0.0158). The XLRS subjects had a logMAR best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 0.5 ± 0.3 that was associated with OS (R2 = 0.79, P < 0.0001) but not TR thickness (R2 = 0.01, P = 0.6166). Shape DH and CIP inner ring correlated with OS (R2 = 0.33, P = 0.0085 and R2 = 0.47, P = 0.0001, respectively) but not TR thickness (R2 = 0.0004, P = 0.93; R2 = 0.0043, P = 0.75, respectively). Conclusions When considered from a single visit, OS thickness within the macula is more closely associated with macular function than TR thickness within the macula in patients with XLRS. PMID:26830370

  16. Inflammatory profile in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy patients: Understanding disease progression.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Desirèe Padilha; Donida, Bruna; Jacques, Carlos Eduardo; Deon, Marion; Hauschild, Tatiane Cristina; Koehler-Santos, Patricia; de Moura Coelho, Daniella; Coitinho, Adriana Simon; Jardim, Laura Bannach; Vargas, Carmen Regla

    2018-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is an inherited disease characterized by progressive inflammatory demyelization in the brain, adrenal insufficiency, and an abnormal accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) in tissue and body fluids. Considering that inflammation might be involved in pathophysiology of X-ALD, we aimed to investigate pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in plasma from three different male phenotypes (CCER, AMN, and asymptomatic individuals). Our results showed that asymptomatic patients presented increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-8, and TNF-α and the last one was also higher in AMN phenotype. Besides, asymptomatic patients presented higher levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. AMN patients presented higher levels of IL-2, IL-5, and IL-4. We might hypothesize that inflammation in X-ALD is related to plasmatic VLCFA concentration, since there were positive correlations between C26:0 plasmatic levels and pro-inflammatory cytokines in asymptomatic and AMN patients and negative correlation between anti-inflammatory cytokine and C24:0/C22:0 ratio in AMN patients. The present work yields experimental evidence that there is an inflammatory imbalance associated Th1, (IL-2, IL-6, and IFN-γ), Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10), and macrophages response (TNF-α and IL-1β) in the periphery of asymptomatic and AMN patients, and there is correlation between VLCFA plasmatic levels and inflammatory mediators in X-ALD. Furthermore, we might also speculate that the increase of plasmatic cytokines in asymptomatic patients could be considered an early biomarker of brain damage and maybe also a predictor of disease progression. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Juvenile retinoschisis: a model for molecular diagnostic testing of X-linked ophthalmic disease.

    PubMed

    Sieving, P A; Yashar, B M; Ayyagari, R

    1999-01-01

    X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (RS) provides a starting point to define clinical paradigms and understand the limitations of diagnostic molecular testing. The RS phenotype is specific, but the broad severity range is clinically confusing. Molecular diagnostic testing obviates unnecessary examinations for boys at-risk and identifies carrier females who otherwise show no clinical signs. The XLRS1 gene has 6 exons of 26-196 base-pair size. Each exon is amplified by a single polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced, starting with exons 4 through 6, which contain mutation "hot spots." The 6 XLRS1 exons are sequenced serially. If alterations are found, they are compared with mutations in our > 120 XLRS families and with the > 300 mutations reported worldwide. Point mutations, small deletions, or rearrangements are identified in nearly 90% of males with a clinical diagnosis of RS. XLRS1 has very few sequence polymorphisms. Carrier-state testing produces 1 of 3 results: (1) positive, in which the woman has the same mutation as an affected male relative or known in other RS families; (2) negative, in which she lacks the mutation of her affected male relative; and (3) uninformative, in which no known mutation is identified or no information exists about the familial mutation. Molecular RS screening is an effective diagnostic tool that complements the clinician's skills for early detection of at-risk males. Useful outcomes of carrier testing depend on several factors: (1) a male relative with a clear clinical diagnosis; (2) a well-defined inheritance pattern; (3) high disease penetrance; (4) size and organization of the gene; and (5) the types of disease-associated mutations. Ethical questions include molecular diagnostic testing of young at-risk females before the age of consent, the impact of this information on the emotional health of the patient and family, and issues of employability and insurance coverage.

  18. Juvenile retinoschisis: a model for molecular diagnostic testing of X-linked ophthalmic disease.

    PubMed Central

    Sieving, P A; Yashar, B M; Ayyagari, R

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (RS) provides a starting point to define clinical paradigms and understand the limitations of diagnostic molecular testing. The RS phenotype is specific, but the broad severity range is clinically confusing. Molecular diagnostic testing obviates unnecessary examinations for boys at-risk and identifies carrier females who otherwise show no clinical signs. METHODS: The XLRS1 gene has 6 exons of 26-196 base-pair size. Each exon is amplified by a single polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced, starting with exons 4 through 6, which contain mutation "hot spots." RESULTS: The 6 XLRS1 exons are sequenced serially. If alterations are found, they are compared with mutations in our > 120 XLRS families and with the > 300 mutations reported worldwide. Point mutations, small deletions, or rearrangements are identified in nearly 90% of males with a clinical diagnosis of RS. XLRS1 has very few sequence polymorphisms. Carrier-state testing produces 1 of 3 results: (1) positive, in which the woman has the same mutation as an affected male relative or known in other RS families; (2) negative, in which she lacks the mutation of her affected male relative; and (3) uninformative, in which no known mutation is identified or no information exists about the familial mutation. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular RS screening is an effective diagnostic tool that complements the clinician's skills for early detection of at-risk males. Useful outcomes of carrier testing depend on several factors: (1) a male relative with a clear clinical diagnosis; (2) a well-defined inheritance pattern; (3) high disease penetrance; (4) size and organization of the gene; and (5) the types of disease-associated mutations. Ethical questions include molecular diagnostic testing of young at-risk females before the age of consent, the impact of this information on the emotional health of the patient and family, and issues of employability and insurance coverage

  19. X-linked Acrogigantism (X-LAG) Syndrome: Clinical Profile and Therapeutic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Beckers, Albert; Lodish, Maya Beth; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Rostomyan, Liliya; Lee, Misu; Faucz, Fabio R; Yuan, Bo; Choong, Catherine S; Caberg, Jean-Hubert; Verrua, Elisa; Naves, Luciana Ansaneli; Cheetham, Tim D; Young, Jacques; Lysy, Philippe A; Petrossians, Patrick; Cotterill, Andrew; Shah, Nalini Samir; Metzger, Daniel; Castermans, Emilie; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Villa, Chiara; Strebkova, Natalia; Mazerkina, Nadia; Gaillard, Stéphan; Barra, Gustavo Barcelos; Casulari, Luis Augusto; Neggers, Sebastian J.; Salvatori, Roberto; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie-Lise; Zacharin, Margaret; Santamaria, Beatriz Lecumberri; Zacharieva, Sabina; Lim, Ee Mun; Mantovani, Giovanna; Zatelli, Maria Chaira; Collins, Michael T; Bonneville, Jean-François; Quezado, Martha; Chittiboina, Prashant; Oldfield, Edward H.; Bours, Vincent; Liu, Pengfei; De Herder, Wouter; Pellegata, Natalia; Lupski, James R.; Daly, Adrian F.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2015-01-01

    X-linked acro-gigantism (X-LAG) is a new syndrome of pituitary gigantism, caused by microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3, encompassing the gene GPR101, which is highly upregulated in pituitary tumors. We conducted this study to explore the clinical, radiological and hormonal phenotype and responses to therapy in patients with X-LAG syndrome. The study included 18 patients (13 sporadic) with X-LAG and a microduplication in chromosome Xq26.3. All sporadic cases had unique duplications and the inheritance pattern in 2 families was dominant with all Xq26.3 duplication carriers being affected. Patients began to grow rapidly as early as 2–3 months of age (median 12 months). At diagnosis (median delay 27 months), patients had a median height and weight SDS score of >+3.9 SDS. Apart from the increased overall body size, the children had acromegalic symptoms including acral enlargement and facial coarsening. More than a third of cases had increased appetite. Patients had marked hypersecretion of GH/IGF-1 and prolactin, usually due to a pituitary macroadenoma or hyperplasia. Primary neurosurgical control was achieved with extensive anterior pituitary resection but postoperative hypopituitarism was frequent. Control with somatostatin analogs was not readily achieved despite moderate to high somatostatin receptor subtype-2 expression in tumor tissue. Postoperative adjuvant pegvisomant achieved control of IGF-1 all 5 cases in which it was employed. X-LAG is a new infant-onset gigantism syndrome that has a severe clinical phenotype leading to challenging disease management. PMID:25712922

  20. FARVATX: FAmily-based Rare Variant Association Test for X-linked genes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sungkyoung; Lee, Sungyoung; Qiao, Dandi; Hardin, Megan; Cho, Michael H.; Silverman, Edwin K; Park, Taesung; Won, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    Although the X chromosome has many genes that are functionally related to human diseases, the complicated biological properties of the X chromosome have prevented efficient genetic association analyses, and only a few significantly associated X-linked variants have been reported for complex traits. For instance, dosage compensation of X-linked genes is often achieved via the inactivation of one allele in each X-linked variant in females; however, some X-linked variants can escape this X chromosome inactivation. Efficient genetic analyses cannot be conducted without prior knowledge about the gene expression process of X-linked variants, and misspecified information can lead to power loss. In this report, we propose new statistical methods for rare X-linked variant genetic association analysis of dichotomous phenotypes with family-based samples. The proposed methods are computationally efficient and can complete X-linked analyses within a few hours. Simulation studies demonstrate the statistical efficiency of the proposed methods, which were then applied to rare-variant association analysis of the X chromosome in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Some promising significant X-linked genes were identified, illustrating the practical importance of the proposed methods. PMID:27325607

  1. FARVATX: Family-Based Rare Variant Association Test for X-Linked Genes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sungkyoung; Lee, Sungyoung; Qiao, Dandi; Hardin, Megan; Cho, Michael H; Silverman, Edwin K; Park, Taesung; Won, Sungho

    2016-09-01

    Although the X chromosome has many genes that are functionally related to human diseases, the complicated biological properties of the X chromosome have prevented efficient genetic association analyses, and only a few significantly associated X-linked variants have been reported for complex traits. For instance, dosage compensation of X-linked genes is often achieved via the inactivation of one allele in each X-linked variant in females; however, some X-linked variants can escape this X chromosome inactivation. Efficient genetic analyses cannot be conducted without prior knowledge about the gene expression process of X-linked variants, and misspecified information can lead to power loss. In this report, we propose new statistical methods for rare X-linked variant genetic association analysis of dichotomous phenotypes with family-based samples. The proposed methods are computationally efficient and can complete X-linked analyses within a few hours. Simulation studies demonstrate the statistical efficiency of the proposed methods, which were then applied to rare-variant association analysis of the X chromosome in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Some promising significant X-linked genes were identified, illustrating the practical importance of the proposed methods. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked creatine deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... been identified. The disorder has been estimated to account for between 1 and 2 percent of males with intellectual disability. Related Information What information about a genetic condition can statistics ...

  3. Role of ALDP (ABCD1) and Mitochondria in X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    McGuinness, M. C.; Lu, J.-F.; Zhang, H.-P.; Dong, G.-X.; Heinzer, A. K.; Watkins, P. A.; Powers, J.; Smith, K. D.

    2003-01-01

    Peroxisomal disorders have been associated with malfunction of peroxisomal metabolic pathways, but the pathogenesis of these disorders is largely unknown. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is associated with elevated levels of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA; C>22:0) that have been attributed to reduced peroxisomal VLCFA β-oxidation activity. Previously, our laboratory and others have reported elevated VLCFA levels and reduced peroxisomal VLCFA β-oxidation in human and mouse X-ALD fibroblasts. In this study, we found normal levels of peroxisomal VLCFA β-oxidation in tissues from ALD mice with elevated VLCFA levels. Treatment of ALD mice with pharmacological agents resulted in decreased VLCFA levels without a change in VLCFA β-oxidation activity. These data indicate that ALDP does not determine the rate of VLCFA β-oxidation and that VLCFA levels are not determined by the rate of VLCFA β-oxidation. The rate of peroxisomal VLCFA β-oxidation in human and mouse fibroblasts in vitro is affected by the rate of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation. We hypothesize that ALDP facilitates the interaction between peroxisomes and mitochondria, resulting, when ALDP is deficient in X-ALD, in increased VLCFA accumulation despite normal peroxisomal VLCFA β-oxidation in ALD mouse tissues. In support of this hypothesis, mitochondrial structural abnormalities were observed in adrenal cortical cells of ALD mice. PMID:12509471

  4. [Inherited primitive and secondary polycythemia].

    PubMed

    Barba, T; Boileau, J-C; Pasquet, F; Hot, A; Pavic, M

    2016-07-01

    Myeloproliferative disorders and secondary polycythemia cover most of the polycythemia cases encountered in daily practice. Inherited polycythemias are rare entities that have to be suspected when the classical causes of acquired polycythemia have been ruled out. Recent advances were made in the understanding of these pathologies, which are still little known to the physicians. This review reports the state of knowledge and proposes an algorithm to follow when confronted to a possible case of inherited polycythemia. Copyright © 2015 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Parallel Mapping and Simultaneous Sequencing Reveals Deletions in BCAN and FAM83H Associated with Discrete Inherited Disorders in a Domestic Dog Breed

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Oliver P.; Hayward, Louisa J.; Ricketts, Sally L.; Mellersh, Cathryn S.

    2012-01-01

    The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) segregates more naturally-occurring diseases and phenotypic variation than any other species and has become established as an unparalled model with which to study the genetics of inherited traits. We used a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and targeted resequencing of DNA from just five dogs to simultaneously map and identify mutations for two distinct inherited disorders that both affect a single breed, the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel. We investigated episodic falling (EF), a paroxysmal exertion-induced dyskinesia, alongside the phenotypically distinct condition congenital keratoconjunctivitis sicca and ichthyosiform dermatosis (CKCSID), commonly known as dry eye curly coat syndrome. EF is characterised by episodes of exercise-induced muscular hypertonicity and abnormal posturing, usually occurring after exercise or periods of excitement. CKCSID is a congenital disorder that manifests as a rough coat present at birth, with keratoconjunctivitis sicca apparent on eyelid opening at 10–14 days, followed by hyperkeratinisation of footpads and distortion of nails that develops over the next few months. We undertook a GWAS with 31 EF cases, 23 CKCSID cases, and a common set of 38 controls and identified statistically associated signals for EF and CKCSID on chromosome 7 (Praw 1.9×10−14; Pgenome = 1.0×10−5) and chromosome 13 (Praw 1.2×10−17; Pgenome = 1.0×10−5), respectively. We resequenced both the EF and CKCSID disease-associated regions in just five dogs and identified a 15,724 bp deletion spanning three exons of BCAN associated with EF and a single base-pair exonic deletion in FAM83H associated with CKCSID. Neither BCAN or FAM83H have been associated with equivalent disease phenotypes in any other species, thus demonstrating the ability to use the domestic dog to study the genetic basis of more than one disease simultaneously in a single breed and to identify multiple novel candidate genes in parallel

  6. Genetic forms of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI): Vasopressin receptor defect (X-linked) and aquaporin defect (autosomal recessive and dominant).

    PubMed

    Bichet, Daniel G; Bockenhauer, Detlef

    2016-03-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), which can be inherited or acquired, is characterized by an inability to concentrate urine despite normal or elevated plasma concentrations of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). Polyuria with hyposthenuria and polydipsia are the cardinal clinical manifestations of the disease. About 90% of patients with congenital NDI are males with X-linked NDI who have mutations in the vasopressin V2 receptor (AVPR2) gene encoding the vasopressin V2 receptor. In less than 10% of the families studied, congenital NDI has an autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with mutations in the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) gene. When studied in vitro, most AVPR2 and AQP2 mutations lead to proteins trapped in the endoplasmic reticulum and are unable to reach the plasma membrane. Prior knowledge of AVPR2 or AQP2 mutations in NDI families and perinatal mutation testing is of direct clinical value and can avert the physical and mental retardation associated with repeated episodes of dehydration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. INHERITED NEUROPATHIES: CLINICAL OVERVIEW AND UPDATE

    PubMed Central

    KLEIN, CHRISTOPHER J.; DUAN, XIAOHUI; SHY, MICHAEL E.

    2014-01-01

    Inherited neuropathy is a group of common neurologic disorders with heterogeneous clinical presentations and genetic causes. Detailed neuromuscular evaluations, including nerve conduction studies, laboratory testing, and histopathologic examination, can assist in identification of the inherited component beyond family history. Genetic testing increasingly enables definitive diagnosis of specific inherited neuropathies. Diagnosis, however, is often complex, and neurologic disability may have both genetic and acquired components in individual patients. The decision of which genetic test to order or whether to order genetic tests is often complicated, and the strategies to maximize the value of testing are evolving. Apart from rare inherited metabolic neuropathies, treatment approaches remain largely supportive. We provide a clinical update of the various types of inherited neuropathies, their differential diagnoses, and distinguishing clinical features (where available). A framework is provided for clinical evaluations, including the inheritance assessment, electrophysiologic examinations, and specific genetic tests. PMID:23801417

  8. Inherited epilepsy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Ekenstedt, Kari J; Oberbauer, Anita M

    2013-05-01

    Epilepsy is the most common neurologic disease in dogs and many forms are considered to have a genetic basis. In contrast, some seizure disorders are also heritable, but are not technically defined as epilepsy. Investigation of true canine epilepsies has uncovered genetic associations in some cases, however, many remain unexplained. Gene mutations have been described for 2 forms of canine epilepsy: primary epilepsy (PE) and progressive myoclonic epilepsies. To date, 9 genes have been described to underlie progressive myoclonic epilepsies in several dog breeds. Investigations into genetic PE have been less successful, with only 1 causative gene described. Genetic testing as an aid to diagnosis, prognosis, and breeding decisions is available for these 10 forms. Additional studies utilizing genome-wide tools have identified PE loci of interest; however, specific genetic tests are not yet developed. Many studies of dog breeds with PE have failed to identify genes or loci of interest, suggesting that, similar to what is seen in many human genetic epilepsies, inheritance is likely complex, involving several or many genes, and reflective of environmental interactions. An individual dog's response to therapeutic intervention for epilepsy may also be genetically complex. Although the field of inherited epilepsy has faced challenges, particularly with PE, newer technologies contribute to further advances. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. PGD for inherited cardiac diseases.

    PubMed

    Kuliev, Anver; Pomerantseva, Ekaterina; Polling, Dana; Verlinsky, Oleg; Rechitsky, Svetlana

    2012-04-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) has been applied for more than 200 different inherited conditions, with expanding application to common disorders with genetic predisposition. One of the recent indications for PGD has been inherited cardiac disease, for which no preclinical diagnosis and preventive management may exist and which may lead to premature or sudden death. This paper presents the first, as far as is known, cumulative experience of PGD for inherited cardiac diseases, including familial hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathy, cardioencephalomyopathy and Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. A total of 18 PGD cycles were performed, resulting in transfer in 15 of them, which yielded nine unaffected pregnancies and the births of seven disease- or disease predisposition-free children. The data open the prospect of PGD for inherited cardiac diseases, allowing couples carrying cardiac disease predisposing genes to reproduce without much fear of having offspring with these genes, which are at risk for premature or sudden death. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is currently an established clinical procedure in assisted reproduction and genetic practices. Its application has been expanding beyond traditional indications of prenatal diagnosis and currently includes common disorders with genetic predisposition, such as inherited forms of cancer. This applies also to the diseases with no current prospect of treatment, which may manifest despite presymptomatic diagnosis and follow up, when PGD may provide the only relief for the at-risk couples to reproduce. One of the recent indications for PGD has been inherited cardiac disease, for which no preclinical diagnosis and preventive management may exist and which may lead to premature or sudden death. We present here our first cumulative experience of PGD for inherited cardiac diseases, including familial hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathy, cardioencephalomyopathy and Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. A

  10. Evaluation of plasma cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol and 7-ketocholesterol in inherited disorders related to cholesterol metabolism[S

    PubMed Central

    Boenzi, Sara; Deodato, Federica; Taurisano, Roberta; Goffredo, Bianca Maria; Rizzo, Cristiano; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Oxysterols are intermediates of cholesterol metabolism and are generated from cholesterol via either enzymatic or nonenzymatic pathways under oxidative stress conditions. Cholestan-3β,5α,6β-triol (C-triol) and 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) have been proposed as new biomarkers for the diagnosis of Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease, representing an alternative tool to the invasive and time-consuming method of fibroblast filipin test. To test the efficacy of plasma oxysterol determination for the diagnosis of NP-C, we systematically screened oxysterol levels in patients affected by different inherited disorders related with cholesterol metabolism, which included Niemann-Pick type B (NP-B) disease, lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) deficiency, Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), congenital familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), and sitosterolemia (SITO). As expected, NP-C patients showed significant increase of both C-triol and 7-KC. Strong increase of both oxysterols was observed in NP-B and less pronounced in LAL deficiency. In SLOS, only 7-KC was markedly increased, whereas in both FH and in SITO, oxysterol concentrations were normal. Interestingly, in NP-C alone, we observed that plasma oxysterols correlate negatively with patient’s age and positively with serum total bilirubin, suggesting the potential relationship between oxysterol levels and hepatic disease status. Our results indicate that oxysterols are reliable and sensitive biomarkers of NP-C. PMID:26733147

  11. Evaluation of plasma cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol and 7-ketocholesterol in inherited disorders related to cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Boenzi, Sara; Deodato, Federica; Taurisano, Roberta; Goffredo, Bianca Maria; Rizzo, Cristiano; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    Oxysterols are intermediates of cholesterol metabolism and are generated from cholesterol via either enzymatic or nonenzymatic pathways under oxidative stress conditions. Cholestan-3β,5α,6β-triol (C-triol) and 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) have been proposed as new biomarkers for the diagnosis of Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease, representing an alternative tool to the invasive and time-consuming method of fibroblast filipin test. To test the efficacy of plasma oxysterol determination for the diagnosis of NP-C, we systematically screened oxysterol levels in patients affected by different inherited disorders related with cholesterol metabolism, which included Niemann-Pick type B (NP-B) disease, lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) deficiency, Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), congenital familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), and sitosterolemia (SITO). As expected, NP-C patients showed significant increase of both C-triol and 7-KC. Strong increase of both oxysterols was observed in NP-B and less pronounced in LAL deficiency. In SLOS, only 7-KC was markedly increased, whereas in both FH and in SITO, oxysterol concentrations were normal. Interestingly, in NP-C alone, we observed that plasma oxysterols correlate negatively with patient's age and positively with serum total bilirubin, suggesting the potential relationship between oxysterol levels and hepatic disease status. Our results indicate that oxysterols are reliable and sensitive biomarkers of NP-C. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of paternally inherited disorders from maternal plasma: detection of NF1 and CFTR mutations using droplet digital PCR.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Aurélia; Pacault, Mathilde; El Khattabi, Laila Allach; Vaucouleur, Nicolas; Orhant, Lucie; Bienvenu, Thierry; Girodon, Emmanuelle; Vidaud, Dominique; Leturcq, France; Costa, Catherine; Letourneur, Franck; Anselem, Olivia; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Goffinet, François; Viot, Géraldine; Vidaud, Michel; Nectoux, Juliette

    2018-04-25

    To limit risks of miscarriages associated with invasive procedures of current prenatal diagnosis practice, we aim to develop a personalized medicine-based protocol for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) of monogenic disorders relying on the detection of paternally inherited mutations in maternal blood using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). This study included four couples at risk of transmitting paternal neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) mutations and four couples at risk of transmitting compound heterozygous CFTR mutations. NIPD was performed between 8 and 15 weeks of gestation, in parallel to conventional invasive diagnosis. We designed specific hydrolysis probes to detect the paternal mutation and to assess the presence of cell-free fetal DNA by ddPCR. Analytical performances of each assay were determined from paternal sample, an then fetal genotype was inferred from maternal plasma sample. Presence or absence of the paternal mutant allele was correctly determined in all the studied plasma DNA samples. We report an NIPD protocol suitable for implementation in an experienced laboratory of molecular genetics. Our proof-of-principle results point out a high accuracy for early detection of paternal NF1 and CFTR mutations in cell-free DNA, and open new perspectives for extending the technology to NIPD of many other monogenic diseases.

  13. Maternally inherited genetic variants of CADPS2 are present in autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability patients.

    PubMed

    Bonora, Elena; Graziano, Claudio; Minopoli, Fiorella; Bacchelli, Elena; Magini, Pamela; Diquigiovanni, Chiara; Lomartire, Silvia; Bianco, Francesca; Vargiolu, Manuela; Parchi, Piero; Marasco, Elena; Mantovani, Vilma; Rampoldi, Luca; Trudu, Matteo; Parmeggiani, Antonia; Battaglia, Agatino; Mazzone, Luigi; Tortora, Giada; Maestrini, Elena; Seri, Marco; Romeo, Giovanni

    2014-06-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are complex neuropsychiatric conditions, with overlapping clinical boundaries in many patients. We identified a novel intragenic deletion of maternal origin in two siblings with mild ID and epilepsy in the CADPS2 gene, encoding for a synaptic protein involved in neurotrophin release and interaction with dopamine receptor type 2 (D2DR). Mutation screening of 223 additional patients (187 with ASD and 36 with ID) identified a missense change of maternal origin disrupting CADPS2/D2DR interaction. CADPS2 allelic expression was tested in blood and different adult human brain regions, revealing that the gene was monoallelically expressed in blood and amygdala, and the expressed allele was the one of maternal origin. Cadps2 gene expression performed in mice at different developmental stages was biallelic in the postnatal and adult stages; however, a monoallelic (maternal) expression was detected in the embryonal stage, suggesting that CADPS2 is subjected to tissue- and temporal-specific regulation in human and mice. We suggest that CADPS2 variants may contribute to ID/ASD development, possibly through a parent-of-origin effect. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY license.

  14. A Comparison of Selective Pressures in Plant X-Linked and Autosomal Genes

    PubMed Central

    Krasovec, Marc; Filatov, Dmitry A.

    2018-01-01

    Selection is expected to work differently in autosomal and X-linked genes because of their ploidy difference and the exposure of recessive X-linked mutations to haploid selection in males. However, it is not clear whether these expectations apply to recently evolved sex chromosomes, where many genes retain functional X- and Y-linked gametologs. We took advantage of the recently evolved sex chromosomes in the plant Silene latifolia and its closely related species to compare the selective pressures between hemizygous and non-hemizygous X-linked genes as well as between X-linked genes and autosomal genes. Our analysis, based on over 1000 genes, demonstrated that, similar to animals, X-linked genes in Silene evolve significantly faster than autosomal genes—the so-called faster-X effect. Contrary to expectations, faster-X divergence was detectable only for non-hemizygous X-linked genes. Our phylogeny-based analyses of selection revealed no evidence for faster adaptation in X-linked genes compared to autosomal genes. On the other hand, partial relaxation of purifying selection was apparent on the X-chromosome compared to the autosomes, consistent with a smaller genetic diversity in S. latifolia X-linked genes (πx = 0.016; πaut = 0.023). Thus, the faster-X divergence in S. latifolia appears to be a consequence of the smaller effective population size rather than of a faster adaptive evolution on the X-chromosome. We argue that this may be a general feature of “young” sex chromosomes, where the majority of X-linked genes are not hemizygous, preventing haploid selection in heterogametic sex. PMID:29751495

  15. A Comparison of Selective Pressures in Plant X-Linked and Autosomal Genes.

    PubMed

    Krasovec, Marc; Nevado, Bruno; Filatov, Dmitry A

    2018-05-03

    Selection is expected to work differently in autosomal and X-linked genes because of their ploidy difference and the exposure of recessive X-linked mutations to haploid selection in males. However, it is not clear whether these expectations apply to recently evolved sex chromosomes, where many genes retain functional X- and Y-linked gametologs. We took advantage of the recently evolved sex chromosomes in the plant Silene latifolia and its closely related species to compare the selective pressures between hemizygous and non-hemizygous X-linked genes as well as between X-linked genes and autosomal genes. Our analysis, based on over 1000 genes, demonstrated that, similar to animals, X-linked genes in Silene evolve significantly faster than autosomal genes—the so-called faster-X effect. Contrary to expectations, faster-X divergence was detectable only for non-hemizygous X-linked genes. Our phylogeny-based analyses of selection revealed no evidence for faster adaptation in X-linked genes compared to autosomal genes. On the other hand, partial relaxation of purifying selection was apparent on the X-chromosome compared to the autosomes, consistent with a smaller genetic diversity in S. latifolia X-linked genes (π x = 0.016; π aut = 0.023). Thus, the faster-X divergence in S. latifolia appears to be a consequence of the smaller effective population size rather than of a faster adaptive evolution on the X-chromosome. We argue that this may be a general feature of “young” sex chromosomes, where the majority of X-linked genes are not hemizygous, preventing haploid selection in heterogametic sex.

  16. Biochemical and molecular analysis of an X-linked case of Leigh syndrome associated with thiamin-responsive pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Naito, E; Ito, M; Yokota, I; Saijo, T; Matsuda, J; Osaka, H; Kimura, S; Kuroda, Y

    1997-08-01

    We report molecular analysis of thiamin-responsive pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) deficiency in a patient with an X-linked form of Leigh syndrome. PDHC activity in cultured lymphoblastoid cells of this patient and his asymptomatic mother were normal in the presence of a high thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) concentration (0.4 mmol/L). However, in the presence of a low concentration (1 x 10(-4) mmol/L) of TPP, the activity was significantly decreased, indicating that PDHC deficiency in this patient was due to decreased affinity of PDHC for TPP. The patient's older brother also was diagnosed as PDHC deficiency with Leigh syndrome, suggesting that PDHC deficiency in these two brothers was not a de novo mutation. Sequencing of the X-linked PDHC E1 alpha subunit revealed a C-->G point mutation at nucleotide 787, resulting in a substitution of glycine for arginine 263. Restriction enzyme analysis of the E1 alpha gene revealed that the mother was a heterozygote, indicating that thiamin-responsive PDHC deficiency associated with Leigh syndrome due to this mutation is transmitted by X-linked inheritance.

  17. De Novo and Inherited Loss-of-Function Variants in TLK2: Clinical and Genotype-Phenotype Evaluation of a Distinct Neurodevelopmental Disorder.

    PubMed

    Reijnders, Margot R F; Miller, Kerry A; Alvi, Mohsan; Goos, Jacqueline A C; Lees, Melissa M; de Burca, Anna; Henderson, Alex; Kraus, Alison; Mikat, Barbara; de Vries, Bert B A; Isidor, Bertrand; Kerr, Bronwyn; Marcelis, Carlo; Schluth-Bolard, Caroline; Deshpande, Charu; Ruivenkamp, Claudia A L; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Baralle, Diana; Blair, Edward M; Engels, Hartmut; Lüdecke, Hermann-Josef; Eason, Jacqueline; Santen, Gijs W E; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Chandler, Kate; Tatton-Brown, Katrina; Payne, Katelyn; Helbig, Katherine; Radtke, Kelly; Nugent, Kimberly M; Cremer, Kirsten; Strom, Tim M; Bird, Lynne M; Sinnema, Margje; Bitner-Glindzicz, Maria; van Dooren, Marieke F; Alders, Marielle; Koopmans, Marije; Brick, Lauren; Kozenko, Mariya; Harline, Megan L; Klaassens, Merel; Steinraths, Michelle; Cooper, Nicola S; Edery, Patrick; Yap, Patrick; Terhal, Paulien A; van der Spek, Peter J; Lakeman, Phillis; Taylor, Rachel L; Littlejohn, Rebecca O; Pfundt, Rolph; Mercimek-Andrews, Saadet; Stegmann, Alexander P A; Kant, Sarina G; McLean, Scott; Joss, Shelagh; Swagemakers, Sigrid M A; Douzgou, Sofia; Wall, Steven A; Küry, Sébastien; Calpena, Eduardo; Koelling, Nils; McGowan, Simon J; Twigg, Stephen R F; Mathijssen, Irene M J; Nellaker, Christoffer; Brunner, Han G; Wilkie, Andrew O M

    2018-06-07

    Next-generation sequencing is a powerful tool for the discovery of genes related to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Here, we report the identification of a distinct syndrome due to de novo or inherited heterozygous mutations in Tousled-like kinase 2 (TLK2) in 38 unrelated individuals and two affected mothers, using whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing technologies, matchmaker databases, and international collaborations. Affected individuals had a consistent phenotype, characterized by mild-borderline neurodevelopmental delay (86%), behavioral disorders (68%), severe gastro-intestinal problems (63%), and facial dysmorphism including blepharophimosis (82%), telecanthus (74%), prominent nasal bridge (68%), broad nasal tip (66%), thin vermilion of the upper lip (62%), and upslanting palpebral fissures (55%). Analysis of cell lines from three affected individuals showed that mutations act through a loss-of-function mechanism in at least two case subjects. Genotype-phenotype analysis and comparison of computationally modeled faces showed that phenotypes of these and other individuals with loss-of-function variants significantly overlapped with phenotypes of individuals with other variant types (missense and C-terminal truncating). This suggests that haploinsufficiency of TLK2 is the most likely underlying disease mechanism, leading to a consistent neurodevelopmental phenotype. This work illustrates the power of international data sharing, by the identification of 40 individuals from 26 different centers in 7 different countries, allowing the identification, clinical delineation, and genotype-phenotype evaluation of a distinct NDD caused by mutations in TLK2. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of a web-based registry of inherited bleeding disorders: a descriptive study of the Brazilian experience with HEMOVIDAweb Coagulopatias.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Suely Meireles; Rodrigues, Silvia Helena Lacerda; Brito, Kelly Neves Pinheiro; da Silva, Diego Lima Quintino; Santo, Marcos Lázaro; Simões, Bárbara de Jesus; Genovez, Guilherme; Melo, Helder Teixeira; Araújo, João Paulo Baccara; Barca, Danila Augusta Accioly Varella

    2017-02-10

    Inherited bleeding disorders (IBD) consist of a group of rare heterogeneous diseases, which require treatment for life. Management of these disorders is complex and costly. Therefore, good quality data of the affected population is crucial to guide policy planning. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the impact of a national, web-based registry - the Hemovidaweb Coagulopatias (HWC) - in the management of the IBD in Brazil. The system was developed in PHP 5.0 language and is available on the internet at http://coagulopatiasweb.datasus.gov.br . The system was validated in September 2008 and launched nationally with input from January 1, 2009. HWC collects variables related to socio-demographic, clinical, laboratory and treatment data of patients with IBD. Within 7 years, there was an increment of 90.8% on the diagnosis of IBD altogether, which increased from 11,040 in December 2007 to 21,066 in December 2014. This is now the fourth and third largest world population of patients with haemophilia and von Willebrand's disease (vWD), respectively, according to the most recent (2015) Annual Global Survey of the World Federation of Hemophilia. The data collected provided the basis for planning and implementing home therapy, prophylaxis and immune tolerance induction (ITI), recently initiated in Brazil. HWC was an effective tool in the increment of registration of patients with IBD in Brazil. Furthermore, it was essential to support policy planning, monitoring, evaluation and treatment. Future development should focus on surveillance, health outcomes and research. Every country should implement a national registry on IBD.

  19. DIA1R is an X-linked gene related to Deleted In Autism-1.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Azhari; Harrop, Sean P; Bishop, Naomi E

    2011-01-17

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDS) are frequently occurring disorders diagnosed by deficits in three core functional areas: social skills, communication, and behaviours and/or interests. Mental retardation frequently accompanies the most severe forms of ASDs, while overall ASDs are more commonly diagnosed in males. Most ASDs have a genetic origin and one gene recently implicated in the etiology of autism is the Deleted-In-Autism-1 (DIA1) gene. Using a bioinformatics-based approach, we have identified a human gene closely related to DIA1, we term DIA1R (DIA1-Related). While DIA1 is autosomal (chromosome 3, position 3q24), DIA1R localizes to the X chromosome at position Xp11.3 and is known to escape X-inactivation. The gene products are of similar size, with DIA1 encoding 430, and DIA1R 433, residues. At the amino acid level, DIA1 and DIA1R are 62% similar overall (28% identical), and both encode signal peptides for targeting to the secretory pathway. Both genes are ubiquitously expressed, including in fetal and adult brain tissue. Examination of published literature revealed point mutations in DIA1R are associated with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) and DIA1R deletion is associated with syndromes with ASD-like traits and/or XLMR. Together, these results support a model where the DIA1 and DIA1R gene products regulate molecular traffic through the cellular secretory pathway or affect the function of secreted factors, and functional deficits cause disorders with ASD-like symptoms and/or mental retardation.

  20. X-linked recessive primary retinal dysplasia is linked to the Norrie disease locus.

    PubMed

    Ravia, Y; Braier-Goldstein, O; Bat-Miriam, K M; Erlich, S; Barkai, G; Goldman, B

    1993-08-01

    X-linked primary retinal dysplasia (PRD) refers to an abnormal proliferation of retinal tissue causing either its neural elements or its glial tissue to form folds, giving rise to gliosis. A Jewish family of oriental origin was previously reported by Godel and Goodman, in which a total of five males suffer from different degrees of blindness. The authors postulated that the described findings are distinguished from Norrie disease, since in this case no clinical findings, other than those associated with the eyes, were noticed in the affected males. In addition, two of the carrier females exhibit minimal eye changes. We have performed linkage analysis of the family using the L1.28, p58-1 and m27 beta probes, and DXS426 and MAOB associated microsatellites. Our results map the gene responsible for the disorder between the MAOB and DXS426, m27 beta and p58-1 loci, on the short arm of the X chromosome at Xp11.3, which suggest the possibility that the same gene is responsible for both primary retinal dysplasia and Norrie disease.

  1. X-linked infantile spinal muscular atrophy: clinical definition and molecular mapping.

    PubMed

    Dressman, Devin; Ahearn, Mary Ellen; Yariz, Kemal O; Basterrecha, Hugo; Martínez, Francisco; Palau, Francesc; Barmada, M Michael; Clark, Robin Dawn; Meindl, Alfons; Wirth, Brunhilde; Hoffman, Eric P; Baumbach-Reardon, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    X-linked infantile spinal-muscular atrophy (XL-SMA) is a rare disorder, which presents with the clinical characteristics of hypotonia, areflexia, and multiple congenital contractures (arthrogryposis) associated with loss of anterior horn cells and death in infancy. We have previously reported a single family with XL-SMA that mapped to Xp11.3-q11.2. Here we report further clinical description of XL-SMA plus an additional seven unrelated (XL-SMA) families from North America and Europe that show linkage data consistent with the same region. We first investigated linkage to the candidate disease gene region using microsatellite repeat markers. We further saturated the candidate disease gene region using polymorphic microsatellite repeat markers and single nucleotide polymorphisms in an effort to narrow the critical region. Two-point and multipoint linkage analysis was performed using the Allegro software package. Linkage analysis of all XL-SMA families displayed linkage consistent with the original XL-SMA region. The addition of new families and new markers has narrowed the disease gene interval for a XL-SMA locus between SNP FLJ22843 near marker DXS 8080 and SNP ARHGEF9 which is near DXS7132 (Xp11.3-Xq11.1).

  2. [Prenatal diagnosis of X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with X-chromosome inversion].

    PubMed

    Shi, Hui-juan; Fang, Qun; Wang, Lian-tang

    2005-07-13

    To investigate the possibility of prenatal diagnosis of the fetal suspected to be affected by anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) in a family with X-linked EDA so as to provide a basis for prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling of this disorder. Pedigree analysis and genetic counseling were performed in a family after a proband was diagnosed with EDA. The peripheral blood samples were collected from the proband, a 12-year-old boy, his mother, and his 2 aunts, one being pregnant, to undergo chromosome karyotype analysis. The fetus Puncture of umbilical vein was performed to collect the blood of fetus for chromosome examination. Induced abortion was conducted due to the diagnosis of the fetus with EDA. Autopsy, immunohistochemistry of the skin tissues of face, breast, epigastrium, and thigh, and X-ray photography of the lower jawbone were made. Pericentric inversion occurring at one of the X-chromosome [inv (x) (p22q13)] was found in the proband and his nephew (the fetus), both patients, and his mother and his second aunt (the pregnant woman), both carriers. Autopsy of the fetus showed epidermis dysplasia and deficiency of hair follicle and sebaceous gland. Immunohistochemistry showed that epithelial membrane antigen and cytokeratin were negatively expressed in the fetal skin tissues. Pedigree analysis and genetic counseling for the family members of EDA patients and prenatal and postpartum examination for the fetus help diagnose EDA.

  3. Diagnosis of X-Linked Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia by Meibography and Infrared Thermography of the Eye.

    PubMed

    Kaercher, Thomas; Dietz, Jasna; Jacobi, Christina; Berz, Reinhold; Schneider, Holm

    2015-09-01

    X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) is the most common form of ectodermal dysplasia. Clinical characteristics include meibomian gland disorder and the resulting hyperevaporative dry eye. In this study, we evaluated meibography and ocular infrared thermography as novel methods to diagnose XLHED. Eight infants, 12 boys and 14 male adults with XLHED and 12 healthy control subjects were subjected to a panel of tests including the ocular surface disease index (OSDI), meibography and infrared thermography, non-invasive measurement of tear film break-up time (NIBUT) and osmolarity, Schirmer's test, lissamine green staining and fluorescein staining. Sensitivity and specificity were determined for single tests and selected test combinations. Meibography had 100% sensitivity and specificity for identifying XLHED. Infrared thermography, a completely non-invasive procedure, revealed a typical pattern for male subjects with XLHED. It was, however, less sensitive (86% for adults and 67% for children) than meibography or a combination of established routine tests. In adults, OSDI and NIBUT were the best single routine tests (sensitivity of 86% and 71%, respectively), whereas increased tear osmolarity appeared as a rather unspecific ophthalmic symptom. In children, NIBUT was the most convincing routine test (sensitivity of 91%). Meibography is the most reliable ophthalmic examination to establish a clinical diagnosis in individuals with suspected hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, even before genetic test results are available. Tear film tests and ocular surface staining are less sensitive in children, but very helpful for estimating the severity of ocular surface disease in individuals with known XLHED.

  4. X-linked microtubule-associated protein, Mid1, regulates axon development

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Tingjia; Chen, Renchao; Cox, Timothy C.; Moldrich, Randal X.; Kurniawan, Nyoman; Tan, Guohe; Perry, Jo K.; Ashworth, Alan; Bartlett, Perry F.; Xu, Li; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Bin; Wu, Mingyue; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuanyuan; Richards, Linda J.; Xiong, Zhiqi

    2013-01-01

    Opitz syndrome (OS) is a genetic neurological disorder. The gene responsible for the X-linked form of OS, Midline-1 (MID1), encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates the degradation of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2Ac). However, how Mid1 functions during neural development is largely unknown. In this study, we provide data from in vitro and in vivo experiments suggesting that silencing Mid1 in developing neurons promotes axon growth and branch formation, resulting in a disruption of callosal axon projections in the contralateral cortex. In addition, a similar phenotype of axonal development was observed in the Mid1 knockout mouse. This defect was largely due to the accumulation of PP2Ac in Mid1-depleted cells as further down-regulation of PP2Ac rescued the axonal phenotype. Together, these data demonstrate that Mid1-dependent PP2Ac turnover is important for normal axonal development and that dysregulation of this process may contribute to the underlying cause of OS. PMID:24194544

  5. X-linked microtubule-associated protein, Mid1, regulates axon development.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tingjia; Chen, Renchao; Cox, Timothy C; Moldrich, Randal X; Kurniawan, Nyoman; Tan, Guohe; Perry, Jo K; Ashworth, Alan; Bartlett, Perry F; Xu, Li; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Bin; Wu, Mingyue; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuanyuan; Richards, Linda J; Xiong, Zhiqi

    2013-11-19

    Opitz syndrome (OS) is a genetic neurological disorder. The gene responsible for the X-linked form of OS, Midline-1 (MID1), encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates the degradation of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2Ac). However, how Mid1 functions during neural development is largely unknown. In this study, we provide data from in vitro and in vivo experiments suggesting that silencing Mid1 in developing neurons promotes axon growth and branch formation, resulting in a disruption of callosal axon projections in the contralateral cortex. In addition, a similar phenotype of axonal development was observed in the Mid1 knockout mouse. This defect was largely due to the accumulation of PP2Ac in Mid1-depleted cells as further down-regulation of PP2Ac rescued the axonal phenotype. Together, these data demonstrate that Mid1-dependent PP2Ac turnover is important for normal axonal development and that dysregulation of this process may contribute to the underlying cause of OS.

  6. Evaluation of the X-Linked High-Grade Myopia Locus (MYP1) with Cone Dysfunction and Color Vision Deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Metlapally, Ravikanth; Michaelides, Michel; Bulusu, Anuradha; Li, Yi-Ju; Schwartz, Marianne; Rosenberg, Thomas; Hunt, David M.; Moore, Anthony T.; Züchner, Stephan; Rickman, Catherine Bowes; Young, Terri L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose X-linked high myopia with mild cone dysfunction and color vision defects has been mapped to chromosome Xq28 (MYP1 locus). CXorf2/TEX28 is a nested, intercalated gene within the red-green opsin cone pigment gene tandem array on Xq28. The authors investigated whether TEX28 gene alterations were associated with the Xq28-linked myopia phenotype. Genomic DNA from five pedigrees (with high myopia and either protanopia or deuteranopia) that mapped to Xq28 were screened for TEX28 copy number variations (CNVs) and sequence variants. Methods To examine for CNVs, ultra-high resolution array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) assays were performed comparing the subject genomic DNA with control samples (two pairs from two pedigrees). Opsin or TEX28 gene-targeted quantitative real-time gene expression assays (comparative CT method) were performed to validate the array-CGH findings. All exons of TEX28, including intron/exon boundaries, were amplified and sequenced using standard techniques. Results Array-CGH findings revealed predicted duplications in affected patient samples. Although only three copies of TEX28 were previously reported within the opsin array, quantitative real-time analysis of the TEX28 targeted assay of affected male or carrier female individuals in these pedigrees revealed either fewer (one) or more (four or five) copies than did related and control unaffected individuals. Sequence analysis of TEX28 did not reveal any variants associated with the disease status. Conclusions CNVs have been proposed to play a role in disease inheritance and susceptibility as they affect gene dosage. TEX28 gene CNVs appear to be associated with the MYP1 X-linked myopia phenotypes. PMID:19098318

  7. Characterization of Crohn disease in X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis-deficient male patients and female symptomatic carriers.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Claire; Lenoir, Christelle; Lambert, Nathalie; Bègue, Bernadette; Brousse, Nicole; Canioni, Danielle; Berrebi, Dominique; Roy, Maryline; Gérart, Stéphane; Chapel, Helen; Schwerd, Tobias; Siproudhis, Laurent; Schäppi, Michela; Al-Ahmari, Ali; Mori, Masaaki; Yamaide, Akiko; Galicier, Lionel; Neven, Bénédicte; Routes, John; Uhlig, Holm H; Koletzko, Sibylle; Patel, Smita; Kanegane, Hirokazu; Picard, Capucine; Fischer, Alain; Bensussan, Nadine Cerf; Ruemmele, Frank; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Latour, Sylvain

    2014-11-01

    Crohn disease is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with a complex mode of inheritance. Although nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2) is the strongest risk factor, the cause of Crohn disease remains unknown in the majority of the cases. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) deficiency causes X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type 2. IBD has been reported in some XIAP-deficient patients. We characterize the IBD affecting a large cohort of patients with mutations in XIAP and examine the possible pathophysiologic mechanisms. We performed a phenotypical and histologic analysis of the IBD affecting 17 patients with hemizygous mutations in XIAP, including 3 patients identified by screening 83 patients with pediatric-onset IBD. The X chromosome inactivation was analyzed in female carriers of heterozygous XIAP mutations, including 2 adults with IBD. The functional consequences of XIAP deficiency were analyzed. Clinical presentation and histology of IBD in patients with XIAP deficiency overlapped with those of patients with Crohn disease. The age at onset was variable (from 3 months to 41 years), and IBD was severe and difficult to treat. In 2 patients hematopoietic stem cell transplantation fully restored intestinal homeostasis. Monocytes of patients had impaired NOD2-mediated IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) production, as well as IL-10, in response to NOD2 and Toll-like receptor 2/4 costimulation. Nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain containing 1 (NOD1)-mediated IL-6 and IL-8 production was defective in fibroblasts from XIAP-deficient patients. The 2 heterozygous female carriers of XIAP mutations with IBD displayed abnormal expression of the XIAP mutated allele, resulting in impaired activation of the NOD2 pathway. IBD in patients with XIAP deficiency is similar to Crohn disease and is associated with defective NOD2 function in monocytes. Importantly, we report that it is not restricted to male patients

  8. Escape of X-linked miRNA genes from meiotic sex chromosome inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, Enrique; Flores, Luis; Yan, Wei; McCarrey, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Past studies have indicated that transcription of all X-linked genes is repressed by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) during the meiotic phase of spermatogenesis in mammals. However, more recent studies have shown an increase in steady-state levels of certain X-linked miRNAs in pachytene spermatocytes, suggesting that either synthesis of these miRNAs increases or that degradation of these miRNAs decreases dramatically in these cells. To distinguish between these possibilities, we performed RNA-FISH to detect nascent transcripts from multiple miRNA genes in various spermatogenic cell types. Our results show definitively that Type I X-linked miRNA genes are subject to MSCI, as are all or most X-linked mRNA genes, whereas Type II and III X-linked miRNA genes escape MSCI by continuing ongoing, active transcription in primary spermatocytes. We corroborated these results by co-localization of RNA-FISH signals with both a corresponding DNA-FISH signal and an immunofluorescence signal for RNA polymerase II. We also found that X-linked miRNA genes that escape MSCI locate non-randomly to the periphery of the XY body, whereas genes that are subject to MSCI remain located within the XY body in pachytene spermatocytes, suggesting that the mechanism of escape of X-linked miRNA genes from MSCI involves their relocation to a position outside of the repressive chromatin domain associated with the XY body. The fact that Type II and III X-linked miRNA genes escape MSCI suggests an immediacy of function of the encoded miRNAs specifically required during the meiotic stages of spermatogenesis. PMID:26395485

  9. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and neoplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions XMEN X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus ...

  10. The Changing Face of Hypophosphatemic Disorders in the FGF-23 Era

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Janet Y.; Imel, Erik A.

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, research in genetic disorders of hypophosphatemia has significantly expanded our understanding of phosphate metabolism. X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is the most common inherited form of rickets due to renal phosphate wasting. Recent understanding of the mechanisms of disease and role of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) in XLH and other hypophosphatemic disorders have opened new potential therapeutic avenues. We will discuss the current standard of treatment for XLH as well as promising future directions under study. PMID:23858620

  11. Prevalence of Inherited Hemoglobin Disorders and Relationships with Anemia and Micronutrient Status among Children in Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nankap, Martin; Ndjebayi, Alex; Oyono, Yannick; Tarini, Ann; Brown, Kenneth H.; Green, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    Information on the etiology of anemia is necessary to design effective anemia control programs. Our objective was to measure the prevalence of inherited hemoglobin disorders (IHD) in a representative sample of children in urban Cameroon, and examine the relationships between IHD and anemia. In a cluster survey of children 12–59 months of age (n = 291) in Yaoundé and Douala, we assessed hemoglobin (Hb), malaria infection, and plasma indicators of inflammation and micronutrient status. Hb S was detected by HPLC, and α+thalassemia (3.7 kb deletions) by PCR. Anemia (Hb < 110 g/L), inflammation, and malaria were present in 45%, 46%, and 8% of children. A total of 13.7% of children had HbAS, 1.6% had HbSS, and 30.6% and 3.1% had heterozygous and homozygous α+thalassemia. The prevalence of anemia was greater among HbAS compared to HbAA children (60.3 vs. 42.0%, p = 0.038), although mean Hb concentrations did not differ, p = 0.38). Hb and anemia prevalence did not differ among children with or without single gene deletion α+thalassemia. In multi-variable models, anemia was independently predicted by HbAS, HbSS, malaria, iron deficiency (ID; inflammation-adjusted ferritin <12 µg/L), higher C-reactive protein, lower plasma folate, and younger age. Elevated soluble transferrin receptor concentration (>8.3 mg/L) was associated with younger age, malaria, greater mean reticulocyte counts, inflammation, HbSS genotype, and ID. IHD are prevalent but contribute modestly to anemia among children in urban Cameroon. PMID:28671630

  12. Vertebral Osteomyelitis and Acinetobacter Spp. Paravertebral Soft Tissue Infection in a 4-Year-Old Boy With X-Linked Chronic Granulomatous Disease.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, Pandiarajan; Bhattad, Sagar; Shandilya, Jitendra-Kumar; Vyas, Sameer; Garg, Rashi; Rawat, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is known to occur in chronic granulomatous disease, a phagocytic disorder and the etiology is usually a fungus. Indolent spread of fungal infection from lungs to adjacent ribs and vertebra often results in persistent pneumonia and vertebral deformities. We report a 4-year-old boy with chronic cough and kyphosis, who had a fungal vertebral osteomyelitis and Acinetobacter spp. paravertebral soft tissue infection related to X-linked chronic granulomatous disease.

  13. Variable White Matter Atrophy and Intellectual Development in a Family With X-linked Creatine Transporter Deficiency Despite Genotypic Homogeneity.

    PubMed

    Heussinger, Nicole; Saake, Marc; Mennecke, Angelika; Dörr, Helmuth-Günther; Trollmann, Regina

    2017-02-01

    The X-linked creatine transporter deficiency (CRTD) caused by an SLC6A8 mutation represents the second most common cause of X-linked intellectual disability. The clinical phenotype ranges from mild to severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, short stature, poor language skills, and autism spectrum disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate phenotypic variability in the context of genotype, cerebral creatine concentration, and volumetric analysis in a family with CRTD. The clinical phenotype and manifestations of epilepsy were assessed in a Caucasian family with CRTD. DNA sequencing and creatine metabolism analysis confirmed the diagnosis. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) with voxel-based morphometry and magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed in all family members. An SLC6A8 missense mutation (c.1169C>T; p.Pro390Leu, exon 8) was detected in four of five individuals. Both male siblings were hemizygous, the mother and the affected sister heterozygous for the mutation. Structural cMRI was normal, whereas voxel-based morphometry analysis showed reduced white matter volume below the first percentile of the reference population of 290 subjects in the more severely affected boy compared with family members and controls. Normalized creatine concentration differed significantly between the individuals (P < 0.005). There is a broad phenotypic variability in CRTD even in family members with the same mutation. Differences in mental development could be related to atrophy of the subcortical white matter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel missense mutation of NDP in a Chinese family with X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong Yan; Huang, Jia; Wang, Rui Li; Wang, Yue; Guo, Liang Jie; Li, Tao; Wu, Dong; Wang, Hong Dan; Guo, Qian Nan; Dong, Dao Quan

    2016-11-01

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a hereditary ocular disorder characterized by a failure of peripheral retinal vascularization. In this report, we describe a novel missense mutation of the Norrie disease gene (NDP) in a Chinese family with X-linked FEVR. Ophthalmologic evaluation was performed on four male patients and seven unaffected individuals after informed consent was obtained. Venous blood was collected from the 11 members of this family, and genomic DNA was extracted using standard methods. The coding exons 2 and 3 and their corresponding exon-intron junctions of NDP were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and then subjected to direct DNA sequencing. A novel missense mutation (c.310A>C) in exon 3, leading to a lysine-to-glutamine substitution at position 104 (p.Lys104Gln), was identified in all four patients with X-linked FEVR. Three unaffected female individuals (III2, IV3, and IV11) were found to be carriers of the mutation. This mutation was not detected in other unaffected individuals. The mutation c.310A>C (p.Lys104Gln) in exon 3 of NDP is associated with FEVR in the studied family. This result further enriches the mutation spectrum of FEVR. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  15. Immune Disorder HSCT Protocol

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-11-17

    Immune Deficiency Disorders; Severe Combined Immunodeficiency; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Agammaglobulinemia; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Hyper-IgM; DiGeorge Syndrome; Chediak-Higashi Syndrome; Common Variable Immune Deficiency; Immune Dysregulatory Disorders; Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis; IPEX; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome

  16. Mapping of a possible X-linked form of familial developmental dysphasia (FDD) in a single large pedigree

    SciTech Connect

    Dunne, P.W.; Doody, R.S.; Epstein, H.F.

    Children diagnosed with developmental dysphasia develop speech very late without exhibiting sensory or motor dysfunction, and when they do begin to speak their grammar is abnormal. A large three-generation British pedigree was recently identified in which 16 out of 30 members were diagnosed as dysphasic. Assuming a dominant mode of inheritance with homogeneous phenotypic expression and complete penetrance among affected members, we showed by simulation analysis that this pedigree has the power to detect linkage to marker loci with an average maximum LOD score of 3.67 at {theta}=0.1. Given the absence of male-to-male transmission and a ratio of female tomore » male affecteds (10/6) in this pedigree within the expected range for an X-linked dominant mode of inheritance, we decided to begin a genome-wide linkage analysis with microsatellite markers on the human X chromosome. Fifteen individuals (10 affected) from three generations were genotyped with 35 polymorphic STS`s (Research Genetics) which were approximately uniformly distributed along the X chromosome. Two-point linkage was assessed using the MLINK and ILINK programs from the LINKAGE package. Markers DXS1223, DXS987, DXS996 and DXS1060 on Xp22 showed consistent linkage to the disease locus with a maximum LOD score of 0.86 at a distance of 22 cM for DXS1060. If further analysis with additional markers and additional family members confirms X-linkage, such a localization would provide support for Lehrke`s hypothesis for X-linkage of major intellectual traits including verbal functioning.« less

  17. Mutations in the gene for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in patients with different clinical phenotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, A.; Ambach, H.; Kammerer, S.

    Recently, the gene for the most common peroxisomal disorder, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), has been described encoding a peroxisomal membrane transporter protein. We analyzed the entire protein-coding sequence of this gene by reverse-transcription PCR, SSCP, and DNA sequencing in five patients with different clinical expressions were cerebral childhood ALD, adrenomyecloneuropathy (AMN), and {open_quotes}Addison disease only{close_quotes} (AD) phenotype. In the three patients exhibiting the classical picture of severe childhood ALD we identified in the 5{prime} portion of the X-ALD gene a 38-bp deletion that causes a frameshift mutation, a 3-bp deletion leading to a deletion of an amino acid in the ATP-bindingmore » domain of the ALD protein, and a missense mutation. In the patient with the clinical phenotype of AMN, a nonsense mutation in codon 212, along with a second site mutation at codon 178, was observed. Analysis of the patient with the ADO phenotype revealed a further missense mutation at a highly conserved position in the ALDP/PMP70 comparison. The disruptive nature of two mutations (i.e., the frameshift and the nonsense mutation) in patients with biochemically proved childhood ALD and AMN further strongly supports the hypothesis that alterations in this gene play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of X-ALD. Since the current biochemical techniques for X-ALD carrier detection in affected families lack sufficient reliability, our procedure described for systematic mutation scanning is also capable of improving genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis. 19 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  18. Somatic mosaicism underlies X-linked acrogigantism syndrome in sporadic male subjects.

    PubMed

    Daly, Adrian F; Yuan, Bo; Fina, Frederic; Caberg, Jean-Hubert; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Rostomyan, Liliya; de Herder, Wouter W; Naves, Luciana A; Metzger, Daniel; Cuny, Thomas; Rabl, Wolfgang; Shah, Nalini; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie-Lise; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Faucz, Fabio R; Castermans, Emilie; Nanni-Metellus, Isabelle; Lodish, Maya; Muhammad, Ammar; Palmeira, Leonor; Potorac, Iulia; Mantovani, Giovanna; Neggers, Sebastian J; Klein, Marc; Barlier, Anne; Liu, Pengfei; Ouafik, L'Houcine; Bours, Vincent; Lupski, James R; Stratakis, Constantine A; Beckers, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Somatic mosaicism has been implicated as a causative mechanism in a number of genetic and genomic disorders. X-linked acrogigantism (XLAG) syndrome is a recently characterized genomic form of pediatric gigantism due to aggressive pituitary tumors that is caused by submicroscopic chromosome Xq26.3 duplications that include GPR101 We studied XLAG syndrome patients (n= 18) to determine if somatic mosaicism contributed to the genomic pathophysiology. Eighteen subjects with XLAG syndrome caused by Xq26.3 duplications were identified using high-definition array comparative genomic hybridization (HD-aCGH). We noted that males with XLAG had a decreased log2ratio (LR) compared with expected values, suggesting potential mosaicism, whereas females showed no such decrease. Compared with familial male XLAG cases, sporadic males had more marked evidence for mosaicism, with levels of Xq26.3 duplication between 16.1 and 53.8%. These characteristics were replicated using a novel, personalized breakpoint junction-specific quantification droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) technique. Using a separate ddPCR technique, we studied the feasibility of identifying XLAG syndrome cases in a distinct patient population of 64 unrelated subjects with acromegaly/gigantism, and identified one female gigantism patient who had had increased copy number variation (CNV) threshold for GPR101 that was subsequently diagnosed as having XLAG syndrome on HD-aCGH. Employing a combination of HD-aCGH and novel ddPCR approaches, we have demonstrated, for the first time, that XLAG syndrome can be caused by variable degrees of somatic mosaicism for duplications at chromosome Xq26.3. Somatic mosaicism was shown to occur in sporadic males but not in females with XLAG syndrome, although the clinical characteristics of the disease were similarly severe in both sexes. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  19. Somatic Mosaicism Underlies X-linked Acrogigantism (XLAG) Syndrome in Sporadic Male Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Adrian F.; Yuan, Bo; Fina, Frederic; Caberg, Jean-Hubert; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Rostomyan, Liliya; de Herder, Wouter W.; Naves, Luciana A.; Metzger, Daniel; Cuny, Thomas; Rabl, Wolfgang; Shah, Nalini; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie-Lise; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Faucz, Fabio R; Castermans, Emilie; Nanni-Metellus, Isabelle; Lodish, Maya; Muhammad, Ammar; Palmeira, Leonor; Potorac, Iulia; Mantovani, Giovanna; Neggers, Sebastian J.; Klein, Marc; Barlier, Anne; Liu, Pengfei; Ouafik, L'Houcine; Bours, Vincent; Lupski, James R.; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Beckers., Albert

    2016-01-01

    Somatic mosaicism has been implicated as a causative mechanism in a number of genetic and genomic disorders. X-linked acrogigantism (XLAG) syndrome is a recently characterized genomic form of pediatric gigantism due to aggressive pituitary tumors that is caused by submicroscopic chromosome Xq26.3 duplications that include GPR101. We studied XLAG syndrome patients (N=18) to determine if somatic mosaicism contributed to the genomic pathophysiology. Eighteen subjects with XLAG syndrome were identified with Xq26.3 duplications using high definition array comparative genome hybridization (HD-aCGH). We noted males with XLAG had a decreased log2 ratio compared with expected values, suggesting potential mosaicism, while females showed no such decrease. As compared with familial male XLAG cases, sporadic males had more marked evidence for mosaicism, with levels of Xq26.3 duplication between 16.1-53.8%. These characteristics were replicated using a novel, personalized breakpoint-junction specific quantification droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) technique. Using a separate ddPCR technique we studied the feasibility of identifying XLAG syndrome cases in a distinct patient population of 64 unrelated subjects with acromegaly/gigantism and identified one female gigantism patient that had increased copy number variation (CNV) threshold for GPR101 that was subsequently diagnosed as having XLAG syndrome on HD-aCGH. Employing a combination of HD-aCGH and novel ddPCR approaches, we have demonstrated, for the first time, that XLAG syndrome can be caused by variable degrees of somatic mosaicism for duplications at chromosome Xq26.3. Somatic mosaicism was shown to occur in sporadic males but not in females with XLAG syndrome, although the clinical characteristics of the disease were similarly severe in both sexes. PMID:26935837

  20. Genotype-phenotype correlation in boys with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Burger, Kristin; Schneider, Anne-Theres; Wohlfart, Sigrun; Kiesewetter, Franklin; Huttner, Kenneth; Johnson, Ramsey; Schneider, Holm

    2014-10-01

    X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED), the most frequent form of ectodermal dysplasia, is a genetic disorder of ectoderm development characterized by malformation of multiple ectodermal structures such as skin, hair, sweat and sebaceous glands, and teeth. The disease is caused by a broad spectrum of mutations in the gene EDA. Although XLHED symptoms show inter-familial and intra-familial variability, genotype-phenotype correlation has been demonstrated with respect to sweat gland function. In this study, we investigated to which extent the EDA genotype correlates with the severity of XLHED-related skin and hair signs. Nineteen male children with XLHED (age range 3-14 years) and seven controls (aged 6-14 years) were examined by confocal microscopy of the skin, quantification of pilocarpine-induced sweating, semi-quantitative evaluation of full facial photographs with respect to XLHED-related skin issues, and phototrichogram analysis. All eight boys with known hypomorphic EDA mutations were able to produce at least some sweat and showed less severe cutaneous signs of XLHED than the anhidrotic XLHED patients (e.g., perioral and periorbital eczema or hyperpigmentation, regional hyperkeratosis, characteristic wrinkles under the eyes). As expected, individuals with XLHED had significantly less and thinner hair than healthy controls. However, there were also significant differences in hair number, diameter, and other hair characteristics between the group with hypomorphic EDA mutations and the anhidrotic patients. In summary, this study indicated a remarkable genotype-phenotype correlation of skin and hair findings in prepubescent males with XLHED. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. X-linked hypophosphatemia attributable to pseudoexons of the PHEX gene.

    PubMed

    Christie, P T; Harding, B; Nesbit, M A; Whyte, M P; Thakker, R V

    2001-08-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemia is commonly caused by mutations of the coding region of PHEX (phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome). However, such PHEX mutations are not detected in approximately one third of X-linked hypophosphatemia patients who may harbor defects in the noncoding or intronic regions. We have therefore investigated 11 unrelated X-linked hypophosphatemia patients in whom coding region mutations had been excluded, for intronic mutations that may lead to mRNA splicing abnormalities, by the use of lymphoblastoid RNA and RT-PCRs. One X-linked hypophosphatemia patient was found to have 3 abnormally large transcripts, resulting from 51-bp, 100-bp, and 170-bp insertions, all of which would lead to missense peptides and premature termination codons. The origin of these transcripts was a mutation (g to t) at position +1268 of intron 7, which resulted in the occurrence of a high quality novel donor splice site (ggaagg to gtaagg). Splicing between this novel donor splice site and 3 preexisting, but normally silent, acceptor splice sites within intron 7 resulted in the occurrences of the 3 pseudoexons. This represents the first report of PHEX pseudoexons and reveals further the diversity of genetic abnormalities causing X-linked hypophosphatemia.

  2. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutation of PHEX in rabbit recapitulates human X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH).

    PubMed

    Sui, Tingting; Yuan, Lin; Liu, Huan; Chen, Mao; Deng, Jichao; Wang, Yong; Li, Zhanjun; Lai, Liangxue

    2016-07-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is the most common cause of inheritable rickets, with an incidence of 1/20 000 in humans. Inactivation or mutation of the gene PHEX, a phosphate-regulating endopeptidase, leads to hypophosphatemia and defective bone mineralization in XLH patients. Presently, there is no adequate animal model for safety assessments of physiotherapies and drug screening for XLH rickets. In this study, an XLH model was generated via PHEX gene knockout (KO) through coinjection of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (Cas9)/sgRNA mRNA into rabbit zygotes. The typical phenotypes of growth retardation, hypophosphatemia, elevated serum FGF23 and bone mineralization were observed in the PHEX KO rabbits but not in normal controls. In summary, for the first time, we have successfully obtained PHEX KO rabbits and recapitulated human XLH using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. This novel XLH rabbit model could be utilized as a drug screening model for XLH prevention and preclinical therapy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Mapping X-linked ophthalmic diseases. IV. Provisional assignment of the locus for X-linked congenital cataracts and microcornea (the Nance-Horan syndrome) to Xp22.2-p22.3.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R A; Nussbaum, R L; Stambolian, D

    1990-01-01

    The Nance-Horan syndrome (NHS) is an infrequent X-linked disorder typified by dense congenital central cataracts, microcornea, anteverted and simplex pinnae, brachymetacarpalia, and numerous dental anomalies. The regional location of the genetic mutation causing NHS is unknown. The authors applied the modern molecular techniques of analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms to five multigenerational kindreds in which NHS segregated. Provisional linkage is established to two DNA markers--DXS143 at Xp22.3-p22.2 and DXS43 at Xp22.2. Regional localization of NHS will provide potential antenatal diagnosis in families at risk for the disease and will enhance understanding of the multifaceted genetic defects.

  4. Inherent X-Linked Genetic Variability and Cellular Mosaicism Unique to Females Contribute to Sex-Related Differences in the Innate Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Spolarics, Zoltan; Peña, Geber; Qin, Yong; Donnelly, Robert J; Livingston, David H

    2017-01-01

    related to the abundance of X-linked polymorphic immune-competent genes, differences in ChrX regulation, and inheritance patterns between the sexes and the presence of X-linked cellular mosaicism, which is unique to females.

  5. Alport syndrome, mental retardation, midface hypoplasia, and elliptocytosis: a new X linked contiguous gene deletion syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, J J; Renieri, A; Gallagher, P G; Kashtan, C E; Cherniske, E M; Bruttini, M; Piccini, M; Vitelli, F; Ballabio, A; Pober, B R

    1998-01-01

    We describe a family with four members, a mother, two sons, and a daughter, who show clinical features consistent with X linked Alport syndrome. The two males presented with additional features including mental retardation, dysmorphic facies with marked midface hypoplasia, and elliptocytosis. The elliptocytosis was not associated with any detectable abnormalities in red cell membrane proteins; red cell membrane stability and rigidity was normal on ektacytometry. Molecular characterisation suggests a submicroscopic X chromosome deletion encompassing the entire COL4A5 gene. We propose that the additional abnormalities found in the affected males of this family are attributable to deletion or disruption of X linked recessive genes adjacent to the COL4A5 gene and that this constellation of findings may represent a new X linked contiguous gene deletion syndrome. Images PMID:9598718

  6. Screening for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy among adult men with Addison's disease.

    PubMed

    Horn, Morten A; Erichsen, Martina M; Wolff, Anette S B; Månsson, Jan-Eric; Husebye, Eystein S; Tallaksen, Chantal M E; Skjeldal, Ola H

    2013-09-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is an important cause of Addison's disease in boys, but less is known about its contribution to Addison's disease in adult men. After surveying all known cases of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in Norway in a separate study, we aimed to look for any missed cases among the population of adult men with nonautoimmune Addison's disease. Among 153 adult men identified in a National Registry for Addison's Disease (75% of identified male cases of Addison's disease in Norway), those with negative indices for 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies were selected. Additionally, cases with low autoantibody indices (48-200) were selected. Sera from subjects included were analysed for levels of very long-chain fatty acids, which are diagnostic for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in men. Eighteen subjects had negative indices and 17 had low indices for 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies. None of those with low indices and only one of those with negative indices were found to have X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy; this subject had already been diagnosed because of the neurological symptoms. Cases of Addison's disease proved to be caused by X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy constitute 1·5% of all adult male cases in Norway; the proportion among nonautoimmune cases was 15%. We found X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy to be an uncommon cause of Addison's disease in adult men. However, this aetiological diagnosis has far-reaching consequences both for the patient and for his extended family. We therefore recommend that all adult men with nonautoimmune Addison's disease be analysed for levels of very long-chain fatty acids. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Sex-specific silencing of X-linked genes by Xist RNA

    PubMed Central

    Gayen, Srimonta; Maclary, Emily; Hinten, Michael; Kalantry, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    X-inactive specific transcript (Xist) long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is thought to catalyze silencing of X-linked genes in cis during X-chromosome inactivation, which equalizes X-linked gene dosage between male and female mammals. To test the impact of Xist RNA on X-linked gene silencing, we ectopically induced endogenous Xist by ablating the antisense repressor Tsix in mice. We find that ectopic Xist RNA induction and subsequent X-linked gene silencing is sex specific in embryos and in differentiating embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). A higher frequency of XΔTsixY male cells displayed ectopic Xist RNA coating compared with XΔTsixX female cells. This increase reflected the inability of XΔTsixY cells to efficiently silence X-linked genes compared with XΔTsixX cells, despite equivalent Xist RNA induction and coating. Silencing of genes on both Xs resulted in significantly reduced proliferation and increased cell death in XΔTsixX female cells relative to XΔTsixY male cells. Thus, whereas Xist RNA can inactivate the X chromosome in females it may not do so in males. We further found comparable silencing in differentiating XΔTsixY and 39,XΔTsix (XΔTsixO) ESCs, excluding the Y chromosome and instead implicating the X-chromosome dose as the source of the sex-specific differences. Because XΔTsixX female embryonic epiblast cells and EpiSCs harbor an inactivated X chromosome prior to ectopic inactivation of the active XΔTsix X chromosome, we propose that the increased expression of one or more X-inactivation escapees activates Xist and, separately, helps trigger X-linked gene silencing. PMID:26739568

  8. Amelogenin signal peptide mutation: Correlation between mutations in the amelogenin gene (AMGX) and manifestations of X-linked amelogenesis imperfecta

    SciTech Connect

    Lagerstroem-Fermer, M.; Nilsson, M.; Pettersson, U.

    1995-03-01

    Formation of tooth enamel is a poorly understood biological process. In this study the authors describe a 9-bp deletion in exon 2 of the amelogenin gene (AMGX) causing X-linked hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta, a disease characterized by defective enamel. The mutation results in the loss of 3 amino acids and exchange of 1 in the signal peptide of the amelogenin protein. This deletion in the signal peptide probably interferes with translocation of the amelogenin protein during synthesis, resulting in the thin enamel observed in affected members of the family. The authors compare this mutation to a previously reported mutation in themore » amelogenin gene that causes a different disease phenotype. The study illustrates that molecular analysis can help explain the various manifestations of a tooth disorder and thereby provide insights into the mechanisms of tooth enamel formation. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.« less

  9. X-linked borderline mental retardation with prominent behavioral disturbance: Phenotype, genetic localization, and evidence for disturbed monoamine metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, H.G.; Nelen, M.R.; Zandvoort, P. van

    The authors have identified a large Dutch kindred with a new form of X-linked nondysmorphic mild mental retardation. All affected males in this family show very characteristic abnormal behavior, in particular aggressive and sometimes violent behavior. Other types of impulsive behavior include arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Attempted suicide has been reported in a single case. The locus for this disorder could be assigned to the Xp11-21 interval between DXS7 and DXS77 by linkage analysis using markers spanning the X chromosome. A maximal multipoint lod score of 3.69 was obtained at the monoamine oxidase type A (MAOA) monoamine metabolism. Thesemore » data are compatible with a primary defect in the structural gene for MAOA and/or monoamine oxidase type B (MAOB). Normal platelet MAOB activity suggests that the unusual behavior pattern in this family may be caused by isolated MAOA deficiency. 34 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.« less

  10. Loss-of-function mutations in IGSF1 cause an X-linked syndrome of central hypothyroidism and testicular enlargement

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu; Bak, Beata; Schoenmakers, Nadia; van Trotsenburg, A.S. Paul; Oostdijk, Wilma; Voshol, Peter; Cambridge, Emma; White, Jacqueline K.; le Tissier, Paul; Gharavy, S. Neda Mousavy; Martinez-Barbera, Juan P.; Stokvis-Brantsma, Wilhelmina H.; Vulsma, Thomas; Kempers, Marlies J.; Persani, Luca; Campi, Irene; Bonomi, Marco; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Zhu, Hongdong; Davis, Timothy M.E.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C.S.; Del Blanco, Daria Gorbenko; Rangasami, Jayanti J.; Ruivenkamp, Claudia A.L.; Laros, Jeroen F.J.; Kriek, Marjolein; Kant, Sarina G.; Bosch, Cathy A.J.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Appelman-Dijkstra, Natasha M.; Corssmit, Eleonora P.; Hovens, Guido C.J.; Pereira, Alberto M.; den Dunnen, Johan T.; Wade, Michael G.; Breuning, Martijn H.; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Chatterjee, Krishna; Dattani, Mehul T.; Wit, Jan M.; Bernard, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital central hypothyroidism occurs either in isolation or in conjunction with other pituitary hormone deficits. Using exome and candidate gene sequencing, we identified eight distinct mutations and two deletions in IGSF1 in males from eleven unrelated families with central hypothyroidism, testicular enlargement, and variably low prolactin concentrations. IGSF1 is a membrane glycoprotein highly expressed in the anterior pituitary gland and the identified mutations impair its trafficking to the cell surface in heterologous cells. Igsf1-deficient male mice show diminished pituitary and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations, reduced pituitary thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptor expression, decreased triiodothyronine concentrations, and increased body mass. Collectively, our observations delineate a novel X-linked disorder in which loss-of-function mutations in IGSF1 cause central hypothyroidism, likely secondary to an associated impairment in pituitary TRH signaling. PMID:23143598

  11. Phenotypic heterogeneity and mutational spectrum in a cohort of 45 Italian males subjects with X-linked ectodermal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Guazzarotti, L; Tadini, G; Mancini, G E; Giglio, S; Willoughby, C E; Callea, M; Sani, I; Nannini, P; Mameli, C; Tenconi, A A; Mauri, S; Bottero, A; Caimi, A; Morelli, M; Zuccotti, G V

    2015-04-01

    Ectodermal dysplasias (EDs) are a group of genetic disorders characterized by the abnormal development of the ectodermal-derived structures. X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, resulting from mutations in ED1 gene, is the most common form. The main purpose of this study was to characterize the phenotype spectrum in 45 males harboring ED1 mutations. The study showed that in addition to the involvement of the major ectodermal tissues, the majority of patients also have alterations of several minor ectodermal-derived structures. Characterizing the clinical spectrum resulting from ED1 gene mutations improves diagnosis and can direct clinical care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Retinal detachment 7 years after prophylactic schisis cavity excision in juvenile X-linked retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    Sobrin, Lucia; Berrocal, Audina M; Murray, Timothy G

    2003-01-01

    A 7-year-old boy with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis developed a retinal detachment at the site of previous prophylactic excision of a schisis cavity. The patient underwent a scleral buckle procedure, pars plana vitrectomy, membrane peel, and silicone oil injection with successful reattachment. At last follow-up, the visual acuity was 20/400 and the retina was attached. Prophylactic excision of a schisis cavity may be complicated by retinal detachment several years after the surgery. Given the favorable natural history of schisis cavities in X-linked juvenile retinoschisis, the decision to perform prophylactic excision should be undertaken cautiously after full consideration of the potential complications.

  13. Neovascular glaucoma in a patient with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Chengguo; Chen, Changzheng; Xing, Yiqiao; Du, Lei

    2005-09-01

    To report the rubeosis iridis and neovascular glaucoma findings in one patient of X-linked juvenile retinoschisis(XLRS). Color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FFA), OCT and B-scan were performed in a patient with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis complicated with neovascular glaucoma. Color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FFA), OCT and B-scan unveiled a rare condition of XLRS complicated with neovascular glaucoma. XLRS may complicate with neovascular glaucoma. It is necessary to test OCT, FFA, ERG and carefully examine the fundus of the follow eye when it comes to uncertain neovascular glaucoma of youth and child. And only in this way, can we exclude XLRS.

  14. An ex vivo gene therapy approach in X-linked retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    Bashar, Abu E; Metcalfe, Andrew L; Viringipurampeer, Ishaq A; Yanai, Anat; Gregory-Evans, Cheryl Y; Gregory-Evans, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) is juvenile-onset macular degeneration caused by haploinsufficiency of the extracellular cell adhesion protein retinoschisin (RS1). RS1 mutations can lead to either a non-functional protein or the absence of protein secretion, and it has been established that extracellular deficiency of RS1 is the underlying cause of the phenotype. Therefore, we hypothesized that an ex vivo gene therapy strategy could be used to deliver sufficient extracellular RS1 to reverse the phenotype seen in XLRS. Here, we used adipose-derived, syngeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that were genetically modified to secrete human RS1 and then delivered these cells by intravitreal injection to the retina of the Rs1h knockout mouse model of XLRS. MSCs were electroporated with two transgene expression systems (cytomegalovirus (CMV)-controlled constitutive and doxycycline-induced Tet-On controlled inducible), both driving expression of human RS1 cDNA. The stably transfected cells, using either constitutive mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) or inducible MSC cassettes, were assayed for their RS1 secretion profile. For single injection studies, 100,000 genetically modified MSCs were injected into the vitreous cavity of the Rs1h knockout mouse eye at P21, and data were recorded at 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-injection. The control groups received either unmodified MSCs or vehicle injection. For the multiple injection studies, the mice received intravitreal MSC injections at P21, P60, and P90 with data collection at P120. For the single- and multiple-injection studies, the outcomes were measured with electroretinography, optokinetic tracking responses (OKT), histology, and immunohistochemistry. Two lines of genetically modified MSCs were established and found to secrete RS1 at a rate of 8 ng/million cells/day. Following intravitreal injection, RS1-expressing MSCs were found mainly in the inner retinal layers. Two weeks after a single injection of MSCs, the area of the schisis

  15. X-Linked Intellectual Disability: Unique Vulnerability of the Male Genome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Roger E.; Schwartz, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) accounts for approximately 16% of males with intellectual disability (ID). This is, in part, related to the fact that males have a single X chromosome. Progress in the clinical and molecular characterization of XLID has outpaced progress in the delineation of ID due to genes on the other 22 chromosomes.…

  16. Genome-wide misexpression of X-linked versus autosomal genes associated with hybrid male sterility

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xuemei; Shapiro, Joshua A.; Ting, Chau-Ti; Li, Yan; Li, Chunyan; Xu, Jin; Huang, Huanwei; Cheng, Ya-Jen; Greenberg, Anthony J.; Li, Shou-Hsien; Wu, Mao-Lien; Shen, Yang; Wu, Chung-I

    2010-01-01

    Postmating reproductive isolation is often manifested as hybrid male sterility, for which X-linked genes are overrepresented (the so-called large X effect). In contrast, X-linked genes are significantly under-represented among testis-expressing genes. This seeming contradiction may be germane to the X:autosome imbalance hypothesis on hybrid sterility, in which the X-linked effect is mediated mainly through the misexpression of autosomal genes. In this study, we compared gene expression in fertile and sterile males in the hybrids between two Drosophila species. These hybrid males differ only in a small region of the X chromosome containing the Ods-site homeobox (OdsH) (also known as Odysseus) locus of hybrid sterility. Of genes expressed in the testis, autosomal genes were, indeed, more likely to be misexpressed than X-linked genes under the sterilizing action of OdsH. Since this mechanism of X:autosome interaction is only associated with spermatogenesis, a connection between X:autosome imbalance and the high rate of hybrid male sterility seems plausible. PMID:20511493

  17. Genome-wide misexpression of X-linked versus autosomal genes associated with hybrid male sterility.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xuemei; Shapiro, Joshua A; Ting, Chau-Ti; Li, Yan; Li, Chunyan; Xu, Jin; Huang, Huanwei; Cheng, Ya-Jen; Greenberg, Anthony J; Li, Shou-Hsien; Wu, Mao-Lien; Shen, Yang; Wu, Chung-I

    2010-08-01

    Postmating reproductive isolation is often manifested as hybrid male sterility, for which X-linked genes are overrepresented (the so-called large X effect). In contrast, X-linked genes are significantly under-represented among testis-expressing genes. This seeming contradiction may be germane to the X:autosome imbalance hypothesis on hybrid sterility, in which the X-linked effect is mediated mainly through the misexpression of autosomal genes. In this study, we compared gene expression in fertile and sterile males in the hybrids between two Drosophila species. These hybrid males differ only in a small region of the X chromosome containing the Ods-site homeobox (OdsH) (also known as Odysseus) locus of hybrid sterility. Of genes expressed in the testis, autosomal genes were, indeed, more likely to be misexpressed than X-linked genes under the sterilizing action of OdsH. Since this mechanism of X:autosome interaction is only associated with spermatogenesis, a connection between X:autosome imbalance and the high rate of hybrid male sterility seems plausible.

  18. Pyoderma Gangrenosum–Like Ulcer in a Patient With X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Patrick R.; Jain, Ashish; Uzel, Gulbu; Ranken, Raymond; Ivy, Cristina; Blyn, Lawrence B.; Ecker, David J.; Sampath, Rangarajan; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Turner, Maria L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Pyoderma gangrenosum–like ulcers and cellulitis of the lower extremities associated with recurrent fevers in patients with X-linked (Bruton) agammaglobulinemia have been reported to be caused by Helicobacter bilis (formerly classified as Flexispira rappini and then Helicobacter strain flexispira taxon 8). Consistent themes in these reports are the difficulty in recovering this organism in blood and wound cultures and in maintaining isolates in vitro. We confirmed the presence of this organism in a patient’s culture by using a novel application of gene amplification polymerase chain reaction and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Observation An adolescent boy with X-linked agammaglobulinemia presented with indurated plaques and a chronic leg ulcer whose origin was strongly suspected to be an H bilis organism. Histologic analysis demonstrated positive Warthin-Starry staining of curvilinear rods, which grew in culture but failed to grow when sub-cultured. They could not be identified by conventional techniques. A combination of gene amplification by polymerase chain reaction and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry confirmed the identity of this organism. Conclusions This novel technology was useful in the identification of a difficult-to-grow Helicobacter organism, the cause of pyoderma gangrenosum–like leg ulcers in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Correct identification of this organism as the cause of pyoderma gangrenosum–like ulcers in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia is of great importance for the early initiation of appropriate and curative antibiotic therapy. PMID:20479300

  19. CAPILLARY NETWORK ALTERATIONS IN X-LINKED RETINOSCHISIS IMAGED ON OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY.

    PubMed

    Romano, Francesco; Arrigo, Alessandro; Chʼng, Soon Wai; Battaglia Parodi, Maurizio; Manitto, Maria Pia; Martina, Elisabetta; Bandello, Francesco; Stanga, Paulo E

    2018-06-05

    To assess foveal and parafoveal vasculature at the superficial capillary plexus, deep capillary plexus, and choriocapillaris of patients with X-linked retinoschisis by means of optical coherence tomography angiography. Six patients with X-linked retinoschisis (12 eyes) and seven healthy controls (14 eyes) were recruited and underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, including best-corrected visual acuity, dilated fundoscopy, and 3 × 3-mm optical coherence tomography angiography macular scans (DRI OCT Triton; Topcon Corp). After segmentation and quality review, optical coherence tomography angiography slabs were imported into ImageJ 1.50 (NIH; Bethesda) and digitally binarized. Quantification of vessel density was performed after foveal avascular zone area measurement and exclusion. Patients were additionally divided into "responders" and "nonresponders" to dorzolamide therapy. Foveal avascular zone area resulted markedly enlarged at the deep capillary plexus (P < 0.001), particularly in nonresponders. Moreover, patients disclosed a significant deep capillary plexus rarefaction, when compared with controls (P: 0.04); however, a subanalysis revealed that this damage was limited to the fovea (P: 0.006). Finally, the enlargement of foveal avascular zone area positively correlated with a decline in best-corrected visual acuity (P: 0.01). Prominent foveal vascular impairment is detectable in the deep capillary plexus of patients with X-linked retinoschisis. Our results correlate with functional outcomes, suggesting a possible vascular role in X-linked retinoschisis clinical manifestations.

  20. MHC class 2 deficiency and X-linked agammaglobulinaemia in a consanguineous extended family.

    PubMed

    Broides, A; Shubinsky, G; Parvari, R; Grimbacher, B; Somech, R; Garty, B Z; Levy, J

    2009-08-01

    Manifestations of immunodeficiency within the same family are presumed to be the same disease. We report a consanguineous extended family where four patients have immunodeficiency, three have X-linked agammaglobulinaemia and one has major histocompatibility complex class 2 deficiency. Within one family, two rare genetic diseases with similar clinical manifestations can occur.

  1. Unusual phenotypic expression of an XLRS1 mutation in X-linked juvenile retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Jodi A; Srivastava, Anand K; Holden, Kenton R

    2006-04-01

    X-linked juvenile retinoschisis is a rare progressive vitreoretinal degenerative process that appears in early childhood, results in decreased visual acuity and blindness (if severe), and is caused by various mutations within the XLRS1 gene at Xp22.2. We report an affected family of Western European ancestry with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis. The family was found to carry a 304C-->T substitution in exon 4 of the XLRS1 gene, resulting in an Arg102Trp amino acid substitution. Two of the four available clinical cases in this family were found to carry the mutation. All available mothers of affected males were found to be unaffected carriers of the mutation, a typical feature of X-linked diseases. Two new female carriers, sisters of affected males, were identified and counseled accordingly. Questionnaires on visual functioning were given to the affected family members to examine the psychologic and sociologic impact of X-linked juvenile retinoschisis, which documented an associated stigma even when affected with a "mild" phenotype.

  2. Dominant inheritance of cerebral gigantism.

    PubMed

    Zonana, J; Sotos, J F; Romshe, C A; Fisher, D A; Elders, M J; Rimoin, D L

    1977-08-01

    Cerebral gigantism is a syndrome consisting of characteristic dysmorphic features, accelerated growth in early childhood, and variable degrees of mental retardation. Its etiology and pathogenesis have not been defined. Three families are presented with multiple affected members. The vertical transmission of the trait and equal expression in both sexes in these families indicates a genetic etiology with a dominant pattern of inheritance, probably autosomal. As in previously reported cases, extensive endocrine evaluation failed to define the pathogenesis of the accelerated growth present in this disorder.

  3. The X linked recessive form of XY gonadal dysgenesis with a high incidence of gonadal germ cell tumours: clinical and genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Mann, J R; Corkery, J J; Fisher, H J; Cameron, A H; Mayerová, A; Wolf, U; Kennaugh, A A; Woolley, V

    1983-08-01

    Five phenotypic females in one family had the genotype 46,XY and all had gonadal germ cell tumours. Studies of the family pedigree suggest that this form of XY gonadal dysgenesis is inherited in an X linked recessive manner. G banding of elongated metaphase chromosomes from two subjects with XY gonadal dysgenesis and a female carrier showed no aberrations of the X chromosome. The titres of H-Y antigen in three girls with XY gonadal dysgenesis were in the male control range. Thus it appears that, in the X linked form, XY gonadal dysgenesis may be caused by a point deletion or mutation of a gene on the X chromosome, which controls the gonad specific receptor for the H-Y antigen. Studies of Xg blood groups were uninformative about linkage of Xg with the X borne gene causing the XY gonadal dysgenesis. Dermatoglyphic studies in the girls with XY gonadal dysgenesis and female carriers revealed high a-b palmar ridge counts and a tendency for the A mainline to terminate in the thenar area. Both of these features have been described in patients with Turner's syndrome.

  4. Inherited trombophilic states and pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Konecny, Filip

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, mostly, in case of PE for its lack of sensitivity of its early detection. For as much as twenty-five percent of PE patients the primary clinical appearance is unexpected death. While PE is one of the most avertable causes of hospital associated deaths, its diagnostics can be extremely difficult. Newly increased interest in an inherited thrombophilic states has been provoked by the discovery of several common inherited abnormalities, i.e. the prothrombin (PT) gene G20210A, Factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation (Arg506Gln), hyperhomocystenemia and homocysteiuria, Wein-Penzing defect, Sticky Platelet Syndrome (SPS), Quebec platelet disorder (QPD) and Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). PE incidence rates increase exponentially with age for both men and women, as they might harbor more than one thrombophilic state. Although the impact of genetic factors on PE is to some extent documented with lacking taxonomy, its genetic testing as its prevention strategy fall short. In this review thrombophilic states are divided into inherited or acquired, and only the inherited and newly documented are more closely followed. Factors are further grouped based on its thrombophilic taxonomy into; inherited defects of coagulation, inherited defects of fibrinolysis, inherited defects of enzymatic pathway in relation to development of VTE and PE and inherited defects of platelets in relation to PE. It was beyond the scope of this review to follow all inherited and newly recognized factors and its association to VTE and PE; however the overall taxonomy makes this review clinically valuable i.e. in relation to genetic testing as PE prevention. PMID:21772860

  5. Inherited trombophilic states and pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Konecny, Filip

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, mostly, in case of PE for its lack of sensitivity of its early detection. For as much as twenty-five percent of PE patients the primary clinical appearance is unexpected death. While PE is one of the most avertable causes of hospital associated deaths, its diagnostics can be extremely difficult. Newly increased interest in an inherited thrombophilic states has been provoked by the discovery of several common inherited abnormalities, i.e. the prothrombin (PT) gene G20210A, Factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation (Arg506Gln), hyperhomocystenemia and homocysteiuria, Wein-Penzing defect, Sticky Platelet Syndrome (SPS), Quebec platelet disorder (QPD) and Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). PE incidence rates increase exponentially with age for both men and women, as they might harbor more than one thrombophilic state. Although the impact of genetic factors on PE is to some extent documented with lacking taxonomy, its genetic testing as its prevention strategy fall short.In this review thrombophilic states are divided into inherited or acquired, and only the inherited and newly documented are more closely followed. Factors are further grouped based on its thrombophilic taxonomy into; inherited defects of coagulation, inherited defects of fibrinolysis, inherited defects of enzymatic pathway in relation to development of VTE and PE and inherited defects of platelets in relation to PE. It was beyond the scope of this review to follow all inherited and newly recognized factors and its association to VTE and PE; however the overall taxonomy makes this review clinically valuable i.e. in relation to genetic testing as PE prevention.

  6. X-linked Alport syndrome caused by splicing mutations in COL4A5.

    PubMed

    Nozu, Kandai; Vorechovsky, Igor; Kaito, Hiroshi; Fu, Xue Jun; Nakanishi, Koichi; Hashimura, Yuya; Hashimoto, Fusako; Kamei, Koichi; Ito, Shuichi; Kaku, Yoshitsugu; Imasawa, Toshiyuki; Ushijima, Katsumi; Shimizu, Junya; Makita, Yoshio; Konomoto, Takao; Yoshikawa, Norishige; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2014-11-07

    X-linked Alport syndrome is caused by mutations in the COL4A5 gene. Although many COL4A5 mutations have been detected, the mutation detection rate has been unsatisfactory. Some men with X-linked Alport syndrome show a relatively mild phenotype, but molecular basis investigations have rarely been conducted to clarify the underlying mechanism. In total, 152 patients with X-linked Alport syndrome who were suspected of having Alport syndrome through clinical and pathologic investigations and referred to the hospital for mutational analysis between January of 2006 and January of 2013 were genetically diagnosed. Among those patients, 22 patients had suspected splice site mutations. Transcripts are routinely examined when suspected splice site mutations for abnormal transcripts are detected; 11 of them showed expected exon skipping, but others showed aberrant splicing patterns. The mutation detection strategy had two steps: (1) genomic DNA analysis using PCR and direct sequencing and (2) mRNA analysis using RT-PCR to detect RNA processing abnormalities. Six splicing consensus site mutations resulting in aberrant splicing patterns, one exonic mutation leading to exon skipping, and four deep intronic mutations producing cryptic splice site activation were identified. Interestingly, one case produced a cryptic splice site with a single nucleotide substitution in the deep intron that led to intronic exonization containing a stop codon; however, the patient showed a clearly milder phenotype for X-linked Alport syndrome in men with a truncating mutation. mRNA extracted from the kidney showed both normal and abnormal transcripts, with the normal transcript resulting in the milder phenotype. This novel mechanism leads to mild clinical characteristics. This report highlights the importance of analyzing transcripts to enhance the mutation detection rate and provides insight into genotype-phenotype correlations. This approach can clarify the cause of atypically mild phenotypes in X-linked

  7. HDR syndrome with a novel mutation in GATA3 mimicking a congenital X-linked stapes gusher: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yang, Aram; Kim, Jinsup; Ki, Chang-Seok; Hong, Sung Hwa; Cho, Sung Yoon; Jin, Dong-Kyu

    2017-10-26

    Hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural hearing loss, and renal disease (HDR) syndrome, also known as Barakat syndrome, is a rare genetic disorder with high phenotypic heterogeneity caused by haploinsufficiency of the GATA3 gene on chromosome 10p14-p15. For these reasons, the diagnosis of HDR syndrome is challenging and requires a high index of suspicion as well as genetic analysis. A 14-month-old boy, with sensorineural hearing loss in both ears, showed typical radiological features of X-linked stapes gusher on preoperative temporal bone computed tomography (CT) for cochlear implantations. Then after his discharge from hospital, he suffered a hypocalcemic seizure and we discovered a renal cyst during investigation of hypocalcemia. He was finally diagnosed with HDR syndrome by clinical findings, which were confirmed by molecular genetic testing. Direct sequencing of the GATA3 gene showed a heterozygous 2-bp deletion (c.1201_1202delAT), which is predicted to cause a frameshift of the reading frame (p.Met401Valfs*106). To our knowledge, this is the first case of HDR syndrome with a novel de novo variant mimicking a congenital X-linked stapes gusher syndrome. Novel mutations and the diversity of clinical manifestations expand the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of HDR syndrome. Diagnosis of HDR syndrome is still challenging, but clinicians should consider it in their differential diagnosis for children with a wide range of clinical manifestations including hypocalcemia induced seizures and deafness. We hope that this case will contribute to further understanding and studies of HDR-associated GATA3 mutations.

  8. Identification of novel missense mutations in the Norrie disease gene associated with one X-linked and four sporadic cases of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Shastry, B S; Hejtmancik, J F; Trese, M T

    1997-01-01

    X-linked Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy (XLFEVR) is a hereditary eye disorder that affects both the retina and the vitreous body. It is characterized by an abnormal vascularization of the peripheral retina. It has been previously shown by linkage and candidate gene analysis that XLFEVR and Norrie disease are allelic. In this report we describe four novel mutations (R41K, H42R, K58N, and Y120C) in the Norrie disease gene associated with one X-linked and four sporadic cases of FEVR. One mutation (H42R) was found to be segregating with the disease in three generations (X-linked family), and the others are sporadic. These sequence alterations changed the encoded amino acids in the Norrie disease protein and were not found in 17 unaffected family members or in 36 randomly selected normal individuals. This study provides additional evidence that mutations in the same gene can result in FEVR and Norrie disease. It also demonstrates that it may be beneficial for clinical diagnosis to screen for mutations in the Norrie disease gene in sporadic FEVR cases.

  9. Intragenic rearrangements in X-linked intellectual deficiency: results of a-CGH in a series of 54 patients and identification of TRPC5 and KLHL15 as potential XLID genes.

    PubMed

    Mignon-Ravix, Cécile; Cacciagli, Pierre; Choucair, Nancy; Popovici, Cornel; Missirian, Chantal; Milh, Mathieu; Mégarbané, André; Busa, Tiffany; Julia, Sophie; Girard, Nadine; Badens, Catherine; Sigaudy, Sabine; Philip, Nicole; Villard, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    High-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) enables the detection of intragenic rearrangements, such as single exon deletion or duplication. This approach can lead to the identification of new disease genes. We report on the analysis of 54 male patients presenting with intellectual deficiency (ID) and a family history suggesting X-linked (XL) inheritance or maternal skewed X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), using a home-made X-chromosome-specific microarray covering the whole human X-chromosome at high resolution. The majority of patients had whole genome array-CGH prior to the selection and we did not include large rearrangements such as MECP2 and FMR1 duplications. We identified four rearrangements considered as causative or potentially pathogenic, corresponding to a detection rate of 8%. Two CNVs affected known XLID genes and were therefore considered as causative (IL1RAPL1 and OPHN1 intragenic deletions). Two new CNVs were considered as potentially pathogenic as they affected interesting candidates for ID. The first CNV is a deletion of the first exon of the TRPC5 gene, encoding a cation channel implicated in dendrite growth and patterning, in a child presenting with ID and an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The second CNV is a partial deletion of KLHL15, in a patient with severe ID, epilepsy, and anomalies of cortical development. In both cases, in spite of strong arguments for clinical relevance, we were not able at this stage to confirm pathogenicity of the mutations, and the causality of the variants identified in XLID remains to be confirmed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A family with X-linked anophthalmia: exclusion of SOX3 as a candidate gene.

    PubMed

    Slavotinek, Anne; Lee, Stephen S; Hamilton, Steven P

    2005-10-01

    We report on a four-generation family with X-linked anophthalmia in four affected males and show that this family has LOD scores consistent with linkage to Xq27, the third family reported to be linked to the ANOP1 locus. We sequenced the SOX3 gene at Xq27 as a candidate gene for the X-linked anophthalmia based on the high homology of this gene to SOX2, a gene previously mutated in bilateral anophthlamia. However, no amino acid sequence alterations were identified in SOX3. We have improved the definition of the phenotype in males with anophthalmia linked to the ANOP1 locus, as microcephaly, ocular colobomas, and severe renal malformations have not been described in families linked to ANOP1. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. [Clinical and molecular study in a child with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Callea, Michele; Yavuz, Izzet; Clarich, Gabriella; Cammarata-Scalisi, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia encompasses more than 200 clinically distinct entities, which affect at least two structures derived from the ectoderm, including the skin, hair, nails, teeth, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands. X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is the most common type and is caused by mutation of the EDA gene that encodes Ectodysplasin-A. It occurs in less than 1 in 100 000 individuals and is clinically characterized by hypodontia, hypohidrosis, hypotrichosis, and eye dis orders. We present a child evaluated in a multidisciplinary manner with clinical and molecular diagnosis of X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with type missense mutation c.1133C> T; p.T378M in EDA gene.

  12. Fatal hepatic hemorrhage by peliosis hepatis in X-linked myotubular myopathy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Motoki, T; Fukuda, M; Nakano, T; Matsukage, S; Fukui, A; Akiyoshi, S; Hayashi, Y K; Ishii, E; Nishino, I

    2013-11-01

    We report a 5-year-old boy with X-linked myotubular myopathy complicated by peliosis hepatis. At birth, he was affected with marked generalized muscle hypotonia and weakness, which required permanent ventilatory support, and was bedridden for life. He died of acute fatal hepatic hemorrhage after using a mechanical in-exsufflator. Peliosis hepatis, defined as multiple, variable-sized, cystic blood-filled spaces through the liver parenchyma, was confirmed by autopsy. To avoid fatal hepatic hemorrhage by peliosis hepatis, routine hepatic function tests and abdominal imaging tests should be performed for patients with X-linked myotubular myopathy, especially at the time of using artificial respiration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Convergence of Human Genetics and Animal Studies: Gene Therapy for X-Linked Retinoschisis

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Ronald A.; Wei, Lisa L.; Sieving, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Retinoschisis is an X-linked recessive genetic disease that leads to vision loss in males. X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) typically affects young males; however, progressive vision loss continues throughout life. Although discovered in 1898 by Haas in two brothers, the underlying biology leading to blindness has become apparent only in the last 15 years with the advancement of human genetic analyses, generation of XLRS animal models, and the development of ocular monitoring methods such as the electroretinogram and optical coherence tomography. It is now recognized that retinoschisis results from cyst formations within the retinal layers that interrupt normal visual neurosignaling and compromise structural integrity. Mutations in the human retinoschisin gene have been correlated with disease severity of the human XLRS phenotype. Introduction of a normal human retinoschisin cDNA into retinoschisin knockout mice restores retinal structure and improves neural function, providing proof-of-concept that gene replacement therapy is a plausible treatment for XLRS. PMID:26101206

  14. Genetic localization and phenotypic expression of X-linked cataract (Xcat) in Mus musculus.

    PubMed

    Favor, J; Pretsch, W

    1990-01-01

    Linkage data relative to the markers tabby and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase are presented to locate X-linked cataract (Xcat) in the distal portion of the mouse X-chromosome between jimpy and hypophosphatemia. The human X-linked cataract-dental syndrome, Nance-Horan Syndrome, also maps closely to human hypophosphatemia and would suggest homology between mouse Xcat and human Nance-Horan Syndrome genes. In hemizygous males and homozygous females penetrance is complete with only slight variation in the degree of expression. Phenotypic expression in Xcat heterozygous females ranges from totally clear to totally opaque lenses. The phenotypic expression between the two lenses of a heterozygous individual could also vary between totally clear and totally opaque lenses. However, a correlation in the degree of expression between the eyes of an individual was observed. A variegated pattern of lens opacity was evident in female heterozygotes. Based on these observations, the site of gene action for the Xcat locus is suggested to be endogenous to the lens cells and the precursor cell population of the lens is concluded to be small. The identification of an X-linked cataract locus is an important contribution to the estimate of the number of mutable loci resulting in cataract, an estimate required so that dominant cataract mutagenesis results may be expressed on a per locus basis. The Xcat mutation may be a useful marker for a distal region of the mouse X-chromosome which is relatively sparsely marked and the X-linked cataract mutation may be employed in gene expression and lens development studies.

  15. A novel UBE2A mutation causes X-linked intellectual disability type Nascimento.

    PubMed

    Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Ohashi, Ikuko; Enomoto, Yumi; Naruto, Takuya; Mitsui, Jun; Aida, Noriko; Kurosawa, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    X-linked intellectual disability (ID) type Nascimento (MIM #300860), also known as ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 A (UBE2A) deficiency syndrome, is a congenital malformation syndrome characterized by moderate to severe ID, speech impairment, dysmorphic facial features, genital anomalies and skin abnormalities. Here, we report a Japanese patient with severe ID and congenital cataract. We identified a novel hemizygous mutation (c.76G>A, p.Gly26Arg) in UBE2A by whole-exome sequencing.

  16. Molecular genetic analysis of patients with sporadic and X-linked infantile nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hui; Huang, Xiu-Feng; Zheng, Zhi-Li; Deng, Wen-Li; Lei, Xin-Lan; Xing, Dong-Jun; Ye, Liang; Xu, Su-Zhong; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Fang; Yu, Xin-Ping; Jin, Zi-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Infantile nystagmus (IN) is a genetically heterogeneous condition characterised by involuntary rhythmic oscillations of the eyes accompanied by different degrees of vision impairment. Two genes have been identified as mainly causing IN: FRMD7 and GPR143. The aim of our study was to identify the genetic basis of both sporadic IN and X-linked IN. Design Prospective analysis. Patients Twenty Chinese patients, including 15 sporadic IN cases and 5 from X-linked IN families, were recruited and underwent molecular genetic analysis. We first performed PCR-based DNA sequencing of the entire coding region and the splice junctions of the FRMD7 and GPR143 genes in participants. Mutational analysis and co-segregation confirmation were then performed. Setting All clinical examinations and genetic experiments were performed in the Eye Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University. Results Two mutations in the FRMD7 gene, including one novel nonsense mutation (c.1090C>T, p.Q364X) and one reported missense mutation (c.781C>G, p.R261G), were identified in two of the five (40%) X-linked IN families. However, none of putative mutations were identified in FRMD7 or GPR143 in any of the sporadic cases. Conclusions The results suggest that mutations in FRMD7 appeared to be the major genetic cause of X-linked IN, but not of sporadic IN. Our findings provide further insights into FRMD7 mutations, which could be helpful for future genetic diagnosis and genetic counselling of Chinese patients with nystagmus. PMID:27036142

  17. Refined genetic mapping of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Fain, P.R.; Barker, D.F.; Chance, P.F.

    1994-02-01

    Genetic linkage studies were conducted in four multigenerational families with X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX), using 12 highly polymorphic short-tandem-repeat markers for the pericentromeric region of the X Chromosome. Pairwise linkage analysis with individual markers confirmed tight linkage of CMTX to the pericentromeric region in each family. Multipoint analyses strongly support the order DXS337-CMTX-DXS441-(DXS56, PGK1). 38 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. X-linked ocular albinism in Blacks. Ocular albinism cum pigmento.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, F E; Green, W R; Fleischman, J A; Hambrick, G W

    1978-07-01

    X-linked ocular albinism can be an unsuspected cause of congenital nystagmus in blacks. In this study, eight of ten black ocular albinos from two kindreds had nonalbinotic, moderately pigmented fundi and no transillumination of the iris. We refer to this paradoxical condition as "ocular albinism cum pigmento." The only constant ophthalmoscopic feature was a foveal hypoplasia. Biopsy of clinically normal skin to demonstrate giant pigment granules is the most accurate means of diagnosis.

  19. Foveomacular schisis in juvenile X-linked retinoschisis: an optical coherence tomography study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jia; Ni, Yingqin; Keane, Pearse A; Jiang, Chunhui; Wang, Wenji; Xu, Gezhi

    2010-06-01

    To explore the structural features of juvenile X-linked retinoschisis using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Retrospective, observational cross-sectional study. Eighteen male patients (34 eyes) who were diagnosed with juvenile X-linked retinoschisis at the Eye & ENT Hospital of Fudan University over an 18-month period were included. Their OCT images, which were obtained using spectral-domain OCT (Cirrus HD-OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec), were analyzed. The anatomic location of the schisis cavity in juvenile X-linked retinoschisis was characterized by direct inspection of OCT images. On OCT, the schisis cavity was visible at the fovea in all 34 eyes, and it was associated with increased retinal thickness. Schisis was present at the retinal nerve fiber layer in 4 eyes, at the inner nuclear layer in 29 eyes, and at the outer nuclear layer/outer plexiform layer in 22 eyes. In most cases, widespread foveomacular schisis was detected using OCT; however, in 9 eyes (6 patients), the schisis was confined to the fovea. Schisis of the inner nuclear layer and outer nuclear layer/outer plexiform layer almost always involved the foveal center, but retinal nerve fiber layer schisis was seen only in the parafoveal area. Despite conventional wisdom, in patients with X-linked retinoschisis, the schisis cavity can occur in a number of different layers of the neurosensory retina (retinal nerve fiber layer, inner nuclear layer, and outer nuclear layer/outer plexiform layer). In addition, different forms of schisis may affect different locations in the macula (foveal vs parafoveal), and, in most eyes, the schisis involves the entire foveomacular region. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS): a review of genotype-phenotype relationships.

    PubMed

    Kim, David Y; Mukai, Shizuo

    2013-01-01

    X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) is one of the most common genetic causes of juvenile progressive retinal-vitreal degeneration in males. To date, more than 196 different mutations of the RS1 gene have been associated with XLRS. The mutation spectrum is large and the phenotype variable. This review will focus on the clinical features of XLRS and examine the relationship between phenotype and genotype.

  1. Meiotic drive impacts expression and evolution of x-linked genes in stalk-eyed flies.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Josephine A; Brand, Cara L; Paczolt, Kimberly A; Johns, Philip M; Baker, Richard H; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2014-01-01

    Although sex chromosome meiotic drive has been observed in a variety of species for over 50 years, the genes causing drive are only known in a few cases, and none of these cases cause distorted sex-ratios in nature. In stalk-eyed flies (Teleopsis dalmanni), driving X chromosomes are commonly found at frequencies approaching 30% in the wild, but the genetic basis of drive has remained elusive due to reduced recombination between driving and non-driving X chromosomes. Here, we used RNAseq to identify transcripts that are differentially expressed between males carrying either a driving X (XSR) or a standard X chromosome (XST), and found hundreds of these, the majority of which are X-linked. Drive-associated transcripts show increased levels of sequence divergence (dN/dS) compared to a control set, and are predominantly expressed either in testes or in the gonads of both sexes. Finally, we confirmed that XSR and XST are highly divergent by estimating sequence differentiation between the RNAseq pools. We found that X-linked transcripts were often strongly differentiated (whereas most autosomal transcripts were not), supporting the presence of a relatively large region of recombination suppression on XSR presumably caused by one or more inversions. We have identified a group of genes that are good candidates for further study into the causes and consequences of sex-chromosome drive, and demonstrated that meiotic drive has had a profound effect on sequence evolution and gene expression of X-linked genes in this species.

  2. Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of juvenile X-linked retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Urban; Larsson, Eva; Holmström, Gerd

    2004-04-01

    To describe the value of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of X-linked retinoschisis. We report three boys aged between 8 and 17 years, diagnosed with X-linked retinoschisis. During investigations they were examined with OCT (Zeiss Humphrey OCT 1, upgraded version). Single scans of the central posterior pole and the region around the vascular arcades were obtained. Two of the boys underwent full-field ERG according to ISCEV standards. Genetic analysis was performed in all three boys, with sequencing of the XLRS gene. The OCT results revealed a pattern with a cleavage of the retina in two distinct planes, one deep (outer retina) and one superficial. This was very obvious in one patient and a similar but not as pronounced pattern was seen in the other two cases. The two layers were superficially connected with thin-walled, vertical palisades, separated by low reflective, cystoid spaces, confluent and most prominent in the foveal region. Full-field ERG and/or DNA analysis are well known methods used for diagnosis of X-linked juvenile retinoschisis. In this paper, we suggest that OCT can also be a helpful diagnostic tool.

  3. Novel XLRS1 gene mutations cause X-linked juvenile retinoschisis in Chinese families.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiang; Li, Xiaoxin; Wang, Lihua

    2008-01-01

    To investigate various XLRS1 (RS1) gene mutations in Chinese families with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS or RS). Genomic DNA was isolated from leukocytes of 29 male patients with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis, 38 female carriers, and 100 normal controls. All 6 exons of the RS1 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and the RS1 gene mutations were determined by direct sequencing. Eleven different RS1 mutations in 12 families were identified in the 29 male patients. The mutations comprised eight missense, two frameshift, and one splice donor site mutation. Four of these mutations, one frameshift mutation (26 del T) in exon 1, one frameshift mutation (488 del G) in exon 5, Asp145His and Arg156Gly in exon 5, have not been previously described. One novel non-disease-related polymorphism, 576C to T (Pro192Pro) in exon 6, was also found. Six recurrent mutations, Ser73Pro and Arg102Gln mutations in exon 4 and Arg200Cys, Arg209His, Arg213Gln, and Cys223Arg mutations in exon 6, were also identified in this study. RS1 gene mutations caused X-linked juvenile retinoschisis in these Chinese families.

  4. Heat shock protein expression in cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy reveals astrocyte stress prior to myelin loss.

    PubMed

    Görtz, A L; Peferoen, L A N; Gerritsen, W H; van Noort, J M; Bugiani, M; Amor, S

    2018-06-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a genetic white matter disorder in which demyelination occurs due to accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids. Inflammation in the brain white matter is a hallmark of the pathology of cerebral X-ALD, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are still largely unknown. In other inflammatory demyelinating disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in combination with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) has been suggested to play a prominent role in the initiation of demyelination and inflammation. We therefore investigated these pathways in X-ALD lesions. By immunohistochemistry, we examined the expression of small HSPs (HSPB1, HSPB5, HSPB6, HSPB8) and higher molecular weight HSPs (HSPA, HSPD1), and the expression of elements of the IFN-γ pathway on autopsy material of five patients with X-ALD. The expression of the larger HSPs, HSPA and HSPD1, as well as small HSPs is increased in X-ALD lesions compared with normal-appearing white matter. Such upregulation can already be detected before demyelination and inflammation occur, and it is predominant in astrocytes. The IFN-γ pathway does not seem to play a leading role in the observed inflammation. The finding that astrocytes show signs of cellular stress before demyelination suggests that they play a major role early in the pathogenesis of cerebral X-ALD, and may therefore be involved in the initiation of inflammation and demyelination. © 2017 British Neuropathological Society.

  5. Novel PLS3 variants in X-linked osteoporosis: Exploring bone material properties.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Meena; Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; O'Sullivan, Rory; Bull, Mary; Fa Peel, Nicola; Pollitt, Rebecca C; Jones, Rebecca; Milne, Elizabeth; Smith, Kath; Roschger, Paul; Klaushofer, Klaus; Bishop, Nicholas J

    2018-05-07

    Idiopathic Juvenile Osteoporosis (IJO) refers to significantly lower than expected bone mass manifesting in childhood with no identifiable aetiology. IJO classically presents in early pubertal period with multiple fractures including metaphyseal and vertebral crush fractures, and low bone-mass. Here we describe two patients and provide information on their clinical phenotype, genotype and bone material analysis in one of the patients. Patient 1: 40-year old adult male diagnosed with IJO in childhood who re-presented with a hip fracture as an adult. Genetic analysis identified a pathogenic PLS3 hemizygous variant, c.1765del in exon 16. Patient 2: 15-year old boy with multiple vertebral fractures and bone biopsy findings suggestive of IJO who also has a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Genetic analysis identified a maternally inherited PLS3 pathogenic c.1295T>A variant in exon 12. Analyses of the transiliac bone sample revealed severe reduction of trabecular volume and bone turnover indices and elevated bone matrix mineralisation. We propose that genetic testing for PLS3 should be undertaken in patients presenting with a current or previous history of IJO as this has implications for genetic counselling and cascade screening. The extensive evaluation of the transiliac biopsy sample of Patient 2 revealed a novel bone phenotype. This report includes a review of IJO and genetic causes of osteoporosis, and suggests that existing cases of IJO should be screened for PLS3. Through analysis of bone material properties in Patient 2, we can conclude that PLS3 does have a role in bone mineralisation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Genetic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... This can cause a medical condition called a genetic disorder. You can inherit a gene mutation from ... during your lifetime. There are three types of genetic disorders: Single-gene disorders, where a mutation affects ...

  7. A Novel Mutation in the XLRS1 Gene in a Korean Family with X-linked Retinoschisis

    PubMed Central

    Jwa, Nam Soo; Kim, Sung Soo; Lee, Sung Chul; Kwon, Oh Woong

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To report a novel missense mutation in the XLRS1 gene in a Korean family with X-linked retinoschisis. Methods Observation case report of a family with a proband with X-linked retinoschisis underwent complete ophthalmologic examination. Genomic DNA was excluded from the family's blood and all exons of the XLRS1 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed using a direct sequencing method. Results A novel Leu103Phe missense mutation was identified. Conclusions A novel Leu103Phe mutation is an additional missense mutation which is responsible for the pathogenesis of X-linked retinoschisis. PMID:16768192

  8. Expression pattern of X-linked genes in sex chromosome aneuploid bovine cells.

    PubMed

    Basrur, Parvathi K; Farazmand, Ali; Stranzinger, Gerald; Graphodatskaya, Daria; Reyes, Ed R; King, W Allan

    2004-01-01

    Expression of the X-inactive specific transcript (XIST) gene is a prerequisite step for dosage compensation in mammals, accomplished by silencing one of the two X chromosomes in normal female diploid cells or all X chromosomes in excess of one in sex chromosome aneuploids. Our previous studies showing that XIST expression does not eventuate the inactivation of X-linked genes in fetal bovine testis had suggested that XIST expression may not be an indicator of X inactivation in this species. In this study, we used a semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) approach on cultures of bovine cells with varying sex chromosome constitution (XY, XX, XXY and XXX) to test whether the levels of XIST expressed conform to the number of late replicating (inactive) X chromosomes displayed by proliferating cells in these cultures. Expression patterns of four X-linked genes, including hypoxanthine phosphorybosyl transferase (HPRT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), zinc finger protein locus on the X (ZFX). and 'selected mouse cDNA on the X' (SMCX), in all these cells were also tested. Results showed that XIST expression was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in XXX cells compared to XX and XXY cells and that G6PD. HPRT, and SMCX loci are subject to X inactivation. The significantly higher levels of ZFX expressed in XXX cells compared to XX and XXY cells (p < 0.05) confirmed that this bovine locus, as human ZFX, escapes X inactivation. However, the levels of XIST and ZFX expressed were not proportional to the X chromosome load in these cells suggesting that X-linked loci escaping inactivation may be regulated at transcription (or post-transcription) level by mechanisms that prevent gene-specific product accumulation beyond certain levels in sex chromosome aneuploids.

  9. [Detection of large deletions in X linked Alport syndrome using competitive multiplex fluorescence polymerase chain reaction].

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Zhang, Y Q; Ding, J; Yu, L X

    2017-10-18

    To evaluate the ability of multiplex competitive fluorescence polymerase chain reaction in detection of large deletion and duplication genotypes of X-linked Alport syndrome. Clinical diagnosis of X-linked Alport syndrome was based on either abnormal staining of type IV collagen α5 chain in the epidermal basement membrane alone or with abnormal staining of type IV collagen α5 chain in the glomerular basement membrane and Bowman's capsule/ultrastructural changes in the glomerular basement membrane typical of Alport syndrome. A total of 20 unrelated Chinese patients (13 males and 7 females) clinically diagnosed as X-linked Alport syndrome were included in the study. Their genotypes were unknown. Control subjects included a male patient with other renal disease and two patients who had large deletions in COL4A5 gene detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes in all the participants. Multiplex competitive fluorescence polymerase chain reaction was used to coamplify 53 exons of COL4A5 gene and four reference genes in a single reaction. When a deletion removed exon 1 of COL4A5 gene was identified, the same method was used to coamplify the first 4 exons of COL4A5 and COL4A6 genes, a promoter shared by COL4A5 and COL4A6 genes, and three reference genes in a single reaction. Any copy number loss suggested by this method was verified by electrophoresis of corresponding polymerase chain reaction amplified products or DNA sequencing to exclude possible DNA variations in the primer regions. Genotypes of two positive controls identified by multiplex competitive fluorescence polymerase chain reaction were consistent with those detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Deletions were identified in 6 of the 20 patients, including two large deletions removing the 5' part of both COL4A5 and COL4A6 genes with the breakpoint located in the second intron of COL4A6, two large deletions

  10. Hunting for Novel X-Linked Breast Cancer Suppressor Genes in Mouse and Human

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 01/03/07 2 . REPORT TYPE...and correlated significantly with HER- 2 over-expression, regardless of the status of HER- 2 amplification. In toto, the data demonstrate that FOXP3...is an X-linked breast cancer suppressor gene and an important regulator of the HER- 2 /ErbB2 oncogene. 15. SUBJECT TERMS No subject terms provided 16

  11. X-linked agammaglobulinemia - first case with Bruton tyrosine kinase mutation from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Samreen Kulsom; Qureshi, Sonia; Qamar, Farah Naz

    2017-03-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a primary immunodeficiency with more than 600 mutations in Bruton tyrosine kinase (Bkt) gene which are responsible for early-onset agammaglobulinemia and repeated infections. Herein we present a case of a 3-year-old boy with history of repeated diarrhoea and an episode of meningoencephalitis with hemiplegia. The workup showed extremely low levels of immunoglobulin with low CD+19 cells. Genetic analysis showed Btk mutation 18 c.1883delCp.T628fs. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a case of XLA confirmed by molecular technique from Pakistan.

  12. A novel UBE2A mutation causes X-linked intellectual disability type Nascimento

    PubMed Central

    Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Ohashi, Ikuko; Enomoto, Yumi; Naruto, Takuya; Mitsui, Jun; Aida, Noriko; Kurosawa, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    X-linked intellectual disability (ID) type Nascimento (MIM #300860), also known as ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 A (UBE2A) deficiency syndrome, is a congenital malformation syndrome characterized by moderate to severe ID, speech impairment, dysmorphic facial features, genital anomalies and skin abnormalities. Here, we report a Japanese patient with severe ID and congenital cataract. We identified a novel hemizygous mutation (c.76G>A, p.Gly26Arg) in UBE2A by whole-exome sequencing. PMID:28611923

  13. Spontaneous closure of macular hole in a patient with x-linked juvenile retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hua; Province, William D; Peracha, Mohammed O

    2010-01-01

    To observe macular hole in a patient with juvenile retinoschisis. A 4-year-old boy with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis was examined and followed-up for 2 years. Optical coherence tomography was used to study his maculae. A full-thickness macular hole was detected by clinical examination and optical coherence tomography. Spontaneous closure of the macular hole was noticed and confirmed by optical coherence tomography 2 years later with visual improvement. Macular hole in patients with juvenile retinoschisis should be observed for at least a short period of time before a surgical repair is considered.

  14. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from a patient with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chi-Hsien; Huang, Kang-Chieh; Lu, Huai-En; Syu, Shih-Han; Yarmishyn, Aliaksandr A; Lu, Jyh-Feng; Buddhakosai, Waradee; Lin, Tai-Chi; Hsu, Chih-Chien; Hwang, De-Kuang; Shen, Chia-Ning; Chen, Shih-Jen; Chiou, Shih-Hwa

    2018-05-01

    X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) is a hereditary retinal dystrophy manifested as splitting of anatomical layers of retina. In this report, we generated a patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line, TVGH-iPSC-013-05, from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a male patient with XLRS by using the Sendai-virus delivery system. We believe that XLRS patient-specific iPSCs provide a powerful in vitro model for evaluating the pathological phenotypes of the disease. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. [Neurophysiological basis and clinical tests for assessment of X-linked color vision deficiencies in school children].

    PubMed

    Rigaudière, F; Leid, J; Viénot, F; Le Gargasson, J-F

    2006-01-01

    Vision screening of school children at 5-6 years of age must include color vision screening. X-linked dyschromatopsia is the most frequent disorder affecting 8% of boys and 0.4% of girls. This paper presents the physiology of these deficiencies caused by an alteration of the spectral absorption properties of one of the cone pigments (protanomalous or deuteranomalous trichromats) or the absence of one of the pigments (protanopia or deuteranopia), the most frequent. Absence of two of the pigments (blue cone monochromacy) is very rare and differs from achromatopsia. The physiological basis of the main tests for easy clinical screening are presented. Testing methods designed for children are reviewed. The Ishihara test is the most widely used screening test specific for congenital color defects. If the plates are correctly read, the child has normal color vision. If not, arrangement tests such as Panel D 15 and desaturated Panel D 15 tests can be used to diagnose the type of the defect (protan or deutan) and grade the degree of color deficiency according to a strategy adapted to children. Examples of results are presented for each axis along which caps are confused, providing a quick and easy preliminary diagnosis. Early detection of color vision malfunction in children allows parents and teachers to make necessary adjustments to the teaching methods for appropriate learning.

  16. Clinical and genetic features of the patients with X-Linked agammaglobulinemia from Turkey: Single-centre experience.

    PubMed

    Esenboga, S; Cagdas, D; Ozgur, T T; Gur Cetinkaya, P; Turkdemir, L M; Sanal, O; VanDerBurg, M; Tezcan, I

    2018-03-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia is a primary immunodeficiency disorder resulting from BTK gene mutations. There are many studies in the literature suggesting contradictory ideas about phenotype-genotype correlation. The aim of this study was to identify the mutations and clinical findings of patients with XLA in Turkey, to determine long-term complications related to the disease and to analyse the phenotype-genotype correlation. Thirty-two patients with XLA diagnosed between 1985 and 2016 in Pediatric Immunology Department of Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children's Hospital were investigated. A clinical survey including clinical features of the patients was completed, and thirty-two patients from 26 different families were included in the study. Getting early diagnosis and regular assessment with imaging techniques seem to be the most important issues for improving the health status of the patients with XLA. Early molecular analysis gives chance for definitive diagnosis and genetic counselling, but not for predicting the clinical severity and prognosis. © 2018 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  17. X-linked primary ciliary dyskinesia due to mutations in the cytoplasmic axonemal dynein assembly factor PIH1D3

    PubMed Central

    Olcese, Chiara; Patel, Mitali P.; Shoemark, Amelia; Kiviluoto, Santeri; Legendre, Marie; Williams, Hywel J.; Vaughan, Cara K.; Hayward, Jane; Goldenberg, Alice; Emes, Richard D.; Munye, Mustafa M.; Dyer, Laura; Cahill, Thomas; Bevillard, Jeremy; Gehrig, Corinne; Guipponi, Michel; Chantot, Sandra; Duquesnoy, Philippe; Thomas, Lucie; Jeanson, Ludovic; Copin, Bruno; Tamalet, Aline; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Papon, Jean- François; Garin, Antoine; Pin, Isabelle; Vera, Gabriella; Aurora, Paul; Fassad, Mahmoud R.; Jenkins, Lucy; Boustred, Christopher; Cullup, Thomas; Dixon, Mellisa; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Bush, Andrew; Chung, Eddie M. K.; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Loebinger, Michael R.; Wilson, Robert; Armengot, Miguel; Escudier, Estelle; Hogg, Claire; Al-Turki, Saeed; Anderson, Carl; Antony, Dinu; Barroso, Inês; Beales, Philip L.; Bentham, Jamie; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Carss, Keren; Chatterjee, Krishna; Cirak, Sebahattin; Cosgrove, Catherine; Allan, Daly; Durbin, Richard; Fitzpatrick, David; Floyd, Jamie; Foley, A. Reghan; Franklin, Chris; Futema, Marta; Humphries, Steve E.; Hurles, Matt; McCarthy, Shane; Muddyman, Dawn; Muntoni, Francesco; Parker, Victoria; Payne, Felicity; Plagnol, Vincent; Raymond, Lucy; Savage, David B.; Scambler, Peter J.; Schmidts, Miriam; Semple, Robert; Serra, Eva; Stalker, Jim; van Kogelenberg, Margriet; Vijayarangakannan, Parthiban; Walter, Klaudia; Amselem, Serge; Sun, Zhaoxia; Bartoloni, Lucia; Blouin, Jean-Louis; Mitchison, Hannah M.

    2017-01-01

    By moving essential body fluids and molecules, motile cilia and flagella govern respiratory mucociliary clearance, laterality determination and the transport of gametes and cerebrospinal fluid. Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder frequently caused by non-assembly of dynein arm motors into cilia and flagella axonemes. Before their import into cilia and flagella, multi-subunit axonemal dynein arms are thought to be stabilized and pre-assembled in the cytoplasm through a DNAAF2–DNAAF4–HSP90 complex akin to the HSP90 co-chaperone R2TP complex. Here, we demonstrate that large genomic deletions as well as point mutations involving PIH1D3 are responsible for an X-linked form of PCD causing disruption of early axonemal dynein assembly. We propose that PIH1D3, a protein that emerges as a new player of the cytoplasmic pre-assembly pathway, is part of a complementary conserved R2TP-like HSP90 co-chaperone complex, the loss of which affects assembly of a subset of inner arm dyneins. PMID:28176794

  18. X-linked primary ciliary dyskinesia due to mutations in the cytoplasmic axonemal dynein assembly factor PIH1D3.

    PubMed

    Olcese, Chiara; Patel, Mitali P; Shoemark, Amelia; Kiviluoto, Santeri; Legendre, Marie; Williams, Hywel J; Vaughan, Cara K; Hayward, Jane; Goldenberg, Alice; Emes, Richard D; Munye, Mustafa M; Dyer, Laura; Cahill, Thomas; Bevillard, Jeremy; Gehrig, Corinne; Guipponi, Michel; Chantot, Sandra; Duquesnoy, Philippe; Thomas, Lucie; Jeanson, Ludovic; Copin, Bruno; Tamalet, Aline; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Papon, Jean-François; Garin, Antoine; Pin, Isabelle; Vera, Gabriella; Aurora, Paul; Fassad, Mahmoud R; Jenkins, Lucy; Boustred, Christopher; Cullup, Thomas; Dixon, Mellisa; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Bush, Andrew; Chung, Eddie M K; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Loebinger, Michael R; Wilson, Robert; Armengot, Miguel; Escudier, Estelle; Hogg, Claire; Amselem, Serge; Sun, Zhaoxia; Bartoloni, Lucia; Blouin, Jean-Louis; Mitchison, Hannah M

    2017-02-08

    By moving essential body fluids and molecules, motile cilia and flagella govern respiratory mucociliary clearance, laterality determination and the transport of gametes and cerebrospinal fluid. Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder frequently caused by non-assembly of dynein arm motors into cilia and flagella axonemes. Before their import into cilia and flagella, multi-subunit axonemal dynein arms are thought to be stabilized and pre-assembled in the cytoplasm through a DNAAF2-DNAAF4-HSP90 complex akin to the HSP90 co-chaperone R2TP complex. Here, we demonstrate that large genomic deletions as well as point mutations involving PIH1D3 are responsible for an X-linked form of PCD causing disruption of early axonemal dynein assembly. We propose that PIH1D3, a protein that emerges as a new player of the cytoplasmic pre-assembly pathway, is part of a complementary conserved R2TP-like HSP90 co-chaperone complex, the loss of which affects assembly of a subset of inner arm dyneins.

  19. Recapitulating X-Linked Juvenile Retinoschisis in Mouse Model by Knock-In Patient-Specific Novel Mutation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ding; Xu, Tao; Tu, Mengjun; Xu, Jinlin; Zhou, Chenchen; Cheng, Lulu; Yang, Ruqing; Yang, Tanchu; Zheng, Weiwei; He, Xiubin; Deng, Ruzhi; Ge, Xianglian; Li, Jin; Song, Zongming; Zhao, Junzhao; Gu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) is a retinal disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding retinoschisin (RS1), which leads to a significant proportion of visual impairment and blindness. To develop personalized genome editing based gene therapy, knock-in animal disease models that have the exact mutation identified in the patients is extremely crucial, and that the way which genome editing in knock-in animals could be easily transferred to the patients. Here we recruited a family diagnosed with XLRS and identified the causative mutation ( RS1 , p.Y65X), then a knock-in mouse model harboring this disease-causative mutation was generated via TALEN (transcription activator-like effector nucleases). We found that the b-wave amplitude of the ERG of the RS1 -KI mice was significantly decreased. Moreover, we observed that the structure of retina in RS1 -KI mice has become disordered, including the disarray of inner nuclear layer and outer nuclear layer, chaos of outer plexiform layer, decreased inner segments of photoreceptor and the loss of outer segments. The novel knock-in mice ( RS1 -KI) harboring patient-specific mutation will be valuable for development of treatment via genome editing mediated gene correction.

  20. Dextran and protamine-based solid lipid nanoparticles as potential vectors for the treatment of X-linked juvenile retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Diego; del Pozo-Rodríguez, Ana; Solinís, Maria Ángeles; Avilés-Triqueros, Marcelino; Weber, Bernhard H F; Fernández, Eduardo; Gascón, Alicia R

    2012-04-01

    The goal of the present study was to analyze the potential application of nonviral vectors based on solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) for the treatment of ocular diseases by gene therapy, specifically X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS). Vectors were prepared with SLN, dextran, protamine, and a plasmid (pCMS-EGFP or pCEP4-RS1). Formulations were characterized and the in vitro transfection capacity as well as the cellular uptake and the intracellular trafficking were studied in ARPE-19 cells. Formulations were also tested in vivo in Wistar rat eyes, and the efficacy was studied by monitoring the expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) after intravitreal, subretinal, and topical administration. The presence of dextran and protamine in the SLN improved greatly the expression of retinoschisin and EGFP in ARPE-19 cells. The nuclear localization signals of protamine, its ability to protect the DNA, and a shift in the entry mechanism from caveola-mediated to clathrin-mediated endocytosis promoted by the dextran, justify the increase in transfection. After ocular administration of the dextran-protamine-DNA-SLN complex to rat eyes, we detected the expression of EGFP in various types of cells depending on the administration route. Our vectors were also able to transfect corneal cells after topical application. We have demonstrated the potential usefulness of our nonviral vectors loaded with XLRS1 plasmid and provided evidence for their potential application for the management or treatment of degenerative retinal disorders as well as ocular surface diseases.

  1. Prenatal diagnosis for a novel splice mutation of PHEX gene in a large Han Chinese family affected with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Guangrong; Liu, Caixia; Zhou, Jingyi; Liu, Peiyan; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Hongkun; Hou, Zhiyan; Zhao, Yanyan; Sun, Kailai; Li-Ling, Jesse

    2010-06-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is the most common form of heritable rickets characterized by X-linked dominant inheritance, renal phosphate wasting, hypophosphatemia, and defective bone mineralization. Inactivating mutations of the PHEX gene located at Xp22.1 have been linked with this disease. Ethnic distribution of such mutations seems widespread but only a few mutations in the Chinese population have been reported to date. We report on a large Han Chinese family affected with XLH rickets, which included 13 patients from four generations. Polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing were performed for all exons and intron-exon boundaries of the PHEX gene. The effect of nucleotide changes was analyzed using bioinformatic software. Prenatal diagnosis was performed on umbilical cord blood at the 20th gestational week. A novel G-->A splice mutation in intron 7 (c.849+1G>A) was identified in all patients from the family. As confirmed by reverse-transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the mutation has rendered loss of a normal splice donor site (c.849+1G) while activating a cryptic one at c.849+519G, which resulted in addition of 518 nucleotides to the mature RNA. Prenatal diagnosis had excluded the fetus for carrying the same mutation. A healthy boy was born later. A novel splice mutation c.849+1G>A in the PHEX gene is responsible for XLH in the studied family. Further studies may enhance our understanding of the role of this mutation in the pathogenesis of XLH.

  2. Impaired Telomere Maintenance and Decreased Canonical WNT Signaling but Normal Ribosome Biogenesis in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from X-Linked Dyskeratosis Congenita Patients.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bai-Wei; Apicella, Marisa; Mills, Jason; Fan, Jian-Meng; Reeves, Dara A; French, Deborah; Podsakoff, Gregory M; Bessler, Monica; Mason, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by the presence of short telomeres at presentation. Mutations in ten different genes, whose products are involved in the telomere maintenance pathway, have been shown to cause DC. The X-linked form is the most common form of the disease and is caused by mutations in the gene DKC1, encoding the protein dyskerin. Dyskerin is required for the assembly and stability of telomerase and is also involved in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing where it converts specific uridines to pseudouridine. DC is thought to result from failure to maintain tissues, like blood, that are renewed by stem cell activity, but research into pathogenic mechanisms has been hampered by the difficulty of obtaining stem cells from patients. We reasoned that induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from X-linked DC patients may provide information about the mechanisms involved. Here we describe the production of iPS cells from DC patients with DKC1 mutations Q31E, A353V and ΔL37. In addition we constructed "corrected" lines with a copy of the wild type dyskerin cDNA expressed from the AAVS1 safe harbor locus. We show that in iPS cells with DKC1 mutations telomere maintenance is compromised with short telomere lengths and decreased telomerase activity. The degree to which telomere lengths are affected by expression of telomerase during reprograming, or with ectopic expression of wild type dyskerin, is variable. The recurrent mutation A353V shows the most severe effect on telomere maintenance. A353V cells but not Q31E or ΔL37 cells, are refractory to correction by expression of wild type DKC1 cDNA. Because dyskerin is involved in both telomere maintenance and ribosome biogenesis it has been postulated that defective ribosome biogenesis and translation may contribute to the disease phenotype. Evidence from mouse and zebra fish models has supported the involvement of ribosome biogenesis but primary cells from human

  3. Impaired Telomere Maintenance and Decreased Canonical WNT Signaling but Normal Ribosome Biogenesis in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from X-Linked Dyskeratosis Congenita Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Bai-Wei; Apicella, Marisa; Mills, Jason; Fan, Jian-Meng; Reeves, Dara A.; French, Deborah; Podsakoff, Gregory M.; Bessler, Monica; Mason, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by the presence of short telomeres at presentation. Mutations in ten different genes, whose products are involved in the telomere maintenance pathway, have been shown to cause DC. The X-linked form is the most common form of the disease and is caused by mutations in the gene DKC1, encoding the protein dyskerin. Dyskerin is required for the assembly and stability of telomerase and is also involved in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing where it converts specific uridines to pseudouridine. DC is thought to result from failure to maintain tissues, like blood, that are renewed by stem cell activity, but research into pathogenic mechanisms has been hampered by the difficulty of obtaining stem cells from patients. We reasoned that induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from X-linked DC patients may provide information about the mechanisms involved. Here we describe the production of iPS cells from DC patients with DKC1 mutations Q31E, A353V and ΔL37. In addition we constructed “corrected” lines with a copy of the wild type dyskerin cDNA expressed from the AAVS1 safe harbor locus. We show that in iPS cells with DKC1 mutations telomere maintenance is compromised with short telomere lengths and decreased telomerase activity. The degree to which telomere lengths are affected by expression of telomerase during reprograming, or with ectopic expression of wild type dyskerin, is variable. The recurrent mutation A353V shows the most severe effect on telomere maintenance. A353V cells but not Q31E or ΔL37 cells, are refractory to correction by expression of wild type DKC1 cDNA. Because dyskerin is involved in both telomere maintenance and ribosome biogenesis it has been postulated that defective ribosome biogenesis and translation may contribute to the disease phenotype. Evidence from mouse and zebra fish models has supported the involvement of ribosome biogenesis but primary cells from human

  4. A Novel Mutation in a Kazakh Family with X-Linked Alport Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rakhimova, Saule E.; Nigmatullina, Nazym B.; Momynaliev, Kuvat T.; Ramanculov, Yerlan M.

    2015-01-01

    Alport syndrome is a genetic condition that results in hematuria, progressive renal impairment, hearing loss, and occasionally lenticonus and retinopathy. Approximately 80% of Alport syndrome cases are caused by X-linked mutations in the COL4A5 gene encoding type IV collagen. The objective of this study was to define the SNP profiles for COL4A5 in patients with hereditary nephritis and hematuria. For this, we examined four subjects from one Kazakh family clinically affected with X-linked Alport syndrome due to COL4A5 gene mutations. All 51 exons of the COL4A5 gene were screened by linkage analysis and direct DNA sequencing, resulting in the identification of a novel mutation (G641E) in exon 25. The mutation was found only in two affected family individuals but was not present in healthy family members or 200 unrelated healthy controls. This result demonstrates that this novel mutation is pathogenic and has meaningful implications for the diagnosis of patients with Alport syndrome. PMID:26168235

  5. A Novel Mutation in a Kazakh Family with X-Linked Alport Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Baikara, Barshagul T; Zholdybayeva, Elena V; Rakhimova, Saule E; Nigmatullina, Nazym B; Momynaliev, Kuvat T; Ramanculov, Yerlan M

    2015-01-01

    Alport syndrome is a genetic condition that results in hematuria, progressive renal impairment, hearing loss, and occasionally lenticonus and retinopathy. Approximately 80% of Alport syndrome cases are caused by X-linked mutations in the COL4A5 gene encoding type IV collagen. The objective of this study was to define the SNP profiles for COL4A5 in patients with hereditary nephritis and hematuria. For this, we examined four subjects from one Kazakh family clinically affected with X-linked Alport syndrome due to COL4A5 gene mutations. All 51 exons of the COL4A5 gene were screened by linkage analysis and direct DNA sequencing, resulting in the identification of a novel mutation (G641E) in exon 25. The mutation was found only in two affected family individuals but was not present in healthy family members or 200 unrelated healthy controls. This result demonstrates that this novel mutation is pathogenic and has meaningful implications for the diagnosis of patients with Alport syndrome.

  6. The forensic value of X-linked markers in mixed-male DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    He, HaiJun; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Cai, JinHong; Huang, Jian

    2018-05-04

    Autosomal genetic markers and Y chromosome markers have been widely applied in analysis of mixed stains at crime scenes by forensic scientists. However, true genotype combinations are often difficult to distinguish using autosomal markers when similar amounts of DNA are contributed by multiple donors. In addition, specific individuals cannot be determined by Y chromosomal markers because male relatives share the same Y chromosome. X-linked markers, possessing characteristics somewhere intermediate between autosomes and the Y chromosome, are less universally applied in criminal casework. In this paper, X markers are proposed to apply to male mixtures because their true genes can be more easily and accurately recognized than the decision of the genotypes of AS markers. In this study, an actual two-man mixed stain from a forensic case file and simulated male-mixed DNA were examined simultaneously with the X markers and autosomal markers. Finally, the actual mixture was separated successfully by the X markers, although it was unresolved by AS-STRs, and the separation ratio of the simulated mixture was much higher using Chr X tools than with AS methods. We believe X-linked markers provide significant advantages in individual discrimination of male mixtures that should be further applied to forensic work.

  7. Molecular and clinical studies of X-linked deafness among Pakistani families.

    PubMed

    Waryah, Ali M; Ahmed, Zubair M; Bhinder, Munir A; Binder, Munir A; Choo, Daniel I; Sisk, Robert A; Shahzad, Mohsin; Khan, Shaheen N; Friedman, Thomas B; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Riazuddin, Saima

    2011-07-01

    There are 68 sex-linked syndromes that include hearing loss as one feature and five sex-linked nonsyndromic deafness loci listed in the OMIM database. The possibility of additional such sex-linked loci was explored by ascertaining three unrelated Pakistani families (PKDF536, PKDF1132 and PKDF740) segregating X-linked recessive deafness. Sequence analysis of POU3F4 (DFN3) in affected members of families PKDF536 and PKDF1132 revealed two novel nonsense mutations, p.Q136X and p.W114X, respectively. Family PKDF740 is segregating congenital blindness, mild-to-profound progressive hearing loss that is characteristic of Norrie disease (MIM#310600). Sequence analysis of NDP among affected members of this family revealed a novel single nucleotide deletion c.49delG causing a frameshift and premature truncation (p.V17fsX1) of the encoded protein. These mutations were not found in 150 normal DNA samples. Identification of pathogenic alleles causing X-linked recessive deafness will improve molecular diagnosis, genetic counseling and molecular epidemiology of hearing loss among Pakistanis.

  8. X-linked primary immunodeficiency associated with hemizygous mutations in the moesin (MSN) gene.

    PubMed

    Lagresle-Peyrou, Chantal; Luce, Sonia; Ouchani, Farid; Soheili, Tayebeh Shabi; Sadek, Hanem; Chouteau, Myriam; Durand, Amandine; Pic, Isabelle; Majewski, Jacek; Brouzes, Chantal; Lambert, Nathalie; Bohineust, Armelle; Verhoeyen, Els; Cosset, François-Loïc; Magerus-Chatinet, Aude; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric; Gandemer, Virginie; Monnier, Delphine; Heijmans, Catherine; van Gijn, Marielle; Dalm, Virgil A; Mahlaoui, Nizar; Stephan, Jean-Louis; Picard, Capucine; Durandy, Anne; Kracker, Sven; Hivroz, Claire; Jabado, Nada; de Saint Basile, Geneviève; Fischer, Alain; Cavazzana, Marina; André-Schmutz, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    We investigated 7 male patients (from 5 different families) presenting with profound lymphopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia, fluctuating monocytopenia and neutropenia, a poor immune response to vaccine antigens, and increased susceptibility to bacterial and varicella zoster virus infections. We sought to characterize the genetic defect involved in a new form of X-linked immunodeficiency. We performed genetic analyses and an exhaustive phenotypic and functional characterization of the lymphocyte compartment. We observed hemizygous mutations in the moesin (MSN) gene (located on the X chromosome and coding for MSN) in all 7 patients. Six of the latter had the same missense mutation, which led to an amino acid substitution (R171W) in the MSN four-point-one, ezrin, radixin, moesin domain. The seventh patient had a nonsense mutation leading to a premature stop codon mutation (R533X). The naive T-cell counts were particularly low for age, and most CD8 + T cells expressed the senescence marker CD57. This phenotype was associated with impaired T-cell proliferation, which was rescued by expression of wild-type MSN. MSN-deficient T cells also displayed poor chemokine receptor expression, increased adhesion molecule expression, and altered migration and adhesion capacities. Our observations establish a causal link between an ezrin-radixin-moesin protein mutation and a primary immunodeficiency that could be referred to as X-linked moesin-associated immunodeficiency. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic Analysis of a Kindred With X-linked Mental Handicap and Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Aldred, M. A.; Dry, K. L.; Knight-Jones, E. B.; Hardwick, L. J.; Teague, P. W.; Lester, D. H.; Brown, J.; Spowart, G.; Carothers, A. D.; Raeburn, J. A.; Bird, A. C.; Fielder, A. R.; Wright, A. F.

    1994-01-01

    A kindred is described in which X-linked nonspecific mental handicap segregates together with retinitis pigmentosa. Carrier females are mentally normal but may show signs of the X-linked retinitis pigmentosa carrier state and become symptomatic in their later years. Analysis of polymorphic DNA markers at nine loci on the short arm of the X chromosome shows that no crossing-over occurs between the disease and Xp11 markers DXS255, TIMP, DXS426, MAOA, and DXS228. The 90% confidence limits show that the locus is in the Xp21-q21 region. Haplotype analysis is consistent with the causal gene being located proximal to the Xp21 loci DXS538 and 5'-dystrophin on the short arm of the X chromosome. The posterior probability of linkage to the RP2 region of the X chromosome short arm (Xp11.4-p11.23) is .727, suggesting the possibility of a contiguous-gene-deletion syndrome. No cytogenetic abnormality has been identified. PMID:7977353

  10. Genetic analysis of a kindred with X-linked mental handicap and retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Aldred, M.A.; Dry, K.L.; Hardwick, L.J.

    1994-11-01

    A kindred is described in which X-linked nonspecific mental handicap segregates together with retinitis pigmentosa. Carrier females are mentally normal but may show signs of the X-linked retinitis pigmentosa carrier state and become symptomatic in their later years. Analysis of polymorphic DNA markers at nine loci on the short arm of the X chromosome shows that no crossing-over occurs between the disease and Xp11 markers DXS255, TIMP, DXS426, MAOA, and DXS228. The 90% confidence limits show that the locus is in the Xp21-q21 region. Haplotype analysis is consistent with the causal gene being located proximal to the Xp21 loci DXS538more » and 5{prime}-dystrophin on the short arm of the X chromosome. The posterior probability of linkage to the RP2 region of the X chromosome short arm (Xp11.4-p11.23) is .727, suggesting the possibility of a contiguous-gene-deletion syndrome. No cytogenetic abnormality has been identified. 33 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  11. Test-Retest Intervisit Variability of Functional and Structural Parameters in X-Linked Retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Brett G; Cukras, Catherine A; Vitale, Susan; Turriff, Amy; Bowles, Kristin; Sieving, Paul A

    2014-09-01

    To examine the variability of four outcome measures that could be used to address safety and efficacy in therapeutic trials with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis. Seven men with confirmed mutations in the RS1 gene were evaluated over four visits spanning 6 months. Assessments included visual acuity, full-field electroretinograms (ERG), microperimetric macular sensitivity, and retinal thickness measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Eyes were separated into Better or Worse Eye groups based on acuity at baseline. Repeatability coefficients were calculated for each parameter and jackknife resampling used to derive 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The threshold for statistically significant change in visual acuity ranged from three to eight letters. For ERG a-wave, an amplitude reduction greater than 56% would be considered significant. For other parameters, variabilities were lower in the Worse Eye group, likely a result of floor effects due to collapse of the schisis pockets and/or retinal atrophy. The criteria for significant change (Better/Worse Eye) for three important parameters were: ERG b/a-wave ratio (0.44/0.23), point wise sensitivity (10.4/7.0 dB), and central retinal thickness (31%/18%). The 95% CI range for visual acuity, ERG, retinal sensitivity, and central retinal thickness relative to baseline are described for this cohort of participants with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS). A quantitative understanding of the variability of outcome measures is vital to establishing the safety and efficacy limits for therapeutic trials of XLRS patients.

  12. Craniofacial morphometric analysis of individuals with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Alice F; Larson, Jacinda R; Jones, Kyle B; Liberton, Denise K; Landan, Maya; Wang, Zhifeng; Boekelheide, Anne; Langham, Margaret; Mushegyan, Vagan; Oberoi, Snehlata; Brao, Rosalie; Wen, Timothy; Johnson, Ramsey; Huttner, Kenneth; Grange, Dorothy K; Spritz, Richard A; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Jheon, Andrew H; Klein, Ophir D

    2014-09-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is the most prevalent type of ectodermal dysplasia (ED). ED is an umbrella term for a group of syndromes characterized by missing or malformed ectodermal structures, including skin, hair, sweat glands, and teeth. The X-linked recessive (XL), autosomal recessive (AR), and autosomal dominant (AD) types of HED are caused by mutations in the genes encoding ectodysplasin (EDA1), EDA receptor (EDAR), or EDAR-associated death domain (EDARADD). Patients with HED have a distinctive facial appearance, yet a quantitative analysis of the HED craniofacial phenotype using advanced three-dimensional (3D) technologies has not been reported. In this study, we characterized craniofacial morphology in subjects with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) by use of 3D imaging and geometric morphometrics (GM), a technique that uses defined landmarks to quantify size and shape in complex craniofacial morphologies. We found that the XLHED craniofacial phenotype differed significantly from controls. Patients had a smaller and shorter face with a proportionally longer chin and midface, prominent midfacial hypoplasia, a more protrusive chin and mandible, a narrower and more pointed nose, shorter philtrum, a narrower mouth, and a fuller and more rounded lower lip. Our findings refine the phenotype of XLHED and may be useful both for clinical diagnosis of XLHED and to extend understanding of the role of EDA in craniofacial development.

  13. X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease predominates in a cohort of multiethnic Malaysian patients.

    PubMed

    Shahrizaila, Nortina; Samulong, Sarimah; Tey, Shelisa; Suan, Liaw Chiew; Meng, Lao Kah; Goh, Khean Jin; Ahmad-Annuar, Azlina

    2014-02-01

    Data regarding Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is lacking in Southeast Asian populations. We investigated the frequency of the common genetic mutations in a multiethnic Malaysian cohort. Patients with features of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease or hereditary liability to pressure palsies were investigated for PMP22 duplication, deletion, and point mutations and GJB1, MPZ, and MFN2 point mutations. Over a period of 3 years, we identified 25 index patients. A genetic diagnosis was reached in 60%. The most common were point mutations in GJB1, accounting for X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (24% of the total patient population), followed by PMP22 duplication causing Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (20%). We also discovered 2 novel GJB1 mutations, c.521C>T (Proline174Leucine) and c.220G>A (Valine74Methionine). X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease was found to predominate in our patient cohort. We also found a better phenotype/genotype correlation when applying a more recently recommended genetic approach to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Severe X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata in nine new female fetuses.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Mathilde; Dufernez, Fabienne; Bruel, Ange-Line; Gonzales, Marie; Aral, Bernard; Saint-Onge, Judith; Gigot, Nadège; Desir, Julie; Daelemans, Caroline; Jossic, Frédérique; Schmitt, Sébastien; Mangione, Raphaele; Pelluard, Fanny; Vincent-Delorme, Catherine; Labaune, Jean-Marc; Bigi, Nicole; D'Olne, Dominique; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Toutain, Annick; Blesson, Sophie; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Thevenon, Julien; El Chehadeh, Salima; Masurel-Paulet, Alice; Joyé, Nicole; Vibert-Guigue, Claude; Rigonnot, Luc; Rousseau, Thierry; Vabres, Pierre; Hervé, Philippe; Lamazière, Antonin; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Faivre, Laurence; Laurent, Nicole; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel

    2015-07-01

    Conradi-Hünermann-Happle [X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata 2 (CDPX2)] syndrome is a rare X-linked dominant skeletal dysplasia usually lethal in men while affected women show wide clinical heterogeneity. Different EBP mutations have been reported. Severe female cases have rarely been reported, with only six antenatal presentations. To better characterize the phenotype in female fetuses, we included nine antenatally diagnosed cases of women with EBP mutations. All cases were de novo except for two fetuses with an affected mother and one case of germinal mosaicism. The mean age at diagnosis was 22 weeks of gestation. The ultrasound features mainly included bone abnormalities: shortening (8/9 cases) and bowing of the long bones (5/9), punctuate epiphysis (7/9) and an irregular aspect of the spine (5/9). Postnatal X-rays and examination showed ichthyosis (8/9) and epiphyseal stippling (9/9), with frequent asymmetric short and bowed long bones. The X-inactivation pattern of the familial case revealed skewed X-inactivation in the mildly symptomatic mother and random X-inactivation in the severe fetal case. Differently affected skin samples of the same fetus revealed different patterns of X-inactivation. Prenatal detection of asymmetric shortening and bowing of the long bones and cartilage stippling should raise the possibility of CPDX2 in female fetuses, especially because the majority of such cases involve de novo mutations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Molecular and Clinical Studies of X-linked Deafness Among Pakistani Families

    PubMed Central

    Waryah, Ali M.; Ahmed, Zubair M.; Choo, Daniel I.; Sisk, Robert A.; Binder, Munir A.; Shahzad, Mohsin; Khan, Shaheen N.; Friedman, Thomas B.; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Riazuddin, Saima

    2011-01-01

    There are 68 sex-linked syndromes that include hearing loss as one feature and five sex-linked nonsyndromic deafness loci listed in the OMIM database. The possibility of additional such sex-linked loci was explored by ascertaining three unrelated Pakistani families (PKDF536, PKDF1132, PKDF740) segregating X-linked recessive deafness. Sequence analysis of POU3F4 (DFN3) in affected members of families PKDF536 and PKDF1132 revealed two novel nonsense mutations, p.Q136X and p.W114X, respectively. Family PKDF740 is segregating congenital blindness, mild to profound progressive hearing loss that is characteristic of Norrie disease (MIM#310600). Sequence analysis of NDP among affected members of this family revealed a novel single nucleotide deletion c.49delG causing a frameshift and premature truncation (p.V17fsX1) of the encoded protein. These mutations were not found in 150 normal DNA samples. Identification of pathogenic alleles causing X-linked recessive deafness will improve molecular diagnosis, genetic counseling, and molecular epidemiology of hearing loss among Pakistanis. PMID:21633365

  16. X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus mutations in North America and the Hopewell hypothesis.

    PubMed Central

    Bichet, D G; Arthus, M F; Lonergan, M; Hendy, G N; Paradis, A J; Fujiwara, T M; Morgan, K; Gregory, M C; Rosenthal, W; Didwania, A

    1993-01-01

    In X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) the urine of male patients is not concentrated after the administration of the antidiuretic hormone arginine-vasopressin. This disease is due to mutations in the V2 receptor gene that maps to chromosome region Xq28. In 1969, Bode and Crawford suggested that most NDI patients in North America shared common ancestors of Ulster Scot immigrants who arrived in Halifax in 1761 on the ship Hopewell. A link between this family and a large Utah kindred was also suggested. DNA was obtained from 17 affected male patients from the "Hopewell" kindred and from four additional families from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick who shared the same Xq28 NDI haplotype. The Utah kindred and two families (Q2, Q3) from Quebec were also studied. The "Hopewell" mutation, W71X, is a single base substitution (G-->A) that changes codon 71 from TGG (tryptophan) to TGA (stop). The W71X mutation was found in affected members of the Hopewell and of the four satellite families. The W71X mutation is the cause of X-linked NDI for the largest number of related male patients living in North America. Other families (Utah, Q2 and Q3) that are historically and ethnically unrelated bear other mutations in the V2 receptor gene. Images PMID:8104196

  17. Treatment of Chronic Enterovirus Encephalitis With Fluoxetine in a Patient With X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Gofshteyn, Jacqueline; Cárdenas, Ana María; Bearden, David

    2016-11-01

    Enterovirus may result in a devastating chronic encephalitis in immunocompromised patients, particularly in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Prognosis for patients with chronic enterovirus encephalitis is poor, almost invariably resulting in mortality without specific treatment. There are currently no approved antiviral agents for enterovirus, but the antidepressant drug fluoxetine has been identified through library-based compound screening as a potential anti-enteroviral agent in vitro. However, use of fluoxetine has not previously been studied in humans with enteroviral disease. A five year old boy with X-linked agammaglobulinemia presented with progressive neurological deterioration and was found to have chronic enterovirus encephalitis by brain biopsy. He failed to respond to standard treatment with high dose intravenous immunoglobulin, but showed stabilization and improvement following treatment with fluoxetine. This is the first report to describe the use of fluoxetine as a potential therapy for chronic enterovirus infection. Further investigation of fluoxetine as a treatment option for chronic enterovirus encephalitis is necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. X-Linked Congenital Hypertrichosis Syndrome Is Associated with Interchromosomal Insertions Mediated by a Human-Specific Palindrome near SOX3

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongwen; Shang, Dandan; Sun, Miao; Choi, Sunju; Liu, Qing; Hao, Jiajie; Figuera, Luis E.; Zhang, Feng; Choy, Kwong Wai; Ao, Yang; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Xiao-Lin; Yue, Fengzhen; Wang, Ming-Rong; Jin, Li; Patel, Pragna I.; Jing, Tao; Zhang, Xue

    2011-01-01

    X-linked congenital generalized hypertrichosis (CGH), an extremely rare condition characterized by universal overgrowth of terminal hair, was first mapped to chromosome Xq24-q27.1 in a Mexican family. However, the underlying genetic defect remains unknown. We ascertained a large Chinese family with an X-linked congenital hypertrichosis syndrome combining CGH, scoliosis, and spina bifida and mapped the disease locus to a 5.6 Mb critical region within the interval defined by the previously reported Mexican family. Through the combination of a high-resolution copy-number variation (CNV) scan and targeted genomic sequencing, we identified an interchromosomal insertion at Xq27.1 of a 125,577 bp intragenic fragment of COL23A1 on 5q35.3, with one X breakpoint within and the other very close to a human-specific short palindromic sequence located 82 kb downstream of SOX3. In the Mexican family, we found an interchromosomal insertion at the same Xq27.1 site of a 300,036 bp genomic fragment on 4q31.2, encompassing PRMT10 and TMEM184C and involving parts of ARHGAP10 and EDNRA. Notably, both of the two X breakpoints were within the short palindrome. The two palindrome-mediated insertions fully segregate with the CGH phenotype in each of the families, and the CNV gains of the respective autosomal genomic segments are not present in the public database and were not found in 1274 control individuals. Analysis of control individuals revealed deletions ranging from 173 bp to 9104 bp at the site of the insertions with no phenotypic consequence. Taken together, our results strongly support the pathogenicity of the identified insertions and establish X-linked congenital hypertrichosis syndrome as a genomic disorder. PMID:21636067

  19. Validation of the XDP-MDSP rating scale for the evaluation of patients with X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Pasco, Paul Matthew D; Jamora, Roland Dominic G; Rosales, Raymond L; Diesta, Cid Czarina E; Ng, Arlene R; Teleg, Rosalia A; Go, Criscely L; Lee, Lillian; Fernandez, Hubert H

    2017-01-01

    X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism(XDP) is a neurodegenerative disorder endemic to the Philippines. A rating scale was developed by the authors under the guidance of the Movement Disorder Society of the Philippines (MDSP) to assess XDP severity and progression, functional impact, and response to treatment in future clinical trials. Our main objective was to validate our new scale, the XDP-MDSP scale. The initial validation process included pragmatic testing to XDP patients followed by a modified Delphi procedure with an international advisory panel of dystonia, parkinsonism and scale development experts. Pearson correlation was used to assess construct validity of our new scale versus the assess construct validity of our new scale versus standard dystonia, parkinsonism, non-motor and functional scales; and also to assess divergent validity against behavioral and cognitive scales. The 37-item XDP-MDSP scale has five parts: I-dystonia, II-parkinsonism, III-non-motor features, IV-ADL, and V-global impression. After initial validation, the scale was administered to 204 XDP patients. Inter-domain correlation for the first four parts was acceptable. The correlation between these domains and the global rating was slightly lower. Correlations between Parts I, II, III, and IV versus standard dystonia, parkinsonism, non-motor and functional scales were acceptable with values ranging from 0.323 to 0.428. For divergent validity, a significant correlation was seen with behavioral scales. No significant correlation was noted with the cognitive scale. The proposed XDP-MDSP scale is internally valid but the global rating subscale may need to be modified or eliminated. While there is convergent validity, divergent validation was successful only on cognitive and not behavioral scales. The frequent co-occurrence of anxiety and depression, and its effect on the motor and functional state, may explain this finding.

  20. Novel mutations in the connexin 32 gene associated with X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C.; Ainsworth, P.

    1994-09-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is a pathologically and genetically hetergenous group of disorders that cause a progressive neuropathy, defined pathologically by degeneration of the myelin (CMT 1) of the axon (CMT 2) of the peripheral nerves. An X-linked type of the demyelinating form of this disorder (CMT X) has recently been linked to mutations in the connexin 32 (Cx32) gene, which codes for a 284 amino acid gap junction protein found in myelinated peripheral nerve. To date some 7 different mutations in this gene have been identified as being responsible for CMT X. The majority of these predict nonconservative amino acid substitutions,more » while one is a frameshift mutation which predicts a premature stop at codon 21. We report the results of molecular studies on three further local CMT X kindreds. The Cx32 gene was amplified by PCR in three overlapping fragments 300-450 bp in length using leukocyte-derived DNA as template. These were either sequenced directly using a deaza dGTP sequencing protocol, or were cloned and sequenced using a TA vector. In two of the kindreds the affected members carried a point mutation which was predicted to effect a non-conservative amino acid change within the first transmembrane domain. Both of these mutations caused a restriction site alteration (the loss of an Nla III and the creation of a Pvu II, respectively), and the former mutation was observed to segregate with the clinicial phenotype in affected family members. Affected members of the third kindred, which was a very large multigenerational family that had been extensively studied previously, were shown to carry a point mutation predicted to cause a premature truncation of the Cx32 gene product in the intracellular carboxy terminus. This mutation obliterated an Rsa I site which allowed a rapid screen of several other family members.« less

  1. [Paediatric retinal detachment and hereditary vitreoretinal disorders].

    PubMed

    Meier, P

    2013-09-01

    The number of retinal detachments in children is very low in comparison to the number in adults. One predisposing factor for development of paediatric retinal detachment is suffering from hereditary vitreoretinal degeneration (e.g., Stickler syndrome, Wagner syndrome, Kniest dysplasia, familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, congenital X-linked retinoschisis, Knobloch syndrome, incontinentia pigmenti, Norrie disease). Hereditary vitreoretinopathies are characterised by an abnormal-appearing vitreous gel with associated retinal changes. In most of these eyes further ocular abnormalities can be diagnosed. A group of hereditary disorders is associated with characteristic systemic abnormalities. Allied conditions should be considered in the clinical diagnosis. Vitreoretinopathies are the most common cause of inherited retinal detachment. In most eyes primary vitrectomy is necessary, and disease-specific surgical treatment is discussed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. The Second Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium International Consensus Conference on Late Effects after Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (HCT): Defining the Unique Late Effects of Children undergoing HCT for Immune Deficiencies, Inherited Marrow Failure Disorders, and Hemoglobinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Andrew C.; Duncan, Christine N.; Alter, Blanche P.; Bresters, Dorine; Cowan, Morton J.; Notarangelo, Luigi; Rosenberg, Philip S.; Shenoy, Shalini; Skinner, Roderick; Walters, Mark C.; Wagner, John; Baker, K. Scott; Pulsipher, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    An international consensus conference sponsored by the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant consortium entitled, “Late Effects Screening and Recommendations Following Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant for Immune Deficiency and Non-malignant Hematologic Disease was held in Minneapolis, Minnesota on May 10–11, 2016. The purpose of the conference was to address the unmet need for a greater understanding of and the screening for long-term complications in the growing population of survivors of transplantation for nonmalignant disorders. The conference focused on transplantation for hemoglobinopathy, immune deficiency, and inherited bone marrow syndromes. A multidisciplinary group of experts in the disease areas and transplant late effects presented the current state of understanding of how the underlying disease, pretransplant therapies, and transplant related factors uniquely interact to influence the development of late toxicities. Recommendations were put forth by the group for the late effects screening of survivors of transplantation for these non-malignant disorders. The findings and recommendations that came from this conference will be presented in a series of six additional manuscripts in the upcoming months. In this manuscript we explore the need for screening practices specific to the survivors of transplantation for non-malignant diseases and the metholodologic challenges associated with the study of these patients. PMID:27737772

  3. Inherited disorders in the Afrikaner population of southern Africa. Part I. Historical and demographic background, cardiovascular, neurological, metabolic and intestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Botha, M C; Beighton, P

    1983-10-08

    Certain genetic disorders occur with unusually high frequency in the Afrikaner population of southern Africa. Conditions of this type (reviewed in Part I of this article) include familial hypercholesterolaemia, progressive familial heart block, Huntington's chorea, porphyria variegata, Gaucher's disease, cystic fibrosis and familial colonic polyposis. This genetic situation is explicable to some extent on the basis of the demographic development of the Afrikaner population during the 14 generations since the arrival of the first immigrants from Holland more than 330 years ago.

  4. Genes and inheritance.

    PubMed

    Middelton, L A; Peters, K F

    2001-10-01

    The information gained from the Human Genome Project and related genetic research will undoubtedly create significant changes in healthcare practice. It is becoming increasingly clear that nurses in all areas of clinical practice will require a fundamental understanding of basic genetics. This article provides the oncology nurse with an overview of basic genetic concepts, including inheritance patterns of single gene conditions, pedigree construction, chromosome aberrations, and the multifactorial basis underlying the common diseases of adulthood. Normal gene structure and function are introduced and the biochemistry of genetic errors is described.

  5. Tremor in X-linked recessive spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy's disease).

    PubMed

    Dias, Francisco A; Munhoz, Renato P; Raskin, Salmo; Werneck, Lineu César; Teive, Hélio A G

    2011-01-01

    To study tremor in patients with X-linked recessive spinobulbar muscular atrophy or Kennedy's disease. Ten patients (from 7 families) with a genetic diagnosis of Kennedy's disease were screened for the presence of tremor using a standardized clinical protocol and followed up at a neurology outpatient clinic. All index patients were genotyped and showed an expanded allele in the androgen receptor gene. Mean patient age was 37.6 years and mean number of CAG repeats 47 (44-53). Tremor was present in 8 (80%) patients and was predominantly postural hand tremor. Alcohol responsiveness was detected in 7 (88%) patients with tremor, who all responded well to treatment with a β-blocker (propranolol). Tremor is a common feature in patients with Kennedy's disease and has characteristics similar to those of essential tremor.

  6. Tremor in X-linked recessive spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy's disease)

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Francisco A; Munhoz, Renato P; Raskin, Salmo; Werneck, Lineu César; Teive, Hélio A G

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study tremor in patients with X-linked recessive spinobulbar muscular atrophy or Kennedy's disease. METHODS: Ten patients (from 7 families) with a genetic diagnosis of Kennedy's disease were screened for the presence of tremor using a standardized clinical protocol and followed up at a neurology outpatient clinic. All index patients were genotyped and showed an expanded allele in the androgen receptor gene. RESULTS: Mean patient age was 37.6 years and mean number of CAG repeats 47 (44-53). Tremor was present in 8 (80%) patients and was predominantly postural hand tremor. Alcohol responsiveness was detected in 7 (88%) patients with tremor, who all responded well to treatment with a β-blocker (propranolol). CONCLUSION: Tremor is a common feature in patients with Kennedy's disease and has characteristics similar to those of essential tremor. PMID:21808858

  7. Regulatory divergence of X-linked genes and hybrid male sterility in mice.

    PubMed

    Oka, Ayako; Shiroishi, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Postzygotic reproductive isolation is the reduction of fertility or viability in hybrids between genetically diverged populations. One example of reproductive isolation, hybrid male sterility, may be caused by genetic incompatibility between diverged genetic factors in two distinct populations. Genetic factors involved in hybrid male sterility are disproportionately located on the X chromosome. Recent studies showing the evolutionary divergence in gene regulatory networks or epigenetic effects suggest that the genetic incompatibilities occur at much broader levels than had previously been thought (e.g., incompatibility of protein-protein interactions). The latest studies suggest that evolutionary divergence of transcriptional regulation causes genetic incompatibilities in hybrid animals, and that such incompatibilities preferentially involve X-linked genes. In this review, we focus on recent progress in understanding hybrid sterility in mice, including our studies, and we discuss the evolutionary significance of regulatory divergence for speciation.

  8. MBTPS2 mutations cause defective regulated intramembrane proteolysis in X-linked osteogenesis imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Lindert, Uschi; Cabral, Wayne A.; Ausavarat, Surasawadee; Tongkobpetch, Siraprapa; Ludin, Katja; Barnes, Aileen M.; Yeetong, Patra; Weis, Maryann; Krabichler, Birgit; Srichomthong, Chalurmpon; Makareeva, Elena N.; Janecke, Andreas R.; Leikin, Sergey; Röthlisberger, Benno; Rohrbach, Marianne; Kennerknecht, Ingo; Eyre, David R.; Suphapeetiporn, Kanya; Giunta, Cecilia; Marini, Joan C.; Shotelersuk, Vorasuk

    2016-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a collagen-related bone dysplasia. We identified an X-linked recessive form of OI caused by defects in MBTPS2, which encodes site-2 metalloprotease (S2P). MBTPS2 missense mutations in two independent kindreds with moderate/severe OI cause substitutions at highly conserved S2P residues. Mutant S2P has normal stability, but impaired functioning in regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) of OASIS, ATF6 and SREBP transcription factors, consistent with decreased proband secretion of type I collagen. Further, hydroxylation of the collagen lysine residue (K87) critical for crosslinking is reduced in proband bone tissue, consistent with decreased lysyl hydroxylase 1 in proband osteoblasts. Reduced collagen crosslinks presumptively undermine bone strength. Also, proband osteoblasts have broadly defective differentiation. These mutations provide evidence that RIP plays a fundamental role in normal bone development. PMID:27380894

  9. Evidence against an X-linked visual loss susceptibility locus in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmers, R.M.; Davis, M.B.; Sweeney, M.G.

    1996-07-01

    Pedigree analysis of British families with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) closely fits a model in which a pathogenic mtDNA mutation interacts with an X-linked visual loss susceptibility locus (VLSL). This model predicts that 60% of affected females will show marked skewing of X inactivation. Linkage analysis in British and Italian families with genetically proven LHON has excluded the presence of such a VLSL over 169 cM of the X chromosome both when all families were analyzed together and when only families with the bp 11778 mutation were studied. Further, there was no excess skewing of X inactivation in affectedmore » females. There was no evidence for close linkage to three markers in the pseudoautosomal region of the sex chromosomes. The mechanism of incomplete penetrance and male predominance in LHON remains unclear. 27 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.« less

  10. Assessing interethnic admixture using an X-linked insertion-deletion multiplex.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Elzemar Martins; dos Santos, Ney Pereira Carneiro; dos Santos, Andrea Kely Campos Ribeiro; Pereira, Rui; Amorim, António; Gusmão, Leonor; Zago, Marco Antonio; dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a PCR multiplex was optimized, allowing the simultaneous analysis of 13 X-chromosome Insertion/deletion polymorphisms (INDELs). Genetic variation observed in Africans, Europeans, and Native Americans reveals high inter-population variability. The estimated proportions of X-chromosomes in an admixed population from the Brazilian Amazon region show a predominant Amerindian contribution (approximately 41%), followed by European (approximately 32%) and African (approximately 27%) contributions. The proportion of Amerindian contribution based on X-linked data is similar to the expected value based on mtDNA and Y-chromosome information. The accuracy for assessing interethnic admixture, and the high differentiation between African, European, and Native American populations, demonstrates the suitability of this INDEL set to measure ancestry proportions in three-hybrid populations, as it is the case of Latin American populations.

  11. Central motor and sensory pathway involvement in an X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth family.

    PubMed

    Zambelis, T; Panas, M; Kokotis, P; Karadima, G; Kararizou, E; Karandreas, N

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the subclinical involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) in an X-linked Charcot-Marie-Toth (CMTX) family. Seven subjects, all members of one family with a C.462T > G connexin 32 (Cx32) mutation were investigated by Blink reflex, Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). There were five clinically symptomatic for CMT neuropathy (four male and one female) and two asymptomatic (female) subjects. Subclinical CNS involvement was observed in all, symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. This is the largest CMTX neuropathy family investigated for CNS involvement. Electrophysiological involvement of the CNS in every examined member of this family was observed, raising the question of a more systematic involvement of the CNS in CMTX disease.

  12. Arch fingerprints, hypotonia, and areflexia associated with X linked mental retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, R E; Häne, B; Arena, J F; May, M; Lawrence, L; Lubs, H A; Schwartz, C E

    1997-01-01

    A syndrome with distinctive facies, poor muscle tone, absent deep tendon reflexes, tapered fingers, excessive fingerprint arches, genu valgum and mild-moderate mental retardation has occurred in four males in two generations of a white family of European ancestry. The facies are characterised by square configuration, tented upper lip, and thickening of the helices, upper eyelids, and alae nasi. At birth and at maturity, growth (head circumference, height, weight) of affected males is comparable to or greater than unaffected male sibs. Moderate impairment of cognitive function was documented (IQ scores between 40-51). Carriers show no heterozygote manifestations. This X linked condition appears to be different from other syndromes with mental retardation, although there are certain similarities with the alpha thalassaemia-mental retardation syndrome (ATR-X). Linkage analysis found tight linkage to DXS1166 and DXS995 in Xq13 and Xq21 respectively. Images PMID:9192265

  13. Arch fingerprints, hypotonia, and areflexia associated with X linked mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, R E; Häne, B; Arena, J F; May, M; Lawrence, L; Lubs, H A; Schwartz, C E

    1997-06-01

    A syndrome with distinctive facies, poor muscle tone, absent deep tendon reflexes, tapered fingers, excessive fingerprint arches, genu valgum and mild-moderate mental retardation has occurred in four males in two generations of a white family of European ancestry. The facies are characterised by square configuration, tented upper lip, and thickening of the helices, upper eyelids, and alae nasi. At birth and at maturity, growth (head circumference, height, weight) of affected males is comparable to or greater than unaffected male sibs. Moderate impairment of cognitive function was documented (IQ scores between 40-51). Carriers show no heterozygote manifestations. This X linked condition appears to be different from other syndromes with mental retardation, although there are certain similarities with the alpha thalassaemia-mental retardation syndrome (ATR-X). Linkage analysis found tight linkage to DXS1166 and DXS995 in Xq13 and Xq21 respectively.

  14. X-Linked Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia: New Features and a Novel EDA Gene Mutation.

    PubMed

    Savasta, Salvatore; Carlone, Giorgia; Castagnoli, Riccardo; Chiappe, Francesca; Bassanese, Francesco; Piras, Roberta; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Brazzelli, Valeria; Verrotti, Alberto; Marseglia, Gian L

    2017-01-01

    We described a 5-year-old male with hypodontia, hypohidrosis, and facial dysmorphisms characterized by a depressed nasal bridge, maxillary hypoplasia, and protuberant lips. Chromosomal analysis revealed a normal 46,XY male karyotype. Due to the presence of clinical features of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED), the EDA gene, located at Xq12q13.1, of the patient and his family was sequenced. Analysis of the proband's sequence revealed a missense mutation (T to A transversion) in hemizygosity state at nucleotide position 158 in exon 1 of the EDA gene, which changes codon 53 from leucine to histidine, while heterozygosity at this position was detected in the slightly affected mother; moreover, this mutation was not found in the publically available Human Gene Mutation Database. To date, our findings indicate that a novel mutation in EDA is associated with X-linked HED, adding it to the repertoire of EDA mutations. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Three-dimensional spectral domain optical coherence tomography in X linked foveal retinoschisis

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Sandeep; Manisha; Meyer, Carsten H

    2013-01-01

    Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was performed in two cases of bilateral X linked foveal retinoschisis of different age groups. On fundus examination spoke wheel and honeycomb pattern of cysts were observed along with retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) defects. On SD-OCT, schisis was observed in the outer plexiform layer. External limiting membrane disruption was observed in the subfoveal area, along with disruption of outer nuclear layer (ONL) and inner–outer segment junction. Elevation of ONL due to tractional pull of central palisade was a novel observation. Retinoschisis extended beyond the optic disc up to the nasal region. Extracted RNFL tomogram presented an unprecedented visualisation of schisis along 360° of the optic disc. Tractional elevation in the foveal area and schisis involving nasal region, not observed upon clinical examination, was highlighted on SD-OCT. This investigative modality is an important adjunct in the assessment of foveal retinoschisis. PMID:23563673

  16. Infantile vitreous hemorrhage as the initial presentation of X-linked juvenile retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Joo; Kim, Jeong Hun; Kim, So Yeon; Park, Sung Sup; Yu, Young Suk

    2009-06-01

    The authors report two cases of X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) manifested as bilateral vitreous hemorrhage as early as in an 1-month-old infant and in a 3-month-old infant. The one-month-old male infant showed massive bilateral vitreous hemorrhage. During vitrectomy, thin membrane representing an inner part of schisis cavity was excised and intraschisis hemorrhage was evacuated. As intraschisis cavities were cleared, the stump of inner layer appeared as the demarcation line between the outer layer of the schisis retina and non-schisis retina. The other three-month-old male infant presenting with esodeviation also showed bilateral vitreous hemorrhage. Typical bilateral retinoschisis involving maculae could be seen through vitreous hemorrhage in both eyes on fundus examination. Spontaneous absorption of hemorrhage was observed on regular follow-up. XLRS could be manifested as massive hemorrhage inside or outside of the schisis cavity early in infancy.

  17. Mutations in the RS1 gene in a Chinese family with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Qiaofang; Chu, Yan; Guo, Qiannan; Wu, Dong; Liao, Shixiu

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify the mutations in the retinoschisis 1 (RS1) gene, which was associated with X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) in a four-generation Chinese family, and to provide the theoretical basis for gene diagnosis and gene therapy. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral leukocytes. All six exons and flanking intronic regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by direct sequencing. Through our genetic analysis, one frameshift 573delG mutation was identified in the patients of this four-generation pedigree; however, this mutation was absent in normal or non-carrier subjects. In conclusion, this 573delG mutation is reported in the Chinese population for the first time. This mutation widens the mutational spectrum of RS1 in Asians. Identification of mutations in the RS1 gene and expanded information on clinical manifestations will facilitate early diagnosis, appropriate early therapy, and genetic counseling regarding the prognosis of XLRS.

  18. En face swept-source optical coherence tomographic analysis of X-linked juvenile retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    Ono, Shinji; Takahashi, Atsushi; Mase, Tomoko; Nagaoka, Taiji; Yoshida, Akitoshi

    2016-07-01

    To clarify the area of retinoschisis by X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) en face images. We report two cases of XLRS in the same family. The patients presented with bilateral blurred vision. The posterior segment examination showed a spoked-wheel pattern in the macula. SS-OCT cross-sectional images revealed widespread retinal splitting at the level of the inner nuclear layer bilaterally. We diagnosed XLRS. To evaluate the area of retinoschisis, we obtained en face SS-OCT images, which clearly visualized the area of retinoschisis seen as a sunflower-like structure in the macula. We report the findings on en face SS-OCT images from patients with XLRS. The en face images using SS-OCT showed the precise area of retinoschisis compared with the SS-OCT thickness map and are useful for managing patients with XLRS.

  19. Infantile Vitreous Hemorrhage as the Initial Presentation of X-linked Juvenile Retinoschisis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Joo; Kim, Jeong Hun; Kim, So Yeon; Park, Sung Sup

    2009-01-01

    The authors report two cases of X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) manifested as bilateral vitreous hemorrhage as early as in an 1-month-old infant and in a 3-month-old infant. The one-month-old male infant showed massive bilateral vitreous hemorrhage. During vitrectomy, thin membrane representing an inner part of schisis cavity was excised and intraschisis hemorrhage was evacuated. As intraschisis cavities were cleared, the stump of inner layer appeared as the demarcation line between the outer layer of the schisis retina and non-schisis retina. The other three-month-old male infant presenting with esodeviation also showed bilateral vitreous hemorrhage. Typical bilateral retinoschisis involving maculae could be seen through vitreous hemorrhage in both eyes on fundus examination. Spontaneous absorption of hemorrhage was observed on regular follow-up. XLRS could be manifested as massive hemorrhage inside or outside of the schisis cavity early in infancy. PMID:19568363

  20. Phenotype and genotype in 101 males with X-linked creatine transporter deficiency.

    PubMed

    van de Kamp, J M; Betsalel, O T; Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, S; Abulhoul, L; Grünewald, S; Anselm, I; Azzouz, H; Bratkovic, D; de Brouwer, A; Hamel, B; Kleefstra, T; Yntema, H; Campistol, J; Vilaseca, M A; Cheillan, D; D'Hooghe, M; Diogo, L; Garcia, P; Valongo, C; Fonseca, M; Frints, S; Wilcken, B; von der Haar, S; Meijers-Heijboer, H E; Hofstede, F; Johnson, D; Kant, S G; Lion-Francois, L; Pitelet, G; Longo, N; Maat-Kievit, J A; Monteiro, J P; Munnich, A; Muntau, A C; Nassogne, M C; Osaka, H; Ounap, K; Pinard, J M; Quijano-Roy, S; Poggenburg, I; Poplawski, N; Abdul-Rahman, O; Ribes, A; Arias, A; Yaplito-Lee, J; Schulze, A; Schwartz, C E; Schwenger, S; Soares, G; Sznajer, Y; Valayannopoulos, V; Van Esch, H; Waltz, S; Wamelink, M M C; Pouwels, P J W; Errami, A; van der Knaap, M S; Jakobs, C; Mancini, G M; Salomons, G S

    2013-07-01

    Creatine transporter deficiency is a monogenic cause of X-linked intellectual disability. Since its first description in 2001 several case reports have been published but an overview of phenotype, genotype and phenotype--genotype correlation has been lacking. We performed a retrospective study of clinical, biochemical and molecular genetic data of 101 males with X-linked creatine transporter deficiency from 85 families with a pathogenic mutation in the creatine transporter gene (SLC6A8). Most patients developed moderate to severe intellectual disability; mild intellectual disability was rare in adult patients. Speech language development was especially delayed but almost a third of the patients were able to speak in sentences. Besides behavioural problems and seizures, mild to moderate motor dysfunction, including extrapyramidal movement abnormalities, and gastrointestinal problems were frequent clinical features. Urinary creatine to creatinine ratio proved to be a reliable screening method besides MR spectroscopy, molecular genetic testing and creatine uptake studies, allowing definition of diagnostic guidelines. A third of patients had a de novo mutation in the SLC6A8 gene. Mothers with an affected son with a de novo mutation should be counselled about a recurrence risk in further pregnancies due to the possibility of low level somatic or germline mosaicism. Missense mutations with residual activity might be associated with a milder phenotype and large deletions extending beyond the 3' end of the SLC6A8 gene with a more severe phenotype. Evaluation of the biochemical phenotype revealed unexpected high creatine levels in cerebrospinal fluid suggesting that the brain is able to synthesise creatine and that the cerebral creatine deficiency is caused by a defect in the reuptake of creatine within the neurones.

  1. Silencing of X-Linked MicroRNAs by Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Royo, Hélène; Seitz, Hervé; ElInati, Elias; Peters, Antoine H. F. M.; Stadler, Michael B.; Turner, James M. A.

    2015-01-01

    During the pachytene stage of meiosis in male mammals, the X and Y chromosomes are transcriptionally silenced by Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation (MSCI). MSCI is conserved in therian mammals and is essential for normal male fertility. Transcriptomics approaches have demonstrated that in mice, most or all protein-coding genes on the X chromosome are subject to MSCI. However, it is unclear whether X-linked non-coding RNAs behave in a similar manner. The X chromosome is enriched in microRNA (miRNA) genes, with many exhibiting testis-biased expression. Importantly, high expression levels of X-linked miRNAs (X-miRNAs) have been reported in pachytene spermatocytes, indicating that these genes may escape MSCI, and perhaps play a role in the XY-silencing process. Here we use RNA FISH to examine X-miRNA expression in the male germ line. We find that, like protein-coding X-genes, X-miRNAs are expressed prior to prophase I and are thereafter silenced during pachynema. X-miRNA silencing does not occur in mouse models with defective MSCI. Furthermore, X-miRNAs are expressed at pachynema when present as autosomally integrated transgenes. Thus, we conclude that silencing of X-miRNAs during pachynema in wild type males is MSCI-dependent. Importantly, misexpression of X-miRNAs during pachynema causes spermatogenic defects. We propose that MSCI represents a chromosomal mechanism by which X-miRNAs, and other potential X-encoded repressors, can be silenced, thereby regulating genes with critical late spermatogenic functions. PMID:26509798

  2. Territory inheritance in clownfish.

    PubMed

    Buston, Peter M

    2004-05-07

    Animal societies composed of breeders and non-breeders present a challenge to evolutionary theory because it is not immediately apparent how natural selection can preserve the genes that underlie non-breeding strategies. The clownfish Amphiprion percula forms groups composed of a breeding pair and 0-4 non-breeders. Non-breeders gain neither present direct, nor present indirect benefits from the association. To determine whether non-breeders obtain future direct benefits, I investigated the pattern of territory inheritance. I show that non-breeders stand to inherit the territory within which they reside. Moreover, they form a perfect queue for breeding positions; a queue from which nobody disperses and within which nobody contests. I suggest that queuing might be favoured by selection because it confers a higher probability of attaining breeding status than either dispersing or contesting. This study illustrates that, within animal societies, individuals may tolerate non-breeding positions solely because of their potential to realize benefits in the future.

  3. Territory inheritance in clownfish.

    PubMed Central

    Buston, Peter M

    2004-01-01

    Animal societies composed of breeders and non-breeders present a challenge to evolutionary theory because it is not immediately apparent how natural selection can preserve the genes that underlie non-breeding strategies. The clownfish Amphiprion percula forms groups composed of a breeding pair and 0-4 non-breeders. Non-breeders gain neither present direct, nor present indirect benefits from the association. To determine whether non-breeders obtain future direct benefits, I investigated the pattern of territory inheritance. I show that non-breeders stand to inherit the territory within which they reside. Moreover, they form a perfect queue for breeding positions; a queue from which nobody disperses and within which nobody contests. I suggest that queuing might be favoured by selection because it confers a higher probability of attaining breeding status than either dispersing or contesting. This study illustrates that, within animal societies, individuals may tolerate non-breeding positions solely because of their potential to realize benefits in the future. PMID:15252999

  4. Heterosexual Male Carriers Could Explain Persistence of Homosexuality in Men: Individual-Based Simulations of an X-Linked Inheritance Model.

    PubMed

    Chaladze, Giorgi

    2016-10-01

    Homosexuality has been documented throughout history and is found in almost all human cultures. Twin studies suggest that homosexuality is to some extent heritable. However, from an evolutionary perspective, this poses a problem: Male homosexuals tend to have on average five times fewer children than heterosexual males, so how can a phenomenon associated with low reproductive success be maintained at relatively stable frequencies? Recent findings of increased maternal fecundity of male homosexuals suggest that the genes responsible for homosexuality in males increase fecundity in the females who carry them. Can an increase in maternal fecundity compensate for the fecundity reduction in homosexual men and produce a stable polymorphism? In the current study, this problem was addressed with an individual-based modeling (IBM) approach. IBM suggests that male homosexuality can be maintained in a population at low and stable frequencies if roughly more than half of the females and half of the males are carriers of genes that predispose the male to homosexuality.

  5. Genetic and demographic features of X-linked agammaglobulinemia in Eastern and Central Europe: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Beáta; Volokha, Alla; Mihas, Alexander; Pac, Malgorzata; Bernatowska, Ewa; Kondratenko, Irina; Polyakov, Alexander; Erdos, Melinda; Pasic, Srdjan; Bataneant, Michaela; Szaflarska, Anna; Mironska, Kristina; Richter, Darko; Stavrik, Katarina; Avcin, Tadej; Márton, Gabriella; Nagy, Kálmán; Dérfalvi, Beáta; Szolnoky, Miklós; Kalmár, Agnes; Belevtsev, Michael; Guseva, Marina; Rugina, Aurica; Kriván, Gergely; Timár, László; Nyul, Zoltán; Mosdósi, Bernadett; Kareva, Lidija; Peova, Sonja; Chernyshova, Liudmyla; Gherghina, Ioan; Serban, Margit; Conley, Mary Ellen; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Smith, C I Edvard; van Dongen, Jacques; van der Burg, Mirjam; Maródi, László

    2009-06-01

    Primary immunodeficiency disorders are a recognized public health problem worldwide. The prototype of these conditions is X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) or Bruton's disease. XLA is caused by mutations in Bruton's tyrosine kinase gene (BTK), preventing B cell development and resulting in the almost total absence of serum immunoglobulins. The genetic profile and prevalence of XLA have not previously been studied in Eastern and Central European (ECE) countries. We studied the genetic and demographic features of XLA in Belarus, Croatia Hungary, Poland, Republic of Macedonia, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, and Ukraine. We collected clinical, immunological, and genetic information for 122 patients from 109 families. The BTK gene was sequenced from the genomic DNA of patients with a high susceptibility to infection, almost no CD19(+) peripheral blood B cells, and low or undetectable levels of serum immunoglobulins M, G, and A, compatible with a clinical and immunological diagnosis of XLA. BTK sequence analysis revealed 98 different mutations, 46 of which are reported for the first time here. The mutations included single nucleotide changes in the coding exons (35 missense and 17 nonsense), 23 splicing defects, 13 small deletions, 7 large deletions, and 3 insertions. The mutations were scattered throughout the BTK gene and most frequently concerned the SH1 domain; no missense mutation was detected in the SH3 domain. The prevalence of XLA in ECE countries (total population 145,530,870) was found to be 1 per 1,399,000 individuals. This report provides the first comprehensive overview of the molecular genetic and demographic features of XLA in Eastern and Central Europe.

  6. Mutations of the Mitochondrial Holocytochrome c–Type Synthase in X-Linked Dominant Microphthalmia with Linear Skin Defects Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wimplinger, Isabella; Morleo, Manuela; Rosenberger, Georg; Iaconis, Daniela; Orth, Ulrike; Meinecke, Peter; Lerer, Israela; Ballabio, Andrea; Gal, Andreas; Franco, Brunella; Kutsche, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    The microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome (MLS, or MIDAS) is an X-linked dominant male-lethal disorder almost invariably associated with segmental monosomy of the Xp22 region. In two female patients, from two families, with MLS and a normal karyotype, we identified heterozygous de novo point mutations—a missense mutation (p.R217C) and a nonsense mutation (p.R197X)—in the HCCS gene. HCCS encodes the mitochondrial holocytochrome c–type synthase that functions as heme lyase by covalently adding the prosthetic heme group to both apocytochrome c and c1. We investigated a third family, displaying phenotypic variability, in which the mother and two of her daughters carry an 8.6-kb submicroscopic deletion encompassing part of the HCCS gene. Functional analysis demonstrates that both mutant proteins (R217C and Δ197–268) were unable to complement a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant deficient for the HCCS orthologue Cyc3p, in contrast to wild-type HCCS. Moreover, ectopically expressed HCCS wild-type and the R217C mutant protein are targeted to mitochondria in CHO-K1 cells, whereas the C-terminal–truncated Δ197–268 mutant failed to be sorted to mitochondria. Cytochrome c, the final product of holocytochrome c–type synthase activity, is implicated in both oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and apoptosis. We hypothesize that the inability of HCCS-deficient cells to undergo cytochrome c–mediated apoptosis may push cell death toward necrosis that gives rise to severe deterioration of the affected tissues. In summary, we suggest that disturbance of both OXPHOS and the balance between apoptosis and necrosis, as well as the X-inactivation pattern, may contribute to the variable phenotype observed in patients with MLS. PMID:17033964

  7. Cone Photoreceptor Structure in Patients With X-Linked Cone Dysfunction and Red-Green Color Vision Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Emily J; Wilk, Melissa; Langlo, Christopher S; Kasilian, Melissa; Ring, Michael; Hufnagel, Robert B; Dubis, Adam M; Tee, James J; Kalitzeos, Angelos; Gardner, Jessica C; Ahmed, Zubair M; Sisk, Robert A; Larsen, Michael; Sjoberg, Stacy; Connor, Thomas B; Dubra, Alfredo; Neitz, Jay; Hardcastle, Alison J; Neitz, Maureen; Michaelides, Michel; Carroll, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    Mutations in the coding sequence of the L and M opsin genes are often associated with X-linked cone dysfunction (such as Bornholm Eye Disease, BED), though the exact color vision phenotype associated with these disorders is variable. We examined individuals with L/M opsin gene mutations to clarify the link between color vision deficiency and cone dysfunction. We recruited 17 males for imaging. The thickness and integrity of the photoreceptor layers were evaluated using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Cone density was measured using high-resolution images of the cone mosaic obtained with adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy. The L/M opsin gene array was characterized in 16 subjects, including at least one subject from each family. There were six subjects with the LVAVA haplotype encoded by exon 3, seven with LIAVA, two with the Cys203Arg mutation encoded by exon 4, and two with a novel insertion in exon 2. Foveal cone structure and retinal thickness was disrupted to a variable degree, even among related individuals with the same L/M array. Our findings provide a direct link between disruption of the cone mosaic and L/M opsin variants. We hypothesize that, in addition to large phenotypic differences between different L/M opsin variants, the ratio of expression of first versus downstream genes in the L/M array contributes to phenotypic diversity. While the L/M opsin mutations underlie the cone dysfunction in all of the subjects tested, the color vision defect can be caused either by the same mutation or a gene rearrangement at the same locus.

  8. Cone Photoreceptor Structure in Patients With X-Linked Cone Dysfunction and Red-Green Color Vision Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Emily J.; Wilk, Melissa; Langlo, Christopher S.; Kasilian, Melissa; Ring, Michael; Hufnagel, Robert B.; Dubis, Adam M.; Tee, James J.; Kalitzeos, Angelos; Gardner, Jessica C.; Ahmed, Zubair M.; Sisk, Robert A.; Larsen, Michael; Sjoberg, Stacy; Connor, Thomas B.; Dubra, Alfredo; Neitz, Jay; Hardcastle, Alison J.; Neitz, Maureen; Michaelides, Michel; Carroll, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Mutations in the coding sequence of the L and M opsin genes are often associated with X-linked cone dysfunction (such as Bornholm Eye Disease, BED), though the exact color vision phenotype associated with these disorders is variable. We examined individuals with L/M opsin gene mutations to clarify the link between color vision deficiency and cone dysfunction. Methods We recruited 17 males for imaging. The thickness and integrity of the photoreceptor layers were evaluated using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Cone density was measured using high-resolution images of the cone mosaic obtained with adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy. The L/M opsin gene array was characterized in 16 subjects, including at least one subject from each family. Results There were six subjects with the LVAVA haplotype encoded by exon 3, seven with LIAVA, two with the Cys203Arg mutation encoded by exon 4, and two with a novel insertion in exon 2. Foveal cone structure and retinal thickness was disrupted to a variable degree, even among related individuals with the same L/M array. Conclusions Our findings provide a direct link between disruption of the cone mosaic and L/M opsin variants. We hypothesize that, in addition to large phenotypic differences between different L/M opsin variants, the ratio of expression of first versus downstream genes in the L/M array contributes to phenotypic diversity. While the L/M opsin mutations underlie the cone dysfunction in all of the subjects tested, the color vision defect can be caused either by the same mutation or a gene rearrangement at the same locus. PMID:27447086

  9. Aggressive tumor growth and clinical evolution in a patient with X-linked acro-gigantism syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naves, Luciana A; Daly, Adrian F; Dias, Luiz Augusto; Yuan, Bo; Zakir, Juliano Coelho Oliveira; Barra, Gustavo Barcellos; Palmeira, Leonor; Villa, Chiara; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Júnior, Armindo Jreige; Neto, Florêncio Figueiredo Cavalcante; Liu, Pengfei; Pellegata, Natalia S; Stratakis, Constantine A; Lupski, James R; Beckers, Albert

    2016-02-01

    X-linked acro-gigantism (X-LAG) syndrome is a newly described disease caused by microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3 leading to copy number gain of GPR101. We describe the clinical progress of a sporadic male X-LAG syndrome patient with an Xq26.3 microduplication, highlighting the aggressive natural history of pituitary tumor growth in the absence of treatment. The patient first presented elsewhere aged 5 years 8 months with a history of excessive growth for >2 years. His height was 163 cm, his weight was 36 kg, and he had markedly elevated GH and IGF-1. MRI showed a non-invasive sellar mass measuring 32.5 × 23.9 × 29.1 mm. Treatment was declined and the family was lost to follow-up. At the age of 10 years and 7 months, he presented again with headaches, seizures, and visual disturbance. His height had increased to 197 cm. MRI showed an invasive mass measuring 56.2 × 58.1 × 45.0 mm, with compression of optic chiasma, bilateral cavernous sinus invasion, and hydrocephalus. His thyrotrope, corticotrope, and gonadotrope axes were deficient. Surgery, somatostatin analogs, and cabergoline did not control vertical growth and pegvisomant was added, although vertical growth continues (currently 207 cm at 11 years 7 months of age). X-LAG syndrome is a new genomic disorder in which early-onset pituitary tumorigenesis can lead to marked overgrowth and gigantism. This case illustrates the aggressive nature of tumor evolution and the challenging clinical management in X-LAG syndrome.

  10. Aggressive tumor growth and clinical evolution in a patient with X-linked acro-gigantism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Naves, Luciana A.; Daly, Adrian F.; Dias, Luiz Augusto; Yuan, Bo; Zakir, Juliano Coelho Oliveira; Barra, Gustavo Barcellos; Palmeira, Leonor; Villa, Chiara; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Jreige, Armindo; Neto, Florêncio Figueiredo Cavalcante; Liu, Pengfei; Pellegata, Natalia S.; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Lupski, James R.

    2017-01-01

    X-linked acro-gigantism (X-LAG) syndrome is a newly described disease caused by microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3 leading to copy number gain of GPR101. We describe the clinical progress of a sporadic male X-LAG syndrome patient with an Xq26.3 microduplication, highlighting the aggressive natural history of pituitary tumor growth in the absence of treatment. The patient first presented elsewhere aged 5 years 8 months with a history of excessive growth for >2 years. His height was 163 cm, his weight was 36 kg, and he had markedly elevated GH and IGF-1. MRI showed a non-invasive sellar mass measuring 32.5 × 23.9 × 29.1 mm. Treatment was declined and the family was lost to follow-up. At the age of 10 years and 7 months, he presented again with headaches, seizures, and visual disturbance. His height had increased to 197 cm. MRI showed an invasive mass measuring 56.2 × 58.1 × 45.0 mm, with compression of optic chiasma, bilateral cavernous sinus invasion, and hydrocephalus. His thyrotrope, corticotrope, and gonadotrope axes were deficient. Surgery, somatostatin analogs, and cabergoline did not control vertical growth and pegvisomant was added, although vertical growth continues (currently 207 cm at 11 years 7 months of age). X-LAG syndrome is a new genomic disorder in which early-onset pituitary tumorigenesis can lead to marked overgrowth and gigantism. This case illustrates the aggressive nature of tumor evolution and the challenging clinical management in X-LAG syndrome. PMID:26607152

  11. Novel PHEX nonsense mutation in a patient with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets and review of current therapeutic regimens.

    PubMed

    Kienitz, T; Ventz, M; Kaminsky, E; Quinkler, M

    2011-07-01

    The most common form of familial hypophosphatemic rickets is X-linked. PHEX has been identified as the gene defective in this phosphate wasting disorder leading to decreased renal phosphate reabsorption, hypophosphatemia and inappropriate concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in regard to hypophosphatemia. Clinical manifestation are skeletal deformities, short stature, osteomalacia, dental abscesses, bone pain, and loss of hearing. We report 3 cases of hypophosphatemic rickets with genetic mutational analysis of the PHEX gene. In 1 male patient an unknown nonsense mutation was found in exon 7, codon 245 (c.735T>G, Tyr245Term, Y245X). In both female patients known mutations were found: c.682delTC (exon 6, codon 228) and c.1952G>C (exon 19, codon 651, R651P). Age at diagnosis ranged from early childhood to the age of 35 years. Clinical complications were hip replacement in 1 patient, mild nephrocalcinosis in 2 patients and loss of hearing in 1 patient. All 3 patients have been treated with phosphate supplements and receive 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Under this regimen all patients show stable biochemical markers with slight hyperparathyreoidism. In all patients at least one family member is affected by rickets, as well. We report a novel nonsense mutation of PHEX that has not been identified so far. The recent discovery of FGF23 and MEPE has changed our understanding of the kidney-bone metabolism, but also raises concerns about the efficacy of current therapeutic regimens that are reviewed in this context. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Mutation Update for Kabuki Syndrome Genes KMT2D and KDM6A and Further Delineation of X-Linked Kabuki Syndrome Subtype 2.

    PubMed

    Bögershausen, Nina; Gatinois, Vincent; Riehmer, Vera; Kayserili, Hülya; Becker, Jutta; Thoenes, Michaela; Simsek-Kiper, Pelin Özlem; Barat-Houari, Mouna; Elcioglu, Nursel H; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Tinschert, Sigrid; Sarrabay, Guillaume; Strom, Tim M; Fabre, Aurélie; Baynam, Gareth; Sanchez, Elodie; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Altunoglu, Umut; Capri, Yline; Isidor, Bertrand; Lacombe, Didier; Corsini, Carole; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Sanlaville, Damien; Giuliano, Fabienne; Le Quan Sang, Kim-Hanh; Kayirangwa, Honorine; Nürnberg, Peter; Meitinger, Thomas; Boduroglu, Koray; Zoll, Barbara; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Tzschach, Andreas; Verloes, Alain; Di Donato, Nataliya; Touitou, Isabelle; Netzer, Christian; Li, Yun; Geneviève, David; Yigit, Gökhan; Wollnik, Bernd

    2016-09-01

    Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a rare but recognizable condition that consists of a characteristic face, short stature, various organ malformations, and a variable degree of intellectual disability. Mutations in KMT2D have been identified as the main cause for KS, whereas mutations in KDM6A are a much less frequent cause. Here, we report a mutation screening in a case series of 347 unpublished patients, in which we identified 12 novel KDM6A mutations (KS type 2) and 208 mutations in KMT2D (KS type 1), 132 of them novel. Two of the KDM6A mutations were maternally inherited and nine were shown to be de novo. We give an up-to-date overview of all published mutations for the two KS genes and point out possible mutation hot spots and strategies for molecular genetic testing. We also report the clinical details for 11 patients with KS type 2, summarize the published clinical information, specifically with a focus on the less well-defined X-linked KS type 2, and comment on phenotype-genotype correlations as well as sex-specific phenotypic differences. Finally, we also discuss a possible role of KDM6A in Kabuki-like Turner syndrome and report a mutation screening of KDM6C (UTY) in male KS patients. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  13. Identification of novel mutations in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa families and implications for diagnostic testing

    PubMed Central

    Glaus, Esther; Lorenz, Birgit; Netzer, Christian; Li, Yün; Schambeck, Maria; Wittmer, Mariana; Feil, Silke; Kirschner-Schwabe, Renate; Rosenberg, Thomas; Cremers, Frans P.M.; Bergen, Arthur A.B.; Barthelmes, Daniel; Baraki, Husnia; Schmid, Fabian; Tanner, Gaby; Fleischhauer, Johannes; Orth, Ulrike; Becker, Christian; Wegscheider, Erika; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Nürnberg, Peter; Bolz, Hanno Jörn; Gal, Andreas; Berger, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to identify mutations in X-chromosomal genes associated with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in patients from Germany, The Netherlands, Denmark, and Switzerland. Methods In addition to all coding exons of RP2, exons 1 through 15, 9a, ORF15, 15a and 15b of RPGR were screened for mutations. PCR products were amplified from genomic DNA extracted from blood samples and analyzed by direct sequencing. In one family with apparently dominant inheritance of RP, linkage analysis identified an interval on the X chromosome containing RPGR, and mutation screening revealed a pathogenic variant in this gene. Patients of this family were examined clinically and by X-inactivation studies. Results This study included 141 RP families with possible X-chromosomal inheritance. In total, we identified 46 families with pathogenic sequence alterations in RPGR and RP2, of which 17 mutations have not been described previously. Two of the novel mutations represent the most 3’-terminal pathogenic sequence variants in RPGR and RP2 reported to date. In exon ORF15 of RPGR, we found eight novel and 14 known mutations. All lead to a disruption of open reading frame. Of the families with suggested X-chromosomal inheritance, 35% showed mutations in ORF15. In addition, we found five novel mutations in other exons of RPGR and four in RP2. Deletions in ORF15 of RPGR were identified in three families in which female carriers showed variable manifestation of the phenotype. Furthermore, an ORF15 mutation was found in an RP patient who additionally carries a 6.4 kbp deletion downstream of the coding region of exon ORF15. We did not identify mutations in 39 sporadic male cases from Switzerland. Conclusions RPGR mutations were confirmed to be the most frequent cause of RP in families with an X-chromosomal inheritance pattern. We propose a screening strategy to provide molecular diagnostics in these families. PMID:18552978

  14. Update on gene therapy of inherited immune deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Engel, Barbara C; Kohn, Donald B; Podsakoff, Greg M

    2003-10-01

    Gene therapy has been under development as a way to correct inborn errors for many years. Recently, patients with two forms of inherited severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), adenosine deaminase and X-linked, treated by three different clinical investigative teams, have shown significant immune reconstitution leading to protective immunity. These advances irrefutably prove the concept that hematopoietic progenitor cell gene therapy can ameliorate these diseases. However, due to proviral insertional oncogenesis, two individuals in one of the X-SCID studies developed T-cell leukemia more than two years after the gene transfer. Depending upon the results of long-term follow-up, the successes together with the side effects highlight the relative merits of this therapeutic approach.

  15. A longitudinal study of visual function in carriers of X-linked recessive retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Grover, S; Fishman, G A; Anderson, R J; Lindeman, M

    2000-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the progression of visual function impairment in carriers of X-linked recessive retinitis pigmentosa. We also assessed the relationship between the retinal findings at presentation and the extent of deterioration. Observational, retrospective, case series. Twenty-seven carriers of X-linked recessive retinitis pigmentosa. Each carrier was clinically categorized into one of four grades (grades 0 through 3) depending on the presence or absence of a tapetal-like retinal reflex and the extent of peripheral pigmentary degeneration. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed and data for visual acuity, visual field area, and electroretinographic measurements were collected on the most recent visit in both eyes. These were then compared with similar data obtained on their initial visits. A comparison of visual function was carried out between the initial visit and the most recent visit on each carrier. The visual acuity was measured with Snellen's acuity charts. The visual fields to targets V-4-e and II-4-e were planimeterized and used for the analysis. The electroretinographic (ERG) measures used were light-adapted single-flash b-wave amplitudes and 30-Hz red flicker for cone function, dark-adapted maximal b-wave amplitudes, and response to a low intensity blue-flash for rod function. None of the 11 carriers with a tapetal-like reflex only (grade 1) showed any significant change in visual acuity or fields as compared with 3 of 7 (43%) carriers with diffuse peripheral pigmentary findings (grade 3) who showed significant deterioration in visual acuity in at least one eye, and 6 of 7 (86%) who showed a significant decrease in visual field area with at least one target size in at least one eye. By comparison, only 1 of 10 carriers with a grade 1 fundus finding demonstrated a significant decrease in maximal dark-adapted ERG function as compared with 5 of 6 (83%) carriers with grade 3 in response to a single-flash stimulus and

  16. Unique Variants in OPN1LW Cause Both Syndromic and Nonsyndromic X-Linked High Myopia Mapped to MYP1.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiali; Gao, Bei; Guan, Liping; Xiao, Xueshan; Zhang, Jianguo; Li, Shiqiang; Jiang, Hui; Jia, Xiaoyun; Yang, Jianhua; Guo, Xiangming; Yin, Ye; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Qingjiong

    2015-06-01

    MYP1 is a locus for X-linked syndromic and nonsyndromic high myopia. Recently, unique haplotypes in OPN1LW were found to be responsible for X-linked syndromic high myopia mapped to MYP1. The current study is to test if such variants in OPN1LW are also responsible for X-linked nonsyndromic high myopia mapped to MYP1. The proband of the family previously mapped to MYP1 was initially analyzed using whole-exome sequencing and whole-genome sequencing. Additional probands with early-onset high myopia were analyzed using whole-exome sequencing. Variants in OPN1LW were selected and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Long-range and second PCR were used to determine the haplotype and the first gene of the red-green gene array. Candidate variants were further validated in family members and controls. The unique LVAVA haplotype in OPN1LW was detected in the family with X-linked nonsyndromic high myopia mapped to MYP1. In addition, this haplotype and a novel frameshift mutation (c.617_620dup, p.Phe208Argfs*51) in OPN1LW were detected in two other families with X-linked high myopia. The unique haplotype cosegregated with high myopia in the two families, with a maximum LOD score of 3.34 and 2.31 at θ = 0. OPN1LW with the variants in these families was the first gene in the red-green gene array and was not present in 247 male controls. Reevaluation of the clinical data in both families with the unique haplotype suggested nonsyndromic high myopia. Our study confirms the findings that unique variants in OPN1LW are responsible for both syndromic and nonsyndromic X-linked high myopia mapped to MYP1.

  17. Absence of coding mutations in the X-linked genes neuroligin 3 and neuroligin 4 in individuals with autism from the IMGSAC collection.

    PubMed

    Blasi, Francesca; Bacchelli, Elena; Pesaresi, Giulia; Carone, Simona; Bailey, Anthony J; Maestrini, Elena

    2006-04-05

    Neuroligin abnormalities have been recently implicated in the aetiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), given the finding of point mutations in the two X-linked genes NLGN3 and NLGN4X and the important role of neuroligins in synaptogenesis. To enquire on the relevance and frequency of neuroligin mutations in ASD, we performed a mutation screening of NLGN3 and NLGN4X in a sample of 124 autism probands from the International Molecular Genetic Study of Autism Consortium (IMGSAC). We identified a new non-synonymous variant in NLGN3 (Thr632Ala), which is likely to be a rare polymorphism. Our data indicate that coding mutations in these genes are very rarely associated to ASD. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Binding-, intracellular transport-, and biosynthesis-defective mutants of vasopressin type 2 receptor in patients with X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed Central

    Tsukaguchi, H; Matsubara, H; Taketani, S; Mori, Y; Seido, T; Inada, M

    1995-01-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is most often an X-linked disorder in which urine is not concentrated due to renal resistance to arginine vasopressin. We recently identified four vasopressin type 2 receptor gene mutations in unrelated X-linked NDI families, including R143P, delta V278, R202C, and 804insG. All these mutations reduced ligand binding activity to < 10% of the normal without affecting mRNA accumulation. To elucidate whether the receptors are expressed on the cell surface, we analyzed biosynthesis and localization of tagged or untagged receptors stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, using two antibodies directed against distinct termini. Whole-cell and surface labeling studies revealed that the R202C clone had both surface-localized (50-55 kD) and intracellular proteins (40 and 75 kD), similar to the wild-type AVPR2 clone, whereas the R143P and delta V278 clones lacked the surface receptors, despite relatively increased intracellular components. The 804insG mutant cell produced no proteins despite an adequate mRNA level. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed that the R202C mutant reaches the cell surface, whereas the R143P and delta V278 mutants are retained within the cytoplasmic compartment. Thus, R202C, R143P/delta V278, and 804insG result in three distinct phenotypes, that is, a simple binding impairment at the cell surface, blocked intracellular transport, and ineffective biosynthesis or/and accelerated degradation of the receptor, respectively, and therefore are responsible for NDI. This phenotypic classification will help understanding of molecular pathophysiology of this disorder. Images PMID:7560098

  19. Human X-Linked genes regionally mapped utilizing X-autosome translocations and somatic cell hybrids.

    PubMed Central

    Shows, T B; Brown, J A

    1975-01-01

    Human genes coding for hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT, EC 2.4.2.8; IMP:pyrophosphate phosphoribosyltransferase), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, EC 1.1.1.49; D-glucose-6-phosphate:NADP+ 1-oxidoreductase), and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK, EC 2.7.2.3; ATP:3-phospho-D-glycerate 1-phosphotransferase) have been assigned to specific regions on the long arm of the X chromosome by somatic cell gentic techniques. Gene assignment and linear order were determined by employing human somatic cells possessing an X/9 translocation or an X/22 translocation in man-mouse cell hybridization studies. The X/9 translocation involved the majority of the X long arm translocated to chromosome 9 and the X/22 translocation involved the distal half of the X long arm translocated to 22. In each case these rearrangements appeared to be reciprocal. Concordant segregation of X-linked enzymes and segments of the X chromosome generated by the translocations indicated assignment of the PGK gene to a proximal long arm region (q12-q22) and the HPRT and G6PD genes to the distal half (q22-qter) of the X long arm. Further evidence suggests a gene order on the X long arm of centromere-PGK-HPRT-G6PD. Images PMID:1056018

  20. Imprinted and X-linked non-coding RNAs as potential regulators of human placental function

    PubMed Central

    Buckberry, Sam; Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Roberts, Claire T

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy outcome is inextricably linked to placental development, which is strictly controlled temporally and spatially through mechanisms that are only partially understood. However, increasing evidence suggests non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) direct and regulate a considerable number of biological processes and therefore may constitute a previously hidden layer of regulatory information in the placenta. Many ncRNAs, including both microRNAs and long non-coding transcripts, show almost exclusive or predominant expression in the placenta compared with other somatic tissues and display altered expression patterns in placentas from complicated pregnancies. In this review, we explore the results of recent genome-scale and single gene expression studies using human placental tissue, but include studies in the mouse where human data are lacking. Our review focuses on the ncRNAs epigenetically regulated through genomic imprinting or X-chromosome inactivation and includes recent evidence surrounding the H19 lincRNA, the imprinted C19MC cluster microRNAs, and X-linked miRNAs associated with pregnancy complications. PMID:24081302

  1. Parents of childhood X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: high risk for depression and neurosis.

    PubMed

    Kuratsubo, Izumi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki; Kondo, Naomi

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess mental health in parents of patients with the childhood cerebral form of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (CCALD) and to investigate factors relating to psychological problems in order to improve clinical management and quality of life. Sixteen fathers and 21 mothers of patients with CCALD completed a battery of psychological examinations including the Beck Depression Inventory second edition (BDI-II), the General Health Questionnaire 60 (GHQ60), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Three fathers and 11 mothers showed high scores on the BDI-II, suggesting that they were in a depressive state. Depression in the mothers was serious as compared with previous reports. Six fathers and 11 mothers were considered to be in a state of neurosis, according to the results of the GHQ60. Four fathers and 8 mothers showed high levels of anxiety on the STAI. Health and social status of the mothers correlated with their mental health, and younger mothers with young patients tended to be more depressed. Thus, parents of patients with CCALD have a high risk of depression and neurosis. Understanding the mental state of these parents and improvements in the social support system including mental counseling, home nursing care, supports in workplace and community are necessary to prevent and treat psychological problems. Especially, early intervention for mental health problems should be provided for younger mothers with few years since the child's diagnosis.

  2. Towards isolation of the gene for X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (RP3)

    SciTech Connect

    Dry, K.L.; Aldred, M.A.; Hardwick, L.J.

    1994-09-01

    Until recently the region of interest containing the gene for X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (RP3) was thought to lie between CYBB (Xp21.1) and the proximal end of the deletion in patient BB (JBBprox). This region was thought to span 100-150 kb. Here we present new mapping data to show that the distance between the 5{prime} (most proximal) end of CYBB and JBBprox is only 50 kb. Recently Roux et al. (1994) have described the isolation of a gene within this region but this showed no disease-associated changes. Further evidence from mapping the deletion in patient NF (who suffered from McLead`s syndromemore » and CGD but not RP) and from linkage analysis of our RP3 families with a new dinucleotide repeat suggests that the gene must extend proximally from JBBprox. In order to extend the region of search we have constructed a YAC contig spanning 800 kb to OTC. We are continuing our search for the RP3 gene using a variety of strategies including exon trapping and cDNA enrichment as well as direct screening of cDNA libraries with subclones from this region.« less

  3. Optimization of Retinal Gene Therapy for X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa Due to RPGR Mutations.

    PubMed

    Beltran, William A; Cideciyan, Artur V; Boye, Shannon E; Ye, Guo-Jie; Iwabe, Simone; Dufour, Valerie L; Marinho, Luis Felipe; Swider, Malgorzata; Kosyk, Mychajlo S; Sha, Jin; Boye, Sanford L; Peterson, James J; Witherspoon, C Douglas; Alexander, John J; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Shearman, Mark S; Chulay, Jeffrey D; Hauswirth, William W; Gamlin, Paul D; Jacobson, Samuel G; Aguirre, Gustavo D

    2017-08-02

    X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) caused by mutations in the RPGR gene is an early onset and severe cause of blindness. Successful proof-of-concept studies in a canine model have recently shown that development of a corrective gene therapy for RPGR-XLRP may now be an attainable goal. In preparation for a future clinical trial, we have here optimized the therapeutic AAV vector construct by showing that GRK1 (rather than IRBP) is a more efficient promoter for targeting gene expression to both rods and cones in non-human primates. Two transgenes were used in RPGR mutant (XLPRA2) dogs under the control of the GRK1 promoter. First was the previously developed stabilized human RPGR (hRPGRstb). Second was a new full-length stabilized and codon-optimized human RPGR (hRPGRco). Long-term (>2 years) studies with an AAV2/5 vector carrying hRPGRstb under control of the GRK1 promoter showed rescue of rods and cones from degeneration and retention of vision. Shorter term (3 months) studies demonstrated comparable preservation of photoreceptors in canine eyes treated with an AAV2/5 vector carrying either transgene under the control of the GRK1 promoter. These results provide the critical molecular components (GRK1 promoter, hRPGRco transgene) to now construct a therapeutic viral vector optimized for RPGR-XLRP patients. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A sex-ratio meiotic drive system in Drosophila simulans. II: an X-linked distorter.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yun; Araripe, Luciana; Kingan, Sarah B; Ke, Yeyan; Xiao, Hailian; Hartl, Daniel L

    2007-11-06

    The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes creates a genetic condition favoring the invasion of sex-ratio meiotic drive elements, resulting in the biased transmission of one sex chromosome over the other, in violation of Mendel's first law. The molecular mechanisms of sex-ratio meiotic drive may therefore help us to understand the evolutionary forces shaping the meiotic behavior of the sex chromosomes. Here we characterize a sex-ratio distorter on the X chromosome (Dox) in Drosophila simulans by genetic and molecular means. Intriguingly, Dox has very limited coding capacity. It evolved from another X-linked gene, which also evolved de nova. Through retrotransposition, Dox also gave rise to an autosomal suppressor, not much yang (Nmy). An RNA interference mechanism seems to be involved in the suppression of the Dox distorter by the Nmy suppressor. Double mutant males of the genotype dox; nmy are normal for both sex-ratio and spermatogenesis. We postulate that recurrent bouts of sex-ratio meiotic drive and its subsequent suppression might underlie several common features observed in the heterogametic sex, including meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and achiasmy.

  5. Icebox, a recessive X-linked mutation in Drosophila causing low sexual receptivity.

    PubMed

    Kerr, C; Ringo, J; Dowse, H; Johnson, E

    1997-11-01

    The X-linked recessive mutation icebox (ibx; 1-23, 7F1) of Drosophila melanogaster lowers the sexual receptivity of females. The probability of mating with mature wild-type males is reduced in ibx homozygotes, and the frequency of rejection behavior (rate per minute) towards courting males is increased. ibx fails to complement In(1)RA35, which is a lethal allele of Neuroglian (Nrg, which encodes a transmembrane protein found in embryonic tissues including the nervous system) due to a breakpoint in that gene; however, both l(1)B4 and l(1)VA142, other lethal mutations of Nrg, do complement ibx. 12-h ibx embryos exhibit a normal pattern of staining for the Neuroglian-specific antibody, Mab BP104. Males and females mutant for ibx have normal egg-to-adult survival and appear normal in several "general" behavioral traits including olfaction, phototaxis, locomotor activity, and heartbeat. ibx males court normally, and are successful in mating. These characteristics suggest that ibx does not cause sensory or motor defects. Ovarian growth and sperm storage are wild-type in ibx/ibx females. Treatment with the JH analog methoprene increases the receptivity of ibx/ibx females.

  6. X-linked recessive nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: a clinico-genetic study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Che Ry; Kang, Hee Gyung; Choi, Hyun Jin; Cho, Min Hyun; Lee, Jung Won; Kang, Ju Hyung; Park, Hye Won; Koo, Ja Wook; Ha, Tae-Sun; Kim, Su-Yung; Il Cheong, Hae

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective genotype and phenotype analysis of X-linked congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) was conducted on a nationwide cohort of 25 (24 male, 1 female) Korean children with AVPR2 gene mutations, comparing non-truncating and truncating mutations. In an analysis of male patients, the median age at diagnosis was 0.9 years old. At a median follow-up of 5.4 years, urinary tract dilatations were evident in 62% of patients and their median glomerular filtration rate was 72 mL/min/1.73 m2. Weights and heights were under the 3rd percentile in 22% and 33% of patients, respectively. One patient had low intelligence quotient and another developed end-stage renal disease. No statistically significant genotype-phenotype correlation was found between non-truncating and truncating mutations. One patient was female; she was analyzed separately because inactivation and mosaicism of the X chromosome may influence clinical manifestations in female patients. Current unsatisfactory long-term outcome of congenital NDI necessitates a novel therapeutic strategy.

  7. Novel EDA mutation in X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and genotype-phenotype correlation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, B; Lu, H; Xiao, X; Zhou, L; Lu, J; Zhu, L; Yu, D; Zhao, W

    2015-11-01

    X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) is characterized by abnormalities of hair, teeth, and sweat glands, while non-syndromic hypodontia (NSH) affects only teeth. Mutations in Ectodysplasin A (EDA) underlie both XLHED and NSH. This study investigated the genetic causes of six hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) patients and genotype-phenotype correlation. The EDA gene of six patients with HED was sequenced. Bioinformatics analysis and structural modeling for the mutations were performed. The records of 134 patients with XLHED and EDA-related NSH regarding numbers of missing permanent teeth from this study and 20 articles were reviewed. Nonparametric tests were used to analyze genotype-phenotype correlations. In four of the six patients, we identified a novel mutation c.852T>G (p.Phe284Leu) and three reported mutations: c.467G>A (p.Arg156His), c.776C>A (p.Ala259Glu), and c.871G>A (p.Gly291Arg). They were predicted to be pathogenic by bioinformatics analysis and structural modeling. Genotype-phenotype correlation analysis revealed that truncating mutations were associated with more missing teeth. Missense mutations and the mutations affecting the TNF homology domain were correlated with fewer missing teeth. This study extended the mutation spectrum of XLHED and revealed the relationship between genotype and the number of missing permanent teeth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Distribution of mutations in the PEX gene in families with X-linked hypophosphataemic rickets (HYP).

    PubMed

    Rowe, P S; Oudet, C L; Francis, F; Sinding, C; Pannetier, S; Econs, M J; Strom, T M; Meitinger, T; Garabedian, M; David, A; Macher, M A; Questiaux, E; Popowska, E; Pronicka, E; Read, A P; Mokrzycki, A; Glorieux, F H; Drezner, M K; Hanauer, A; Lehrach, H; Goulding, J N; O'Riordan, J L

    1997-04-01

    Mutations in the PEX gene at Xp22.1 (phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases, on the X-chromosome), are responsible for X-linked hypophosphataemic rickets (HYP). Homology of PEX to the M13 family of Zn2+ metallopeptidases which include neprilysin (NEP) as prototype, has raised important questions regarding PEX function at the molecular level. The aim of this study was to analyse 99 HYP families for PEX gene mutations, and to correlate predicted changes in the protein structure with Zn2+ metallopeptidase gene function. Primers flanking 22 characterised exons were used to amplify DNA by PCR, and SSCP was then used to screen for mutations. Deletions, insertions, nonsense mutations, stop codons and splice mutations occurred in 83% of families screened for in all 22 exons, and 51% of a separate set of families screened in 17 PEX gene exons. Missense mutations in four regions of the gene were informative regarding function, with one mutation in the Zn2+-binding site predicted to alter substrate enzyme interaction and catalysis. Computer analysis of the remaining mutations predicted changes in secondary structure, N-glycosylation, protein phosphorylation and catalytic site molecular structure. The wide range of mutations that align with regions required for protease activity in NEP suggests that PEX also functions as a protease, and may act by processing factor(s) involved in bone mineral metabolism.

  9. Whole exome sequencing confirms the clinical diagnosis of Marfan syndrome combined with X-linked hypophosphatemia.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xunlun; Chen, Xue; Lei, Bo; Chen, Rui; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Fangxia; Rong, Weining; Ha, Ruoshui; Liu, Yani; Zhao, Feng; Yang, Peizeng; Zhao, Chen

    2015-06-04

    To determine the genetic lesions and to modify the clinical diagnosis for a Chinese family with significant intrafamilial phenotypic diversities and unusual presentations. Three affected patients and the asymptomatic father were included and received comprehensive systemic examinations. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed for mutation detection. Structural modeling test was applied to analyze the potential structural changes caused by the missense substitution. The proband showed a wide spectrum of systemic anomalies, including bilateral ectopia lentis, atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, widening of tibial metaphysis with medial bowing, and dolichostenomelia in digits, while her mother and elder brother only demonstrated similar skeletal changes. A recurrent mutation, PHEX p.R291*, was found in all patients, while a de novo mutation, FBN1 p.C792F, was only detected in the proband. The FBN1 substitution was also predicted to cause significant conformational change in fibrillin-1 protein, thus changing its physical and biological properties. Taken together, we finalized the diagnosis for this family as X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), and diagnosed this girl as Marfan syndrome combined with XLH, and congenital heart disease. Our study also emphasizes the importance of WES in assisting the clinical diagnosis for complicated cases when the original diagnoses are challenged.

  10. Osteopontin and the dento-osseous pathobiology of X-linked hypophosphatemia.

    PubMed

    Boukpessi, Tchilalo; Hoac, Betty; Coyac, Benjamin R; Leger, Thibaut; Garcia, Camille; Wicart, Philippe; Whyte, Michael P; Glorieux, Francis H; Linglart, Agnès; Chaussain, Catherine; McKee, Marc D

    2017-02-01

    Seven young patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH, having inactivating PHEX mutations) were discovered to accumulate osteopontin (OPN) at the sites of defective bone mineralization near osteocytes - the so-called hallmark periosteocytic (lacunar) "halos" of XLH. OPN was also localized in the pericanalicular matrix extending beyond the osteocyte lacunae, as well as in the hypomineralized matrix of tooth dentin. OPN, a potent inhibitor of mineralization normally degraded by PHEX, is a member of a family of acidic, phosphorylated, calcium-binding, extracellular matrix proteins known to regulate dental, skeletal, and pathologic mineralization. Associated with the increased amount of OPN (along with inhibitory OPN peptide fragments) in XLH bone matrix, we found an enlarged, hypomineralized, lacuno-canalicular network - a defective pattern of skeletal mineralization that decreases stiffness locally at: i) the cell-matrix interface in the pericellular environment of the mechanosensing osteocyte, and ii) the osteocyte's dendritic network of cell processes extending throughout the bone. Our findings of an excess of inhibitory OPN near osteocytes and their cell processes, and in dentin, spatially correlates with the defective mineralization observed at these sites in the skeleton and teeth of XLH patients. These changes likely contribute to the dento-osseous pathobiology of XLH, and participate in the aberrant bone adaptation and remodeling seen in XLH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlation of genetic and clinical findings in Spanish patients with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    Riveiro-Alvarez, Rosa; Trujillo-Tiebas, Maria-Jose; Gimenez-Pardo, Ascension; Garcia-Hoyos, Maria; Lopez-Martinez, Miguel-Angel; Aguirre-Lamban, Jana; Garcia-Sandoval, Blanca; Vazquez-Fernandez del Pozo, Silvia; Cantalapiedra, Diego; Avila-Fernandez, Almudena; Baiget, Montserrat; Ramos, Carmen; Ayuso, Carmen

    2009-09-01

    X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) is one of the most common causes of juvenile macular degeneration in males, characterized by microcystic changes, splitting within the inner retinal layer (schisis), and the presence of vitreous veils. This study was conducted to describe and further correlate specific genetic variation in Spanish patients with XLRS with clinical characteristics and additional ophthalmic complications. The study was performed in 34 Spanish families with XLRS, comprising 51 affected males. Thorough clinical ophthalmic and electrophysiological examinations were performed. The coding regions of the RS1 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and directly sequenced. Haplotype analyses were also performed. Twenty different mutations were identified. Ten of the 20 were novel and 3 were de novo mutational events. The most common mutation (p.Gln154Arg; 6/20) presented a common haplotype. RS1 variants did not correlate with ophthalmic findings and were not associated with additional ophthalmic complications. The prevalent p.Gln154Arg mutation is first reported in this work and presents a common origin in Spanish patients with XLRS. In addition, de novo mutations mainly occur in CG dinucleotides. Despite the large mutational spectrum and variable phenotypes, no genotype-phenotype correlations were found. Identifying the causative mutation is helpful in confirming diagnosis and counseling, but cannot provide a prognosis.

  12. Case report of an atypical early onset X-linked retinoschisis in monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Murro, Vittoria; Caputo, Roberto; Bacci, Giacomo Maria; Sodi, Andrea; Mucciolo, Dario Pasquale; Bargiacchi, Sara; Giglio, Sabrina Rita; Virgili, Gianni; Rizzo, Stanislao

    2017-02-24

    X-linked Retinoschisis (XLRS) is one of the most common macular degenerations in young males, with a worldwide prevalence ranging from 1:5000 to 1:20000. Clinical diagnosis of XLRS can be challenging due to the highly variable phenotypic presentation and limited correlation has been identified between mutation type and disease severity or progression. We report the atypical early onset of XLRS in 3-month-old monozygotic twins. Fundus examination was characterized by severe bullous retinal schisis with pre-retinal and intraretinal haemorrhages. Molecular genetic analysis of the RS1 was performed and the c.288G > A (p. Trp96Ter) mutation was detected in both patients. Early onset XLRS is associated with a more progressive form of the disease, characterized by large bullous peripheral schisis involving the posterior pole, vascular abnormalities and haemorrhages. The availability of specific technology permitted detailed imaging of the clinical picture of unusual cases of XLRS. The possible relevance of modifying genes should be taken into consideration for the future development of XLRS gene therapy.

  13. Novel RS1 mutations associated with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis

    PubMed Central

    YI, JUNHUI; LI, SHIQIANG; JIA, XIAOYUN; XIAO, XUESHAN; WANG, PANFENG; GUO, XIANGMING; ZHANG, QINGJIONG

    2012-01-01

    To identify mutations in the retinoschisin (RS1) gene in families with X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS). Twenty families with XLRS were enrolled in this study. All six coding exons and adjacent intronic regions of RS1 were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The nucleotide sequences of the amplicons were determined by Sanger sequencing. Ten hemizygous mutations in RS1 were detected in patients from 14 of the 20 families. Four of the ten mutations were novel, including c:176G>A (p:Cys59Tyr) in exon 3, c:531T>G (p:Tyr177X), c:607C>G (p:Pro203Ala) and c:668G>A (p:Cys223Tyr) in exon 6. These four novel mutations were not present in 176 normal individuals. The remaining six were recurrent mutations, including c:214G>A (p:Glu72Lys), c:304C>T (p:Arg102Trp), c:436G>A (p:Glu146Lys), c:544C>T (p:Arg182Cys), c:599G>A (p:Arg200His) and c:644A>T (p:Glu215Val). Our study expanded the mutation spectrum of RS1 and enriches our understanding of the molecular basis of XLRS. PMID:22245991

  14. X-Linked Retinoschisis in Juveniles: Follow-Up by Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qin-Rui; Huang, Lv-Zhen; Chen, Xiao-Li; Xia, Hui-Ka; Li, Tian-Qi; Li, Xiao-Xin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To explore the structural progression of X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) in patients by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Design. Retrospective, observational study. Methods. Patients who were diagnosed with XLRS by genetic testing underwent comprehensive ophthalmological examinations from December 2014 to October 2016. Each eye was measured by SD-OCT using the same clinical protocol. A correlation between best-corrected visual acuity (VA) and SD-OCT measurements was observed. Results. Six patients demonstrated retinoschisis (12 eyes) and typical foveal cyst-like cavities (10 eyes) on SD-OCT images with a mean logMAR VA of 0.48. The median age was 7.5 years at the initial visit. Their foveal retinal thickness (516.9  μ m) and choroid thickness (351.4  μ m) decreased at a rate of 38.1 and 7.5  μ m, respectively, at the 10.5-month follow-up visit; however, there were no significant differences ( P = 0.622 and P = 0.406, resp.). There was no significant correlation between VA, the foveal retinal thickness, and subfoveal choroid thickness. Conclusions. SD-OCT images for XLRS patients during the juvenile period revealed no significant changes in the fundus structure, including the foveal retinal thickness and choroid thickness within one-year follow-up. There was a lack of correlation between VA, foveal retinal thickness, and subfoveal choroid thickness.

  15. X-Linked Retinoschisis in Juveniles: Follow-Up by Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qin-rui; Huang, Lv-zhen; Xia, Hui-ka; Li, Tian-qi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To explore the structural progression of X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) in patients by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Design. Retrospective, observational study. Methods. Patients who were diagnosed with XLRS by genetic testing underwent comprehensive ophthalmological examinations from December 2014 to October 2016. Each eye was measured by SD-OCT using the same clinical protocol. A correlation between best-corrected visual acuity (VA) and SD-OCT measurements was observed. Results. Six patients demonstrated retinoschisis (12 eyes) and typical foveal cyst-like cavities (10 eyes) on SD-OCT images with a mean logMAR VA of 0.48. The median age was 7.5 years at the initial visit. Their foveal retinal thickness (516.9 μm) and choroid thickness (351.4 μm) decreased at a rate of 38.1 and 7.5 μm, respectively, at the 10.5-month follow-up visit; however, there were no significant differences (P = 0.622 and P = 0.406, resp.). There was no significant correlation between VA, the foveal retinal thickness, and subfoveal choroid thickness. Conclusions. SD-OCT images for XLRS patients during the juvenile period revealed no significant changes in the fundus structure, including the foveal retinal thickness and choroid thickness within one-year follow-up. There was a lack of correlation between VA, foveal retinal thickness, and subfoveal choroid thickness. PMID:28286756

  16. Novel RS1 mutations associated with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    Yi, Junhui; Li, Shiqiang; Jia, Xiaoyun; Xiao, Xueshan; Wang, Panfeng; Guo, Xiangming; Zhang, Qingjiong

    2012-04-01

    To identify mutations in the retinoschisin (RS1) gene in families with X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS). Twenty families with XLRS were enrolled in this study. All six coding exons and adjacent intronic regions of RS1 were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The nucleotide sequences of the amplicons were determined by Sanger sequencing. Ten hemizygous mutations in RS1 were detected in patients from 14 of the 20 families. Four of the ten mutations were novel, including c:176G>A (p:Cys59Tyr) in exon 3, c:531T>G (p:Tyr177X), c:607C>G (p:Pro203Ala) and c:668G>A (p:Cys223Tyr) in exon 6. These four novel mutations were not present in 176 normal individuals. The remaining six were recurrent mutations, including c:214G>A (p:Glu72Lys), c:304C>T (p:Arg102Trp), c:436G>A (p:Glu146Lys), c:544C>T (p:Arg182Cys), c:599G>A (p:Arg200His) and c:644A>T (p:Glu215Val). Our study expanded the mutation spectrum of RS1 and enriches our understanding of the molecular basis of XLRS.

  17. Mutations in the XLRS1 gene in Thai families with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    Atchaneeyasakul, La-ongsri; Trinavarat, Adisak; Pituksung, Auengporn; Jinda, Worapoj; Thongnoppakhun, Wanna; Limwongse, Chanin

    2010-01-01

    To identify genetic mutations of the XLRS1 gene and to describe the ocular phenotypes in two unrelated Thai patients with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis. Ophthalmic examination, including best-corrected visual acuity and fundus examination and photography, was performed in all participants. Electroretinography (ERG) and optical coherence tomography were performed when possible. All six exons of the XLRS1 gene were amplified, and mutation screening was determined by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and DNA sequencing. Two point mutations were identified, a novel missense mutation c.378A > G (p.D126G) in exon 5 and a reported mutation c.637C > T (p.R213W) in exon 6. The first proband with the p.D126G mutation developed vitreous hemorrhage in both eyes at age 7 months. Foveal and peripheral schisis with several inner layer holes were detected in both eyes. The second proband with the p.R213W mutation developed slightly blurred vision at age 10 years. Fundus examination showed numerous fine white dots at the macula without foveal or peripheral schisis. Electronegative ERG results were documented in both probands. A novel p.D126G mutation appeared to be associated with a severe phenotype with vitreous hemorrhage developing in infancy. Both intra- and interfamilial clinical variabilities were recognized in our patients.

  18. Prominent Optic Disc Featured in Inherited Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Todorova, M G; Bojinova, R I; Valmaggia, C; Schorderet, D F

    2017-04-01

    Background We investigated the relationship between prominent optic disc (POD) and inherited retinal dystrophy (IRD). Patients and Methods A cross-sectional consecutive study was performed in 10 children and 11 adults of 7 non-related families. We performed clinical phenotyping, including a detailed examination, fundus autofluorescence, and colour fundus and OCT imaging. Genetic testing was subsequently performed for all family members presenting retinal pathology. Results In 4 members of a 3-generation family, hyperfluorescent deposits on the surface of POD were related to a p.(L224M) heterozygous mutation in BEST1 . In the second family, one member presented deposits located on the surface on hyperaemic OD and a compound p.(R141H);(A195V) mutation in BEST1 . In the third family, POD was observed in father and child with early onset cone-rod dystrophy and a novel autosomal recessive p.(W31*) homozygous mutation in ABCA4 . In the fourth family, POD with "mulberry-like" deposits and attenuated vessels were observed in a 7-year old girl, with a mutation in USH1A , and with early onset rod-cone dystrophy, associated with hearing loss. In the fifth family, blurry OD with tortuous vessels was observed in 4 consanguineous female carriers and a hemizygous boy with a p.(R200H) mutation in the X-linked retinoschisis RS1 . In the sixth family, a mother and her son were both affected with POD and attenuated peripapillary vessels, and presented with a p.(Y836C) heterozygous mutation in TOPORS , thus confirming autosomal dominant RP. In the seventh family, in 3 family members with POD, compound p.(L541P;A1038 V);(G1961E) mutations in ABCA4 confirmed the diagnosis of Stargardt disease. Conclusions A variety of OD findings are found in a genetically heterogeneous group of IRDs. In the presence of POD, an inherited progressive photoreceptor disease should be ruled out. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. PROTECTIVE LEVELS OF VARICELLA-ZOSTER ANTIBODY DID NOT EFFECTIVELY PREVENT CHICKENPOX IN AN X-LINKED AGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA PATIENT.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Fernanda Aimée; Gonzalez, Isabela Garrido da Silva; de Moraes-Pinto, Maria Isabel; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz Tavares

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of an eight-year-old boy with X-linked agammaglobulinemia who developed mild varicella despite regular intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy. He maintained protective antibody levels against varicella and the previous batches of IVIG that he received had adequate varicella-specific IgG levels. The case illustrates that IVIG may not prevent VZV infection.

  20. Juvenile X-linked retinoschisis presenting as juxtapapillary retinal fold mimicking combined hamartoma of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Pointdujour-Lim, Renelle; Say, Emil Anthony T; Shields, Carol L

    2017-04-01

    A 21-month-old boy presumptively diagnosed with combined hamartoma of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium was found to have juvenile X-linked retinoschisis with vitreomacular traction and prominent retinal folding. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Recent Progress in Genome Editing Approaches for Inherited Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Balpreet; Perea-Gil, Isaac; Karakikes, Ioannis

    2018-06-02

    This review describes the recent progress in nuclease-based therapeutic applications for inherited heart diseases in vitro, highlights the development of the most recent genome editing technologies and discusses the associated challenges for clinical translation. Inherited cardiovascular disorders are passed from generation to generation. Over the past decade, considerable progress has been made in understanding the genetic basis of inherited heart diseases. The timely emergence of genome editing technologies using engineered programmable nucleases has revolutionized the basic research of inherited cardiovascular diseases and holds great promise for the development of targeted therapies. The genome editing toolbox is rapidly expanding, and new tools have been recently added that significantly expand the capabilities of engineered nucleases. Newer classes of versatile engineered nucleases, such as the "base editors," have been recently developed, offering the potential for efficient and precise therapeutic manipulation of the human genome.

  2. An X-linked three allele model of hand preference and hand posture for writing.

    PubMed

    McKeever, Walter F

    2004-04-01

    This paper describes a genetic model of hand preferences for writing and for handwriting posture (HWP). The challenge of devising an X-linked model for these aspects of human handedness was posed by the results of a large family handedness study (McKeever, 2000) that showed evidence of such linkage. Because X-linkage for handedness has been widely regarded as untenable, the prospects for developing such a model were not initially encouraging, but ultimately a viable model did suggest itself. Family studies of handedness and leading theories of handedness are briefly described, as is some of the research on HWP motivated by the theory of Levy and Nagylaki (1972). It is argued that there is evidence that HWP reflects a biological dictate and not just individual "choices" or "adaptations" to writing in a left-to-right direction with the left hand. The model proposes that inverted handwriting posture is not necessarily highly related to speech and language lateralities of sinistrals, but that it reveals an interhemispheric mediation of writing. It is hypothesised that it reflects a specialisation of the left angular gyrus (with some possible extension into the supramarginal gyrus) for the storage of movement and timing sequences of cursive writing, and right hemisphere motor programming of the motor output of writing. It is also argued that no family handedness study conducted to date is adequate for testing the predictions of extant handedness theories, and the often wide variations between the results of family handedness studies are noted. It is suggested that fMRI studies could definitively test the HWP hypotheses of the model and that the hypothesis of X-linkage could be tested definitively should studies of the human genome identify a gene for handedness.

  3. Immune Dysregulation, Polyendocrinopathy, Enteropathy, X-Linked Syndrome: A Paradigm of Immunodeficiency with Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Barzaghi, Federica; Passerini, Laura; Bacchetta, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome is a rare monogenic primary immunodeficiency (PID) due to mutations of FOXP3, a key transcription factor for naturally occurring (n) regulatory T (Treg) cells. The dysfunction of Treg cells is the main pathogenic event leading to the multi-organ autoimmunity that characterizes IPEX syndrome, a paradigm of genetically determined PID with autoimmunity. IPEX has a severe early onset and can become rapidly fatal within the first year of life regardless of the type and site of the mutation. The initial presenting symptoms are severe enteritis and/or type-1 diabetes mellitus, alone or in combination with eczema and elevated serum IgE. Other autoimmune symptoms, such as hypothyroidism, cytopenia, hepatitis, nephropathy, arthritis, and alopecia can develop in patients who survive the initial acute phase. The current therapeutic options for IPEX patients are limited. Supportive and replacement therapies combined with pharmacological immunosuppression are required to control symptoms at onset. However, these procedures can allow only a reduction of the clinical manifestations without a permanent control of the disease. The only known effective cure for IPEX syndrome is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, but it is always limited by the availability of a suitable donor and the lack of specific guidelines for bone marrow transplant in the context of this disease. This review aims to summarize the clinical histories and genomic mutations of the IPEX patients described in the literature to date. We will focus on the clinical and immunological features that allow differential diagnosis of IPEX syndrome and distinguish it from other PID with autoimmunity. The efficacy of the current therapies will be reviewed, and possible innovative approaches, based on the latest highlights of the pathogenesis to treat this severe primary autoimmune disease of childhood, will be discussed. PMID:23060872

  4. Establishment of a cell model of X-linked sideroblastic anemia using genome editing.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Kiriko; Kubota, Yoshiko; Nomura, Kazumi; Hayashimoto, Haruka; Chida, Taisei; Yoshino, Naoto; Wayama, Marina; Ogasawara, Katsutoshi; Nakamura, Yukio; Tooyama, Ikuo; Furuyama, Kazumichi

    2018-06-13

    ALAS2 gene mutations cause X-linked sideroblastic anemia. The presence of ring sideroblasts in a patient's bone marrow is the hallmark of sideroblastic anemia, but the precise mechanisms underlying sideroblast formation are largely unknown. Using a genome editing system, a mutation was introduced in the erythroid-specific enhancer of the ALAS2 gene in HUDEP2 cells, which were derived from human umbilical stem cells and can produce erythrocytes. The established cell line, termed HA2low, expressed less ALAS2 mRNA than did wild-type cells, even after erythroid differentiation. Although the mRNA expression of α-globin, β-globin, and the mitochondrial iron importer mitoferrin-1 was induced similarly in wild-type and HA2low cells, hemoglobinization of differentiated cells was limited in HA2low cells compared to wild-type cells. Importantly, Prussian blue staining revealed that approximately one-third of differentiated HA2low cells exhibited intracellular iron deposition, and these cells looked like ring sideroblasts. Electron microscopy confirmed that the mitochondria in HA2low cells contained high-density deposits that might contain iron. Ring sideroblastic cells appeared among HA2low cells only after differentiation, while the induced expression of mitochondrial ferritin was observed in both cell types during differentiation. These results suggest that the induction of mitochondrial ferritin expression might be essential for, but not the primary cause of, ring sideroblast formation. Our results also suggest that the insufficient supply of protoporphyrin IX due to ALAS2 deficiency, in combination with increased iron import into mitochondria during erythroid differentiation, results in the formation of ring sideroblasts. Furthermore, HA2low cells are a useful tool for characterizing ring sideroblasts in vitro. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Response to Drs. Shastry and Trese: Phenotype-genotype correlations in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, J.; Munnich, A.

    1996-11-11

    Shastry and Trese recently reported on a large kindred with X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) characterized by a loss of central vision and preserved peripheral function. In their report, the disease had an early onset with severe myopia and a loss of central vision, while night blindness occurred later. Genetic analysis suggested that the disease was linked to the RP2 locus, and the authors raised the question of whether other cases linked to RP2 could display a similar loss of central vision. Three years ago, we reported on 4 large XLRP pedigrees with a very early onset with severe myopia andmore » early loss of visual acuity, while in 5 other families the disease started later with night blindness. We showed that the first clinical form was linked to RP2, while the second was linked to RP3. Thus, the major difference between the two forms concerns the initial symptom, information which can be obtained from the parents and patients after careful questioning. By contrast, in adult life, no difference in either severity of disease or aspect of the fundus was observed in our series, regardless of the clinical subtype of XLRP. Some months later, Jacobson et al. reported on a pedigree with an RP2 genotype, and their data support the notion that in XLRP of RP2 type 1, cone dysfunction takes place first, and as the disease advances both rods and cones are affected. We were very happy, therefore, to read that the study of Shastry and Trese fully confirmed our previous findings. 3 refs.« less

  6. Role of the X-linked gene GPR174 in autoimmune Addison's disease.

    PubMed

    Napier, C; Mitchell, A L; Gan, E; Wilson, I; Pearce, S H S

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune endocrinopathies demonstrate a profound gender bias, but the reasons for this remain obscure. The 1000 genes on the X chromosome are likely to be implicated in this inherent susceptibility; various theories, including skewed X chromosome inactivation and fetal microchimerism, have been proposed. GPR174 is an Xq21 putative purinergic receptor that is widely expressed in lymphoid tissues. A single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs3827440, encoding Ser162Pro, has recently been associated with Graves' disease in Chinese and Polish populations, suggesting a role of this X chromosome gene in autoimmune disease. We investigated the role of rs3827440 in a UK cohort of patients with autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD). Samples from 286 AAD cases and 288 healthy controls were genotyped using TaqMan single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assays (C_25954273_10) on the Applied Biosystems 7900HT Fast real-time PCR system. Using a dominant (present/absent) model, the serine-encoding T allele of rs3827440 was present in 189 of 286 AAD patients (66%) compared with 132 of 288 unaffected controls (46%) [P = .010, odds ratio 1.80 (5%-95% confidence interval 1.22-2.67)]. An allele dosage model found a significant excess of the T allele in AAD patients compared with controls [P = .03, odds ratio 1.34 (5%-95% confidence interval 1.07-1.67)]. We have demonstrated a significant association of this X chromosome-encoded immunoreceptor with AAD for the first time. This X-linked gene could have a more generalized role in autoimmunity pathogenesis: G protein-coupled receptors are promising drugable targets, and further work to elucidate the functional role of GPR174 is now warranted.

  7. Cerebral Vasculitis in X-linked Lymphoproliferative Disease Cured by Matched Unrelated Cord Blood Transplant.

    PubMed

    Gray, Paul E; O'Brien, Tracey A; Wagle, Mayura; Tangye, Stuart G; Palendira, Umaimainthan; Roscioli, Tony; Choo, Sharon; Sutton, Rosemary; Ziegler, John B; Frith, Katie

    2015-10-01

    Vasculitis occurs rarely in association with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP). There are four published cases of non-EBV XLP-associated cerebral vasculitis reported, none of whom have survived without major cognitive impairment. A 9-year old boy initially presented aged 5 years with a restrictive joint disease. He subsequently developed dysgammaglobulinemia, episodic severe pneumonitis, aplastic anaemia, gastritis and cerebral vasculitis. A diagnosis of XLP was made, based on flow cytometric analysis and the identification of a novel mutation in SH2D1A, c.96G>C. No peripheral blood lymphocyte clonal proliferation was identified and he was EBV negative, although human herpes virus-7 (HHV7) was detected repeatedly in his cerebrospinal fluid. He underwent a reduced intensity unrelated umbilical cord blood transplant, but failed to engraft. A second 5/6 matched cord gave 100 % donor engraftment. Complications included BK virus-associated haemorrhagic cystitis, a possible NK-cell mediated immune reconstitution syndrome and post-transplant anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, the latter treated with cyclophosphamide and rituximab. At +450 days post-transplant he is in remission from his vasculitis and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, and HHV-7 has remained undetectable. This is the second published description of joint disease in XLP, and only the fourth case of non-EBV associated cerebral vasculitis in XLP, as well as being the first to be successfully treated for this manifestation. This case raises specific questions about vasculitis in XLP, in particular the potential relevance of HHV-7 to the pathogenesis.

  8. Safety Assessment of Docosahexaenoic Acid in X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa: The 4-Year DHAX Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hughbanks-Wheaton, Dianna K.; Birch, David G.; Fish, Gary E.; Spencer, Rand; Pearson, N. Shirlene; Takacs, Alison; Hoffman, Dennis R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) continues to be evaluated and recommended as treatment and prophylaxis for various diseases. We recently assessed efficacy of high-dose DHA supplementation to slow vision loss in patients with X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) in a randomized clinical trial. Because DHA is a highly unsaturated fatty acid, it could serve as a target for free-radical induced oxidation, resulting in increased oxidative stress. Biosafety was monitored during the 4-year trial to determine whether DHA supplementation was associated with identifiable risks. Methods. Males (n = 78; 7–31 years) meeting entry criteria were enrolled. The modified intent-to-treat cohort (DHA = 33; placebo = 27) adhered to the protocol ≥ 1 year. Participants were randomized to an oral dose of 30 mg/kg/d DHA or placebo plus a daily multivitamin. Comprehensive metabolic analyses were assessed for group differences. Treatment-emergent adverse events including blood chemistry metabolites were recorded. Results. By year 4, supplementation elevated plasma and red blood cell–DHA 4.4- and 3.6-fold, respectively, compared with the placebo group (P < 0.00001). Over the trial duration, no significant differences between DHA and placebo groups were found for vitamin A, vitamin E, platelet aggregation, antioxidant activity, lipoprotein cholesterol, or oxidized LDL levels (all P > 0.14). Adverse events were transient and not considered severe (e.g., gastrointestinal [GI] irritability, blood chemistry alterations). One participant was unable to tolerate persistent GI discomfort. Conclusions. Long-term, high-dose DHA supplementation to patients with XLRP was associated with limited safety risks in this 4-year trial. Nevertheless, GI symptoms should be monitored in all patients taking high dose DHA especially those with personal or family history of GI disturbances. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00100230.) PMID:25015354

  9. Extraordinary Sequence Divergence at Tsga8, an X-linked Gene Involved in Mouse Spermiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Good, Jeffrey M.; Vanderpool, Dan; Smith, Kimberly L.; Nachman, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The X chromosome plays an important role in both adaptive evolution and speciation. We used a molecular evolutionary screen of X-linked genes potentially involved in reproductive isolation in mice to identify putative targets of recurrent positive selection. We then sequenced five very rapidly evolving genes within and between several closely related species of mice in the genus Mus. All five genes were involved in male reproduction and four of the genes showed evidence of recurrent positive selection. The most remarkable evolutionary patterns were found at Testis-specific gene a8 (Tsga8), a spermatogenesis-specific gene expressed during postmeiotic chromatin condensation and nuclear transformation. Tsga8 was characterized by extremely high levels of insertion–deletion variation of an alanine-rich repetitive motif in natural populations of Mus domesticus and M. musculus, differing in length from the reference mouse genome by up to 89 amino acids (27% of the total protein length). This population-level variation was coupled with striking divergence in protein sequence and length between closely related mouse species. Although no clear orthologs had previously been described for Tsga8 in other mammalian species, we have identified a highly divergent hypothetical gene on the rat X chromosome that shares clear orthology with the 5′ and 3′ ends of Tsga8. Further inspection of this ortholog verified that it is expressed in rat testis and shares remarkable similarity with mouse Tsga8 across several general features of the protein sequence despite no conservation of nucleotide sequence across over 60% of the rat-coding domain. Overall, Tsga8 appears to be one of the most rapidly evolving genes to have been described in rodents. We discuss the potential evolutionary causes and functional implications of this extraordinary divergence and the possible contribution of Tsga8 and the other four genes we examined to reproductive isolation in mice. PMID:21186189

  10. Analysis of Anatomic and Functional Measures in X-Linked Retinoschisis

    PubMed Central

    Cukras, Catherine A.; Huryn, Laryssa A.; Jeffrey, Brett P.; Turriff, Amy; Sieving, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To examine the symmetry of structural and functional parameters between eyes in patients with X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS), as well as changes in visual acuity and electrophysiology over time. Methods This is a single-center observational study of 120 males with XLRS who were evaluated at the National Eye Institute. Examinations included best-corrected visual acuity for all participants, as well as ERG recording and optical coherence tomography (OCT) on a subset of participants. Statistical analyses were performed using nonparametric Spearman correlations and linear regression. Results Our analyses demonstrated a statistically significant correlation of structural and functional measures between the two eyes of XLRS patients for all parameters. OCT central macular thickness (n = 78; Spearman r = 0.83, P < 0.0001) and ERG b/a ratio (n = 78; Spearman r = 0.82, P < 0.0001) were the most strongly correlated between a participant's eyes, whereas visual acuity was less strongly correlated (n = 120; Spearman r = 0.47, P < 0.0001). Stability of visual acuity was observed with an average change of less than one letter (n = 74; OD −0.66 and OS −0.70 letters) in a mean follow-up time of 6.8 years. There was no statistically significant change in the ERG b/a ratio within eyes over time. Conclusions Although a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes is observed across individuals with XLRS, our study demonstrates a significant correlation of structural and functional findings between the two eyes and stability of measures of acuity and ERG parameters over time. These results highlight the utility of the fellow eye as a useful reference for monocular interventional trials.

  11. The prevalence of X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) in Denmark, 1995-2010.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Nielsen, Mary; Skovbo, Stine; Svaneby, Dea; Pedersen, Lars; Fryzek, Jon

    2013-05-01

    X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) is characterised by hypohidrosis, sparse hair, and teeth abnormalities. Infants with XLHED have an increased risk of death by hyperpyrexia. XLHED is the most common form of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED); however, no population-based prevalence estimates are available. We aimed to: 1) estimate the prevalence of XLHED in the Danish population per January 1, 2011; 2) identify the most frequent age at time of diagnosis; and 3) quantify the most frequent clinical feature associated with XLHED. We conducted a nationwide cross-sectional study (1995-2010). We leveraged national medical registries and data from clinical departments to categorise XLHED cases into three groups: 1) Molecularly-confirmed XLHED; 2) Clinically-diagnosed HED (registered with ICD-10 Q 82.4); and 3) Possible HED (registered with sufficient clinical features based on a clinical algorithm that we designed). We identified 90 molecularly-confirmed XLHED, 146 clinically-diagnosed HED, and 988 possible HED cases between 1995 and 2010 (total n = 1224). The prevalence was 21.9 per 100,000 overall and 1.6 per 100,000 when restricting to molecularly-confirmed XLHED cases. The most frequent age at time of XLHED diagnosis occurred between the ages of 11 and 18 years. Teeth abnormalities occurred in 79% of all cases and 52% of molecularly-confirmed cases as a primary clinical marker. We present the first ever population-based prevalence estimates of XLHED and suggest that the prevalence of XLHED may be higher than previously estimated. Diagnosis occurs most frequently during adolescence and teeth abnormalities were the most frequent clinical marker of XLHED. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Dosage effect of a Phex mutation in a murine model of X-linked hypophosphatemia

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Gray, Amie K.; Bikorimana, Emmanuel; Econs, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is caused by mutations in the PHEX gene, which increase circulating levels of the phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). Since XLH is a dominant disease, one mutant allele is sufficient for manifestation of the disease. However, dosage effect of a PHEX mutation in XLH is not completely understood. To examine the effect of Phex genotypes, we compared serum biochemistries and skeletal measures between all five possible genotypes of a new murine model of XLH (PhexK496X or PhexJrt). Compared to sex-matched littermate controls, all Phex mutant mice had hypophosphatemia, mild hypocalcemia, and increased parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase levels. Furthermore, mutant mice had markedly elevated serum Fgf23 levels due to increased Fgf23 expression and reduced cleavage of Fgf23. Although females with a homozygous Phex mutation were slightly more hypocalcemic and hypophosphatemic than heterozygous females, the two groups had comparable intact Fgf23 levels. Similarly, there was no difference in intact Fgf23 or phosphorus concentrations between hemizygous males and heterozygous females. Compared to heterozygous females, homozygous counterparts were significantly smaller and had shorter femurs with reduced bone mineral density, suggesting the existence of dosage effect in the skeletal phenotype of XLH. However, overall phenotypic trends in regards to mineral ion homeostasis were mostly unaffected by the presence of one or two mutant Phex allele(s). The lack of gene dosage effect on circulating Fgf23 (and thus, phosphorus) levels suggests that a Phex mutation may create the lower set point for extracellular phosphate concentrations. PMID:23700148

  13. Iron and fibroblast growth factor 23 in X-linked hypophosphatemia

    PubMed Central

    Imel, Erik A.; Gray, Amie; Padgett, Leah; Econs, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Excess fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) causes hypophosphatemia in autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR) and X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH). Iron status influences C-terminal FGF23 (incorporating fragments plus intact FGF23) in ADHR and healthy subjects, and intact FGF23 in ADHR. We hypothesized that in XLH serum iron would inversely correlate to C-terminal FGF23, but not to intact FGF23, mirroring the relationships in normal controls. Methods Subjects included 25 untreated outpatients with XLH at a tertiary medical center and 158 healthy adult controls. Serum iron and plasma intact FGF23 and C-terminal FGF23 were measured in stored samples. Results Intact FGF23 was greater than the control mean in 100% of XLH patients, and >2SD above the control mean in 88%, compared to 71% and 21% respectively for C-terminal FGF23. In XLH, iron correlated negatively to log-C-terminal FGF23 (r= −0.523, p<0.01), with a steeper slope than in controls (p<0.001). Iron was not related to log-intact FGF23 in either group. The log-ratio of intact FGF23 to C-terminal FGF23 was higher in XLH (0.00 ± 0.44) than controls (−0.28 ± 0.21, p<0.01), and correlated positively to serum iron (controls r= 0.276, p<0.001; XLH r= 0.428, p<0.05), with a steeper slope in XLH (p<0.01). Conclusion Like controls, serum iron in XLH is inversely related to C-terminal FGF23 but not intact FGF23. XLH patients are more likely to have elevated intact FGF23 than C-terminal FGF23. The relationships of iron to FGF23 in XLH suggest altered regulation of FGF23 cleaving may contribute to maintaining hypophosphatemia around an abnormal set-point. PMID:24325979

  14. Survey of the enthesopathy of X-linked hypophosphatemia and its characterization in Hyp mice.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guoying; Katz, Lee D; Insogna, Karl L; Carpenter, Thomas O; Macica, Carolyn M

    2009-09-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is characterized by rickets and osteomalacia as a result of an inactivating mutation of the PHEX (phosphate-regulating gene with homology to endopeptidases on the X chromosome) gene. PHEX encodes an endopeptidase that, when inactivated, results in elevated circulating levels of FGF-23, a novel phosphate-regulating hormone (a phosphatonin), thereby resulting in increased phosphate excretion and impaired bone mineralization. A generalized and severe mineralizing enthesopathy in patients with XLH was first reported in 1985; we likewise report a survey in which we found evidence of enthesopathy in fibrocartilaginous insertion sites, as well as osteophyte formation, in the majority of patients. Nonetheless, there has been very little focus on the progression and pathogenesis underlying the paradoxical heterotopic calcification of tendon and ligament insertion sites. Such studies have been hampered by lack of a model of mineralizing enthesopathy. We therefore characterized the involvement of the most frequently targeted fibrocartilaginous tendon insertion sites in Hyp mice, a murine model of the XLH mutation that phenocopies the human syndrome in every detail including hypophosphatemia and elevated FGF-23. Histological examination of the affected entheses revealed that mineralizing insertion sites, while thought to involve bone spur formation, were not due to bone-forming osteoblasts but instead to a significant expansion of mineralizing fibrocartilage. Our finding that enthesis fibrocartilage cells specifically express fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3)/Klotho suggests that the high circulating levels of FGF-23, characteristic of XLH and Hyp mice, may be part of the biochemical milieu that underlies the expansion of mineralizing enthesis fibrocartilage.

  15. Dosage effect of a Phex mutation in a murine model of X-linked hypophosphatemia.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Gray, Amie K; Bikorimana, Emmanuel; Econs, Michael J

    2013-08-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is caused by mutations in the PHEX gene, which increase circulating levels of the phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). Because XLH is a dominant disease, one mutant allele is sufficient for manifestation of the disease. However, the dosage effect of a PHEX mutation in XLH is not completely understood. To examine the effect of Phex genotypes, we compared serum biochemistries and skeletal measures between all five possible genotypes of a new murine model of XLH (Phex (K496X) or Phex (Jrt) ). Compared to sex-matched littermate controls, all Phex mutant mice had hypophosphatemia, mild hypocalcemia, and increased parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase levels. Furthermore, mutant mice had markedly elevated serum Fgf23 levels due to increased Fgf23 expression and reduced cleavage of Fgf23. Although females with a homozygous Phex mutation were slightly more hypocalcemic and hypophosphatemic than heterozygous females, the two groups had comparable intact Fgf23 levels. Similarly, there was no difference in intact Fgf23 or phosphorus concentrations between hemizygous males and heterozygous females. Compared to heterozygous females, homozygous counterparts were significantly smaller and had shorter femurs with reduced bone mineral density, suggesting the existence of dosage effect in the skeletal phenotype of XLH. However, overall phenotypic trends in regards to mineral ion homeostasis were mostly unaffected by the presence of one or two mutant Phex allele(s). The lack of a gene dosage effect on circulating Fgf23 (and thus phosphorus) levels suggests that a Phex mutation may create the lower set point for extracellular phosphate concentrations.

  16. X-linked hypophosphatemia: the mutant gene is expressed in teeth as well as in kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Shields, E D; Scriver, C R; Reade, T; Fujiwara, T M; Morgan, K; Ciampi, A; Schwartz, S

    1990-01-01

    Mutation at a locus (HPDR) on the X chromosome (McKusick 30780 [HPDR1]; 30781 [HPDR2]) causes impaired renal phosphate transport, hypophosphatemia, and an associated impairment in the process of mineralization in bone and teeth (X-linked hypophosphatemia [XLH]). We measured the dental pulp profile area (PRATIO [= pulp area/tooth area]) and serum phosphorus (Pi) values in uniformly treated XLH patients (six males, 81 teeth, 1,457 Pi values; 11 females, 129 teeth, 1,439 Pi values). Serum Pi values, reflecting the metabolic environment of tooth development, were obtained by repeated measurement between 1 mo and 26 years of age during treatment. PRATIO values calculated from standardized Rinn radiographs were used as outcome measurements of tooth development in XLH patients and in age-matched controls (12 males, 100 teeth; 27 females, 275 teeth). Age-dependent serum Pi values were not different in the treated XLH males and females. In teeth forming primary dentin there was no gene dosage effect on PRATIO values apparent in subjects below 15 years of age. However, in teeth forming secondary dentin a gene dosage was found in the subjects aged 15 to 25 years: XLH male teeth (n = 65) mean +/- SD = 0.163 +/- 0.046; XLH female teeth (n = 75) mean +/- SD = 0.137 +/- 0.039; control teeth (n = 209) mean +/- SD = 0.116 +/- 0.023; (higher PRATIO values mean less development or mineralization of secondary dentin); differences in these PRATIO values (males vs. female and XLH vs. control) were significant by mixed-model analysis of variance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2155529

  17. Defective Mineralization in X-Linked Hypophosphatemia Dental Pulp Cell Cultures.

    PubMed

    Coyac, B R; Hoac, B; Chafey, P; Falgayrac, G; Slimani, L; Rowe, P S; Penel, G; Linglart, A; McKee, M D; Chaussain, C; Bardet, C

    2018-02-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is a skeletal disease caused by inactivating mutations in the PHEX gene. Mutated or absent PHEX protein/enzyme leads to a decreased serum phosphate level, which cause mineralization defects in the skeleton and teeth (osteomalacia/odontomalacia). It is not yet altogether clear whether these manifestations are caused solely by insufficient circulating phosphate availability for mineralization or also by a direct, local intrinsic effect caused by impaired PHEX activity. Here, we evaluated the local role of PHEX in a 3-dimensional model of extracellular matrix (ECM) mineralization. Dense collagen hydrogels were seeded either with human dental pulp cells from patients with characterized PHEX mutations or with sex- and age-matched healthy controls and cultured up to 24 d using osteogenic medium with standard phosphate concentration. Calcium quantification, micro-computed tomography, and histology with von Kossa staining for mineral showed significantly lower mineralization in XLH cell-seeded scaffolds, using nonparametric statistical tests. While apatitic mineralization was observed along collagen fibrils by electron microscopy in both groups, Raman microspectrometry indicated that XLH cells harboring the PHEX mutation produced less mineralized scaffolds having impaired mineral quality with less carbonate substitution and lower crystallinity. In the XLH cultures, immunoblotting revealed more abundant osteopontin (OPN), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) than controls, as well as the presence of fragments of these proteins not found in controls, suggesting a role for PHEX in SIBLING protein degradation. Immunohistochemistry revealed altered OPN and DMP1 associated with an increased alkaline phosphatase staining in the XLH cultures. These results are consistent with impaired PHEX activity having local ECM effects in XLH. Future treatments for XLH should target both systemic and local

  18. 7 Tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in adult X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ratai, Eva; Kok, Trina; Wiggins, Christopher; Wiggins, Graham; Grant, Ellen; Gagoski, Borjan; O'Neill, Gilmore; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; Eichler, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Background Adult patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) remain at risk for progressive neurological deterioration. Phenotypes vary in their pathology, ranging from axonal degeneration to inflammatory demyelination. The severity of symptoms is poorly explained by conventional imaging. Objective To test the hypothesis that neurochemistry in normal appearing brain differs among adult phenotypes of X-ALD, and that neurochemical changes correlate with the severity of symptoms. Patients and Methods Using a 7 Tesla scanner we performed structural and proton MRSI in 13 adult patients with X-ALD, including 4 patients with adult cerebral ALD (ACALD), 5 with adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) and 4 female heterozygotes. Studies were also performed in nine healthy controls. Results Among adult X-ALD phenotypes, MI/Cr was 46% higher and Cho/Cr 21% higher in normal appearing white matter of ACALD compared to AMN (p < 0.05). Both NAA/Cr and Glu/Cr ratios were lower in AMN patients (p = 0.028 and p = 0.036, respectively) than in controls. There were no significant differences between AMN and female heterozygotes. In cortex, ACALD patients had lower values of NAA/Cr compared to female heterozygotes and controls (p = 0.022). The global MI/Cr ratio demonstrated a significant association with the EDSS (Spearman ρ = 0.66, p = 0.039). Conclusion 7 Tesla proton MRSI reveals differences in the neurochemistry of ACALD but is unable to distinguish AMN from female heterozygotes. MI/Cr correlates with the severity of the symptoms and may be a meaningful biomarker in adult X-ALD. PMID:19001168

  19. Three-Month Randomized Clinical Trial of Nasal Calcitonin in Adults with X-linked Hypophosphatemia.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Rebecca; Abraham, Alice; Simpson, Christine; Olear, Elizabeth; Carpenter, Thomas; Deng, Yanhong; Chen, Chuqing; Insogna, Karl L

    2018-06-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that a single subcutaneous dose of salmon calcitonin leads to a transient decline in circulating levels of FGF23 in patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH). Since the calcitonin receptor is expressed on osteocytes, this raises the possibility that interdicting signals through that receptor could modulate circulating levels of FGF23 in XLH. In the present study, 21 subjects with XLH were randomly assigned to receive either placebo nasal spray or 400 IU of nasal salmon calcitonin daily for three months. On the first and last day of the study, serial measurements of FGF23, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and TmP/GFR were made over 27 h. At the beginning of Visit 2 (the first day of month 2) and the beginning of Visit 3 (the first day of month 3), single, first-morning, fasting measurements of these same parameters were made before the next administered dose of study drug. Following the initial or final dose of study drug, there were no differences in area under the curve, based on treatment assignment, for the three principal outcome variables. Similarly, there were no differences in the fasting measures taken at the beginning of Visit 2 or Visit 3 compared to the fasting values on either day 2 of Visit 1 or the fasting values on day 2 of Visit 4. There were also no significant changes over time in serum phosphorus, serum calcium, circulating levels of PTH, CTx, or P1NP. The reasons why nasal salmon calcitonin did not recapitulate the findings with subcutaneously administered drug may relate to the kinetics of drug delivery, the bioavailability of drug or peak drug dose achieved. It remains possible, however, that other means of altering calcitonin receptor signaling may still provide an opportunity for regulating FGF23 production.

  20. A candidate gene for X-linked Ocular Albinism (OA1)

    SciTech Connect

    Bassi, M.T.; Schiaffino, V.; Rugarli, E.

    1994-09-01

    Ocular Albinism of the Nettleship-Fall type 1 (OA1) is the most common form of ocular albinism. It is transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait with affected males showing severe reduction of visual acuity, nystagmus, strabismus, photophobia. Ophthalmologic examination reveals foveal hypoplasia, hypopigmentation of the retina and iris translucency. Microscopic examination of melanocytes suggests that the underlying defect in OA1 is an abnormality in melanosome formation. Recently we assembled a 350 kb cosmid contig spanning the entire critical region on Xp22.3, which measures approximately 110 kb. A minimum set of cosmids was used to identify transcribed sequences using both cDNA selectionmore » and exon amplification. Two putative exons recovered by exon amplification strategy were found to be highly conserved throughout evolution and, therefore, they were used as probes for the screening of fetal and adult retina cDNA libraries. This led to the isolation of clones spanning a full-length cDNA which measures 7.6 kb. Sequence analysis revealed that the predicted protein product shows homology with syntrophines and a Xenopus laevis apical protein. The gene covers approximately 170 kb of DNA and spans the entire critical region for OA1, being deleted in two patients with contiguous gene deletion including OA1 and in one patient with isolated OA1. Therefore, this new gene represents a very strong candidate for involvement in OA1 (an alternative, but unlikely possibility to be considered is that the true OA1 gene lies within an intron of the former). Northern analysis revealed very high level of expression in retina and melanoma. Unlike most Xp22.3 genes, this gene is conserved in the mouse. We are currently performing SSCP analysis and direct sequencing of exons on DNAs from approximately 60 unrelated patients with OA1 for mutation detection.« less

  1. Dysregulation of X-linked gene expression in Klinefelter's syndrome and association with verbal cognition.

    PubMed

    Vawter, Marquis P; Harvey, Philip D; DeLisi, Lynn E

    2007-09-05

    Klinefelter's Syndrome (KS) is a chromosomal karyotype with one or more extra X chromosomes. KS individuals often show language impairment and the phenotype might be due to overexpression of genes on the extra X chromosome(s). We profiled mRNA derived from lymphoblastoid cell lines from males with documented KS and control males using the Affymetrix U133P microarray platform. There were 129 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in KS group compared with controls after Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery adjustment. The DEGs included 14 X chromosome genes which were significantly over-represented. The Y chromosome had zero DEGs. In exploratory analysis of gene expression-cognition relationships, 12 DEGs showed significant correlation of expression with measures of verbal cognition in KS. Overexpression of one pseudoautosomal gene, GTPBP6 (GTP binding protein 6, putative) was inversely correlated with verbal IQ (r = -0.86, P < 0.001) and four other measures of verbal ability. Overexpression of XIST was found in KS compared to XY controls suggesting that silencing of many genes on the X chromosome might occur in KS similar to XX females. The microarray findings for eight DEGs were validated by quantitative PCR. The 14 X chromosome DEGs were not differentially expressed in prior studies comparing female and male brains suggesting a dysregulation profile unique to KS. Examination of X-linked DEGs, such as GTPBP6, TAF9L, and CXORF21, that show verbal cognition-gene expression correlations may establish a causal link between these genes, neurodevelopment, and language function. A screen of candidate genes may serve as biomarkers of KS for early diagnosis. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Nature and Recurrence of AVPR2 Mutations in X-linked Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Bichet, Daniel G.; Birnbaumer, Mariel; Lonergan, Michèle; Arthus, Marie-Françoise; Rosenthal, Walter; Goodyer, Paul; Nivet, Hubert; Benoit, Stéphane; Giampietro, Philip; Simonetti, Simonetta; Fish, Alfred; Whitley, Chester B.; Jaeger, Philippe; Gertner, Joseph; New, Maria; DiBona, Francis J.; Kaplan, Bernard S.; Robertson, Gary L.; Hendy, Geoffrey N.; Fujiwara, T. Mary; Morgan, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a rare disease with defective renal and extrarenal arginine-vasopressin V2 receptor responses due to mutations in the AVPR2 gene in Xq28. We analyzed 31 independent NDI families to determine the nature and recurrence of AVPR2 mutations. Twenty-one new putative disease-causing mutations were identified: 113delCT, 253del35, 255del9, 274insG, V88M, R106C, 402delCT, C112R, Y124X, S126F, W164S, S167L, 684delTA, 804insG, W284X, A285P, W293X, R337X, and three large deletions or gene rearrangements. Five other mutations—R113W, Y128S, R137H, R181C, and R202C—that previously had been reported in other families were detected. There was evidence for recurrent mutation for four mutations (R113W, R137H, S167L, and R337X). Eight de novo mutation events were detected (274insG, R106C, Y128S, 167L [twice], R202C, 684delTA, and R337X). The origins were maternal (one), grandmaternal (one), and grandpaternal (six). In the 31 NDI families and 6 families previously reported by us, there is evidence both for mutation hot spots for nucleotide substitutions and for small deletions and insertions. More than half (58%) of the nucleotide substitutions in 26 families could be a consequence of 5-methylcytosine deamination at a CpG dinucleotide. Most of the small deletions and insertions could be attributed to slipped mispairing during DNA replication. PMID:8037205

  3. Molecular population genetics of X-linked genes in Drosophila pseudoobscura.

    PubMed Central

    Kovacevic, M; Schaeffer, S W

    2000-01-01

    This article presents a nucleotide sequence analysis of 500 bp determined in each of five X-linked genes, runt, sisterlessA, period, esterase 5, and Heat-shock protein 83, in 40 Drosophila pseudoobscura strains collected from two populations. Estimates of the neutral migration parameter for the five loci show that gene flow among D. pseudoobscura populations is sufficient to homogenize inversion frequencies across the range of the species. Nucleotide diversity at each locus fails to reject a neutral model of molecular evolution. The sample of 40 chromosomes included six Sex-ratio inversions, a series of three nonoverlapping inversions that are associated with a strong meiotic drive phenotype. The selection driven by the Sex-ratio meiotic drive element has not fixed variation across the X chromosome of D. pseudoobscura because, while significant linkage disequilibrium was observed within the sisterlessA, period, and esterase 5 genes, we did not find evidence for nonrandom association among loci. The Sex-ratio chromosome was estimated to be 25,000 years old based on the decomposition of linkage disequilibrium between esterase 5 and Heat-shock protein 83 or 1 million years old based on the net divergence of esterase 5 between Standard and Sex-ratio chromosomes. Genetic diversity was depressed within esterase 5 within Sex-ratio chromosomes, while the four other genes failed to show a reduction in heterozygosity in the Sex-ratio background. The reduced heterogeneity in esterase 5 is due either to its location near one of the Sex-ratio inversion breakpoints or that it is closely linked to a gene or genes responsible for the Sex-ratio meiotic drive system. PMID:10978282

  4. Somatic GPR101 Duplication Causing X-Linked Acrogigantism (XLAG)—Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Rodd, Celia; Millette, Maude; Iacovazzo, Donato; Stiles, Craig E.; Barry, Sayka; Evanson, Jane; Albrecht, Steffen; Caswell, Richard; Bunce, Benjamin; Jose, Sian; Trouillas, Jacqueline; Roncaroli, Federico; Sampson, Julian; Ellard, Sian

    2016-01-01

    Context: Recent reports have proposed that sporadic or familial germline Xq26.3 microduplications involving the GPR101 gene are associated with early-onset X-linked acrogigantism (XLAG) with a female preponderance. Case Description: A 4-year-old boy presented with rapid growth over the previous 2 years. He complained of sporadic headaches and had coarse facial features. His height Z-score was +4.89, and weight Z-score was +5.57. Laboratory testing revealed elevated serum prolactin (185 μg/L; normal, <18 μg/L), IGF-1 (745 μg/L; normal, 64–369 μg/L), and fasting GH > 35.0 μg/L. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a homogenous bulky pituitary gland (18 × 15 × 13 mm) without obvious adenoma. A pituitary biopsy showed hyperplastic pituitary tissue with enlarged cords of GH and prolactin cells. Germline PRKAR1A, MEN1, AIP, DICER1, CDKN1B, and somatic GNAS mutations were negative. Medical management was challenging until institution of continuous sc infusion of short-acting octreotide combined with sc pegvisomant and oral cabergoline. The patient remains well controlled with minimal side effects 7 years after presentation. His phenotype suggested XLAG, but his peripheral leukocyte-, saliva-, and buccal cell-derived DNA tested negative for microduplication in Xq26.3 or GPR101. However, DNA isolated from the pituitary tissue and forearm skin showed duplicated dosage of GPR101, suggesting that he is mosaic for this genetic abnormality. Conclusions: Our patient is the first to be described with somatic microduplication leading to typical XLAG phenotype. This patient demonstrates that a negative test for Xq26.3 microduplication or GPR101 duplication on peripheral blood DNA does not exclude the diagnosis of XLAG because it can result from a mosaic mutation affecting the pituitary. PMID:26982009

  5. Somatic GPR101 Duplication Causing X-Linked Acrogigantism (XLAG)-Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Rodd, Celia; Millette, Maude; Iacovazzo, Donato; Stiles, Craig E; Barry, Sayka; Evanson, Jane; Albrecht, Steffen; Caswell, Richard; Bunce, Benjamin; Jose, Sian; Trouillas, Jacqueline; Roncaroli, Federico; Sampson, Julian; Ellard, Sian; Korbonits, Márta

    2016-05-01

    Recent reports have proposed that sporadic or familial germline Xq26.3 microduplications involving the GPR101 gene are associated with early-onset X-linked acrogigantism (XLAG) with a female preponderance. A 4-year-old boy presented with rapid growth over the previous 2 years. He complained of sporadic headaches and had coarse facial features. His height Z-score was +4.89, and weight Z-score was +5.57. Laboratory testing revealed elevated serum prolactin (185 μg/L; normal, <18 μg/L), IGF-1 (745 μg/L; normal, 64-369 μg/L), and fasting GH > 35.0 μg/L. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a homogenous bulky pituitary gland (18 × 15 × 13 mm) without obvious adenoma. A pituitary biopsy showed hyperplastic pituitary tissue with enlarged cords of GH and prolactin cells. Germline PRKAR1A, MEN1, AIP, DICER1, CDKN1B, and somatic GNAS mutations were negative. Medical management was challenging until institution of continuous sc infusion of short-acting octreotide combined with sc pegvisomant and oral cabergoline. The patient remains well controlled with minimal side effects 7 years after presentation. His phenotype suggested XLAG, but his peripheral leukocyte-, saliva-, and buccal cell-derived DNA tested negative for microduplication in Xq26.3 or GPR101. However, DNA isolated from the pituitary tissue and forearm skin showed duplicated dosage of GPR101, suggesting that he is mosaic for this genetic abnormality. Our patient is the first to be described with somatic microduplication leading to typical XLAG phenotype. This patient demonstrates that a negative test for Xq26.3 microduplication or GPR101 duplication on peripheral blood DNA does not exclude the diagnosis of XLAG because it can result from a mosaic mutation affecting the pituitary.

  6. High-resolution mapping of the x-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) locus

    SciTech Connect

    Zonana, J.; Jones, M.; Litt, M.

    1992-11-01

    The X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) locus has been previously localized to the subchromosomal region Xq11-q21.1. The authors have extended previous linkage studies and analyzed linkage between the EDA locus and 10 marker loci, including five new loci, in 41 families. Four of the marker loci showed no recombination with the EDA locus, and six other loci were also linked to the EDA locus with recombination fractions of .009-.075. Multipoint analysis gave support to the placement of the PGK1P1 locus proximal to the EDA locus and the DXS453 and PGK1 loci distal to EDA. Further ordering of the loci couldmore » be inferred from a human-rodent somatic cell hybrid derived from an affected female with EDA and an X;9 translocation and from studies of an affected male with EDA and a submicroscopic deletion. Three of the proximal marker loci, which showed no recombination with the EDA locus, when used in combination, were informative in 92% of females. The closely linked flanking polymorphic loci DXS339 and DXS453 had heterozygosites of 72% and 76%, respectively, and when used jointly, they were doubly informative in 52% of females. The human DXS732 locus was defined by a conserved mouse probe pcos169E/4 (DXCrc169 locus) that consegregates with the mouse tabby (Ta) locus, a potential homologue to the EDA locus. The absence of recombination between EDA and the DXSA732 locus lends support to the hypothesis that the DXCrc169 locus in the mouse and the DXS732 locus in humans may contain candidate sequences for the Ta and EDA genes, respectively. 36 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.« less

  7. X-linked juvenile retinoschisis: Clinical diagnosis, genetic analysis, and molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Molday, Robert S.; Kellner, Ulrich; Weber, Bernhard H.F.

    2012-01-01

    X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS, MIM 312700) is a common early onset macular degeneration in males characterized by mild to severe loss in visual acuity, splitting of retinal layers, and a reduction in the b-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG). The RS1 gene (MIM 300839) associated with the disease encodes retinoschisin, a 224 amino acid protein containing a discoidin domain as the major structural unit, an N-terminal cleavable signal sequence, and regions responsible for subunit oligomerization. Retinoschisin is secreted from retinal cells as a disulphide-linked homo-octameric complex which binds to the surface of photoreceptors and bipolar cells to help maintain the integrity of the retina. Over 190 disease-causing mutations in the RS1 gene are known with most mutations occurring as non-synonymous changes in the discoidin domain. Cell expression studies have shown that disease-associated missense mutations in the discoidin domain cause severe protein misfolding and retention in the endoplasmic reticulum, mutations in the signal sequence result in aberrant protein synthesis, and mutations in regions flanking the discoidin domain cause defective disulphide-linked subunit assembly, all of which produce a non-functional protein. Knockout mice deficient in retinoschisin have been generated and shown to display most of the characteristic features found in XLRS patients. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) mediated delivery of the normal RS1 gene to the retina of young knockout mice result in long term retinoschisin expression and rescue of retinal structure and function providing a ‘proof of concept’ that gene therapy may be an effective treatment for XLRS. PMID:22245536

  8. Characterization of novel RS1 exonic deletions in juvenile X-linked retinoschisis

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Leera; Cukras, Catherine; Antolik, Christian; Craig, Candice; He, Hong; Li, Shibo; Hejtmancik, James F.; Sieving, Paul A.; Wang, Xinjing

    2013-01-01

    Purpose X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) is a vitreoretinal dystrophy characterized by schisis (splitting) of the inner layers of the neuroretina. Mutations within the retinoschisis (RS1) gene are responsible for this disease. The mutation spectrum consists of amino acid substitutions, splice site variations, small indels, and larger genomic deletions. Clinically, genomic deletions are rarely reported. Here, we characterize two novel full exonic deletions: one encompassing exon 1 and the other spanning exons 4–5 of the RS1 gene. We also report the clinical findings in these patients with XLRS with two different exonic deletions. Methods Unrelated XLRS men and boys and their mothers (if available) were enrolled for molecular genetics evaluation. The patients also underwent ophthalmologic examination and in some cases electroretinogram (ERG) recording. All the exons and the flanking intronic regions of the RS1 gene were analyzed with direct sequencing. Two patients with exonic deletions were further evaluated with array comparative genomic hybridization to define the scope of the genomic aberrations. After the deleted genomic region was identified, primer walking followed by direct sequencing was used to determine the exact breakpoints. Results Two novel exonic deletions of the RS1 gene were identified: one including exon 1 and the other spanning exons 4 and 5. The exon 1 deletion extends from the 5′ region of the RS1 gene (including the promoter) through intron 1 (c.(−35)-1723_c.51+2664del4472). The exon 4–5 deletion spans introns 3 to intron 5 (c.185–1020_c.522+1844del5764). Conclusions Here we report two novel exonic deletions within the RS1 gene locus. We have also described the clinical presentations and hypothesized the genomic mechanisms underlying these schisis phenotypes. PMID:24227916

  9. Correlation between spectral-domain OCT findings and visual acuity in X-linked retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun Seung; Lee, Jung Bok; Yoon, Young Hee; Lee, Joo Yong

    2014-05-08

    To investigate the tomographic characteristics of the outer retina and choroid and their relationship with visual acuity in X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) patients using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). In this retrospective, observational, case-control study, we analyzed 20 eyes of 10 patients with XLRS using SD-OCT. The clinical and tomographic features of the outer retina, including the external limiting membrane (ELM), inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction, cone cell outer segment tips (COST) line, photoreceptor outer segment (PROS) length, and choroid, were evaluated. As controls, 40 age-, sex-, and refraction-matched healthy eyes (1:2 matched) were randomly selected and imaged in parallel. The most prevalent area of abnormality in the outer retina layer of our patients was the outer plexiform layer (OPL; 60% of all affected eyes) and COST line (75% of all affected eyes). On average, the subfoveal choroid and PROS lengths were 35 μm thicker and 19 μm thinner, respectively, in XLRS patients (P = 0.084 and P < 0.001, respectively). A dominant IS/OS junction, COST line defects, and PROS length were related to patient best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA; P = 0.029, P = 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively) by univariate analysis. Cone cell outer segment tips line defect and PROS length were the only factors related to BCVA in multivariate analysis (P = 0.028 and 0.003, respectively). Outer plexiform layer and photoreceptor microstructure defects are frequent in XLRS patients. Cone cell outer segment tips line defects and shortened PROS lengths as well as other photoreceptor microstructure defects may be closely related to poor vision in XLRS.

  10. Long-term 12 year follow-up of X-linked congenital retinoschisis

    PubMed Central

    Kjellström, Sten; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Ponjavic, Vesna; Sieving, Paul A.; Andréasson, Sten

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the retinal structure and function during the progression of X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) from childhood to adulthood. Methods Ten patients clinically diagnosed with XLRS were investigated at 6–15 years of age (mean age 9 years) with a follow-up 8 to 14 years later (mean 12 years). The patients underwent regular ophthalmic examination as well as testing of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), visual field (VF) and assessment of full-field electroretinography (ERG) during their first visit. During the follow-up, the same clinical protocols were repeated. In addition, macular structure and function was examined with multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The patients were 18–25 years of age (mean age 21 years) at the follow-up examination. All exons and exon-intron boundaries of RS1-gene were sequenced for gene mutations in 9 out of the 10 patients. Results Best corrected VA and VF were stable during this follow-up period. No significant progression in cone or rod function could be measured by full-field ERG. Multifocal electroretinography and OCT demonstrated a wide heterogeneity of macular changes in retinal structure and function at the time of follow-up visit. Three different mutations were detected in these nine patients, including a known nonsense mutation in exon 3, a novel insertion in exon 5 and an intronic mutation at 5' splice site of intron 3. Conclusions Clinical follow-up (mean 12 years) of ten young XLRS patients (mean age of 9 years) with a typical congenital retinoschisis phenotype revealed no significant decline in retinal function during this time period. MfERG and OCT demonstrated a wide variety of macular changes including structure and dysfunction. The XLRS disease was relatively stable during this period of observation and would afford opportunity for therapy studies to judge benefit against baseline and against the fellow eye. PMID:20569020

  11. Clinical presentations of X-linked retinoschisis in Taiwanese patients confirmed with genetic sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Laura; Chen, Ho-Min; Tsai, Shawn; Chang, Tsong-Chi; Tsai, Tzu-Hsun; Yang, Chung-May; Chao, An-Ning; Chen, Kuan-Jen; Kao, Ling-Yuh; Yeung, Ling; Yeh, Lung-Kun; Hwang, Yih-Shiou; Wu, Wei-Chi; Lai, Chi-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinical characteristics of X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) and identify genetic mutations in Taiwanese patients with XLRS. Methods This study included 23 affected males from 16 families with XLRS. Fundus photography, spectral domain optical coherent tomography (SD-OCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) were performed. The coding regions of the RS1 gene that encodes retinoschisin were sequenced. Results The median age at diagnosis was 18 years (range 4–58 years). The best-corrected visual acuity ranged from no light perception to 20/25. The typical spoke-wheel pattern in the macula was present in 61% of the patients (14/23) while peripheral retinoschisis was present in 43% of the patients (10/23). Four eyes presented with vitreous hemorrhage, and two eyes presented with leukocoria that mimics Coats’ disease. Macular schisis was identified with SD-OCT in 82% of the eyes (31/38) while foveal atrophy was present in 18% of the eyes (7/38). Concentric area of high intensity was the most common FAF abnormality observed. Seven out of 12 patients (58%) showed electronegative ERG findings. Sequencing of the RS1 gene identified nine mutations, six of which were novel. The mutations are all located in exons 4–6, including six missense mutations, two nonsense mutations, and one deletion-caused frameshift mutation. Conclusions XLRS is a clinically heterogeneous disease with profound phenotypic inter- and intrafamiliar variability. Genetic sequencing is valuable as it allows a definite diagnosis of XLRS to be made without the classical clinical features and ERG findings. This study showed the variety of clinical features of XLRS and reported novel mutations. PMID:25999676

  12. Phenotypic characterization of X-linked retinoschisis: Clinical, electroretinography, and optical coherence tomography variables

    PubMed Central

    Neriyanuri, Srividya; Dhandayuthapani, Sudha; Arunachalam, Jayamuruga Pandian; Raman, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To study the phenotypic characteristics of X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) and report the clinical, electroretinogram (ERG), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) variables in Indian eyes. Design: A retrospective study. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 21 patients with retinoschisis who were genetically confirmed to have RS1 mutation were reviewed. The phenotype characterization included the age of onset, best-corrected visual acuity, refractive error, fundus findings, OCT, and ERG. Statistical Analysis Used: Data from both the eyes were used for analysis. A P < 0.05 was set as statistical significance. Data were not normally distributed (P < 0.05, Shapiro wilk); hence, nonparametric tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: All were males whose mean age of presentation was 9 years. Visual acuity was moderately impaired (median 0.6 logMAR, interquartile range: 0.47, 1) in these eyes with a hyperopic refractive error of median +1.75 Ds (interquartile range: +0.50 Ds, +4.25 Ds). About 54.7% of the eyes had both foveal and peripheral schisis, isolated foveal schisis was seen in 28.5% of the eyes, and schisis with retinal detachment was seen in 16.6% of the eyes. The inner nuclear layer was found to be commonly involved in the schisis, followed by outer nuclear and plexiform layers as evident on OCT. On ERG, a- and b-wave amplitudes were significantly reduced in eyes with foveal and peripheral schisis when compared to the eyes with only foveal schisis (P < 0.05). Conclusions: XLRS has phenotypic heterogeneity as evident on OCT, ERG, and clinical findings. PMID:27609164

  13. Characterization of novel RS1 exonic deletions in juvenile X-linked retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Leera; Cukras, Catherine; Antolik, Christian; Craig, Candice; Lee, Ji-Yun; He, Hong; Li, Shibo; Smaoui, Nizar; Hejtmancik, James F; Sieving, Paul A; Wang, Xinjing

    2013-01-01

    X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) is a vitreoretinal dystrophy characterized by schisis (splitting) of the inner layers of the neuroretina. Mutations within the retinoschisis (RS1) gene are responsible for this disease. The mutation spectrum consists of amino acid substitutions, splice site variations, small indels, and larger genomic deletions. Clinically, genomic deletions are rarely reported. Here, we characterize two novel full exonic deletions: one encompassing exon 1 and the other spanning exons 4-5 of the RS1 gene. We also report the clinical findings in these patients with XLRS with two different exonic deletions. Unrelated XLRS men and boys and their mothers (if available) were enrolled for molecular genetics evaluation. The patients also underwent ophthalmologic examination and in some cases electroretinogram (ERG) recording. All the exons and the flanking intronic regions of the RS1 gene were analyzed with direct sequencing. Two patients with exonic deletions were further evaluated with array comparative genomic hybridization to define the scope of the genomic aberrations. After the deleted genomic region was identified, primer walking followed by direct sequencing was used to determine the exact breakpoints. Two novel exonic deletions of the RS1 gene were identified: one including exon 1 and the other spanning exons 4 and 5. The exon 1 deletion extends from the 5' region of the RS1 gene (including the promoter) through intron 1 (c.(-35)-1723_c.51+2664del4472). The exon 4-5 deletion spans introns 3 to intron 5 (c.185-1020_c.522+1844del5764). Here we report two novel exonic deletions within the RS1 gene locus. We have also described the clinical presentations and hypothesized the genomic mechanisms underlying these schisis phenotypes.

  14. X-linked juvenile retinoschisis: clinical diagnosis, genetic analysis, and molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Molday, Robert S; Kellner, Ulrich; Weber, Bernhard H F

    2012-05-01

    X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS, MIM 312700) is a common early onset macular degeneration in males characterized by mild to severe loss in visual acuity, splitting of retinal layers, and a reduction in the b-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG). The RS1 gene (MIM 300839) associated with the disease encodes retinoschisin, a 224 amino acid protein containing a discoidin domain as the major structural unit, an N-terminal cleavable signal sequence, and regions responsible for subunit oligomerization. Retinoschisin is secreted from retinal cells as a disulphide-linked homo-octameric complex which binds to the surface of photoreceptors and bipolar cells to help maintain the integrity of the retina. Over 190 disease-causing mutations in the RS1 gene are known with most mutations occurring as non-synonymous changes in the discoidin domain. Cell expression studies have shown that disease-associated missense mutations in the discoidin domain cause severe protein misfolding and retention in the endoplasmic reticulum, mutations in the signal sequence result in aberrant protein synthesis, and mutations in regions flanking the discoidin domain cause defective disulphide-linked subunit assembly, all of which produce a non-functional protein. Knockout mice deficient in retinoschisin have been generated and shown to display most of the characteristic features found in XLRS patients. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) mediated delivery of the normal RS1 gene to the retina of young knockout mice result in long-term retinoschisin expression and rescue of retinal structure and function providing a 'proof of concept' that gene therapy may be an effective treatment for XLRS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular modeling of retinoschisin with functional analysis of pathogenic mutations from human X-linked retinoschisis

    PubMed Central

    Sergeev, Y.V.; Caruso, R.C.; Meltzer, M.R.; Smaoui, N.; MacDonald, I.M.; Sieving, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Gene mutations that encode retinoschisin (RS1) cause X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS), a form of juvenile macular and retinal degeneration that affects males. RS1 is an adhesive protein which is proposed to preserve the structural and functional integrity of the retina, but there is very little evidence of the mechanism by which protein changes are related to XLRS disease. Here, we report molecular modeling of the RS1 protein and consider perturbations caused by mutations found in human XLRS subjects. In 60 XLRS patients who share 27 missense mutations, we then evaluated possible correlations of the molecular modeling with retinal function as determined by the electroretinogram (ERG) a- and b-waves. The b/a-wave ratio reflects visual-signal transfer in retina. We sorted the ERG b/a-ratios by patient age and by the mutation impact on protein structure. The majority of RS1 mutations caused minimal structure perturbation and targeted the protein surface. These patients' b/a-ratios were similar across younger and older subjects. Maximum structural perturbations from either the removal or insertion of cysteine residues or changes in the hydrophobic core were associated with greater difference in the b/a-ratio with age, with a significantly smaller ratio at younger ages, analogous to the ERG changes with age observed in mice with no RS1-protein expression due to a recombinant RS1-knockout gene. The molecular modeling suggests an association between the predicted structural alteration and/or damage to retinoschisin and the severity of XLRS as measured by the ERG analogous to the RS1-knockout mouse. PMID:20061330

  16. AP1S2 is mutated in X-linked Dandy-Walker malformation with intellectual disability, basal ganglia disease and seizures (Pettigrew syndrome).

    PubMed

    Cacciagli, Pierre; Desvignes, Jean-Pierre; Girard, Nadine; Delepine, Marc; Zelenika, Diana; Lathrop, Mark; Lévy, Nicolas; Ledbetter, David H; Dobyns, William B; Villard, Laurent

    2014-03-01

    MRXS5 or Pettigrew syndrome was described 20 years ago in a four generation family including nine affected individuals presenting with facial dysmorphism, intellectual disability, Dandy-Walker malformation and inconstant choreoathetosis. Four individuals had iron deposition in the basal ganglia seen on MRI or at autopsy. The mutation causing Pettigrew has remained elusive since the initial description of the condition. We report the identification of a mutation in the X-linked AP1S2 gene in the original Pettigrew syndrome family using X-chromosome exome sequencing. We report additional phenotype details for several of the affected individuals, allowing us to further refine the phenotype corresponding to this X-linked intellectual disability syndrome. The AP1S2 c.426+1 G>T mutation segregates with the disease in the Pettigrew syndrome family and results in loss of 46 amino acids in the clathrin adaptor complex small chain domain that spans most of the AP1S2 protein sequence. The mutation reported here in AP1S2 is the first mutation that is not predicted to cause a premature termination of the coding sequence or absence of the AP1S2 protein. Although most of the families affected by a mutation in AP1S2 were initially described as having different disorders assigned to at least three different OMIM numbers (MIM 300629, 300630 and 304340), our analysis of the phenotype shows that they are all the same syndrome with recognition complicated by highly variable expressivity that is seen within as well as between families and is probably not explained by differences in mutation severity.

  17. AP1S2 is mutated in X-linked Dandy–Walker malformation with intellectual disability, basal ganglia disease and seizures (Pettigrew syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Cacciagli, Pierre; Desvignes, Jean-Pierre; Girard, Nadine; Delepine, Marc; Zelenika, Diana; Lathrop, Mark; Lévy, Nicolas; Ledbetter, David H; Dobyns, William B; Villard, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    MRXS5 or Pettigrew syndrome was described 20 years ago in a four generation family including nine affected individuals presenting with facial dysmorphism, intellectual disability, Dandy–Walker malformation and inconstant choreoathetosis. Four individuals had iron deposition in the basal ganglia seen on MRI or at autopsy. The mutation causing Pettigrew has remained elusive since the initial description of the condition. We report the identification of a mutation in the X-linked AP1S2 gene in the original Pettigrew syndrome family using X-chromosome exome sequencing. We report additional phenotype details for several of the affected individuals, allowing us to further refine the phenotype corresponding to this X-linked intellectual disability syndrome. The AP1S2 c.426+1 G>T mutation segregates with the disease in the Pettigrew syndrome family and results in loss of 46 amino acids in the clathrin adaptor complex small chain domain that spans most of the AP1S2 protein sequence. The mutation reported here in AP1S2 is the first mutation that is not predicted to cause a premature termination of the coding sequence or absence of the AP1S2 protein. Although most of the families affected by a mutation in AP1S2 were initially described as having different disorders assigned to at least three different OMIM numbers (MIM 300629, 300630 and 304340), our analysis of the phenotype shows that they are all the same syndrome with recognition complicated by highly variable expressivity that is seen within as well as between families and is probably not explained by differences in mutation severity. PMID:23756445

  18. Inheritance-mode specific pathogenicity prioritization (ISPP) for human protein coding genes.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jacob Shujui; Kwan, Johnny S H; Pan, Zhicheng; Garcia-Barcelo, Maria-Mercè; Sham, Pak Chung; Li, Miaoxin

    2016-10-15

    Exome sequencing studies have facilitated the detection of causal genetic variants in yet-unsolved Mendelian diseases. However, the identification of disease causal genes among a list of candidates in an exome sequencing study is still not fully settled, and it is often difficult to prioritize candidate genes for follow-up studies. The inheritance mode provides crucial information for understanding Mendelian diseases, but none of the existing gene prioritization tools fully utilize this information. We examined the characteristics of Mendelian disease genes under different inheritance modes. The results suggest that Mendelian disease genes with autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance mode are more haploinsufficiency and de novo mutation sensitive, whereas those autosomal recessive (AR) genes have significantly more non-synonymous variants and regulatory transcript isoforms. In addition, the X-linked (XL) Mendelian disease genes have fewer non-synonymous and synonymous variants. As a result, we derived a new scoring system for prioritizing candidate genes for Mendelian diseases according to the inheritance mode. Our scoring system assigned to each annotated protein-coding gene (N = 18 859) three pathogenic scores according to the inheritance mode (AD, AR and XL). This inheritance mode-specific framework achieved higher accuracy (area under curve  = 0.84) in XL mode. The inheritance-mode specific pathogenicity prioritization (ISPP) outperformed other well-known methods including Haploinsufficiency, Recessive, Network centrality, Genic Intolerance, Gene Damage Index and Gene Constraint scores. This systematic study suggests that genes manifesting disease inheritance modes tend to have unique characteristics. ISPP is included in KGGSeq v1.0 (http://grass.cgs.hku.hk/limx/kggseq/), and source code is available from (https://github.com/jacobhsu35/ISPP.git). mxli@hku.hkSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author

  19. In vitro study of uptake and synthesis of creatine and its precursors by cerebellar granule cells and astrocytes suggests some hypotheses on the physiopathology of the inherited disorders of creatine metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The discovery of the inherited disorders of creatine (Cr) synthesis and transport in the last few years disclosed the importance of blood Cr supply for the normal functioning of the brain. These putatively rare diseases share a common pathogenetic mechanism (the depletion of brain Cr) and similar phenotypes characterized by mental retardation, language disturbances, seizures and movement disorders. In the effort to improve our knowledge on the mechanisms regulating Cr pool inside the nervous tissue, Cr transport and synthesis and related gene transcripts were explored in primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells and astrocytes. Methods Cr uptake and synthesis were explored in vitro by incubating monotypic primary cultures of rat type I astrocytes and cerebellar granule cells with: a) D3-Creatine (D3Cr) and D3Cr plus β-guanidinopropionate (GPA, an inhibitor of Cr transporter), and b) labelled precursors of Guanidinoacetate (GAA) and Cr (Arginine, Arg; Glycine, Gly). Intracellular D3Cr and labelled GAA and Cr were assessed by ESI-MS/MS. Creatine transporter (CT1), L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT), and S-adenosylmethionine:guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT) gene expression was assessed in the same cells by real time PCR. Results D3Cr signal was extremely high in cells incubated with this isotope (labelled/unlabelled Cr ratio reached about 10 and 122, respectively in cerebellar granule cells and astrocytes) and was reduced by GPA. Labelled Arg and Gly were taken up by the cells and incorporated in GAA, whose concentration paralleled that of these precursors both in the extracellular medium and inside the cells (astrocytes). In contrast, the increase of labelled Cr was relatively much more limited since labelled Cr after precursors' supplementation did not exceed 2,7% (cerebellar granule cells) and 21% (astrocytes) of unlabelled Cr. Finally, AGAT, GAMT and SLC6A8 were expressed in both kind of cells. Conclusions Our results

  20. In vitro study of uptake and synthesis of creatine and its precursors by cerebellar granule cells and astrocytes suggests some hypotheses on the physiopathology of the inherited disorders of creatine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Carducci, Claudia; Carducci, Carla; Santagata, Silvia; Adriano, Enrico; Artiola, Cristiana; Thellung, Stefano; Gatta, Elena; Robello, Mauro; Florio, Tullio; Antonozzi, Italo; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Balestrino, Maurizio

    2012-04-26

    The discovery of the inherited disorders of creatine (Cr) synthesis and transport in the last few years disclosed the importance of blood Cr supply for the normal functioning of the brain. These putatively rare diseases share a common pathogenetic mechanism (the depletion of brain Cr) and similar phenotypes characterized by mental retardation, language disturbances, seizures and movement disorders. In the effort to improve our knowledge on the mechanisms regulating Cr pool inside the nervous tissue, Cr transport and synthesis and related gene transcripts were explored in primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells and astrocytes. Cr uptake and synthesis were explored in vitro by incubating monotypic primary cultures of rat type I astrocytes and cerebellar granule cells with: a) D3-Creatine (D3Cr) and D3Cr plus β-guanidinopropionate (GPA, an inhibitor of Cr transporter), and b) labelled precursors of Guanidinoacetate (GAA) and Cr (Arginine, Arg; Glycine, Gly). Intracellular D3Cr and labelled GAA and Cr were assessed by ESI-MS/MS. Creatine transporter (CT1), L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT), and S-adenosylmethionine:guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT) gene expression was assessed in the same cells by real time PCR. D3Cr signal was extremely high in cells incubated with this isotope (labelled/unlabelled Cr ratio reached about 10 and 122, respectively in cerebellar granule cells and astrocytes) and was reduced by GPA. Labelled Arg and Gly were taken up by the cells and incorporated in GAA, whose concentration paralleled that of these precursors both in the extracellular medium and inside the cells (astrocytes). In contrast, the increase of labelled Cr was relatively much more limited since labelled Cr after precursors' supplementation did not exceed 2,7% (cerebellar granule cells) and 21% (astrocytes) of unlabelled Cr. Finally, AGAT, GAMT and SLC6A8 were expressed in both kind of cells. Our results confirm that both neurons and astrocytes have

  1. Correction of X-linked immunodeficient mice by competitive reconstitution with limiting numbers of normal bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Rohrer, J; Conley, M E

    1999-11-15

    Gene therapy for inherited disorders is more likely to succeed if gene-corrected cells have a proliferative or survival advantage compared with mutant cells. We used a competitive reconstitution model to evaluate the strength of the selective advantage that Btk normal cells have in Btk-deficient xid mice. Whereas 2,500 normal bone marrow cells when mixed with 497,500 xid cells restored serum IgM and IgG3 levels to near normal concentrations in 3 of 5 lethally irradiated mice, 25,000 normal cells mixed with 475,000 xid cells reliably restored serum IgM and IgG3 concentrations and the thymus-independent antibody response in all transplanted mice. Reconstitution was not dependent on lethal irradiation, because sublethally irradiated mice all had elevated serum IgM and IgG3 by 30 weeks postreconstitution when receiving 25,000 normal cells. Furthermore, the xid defect was corrected with as few as 10% of the splenic B cells expressing a normal Btk. When normal donor cells were sorted into B220(+)/CD19(+) committed B cells and B220(-)/CD19(-) cell populations, only the B220(-)/CD19(-) cells provided long-term B-cell reconstitution in sublethally irradiated mice. These findings suggest that even inefficient gene therapy may provide clinical benefit for patients with XLA.

  2. Linkage analysis and physical mapping near the gene for x-linked agammaglobulinemia at Xq22

    SciTech Connect

    Parolini, O.; Lassiter, G.L.; Henry, M.J.

    The gene for x-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) has been mapped to Xq22. No recombinations have been reported between the gene and the prob p212 at DXS178; however, this probe is informative in only 30-40% of women and the reported flanking markers, DXS3 and DXS94, and 10-15 cM apart. To identify additional probes that might be useful in genetic counseling, we examined 11 polymorphisms that have been mapped to the Xq21.3-q22 region in 13 families with XLA. In addition, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) were used to further characterize the segman of DNA within which the gene for SLAmore » must lie. The results demonstrated that DXS366 and DXS442, which share a 430-kb pulsed-field fragment, could replace DXS3 as proximal flanking markers. Probes at DXS178 and DXS265 identified the same 145-kb pulsed-field fragment, and both loci were contained within a 200-kb YAC identified with the probe p212. A highly polymorphic CA repeat (DCS178CA) was isolated from one end of this YAC and used in linkage analysis. Probes at DXS101 and DXS328 shared several pulsed-field fragments, the smallest of which was 250 kb. No recombinations were seen between XLA and the DXS178-DXS265-DXS178CA complex, DXS101, DXS328, DXS87, or the gene for proteolipid protein (PLP). Key crossovers, when combined with the linkage data from families with Alport syndrome, suggested the following order of loci: cen-DXS3-DXS366-DXS442-(PLP, DXS101, DXS328, DXS178-DXS265-DXS178CA complex, XL)-(DXS87, DXS94)-DXS327-(DXS350, DXS362)-tel. Our studies also limit the segment of DNA within which the XLA gene must lie to the 3- to 4-cM distance between DCS442 and DXS94 and they identify and orient polymorphisms that can be used in genetic counseling not only for XLA but also for Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PLP deficiency), Alport syndrome (COL4A5 deficiency), and Fabry disease ([alpha]-galactosidase A difficiency). 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  3. Molecular genetics of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa: Progress towards cloning the RP3 gene